WorldWideScience

Sample records for antelopes

  1. Antelope--Fossil rebuild project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    The Columbia Power Cooperative Association (CPCA), Monument, Oregon, proposes to upgrade a 69-kV transmission line in Wasco and Wheeler Counties, Oregon, between the Antelope Substation and the Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) Fossil Substation. The project involves rebuilding and reconductoring 23.2 miles of transmission line, including modifying it for future use at 115 kV. Related project activities will include setting new wood pole structures, removing and disposing of old structures, conductors, and insulators, and stringing new conductor, all within the existing right-of-way. No new access roads will be required. A Borrower's Environmental Report was prepared for the 1992--1993 Work Plan for Columbia Power Cooperative Association in March 1991. This report investigated cultural resources, threatened or endangered species, wetlands, and floodplains, and other environmental issues, and included correspondence with appropriate Federal, state, and local agencies. The report was submitted to the Rural Electrification Administration for their use in preparing their environmental documentation for the project

  2. Habitat preference of Roan Antelope (Hippotragus equinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: Habitat Preference, Roan Antelope, Seasons. INTRODUCTION. Habitat quality and quantity have been identified as the primary limiting factors that influence animal population dynamics. (Jansen et al., 2001). Habitat influences the presence, abundance, distribution, movement and behavior of game animals.

  3. Antelope Valley Community College District Education Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newmyer, Joe

    An analysis is provided of a proposal to the Board of Governors of the California Community Colleges by the Antelope Valley Community College District (AVCCD) to develop an education center in Palmdale to accommodate rapid growth. First, pros and cons are discussed for the following major options: (1) increase utilization and/or expand the…

  4. 78 FR 59840 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ...] Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District... of plan. * * * * * (c) * * * (428) * * * (i) * * * (B) Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...) * * * (i) * * * (B) Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District. (1) Rule 431.1, ``Sulfur Content of...

  5. 78 FR 45114 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD) portion of the California State... for the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD). The Antelope Valley Air Pollution...

  6. Drowsy Cheetah Hunting Antelopes: A Diffusing Predator Seeking Fleeing Prey

    OpenAIRE

    Winkler, Karen; Bray, Alan J.

    2004-01-01

    We consider a system of three random walkers (a `cheetah' surrounded by two `antelopes') diffusing in one dimension. The cheetah and the antelopes diffuse, but the antelopes experience in addition a deterministic relative drift velocity, away from the cheetah, proportional to their distance from the cheetah, such that they tend to move away from the cheetah with increasing time. Using the backward Fokker-Planck equation we calculate, as a function of their initial separations, the probability...

  7. Groundwater quality in the Antelope Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Antelope Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Antelope study area is approximately 1,600 square miles (4,144 square kilometers) and includes the Antelope Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Antelope Valley has an arid climate and is part of the Mojave Desert. Average annual rainfall is about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The study area has internal drainage, with runoff from the surrounding mountains draining towards dry lakebeds in the lower parts of the valley. Land use in the study area is approximately 68 percent (%) natural (mostly shrubland and grassland), 24% agricultural, and 8% urban. The primary crops are pasture and hay. The largest urban areas are the cities of Palmdale and Lancaster (2010 populations of 152,000 and 156,000, respectively). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from surrounding mountains. The primary aquifers in Antelope Valley are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in Antelope Valley are completed to depths between 360 and 700 feet (110 to 213 meters), consist of solid casing from the land surface to a depth of 180 to 350 feet (55 to 107 meters), and are screened or perforated below the solid casing. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the surrounding mountains, and by direct infiltration of irrigation and sewer and septic

  8. Drowsy cheetah hunting antelopes: a diffusing predator seeking fleeing prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Karen; Bray, Alan J.

    2005-02-01

    We consider a system of three random walkers (a 'cheetah' surrounded by two 'antelopes') diffusing in one dimension. The cheetah and the antelopes diffuse, but the antelopes experience in addition a deterministic relative drift velocity, away from the cheetah, proportional to their distance from the cheetah, such that they tend to move away from the cheetah with increasing time. Using the backward Fokker-Planck equation we calculate, as a function of their initial separations, the probability that the cheetah has caught neither antelope after infinite time.

  9. Running energetics in the pronghorn antelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstedt, S L; Hokanson, J F; Wells, D J; Swain, S D; Hoppeler, H; Navarro, V

    1991-10-24

    The pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana) has an alleged top speed of 100 km h-1, second only to the cheetah (Acionyx jubatus) among land vertebrates, a possible response to predation in the exposed habitat of the North American prairie. Unlike cheetahs, however, pronghorn antelope are distance runners rather than sprinters, and can run 11 km in 10 min, an average speed of 65 km h-1. We measured maximum oxygen uptake in pronghorn antelope to distinguish between two potential explanations for this ability: either they have evolved a uniquely high muscular efficiency (low cost of transport) or they can supply oxygen to the muscles at unusually high levels. Because the cost of transport (energy per unit distance covered per unit body mass) varies as a predictable function of body mass among terrestrial vertebrates, we can calculate the predicted cost to maintain speeds of 65 and 100 km h-1 in an average 32-kg animal. The resulting range of predicted values, 3.2-5.1 ml O2 kg-1 s-1, far surpasses the predicted maximum aerobic capacity of a 32-kg mammal (1.5 ml O2 kg-1 s-1). We conclude that their performance is achieved by an extraordinary capacity to consume and process enough oxygen to support a predicted running speed greater than 20 ms-1 (70 km h-1), attained without unique respiratory-system structures.

  10. DNA in the conservation and management of African antelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Eline

    2016-01-01

    tool in informed species conservation and sustainable wildlife management. The movement of antelope through translocations, reintroductions, and population augmentations is common practice in wildlife management. DNA-led species identification using genetic barcoding is an effective use of genetic data...... within forensics. DNA barcoding is a taxonomic method that uses a short genetic marker in an organism's DNA to identify it as belonging to a particular species....... databases, and represents a valuable reference database of antelope DNA diversity. For the evolution of antelope, sub-Saharan Africa is a region of particular intrigue. The geographic regions of sub-Saharan Africa represent unique evolutionary scenarios. Molecular data have become an increasingly important...

  11. Carcass and primal cuts yield evaluation of African antelope ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iwoye, Ogun State Nigeria and were transported to the Meat Science Laboratory of the Department of Animal Production, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Yewa Campus, Ayetoro, Ogun State, where the study was conducted. The Antelopes were ...

  12. 77 FR 2469 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District and Imperial... Quality Management District (AVAQMD) and Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD) portions... Technology (RACT),'' adopted on February 23, 2010. * * * * * (G) Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

  13. 77 FR 12526 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District and Mojave Desert Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District...

  14. 76 FR 38572 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District AGENCY... approve revisions to the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD) portion of the... approving with the dates that they were adopted by the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District...

  15. Roan antelope ( Hippotragus equinus desmarest1804) food plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The habitat changes in Borgu sector of Kainji lake National Park affects the food plants and feeding habits of roan antelope. The changes which are usually seasonal variation in climate and the effect of uncontrolled bush burning by poachers. The objectives of the study were to determine the food plants and feeding habits ...

  16. Rangeland restoration for Hirola, the world's most endangered antelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangeland restoration can improve habitat for threatened species such as the hirola antelope (Beatragus hunteri) that inhabit savannas of eastern Kenya. However, restoration success likely varies across soil types and target restoration species, as well as according to restoration approach. We teste...

  17. The species of the Antelope-genus Pediotragus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jentink, F.A.

    1900-01-01

    A skin of a male antelope, collected by Mr. A. Sharpe in Southern Angoniland has been described by Mr. Oldfield Thomas under a new specific title, Rhaphiceros Sharpei (P. Z. S. L. 1896, p. 796, plate XXXIX); the author had no cranial evidence of its age, as the skull of the individual was wanting.

  18. Intracytoplasmic Crystalline Inclusions in the Hepatocytes of an Antelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    trout [7]. They have never been described in antelopes. The current report describes the his- tological and electron microscopic features of...red O (Figure 2(b)), glycogen with periodic acid-Schiff stain (with and without diastase digestion ) (Figure 2(d)), and acid mucopolysaccharides. The...female Ohrid trout (Salmo letnica Kar.),” Tissue and Cell, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 281–285, 2009. [8] G. S. Murti and R. Borgmann, “Intracytoplasmic periodic

  19. 78 FR 58459 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District, South Coast Air Quality Management District and Ventura.... SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District...

  20. 77 FR 2496 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R09-OAR-2011-0987; FRL-9617-5] Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District and Imperial... rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

  1. 78 FR 49992 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R09-OAR-2013-0394; FRL-9845-4] Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District and Ventura... rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

  2. 76 FR 38589 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R09-OAR-2011-0383; FRL-9428-1] Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD) portion of the California State...

  3. 78 FR 49925 - Revisions to California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District and Ventura County Air...: EPA is taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Antelope Valley Air Quality Air Management District (AVAQMD) and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (VCAPCD) portions of the...

  4. 78 FR 25011 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-29

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District, South Coast Air Quality Management District and Ventura... rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

  5. In vivo and in vitro development of Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsonii interspecific cloned embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghua SU,Lei CHENG,Yu GAO,Kun LIU,Zhuying WEI,Chunling BAI,Fengxia YIN,Li GAO,Guangpeng LI,Shorgan BOU

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Tibetan antelope is endemic to the Tibetan Plateau, China, and is now considered an endangered species. As a possible rescue strategy, the development of embryos constructed by interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT was examined. Tibetan antelope fibroblast cells were transferred into enucleated bovine, ovine and caprine oocytes. These cloned embryos were then cultured in vitro or in the oviducts of intermediate animals. Less than 0.5% of the reconstructed antelope-bovine embryos cultured in vitro developed to the blastocyst stage. However, when the cloned antelope-bovine embryos were transferred to caprine oviducts, about 1.6% of the embryos developed to the blastocyst stage. In contrast, only 0.7% of the antelope-ovine embryos developed to the morula stage and none developed to blastocysts in ovine oviducts. The treatment of donor cells and bovine oocytes with trichostatin A did not improve the embryo development even when cultured in the oviducts of ovine and caprine. When the antelope-bovine embryos, constructed from oocytes treated with roscovitine or trichostatin A, were cultured in rabbit oviducts 2.3% and 14.3% developed to blastocysts, respectively. It is concluded that although some success was achieved with the protocols used, interspecies cloning of Tibetan antelope presents difficulties still to be overcome. The mechanisms resulting in the low embryo development need investigation and progress might require a deeper understanding of cellular reprogramming.

  6. Characterization of a novel pestivirus originating from a pronghorn antelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilcek, S; Ridpath, J F; Van Campen, H; Cavender, J L; Warg, J

    2005-03-01

    A unique pestivirus, isolated from a pronghorn antelope (Antilocopra americana), was characterized. Serum neutralization studies suggested that this virus was antigenically related to pestiviruses. Genomic characteristics, unique to pestiviruses, indicated that this virus belongs to the Pestivirus genus. These characteristics included the organization of the 5' untranslated region (5'-UTR), the presence and length of a viral Npro coding region, conservation of cysteine residues in Npro, conservation of predicted amino acid sequences flanking the cleavage sites between viral polypeptides Npro and C and between C and Erns and conservation of predicted hydrophobicity plots of Npro protein. While this data indicated the virus belongs to the Pestivirus genus, phylogenetic analysis in 5'-UTR, Npro and E2 regions suggested that it is the most divergent of the pestiviruses identified to date. This conclusion was also supported by the amino acid identity in coding regions. The corresponding values were much lower for the comparison of pronghorn pestivirus to other pestivirus genotypes than only between previous recognized genotypes. These results suggest the virus isolated from pronghorn antelope represents a new pestivirus genotype. It also represents the only pestivirus genotype first isolated from New World wildlife.

  7. A questionnaire survey of the management and use of anthelmintics in cattle and antelope in mixed farming systems in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Madzingira

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the management of mixed farming of cattle and antelope and use of anthelmintics was conducted on eleven farms between August and December 1999 by a self-administered questionnaire. Seventeen antelope species ranging from grey duikers (Sylvicapra grimmia to eland (Taurotragus oryx occurred on the farms. Impala (Aepyceros melampus was the most abundant antelope on the farms. Seventy-five per cent of the antelope species on the farms were grazers and mixed feeders and shared grazing with cattle. Most farmers (n =8 did not consider the stocking density for cattle and antelope as an important management factor. Fifty-four per cent of the farmers (n = 6 routinely dewormed both cattle and antelopes. Albendazole and fenbendazole were the most commonly used drugs for deworming cattle (72.7 % and antelope species (54.5 %. The deworming of antelope was carried out during the dry season, using albendazole-, fenbendazole-and rafoxanide-medicated supplementary feed blocks. Doramectin injections were given to antelopes on two farms. Cattle were dewormed preventively and according to the general body condition of the animal. Few farmers (n = 4 followed the recommended deworming programme for cattle in Zimbabwe and only one farmer followed a specified dosing programme for game. However, results from the survey on the deworming of game indicate that farmers perceived helminth infections in antelope to be important.

  8. 77 FR 12495 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District and Mojave Desert Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final... Quality Management District (AVAQMD) and Mojave Desert Air Quality Management District (MDAQMD) portion of...

  9. Groundwater-flow and land-subsidence model of Antelope Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siade, Adam J.; Nishikawa, Tracy; Rewis, Diane L.; Martin, Peter; Phillips, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    Antelope Valley, California, is a topographically closed basin in the western part of the Mojave Desert, about 50 miles northeast of Los Angeles. The Antelope Valley groundwater basin is about 940 square miles and is separated from the northern part of Antelope Valley by faults and low-lying hills. Prior to 1972, groundwater provided more than 90 percent of the total water supply in the valley; since 1972, it has provided between 50 and 90 percent. Most groundwater pumping in the valley occurs in the Antelope Valley groundwater basin, which includes the rapidly growing cities of Lancaster and Palmdale. Groundwater-level declines of more than 270 feet in some parts of the groundwater basin have resulted in an increase in pumping lifts, reduced well efficiency, and land subsidence of more than 6 feet in some areas. Future urban growth and limits on the supply of imported water may increase reliance on groundwater.

  10. California; Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District; VOCs from Motor Vehicle Assembly Coating Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is proposing to approve a revision to the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District portion of the California SIP concerning emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from motor vehicle assembly coating operations.

  11. Improvements to Web Toolkits for Antelope-based Real-time Monitoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, K. G.; Newman, R. L.; Vernon, F. L.; Hansen, T. S.; Orcutt, J.

    2005-12-01

    The Antelope Environmental Monitoring System (http://www.brtt.com) is a robust middleware architecture for near-real-time data collection, analysis, archiving and distribution. Antelope has an extensive toolkit allowing users to interact directly with their datasets. A rudimentary interface was developed in previous work between Antelope and the web-scripting language PHP (The PHP language is described in more detail at http://www.php.net). This interface allowed basic application development for remote access to and interaction with near-real-time data through a World Wide Web interface. We have added over 70 new functions for the Antelope interface to PHP, providing a solid base for web-scripting of near-real-time Antelope database applications. In addition, we have designed a new structure for web sites to be created from the Antelope platform, including PHP applications and Perl CGI scripts as well as static pages. Finally we have constructed the first version of the dbwebproject program, designed to dynamically create and maintain web-sites from specified recipes. These tools have already proven valuable for the creation of web tools for the dissemination of and interaction with near-real-time data streams from multi-signal-domain real-time sensor networks. We discuss current and future directions of this work in the context of the ROADNet project. Examples and applications of these core tools are elaborated in a companion presentation in this session (Newman et al., AGU 2005, session IN06).

  12. Strontium-90 concentrations in pronghorn antelope bones near a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markham, O.D.; Halford, D.K.

    1980-01-01

    Metacarpal bones were collected from pronghorn antelope near a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant and adjacent areas on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Site in Southeastern Idaho. Control bones were collected from offsite animals at higher elevations. Average concentrations in metacarpals were 9.6+-2.8(SE) pCi/g(ash) within 10 km of the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP), 4.0+-0.9pCi/g for animals on the remainder of the INEL Site and 5.5+-1.0pCi/g for control animals. ICPP atmospheric releases of 90 Sr appeared to have caused a significant (P 90 Sr concentrations in antelope bones within 10 km of the ICPP as compared to bones of other INEL antelope. However, the ICPP antelope bone 90 Sr concentrations were not statistically different from that occurring in bones of the control animals from higher elevations. Antelope near the ICPP received approximately double the radiation dose to bone compared to doses received by other INEL antelope as a result of 90 Sr in bone. Strontium-90 in bone from both fallout and ICPP sources resulted in an estimated average radiation dose of 40 mrad/yr to edosteal cells and 20 mrad/yr to active bone marrow. (author)

  13. New approaches to dust mitigation in the Antelope Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farber, R.J.; Kim, B.M.; Grantz, D.A.; Vaughn, D.L.; Zink, T.; Skadberg, K.; Cowherd, C.; Grelinger, M.A.; Campbell, R.; De Salvio, A.; VanCuren, T.; Bort, J.

    1999-07-01

    The arid deserts of the southwestern US experience a frequent dust problem which can lead to PM10 violations. Blowing dust is also one of the major air quality problems of the arid deserts. From 1992 through the present, a group of research scientists have been investigating new techniques for mitigating the windblown dust in the Mojave Desert and more specifically the Antelope Valley near Palmdale and Lancaster, CA. This paper summarizes the progress made toward dust suppression in the Antelope Valley during the initial research phase from 1992 through 1996. During this period, there were both successes and failures. Stabilizing disturbed desert lands in a water-starved environment is challenging. The initial attempts focused on revegetation of native plants by seedings. There were mixed results depending on both the magnitude and timing of the rainfall. Various types of windfences were also erected and their effectiveness was studied using BSNE's. In the present program, the objectives have been broadened to include mitigating dust from all types of disturbed lands, not only abandoned farmlands. Techniques include new approaches to revegetation using seedlings, varying water treatments and soil amendments. An array of chemical suppressants are also being evaluated for cost-effectiveness as a function of longevity. Various geometries of wind fences have also been erected in blow sand areas and are being evaluated for cost-effectiveness using an interesting evaluation scheme. This portion of the paper provides a progress report of these latest dust mitigation techniques. This current research program is due to conclude about 2002. The end product of this decade research program will be a cookbook of dust mitigation solutions for various users including regulatory agencies, the USDA NRCS, farmers and construction interests.

  14. Health evaluation of a pronghorn antelope population in Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, M.R.; Velarde, Roser; Gregg, M.A.; Bray, M.

    1999-01-01

    During 1996 and 1997, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service conducted a study to determine the cause(s) of population decline and low survival of pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana) fawns on Hart Mountain National Antelope Refuge (HMNAR) located in southeastern Oregon (USA). As part of that study, blood, fecal, and tissue samples from 104 neonatal fawns, 40 adult does, and nine adult male pronghorns were collected to conduct a health evaluation of the population. Physiological parameters related to nutrition and/or disease were studied. No abnormalities were found in the complete blood cell counts of adults (n = 40) or fawns (n = 44 to 67). Serum total protein and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels were lower compared to other pronghorn populations. Does had mean BUN values significantly lower (P the does' marginal values in about 3 days Whole blood, serum and liver selenium (Se) levels were considered marginal to low in most segments of the pronghorn population. However, serum levels of vitamin E (range 1.98 to 3.27 ??g/ml), as determined from the does captured in March, were apparently sufficient to offset any signs of Se deficiency. No clinical signs of Cu or Se deficiency were observed. Fifty-five of 87 dead fawns were necropsied. Trauma, due to predation by coyotes (Canis latrans), accounted for 62% of the mortality during mid-May to mid-July of each year. Other causes included predation by golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) (4%), dystocia (2%), septicemic pasteurellosis (4%), starvation (5%), and unknown (23%). Adult females were tested for serum neutralizing antibodies to Brucella spp. (n = 20, negative), Leptospira interrogans (n = 20, negative), bluetongue virus (n = 20, 35% positive), epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (n = 20, 30% positive), respiratory syncytial virus (n = 18, negative), parainfluenza virus type 3 (n = 18, 67% positive), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (n = 18, negative), and bovine viral diarrhea (n = 18, negative). Considering the

  15. Antelope bitterbrush reestablishment: a case study of plant size and browse protection effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Randy Johnson; Joel P. Okula

    2006-01-01

    After an intense stand-replacement fire in south-central Oregon, 1-y-old (1+0) bareroot seedlings of antelope bitterbrush (Purshia tridentata (Pursh) DC. [Rosaceae]) were outplanted over a 4-y period. Paired-plots were established to examine the benefits of protecting the plants from damage due to animal browsing with Vexar mesh tubing. In the first...

  16. Scent marking in a territorial African antelope: I. The maintenance of borders between male oribi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brashares; Arcese

    1999-01-01

    Scent marking is ubiquitous among the dwarf antelope and gazelles of Africa, but its function has been the subject of debate. This study examined preorbital gland scent marking in the oribi, Ourebia ourebi, a territorial African antelope. Several hypotheses for the function of scent marking by territorial antelope were tested with observational data. Of these, the hypotheses that scent marking is driven by intrasexual competition between neighbouring males, and that marks serve as an honest advertisement of a male's ability to defend his territory from rivals, were supported best. Thirty-three territorial male oribi on 23 territories marked most at borders shared with other territorial males, and territorial males marked more often at borders shared with multimale groups than at borders shared with a single male. This suggests that males perceived neighbouring male groups as a greater threat to territory ownership than neighbouring males that defended their territories without the aid of adult subordinates. Marking rate was unrelated to territory size or the number of females on adjacent territories, but males with many male neighbours marked at higher rates than those with fewer male neighbours. These results suggest that the presence of male neighbours has a greater effect on the scent marking behaviour of territorial antelope than has been considered previously. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  17. Book review: Bovids of the World: Antelopes, gazelles, cattle, goats, sheep, and relatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, David

    2017-01-01

    No abstract available.Book info: Bovids of the World: Antelopes, Gazelles, Cattle, Goats, Sheep, and Relatives. José R. Castelló. 2016. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, USA. 664 pp. ISBN 978-0-691-16717-6.

  18. Final Approval of California Air Plan Revision; Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District; VOCs From Motor Vehicle Assembly Coating Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is taking final action to approve a revision to the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD) portion of the California SIP concerning the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from motor vehicle assembly coating operations.

  19. Genetic patterns in forest antelope populations in the Udzungwa Mountains, Tanzania, as inferred from non-invasive sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowkett, Andrew E.; Jones, Trevor; Rovero, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    As for many tropical regions, the evolutionary and demographic status of antelope populations in the Udzungwa Mountains, Tanzania, are poorly resolved. We employed genetic information from 618 faecal samples to assess the status of forest antelope species in terms of their distribution, intraspec...... except the endangered C. spadix. Overall, our results demonstrate the value of non-invasive genetic sampling in studying the distribution and evolution of rarely observed species.......As for many tropical regions, the evolutionary and demographic status of antelope populations in the Udzungwa Mountains, Tanzania, are poorly resolved. We employed genetic information from 618 faecal samples to assess the status of forest antelope species in terms of their distribution......, intraspecific diversity and population subdivision within the Udzungwa landscape. Most species were detected in the majority of forest fragments, except for Philantomba monticola. Phylogenetic analyses were consistent with traditional taxonomy with the exception of Cephalophus harveyi which was paraphyletic...

  20. [Genetic cloning and expression of hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha in high altitude hypoxic adaptation species Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsonii)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Wuren, Tana; Ma, Lan; Yang, Ying-Zhong; Ge, Ri-Li

    2011-12-25

    In order to investigate the role of the hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) in the adaptation mechanism to high altitude hypoxia, the cloning of the HIF-1α gene cDNA of Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsonii), using RT-PCR and RACE, was applied, and the comparative analysis of the tissue-specific expressions of HIF-1α among Tibetan antelope, Tibetan sheep and plain sheep was performed using real-time PCR and Western blot. The sequence analysis indicated that the cDNA sequences acquired by cloning from the HIF-1α gene of Tibetan antelope comprised a 2 471-bp open reading frame (ORF) and a 1 911-bp 3'UTR. The similarity between its coding sequence, predicted amino acid sequence and HIF-1α of other mammals exceeded 87%, in which the similarity with cow was up to more than 98%, which showed that this sequence was the cDNA of HIF-1α of Tibetan antelope. The results of real-time PCR and Western blot showed that expressions of HIF-1α mRNA and protein appeared in Tibetan antelope's lung, cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle, with the highest expression in lung. HIF-1α mRNA and protein had obvious differential expression in these tissues. Further research showed that Tibetan antelope and Tibetan sheep possessed higher expressions of HIF-1α protein in the three tissues above-mentioned compared with plain sheep, and the expressions of HIF-1α mRNA and protein in Tibetan antelope's lung, cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle were higher than those of Tibetan sheep. It illustrates that the hypoxic HIF-1α-specific expression is one of the molecular bases of high altitude hypoxia adaptation in Tibetan antelope.

  1. 78 FR 21581 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ...EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD), Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control District (MBUAPCD) and Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District (SCAPCD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). We are proposing to approve revisions local rules that address emission statements for AVAQMD, rule rescissions that address public records for MBUAPCD, and define terms for SBCAPCD, under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act).

  2. 77 FR 12491 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ...EPA is taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD) and San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern negative declarations for volatile organic compound (VOC) and oxides of sulfur source categories for the AVAQMD and SJVUAPCD. We are approving these negative declarations under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act).

  3. 77 FR 12527 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ...EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD) and San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern negative declarations for volatile organic compound (VOC) and oxides of sulfur source categories. We are proposing to approve these negative declarations under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act).

  4. Bayesian, Maximum Parsimony and UPGMA Models for Inferring the Phylogenies of Antelopes Using Mitochondrial Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Haseeb A.; Arif, Ibrahim A.; Bahkali, Ali H.; Al Farhan, Ahmad H.; Al Homaidan, Ali A.

    2008-01-01

    This investigation was aimed to compare the inference of antelope phylogenies resulting from the 16S rRNA, cytochrome-b (cyt-b) and d-loop segments of mitochondrial DNA using three different computational models including Bayesian (BA), maximum parsimony (MP) and unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA). The respective nucleotide sequences of three Oryx species (Oryx leucoryx, Oryx dammah and Oryx gazella) and an out-group (Addax nasomaculatus) were aligned and subjected to B...

  5. Water-quality variations in Antelope Creek and Deadmans Run, Lincoln, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettijohn, R.A.; Engberg, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Eleven sets of samples from five sites on Antelope Creek and Dead Man 's Run in Lincoln, Nebraska, were collected from December 1982 through June 1983 to study water-quality variations. Specific-conductance values generally were similar for Antelope Creek at 52nd Street and 27th Street, but during a low-flow survey of December 1 they increased from 974 to 8,700 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 C from 27th Street to Court Street. Seepage of saline water from underlying bedrock to the stream occurs in this reach. Specific-conductance values were less variable for Dead Man 's Run, increasing an average of only 47 percent from 66th Street to U.S. Highway 6. Specific-conductance values were less at high flows in Antelope Creek, except in samples collected on January 6, 1983, which contained runoff from salted streets. Sodium and chloride concentrations in these samples were from 5 to 10 times greater than those measured in any other samples. Stray-current corrosion occurs when current flows between dissimilar metals. Zinc-coated wire of channel-stabilization structures (gabions) may be an anode and material within the stream banks may be a cathode. Dissolution of the zinc coating by this type of corrosion may be a cause for gabion deterioration in both streams. (USGS)

  6. 77 FR 26448 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ...EPA is taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD), Eastern Kern Air Pollution Control District (EKAPCD), and Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District (SBCAPCD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). Under authority of the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act), we are approving local rules that define terms used in other air pollution regulation in these areas and approving a rule rescission that addresses Petroleum Coke Calcining Operations--Oxides of Sulfur.

  7. 77 FR 26475 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ...EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD), Eastern Kern Air Pollution Control District (EKAPCD), and Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District (SBCAPCD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). We are proposing to approve revisions to local rules that define terms used in other air pollution regulations in these areas and a rule rescission that address Petroleum Coke Calcining Operations--Oxides of Sulfur, under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act).

  8. 131I concentrations in air, milk and antelope thyroids in southeastern Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markham, O.D.; Halford, D.K.; Bihl, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    Iodine-131 concentrations were determined in air, milk, and antelope (Antilocapra americana) thyroids from southeastern Idaho during 1972-77. Samples were collected in the vicinity of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Site which has 17 operating nuclear reactors, a fuel reprocessing plant, and a nuclear waste management facility. Samples were also collected from control areas. During the study, fallout occurred from five People's Republic of China above-ground nuclear weapon detonations. All 131 I detected in air and milk samples was attributed to fallout from the Chinese nuclear tests. 131 I was detected in low-volume air samples following only one of the five detonations while 131 I was detected in milk following four of the detonations. 131 I occurred in antelope thyroids during all five of the fallout periods and following at least one atmospheric release from facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Site. Thyroids were the most sensitive indicators of 131 I in the environment followed by milk and then air. Maximum concentrations in thyroids, milk, and air were 400, 20 and 4 times higher respectively than their respective detection limits. (author)

  9. Microchip transponder thermometry for monitoring core body temperature of antelope during capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Benjamin; Fuller, Andrea; Hetem, Robyn S; Lease, Hilary M; Mitchell, Duncan; Meyer, Leith C R

    2016-01-01

    Hyperthermia is described as the major cause of morbidity and mortality associated with capture, immobilization and restraint of wild animals. Therefore, accurately determining the core body temperature of wild animals during capture is crucial for monitoring hyperthermia and the efficacy of cooling procedures. We investigated if microchip thermometry can accurately reflect core body temperature changes during capture and cooling interventions in the springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis), a medium-sized antelope. Subcutaneous temperature measured with a temperature-sensitive microchip was a weak predictor of core body temperature measured by temperature-sensitive data loggers in the abdominal cavity (R(2)=0.32, bias >2 °C). Temperature-sensitive microchips in the gluteus muscle, however, provided an accurate estimate of core body temperature (R(2)=0.76, bias=0.012 °C). Microchips inserted into muscle therefore provide a convenient and accurate method to measure body temperature continuously in captured antelope, allowing detection of hyperthermia and the efficacy of cooling procedures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. An exceptional case of historical outbreeding in African sable antelope populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pitra, C.; Hansen, Anders J.; Lieckfeldt, D.

    2002-01-01

    ) sequences analysed from 95 individuals representing 17 sampling locations scattered through the African miombo (Brachystegia) woodland ecosystem] and phylogeographical statistical procedures (gene genealogy, nested cladistic and admixture proportion analyses), we (i) give a detailed dissection...... of the geographical genetic structure of Hippotragus niger; (ii) infer the processes and events potentially involved in the population history; and (iii) trace extensive introgressive hybridization in the species. The present-day sable antelope population shows a tripartite pattern of genetic subdivision representing...... West Tanzanian, Kenya/East Tanzanian and Southern Africa locations. Nested clade analysis revealed that past allopatric fragmentation, caused probably by habitat discontinuities associated with the East African Rift Valley system, together with intermediary episodic long-distance colonization...

  11. A WILDLIFE MONITORING SYSTEM BASED ON TIANDITU AND BEIDOU: IN CASE OF THE TIBETAN ANTELOPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Positioning and tracking wildlife is already being an effective way to collect biological information for research and species of wildlife protection. The common technologies of tracking wildlife are divided into several categories, such as radio tracking technology, GPS tracking system, radio frequency identification technology (RFID, and SIM card based technology. Some positive results achieved from these technologies, but there are some problems in location accuracy, price of the system. Taking the case of the protection of the Tibetan antelope, this paper introduces a wildlife monitoring system based on Tianditu and Beidou navigation satellite system. The system consists of two parts: real-time location system and 3D display system. The practical application demonstrates that the system is stable, and data transmission is reliable with lower construction cost, which can improve the capability of national rare wildlife monitoring and protection effectively.

  12. Evaluation of Brucella abortus strain RB51 and strain 19 in pronghorn antelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzer, P.H.; Smith, J.; Roffe, T.; Kreeger, T.; Edwards, J.; Davis, D.

    2002-01-01

    Free-roaming elk and bison in the Greater Yellowstone Area remain the only wildlife reservoirs for Brucella abortus in the United States, and the large number of animals and a lack of holding facilities make it unreasonable to individually vaccinate each animal. Therefore, oral delivery is being proposed as a possible option to vaccinate these wild ungulates. One of the main problems associated with oral vaccination is the potential exposure of nontarget species to the vaccines. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of two Brucella vaccines, strain 19 (S19) and the rough strain RB51 (SRB51), in pregnant pronghorn antelope. We conclude that S19 and SRB51 rarely colonize maternal and fetal tissues of pregnant pronghorn and were not associated with fetal death. Oral delivery of either vaccine at this dose appears to be nonhazardous to pregnant pronghorn.

  13. Bayesian, maximum parsimony and UPGMA models for inferring the phylogenies of antelopes using mitochondrial markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Haseeb A; Arif, Ibrahim A; Bahkali, Ali H; Al Farhan, Ahmad H; Al Homaidan, Ali A

    2008-10-06

    This investigation was aimed to compare the inference of antelope phylogenies resulting from the 16S rRNA, cytochrome-b (cyt-b) and d-loop segments of mitochondrial DNA using three different computational models including Bayesian (BA), maximum parsimony (MP) and unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA). The respective nucleotide sequences of three Oryx species (Oryx leucoryx, Oryx dammah and Oryx gazella) and an out-group (Addax nasomaculatus) were aligned and subjected to BA, MP and UPGMA models for comparing the topologies of respective phylogenetic trees. The 16S rRNA region possessed the highest frequency of conserved sequences (97.65%) followed by cyt-b (94.22%) and d-loop (87.29%). There were few transitions (2.35%) and none transversions in 16S rRNA as compared to cyt-b (5.61% transitions and 0.17% transversions) and d-loop (11.57% transitions and 1.14% transversions) while comparing the four taxa. All the three mitochondrial segments clearly differentiated the genus Addax from Oryx using the BA or UPGMA models. The topologies of all the gamma-corrected Bayesian trees were identical irrespective of the marker type. The UPGMA trees resulting from 16S rRNA and d-loop sequences were also identical (Oryx dammah grouped with Oryx leucoryx) to Bayesian trees except that the UPGMA tree based on cyt-b showed a slightly different phylogeny (Oryx dammah grouped with Oryx gazella) with a low bootstrap support. However, the MP model failed to differentiate the genus Addax from Oryx. These findings demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of BA and UPGMA methods for phylogenetic analysis of antelopes using mitochondrial markers.

  14. Identification of a novel Babesia sp. from a sable antelope (Hippotragus niger Harris, 1838).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosthuizen, Marinda C; Zweygarth, Erich; Collins, Nicola E; Troskie, Milana; Penzhorn, Banie L

    2008-07-01

    Babesiosis in a sable antelope (Hippotragus niger Harris, 1838) was first reported in 1930; the parasite was named Babesia irvinesmithi. Recently, specimens from an adult sable that presented with a sudden onset of disease and that subsequently died during immobilization were submitted for molecular characterization. Microscopic examination of thin blood smears revealed the presence of small piroplasms. DNA was extracted from blood samples; the V4 variable region of the 18S rRNA gene was amplified and analyzed using the reverse line blot (RLB) assay. Amplicons did not hybridize with any of the Babesia or Theileria species-specific probes present on the blot and hybridized only with a Babesia or Theileria genus-specific probe, suggesting the presence of a novel species. The full-length 18S rRNA gene sequence was obtained and aligned with published sequences of related genera, and phylogenetic trees were constructed. Sequence similarity analyses indicated that a Babesia species, designated Babesia sp. (sable), was present. The sequence showed its highest similarity to B. orientalis and to an unnamed Babesia species previously detected in bovine samples. The latter was later established to be Babesia occultans. A Babesia sp. (sable)-specific RLB oligonucleotide probe was designed and used to screen 200 South African sable samples, but so far, no other sample has been found to be positive for the presence of Babesia sp. (sable) DNA. In summary, we identified a novel piroplasm parasite from a sable antelope that died from an unknown illness. While the parasite was observed in blood smears, there is no direct evidence that it was the cause of death.

  15. Diet of the Four-horned Antelope Tetracerus quadricornis (De Blainville, 1816 in the Churia Hills of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar Kunwar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The food composition of the Four-horned Antelope Tetracerus quadricornis was studied in the Churia Hills of Nepal during summer, monsoon and the winter seasons of 2012–2013.  Microhistological technique was used to determine the diet.  The Four-horned Antelope was found to be a mixed feeder feeding on trees, shrubs, forbs, grasses and climbers.  Trees and shrubs contribute the major percentage of diet in all the three seasons.  The Gramineae family is consumed in highest proportion.  Mitragyna parvifolia, Bridelia retusa, Bambusa vulgaris, Hymenodictyon sp. and Ziziphus mauritiana are major tree species while Barleria cristata, Pogostemon benghalensis, Achyranthes sp., Clerodendrum viscosum are among shrubs.  Ageratum conyzoides and Blumea virens are the main forbs Eulaliopsis binata and Imperata cylindrica are the principal grass species.  Climber Trachelospermum lucidum is consumed in a small proportion.  Grasses in monsoon were consumed distinctly at a higher percentage than during the other two seasons.  The Four-horned Antelopes are concentrated feeders and browsers with a generalized feeding strategy. Similar studies need to be conducted in other landscapes and with sympatric and potential competitor species to understand its niche overlaps and degree of competition. 

  16. Challenges faced in the conservation of rare antelope: a case study on the northern basalt plains of the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C. Grant

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The conservation of rare antelope has long been one of the goals of the Kruger National Park. The roan antelope Hippotragus equinus, and to a lesser extent the tsessebe Damaliscus lunatus, represent low-density species or rare antelope in the park. Specific management approaches representing the older equilibrium approach, have been employed to conserve these antelope. Of these, the supply of artificial water over many decades was the most resource intensive. The sudden, severe drop in the roan antelope population towards the end of the 1980s was unexpected and, retrospectively, attributed to the development of a high density of perennial waterpoints. The postulated mechanism was that the perennial presence of water allowed Burchell’s zebra Equus burchelli to stay permanently in an area that was previously only seasonally accessible. The combined effect of a long, dry climatic cycle, high numbers of zebra and their associated predators was proposed to be the cause of this decline. As part of the new nature evolving or ecosystem resilience approach, twelve artificial waterpoints were closed in the prime roan antelope habitat in 1994 in an attempt to move the zebra out of this area. The zebra numbers declined as the rainfall increased. Closure of waterholes clearly led to redistribution of zebra numbers on the northern plains, zebra tending to avoid areas within several kilometres of closed waterpoints. However, at a larger scale, regional densities appeared similar in areas with and without closed waterpoints. There was an initial drop in the lion numbers in 1995, after which they stabilised. In spite of an improvement in the grass species composition and an increase in biomass the roan antelope population did not increase. The complexity of maintaining a population at the edge of their distribution and the problems associated with the conservation of such populations are discussed in terms of management options and monitoring approaches that

  17. Role and movement of nilgai antelope, Boselaphus tragocamelus, in the epizootiology of cattle fever ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in re-infestations along the Texas/Mexico border in south Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilgai antelope are the largest Asian antelope and are originally endemic to the Indian subcontinent. Nilgai were introduced into Texas in the 1940s for hunting purposes and are now the most abundant free-ranging ungulate in south Texas with population estimates in the early 1990s of more than 36,0...

  18. Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) from the critically endangered antelope Addax nasomaculatus in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufana, Belgees; Saïd, Yousra; Dhibi, Mokhtar; Craig, Philip S; Lahmar, Samia

    2015-12-01

    Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) is a zoonotic disease highly endemic in Tunisia. Canids including stray and semi-stray dogs, jackals and foxes are known as definitive hosts and a wide range of ungulates have been shown to harbour the metacestode hydatid stage and may serve as intermediate hosts. Fertile hydatid cysts of Echinococcus equinus and E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) were recently molecularly identified for the first time from Tunisian donkeys. E. granulosus (s.s.) was also identified from wild boars in Tunisia. Here we report the confirmation of hydatid cysts caused by E. granulosus (s.s.) in the critically endangered antelope, Addax nasomaculatus in Tunisia. DNA-based molecular analysis revealed that A.nasomaculatus was infected with E. granulosus (s.s.) which had a 100% identity with the main globally distributed E. granulosus (s.s.) (EgTu01) haplotype. Cysts of Taenia hydatigena (n=33) were also observed on the liver and in the body cavity. Due to their endangered status and their relatively small numbers, it is unlikely that hydatid infection of A. nasomaculatus will form a major contribution to the epidemiology and transmission of E. granulosus in Tunisia, but infection may result in pathology, morbidity and early mortality, and may still play a role in the perpetuation of the parasite in wildlife cycles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Plutonium in the lungs of pronghorn antelope near a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markham, O.D.; Dickson, R.L.; Autenrieth, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    The lungs of pronghorn antelope which are common on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) site were sampled as a bioindicator of plutonium in the environment near the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant which is located on the INEL site. Lungs were collected from September 1972 to December 1976 and analyzed for Pu. The source of Pu found in the lungs could be determined from a study of the 238 Pu/ 239-240 Pu ratio as there is a higher proportion of 238 Pu in the chemical plant releases than in world-wide fallout in the soils of Southeastern Idaho. Results indicate that 238 Pu from the chemical plant is being deposited in lungs and possibly other tissues of pronghorn. Only a proportion of the animals close to the plant had detectable quantities. Concentrations were near the detection limits and do not constitute a health hazard to the pronghorn. Meaningful comparisons can be made to radiation protection standards since pronghorn lungs are similar in size to man's. (author)

  20. A note on the behaviour of Four-horned Antelope Tetracerus quadricornis de Blainville, 1816 (Mammalia: Cetartiodactyla: Bovidae in lowland Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Prasad Pokharel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Behavioural studies provide the reasons behind habitat preferences of animals and their fitness to survive and propagate.  The Four-horned Antelope, an endangered endemic species to the Indian subcontinent was monitored at Ratamate area of Babai Valley in Bardia National Park, Nepal.  We used ad libitum sampling and focal animal sampling within the rule for continuous recording of ‘all-occurrences’ of ‘vigilance’ behaviour. We found that the Four-horned Antelope remains ‘alert and vigilant’ during 40% of its behavioural time budget when it scans the surroundings with raised head, with or without chewing. In the event of sudden threat it ‘freezes’, lying down still and hiding in the ground cover.  Therefore, maintenance of ground cover should form a regular practice in conservation management of the Four-horned Antelope

  1. Towards an adaptive management approach for the conservation of rare antelope in the Kruger National Park - outcome of a workshop held in May 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C. Grant

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available A precipitous drop in rare antelope numbers specifically roan (Hippotragus equinis sable (Hippotragus niger and tsessebe (Damaliscus lunatus since 1986 has become one of the main concerns of management. The zebra (Equus burchelli population in the preferred habitats of these species had increased with the development of artificial waterpoints especially in the areas occupied by roan and tsessebe, and these events are hypothesised to be the main cause of the decline. Closure of artificial waterpoints resulted in moving the high-density, water-dependent zebra from the northern basalt plains, the preferred roan habitat. However, the expected responding increase in the rare antelope populations did not materialise. This lack of response over six years necessitated a critical re-evaluation of the management of rare antelope in the Kruger National Park. Subsequently, a workshop was held at Skukuza during May 2000. The options for adaptive management of the declining rare antelope populations, which was discussed at the workshop, is the subject of this manuscript. The participants felt that the removal/closure of artificial waterpoints was the most unintrusive management tool available to move high density grazers from the habitats preferred by rare antelope. Waterpoints to be closed should be carefully evaluated, and time allowed for rare antelope to respond to habitat changes. Boosting populations of roan and tsessebe by supplementing animals was seriously considered, with the proviso that it should be done under favourable circumstances. Small patch fires that could provide green grazing over extended periods were recommended. Predator control was discussed but could not obtain general support as a viable option in the Kruger National Park.

  2. Preliminary hydrogeologic assessment near the boundary of the Antelope Valley and El Mirage Valley groundwater basins, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamos, Christina L.; Christensen, Allen H.; Langenheim, Victoria

    2017-07-19

    The increasing demands on groundwater for water supply in desert areas in California and the western United States have resulted in the need to better understand groundwater sources, availability, and sustainability. This is true for a 650-square-mile area that encompasses the Antelope Valley, El Mirage Valley, and Upper Mojave River Valley groundwater basins, about 50 miles northeast of Los Angeles, California, in the western part of the Mojave Desert. These basins have been adjudicated to ensure that groundwater rights are allocated according to legal judgments. In an effort to assess if the boundary between the Antelope Valley and El Mirage Valley groundwater basins could be better defined, the U.S. Geological Survey began a cooperative study in 2014 with the Mojave Water Agency to better understand the hydrogeology in the area and investigate potential controls on groundwater flow and availability, including basement topography.Recharge is sporadic and primarily from small ephemeral washes and streams that originate in the San Gabriel Mountains to the south; estimates range from about 400 to 1,940 acre-feet per year. Lateral underflow from adjacent basins has been considered minor in previous studies; underflow from the Antelope Valley to the El Mirage Valley groundwater basin has been estimated to be between 100 and 1,900 acre-feet per year. Groundwater discharge is primarily from pumping, mostly by municipal supply wells. Between October 2013 and September 2014, the municipal pumpage in the Antelope Valley and El Mirage Valley groundwater basins was reported to be about 800 and 2,080 acre-feet, respectively.This study was motivated by the results from a previously completed regional gravity study, which suggested a northeast-trending subsurface basement ridge and saddle approximately 3.5 miles west of the boundary between the Antelope Valley and El Mirage Valley groundwater basins that might influence groundwater flow. To better define potential basement

  3. Population trends of antelopes in Waza National Park (Cameroon) from 1960 to 2001: The interacting effects of rainfall, flooding and human interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, P.; Adam, S.; Serge, B.K.

    2007-01-01

    Antelopes are prominent wildlife in Waza National Park, situated in Sahelo-Sudanian Cameroon, which has witnessed dramatic changes in rainfall and flooding. To assess their impacts, we reviewed 26 aerial and terrestrial surveys, comprising total, transect and localized counts. Estimated numbers of

  4. Movement patterns of nilgai antelope in South Texas: Implications for cattle fever tick management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Aaron M; Goolsby, John A; Ortega-S, Alfonso; Ortega-S, J Alfonso; Pérez de León, A; Singh, Nirbhay K; Schwartz, Andy; Ellis, Dee; Hewitt, David G; Campbell, Tyler A

    2017-10-01

    Wildlife, both native and introduced, can harbor and spread diseases of importance to the livestock industry. Describing movement patterns of such wildlife is essential to formulate effective disease management strategies. Nilgai antelope (Boselaphus tragocamelus) are a free-ranging, introduced ungulate in southern Texas known to carry cattle fever ticks (CFT, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, R. (B.) annulatus). CFT are the vector for the etiological agent of bovine babesiosis, a lethal disease causing high mortality in susceptible Bos taurus populations and severely affecting the beef cattle industry. Efforts to eradicate CFT from the United States have been successful. However, a permanent quarantine area is maintained between Texas and Mexico to check its entry from infested areas of neighboring Mexico states on wildlife and stray cattle. In recent years, there has been an increase in CFT infestations outside of the permanent quarantine area in Texas. Nilgai are of interest in understanding how CFT may be spread through the landscape. Thirty nilgai of both sexes were captured and fitted with satellite radio collars in South Texas to gain information about movement patterns, response to disturbances, and movement barriers. Median annual home range sizes were highly variable in males (4665ha, range=571-20,809) and females (1606ha, range=848-29,909). Female movement patterns appeared to be seasonal with peaks during June-August; these peaks appeared to be a function of break-ups in female social groups rather than environmental conditions. Nilgai, which reportedly are sensitive to disturbance, were more likely to relocate into new areas immediately after being captured versus four other types of helicopter activities. Nilgai did not cross 1.25m high cattle fences parallel to paved highways but did cross other fence types. Results indicate that females have a higher chance of spreading CFT through the landscape than males, but spread of CFT may be mitigated via

  5. Simulation of ground-water flow and land subsidence in the Antelope Valley ground-water basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighton, David A.; Phillips, Steven P.

    2003-01-01

    Antelope Valley, California, is a topographically closed basin in the western part of the Mojave Desert, about 50 miles northeast of Los Angeles. The Antelope Valley ground-water basin is about 940 square miles and is separated from the northern part of Antelope Valley by faults and low-lying hills. Prior to 1972, ground water provided more than 90 percent of the total water supply in the valley; since 1972, it has provided between 50 and 90 percent. Most ground-water pumping in the valley occurs in the Antelope Valley ground-water basin, which includes the rapidly growing cities of Lancaster and Palmdale. Ground-water-level declines of more than 200 feet in some parts of the ground-water basin have resulted in an increase in pumping lifts, reduced well efficiency, and land subsidence of more than 6 feet in some areas. Future urban growth and limits on the supply of imported water may continue to increase reliance on ground water. To better understand the ground-water flow system and to develop a tool to aid in effectively managing the water resources, a numerical model of ground-water flow and land subsidence in the Antelope Valley ground-water basin was developed using old and new geohydrologic information. The ground-water flow system consists of three aquifers: the upper, middle, and lower aquifers. The aquifers, which were identified on the basis of the hydrologic properties, age, and depth of the unconsolidated deposits, consist of gravel, sand, silt, and clay alluvial deposits and clay and silty clay lacustrine deposits. Prior to ground-water development in the valley, recharge was primarily the infiltration of runoff from the surrounding mountains. Ground water flowed from the recharge areas to discharge areas around the playas where it discharged either from the aquifer system as evapotranspiration or from springs. Partial barriers to horizontal ground-water flow, such as faults, have been identified in the ground-water basin. Water-level declines owing to

  6. Closure Letter Report for Corrective Action Unit 496: Buried Rocket Site - Antelope Lake (TTR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-01-01

    A Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for investigation and closure of CAU 496, Corrective Action Site (CAS) TA-55-008-TAAL (Buried Rocket), at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), was approved by the Nevada Department of Environmental Protection (NDEP) on July 21,2004. Approval to transfer CAS TA-55-008-TAAL from CAU 496 to CAU 4000 (No Further Action Sites) was approved by NDEP on December 21, 2005, based on the assumption that the rocket did not present any environmental concern. The approval letter included the following condition: ''NDEP understands, from the NNSA/NSO letter dated November 30,2005, that a search will be conducted for the rocket during the planned characterization of other sites at the Tonopah Test Range and, if found, the rocket will be removed as a housekeeping measure''. NDEP and U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office personnel located the rocket on Mid Lake during a site visit to TTR, and a request to transfer CAS TA-55-008-TAAL from CAU 4000 back to CAU 496 was approved by NDEP on September 11,2006. CAS TA-55-008-TAAL was added to the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' of 1996, based on an interview with a retired TTR worker in 1993. The original interview documented that a rocket was launched from Area 9 to Antelope Lake and was never recovered due to the high frequency of rocket tests being conducted during this timeframe. The interviewee recalled the rocket being an M-55 or N-55 (the M-50 ''Honest John'' rocket was used extensively at TTR from the 1960s to early 1980s). A review of previously conducted interviews with former TTR personnel indicated that the interviewees confused information from several sites. The location of the CAU 496 rocket on Mid Lake is directly south of the TTR rocket launch facility in Area 9 and is consistent with information gathered on the lost rocket during recent interviews. Most pertinently, an interview in 2005 with a

  7. Advanced Reservoir Characterization in the Antelope Shale to Establish the Viability of CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery in California's Monterey Formation Siliceous Shales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morea, Michael F.

    1999-01-01

    The primary objective of this research is to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and modeling studies in the Antelope Shale reservoir. Characterization studies will be used to determine the technical feasibility of implementing a CO2 enhanced oil recovery project in the Antelope Shale in Buena Vista Hills Field. The Buena Vista Hills pilot CO2 project will demonstrate the economic viability and widespread applicability of CO2 flooding in fractured siliceous shale reservoirs of the San Joaquin Valley. The research consists of four primary work processes: (1) Reservoir Matrix and Fluid Characterization; (2) Fracture characterization; (3) reservoir Modeling and Simulation; and (4) CO2 Pilot Flood and Evaluation. Work done in these areas is subdivided into two phases or budget periods. The first phase of the project will focus on the application of a variety of advanced reservoir characterization techniques to determine the production characteristics of the Antelope Shale reservoir. Reservoir models based on the results of the characterization work will be used to evaluate how the reservoir will respond to secondary recovery and EOR processes. The second phase of the project will include the implementation and evaluation of an advanced enhanced oil recovery (EOR) pilot in the United Anticline (West Dome) of the Buena Vista Hills Field

  8. Evaluation of a butorphanol, detomidine, and midazolam combination for immobilization of captive Nile lechwe antelopes (Kobus magaceros).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laricchiuta, Pietro; De Monte, Valentina; Campolo, Marco; Grano, Fabio; Iarussi, Fabrizio; Crovace, Antonio; Staffieri, Francesco

    2012-07-01

    Field immobilization of captive antelope may be required for medical examination, blood sample collection, and animal identification. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a combination of butorphanol, detomidine, and midazolam (BDM) and its partial reversibility in Nile lechwe antelope (Kobus megaceros). Nine captive lechwes, weighing 28-64 kg, were immobilized, in February 2011, with butorphanol 0.20 ± 0.05 (mean ± SD) mg/kg, detomidine 0.20 ± 0.05 mg/kg, and midazolam 0.31 ± 0.08 mg/kg administered intramuscularly (IM) with a blowpipe. Physiologic parameters and depth of anesthesia were recorded when the animals became recumbent at 19.55 ± 8.36 min after darting (T0) and after 10 (T10), 20 (T20), and 30 (T30) min. An arterial blood sample was collected at T20. At the end of the procedures, immobilization was partially reversed with atipamezole 0.25 mg/kg IM. Quality of induction, immobilization, and recovery was scored. The BDM combination induced immobilization and lateral recumbency in 13.44 ± 5.61 min. Median induction score (scored 1 [excellent] to 4 [poor]) was 1 (range 1-2). Heart rate varied 40-104 beats/min, respiratory rate 16-108 breaths/min, and rectal temperature 36.5-40.3 C. Hyperthermia was observed and rapidly treated in three animals that demonstrated insufficient immobilization after darting. Arterial blood gas analyses revealed a mean pH of 7.43 ± 0.07, partial arterial pressure of CO(2) of 44.1 ± 6.0 mmHg, partial arterial pressure of O(2) of 74.0 ± 13.5 mmHg, and an arterial O(2) saturation of 94.77 ± 3.96%. Recovery was smooth and animals were walking in 13.44 ± 7.85 min. Median recovery score (1 = excellent to 4 = poor) was 1 (range 1-2). The BDM was effective in immobilizing captive healthy lechwes with minimal cardiorespiratory changes.

  9. If an antelope is a document, then a rock is data: preserving earth science samples for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdeen, S.

    2015-12-01

    As discussed in seminal works by Briet (1951) and Buckland (1998), physical objects can be considered documents when given specific context. In the case of an antelope, in the wild it's an animal, in a zoo it's a document. It is the primary source of information, specifically when it is made an object of study. When discussing earth science data, we may think about numbers in a spreadsheet or verbal descriptions of a rock. But what about physical materials such as cores, cuttings, fossils, and other tangible objects? The most recent version of the American Geophysical Union's data position statement states data preservation and management policies should apply to both "digital data and physical objects"[1]. If an antelope is a document, than isn't a rock a form of data? Like books in a library or items in a museum, these objects require surrogates (digital or analog) that allow researchers to access and retrieve them. Once these scientific objects are acquired, researchers can process the information they contain. Unlike books, and some museum materials, most earth science objects cannot yet be completely replaced by digital surrogates. A fossil may be scanned, but the original is needed for chemical testing and ultimately for 'not yet developed' processes of scientific analysis. These objects along with their metadata or other documentation become scientific data when they are used in research. Without documentation of key information (i.e. the location where it was collected) these objects may lose their scientific value. This creates a complex situation where we must preserve the object, its metadata, and the connection between them. These factors are important as we consider the future of earth science data, our definitions of what constitutes scientific data, as well as our data preservation and management practices. This talk will discuss current initiatives within the earth science communities (EarthCube's EC3 and iSamples; USGS's data preservation program

  10. Reprint of "Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) from the critically endangered antelope Addax nasomaculatus in Tunisia".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufana, Belgees; Saïd, Yousra; Dhibi, Mokhtar; Craig, Philip S; Lahmar, Samia

    2017-01-01

    Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) is a zoonotic disease highly endemic in Tunisia. Canids including stray and semi-stray dogs, jackals and foxes are known as definitive hosts and a wide range of ungulates have been shown to harbour the metacestode hydatid stage and may serve as intermediate hosts. Fertile hydatid cysts of Echinococcus equinus and E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) were recently molecularly identified for the first time from Tunisian donkeys. E. granulosus (s.s.) was also identified from wild boars in Tunisia. Here we report the confirmation of hydatid cysts caused by E. granulosus (s.s.) in the critically endangered antelope, Addax nasomaculatus in Tunisia. DNA-based molecular analysis revealed that A. nasomaculatus was infected with E. granulosus (s.s.) which had a 100% identity with the main globally distributed E. granulosus (s.s.) (EgTu01) haplotype. Cysts of Taenia hydatigena (n=33) were also observed on the liver and in the body cavity. Due to their endangered status and their relatively small numbers, it is unlikely that hydatid infection of A. nasomaculatus will form a major contribution to the epidemiology and transmission of E. granulosus in Tunisia, but infection may result in pathology, morbidity and early mortality, and may still play a role in the perpetuation of the parasite in wildlife cycles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Feed consumption, nutrient utilization and serum metabolite profile of captive blackbucks (Antelope cervicapra) fed diets varying in crude protein content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, A; Katole, S; Kumar, A; Gupta, S P; Saini, M; Swarup, D

    2012-06-01

    A feeding trial was conducted to determine the optimum level of crude protein (CP) in the diet of captive blackbuck (Antelope cervicapra) in which feed consumption and nutrient utilization are maximal. Fifteen blackbucks (BW 25-34 kg) were distributed into three groups of five each in an experiment of 75-days duration including a digestion trial of 5-day collection period. All the animals were offered 200 g of concentrates and fresh maize fodder ad libitum. The overall CP content of the three respective diets was 6.9%, 10.4% and 12.7%. Blood samples were collected on the last day of the experiment. Intake and digestibility of CP increased (p consumption and nutrient intake were not significantly different among the groups. However, digestibilities of most of the nutrients were higher in the 10.4% CP diet than in the 6.9% CP diet. The endogenous loss of nitrogen was similar among the groups. Based on the endogenous losses, minimum N requirement was calculated to be 776 mg/kg BW(0.75) /day, and to meet this requirement, diet must contain at least 8.27% CP. Serum urea nitrogen concentration increased (p consumption and serum metabolite profile of blackbucks. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Genetic structure analysis of a highly inbred captive population of the African antelope Addax nasomaculatus. Conservation and management implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, E; Leizagoyen, C; Martínez, A M; González, S; Delgado, J V; Postiglioni, A

    2011-01-01

    The African antelope Addax nasomaculatus is a rare mammal at high risk of extinction, with no more than 300 individuals in the wild and 1,700 captive animals distributed in zoos around the world. In this work, we combine genetic data and genealogical information to assess the structure and genetic diversity of a captive population located at Parque Lecocq Zoo (N=27), originated from only two founders. We amplified 39 microsatellites previously described in other Artiodactyls but new to this species. Seventeen markers were polymorphic, with 2-4 alleles per locus (mean=2.71). Mean expected heterozygosity (He) per locus was between 0.050 (marker ETH3) and 0.650 (marker D5S2), with a global He of 0.43. The mean inbreeding coefficient of the population computed from pedigree records of all registered individuals (N=53) was 0.222. The mean coancestry of the population was 0.298 and F(IS) index was -0.108. These results reflect the importance of an adequate breeding management on a severely bottlenecked captive population, which would benefit by the incorporation of unrelated individuals. Thanks to the successful amplification of a large number of microsatellites commonly used in domestic bovids, this study will provide useful information for the management of this population and serve as future reference for similar studies in other captive populations of this species. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. [Identification of ecological corridors for Tibetan antelope and assessment of their human disturbances in the alpine desert of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuge, Hai-jin; Lin, Dan-qi; Li, Xiao-wen

    2015-08-01

    The alpine desert of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) provides the largest habitats for those endangered ungulates (e.g., Tibetan antelope, Tibetan Kiang and wild yak) on the earth. However, human disturbance especially infrastructure constructions (e.g., railway & highway) has increasingly fragmented the habitats of those endangered ungulates by disturbing and interrupting their ecological corridors for their seasonal migration. Aiming at identifying the potential ecological corridors for Tibetan antelope, a GIS-based model-Linkage Mapper was used to model and detect the potential ecological corridors of Tibetan antelope based on the principle of least cost path. Three categories of ecological corridors, i. e., closed (inside reserves), linking (linking the reserves) and open (starting from reserve but ending outside) corridors were distinguished by their spatial interactions with existing major national nature reserves (i.e., Altun, Kekexili and Qiangtang NNRs) in the alpine desert of QTP, and their spatial patterns, conservation status associated with human disturbance were also examined. Although our research indicated a general ecological integration of both habitats and ecological corridors in the alpine desert ecosystem, increasing human disturbance should not be ignored, which particularly partially undermined the functioning of those ecological corridors linking the nature reserves. Considering disadvantages of prevailing separate administrative structure of nature reserve on the effective conservation of ecological corridors for those endangered ungulates, a coordinative conservation network among these major national nature reserves should be established to ensure the unified trans-boundary conservation efforts and to enhance its overall conservation efficacy by sharing information, knowledge and optimizing conservation resources.

  14. Natural recharge estimation and uncertainty analysis of an adjudicated groundwater basin using a regional-scale flow and subsidence model (Antelope Valley, California, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siade, Adam J.; Nishikawa, Tracy; Martin, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater has provided 50–90 % of the total water supply in Antelope Valley, California (USA). The associated groundwater-level declines have led the Los Angeles County Superior Court of California to recently rule that the Antelope Valley groundwater basin is in overdraft, i.e., annual pumpage exceeds annual recharge. Natural recharge consists primarily of mountain-front recharge and is an important component of the total groundwater budget in Antelope Valley. Therefore, natural recharge plays a major role in the Court’s decision. The exact quantity and distribution of natural recharge is uncertain, with total estimates from previous studies ranging from 37 to 200 gigaliters per year (GL/year). In order to better understand the uncertainty associated with natural recharge and to provide a tool for groundwater management, a numerical model of groundwater flow and land subsidence was developed. The transient model was calibrated using PEST with water-level and subsidence data; prior information was incorporated through the use of Tikhonov regularization. The calibrated estimate of natural recharge was 36 GL/year, which is appreciably less than the value used by the court (74 GL/year). The effect of parameter uncertainty on the estimation of natural recharge was addressed using the Null-Space Monte Carlo method. A Pareto trade-off method was also used to portray the reasonableness of larger natural recharge rates. The reasonableness of the 74 GL/year value and the effect of uncertain pumpage rates were also evaluated. The uncertainty analyses indicate that the total natural recharge likely ranges between 34.5 and 54.3 GL/year.

  15. Monitoring the endangered population of the antelope Kobus leche smithemani (Artiodactyla: Bovidae, in the Bangweulu ecosystem, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor M. Siamudaala

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Black lechwe (Kobus leche smithemani is a semi-aquatic medium sized antelope currently enlisted on the IUCN red list of endangered species and is only endemic to the Bangweulu basin of Zambia. Its population has significantly decreased due to floods that took place during the period 1930-1940 from over 250 000-15 000 leading the Zambian government to gazette all habitats of Black lechwe into state protected areas, and to establish urgent management strategies needed to save the remaining population from extinction. Using retrospective data, our findings show that the population has increased from 15 000 animals in 1954 to 55 632 in 2009. The current population is estimated at 34.77% (55 632/160 000 of the carrying capacity of the Bangweulu basin. Although the Black lechwe is one of the 42 species offered for consumptive utilization by the Zambia Wildlife Authority (ZAWA, only 0.12% and 0.08% of the current stock was offered for safari and resident hunting annually for the period 2005-2009, respectively. Annual quota utilization were estimated at 67% (n=37 and 81% (n=37 for safari and resident hunting, respectively. Hence, overall income obtained from utilization of Black lechwe is very low accounting for only 2.1% of the total revenue earned from wildlife utilization. Although the current population trend is showing a unit increase of 639 animals per year, it is still far below levels ideal for the lucrative utilization. In this study, we demonstrate that adverse ecological changes on wildlife species, can lead to their vulnerability and danger of extinction, and that their recovery to full carrying capacity may demand a considerable amount of time

  16. Knee-clicks and visual traits indicate fighting ability in eland antelopes: multiple messages and back-up signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dabelsteen Torben

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the costs of signalling, why do males often advertise their fighting ability to rivals using several signals rather than just one? Multiple signalling theories have developed largely in studies of sexual signals, and less is known about their applicability to intra-sexual communication. We here investigate the evolutionary basis for the intricate agonistic signalling system in eland antelopes, paying particular attention to the evolutionary phenomenon of loud knee-clicking. Results A principal components analysis separated seven male traits into three groups. The dominant frequency of the knee-clicking sound honestly indicated body size, a main determinant of fighting ability. In contrast, the dewlap size increased with estimated age rather than body size, suggesting that, by magnifying the silhouette of older bulls disproportionately, the dewlap acts as an indicator of age-related traits such as fighting experience. Facemask darkness, frontal hairbrush size and body greyness aligned with a third underlying variable, presumed to be androgen-related aggression. A longitudinal study provided independent support of these findings. Conclusion The results show that the multiple agonistic signals in eland reflect three separate components of fighting ability: (1 body size, (2 age and (3 presumably androgen-related aggression, which is reflected in three backup signals. The study highlights how complex agonistic signalling systems can evolve through the simultaneous action of several selective forces, each of which favours multiple signals. Specifically, loud knee-clicking is discovered to be an honest signal of body size, providing an exceptional example of the potential for non-vocal acoustic communication in mammals.

  17. Evaluation of volatile organic compounds in two Mojave Desert basins-Mojave River and Antelope Valley-in San Bernardino, Los Angeles, and Kern Counties, California, June-October 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore, Jill N.; Belitz, Kenneth; Wright, Michael T.; Dawson, Barbara J.; Johnson, Tyler D.

    2005-01-01

    The California Aquifer Susceptibility Assessment of the Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment Program was developed to assess water quality and susceptibility of ground-water resources to contamination from surficial sources. This study focuses on the Mojave River and the Antelope Valley ground-water basins in southern California. Volatile organic compound (VOC) data were evaluated in conjunction with tritium data to determine a potential correlation with aquifer type, depth to top of perforations, and land use to VOC distribution and occurrence in the Mojave River and the Antelope Valley Basins. Detection frequencies for VOCs were compiled and compared to assess the distribution in each area. Explanatory variables were evaluated by comparing detection frequencies for VOCs and tritium and the number of compounds detected. Thirty-three wells were sampled in the Mojave River Basin (9 in the floodplain aquifer, 15 in the regional aquifer, and 9 in the sewered subset of the regional aquifer). Thirty-two wells were sampled in the Antelope Valley Basin. Quality-control samples also were collected to identify, quantify, and document bias and variability in the data. Results show that VOCs generally were detected slightly more often in the Antelope Valley Basin samples than in the Mojave River Basin samples. VOCs were detected more frequently in the floodplain aquifer than in the regional aquifer and the sewered subset. Tritium was detected more frequently in the Mojave River Basin samples than in the Antelope Valley Basin samples, and it was detected more frequently in the floodplain aquifer than in the regional aquifer and the sewered subset. Most of the samples collected in both basins for this study contained old water (water recharged prior to 1952). In general, in these desert basins, tritium need not be present for VOCs to be present. When VOCs were detected, young water (water recharge after 1952) was slightly more likely to be contaminated than old water

  18. Diet and habitat of the saiga antelope during the late Quaternary using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürgensen, Jonathan; Drucker, Dorothée G.; Stuart, Anthony J.; Schneider, Matthias; Buuveibaatar, Bayarbaatar; Bocherens, Hervé

    2017-03-01

    Saiga antelope (Saiga tatarica) is one of the typical late Pleistocene species of the cold and arid mammoth steppe that covered a large area of northern hemisphere. The species is currently endangered and persists only in small areas of Central Asian steppe and desert ecosystems. The investigation of the ecology of the Pleistocene saiga using stable isotope ratios (δ13C, δ15N) aimed to decipher how different their diet and habitat were from those observed nowadays in relict populations. Up to 76 samples of bone collagen of ancient saiga from Western Europe, Siberia and Eastern Beringia were analysed and compared with 52 samples of hair and bone collagen of modern specimens from Kazahkstan, Russia and Mongolia. The δ13C values of the ancient saiga do not exhibit a clear trend over time. They cover the same range of values as the modern ones, from a C3-dominated to a C3-C4-dominated mixed diet (including probably Chenopodiaceae). In contrast, the δ15N values of fossil saigas are more variable and lower on average than the extant ones. The lowest δ15N values of ancient saiga are found around the Last Glacial Maximum, reflecting the influence of the cold conditions at that time. On the other hand, fossil saiga occupying the same regions as the historical and modern populations exhibit high δ15N values similar to the modern ones, confirming ecological continuity over time. Modern saiga is thus occupying just one of its potential diverse habitats they used in the past. Therefore, the extant saiga is not a refugee species confined to a suboptimal habitat. During the late Pleistocene, the saiga occupied a separate niche compared with the other ungulates of the mammoth steppe. However, this species could also adapt to a lichen-dominated diet normally seen in reindeer, leading to an isotopic overlap between the two species in south-western France and Alaska around the Last Glacial Maximum. This adaptation allowed a geographical expansion that does not correspond to a

  19. Groundwater-Quality Data in the Antelope Valley Study Unit, 2008: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Stephen J.; Milby Dawson, Barbara J.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 1,600 square-mile Antelope Valley study unit (ANT) was investigated from January to April 2008 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw groundwater used for public water supplies within ANT, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of groundwater quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 57 wells in Kern, Los Angeles, and San Bernardino Counties. Fifty-six of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized, grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and one additional well was selected to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding well). The groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], gasoline additives and degradates, pesticides and pesticide degradates, fumigants, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), and radioactive constituents (gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity, radium isotopes, and radon-222). Naturally occurring isotopes (strontium, tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled groundwater. In total, 239 constituents and water-quality indicators (field parameters) were investigated. Quality

  20. Monitoring the endangered population of the antelope Kobus leche smithemani (Artiodactyla: Bovidae, in the Bangweulu ecosystem, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor M. Siamudaala

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Black lechwe (Kobus leche smithemani is a semi-aquatic medium sized antelope currently enlisted on the IUCN red list of endangered species and is only endemic to the Bangweulu basin of Zambia. Its population has significantly decreased due to floods that took place during the period 1930-1940 from over 250 000-15 000 leading the Zambian government to gazette all habitats of Black lechwe into state protected areas, and to establish urgent management strategies needed to save the remaining population from extinction. Using retrospective data, our findings show that the population has increased from 15 000 animals in 1954 to 55 632 in 2009. The current population is estimated at 34.77% (55 632/160 000 of the carrying capacity of the Bangweulu basin. Although the Black lechwe is one of the 42 species offered for consumptive utilization by the Zambia Wildlife Authority (ZAWA, only 0.12% and 0.08% of the current stock was offered for safari and resident hunting annually for the period 2005-2009, respectively. Annual quota utilization were estimated at 67% (n=37 and 81% (n=37 for safari and resident hunting, respectively. Hence, overall income obtained from utilization of Black lechwe is very low accounting for only 2.1% of the total revenue earned from wildlife utilization. Although the current population trend is showing a unit increase of 639 animals per year, it is still far below levels ideal for the lucrative utilization. In this study, we demonstrate that adverse ecological changes on wildlife species, can lead to their vulnerability and danger of extinction, and that their recovery to full carrying capacity may demand a considerable amount of timeEl lechwe negro (Kobus leche smithemani es un antílope semi-acuático de tamaño medio que en la actualidad se encuentra en la lista roja de la UICN de especies en peligro de extinción y sólo es endémica de la cuenca del Bangweulu de Zambia. Su población ha disminuido considerablemente, de más de

  1. SM1.3 Seismic Centers Data Acquisition: an introduction to Antelope, EarthWorm, SeisComP and their usage around the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesaresi, Damiano; Sleeman, Reinoud

    2010-05-01

    Many medium to big size seismic data centers around the world are facing the same question: which software to use to acquire seismic data in real-time? A home-made or a commercial one? Both choices have pros and cons. The in-house development of software usually requires an increased investment in human resources rather than a financial investment. However, the advantage of fully accomplishing your own needs could be put in danger when the software engineer quits the job! Commercial software offers the advantage of being maintained, but it may require both a considerable financial investment and training. The main seismic software data acquisition suites available nowadays are the public domain SeisComP and EarthWorm packages and the commercial package Antelope. Nanometrics, Guralp and RefTek also provide seismic data acquisition software, but they are mainly intended for single station/network acquisition. Antelope is a software package for real-time acquisition and processing of seismic network data, with its roots in the academic seismological community. The software is developed by Boulder Real Time Technology (BRTT) and commercialized by Kinemetrics. It is used by IRIS affiliates for off-line data processing and it is the main acquisition tool for the USArray program and data centers in Europe like the ORFEUS Data Center, OGS (Italy), ZAMG (Austria), ARSO (Slovenia) and GFU (Czech Republic). SeisComP was originally developed for the GEOFON global network to provide a system for data acquisition, data exchange (SeedLink protocol) and automatic processing. It has evolved into to a widely distributed, networked seismographic system for data acquisition and real-time data exchange over Internet and is supported by ORFEUS as the standard seismic data acquisition tool in Europe. SeisComP3 is the next generation of the software and was developed for the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS). SeisComP is licensed by GFZ (free of charge) and

  2. Pathology and immunohistochemistry of papillomavirus-associated cutaneous lesions in Cape mountain zebra, giraffe, sable antelope and African buffalo in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Williams

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Skin lesions associated with papillomaviruses have been reported in many animal species and man. Bovine papillomavirus (BVP affects mainly the epidermis, but also the dermis in several species including bovine, the best-known example being equine sarcoid, which is associated with BVP types 1 and 2. This publication describes and illustrates the macroscopic and histological appearance of BPV-associated papillomatous, fibropapillomatous or sarcoid-like lesions in Cape mountain zebra (Equus zebra zebra from the Gariep Dam Nature Reserve, 2 giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis from the Kruger National Park, and a sable antelope (Hippotragus niger from the Kimberley area of South Africa. An African buffalo (Syncerus caffer cow from Kruger National Park also had papillomatous lesions but molecular characterisation of lesional virus was not done. Immunohistochemical staining using polyclonal rabbit antiserum to chemically disrupted BPV-1, which cross-reacts with the L1 capsid of most known papillomaviruses, was positive in cells of the stratum granulosum of lesions in Giraffe 1, the sable and the buffalo and negative in those of the zebra and Giraffe 2. Fibropapillomatous and sarcoid-like lesions from an adult bovine were used as positive control for the immunohistochemistry and are described and the immunohistochemistry illustrated for comparison. Macroscopically, both adult female giraffe had severely thickened multifocal to coalescing nodular and occasionally ulcerated lesions of the head, neck and trunk with local poorly-circumscribed invasion into the subcutis. Necropsy performed on the 2nd giraffe revealed neither internal metastases nor serious underlying disease. Giraffe 1 had scattered, and Giraffe 2 numerous, large, anaplastic, at times indistinctly multinucleated dermal fibroblasts with bizarre nuclei within the sarcoid-like lesions, which were BPV-1 positive in Giraffe 1 and BPV-1 and -2 positive in Giraffe 2 by RT-PCR. The sable antelope

  3. The roles of calving migration and climate change in the formation of the weak genetic structure in the Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsonii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiarui; Lin, Gonghua; Qin, Wen; Yan, Jingyan; Zhang, Tongzuo; Su, Jianping

    2018-05-31

    Geographical barriers and distance can reduce gene exchange among animals, resulting in genetic divergence of geographically isolated populations. The habitats of Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsonii) has a geographical range of approximately 1,600 km across the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) with a series tall mountains and big rivers. However, previously studies indicated that there was little genetic differentiation among their geographically delineated populations. To better understand the genetic structure of P. hodgsonii populations, we collected 145 samples from the three major calving regions considering their various calving grounds and migration routes. We used a combination of mitochondrial sequences (Cyt b, ATPase, D-loop and COX I) to investigate the genetic structure and the evolutionary divergence of the populations. Significant, albeit weak, genetic differentiation was detected among the three geographical populations. Analysis of the genetic divergence process revealed that the animals gradually entered into a period of rapid genetic differentiation since approximately 60,000 years ago. The calving migration of P. hodgsonii cannot be the main cause of their weak genetic structure since such cannot fully homogenize the genetic pool. Instead, the geological and climatic events as well as the coupling vegetation succession process during this period have been suggested to greatly contribute to the genetic structure and the expansion of genetic diversity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Using the satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to explain ranging patterns in a lek-breeding antelope: the importance of scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bro-Jørgensen, Jakob; Brown, Molly E; Pettorelli, Nathalie

    2008-11-01

    Lek-breeding species are characterized by a negative association between territorial resource availability and male mating success; however, the impact of resources on the overall distribution patterns of the two sexes in lek systems is not clear. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) has recently emerged as a powerful proxy measure for primary productivity, allowing the links between the distributions of animals and resources to be explored. Using NDVI at four spatial resolutions, we here investigate how the distribution of the two sexes in a lek-breeding population of topi antelopes relates to resource abundance before and during the rut. We found that in the dry season preceding the rut, topi density correlated positively with NDVI at the large, but not the fine, scale. This suggests that before the rut, when resources were relatively scant, topi preferred pastures where green grass was widely abundant. The pattern was less pronounced in males, suggesting that the need for territorial attendance prevents males from tracking resources as freely as females do. During the rut, which occurs in the wet season, both male and female densities correlated negatively with NDVI at the fine scale. At this time, resources were generally plentiful and the results suggest that, rather than by resource maximization, distribution during the rut was determined by benefits of aggregating on relatively resource-poor leks for mating, and possibly antipredator, purposes. At the large scale, no correlation between density and NDVI was found during the rut in either sex, which can be explained by leks covering areas too small to be reflected at this resolution. The study illustrates that when investigating spatial organization, it is important: (1) to choose the appropriate analytic scale, and (2) to consider behavioural as well as strictly ecological factors.

  5. Landowner and permit-holder perceptions of wildlife damage around the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. A survey of INEEL neighbors about elk, mule deer, pronghorn antelope, and depredation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roush, D.E. Jr. [Environmental Science and Research Foundation, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Beaver, D.E. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). Coll. of Forestry, Wildlife, and Range Sciences

    1998-06-01

    Property-owners (N = 220) around the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in southeastern Idaho were surveyed about depredation, control methods and economic issues related to use of the area by elk (Cervus elaphus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana). Depredation was defined as damage to privately-owned crops, forage, and fences and irrigation equipment by these animals. The focus on the three ungulate species was prompted by concerns that elk, which had recolonized the INEEL since 1984, were responsible for an inordinate amount of unprecedented damage to agricultural operations. As the INEEL is a US Department of Energy (DOE) reserve with little public hunting access, there have been calls for removal of elk from this land. This study`s objective was to quantify the wildlife damage occurring on agricultural operations adjacent to the INEEL and to characterize the damage attributed to each big game species. Responses from 70.2% of the target population indicate an evenness of opinion, by which the authors mean that various opinions were represented equitably, toward these animals and wildlife damage Total estimated wildlife damage in 1996 was between $140,000 and $180,000 It was attributed foremost to elk, although pronghorn antelope were viewed nearly as damaging. Respondents placed high values in big game animals and wished to see them continue to inhabit these lands. For managing depredation, adjusting hunting seasons was preferred.

  6. The EGU2010 SM1.3 Seismic Centers Data Acquisition session: an introduction to Antelope, EarthWorm and SeisComP, and their use around the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damiano Pesaresi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Session «SM1.3 - Seismic Centers Data Acquisition» was part of the General Assembly 2010 of the European Geosciences Union (EGU that took place in Vienna (Austria from 2-7 May, 2010. This session was organized to present both the differences and similarities in the operations of different types of seismic data centers, to share the experiences and to stimulate constructive discussion. There are only a few, widely used, "all-in-one" data acquisition and processing packages available for seismic data centers, with two public-domain tools (SeisComP and EarthWorm and one commercial tool (Antelope. The choice of any particular tool will depend on many different criteria, from operational aspects to scientific results, or on the availability of specific requirements in relation to a specific mission. The development of EarthWorm originally started in 1993 in the USA, and it was designed to replace the aging and vendor-tied, regional processing systems. Antelope, started around 1996, with the aim to have real-time data flow from field sensors to scientist. SeisComP also started in the nineties as a real-time data acquisition and processing system, and it evolved towards an early warning system for seismic observatories. Protocols have been established to exchange real-time waveform data between the different packages. In this introductory report, we outline the main characteristics of the three software packages for seismic data acquisition.

  7. Advanced reservoir characterization in the Antelope Shale to establish the viability of CO2 enhanced oil recovery in California`s Monterey Formation siliceous shales. Annual report, February 7, 1997--February 6, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morea, M.F.

    1998-06-01

    The primary objective of this research is to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and modeling studies in the Antelope Shale reservoir. Characterization studies will be used to determine the technical feasibility of implementing a CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery project in the antelope Shale in Buena Vista Hills Field. The proposed pilot consists of four existing producers on 20 acre spacing with a new 10 acre infill well drilled as the pilot CO{sub 2} injector. Most of the reservoir characterization during Phase 1 of the project will be performed using data collected in the pilot pattern wells. During this period the following tasks have been completed: laboratory wettability; specific permeability; mercury porosimetry; acoustic anisotropy; rock mechanics analysis; core description; fracture analysis; digital image analysis; mineralogical analysis; hydraulic flow unit analysis; petrographic and confocal thin section analysis; oil geochemical fingerprinting; production logging; carbon/oxygen logging; complex lithologic log analysis; NMR T2 processing; dipole shear wave anisotropy logging; shear wave vertical seismic profile processing; structural mapping; and regional tectonic synthesis. Noteworthy technological successes for this reporting period include: (1) first (ever) high resolution, crosswell reflection images of SJV sediments; (2) first successful application of the TomoSeis acquisition system in siliceous shales; (3) first detailed reservoir characterization of SJV siliceous shales; (4) first mineral based saturation algorithm for SJV siliceous shales, and (5) first CO{sub 2} coreflood experiments for siliceous shale. Preliminary results from the CO{sub 2} coreflood experiments (2,500 psi) suggest that significant oil is being produced from the siliceous shale.

  8. Advanced reservoir characterization in the Antelope Shale to establish the viability of CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery in California`s Monterey Formation siliceous shales. Annual report, February 12, 1996--February 11, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toronyi, R.M.

    1997-12-01

    The Buena Vista Hills field is located about 25 miles southwest of Bakersfield, in Kern County, California, about two miles north of the city of Taft, and five miles south of the Elk Hills field. The Antelope Shale zone was discovered at the Buena Vista Hills field in 1952, and has since been under primary production. Little research was done to improve the completion techniques during the development phase in the 1950s, so most of the wells are completed with about 1000 ft of slotted liner. The proposed pilot consists of four existing producers on 20 acre spacing with a new 10 acre infill well drilled as the pilot CO{sub 2} injector. Most of the reservoir characterization of the first phase of the project will be performed using data collected in the pilot pattern wells. This is the first annual report of the project. It covers the period February 12, 1996 to February 11, 1997. During this period the Chevron Murvale 653Z-26B well was drilled in Section 26-T31S/R23E in the Buena Vista Hills field, Kern County, California. The Monterey Formation equivalent Brown and Antelope Shales were continuously cored, the zone was logged with several different kinds of wireline logs, and the well was cased to a total depth of 4907 ft. Core recovery was 99.5%. Core analyses that have been performed include Dean Stark porosity, permeability and fluid saturations, field wettability, anelastic strain recovery, spectral core gamma, profile permeametry, and photographic imaging. Wireline log analysis includes mineral-based error minimization (ELAN), NMR T2 processing, and dipole shear wave anisotropy. A shear wave vertical seismic profile was acquired after casing was set and processing is nearly complete.

  9. Geologic Reconnaissance of the Antelope-Ashwood Area, North-Central Oregon: With Emphasis on the John Day Formation of Late Oligocene and Early Miocene Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Dallas L.

    1964-01-01

    derived from vents in an ancestral Cascade Range. The John Day is dated on the basis of a late Oligocene flora near the base of the formation and early Miocene faunas near the top of the formation. The middle Miocene and older rocks in the Antelope-Ashwood area are broadly folded and broken along northeast-trending faults. Over much of the area the rocks dip gently eastward from the crest of a major fold and are broken along a series of steeply dipping antithetic strike faults. Pliocene and Quaternary strata appear to be undeformed. At the Priday agate deposit, chalcedony-filled spherulites (thunder-eggs) occur in the lower part of a weakly welded rhyolitic ash flow. The so-called thunder-eggs are small spheroidal bodies, about 3 inches in average diameter; each consists of a chalcedonic core surrounded by a shell of welded tuff that is altered to radially oriented fibers of cristobalite and alkalic feldspar.

  10. North Antelope Highlands Wind Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearlson, Matthew [Citizens Energy Corporation (CEC), Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-05-03

    This is the final report on the Wind Energy Development of 190 Mw on the Rosebud Indian Reservation in collaboration with Citizens Energy Corporation. The report discusses all pre-development activities since July of 2010 when award was granted. A systems impact study along with wind data accumulated over the past 5 years is contained in this report. We have responded to several RFPs concerning the sale of energy to certain offtakers, but we have failed to win a Power Purchase Agreement due to existing wind farms that won and the interconnection costs were already included in a previous PPAs, which we don't have that luxury. We continue this effort and hopefully in the near future we will win an RFP.

  11. Interspecies embryo reconstruction in Tibetan antelope Pantholops ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) offers the possibility of preserving endangered species. Handmade cloning (HMC) has proved to be an efficient alternative to the traditional micromanipulator-based technique in some domestic animal species. This study investigates the possibility of reconstructing the ...

  12. Interspecies embryo reconstruction in Tibetan antelope Pantholops ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-03-21

    Mar 21, 2011 ... Full Length Research Paper ... Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) offers the possibility of preserving endangered species. ..... Somatic cell cloning in Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis): effects of ... cloning with a combined electrical and chemical activation. ... Nuclear transfer and embryonic stem cell.

  13. Antelope, sage grouse, and neotropical migrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reg. Rothwell

    1993-01-01

    The momentum this Partners in Flight initiative has developed is very impressive. I'm encouraged because, although it will have its costs, I see it as a potential aid to existing wildlife management efforts. Here, I will discuss some types of information that are routinely used by wildlife and habitat managers for other species. If this same information is made...

  14. Antelope Predation by Nigerian Forest Baboons: Ecological and Behavioural Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Volker; Lowe, Adriana; Jesus, Gonçalo; Alberts, Nienke; Bouquet, Yaëlle; Inglis, David M; Petersdorf, Megan; van Riel, Eelco; Thompson, James; Ross, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Baboons are well studied in savannah but less so in more closed habitats. We investigated predation on mammals by olive baboons (Papio anubis) at a geographical and climatic outlier, Gashaka Gumti National Park (Nigeria), the wettest and most forested site so far studied. Despite abundant wildlife, meat eating was rare and selective. Over 16 years, baboons killed 7 bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus) and 3 red-flanked duiker (Cephalophus rufilatus), mostly still-lying 'parked' infants. Taking observation time into account, this is 1 predation per group every 3.3 months - far lower than at other sites. Some features of meat eating resemble those elsewhere; predation is opportunistic, adult males monopolize most prey, a targeted killing bite is lacking and begging or active sharing is absent. Carcass owners employ evasive tactics, as meat is often competed over, but satiated owners may tolerate others taking meat. Other features are unusual; this is only the second study site with predation records for bushbuck and the only one for red-flanked duiker. The atypical prey and rarity of eating mammals probably reflects the difficulty of acquiring prey animals when vegetation cover is dense. Our data support the general prediction of the socioecological model that environments shape behavioural patterns, while acknowledging their intraspecific or intrageneric plasticity. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Phylogeography of oribi antelope in South Africa: evolutionary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Across the South African range, high genetic diversity is present with some evidence for genetic structure (phylogenetic trees and haplotype networks). However, there is no spatial component to the diversity (non-significant p-values in AMOVA analyses), possibly because of historic translocations. We evaluate translocation ...

  16. A mitochondrial genome sequence of the Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsonii)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Shu Qing; Yang, Ying Zhong; Zhou, Jun

    2005-01-01

    To investigate genetic mechanisms of high altitude adaptations of native mammals on the Tibetan Plateau, we compared mitochondrial sequences of the endangered Pantholops hodgsonii with its lowland distant relatives Ovis aries and Capra hircus, as well as other mammals. The complete mitochondrial...... genome of P. hodgsonii (16,498 bp) revealed a similar gene order as of other mammals. Because of tandem duplications, the control region of P. hodgsonii mitochondrial genome is shorter than those of O. aries and C. hircus, but longer than those of Bos species. Phylogenetic analysis based on alignments...... of the entire cytochrome b genes suggested that P. hodgsonii is more closely related to O. aries and C. hircus, rather than to species of the Antilopinae subfamily. The estimated divergence time between P. hodgsonii and O. aries is about 2.25 million years ago. Further analysis on natural selection indicated...

  17. Polonium assimilation and retention in mule deer and pronghorn antelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sejkora, K.J.

    1982-01-01

    Excretion kinetics and tissue distribution of polonium-210 in mule deer and pronghorn were studied. Each animal in a captive herd of 7 mule deer and 2 pronghorn received an intraruminal injection of 4.4 μCi of polonium chloride. Feces and urine were collected periodically over a 43-day period and daily excretion rate for each pathway was regressed as a function of time. Assimilation fractions of 0.40 and 0.51 were calculated for mule deer (n=2) and 0.60 for a pronghorn. Body burden retention functions were calculated from integrated excretion rate functions. Polonium burdens in muscle, liver, and kidney were calculated as a fraction of body burden from serially-sacrificed animals. Background tissue burdens in mule deer were comparable to those of other ruminants reported in the literature. Hypothetical cases were assumed which combined feeding rate of mule deer, forage concentrations of polonium, retention function, tissue burden fraction, and human intake to estimate human radiation dose. 26 references

  18. Density, distribution and feeding strategies of roan antelope ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fourteen plant species are used for food by H. equinus in the Park, including Andropogon gayanus, A. schirensis, A. tectorum, Hyparrhenia rufa, H. dissoluta, H. diplandra and H. cyanescens. Their percentage crude protein and fat ranged between 4.8 and 8.8, and between 4.7 and 18.9, respectively. Measures to sustain ...

  19. ANTELOPES IN THE PLEISTOCENE OF SOUTHERN AFRICA This ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    respectively in the National Museum, Bloemfontein, and the South African Museum, Cape. Town. Four faunal ... as tribes rather than subfamilies. .... recorded during this stage only in the central and northern Transvaal and in northern Zululand.

  20. Evaluating Conservation Breeding Success for an Extinct-in-the-Wild Antelope.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly A Little

    Full Text Available With the number of threatened species increasing globally, conservation breeding is vitally important now more than ever. However, no previous peer-reviewed study has attempted to determine how the varying conditions across zoos have influenced breeding by an extinct-in-the-wild species. We therefore use questionnaires and studbook data to evaluate the influence of husbandry practices and enclosure design on scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah breeding success, at the herd level. Regression models were used to identify the variables that best predicted breeding success among 29 zoos across a five-year period. Calf survival decreased with herd age and the use of soft substrates in hardstand areas (yard area usually adjacent to the indoor housing, explaining 30.7% of overall variation. Calf survival also decreased where herds were small and where food provisions were not raised (and hence likely incited competition, although these were less influential. Likewise, birth rate decreased with soft substrates in hardstand areas and unraised food provisions, although these were less influential than for calf survival. Birth rate increased with year-round male presence, yet this decreased calf survival. Compared to previous studies, the number of enclosure/husbandry influences on breeding were relatively few. Nevertheless, these few enclosure/husbandry influences explained over one third of the variation in calf survival. Our data therefore suggest some potential improvements and hence that extinct-in-the-wild species stand a greater chance of survival with empirical design of zoo enclosures and husbandry methods.

  1. Evaluating Conservation Breeding Success for an Extinct-in-the-Wild Antelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Holly A; Gilbert, Tania C; Athorn, Marie L; Marshall, Andrew R

    2016-01-01

    With the number of threatened species increasing globally, conservation breeding is vitally important now more than ever. However, no previous peer-reviewed study has attempted to determine how the varying conditions across zoos have influenced breeding by an extinct-in-the-wild species. We therefore use questionnaires and studbook data to evaluate the influence of husbandry practices and enclosure design on scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah) breeding success, at the herd level. Regression models were used to identify the variables that best predicted breeding success among 29 zoos across a five-year period. Calf survival decreased with herd age and the use of soft substrates in hardstand areas (yard area usually adjacent to the indoor housing), explaining 30.7% of overall variation. Calf survival also decreased where herds were small and where food provisions were not raised (and hence likely incited competition), although these were less influential. Likewise, birth rate decreased with soft substrates in hardstand areas and unraised food provisions, although these were less influential than for calf survival. Birth rate increased with year-round male presence, yet this decreased calf survival. Compared to previous studies, the number of enclosure/husbandry influences on breeding were relatively few. Nevertheless, these few enclosure/husbandry influences explained over one third of the variation in calf survival. Our data therefore suggest some potential improvements and hence that extinct-in-the-wild species stand a greater chance of survival with empirical design of zoo enclosures and husbandry methods.

  2. 75 FR 53877 - Proposed Establishment of the Antelope Valley of the California High Desert Viticultural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    ... Viticulture,'' by Albert J. Winkler, University of California Press, 1974, pp. 61-64). As a measurement of..., eighth edition, January 2007, Sunset Publishing Corporation, Menlo Park, California), which is discussed... Service, in cooperation with the University of California Agricultural Experiment Station). Annual...

  3. 76 FR 30002 - Establishment of the Antelope Valley of the California High Desert Viticultural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ...: Final rule; Treasury decision. SUMMARY: This Treasury decision establishes the 665-square mile... purchase. DATES: Effective Date: June 23, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Elisabeth C. Kann... accurately the origin of their wines to consumers and helps consumers to identify wines they may purchase...

  4. Phylogeography, hybridization and Pleistocene refugia of the kob antelope (Kobus kob)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Eline Deidre; De Neergaard, Rikke; Arctander, Peter

    2007-01-01

    that the divergent phenotype and life-history adaptations of K. k. leucotis reflect the isolation of kob populations in refugia in west and east Africa during the Pleistocene. Subsequent dispersal has led to secondary contact and hybridization in northern Uganda between lineages, which was supported by high levels...

  5. Observations on the migration and habits of the Antelopes of the Kalahari Gemsbok Park - Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. F. C. Eloff

    1959-06-01

    Full Text Available To follow up the observations made in the Kalahari Gemsbok Park in December, 1957, a second trip was made in June, 1958 on which the present report is based. It is intended mainly as a progress report, and a full discussion will be withheld at least until the four main seasonal periods have been covered.

  6. The disinfestation of smoked meat Cephalophus monticola (Antelope common) by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N'dendje, B.J.; Onyembe, P.M.L.

    2008-01-01

    The frequent changes of smoked meat Cephalophus monticola are usually due to the infestation of insect pests during storage or transport. In this work, we have highlighted the insect that affects the quality of this meat: Dermestes maculatus. The study of developmental stages of these insects and their behavior in response to gamma radiation after packaging in bags and mesh opens avenues for improved conservation of the meat. The results show that the reduction of the destructive activity of the insect, larva and imago, depends on the radiation dose received and the type of packaging.

  7. 78 FR 21545 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... environment. These rules were developed as part of the local agency's program to control these pollutants... rulebook. The definition of reactive organic compound was updated to include most of the exempt compounds...

  8. 77 FR 31379 - Hart Mountain National Antelope Refuge, Lake County, OR; Draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... that will ensure the best possible approach to wildlife, plant, and habitat conservation, while...; ``* * * for use as an inviolate sanctuary, or for any other management purpose, for migratory birds.'' 16 U.S...

  9. Living on the edge: physiological and behavioural plasticity of African antelopes along a climatic gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shrestha, A.K.

    2012-01-01

    Climate change, habitat loss and fragmentation individually or synergistically force species to
    live in a sub-optimal condition in terms of climate and resource posing threat to fitness and
    survival of the species. Hence, a very pressing issue for biodiversity conservation at present

  10. Physiological acclimation of a desert antelope, Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx), to long-term food and water restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Stéphane; Williams, Joseph B; Mésochina, Pascal; Sauerwein, Helga

    2006-03-01

    Desert mammals often experience scarcity of drinking water and food for prolonged periods. In this study, the first long-term acclimation experiment in a non-domesticated desert-adapted ungulate, we investigated the mechanisms used by the Arabian oryx Oryx leucoryx, to adjust its physiology to progressive food and water restriction over 5 months, an experimental regimen and time course chosen to mimic what it typically experiences between spring and late summer in the desert. At the end of the acclimation period, oryx consumed less than one and half of food and water of animals in the control group and lost 8.2+/-2.6% of their initial body mass. Experimental animals reduced their mass-specific resting metabolic rate (RMR) and total evaporative water loss (TEWL) by 16.2 and 25.7%, respectively, and maintained a digestive efficiency of about 70%. We found no support for the idea that reduced RMR in oryx correlated with a decreased thyroid hormone concentration in plasma. At the end of the 5 months acclimation, oryx continued to mobilize fatty acids to fuel metabolism, and did not use protein breakdown as a major source of gluconeogenesis. Oryx in the experimental group reduced their water intake by 70% and maintained constant plasma osmolality. They adjusted their water budget by reducing mass-specific TEWL, increasing urine osmolality and reducing urine volume by 40%, and excreting feces with <50% water content. Oryx have an unusually low TEWL compared with other arid-zone ungulates; both hydrated and water-deprived individuals have TEWL values, 51.7 and 39.3%, respectively, of allometric predictions for arid-zone ungulates.

  11. Knee-clicks and visual traits indicate fighting ability in eland antelopes: multiple messages and back-up signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro-Jørgensen, Jakob; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2008-01-01

    frequency of the knee-clicking sound honestly indicated body size, a main determinant of fighting ability. In contrast, the dewlap size increased with estimated age rather than body size, suggesting that, by magnifying the silhouette of older bulls disproportionately, the dewlap acts as an indicator of age......Background: Given the costs of signalling, why do males often advertise their fighting ability to rivals using several signals rather than just one? Multiple signalling theories have developed largely in studies of sexual signals, and less is known about their applicability to intra-sexual...... agonistic signals in eland reflect three separate components of fighting ability: (1) body size, (2) age and (3) presumably androgen-related aggression, which is reflected in three backup signals. The study highlights how complex agonistic signalling systems can evolve through the simultaneous action...

  12. Population Viability Analysis of the Endangered Roan Antelope in Ruma National Park, Kenya, and Implications for Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimanzi, Johnstone K

    2018-01-01

    Population viability analysis (PVA) was used to (1) establish causes of roan population decline for the past 30 years in Ruma National Park (RNP), the only park where wild roans remain in Kenya, and (2) predict the probability of roan persistence under existing and alternative management options. PVA was done using long-term data based on population dynamics, life history, climatic conditions, and expert knowledge. Poaching was identified as the main cause of roan decline in RNP. Several antipoaching and prioritized habitat management interventions to promote population recovery and sustainable conservation of roans are described. PVA predictions indicated that, without these interventions, the roan population cannot persist more than 3 decades. Furthermore, ensuring sustainable conservation of roans in RNP will boost tourism in Western Kenyan and thus alleviate poverty in this part of the country. Improved income from tourism will reduce the possible pressures from hunting and give greater incentives for local people to be actively engaged in roan conservation.

  13. Macroscopic digestive tract anatomy of two small antelopes, the blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra) and the Arabian sand gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa marica)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, Cathrine; Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Hammer, Sven

    2016-01-01

    The digestive tract anatomy of 14 blackbucks (Antilope cervicapra) and 7 Arabian sand gazelles (Gazella subgutturosa marica) was quantified by dimensions, area and weight. Data from the two small-sized antilopinae were evaluated against a larger comparative data set from other ruminants classified...... as having either a ‘cattle-type’ or ‘moose-type’ digestive system. The digestive anatomy of the blackbuck resembled that of 'cattle-type' ruminants, which corresponds to their feeding ecology and previous studies of solute and particle retention time; however, a surprising exception was the remarkably small...... time had led to the expectation of a more 'cattle-type' anatomy. The results show that outliers to general morphological trends exist, that findings on physiology and anatomy do not always match completely, and that differences in the digestive morphology among ruminant species are more difficult...

  14. Identification of pheromone-carrying protein in the preorbital gland post in the endangered Indian male Blackbuck Antelope cervicapra L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, T; Rajkumar, R; Ponmanickam, P; Achiraman, S; Padmanabhan, P; Archunan, G

    2015-12-01

    In mammals, a low molecular mass protein (17-20 KDa) reported from the pheromone sources such as urine, saliva, glandular secretion, etc., as ligand-carrier (pheromone carrier) has been associated with chemo-communication. Since the preorbital gland post is one of the major pheromone sources in Indian Blackbuck, an endangered species, we assumed that it possibly contains low molecular mass protein for chemical communication. Hence, we investigated the preorbital gland post in territorial and non-territorial male blackbucks for such low molecular mass proteins adopting SDS-PAGE and LC-MS/MS analysis. The total content of protein was higher in the post of territorial males than non-territorial males of adult and sub-adult. In fact, the protein profiles such as 17, 21, 25, 42 and 61 kDa were noted in the gland secretion of territorial and non-territorial males. The intensity of the 17 kDa protein band was higher in territorial males than non-territorial males. In-gel trypsin digestion of the 17 kDa band was processed and subjected to LC-MS/MS and SEQUEST analyses. The results of LC-MS/MS and SEQUEST search showed the presence of α(2u)-globulin in the 17 kDa band. In addition, the identified α(2u)-globulin sequence possessed GDW residues, which are the characteristic signature for lipocalin family. Since the α(2u)-globulin has been reported from the pheromone-carrying proteins in some mammals, this protein may carry the volatiles (pheromone compounds) in male Blackbucks preorbital gland to evoke the scent marking for maintaining territoriality (home range) and attraction towards female, through the secretion of glandular protein.

  15. Isolation, culture and characterisation of somatic cells derived from semen and milk of endangered sheep and eland antelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel-Themaat, L; Gómez, M C; Damiani, P; Wirtu, G; Dresser, B L; Bondioli, K R; Lyons, L A; Pope, C E; Godke, R A

    2007-01-01

    Semen and milk are potential sources of somatic cells for genome banks. In the present study, we cultured and characterised cells from: (1) cooled sheep milk; (2) fresh, cooled and frozen-thawed semen from Gulf Coast native (GCN) sheep (Ovis aries); and (3) fresh eland (Taurotragus oryx) semen. Cells attached to the culture surface from fresh (29%), cooled (43%) and slow-frozen (1 degrees C/min; 14%) ram semen, whereas no attachment occurred in the fast-frozen (10 degrees C/min) group. Proliferation occurred in fresh (50%) and cooled (100%) groups, but no cells proliferated after passage 1 (P1). Eland semen yielded cell lines (100%) that were cryopreserved at P1. In samples from GCN and cross-bred milk, cell attachment (83% and 95%, respectively) and proliferation (60% and 37%, respectively) were observed. Immunocytochemical detection of cytokeratin indicated an epithelial origin of semen-derived cells, whereas milk yielded either fibroblasts, epithelial or a mixture of cell types. Deoxyribonucleic acid microsatellite analysis using cattle-derived markers confirmed that eland cells were from the semen donor. Eland epithelial cells were transferred into eland oocytes and 12 (71%), six (35%) and two (12%) embryos cleaved and developed to morulae or blastocyst stages, respectively. In conclusion, we have developed a technique for obtaining somatic cells from semen. We have also demonstrated that semen-derived cells can serve as karyoplast donors for nuclear transfer.

  16. U.S. Geological Survey Subsidence Interest Group conference, Edwards Air Force Base, Antelope Valley, California, November 18-19, 1992; abstracts and summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Keith R.; Galloway, Devin L.; Leake, Stanley A.

    1995-01-01

    Land subsidence, the loss of surface elevation as a result of the removal of subsurface support, affects every state in the United States. More than 17,000 mi2 of land in the United States has been lowered by the various processes that produce land subsidence with annual costs from resulting flooding and structural damage that exceed $125 million. It is estimated that an additional $400 million is spent nationwide in attempts to control subsidence. Common causes of land subsidence include the removal of oil, gas, and water from underground reservoirs; dissolution of limestone aquifers (sinkholes); underground mining activities; drainage of organic soils; and hydrocompaction (the initial wetting of dry soils). Overdrafting of aquifers is the major cause of areally extensive land subsidence, and as ground-water pumping increases, land subsidence also will increase. Land subsidence and its effects on engineering structures have been recognized for centuries, but it was not until this century that the processes that produce land subsidence were identified and understood. In 1928, while working with field data from a test of the Dakota Sandstone aquifer, O.E. Meinzer of the U.S. Geological Survey recognized the compressibility of aquifers. Around the same time, Karl Terzaghi, a soil scientist working at Harvard University, developed the one-dimensional consolidation theory that provided a quantitative means of predicting soil compaction resulting from the drainage of compressible soils. Thus, with the recognition of the compressibility of aquifers (Meinzer), and the development of a quantitative means of predicting soil compaction as a consequence of the reduction of intergranular pore pressure (Terzaghi), the theory of aquifer-system compaction was formed. With the widespread availa- bility of electric power in rural areas, and the advent of the deep turbine pump, ground-water withdrawals increased dramatically throughout the country in the 1940's and 1950's. Along with this unprecedented increase in pumpage, substantial amounts of land subsidence were observed in several areas of the United States, most notably in Arizona, California, and Texas. Beginning in 1955, under the direction of Joseph Poland, the Geological Survey began the "Mechanics of Aquifers Project," which focused largely on the processes that resulted in land subsidence due to the withdrawal of ground water. This research team gained international renown as they advanced the scientific understanding of aquifer mechanics and land-subsidence theory. The results of field studies by members of this research group not only verified the validity of the application of Terzaghi's consolidation theory to compressible aquifers, but they also provided definitions, methods of quantification, and confirmation of the interrelation among hydraulic head declines, aquifer-system compaction, and land subsidence. In addition to conducting pioneering research, this group also formed a "center of expertise," providing a focal point within the Geological Survey for the dissemination of technology and scientific understanding in aquifer mechanics. However, when the "Mechanics of Aquifers Project" was phased out in 1984, the focal point for technology transfer no longer existed. Interest among various state and local agencies in land subsidence has persisted, and the Geological Survey has continued to participate in a broad spectrum of cooperative and Federally funded projects in aquifer mechanics and land subsidence. These projects are designed to identify and monitor areas with the potential for land subsidence, to conduct basic research in the processes that control land subsidence and the development of earth fissures, as well as to develop new quantitative tools to predict aquifer-system deformation. In 1989 an ad hoc "Aquifer Mechanics and Subsidence Interest Group" (referred to herein as the "Subsidence Interest Group") was formed

  17. Parasites of South African wildlife. XIX. The prevalence of helminths in some common antelopes, warthogs and a bushpig in the Limpopo province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wyk, Ilana C; Boomker, Joop

    2011-11-10

    Little work has been conducted on the helminth parasites of artiodactylids in the northern and western parts of the Limpopo province, which is considerably drier than the rest of the province. The aim of this study was to determine the kinds and numbers of helminth that occur in different wildlife hosts in the area as well as whether any zoonotic helminths were present. Ten impalas (Aepyceros melampus), eight kudus (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), four blue wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus), two black wildebeest (Connochaetes gnou), three gemsbok (Oryx gazella), one nyala (Tragelaphus angasii), one bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus), one waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus), six warthogs (Phacochoerus aethiopicus) and a single bushpig (Potamochoerus porcus) were sampled from various localities in the semi-arid northern and western areas of the Limpopo province. New host-parasite associations included Trichostrongylus deflexus from blue wildebeest, Agriostomum gorgonis from black wildebeest, Stilesia globipunctata from the waterbuck and Fasciola hepatica in a kudu. The mean helminth burden, including extra-gastrointestinal helminths, was 592 in impalas, 407 in kudus and blue wildebeest, 588 in black wildebeest, 184 in gemsbok, and 2150 in the waterbuck. Excluding Probstmayria vivipara, the mean helminth burden in warthogs was 2228 and the total nematode burden in the bushpig was 80. The total burdens and species richness of the helminths in this study were consistently low when compared with similar studies on the same species in areas with higher rainfall. This has practical implications when animals are translocated to areas with higher rainfall and higher prevalence of helminths.

  18. ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION IN THE ANTELOPE SHALE TO ESTABLISH THE VIABILITY OF CO2 ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY IN CALIFORNIA'S MONTEREY FORMATION SILICEOUS SHALES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasquale R. Perri

    2003-05-15

    This report describes the evaluation, design, and implementation of a DOE funded CO{sub 2} pilot project in the Lost Hills Field, Kern County, California. The pilot consists of four inverted (injector-centered) 5-spot patterns covering approximately 10 acres, and is located in a portion of the field, which has been under waterflood since early 1992. The target reservoir for the CO{sub 2} pilot is the Belridge Diatomite. The pilot location was selected based on geologic considerations, reservoir quality and reservoir performance during the waterflood. A CO{sub 2} pilot was chosen, rather than full-field implementation, to investigate uncertainties associated with CO{sub 2} utilization rate and premature CO{sub 2} breakthrough, and overall uncertainty in the unproven CO{sub 2} flood process in the San Joaquin Valley. A summary of the design and objectives of the CO{sub 2} pilot are included along with an overview of the Lost Hills geology, discussion of pilot injection and production facilities, and discussion of new wells drilled and remedial work completed prior to commencing injection. Actual CO{sub 2} injection began on August 31, 2000 and a comprehensive pilot monitoring and surveillance program has been implemented. Since the initiation of CO{sub 2} injection, the pilot has been hampered by excessive sand production in the pilot producers due to casing damage related to subsidence and exacerbated by the injected CO{sub 2}. Therefore CO{sub 2} injection was very sporadic in 2001 and 2002 and we experienced long periods of time with no CO{sub 2} injection. As a result of the continued mechanical problems, the pilot project was terminated on January 30, 2003. This report summarizes the injection and production performance and the monitoring results through December 31, 2002 including oil geochemistry, CO{sub 2} injection tracers, crosswell electromagnetic surveys, crosswell seismic, CO{sub 2} injection profiling, cased hole resistivity, tiltmetering results, and corrosion monitoring results. Although the Lost Hills CO{sub 2} pilot was not successful, the results and lessons learned presented in this report may be applicable to evaluate and design other potential San Joaquin Valley CO{sub 2} floods.

  19. Ancient DNA sequences point to a large loss of mitochondrial genetic diversity in the saiga antelope (Saiga tatarica) since the Pleistocene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campos, Paula; Kristensen, Tommy; Orlando, Ludovic Antoine Alexandre

    2010-01-01

    of the Soviet Union, after which its populations were reduced by over 95%. We have analysed the mitochondrial control region sequence variation of 27 ancient and 38 modern specimens, to assay how the species' genetic diversity has changed since the Pleistocene. Phylogenetic analyses reveal the existence of two...... well-supported, and clearly distinct, clades of saiga. The first, spanning a time range from >49,500 (14) C ybp to the present, comprises all the modern specimens and ancient samples from the Northern Urals, Middle Urals and Northeast Yakutia. The second clade is exclusive to the Northern Urals...... and includes samples dating from between 40,400 to 10,250 (14) C ybp. Current genetic diversity is much lower than that present during the Pleistocene, an observation that data modelling using serial coalescent indicates cannot be explained by genetic drift in a population of constant size. Approximate...

  20. 76 FR 53020 - Nebraska Disaster #NE-00041

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ...): Nebraska: Antelope, Cedar, Cuming, Dodge, Holt, Keya Paha, Lancaster, Otoe, Pierce, Rock, Saunders..., Charles Mix, Clay, Gregory, Union, Yankton. The Interest Rates are: Percent For Physical Damage...

  1. Water-Quality Monitoring and Studies of the Formation and Fate of Trihalomethanes During the Third Injection, Storage, and Recovery Test at Lancaster, Antelope Valley, California, March 1998 Through April 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    during preparation of this report, and reviews by Darnella Murphy, Greg Mendez , Rick Iwatsubo, and Peter Martin contributed immensely to this work...Mary Gibson and Carol Sanchez edited the report, and Cathy Munday constructed figure 1. WATER-QUALITY MONITORING AT WELLS Water samples were

  2. Plant Guide: Gooseberryleaf globemallow (Sphaeralcea grossulariifolia [Hook. and Arn.] Rydb.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derek Tilley; Loren St. John; Dan Ogle; Nancy Shaw

    2012-01-01

    Globemallow species are grazed opportunistically by pronghorn antelope, deer, elk, and bighorn sheep (Beale and Smith, 1970; Rumbaugh and others, 1993). The leaves, fruits and seeds are eaten by rodents, rabbits and birds (Pendery and Rumbaugh, 1986). Palatability of globemallow species has been rated desirable to preferred in spring and summer for sheep and antelope...

  3. 9. Fight Ebola virus disease in Africa, a question related to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Keywords: Environment; Ebola virus disease; West Africa ... (Spain, United States of America, Italy, Mali,. Nigeria, United ... particularly dry conditions at the end of a wet season: this can ... Hypsignathus and Epomops, forest antelopes and. 4.

  4. South African red data book - large mammals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Skinner, JD

    1977-11-01

    Full Text Available Data sheets are provided for 22 threatened South African large mammals, one exterminated (Liechtenstein1s hartebeest), eight endangered (cheetah, hunting dog, dugong, Cape mountain zebra, black rhinoceros, tsessebe, roan antelope, suni), one...

  5. BODY CONDITION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Andrew Taylor

    African antelope have both advantages and disadvantages in terms of meat production when compared with domestic .... Because juveniles can be differentiated from adults using BW, age differences in body ..... Meat and carcass by-products.

  6. An old reference to 'Hartebeest in the Transvaal Lowveld

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.L. Penzhorn

    1985-11-01

    Full Text Available Dr. Percy Rendall FZS, who visited the Transvaal Lowveld during 1893 and 1894, made the following statement in a field-note on the antelopes which he encountered in the region: THE HARTEBEESTE. Bubalis caama. Zulu: Indhluzela There are a few of these antelopes on the banks of the Krokodil River, opposite Hector's Spruit, and also in the East Lydenburg District of the Transvaal and in South Gazaland.' (Rendall 1895.

  7. Preliminary evaluation of selected minerals in liver samples from springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis from the National Zoological Gardens of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanyisile R. Mbatha

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Limited information is available on the mineral nutrition of captive antelope in South Africa. Zoo animals are usually offered a very limited array of feeds, which may result in nutritional imbalances. As a pilot study to investigate the presence of myopathy in antelope at the National Zoological Gardens of South Africa (NZG, stored liver samples from six springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis and seven other antelopes from the NZG, as well as selected food items, were submitted for analysis of selenium, copper, manganese and zinc content by spectrophotometry. Springbok liver levels of copper were 23.07 mg/kg ± 0.72 mg/kg, whilst manganese, selenium and zinc levels were 6.73 mg/kg ± 0.22 mg/kg, 0.14 mg/kg ± 0.05 mg/kg and 135.02 mg/kg ± 1.26 mg/kg, respectively. Liver mineral levels in the other species were very variable. Food item copper levels ranged from 4.00 mg/kg (Eragrostis tef to 17.38 mg/kg (antelope cubes, lucerne (Medicago sativa and E. tef contained no detectable selenium. The highest zinc levels were in antelope cubes (147.00 mg/kg and the lowest were in lucerne (20.80 mg/kg. Interpretation of these results was hampered by the small number of samples and a paucity of information on liver mineral levels in free-ranging and captive antelope; however, results suggested that, in the springbok, whilst copper and manganese intake are likely adequate, selenium nutrition is probably insufficient and may account for the myopathy diagnosed. Zinc liver levels are possibly within the toxic range, perhaps as a result of the high levels of zinc in the antelope cubes. This pilot study highlighted the need to establish baseline mineral nutrition data for captive and freeranging antelope under South African conditions.

  8. A High Explanatory Power Model of Foot and Mouth Disease Spread in Central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    millions of animals. Susceptible animals include cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats, pigs, antelope, deer, hedgehogs, elephants, llama, alpaca and...defines infectivity to be “a factor that determines the behavior of the disease, once individuals at a location become infected.” It includes the

  9. Defense Horizons. Number 78, March 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    and antelope Valley College (aVC) results in increases in number of scientists, engi- neers, and technicians from which to draw employees for the...should address best prac- tices for project valuation , what types of formalized arrangements are acceptable, and legal precedents that allow such

  10. Defense Partnerships: Documenting Trends and Emerging Topics for Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    between the air force research lab and antelope Valley College (aVC) results in increases in number of scientists, engi- neers, and technicians from...guiding document, tool, or resource should address best prac- tices for project valuation , what types of formalized arrangements are acceptable, and

  11. Average biomass of four Northwest shrubs by fuel size class and crown cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Martin; David W. Frewing; James L. McClanahan

    1981-01-01

    The average biomass of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.), antelope bitterbrush (Purshia tridentata (Pursh) DC.), snowbrush ceanothus (Ceanothus velutinus Dougl. ex Hook.), and greenleaf manzanita (Arctostaphylos patula Greene) was 6.1, 5.1, 10.7, and 16.2 tons per acre (13.9,...

  12. 9 CFR 93.303 - Ports designated for the importation of horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY... land border ports are designated for the entry of horses from Mexico: Brownsville, Hidalgo, Laredo...; Calexico and San Ysidro, California; and Antelope Wells, Columbus, and Santa Teresa, New Mexico. (d...

  13. Plant guide: Gray's biscuitroot (Lomatium grayi [J. M. Coult. & Rose.] J.M. Coult. & Rose)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derek Tilley; Loren St. John; Dan Ogle; Nancy Shaw

    2011-01-01

    Gray's biscuitroot is grazed by deer, sheep, mice, rats, and rabbits (COSEWIC, 2008). Ogle and Brazee (2009) rate it as desirable spring and summer forage for cattle, sheep, horses, elk, deer and antelope. Gray's biscuitroot is one of the first species to green up and flower after snowmelt. This characteristic makes this an important species for early spring...

  14. AWKA JOURNAL 2012 PRINT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IKENNA

    abomination (aru) in the community which may affect the harvest of the year. Ugwu (2000) asserts ... more sacred lands for some wild animals such as python, lion, and antelope to live therein for ... land preservation around the world are tabled for discussion in the international community the ..... Nsukka: Prize Publishers.

  15. 77 FR 15387 - Notice of Invitation To Participate; Coal Exploration License Application WYW180710, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... exploration plan are available for review during normal business hours in the following offices (case file... notice should be sent to the following addresses: Antelope Coal LLC, c/o Cloud Peak Energy, Attn: Mark... during normal business hours. The FIRS is available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, to leave a message or...

  16. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Okubanjo, AO. Vol 7, No 3 (2011) - Articles Carcass and primal cuts yield evaluation of African antelope (Antilope cervicapra) caught at Ago-Iwoye, Ogun state, Nigeria Abstract. ISSN: 0794-4721. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  17. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eniolorunda, OO. Vol 7, No 3 (2011) - Articles Carcass and primal cuts yield evaluation of African antelope (Antilope cervicapra) caught at Ago-Iwoye, Ogun state, Nigeria Abstract · Vol 7, No 3 (2011) - Articles Physical and organoleptic characteristics of chevon as influenced by pos-mortem processing methods. Abstract.

  18. Nyala and Bushbuck I: A Competing Species Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Temple H.; Greeff, Johanna C.

    1999-01-01

    Introduces a model of differential equations for students--a very real overpopulation problem is occurring in the Ndumu Game Reserve in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, where one species of antelope, the Nyala, is crowding out another species, the Bushbuck. Constructs a competing species model to mathematically describe what is occurring in Ndumu.…

  19. Co-existence and niche segregation of three small bovid species in southern Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, HHT; de Boer, WF; van Oeveren, H; Correia, A; Mafuca, J; Olff, H; Boer, Willem F. de

    Niche segregation among three small antelopes - red duiker, common duiker and suni - was investigated in a coastal savanna woodland/forest mosaic. It was expected that these similar-sized concentrate selectors would show differentiation in diet choice to decrease competition. Diet composition did

  20. Co-existence and niche segregation of three small bovid species in southern Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, H.H.T.; Boer, de W.F.; Oeveren, van H.; Correia, A.; Mafuca, J.; Olff, H.

    2006-01-01

    Niche segregation among three small antelopes ¿ red duiker, common duiker and suni ¿ was investigated in a coastal savanna woodland/forest mosaic. It was expected that these similar-sized concentrate selectors would show differentiation in diet choice to decrease competition. Diet composition did

  1. Final Environmental Assessment (EA), Long-Term Integrated Management of Mission-Generated Solid Waste, Edwards Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-28

    surrounding communities within the Antelope Valley. Major industries in the area include agriculture, mining, and tourism , in addition to aerospace...festivals, sports , and other leisure pursuits, plus the attractions of the nearby Los Angeles metropolitan area make Edwards AFB a great jumping-off

  2. Plant Guide: Hooker's balsamroot: Balsamorhiza hookeri (Hook.) Nutt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loren St. John; Derek Tilley

    2012-01-01

    Livestock and big game utilize Hooker's balsamroot. It is rated as desirable forage for cattle, sheep, horses and elk during the spring and for deer and antelope in both spring and summer (Ogle and Brazee, 2009). Leaves are grazed lightly and flowers are often eaten. The plant becomes dry and worthless as forage by midsummer (Forest Service, 1937; Herman, 1966)....

  3. Vertebrate behavior and ecology. Progress report, July 1, 1976--June 30, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tester, J.R.; Siniff, D.B.

    1977-07-01

    Progress is summarized under six subprojects; engineering design and development; statistical procedures and quantitative methods for analysis of ecological and behavioral data; coexistence and population dynamics of selected vertebrates; application of radiotelemetry to selected problems in vertebrate censusing and population study; fish response to alterations in water quality resulting from power production; and seasonal migrations and habitat selection of the pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana).

  4. Environmental Impact Statement for Proposed Closure of Los Angeles Air Force Base, California and Relocation of Space Systems Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    1. The slender- horned spine flower is a federally-listed endangered species. Because of the highly disturbed nature of the proposed sites, none of...deposit include deer, antelope, gazelle, horse, pig, camel, elephant, rhinoceros, hippopotamus, rabbit, beaver, mole, shrew, ground sloth, hedgehog

  5. Effects of rainfall, competition and grazing on flowering of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Birds, hares and small antelope consumed 10-50% of the flowers. Size-class distributions indicated that little recent recruitment had taken place on a ranch where palatable plants were scarce and where O. sinuatum flower production was severely depressed by grazing sheep.Language: English. Keywords: Asteraceae ...

  6. Dallas Zoo hunts for escaped vulture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    shows eating off the antelopes that lions kill and everything,” Mr Brown said. The African White-backed vultures have been at the zoo since August. They're expected to be part of an exhibit that is undergoing renovations. Mr Brown said vultures are hardy, resourceful animals. When the missing bird becomes hungry,.

  7. A critical assessment of adaptive ecosystem management in a large savanna protected area in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wilgen, BW

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses five inter-related topics (the management of rivers, fire regimes, invasive alien species, rare antelope and elephants) to assess 15 years of adaptive management in the Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa. The importance...

  8. ourebia ourebi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ) in each ... However, little is known about the effects of predators on oribi ..... livestock and also some bird species like francolins when ... food. In the dwarf antelopes, the length of time food stays in the rumen is so low that they have to choose ...

  9. "Mix-Ups, Messes, Confinements, and Double-Dealings:" Transgendered Performances in Three Novels by Louise Erdrich

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovannone, J. James

    2009-01-01

    Louise Erdrich's early poem "The Strange People" portrays a dynamic understanding of gender echoed in many of her later fictive works. Narrated by a speaker who is half antelope, half woman, the poem details the relationship between a masculine hunter and his feminine prey. The poem suggests that gender is experienced as a wound, a site of…

  10. 77 FR 20893 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; North Dakota; Regional Haze State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... initials AVS mean or refer to Antelope Valley Station. The initials BACT mean or refer to Best Available... (AVS) Units 1 and 2. c. North Dakota's reasonable progress goals (RPGs). d. Portions of North Dakota's... AVS Units 1 and 2. d. A five-year deadline to meet the emission limits and monitoring, recordkeeping...

  11. Diet composition of western Derby eland (Taurotragus derbianus derbianus) in the dry season in a natural and a managed habitat in Senegal using faecal analyses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hejcmanová, P.; Homolka, Miloslav; Antonínová, M.; Hejcman, M.; Podhájecká, V.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 1 (2010), s. 27-34 ISSN 0379-4369 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6093404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : antelope * browsing * captivity * foraging * ecology * natural habitat * West Africa Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.875, year: 2010

  12. Complete genome sequence of pronghorn virus, a pestivirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The complete genome sequence of Pronghorn virus, a member of the Pestivirus genus of the Flaviviridae, was determined. The virus, originally isolated from a pronghorn antelope, had a genome of 12,287 nucleotides with a single open reading frame of 11,694 bases encoding 3898 amino acids....

  13. Pronghorn virus, genomic and antigenic characterization and detection in free ranging ungulates in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: In addition to the recognized/classic species within the pestivirus genus there are putative species. One of these is pronghorn virus (PHV). PHV was first isolated from an immature, blind pronghorn antelope in the state of Wyoming. The objectives of these studies were to determine leve...

  14. The Newcastle geothermal system, Iron County, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackett, R.E.; Shubat, M.A.; Bishop, C.E. (Utah Geological and Mineral Survey, Salt Lake City, UT (USA)); Chapman, D.S.; Forster, C.B.; Schlinger, C.M. (Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (USA). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

    1990-03-01

    Geological, geophysical and geochemical studies contributed to conceptual hydrologic model of the blind'' (no surface expression), moderate-temperature (greater than 130{degree}C) Newcastle geothermal system, located in the Basin and Range-Colorado Plateau transition zone of southwestern Utah. Temperature gradient measurements define a thermal anomaly centered near the surface trace of the range-bounding Antelope Range fault with and elongate dissipative plume extending north into the adjacent Escalante Valley. Spontaneous potential and resistivity surveys sharply define the geometry of the dominant upflow zone (not yet explored), indicating that most of the thermal fluid issues form a short segment along the Antelope Range fault and discharges into a gently-dipping aquifer. Production wells show that this aquifer lies at a depth between 85 and 95 meter. Electrical surveys also show that some leakage of thermal fluid occurs over a 1.5 km (minimum) interval along the trace of the Antelope Range fault. Major element, oxygen and hydrogen isotopic analyses of water samples indicate that the thermal fluid is a mixture of meteoric water derived from recharge areas in the Pine Valley Mountains and cold, shallow groundwater. A northwest-southeast trending system of faults, encompassing a zone of increased fracture permeability, collects meteoric water from the recharge area, allows circulation to a depth of 3 to 5 kilometers, and intersects the northeast-striking Antelope Range fault. We postulate that mineral precipitates form a seal along the Antelope Range fault, preventing the discharge of thermal fluids into basin-fill sediments at depth, and allowing heated fluid to approach the surface. Eventually, continued mineral deposition could result in the development of hot springs at the ground surface.

  15. Preliminary Investigations of the Archaic in the Region of Las Cruces, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    sotol ( Dasylirion wheeleri ), saltbush, and grasses. The dominant animals in this zone are jackrabbit and pronghom antelope, with deer, birds, small...areas are grasses, whitethorn acacia, Agave spp., Mormon tea (Ephedra spp.), Yucca spp., sotol ( Dasylirion wheeleri ), Opuntia spp., and cacti. Table...X X X X Dasylirion wheeleri X X X X Acacia constricta X X X X X Amelancier utahensii (Utah serviceberry) X X X X X Agave spp. X X X Ribes mescalerium

  16. Le mini-élevage et la faune: 1983-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardouin, J.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Minilivestock and Fauna: 1983-2002. The author makes a synthesis on the trend observed through the first twenty volumes of Tropicultura regarding papers on minilivestock and wild fauna. Specialized journals produce indeed more articles on controlled breeding of rodents, guinea pigs for meat, reptiles, insects, manure worms, crocodiles, antelopes or other game species. Giant snails, cricetomas and frogs have been dealt with most often in this periodical. Minilivestock can play an important role for biodiversity preservation and against poaching.

  17. Testing and Evaluation of Archeological Sites 32ML404 and 32ML406 in McLean County, North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-09-01

    region include aggregating ( herd ) animals as well as those that are dispersed. The most important animal to prehistoric inhabitants of the area was the...bison which is a herd animal and served as a primary faunal resource. Important fauna that do not aggregate include deer, elk, antelope and dog. Other...fauna in the area include rabbit, squirrel, prairie dog, badger, beaver, bobcat, coyote, fox, porcupine , skunk, vole, and wolf (Zimmerman et al. 1977:4

  18. Final Environmental Assessment for Stormwater Drainage Project on F. E. Warren Air Force Base, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    Taxidea taxus), raccoon (Procyon lotor hirtus), porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum), red fox (Vulpes vulpes), coyote (Canus latrans), and Wyoming ground...squirrel (Spermophilus elegans). A relatively large herd of pronghorn antelope inhabits the base. Although the pronghorn on the installation are a...part of the larger Iron Mountain herd , most reside on the installation year-round. The Storm Water Drainage Project, Draft Environmental Assessment

  19. Parasites gastro-intestinaux d'antilopes et de buffles (Syncerus caffer brachyceros du ranch de gibier de Nazinga au Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belem AMG.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastro-intestinal parasites of antelopes and buffalos (Syncerus caffer brachyceros from the Nazinga game ranch in Burkina Faso. Parasitological survey done on the digestive tracts of antelopes [roans (Hippotragus equinus koba, hartebeests (Alcelaphus buselaphus major, defassa waterbucks (Kobus ellipsiprymnus defassa, oribis (Ourebia ourebi quadriscopa] and buffalos (Syncerus caffer brachyceros from the Nazinga game ranch in Burkina Faso allowed the identification of gastrointestinal parasites and the estimation of their prevalence and load. Nine different nematode species and three cestode species were found. Females and larvae of Cooperia were not identified up to the species level and were recognized as Cooperia spp. The nematode species found were: Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus axei, Cooperia curticei, Cooperia spatulata, Skrjabinema sp., Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Trichuris ovis, Bunostomum phlebotomum, and Oesophagostomum sp. Cestodes’ species were: Moniezia expansa, Avitellina centripunctata, and Stilesia globipunctata. It was also noted without a thorough investigation the presence of Setaria labiato-papillosa in the abdominal cavity and paramphistomes in the rumen. In spite of the presence of parasites on the antelopes and buffalos, their killing out percentages (47.5 to 54.7% indicated a good physical status.

  20. Wildlife mitigation and monitoring report Gunnison, Colorado, site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is administered by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE); its purpose is to cleanup uranium mill tailings and other contaminated material at 24 UMTRA Project sites in 10 states. This report summarizes the wildlife mitigation and monitoring program under way at the Gunnison UMTRA Project, Gunnison, Colorado. Remedial action at the Gunnison site was completed in December 1995 and is described in detail in the Gunnison completion report. The impacts of this activity were analyzed in the Gunnison environmental assessment (EA). These impacts included two important game species: the pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americans) and sage grouse (Wentrocerus urophasianus). Haul truck traffic was predicted to limit antelope access to water sources north of the Tenderfoot Mountain haul road and that truck traffic along this and other haul roads could result in antelope road kills. Clearing land at the disposal cell, haul road and borrow site activities, and the associated human activities also were predicted to negatively impact (directly and indirectly) sage grouse breeding, nesting, loafing, and wintering habitat. As a result, an extensive mitigation and monitoring plan began in 1992. Most of the monitoring studies are complete and the results of these studies, written by different authors, appear in numerous reports. This report will: (1) Analyze existing impacts and compare them to predicted impacts. (2) Summarize mitigation measures. (3) Summarize all existing monitoring data in one report. (4) Analyze the effectiveness of the mitigation measures

  1. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Gunnison Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Gunnison, Colorado. Final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    The presence of contaminated uranium mill tailings adjacent to the city of Gunnison has been a local concern for many years. The following issues were identified during public meetings that were held by the DOE prior to distribution of an earlier version of this EA. Many of these issues will require mitigation. Groundwater contamination; in December 1989, a herd of 105 antelope were introduced in an area that includes the Landfill disposal site. There is concern that remedial action-related traffic in the area would result in antelope mortality. The proposed Tenderfoot Mountain haul road may restrict antelope access to their water supply; a second wildlife issue concerns the potential reduction in sage grouse use of breeding grounds (leks) and nesting habitat; the proposed Tenderfoot Mountain haul road would cross areas designated as wetlands by US Army Corps of Engineers (COE); the proposed disposal site is currently used for grazing by cattle six weeks a year in the spring. Additional concerns were stated in comments on a previous version of this EA. The proposed action is to consolidate and remove all contaminated materials associated with the Gunnison processing site to the Landfill disposal site six air miles east of Gunnison. All structures on the site (e.g., water tower, office buildings) were demolished in 1991. The debris is being stored on the site until it can be incorporated into the disposal cell at the disposal site. All contaminated materials would be trucked to the Landfill disposal site on a to-be-constructed haul road that crosses BLM-administered land.

  2. Automatic pickers performances in the case of the Emilia sequence of May-June 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiberi, Lara; Spallarossa, Daniele; Costa, Giovanni

    2013-04-01

    The automatic processing of seismic data, whether for real-time seismic warning system or to reprocessing large amount of seismic recordings, is increasingly being demanded by seismologists especially in case of emergency as for the Emilia sequence in may-june 2012. In this study is presented a comparison between the AutoPicker (DipTeRiS, University of Genova) a new method used for automatic accurate onset phase picking for both P and S wave arrival based on the Akaike's information criterion (AIC), a solid and tested picker as the STA/LTA in Antelope software and the manual pickings. In order to construct the database used for the relocation of Emilia sequence, the RAN strong motion database has been merged with the available velocity and acceleration data extracted from the EIDA database (European Integrated Data Archive) and velocity data recorded by the Southeastern Alps Integrated Network (DMG, OGS, ARSO and ZAMG). The fault system of the Emilia earthquake area is complex and it is not easy to assess which fault has moved. A precise localization of the sequence is essential. The manual pickings, the equivalent locations and the choice of the most appropriate velocity model ("Iside") used in this study are the results of a work done in collaboration with Università di Chieti and DPC, not described here. The main problem of the AutoPicker and Antelope software is to discriminate events that occur very close to each other in time. The best way to solve that issue is choosing the best setup of both techniques to minimize the problem. Then we would like to implement the AutoPicker technique developed by Prof. Spallarossa on the Antelope system routinely used by UTS-DMG for the real-time data analysis.

  3. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Gunnison Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Gunnison, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    The presence of contaminated uranium mill tailings adjacent to the city of Gunnison has been a local concern for many years. The following issues were identified during public meetings that were held by the DOE prior to distribution of an earlier version of this EA. Many of these issues will require mitigation. Groundwater contamination; in December 1989, a herd of 105 antelope were introduced in an area that includes the Landfill disposal site. There is concern that remedial action-related traffic in the area would result in antelope mortality. The proposed Tenderfoot Mountain haul road may restrict antelope access to their water supply; a second wildlife issue concerns the potential reduction in sage grouse use of breeding grounds (leks) and nesting habitat; the proposed Tenderfoot Mountain haul road would cross areas designated as wetlands by US Army Corps of Engineers (COE); the proposed disposal site is currently used for grazing by cattle six weeks a year in the spring. Additional concerns were stated in comments on a previous version of this EA. The proposed action is to consolidate and remove all contaminated materials associated with the Gunnison processing site to the Landfill disposal site six air miles east of Gunnison. All structures on the site (e.g., water tower, office buildings) were demolished in 1991. The debris is being stored on the site until it can be incorporated into the disposal cell at the disposal site. All contaminated materials would be trucked to the Landfill disposal site on a to-be-constructed haul road that crosses BLM-administered land

  4. Oblique penetration modeling and correlation with field tests into a soil target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longcope, D.B. Jr. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Structural Dynamics Dept.

    1996-09-01

    An oblique penetration modeling procedure is evaluated by correlation with onboard acceleration data from a series of six penetration tests into Antelope Dry Lake soil at Tonopah Test Range, Nevada. The modeling represents both the loading which is coupled to the penetrator bending and the penetrator structure including connections between the major subsections. Model results show reasonable agreement with the data which validates the modeling procedure within a modest uncertainty related to accelerometer clipping and rattling of the telemetry package. The experimental and analytical results provide design guidance for the location and lateral restraint of components to reduce their shock environment.

  5. History of pronghorn population monitoring, research, and management in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Kim A.

    2002-01-01

    Pronghorn antelope in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) persist in a small population that historically has experienced recurrent, sometimes dramatic declines. They apparently are isolated from other pronghorns, depend partly on private lands for winter range, experience heavy predation of fawns, and concentrate during winter in a relatively small area, thereby increasing their vulnerability to factors like disease or locally extreme weather. Overall, the situation raises serious concerns about the long-term viability of this population. Although such concerns are not new, evidence of a dramatic population decline since 1991 and continued poor recruitment has created a renewed sense of urgency.

  6. Optimizing cast blasting efficiency using ANFO with liners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, A.

    2007-01-15

    As part of a five research project funded by the National Science Foundation, Peabody Energy studied three experimental cast blasts conducted at the North Antelope Rochelle mine site on July 24,28 and 31 2005. The initial purpose of this research project was to determine the influence that blast initiation sequence have on: NOx production; Face Displacement; Highwall damage; Explosive performance; Vibration emissions; Displacement; Surface swell; and Cast benefit. Two new discoveries on velocity of detonation (VoD) and pressure of detonation (PoD) were made as a result of this research project. Furthermore, a relationship between surface swell velocity and face velocity was also noted. 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. A Gravity data along LARSE (Los Angeles Regional Seismic Experiment) Line II, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooley, R.J.; Langenheim, V.E.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a detailed gravity study along part of the Los Angeles Regional Seismic Experiment (LARSE) transect across the San Fernando Basin and Transverse Ranges to help characterize the structure underlying this area. 249 gravity measurements were collected along the transect and to augment regional coverage near the profile. An isostatic gravity low of 50-60 mGal reflects the San Fernando-East Ventura basin. Another prominent isostatic gravity with an amplitude of 30 mGal marks the Antelope Valley basin. Gravity highs occur over the Santa Monica Mountains and the Transverse Ranges. The highest isostatic gravity values coincide with outcrops of Pelona schist.

  8. Whooping crane preyed upon by golden eagle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windingstad, Ronald M.; Stiles, Harry E.; Drewien, Roderick C.

    1981-01-01

    The Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) is the largest predatory bird in North America and is well known for its predatory abilities. Attacks have been reported on mammals such as whitetail jackrabbits (Lepus townsendi) (McGahan 1967, J. Wildl. Mgmt. 31: 496), pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana) (Bruhns 1970, Can. Field-Natur. 84: 301), Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) (Kelleher and O'Malia 1971, Auk 88: 186), and Great Blue Herons (Ardea herodias) (Carnie 1954, Condor 56: 3). This communication describes an attack on an immature Whooping Crane (Grus americana) by a Golden Eagle and the subsequent necropsy findings.

  9. Vanwaar die eenhoring in Bybelvertalings?

    OpenAIRE

    L. F. Schulze

    1992-01-01

    Luther’s translation of Psalm 22:22 reads: "Deliver me from the unicorns" (errette mich von den Einhömem). This translation arouses curiosity for it is common knowledge that the unicorn has never existed but yet figures as a prominent symbol of the New Age. Besides, the Hebrew word means antelope, buffalo, or wild bull. The question thus arises why the Hebrew re'em was translated by Luther with unicorn While the official Dutch translation of 1633 (Statenvertaling, translated according t...

  10. Moment Magnitude discussion in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weginger, Stefan; Jia, Yan; Hausmann, Helmut; Lenhardt, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    We implemented and tested the Moment Magnitude estimation „dbmw" from the University of Trieste in our Antelope near real-time System. It is used to get a fast Moment Magnitude solutions and Ground Motion Parameter (PGA, PGV, PSA 0.3, PSA 1.0 and PSA 3.0) to calculate Shake and Interactive maps. A Moment Magnitude Catalogue was generated and compared with the Austrian Earthquake Catalogue and all available Magnitude solution of the neighbouring agencies. Relations of Mw to Ml and Ground Motion to Intensity are presented.

  11. 76 FR 5277 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ...EPA is taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control District (SBAPCD), Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD), Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (VCAPCD) and Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from gasoline bulk plants, terminals and vehicle dispensing facilities. We are approving local rules that regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act).

  12. 76 FR 5319 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ...EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control District (SBAPCD), Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD), Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD), and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (VCAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from gasoline bulk plants, terminals and vehicle dispensing facilities. We are proposing to approve local rules to regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act).

  13. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Deployment Area Selection and Land Withdrawal/Acquisition DEIS. Chapter III. Part I. Affected Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    oodrat x Yeootos ;epxda K Porcupine £retizon dorsatux RABITS Black-tailed Jackrabbit x x Lepus californicu$ Desert Cottontail a x x Slv ilaqu...Neocoma sucropus X K White-throated Woodrat .V. uIb~qula K K X 1orway Bt RCtus no*#eqieoa K K 4UMOUS oiS -Nba ms~gc-1.8 x Porcupine tre Chison Soreatum K...and 200 in Potter counties (Travis, 1980). An annual aerial census of pronghorn shows that the bulk of the antelope herd is found in the northern

  14. Radioecological investigations of uranium mill tailings systems. Progress report, September 1, 1979-September 30, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whicker, F.W.

    1980-01-01

    The initial 13 months of this program have been devoted to staffing, development of a radiochemistry capability, development of a mill tailings reclamation study, studies on hydraulic properties of soils, initiation of plant uptake studies, preparation for metabolic studies with deer and antelope, and sample collections. Through the addition of new personnel and equipment, we are rapidly developing analytical capabilities for 238 U, 230 Th, 226 Ra, 210 Pb and 210 Po in matrices such as soil, water, plant material, and animal tissues. A 4 acre study site was developed in cooperation with the Pathfinder Mines Corp. at the Shirley Basin Uranium Mine in Wyoming. The study site is designed for investigations on the influence of various kinds and thicknesses of mill tailings soil covers on the integrity of reclaimed tailings and inherent radionuclides. Studies on the hydraulic properties of various soil materials were conducted and data analysis is in progress. Plots and procedures for conducting plant uptake studies on uranium and progeny were established and long-term investigations have been initiated. A colony of tame mule deer and pronghorn antelope has been developed for studies on the uptake and retention of 210 Pb and 210 Po. Numerous collections of soil, vegetation and water from the Shirley Basin Uranium Mine environs were conducted and radiochemical assay is in progress

  15. High-Quality Seismic Observations of Sonic Booms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurman, Gilead; Haering, Edward A., Jr.; Price, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The SonicBREWS project (Sonic Boom Resistant Earthquake Warning Systems) is a collaborative effort between Seismic Warning Systems, Inc. and NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. This project aims to evaluate the effects of sonic booms on Earthquake Warning Systems in order to prevent such systems from experiencing false alarms due to sonic booms. The airspace above the Antelope Valley, California includes the High Altitude Supersonic Corridor and the Black Mountain Supersonic Corridor. These corridors are among the few places in the US where supersonic flight is permitted, and sonic booms are commonplace in the Antelope Valley. One result of this project is a rich dataset of high-quality accelerometer records of sonic booms which can shed light on the interaction between these atmospheric phenomena and the solid earth. Nearly 100 sonic booms were recorded with low-noise triaxial MEMS accelerometers recording 1000 samples per second. The sonic booms had peak overpressures ranging up to approximately 10 psf and were recorded in three flight series in 2010 and 2011. Each boom was recorded with up to four accelerometers in various array configurations up to 100 meter baseline lengths, both in the built environment and the free field. All sonic booms were also recorded by nearby microphones. We present the results of the project in terms of the potential for sonic-boom-induced false alarms in Earthquake Warning Systems, and highlight some of the interesting features of the dataset.

  16. The use of population viability analysis to identify possible factors contributing to the decline of a rare ungulate population in south-eastern Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon D. Capon

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Populations that are vulnerable to decline are of particular concern to wildlife managers and uncovering the mechanisms responsible for downward trends is a crucial step towards developing future viable populations. The aims of this study were to better understand the mechanisms behind the historic decline of the sable antelope, Hippotragus niger, population at the Malilangwe Wildlife Reserve (MWR, to assess its future viability and to use this analysis to determine key areas of breakdown in population growth and link these to potential limiting factors. VORTEX, a population viability model was used to assess the future viability of the sable antelope population and a sensitivity analysis was applied to identify the key areas of breakdown in growth. The sable population is currently viable, but remains highly vulnerable to changes in adult female survival, a factor which had the greatest influence on overall population fitness. Lion predation, impacting on the adult segment of the population, appeared to be the main factor responsible for the historic decline at the MWR.Conservation implications: Sable generally occur at low densities in the lowveld region of Zimbabwe and, as such, populations are vulnerable to increases in mortality rates. The role of lions in driving the decline at the MWR suggests a need to control their numbers and develop prey refuges through improved management of artificial water.

  17. Climate and vegetation in a semi-arid savanna: Development of a climate–vegetation response model linking plant metabolic performance to climate and the effects on forage availability for large herbivores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin H. Seydack

    2012-02-01

    Developing the climate–vegetation response model involved three main components, namely (1 defining indicators of forage availability to herbivores (nitrogen productivity, nitrogen quality, carbon-nutrient quality, (2 identifying herbivore species guilds of similar nutritional requirements with respect to these indicators [bulk feeders with tolerance to fibrous herbage (buffalo, waterbuck, bulk feeders with preference for high nitrogen quality forage (short grass preference grazers: blue wildebeest and zebra and selective feeders where dietary items of relatively high carbon-nutrient quality represented key forage resources (selective grazers: sable antelope, roan antelope, tsessebe, eland] and (3 developing a process model where the expected effects of plant metabolic responses to climate on key forage resources were made explicit. According to the climate–vegetation response model both shorter-term transient temperature acclimation pulses and longer-term shifts in plant metabolic functionality settings were predicted to have occurred in response to temperature trends over the past century. These temperature acclimation responses were expected to have resulted in transient pulses of increased forage availability (increased nitrogen- and carbon-nutrient quality, as well as the progressive long-term decline of the carbon-nutrient quality of forage. Conservation implications: The climate–vegetation response model represents a research framework for further studies contributing towards the enhanced understanding of landscape-scale functioning of savanna systems with reference to the interplay between climate, vegetation and herbivore population dynamics. Gains in such understanding can support sound conservation management.

  18. Prevalence and renal pathology of pathogenic Leptospira spp. in wildlife in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusola L. Ajayi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available There is paucity of information on the prevalence of leptospirosis in wildlife in Nigeria. This study investigated the prevalence and renal pathology of leptospirosis in wild animals in Southwest Nigeria. One hundred and five kidney samples were examined from 10 different wildlife species (antelope greater cane rat (GCR, hare, African giant rat (AGR, tree hyrax, civet cat, monitor lizard, python, bushbuck and partridge using a combination of Ellinghausen McCullough Johnson Harris (EMJH medium, microscopic agglutination test (MAT, Warthin– Starry silver stain (WSss and immunohistochemistry. Chi-square test was used with confidence level set at 0.05 to ascertain associations between positive cases and sex and species. Eightytwo (78.1% samples were culturally positive, while 67.7% (63/93, 57.0% (16/28 and 66.7% (8/12 were WSss, MAT and immunohistochemically positive, respectively. Interstitial nephritis (41.0% and tubular nephrosis (81.0% were the most prominent histopathological changes. Pathogenic Leptospira organisms were highest in GCR (32.1% and antelope (14.3%. Serovars hardjo (11.54%, bratislava (3.9%, canicola (3.9%, icterohaemorrhagiae (15.4%, pomona (7.14% gripptotyphosa (19.2% and undetermined isolates were also detected in other animals. The result showed high prevalence of Leptospira infection in the wild and the possibility of domestic animals and humans contracting the disease. This study is the first documentation of evidence of pathogenic Leptospira species in wildlife in Nigeria.

  19. DNA sequence analyses reveal co-occurrence of novel haplotypes of Fasciola gigantica with F. hepatica in South Africa and Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucheka, Vimbai T; Lamb, Jennifer M; Pfukenyi, Davies M; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2015-11-30

    The aim of this study was to identify and determine the genetic diversity of Fasciola species in cattle from Zimbabwe, the KwaZulu-Natal and Mpumalanga provinces of South Africa and selected wildlife hosts from Zimbabwe. This was based on analysis of DNA sequences of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS1 and 2) and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 (CO1) regions. The sample of 120 flukes was collected from livers of 57 cattle at 4 abattoirs in Zimbabwe and 47 cattle at 6 abattoirs in South Africa; it also included three alcohol-preserved duiker, antelope and eland samples from Zimbabwe. Aligned sequences (ITS 506 base pairs and CO1 381 base pairs) were analyzed by neighbour-joining, maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference methods. Phylogenetic trees revealed the presence of Fasciola gigantica in cattle from Zimbabwe and F. gigantica and Fasciola hepatica in the samples from South Africa. F. hepatica was more prevalent (64%) in South Africa than F. gigantica. In Zimbabwe, F. gigantica was present in 99% of the samples; F. hepatica was found in only one cattle sample, an antelope (Hippotragus niger) and a duiker (Sylvicapra grimmia). This is the first molecular confirmation of the identity Fasciola species in Zimbabwe and South Africa. Knowledge on the identity and distribution of these liver flukes at molecular level will allow disease surveillance and control in the studied areas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of dispersion, attenuation, and anisotropy at the Buena Vista Hills field, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackert, C.L.; Parra, J.O.; Brown, R.L.; Collier, H.A.

    2001-01-01

    We create a log of intrinsic dispersion and attenuation for the Antelope Shale formation of the Buena Vista Hills field, San Joaquin Valley, California. High dispersion (or low Q) values correlate with thin sand and carbonate beds within the Antelope Shale. These beds are at least ten times as permeable as the host shale formation, so this effect provides a possible avenue for seismic prediction of permeability. The dispersion log is formed through comparison of crosswell seismic velocities (measured at approximately 1 kHz) and sonic log velocities (measured at approximately 10 kHz). In order to provide a proper basis for comparison, the sonic log must first be adjusted for field anisotropy, scaling effects, and resolution of measurement. We estimate a local shale anisotropy of about 20% based on correlations generated from published measurements of other shale fields. We apply resolution enhancement to capture the thin sand and carbonate beds, and windowed Backus averaging to match the measurement scales. A modeling study verifies the technique, and shows that beds of thickness greater than 30 cm have a measurement signature. The actual resolution is on the order of the crosswell Fresnel length, or about 7 m for the model study.

  1. SAIGA TATARICA L. RUSSIA’S ENDANGERED SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Minoranskii

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The saiga antelope (Saiga tatarica L. is the last hoofed mammal surviving in the Russian steppe which is on the verge of extinction today. The aim of this article is to assess the current state of the saiga in Russia, determine the causes of the reduction in its population and area and to develop recommendations for the conservation of this species.Methods. The material, presented in the paper, is the result of the analysis of the available literature sources on the Saiga, personal observations on the animals in the period of 1959-2015 in nature and various nurseries, including the Center for rare animals of European steppes founded in 2004.Results. The article highlights the issues of population dynamics in Saiga distributions in the last century, the reasons for the reduction in its amount, the measures taken for the protection of this species and its present condition. We consider specific measures for Saiga conservation in the modern world. We also take into account the experience of the Association "Wildlife of the Steppe", where they have developed the biotechnology of breeding Saiga in nurseries, zoos and farms. And for many years this association has been home for self-reproducing groupings of this animal.Main conclusions. Currently, Saiga antelope in Russia is an endangered species, and conservation requires the state and public to take serious urgent measures to protect and restore the population, including breeding in artificial conditions and release into the wild.

  2. Prevalence, serovars, phage types, and antibiotic susceptibilities of Salmonella strains isolated from animals in the United Arab Emirates from 1996 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münch, Sebastian; Braun, Peggy; Wernery, Ulrich; Kinne, Jörg; Pees, Michael; Flieger, Antje; Tietze, Erhard; Rabsch, Wolfgang

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to give some insights into the prevalence, serovars, phage types, and antibiotic resistances of Salmonella from animal origin in the United Arab Emirates. Data on diagnostic samples from animals (n = 20,871) examined for Salmonella between 1996 and 2009 were extracted from the databases of the Central Veterinary Research Laboratory in Dubai and from typed strains (n = 1052) from the Robert Koch Institute, Wernigerode Branch in Germany and analyzed for general and animal-specific trends. Salmonella was isolated from 1,928 (9 %) of the 20,871 samples examined. Among the 1,052 typed strains, most were from camels (n = 232), falcons (n = 166), bustards (n = 101), antelopes (n = 66), and horses (n = 63). The predominant serovars were Salmonella Typhimurium (25 %), Salmonella Kentucky (8 %), followed by Salmonella Frintrop (7 %), and Salmonella Hindmarsh (5 %). When analyzed by animal species, the most frequent serovars in camels were Salmonella Frintrop (28 %) and Salmonella Hindmarsh (21 %), in falcons Salmonella Typhimurium (32 %), in bustards Salmonella Kentucky (19 %), in antelopes Salmonella Typhimurium (9 %), and in horses Salmonella Typhimurium (17 %) and S. Kentucky (16 %). Resistance of all typed Salmonella strains (n = 1052) was most often seen to tetracycline (23 %), streptomycin (22 %), nalidixic acid (18 %), and ampicillin (15 %). These data show trends in the epidemiology of Salmonella in different animal species which can be used as a base for future prevention, control, and therapy strategies.

  3. Romanian Data Center: A modern way for seismic monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neagoe, Cristian; Marius Manea, Liviu; Ionescu, Constantin

    2014-05-01

    The main seismic survey of Romania is performed by the National Institute for Earth Physics (NIEP) which operates a real-time digital seismic network. The NIEP real-time network currently consists of 102 stations and two seismic arrays equipped with different high quality digitizers (Kinemetrics K2, Quanterra Q330, Quanterra Q330HR, PS6-26, Basalt), broadband and short period seismometers (CMG3ESP, CMG40T, KS2000, KS54000, KS2000, CMG3T,STS2, SH-1, S13, Mark l4c, Ranger, gs21, Mark l22) and acceleration sensors (Episensor Kinemetrics). The data are transmitted at the National Data Center (NDC) and Eforie Nord (EFOR) Seismic Observatory. EFOR is the back-up for the NDC and also a monitoring center for the Black Sea tsunami events. NIEP is a data acquisition node for the seismic network of Moldova (FDSN code MD) composed of five seismic stations. NIEP has installed in the northern part of Bulgaria eight seismic stations equipped with broadband sensors and Episensors and nine accelerometers (Episensors) installed in nine districts along the Danube River. All the data are acquired at NIEP for Early Warning System and for primary estimation of the earthquake parameters. The real-time acquisition (RT) and data exchange is done by Antelope software and Seedlink (from Seiscomp3). The real-time data communication is ensured by different types of transmission: GPRS, satellite, radio, Internet and a dedicated line provided by a governmental network. For data processing and analysis at the two data centers Antelope 5.2 TM is being used running on 3 workstations: one from a CentOS platform and two on MacOS. Also a Seiscomp3 server stands as back-up for Antelope 5.2 Both acquisition and analysis of seismic data systems produce information about local and global parameters of earthquakes. In addition, Antelope is used for manual processing (event association, calculation of magnitude, creating a database, sending seismic bulletins, calculation of PGA and PGV, etc.), generating

  4. Providing Web Interfaces to the NSF EarthScope USArray Transportable Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Frank; Newman, Robert; Lindquist, Kent

    2010-05-01

    Since April 2004 the EarthScope USArray seismic network has grown to over 850 broadband stations that stream multi-channel data in near real-time to the Array Network Facility in San Diego. Providing secure, yet open, access to real-time and archived data for a broad range of audiences is best served by a series of platform agnostic low-latency web-based applications. We present a framework of tools that mediate between the world wide web and Boulder Real Time Technologies Antelope Environmental Monitoring System data acquisition and archival software. These tools provide comprehensive information to audiences ranging from network operators and geoscience researchers, to funding agencies and the general public. This ranges from network-wide to station-specific metadata, state-of-health metrics, event detection rates, archival data and dynamic report generation over a station's two year life span. Leveraging open source web-site development frameworks for both the server side (Perl, Python and PHP) and client-side (Flickr, Google Maps/Earth and jQuery) facilitates the development of a robust extensible architecture that can be tailored on a per-user basis, with rapid prototyping and development that adheres to web-standards. Typical seismic data warehouses allow online users to query and download data collected from regional networks, without the scientist directly visually assessing data coverage and/or quality. Using a suite of web-based protocols, we have recently developed an online seismic waveform interface that directly queries and displays data from a relational database through a web-browser. Using the Python interface to Datascope and the Python-based Twisted network package on the server side, and the jQuery Javascript framework on the client side to send and receive asynchronous waveform queries, we display broadband seismic data using the HTML Canvas element that is globally accessible by anyone using a modern web-browser. We are currently creating

  5. Effects of copper oxide wire particle bolus therapy on trichostrongyle fecal egg counts in exotic artiodactylids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenot, Deidre K; Kinney-Moscona, Allyson; Kaplan, Ray M; Miller, James

    2008-12-01

    Four species of artiodactylids (scimitar-horned oryx [Oryx dama]), roan antelope [Hippotragus equinus], blackbuck [Antilope cervicapra]), and blesbok [Damaliscus pygargus phillipsi]) totaling 13 animals were treated with a one-time 12.5-g dose of copper oxide wire particles (COWPs) in a bolus form. Pretreatment, individual trichostrongyle fecal egg counts (FECs) were performed using the McMaster technique. Individual posttreatment FECs were performed every 7 days for 35 days beginning 7 days after bolus administration, and FEC reduction ratios (FECRRs) expressed as percentage reductions from pretreatment values were calculated every 7 days. Mean FECRRs for the 13 animals were 93% +/- 16%, 98% +/- 7%, 91% +/- 28%, 94% +/- 16%, and 90% +/- 13% at 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 days posttreatment, respectively. These data demonstrate that COWPs in a bolus form were an effective method for reducing FEC in exotic artiodactylids. Based on this limited data, COWPs show promise as an anthelmintic alternative for exotic artiodactylids in zoologic collections.

  6. A successful land rehabilitation programme in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardouin, J.

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Open strip mining for cement production, out of fossil coral limestone has left hectares of man-made quarry, a stone desert at Bamburi near Mombasa. A rehabilitation programme initiated in 1971, started with a Casuarina plantation and fish pond culture. Later on, the production of humus assisted by introducing millipedes created soils, which enabled the planting of other trees and the creation of a forest. Simultaneously, intensive Tilapia tank culture was developed to a pilot commercial scale. A small nature trail has also been set up with tortoises, hippopotamus, crocodiles, waterbucks, antelopes, and numerous other wild animals as well as plenty of birds. A small herd of oryx and elands is also successfully reared while snail, earthworm and wild fowl production experiments are under way. The principes adopted here constitute a very impressive example of how man can correct the environmental damage he is making, and that reafforestation and rehabilitation programmes can be effective under near desert like conditions.

  7. REVIEW: HOME AT THE SOURCE OF THREE RIVERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviewed by Nyangchakja (Snying lcags rgyal སྙིང་ལྕགས་རྒྱལ། Niang Jijia 娘吉加

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Established in 2000, The Three Rivers Source National Nature Reserve (hereafter TRSNNR comprises 152,300 square kilometers of the general region of Three Rivers' Source, which encompasses 363,000 square kilometers in the south of Qinghai Province (SNNR 2018. "The Three Rivers" refer to the Yangtze (Changjiang, Yellow, and Lancang (Mekong. The region of the Three Rivers' Source, which has an area greater than that of Germany, has the country's highest altitude wetlands and supports globally important biodiversity. Known as "China's Water Tower," the area has key ecological value for China and our world. Global warming and glacial melting have direct impact on the wetlands, lakes, wildlife, and the entire ecosystem in the TRSNNR, which is China's second largest nature reserve. Rare wildlife protected in the nature reserve include snow leopards, Tibetan antelopes, wild yaks, wild ass, and black-necked cranes. .........

  8. Feasibility and potential effects of the proposed Amargosa Creek Recharge Project, Palmdale, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Allen H.; Siade, Adam J.; Martin, Peter; Langenheim, V.E.; Catchings, Rufus D.; Burgess, Matthew K.

    2015-09-17

    Historically, the city of Palmdale and vicinity have relied on groundwater as the primary source of water, owing, in large part, to the scarcity of surface water in the region. Despite recent importing of surface water, groundwater withdrawal for municipal, industrial, and agricultural use has resulted in groundwater-level declines near the city of Palmdale in excess of 200 feet since the early 1900s. To meet the growing water demand in the area, the city of Palmdale has proposed the Amargosa Creek Recharge Project (ACRP), which has a footprint of about 150 acres along the Amargosa Creek 2 miles west of Palmdale, California. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term feasibility of recharging the Antelope Valley aquifer system by using infiltration of imported surface water from the California State Water Project in percolation basins at the ACRP.

  9. Phylogenetic comparative methods complement discriminant function analysis in ecomorphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, W Andrew; Scott, Robert S

    2014-04-01

    In ecomorphology, Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA) has been used as evidence for the presence of functional links between morphometric variables and ecological categories. Here we conduct simulations of characters containing phylogenetic signal to explore the performance of DFA under a variety of conditions. Characters were simulated using a phylogeny of extant antelope species from known habitats. Characters were modeled with no biomechanical relationship to the habitat category; the only sources of variation were body mass, phylogenetic signal, or random "noise." DFA on the discriminability of habitat categories was performed using subsets of the simulated characters, and Phylogenetic Generalized Least Squares (PGLS) was performed for each character. Analyses were repeated with randomized habitat assignments. When simulated characters lacked phylogenetic signal and/or habitat assignments were random, ecomorphology. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Diet and chronology of the neolithic cultures in the low povolzhye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vybornov, A. A.; Kulkova, Marianna A.; Kosintsev, Pavel

    . The identification of animal bones allowed the detailed reconstruction of the meat component of the diet. Fish bones indicate the consumption of freshwater. Onager, saiga antelope, red deer, aurochs, wild-boar, corsac fox, wolf, birds and fish were found in Kairshak type sites of the Seroglazovskaya culture (Baybek......-boar were identified. Sheep and goats were determined as domestic animals. This is the first evidence for producing economy in Povolzhye. There are ten radiocarbon dates for this cultural type from 5500 to 4800 calBC. The AMS dates on the bones and organics from pottery have a good correlation...... these context have older ages. The results of lipid analysis of charred food crusts on the pottery from several sites showed that the meat and plant food prevailed in the diet of people in this region. These results allow for the first palaeodietary reconstructions of people of different cultures in the Low...

  11. Ecological considerations for Project Wagon Wheel and hydraulic fracturing activities. Phase II(a). Annual summary report for 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whicker, F.W.; Alldredge, A.W.; Fisser, H.G.; Post, G.

    1975-08-01

    Vegetation studies were conducted to obtain data on production and biomass of shrubs and mat-forming woody plants. Tables are presented to show data for various species of plants. Aquatic studies were conducted to obtain data on benthic fauna and physical water conditions. Tables are presented to show classification of organisms per square foot of river bottom, ice thickness at water sampling locations, and stream velocities along the base of each study bluff. Mammalian studies were conducted to obtain population data on deer, mice, least chipmunk, northern grasshopper, mouse, ground squirrels, and prairie dogs. Observations were also made on antelope, moose, and mule deer. Hydraulic fracturing activities included studies on physical perturbations, vegetation documentation, and small mammal documentation

  12. A long-standing Pleistocene refugium in southern Africa and a mosaic of refugia in East Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Eline; Masembe, Charles; Arctander, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Aim Previous genetic studies of African savanna ungulates have indicated Pleistocene refugial areas in East and southern Africa, and recent palynological, palaeovegetation and fossil studies have suggested the presence of a long-standing refugium in the south and a mosaic of refugia in the east....... Phylogeographic analysis of the common eland antelope, Taurotragus oryx (Bovidae), was used to assess these hypotheses and the existence of genetic signatures of Pleistocene climate change. Location The sub-Saharan savanna biome of East and southern Africa. Methods Mitochondrial DNA control-region fragments (414...... bp) from 122 individuals of common eland were analysed to elucidate the phylogeography, genetic diversity, spatial population structuring, historical migration and demographic history of the species. The phylogeographic split among major genetic lineages was dated using Bayesian coalescent...

  13. Regional Genetic Structuring and Evolutionary History of the Impala Aepyceros melampus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Eline Deirdre; Arctander, Peter; Siegismund, Hans Redlef

    2006-01-01

    Samples of 162 impala antelope (Aepyceros melampus) from throughout its distribution range in sub-Saharan Africa were surveyed using eight polymorphic microsatellite loci. Furthermore, 155 previously published mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences from the same localities were reanalyzed. Two...... subspecies of impala are presently recognized-the isolated black-faced impala (Aepyceros melampus petersi) in southwest Africa and the common impala (Aepyceros melampus melampus) abundant in southern and east Africa. All tests performed indicated significant genetic differentiation at the subspecific level....... Furthermore, individual-based analyses split the common impala subspecies into two distinct genetic groups, conforming with regional geographic affiliation to southern or east Africa. This was supported by assignment tests, genetic distance measures, pairwise values, and analysis of molecular variance. We...

  14. Large belt conveyors: starting them and keeping them going

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-03-15

    Although heavy-duty conveyor drives are subjected to some of the most severe operating conditions, it is still possible to achieve reliability and low maintenance. Some areas where choices in design and construction can make a difference include thermal capacity, sealing, lubrication and strength. Dodge recently brought out its redesigned Global Series 750 CST - controlled start transmission - a multi-stage gear reducer with an internal clutch designed for smooth starting of high inertia loads on long-distance conveyors. The Antelope Mine in Wyoming's Powder River Basin first installed Dodge CST units in 1984 and has added more units over the years. CSTs have also been successfully employed in Australian coal mines. 1 fig., 1 photo.

  15. Illegal and Unsustainable Wildlife Hunting and Trade in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Zahler

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent reports and studies document dramatic declines in a wide variety of wildlife species in Mongolia. The prime driver in these declines appears to be illegal and unsustainable hunting, both for local trade and consumption and for the international market. While data on these declines are sparse, comparisons of survey reports since the 1980s present evidence that some species may have declined by up to 90% in recent years. We outline the situation for eight major species of wildlife in Mongolia (saiga antelope, Mongolian gazelle, red deer , musk deer , ar gali, brown bear , Siberian marmot, and saker falcon. We then review the existing legal conditions and government efforts to control this situation, and suggest specific changes and actions that Mongolia should take to halt these dramatic declines in wildlife populations and avoid what may soon become an extinction crisis.

  16. Integrated approaches to improve birth outcomes: perinatal periods of risk, infant mortality review, and the Los Angeles Mommy and Baby Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Shin Margaret; Donatoni, Giannina; Bemis, Cathleen; Donovan, Kevin; Harding, Cynthia; Davenport, Deborah; Gilbert, Carol; Kasehagen, Laurin; Peck, Magda G

    2010-11-01

    This article provides an example of how Perinatal Periods of Risk (PPOR) can provide a framework and offer analytic methods that move communities to productive action to address infant mortality. Between 1999 and 2002, the infant mortality rate in the Antelope Valley region of Los Angeles County increased from 5.0 to 10.6 per 1,000 live births. Of particular concern, infant mortality among African Americans in the Antelope Valley rose from 11.0 per 1,000 live births (7 cases) in 1999 to 32.7 per 1,000 live births (27 cases) in 2002. In response, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health, Maternal, Child, and Adolescent Health Programs partnered with a community task force to develop an action plan to address the issue. Three stages of the PPOR approach were used: (1) Assuring Readiness; (2) Data and Assessment, which included: (a) Using 2002 vital records to identify areas with the highest excess rates of feto-infant mortality (Phase 1 PPOR), and (b) Implementing Infant Mortality Review (IMR) and the Los Angeles Mommy and Baby (LAMB) Project, a population-based study to identify potential factors associated with adverse birth outcomes. (Phase 2 PPOR); and (3) Strategy and Planning, to develop strategic actions for targeted prevention. A description of stakeholders' commitments to improve birth outcomes and monitor infant mortality is also given. The Antelope Valley community was engaged and ready to investigate the local rise in infant mortality. Phase 1 PPOR analysis identified Maternal Health/Prematurity and Infant Health as the most important periods of risk for further investigation and potential intervention. During the Phase 2 PPOR analyses, IMR found a significant proportion of mothers with previous fetal loss (45%) or low birth weight/preterm (LBW/PT) birth, late prenatal care (39%), maternal infections (47%), and infant safety issues (21%). After adjusting for potential confounders (maternal age, race, education level, and marital status), the

  17. Crane Creek known geothermal resource area: an environmental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, S.G.; Russell, B.F. (eds.)

    1979-09-01

    The Crane Creek known geothermal resource area (KGRA) is located in Washington County, in southwestern Idaho. Estimated hydrothermal resource temperatures for the region are 166/sup 0/C (Na-K-Ca) and 176/sup 0/C (quartz). The KGRA is situated along the west side of the north-south trending western Idaho Fault Zone. Historic seismicity data for the region identify earthquake activity within 50 km. The hot springs surface along the margin of a siliceous sinter terrace or in adjacent sediments. Approximately 75% of the KGRA is underlain by shallow, stony soils on steep slopes indicating topographic and drainage limitations to geothermal development. Species of concern include sage grouse, antelope, and mule deer. There is a high probability of finding significant prehistoric cultural resources within the proposed area of development.

  18. Pre-feasibility analysis of powering a remote research facility under arid conditions in Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagimbayev Sagi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the feasibility of using photovoltaic solar cells and solar water heating in a remote off-grid research facility for scientists in the steppe of Kazakhstan. The objective of the facility is to observe wildlife in this region, especially saiga antelope, whose population has been drastically reduced in recent years. The analysis is conducted using RETScreen software and includes energy, cost, emissions, and financial assessment. The proposed energy model is compared with a traditional base case scenario (based on a diesel boiler and reciprocating engine. Despite the challenges and constraints, the project pays off within its lifespan. It eliminates greenhouse gas emissions and reduces human interference with local wildlife.

  19. Phylogenetic relationships of Malayan gaur with other species of the genus Bos based on cytochrome b gene DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosli, M K A; Zakaria, S S; Syed-Shabthar, S M F; Zainal, Z Z; Shukor, M N; Mahani, M C; Abas-Mazni, O; Md-Zain, B M

    2011-03-22

    The Malayan gaur (Bos gaurus hubbacki) is one of the three subspecies of gaurs that can be found in Malaysia. We examined the phylogenetic relationships of this subspecies with other species of the genus Bos (B. javanicus, B. indicus, B. taurus, and B. grunniens). The sequence of a key gene, cytochrome b, was compared among 20 Bos species and the bongo antelope, used as an outgroup. Phylogenetic reconstruction was employed using neighbor joining and maximum parsimony in PAUP and Bayesian inference in MrBayes 3.1. All tree topologies indicated that the Malayan gaur is in its own monophyletic clade, distinct from other species of the genus Bos. We also found significant branching differences in the tree topologies between wild and domestic cattle.

  20. 1975 progress report: Idaho National Engineering Laboratory site radioecology--ecology programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markham, O.D.

    1976-06-01

    Results are reported from measurements of the content of various radionuclides in the tissues of wild animals on or near the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory sampled during 1975. Tissue samples from antelope, waterfowl, rodents, rabbits, and doves were analyzed for 13 radionuclides, including 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 95 Zr, 95 Nb, 103 Ru, 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 90 Sr, 131 I, and 60 Co which were responsible for the largest amounts of radioactivity. Measurements were also made of the content of 238 Pu, 239 Pu, and 241 Am in soil samples and the radioactivity in tumbling weeds at the radioactive waste management site. Data are included from studies on the ecology of the pygmy rabbit, Salvilagus idahoensis, amphibians, reptiles, birds of prey, rodents, and coyotes, and vegetation in relation to land use at the site. Seasonal variations in the deposition and retention of 141 Ce and 134 Cs on sagebrush and bottlebrush grass were compared

  1. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 408: Bomblet Target Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2006-01-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan provides the details for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 408, Bomblet Target Area. CAU 408 is located at the Tonopah Test Range and is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996. One Corrective Action Site (CAS) is included in CAU 408: (lg b ullet) CAS TA-55-002-TAB2, Bomblet Target Areas Based on historical documentation, personnel interviews, process knowledge, site visits, aerial photography, multispectral data, preliminary geophysical surveys, and the results of data quality objectives process (Section 3.0), clean closure will be implemented for CAU 408. CAU 408 closure activities will consist of identification and clearance of bomblet target areas, identification and removal of depleted uranium (DU) fragments on South Antelope Lake, and collection of verification samples. Any soil containing contaminants at concentrations above the action levels will be excavated and transported to an appropriate disposal facility. Based on existing information, contaminants of potential concern at CAU 408 include explosives. In addition, at South Antelope Lake, bomblets containing DU were tested. None of these contaminants is expected to be present in the soil at concentrations above the action levels; however, this will be determined by radiological surveys and verification sample results. The corrective action investigation and closure activities have been planned to include data collection and hold points throughout the process. Hold points are designed to allow decision makers to review the existing data and decide which of the available options are most suitable. Hold points include the review of radiological, geophysical, and analytical data and field observations

  2. The Earthscope USArray Array Network Facility (ANF): Metadata, Network and Data Monitoring, Quality Assurance During the Second Year of Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakins, J. A.; Vernon, F. L.; Martynov, V.; Newman, R. L.; Cox, T. A.; Lindquist, K. L.; Hindley, A.; Foley, S.

    2005-12-01

    The Array Network Facility (ANF) for the Earthscope USArray Transportable Array seismic network is responsible for: the delivery of all Transportable Array stations (400 at full deployment) and telemetered Flexible Array stations (up to 200) to the IRIS Data Management Center; station command and control; verification and distribution of metadata; providing useful remotely accessible world wide web interfaces for personnel at the Array Operations Facility (AOF) to access state of health information; and quality control for all data. To meet these goals, we use the Antelope software package to facilitate data collection and transfer, generation and merging of the metadata, real-time monitoring of dataloggers, generation of station noise spectra, and analyst review of individual events. Recently, an Antelope extension to the PHP scripting language has been implemented which facilitates the dynamic presentation of the real-time data to local web pages. Metadata transfers have been simplified by the use of orb transfer technologies at the ANF and receiver end points. Web services are being investigated as a means to make a potentially complicated set of operations easy to follow and reproduce for each newly installed or decommissioned station. As part of the quality control process, daily analyst review has highlighted areas where neither the regional network bulletins nor the USGS global bulletin have published solutions. Currently four regional networks (Anza, BDSN, SCSN, and UNR) contribute data to the Transportable Array with additional contributors expected. The first 100 stations (42 new Earthscope stations) were operational by September 2005 with all but one of the California stations installed. By year's end, weather permitting, the total number of stations deployed is expected to be around 145. Visit http://anf.ucsd.edu for more information on the project and current status.

  3. Web-based Data Mining to Systematically Determine Data Quality From the EarthScope USArray Seismic Observatory Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, R. L.; Lindquist, K. G.; Hansen, T. S.; Vernon, F. L.; Eakins, J.; Foley, S.

    2004-12-01

    When fully operational, the Transportable Array (TA) and Flexible Array (FA) components of the continent-scale EarthScope USArray seismic observatory project will provide telemetered real-time data from up to 600 stations. By the fifth year of the deployment the predicted total amount of data production for the TA and FA will be approximately 1500 Gb/yr and approximately 1000 Gb/yr respectively. In addition to delivering the data to the IRIS Data Management Center (DMC) for permanent archiving, the Array Network Facility (ANF) is charged with real-time data quality control, calibration, metadata storage and retrieval, network monitoring and local archiving. The Antelope real-time processing software provides the back-bone to this effort, supported by the Storage Resource Broker data replication/archiving system and the Nagios network monitoring tool. Real-time, web-based data mining, with support for multiple database schemas, is provided by an Antelope interface to both Perl and PHP scripting languages. This allows embedding of database functions in HTML. A suite of online tools allows query and graphical display of dynamic real-time sensor network parameters such as data latency, network topologies, and data return rates. Data and metadata are also web-accessible, for example XML trees of seismic data and graphical display of instrument response functions. The purpose of these tools is to provide the ANF, IRIS and end-users of USArray data with a real-time systematic method of determining data quality for the spatio-temporal area of interest. The tools are accessible at http://anf.ucsd.edu

  4. Addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 484: Surface Debris, Waste Sites, and Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (Revision 0)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burmeister, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 484 Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) activities called for the identification and remediation of surface hot spot depleted uranium (DU) with some excavation to determine the vertical extent of contamination (NNSA/NSO, 2004). During the CAU 484 SAFER investigation (conducted November 2003 through August 2007), approximately 50 locations containing DU were identified on Antelope Lake. All but four locations (CA-1, SA-5-9, SA-12-15, and SA-4) were remediated. Figure 1-1 shows locations of the four use restriction (UR) sites. The four locations were determined to have failed the SAFER conceptual site model assumption of a small volume hot spot. Two of the locations (CA-1 and SA-5-9) were excavated to depths of 3.5 to 7 feet (ft) below ground surface (bgs), and a third location (SA-12-15) with a footprint of 30 by 60 ft was excavated to a depth of 0.5 ft. At the fourth site (SA-4), the discovery of unexploded ordnance (UXO) halted the excavation due to potential safety concerns. Remediation activities on Antelope Lake resulted in the removal of approximately 246 cubic yards (yd3) of DU-impacted soil from the four UR sites; however, Kiwi surveys confirmed that residual DU contamination remained at each of the four sites. (The Kiwi was a Remote Sensing Laboratory [RSL] vehicle equipped with a data-acquisition system and four sodium iodide gamma detectors. Surveys were conducted with the vehicle moving at a rate of approximately 10 miles per hour with the gamma detectors positioned 14 to 28 inches [in.] above the ground surface [NNSA/NSO, 2004]).

  5. Real-Time Data Processing Systems and Products at the Alaska Earthquake Information Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, N. A.; Hansen, R. A.

    2007-05-01

    The Alaska Earthquake Information Center (AEIC) receives data from over 400 seismic sites located within the state boundaries and the surrounding regions and serves as a regional data center. In 2007, the AEIC reported ~20,000 seismic events, with the largest event of M6.6 in Andreanof Islands. The real-time earthquake detection and data processing systems at AEIC are based on the Antelope system from BRTT, Inc. This modular and extensible processing platform allows an integrated system complete from data acquisition to catalog production. Multiple additional modules constructed with the Antelope toolbox have been developed to fit particular needs of the AEIC. The real-time earthquake locations and magnitudes are determined within 2-5 minutes of the event occurrence. AEIC maintains a 24/7 seismologist-on-duty schedule. Earthquake alarms are based on the real- time earthquake detections. Significant events are reviewed by the seismologist on duty within 30 minutes of the occurrence with information releases issued for significant events. This information is disseminated immediately via the AEIC website, ANSS website via QDDS submissions, through e-mail, cell phone and pager notifications, via fax broadcasts and recorded voice-mail messages. In addition, automatic regional moment tensors are determined for events with M>=4.0. This information is posted on the public website. ShakeMaps are being calculated in real-time with the information currently accessible via a password-protected website. AEIC is designing an alarm system targeted for the critical lifeline operations in Alaska. AEIC maintains an extensive computer network to provide adequate support for data processing and archival. For real-time processing, AEIC operates two identical, interoperable computer systems in parallel.

  6. Trace element analysis of wild rodent tissues using the PIXE method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.W.; Mangelson, N.F.; Ryder, J.F.; Atwood, N.D.; Wood, B.W.

    1980-01-01

    Five species of rodents have been collected in an area near Lake Powell Utah. Common names of the five species are: Long-tailed Mouse, Small Pocket Mouse, Deer Mouse, Antelope Ground Squirrel and Kangaroo Rat. Liver, lung, kidney and hair tissues from each animal were analyzed for trace element content by proton particle-induced x-ray emission (proton PIXE) analysis. Mean concentrations for the following elements were established for the tissues of each animal type: K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Rb and Pb. Analyses of variance were performed on the set of elements common to all tissues. Some significant differences in element concentrations were found between animal species and between tissue types. These differences lead to the following orders based on element concentration: Long-tailed Mouse greater than or equal to Antelope Ground Squirrel greater than or equal to Kangaroo Rat greater than or equal to Small Pocket Mouse and liver greater than or equal to kidney greater than or equal to lung greater than or equal to hair. Linear regression analyses were also performed on mean elemental concentrations in tissues. These analyses lead to several conclusions. First, the pattern of trace element concentrations in each of the four tissues is the same in all five species. Second, the pattern of trace element concentrations is the same in all four tissues of one species with the exception of Ti and Fe in hair. Third, the variation of an element in the hair cannot predict the variation of that same element in the other three tissues. Only K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn were included in the third study

  7. Hydrogeologic Framework and Ground Water in Basin-Fill Deposits of the Diamond Valley Flow System, Central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumbusch, Mary L.; Plume, Russell W.

    2006-01-01

    The Diamond Valley flow system, an area of about 3,120 square miles in central Nevada, consists of five hydrographic areas: Monitor, Antelope, Kobeh, and Diamond Valleys and Stevens Basin. Although these five areas are in a remote part of Nevada, local government officials and citizens are concerned that the water resources of the flow system eventually could be further developed for irrigation or mining purposes or potentially for municipal use outside the study area. In order to better understand the flow system, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with Eureka, Lander, and Nye Counties and the Nevada Division of Water Resources, is conducting a multi-phase study of the flow system. The principal aquifers of the Diamond Valley flow system are in basin-fill deposits that occupy structural basins comprised of carbonate rocks, siliciclastic sedimentary rocks, igneous intrusive rocks, and volcanic rocks. Carbonate rocks also function as aquifers, but their extent and interconnections with basin-fill aquifers are poorly understood. Ground-water flow in southern Monitor Valley is from the valley margins toward the valley axis and then northward to a large area of discharge by evapotranspiration (ET) that is formed south of a group of unnamed hills near the center of the valley. Ground-water flow from northern Monitor Valley, Antelope Valley, and northern and western parts of Kobeh Valley converges to an area of ground-water discharge by ET in central and eastern Kobeh Valley. Prior to irrigation development in the 1960s, ground-water flow in Diamond Valley was from valley margins toward the valley axis and then northward to a large discharge area at the north end of the valley. Stevens Basin is a small upland basin with internal drainage and is not connected with other parts of the flow system. After 40 years of irrigation pumping, a large area of ground-water decline has developed in southern Diamond Valley around the irrigated area. In this part of Diamond

  8. Five-year resurvey for endangered species on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, (Elk Hills), Kern County, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otten, M.R.M.; O'Farrell, T.P.; Briden, L.E.

    1992-06-01

    A transect survey of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1), Kern County, California, was conducted between July 3 and August 5, 1989 to determine the distribution and relative density of endangered species and other wildlife. Results were compared with other reported results, particularly the 1979 and 1984 surveys of NPR-1. A total of 589.8 miles of transects were walked through approximately 47,235 acres in all or parts of 81 sections. Of the 516 San Joaquin kit fox dens observed, 496 were typical subterranean dens and 20 were atypical dens in man-made structures. Estimated den density was 36.7 ± 4.1 per square mile; and relative den density was 10.5/1,000 acres for all of NPR-1. Characteristics of typical kit fox dens were comparable to characteristics reported for other studies, except mean number of entrances per den, which was lower. Observers counted a total of 300 dens previously marked with an identification sign, 191 of which contained at least one complete entrance and would have been observed without a sign. Relative densities of preferred kit fox prey, black-toiled jackrabbits (40.1/1,000 acres) and desert cottontails (14.1/1,000 acres), were lower than previously recorded. Five blunt-nosed leopard lizards were observed along the southwest and northeast perimeter of the Reserve. Most of the 59 giant kangaroo rat burrow systems were observed in the flat terrain along the northeast and south perimeters of the Reserve. San Joaquin antelope squirrels were observed in the central and western parts of NPR- 1. A total of 73 antelope squirrels were observed, and the relative density was 1.511,000 acres. A total.of 30 possible environmental hazards were observed during transect surveys. Most of these were oil and water leaks of small size and appeared to pose little risk to endangered species. Results of this survey indicate that NPR-1 is supporting less wildlife than it did during either the 1979 or 1984 surveys

  9. Real-Time Continuous Response Spectra Exceedance Calculation Displayed in a Web-Browser Enables Rapid and Robust Damage Evaluation by First Responders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, M.; Skolnik, D. A.; Harvey, D.; Lindquist, K.

    2014-12-01

    A novel and robust approach is presented that provides near real-time earthquake alarms for critical structures at distributed locations and large facilities using real-time estimation of response spectra obtained from near free-field motions. Influential studies dating back to the 1980s identified spectral response acceleration as a key ground motion characteristic that correlates well with observed damage in structures. Thus, monitoring and reporting on exceedance of spectra-based thresholds are useful tools for assessing the potential for damage to facilities or multi-structure campuses based on input ground motions only. With as little as one strong-motion station per site, this scalable approach can provide rapid alarms on the damage status of remote towns, critical infrastructure (e.g., hospitals, schools) and points of interests (e.g., bridges) for a very large number of locations enabling better rapid decision making during critical and difficult immediate post-earthquake response actions. Details on the novel approach are presented along with an example implementation for a large energy company. Real-time calculation of PSA exceedance and alarm dissemination are enabled with Bighorn, an extension module based on the Antelope software package that combines real-time spectral monitoring and alarm capabilities with a robust built-in web display server. Antelope is an environmental data collection software package from Boulder Real Time Technologies (BRTT) typically used for very large seismic networks and real-time seismic data analyses. The primary processing engine produces continuous time-dependent response spectra for incoming acceleration streams. It utilizes expanded floating-point data representations within object ring-buffer packets and waveform files in a relational database. This leads to a very fast method for computing response spectra for a large number of channels. A Python script evaluates these response spectra for exceedance of one or more

  10. Characterization of dissolved solids in water resources of agricultural lands near Manila, Utah, 2004-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerner, Steven J.; Spangler, L.E.; Kimball, B.A.; Naftz, D.L.

    2006-01-01

    Shale. The boron concentration and δ11B value for the water sample from Antelope Wash, being distinctly different from water samples from other sites, is evidence that water in Antelope Wash may contain a substantial component of regional ground-water flow.

  11. Large mammals from the Upper Neopleistocene reference sections in the Tunka rift valley, southwestern Baikal Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchetnikov, A. A.; Klementiev, A. M.; Filinov, I. A.; Semeney, E. Yu.

    2015-03-01

    This work presents the data on new finds of fossil macrotheriofauna in the reference sections of the Upper Neopleistocene sediments in the Tunka rift valley (southwestern Baikal Region). The osteological material of a number of Late Neopleistocene mammals including extinct species rare for the Baikal region such as Crocuta spelaea, Panthera spelaea, and Spirocerus kiakhtensis (?) was directly dated with a radiocarbon (AMS) method. The obtained 14C data (18000-35000 years) allow one to rejuvenate significantly the upper limit of the common age interval of habitat of these animals in southern part of Eastern Siberia. Cave hyena and spiral-horned antelope lived in the Tunka rift valley in the Baikal region in Late Kargino time (37-24 ka), and cave lion survived the maximum in the Sartan cryochron in the region (21-20 ka). The study of collected paleontological collections provides a basis for selection of independent Kargino (MIS 3) faunal assemblages to use them for regional biostratigraphic analysis of Pleistocene deposits. Radiocarbon age dating of samples allows one to attribute confidently all paleofaunal remains available to the second half of the Late Pleistocene.

  12. Développement rural et conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linet, C.

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Développement rural et conservation. Open strip mining for cement production, out of fossil coral limestone has left hectares of man-made quarry, a stone desert at Bamburi near Mombasa. A rehabilitation programme initiated in 1971, started with a Casuarina plantation and fish pond culture. Later on, the production of humus assisted by introducing millipedes created soils, which enabled the planting of other trees and the creation of a forest. Simultaneously, intensive Tilapia tank culture was developed to a pilot commercial scale. A small nature trail has also been set up with tortoises, hippopotamus, crocodiles, waterbucks, antelopes, and numerous other wild animals as well as plenty of birds. A small herd of oryx and elands is also successfully reared while snail, earthworm and wild fowl production experiments are under way. The principes adopted here constitute a very impressive example of how man can correct the environmental damage he is making, and that reafforestation and rehabilitation programmes can be effective under near desert like conditions.

  13. FY 1998 geothermal development promotion survey. Report on the environmental effect survey (animals/plants, No. B-7 Kuwanosawa area); 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Kankyo eikyo chosa hokokusho (doshokubutsu, No.B-7 Kuwanosawa chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This survey was conducted to estimate effects of drilling of geothermal exploration well on the environment, aiming at grasping the present state of environmental elements before the survey/development. As a result of the literature survey, the following distribution were confirmed in the fauna: 5 orders 10 families 19 species in the mammalia, 10 orders 25 families 73 species in the aves, 1 order 3 families 6 species in the reptilia, 2 orders 6 families 9 species in the amphibia, and 17 orders 179 families 719 species in the insecta. In the flora, a distribution of 132 families 670 species was confirmed. The results of studying the above indicated that in the fauna, there were 10 species such as antelope as valuable animal in the area surveyed and that it is necessary to pay much attention to the environmental preservation of the habitat for those animals in the well drilling associated with geothermal survey. In the flora, the 13 valuable animals selected as animal having a fear of extinction in the 'plant-version red list' were confirmed in the area surveyed and the periphery. Further, as to the plant colony, there are no important colonies in terms of preservation. In well drilling, important things are efforts exerted to restore to the original state of the area altered, prevention of the washed-away of mud water, etc., and efforts exerted to preserve the environment of vegetation. (NEDO)

  14. Open Source Seismic Software in NOAA's Next Generation Tsunami Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellman, S. B.; Baker, B. I.; Hagerty, M. T.; Leifer, J. M.; Lisowski, S.; Thies, D. A.; Donnelly, B. K.; Griffith, F. P.

    2014-12-01

    The Tsunami Information technology Modernization (TIM) is a project spearheaded by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration to update the United States' Tsunami Warning System software currently employed at the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (Eva Beach, Hawaii) and the National Tsunami Warning Center (Palmer, Alaska). This entirely open source software project will integrate various seismic processing utilities with the National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office's core software, AWIPS2. For the real-time and near real-time seismic processing aspect of this project, NOAA has elected to integrate the open source portions of GFZ's SeisComP 3 (SC3) processing system into AWIPS2. To provide for better tsunami threat assessments we are developing open source tools for magnitude estimations (e.g., moment magnitude, energy magnitude, surface wave magnitude), detection of slow earthquakes with the Theta discriminant, moment tensor inversions (e.g. W-phase and teleseismic body waves), finite fault inversions, and array processing. With our reliance on common data formats such as QuakeML and seismic community standard messaging systems, all new facilities introduced into AWIPS2 and SC3 will be available as stand-alone tools or could be easily integrated into other real time seismic monitoring systems such as Earthworm, Antelope, etc. Additionally, we have developed a template based design paradigm so that the developer or scientist can efficiently create upgrades, replacements, and/or new metrics to the seismic data processing with only a cursory knowledge of the underlying SC3.

  15. WLCI researchers employ new approaches to help managers conserve deer migrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Leslie A.; Kauffman, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    Elk, mule deer, pronghorn antelope, moose, and bighorn sheep are iconic animals of the American West. These hooved animals, known as ungulates, commonly travel 30–60 miles between seasonal ranges. These migrations between winter and summer ranges are vital for survival and reproduction. As habitat fragmentation continues, the conservation of ungulate migration routes has received considerable attention in the West and across the globe. For example, it is estimated that many ungulate migration routes in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem have already been lost. The traditional migration routes of Wyoming ungulates are threatened by unprecedented levels of energy development and by increasing levels of rural ranchette development (including fences, structures, and roads). In the past, migration corridors have been mapped based primarily on the expert opinions of state game managers, but long-term conservation of Wyoming's ungulate migration routes requires a better understanding of migration ecology and more sophisticated management tools. Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI) researchers investigated the migration of a large mule deer herd across the Dad and Wild Horse winter ranges in southwest Wyoming, where 2,000 gas wells and 1,609 kilometers of pipelines and roads have been proposed for development.

  16. Moving Targets and Biodiversity Offsets for Endangered Species Habitat: Is Lesser Prairie Chicken Habitat a Stock or Flow?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd K. BenDor

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The US Fish and Wildlife Service will make an Endangered Species Act listing decision for the lesser prairie chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus; “LPC” in March 2014. Based on the findings of a single, Uzbek antelope study, conservation plans put forth for the LPC propose to modify and re-position habitat in the landscape through a series of temporary preservation/restoration efforts. We argue that for certain species, including the LPC, dynamic habitat offsets represent a dangerous re-interpretation of habitat provision and recovery programs, which have nearly-universally viewed ecosystem offsets (habitat, wetlands, streams, etc. as “stocks” that accumulate characteristics over time. Any effort to create a program of temporary, moving habitat offsets must consider species’ (1 life history characteristics, (2 behavioral tendencies (e.g., avoidance of impacted areas, nesting/breeding site fidelity, and (3 habitat restoration characteristics, including long temporal lags in reoccupation. If misapplied, species recovery programs using temporary, moving habitat risk further population declines.

  17. AHP 35: Review: TIBET WILD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William V Bleisch

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Es sieht ein Mondenshcatten Als mein Gefrährte mit, Und aug den wei en Matten Such ich des Wildes Tritt….. Wilhelm Müller, Gute Nacht George Schaller's remarkable career spans nearly six decades of work resulting in field studies of wildlife in the most remote regions, including pioneering investigations on four continents. More than half of that time was spent involved with studies of the wildlife of the Tibetan Plateau and neighboring regions. Following each new phase of his career, from his work on mountain gorillas in Rwanda, tigers in India, lions on the Serengeti, wild sheep in the Himalayas, and Tibetan antelope and other wildlife on the Tibetan steppes, he has made the time to publish a book on each of his expeditions – or more exactly, two (see full list in Appendix. One is always a scholarly monograph full of data, tables, and maps, the other a popular account for the general public. These paired volumes are usually published within one year of each other, and there have been six such pairings so far. For example, Schaller's classic the Mountain Monarchs: Wild Sheep and Goats of the Himalaya was published in 1978; in 1980, he published Stones of Silence: Journeys in the Himalaya; in 1997 he published the popular Tibet's Hidden Wilderness: Wildlife and Nomads of the Chang Tang Reserve; and the next year, 1998, saw the appearance of his scholarly monograph Wildlife of the Tibetan Steppe. ...

  18. Demographic drivers of a refugee species: Large‐scale experiments guide strategies for reintroductions of hirola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Abdullahi H.; Kauffman, Matthew J.; Amin, Rajan; Kibara, Amos; King, Juliet; Mallon, David P.; Musyoki, Charles; Goheen, Jacob R.

    2018-01-01

    Effective reintroduction strategies require accurate estimates of vital rates and the factors that influence them. The hirola (Beatragus hunteri) is the rarest antelope on Earth, with a global population size of <500 individuals restricted to the Kenya–Somali border. We estimated vital rates of hirola populations exposed to varying levels of predation and rangeland quality from 2012 to 2015, and then built population matrices to estimate the finite rate of population change (λ) and demographic sensitivities. Mean survival for all age classes and population growth was highest in the low‐predation–high‐rangeland‐quality setting (λ = 1.08 ± 0.03 [mean ± SE]), and lowest in the high‐predation–low‐rangeland‐quality setting (λ = 0.70 ± 0.22). Retrospective demographic analyses revealed that increased fecundity (the number of female calves born to adult females annually) and female calf survival were responsible for higher population growth where large carnivores were absent. In contrast, variation in adult female survival was the primary contributor to differences in population growth attributable to rangeland quality. Our analyses suggest that hirola demography is driven by a combination of top‐down (predation) and bottom‐up (rangeland quality) forces, with populations in the contemporary geographic range impacted both by declining rangeland quality and predation. To enhance the chances of successful reintroductions, conservationists can consider rangeland restoration to boost both the survival and fecundity of adult females within the hirola's historical range.

  19. Turbid releases from Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona, following rainfall-runoff events of September 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildman, Richard A.; Vernieu, William

    2017-01-01

    Glen Canyon Dam is a large dam on the Colorado River in Arizona. In September 2013, it released turbid water following intense thunderstorms in the surrounding area. Turbidity was >15 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) for multiple days and >30 NTU at its peak. These unprecedented turbid releases impaired downstream fishing activity and motivated a rapid-response field excursion. At 5 locations upstream from the dam, temperature, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll a, and turbidity were measured in vertical profiles. Local streamflow and rainfall records were retrieved, and turbidity and specific conductance data in dam releases were evaluated. Profiling was conducted to determine possible sources of turbidity from 3 tributaries nearest the dam, Navajo, Antelope, and Wahweap creeks, which entered Lake Powell as interflows during this study. We discuss 4 key conditions that must have been met for tributaries to influence turbidity of dam releases: tributary flows must have reached the dam, tributary flows must have been laden with sediment, inflow currents must have been near the depth of dam withdrawals, and the settling velocity of particles must have been slow. We isolate 2 key uncertainties that reservoir managers should resolve in future similar studies: the reach of tributary water into the reservoir thalweg and the distribution of particle size of suspended sediment. These uncertainties leave the source of the turbidity ambiguous, although an important role for Wahweap Creek is possible. The unique combination of limnological factors we describe implies that turbid releases at Glen Canyon Dam will continue to be rare.

  20. Vanwaar die eenhoring in Bybelvertalings?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. F. Schulze

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Luther’s translation of Psalm 22:22 reads: "Deliver me from the unicorns" (errette mich von den Einhömem. This translation arouses curiosity for it is common knowledge that the unicorn has never existed but yet figures as a prominent symbol of the New Age. Besides, the Hebrew word means antelope, buffalo, or wild bull. The question thus arises why the Hebrew re'em was translated by Luther with unicorn While the official Dutch translation of 1633 (Statenvertaling, translated according to the title page from the original languages gives the same translation as Luther, the obvious deduction was that the unicorn was such a powerful symbol in 16th century Europe that it slipped into the Bible translations. However, Calvin, tending even less than Luther to allegory and non-literal interpretation, also mentions the unicorns in his commentary on Psalm 22:22. This renders Jerome’s Vulgate suspect and, indeed, the Vulgate translates the Hebrew word with unicorns. The next stop was the translation of the Septuagint, which reads monokeros. In this way the cultural background as a possible explanation of this translation shifted from the 16th century to the first centuries B.C.

  1. Challenges and economic implications in the control of foot and mouth disease in sub-saharan Africa: lessons from the zambian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkala, Y; Simuunza, M; Pfeiffer, D U; Munang'andu, H M; Mulumba, M; Kasanga, C J; Muma, J B; Mweene, A S

    2014-01-01

    Foot and mouth disease is one of the world's most important livestock diseases for trade. FMD infections are complex in nature and there are many epidemiological factors needing clarification. Key questions relate to the control challenges and economic impact of the disease for resource-poor FMD endemic countries like Zambia. A review of the control challenges and economic impact of FMD outbreaks in Zambia was made. Information was collected from peer-reviewed journals articles, conference proceedings, unpublished scientific reports, and personal communication with scientists and personal field experiences. The challenges of controlling FMD using mainly vaccination and movement control are discussed. Impacts include losses in income of over US$ 1.6 billion from exports of beef and sable antelopes and an annual cost of over US$ 2.7 million on preventive measures. Further impacts included unquantified losses in production and low investment in agriculture resulting in slow economic growth. FMD persistence may be a result of inadequate epidemiological understanding of the disease and ineffectiveness of the control measures that are being applied. The identified gaps may be considered in the annual appraisal of the FMD national control strategy in order to advance on the progressive control pathway.

  2. Dynamic Web Expression for Near-real-time Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, K. G.; Newman, R. L.; Nayak, A.; Vernon, F. L.; Nelson, C.; Hansen, T. S.; Yuen-Wong, R.

    2003-12-01

    As near-real-time sensor grids become more widespread, and processing systems based on them become more powerful, summarizing the raw and derived information products and delivering them to the end user become increasingly important both for ongoing monitoring and as a platform for cross-disciplinary research. We have re-engineered the dbrecenteqs program, which was designed to express real-time earthquake databases into dynamic web pages, with several powerful new technologies. While the application is still most fully developed for seismic data, the infrastructure is extensible (and being extended) to create a real-time information architecture for numerous signal domains. This work provides a practical, lightweight approach suitable for individual seismic and sensor networks, which does not require a full 'web-services' implementation. Nevertheless, the technologies here are extensible to larger applications such as the Storage-Resource-Broker based VORB project. The technologies included in the new system blend real-time relational databases as a focus for processing and data handling; an XML->XSLT architecture as the core of the web mirroring; PHP extensions to Antelope (the environmental monitoring-system context adopted for RoadNET) in order to support complex, user-driven interactivity; and VRML output for expression of information as web-browsable three-dimensional worlds.

  3. The EarthScope Array Network Facility: application-driven low-latency web-based tools for accessing high-resolution multi-channel waveform data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, R. L.; Lindquist, K. G.; Clemesha, A.; Vernon, F. L.

    2008-12-01

    Since April 2004 the EarthScope USArray seismic network has grown to over 400 broadband stations that stream multi-channel data in near real-time to the Array Network Facility in San Diego. Providing secure, yet open, access to real-time and archived data for a broad range of audiences is best served by a series of platform agnostic low-latency web-based applications. We present a framework of tools that interface between the world wide web and Boulder Real Time Technologies Antelope Environmental Monitoring System data acquisition and archival software. These tools provide audiences ranging from network operators and geoscience researchers, to funding agencies and the general public, with comprehensive information about the experiment. This ranges from network-wide to station-specific metadata, state-of-health metrics, event detection rates, archival data and dynamic report generation over a stations two year life span. Leveraging open source web-site development frameworks for both the server side (Perl, Python and PHP) and client-side (Flickr, Google Maps/Earth and jQuery) facilitates the development of a robust extensible architecture that can be tailored on a per-user basis, with rapid prototyping and development that adheres to web-standards.

  4. Ecomorphological analysis of bovid mandibles from Laetoli Tanzania using 3D geometric morphometrics: Implications for hominin paleoenvironmental reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Frances L; Plummer, Thomas W; Raaum, Ryan L

    2018-01-01

    The current study describes a new method of mandibular ecological morphology (ecomorphology). Three-dimensional geometric morphometrics (3D GM) was used to quantify mandibular shape variation between extant bovids with different feeding preferences. Landmark data were subjected to generalized Procrustes analysis (GPA), principal components analysis (PCA), and discriminant function analysis (DFA). The PCA resulted in a continuum from grazers to browsers along PC1 and DFA classified 88% or more of the modern specimens to the correct feeding category. The protocol was reduced to a subset of landmarks on the mandibular corpus in order to make it applicable to incomplete fossils. The reduced landmark set resulted in greater overlap between feeding categories but maintained the same continuum as the complete landmark model. The DFA resubstitution and jackknife analyses resulted in classification success rates of 85% and 80%, respectively. The reduced landmark model was applied to fossil mandibles from the Upper Laetolil Beds (∼4.3-3.5 Ma) and Upper Ndolanya Beds (∼2.7-2.6 Ma) at Laetoli, Tanzania in order to assess antelope diet, and indirectly evaluate paleo-vegetation structure. The majority of the fossils were classified by the DFA as browsers or mixed feeders preferring browse. Our results indicate a continuous presence of wooded habitats and are congruent with recent environmental studies at Laetoli indicating a mosaic woodland-bushland-grassland savanna ecosystem. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Suspected lead poisoning in two captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus jubatus in South Africa, in 2008 and 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle A. North

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Whilst lead poisoning in raptors, scavenging birds and waterfowl is well studied and common knowledge, there is surprisingly little literature detailing the risk to mammalian scavengers and captive carnivores fed hunted meat. This case report describes the death of two captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus jubatus following acute onset of nervous symptoms. Clinical signs included hyper-excitability, seizures, arched back, tail held abnormally high and hyper-salivation. Necropsy findings included bullets or a bullet in their stomachs. Kidney and liver lead levels from one cheetah (15.6 ppm and 17 ppm respectively were consistent with a diagnosis of lead poisoning; liver from the second cheetah was not available for testing. Both animals were routinely fed hunted antelope or game birds. This is the first report of oral lead poisoning in captive large carnivores, although these are unlikely to be the first cases. Without awareness of the risks of feeding hunted game, lead exposure will continue to be an underdiagnosed reality in the rehabilitation of endangered carnivores.

  6. Comportement alimentaire de la gazelle dama mhorr (Nanger dama mhorr, Pallas, 1766 en semi-liberté dans la Réserve de Faune du Ferlo Nord de Ranérou, Sénégal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarr, SM.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Feeding Behavior of the Dama Mhorr Gazelle (Nanger dama mhorr, Pallas, 1766 in Semi-free Range in the North Ferlo of Ranerou Wildlife Reserve, Senegal. Gazelle dama mhorr (Nanger dama mhorr, Pallas, 1766 is a Sahelo-Saharan antelope that once inhabited northern Senegal. The combination of several natural and anthropogenic factors contributed to its extinction by the 1970s. Today, it lives in semi-free range in a 1200 ha enclosure in the North Ferlo Wildlife Reserve (NFWR. This study aims at a better understanding of its feeding behavior in order to improve its management. To achieve this objective, an ecological monitoring was carried out between February and May 2016, for one week per month, giving a total of four weeks of monitoring. The results of this monitoring showed that the gazelle dama mhorr consumes tree species, mainly Leptadenia hastata, Boscia senegalensis, Guiera senegalensis for their leaves, and Acacia seyal for its flowers. It also consumes dry grass. No results were noted regarding drinking frequency. The obtained results can be used to monitor the dynamics of the populations of Nanger dama mhorr.

  7. Influence of social upbringing on the activity pattern of captive lion Panthera leo cubs: Benefits of behavior enrichment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibonokuhle NCUBE, Hilton Garikai Taambuka NDAGURWA

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of social upbringing on the activity pattern of lion Panthera leo cubs was investigated at three sites. In this study, stimulus objects such as sticks, grass, fresh dung (elephant Loxondota africana, zebra Equus quagga, impala Aepyceros melampus, duiker Sylvicapra grimmia, kudu Tragelaphus strepsiceros, giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis and wildebeest Connochaetes taurinus and cardboard boxes, were utilized in an enrichment program aimed at encouraging active behaviors of captive lion cubs at Antelope Park and Masuwe. Lion cubs at Chipangali were not behaviorally enriched. Activity patterns were recorded for 10 days at each site. We recorded moving, resting, playing, grooming, visual exploration and display of hunting instincts. We found that behavioral enrichment enhanced the active behaviors of captive lion cubs. Orphan-raised cubs spent more time moving, playing and displaying hunting instincts than mother-raised cubs, but the time spent grooming was similar across areas and suggests that grooming is not influenced by enrichment. Mother-raised cubs spent more time engaged in visual exploration than orphan-raised cubs and this could be a behavior acquired from mothers or a result of confidence to explore because of their presence. Activity patterns were different among time treatments across our three study sites. Based on these findings, we suggest that lion cubs raised in captivity could benefit from behavioral enrichment to encourage active behaviors essential for eventual reintroduction into the wild [Current Zoology 56 (4: 389–394, 2010].

  8. Everybody needs good neighbours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, G. [Peabody Energy (United States)

    2006-05-15

    The paper outlines the possibilities for mines to work with surrounding communities to bring about effective land reclamation. Last year Peabody Energy teams reclaimed more than 5000 acres of land and planted nearly 750,000 trees, demonstrating that sustainable development is possible in a way that is compatible with environmental improvement in coal mining. The company has won over 20 awards over the last two years. The North Antelope Rochelle Mine in Wyoming earned a Gold Good Neighbour Award for promoting best practices in environmental conservation and mining education. The Black Mesa and Kayenta mines, which operate on Navajo and Hopi lands in Arizona, were honoured with a Silver Good Neighbour Award and a National Excellence in Mining and Reclamation Award. These mines partnered with the tribes, the Bureau of Indian Affairs and local residents to give residents access to grazing land still under Peabody's control. The Farmersburg Mine in Indiana received the Bronze Good Neighbour Award for commitment to industry education and outreach activities. 5 photos.

  9. Re-introduction of globally threatened Arabian Gazelles Gazella Arabica (Pallas, 1766 (Mammalia: Bovidae in fenced protected area in central Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Z. Islam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Arabian Gazelle is a globally threatened antelope (Vulnerable in Saudi Arabia. Small relict populations remain in limited areas, while historically Arabian Gazelles occurred in Mahazat as-Sayd protected area in central Saudi Arabia but were exterminated by anthropogenic and other pressures, including habitat loss and hunting. Important habitat has been lost to agricultural developments, fencing of pasture for livestock and the construction of human settlements and roads. The reintroduction of Arabian Gazelles was undertaken in Mahazat during 2011-2014 to bring back this locally extinct species study its ecology and biology in a fenced protected area. We released a total of 49 (12 males, 37 females animals. A year after release animals started breeding and six calves have been recorded so far with more to come. The gazelles prefer to use more rocky areas where shrubs and acacia trees occur in the reserve, and do not move long distances except for one individual that moved more than 50km. Mahazat is fenced, which prevents local people from entering the reserve to poach or otherwise disturb animals. Management lessons include the need for continued monitor-ing of reintroduced populations. Interactions between Arabian and Sand Gazelles (Gazella subgutturosa marica and Arabian Oryx (Oryx leucoryx were also studied.

  10. ObsPy – What can it do for data centers and observatories?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Wassermann

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Data acquisition by seismic centers relies on real-time systems, like SeisComP3, Antelope and Earthworm. However, these are complex systems that are designed for fast and precisely defined standard real-time analyses. Therefore, it is not a simple task to access or modify internal routines, and to integrate them into custom-processing workflows or to perform in-depth data analyses. Often a library is necessary that provides convenient access to data and allows easy control over all of the operations that are to be performed on the data. ObsPy is such a library, which is designed to access and process seismological waveform data and metadata. We use short and simple examples here to demonstrate how effective it is to use Python for seismological data analysis. Then, we illustrate the general capabilities of ObsPy, and highlight some of its specific aspects that are relevant for seismological data centers and observatories, through presentation of real-world examples. Finally, we demonstrate how the ObsPy library can be used to develop custom graphical user interface applications.

  11. Budgets and chemical characterization of groundwater for the Diamond Valley flow system, central Nevada, 2011–12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, David L.; Mayers, C. Justin; Garcia, C. Amanda; Buto, Susan G.; Huntington, Jena M.

    2016-07-29

    The Diamond Valley flow system consists of six hydraulically connected hydrographic areas in central Nevada. The general down-gradient order of the areas are southern and northern Monitor Valleys, Antelope Valley, Kobeh Valley, Stevens Basin, and Diamond Valley. Groundwater flow in the Diamond Valley flow system terminates at a large playa in the northern part of Diamond Valley. Concerns relating to continued water-resources development of the flow system resulted in a phased hydrologic investigation that began in 2005 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with Eureka County. This report presents the culmination of the phased investigation to increase understanding of the groundwater resources of the basin-fill aquifers in the Diamond Valley flow system through evaluations of groundwater chemistry and budgets. Groundwater chemistry was characterized using major ions and stable isotopes from groundwater and precipitation samples. Groundwater budgets accounted for all inflows, outflows, and changes in storage, and were developed for pre-development (pre-1950) and recent (average annual 2011–12) conditions. Major budget components include groundwater discharge by evapotranspiration and groundwater withdrawals; groundwater recharge by precipitation, and interbasin flow; and storage change.

  12. A Database of Tornado Events as Perceived by the USArray Transportable Array Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tytell, J. E.; Vernon, F.; Reyes, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Over the course of the deployment of Earthscope's USArray Transportable Array (TA) network there have numerous tornado events that have occurred within the changing footprint of its network. The Array Network Facility based in San Diego, California, has compiled a database of these tornado events based on data provided by the NOAA Storm Prediction Center (SPC). The SPC data itself consists of parameters such as start-end point track data for each event, maximum EF intensities, and maximum track widths. Our database is Antelope driven and combines these data from the SPC with detailed station information from the TA network. We are now able to list all available TA stations during any specific tornado event date and also provide a single calculated "nearest" TA station per individual tornado event. We aim to provide this database as a starting resource for those with an interest in investigating tornado signatures within surface pressure and seismic response data. On a larger scale, the database may be of particular interest to the infrasound research community

  13. Epidemiology, disease and control of infections in ruminants by herpesviruses - an overview : review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Patel

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available There are at least 16 recognised herpesviruses that naturally infect cattle, sheep, goats and various species of deer and antelopes. Six of the viruses are recognised as distinct alphaherpesviruses and 9 as gammaherpesviruses. Buffalo herpesvirus (BflHV and ovine herpesvirus-1 (OvHV-1 remain officially unclassified. The prevalence of ruminant herpesviruses varies from worldwide to geographically restricted in distribution. Viruses in both subfamilies Alphaherpesvirinae and Gammaherpesvirinae cause mild to moderate and severe disease in respective natural or secondary ruminant hosts. Accordingly, the economic and ecological impact of the viruses is also variable. The molecular characteristics of some members have been investigated in detail. This has led to the identification of virulence-associated genes and construction of deletion mutants and recombinant viruses. Some of the latter have been developed as commercial vaccines. This paper aims to give an overview of the epidemiology and pathogenesis of infection by these viruses, immuno-prophylaxis and mechanisms of recovery from infection. Since there are 128 ruminant species in the family Bovidae, it is likely that some herpesviruses remain undiscovered. We conclude that currently known ruminant alphaherpesviruses occur only in their natural hosts and do not cross stably into other ruminant species. By contrast, gammaherpesviruses have a much broader host range as evidenced by the fact that antibodies reactive to alcelaphine herpesvirus type 1 have been detected in 4 subfamilies in the family Bovidae, namely Alcelaphinae, Hippotraginae, Ovibovinae and Caprinae. New gammaherpesviruses within these subfamilies are likely to be discovered in the future.

  14. Identification, Classification, Mapping of Model and Secondary Steppe Ecosystems Within the Orenburg-Kazakhstan Cross-Border Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakovlev Ilya Gennadyevich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the current issues of modern steppe management in the Orenburg-Kazakhstan cross-border region. The authors use the data of their own field research over the period of 2009-2014 aimed at detection and classification of model and secondary steppe ecosystems in the region. For the last 6 years it has been revealed that some steppe and fallow lands have different squares. The detected lands are multiple-aged and differ according to their qualitative composition depending on aged-specific (time for completion of agricultural activity, soil-lithogenous and floristic features.The authors detected sites of anthropogenic influence on steppe ecosystems as well as the factors that have favorable affect on restoration of natural ecosystems. The article also reveals the centers of restoration of traditional steppe fauna within the Orenburg-Kazakhstan region and the distribution area of marmot, little bustard, bustard, saiga antelope. The authors carried out the comparative analysis of agro-ecological situation in the region for a few last years as well as over long period of time according to archival and polling data.

  15. A suite of microsatellite markers optimized for amplification of DNA from Addax (Addax nasomaculatus) blood preserved on FTA cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Brett C; Ivy, Jamie A; Latch, Emily K

    2012-01-01

    The addax (Addax nasomaculatus) is a critically endangered antelope that is currently maintained in zoos through regional, conservation breeding programs. As for many captive species, incomplete pedigree data currently impedes the ability of addax breeding programs to confidently manage the genetics of captive populations and to select appropriate animals for reintroduction. Molecular markers are often used to improve pedigree resolution, thereby improving the long-term effectiveness of genetic management. When developing a suite of molecular markers, it is important to consider the source of DNA, as the utility of markers may vary across DNA sources. In this study, we optimized a suite of microsatellite markers for use in genotyping captive addax blood samples collected on FTA cards. We amplified 66 microsatellite loci previously described in other Artiodactyls. Sixteen markers amplified a single product in addax, but only 5 of these were found to be polymorphic in a sample of 37 addax sampled from a captive herd at Fossil Rim Wildlife Center in the US. The suite of microsatellite markers developed in this study provides a new tool for the genetic management of captive addax, and demonstrates that FTA cards can be a useful means of sample storage, provided appropriate loci are used in downstream analyses. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Suspected lead poisoning in two captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus jubatus) in South Africa, in 2008 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Michelle A; Lane, Emily P; Marnewick, Kelly; Caldwell, Peter; Carlisle, Glen; Hoffman, Louw C

    2015-08-13

    Whilst lead poisoning in raptors, scavenging birds and waterfowl is well studied and common knowledge, there is surprisingly little literature detailing the risk to mammalian scavengers and captive carnivores fed hunted meat. This case report describes the death of two captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus jubatus) following acute onset of nervous symptoms. Clinical signs included hyper-excitability, seizures, arched back, tail held abnormally high and hyper-salivation. Necropsy findings included bullets or a bullet in their stomachs. Kidney and liver lead levels from one cheetah (15.6 ppm and 17 ppm respectively) were consistent with a diagnosis of lead poisoning; liver from the second cheetah was not available for testing. Both animals were routinely fed hunted antelope or game birds. This is the first report of oral lead poisoning in captive large carnivores, although these are unlikely to be the first cases. Without awareness of the risks of feeding hunted game, lead exposure will continue to be an underdiagnosed reality in the rehabilitation of endangered carnivores.

  17. Detection of Babesia spp. in free-ranging Pukus, Kobus vardonii, on a game ranch in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Munyeme, Musso; Nambota, Andrew Mubila; Nalubamba, King Shimumbo; Siamudaala, Victor M

    2011-12-01

    Babesia spp. were detected from 4 asymptomatic pukus captured on a game ranch in central Zambia in October 2008. Blood smears were examined in 4 species of aymptomatic free-ranging antelopes, namely the puku (Kobus vordanii), reedbuck (Redunca arundinum), bushbuck (Tragelaphus sylvaticus), and kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), and showed the presence of Babesia parasites only in the puku. In the puku, the prevalence of babesiosis was estimated at 33.3% (n = 12), while the overall prevalence in all examined animals was 8.5% (n = 47). The parasites showed morphological characteristics of paired ring-like stages with the length varying between 1.61 µm and 3.02 µm (mean = 2.12 µm, n = 27; SD = 0.76 µm). Both the infected and non-infected pukus showed good body condition scores (BCS), while the dominant tick species detected from all animals were Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus spp., and Boophilus spp. To our knowledge this is the first report of Babesia spp. infection in pukus in Zambia. These findings suggest that wildlife could play an important role in the epidemiology of babesiosis in Zambia.

  18. Coal combustion products: trash or treasure?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, T.

    2006-07-15

    Coal combustion by-products can be a valuable resource to various industries. The American Coal Ash Association (ACAA) collects data on production and uses of coal combustion products (CCPs). 122.5 million tons of CCPs were produced in 2004. The article discusses the results of the ACCA's 2004 survey. Fly ash is predominantly used as a substitute for Portland cement; bottom ash for structural fill, embankments and paved road cases. Synthetic gypsum from the FGD process is commonly used in wallboard. Plant owners are only likely to have a buyer for a portion of their CCPs. Although sale of hot water (from Antelope Valley Station) from condensers for use in a fish farm to raise tilapia proved unviable, the Great Plains Synfuels Plant which manufactures natural gas from lignite produces a wide range of products including anhydrous ammonia, phenol, krypton, carbon dioxide (for enhanced oil recovery), tar oils and liquid nitrogen. ACCA's goal is to educate people about CCPs and how to make them into useful products, and market them, in order to reduce waste disposal and enhance revenue. The article lists members of the ACCA. 2 photos., 1 tab.

  19. Challenges and Economic Implications in the Control of Foot and Mouth Disease in Sub-Saharan Africa: Lessons from the Zambian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Sinkala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Foot and mouth disease is one of the world’s most important livestock diseases for trade. FMD infections are complex in nature and there are many epidemiological factors needing clarification. Key questions relate to the control challenges and economic impact of the disease for resource-poor FMD endemic countries like Zambia. A review of the control challenges and economic impact of FMD outbreaks in Zambia was made. Information was collected from peer-reviewed journals articles, conference proceedings, unpublished scientific reports, and personal communication with scientists and personal field experiences. The challenges of controlling FMD using mainly vaccination and movement control are discussed. Impacts include losses in income of over US$ 1.6 billion from exports of beef and sable antelopes and an annual cost of over US$ 2.7 million on preventive measures. Further impacts included unquantified losses in production and low investment in agriculture resulting in slow economic growth. FMD persistence may be a result of inadequate epidemiological understanding of the disease and ineffectiveness of the control measures that are being applied. The identified gaps may be considered in the annual appraisal of the FMD national control strategy in order to advance on the progressive control pathway.

  20. Home on the range: workers and wildlife tread warily between astronomical underground flows of energy and live shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, A

    1998-04-06

    On a 2,600 square kilometres parcel of grassland that was once home to 300 species of dinosaurs, three Canadian entities, the military, the Alberta Energy Company and a community of rare and endangered animals provide an example of peaceful co-existence. For eight months of the year the Alberta Energy Company shares the land with Canadian and British military units; all shallow wells have been placed underground so the military can hold annual live-fire exercises. Gas reservoirs exists beneath 57 square kilometres of the range lying at 1,000 metres depth at 4,540 pounds of pressure, which can be increased to 2,050 pounds. The surface of the Suffield range belongs to the federal government, the mineral rights are held by the Province of Alberta, and proghorn antelopes, apparently unconcerned, graze on the ground as if the land belonged to them. They, and the golden eagles that nest in the banks of the South Saskatchewan River appear to be surviving the activities of their two giant co-habitants relatively well.

  1. Identification of novel Theileria genotypes from Grant's gazelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janis Hooge

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Blood samples collected from Grant's gazelles (Nanger granti in Kenya were screened for hemoparasites using a combination of microscopic and molecular techniques. All 69 blood smears examined by microscopy were positive for hemoparasites. In addition, Theileria/Babesia DNA was detected in all 65 samples screened by PCR for a ~450-base pair fragment of the V4 hypervariable region of the 18S rRNA gene. Sequencing and BLAST analysis of a subset of PCR amplicons revealed widespread co-infection (25/39 and the existence of two distinct Grant's gazelle Theileria subgroups. One group of 11 isolates clustered as a subgroup with previously identified Theileria ovis isolates from small ruminants from Europe, Asia and Africa; another group of 3 isolates clustered with previously identified Theileria spp. isolates from other African antelope. Based on extensive levels of sequence divergence (1.2–2% from previously reported Theileria species within Kenya and worldwide, the Theileria isolates detected in Grant's gazelles appear to represent at least two novel Theileria genotypes.

  2. Identification of novel Theileria genotypes from Grant's gazelle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooge, Janis; Howe, Laryssa; Ezenwa, Vanessa O

    2015-08-01

    Blood samples collected from Grant's gazelles (Nanger granti) in Kenya were screened for hemoparasites using a combination of microscopic and molecular techniques. All 69 blood smears examined by microscopy were positive for hemoparasites. In addition, Theileria/Babesia DNA was detected in all 65 samples screened by PCR for a ~450-base pair fragment of the V4 hypervariable region of the 18S rRNA gene. Sequencing and BLAST analysis of a subset of PCR amplicons revealed widespread co-infection (25/39) and the existence of two distinct Grant's gazelle Theileria subgroups. One group of 11 isolates clustered as a subgroup with previously identified Theileria ovis isolates from small ruminants from Europe, Asia and Africa; another group of 3 isolates clustered with previously identified Theileria spp. isolates from other African antelope. Based on extensive levels of sequence divergence (1.2-2%) from previously reported Theileria species within Kenya and worldwide, the Theileria isolates detected in Grant's gazelles appear to represent at least two novel Theileria genotypes.

  3. Home on the range: workers and wildlife tread warily between astronomical underground flows of energy and live shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, A.

    1998-01-01

    On a 2,600 square kilometres parcel of grassland that was once home to 300 species of dinosaurs, three Canadian entities, the military, the Alberta Energy Company and a community of rare and endangered animals provide an example of peaceful co-existence. For eight months of the year the Alberta Energy Company shares the land with Canadian and British military units; all shallow wells have been placed underground so the military can hold annual live-fire exercises. Gas reservoirs exists beneath 57 square kilometres of the range lying at 1,000 metres depth at 4,540 pounds of pressure, which can be increased to 2,050 pounds. The surface of the Suffield range belongs to the federal government, the mineral rights are held by the Province of Alberta, and proghorn antelopes, apparently unconcerned, graze on the ground as if the land belonged to them. They, and the golden eagles that nest in the banks of the South Saskatchewan River appear to be surviving the activities of their two giant co-habitants relatively well

  4. Emerging pestiviruses infecting domestic and wildlife hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridpath, Julia F

    2015-06-01

    Until the early 1990 s there were just three recognized species in the pestivirus genus, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), border disease virus (BDV) and classical swine fever virus (CSFV). Subsequently BVDV were divided into two different species, BVDV1 and BVDV2 and four additional putative pestivirus species have been identified, based on phylogenetic analysis. The four putative pestivirus specices, listed in chronological order of published reports, are Giraffe (isolated from one of several giraffes in the Nanyuki District of Kenya suffering from mucosal disease-like symptoms), HoBi (first isolated from fetal bovine serum originating in Brazil and later from samples originating in Southeast Asia), Pronghorn (isolated from an emaciated blind pronghorn antelope in the USA), and Bungowannah (isolated following an outbreak in pigs, resulting in still birth and neonatal death, in Australia). In addition to the emergence of putative new species of pestivirus, changes in host and virulence of recognized or 'classic' pestiviruses have led to reevaluation of disease control programs and management of domestic and wildlife populations.

  5. Remote sensing for environmental site screening and watershed evaluation in Utah Mine lands - East Tintic mountains, Oquirrh mountains, and Tushar mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.; McDougal, Robert R.; Gent, Carol A.

    2005-01-01

    Imaging spectroscopy-a powerful remote-sensing tool for mapping subtle variations in the composition of minerals, vegetation, and man-made materials on the Earth's surface-was applied in support of environmental assessments and watershed evaluations in several mining districts in the State of Utah. Three areas were studied through the use of Landsat 7 ETM+ and Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data: (1) the Tintic mining district in the East Tintic Mountains southwest of Provo, (2) the Camp Floyd mining district (including the Mercur mine) and the Stockton (or Rush Valley) mining district in the Oquirrh Mountains south of the Great Salt Lake, and (3) the Tushar Mountains and Antelope Range near Marysvale. The Landsat 7 ETM+ data were used for initial site screening and the planning of AVIRIS surveys. The AVIRIS data were analyzed to create spectrally defined maps of surface minerals with special emphasis on locating and characterizing rocks and soils with acid-producing potential (APP) and acid-neutralizing potential (ANP). These maps were used by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) for three primary purposes: (1) to identify unmined and anthropogenic sources of acid generation in the form of iron sulfide and (or) ferric iron sulfate-bearing minerals such as jarosite and copiapite; (2) to seek evidence for downstream or downwind movement of minerals associated with acid generation, mine waste, and (or) tailings from mines, mill sites, and zones of unmined hydrothermally altered rocks; and (3) to identify carbonate and other acid-buffering minerals that neutralize acidic, potentially metal bearing, solutions and thus mitigate potential environmental effects of acid generation. Calibrated AVIRIS surface-reflectance data were spectrally analyzed to identify and map selected surface materials. Two maps were produced from each flightline of AVIRIS data: a map of iron-bearing minerals and water having absorption features in the

  6. The presence and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and inorganic elements in water and lakebed materials and the potential for bioconcentration in biota at established sampling sites on Lake Powell, Utah and Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonauer, Kurt T.; Hart, Robert J.; Antweiler, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    The National Park Service is responsible for monitoring the effects of visitor use on the quality of water, lakebed material (bottom sediments), and biota, in Lake Powell, Utah and Arizona. A sampling program was begun in 2010 to assess the presence, distribution, and concentrations of organic and inorganic compounds in the water column and bottom sediment. In response to an Environmental Impact Statement regarding personal watercraft and as a continuation from previous studies by the U.S. Geological Survey and the National Park Service, Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, water samples were collected and analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using semipermeable membrane devices and inorganic elements using a fixed-bottle sampler deployed at established monitoring sites during 2010 and 2011. Lakebed material samples were also analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and inorganic elements, some of which could be harmful to aquatic biota if present at concentrations above established aquatic life criteria. Of the 44 PAH compounds analyzed, 26 individual compounds were detected above the censoring limit in the water column by semipermeable membrane devices. The highest number of compounds detected were at Lone Rock Beach, Wahweap Marina, Rainbow Bridge National Monument, and Antelope Marina which are all located in the southern part of Lake Powell where visitation and boat use is high. Because PAHs can remain near their source, the potential for bioconcentration is highest near these sites. The PAH compound found in the highest concentration was phenol (5,902 nanograms per liter), which is included in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s priority pollutants list. The dissolved inorganic chemistry of water samples measured at the sampling sites in Lake Powell defined three different patterns of elements: (1) concentrations were similar between sites in the upper part of the lake near Farley Canyon downstream to Halls Crossing Marina, a

  7. Perspective View, San Andreas Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The prominent linear feature straight down the center of this perspective view is California's famous San Andreas Fault. The image, created with data from NASA's Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), will be used by geologists studying fault dynamics and landforms resulting from active tectonics. This segment of the fault lies west of the city of Palmdale, Calif., about 100 kilometers (about 60 miles) northwest of Los Angeles. The fault is the active tectonic boundary between the North American plate on the right, and the Pacific plate on the left. Relative to each other, the Pacific plate is moving away from the viewer and the North American plate is moving toward the viewer along what geologists call a right lateral strike-slip fault. Two large mountain ranges are visible, the San Gabriel Mountains on the left and the Tehachapi Mountains in the upper right. Another fault, the Garlock Fault lies at the base of the Tehachapis; the San Andreas and the Garlock Faults meet in the center distance near the town of Gorman. In the distance, over the Tehachapi Mountains is California's Central Valley. Along the foothills in the right hand part of the image is the Antelope Valley, including the Antelope Valley California Poppy Reserve. The data used to create this image were acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000.This type of display adds the important dimension of elevation to the study of land use and environmental processes as observed in satellite images. The perspective view was created by draping a Landsat satellite image over an SRTM elevation model. Topography is exaggerated 1.5 times vertically. The Landsat image was provided by the United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.SRTM uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour

  8. Questioning the Origin of the Great Salt Lake "Microbialites"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, C.; Matyjasik, M.; Newell, D. L.; Vanden Berg, M. D.; Park, C.

    2017-12-01

    The Great Salt Lake (GSL) of Utah contains abundant carbonate mounds that have been described in the literature as "biostromes", "bioherms", "stromatolites", and "microbialites". The structures are commonly cited as being rare examples of modern lacustrine microbialites, which implies that they are actively-forming and biogenic. Indeed, at least in some regions of the lake, the mounds are covered in a mixed community of cyanobacteria, algae, insect larval casings, microbial heterotrophs, and other organisms that is thought to contribute significantly to benthic primary productivity in GSL. However, the presence of a modern surface microbial community does not implicate a biogenic or modern origin for the mounds. The few studies to date GSL microbialites indicate that they are ancient, with radiocarbon calendar ages in the late Pleistocene and Holocene ( 13 - 3 cal ka). However, could they still be actively growing, and are the surface microbial communities playing a role? Here, we present results of a suite geochemical measurements used to constrain parameters—including groundwater seepage—influencing carbonate saturation and precipitation in the vicinity of one currently-submerged "microbialite reef" on the northern shore of Antelope Island in the South Arm of GSL. Our data suggests that calcium-charged brackish groundwater input to the lake through a permeable substratum in this location results in locally supersaturated conditions for aragonite, which could lead to modern, abiogenic mineralization. In addition, a series of laboratory experiments suggest that the modern surface microbial communities that coat the mounds do not appreciably facilitate carbonate precipitation in simulated GSL conditions, although they may serve as a template for precipitation when local waters become supersaturated.

  9. Office of Inspector General report on audit of the Western Area Power Administration`s contract with Basin Electric Power Cooperative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-25

    At the request of the Western Area Power Administration (Western), an audit of 17 areas was conducted with respect to possible overcharges on a power contract between Western and Basin Electric Power Cooperative (Basin), Contract No. DE-MP65-82WP-19001. The contract for Western`s purchase of electric power from Basin was entered into on April 15, 1982, and was in effect from January 1, 1986, through October 31, 1990. During this 58-month period, Basin billed Western approximately $197.6 million. Overall, it was found that Basin overcharged Western approximately $23.8 million. These overcharges occurred because Basin: (1) did not recognize or amortize as gain its overestimate of completion and correction costs for Antelope Valley Station (AVS) Unit 2; (2) did not amortize the gain on the sale/leaseback of AVS Unit 2 as an offset to lease costs; (3) billed Western prematurely for lease and interest costs; (4) overcharged for the cost of coal by including administrative and general expenses and profit, as well as incorrectly calculating discounts, royalty payments, and imputed interest costs; (5) made faulty calculations of amortization rates for deferred costs; (6) used a shorter depreciation period for AVS common facilities than it had used for other power plants; (7) retained tax benefit transfers; and (8) charged Western for interest and depreciation that had been paid by others. In addition to the $23.8 million in overcharges, interest accrued on the overcharges through December 31, 1996 was estimated to be approximately $22.1 million, resulting in a total of $45.9 million due Western.

  10. Seasonal diet and prey preference of the African lion in a waterhole-driven semi-arid savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Zeke; Valeix, Marion; Van Kesteren, Freya; Loveridge, Andrew J; Hunt, Jane E; Murindagomo, Felix; Macdonald, David W

    2013-01-01

    Large carnivores inhabiting ecosystems with heterogeneously distributed environmental resources with strong seasonal variations frequently employ opportunistic foraging strategies, often typified by seasonal switches in diet. In semi-arid ecosystems, herbivore distribution is generally more homogeneous in the wet season, when surface water is abundant, than in the dry season when only permanent sources remain. Here, we investigate the seasonal contribution of the different herbivore species, prey preference and distribution of kills (i.e. feeding locations) of African lions in Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe, a semi-arid African savanna structured by artificial waterholes. We used data from 245 kills and 74 faecal samples. Buffalo consistently emerged as the most frequently utilised prey in all seasons by both male (56%) and female (33%) lions, contributing the most to lion dietary biomass. Jacobs' index also revealed that buffalo was the most intensively selected species throughout the year. For female lions, kudu and to a lesser extent the group "medium Bovidae" are the most important secondary prey. This study revealed seasonal patterns in secondary prey consumption by female lions partly based on prey ecology with browsers, such as giraffe and kudu, mainly consumed in the early dry season, and grazers, such as zebra and suids, contributing more to female diet in the late dry season. Further, it revealed the opportunistic hunting behaviour of lions for prey as diverse as elephants and mice, with elephants taken mostly as juveniles at the end of the dry season during droughts. Jacobs' index finally revealed a very strong preference for kills within 2 km from a waterhole for all prey species, except small antelopes, in all seasons. This suggested that surface-water resources form passive traps and contribute to the structuring of lion foraging behaviour.

  11. Ecological survey for the siting of the Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility and the Idaho Waste Processing Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoskinson, R.L.

    1994-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of field ecological surveys conducted by the Center for Integrated Environmental Technologies (CIET) on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) at four candidate locations for the siting of the Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility (MLLWTF) and the Idaho Waste Processing Facility (IWPF). The purpose of these surveys was to comply with all Federal laws and Executive Orders to identify and evaluate any potential environmental impacts because of the project. The boundaries of the candidate location were marked with blaze-orange lath survey marker stakes by the project management. Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements of the marker stakes were made, and input to the Arc/Info reg-sign geographic information system (GIS). Field surveys were conducted to assess any potential impact to any important species, important habitats, and to any environmental study areas. The GIS location data was overlayed onto the INEL vegetation map and an analysis of vegetation classes on the locations was done. Results of the field surveys indicate use of Candidate Location number-sign 1 by pygmy rabbits (Sylvilagus idahoensis) and expected use by them of Candidate Locations number-sign 3 and number-sign 9. Pygmy rabbits are categorized as a C2 species by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). Two other C2 species, the ferruginous hawk (Buteo regalis) and the loggerhead shrike (Lanius ludovicianus) would also be expected to frequent the candidate locations. Candidate Location number-sign 5 at the north end of the INEL is in the winter range of a large number of pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana)

  12. Radioecological investigations of uranium-mill-tailings systems. Second technical progress report, October 1, 1980-September 30, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whicker, F.W.

    1981-01-01

    This document provides a status report on studies which address some of the problems and questions regarding the integrity and transport of uranium and certain radioactive progeny in active and reclaimed uranium mill tailings. The studies reported are being conducted at Pathfinder Mines Corporation's Shirley Basin Uranium Mine, located in a remote area of Carbon County in southeastern Wyoming. A considerable amount of effort, especially during the first few years of the study, must relate to basic characterization of the general environs as well as of specific study plots. Such characterization, which is essential for interpretation of analytical results for radionuclides, involves investigation of climate, soils, underground water, vegetation, and animals. Early results of such characterization work are reported herein. This investigation includes as a major component, studies relating to disposal of mill tailings by earthern covers. Of interest are the effects of various types and thicknesses of covers on radon emanation, ambient gamma radiation, biological incorporation of radionuclides, stability of soil and plant communities and physical migration of radioactivity. This report also summarizes work relating to levels of 230 Th, 226 Ra and 210 Po in water, soils and vegetation from background (uncontaminated) sites, from areas near the tailings pond, and from reclaimed overburden areas. Another major activity is the investigation of specific mechanisms which lead to contamination of vegetation with radionuclides. The processes of root uptake and aerial deposition are under study through a variety of designed experiments and sampling schemes. A small-scale study on the metabolism of 210 Po by mule deer and antelope is also reported

  13. Evaluation of ¡Vivir Mi Vida! to improve health and wellness of rural-dwelling, late middle-aged Latino adults: results of a feasibility and pilot study of a lifestyle intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepens Niemiec, Stacey L; Blanchard, Jeanine; Vigen, Cheryl L P; Martínez, Jenny; Guzmán, Laura; Concha, Alyssa; Fluke, Michelle; Carlson, Mike

    2018-05-06

    AimThe aim of this study was to determine the feasibility and efficacy of a culturally tailored lifestyle intervention, ¡Vivir Mi Vida! (Live My Life!). This intervention was designed to improve the health and well-being of high risk late middle-aged Latino adults and to be implemented in a rural primary care system. Rural-dwelling Latino adults experience higher rates of chronic disease compared with their urban counterparts, a disparity exacerbated by limited access to healthcare services. Very few lifestyle interventions exist that are both culturally sensitive and compatible for delivery within a non-metropolitan primary care context. Participants were 37 Latino, Spanish-speaking adults aged 50-64-years-old, recruited from a rural health clinic in the Antelope Valley of California. ¡Vivir Mi Vida! was delivered by a community health worker-occupational therapy team over a 16-week period. Subjective health, lifestyle factors, and cardiometabolic measures were collected pre- and post-intervention. Follow-up interviews and focus groups were held to collect information related to the subjective experiences of key stakeholders and participants.FindingsParticipants demonstrated improvements in systolic blood pressure, sodium and saturated fat intake, and numerous patient-centered outcomes ranging from increased well-being to reduced stress. Although participants were extremely satisfied with the program, stakeholders identified a number of implementation challenges. The findings suggest that a tailored lifestyle intervention led by community health workers and occupational therapists is feasible to implement in a primary care setting and can improve health outcomes in rural-dwelling, late middle-aged Latinos.

  14. Seasonal diet and prey preference of the African lion in a waterhole-driven semi-arid savanna.

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    Zeke Davidson

    Full Text Available Large carnivores inhabiting ecosystems with heterogeneously distributed environmental resources with strong seasonal variations frequently employ opportunistic foraging strategies, often typified by seasonal switches in diet. In semi-arid ecosystems, herbivore distribution is generally more homogeneous in the wet season, when surface water is abundant, than in the dry season when only permanent sources remain. Here, we investigate the seasonal contribution of the different herbivore species, prey preference and distribution of kills (i.e. feeding locations of African lions in Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe, a semi-arid African savanna structured by artificial waterholes. We used data from 245 kills and 74 faecal samples. Buffalo consistently emerged as the most frequently utilised prey in all seasons by both male (56% and female (33% lions, contributing the most to lion dietary biomass. Jacobs' index also revealed that buffalo was the most intensively selected species throughout the year. For female lions, kudu and to a lesser extent the group "medium Bovidae" are the most important secondary prey. This study revealed seasonal patterns in secondary prey consumption by female lions partly based on prey ecology with browsers, such as giraffe and kudu, mainly consumed in the early dry season, and grazers, such as zebra and suids, contributing more to female diet in the late dry season. Further, it revealed the opportunistic hunting behaviour of lions for prey as diverse as elephants and mice, with elephants taken mostly as juveniles at the end of the dry season during droughts. Jacobs' index finally revealed a very strong preference for kills within 2 km from a waterhole for all prey species, except small antelopes, in all seasons. This suggested that surface-water resources form passive traps and contribute to the structuring of lion foraging behaviour.

  15. Public trust doctrine, research and responsible wildlife management in South Africa

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    Andrew C. Blackmore

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A significant proportion of South African biodiversity occurs in extensive private wildlife areas. As such, the continuance of these private reserves is paramount to conservation of the country’s biodiversity. The areas are, however, vulnerable to being divided into smaller camps as landowners enter into the new and rapidly growing industry of selective breeding and intensive management of antelope and predators. Concerns are being raised as to the long-term consequences of the products and impacts of this industry on, inter alia, integrity and conservation of the country’s wildlife, and the landscapes these facilities are located in, as well as the country’s reputation as a free ranging and fair chase hunting destination. Using the public trust doctrine as a foundation, this article characterises the relationship between the country’s environmental law and the roles played by government as the regulator, the wildlife industry, research and the public in achieving responsible wildlife management and the long-term conservation of this resource. These relationships are seen to be finely balanced between the provision of robust science, and evidence-based and cautious or risk-averse decision-making. It is concluded that the public trust doctrine is a powerful tool to limit the impacts of unsustainable and parochial use of wildlife on the conservation of biodiversity. It is also concluded that an improved understanding of the doctrine by researchers, public and the wildlife industry would lead to a greater relevance of research, and in turn sound evidence-based decision-making and ultimately sustainable use of wildlife.

  16. Workflow-Oriented Cyberinfrastructure for Sensor Data Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orcutt, J. A.; Rajasekar, A.; Moore, R. W.; Vernon, F.

    2015-12-01

    Sensor streams comprise an increasingly large part of Earth Science data. Analytics based on sensor data require an easy way to perform operations such as acquisition, conversion to physical units, metadata linking, sensor fusion, analysis and visualization on distributed sensor streams. Furthermore, embedding real-time sensor data into scientific workflows is of growing interest. We have implemented a scalable networked architecture that can be used to dynamically access packets of data in a stream from multiple sensors, and perform synthesis and analysis across a distributed network. Our system is based on the integrated Rule Oriented Data System (irods.org), which accesses sensor data from the Antelope Real Time Data System (brtt.com), and provides virtualized access to collections of data streams. We integrate real-time data streaming from different sources, collected for different purposes, on different time and spatial scales, and sensed by different methods. iRODS, noted for its policy-oriented data management, brings to sensor processing features and facilities such as single sign-on, third party access control lists ( ACLs), location transparency, logical resource naming, and server-side modeling capabilities while reducing the burden on sensor network operators. Rich integrated metadata support also makes it straightforward to discover data streams of interest and maintain data provenance. The workflow support in iRODS readily integrates sensor processing into any analytical pipeline. The system is developed as part of the NSF-funded Datanet Federation Consortium (datafed.org). APIs for selecting, opening, reaping and closing sensor streams are provided, along with other helper functions to associate metadata and convert sensor packets into NetCDF and JSON formats. Near real-time sensor data including seismic sensors, environmental sensors, LIDAR and video streams are available through this interface. A system for archiving sensor data and metadata in Net

  17. Deep Sequencing of Plant and Animal DNA Contained within Traditional Chinese Medicines Reveals Legality Issues and Health Safety Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coghlan, Megan L.; Haile, James; Houston, Jayne; Murray, Dáithí C.; White, Nicole E.; Moolhuijzen, Paula; Bellgard, Matthew I.; Bunce, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been practiced for thousands of years, but only within the last few decades has its use become more widespread outside of Asia. Concerns continue to be raised about the efficacy, legality, and safety of many popular complementary alternative medicines, including TCMs. Ingredients of some TCMs are known to include derivatives of endangered, trade-restricted species of plants and animals, and therefore contravene the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) legislation. Chromatographic studies have detected the presence of heavy metals and plant toxins within some TCMs, and there are numerous cases of adverse reactions. It is in the interests of both biodiversity conservation and public safety that techniques are developed to screen medicinals like TCMs. Targeting both the p-loop region of the plastid trnL gene and the mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene, over 49,000 amplicon sequence reads were generated from 15 TCM samples presented in the form of powders, tablets, capsules, bile flakes, and herbal teas. Here we show that second-generation, high-throughput sequencing (HTS) of DNA represents an effective means to genetically audit organic ingredients within complex TCMs. Comparison of DNA sequence data to reference databases revealed the presence of 68 different plant families and included genera, such as Ephedra and Asarum, that are potentially toxic. Similarly, animal families were identified that include genera that are classified as vulnerable, endangered, or critically endangered, including Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus) and Saiga antelope (Saiga tatarica). Bovidae, Cervidae, and Bufonidae DNA were also detected in many of the TCM samples and were rarely declared on the product packaging. This study demonstrates that deep sequencing via HTS is an efficient and cost-effective way to audit highly processed TCM products and will assist in monitoring their legality and safety especially when

  18. Fuel Wood Consumption and Species Degradation in South-Western Nigeria: The Ecological Relevance

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    Orimoogunje Oluwagbenga O.I.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The continuous dependence of man on fuel and service wood has resulted in serious degradation of the fragile forest ecosystem. Therefore, this study evaluated the sources and patterns of fuel wood and examined the rate of consumption in the study area. This was with the aim to assess the ecological implications of fuelwood consumption on species degradation. The study utilized both, primary and secondary data. Information was extracted from topographic map on the scale of 1: 50,000 and satellites imageries that cover the study area. Questionnaire administration, field observation and weight measurement of fuel wood were carried out. The results showed that the sources of fuel wood for domestic cooking were forest, nearby bush and abandoned farm while the sources of domestic energy were fuel wood (61.17%, charcoal (27%, kerosene (10%, electricity (1.33% and gas (0.5%. Fuel wood for small scale industries were: forest (49.23%, farmland (34.62 and fallow land (16.15%. The trend of fuel wood consumption was on the high side from 1995 to 2011, it was 58% in 1995, 70% in 2000, 82% in 2005 and 92% in 2010 and 2011 respectively. Many valuable economic tree species such as Triplochiton scleroxylon, Nesogordonia papaverifera, and Cordia spp. are near their extinction. Animals such as antelope, wolf and fox are going into extinction while monkey, grasscutter, hare, rabbit were endemic in the study area. The study concluded that the patterns of fuel wood use and fuel wood saturation presents a great danger for biodiversity products and services.

  19. Recent geological events and intrinsic behavior influence the population genetic structure of the chiru and tibetan gazelle on the tibetan plateau.

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    Zhang, Fangfang; Jiang, Zhigang; Xu, Aichun; Zeng, Yan; Li, Chunwang

    2013-01-01

    The extent to which a species responds to environmental changes is mediated not only by extrinsic processes such as time and space, but also by species-specific ecology. The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau uplifted approximately 3000 m and experienced at least four major glaciations during the Pleistocene epoch in the Quaternary Period. Consequently, the area experienced concurrent changes in geomorphological structure and climate. Two species, the Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsonii, chiru) and Tibetan gazelle (Procapra picticaudata), both are endemic on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, where their habitats overlap, but have different migratory behaviors: the chiru is inclined to have female-biased dispersal with a breeding migration during the calving season; in contrast, Tibetan gazelles are year-round residents and never migrate distantly. By using coalescence methods we compared mitochondrial control region DNA sequences and variation at nine microsatellite loci in these two species. Coalescent simulations indicate that the chiru and Tibetan gazelle do not share concordant patterns in their genealogies. The non-migratory Tibetan gazelle, that is more vulnerable to the impact of drastic geographic changes such as the elevation of the plateau, glaciations and so on, appears to have a strong population genetic structure with complicated demographic history. Specifically, the Tibetan gazelle population appears to have experienced isolation and divergence with population fluctuations since the Middle Pleistocene (0.781 Ma). However, it showed continued decline since the Upper Pleistocene (0.126 Ma), which may be attributed to the irreversible impact of increased human activities on the plateau. In contrast, the migratory chiru appears to have simply experienced population expansion. With substantial gene flow among regional populations, this species shows no historical population isolation and divergence. Thus, this study adds to many empirical studies that show historical

  20. Incentivizing monitoring and compliance in trophy hunting.

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    Bunnefeld, Nils; Edwards, Charles T T; Atickem, Anagaw; Hailu, Fetene; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2013-12-01

    Conservation scientists are increasingly focusing on the drivers of human behavior and on the implications of various sources of uncertainty for management decision making. Trophy hunting has been suggested as a conservation tool because it gives economic value to wildlife, but recent examples show that overharvesting is a substantial problem and that data limitations are rife. We use a case study of trophy hunting of an endangered antelope, the mountain nyala (Tragelaphus buxtoni), to explore how uncertainties generated by population monitoring and poaching interact with decision making by 2 key stakeholders: the safari companies and the government. We built a management strategy evaluation model that encompasses the population dynamics of mountain nyala, a monitoring model, and a company decision making model. We investigated scenarios of investment into antipoaching and monitoring by governments and safari companies. Harvest strategy was robust to the uncertainty in the population estimates obtained from monitoring, but poaching had a much stronger effect on quota and sustainability. Hence, reducing poaching is in the interests of companies wishing to increase the profitability of their enterprises, for example by engaging community members as game scouts. There is a threshold level of uncertainty in the population estimates beyond which the year-to-year variation in the trophy quota prevented planning by the safari companies. This suggests a role for government in ensuring that a baseline level of population monitoring is carried out such that this level is not exceeded. Our results illustrate the importance of considering the incentives of multiple stakeholders when designing frameworks for resource use and when designing management frameworks to address the particular sources of uncertainty that affect system sustainability most heavily. Incentivando el Monitoreo y el Cumplimiento en la Caza de Trofeos. © 2013 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by

  1. Remotely Triggered Earthquakes Recorded by EarthScope's Transportable Array and Regional Seismic Networks: A Case Study Of Four Large Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, A. A.; Cerda, I.; Linville, L.; Kilb, D. L.; Pankow, K. L.

    2013-05-01

    Changes in field stress required to trigger earthquakes have been classified in two basic ways: static and dynamic triggering. Static triggering occurs when an earthquake that releases accumulated strain along a fault stress loads a nearby fault. Dynamic triggering occurs when an earthquake is induced by the passing of seismic waves from a large mainshock located at least two or more fault lengths from the epicenter of the main shock. We investigate details of dynamic triggering using data collected from EarthScope's USArray and regional seismic networks located in the United States. Triggered events are identified using an optimized automated detector based on the ratio of short term to long term average (Antelope software). Following the automated processing, the flagged waveforms are individually analyzed, in both the time and frequency domains, to determine if the increased detection rates correspond to local earthquakes (i.e., potentially remotely triggered aftershocks). Here, we show results using this automated schema applied to data from four large, but characteristically different, earthquakes -- Chile (Mw 8.8 2010), Tokoku-Oki (Mw 9.0 2011), Baja California (Mw 7.2 2010) and Wells Nevada (Mw 6.0 2008). For each of our four mainshocks, the number of detections within the 10 hour time windows span a large range (1 to over 200) and statistically >20% of the waveforms show evidence of anomalous signals following the mainshock. The results will help provide for a better understanding of the physical mechanisms involved in dynamic earthquake triggering and will help identify zones in the continental U.S. that may be more susceptible to dynamic earthquake triggering.

  2. The Colorado Plateau III: integrating research and resources management for effective conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogge, Mark K.; van Riper, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Roughly centered on the Four Corners region of the southwestern United States, the Colorado Plateau covers an area of 130,000 square miles. The relatively high semi-arid province boasts nine national parks, sixteen national monuments, many state parks, and dozens of wilderness areas. With the highest concentration of parklands in North America and unique geological and ecological features, the area is of particular interest to researchers. Derived from the Eighth Biennial Conference of Research on the Colorado Plateau, this third volume in a series of research on the Colorado Plateau expands upon the previous two books. This volume focuses on the integration of science into resource management issues, summarizes what criteria make a successful collaborative effort, outlines land management concerns about drought, provides summaries of current biological, sociological, and archaeological research, and highlights current environmental issues in the Four Corner States of Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, and Utah. With broad coverage that touches on topics as diverse as historical aspects of pronghorn antelope movement patterns through calculating watershed prescriptions to the role of wind-blown sand in preserving archaeological sites on the Colorado River, this volume stands as a compendium of cuttingedge management-oriented research on the Colorado Plateau. The book also introduces, for the first time, tools that can be used to assist with collaboration efforts among landowners and managers who wish to work together toward preserving resources on the Colorado Plateau and offers a wealth of insights into land management questions for many readers, especially people interested in the natural history, biology, anthropology, wildlife, and cultural management issues of the region.

  3. Forensic DNA barcoding and bio-response studies of animal horn products used in traditional medicine.

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    Dan Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Animal horns (AHs have been applied to traditional medicine for more than thousands of years, of which clinical effects have been confirmed by the history. But now parts of AHs have been listed in the items of wildlife conservation, which limits the use for traditional medicine. The contradiction between the development of traditional medicine and the protection of wild resources has already become the common concern of zoophilists, traditional medical professionals, economists, sociologists. We believe that to strengthen the identification for threatened animals, to prevent the circulation of them, and to seek fertile animals of corresponding bioactivities as substitutes are effective strategies to solve this problem. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A powerful technique of DNA barcoding based on the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase I (COI was used to identify threatened animals of Bovidae and Cervidae, as well as their illegal adulterants (including 10 species and 47 specimens. Meanwhile, the microcalorimetric technique was used to characterize the differences of bio-responses when those animal specimens acted on model organism (Escherichia coli. We found that the COI gene could be used as a universal primer to identify threatened animals and illegal adulterants mentioned above. By analyzing 223 mitochondrial COI sequences, a 100% identification success rate was achieved. We further found that the horns of Mongolian Gazelle and Red Deer could be exploited as a substitute for some functions of endangered Saiga Antelope and Sika Deer in traditional medicine, respectively. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Although it needs a more comprehensive evaluation of bioequivalence in order to completely solve the problem of substitutes for threatened animals, we believe that the identification (DNA barcoding of threatened animals combined with seeking substitutions (bio-response can yet be regarded as a valid strategy for establishing a balance

  4. Study on the polymorphism of POU1F1 gene in sheep

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    Jun Yan Bai

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In this study, POU1F1 gene polymorphism was detected in five sheep populations (large-tailed Han, small-tailed Han, Yuxi fat-tailed, Lanzhou large-tailed, and Mongolian sheep, using DNA pooling and sequencing, to provide theoretical basis for the breeding of excellent sheep varieties. Three single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP loci of POU1F1 gene were detected in five sheep populations, namely C355T (C/T, C71G (C/G, and C330G (C/G. C and T frequencies of C355T were 0.67/0.33, 0.81/0.19, 0.67/0.33, 1.00/0.00, and 0.93/0.07, respectively, in large-tailed Han, small-tailed Han, Yuxi fat-tailed, Mongolian, and Lanzhou large-tailed sheep. C of C355T locus was the dominant allele in five sheep populations. C and G allele frequencies of C330G locus were detected in Yuxi fat-tailed sheep; their frequencies were 0.75 and 0.25, respectively. C and G allele of C71G locus were only detected in Yuxi fat-tailed and large-tailed Han sheep; their frequencies were 0.87/0.13 and 0.87/0.13, respectively. The cluster analysis based on POU1F1 gene sequence showed that bactrian camel, dromedary, and wild camel clustered first, and dolphin and killer whales clustered according to taxonomy. Although the four species Tibetan antelope, buffalo, goat, and sheep were alone, they got close and the relative genetic relationship was intimate according to the dendrogram. The mutation site analysis of the POU1F1 gene in five sheep populations in this study would be favorable for uncovering the function of POU1F1 gene deeply.

  5. Introduction: Chapter 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esque, Todd C.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Inman, Richard D.; Matocq, Marjorie D.; Weisberg, Peter J.; Dilts, Thomas E.; Leitner, Philip

    2013-01-01

    The Mohave ground squirrel (Xerospermophilus mohavensis), named just over a century ago (Merriam 1889), is precinctive to the western Mojave Desert in California, USA, and occupies portions of Kern, Los Angeles, Inyo and San Bernardino counties (Best 1995). Early estimates of the geographic range of the squirrel are just 20,000 km2 in area (Hall 1981, Zeiner et al. 1988‐ 1990), one of the smallest distributions among North American ground squirrel species (Hoyt 1972, P. Leitner – pers. obs.). The closest living relative of the Mohave ground squirrel (MGS) is the round‐tailed ground squirrel (Xerospermophilus tereticaudus). Mohave ground squirrels have a “shorter tail with distichous hairs and white undersurface”, but visual differences between the two species are subtle (Hafner and Yates 1983). Speciation likely occurred when portions of the parent population were isolated 4‐1.6 million years ago during the accelerated uplift of the Sierra Nevada, the Transverse Ranges and the Mojave River system, resulting in separation and isolation with MGS evolving in refugia (Hafner 1992, Bell et al. 2009). Subsequently, fluvial‐ lacustrine systems in the Mojave River basin provided vicariance features during the Pleistocene (Hafner 1992, Bell et al. 2009). Responding to previous climate change, the two species potentially migrated into their current ranges from southern refugia after the Last Glacial Maximum, eventually abutting each other along the Mojave River (Hafner and Yates 1983). The species are capable of hybridizing, but intercrosses appear to be rare, and sampling near the zones of potential hybridization remains limited (Bell and Matocq 2011). The only other similar sized squirrel occupying the range of MGS is the white‐tailed antelope ground squirrel (Ammospermophilus leucurus) whose range entirely overlaps MGS, but is easily distinguished by its bright white dorso‐lateral stripes (Best 1995)

  6. Effects of age, sex, lactation and social dominance on faecal egg count patterns of gastrointestinal nematodes in farmed eland (Taurotragus oryx).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadlejch, J; Kotrba, R; Čadková, Z; Růžičková, A; Langrová, I

    2015-10-01

    The eland is a large African antelope that can be bred in a temperate climate, under similar conditions and production systems as cattle. However, knowledge of parasites in farmed elands outside the area of their native habitat is still limited, and information concerning factors that influence these parasites is lacking. Therefore, faecal samples from an entire herd of elands, including calves and adult females and males, were examined monthly over a one year period. Almost 84% of the animals were found to be positive for gastrointestinal nematodes. Strongyle-type eggs were most frequently detected (prevalence 75%), followed by Capillaria sp., Nematodirus sp. and Trichuris sp. eggs. Following culturing eggs to infective larvae, Teladorsagia sp., Trichostrongylus sp., Nematodirus sp., Cooperia sp. and Oesophagostomum sp. were identified. Following necropsy of two calves that died during the study one abomasal nematode (Teladorsagia circumcincta), five small intestinal nematode species (Nematodirus helvetianus, N. spathiger, Cooperia oncophora, C. curticei and Capillaria bovis) and two large intestinal nematodes (Oesophagostomum venulosum and Trichuris ovis) were recovered. From these findings, it is evident that the eland harbours nematodes that are typical for domestic cattle and small ruminants. Morphological and morphometric analyses of recovered nematodes revealed that these parasites do not require any special morphological adaptation to establish infection in elands. The faecal output of strongyle-type and Nematodirus sp. eggs was seasonal, with the highest egg production taking place during spring and summer. Calves had higher faecal egg counts (for all the monitored nematode species) than adults did. Lactation in females was significantly (Pnematode egg shedding. Social dominance also affected faecal egg count patterns. The lower the hierarchical position among adults (regardless of sex), the higher the risk of nematode infection. This effect was evident

  7. Septicemic pasteurellosis in free-ranging neonatal pronghorn in Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Michael R.; Wolcott, Mark J.; Rimler, R.B.; Berlowski, Brenda M.

    2000-01-01

    As part of a study to determine the cause(s) of population decline and low survival of pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) neonates on Hart Mountain National Antelope Refuge (HMNAR), Oregon (USA), 55 of 104 neonates captured during May 1996 and 1997 were necropsied (n = 28, 1996; n = 27, 1997) to determine cause of death. Necropsies were conducted on fawns that died during May, June, or July of each year. The objectives of this study were to report the occurrence and pathology of pasteurellosis in neonates and determine if the isolated strain of Pasteurella multocida was unique. Septicemic pasteurellosis, caused by P. multocida, was diagnosed as the cause of death for two neonates in May and June 1997. Necropsy findings included widely scattered petechial and ecchymotic hemorrhages found over a large portion of the subcutaneous tissue, meninges of the brain, epicardium, skeletal muscle, and serosal surface of the thorasic and abdominal cavities. Histological examination of lung tissues revealed diffuse congestion and edema and moderate to marked multifocal infiltrate of macrophages, neutrophils, and numerous bacteria within many terminal bronchioles and alveoli. Pasteurella multocida serotypes A:3,4, and B:1 were isolated from several tissues including lung, intestinal, thorasic fluid, and heart blood. Each B:1 isolate had DNA restriction endonuclease fingerprint profiles distinct from isolates previously characterized from domestic cattle, swan (Olor spp.), moose (Alces alces), and pronghorn from Montana (USA). This is the first report of pasteurellosis in pronghorn from Oregon and the B:1 isolates appear to be unique in comparison to DNA fingerprint profiles from selected domestic and wild species.

  8. Similarity of satellite DNA properties in the order Rodentia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazrimas, J A; Hatch, F T

    1977-09-01

    We have characterized satellite DNAs from 9 species of kangaroo rat (Dipodomys) and have shown that the HS-..cap alpha.. and HS-..beta.. satellites, where present, are nearly identical in all species as to melting transition midpoint (Tm), and density in neutral CsCl, alkaline CsCl, and Cs/sub 2/SO/sub 4/-Ag/sup +/ gradients. However, the MS satellites exist in two internally similar classes. The satellite DNAs from three other rodents were characterized (densities listed are in neutral CsCl). The pocket gopher, Thomomys bottae, contains Th-..cap alpha.. (1.713 g/ml) and Th-..beta.. (1.703 g/ml). The guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) contains Ca-..cap alpha.., Ca-..beta.., and Ca-..gamma.. at densities of 1.706 g/ml, 1.704 g/ml, and 1.704 g/ml, respectively. The antelope ground squirrel (Ammospermophilus harrisi) contains Am-..cap alpha.., 1.708 g/ml, Am-..beta.., 1.717 g/ml, and Am-..gamma.., 1.707 g/ml. The physical and chemical properties of the alpha-satellites from the above four rodents representing four different families in two suborders of Rodentia were compared. They show nearly identical Tm, nucleoside composition of single strands, and single strand densities in alkaline CsCl. Similar comparisons on the second or third satellite DNAs from these rodents also indicate a close relationship to each other. Thus the high degree of similarity of satellite sequences found in such a diverse group of rodents suggests a cellular function that is subject to natural selection, and implies that these sequences have been conserved over a considerable span of evolutionary time since the divergence of these rodents about 50 million years ago.

  9. Similarity of satellite DNA properties in the order Rodentia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazrimas, J A; Hatch, F T

    1977-09-01

    Satellite DNAs from 9 species of kangaroo rat (Dipodomys) have been characterized and have shown that the HS-..cap alpha.. and HS-..beta.. satellites, where present, are nearly identical in all species as to melting transition midpoint (Tm), and density in neutral CsCl, alkaline CsCl, and Cs/sub 2/SO/sub 4/-Ag/sup +/ gradients. However, the MS satellites exist in two internally similar classes. The satellite DNAs from three other rodents were characterized (densities listed are in neutral CsCl). The pocket gopher, Thomomys bottae, contains Th-..cap alpha.. (1.713 g/ml) and Th..beta.. (1.703 g/ml). The guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) contains Ca-..cap alpha.., Ca-..beta.. and Ca-..gamma.. at densities of 1.706 g/ml, 1.704 g/ml and 1.704 g/ml, respectively. The antelope ground squirrel (Ammospermophilus harrisi) contains Am-..cap alpha.., 1.708 g/ml, Am-..beta.., 1.717 g/ml, and Am-..gamma.., 1.707 g/ml. The physical and chemical properties of the alpha-satellites from the above four rodents representing four different families in two suborders of Rodentia were compared. They show nearly identical Tm, nucleoside composition of single strands, and single strand densities in alkaline CsCl. Similar comparisons on the second or third satellite DNAs from these rodents also indicate a close relationship to each other. Thus the high degree of similarity of satellite sequences found in such a diverse group of rodents suggests a cellular function that is subject to natural selection, and implies that these sequences have been conserved over a considerable span of evolutionary time since the divergence of these rodents about 50 million years ago.

  10. Applying Science: opportunities to inform disease management policy with cooperative research within a One Health framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason K. Blackburn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing Ebola outbreak in West Africa and the current saiga antelope die off in Kazakhstan each represent very real and difficult to manage public or veterinary health crises. They also illustrate the importance of stable and funded surveillance and sound policy for intervention or disease control. While these two events highlight extreme cases of infectious disease (Ebola or (possible environmental exposure (saiga, diseases such as anthrax, brucellosis, tularemia, and plague are all zoonoses that pose risks and present surveillance challenges at the wildlife-livestock-human interfaces. These four diseases are also considered important actors in the threat of biological terror activities and have a long history as legacy biowarfare pathogens. This paper reviews recent studies done cooperatively between American and institutions within nations of the Former Soviet Union (FSU focused on spatiotemporal, epidemiological, and ecological patterns of these four zoonoses. We examine recent studies and discuss the possible ways in which techniques, including ecological niche modeling, disease risk modeling, and spatio-temporal cluster analysis, can inform disease surveillance, control efforts and impact policy. Our focus is to posit ways to apply science to disease management policy and actual management or mitigation practices. Across these examples, we illustrate the value of cooperative studies that bring together modern geospatial and epidemiological analyses to improve our understanding of the distribution of pathogens and diseases in livestock, wildlife, and humans. For example, ecological niche modeling can provide national level maps of pathogen distributions for surveillance planning, while space-time models can identify the timing and location of significant outbreak events for defining active control strategies. We advocate for the need to bring the results and the researchers from cooperative studies into the meeting rooms where policy is

  11. The micromorphology of the blesbuck louse Damalinia (Damalinia crenelata as observed under the scanning electron microscope

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    M.L. Turner

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The blesbuck is an important game animal on many game farms and reserves in South Africa. Damalinia crenelata, a biting louse, host-specific to the blesbuck, feed upon epidermal debris of this antelope, leading to severe skin irritation and dermatitis. Symptomatic scratching by the host aggravates these conditions. High infestations may lead to decreased population numbers. Live lice were collected from a blesbuck in the Rietvlei Nature Reserve and prepared for selectron microscopic investigation. Micrographs were recorded. The SEM investigation revealed several micromorphological features not previously described in D. crenelata. Besides the obvious anatomical differences in the reproductive organs of the male and female, several other differences were noted. The antennal flagellae showed morphological differences as well as certain features on the ventral surfaces of the head. Dorsally the forehead was markedly emarginated and showed an acute invagination (clypeo labral suture in the pulvinal area. The ventral surface of the head clearly demonstrated the structures of the preantennal regions such as ventral carina, pulvinus, labrum, mandibles and clypeus. The epipharynx appeared as an underlying extension of the labrum. The rims of the clypeus were more raised and thickened in the female than in that of the male. The mandibles were not notched and were noted to be angular in shape. The three segments of each of the antennae of the male were thicker and more robust than than those of the female. This could suggest sexual dimorphism in this species. The sensilla basoconica comprised 10 pegs. Pit organs were seen within the pore organs. The prothorax and mesothorax were clearly distinguished. The abdominal segments showed six pairs of spiracles. The male andfemale terminalia were confirmed to be strongly sexually dimorphic. The three pairs oflegs each terminated in a single, long and slender, claw.

  12. Seroepidemiology of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV in the Adamawa Region of Cameroon and use of the SPOT test to identify herds with PI calves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian G Handel

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhoea, caused by the bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV in the Pestivirus genus of the Flaviviridae, is one of the most important diseases of cattle world wide causing poor reproductive performance in adult cattle and mucosal disease in calves. In addition it causes immunosuppression and increased susceptibility to other infections, the impact of which is uncertain, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa where animals are exposed to a much wider range and higher intensity of infections compared to Europe. There are no previous estimates of the seroprevalence of BVDV in cattle in Cameroon. This paper describes the serological screening for antibodies to BVDV and antigen of BVDV in a cattle population in the Adamawa Region of Cameroon in 2000. The estimates of herd-level and within herd seroprevalences adjusted for test imperfections were 92% and 30% respectively and 16.5% of herds were classed as having a persistently infected calf (PI in the herd within the last year based on the "spot" test approach. There was evidence of clustering of herds with PI calves across the north and west of the Region which corresponds with the higher cattle density areas and of self-clearance of infection from herds. A multivariable model was developed for the risk of having a PI calf in the herd; proximity to antelope, owning a goat, mixing with > 10 other herds at grazing and the catchment area of the veterinary centre the herd was registered at were all significant risk factors. Very little is known about BVDV in sub-Saharan Africa and these high seroprevalences suggest that there is a large problem which may be having both direct impacts on fertility and neonate mortality and morbidity and also indirect effects through immunosuppression and susceptibility to other infections. Understanding and accounting for BVDV should be an important component of epidemiological studies of other diseases in sub-Saharan Africa.

  13. Seismicity Pattern and Fault Structure in the Central Himalaya Seismic Gap Using Precise Earthquake Hypocenters and their Source Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, M.; Ghosh, A.; Rai, S. S.

    2017-12-01

    The devastation brought on by the Mw 7.8 Gorkha earthquake in Nepal on 25 April 2015, reconditioned people to the high earthquake risk along the Himalayan arc. It is therefore imperative to learn from the Gorkha earthquake, and gain a better understanding of the state of stress in this fault regime, in order to identify areas that could produce the next devastating earthquake. Here, we focus on what is known as the "central Himalaya seismic gap". It is located in Uttarakhand, India, west of Nepal, where a large (> Mw 7.0) earthquake has not occurred for over the past 200 years [Rajendran, C.P., & Rajendran, K., 2005]. This 500 - 800 km long along-strike seismic gap has been poorly studied, mainly due to the lack of modern and dense instrumentation. It is especially concerning since it surrounds densely populated cities, such as New Delhi. In this study, we analyze a rich seismic dataset from a dense network consisting of 50 broadband stations, that operated between 2005 and 2012. We use the STA/LTA filter technique to detect earthquake phases, and the latest tools contributed to the Antelope software environment, to develop a large and robust earthquake catalog containing thousands of precise hypocentral locations, magnitudes, and focal mechanisms. By refining those locations in HypoDD [Waldhauser & Ellsworth, 2000] to form a tighter cluster of events using relative relocation, we can potentially illustrate fault structures in this region with high resolution. Additionally, using ZMAP [Weimer, S., 2001], we perform a variety of statistical analyses to understand the variability and nature of seismicity occurring in the region. Generating a large and consistent earthquake catalog not only brings to light the physical processes controlling the earthquake cycle in an Himalayan seismogenic zone, it also illustrates how stresses are building up along the décollment and the faults that stem from it. With this new catalog, we aim to reveal fault structure, study

  14. Systematic Analysis of Dynamic Earthquake Triggering Using the EarthScope's USArray Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerda, I.; Gonzalez-Huizar, H.; Velasco, A. A.; Kilb, D. L.; Pankow, K. L.

    2011-12-01

    Advances are continually made in our understanding of the physics governing earthquake triggering, yet many questions remain. Here, we investigate if there exists a minimum dynamic stress threshold (i.e., in amplitude, frequency or both) required to trigger remote earthquakes using data collected by >400 stations in EarthScope's USArray Transportable Array (USArray TA) network, supplemented by data from ~100 local seismic network stations when available. We also assess if remote triggering is enhanced if the orientation of the passing seismic waves aligns favorably with the local stress field and/or orientation of faults in the local triggered region. The uniform spacing of the USArray TA stations across the contiguous USA allows us to examine these types of characteristics of remote triggering within a variety of tectonic provinces, background seismicity rates, and within regions of both documented cases of triggered earthquakes and areas of no known triggered earthquakes. Our work focuses on assessing remote triggering capabilities of two teleseismic megatrust events (Japan M=9.0 2011 and Chile M=8.8 2010) and two large regional events (Baja California M=7.2 2010 and Wells Nevada M=6.0 2008). These events provide a range of seismic wave amplitudes and orientations across the footprint of the USArray TA stations. We use the Antelope software to develop an automated detection algorithm that computes the short-term (1 s) average (STA) to long-term (10 s) average (LTA) ratio, which we apply to 5 Hz high pass filtered data. Using a threshold ratio of 3.5 we apply this algorithm to data spanning ±5 hours from the mainshock's P-wave arrival time. We find that for each of our four mainshocks our algorithm nets, on average, hundreds of detections within the 10 hour time windows. Results suggest the orientation of the passing seismic waves can play a role in the high (or low) number of detections in select regions (e.g., western part of Texas), but in other regions there

  15. Detection and Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus in Foods Confiscated in EU Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rodríguez-Lázaro

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential role of the illegal entry of food in UE in the Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA spread. We studied the prevalence and characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA isolated from foods of animal origin confiscated from passengers on flights from 45 non-EU countries from 2012 to 2015 by the Border Authorities at Bilbao International Airport (Spain and Vienna International Airport (Austria, as well as foods from open markets close to EU land borders. Of 868 food samples tested (diverse meat samples including antelope, duck, guinea pig, pork, rodents, turkey, dairy products, and eggs, 136 (15.7% were positive for S. aureus and 26 (3.0% for MRSA. All MRSA strains were mecA-positive. The prevalence of S. aureus-positive dairy samples among food confiscated at Bilbao International Airport was 64.6%, and this airport also had the highest value (11.8% for MRSA-positive samples. The predominant sequence type was ST5 (30.8%, followed by ST8, ST1649, ST1, and other lineages were found to a lesser extent (ST7, ST22, ST72, ST97, and ST398. Six isolates tested positive for luk-PVL genes (SCCmec IV subtypes IVc and IVe. Enterotoxin profiling revealed that 19 MRSA strains were enterotoxigenic, harboring one or more se genes. The MRSA isolates positive for luk-PVL genes were not enterotoxigenic, and none of the isolates tested positive for enterotoxin E. We found 14 resistance profiles, and more than 69% of the MRSA isolates were resistant to three or more types of antimicrobial agents. This finding reveals both the wide diversity of the antimicrobial resistance found in the strains and the capacity to resist not only to beta-lactam drugs. One MRSA strain showed unusual characteristics: it was oxacillin-susceptible, harbored SCCmec V, and was positive for sed, seg, and sej but negative for PVL virulence factors. This study shows the presence of enterotoxigenic HA-, CA-, and LA-MRSA in foods illegally

  16. Strategies, systems, value judgements and dieldrin in control of locust hoppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, D L

    1979-11-20

    The physiology and field biology of locusts have been extensively studied, and ecological control of Red Locusts has been investigated by field experiment. No fruitful or even promising non-insecticidal method of control has emerged. An effective and economical system requires an insecticide that is: (i) effective at very small area dosages, as a stomach poison placed on the natural vegetation can be, if it is also cumulative; (ii) persistent enough in sunshine and rain to retain effectiveness over the locust's non-feeding periods; (iii) capable of being well distributed by well-tried methods; and (iv) not dangerous to users or consumers and posing a minimal overall risk. Only one insecticide, dieldrin, satisfies all these requirements. Dieldrin is not in the small class of insecticides that are dangerous to man by skin absorption (such as parathion, arsenicals, DNC) and, at the area dosages needed for locust control, is not dangerous to stock. The Sayer exhaust sprayer in a Land Rover, with work rates of the order of square kilometres per hour is excellent for many situations; aircraft spraying at he rate of square kilometres per minute is quicker and less subject to difficulties of terrain, but requires trained and appropriately directed aircrew. Apart from checking, aircraft methods require no party on the ground to find, assess and control locust hoppers. Several ideas about dieldrin are found to be based on insufficient evidence and are probably not true: for example that dieldrin in the atmosphere at a few parts in a million million (10(12)) becomes concentrated in a food web and harmful to man, or that dieldrin is carcinogenic in man. It is noteworthy, however, that one species of antelope in South Africa is exceptionally susceptible to dieldrin poisoning, though harm occurs at area dosages considerably greater than are required in the method of aircraft spraying of Courshee & McDonald (1963). To attack tsetse flies, emissions two orders of magnitude greater

  17. Viral diseases of northern ungulates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Frölich

    2000-03-01

    has a multi-factorial etiology. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV can infect deer and many other wild artiodactyls. Moose, roe deer and the saiga antelope (Saiga tatarica are the main hosts of FMDV in the Russian Federation. In addition, serological evidence of a FMD infection without clinical disease was detected in red deer in France. Epizootic haemorrhage disease of deer (EHD and bluetongue (BT are acute non-contagious viral diseases of wild ruminants characterised by extensive haemorrhage. Culicoides insects are the main vectors. EHD and BT only play a minor role in Europe but both diseases are widespread in North America.

  18. ANZA Seismic Network- From Monitoring to Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, F.; Eakin, J.; Martynov, V.; Newman, R.; Offield, G.; Hindley, A.; Astiz, L.

    2007-05-01

    The ANZA Seismic Network (http:eqinfo.ucsd.edu) utilizes broadband and strong motion sensors with 24-bit dataloggers combined with real-time telemetry to monitor local and regional seismicity in southernmost California. The ANZA network provides real-time data to the IRIS DMC, California Integrated Seismic Network (CISN), other regional networks, and the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS), in addition to providing near real-time information and monitoring to the greater San Diego community. Twelve high dynamic range broadband and strong motion sensors adjacent to the San Jacinto Fault zone contribute data for earthquake source studies and continue the monitoring of the seismic activity of the San Jacinto fault initiated 24 years ago. Five additional stations are located in the San Diego region with one more station on San Clemente Island. The ANZA network uses the advance wireless networking capabilities of the NSF High Performance Wireless Research and Education Network (http:hpwren.ucsd.edu) to provide the communication infrastructure for the real-time telemetry of Anza seismic stations. The ANZA network uses the Antelope data acquisition software. The combination of high quality hardware, communications, and software allow for an annual network uptime in excess of 99.5% with a median annual station real-time data return rate of 99.3%. Approximately 90,000 events, dominantly local sources but including regional and teleseismic events, comprise the ANZA network waveform database. All waveform data and event data are managed using the Datascope relational database. The ANZA network data has been used in a variety of scientific research including detailed structure of the San Jacinto Fault Zone, earthquake source physics, spatial and temporal studies of aftershocks, array studies of teleseismic body waves, and array studies on the source of microseisms. To augment the location, detection, and high frequency observations of the seismic source spectrum from local

  19. NASA's Electronic Procurement System and the Impact on Small Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, Ken

    1998-01-01

    Three workshops, held in Lancaster, Orange County and Compton, were produced by the Los Angeles Regional Technology Alliance (LARTA) and NASA Far West Technology Transfer Center (FWRTTC). The workshops were held on December 12, 1997, February 5, 1998, and March 30, 1998, respectively. The purpose behind these workshops was to spread information regarding NASA procurement opportunities to small businesses in the region. This was accomplished by inviting economic and business development organizations to the three workshops, presenting NASA procurement resources to them, and asking them to distribute this information to the small businesses in their communities. With the assistance of LARTA, marketing and publicity in the form of direct mail, telemarketing, and promotion via a web site was implemented to publicize the workshops. These methods were remarkably effective because they enabled the workshops to attain its full capacity. Further publicity was provided by Wendy Reed of Valley Focus Magazine, an Antelope Valley Magazine aimed at business people. Her article entitled, "Doing Business with the Government" recapped the Lancaster workshop that she had attended and made references to several presentations. In the article, she discussed selling to the government via electronic commerce, and specifically mentioned Robert Medina, the NASA Dryden Small Business Specialist, as a contact person for those interested in pursuing procurement opportunities. The feedback provided by the participants is illustrated by the enclosed graphs and charts. These figures represent the number of participants who have frequented web sites presented at workshops, specifically the NASA procurement resources, and how extensive information dissemination was. Input from participants was favorable and encouraged more NASA Dryden workshops directly to the small business communities. There was an overwhelming response to the benefit of the NASA procurement opportunities presented at the

  20. Radial ooids from Great Salt Lake (Utah) as paleoenvironmental archives: Insights from radiocarbon chronology and stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, O. P.; Corsetti, F. A.; Bardsley, A.; Hammond, D. E.; Xu, X.; Walker, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    Ooids (laminated, carbonate coated grains) are ubiquitous in the geologic record in marine and lacustrine settings, and thus remain a common target for geochemical analysis to understand modern and ancient aqueous environments. However, the processes governing ooid formation remain unclear. Recently, radiocarbon dating has revealed that modern marine ooids grow slowly (Beaupre et al. 2015), and laboratory experiments have highlighted the importance of sediment transport and abrasion on net growth rates and ooid size (Trower et al. 2017). Ooid cortex structure includes micritic, tangential and/or radially oriented fabrics. Most modern marine ooids have tangential or micritic cortices, whereas many ancient ooids have radial cortices—thus, there is a need to understand how radial ooids in ancient rocks might inform us about their depositional environment. The Great Salt Lake (GSL), Utah, provides a unique environment to assess the growth rate of primary radial aragonitic ooids. Ooids collected near Antelope Island in the south arm of GSL were sieved, the 355-500 µm fraction was sequentially leached, and 14C of the evolved gas was analyzed to provide a time series of growth. The oldest inorganic carbon of this size fraction has an apparent 14C age of 6600 yr BP, with subsequent growth spanning over 6,000 years. Closed-basin lakes are particularly susceptible to a "reservoir effect" which results in anomalously old apparent radiocarbon ages. The 14C age of the modern dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) of the south arm was measured to be 295 yr BP, a reservoir age comparable to estimates from lacustrine cave carbonates (McGee et al. 2012). Net growth rate of south arm ooids ranges between 0.01-0.025 µm per year. The δ13C of the outermost cortex suggests that the ooids resemble the modern DIC in the south arm water, suggesting ooids precipitate in equilibrium with lake water. Finer-scale structure in the δ13C of the ooid cortex through time suggests lake level changed

  1. Phylogenetic reconstruction and the identification of ancient polymorphism in the Bovini tribe (Bovidae, Bovinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacEachern Sean

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Bovinae subfamily incorporates an array of antelope, buffalo and cattle species. All of the members of this subfamily have diverged recently. Not surprisingly, a number of phylogenetic studies from molecular and morphological data have resulted in ambiguous trees and relationships amongst species, especially for Yak and Bison species. A partial phylogenetic reconstruction of 13 extant members of the Bovini tribe (Bovidae, Bovinae from 15 complete or partially sequenced autosomal genes is presented. Results We identified 3 distinct lineages after the Bovini split from the Boselaphini and Tragelaphini tribes, which has lead to the (1 Buffalo clade (Bubalus and Syncerus species and a more recent divergence leading to the (2 Banteng, Gaur and Mithan and (3 Domestic cattle clades. A fourth lineage may also exist that leads to Bison and Yak. However, there was some ambiguity as to whether this was a divergence from the Banteng/Gaur/Mithan or the Domestic cattle clade. From an analysis of approximately 30,000 sites that were amplified in all species 133 sites were identified with ambiguous inheritance, in that all trees implied more than one mutation at the same site. Closer examination of these sites has identified that they are the result of ancient polymorphisms that have subsequently undergone lineage sorting in the Bovini tribe, of which 53 have remained polymorphic since Bos and Bison species last shared a common ancestor with Bubalus between 5–8 million years ago (MYA. Conclusion Uncertainty arises in our phylogenetic reconstructions because many species in the Bovini diverged over a short period of time. It appears that a number of sites with ambiguous inheritance have been maintained in subsequent populations by chance (lineage sorting and that they have contributed to an association between Yak and Domestic cattle and an unreliable phylogenetic reconstruction for the Bison/Yak clade. Interestingly, a number of these

  2. Facilitating the recovery of natural evergreen forests in South Africa via invader plant stands

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    Coert J. Geldenhuys

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to general belief, planted and naturalized stands of introduced species facilitate the recovery of natural evergreen forests and their diversity. Forest rehabilitation actions are often performed at great cost: mature forest species are planted, while species with adaptations to recover effectively and quickly after severe disturbance are ignored; or stands are cleared of invasive alien species before native tree species are planted. By contrast, cost-effective commercial plantation forestry systems generally use fast-growing pioneer tree species introduced from other natural forest regions. Such planted tree stands often facilitate the recovery of shade-tolerant native forest species. This paper provides a brief overview of disturbance-recovery processes at landscape level, and how pioneer stands of both native and introduced tree species develop from monocultures to diverse mature forest communities. It uses one example of a study of how natural forest species from small forest patches of 3 ha in total invaded a 90-ha stand of the invasive Black wattle, Acacia mearnsii, over a distance of 3.1 ha at Swellendam near Cape Town, South Africa. The study recorded 329 forest species clusters across the wattle stand: more large clusters closer to and more smaller clusters further away from natural forest patches. The 28 recorded forest species (of potentially 40 species in the surrounding forest patches included 79% tree and 21% shrub species. Colonizing forest species had mostly larger fleshy fruit and softer small seeds, and were dispersed by mostly birds and primate species. Maturing forest trees within developing clusters in the wattle stand became a source for forest regeneration away from the clusters, showing different expansion patterns. Four sets of fenced-unfenced plots in the wattle stand showed the impact of browsing by livestock, antelope, rodents and insects on the successful establishment of regenerating forest species, and the

  3. Phylogenetic reconstruction and the identification of ancient polymorphism in the Bovini tribe (Bovidae, Bovinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacEachern, Sean; McEwan, John; Goddard, Mike

    2009-04-24

    The Bovinae subfamily incorporates an array of antelope, buffalo and cattle species. All of the members of this subfamily have diverged recently. Not surprisingly, a number of phylogenetic studies from molecular and morphological data have resulted in ambiguous trees and relationships amongst species, especially for Yak and Bison species. A partial phylogenetic reconstruction of 13 extant members of the Bovini tribe (Bovidae, Bovinae) from 15 complete or partially sequenced autosomal genes is presented. We identified 3 distinct lineages after the Bovini split from the Boselaphini and Tragelaphini tribes, which has lead to the (1) Buffalo clade (Bubalus and Syncerus species) and a more recent divergence leading to the (2) Banteng, Gaur and Mithan and (3) Domestic cattle clades. A fourth lineage may also exist that leads to Bison and Yak. However, there was some ambiguity as to whether this was a divergence from the Banteng/Gaur/Mithan or the Domestic cattle clade. From an analysis of approximately 30,000 sites that were amplified in all species 133 sites were identified with ambiguous inheritance, in that all trees implied more than one mutation at the same site. Closer examination of these sites has identified that they are the result of ancient polymorphisms that have subsequently undergone lineage sorting in the Bovini tribe, of which 53 have remained polymorphic since Bos and Bison species last shared a common ancestor with Bubalus between 5-8 million years ago (MYA). Uncertainty arises in our phylogenetic reconstructions because many species in the Bovini diverged over a short period of time. It appears that a number of sites with ambiguous inheritance have been maintained in subsequent populations by chance (lineage sorting) and that they have contributed to an association between Yak and Domestic cattle and an unreliable phylogenetic reconstruction for the Bison/Yak clade. Interestingly, a number of these aberrant sites are in coding sections of the genome

  4. Modern wildlife conservation initiatives and the pastoralist/hunter nomads of northwestern Tibet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph L. Fox

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available In 1993 the Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR of China established the 300 000 km2 Chang Tang Nature Preserve on the northwestern Tibetan plateau, an action precipitated by rapidly diminishing populations of chiru (Tibetan antelope and wild yak. Some 30 000 nomadic pastoralists use areas within this reserve for livestock grazing, with many having traditionally depended in part on hunting for supplementary subsistence and trade. Following a 1997 request from TAR leaders for international assistance in addressing the conservation issues associated with the creation of this reserve, the TAR Forestry Bureau and the Network for University Co-operation Tibet — Norway began a 3-year research collaboration program in 2000 to outline human-wildlife interactions and conservation priorities in the western part of the reserve. To date, four excursions (2-6 weeks each have been made to the western Chang Tang region, and investigations of interactions between pastoralists and wildlife conservation objectives have been initiated in an area of about 5000 km2, including the 2300 km2 Aru basin located at 5000 m elevation at the northern edge of pastoralist inhabitation. The Aru site is unique in that nomads have only recently returned to this previously off-limits basin. But, as in surrounding areas, the people's lives are undergoing changes recently influenced by the introduction of permanent winter houses, changing international trade in shahtoosh and cashmere wool, and a move towards stricter hunting regulations. The northwestern Chang Tang, with the Aru basin as a prime site, represents one of the last strongholds of the endangered chiru and wild yak, as well as home to Tibetan gazelle, kiang, Tibetan argali, blue sheep, wolf, snow leopard and brown bear. In autumn 2000, for example, with approximately 12 000 of the wild ungulates (mostly the migratory chiru within the Aru basin along with some 8000 domestic livestock, issues of land use overlap and possible

  5. Enhancing Carbon Reactivity in Mercury Control in Lignite-Fired Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chad Wocken; Michael Holmes; John Pavlish; Jeffrey Thompson; Katie Brandt; Brandon Pavlish; Dennis Laudal; Kevin Galbreath; Michelle Olderbak

    2008-06-30

    This project was awarded through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory Program Solicitation DE-PS26-03NT41718-01. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) led a consortium-based effort to resolve mercury (Hg) control issues facing the lignite industry. The EERC team-the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); the URS Corporation; the Babcock & Wilcox Company; ADA-ES; Apogee; Basin Electric Power Cooperative; Otter Tail Power Company; Great River Energy; Texas Utilities; Montana-Dakota Utilities Co.; Minnkota Power Cooperative, Inc.; BNI Coal Ltd.; Dakota Westmoreland Corporation; the North American Coal Corporation; SaskPower; and the North Dakota Industrial Commission-demonstrated technologies that substantially enhanced the effectiveness of carbon sorbents to remove Hg from western fuel combustion gases and achieve a high level ({ge} 55% Hg removal) of cost-effective control. The results of this effort are applicable to virtually all utilities burning lignite and subbituminous coals in the United States and Canada. The enhancement processes were previously proven in pilot-scale and limited full-scale tests. Additional optimization testing continues on these enhancements. These four units included three lignite-fired units: Leland Olds Station Unit 1 (LOS1) and Stanton Station Unit 10 (SS10) near Stanton and Antelope Valley Station Unit 1 (AVS1) near Beulah and a subbituminous Powder River Basin (PRB)-fired unit: Stanton Station Unit 1 (SS1). This project was one of three conducted by the consortium under the DOE mercury program to systematically test Hg control technologies available for utilities burning lignite. The overall objective of the three projects was to field-test and verify options that may be applied cost-effectively by the lignite industry to reduce Hg emissions. The EERC, URS, and other team members tested sorbent injection technologies for plants equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and

  6. OGS improvements in the year 2011 in running the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragato, P. L.; Pesaresi, D.; Saraò, A.; Di Bartolomeo, P.; Durı, G.

    2012-04-01

    The Centro di Ricerche Sismologiche (CRS, Seismological Research Center) of the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS, Italian National Institute for Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics) in Udine (Italy) after the strong earthquake of magnitude M=6.4 occurred in 1976 in the Italian Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, started to operate the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network: it currently consists of 15 very sensitive broad band and 21 simpler short period seismic stations, all telemetered to and acquired in real time at the OGS-CRS data center in Udine. Real time data exchange agreements in place with other Italian, Slovenian, Austrian and Swiss seismological institutes lead to a total number of about 100 seismic stations acquired in real time, which makes the OGS the reference institute for seismic monitoring of Northeastern Italy. Since 2002 OGS-CRS is using the Antelope software suite on several workstations plus a SUN Cluster as the main tool for collecting, analyzing, archiving and exchanging seismic data, initially in the framework of the EU Interreg IIIA project "Trans-national seismological networks in the South-Eastern Alps". SeisComP is also used as a real time data exchange server tool. In order to improve the seismological monitoring of the Northeastern Italy area, at OGS-CRS we tuned existing programs and created ad hoc ones like: a customized web server named PickServer to manually relocate earthquakes, a script for automatic moment tensor determination, scripts for web publishing of earthquake parametric data, waveforms, state of health parameters and shaking maps, noise characterization by means of automatic spectra analysis, and last but not least scripts for email/SMS/fax alerting. The OGS-CRS Real Time Seismological website (RTS, http://rts.crs.inogs.it/) operative since several years was initially developed in the framework of the Italian DPC-INGV S3 Project: the RTS website shows classic earthquake locations

  7. Variation in mitochondrial minichromosome composition between blood-sucking lice of the genus Haematopinus that infest horses and pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Simon D; Barker, Stephen C; Shao, Renfu

    2014-03-31

    The genus Haematopinus contains 21 species of blood-sucking lice, parasitizing both even-toed ungulates (pigs, cattle, buffalo, antelopes, camels and deer) and odd-toed ungulates (horses, donkeys and zebras). The mitochondrial genomes of the domestic pig louse, Haematopinus suis, and the wild pig louse, Haematopinus apri, have been sequenced recently; both lice have fragmented mitochondrial genomes with 37 genes on nine minichromosomes. To understand whether the composition of mitochondrial minichromosomes and the gene content and gene arrangement of each minichromosome are stable within the genus, we sequenced the mitochondrial genome of the horse louse, Haematopinus asini. We used a PCR-based strategy to amplify four mitochondrial minichromosomes in near full-length, and then amplify the entire coding regions of all of the nine mitochondrial minichromosomes of the horse louse. These amplicons were sequenced with an Illumina Hiseq platform. We identified all of the 37 mitochondrial genes typical of bilateral animals in the horse louse, Haematopinus asini; these genes are on nine circular minichromosomes. Each minichromosome is 3.5-5.0 kb in size and consists of a coding region and a non-coding region except R-nad4L-rrnS-C minichromosome, which contains two coding regions and two non-coding regions. Six of the nine minichromosomes of the horse louse have their counterparts in the pig lice with the same gene content and gene arrangement. However, the gene content and arrangement of the other three minichromosomes of the horse louse, including R-nad4L-rrnS-C, are different from that of the other three minichromosomes of the pig lice. Comparison between the horse louse and the pig lice revealed variation in the composition of mitochondrial minichromosomes within the genus Haematopinus, which can be accounted for by gene translocation events between minichromosomes. The current study indicates that inter-minichromosome recombination plays a major role in generating the

  8. Foods confiscated from non-EU flights as a neglected route of potential methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Lázaro, David; Ariza-Miguel, Jaime; Diez-Valcarce, Marta; Fernández-Natal, Isabel; Hernández, Marta; Rovira, Jordi

    2015-09-16

    The emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in food-producing animals has provoked a great concern in the presence of MRSA in associated foodstuff. In this study, we have assessed for the first time the presence of MRSA in food confiscated from non-EU flights. We performed a search for MRSA among 195 food samples confiscated from passengers on flights from twenty-one non-EU countries in 2012 and 2013. One hundred and seventeen meat samples of diverse animal origin (including antelope, beef, chicken, duck, guinea pig, pork, rodents, and turkey), 75 dairy products (74 cheeses and 1 butter) and 3 eggs were analyzed. All S. aureus were studied by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. MRSA isolates were further characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), SCCmec typing, and tested for the presence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) virulence factors. Overall, 66 food samples were positive for S. aureus (33.9%). Six S. aureus strains were MRSA (9.1%), all of them in flights from Bolivia (and 5 from the same passenger). Among methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) (60 out of 66S. aureus strains), 44.1% were resistant to penicillin, 10.2% to tetracycline, 8.5% were resistant to aminoglycosides (amikacin and tobramycin) and 3.4% exhibited the M phenotype. MRSA isolates were sensitive to all non-β-lactam antibiotics tested. SmaI-PFGE analysis provided 40 genotypes among the S. aureus isolates (three genotypes among the six MRSA). Five MRSA isolates belonged to ST8 and harboured SCCmec type IVc as well as PVL genes. One isolate belonged to ST1649, harboured SCCmec type IVc and tested negative for the presence of the PVL genes. In conclusion, in this study, we report for the first time the presence of CA-MRSA in food confiscated from non-EU flights: ST8/ST1649-MRSA-IV. These results confirm the illegal entrance of food as a neglected route of transmission as well as the dissemination of successful CA

  9. Water Budgets of the Walker River Basin and Walker Lake, California and Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Thomas J.; Allander, Kip K.

    2009-01-01

    The Walker River is the main source of inflow to Walker Lake, a closed-basin lake in west-central Nevada. The only outflow from Walker Lake is evaporation from the lake surface. Between 1882 and 2008, upstream agricultural diversions resulted in a lake-level decline of more than 150 feet and storage loss of 7,400,000 acre-feet. Evaporative concentration increased dissolved solids from 2,500 to 17,000 milligrams per liter. The increase in salinity threatens the survival of the Lahontan cutthroat trout, a native species listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. This report describes streamflow in the Walker River basin and an updated water budget of Walker Lake with emphasis on the lower Walker River basin downstream from Wabuska, Nevada. Water budgets are based on average annual flows for a 30-year period (1971-2000). Total surface-water inflow to the upper Walker River basin upstream from Wabuska was estimated to be 387,000 acre-feet per year (acre-ft/yr). About 223,000 acre-ft/yr (58 percent) is from the West Fork of the Walker River; 145,000 acre-ft/yr (37 percent) is from the East Fork of the Walker River; 17,000 acre-ft/yr (4 percent) is from the Sweetwater Range; and 2,000 acre-ft/yr (less than 1 percent) is from the Bodie Mountains, Pine Grove Hills, and western Wassuk Range. Outflow from the upper Walker River basin is 138,000 acre-ft/yr at Wabuska. About 249,000 acre-ft/yr (64 percent) of inflow is diverted for irrigation, transpired by riparian vegetation, evaporates from lakes and reservoirs, and recharges alluvial aquifers. Stream losses in Antelope, Smith, and Bridgeport Valleys are due to evaporation from reservoirs and agricultural diversions with negligible stream infiltration or riparian evapotranspiration. Diversion rates in Antelope and Smith Valleys were estimated to be 3.0 feet per year (ft/yr) in each valley. Irrigated fields receive an additional 0.8 ft of precipitation, groundwater pumpage, or both for a total applied-water rate

  10. The man and the hill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Luna Bergere

    1962-01-01

    He was sitting on a large slab of rock. As he looked at the cloud of dust hanging hazily on the horizon, the piece of antler and the block of flint he held in his hand hung as if they were suspended from their previous rapid motion. The man gazed intently across the swaying grass which rose in wave-like billows across the distant hills. What was that dust - a herd of buffalo, a band of hunters, or were coyotes chasing the antelope again? After watching for a while he started again to chip the flint with a rapid twisting motion of the bone in his right hand. The little chips of flint fell in the grass before him. It is the same hill but the scene has changed. Seated on the same rock, holding the reins of a saddle horse, a man dressed in buckskin took the fur cap off his head and wiped his brow. He was looking intently across a brown and desolate landscape at a cloud of dust on the far horizon. Was it the hostile tribe of Indians? It could be buffalo. Nervously he kicked at the ground with the deerhide moccasin, pushing the flint chips out of the way. He wiped the dust from his long rifle. What a terrible place - no water, practically no grass, everything bare and brown. Now at sunset, slanting across the hills green with springtime, a cowman sits on a big rock, pushes his sombrero back on his head, and looks across the valley at a large but quiet herd of stock, moving slowly as each steer walks from one lush patch of grass to another, nibbling. Suddenly he stood up. Far on the horizon some dark objects were moving. Is it the sheepmen? Could it be the stage coach from Baggs to the Sweetwater Crossing?Same hill - a gray truck was grinding slowly toward the summit. It pulled up near a small fenced enclosure where there were some instruments painted a bright silver color. A man stepped out of the truck and turned to his younger companion, "You've never found an arrowhead? Maybe you have never thought about it correctly. If you want to find where an Indian camped long

  11. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 408: Bomblet Target Area Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Krauss

    2010-09-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 408: Bomblet Target Area (TTR), Tonopah Test Range, Nevada. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management. Corrective Action Unit 408 is located at the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, and consists of Corrective Action Site (CAS) TA-55-002-TAB2, Bomblet Target Areas. This CAS includes the following seven target areas: • Mid Target • Flightline Bomblet Location • Strategic Air Command (SAC) Target Location 1 • SAC Target Location 2 • South Antelope Lake • Tomahawk Location 1 • Tomahawk Location 2 The purpose of this CR is to provide documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and data confirming that the closure objectives for the CAS within CAU 408 were met. To achieve this, the following actions were performed: • Review the current site conditions, including the concentration and extent of contamination. • Implement any corrective actions necessary to protect human health and the environment. • Properly dispose of corrective action and investigation wastes. • Document Notice of Completion and closure of CAU 408 issued by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. From July 2009 through August 2010, closure activities were performed as set forth in the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for CAU 408: Bomblet Target Area, Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. The purposes of the activities as defined during the data quality objectives process were as follows: • Identify and remove munitions of explosive concern (MEC) associated with DOE activities. • Investigate potential disposal pit locations. • Remove depleted uranium-contaminated fragments and soil. • Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are

  12. The Book as a “Contact Zone” - Textualizing Orality in James Welch’s Fools Crow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tea Bartulović

    2011-12-01

    Owens’s statement that “contemporary Native American authors are requiring that the readers cross over the conceptual horizon into an Indian world” (20. Right at the beginning, it invites a number of conceptual turns necessary for its understanding and interpretation. Blackfeet expressions and literal translations of words and concepts from the Pikuni culture blend with English sentences, making the novel a linguistic and conceptual amalgam. With no glossary provided, the text forces the reader to acquire the words like Napikwans (white settlers, blackhorn (buffalo, prairie runner (antelope, skunk ear (wolverine, ears-far-apart (owl, elk dog (horse, and accede to an anthropomorphic worldview in which swift silver people (fish and the deities – Night Red Light (moon, Sun Chief (sun, Seven Persons (a constellation, Earth Mother and Wind Maker – are an integral part of human and earthly events. Throughout the novel, Pikuni words and cosmology continue to suppress Western ones, proving Onion’s thesis that, by inserting Pikuni words, Welch not only translates and mediates between cultures, but also creates a contact zone, invoking and affirming Blackfeet worldview (cf. Onion.

  13. The IRIS DMC: Perspectives on Real-Time Data Management and Open Access From a Large Seismological Archive: Challenges, Tools, and Quality Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, R. B.

    2007-05-01

    current, tools for evaluating and viewing them, along with measuring and creating databases of other performance metrics and how monitoring them closer to real- time helps reduce operation costs, creates a richer repository, and eliminates problems over generations of duty cycles of data usage. I will describe a new resource, called the Nominal Response Library, which hopes to provide accurate and representative examples of sensor and data logger configurations that are hosted at the DMC and constitute a high-graded subset for crafting your own metadata. Finally, I want to encourage all network operators who do not currently submit SEED format data to an archive to consider these benefits, and briefly discuss how robust transfer mechanisms that include Earthworm, LISS, Antelope, NRTS and SeisComp, to name a few, can assist you in contributing your network data and help create this enabling virtual network of networks. In this era of high performance Internet capacity, the process that enables others to share your data and allows you to utilize external sources of data is nearly seamless with your current mission of network operation.

  14. An EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, M.; Anderson, G.; Blume, F.; Walls, C.; Coyle, B.; Feaux, K.; Friesen, B.; Phillips, D.; Hafner, K.; Johnson, W.; Mencin, D.; Pauk, B.; Dittmann, T.

    2007-12-01

    rate data, with special downloads of more than 250 GB of high-rate GPS data following large earthquakes in Russia, Tonga, and Peru, as well as for community requests. The standard rate GPS data are processed routinely to generate data products including station position time series, velocity vectors, and related information, and all data products are available from the UNAVCO Facility archive. The PBO seismic network seismic network has provided 201 GB of raw data, which are available via Antelope and Earthworm from PBO and via the IRIS Data Management Center (DMC); we provide data to seismic networks operated from Caltech, UCSD, UCSB, University of Washington, and the Pacific Geosciences Center in Sidney, BC. The PBO strainmeter network has provided 93 GB of raw data, available in both raw native format and SEED format from the Northern California Earthquake Data Center and the IRIS DMC, along with higher-level products such as cleaned strain time series and related information. Please visit http://pboweb.unavco.org/gps_data and http://pboweb.unavco.org/strain_data for more information on PBO GPS and strainmeter/seismic data products, respectively.

  15. Seismic calibration shots conducted in 2009 in the Imperial Valley, southern California, for the Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Janice; Goldman, Mark; Fuis, Gary; Rymer, Michael; Sickler, Robert; Miller, Summer; Butcher, Lesley; Ricketts, Jason; Criley, Coyn; Stock, Joann; Hole, John; Chavez, Greg

    2011-01-01

    .9 Whittier Narrows earthquakes. The project also succeeded in determining the depths and seismic-velocity distributions of several sedimentary basins, including the Los Angeles Basin, San Fernando Valley, and Antelope Valley. These results advanced our ability to understand and assess earthquake hazards in the Los Angeles region. In order to facilitate permitting and planning for the data collection phase of SSIP, in June of 2009 we set off calibration shots and recorded the seismic data with a variety of instruments at varying distances. We also exposed sections of buried clay drainage pipe near the shot points to determine the effect of seismic energy on the pipes. Clay drainage pipes are used by the irrigation districts in both the Coachella and Imperial Valleys to prevent ponding and remove salts and irrigation water. This report chronicles the calibration project. We present new near-source velocity data that are used to test the regression curves that were determined for the LARSE project. These curves are used to create setback tables to determine explosive charge size and for placement of shot points. We also found that our shots did not damage the irrigation pipes and that the ODEX drilling system did well in the clay rich soils of the Imperial Valley.

  16. Characterization of Oxy-combustion Impacts in Existing Coal-fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley Adams; Andrew Fry; Constance Senior; Hong Shim; Huafeng Wang; Jost Wendt; Christopher Shaddix

    2009-06-30

    fouling mechanisms in coal-fired power plants to understand key issues influencing these deposition regimes and infer their behavior under oxy-fired conditions. Based on the results of this survey, an algorithm for integrating slagging predictions into CFD models was outlined. This method accounts for ash formation, particle impaction and sticking, deposit growth and physical properties and impact of the deposit on system flow and heat transfer. A model for fouling in the back pass has also been identified which includes vaporization of sodium, deposition of sodium sulfate on fly ash particles and tube surfaces, and deposit growth rate on tubes. In Year 1, REI has also performed a review of the literature describing corrosion in order to understand the behavior of oxidation, sulfidation, chloridation, and carburization mechanisms in air-fired and oxy-combustion systems. REI and Vattenfall have met and exchanged information concerning oxy-coal combustion mechanisms for CFD simulations currently used by Vattenfall. In preparation for Year 2 of this program, two coals (North Antelope PRB, Western bituminous) have been ordered, pulverized and delivered to the University of Utah and Sandia National Labs. Materials for the corrosion experiments have been identified, suppliers located, and a schedule for equipment fabrication and shakedown has been established. Finally, a flue gas recycle system has been designed and is being constructed for the OFC.

  17. Romanian complex data center for dense seismic network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Ionescu

    2011-04-01

    792.0pt; margin:72.0pt 72.0pt 72.0pt 72.0pt; mso-header-margin:36.0pt; mso-footer-margin:36.0pt; mso-paper-source:0;} div.Section1 {page:Section1;} --> In 2002, the National Institute for Earth Physics started the development of its own real-time digital seismic network. This now consists of 86 seismic stations, of which 32 are broad-band sensors, 52 stations are equipped with short-period sensors, and two seismic arrays, all of which transmit data in real time to the National Data Center (NDC and the Eforie Nord (EFOR seismic observatory. EFOR is the back-up for the NDC, and it is also a monitoring center for Black Sea tsunamis. The seismic stations are equipped with Quanterra Q330 and K2 digitizers, broad-band seismometers (STS2, CMG40T, CMG 3ESP, CMG3T and Episensor Kinemetrics acceleration sensors (±2g. SeedLink is a part of Seiscomp2.5 and Antelope, which are the software packages used for data acquisition in real time and data exchange. Communication from the digital seismic stations to the NDC in Bucharest and EFOR is assured by five providers (GPRS, VPN, satellite, radio and internet. AntelopeTM 4.11 is used for acquisition and data processing at these two data centers for the reception and processing of the data, which runs on two

  18. Incentivizing Monitoring and Compliance in Trophy Hunting

    Science.gov (United States)

    BUNNEFELD, NILS; EDWARDS, CHARLES T T; ATICKEM, ANAGAW; HAILU, FETENE; MILNER-GULLAND, E J

    2014-01-01

    Conservation scientists are increasingly focusing on the drivers of human behavior and on the implications of various sources of uncertainty for management decision making. Trophy hunting has been suggested as a conservation tool because it gives economic value to wildlife, but recent examples show that overharvesting is a substantial problem and that data limitations are rife. We use a case study of trophy hunting of an endangered antelope, the mountain nyala (Tragelaphus buxtoni), to explore how uncertainties generated by population monitoring and poaching interact with decision making by 2 key stakeholders: the safari companies and the government. We built a management strategy evaluation model that encompasses the population dynamics of mountain nyala, a monitoring model, and a company decision making model. We investigated scenarios of investment into antipoaching and monitoring by governments and safari companies. Harvest strategy was robust to the uncertainty in the population estimates obtained from monitoring, but poaching had a much stronger effect on quota and sustainability. Hence, reducing poaching is in the interests of companies wishing to increase the profitability of their enterprises, for example by engaging community members as game scouts. There is a threshold level of uncertainty in the population estimates beyond which the year-to-year variation in the trophy quota prevented planning by the safari companies. This suggests a role for government in ensuring that a baseline level of population monitoring is carried out such that this level is not exceeded. Our results illustrate the importance of considering the incentives of multiple stakeholders when designing frameworks for resource use and when designing management frameworks to address the particular sources of uncertainty that affect system sustainability most heavily. Incentivando el Monitoreo y el Cumplimiento en la Caza de Trofeos Resumen Científicos conservacionistas cada vez se

  19. VIth World Congress on Science and Football, Book of Abstracts, January 16-20, 2007, Antalya, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-02-01

    and shooting but each of the football codes has its own unique skills. From Ronaldhinho's "elastico" (stretching an opponent one way and pass him on the other at top speed to Zidane's "roulette" (360-degree turn at high-speed to dribble past an opponent watching the game is more exciting than any other entertainment on the planet. The average number of viewers that watched the 2002 World Cup final exceeded 1.3 billion; the Superbowl final later this month and the Rugby Union World Cup in September 2007 will be watched live worldwide. Isn't there a passion involved; a passion that expands from the suburbs of Rio de Janeiro to the ivory league of the rich? Scientists cannot control all the variables involved but may measure the social, psychological and physical strength of the players. Still a trainer armed with information may go through the challenge with small and/or no losses.The profound beauty of football in any of its codes lies in the fact that football requires power, accuracy and coordination. Unlimited options are assessed, decisions are taken and action is conducted in less than seconds during the course of every game whether it is played in a street or in a stadium that holds hundred thousands. This is not only done by "the black antelopes" of Angola but also by children of age five to veteran adult players of 75 years. The scale of association football, for example, is evident in more than 200 nations; Federation Internationale de Football Association (FIFA has 207 members as of 2006 whereas United Nations has 191 members: Involvement of a natural instinct!Preventing injuries by training is equally important as the Brazilian samba, the German and Japanese efficiency, the Italian defence and the English fast players. Social and psychological aspects are apparent at world cups, whether soccer, rugby league or rugby union. Besides those who stock their food and beverage at home throughout the month of games, many others can easily find a seat in their

  20. Geological report on water conditions at Platt National Park, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Charles Newton; Schoff, Stuart Leeson

    1939-01-01

    drilled to a depth of between 450 and 500 feet in which artesian water has been secured. These wells are said to flow 200,000 gallons each per day.' I also say: 'From a study of the log of one of these wells, it appears that the artesian water is derived from the upper part of the Simpson sandstone. It is very probable that the water of the springs is derived from the same source.' This early was recognized the relation between the water from the mineral springs and that from the artesian wells. As the years have passed, other wells have been drilled in the town of Sulphur, chiefly to supply water for mineral baths and for swimming pools, so that to date more than 30 wells have been drilled. The exact number is not known. The custom has usually been to turn the wells loose and permit them to flow at full capacity, although some of the wells have been 'valved in' and the flow reduced. An estimate furnished me by the Secretary of the Chamber of Commerce in 1937, referred to later in this report, indicated that at that time 16 wells were flowing approximately 28,800,000 gallons of water per day, practically all of which ran to waste. For many years geologists in Oklahoma and elsewhere have watched this unrestricted waste of water from the artesian wells at Sulphur with growing concern. Remembering the history of other artesian basins throughout the world, these geologists believed that in all probability it was only a question of time until the water in the Sulphur artesian basin would begin to fail. On two different occasions the State Geologist of Oklahoma, bearing these conditions in mind, has prepared and had introduced into the State Legislature a bill which, if enacted into law, would have regulated the flow of water in artesian wells throughout the State. Both bills died in committee. Partly on account of the drought of the past three years, the matter has been brought to a head. In September 1938, Buffalo and Antelope Springs at the hea

  1. In-situ arsenic removal during groundwater recharge through unsaturated alluvium

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, David; Izbicki, John; T.J. Kim,; Clark Ajawani,; Suarez, Donald; Barnes, Thomas; Thomas Kulp,; Burgess, Matthew K.; Tseng, Iwen

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility and sustainability of in-situ removal of arsenic from water infiltrated through unsaturated alluvium. BACKGROUND Arsenic is naturally present in aquifers throughout the southwestern United States and elsewhere. In January 2006, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) lowered the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for arsenic from 50 to 10 micrograms per liter (g/L). This raised concerns about naturally-occurring arsenic in groundwater. Although commercially available systems using sorbent iron or aluminum oxide resins are available to treat high-arsenic water, these systems are expensive to build and operate, and may generate hazardous waste. Iron and aluminum oxides occur naturally on the surfaces of mineral grains that compose alluvial aquifers. In areas where alluvial deposits are unsaturated, these oxides may sorb arsenic in the same manner as commercial resins, potentially providing an effective low-cost alternative to commercially engineered treatment systems. APPROACH The Antelope Valley within the Mojave Desert of southern California contains a shallow water-table aquifer with arsenic concentrations of 5 g/L, and a deeper aquifer with arsenic concentrations of 30 g/L. Water was pumped from the deep aquifer into a pond and infiltrated through an 80 m-thick unsaturated zone as part of field-scale and laboratory experiments to treat high-arsenic groundwater and recharge the shallow water table aquifer at the site. The field-scale recharge experiment included the following steps: 1) construction of a recharge pond 2) test drilling for sample collection and instrument installation adjacent to the pond 3) monitoring downward migration of water infiltrated from the pond 4) monitoring changes in selected trace-element concentrations as water infiltrated through the unsaturated zone Data from instruments within the borehole adjacent to the pond were supplemented with borehole and

  2. Pleistocene glaciation of the Jackson Hole area, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Kenneth L.; Licciardi, Joseph M.; Good, John M.; Jaworowski, Cheryl

    2018-01-24

    bouldery moraines that commonly enclose lakes. On the southern margin of the GYGS, prominent glacial outwash terraces define three phases of the Pinedale glaciation in Jackson Hole: Pinedale-1 (Pd-1) by Antelope Flats with subdued channel patterns on the east side of Jackson Hole; Pinedale-2 (Pd-2) by a large outwash fan that includes Baseline Flat on the west side of Jackson Hole with well-defined channel patterns; and Pinedale-3 (Pd-3) by The Potholes and other outwash fans farther up the Snake River in central Jackson Hole. During Pinedale glaciation, three glacial lobes of the GYGS fed into Jackson Hole, and the relative importance of these lobes changed dramatically through time. During the Pd-1 glaciation, the eastern Buffalo Fork lobe dominated whereas in Pd-2 and Pd-3 time the northern Snake River lobe dominated. This is consistent with migration of the GYGS center of ice mass westward and southward as glaciers built up towards the moisture source provided by storms moving northeastward up the eastern Snake River Plain. The recession of the eastern Buffalo Fork lobe in Pd-2 and Pd-3 times is consistent with an enlarged ice mass on the Yellowstone Plateau that placed the eastern part of the GYGS in a precipitation or snow shadow.In Pd-1 time, the Buffalo Fork lobe reached its maximum extent and was joined by the Pacific Creek lobe. This culmination may correlate with the ~21–18 ka ages of moraines in the Teton Range and nearby ranges. Three subdivisions of Pd-1 glaciation built moraines that are nearly or entirely covered by outwash almost 100 meters thick. In Pd-2 time, the Snake River lobe joined with the Pacific Creek lobe and built a large outwash fan south of the present-day Jackson Lake. Boulders on a moraine at the head of this fan are dated to 15.5 ± 0.5 ka. The relation between Teton glaciers and those of the GYGS is indicated by outwash from these Pd-2 moraines that partly buries outer Jenny Lake moraines dated to 15.2 ± 0.7 ka. East of the large