WorldWideScience

Sample records for antelopes

  1. Running a seismic data center with Antelope at ZAMG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Nikolaus

    2010-05-01

    Beeing one one of the first customers of the commercial data acquisition system Antelope, ZAMG has now over 10 years of experience running a medium size data center with the commercial software package Antelope from BRTT. We outline the configuration of the data center facilities, and describe a few application that have been designed based on the Antelope toolbox for software development. Since ZAMG hosts the Austrian NDC, we present the usage of the Antelope software in that framework.

  2. Running energetics in the pronghorn antelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstedt, S L; Hokanson, J F; Wells, D J; Swain, S D; Hoppeler, H; Navarro, V

    1991-10-24

    The pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana) has an alleged top speed of 100 km h-1, second only to the cheetah (Acionyx jubatus) among land vertebrates, a possible response to predation in the exposed habitat of the North American prairie. Unlike cheetahs, however, pronghorn antelope are distance runners rather than sprinters, and can run 11 km in 10 min, an average speed of 65 km h-1. We measured maximum oxygen uptake in pronghorn antelope to distinguish between two potential explanations for this ability: either they have evolved a uniquely high muscular efficiency (low cost of transport) or they can supply oxygen to the muscles at unusually high levels. Because the cost of transport (energy per unit distance covered per unit body mass) varies as a predictable function of body mass among terrestrial vertebrates, we can calculate the predicted cost to maintain speeds of 65 and 100 km h-1 in an average 32-kg animal. The resulting range of predicted values, 3.2-5.1 ml O2 kg-1 s-1, far surpasses the predicted maximum aerobic capacity of a 32-kg mammal (1.5 ml O2 kg-1 s-1). We conclude that their performance is achieved by an extraordinary capacity to consume and process enough oxygen to support a predicted running speed greater than 20 ms-1 (70 km h-1), attained without unique respiratory-system structures.

  3. Antelop : an industrial platform for linguistic processing Antelope : une plate-forme industrielle de traitement linguistique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François-Régis Chaumartin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Antelope linguistic platform, inspired by Meaning-Text Theory, targets the syntactic and semantic analysis of texts, and can handle large corpora. Antelope integrates several pre-existing (parsing components as well as broad-coverage linguistic data originating from various sources. Efforts towards integration of all components nonetheless make for a homogeneous platform. Our direct contribution deals with components for semantic analysis, and the formalization of a unified text analysis model. This paper introduces the platform and compares it with state-of-the-art projects. It offers to the NLP community a feedback from a software company, by underlining the architectural measures that should be taken to ensure that such complex software remains maintainable.

  4. Wilderness study areas : Hart Mountain National Antelope Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a brief report on two wilderness study areas located in the Hart Mountain National Antelope Refuge. The report only contains a map and summaries of...

  5. 77 FR 2469 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... Management District and Imperial County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection... to the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD) and Imperial County Air Pollution.... * * * * * (G) Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District. (1) Rule 1134, ``Stationary Gas...

  6. Perspective with Landsat Overlay: Antelope Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Antelope Valley is bounded by two of the most active faults in California: the Garlock fault, which fronts the distant mountains in this view, and the San Andreas fault, part of which is seen bounding the mountains in the left foreground. In this view, Antelope Valley is in the foreground, the Tehachapi Mountains form the left skyline, and ranges within the southernmost Sierra Nevada form the right skyline. Antelope Valley is directly north of Los Angeles and is the westernmost part of the Mojave Desert. It is a closed basin. Stream flow here ends at Rosamond and Rogers dry lakes, which appear bright white. Dry lakes like these are common where tectonic activity raises and lowers parts of the Earth's crust, and thus the topographic surface, faster than stream flow can fill depressions with water, and then overflow and cut escape channels to other basins and eventually to the sea. The Sierra Nevada, the Tehachapi, and other mountains generally to the west create a rain shadow desert here. Thus, the area definitely has the active tectonics and low rainfall combination that leads to closed basin topography.This perspective view was generated by draping a Landsat satellite image over a preliminary topographic map from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. Shading of the SRTM elevation model was added to enhance topographic appearance. Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30 meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive.The elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three

  7. The species of the Antelope-genus Pediotragus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jentink, F.A.

    1900-01-01

    A skin of a male antelope, collected by Mr. A. Sharpe in Southern Angoniland has been described by Mr. Oldfield Thomas under a new specific title, Rhaphiceros Sharpei (P. Z. S. L. 1896, p. 796, plate XXXIX); the author had no cranial evidence of its age, as the skull of the individual was wanting. M

  8. Hybridization following population collapse in a critically endangered antelope

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Vaz Pinto; Pedro Beja; Nuno Ferrand; Raquel Godinho

    2016-01-01

    Population declines may promote interspecific hybridization due to the shortage of conspecific mates (Hubb’s ‘desperation’ hypothesis), thus greatly increasing the risk of species extinction. Yet, confirming this process in the wild has proved elusive. Here we combine camera-trapping and molecular surveys over seven years to document demographic processes associated with introgressive hybridization between the critically endangered giant sable antelope (Hippotragus niger variani), and the nat...

  9. 77 FR 12495 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District and Mojave Desert Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD) and Mojave Desert Air Quality...

  10. 78 FR 59840 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ...'' subject to review by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October... of plan. * * * * * (c) * * * (428) * * * (i) * * * (B) Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...) * * * (i) * * * (B) Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District. (1) Rule 431.1, ``Sulfur Content...

  11. 76 FR 38589 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD) portion...

  12. 76 FR 30002 - Establishment of the Antelope Valley of the California High Desert Viticultural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... TTB regulations (27 CFR part 9) contains the list of approved viticultural areas. Definition Section 4... estimated 11,000 years, various cultures have populated the Antelope Valley region, according to the... Antelope Valley of the California High Desert viticultural area in the Federal Register (75 FR 53877)...

  13. Health evaluation of a pronghorn antelope population in Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, M.R.; Velarde, R.; Gregg, M.A.; Bray, M.

    1999-01-01

    During 1996 and 1997, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service conducted a study to determine the cause(s) of population decline and low survival of pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana) fawns on Hart Mountain National Antelope Refuge (HMNAR) located in southeastern Oregon (USA). As part of that study, blood, fecal, and tissue samples from 104 neonatal fawns, 40 adult does, and nine adult male pronghorns were collected to conduct a health evaluation of the population. Physiological parameters related to nutrition and/or disease were studied. No abnormalities were found in the complete blood cell counts of adults (n = 40) or fawns (n = 44 to 67). Serum total protein and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels were lower compared to other pronghorn populations. Does had mean BUN values significantly lower (P bovine rhinotracheitis (n = 18, negative), and bovine viral diarrhea (n = 18, negative). Considering the parameters examined, we found no apparent predisposing factors to mortality including those killed by coyotes, but some nutritional parameters suggest that pronghorns on HMNAR exist on a diet low in protein and Se and marginal in Cu. The effect these factors have on the population is not known.

  14. Hybridization following population collapse in a critically endangered antelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz Pinto, Pedro; Beja, Pedro; Ferrand, Nuno; Godinho, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    Population declines may promote interspecific hybridization due to the shortage of conspecific mates (Hubb's 'desperation' hypothesis), thus greatly increasing the risk of species extinction. Yet, confirming this process in the wild has proved elusive. Here we combine camera-trapping and molecular surveys over seven years to document demographic processes associated with introgressive hybridization between the critically endangered giant sable antelope (Hippotragus niger variani), and the naturally sympatric roan antelope (H. equinus). Hybrids with intermediate phenotypes, including backcrosses with roan, were confirmed in one of the two remnant giant sable populations. Hybridization followed population depletion of both species due to severe wartime poaching. In the absence of mature sable males, a mixed herd of sable females and hybrids formed and grew progressively over time. To prevent further hybridization and recover this small population, all sable females were confined to a large enclosure, to which sables from the other remnant population were translocated. Given the large scale declines in many animal populations, hybridization and introgression associated with the scarcity of conspecific mates may be an increasing cause of biodiversity conservation concern. In these circumstances, the early detection of hybrids should be a priority in the conservation management of small populations. PMID:26732144

  15. A questionnaire survey of the management and use of anthelmintics in cattle and antelope in mixed farming systems in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Madzingira

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the management of mixed farming of cattle and antelope and use of anthelmintics was conducted on eleven farms between August and December 1999 by a self-administered questionnaire. Seventeen antelope species ranging from grey duikers (Sylvicapra grimmia to eland (Taurotragus oryx occurred on the farms. Impala (Aepyceros melampus was the most abundant antelope on the farms. Seventy-five per cent of the antelope species on the farms were grazers and mixed feeders and shared grazing with cattle. Most farmers (n =8 did not consider the stocking density for cattle and antelope as an important management factor. Fifty-four per cent of the farmers (n = 6 routinely dewormed both cattle and antelopes. Albendazole and fenbendazole were the most commonly used drugs for deworming cattle (72.7 % and antelope species (54.5 %. The deworming of antelope was carried out during the dry season, using albendazole-, fenbendazole-and rafoxanide-medicated supplementary feed blocks. Doramectin injections were given to antelopes on two farms. Cattle were dewormed preventively and according to the general body condition of the animal. Few farmers (n = 4 followed the recommended deworming programme for cattle in Zimbabwe and only one farmer followed a specified dosing programme for game. However, results from the survey on the deworming of game indicate that farmers perceived helminth infections in antelope to be important.

  16. Groundwater-flow and land-subsidence model of Antelope Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siade, Adam J.; Nishikawa, Tracy; Rewis, Diane L.; Martin, Peter; Phillips, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    Antelope Valley, California, is a topographically closed basin in the western part of the Mojave Desert, about 50 miles northeast of Los Angeles. The Antelope Valley groundwater basin is about 940 square miles and is separated from the northern part of Antelope Valley by faults and low-lying hills. Prior to 1972, groundwater provided more than 90 percent of the total water supply in the valley; since 1972, it has provided between 50 and 90 percent. Most groundwater pumping in the valley occurs in the Antelope Valley groundwater basin, which includes the rapidly growing cities of Lancaster and Palmdale. Groundwater-level declines of more than 270 feet in some parts of the groundwater basin have resulted in an increase in pumping lifts, reduced well efficiency, and land subsidence of more than 6 feet in some areas. Future urban growth and limits on the supply of imported water may increase reliance on groundwater.

  17. Colorado Plateau Rapid Ecoregion Assessment Conservation Elements - Terrestrial Species: Pronghorn Antelope

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — This map shows the potential current distribution of pronghorn antelope, in the context of current and near-term terrestrial intactness and long-term potential for...

  18. Improvements to Web Toolkits for Antelope-based Real-time Monitoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, K. G.; Newman, R. L.; Vernon, F. L.; Hansen, T. S.; Orcutt, J.

    2005-12-01

    The Antelope Environmental Monitoring System (http://www.brtt.com) is a robust middleware architecture for near-real-time data collection, analysis, archiving and distribution. Antelope has an extensive toolkit allowing users to interact directly with their datasets. A rudimentary interface was developed in previous work between Antelope and the web-scripting language PHP (The PHP language is described in more detail at http://www.php.net). This interface allowed basic application development for remote access to and interaction with near-real-time data through a World Wide Web interface. We have added over 70 new functions for the Antelope interface to PHP, providing a solid base for web-scripting of near-real-time Antelope database applications. In addition, we have designed a new structure for web sites to be created from the Antelope platform, including PHP applications and Perl CGI scripts as well as static pages. Finally we have constructed the first version of the dbwebproject program, designed to dynamically create and maintain web-sites from specified recipes. These tools have already proven valuable for the creation of web tools for the dissemination of and interaction with near-real-time data streams from multi-signal-domain real-time sensor networks. We discuss current and future directions of this work in the context of the ROADNet project. Examples and applications of these core tools are elaborated in a companion presentation in this session (Newman et al., AGU 2005, session IN06).

  19. Preliminary study on migration pattern of the Tibetan antelope ( Pantholops hodgsonii) based on satellite tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buho, Hoshino; Jiang, Z.; Liu, C.; Yoshida, T.; Mahamut, Halik; Kaneko, M.; Asakawa, M.; Motokawa, M.; Kaji, K.; Wu, X.; Otaishi, N.; Ganzorig, Sumiya; Masuda, R.

    2011-07-01

    The spatial and temporal patterns of the endangered Tibetan antelope or chiru ( Pantholops hodgsonii) have been studied using satellite-based ARGOS platform transmitter terminal (PTT) tracking data. The data was obtained from the satellite tracking of two female Tibetan antelopes that were collared with satellite transmitters and have been tracked from August 2007 to April 2009. Analysis of the locality data (LC) obtained, shows that both antelopes were migrant individuals, they shared the same calving ground surrounding lake Huiten (or Zhuonai lake), but different wintering pastures. Each antelope covered 250-300 km from the wintering to summer pastures. Annual range consisted of a core area that was used for at least 9 months; a calving ground used for a short time (from 8-20 days); and temporal pastures used during migration to and from the calving ground. Seasonal migration cycle was about 3 months, 27-30 days to reach the calving ground; 8-20 days staying there; and 36-40 days returning to the core area. Examination of the spatial distribution during migration showed that both chiru crossed the Qinghai-Tibetan railway (QTR) and the Golmud-Lhasa highway (GLH) at least two times, and reached calving ground (118-120 km from there) in 8 days, maintaining an average speed of 15 km per day. However, the return migration took twice as long (from 14 to 16 days). Each time, after reaching the QTR and GLH, the antelopes spent 20-40 days in that area, probably looking for passages and waiting. So far, we suppose that the QTR and the GLH have become a hindrance to the migration of the Tibetan antelopes and seriously delay their movement to and from the calving area. Extended aggregation of the herds of Tibetan antelopes along the QTR and the GLH may impact negatively with increased mortality among offspring, the spread of various diseases and overgrazing of pastures.

  20. Demographic history of the Tibetan antelope Pantholops hodgsoni(chiru)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Rong DU; Song-Chang GUO; Zhao-Feng WANG; Hai-Xing CI; Zhen-Yuan CAI; Qian ZHANG; Jian-Ping SU; Jian-Quan LIU

    2010-01-01

    The Tibetan antelope(chiru,Pantholops hodgsoni),a heavily poached species and symbol of the QinghaiTibetan Plateau(QTP),is noted worldwide for its special calving migration.This species originated in the early Quaternary and it is interesting to know how the following climatic oscillations affected its demographic dynamics in the climate-sensitive QTP.In this study,we analyzed the mitochondrial D-loop region from 312 individuals sampled in all of the six major populations.We found high rates of gene flow and little genetic differentiation between populations,suggesting that the calving migration may have homogenized the genetic pool of this species.Both mismatch distribution analyses and coalescent simulations suggested that this species experienced a demographic expansion approximately 600-200 Kyt following the retreat of the large glaciers developed in the QTP at 800-600 Kyr,rather than at the end of the last glacial age,as previously suggested based on a limited sample size.In addition,we found evidence of a chiru population decrease probably related to the human settings at the QTP during the middle Holocene.

  1. 77 FR 12526 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District and Mojave Desert Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... Quality Management District (AVAQMD) and Mojave Desert Air Quality Management District (MDAQMD) portion...

  2. 76 FR 38572 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District... Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD) and submitted by the California Air Resources Board (CARB...'' subject to review by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735,...

  3. 78 FR 49992 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... Quality Management District (AVAQMD) and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (VCAPCD) portions... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection...

  4. 77 FR 26448 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... Management District and Eastern Kern and Santa Barbara County; Air Pollution Control Districts AGENCY... approve revisions to the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD), Eastern Kern Air... review by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4,...

  5. 78 FR 21545 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... Management District and Monterey Bay Unified and Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control Districts AGENCY... approve revisions to the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD) and Monterey Bay Unified...'' subject to review by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735,...

  6. Road and Street Centerlines, Antelope, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — , published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'Antelope'. The extent of these data is...

  7. Vulnerability assessment and strategies for the Sheldon National Wildlife Refuge and Hart Mountain National Antelope Refuge Complex : Final report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report provides the results of the Refuge Vulnerability Assessment (RVA) for the Sheldon National Wildlife Refuge and Hart Mountain National Antelope Refuge...

  8. Devonian and Mississippian rocks of the northern Antelope Range, Eureka County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hose, Richard Kenneth; Armstrong, A.K.; Harris, A.G.; Mamet, B.L.

    1982-01-01

    Lower through Upper Devonian rocks of the northern Antelope Range, Nev., consist of four formational rank units more than 800 m thick, separated from Mississippian units by an unconformity. The lower three Devonian units, the Beacon Peak Dolomite, McColley Canyon Formation, and Denay Limestone are known in other areas; the top unit, the Fenstermaker Wash Formation, is new. The Mississippian units, more than 280 m thick, are divisible into three units which are unlike coeval units elsewhere, and are herein named the Davis Spring Formation, Kinkead Spring Limestone, and Antelope Range Formation. Systematic sampling of the Devonian sequence has yielded relatively abundant conodonts containing several biostratigraphic ally significant taxa. The Mississippian units contain redeposited conodonts of chiefly Late Devonian and Early Mississippian (Kinderhookian) age together with indigenous Osagean foraminifers and algae in the Kinkead Spring Limestone.

  9. Analysis and Mapping of Vegetation and Habitat for the Hart Mountain National Antelope Refuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagestad, Jerry D.

    2010-06-01

    The Lakeview, Oregon, office of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) contracted Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to classify vegetation communities on Hart Mountain National Antelope Refuge in northeastern Nevada. The objective of the mapping project was to provide USFWS refuge biologists and planners with detailed vegetation and habitat information that can be referenced to make better decisions regarding wildlife resources, fuels and fire risk, and land management. This letter report describes the datasets and methods used to develop vegetation cover type and shrub canopy cover maps for the Hart Mountain National Antelope Refuge. The two map products described in this report are 1) a vegetation cover classification that provides updated information on the vegetation associations occurring on the refuge and 2) a map of shrub canopy cover based on high-resolution images and field data.

  10. Disproportionate Climate-Induced Range Loss Forecast for the Most Threatened African Antelopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Benjamin Luke; Bro-Jørgensen, Jakob

    2016-05-01

    Despite increasing evidence that climatic changes are having a widespread effect on the global distribution and abundance of wildlife [1, 2], the key question of whether the ranges of species that are already threat-listed are likely to be disproportionately affected lacks quantitative assessment. According to the "small-range climate-hypersensitivity hypothesis," we predict small range size to be directly linked to large climate-induced range reduction. Antelopes, an exemplary macroecological model due to their striking ecological diversity and species richness, present an ideal opportunity to test this. Here we provide the first empirical evidence that climate change will cause a disproportionate decline in African antelopes with small geographic ranges, which places the most threatened taxa in double jeopardy. This substantiates our theoretical expectation that the link between small range size and large climate-induced range reduction is a general phenomenon. Our empirically based models also allow specific recommendations for mitigating climate-induced species declines. Gap analysis shows high priorities for antelope conservation to include creation of new protected areas in the horn of Africa and Liberia, as well as improved connectivity between existing protected areas. Predicted extinction of four species unable to reach areas with suitable climatic conditions by 2080 moreover highlights a potentially important role for ex situ conservation. The study emphasizes the urgent need to incorporate climate change into the IUCN threat assessment by extending the timeframe over which population trends are assessed [3]. PMID:27133868

  11. "Antelope": a hybrid-logic model checker for branching-time Boolean GRN analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arellano Gustavo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Thomas' formalism for modeling gene regulatory networks (GRNs, branching time, where a state can have more than one possible future, plays a prominent role. By representing a certain degree of unpredictability, branching time can model several important phenomena, such as (a asynchrony, (b incompletely specified behavior, and (c interaction with the environment. Introducing more than one possible future for a state, however, creates a difficulty for ordinary simulators, because infinitely many paths may appear, limiting ordinary simulators to statistical conclusions. Model checkers for branching time, by contrast, are able to prove properties in the presence of infinitely many paths. Results We have developed Antelope ("Analysis of Networks through TEmporal-LOgic sPEcifications", http://turing.iimas.unam.mx:8080/AntelopeWEB/, a model checker for analyzing and constructing Boolean GRNs. Currently, software systems for Boolean GRNs use branching time almost exclusively for asynchrony. Antelope, by contrast, also uses branching time for incompletely specified behavior and environment interaction. We show the usefulness of modeling these two phenomena in the development of a Boolean GRN of the Arabidopsis thaliana root stem cell niche. There are two obstacles to a direct approach when applying model checking to Boolean GRN analysis. First, ordinary model checkers normally only verify whether or not a given set of model states has a given property. In comparison, a model checker for Boolean GRNs is preferable if it reports the set of states having a desired property. Second, for efficiency, the expressiveness of many model checkers is limited, resulting in the inability to express some interesting properties of Boolean GRNs. Antelope tries to overcome these two drawbacks: Apart from reporting the set of all states having a given property, our model checker can express, at the expense of efficiency, some properties that ordinary

  12. Neurological adaptations to hypoxia in Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsonii) with a view of molecular biology of respiratory globin-neuroglobin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-zhong BAI; Ying-zhong YANG; Guo-en JIN; Lan MA; Ri-li Ge

    2012-01-01

    Neuroglobin (Ngb) is a respiratory protein that is preferentially expressed in brain of mouse and man.In this article,Tibetan antelope,living at altitude of 3000~5000 m for millions of years,was selected as the model of hypoxia-tolerant adaptation species.Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot techniques,expression of Ngb gene was amplified and analyzed in antelope brain tissue.Our results showed that Ngb homology protein in Tibetan antelope was identified with more sequence similarity with cattle (96%),sheep (95%),and human (95%).We detected that there were some mutations occurred in the Open Reading Frame of Ngb in Tibetan antelope compared with sheep.Phylogenetic analysis of Ngb chain showed that it was closer to cattle than the others.This study suggests possible roles of central nervous system enriched Ngb in adaptation of Tibetan antelope to extremely high altitude.

  13. Anthrax immunization of free-ranging Roan Antelope Hippotragus Equinus in the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. de Vos

    1973-07-01

    Full Text Available An aerial method of immunization is presented as afeasible means of vaccinating free-ranging roan antelope Hippotragus equinus against anthrax in the Kruger National Park. Themethod is described in detail and the results, obtained aftertwo consecutive years of application, are noted, tabulated andevaluated. A helicopter and a fixed wing aircraft were success-fully utilized in the location of widely dispersed roan antelopeherds and to bring the operator within effective firing rangeof the animal to be darted. A disposable projectile syringe,which simultaneously administers vaccine and effectively marksthe animal for later identification, is considered a vital part inthe successful implementation of the aerial method of immunization.

  14. Gazellostrongylus lerouxi Yeh, 1956 from antelopes in East Africa and its relation to the genus Paracooperia Travassos, 1935.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, L F; Gibbons, L M

    1975-12-01

    A detailed redescription of Gazellostrongylus lerouxi and Paracooperia serrata was given from specimens collected from antelopes in Kenya. It was felt that there was no justification for the synonymy of the genus Gazellostrongylus with Paracooperia. Gazellostrongylus was placed in the tribe Ostertagiea.

  15. Anthelmintic efficacy in captive wild impala antelope (Aepyceros melampus) in Lusaka, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalubamba, King S; Mudenda, Ntombi B

    2012-05-25

    There has been an increase in the number of wild ungulates kept in captivity for ecotourism and conservation in Zambia and these animals are susceptible to a number of diseases including gastrointestinal helminth infections. Surveys to determine anthelmintic efficacy to gastrointestinal nematodes in captive-wildlife are not common and there have been no reports of anthelmintic resistance in captive-wildlife in Zambia. This study was carried out to determine the efficacy of the benzimidazole anthelmintic fenbendazole in captive wild impala (Aepyceros melampus) in Zambia. During the month of April 2011, at the end of the rainy season, the faecal egg count reduction test was performed at a private game facility for assessing anthelmintic efficacy of oral fenbendazole and the anthelmintic treatment showed an efficacy of 90%. Haemonchus spp. and Trichostrongylus spp. were the predominant genera present before treatment, but Haemonchus spp. larvae were the only genus recovered from the faecal cultures after anthelmintic treatment. This represents the first documentation of anthelmintic treatment failure in captive wild-antelopes in Zambia. It also demonstrated the ineffectiveness of the common traditional practice of deworming captive-wild antelopes at the end of the rainy season due to the rapid re-infection of impala that occurs due to high pasture infectivity. Suggestions on changes to current anthelmintic use/practices that will make them more efficacious and reduce the possibility of development of anthelmintic resistance in captive wild game in Zambia are also made.

  16. Microchip transponder thermometry for monitoring core body temperature of antelope during capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Benjamin; Fuller, Andrea; Hetem, Robyn S; Lease, Hilary M; Mitchell, Duncan; Meyer, Leith C R

    2016-01-01

    Hyperthermia is described as the major cause of morbidity and mortality associated with capture, immobilization and restraint of wild animals. Therefore, accurately determining the core body temperature of wild animals during capture is crucial for monitoring hyperthermia and the efficacy of cooling procedures. We investigated if microchip thermometry can accurately reflect core body temperature changes during capture and cooling interventions in the springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis), a medium-sized antelope. Subcutaneous temperature measured with a temperature-sensitive microchip was a weak predictor of core body temperature measured by temperature-sensitive data loggers in the abdominal cavity (R(2)=0.32, bias >2 °C). Temperature-sensitive microchips in the gluteus muscle, however, provided an accurate estimate of core body temperature (R(2)=0.76, bias=0.012 °C). Microchips inserted into muscle therefore provide a convenient and accurate method to measure body temperature continuously in captured antelope, allowing detection of hyperthermia and the efficacy of cooling procedures. PMID:26724197

  17. Tuberculosis in Kafue lechwe antelopes (Kobus leche Kafuensis) of the Kafue Basin in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munyeme, M; Muma, J B; Siamudaala, V M; Skjerve, E; Munang'andu, H M; Tryland, M

    2010-07-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) has been reported in the Kafue lechwe antelopes (Kobus leche Kafuensis) of Zambia. However, previous reports are restricted to the southern parts in Lochinvar, where only old male animals were investigated. This study was conducted to gather epidemiological information on TB in Lechwe antelopes across sexes and age groups in relation to other explanatory variables of disease occurrence in the Kafue Basin. Animals were hunted under a special licence to investigate diseases in the Kafue Basin during the 2004, 2005 and 2008 hunting seasons. Histopathology, acid-fast staining and mycobacterial culturing from tissue samples were conducted. A total of 119 animals were slaughtered with an estimated age range of 2.5-20 years. Of these, 29 (24.3% [95% CI: 16.5, 32.3%]) had necropsy lesions suggestive of tuberculosis, of which 21 (17.6% [95% CI: 10.7, 24.6%]) tested positive on acid-fast staining while 33 (27.7% [95% CI: 19.6, 35.9%]) showed culture and colony morphological characteristics suggestive of Mycobacterium species. On univariate analysis, animals with poor body condition were twice as likely to have tuberculosis associated lesions as those having good body conditions (OR=2.3, 95% CI: 0.6, 9.3%). Based on lesion distribution, a respiratory route of mycobacterial infection is intimated.

  18. Microchip transponder thermometry for monitoring core body temperature of antelope during capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Benjamin; Fuller, Andrea; Hetem, Robyn S; Lease, Hilary M; Mitchell, Duncan; Meyer, Leith C R

    2016-01-01

    Hyperthermia is described as the major cause of morbidity and mortality associated with capture, immobilization and restraint of wild animals. Therefore, accurately determining the core body temperature of wild animals during capture is crucial for monitoring hyperthermia and the efficacy of cooling procedures. We investigated if microchip thermometry can accurately reflect core body temperature changes during capture and cooling interventions in the springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis), a medium-sized antelope. Subcutaneous temperature measured with a temperature-sensitive microchip was a weak predictor of core body temperature measured by temperature-sensitive data loggers in the abdominal cavity (R(2)=0.32, bias >2 °C). Temperature-sensitive microchips in the gluteus muscle, however, provided an accurate estimate of core body temperature (R(2)=0.76, bias=0.012 °C). Microchips inserted into muscle therefore provide a convenient and accurate method to measure body temperature continuously in captured antelope, allowing detection of hyperthermia and the efficacy of cooling procedures.

  19. Anaesthesia of roan antelope (Hippotragus equinus with a combination of A3080, medetomidine and ketamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.B. Citino

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available A dose range was determined for anaesthesia of 20 recently boma-captured roan antelope (Hippotragus equinus with the synthetic opiate A3080 combined with medetomidine and ketamine. A dose of 10-30 µ/kg A3080 (x = 20 ± 8 µg/kg combined with 5-21 µg/kg medetomidine (x = 13 ± 7 µg/kg plus 0.29-1.11 mg/kg ketamine (x = 0.71 ± 0.24 mg/kg was found to be safe and effective for the field conditions in this study. The anaesthesia produced by this drug combination was predictable and characterised by a short induction time, good muscle relaxation, and acceptable physiological parameters for anaesthesia periods ranging from 49-103 min (x = 64 ±19 min. The wide range (3-4-fold of doses with acceptable results is also an indication that this drug combination has a wide margin of safety in roan antelope, making it desirable for field use. When 2 dose levels (2-3-fold difference were retrospectively evaluated, no statistical difference was found in induction times, and no observable clinical differences in the anaesthetic episodes were seen. Based on this study, the recommended dose range in roan antelope for this combination is 10-13 µg/kg A3080, 5-6 µg/kg medetomidine and 0.3-0.6 mg/kg ketamine. The anaesthesia produced by this combination was rapidly and completely reversed by i.m. or i.v. injections of naltrexone at 30 times the A3080 dose (x = 0.60 ± 0.25 mg/kg and atipamezole at 3 times the medetomidine dose (x = 38 ± 20 µg/kg. No residual effects from ketamine were noted following reversal of A3080 and medetomidine. No mortality was associated with this protocol.

  20. Evaluation of Brucella abortus strain RB51 and strain 19 in pronghorn antelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzer, P.H.; Smith, J.; Roffe, T.; Kreeger, T.; Edwards, J.; Davis, D.

    2002-01-01

    Free-roaming elk and bison in the Greater Yellowstone Area remain the only wildlife reservoirs for Brucella abortus in the United States, and the large number of animals and a lack of holding facilities make it unreasonable to individually vaccinate each animal. Therefore, oral delivery is being proposed as a possible option to vaccinate these wild ungulates. One of the main problems associated with oral vaccination is the potential exposure of nontarget species to the vaccines. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of two Brucella vaccines, strain 19 (S19) and the rough strain RB51 (SRB51), in pregnant pronghorn antelope. We conclude that S19 and SRB51 rarely colonize maternal and fetal tissues of pregnant pronghorn and were not associated with fetal death. Oral delivery of either vaccine at this dose appears to be nonhazardous to pregnant pronghorn.

  1. A WILDLIFE MONITORING SYSTEM BASED ON TIANDITU AND BEIDOU: IN CASE OF THE TIBETAN ANTELOPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Positioning and tracking wildlife is already being an effective way to collect biological information for research and species of wildlife protection. The common technologies of tracking wildlife are divided into several categories, such as radio tracking technology, GPS tracking system, radio frequency identification technology (RFID, and SIM card based technology. Some positive results achieved from these technologies, but there are some problems in location accuracy, price of the system. Taking the case of the protection of the Tibetan antelope, this paper introduces a wildlife monitoring system based on Tianditu and Beidou navigation satellite system. The system consists of two parts: real-time location system and 3D display system. The practical application demonstrates that the system is stable, and data transmission is reliable with lower construction cost, which can improve the capability of national rare wildlife monitoring and protection effectively.

  2. a Wildlife Monitoring System Based on Tianditu and Beidou: in Case of the Tibetan Antelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongping; Jiang, Jie; Wei, Dong; Jiang, Jie

    2016-06-01

    Positioning and tracking wildlife is already being an effective way to collect biological information for research and species of wildlife protection. The common technologies of tracking wildlife are divided into several categories, such as radio tracking technology, GPS tracking system, radio frequency identification technology (RFID), and SIM card based technology. Some positive results achieved from these technologies, but there are some problems in location accuracy, price of the system. Taking the case of the protection of the Tibetan antelope, this paper introduces a wildlife monitoring system based on Tianditu and Beidou navigation satellite system. The system consists of two parts: real-time location system and 3D display system. The practical application demonstrates that the system is stable, and data transmission is reliable with lower construction cost, which can improve the capability of national rare wildlife monitoring and protection effectively.

  3. Overt female mate competition and preference for central males in a lekking antelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bro-Jørgensen, Jakob

    2002-07-01

    In mammals, there exists only scant evidence of female mate choice in species mating on arenas, so-called leks. This has led to hypotheses of lek evolution that are based on benefits to females from reduced harassment by males, low predation risk, or improved availability of scarce nutrients. Here I report that female topi antelopes (Damaliscus lunatus) compete aggressively for matings with preferred males on central lek territories. Females fight at higher rates and more likely disrupt mating attempts of others in the lek center than elsewhere. Contrary to the predictions of the alternative hypotheses, food resources were insignificant, and harassment levels and estimated predation risk were higher on than off lek. These results clearly demonstrate female competition for mates in a lekking mammal in which a female chooses between males for the sole purpose of mating. The finding suggests that the forces leading to lek evolution in mammals and birds may be more similar than previously acknowledged.

  4. Detection and characterisation of papillomavirus in skin lesions of giraffe and sable antelope in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. van Dyk

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Papillomavirus was detected electron microscopically in cutaneous fibropapillomas of a giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis and a sable antelope (Hippotragus niger. The virus particles measured 45 nm in diameter. Histopathologically, the lesions showed histopathological features similar to those of equine sarcoid as well as positive immunoperoxidase-staining of tissue sections for papillomavirus antigen. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR detected bovine papillomavirus (BPV DNA. Bovine papillomavirus-1 was characterised by real-time PCR in the sable and giraffe, and cloning and sequencing of the PCR product revealed a similarity to BPV-1. As in the 1st giraffe, the lesions from a 2nd giraffe revealed locally malignant pleomorphism, possibly indicating the lesional end-point of papilloma infection. Neither virus particles nor positively staining papillomavirus antigen could be demonstrated in the 2nd giraffe but papillomavirus DNA was detected by real-time PCR which corresponded with BPV-1 and BPV-2.

  5. Challenges faced in the conservation of rare antelope: a case study on the northern basalt plains of the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C. Grant

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The conservation of rare antelope has long been one of the goals of the Kruger National Park. The roan antelope Hippotragus equinus, and to a lesser extent the tsessebe Damaliscus lunatus, represent low-density species or rare antelope in the park. Specific management approaches representing the older equilibrium approach, have been employed to conserve these antelope. Of these, the supply of artificial water over many decades was the most resource intensive. The sudden, severe drop in the roan antelope population towards the end of the 1980s was unexpected and, retrospectively, attributed to the development of a high density of perennial waterpoints. The postulated mechanism was that the perennial presence of water allowed Burchell’s zebra Equus burchelli to stay permanently in an area that was previously only seasonally accessible. The combined effect of a long, dry climatic cycle, high numbers of zebra and their associated predators was proposed to be the cause of this decline. As part of the new nature evolving or ecosystem resilience approach, twelve artificial waterpoints were closed in the prime roan antelope habitat in 1994 in an attempt to move the zebra out of this area. The zebra numbers declined as the rainfall increased. Closure of waterholes clearly led to redistribution of zebra numbers on the northern plains, zebra tending to avoid areas within several kilometres of closed waterpoints. However, at a larger scale, regional densities appeared similar in areas with and without closed waterpoints. There was an initial drop in the lion numbers in 1995, after which they stabilised. In spite of an improvement in the grass species composition and an increase in biomass the roan antelope population did not increase. The complexity of maintaining a population at the edge of their distribution and the problems associated with the conservation of such populations are discussed in terms of management options and monitoring approaches that

  6. a Real-Time Earthquake Moment Tensor Scanning Code for the Antelope System (brtt, Inc)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, K. A.; Ruppert, N. A.; Freymueller, J. T.; Lindquist, K.; Harvey, D.; Dreger, D. S.; Lombard, P. N.; Guilhem, A.

    2015-12-01

    While all seismic observatories routinely determine hypocentral location and local magnitude within a few minutes of an earthquake's occurrence, the ability to estimate seismic moment and sense of slip in a similar time frame is less widespread. This is unfortunate, because moment and mechanism are critical parameters for rapid hazard assessment; for larger events, moment magnitude is more reliable due to the tendency of local magnitude to saturate, and certain mechanisms such as off-shore thrust events might indicate earthquakes with tsunamigenic potential. In order to increase access to this capability, we have developed a continuous moment tensor scanning code for Antelope, the ubiquitous open-architecture seismic acquisition and processing software in use around the world. The scanning code, which uses an algorithm that has previously been employed for real-time monitoring at the University of California, Berkeley, is able to produce full moment tensor solutions for moderate events from regional seismic data. The algorithm monitors a grid of potential sources by continuously cross-correlating pre-computed synthetic seismograms with long-period recordings from a sparse network of broad-band stations. The code package consists of 3 modules. One module is used to create a monitoring grid by constructing source-receiver geometry, calling a frequency-wavenumber code to produce synthetics, and computing the generalized linear inverse of the array of synthetics. There is a real-time scanning module that correlates streaming data with pre-inverted synthetics, monitors the variance reduction, and writes the moment tensor solution to a database if an earthquake detection occurs. Finally, there is an 'off-line' module that is very similar to the real-time scanner, with the exception that it utilizes pre-recorded data stored in Antelope databases and is useful for testing purposes or for quickly producing moment tensor catalogs for long time series. The code is open source

  7. Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) from the critically endangered antelope Addax nasomaculatus in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufana, Belgees; Saïd, Yousra; Dhibi, Mokhtar; Craig, Philip S; Lahmar, Samia

    2015-12-01

    Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) is a zoonotic disease highly endemic in Tunisia. Canids including stray and semi-stray dogs, jackals and foxes are known as definitive hosts and a wide range of ungulates have been shown to harbour the metacestode hydatid stage and may serve as intermediate hosts. Fertile hydatid cysts of Echinococcus equinus and E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) were recently molecularly identified for the first time from Tunisian donkeys. E. granulosus (s.s.) was also identified from wild boars in Tunisia. Here we report the confirmation of hydatid cysts caused by E. granulosus (s.s.) in the critically endangered antelope, Addax nasomaculatus in Tunisia. DNA-based molecular analysis revealed that A.nasomaculatus was infected with E. granulosus (s.s.) which had a 100% identity with the main globally distributed E. granulosus (s.s.) (EgTu01) haplotype. Cysts of Taenia hydatigena (n=33) were also observed on the liver and in the body cavity. Due to their endangered status and their relatively small numbers, it is unlikely that hydatid infection of A. nasomaculatus will form a major contribution to the epidemiology and transmission of E. granulosus in Tunisia, but infection may result in pathology, morbidity and early mortality, and may still play a role in the perpetuation of the parasite in wildlife cycles.

  8. A note on the behaviour of Four-horned Antelope Tetracerus quadricornis de Blainville, 1816 (Mammalia: Cetartiodactyla: Bovidae in lowland Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Prasad Pokharel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Behavioural studies provide the reasons behind habitat preferences of animals and their fitness to survive and propagate.  The Four-horned Antelope, an endangered endemic species to the Indian subcontinent was monitored at Ratamate area of Babai Valley in Bardia National Park, Nepal.  We used ad libitum sampling and focal animal sampling within the rule for continuous recording of ‘all-occurrences’ of ‘vigilance’ behaviour. We found that the Four-horned Antelope remains ‘alert and vigilant’ during 40% of its behavioural time budget when it scans the surroundings with raised head, with or without chewing. In the event of sudden threat it ‘freezes’, lying down still and hiding in the ground cover.  Therefore, maintenance of ground cover should form a regular practice in conservation management of the Four-horned Antelope

  9. Towards an adaptive management approach for the conservation of rare antelope in the Kruger National Park - outcome of a workshop held in May 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C. Grant

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available A precipitous drop in rare antelope numbers specifically roan (Hippotragus equinis sable (Hippotragus niger and tsessebe (Damaliscus lunatus since 1986 has become one of the main concerns of management. The zebra (Equus burchelli population in the preferred habitats of these species had increased with the development of artificial waterpoints especially in the areas occupied by roan and tsessebe, and these events are hypothesised to be the main cause of the decline. Closure of artificial waterpoints resulted in moving the high-density, water-dependent zebra from the northern basalt plains, the preferred roan habitat. However, the expected responding increase in the rare antelope populations did not materialise. This lack of response over six years necessitated a critical re-evaluation of the management of rare antelope in the Kruger National Park. Subsequently, a workshop was held at Skukuza during May 2000. The options for adaptive management of the declining rare antelope populations, which was discussed at the workshop, is the subject of this manuscript. The participants felt that the removal/closure of artificial waterpoints was the most unintrusive management tool available to move high density grazers from the habitats preferred by rare antelope. Waterpoints to be closed should be carefully evaluated, and time allowed for rare antelope to respond to habitat changes. Boosting populations of roan and tsessebe by supplementing animals was seriously considered, with the proviso that it should be done under favourable circumstances. Small patch fires that could provide green grazing over extended periods were recommended. Predator control was discussed but could not obtain general support as a viable option in the Kruger National Park.

  10. Population trends of antelopes in Waza National Park (Cameroon) from 1960 to 2001: The interacting effects of rainfall, flooding and human interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, P.; Adam, S.; Serge, B.K.

    2007-01-01

    Antelopes are prominent wildlife in Waza National Park, situated in Sahelo-Sudanian Cameroon, which has witnessed dramatic changes in rainfall and flooding. To assess their impacts, we reviewed 26 aerial and terrestrial surveys, comprising total, transect and localized counts. Estimated numbers of k

  11. Blood values of captive beira antelope (Dorcatragus megalotis) prior to and during an outbreak of fibrinous pleuropneumonia syndrome (FPPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gull, Jessica M; Hebel, Christiana; Deb, Amrita; Arif, Abdi; Clauss, Marcus; Hatt, Jean-Michel; Hammer, Sven

    2014-12-01

    Currently the only captive population of beira antelope (Dorcatragus megalotis) is held at the Al Wabra Wildlife Preservation, Qatar. An outbreak of a severe respiratory disease--fibrinous pleuropneumonia syndrome, most likely caused by Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae--led to a marked population decline. Reactive systemic inflammatory (AA) amyloidosis was noted as a chronic manifestation of the disease. Blood samples had been collected for biochemistry and hematology baseline values prior to the outbreak. Population-level changes were analyzed before and during the course of the outbreak in selected blood parameters (white blood cells [WBC], blood urea nitrogen [BUN], and creatinine). The annual population WBC increased and decreased concurrently with the population size, with a significant correlation between the two measures (R = 0.92; P = 0.001). Both BUN and creatinine values were higher during the outbreak. These values peaked at the same time as mortality, which was 1 yr after the WBC peak. These changes were interpreted as the transition from an acute disease with a primary respiratory manifestation into a chronic condition where renal amyloidosis led to chronic renal failure and death. Also, elevated liver values in diseased animals were attributed to amyloidosis. Parallels to a literature report on a lung disease complex caused by M. ovipneumoniae in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) were found. Trends in population-level blood values of the beira antelopes implicate amyloidosis as a significant, long-term consequence of the putative Mycoplasma infection.

  12. Closure Letter Report for Corrective Action Unit 496: Buried Rocket Site - Antelope Lake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-05-01

    A Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for investigation and closure of CAU 496, Corrective Action Site (CAS) TA-55-008-TAAL (Buried Rocket), at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), was approved by the Nevada Department of Environmental Protection (NDEP) on July 21,2004. Approval to transfer CAS TA-55-008-TAAL from CAU 496 to CAU 4000 (No Further Action Sites) was approved by NDEP on December 21, 2005, based on the assumption that the rocket did not present any environmental concern. The approval letter included the following condition: ''NDEP understands, from the NNSA/NSO letter dated November 30,2005, that a search will be conducted for the rocket during the planned characterization of other sites at the Tonopah Test Range and, if found, the rocket will be removed as a housekeeping measure''. NDEP and U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office personnel located the rocket on Mid Lake during a site visit to TTR, and a request to transfer CAS TA-55-008-TAAL from CAU 4000 back to CAU 496 was approved by NDEP on September 11,2006. CAS TA-55-008-TAAL was added to the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' of 1996, based on an interview with a retired TTR worker in 1993. The original interview documented that a rocket was launched from Area 9 to Antelope Lake and was never recovered due to the high frequency of rocket tests being conducted during this timeframe. The interviewee recalled the rocket being an M-55 or N-55 (the M-50 ''Honest John'' rocket was used extensively at TTR from the 1960s to early 1980s). A review of previously conducted interviews with former TTR personnel indicated that the interviewees confused information from several sites. The location of the CAU 496 rocket on Mid Lake is directly south of the TTR rocket launch facility in Area 9 and is consistent with information gathered on the lost rocket during recent

  13. Closure Letter Report for Corrective Action Unit 496: Buried Rocket Site - Antelope Lake (TTR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for investigation and closure of CAU 496, Corrective Action Site (CAS) TA-55-008-TAAL (Buried Rocket), at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), was approved by the Nevada Department of Environmental Protection (NDEP) on July 21,2004. Approval to transfer CAS TA-55-008-TAAL from CAU 496 to CAU 4000 (No Further Action Sites) was approved by NDEP on December 21, 2005, based on the assumption that the rocket did not present any environmental concern. The approval letter included the following condition: ''NDEP understands, from the NNSA/NSO letter dated November 30,2005, that a search will be conducted for the rocket during the planned characterization of other sites at the Tonopah Test Range and, if found, the rocket will be removed as a housekeeping measure''. NDEP and U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office personnel located the rocket on Mid Lake during a site visit to TTR, and a request to transfer CAS TA-55-008-TAAL from CAU 4000 back to CAU 496 was approved by NDEP on September 11,2006. CAS TA-55-008-TAAL was added to the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' of 1996, based on an interview with a retired TTR worker in 1993. The original interview documented that a rocket was launched from Area 9 to Antelope Lake and was never recovered due to the high frequency of rocket tests being conducted during this timeframe. The interviewee recalled the rocket being an M-55 or N-55 (the M-50 ''Honest John'' rocket was used extensively at TTR from the 1960s to early 1980s). A review of previously conducted interviews with former TTR personnel indicated that the interviewees confused information from several sites. The location of the CAU 496 rocket on Mid Lake is directly south of the TTR rocket launch facility in Area 9 and is consistent with information gathered on the lost rocket during recent interviews. Most pertinently, an interview in 2005 with a

  14. Using Flue Gas Huff 'n Puff Technology and Surfactants to Increase Oil Production from the Antelope Shale Formation of the Railroad Gap Oil Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McWilliams, Michael

    2001-12-18

    This project was designed to test cyclic injection of exhaust flue gas from compressors located in the field to stimulate production from Antelope Shale zone producers. Approximately 17,000 m{sup 3} ({+-}600 MCF) of flue gas was to be injected into each of three wells over a three-week period, followed by close monitoring of production for response. Flue gas injection on one of the wells would be supplemented with a surfactant.

  15. Wild Horse Gathering for the Red Desert Complex Wild Horse Herd Management Areas (Lost Creek, Stewart Creek, Green Mountain, Crooks Mountain, Antelope Hills)

    OpenAIRE

    United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management

    2009-01-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared to disclose and analyze the environmental consequences of gathering excess wild horses in the Red Desert Wild Horse Herd Management Area (HMA) Complex. The HMAs included in this complex are Lost Creek, Stewart Creek, Green Mountain, Crooks Mountain and Antelope Hills. The EA is a site-specific analysis of potential impacts that could result with the implementation of a proposed action or alternatives to the proposed action. The EA assists t...

  16. Catch, Treat and Release with Limited Removal Red Desert Complex Wild Horse Herd Management Areas (Lost Creek, Stewart Creek, Green Mountain, Crooks Mountain, Antelope Hills)

    OpenAIRE

    United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management

    2011-01-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared to disclose and analyze the environmental consequences of a "Catch, Treat and Release (CTR)" of wild horses in the Red Desert Wild Horse Herd Management Area (HMA) Complex. In addition to the proposed action of a CTR gather, removal of wild horses outside identified HMAs within the project area will also be conducted. The HMAs included in this complex are Lost Creek, Stewart Creek, Green Mountain, Crooks Mountain and Antelope Hills (See A...

  17. Advanced Reservoir Characterization in the Antelope Shale to Establish the Viability of CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery in California's Monterey Formation Siliceous Shales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary objective of this research is to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and modeling studies in the Antelope Shale reservoir. Characterization studies will be used to determine the technical feasibility of implementing a CO2 enhanced oil recovery project in the Antelope Shale in Buena Vista Hills Field. The Buena Vista Hills pilot CO2 project will demonstrate the economic viability and widespread applicability of CO2 flooding in fractured siliceous shale reservoirs of the San Joaquin Valley. The research consists of four primary work processes: (1) Reservoir Matrix and Fluid Characterization; (2) Fracture characterization; (3) reservoir Modeling and Simulation; and (4) CO2 Pilot Flood and Evaluation. Work done in these areas is subdivided into two phases or budget periods. The first phase of the project will focus on the application of a variety of advanced reservoir characterization techniques to determine the production characteristics of the Antelope Shale reservoir. Reservoir models based on the results of the characterization work will be used to evaluate how the reservoir will respond to secondary recovery and EOR processes. The second phase of the project will include the implementation and evaluation of an advanced enhanced oil recovery (EOR) pilot in the United Anticline (West Dome) of the Buena Vista Hills Field

  18. If an antelope is a document, then a rock is data: preserving earth science samples for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdeen, S.

    2015-12-01

    As discussed in seminal works by Briet (1951) and Buckland (1998), physical objects can be considered documents when given specific context. In the case of an antelope, in the wild it's an animal, in a zoo it's a document. It is the primary source of information, specifically when it is made an object of study. When discussing earth science data, we may think about numbers in a spreadsheet or verbal descriptions of a rock. But what about physical materials such as cores, cuttings, fossils, and other tangible objects? The most recent version of the American Geophysical Union's data position statement states data preservation and management policies should apply to both "digital data and physical objects"[1]. If an antelope is a document, than isn't a rock a form of data? Like books in a library or items in a museum, these objects require surrogates (digital or analog) that allow researchers to access and retrieve them. Once these scientific objects are acquired, researchers can process the information they contain. Unlike books, and some museum materials, most earth science objects cannot yet be completely replaced by digital surrogates. A fossil may be scanned, but the original is needed for chemical testing and ultimately for 'not yet developed' processes of scientific analysis. These objects along with their metadata or other documentation become scientific data when they are used in research. Without documentation of key information (i.e. the location where it was collected) these objects may lose their scientific value. This creates a complex situation where we must preserve the object, its metadata, and the connection between them. These factors are important as we consider the future of earth science data, our definitions of what constitutes scientific data, as well as our data preservation and management practices. This talk will discuss current initiatives within the earth science communities (EarthCube's EC3 and iSamples; USGS's data preservation program

  19. Knee-clicks and visual traits indicate fighting ability in eland antelopes: multiple messages and back-up signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dabelsteen Torben

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the costs of signalling, why do males often advertise their fighting ability to rivals using several signals rather than just one? Multiple signalling theories have developed largely in studies of sexual signals, and less is known about their applicability to intra-sexual communication. We here investigate the evolutionary basis for the intricate agonistic signalling system in eland antelopes, paying particular attention to the evolutionary phenomenon of loud knee-clicking. Results A principal components analysis separated seven male traits into three groups. The dominant frequency of the knee-clicking sound honestly indicated body size, a main determinant of fighting ability. In contrast, the dewlap size increased with estimated age rather than body size, suggesting that, by magnifying the silhouette of older bulls disproportionately, the dewlap acts as an indicator of age-related traits such as fighting experience. Facemask darkness, frontal hairbrush size and body greyness aligned with a third underlying variable, presumed to be androgen-related aggression. A longitudinal study provided independent support of these findings. Conclusion The results show that the multiple agonistic signals in eland reflect three separate components of fighting ability: (1 body size, (2 age and (3 presumably androgen-related aggression, which is reflected in three backup signals. The study highlights how complex agonistic signalling systems can evolve through the simultaneous action of several selective forces, each of which favours multiple signals. Specifically, loud knee-clicking is discovered to be an honest signal of body size, providing an exceptional example of the potential for non-vocal acoustic communication in mammals.

  20. Monitoring the endangered population of the antelope Kobus leche smithemani (Artiodactyla: Bovidae), in the Bangweulu Ecosystem, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siamudaala, Victor M; Munyeme, Musso; Matandiko, Wigganson; Muma, John B; Munang'andu, Hetron M

    2012-12-01

    Black lechwe (Kobus leche smithemani) is a semi-aquatic medium sized antelope currently enlisted on the IUCN red list of endangered species and is only endemic to the Bangweulu basin of Zambia. Its population has significantly decreased due to floods that took place during the period 1930-1940 from over 250 000-15000 leading the Zambian government to gazette all habitats of Black lechwe into state protected areas, and to establish urgent management strategies needed to save the remaining population from extinction. Using retrospective data, our findings show that the population has increased from 15000 animals in 1954 to 55 632 in 2009. The current population is estimated at 34.77% (55 632/160 000) of the carrying capacity of the Bangweulu basin. Although the Black lechwe is one of the 42 species offered for consumptive utilization by the Zambia Wildlife Authority (ZAWA), only 0.12% and 0.08% of the current stock was offered for safari and resident hunting annually for the period 2005-2009, respectively. Annual quota utilization were estimated at 67% (n=37) and 81% (n=37) for safari and resident hunting, respectively. Hence, overall income obtained from utilization of Black lechwe is very low accounting for only 2.1% of the total revenue earned from wildlife utilization. Although the current population trend is showing a unit increase of 639 animals per year, it is still far below levels ideal for the lucrative utilization. In this study, we demonstrate that adverse ecological changes on wildlife species, can lead to their vulnerability and danger of extinction, and that their recovery to full carrying capacity may demand a considerable amount of time.

  1. Helminth parasites of the Kafue lechwe antelope ( Kobus leche kafuensis): a potential source of infection to domestic animals in the Kafue wetlands of Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phiri, A M; Chota, A; Muma, J B; Munyeme, M; Sikasunge, C S

    2011-03-01

    The Kafue lechwe antelope (Kobus leche kafuensis), a medium-sized, semi-aquatic antelope, grazes extensively on pastures accessed by livestock in and around Lochinvar and Blue Lagoon national parks in the Kafue wetlands of Zambia. This interaction has a potential for bi-modal transmission of a wide range of parasitic helminths between lechwe and domestic ruminants. A survey was conducted to investigate the status of helminths in the Kafue lechwe during the 2008 (July-December) hunting season, involving 65 animals hunted under special research licences. Worm identification was based on morphological features using standard identification keys. Eleven different types of helminths were identified in the animals studied; namely, Oesophagostomum, Bunostomum, Cooperia, Dictyocaulus, Marshallagia, Stilesia, Setaria, Trichuris, Fasciola, amphistomes and Schistosoma. Amphistomes (100%) and Oesophagostomum (60.9%) were the most common while Fasciola (7.8%) and Stilesia (1.6%) were the least of the identified helminths. There was no evidence that helminths, at intensities observed, adversely affected the health of the lechwe. The degree of worm infection was observed to vary between the two study areas, with Blue Lagoon recording higher infection levels compared to Lochinvar. The host range of many of the helminths found in the Kafue lechwe is broad and could serve as a potentially stable source of infection to domestic animals such as goats and cattle. Therefore, issues concerning livestock management and conservation may arise.

  2. Processes Affecting the Trihalomethane Concentrations Associated with the Third Injection, Storage, and Recovery Test at Lancaster, Antelope Valley, California, March 1998 through April 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Goodwin, Kelly D.; Fujii, Roger; Clark, Jordan F.

    2003-01-01

    The formation and fate of trihalomethanes (THM) during the third injection, storage, and recovery test at Lancaster, Antelope Valley, California, were investigated as part of a program to assess the long-term feasibility of using injection, storage, and recovery as a water-supply method and as a way to reduce water-level declines and land-subsidence in the Antelope Valley. The program was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Los Angeles County Department of Public Works and the Antelope Valley-East Kern Water Agency. The water used for injection, storage, and recovery must be disinfected before injection and thus contains THMs and other disinfection by-products. THMs (chloroform, CHCl3, bromodichloromethane, CHCl2Br, dibromochloromethane, CHClBr2, and bromoform, CHBr3) are formed by reaction between natural dissolved organic carbon that is present in water and chlorine that is added during the disinfection step of the drinking water treatment process. THMs are carcinogenic compounds, and their concentrations in drinking water are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. During previous cycles of the Lancaster program, extracted water still contained measurable concentrations of THMs long after continuous pumping had extracted a greater volume of water than had been injected. This raised concerns about the potential long-term effect of injection, storage, and recovery cycles on ground-water quality in Antelope Valley aquifers. The primary objectives of this investigation were to determine (1) what controlled continued THM formation in the aquifer after injection, (2) what caused of the persistence of THMs in the extracted water, even after long periods of pumping, (3) what controlled the decrease of THM concentrations during the extraction period, and (4) the potential for natural attenuation of THMs in the aquifer. Laboratory experiments on biodegradation of THMs in microcosms of aquifer materials indicate that aquifer

  3. 藏羚羊种群资源及其保护%Resources Regarding Populations of Tibetan Antelope (Pantholops hodgsoni)and the Status of Its Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓民; 张洪峰

    2011-01-01

    藏羚羊(Pantholops hodgsoni)属中国国家I级保护动物,被列入(CITES)公约附录I.藏羚羊主要分布于中国青海、西藏、新疆和四川四省(区)海拔3 700~5 500 m的高山荒漠草甸草原和高原草原等环境中.独特的高原生态环境,使藏羚羊在漫长的进化过程中,从外部形态、内部器官结构、生态习性和行为上都适应了青藏高原独特且恶劣的自然条件,从而具有最优秀的基因,因此,藏羚羊被公认为青藏高原动物区系的典型代表和自然生态系统的重要指示物种,在科学研究、生态平衡乃至人文和美学等方面都具有难以估量的价值.20世纪80年代末到90年代,出产于克什米尔的稀有奢华的藏羚羊绒披肩(沙图什)就深受贵族和富人们的青睐,被视为财富和地位的象征,巨额利润促使盗猎者大最捕杀藏羚羊,后经国家林业、环保等部门加大保护力度,加强保护区及栖息地建设等诸多措施后,种群数量及分布区逐渐恢复,但目前藏羚羊面临着生存环境、人类经济社会发展、盗猎的巨大压力,物种整体抗逆境能力仍然十分脆弱.%Tibetan antelope is listed as the first grade wildlife of China, and included in the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) Appendix Ⅰ.It is mainly located in alpine desert meadow steppe and upland grassland from 3 700 to 5 500 metres, Tibet, Xinjiang, Qinghai and Sichuan Provinces of China. During the long process of evolution,Tibetan antelope was adapt to unique and formidable natural conditions from the aspects of the external form, internal organ structure, ecological habits and behavior. It was recognized for the department of typical representative Qinghai-Tibet plateau animal area and important indicating species in natural ecological system,which had inestimable value in scientific research, ecological balance and humanities and aesthetics. Due to luxury of shawl

  4. Adaptation of vigilance behavior in ex situ conservation of Tibetan antelope%青藏高原异地半圈养藏羚警戒行为的适应性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙平; 于鸿浩; 赵新全; 王德华

    2011-01-01

    行为是反映动物应对环境变化的最直接形式.动物可以根据周围环境条件的变化以及自身的生理状况来调整行为,异地放养是保护珍稀动物的有效方法,但必然会对其行为产生影响.为了探讨藏羚(Pantholops hodgsonii)对异地环境的行为学适应,对异地圈养藏羚的警戒行为进行了不同季节间的比较研究,采用全事件记录法和焦点动物取样法,记录和统计了异地圈养藏羚在冷季和暖季的警戒行为,进而推测其对人类干扰的行为适应性.研究结果表明,雌性和雄性藏羚的警戒时间及警戒比例(警戒时间占全天活动时间的比例)在暖季存在显著差异(警戒时间:Z=4.36,P<0.05;警戒比例:Z=4.559,P<0.05),而在冷季则无差异(警戒时间:Z=0.001,P>0.05;警戒比例:Z=0.0014,P>0.05);而季节差异对雌、雄性藏羚的警戒时间、警戒比例均具有极显著的影响(雄性-警戒时间:F=31.758,P< 0.01;警戒比例:F=21.768,P< 0.01;雌性-警戒时间:F=14.98,P< 0.01;警戒比例:F=11.05,P<0.01);但是季节和性别对藏羚警戒行为的影响没有交互作用(Z =-0.576,P> 0.05).这些结果提示异地圈养藏羚警戒行为的变化可能是对陌生环境适应的结果.%Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsoni) are an endemic and endangered species of the Tibetan Plateau. Ex situ conservation may represent an important way to protect Tibetan antelope; however, this process may influence aspects of their behavior. To investigate the ability of these antelopes to adapt to new environments, a study on the vigilance behavior of captive antelope in different seasons was conducted. Using instantaneous scan sampling, focal animal sampling, and all-occurrence recording methods, the vigilance rate and vigilance time of captive male and female Tibetan antelope during cold and warm seasons were recorded and analyzed. Very significant sex differences in vigilance behavior were observed during the warm season

  5. Pathology and immunohistochemistry of papillomavirus-associated cutaneous lesions in Cape mountain zebra, giraffe, sable antelope and African buffalo in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Williams

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Skin lesions associated with papillomaviruses have been reported in many animal species and man. Bovine papillomavirus (BVP affects mainly the epidermis, but also the dermis in several species including bovine, the best-known example being equine sarcoid, which is associated with BVP types 1 and 2. This publication describes and illustrates the macroscopic and histological appearance of BPV-associated papillomatous, fibropapillomatous or sarcoid-like lesions in Cape mountain zebra (Equus zebra zebra from the Gariep Dam Nature Reserve, 2 giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis from the Kruger National Park, and a sable antelope (Hippotragus niger from the Kimberley area of South Africa. An African buffalo (Syncerus caffer cow from Kruger National Park also had papillomatous lesions but molecular characterisation of lesional virus was not done. Immunohistochemical staining using polyclonal rabbit antiserum to chemically disrupted BPV-1, which cross-reacts with the L1 capsid of most known papillomaviruses, was positive in cells of the stratum granulosum of lesions in Giraffe 1, the sable and the buffalo and negative in those of the zebra and Giraffe 2. Fibropapillomatous and sarcoid-like lesions from an adult bovine were used as positive control for the immunohistochemistry and are described and the immunohistochemistry illustrated for comparison. Macroscopically, both adult female giraffe had severely thickened multifocal to coalescing nodular and occasionally ulcerated lesions of the head, neck and trunk with local poorly-circumscribed invasion into the subcutis. Necropsy performed on the 2nd giraffe revealed neither internal metastases nor serious underlying disease. Giraffe 1 had scattered, and Giraffe 2 numerous, large, anaplastic, at times indistinctly multinucleated dermal fibroblasts with bizarre nuclei within the sarcoid-like lesions, which were BPV-1 positive in Giraffe 1 and BPV-1 and -2 positive in Giraffe 2 by RT-PCR. The sable antelope

  6. SM1.3 Seismic Centers Data Acquisition: an introduction to Antelope, EarthWorm, SeisComP and their usage around the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesaresi, Damiano; Sleeman, Reinoud

    2010-05-01

    Many medium to big size seismic data centers around the world are facing the same question: which software to use to acquire seismic data in real-time? A home-made or a commercial one? Both choices have pros and cons. The in-house development of software usually requires an increased investment in human resources rather than a financial investment. However, the advantage of fully accomplishing your own needs could be put in danger when the software engineer quits the job! Commercial software offers the advantage of being maintained, but it may require both a considerable financial investment and training. The main seismic software data acquisition suites available nowadays are the public domain SeisComP and EarthWorm packages and the commercial package Antelope. Nanometrics, Guralp and RefTek also provide seismic data acquisition software, but they are mainly intended for single station/network acquisition. Antelope is a software package for real-time acquisition and processing of seismic network data, with its roots in the academic seismological community. The software is developed by Boulder Real Time Technology (BRTT) and commercialized by Kinemetrics. It is used by IRIS affiliates for off-line data processing and it is the main acquisition tool for the USArray program and data centers in Europe like the ORFEUS Data Center, OGS (Italy), ZAMG (Austria), ARSO (Slovenia) and GFU (Czech Republic). SeisComP was originally developed for the GEOFON global network to provide a system for data acquisition, data exchange (SeedLink protocol) and automatic processing. It has evolved into to a widely distributed, networked seismographic system for data acquisition and real-time data exchange over Internet and is supported by ORFEUS as the standard seismic data acquisition tool in Europe. SeisComP3 is the next generation of the software and was developed for the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS). SeisComP is licensed by GFZ (free of charge) and

  7. Applying a toolkit for dissemination and analysis of near real-time data through the World Wide Web: integration of the Antelope Real Time System, ROADNet, and PHP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, R. L.; Lindquist, K. G.; Hansen, T. S.; Vernon, F. L.; Eakins, J.; Foley, S.; Orcutt, J.

    2005-12-01

    The ROADNet project has enabled the acquisition and storage of diverse data streams through seamless integration of the Antelope Real Time System (ARTS) with (for example) ecological, seismological and geodetic instrumentation. The robust system architecture allows researchers to simply network data loggers with relational databases; however, the ability to disseminate these data to policy makers, scientists and the general public has (until recently) been provided on an 'as needed' basis. The recent development of a Datascope interface to the popular open source scripting language PHP has provided an avenue for presenting near real time data (such as integers, images and movies) from within the ARTS framework easily on the World Wide Web. The interface also indirectly provided the means to transform data types into various formats using the extensive function libraries that accompany a PHP installation (such as image creation and manipulation, data encryption for sensitive information, and XML creation for structured document interchange through the World Wide Web). Using a combination of Datascope and PHP library functions, an extensible tool-kit is being developed to allow data managers to easily present their products on the World Wide Web. The tool-kit has been modeled after the pre-existing ARTS architecture to simplify the installation, development and ease-of-use for both the seasoned researcher and the casual user. The methodology and results of building the applications that comprise the tool-kit are the focus of this presentation, including procedural vs. object oriented design, incorporation of the tool-kit into the existing contributed software libraries, and case-studies of researchers who are employing the tools to present their data. http://anf.ucsd.edu

  8. Landowner and permit-holder perceptions of wildlife damage around the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. A survey of INEEL neighbors about elk, mule deer, pronghorn antelope, and depredation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roush, D.E. Jr. [Environmental Science and Research Foundation, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Beaver, D.E. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). Coll. of Forestry, Wildlife, and Range Sciences

    1998-06-01

    Property-owners (N = 220) around the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in southeastern Idaho were surveyed about depredation, control methods and economic issues related to use of the area by elk (Cervus elaphus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana). Depredation was defined as damage to privately-owned crops, forage, and fences and irrigation equipment by these animals. The focus on the three ungulate species was prompted by concerns that elk, which had recolonized the INEEL since 1984, were responsible for an inordinate amount of unprecedented damage to agricultural operations. As the INEEL is a US Department of Energy (DOE) reserve with little public hunting access, there have been calls for removal of elk from this land. This study`s objective was to quantify the wildlife damage occurring on agricultural operations adjacent to the INEEL and to characterize the damage attributed to each big game species. Responses from 70.2% of the target population indicate an evenness of opinion, by which the authors mean that various opinions were represented equitably, toward these animals and wildlife damage Total estimated wildlife damage in 1996 was between $140,000 and $180,000 It was attributed foremost to elk, although pronghorn antelope were viewed nearly as damaging. Respondents placed high values in big game animals and wished to see them continue to inhabit these lands. For managing depredation, adjusting hunting seasons was preferred.

  9. 羚羊角汤治疗小儿化脓性扁桃体炎的临床疗效%The Clinical Effect of Antelope Horn Decoction in the Treatment of Pyogenic Tonsillitis in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁亚南; 常向辉

    2016-01-01

    Objective To observe and analyze the clinical effects of antelope horn decoction in the treatment of pyogenic tonsillitis in children.Methods 80 patients with the pyogenic tonsillitis who accepted treatments in our hospital were taken as research objects , and these patients were randomly divided into the control group and the study group , with 40 patients in each group .In the control group , they were given conventional Western medicine treatment .In the study group , on the basis of the control group , they were treated with the antelope horn decoction .Then, the clinical effect of these two groups of patients were observed and compared .Result The total effective rate of the observation group was evidently higher than that of the control group (P<0.05).Conclusion The antelope horn decoction can evidently improve the clinical effect of pyogenic tonsillitis in children , and is worthy of clinical application .%目的:观察和分析对化脓性扁桃体炎患儿采用羚羊角汤进行治疗的临床效果。方法收集我院接诊的患化脓性扁桃体炎的80例患者进行研究,以随机分组法将其分成对照组40例与研究组40例。对照组患儿给予常规西医治疗,研究组患儿则在常规西医治疗的基础上给予羚羊角汤联合治疗。观察及比较两组患儿的临床疗效。结果研究组患者治疗的总有效率显著高于对照组( P<0.05)。结论羚羊角汤能够有效提高化脓性扁桃体炎患儿的临床疗效,值得临床推广应用。

  10. Advanced reservoir characterization in the Antelope Shale to establish the viability of CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery in California`s Monterey Formation siliceous shales. Annual report, February 12, 1996--February 11, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toronyi, R.M.

    1997-12-01

    The Buena Vista Hills field is located about 25 miles southwest of Bakersfield, in Kern County, California, about two miles north of the city of Taft, and five miles south of the Elk Hills field. The Antelope Shale zone was discovered at the Buena Vista Hills field in 1952, and has since been under primary production. Little research was done to improve the completion techniques during the development phase in the 1950s, so most of the wells are completed with about 1000 ft of slotted liner. The proposed pilot consists of four existing producers on 20 acre spacing with a new 10 acre infill well drilled as the pilot CO{sub 2} injector. Most of the reservoir characterization of the first phase of the project will be performed using data collected in the pilot pattern wells. This is the first annual report of the project. It covers the period February 12, 1996 to February 11, 1997. During this period the Chevron Murvale 653Z-26B well was drilled in Section 26-T31S/R23E in the Buena Vista Hills field, Kern County, California. The Monterey Formation equivalent Brown and Antelope Shales were continuously cored, the zone was logged with several different kinds of wireline logs, and the well was cased to a total depth of 4907 ft. Core recovery was 99.5%. Core analyses that have been performed include Dean Stark porosity, permeability and fluid saturations, field wettability, anelastic strain recovery, spectral core gamma, profile permeametry, and photographic imaging. Wireline log analysis includes mineral-based error minimization (ELAN), NMR T2 processing, and dipole shear wave anisotropy. A shear wave vertical seismic profile was acquired after casing was set and processing is nearly complete.

  11. Advanced reservoir characterization in the Antelope Shale to establish the viability of CO2 enhanced oil recovery in California`s Monterey Formation siliceous shales. Annual report, February 7, 1997--February 6, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morea, M.F.

    1998-06-01

    The primary objective of this research is to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and modeling studies in the Antelope Shale reservoir. Characterization studies will be used to determine the technical feasibility of implementing a CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery project in the antelope Shale in Buena Vista Hills Field. The proposed pilot consists of four existing producers on 20 acre spacing with a new 10 acre infill well drilled as the pilot CO{sub 2} injector. Most of the reservoir characterization during Phase 1 of the project will be performed using data collected in the pilot pattern wells. During this period the following tasks have been completed: laboratory wettability; specific permeability; mercury porosimetry; acoustic anisotropy; rock mechanics analysis; core description; fracture analysis; digital image analysis; mineralogical analysis; hydraulic flow unit analysis; petrographic and confocal thin section analysis; oil geochemical fingerprinting; production logging; carbon/oxygen logging; complex lithologic log analysis; NMR T2 processing; dipole shear wave anisotropy logging; shear wave vertical seismic profile processing; structural mapping; and regional tectonic synthesis. Noteworthy technological successes for this reporting period include: (1) first (ever) high resolution, crosswell reflection images of SJV sediments; (2) first successful application of the TomoSeis acquisition system in siliceous shales; (3) first detailed reservoir characterization of SJV siliceous shales; (4) first mineral based saturation algorithm for SJV siliceous shales, and (5) first CO{sub 2} coreflood experiments for siliceous shale. Preliminary results from the CO{sub 2} coreflood experiments (2,500 psi) suggest that significant oil is being produced from the siliceous shale.

  12. Aquifer-System Compaction and Land Subsidence: Measurements, Analyses, and Simulations-the Holly Site, Edwards Air Force Base, Antelope Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneed, Michelle; Galloway, Devin L.

    2000-01-01

    Land subsidence resulting from ground-water-level declines has long been recognized as a problem in Antelope Valley, California. At Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB), ground-water extractions have caused more than 150 feet of water-level decline, resulting in nearly 4 feet of subsidence. Differential land subsidence has caused sinklike depressions and earth fissures and has accelerated erosion of the playa lakebed surface of Rogers Lake at EAFB, adversely affecting the runways on the lakebed which are used for landing aircraft such as the space shuttles. Since 1990, about 0.4 foot of aquifer-system compaction has been measured at a deep (840 feet) borehole extensometer (Holly site) at EAFB. More than 7 years of paired ground-water-level and aquifer-system compaction measurements made at the Holly site were analyzed for this study. Annually, seasonal water-level fluctuations correspond to steplike variations in aquifer-system compaction; summer water-level drawdowns are associated with larger rates of compaction, and winter water-level recoveries are associated with smaller rates of compaction. The absence of aquifer-system expansion during recovery is consistent with the delayed drainage and resultant delayed, or residual, compaction of thick aquitards. A numerical one-dimensional MODFLOW model of aquitard drainage was used to refine estimates of aquifer-system hydraulic parameters that control compaction and to predict potential future compaction at the Holly site. The analyses and simulations of aquifer-system compaction are based on established theories of aquitard drainage. Historical ground-water-level and land-subsidence data collected near the Holly site were used to constrain simulations of aquifer-system compaction and land subsidence at the site for the period 1908?90, and ground-water-level and aquifer- system compaction measurements collected at the Holly site were used to constrain the model for the period 1990?97. Model results indicate that two thick

  13. North Antelope Highlands Wind Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearlson, Matthew [Citizens Energy Corporation (CEC), Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-05-03

    This is the final report on the Wind Energy Development of 190 Mw on the Rosebud Indian Reservation in collaboration with Citizens Energy Corporation. The report discusses all pre-development activities since July of 2010 when award was granted. A systems impact study along with wind data accumulated over the past 5 years is contained in this report. We have responded to several RFPs concerning the sale of energy to certain offtakers, but we have failed to win a Power Purchase Agreement due to existing wind farms that won and the interconnection costs were already included in a previous PPAs, which we don't have that luxury. We continue this effort and hopefully in the near future we will win an RFP.

  14. Interspecific Resource Competition in Antelopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, Herbert H.T.

    2016-01-01

    Intraspecific or interspecific competition is then fundamentally the same: scramble competition is a good example of this type of competition. Modern ecology increasingly is faced with the question whether the data or a paper provide evidence for the statement that is made or for testing the hypo

  15. 藏羚羊雌性种群的迁徙行为和产仔行为%Migratory and calving behavior of Tibetan antelope population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    George B.SCHALLER; 康蔼黎; 蔡新斌; 刘炎林

    2006-01-01

    A migratory population of female Tibetan antelope or chiru was studied on its calving ground in the western Kun lun Mountains, Xinjiang in June - July 2005. It was estimated that 4 000 - 4 500 females were in the 1 200 km2 calving area but most births were concentrated in 350 km2. The habitat at 4 500 -5 000 m in elevation had vegetation coverage of less than 5%, principally the dwarf shrub Ceratoides compacta. Young were born 18 June -7 July with a peak 24 June -3 July. Only about 40% of adult females had young, a low fecundity possibly the result of heavy winter snows leading to poor physical condition. Wolf, red fox, and birds of prey killed a few chiru but predators were scarce; most mortality was unre lated to predation. Females arrived at the calving grounds in late May and early June from the west of Tibet, and by early July started their return migration. It remains unclear why chiru migrate to that site. Analysis of chiru food plants showed no marked difference in nutritive values at this season between the calving grounds and the southern range. Escape from predators, parasitic insects, and people with their livestock may all have a role. Based on the study, we suggest that the main calving ground requires strict protection from disturbance, and a large reserve in the region needs to be established.%2005年6~7月,我们在新疆昆仑山西部的一处藏羚羊繁殖地,对一个雌性藏羚羊的迁徙种群进行了研究.整个调查区域的海拔是4 500~5 000 m,植被覆盖率小于5%,主要植被是垫状驼绒藜(Ceratoides compacta).根据研究结果,我们估计在本产仔季节,共有4 000~4 500头雌性藏羚羊迁徙聚集到一个1 200 km2的区域内,集中产仔地面积约为350 km2.产仔的高峰期是在6月18日~7月7日,其间只有40%的成年雌性产仔,这可能和2004年冬西藏阿鲁盆地的降雪量较大导致藏羚羊在交配期和怀孕期身体条件较弱有关.这个区域的雌

  16. Tibetan antelope cystathionine γ -lyase:complete cDNA sequences%高原藏羚羊胱硫醚-γ-裂解酶基因克隆与全序列测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李肃; 格日力

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify the Cystathionine-γ-Lyase(CSE) genes coding sequences molecular cloning , exam the tissues expression spectrums and discuss the hypoxic adaptations mechanisms in Tibetan antelope .Methods The total RNA was extracted ,and the cDNA was captured by reverse transcription RT-PCR ,then identified ,se-quenced and cloned .Results There was 96 .47% homology between the Tibetan antelope gene fragment containing the purpose gene and the cattle gene in gen banks ,thus the result mean the gene which cloned before was CSE gene protein .The length of the CSE gene protein was been detected by designing primers according to the human ,mous , wild boar ,cattle CSEcDNA sequences ,and the CSE gene primers of tibetan antelope which tesied by Pnaman .Conclu-sion CSE gene protein might play an important role in the body of the Tibetan anteplope ,which provide experiment basis to the gene study about adaptation in high altitude hypoxia environment .in the future .%目的:探讨克隆高原藏羚羊胱硫醚-γ-裂解酶(CSE)基因编码区并检测其在成年高原藏羚羊组织中的表达,同时探讨高原藏羚羊低氧适应的分子生物学机制。方法从高原藏羚羊组织中提取总 RNA ,通过逆转录聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)获得高原藏羚羊 cDNA ,并进行鉴定和测序。结果将含有目的片段克隆后经测序和 Blast分析,结果显示其部分编码序列与 GenBank 中牛 CSE 蛋白基因序列同源性96.47%,表明本实验所克隆的序列为CSE 蛋白基因。根据已知人、褐家鼠、小鼠、野猪、食蟹猴、家牛 CSEcDNA 序列和 Pnaman 软件设计高原藏羚羊 cse基因的引物。结论 CSE mRNA 可能在高原藏羚羊机体较为广泛的区域中发挥着作用,同时为高原低氧适应相关基因的研究提供了实验依据。

  17. Monitoring on zoonosis in field research of Tibetan antelope%藏羚羊野外现场研究工作中人兽共患病的监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马韶辉; 陈洪舰; 吴海生; 格日力

    2012-01-01

    目的 随着经济发展和生物学研究的不断深入,野外现场研究工作将触及更多的野生动物,研究足迹将深入人类罕至的地区.这一行为大大增加了人兽共患病对人类社会的威胁.完善野生动物研究工作中人兽共患病的监测机制,有利于控制动物间疾病和疫情向人间蔓延.方法 采集6只成年野生藏羚羊血液进行鼠疫、布鲁氏菌、包虫病细粒棘球蚴血清学检测,采集脏器进行炭疽芽孢杆菌的分离培养.结果 检测鼠疫、炭疽和布鲁氏菌,血清学检验、细菌学培养均为阴性;包虫病细粒棘球蚴检测2只血清呈阳性(1∶8),阳性率为33%.结论 此次研究工作中的疾病监测保证了《藏羚羊基因组的研究》课题的正常进行,同时也为保护国家级保护动物、开展人兽共患病监测做出有益尝试.%Objective Along with the development of economy and biology, field research would involve more wild animals, and go deep into some sparsely populated areas, which would greatly increase the threat of zoonosis to liiijnan and society. Improving the monitoring mechanism of zoonosis of wild animal research would con-tori the spread of animal diseases to human. Method Collect blood and visceral organ samples from six adult wild Tibetan antelopes. The blood was detected with serological tests for plague, brucella and echinococcosis, and the visceral organs were separately cultured with bacillus anthracis. Results The results shown that the serological tests for plague, anthrax and brucella and bacterial culture were negative, and 2 cases were sero -positive of echinococcosis (1:8), with the positive rate of 33%. Conclusions This research ensured the normal development of the subject of Genome Research on Tibetan Antelope, and also made useful attempt to protect national animals and develop the monitoring of zoonosis.

  18. Assessing ecological services value of herbivorous wild animals in Changtang grassland: a case study of Tibetan antelope%羌塘地区草食性野生动物的生态服务价值评估——以藏羚羊为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁春霞; 刘铭; 冯跃; 武建双; 冷允发

    2011-01-01

    With increasing population of the wild animals, conflict between the herbivorous wild animals ( such as Tibetan Antelope, Kiangs, and Wild Yaks) and domestic animals for limited grassland resources is becoming increasingly significant in Changtang grassland of Tibet Autonomous Region. The ecological compensation scheme has been considered as one of the important approaches to deal with such problems. Therefore, assessment of the ecological value of wild animals could provide the basis for setting up ecological compensation standard.In this research, we have collected relevant second data including statistics and documents to know current socio-economic conditions of the region, In 2008, a questionnaire survey concerning the protection of ecological environment was conducted among 115 full time government employees in Lasa and Nagqu and among 84 herdsmen in Nyima and Shuanghu Zone. Altogether 199 copies of the questionnaires have been distributed and completed, with 198 valid ones. Key questions designed include the willingness to pay for the protection of wild animals in Changtang area, which late were used for estimation of the non-use values.In this paper we established the valuation system and methodologies for the assessment of ecological service value of the wild animals in Changtang grassland. The Tibetan antelope has been taken as indicative wild animal for the assessment. The value system consists of use value and non-use value. Use value includes direct use value ( commercial value and recreational & entertainment value) and indirect use value (ecological value, cultural and educational value, and aesthetic value, and scientific research value). Non-use value includes existence value, choice value, and heritage value. We estimated the use value mainly through market valuation method and non use value using the contingent valuation method.As there is no market trading for wild animals, so for no corresponding pricing system for valuing the wild animals. In

  19. 阿尔金山自然保护区基于野牦牛、藏野驴、藏羚羊适宜栖息地的生态容量估测%Estimation of ecological carrying capacity for wild yak, kiang, and Tibetan antelope based on habitat suitability in the Aerjin Mountain Nature Reserve, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董世魁; 翁晋; 武晓宇; 刘世梁; 苏旭坤; 吴娱; 石建斌; 李晓文; 张翔; 许东华

    2015-01-01

    National Nature Reserve ( AMNNR) on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China, is a major refuge for three wild ungulates;wild yak ( Bos mutus) , kiang ( Equus kiang) , and Tibetan antelope ( Pantholops hodgsoni) . This nature reserve is important for conserving these three wild endemic ungulates and their habitats. Over decades of conservation, the populations of these three ungulates have increased rapidly. However, the administrators of AMNNR considered that the kiang might have become overpopulated, which would result in habitat degradation. Thus, it is vital implement wildlife management planning based on the quantification of ecological carrying capacity for sustainable nature reserve management. In this study, vehicular transects were conducted to survey the distribution data and record the populations of wild yak, kiang, and Tibetan antelope from May to June, 2012, and June to July, 2013, in the AMNNR. We integrated remote sensing data analysis with on-the-ground plot surveys to identify suitable habitats ( alpine steppe, alpine desert steppe, alpine desert, and alpine meadow) for all three ungulates, and we estimated habitat production. A dietary analysis of wild yak, kiang, and Tibetan antelope was completed to estimate the amount of edible grasses required for the three wild ungulates in suitable habitats. Using the empirical formula ( calculation of the proper carrying capacity of rangelands) provided by the PRC Ministry of Agriculture, we quantified the carrying capacity for all three species in suitable habitats and in the whole natural reserve. The results showed that areas of suitable habitat for wild yak, kiang, and Tibetan antelope were 31866. 07 km2 , 24035. 51 km2 , and 24035. 51 km2 , respectively. There were big overlaps in the suitable habitats for all three wild ungulates, which shared almost the same suitable habitats. Within the suitable habitats, alpine steppe, alpine desert steppe, alpine desert, and alpine meadow could potentially provide 3944.91

  20. 可可西里自然保护区藏羚羊的微卫星多态性研究%Genetic Diversity of Microsatellite DNA Loci of Tibetan Antelope (Chiru, Pantholops hodgsonii)in Hoh Xil National Nature Reserve, Qinghai, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周慧; 李迪强; 张于光; 杨涛; 刘毅

    2007-01-01

    藏羚羊是我国特有的珍稀濒危动物,对其开展遗传多样性的研究具有非常重要的科学价值.为了获取足够的遗传信息并进一步研究藏羚羊在核基因水平上的遗传多样性,对来自可可西里地区的75个藏羚羊干皮张样本进行了微卫星遗传多样性研究.研究从来自牛和绵羊的25个微卫星基因座中筛选到9个具有高度多态性的微卫星基因座(MCM38,MNS64,IOBT395,MCMAI, TGLA68,BM1329,BMS1341,BM3501和MB066).用非变性聚丙烯凝胶电泳检测微卫星的PCR扩增产物,计算了这9个微卫星基因座的等位基因频率、多态信息含量、基因杂合度等指标并估算了种群数量.结果在75只藏羚羊中共检测到85个等位基因,9个微卫星基因座的等位基因数为7~12个,平均每个基因座检测到9.4个等位基因,有效等位基因数为处于4.676~9.169之间,平均为6.519;基因频率分布在0.007~0.313之间,多态信息含量在0.753~0.881之间,平均为0.818;观察杂合度为0.791~0.897,平均为0.844,期望杂合度为0.786~0.891之间,平均为0.838±0.0132,各基因座观察杂合度与期望杂合度比较接近.固定指数为-0.269~-0.097,平均为-0.163.Shannon's指数为1.660~2.315,平均为1.990.种群数量的估算结果显示这75个体均来自同一种群.结果表明该种群在核基因水平仍具有丰富的遗传多样性.%The Tibetan antelope(Pantholops hodgsonii),indigenous to China,became an endangered species because of considerable reduction both in number and distribution during the 20th century.Presently,it is listed as an Appendix Ⅰspecies by CITES and as Category Ⅰby the Key Protected Wildlife List of China.Understanding the genetic diversity and population structure of the Tibetan antelope is significant for the development of effective conservation plans that will ensure the recovery and future persistence of this species.Twenty-five microsatellites were selected to obtain loci with

  1. A mitochondrial genome sequence of the Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsonii)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Shu Qing; Yang, Ying Zhong; Zhou, Jun;

    2005-01-01

    To investigate genetic mechanisms of high altitude adaptations of native mammals on the Tibetan Plateau, we compared mitochondrial sequences of the endangered Pantholops hodgsonii with its lowland distant relatives Ovis aries and Capra hircus, as well as other mammals. The complete mitochondrial...

  2. Polonium assimilation and retention in mule deer and pronghorn antelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Excretion kinetics and tissue distribution of polonium-210 in mule deer and pronghorn were studied. Each animal in a captive herd of 7 mule deer and 2 pronghorn received an intraruminal injection of 4.4 μCi of polonium chloride. Feces and urine were collected periodically over a 43-day period and daily excretion rate for each pathway was regressed as a function of time. Assimilation fractions of 0.40 and 0.51 were calculated for mule deer (n=2) and 0.60 for a pronghorn. Body burden retention functions were calculated from integrated excretion rate functions. Polonium burdens in muscle, liver, and kidney were calculated as a fraction of body burden from serially-sacrificed animals. Background tissue burdens in mule deer were comparable to those of other ruminants reported in the literature. Hypothetical cases were assumed which combined feeding rate of mule deer, forage concentrations of polonium, retention function, tissue burden fraction, and human intake to estimate human radiation dose. 26 references

  3. Antelope Predation by Nigerian Forest Baboons: Ecological and Behavioural Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Volker; Lowe, Adriana; Jesus, Gonçalo; Alberts, Nienke; Bouquet, Yaëlle; Inglis, David M; Petersdorf, Megan; van Riel, Eelco; Thompson, James; Ross, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Baboons are well studied in savannah but less so in more closed habitats. We investigated predation on mammals by olive baboons (Papio anubis) at a geographical and climatic outlier, Gashaka Gumti National Park (Nigeria), the wettest and most forested site so far studied. Despite abundant wildlife, meat eating was rare and selective. Over 16 years, baboons killed 7 bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus) and 3 red-flanked duiker (Cephalophus rufilatus), mostly still-lying 'parked' infants. Taking observation time into account, this is 1 predation per group every 3.3 months - far lower than at other sites. Some features of meat eating resemble those elsewhere; predation is opportunistic, adult males monopolize most prey, a targeted killing bite is lacking and begging or active sharing is absent. Carcass owners employ evasive tactics, as meat is often competed over, but satiated owners may tolerate others taking meat. Other features are unusual; this is only the second study site with predation records for bushbuck and the only one for red-flanked duiker. The atypical prey and rarity of eating mammals probably reflects the difficulty of acquiring prey animals when vegetation cover is dense. Our data support the general prediction of the socioecological model that environments shape behavioural patterns, while acknowledging their intraspecific or intrageneric plasticity. PMID:27287424

  4. 西藏羌塘自然保护区与人类活动有关的藏羚、藏野驴和藏原羚密度%Density of Tibetan antelope, Tibetan wild ass and Tibetan gazelle in relation to human presence across the Chang Tang Nature Reserve of Tibet, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph L. FOX; B(a)rd-Jφrgen B(A)RDSEN

    2005-01-01

    Chiru or Tibetan antelope Pantholops hodgsoni, Kiang or Tibetan wild ass Equus kiang, and Tibetan gazelle Procapra picticaudata density (number of individuals km-2) and encounter rates (the number of observed animal clusters km-1) were estimated on three similar 750 - 860 km west-to-east traverses across the Chang Tang Nature Reserve in northwest Tibet, conducted in 1999, 2000 and 2002. All three species were scarce at the lowest elevations encountered (4 500 - 4 700 m) and were too few in these areas of moderate to high human and livestock presence to permit reliable density or encounter rate estimation. All species were generally too sparse in areas of high human/livestock presence to permit consistent density and/or encounter rate estimation. At higher elevations (4 700 - 5 200 m) densities of chiru and kiang were consistently greater in areas of low human/livestock presence than in areas of medium presence, although for kiang differences were much less than for chiru. For Tibetan gazelle, the pattern was different with encounter rates similar in areas of low and medium human and livestock presence. The differences may be related to some extent to species habitat preference, but it appears that gazelle, and to a lesser extent kiang, may tolerate human/livestock presence more than chiru. Noticeable within the results was a higher variance for all three species in areas of low human presence, indicating a more clumped distribution of wildlife in these as opposed to areas of medium human presence. The ungulates encounter rate patterns along the traverse were similar in all three years; there was no indication of population trends over this period%1999年, 2000年和2002年,在西藏西北部的西藏羌塘自然保护区分别沿三条横跨该自然保护区的长度为750-860 km的东西向样线估计了藏羚(Pantholops hodgsoni)、藏野驴(Equus kiang)和藏原羚(Procapra picticaudata)密度(每平方公里个体数)和遇见率(每平方公

  5. Groundwater discharge areas for Antelope, Kobeh, and Monitor Valleys, Central Nevada, 1964

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset represents "phreatophyte areas" mapped as part of a groundwater reconnaissance effort in four valleys in central Nevada and published in 1964. The data...

  6. A WILDLIFE MONITORING SYSTEM BASED ON TIANDITU AND BEIDOU: IN CASE OF THE TIBETAN ANTELOPE

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hongping; Wei, Dong; Jiang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Positioning and tracking wildlife is already being an effective way to collect biological information for research and species of wildlife protection. The common technologies of tracking wildlife are divided into several categories, such as radio tracking technology, GPS tracking system, radio frequency identification technology (RFID), and SIM card based technology. Some positive results achieved from these technologies, but there are some problems in location accuracy, price of the system. ...

  7. An exceptional case of historical outbreeding in African sable antelope populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pitra, C.; Hansen, Anders J.; Lieckfeldt, D.;

    2002-01-01

    ) sequences analysed from 95 individuals representing 17 sampling locations scattered through the African miombo (Brachystegia) woodland ecosystem] and phylogeographical statistical procedures (gene genealogy, nested cladistic and admixture proportion analyses), we (i) give a detailed dissection...

  8. Facts about the Hart Mountain National Antelope Refuge Wilderness proposal [draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a final draft of a leaflet meant to give more information about the Hart Mountain National Wildlife Refuge Wilderness proposal. Topics covered...

  9. "Antelope": a hybrid-logic model checker for branching-time Boolean GRN analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Arellano Gustavo; Argil Julián; Azpeitia Eugenio; Benítez Mariana; Carrillo Miguel; Góngora Pedro; Rosenblueth David A.; Alvarez-Buylla Elena R

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background In Thomas' formalism for modeling gene regulatory networks (GRNs), branching time, where a state can have more than one possible future, plays a prominent role. By representing a certain degree of unpredictability, branching time can model several important phenomena, such as (a) asynchrony, (b) incompletely specified behavior, and (c) interaction with the environment. Introducing more than one possible future for a state, however, creates a difficulty for ordinary simulat...

  10. 78 FR 49925 - Revisions to California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... direct final rule are encouraged to file a comment in response to the parallel notice of proposed... an ``anonymous access'' system, and EPA will not know your identity or contact information unless you... comment. Electronic files should avoid the use of special characters, any form of encryption, and be...

  11. 77 FR 12491 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... encouraged to file a comment in response to the parallel notice of proposed rulemaking for this action... submitted through www.regulations.gov or email. www.regulations.gov is an ``anonymous access'' system, and... 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993); Does not impose an information collection burden under...

  12. 78 FR 21581 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... number EPA-R09-OAR- 2012-0886, by one of the following methods: 1. Federal eRulemaking Portal: www... comment. Electronic files should avoid the use of special characters, any form of encryption, and be...

  13. Living on the edge: physiological and behavioural plasticity of African antelopes along a climatic gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shrestha, A.K.

    2012-01-01

    Climate change, habitat loss and fragmentation individually or synergistically force species to
    live in a sub-optimal condition in terms of climate and resource posing threat to fitness and
    survival of the species. Hence, a very pressing issue for biodiversity conservation at present is<

  14. Seroprevalence of infectious diseases in saiga antelope (Saiga tatarica tatarica) in Kazakhstan 2012-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orynbayev, Mukhit B; Beauvais, Wendy; Sansyzbay, Abylay R; Rystaeva, Rashida A; Sultankulova, Kulyaisan T; Kerimbaev, Aslan A; Kospanova, Madina N; Kock, Richard A

    2016-05-01

    286 serum samples were collected from three sub-populations of saiga in Kazakhstan (Betpakdala, Ustyurt and Volga-Ural) between 2012 and 2014, and were tested for the presence of antibodies to Brucella spp., bluetongue virus, peste des petits ruminants (PPR) virus, Akabane virus, Schmallenberg virus, Chlamydophila, Toxoplasma, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and Coxiella burnetii (Q Fever). Seropositives to Coxiella burnetii of saiga were detected and the adjusted seroprevalence of Q Fever antibodies was 0.07 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.03-0.10). Seropositives to Akabane virus were detected in all three populations and the adjusted seroprevalence values for this virus were very high (all were>0.13). Lower adjusted seroprevalence values were estimated for PPR Virus and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (0.005 and 0.006). No seropositives for bluetongue, Toxoplasma, Brucella or Schmallenberg were detected. PMID:27094147

  15. 77 FR 31379 - Hart Mountain National Antelope Refuge, Lake County, OR; Draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... in a series of rugged cliffs, steep slopes, and knife- like ridges. The eastern slope descends.... Grazing. In the Refuge's 1994 management plan, livestock grazing was evaluated and found incompatible with... Determination. Pursuant to this policy, we have reevaluated the use of livestock grazing on Hart...

  16. 78 FR 25011 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-29

    ... Management District, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District, South Coast Air Quality Management... Quality Management District (SCAQMD) and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (VCAPCD) portions... review by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4,...

  17. 75 FR 53877 - Proposed Establishment of the Antelope Valley of the California High Desert Viticultural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    ...,300 to 3,100. region. Double Mountain Tehachapi Mountains.... 10.5 North 7,981. Soledad Mountain... 10-20 9-20 14-16 Growing season (days)......... 240-260 50-100 215-235 170-190 220-240......... 100-150......... 50-100 Sunset climate zone 11 1A 10 7 18 2A 1A Winkler region/degree days **. V...

  18. 78 FR 58459 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... Management District, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District, South Coast Air Quality Management... Management District (AVAQMD), Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District (SBCAPCD), South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (VCAPCD)...

  19. Haemosporidian Parasites of Antelopes and Other Vertebrates from Gabon, Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boundenga, Larson; Makanga, Boris; Ollomo, Benjamin; Gilabert, Aude; Rougeron, Virginie; Mve-Ondo, Bertrand; Arnathau, Céline; Durand, Patrick; Moukodoum, Nancy Diamella; Okouga, Alain-Prince; Delicat-Loembet, Lucresse; Yacka-Mouele, Lauriane; Rahola, Nil; Leroy, Eric; Ba, Cheikh Tidiane; Renaud, Francois; Prugnolle, Franck; Paupy, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Re-examination, using molecular tools, of the diversity of haemosporidian parasites (among which the agents of human malaria are the best known) has generally led to rearrangements of traditional classifications. In this study, we explored the diversity of haemosporidian parasites infecting vertebrate species (particularly mammals, birds and reptiles) living in the forests of Gabon (Central Africa), by analyzing a collection of 492 bushmeat samples. We found that samples from five mammalian species (four duiker and one pangolin species), one bird and one turtle species were infected by haemosporidian parasites. In duikers (from which most of the infected specimens were obtained), we demonstrated the existence of at least two distinct parasite lineages related to Polychromophilus species (i.e., bat haemosporidian parasites) and to sauropsid Plasmodium (from birds and lizards). Molecular screening of sylvatic mosquitoes captured during a longitudinal survey revealed the presence of these haemosporidian parasite lineages also in several Anopheles species, suggesting a potential role in their transmission. Our results show that, differently from what was previously thought, several independent clades of haemosporidian parasites (family Plasmodiidae) infect mammals and are transmitted by anopheline mosquitoes.

  20. 78 FR 45114 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... such as landfill gases, sewage digester gases, refinery gases and other gaseous fuels. EPA's technical... of these rules? We approved an earlier version of Rule 218 into the SIP on September 2, 2008 (73 FR... of Rule 431.1 into the SIP on October 19, 1984 (49 FR 41028).\\1\\ AVAQMD adopted revisions to Rule...

  1. Large sequence divergence of mitochondrial DNA genotypes of the control region within populations of the African antelope, kob (Kobus kob)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birungi, J.; Arctander, Peter

    2000-01-01

    conservation genetics, control region, Kobus kob, mitochondrial DNA, population expansion, population structure......conservation genetics, control region, Kobus kob, mitochondrial DNA, population expansion, population structure...

  2. Impact of zoo visitors on the fecal cortisol levels and behavior of an endangered species: Indian blackbuck (Antelope cervicapra L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Thangavel; Archunan, Govindaraju; Sekar, Mahadevan

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated behavioral activities (resting, moving, aggressive, social, and reproductive behavior) and fecal cortisol levels in 8 individually identified adult male blackbucks during periods of varying levels of zoo visitors (zero, low, high, and extremely high zoo visitor density). This study also elucidated whether zoo visitor density could disturb nonhuman animal welfare. This study analyzed fecal cortisol from the samples of blackbuck by radioimmunoassay and found significant differences (p zoo visitors. The ANOVA with Duncan's Multiple Range Test test showed that the fecal cortisol concentration was higher (p zoo visitor density. The results of the study suggest that zoo visitor density affected behavior and adrenocortical secretion in Indian Blackbuck, and this may indicate an animal welfare problem.

  3. Physiological acclimation of a desert antelope, Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx), to long-term food and water restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Stéphane; Williams, Joseph B; Mésochina, Pascal; Sauerwein, Helga

    2006-03-01

    Desert mammals often experience scarcity of drinking water and food for prolonged periods. In this study, the first long-term acclimation experiment in a non-domesticated desert-adapted ungulate, we investigated the mechanisms used by the Arabian oryx Oryx leucoryx, to adjust its physiology to progressive food and water restriction over 5 months, an experimental regimen and time course chosen to mimic what it typically experiences between spring and late summer in the desert. At the end of the acclimation period, oryx consumed less than one and half of food and water of animals in the control group and lost 8.2+/-2.6% of their initial body mass. Experimental animals reduced their mass-specific resting metabolic rate (RMR) and total evaporative water loss (TEWL) by 16.2 and 25.7%, respectively, and maintained a digestive efficiency of about 70%. We found no support for the idea that reduced RMR in oryx correlated with a decreased thyroid hormone concentration in plasma. At the end of the 5 months acclimation, oryx continued to mobilize fatty acids to fuel metabolism, and did not use protein breakdown as a major source of gluconeogenesis. Oryx in the experimental group reduced their water intake by 70% and maintained constant plasma osmolality. They adjusted their water budget by reducing mass-specific TEWL, increasing urine osmolality and reducing urine volume by 40%, and excreting feces with <50% water content. Oryx have an unusually low TEWL compared with other arid-zone ungulates; both hydrated and water-deprived individuals have TEWL values, 51.7 and 39.3%, respectively, of allometric predictions for arid-zone ungulates. PMID:16283332

  4. Knee-clicks and visual traits indicate fighting ability in eland antelopes: multiple messages and back-up signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro-Jørgensen, Jakob; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2008-01-01

    Background: Given the costs of signalling, why do males often advertise their fighting ability to rivals using several signals rather than just one? Multiple signalling theories have developed largely in studies of sexual signals, and less is known about their applicability to intra...

  5. A long-standing Pleistocene refugium in southern Africa and a mosaic of refugia in East Africa: insights from mtDNA and the common eland antelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Eline; Masembe, Charles; Arctander, Peter;

    2010-01-01

    lineage showed pronounced geographic structuring, lower overall nucleotide diversity, higher population differentiation, and isolation-by-distance among populations. Main conclusions The data support the hypothesis of Pleistocene refugia occurring in East and southern Africa. In agreement......Aim Previous genetic studies of African savanna ungulates have indicated Pleistocene refugial areas in East and southern Africa, and recent palynological, palaeovegetation and fossil studies have suggested the presence of a long-standing refugium in the south and a mosaic of refugia in the east...... East Africa could result from colonization following extinction from the region. Only two other dated African ungulate phylogenies have been published, applying different methods, and the similarity of dates obtained from the three distinct approaches indicates a significant event c. 200 ka, which left...

  6. ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION IN THE ANTELOPE SHALE TO ESTABLISH THE VIABILITY OF CO2 ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY IN CALIFORNIA'S MONTEREY FORMATION SILICEOUS SHALES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasquale R. Perri

    2003-05-15

    This report describes the evaluation, design, and implementation of a DOE funded CO{sub 2} pilot project in the Lost Hills Field, Kern County, California. The pilot consists of four inverted (injector-centered) 5-spot patterns covering approximately 10 acres, and is located in a portion of the field, which has been under waterflood since early 1992. The target reservoir for the CO{sub 2} pilot is the Belridge Diatomite. The pilot location was selected based on geologic considerations, reservoir quality and reservoir performance during the waterflood. A CO{sub 2} pilot was chosen, rather than full-field implementation, to investigate uncertainties associated with CO{sub 2} utilization rate and premature CO{sub 2} breakthrough, and overall uncertainty in the unproven CO{sub 2} flood process in the San Joaquin Valley. A summary of the design and objectives of the CO{sub 2} pilot are included along with an overview of the Lost Hills geology, discussion of pilot injection and production facilities, and discussion of new wells drilled and remedial work completed prior to commencing injection. Actual CO{sub 2} injection began on August 31, 2000 and a comprehensive pilot monitoring and surveillance program has been implemented. Since the initiation of CO{sub 2} injection, the pilot has been hampered by excessive sand production in the pilot producers due to casing damage related to subsidence and exacerbated by the injected CO{sub 2}. Therefore CO{sub 2} injection was very sporadic in 2001 and 2002 and we experienced long periods of time with no CO{sub 2} injection. As a result of the continued mechanical problems, the pilot project was terminated on January 30, 2003. This report summarizes the injection and production performance and the monitoring results through December 31, 2002 including oil geochemistry, CO{sub 2} injection tracers, crosswell electromagnetic surveys, crosswell seismic, CO{sub 2} injection profiling, cased hole resistivity, tiltmetering results, and corrosion monitoring results. Although the Lost Hills CO{sub 2} pilot was not successful, the results and lessons learned presented in this report may be applicable to evaluate and design other potential San Joaquin Valley CO{sub 2} floods.

  7. Fluid and particle retention in the digestive tract of the addax antelope (Addax nasomaculatus)--adaptations of a grazing desert ruminant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Jürgen; Steuer, Patrick; Südekum, Karl-Heinz; Hammer, Sven; Hammer, Catrin; Streich, W Jürgen; Clauss, Marcus

    2008-02-01

    Retention time of food in the digestive tract is a major aspect describing the digestive physiology of herbivores. Differences in feed retention times have been described for different ruminant feeding types. In this study, a dominantly grazing desert ruminant, the addax (Addax nasomaculatus), was investigated in this respect. Eight animals with a body weight (BW) of 87+/-5.3 kg on an ad libitum grass hay (Chloris gayana) diet were available. Co-EDTA and Cr-mordanted fibers (adaptation to a diet including a high proportion of slow fermenting grasses, while the long retention time of the fluid phase can be interpreted as a consequence of water saving mechanisms of the desert-adapted addax with a potentially low water turnover and capacious water storing rumen. PMID:18083600

  8. Time-series ground-water-level and aquifer-system compaction data, Edwards Air Force Base, Antelope Valley, California, January 1991 through September 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    As part of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, a monitoring program was implemented to collect time-series ground-water-level and aquifer-system compaction data at Edwards Air Force Base, California. The data presented in this report were collected from 18 piezometers, 3 extensometers, 1 barometer, and 1 rain gage from January 1991 through September 1993. The piezometers and extensometers are at eight sites in the study area. This report discusses the ground-water-level and aquifer-system compaction monitoring networks, and presents the recorded data in graphs. The data reported are available in the data base of the U.S. Geological Survey.

  9. Ancient DNA sequences point to a large loss of mitochondrial genetic diversity in the saiga antelope (Saiga tatarica) since the Pleistocene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campos, Paula; Kristensen, Tommy; Orlando, Ludovic Antoine Alexandre;

    2010-01-01

    and includes samples dating from between 40,400 to 10,250 (14) C ybp. Current genetic diversity is much lower than that present during the Pleistocene, an observation that data modelling using serial coalescent indicates cannot be explained by genetic drift in a population of constant size. Approximate...... of the Soviet Union, after which its populations were reduced by over 95%. We have analysed the mitochondrial control region sequence variation of 27 ancient and 38 modern specimens, to assay how the species' genetic diversity has changed since the Pleistocene. Phylogenetic analyses reveal the existence of two...

  10. Advanced Reservoir Characterization in the Antelope Shale to Establish the Viability of CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery in California's Monterey Formation Siliceous Shales, Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perri, Pasquale R.

    2001-04-04

    This report describes the evaluation, design, and implementation of a DOE funded CO2 pilot project in the Lost Hills Field, Kern County, California. The pilot consists of four inverted (injector-centered) 5-spot patterns covering approximately 10 acres, and is located in a portion of the field, which has been under waterflood since early 1992. The target reservoir for the CO2 pilot is the Belridge Diatomite. The pilot location was selected based on geology, reservoir quality and reservoir performance during the waterflood. A CO2 pilot was chosen, rather than full-field implementation, to investigate uncertainties associated with CO2 utilization rate and premature CO2 breakthrough, and overall uncertainty in the unproven CO2 flood process in the San Joaquin Valley.

  11. Macroscopic digestive tract anatomy of two small antelopes, the blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra) and the Arabian sand gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa marica)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, Cathrine; Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Hammer, Sven;

    2016-01-01

    The digestive tract anatomy of 14 blackbucks (Antilope cervicapra) and 7 Arabian sand gazelles (Gazella subgutturosa marica) was quantified by dimensions, area and weight. Data from the two small-sized antilopinae were evaluated against a larger comparative data set from other ruminants classifie...

  12. U.S. Geological Survey Subsidence Interest Group conference, Edwards Air Force Base, Antelope Valley, California, November 18-19, 1992; abstracts and summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Keith R.; Galloway, Devin L.; Leake, Stanley A.

    1995-01-01

    Land subsidence, the loss of surface elevation as a result of the removal of subsurface support, affects every state in the United States. More than 17,000 mi2 of land in the United States has been lowered by the various processes that produce land subsidence with annual costs from resulting flooding and structural damage that exceed $125 million. It is estimated that an additional $400 million is spent nationwide in attempts to control subsidence. Common causes of land subsidence include the removal of oil, gas, and water from underground reservoirs; dissolution of limestone aquifers (sinkholes); underground mining activities; drainage of organic soils; and hydrocompaction (the initial wetting of dry soils). Overdrafting of aquifers is the major cause of areally extensive land subsidence, and as ground-water pumping increases, land subsidence also will increase. Land subsidence and its effects on engineering structures have been recognized for centuries, but it was not until this century that the processes that produce land subsidence were identified and understood. In 1928, while working with field data from a test of the Dakota Sandstone aquifer, O.E. Meinzer of the U.S. Geological Survey recognized the compressibility of aquifers. Around the same time, Karl Terzaghi, a soil scientist working at Harvard University, developed the one-dimensional consolidation theory that provided a quantitative means of predicting soil compaction resulting from the drainage of compressible soils. Thus, with the recognition of the compressibility of aquifers (Meinzer), and the development of a quantitative means of predicting soil compaction as a consequence of the reduction of intergranular pore pressure (Terzaghi), the theory of aquifer-system compaction was formed. With the widespread availa- bility of electric power in rural areas, and the advent of the deep turbine pump, ground-water withdrawals increased dramatically throughout the country in the 1940's and 1950's. Along with this unprecedented increase in pumpage, substantial amounts of land subsidence were observed in several areas of the United States, most notably in Arizona, California, and Texas. Beginning in 1955, under the direction of Joseph Poland, the Geological Survey began the "Mechanics of Aquifers Project," which focused largely on the processes that resulted in land subsidence due to the withdrawal of ground water. This research team gained international renown as they advanced the scientific understanding of aquifer mechanics and land-subsidence theory. The results of field studies by members of this research group not only verified the validity of the application of Terzaghi's consolidation theory to compressible aquifers, but they also provided definitions, methods of quantification, and confirmation of the interrelation among hydraulic head declines, aquifer-system compaction, and land subsidence. In addition to conducting pioneering research, this group also formed a "center of expertise," providing a focal point within the Geological Survey for the dissemination of technology and scientific understanding in aquifer mechanics. However, when the "Mechanics of Aquifers Project" was phased out in 1984, the focal point for technology transfer no longer existed. Interest among various state and local agencies in land subsidence has persisted, and the Geological Survey has continued to participate in a broad spectrum of cooperative and Federally funded projects in aquifer mechanics and land subsidence. These projects are designed to identify and monitor areas with the potential for land subsidence, to conduct basic research in the processes that control land subsidence and the development of earth fissures, as well as to develop new quantitative tools to predict aquifer-system deformation. In 1989 an ad hoc "Aquifer Mechanics and Subsidence Interest Group" (referred to herein as the "Subsidence Interest Group") was formed

  13. Parasites of South African wildlife. XIX. The prevalence of helminths in some common antelopes, warthogs and a bushpig in the Limpopo province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana C. van Wyk

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Little work has been conducted on the helminth parasites of artiodactylids in the northern and western parts of the Limpopo province, which is considerably drier than the rest of the province. The aim of this study was to determine the kinds and numbers of helminth that occur in different wildlife hosts in the area as well as whether any zoonotic helminths were present. Ten impalas (Aepyceros melampus, eight kudus (Tragelaphus strepsiceros, four blue wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus, two black wildebeest (Connochaetes gnou, three gemsbok (Oryx gazella, one nyala (Tragelaphus angasii, one bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus, one waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus, six warthogs (Phacochoerus aethiopicus and a single bushpig (Potamochoerus porcus were sampled from various localities in the semi-arid northern and western areas of the Limpopo province. New host–parasite associations included Trichostrongylus deflexus from blue wildebeest, Agriostomum gorgonis from black wildebeest, Stilesia globipunctata from the waterbuck and Fasciola hepatica in a kudu. The mean helminth burden, including extra-gastrointestinal helminths, was 592 in impalas, 407 in kudus and blue wildebeest, 588 in black wildebeest, 184 in gemsbok, and 2150 in the waterbuck. Excluding Probstmayria vivipara, the mean helminth burden in warthogs was 2228 and the total nematode burden in the bushpig was 80. The total burdens and species richness of the helminths in this study were consistently low when compared with similar studies on the same species in areas with higher rainfall. This has practical implications when animals are translocated to areas with higher rainfall and higher prevalence of helminths.

  14. Parasites of South African wildlife. XIX. The prevalence of helminths in some common antelopes, warthogs and a bushpig in the Limpopo province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wyk, Ilana C; Boomker, Joop

    2011-01-01

    Little work has been conducted on the helminth parasites of artiodactylids in the northern and western parts of the Limpopo province, which is considerably drier than the rest of the province. The aim of this study was to determine the kinds and numbers of helminth that occur in different wildlife hosts in the area as well as whether any zoonotic helminths were present. Ten impalas (Aepyceros melampus), eight kudus (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), four blue wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus), two black wildebeest (Connochaetes gnou), three gemsbok (Oryx gazella), one nyala (Tragelaphus angasii), one bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus), one waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus), six warthogs (Phacochoerus aethiopicus) and a single bushpig (Potamochoerus porcus) were sampled from various localities in the semi-arid northern and western areas of the Limpopo province. New host-parasite associations included Trichostrongylus deflexus from blue wildebeest, Agriostomum gorgonis from black wildebeest, Stilesia globipunctata from the waterbuck and Fasciola hepatica in a kudu. The mean helminth burden, including extra-gastrointestinal helminths, was 592 in impalas, 407 in kudus and blue wildebeest, 588 in black wildebeest, 184 in gemsbok, and 2150 in the waterbuck. Excluding Probstmayria vivipara, the mean helminth burden in warthogs was 2228 and the total nematode burden in the bushpig was 80. The total burdens and species richness of the helminths in this study were consistently low when compared with similar studies on the same species in areas with higher rainfall. This has practical implications when animals are translocated to areas with higher rainfall and higher prevalence of helminths. PMID:23327219

  15. Fluid and particle retention in the digestive tract of the addax antelope (Addax nasomaculatus)--adaptations of a grazing desert ruminant

    OpenAIRE

    Hummel, J; Steuer, P; Südekum, K.H.; Hammer, S.; Hammer, C; Streich, W J; M Clauss

    2008-01-01

    Retention time of food in the digestive tract is a major aspect describing the digestive physiology of herbivores. Differences in feed retention times have been described for different ruminant feeding types. In this study, a dominantly grazing desert ruminant, the addax (Addax nasomaculatus), was investigated in this respect. Eight animals with a body weight (BW) of 87+/-5.3 kg on an ad libitum grass hay (Chloris gayana) diet were available. Co-EDTA and Cr-mordanted fibers (

  16. Learning to Run

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Jiafu

    2006-01-01

    @@ In Africa, there live antelopes and lions.In the morning, the antelope wakes up from sleep. His first sense is that he has to run faster than the fastest lion, otherwise, he will be eaten out. In the meanwhile, when the lion opens his eyes, his first thought is he must run faster than the slowest antelope,otherwise, he will starve to death.

  17. Grassland,Herdsmen,Coyotes,Antelope:the Film " Wolf totem" Interpretation of Ecology%草原·牧民·草原狼·黄羊——电影《狼图腾》的生态学解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成秀萍

    2015-01-01

    电影《狼图腾》,改编自姜戎的长篇同名小说,讲述了在内蒙古大草原上,牧民与草原狼、草原狼与黄羊、游牧牧民与农耕牧民之间为了生存而彼此搏杀的故事.草原是大命,是牧民赖以生存的基础;草原狼是小命,是牧民的精神基石.

  18. Population trends of large non-migratory herbivores and livestock in the Masai Mara ecosystem, Kenya, between 1977 and 1997

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottichilo, W.K.; Leeuw, de J.; Skidmore, A.K.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2000-01-01

    The total of all non-migratory wildlife species in the Masai Mara ecosystem has declined by 58% in the last 20 years. This decline ranges from 49% in small brown antelopes to 72% in medium brown antelopes. In individual wildlife species, the decline ranges from 52% in Grant's gazelle to 88% in the w

  19. Preliminary evaluation of selected minerals in liver samples from springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis from the National Zoological Gardens of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanyisile R. Mbatha

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Limited information is available on the mineral nutrition of captive antelope in South Africa. Zoo animals are usually offered a very limited array of feeds, which may result in nutritional imbalances. As a pilot study to investigate the presence of myopathy in antelope at the National Zoological Gardens of South Africa (NZG, stored liver samples from six springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis and seven other antelopes from the NZG, as well as selected food items, were submitted for analysis of selenium, copper, manganese and zinc content by spectrophotometry. Springbok liver levels of copper were 23.07 mg/kg ± 0.72 mg/kg, whilst manganese, selenium and zinc levels were 6.73 mg/kg ± 0.22 mg/kg, 0.14 mg/kg ± 0.05 mg/kg and 135.02 mg/kg ± 1.26 mg/kg, respectively. Liver mineral levels in the other species were very variable. Food item copper levels ranged from 4.00 mg/kg (Eragrostis tef to 17.38 mg/kg (antelope cubes, lucerne (Medicago sativa and E. tef contained no detectable selenium. The highest zinc levels were in antelope cubes (147.00 mg/kg and the lowest were in lucerne (20.80 mg/kg. Interpretation of these results was hampered by the small number of samples and a paucity of information on liver mineral levels in free-ranging and captive antelope; however, results suggested that, in the springbok, whilst copper and manganese intake are likely adequate, selenium nutrition is probably insufficient and may account for the myopathy diagnosed. Zinc liver levels are possibly within the toxic range, perhaps as a result of the high levels of zinc in the antelope cubes. This pilot study highlighted the need to establish baseline mineral nutrition data for captive and freeranging antelope under South African conditions.

  20. Co-existence and niche segregation of three small bovid species in southern Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Prins, HHT; de Boer, WF; van Oeveren, H.; Correia, A.; Mafuca, J.; Olff, H; Willem F de Boer

    2006-01-01

    Niche segregation among three small antelopes - red duiker, common duiker and suni - was investigated in a coastal savanna woodland/forest mosaic. It was expected that these similar-sized concentrate selectors would show differentiation in diet choice to decrease competition. Diet composition did not vary significantly among the different vegetation types. For all three antelope species, the number of dietary items was large, with a minimum of 70 different food items per species. Dietary spec...

  1. 青藏铁路小桥被藏羚羊等高原野生动物利用的监测研究%The monitor study on the utilization of Qinghai-Tibetan railway bridge by the Tibetan antelope and other wildlifes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洪峰; 封托; 姬明周; 孔飞; 吴晓民

    2009-01-01

    2007-2008年,对高原野生动物利用青藏铁路动物通道附近小桥的情况进行了系统的监测研究,结果表明:青藏铁路通车运营后,藏羚羊、藏野驴、藏原羚等高原野生动物在利用青藏铁路动物通道的同时,已经开始尝试利用铁路小桥穿越青藏铁路,高原野生动物对青藏铁路正在经历"陌生-熟悉-适应"的过程,通过自我行为调整,适应青藏铁路修建对该地区环境所带来的新变化.

  2. Nyala and Bushbuck I: A Competing Species Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Temple H.; Greeff, Johanna C.

    1999-01-01

    Introduces a model of differential equations for students--a very real overpopulation problem is occurring in the Ndumu Game Reserve in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, where one species of antelope, the Nyala, is crowding out another species, the Bushbuck. Constructs a competing species model to mathematically describe what is occurring in Ndumu.…

  3. Vertebrate behavior and ecology. Progress report, July 1, 1976--June 30, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tester, J.R.; Siniff, D.B.

    1977-07-01

    Progress is summarized under six subprojects; engineering design and development; statistical procedures and quantitative methods for analysis of ecological and behavioral data; coexistence and population dynamics of selected vertebrates; application of radiotelemetry to selected problems in vertebrate censusing and population study; fish response to alterations in water quality resulting from power production; and seasonal migrations and habitat selection of the pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana).

  4. 77 FR 431 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removal of the Regulation That Excludes U.S...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ... further government regulation. Our Response: The elimination of this regulation should not result in lower... INFORMATION: Background On September 2, 2005 (70 FR 52319), the Service determined that the scimitar-horned... antelopes as endangered), the Service also published a new regulation (70 FR 52310) at 50 CFR 17.21(h)...

  5. 40 CFR 52.242 - Disapproved rules and regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... regulations. Link to an amendment published at 75 FR 37730, June 30, 2010. (a) The following Air Pollution... Cellular (Foam) Products,” submitted on March 7, 2008 and adopted on September 7, 2007. (2) Antelope Valley Air Pollution Control District. (i) Rule 118, Emergencies, submitted on March 10, 1998. (3)...

  6. Regional Genetic Structuring and Evolutionary History of the Impala Aepyceros melampus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Eline Deirdre; Arctander, Peter; Siegismund, Hans Redlef

    2006-01-01

    Samples of 162 impala antelope (Aepyceros melampus) from throughout its distribution range in sub-Saharan Africa were surveyed using eight polymorphic microsatellite loci. Furthermore, 155 previously published mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences from the same localities were reanalyzed. Two subsp...

  7. 9 CFR 352.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... animal means any reindeer, elk, deer, antelope, water buffalo or bison. (l) Elk means any American elk... Secretary to do any work or perform any duty in connection with the Program. (aa) Water buffalo means any Asiatic water buffalo, commonly referred to as carabao; and the water buffalo of India, commonly...

  8. Co-existence and niche segregation of three small bovid species in southern Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, HHT; de Boer, WF; van Oeveren, H; Correia, A; Mafuca, J; Olff, H; Boer, Willem F. de

    2006-01-01

    Niche segregation among three small antelopes - red duiker, common duiker and suni - was investigated in a coastal savanna woodland/forest mosaic. It was expected that these similar-sized concentrate selectors would show differentiation in diet choice to decrease competition. Diet composition did no

  9. Co-existence and niche segregation of three small bovid species in southern Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, H.H.T.; Boer, de W.F.; Oeveren, van H.; Correia, A.; Mafuca, J.; Olff, H.

    2006-01-01

    Niche segregation among three small antelopes ¿ red duiker, common duiker and suni ¿ was investigated in a coastal savanna woodland/forest mosaic. It was expected that these similar-sized concentrate selectors would show differentiation in diet choice to decrease competition. Diet composition did no

  10. Going, Going, Gone: Is Animal Migration Disappearing

    OpenAIRE

    Joel Berger; Young, Julie K; Kim Murray Berger

    2008-01-01

    Hunting pressure and habitat loss place the endangered saiga, a type of antelope that was once abundant in central Asia, at high risk of extinction, and make the protection of the migratory routes of Mongolian populations even more critical for conserving the species.

  11. The Newcastle geothermal system, Iron County, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackett, R.E.; Shubat, M.A.; Bishop, C.E. (Utah Geological and Mineral Survey, Salt Lake City, UT (USA)); Chapman, D.S.; Forster, C.B.; Schlinger, C.M. (Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (USA). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

    1990-03-01

    Geological, geophysical and geochemical studies contributed to conceptual hydrologic model of the blind'' (no surface expression), moderate-temperature (greater than 130{degree}C) Newcastle geothermal system, located in the Basin and Range-Colorado Plateau transition zone of southwestern Utah. Temperature gradient measurements define a thermal anomaly centered near the surface trace of the range-bounding Antelope Range fault with and elongate dissipative plume extending north into the adjacent Escalante Valley. Spontaneous potential and resistivity surveys sharply define the geometry of the dominant upflow zone (not yet explored), indicating that most of the thermal fluid issues form a short segment along the Antelope Range fault and discharges into a gently-dipping aquifer. Production wells show that this aquifer lies at a depth between 85 and 95 meter. Electrical surveys also show that some leakage of thermal fluid occurs over a 1.5 km (minimum) interval along the trace of the Antelope Range fault. Major element, oxygen and hydrogen isotopic analyses of water samples indicate that the thermal fluid is a mixture of meteoric water derived from recharge areas in the Pine Valley Mountains and cold, shallow groundwater. A northwest-southeast trending system of faults, encompassing a zone of increased fracture permeability, collects meteoric water from the recharge area, allows circulation to a depth of 3 to 5 kilometers, and intersects the northeast-striking Antelope Range fault. We postulate that mineral precipitates form a seal along the Antelope Range fault, preventing the discharge of thermal fluids into basin-fill sediments at depth, and allowing heated fluid to approach the surface. Eventually, continued mineral deposition could result in the development of hot springs at the ground surface.

  12. 消失的地面

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael; Klesius

    2007-01-01

    Pronghorn antelope1 run faster than any animal except the cheetah2, and they make the longest migration-up to 350 miles round-trip-of any land mammal in the US. But they can't outpace3 human development. For millennia, pronghorns followed eight routes in Idaho4, Montana5, and Wyoming6 to their summer ranges in the Yellowstone and Teton highlands. Six of these routes are now blocked by roads, farms, reservoirs, and suburban sprawl.……

  13. Losing Ground%消失的地面

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Pronghorn antelope1 run faster than any animal except the cheetah2, and they make the longest migration-up to 350 miles round-trip-of any land mammal in the US. But they can't outpace3 human development. For millennia, pronghorns followed eight routes in Idaho4, Montana5, and Wyoming6 to their summer ranges in the Yellowstone and Teton highlands. Six of these routes are now blocked by roads, farms, reservoirs, and suburban sprawl.

  14. Landscape genetics and behavioural ecology of mountain nyala (Tragelaphus buxtoni) in the Southern highlands of Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Many African wildlife species are at risk of extinction as a result of habitat loss and fragmentation associated with human influence. Among these is the endangered antelope, mountain nyala (Tragelaphus buxtoni), endemic to the highlands of southern Ethiopia. I implemented a multidisciplinary approach, including geographic information system (GIS), satellite image analysis and non-invasive genetics to provide basic knowledge required for the conservation this species. My study reveals new ins...

  15. Authentication of animal signatures in traditional Chinese medicine of Lingyang Qingfei Wan using routine molecular diagnostic assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Meng; Wang, Jikun; Yao, Lu; Xie, Suhua; Du, Jing; Zhao, Xingbo

    2014-01-01

    Lingyang Qingfei Wan produced by Beijing TongRenTang is a long-standing and popular medicine in China and international pharmaceutical markets. Concerns continue to be raised about the legality of usage of saiga antelope, which was defined as endangered species by Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora legislation and internal legislation in China. Therefore, the alternative pill in which substitutes saiga antelope with goat in the formula of Lingyang Qingfei Wan was developed. In order to authenticate the origin of animal contents in Lingyang Qingfei Wan and its alternative pill, molecular diagnostic assay was utilized by mtDNA polymorphism analysis. Four universal primer pairs containing mtDNA 12SrRNA, 16SrRNA, cytochrome b gene and cytochrome oxidase I were employed to obtain species-specific sequences of saiga antelope and goat, and multiple species-specific primer pairs for saiga antelope and goat were used to identify the animal origin in patent pills according to nucleotide polymorphisms between the two species. In additions, alternative techniques were attempted surrounding dilemmas of low concentration of target DNAs and presence of PCR-inhibitory substances in organic ingredients within complex pill. Results revealed that all species-specific primers could be successfully used for authentication of animal origin within complex pill, and sample preprocessing was critical during experimental manipulation. Internal positive control was an efficient and cost-effective way to assist in monitoring the potential interference from inhibitory substances which existed in the highly processed pills. PMID:24445529

  16. Le mini-élevage et la faune: 1983-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardouin, J.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Minilivestock and Fauna: 1983-2002. The author makes a synthesis on the trend observed through the first twenty volumes of Tropicultura regarding papers on minilivestock and wild fauna. Specialized journals produce indeed more articles on controlled breeding of rodents, guinea pigs for meat, reptiles, insects, manure worms, crocodiles, antelopes or other game species. Giant snails, cricetomas and frogs have been dealt with most often in this periodical. Minilivestock can play an important role for biodiversity preservation and against poaching.

  17. Le mini-élevage et la faune: 1983-2002

    OpenAIRE

    Hardouin, J.

    2004-01-01

    Minilivestock and Fauna: 1983-2002. The author makes a synthesis on the trend observed through the first twenty volumes of Tropicultura regarding papers on minilivestock and wild fauna. Specialized journals produce indeed more articles on controlled breeding of rodents, guinea pigs for meat, reptiles, insects, manure worms, crocodiles, antelopes or other game species. Giant snails, cricetomas and frogs have been dealt with most often in this periodical. Minilivestock can play an important rol...

  18. Biodiversity and sustainable management of a tropical wetland lake ecosystem: A case study of Lake Kanyaboli, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Rasowo, J.O.; Abila, R.; Manyala, J.

    2006-01-01

    Lake Kanyaboli and the surrounding Yala swamp wetland has been recognized as an important biodiversity hotspot. Recent population genetic and phylogenetic studies confirm the evolutionary importance of Lake Kanyaboli (Kenya) in preserving the cichlid fish fauna of Lake Victoria. The adjoining Yala swamp harbours the endangered swamp antelope Sitatunga (Tragecephalus spekii) and several papyrus endemic birds. The lake and adjoining swamp play a critical role in the livelihood of the local comm...

  19. Biodiversity and Sustainable Management of a Tropical Wetland Lake Ecosystem: a case study of Lake Kanyaboli, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Abila, R.

    2005-01-01

    Lake Kanyaboli and the surrounding Yala Swamp wetland have been recognized as an important biodiversity hotspot. Recent population, genetic and phylogenetic studies confirm the evolutionary importance of Lake Kanyaboli in preserving the cichlid fish fauna of Lake Victoria. The adjoining Yala Swamp harbours the endangered swamp antelope Sitatunga (Tragecephalus spekii) and several papyrus endemic birds. The lake and adjoining swamp play a critical role in the livelihood of...

  20. Diagnosing pulmonary embolism: establishing and consolidating the role of spiral CT

    OpenAIRE

    Strijen, Marco van

    2007-01-01

    In the Antelope study availability, use and diagnostic accuracy of spiral CT in patients clinically suspected of PE was investigated. This study was divided in two separate phases, starting with a prospective evaluation of available diagnostic techniques part of the diagnostic consensus strategy in The Netherlands in a specifically designed algorithm. Phase I showed that in a direct comparison with the gold standard sensitivity and specificity of spiral CT is too low to endorse its role as a ...

  1. Habitat and population dynamics of wolves and blackbuck in Velavadar National Park, Gujarat

    OpenAIRE

    Yadvendradev V Jhala

    1991-01-01

    The management problem of allocating limited resources for conflicting habitat needs of 2 endangered species, (the wolf (Canis lupus pallipes) and the blackbuck (Antelope cervicapra)) at Velavadar National Park, Gujarat, India, was addressed with the aid of mathematical optimization models. Critical biological data essential for model formulation and management decisions were collected by field research from February 1988 to December 1990. The semi-arid grassland habitat was do...

  2. Prevalence of parasitic infection in captive wild animals in Bir Moti Bagh mini zoo (Deer Park), Patiala, Punjab

    OpenAIRE

    A. Q. Mir; Dua, K; Singla, L. D.; Sharma, S.; Singh, M.P.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The study was conducted to know the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of captive wild animals at Bir Moti Bagh Mini Zoo (Deer Park), Patiala, Punjab. Materials and Methods: A total of 31 fecal samples from eight species of captive animals including Civet cat (Viverra zibetha), Porcupine (Hystrix indica), Nilgai (Boselaphus tragocamelus), Spotted deer (Axis axis), Black buck (Antelope cervicapra), Sambar deer (Cervus unicolor), Hog deer (Axis porcinus), and Barking deer (Muntiac...

  3. Changing distributions of larger ungulates in the Kruger National Park from ecological aerial survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George J. Chirima

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Documenting current species distribution patterns and their association with habitat types is important as a basis for assessing future range shifts in response to climate change or other influences. We used the adaptive local convex hull (a-LoCoH method to map distribution ranges of 12 ungulate species within the Kruger National Park (KNP based on locations recorded during aerial surveys (1980–1993. We used log-linear models to identify changes in regional distribution patterns and chi-square tests to determine shifts in habitat occupation over this period. We compared observed patterns with earlier, more subjectively derived distribution maps for these species. Zebra, wildebeest and giraffe distributions shifted towards the far northern section of the KNP, whilst buffalo and kudu showed proportional declines in the north. Sable antelope distribution contracted most in the north, whilst tsessebe, eland and roan antelope distributions showed no shifts. Warthog and waterbuck contracted in the central and northern regions, respectively. The distribution of impala did not change. Compared with earlier distributions, impala, zebra, buffalo, warthog and waterbuck had become less strongly concentrated along rivers. Wildebeest, zebra, sable antelope and tsessebe had become less prevalent in localities west of the central region. Concerning habitat occupation, the majority of grazers showed a concentration on basaltic substrates, whilst sable antelope favoured mopane-dominated woodland and sour bushveld on granite. Buffalo showed no strong preference for any habitats and waterbuck were concentrated along rivers. Although widespread, impala were absent from sections of mopane shrubveld and sandveld. Kudu and giraffe were widespread through most habitats, but with a lesser prevalence in northern mopane-dominated habitats. Documented distribution shifts appeared to be related to the completion of the western boundary fence and widened provision of

  4. Seeded Native Shrub Establishment on Disturbed Sites in Southwestern Wyoming

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, James S; Winslow, Susan R; Clause, Karen J; Hybner, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Critical wildlife habitat supporting mule deer, antelope, and sage grouse in high elevation rangeland and sagebrush ecosystems of southwest Wyoming is threatened by an expanding population and energy exploration and development. Our objective was to evaluate native shrub species establishment for restoration after disturbance. In October 2005, on a well-pad disturbance, 16 accessions of 12 native shrub species were drill-seeded in single species plots in a randomized complete block design wit...

  5. Spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks and fleas from the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Mediannikov, Oleg; Davoust, B; Socolovschi, C.; Tshilolo, L.; Raoult, Didier; Parola, P

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae in ticks and fleas in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. In 2008, 12 Amblyomma compressum ticks were collected from 3 pangolins (Manis gigantea). Two Haemaphysalis punctaleachi ticks were collected from 2 African civets (Civettictis civetta congica), and one was collected from an antelope (Onotragus leche). A total of 111 Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, 23 Ctenocephalides canis fleas, 39 C. felts fleas, and 5 Tri...

  6. Variation in mitochondrial minichromosome composition between blood-sucking lice of the genus Haematopinus that infest horses and pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Simon D; Barker, Stephen C.; Shao, Renfu

    2014-01-01

    Background The genus Haematopinus contains 21 species of blood-sucking lice, parasitizing both even-toed ungulates (pigs, cattle, buffalo, antelopes, camels and deer) and odd-toed ungulates (horses, donkeys and zebras). The mitochondrial genomes of the domestic pig louse, Haematopinus suis, and the wild pig louse, Haematopinus apri, have been sequenced recently; both lice have fragmented mitochondrial genomes with 37 genes on nine minichromosomes. To understand whether the composition of mito...

  7. Vertebrate behavior and ecology. Progress report, July 1, 1975--June 30, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tester, J.R.; Siniff, D.B.

    1976-07-01

    Progress is reported on the development of statistical procedures and quantitative methods for analysis of ecological and wild animal behavioral data; coexistence and population dynamics of selected vertebrates with emphasis on the grey fox (Sciurus carolinensis) and red squirrel (Tamisciurus hudsonicus); application of radio telemetry to selected problems in vertebrate censusing and population study; fish response to alterations in water quality resulting from power production; and seasonal migrations and habitat selection of the pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana). (CH)

  8. Use of various genetic markers in differentiation of Mycobacterium bovis strains from animals and humans and for studying epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis.

    OpenAIRE

    van Soolingen, D.; de Haas, P E; HAAGSMA, J.; Eger, T.; Hermans, P W; Ritacco, V.; A. Alito; van Embden, J D

    1994-01-01

    One hundred fifty-three Mycobacterium bovis strains from cattle, various animal species from zoos and wild parks, and humans were analyzed for three different genetic markers for use in the epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis. M. bovis strains isolated from cattle were found to carry a single IS6110 element, whereas the majority of strains from other animals such as antelopes, monkeys, and seals harbored multiple IS6110 elements, suggesting that the reservoirs in cattle and wild animals are s...

  9. A molecular epidemiological study of rabies epizootics in kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) in Namibia

    OpenAIRE

    Nel Louis H; Mettler Felix; Sabeta Claude; Hübschle Otto; McElhinney Lorraine; Mansfield Karen; Fooks Anthony R

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background A panel of 37 rabies virus isolates were collected and studied, originating mainly from the northern and central regions of Namibia, between 1980 and 2003. Results These virus isolates demonstrated a high degree of genetic similarity with respect to a 400 bp region of the nucleoprotein gene, with the virus isolates originating from kudu antelope (n = 10) sharing 97.2–100% similarity with jackal isolates, and 97–100% similarity with those isolated from domestic dogs. Phylog...

  10. Wildlife mitigation and monitoring report Gunnison, Colorado, site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is administered by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE); its purpose is to cleanup uranium mill tailings and other contaminated material at 24 UMTRA Project sites in 10 states. This report summarizes the wildlife mitigation and monitoring program under way at the Gunnison UMTRA Project, Gunnison, Colorado. Remedial action at the Gunnison site was completed in December 1995 and is described in detail in the Gunnison completion report. The impacts of this activity were analyzed in the Gunnison environmental assessment (EA). These impacts included two important game species: the pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americans) and sage grouse (Wentrocerus urophasianus). Haul truck traffic was predicted to limit antelope access to water sources north of the Tenderfoot Mountain haul road and that truck traffic along this and other haul roads could result in antelope road kills. Clearing land at the disposal cell, haul road and borrow site activities, and the associated human activities also were predicted to negatively impact (directly and indirectly) sage grouse breeding, nesting, loafing, and wintering habitat. As a result, an extensive mitigation and monitoring plan began in 1992. Most of the monitoring studies are complete and the results of these studies, written by different authors, appear in numerous reports. This report will: (1) Analyze existing impacts and compare them to predicted impacts. (2) Summarize mitigation measures. (3) Summarize all existing monitoring data in one report. (4) Analyze the effectiveness of the mitigation measures.

  11. Romanian Complex Data Center for Dense Seismic network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neagoe, Cristian; Ionescu, Constantin; Marius Manea, Liviu

    2010-05-01

    Since 2002 the National Institute for Earth Physics (NIEP) developed its own real-time digital seismic network: consisting of 96 seismic stations of which 35 are broadband sensors and 24 stations equipped with short period sensors and two arrays earthquakes that transmit data in real time at the National Data Center (NDC) and Eforie Nord (EFOR) Seismic Observatory. EFOR is the back-up for the NDC and also a monitoring center for Black Sea tsunamis. Seismic stations are equipped with Quanterra Q330 and K2 digitizers, broadband seismometers (STS2, CMG40T, CMG 3ESP, CMG3T) and acceleration sensors Episensor Kinemetrics (+ / - 2G). SeedLink who is a part of Seiscomp2.5 and Antelope are software packages used for acquisition in real time (RT) and for data exchange. Communication of digital seismic stations to the National Data Center in Bucharest and Seismic Observatory Eforie Nord is assured by 5 providers (GPRS, VPN, satellite radio and Internet communication). For acquisition and data processing at the two centers of reception and processing is used AntelopeTM 4.11 running on 2 workstations: one for real-time and other for offline processing and also a Seiscomp 3 server that works as back-up for Antelope 4.11 Both acquisition and analysis of seismic data systems produced information about local and global parameters of earthquakes, in addition Antelope is used for manual processing (association events, the calculation of magnitude, creating a database, sending seismic bulletins, calculation of PGA and PGV , etc.), generating ShakeMap products and interacts with global data centers. In order to make all this information easily available across the Web and also lay the grounds for a more modular and flexible development environment the National Data Center developed tools to enable centralizing of data from software such as Antelope which is using a dedicated database system ( Datascope, a database system based on text files ) to a more general-purpose database, My

  12. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Gunnison Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Gunnison, Colorado. Final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    The presence of contaminated uranium mill tailings adjacent to the city of Gunnison has been a local concern for many years. The following issues were identified during public meetings that were held by the DOE prior to distribution of an earlier version of this EA. Many of these issues will require mitigation. Groundwater contamination; in December 1989, a herd of 105 antelope were introduced in an area that includes the Landfill disposal site. There is concern that remedial action-related traffic in the area would result in antelope mortality. The proposed Tenderfoot Mountain haul road may restrict antelope access to their water supply; a second wildlife issue concerns the potential reduction in sage grouse use of breeding grounds (leks) and nesting habitat; the proposed Tenderfoot Mountain haul road would cross areas designated as wetlands by US Army Corps of Engineers (COE); the proposed disposal site is currently used for grazing by cattle six weeks a year in the spring. Additional concerns were stated in comments on a previous version of this EA. The proposed action is to consolidate and remove all contaminated materials associated with the Gunnison processing site to the Landfill disposal site six air miles east of Gunnison. All structures on the site (e.g., water tower, office buildings) were demolished in 1991. The debris is being stored on the site until it can be incorporated into the disposal cell at the disposal site. All contaminated materials would be trucked to the Landfill disposal site on a to-be-constructed haul road that crosses BLM-administered land.

  13. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Gunnison Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Gunnison, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of contaminated uranium mill tailings adjacent to the city of Gunnison has been a local concern for many years. The following issues were identified during public meetings that were held by the DOE prior to distribution of an earlier version of this EA. Many of these issues will require mitigation. Groundwater contamination; in December 1989, a herd of 105 antelope were introduced in an area that includes the Landfill disposal site. There is concern that remedial action-related traffic in the area would result in antelope mortality. The proposed Tenderfoot Mountain haul road may restrict antelope access to their water supply; a second wildlife issue concerns the potential reduction in sage grouse use of breeding grounds (leks) and nesting habitat; the proposed Tenderfoot Mountain haul road would cross areas designated as wetlands by US Army Corps of Engineers (COE); the proposed disposal site is currently used for grazing by cattle six weeks a year in the spring. Additional concerns were stated in comments on a previous version of this EA. The proposed action is to consolidate and remove all contaminated materials associated with the Gunnison processing site to the Landfill disposal site six air miles east of Gunnison. All structures on the site (e.g., water tower, office buildings) were demolished in 1991. The debris is being stored on the site until it can be incorporated into the disposal cell at the disposal site. All contaminated materials would be trucked to the Landfill disposal site on a to-be-constructed haul road that crosses BLM-administered land

  14. A four-dimensional petroleum systems model for the San Joaquin Basin Province, California: Chapter 12 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas in the San Joaquin Basin Province, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Kenneth E.; Magoon, Leslie B.; Lampe, Carolyn; Scheirer, Allegra Hosford; Lillis, Paul G.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2008-01-01

    A calibrated numerical model depicts the geometry and three-dimensional (3-D) evolution of petroleum systems through time (4-D) in a 249 x 309 km (155 x 192 mi) area covering all of the San Joaquin Basin Province of California. Model input includes 3-D structural and stratigraphic data for key horizons and maps of unit thickness, lithology, paleobathymetry, heat flow, original total organic carbon, and original Rock-Eval pyrolysis hydrogen index for each source rock. The four principal petroleum source rocks in the basin are the Miocene Antelope shale of Graham and Williams (1985; hereafter referred to as Antelope shale), the Eocene Kreyenhagen Formation, the Eocene Tumey formation of Atwill (1935; hereafter referred to as Tumey formation), and the Cretaceous to Paleocene Moreno Formation. Due to limited Rock-Eval/total organic carbon data, the Tumey formation was modeled using constant values of original total organic carbon and original hydrogen index. Maps of original total organic carbon and original hydrogen index were created for the other three source rocks. The Antelope shale was modeled using Type IIS kerogen kinetics, whereas Type II kinetics were used for the other source rocks. Four-dimensional modeling and geologic field evidence indicate that maximum burial of the three principal Cenozoic source rocks occurred in latest Pliocene to Holocene time. For example, a 1-D extraction of burial history from the 4-D model in the Tejon depocenter shows that the bottom of the Antelope shale source rock began expulsion (10 percent transformation ratio) about 4.6 Ma and reached peak expulsion (50 percent transformation ratio) about 3.6 Ma. Except on the west flank of the basin, where steep dips in outcrop and seismic data indicate substantial uplift, little or no section has been eroded. Most petroleum migration occurred during late Cenozoic time in distinct stratigraphic intervals along east-west pathways from pods of active petroleum source rock in the Tejon and

  15. PBO Integrated Real-Time Observing Sites at Volcanic Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mencin, D.; Jackson, M.; Borsa, A.; Feaux, K.; Smith, S.

    2009-05-01

    The Plate Boundary Observatory, an element of NSF's EarthScope program, has six integrated observatories in Yellowstone and four on Mt St Helens. These observatories consist of some combination of borehole strainmeters, borehole seismometers, GPS, tiltmeters, pore pressure, thermal measurements and meteorological data. Data from all these instruments have highly variable data rates and formats, all synchronized to GPS time which can cause significant congestion of precious communication resources. PBO has been experimenting with integrating these data streams to both maximize efficiency and minimize latency through the use of software that combines the streams, like Antelope, and VPN technologies.

  16. The improved broadband Real-Time Seismic Network in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neagoe, C.; Ionescu, C.

    2009-04-01

    Starting with 2002 the National Institute for Earth Physics (NIEP) has developed its real-time digital seismic network. This network consists of 96 seismic stations of which 48 broad band and short period stations and two seismic arrays are transmitted in real-time. The real time seismic stations are equipped with Quanterra Q330 and K2 digitizers, broadband seismometers (STS2, CMG40T, CMG 3ESP, CMG3T) and strong motions sensors Kinemetrics episensors (+/- 2g). SeedLink and AntelopeTM (installed on MARMOT) program packages are used for real-time (RT) data acquisition and exchange. The communication from digital seismic stations to the National Data Center in Bucharest is assured by 5 providers (GPRS, VPN, satellite communication, radio lease line and internet), which will assure the back-up communications lines. The processing centre runs BRTT's AntelopeTM 4.10 data acquisition and processing software on 2 workstations for real-time processing and post processing. The Antelope Real-Time System is also providing automatic event detection, arrival picking, event location and magnitude calculation. It provides graphical display and reporting within near-real-time after a local or regional event occurred. Also at the data center was implemented a system to collect macroseismic information using the internet on which macro seismic intensity maps are generated. In the near future at the data center will be install Seiscomp 3 data acquisition processing software on a workstation. The software will run in parallel with Antelope software as a back-up. The present network will be expanded in the near future. In the first half of 2009 NIEP will install 8 additional broad band stations in Romanian territory, which also will be transmitted to the data center in real time. The Romanian Seismic Network is permanently exchanging real -time waveform data with IRIS, ORFEUS and different European countries through internet. In Romania, magnitude and location of an earthquake are now

  17. Monkey King —Prime Candidate for 2008 Olympics Mascot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIDAOYING; YOUZHENGJUN; LIWUZHOU

    2003-01-01

    IS the monkey an appropriate 2008 Olympic mascot? No one will know for sure until next year. Now that the Chinese Seal has been officially des-ignated as the 2008 Olympics emblem,the games'' mascot has taken over as hot topic. Animal images like the panda, dragon, lion, tiger, Tibetan ante-lope, and rabbit are also under consid-eration, but monkeyking2008.com, a website promoting the Monkey King as 2008 Olympics mascot, reports that 89 percent of its visitors want the monkey. Results of a survey conducted by China''s largest portal site, Sina.com, also indicate the Monkey King as hot favorite for mascot.

  18. Niche relationships within a guild of ungulate species in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, following release from artificial controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Francis J.; Norland, Jack E.

    1994-01-01

    Niche relationships and diet overlaps were compared among elk (Cervus elaphus), bison (Bison bison), bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana) between 1967–1970 and 1986–1988, a period when total ungulate numbers nearly tripled on Yellowstone's northern range. Ungulate species ratios on Yellowstone's northern winter range during the latter period were 100 elk : 10 mule deer : 3 bison : 2 pronghorns : 1 bighorns. Elk numbers were positively correlated to bison, mule deer, and pronghorn numbers (r2 = 0.76, 0.97, and 0.48, respectively, P niche relationships during a period of near tripling in density of the ungulate guild.

  19. Panda Patrols on the Qinling Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    THE Zhouzhi County Laoxiancheng Nature Reserve at the southern foot of the Qinling Mountains in Shaanxi Province is habitat to more than 30 giant pandas. They are looked upon as China’s national treasure. Covering a total area of 12,611 hectares, the nature reserve is also home to other wildlife species, such as antelopes, golden monkeys, and leopards.A patrol of 11 members, formed 15 years ago, works to protect animals living on the reserve, and their natural environment. Each month it spends 3 to 5 days on three inspections. In the 1980s the patrol rescued and treated an injured giant panda they found on the mountain.

  20. The Waveform Server: A Web-based Interactive Seismic Waveform Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, R. L.; Clemesha, A.; Lindquist, K. G.; Reyes, J.; Steidl, J. H.; Vernon, F. L.

    2009-12-01

    Seismic waveform data has traditionally been displayed on machines that are either local area networked to, or directly host, a seismic networks waveform database(s). Typical seismic data warehouses allow online users to query and download data collected from regional networks passively, without the scientist directly visually assessing data coverage and/or quality. Using a suite of web-based protocols, we have developed an online seismic waveform interface that directly queries and displays data from a relational database through a web-browser. Using the Python interface to Datascope and the Python-based Twisted network package on the server side, and the jQuery Javascript framework on the client side to send and receive asynchronous waveform queries, we display broadband seismic data using the HTML Canvas element that is globally accessible by anyone using a modern web-browser. The system is used to display data from the USArray experiment, a US continent-wide migratory transportable seismic array. We are currently creating additional interface tools to create a rich-client interface for accessing and displaying seismic data that can be deployed to any system running Boulder Real Time Technology's (BRTT) Antelope Real Time System (ARTS). The software is freely available from the Antelope contributed code Git repository. Screenshot of the web-based waveform server interface

  1. PULMONARY ARTERIAL DISEASE ASSOCIATED WITH RIGHT-SIDED CARDIAC HYPERTROPHY AND CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE IN ZOO MAMMALS HOUSED AT 2,100 M ABOVE SEA LEVEL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan-Sallés, Carles; Martínez, Liliana Sofía; Rosas-Rosas, Arely G; Parás, Alberto; Martínez, Osvaldo; Hernández, Alejandra; Garner, Michael M

    2015-12-01

    Subacute and chronic mountain sickness of humans and the related brisket disease of cattle are characterized by right-sided congestive heart failure in individuals living at high altitudes as a result of sustained hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. Adaptations to high altitude and disease resistance vary among species, breeds, and individuals. The authors conducted a retrospective survey of right-sided cardiac hypertrophy associated with pulmonary arterial hypertrophy or arteriosclerosis in zoo mammals housed at Africam Safari (Puebla, México), which is located at 2,100 m above sea level. Seventeen animals with detailed pathology records matched the study criterion. Included were 10 maras (Dolichotis patagonum), 2 cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus oedipus), 2 capybaras (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris), and 1 case each of Bennet's wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus), nilgai antelope (Boselaphus tragocamelus), and scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah). All had right-sided cardiac hypertrophy and a variety of arterial lesions restricted to the pulmonary circulation and causing arterial thickening with narrowing of the arterial lumen. Arterial lesions most often consisted of medial hypertrophy or hyperplasia of small and medium-sized pulmonary arteries. All maras also had single or multiple elevated plaques in the pulmonary arterial trunk consisting of fibrosis, accompanied by chondroid metaplasia in some cases. Both antelopes were juvenile and died with right-sided congestive heart failure associated with severe pulmonary arterial lesions. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first description of cardiac and pulmonary arterial disease in zoo mammals housed at high altitudes.

  2. The use of population viability analysis to identify possible factors contributing to the decline of a rare ungulate population in south-eastern Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon D. Capon

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Populations that are vulnerable to decline are of particular concern to wildlife managers and uncovering the mechanisms responsible for downward trends is a crucial step towards developing future viable populations. The aims of this study were to better understand the mechanisms behind the historic decline of the sable antelope, Hippotragus niger, population at the Malilangwe Wildlife Reserve (MWR, to assess its future viability and to use this analysis to determine key areas of breakdown in population growth and link these to potential limiting factors. VORTEX, a population viability model was used to assess the future viability of the sable antelope population and a sensitivity analysis was applied to identify the key areas of breakdown in growth. The sable population is currently viable, but remains highly vulnerable to changes in adult female survival, a factor which had the greatest influence on overall population fitness. Lion predation, impacting on the adult segment of the population, appeared to be the main factor responsible for the historic decline at the MWR.Conservation implications: Sable generally occur at low densities in the lowveld region of Zimbabwe and, as such, populations are vulnerable to increases in mortality rates. The role of lions in driving the decline at the MWR suggests a need to control their numbers and develop prey refuges through improved management of artificial water.

  3. PULMONARY ARTERIAL DISEASE ASSOCIATED WITH RIGHT-SIDED CARDIAC HYPERTROPHY AND CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE IN ZOO MAMMALS HOUSED AT 2,100 M ABOVE SEA LEVEL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan-Sallés, Carles; Martínez, Liliana Sofía; Rosas-Rosas, Arely G; Parás, Alberto; Martínez, Osvaldo; Hernández, Alejandra; Garner, Michael M

    2015-12-01

    Subacute and chronic mountain sickness of humans and the related brisket disease of cattle are characterized by right-sided congestive heart failure in individuals living at high altitudes as a result of sustained hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. Adaptations to high altitude and disease resistance vary among species, breeds, and individuals. The authors conducted a retrospective survey of right-sided cardiac hypertrophy associated with pulmonary arterial hypertrophy or arteriosclerosis in zoo mammals housed at Africam Safari (Puebla, México), which is located at 2,100 m above sea level. Seventeen animals with detailed pathology records matched the study criterion. Included were 10 maras (Dolichotis patagonum), 2 cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus oedipus), 2 capybaras (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris), and 1 case each of Bennet's wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus), nilgai antelope (Boselaphus tragocamelus), and scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah). All had right-sided cardiac hypertrophy and a variety of arterial lesions restricted to the pulmonary circulation and causing arterial thickening with narrowing of the arterial lumen. Arterial lesions most often consisted of medial hypertrophy or hyperplasia of small and medium-sized pulmonary arteries. All maras also had single or multiple elevated plaques in the pulmonary arterial trunk consisting of fibrosis, accompanied by chondroid metaplasia in some cases. Both antelopes were juvenile and died with right-sided congestive heart failure associated with severe pulmonary arterial lesions. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first description of cardiac and pulmonary arterial disease in zoo mammals housed at high altitudes. PMID:26667539

  4. Serum concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 and -3 in eight hoofstock species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govoni, Kristen E; Goodman, Danielle; Maclure, Rebecca M; Penfold, Linda M; Zinn, Steven A

    2011-01-01

    The somatotropic axis, which includes growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, and IGF binding proteins (IGFBP), is involved in the regulation of growth and metabolism. Measures of the somatotropic axis can be predictive of nutritional status and growth rate that can be utilized to identify nutritional status of individual animals. Before the somatotropic axis can be a predictive tool, concentrations of hormones of the somatotropic axis need to be established in healthy individuals. To begin to establish these data, we quantified IGF-I, IGFBP-2, and IGFBP-3 in males and females of eight threatened hoofstock species at various ages. Opportunistic blood samples were collected from Bos javanicus (Java banteng), Tragelaphus eurycerus isaaci (bongo), Gazella dama ruficollis (addra gazelle), Taurotragus derbianus gigas (giant eland), Kobus megaceros (Nile lechwe), Hippotragus equines cottoni (roan antelope), Ceratotherium simum simum (white rhinoceros), and Elephas maximus (Asian elephant). Serum IGF-I and IGFBPs were determined by radioimmunoassay and ligand blot, respectively. Generally, IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were greater in males, and IGFBP-2 was greater in females. In banteng (P = 0.08) and male Nile lechwe (P elephants (P < 0.05) and antelope (P = 0.08), IGFBP-2 were greater in females. Determination of concentrations of hormones in the somatotropic axis in healthy animals makes it possible to develop models that can identify the nutritional status of these threatened hoofstock species. PMID:20853408

  5. The diets of ungulates from the hominid fossil-bearing site of Elandsfontein, Western Cape, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stynder, Deano D.

    2009-01-01

    The dietary regimes of 15 ungulate species from the middle Pleistocene levels of the hominid-bearing locality of Elandsfontein, South Africa, are investigated using the mesowear technique. Previous studies, using taxonomic analogy, classified twelve of the studied species as grazers ( Redunca arundinum, Hippotragus gigas, Hippotragus leucophaeus, Antidorcas recki, Homoiceras antiquus, Damaliscus aff. lunatus, Connochaetes gnou laticornutus, Rabaticerus arambourgi, Damaliscus niro, Damaliscus sp. nov., an unnamed "spiral horn" antelope and Equus capensis), one as a mixed feeder ( Taurotragus oryx) and two as browsers ( Tragelaphus strepsiceros and Raphicerus melanotis). Although results from mesowear analysis sustain previous dietary classifications in the majority of cases, five species were reclassified. Three species previously classified as grazers, were reclassified as mixed feeders ( H. gigas, D. aff. lunatus and R. arambourgi), one previously classified as a grazer, was reclassified as a browser (the "spiral horn" antelope), and one previously classified as a mixed feeder, was reclassified as a browser ( T. oryx). While current results broadly support previous reconstructions of the Elandsfontein middle Pleistocene environment as one which included a substantial C 3 grassy component, the reclassifications suggest that trees, broad-leaved bush and fynbos were probably more prominent than what was previously thought.

  6. Characterization of dispersion, attenuation, and anisotropy at the Buena Vista Hills field, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackert, C.L.; Parra, J.O.; Brown, R.L.; Collier, H.A.

    2001-01-01

    We create a log of intrinsic dispersion and attenuation for the Antelope Shale formation of the Buena Vista Hills field, San Joaquin Valley, California. High dispersion (or low Q) values correlate with thin sand and carbonate beds within the Antelope Shale. These beds are at least ten times as permeable as the host shale formation, so this effect provides a possible avenue for seismic prediction of permeability. The dispersion log is formed through comparison of crosswell seismic velocities (measured at approximately 1 kHz) and sonic log velocities (measured at approximately 10 kHz). In order to provide a proper basis for comparison, the sonic log must first be adjusted for field anisotropy, scaling effects, and resolution of measurement. We estimate a local shale anisotropy of about 20% based on correlations generated from published measurements of other shale fields. We apply resolution enhancement to capture the thin sand and carbonate beds, and windowed Backus averaging to match the measurement scales. A modeling study verifies the technique, and shows that beds of thickness greater than 30 cm have a measurement signature. The actual resolution is on the order of the crosswell Fresnel length, or about 7 m for the model study.

  7. Authigenic K-NH{sub 4}-feldspar in sandstones: A fingerprint of the diagenesis of organic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramseyer, K. [Univ. Bern (Switzerland). Geologisches Inst.; Diamond, L.W. [Univ. Bern (Switzerland). Mineralogisch-Petrographisches Inst.; Boles, J.R. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences

    1993-11-01

    In arkosic sandstones of the San Joaquin and Los Angeles Basins presently at temperatures between 35 C and 174 C, trace amounts of authigenic K-NH{sub 4}-feldspar are present as microfracture fillings and overgrowths on detrital K-feldspar. Microchemical analyses of this authigenic phase reveal up to 80 mole % buddingtonite. The largest ammonium concentrations are observed in a sandy interval of the Antelope shale (80 mole %) and in the Stevens Sands ({approx} 50 mole %) of the San Joaquin Basin. This latter unit was deposited as a turbidite in the organic-rich Fruitvale Shale, an equivalent of the Antelope Shale. The lowest ammonium contents (0-16 mole %) are present in the shallow-marine Vedder Sands and the marginal marine San Joaquin Formation in the same basin. Petrographic, {delta}{sup 18}O, {delta}{sup 13}C, and {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr analyses of a dolomite cement that postdates authigenic K-NH{sub 4}-feldspar indicate that the feldspar precipitated below 28 C in the zone of methanogenesis, from pore waters with the same Sr signature as sea water at the time of sedimentation. Authigenic K-NH{sub 4}-feldspar is thus an early-diagenetic phase that crystallized prior to oil migration, under anoxic conditions when organic matter releases ammonium. The source of ammonium is bacterial decay of organic matter in the sandstones themselves and/or in contemporaneous shales.

  8. The rediscovery of malaria parasites of ungulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Thomas J; Martinsen, Ellen; Kaewthamasorn, Morakot; Kaneko, Osamu

    2016-10-01

    Over a hundred years since their first description in 1913, the sparsely described malaria parasites (genus Plasmodium) of ungulates have been rediscovered using molecular typing techniques. In the span of weeks, three studies have appeared describing the genetic characterization and phylogenetic analyses of malaria parasites from African antelope (Cephalophus spp.) and goat (Capra aegagrus hircus), Asian water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), and North American white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Here we unify the contributions from those studies with the literature on pre-molecular characterizations of ungulate malaria parasites, which are largely based on surveys of Giemsa-reagent stained blood smears. We present a phylogenetic tree generated from all available ungulate malaria parasite sequence data, and show that parasites from African duiker antelope and goat, Asian water buffalo and New World white-tailed deer group together in a clade, which branches early in Plasmodium evolution. Anopheline mosquitoes appear to be the dominant, if not sole vectors for parasite transmission. We pose questions for future phylogenetic studies, and discuss topics that we hope will spur further molecular and cellular studies of ungulate malaria parasites.

  9. DNA sequence analyses reveal co-occurrence of novel haplotypes of Fasciola gigantica with F. hepatica in South Africa and Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucheka, Vimbai T; Lamb, Jennifer M; Pfukenyi, Davies M; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2015-11-30

    The aim of this study was to identify and determine the genetic diversity of Fasciola species in cattle from Zimbabwe, the KwaZulu-Natal and Mpumalanga provinces of South Africa and selected wildlife hosts from Zimbabwe. This was based on analysis of DNA sequences of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS1 and 2) and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 (CO1) regions. The sample of 120 flukes was collected from livers of 57 cattle at 4 abattoirs in Zimbabwe and 47 cattle at 6 abattoirs in South Africa; it also included three alcohol-preserved duiker, antelope and eland samples from Zimbabwe. Aligned sequences (ITS 506 base pairs and CO1 381 base pairs) were analyzed by neighbour-joining, maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference methods. Phylogenetic trees revealed the presence of Fasciola gigantica in cattle from Zimbabwe and F. gigantica and Fasciola hepatica in the samples from South Africa. F. hepatica was more prevalent (64%) in South Africa than F. gigantica. In Zimbabwe, F. gigantica was present in 99% of the samples; F. hepatica was found in only one cattle sample, an antelope (Hippotragus niger) and a duiker (Sylvicapra grimmia). This is the first molecular confirmation of the identity Fasciola species in Zimbabwe and South Africa. Knowledge on the identity and distribution of these liver flukes at molecular level will allow disease surveillance and control in the studied areas.

  10. A web-based modular framework for real-time monitoring of large scale sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, R. L.; Lindquist, K. G.; Vernon, F. L.

    2007-12-01

    The Antelope Real Time System (ARTS) is an integrated combination of protocols, acquisition systems and applications designed for real-time data collection and analysis from an array of deployed field sensors. Historically these were seismic sensors, however the open architecture of the ARTS facilitated development of acquisition protocols for a diverse group of sensors, including data streams from hf radar, meteorological instrumentation and cameras. In parallel with the expansion of data-type ingestion, a web-based interface to the ARTS was developed in PHP, a popular HTML embedded scripting language. The application-driven development of web-based software to Antelope-stored data has risen exponentially over the last four years, from simple database interactions to web-based AJAX applications similar in look and feel to desktop software. As the web-based applications have grown in complexity, the architecture around their development has matured into an extensible framework with "plug'n'play" capabilities. Their modular design has allowed multiple institutions to deploy the same web-based applications, tailored for their specific requirements. Examples include the NSF Earthscope USArray Transportable Array, ROADNet's Realtime Imagebank, the broadband seismic network monitoring of the University of Nevada Reno and University of California San Diego, and monitoring of the downhole arrays maintained by the University of California Santa Barbara. The success of these deployments suggest that such a framework could be applicable to other large scale sensor networks, including the developing Ocean Observatories project.

  11. Providing Web Interfaces to the NSF EarthScope USArray Transportable Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Frank; Newman, Robert; Lindquist, Kent

    2010-05-01

    Since April 2004 the EarthScope USArray seismic network has grown to over 850 broadband stations that stream multi-channel data in near real-time to the Array Network Facility in San Diego. Providing secure, yet open, access to real-time and archived data for a broad range of audiences is best served by a series of platform agnostic low-latency web-based applications. We present a framework of tools that mediate between the world wide web and Boulder Real Time Technologies Antelope Environmental Monitoring System data acquisition and archival software. These tools provide comprehensive information to audiences ranging from network operators and geoscience researchers, to funding agencies and the general public. This ranges from network-wide to station-specific metadata, state-of-health metrics, event detection rates, archival data and dynamic report generation over a station's two year life span. Leveraging open source web-site development frameworks for both the server side (Perl, Python and PHP) and client-side (Flickr, Google Maps/Earth and jQuery) facilitates the development of a robust extensible architecture that can be tailored on a per-user basis, with rapid prototyping and development that adheres to web-standards. Typical seismic data warehouses allow online users to query and download data collected from regional networks, without the scientist directly visually assessing data coverage and/or quality. Using a suite of web-based protocols, we have recently developed an online seismic waveform interface that directly queries and displays data from a relational database through a web-browser. Using the Python interface to Datascope and the Python-based Twisted network package on the server side, and the jQuery Javascript framework on the client side to send and receive asynchronous waveform queries, we display broadband seismic data using the HTML Canvas element that is globally accessible by anyone using a modern web-browser. We are currently creating

  12. Diversity of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting cheetahs (Acinoyx jubatus) at three breeding centres in South Africa and activity patterns of questing ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golezardy, Habib; Oosthuizen, Marinda C; Penzhorn, Barend L

    2016-07-01

    Ticks were collected from 191 cheetahs at three breeding centres in North West and Limpopo Provinces, South Africa. Haemaphysalis elliptica, a common tick of large felids, was the most abundant species collected, while Amblyomma hebraeum and Rhipicephalus simus occurred in lower numbers. In addition to these three species, drag-sampling of the vegetation revealed the presence of Amblyomma marmoreum, Rhipicephalus (B.) decoloratus and Rhipicephalus zambeziensis. The presence of free-ranging antelopes, murid rodents and tortoises at the breeding centres probably contributed to the availability of immature tick stages on the vegetation. Diurnal and seasonal questing patterns of ixodid ticks were investigated at monthly intervals at the largest cheetah-breeding centre. Questing ticks were most abundant on the vegetation during the warm summer months. Most questing H. elliptica larvae and nymphs were collected from the vegetation in the early morning and late afternoon and fewest during the middle of the day. PMID:27020735

  13. A successful land rehabilitation programme in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardouin, J.

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Open strip mining for cement production, out of fossil coral limestone has left hectares of man-made quarry, a stone desert at Bamburi near Mombasa. A rehabilitation programme initiated in 1971, started with a Casuarina plantation and fish pond culture. Later on, the production of humus assisted by introducing millipedes created soils, which enabled the planting of other trees and the creation of a forest. Simultaneously, intensive Tilapia tank culture was developed to a pilot commercial scale. A small nature trail has also been set up with tortoises, hippopotamus, crocodiles, waterbucks, antelopes, and numerous other wild animals as well as plenty of birds. A small herd of oryx and elands is also successfully reared while snail, earthworm and wild fowl production experiments are under way. The principes adopted here constitute a very impressive example of how man can correct the environmental damage he is making, and that reafforestation and rehabilitation programmes can be effective under near desert like conditions.

  14. Crane Creek known geothermal resource area: an environmental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, S.G.; Russell, B.F. (eds.)

    1979-09-01

    The Crane Creek known geothermal resource area (KGRA) is located in Washington County, in southwestern Idaho. Estimated hydrothermal resource temperatures for the region are 166/sup 0/C (Na-K-Ca) and 176/sup 0/C (quartz). The KGRA is situated along the west side of the north-south trending western Idaho Fault Zone. Historic seismicity data for the region identify earthquake activity within 50 km. The hot springs surface along the margin of a siliceous sinter terrace or in adjacent sediments. Approximately 75% of the KGRA is underlain by shallow, stony soils on steep slopes indicating topographic and drainage limitations to geothermal development. Species of concern include sage grouse, antelope, and mule deer. There is a high probability of finding significant prehistoric cultural resources within the proposed area of development.

  15. Integrated approaches to improve birth outcomes: perinatal periods of risk, infant mortality review, and the Los Angeles Mommy and Baby Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Shin Margaret; Donatoni, Giannina; Bemis, Cathleen; Donovan, Kevin; Harding, Cynthia; Davenport, Deborah; Gilbert, Carol; Kasehagen, Laurin; Peck, Magda G

    2010-11-01

    This article provides an example of how Perinatal Periods of Risk (PPOR) can provide a framework and offer analytic methods that move communities to productive action to address infant mortality. Between 1999 and 2002, the infant mortality rate in the Antelope Valley region of Los Angeles County increased from 5.0 to 10.6 per 1,000 live births. Of particular concern, infant mortality among African Americans in the Antelope Valley rose from 11.0 per 1,000 live births (7 cases) in 1999 to 32.7 per 1,000 live births (27 cases) in 2002. In response, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health, Maternal, Child, and Adolescent Health Programs partnered with a community task force to develop an action plan to address the issue. Three stages of the PPOR approach were used: (1) Assuring Readiness; (2) Data and Assessment, which included: (a) Using 2002 vital records to identify areas with the highest excess rates of feto-infant mortality (Phase 1 PPOR), and (b) Implementing Infant Mortality Review (IMR) and the Los Angeles Mommy and Baby (LAMB) Project, a population-based study to identify potential factors associated with adverse birth outcomes. (Phase 2 PPOR); and (3) Strategy and Planning, to develop strategic actions for targeted prevention. A description of stakeholders' commitments to improve birth outcomes and monitor infant mortality is also given. The Antelope Valley community was engaged and ready to investigate the local rise in infant mortality. Phase 1 PPOR analysis identified Maternal Health/Prematurity and Infant Health as the most important periods of risk for further investigation and potential intervention. During the Phase 2 PPOR analyses, IMR found a significant proportion of mothers with previous fetal loss (45%) or low birth weight/preterm (LBW/PT) birth, late prenatal care (39%), maternal infections (47%), and infant safety issues (21%). After adjusting for potential confounders (maternal age, race, education level, and marital status), the

  16. Feasibility and potential effects of the proposed Amargosa Creek Recharge Project, Palmdale, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Allen H.; Siade, Adam J.; Martin, Peter; Langenheim, V.E.; Catchings, Rufus D.; Burgess, Matthew K.

    2015-09-17

    Historically, the city of Palmdale and vicinity have relied on groundwater as the primary source of water, owing, in large part, to the scarcity of surface water in the region. Despite recent importing of surface water, groundwater withdrawal for municipal, industrial, and agricultural use has resulted in groundwater-level declines near the city of Palmdale in excess of 200 feet since the early 1900s. To meet the growing water demand in the area, the city of Palmdale has proposed the Amargosa Creek Recharge Project (ACRP), which has a footprint of about 150 acres along the Amargosa Creek 2 miles west of Palmdale, California. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term feasibility of recharging the Antelope Valley aquifer system by using infiltration of imported surface water from the California State Water Project in percolation basins at the ACRP.

  17. 野生动物——黄石公园的主人 美国黄石公园连载之三

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    斯坦利·奥索林斯基

    2002-01-01

    黄石公园是除阿拉斯加以外,在北美大陆上野生动物最为集中的地区之一。这里栖息着美洲野牛(Bison)、骡鹿(Mule Deer)、麇鹿(Elk)、驼鹿(Moose)、大角岩羊(Bighorn Sheep)、郊狼(Coyote)、美洲赤鹿(Wapiti)、灰熊(Grizzly Bear)、河狸(Beaver)、叉角羚羊(Pronghorn Antelope)、黄鼬(Weasel)、狐狸(Fox),还有号手天鹅(Trumpeter Swan)、鹈鹕(pelican)、渡鸦(Raven)、

  18. Ciliate protozoa in the rumen of Kafue lechwe, Kobus leche kafuensis, in Zambia, with the description of four new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, S; Tsutsumi, Y; Yumura, S; Mulenga, A

    1992-01-01

    The composition of the rumen ciliate fauna in 76 Kafue lechwe inhabiting a limited area in Zambia was surveyed and five genera containing 24 species with 16 formae belonging to the family Ophryoscolecidae were identified. Four new species belonging to Diplodiniinae were recognized and described as Diplodinium lochinvarense n. sp., Diplodinium leche n. sp., Diplodinium zambiense n. sp., and Metadinium ossiculi n. sp. In addition, Ostracodinium gracile form fissilaminatum Dogiel, 1932 was found for the second time and described as Metadinium fissilaminatum n. comb. The species composition was fairly unusual. Seven of the species have been found only in African wild antelopes and these species were found more frequently than cosmopolitan species. There was no evidence of isotrichid species. The average density of ciliates per 1 ml of the rumen fluid was 25.7 x 10(4), and the number of ciliate species per head of host was 10.8.

  19. Phylogenetic comparative methods complement discriminant function analysis in ecomorphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, W Andrew; Scott, Robert S

    2014-04-01

    In ecomorphology, Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA) has been used as evidence for the presence of functional links between morphometric variables and ecological categories. Here we conduct simulations of characters containing phylogenetic signal to explore the performance of DFA under a variety of conditions. Characters were simulated using a phylogeny of extant antelope species from known habitats. Characters were modeled with no biomechanical relationship to the habitat category; the only sources of variation were body mass, phylogenetic signal, or random "noise." DFA on the discriminability of habitat categories was performed using subsets of the simulated characters, and Phylogenetic Generalized Least Squares (PGLS) was performed for each character. Analyses were repeated with randomized habitat assignments. When simulated characters lacked phylogenetic signal and/or habitat assignments were random, ecomorphology. PMID:24382658

  20. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in sera of domestic pigs and some wild game species from Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hove, T; Dubey, J P

    1999-04-01

    Serum samples of domestic pigs (Sus scrofa), elands (Taurotragus oryx), sable antelopes (Hippotragus niger), warthogs (Phacochoerus aethiopicus), bushpigs (Koiropotamus [Potamochoerus] koiropotamus), white rhinos (Ceratotherium simus), African buffalos (Syncerus caffer), wildebeest (Connochaetas taurinus), and African elephants (Loxodonta africana) from Zimbabwe were tested for Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies by the modified agglutination test (MAT) with whole formalized tachyzoites and mercaptoethanol. Sera were diluted at 1:25, 1:50, and 1:500 for MAT testing. Sera with antibodies in a 1:25 dilution were considered to have T. gondii infection. Toxoplasma gondii antibodies were found in 9.3% of 97 domestic pigs, 36.8% of 19 elands, 11.9% of 67 sables, 0 of 3 warthogs, 0 of 3 bushpigs, 50% of 2 white rhinos, 5.6% of 18 buffalos, 14.5% of 69 wildebeest, and 10.5% of 19 elephants examined. PMID:10219323

  1. Trypanosoma brucei Infection in asymptomatic greater Kudus (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) on a game ranch in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Siamudaala, Victor; Munyeme, Musso; Nambota, Andrew; Mutoloki, Stephen; Matandiko, Wigganson

    2010-03-01

    Trypomastogotes of Trypanosoma brucei were detected from 4 asymptomatic kudus (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) on a game ranch located approximately 45 km north east of Lusaka, Zambia. Blood smears examined from 14 wildlife species comprising of the impala (Aepyceros melampus), Kafue lechwe (kobus leche kafuensis), sable antelope (Hippotragus niger), tsessebe (Damaliscus lunatus), warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus), puku (Kobus vardoni), zebra (Equus burchelli), waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus), bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus), reedbuck (Redunca arundinum), wilderbeest (Connochaetes taurinus), hartebeest (Alcephelus lichtensteini), African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), and kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) showed that only the kudu had T. brucei. Although game ranching has emerged to be a successful ex-situ conservation strategy aimed at saving the declining wildlife population in the National Parks, our findings suggest that it has the potential of aiding the re-distribution of animal diseases. Hence, there is a need for augmenting wildlife conservation with disease control strategies aimed at reducing the risk of disease transmission between wildlife and domestic animals. PMID:20333288

  2. Ecological considerations for Project Wagon Wheel and hydraulic fracturing activities. Phase II(a). Annual summary report for 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vegetation studies were conducted to obtain data on production and biomass of shrubs and mat-forming woody plants. Tables are presented to show data for various species of plants. Aquatic studies were conducted to obtain data on benthic fauna and physical water conditions. Tables are presented to show classification of organisms per square foot of river bottom, ice thickness at water sampling locations, and stream velocities along the base of each study bluff. Mammalian studies were conducted to obtain population data on deer, mice, least chipmunk, northern grasshopper, mouse, ground squirrels, and prairie dogs. Observations were also made on antelope, moose, and mule deer. Hydraulic fracturing activities included studies on physical perturbations, vegetation documentation, and small mammal documentation

  3. Detection of Local/Regional Events in Kuwait Using Next-Generation Detection Algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gok, M. Rengin [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Al-Jerri, Farra [Kuwait Inst. for Scientific Research, Kuwait City (Kuwait); Dodge, Douglas [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Al-Enezi, Abdullah [Kuwait Inst. for Scientific Research, Kuwait City (Kuwait); Hauk, Terri [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mellors, R. [Kuwait Inst. for Scientific Research, Kuwait City (Kuwait)

    2014-12-10

    Seismic networks around the world use conventional triggering algorithms to detect seismic signals in order to locate local/regional seismic events. Kuwait National Seismological Network (KNSN) of Kuwait Institute of Scientific Research (KISR) is operating seven broad-band and short-period three-component stations in Kuwait. The network is equipped with Nanometrics digitizers and uses Antelope and Guralp acquisition software for processing and archiving the data. In this study, we selected 10 days of archived hourly-segmented continuous data of five stations (Figure 1) and 250 days of continuous recording at MIB. For the temporary deployment our selection criteria was based on KNSN catalog intensity for the period of time we test the method. An autonomous event detection and clustering framework is employed to test a more complete catalog of this short period of time. The goal is to illustrate the effectiveness of the technique and pursue the framework for longer period of time.

  4. Monitoring the Monitors: Assessing and Visualizing the State-of-Health of Earthscope's Transportable Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, R. L.; Foley, S.; Davis, G. A.; Lindquist, K. G.; Vernon, F. L.; Eakins, J.; Astiz, L.

    2006-12-01

    The Earthscope Transportable Array has increased in size over the last three years to over 200 broadband seismic stations. Assessing the state-of-health of the station equipment, collecting data transfer metadata, and providing this information to analysts, station engineers, administrative staff, researchers and the public is the responsibility of the Array Network Facility (ANF). Various interconnected software packages (including the Antelope Environmental Monitoring System, RRD, GMT, MATLAB, Nagios and Flickr) build data products in near real-time that are organized and integrated into the ANF website using PHP (a web-based scripting language embedded in HTML). These metadata and data products are readily accessible via the world-wide-web at http://anf.ucsd.edu, where multiple web-based tools have been developed to display and visualize these products.

  5. Real-Time Shake Maps In The Southern Alps-Dinarides Junction Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhadolc, P.; Costa, G.; Moratto, L.; Sandron, D.

    2007-12-01

    Shake maps are generated for the Southern Alps-Dinarides Junction area within 5 minutes from the earthquake occurrence. They are based on the TriNet "ShakeMap" software (Wald et al., 1999) interfaced with the Antelope real-time system (ARTS) installed at DST in the framework of an EU Interreg project. The system retrieves the real time waveforms and the results are posted automatically on the Department web pages (www.dst.units.it/RAF06). For the calibration of the Shake Maps regional model we use the NEHRP classification and two ground-motion relations for different magnitude ranges. The regional ground-motion relations (Costa et al., 2006), computed using strong-motion data recorded from the Friuli Venezia Giulia and the Italian National Accelerometric integrated network, are used for moderate (ML6.3 events. The system has been successfully tested for medium to moderate events (MLCauzzi, 2006; Kastli and Fah, 2006).

  6. Addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 484: Surface Debris, Waste Sites, and Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (Revision 0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Burmeister

    2011-03-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 484 Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) activities called for the identification and remediation of surface hot spot depleted uranium (DU) with some excavation to determine the vertical extent of contamination (NNSA/NSO, 2004). During the CAU 484 SAFER investigation (conducted November 2003 through August 2007), approximately 50 locations containing DU were identified on Antelope Lake. All but four locations (CA-1, SA-5-9, SA-12-15, and SA-4) were remediated. Figure 1-1 shows locations of the four use restriction (UR) sites. The four locations were determined to have failed the SAFER conceptual site model assumption of a small volume hot spot. Two of the locations (CA-1 and SA-5-9) were excavated to depths of 3.5 to 7 feet (ft) below ground surface (bgs), and a third location (SA-12-15) with a footprint of 30 by 60 ft was excavated to a depth of 0.5 ft. At the fourth site (SA-4), the discovery of unexploded ordnance (UXO) halted the excavation due to potential safety concerns. Remediation activities on Antelope Lake resulted in the removal of approximately 246 cubic yards (yd3) of DU-impacted soil from the four UR sites; however, Kiwi surveys confirmed that residual DU contamination remained at each of the four sites. (The Kiwi was a Remote Sensing Laboratory [RSL] vehicle equipped with a data-acquisition system and four sodium iodide gamma detectors. Surveys were conducted with the vehicle moving at a rate of approximately 10 miles per hour with the gamma detectors positioned 14 to 28 inches [in.] above the ground surface [NNSA/NSO, 2004]).

  7. Climate and vegetation in a semi-arid savanna: Development of a climate–vegetation response model linking plant metabolic performance to climate and the effects on forage availability for large herbivores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin H. Seydack

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A framework to establish the expected effects of climate on forage quantity and quality in a local savanna system was developed to interpret large herbivore population performance patterns in the Kruger National Park. We developed a climate–vegetation response model based on interpretation and synthesis of existing knowledge (literature review and supported by investigation and analyses of local patterns of climate effects on forage plant performance and chemical composition.Developing the climate–vegetation response model involved three main components, namely (1 defining indicators of forage availability to herbivores (nitrogen productivity, nitrogen quality, carbon-nutrient quality, (2 identifying herbivore species guilds of similar nutritional requirements with respect to these indicators [bulk feeders with tolerance to fibrous herbage (buffalo, waterbuck, bulk feeders with preference for high nitrogen quality forage (short grass preference grazers: blue wildebeest and zebra and selective feeders where dietary items of relatively high carbon-nutrient quality represented key forage resources (selective grazers: sable antelope, roan antelope, tsessebe, eland] and (3 developing a process model where the expected effects of plant metabolic responses to climate on key forage resources were made explicit.According to the climate–vegetation response model both shorter-term transient temperature acclimation pulses and longer-term shifts in plant metabolic functionality settings were predicted to have occurred in response to temperature trends over the past century. These temperature acclimation responses were expected to have resulted in transient pulses of increased forage availability (increased nitrogen- and carbon-nutrient quality, as well as the progressive long-term decline of the carbon-nutrient quality of forage.Conservation implications: The climate–vegetation response model represents a research framework for further studies

  8. Digital Image Support in the ROADNet Real-time Monitoring Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, K. G.; Hansen, T. S.; Newman, R. L.; Vernon, F. L.; Nayak, A.; Foley, S.; Fricke, T.; Orcutt, J.; Rajasekar, A.

    2004-12-01

    The ROADNet real-time monitoring infrastructure has allowed researchers to integrate geophysical monitoring data from a wide variety of signal domains. Antelope-based data transport, relational-database buffering and archiving, backup/replication/archiving through the Storage Resource Broker, and a variety of web-based distribution tools create a powerful monitoring platform. In this work we discuss our use of the ROADNet system for the collection and processing of digital image data. Remote cameras have been deployed at approximately 32 locations as of September 2004, including the SDSU Santa Margarita Ecological Reserve, the Imperial Beach pier, and the Pinon Flats geophysical observatory. Fire monitoring imagery has been obtained through a connection to the HPWREN project. Near-real-time images obtained from the R/V Roger Revelle include records of seafloor operations by the JASON submersible, as part of a maintenance mission for the H2O underwater seismic observatory. We discuss acquisition mechanisms and the packet architecture for image transport via Antelope orbservers, including multi-packet support for arbitrarily large images. Relational database storage supports archiving of timestamped images, image-processing operations, grouping of related images and cameras, support for motion-detect triggers, thumbnail images, pre-computed video frames, support for time-lapse movie generation and storage of time-lapse movies. Available ROADNet monitoring tools include both orbserver-based display of incoming real-time images and web-accessible searching and distribution of images and movies driven by the relational database (http://mercali.ucsd.edu/rtapps/rtimbank.php). An extension to the Kepler Scientific Workflow System also allows real-time image display via the Ptolemy project. Custom time-lapse movies may be made from the ROADNet web pages.

  9. The Earthscope USArray Array Network Facility (ANF): Metadata, Network and Data Monitoring, Quality Assurance as We Start to Roll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakins, J. A.; Vernon, F. L.; Astiz, L.; Martynov, V.; Mulder, T.; Cox, T. A.; Newman, R. L.; Davis, G.; Battistutz, B.

    2008-12-01

    The Array Network Facility (ANF) for the Earthscope USArray Transportable Array seismic network is responsible for: the delivery of all 400+ Transportable Array stations to the IRIS Data Management Center, collection of regional network stations which contribute data to the Transportable Array; station command and control; verification and distribution of metadata (~560 current and former TA stations as of September 2008); providing interfaces for personnel at the Array Operations Facility (AOF) to access state of health information; and quality control for all data. To meet these goals, we use BRTT's Antelope software package to: facilitate data collection and transfer; generate and merge station metadata; monitor real-time datalogger state-of-health; and review seismic events. Weekly transfers of dataless SEED and Virtual Network Definitions (VNDs) are simplified by the use of ORB transfer technologies at the ANF and receiver end points. Extensions to the Antelope software package have been contributed to help with data center operations. Additional software packages including Dartware's InterMapper network monitoring application and Round Robin Database Tool monitor and report on hardware or communications failures. The on-going quality control process includes: 1) automatic event processing followed by daily analyst review associating arrivals against available regional network bulletins (36000+ events and 1.9 million picks); 2) review of clock quality and error; 3) review of number of mass recenters; 4) review of percent of time any of the three mass positions are out of range; 5) alarms upon datalogger reboots; 6) alarms upon active pumps; and 7) review of calibration signals at each station upon installation and prior to removal. Much of this information is available via interactive online tools at the ANF website (http://anf.ucsd.edu).

  10. VORBrouter: A dynamic data routing system for Real-Time Seismic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, T.; Vernon, F.; Lindquist, K.; Orcutt, J.

    2004-12-01

    For anyone who has managed a moderately complex buffered real-time data transport system, the need for reliable adaptive data transport is clear. The ROADNet VORBrouter system, an extension to the ROADNet data catalog system [AGU-2003, Dynamic Dataflow Topology Monitoring for Real-time Seismic Networks], allows dynamic routing of real-time seismic data from sensor to end-user. Traditional networks consist of a series of data buffer computers with data transport interconnections configured by hand. This allows for arbitrarily complex data networks, which can often exceed full comprehension by network administrators, sometimes resulting in data loops or accidental data cutoff. In order to manage data transport systems in the event of a network failure, a network administrator must be called upon to change the data transport paths and to recover the missing data. Using VORBrouter, administrators can sleep at night while still providing 7/24 uninterupted data streams at realistic cost. This software package uses information from the ROADNet data catalog system to route packets around failed link outages and to new consumers in real-time. Dynamic data routing protocols operating on top of the Antelope Data buffering layer allow authorized users to request data sets from their local buffer and to have them delivered from anywhere within the network of buffers. The VORBrouter software also allows for dynamic routing around network outages, and the elimination of duplicate data paths within the network, while maintaining the nearly lossless data transport features exhibited by the underlying Antelope system. We present the design of the VORBrouter system, its features, limitations and some future research directions.

  11. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 408: Bomblet Target Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan provides the details for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 408, Bomblet Target Area. CAU 408 is located at the Tonopah Test Range and is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996. One Corrective Action Site (CAS) is included in CAU 408: (lgbullet) CAS TA-55-002-TAB2, Bomblet Target Areas Based on historical documentation, personnel interviews, process knowledge, site visits, aerial photography, multispectral data, preliminary geophysical surveys, and the results of data quality objectives process (Section 3.0), clean closure will be implemented for CAU 408. CAU 408 closure activities will consist of identification and clearance of bomblet target areas, identification and removal of depleted uranium (DU) fragments on South Antelope Lake, and collection of verification samples. Any soil containing contaminants at concentrations above the action levels will be excavated and transported to an appropriate disposal facility. Based on existing information, contaminants of potential concern at CAU 408 include explosives. In addition, at South Antelope Lake, bomblets containing DU were tested. None of these contaminants is expected to be present in the soil at concentrations above the action levels; however, this will be determined by radiological surveys and verification sample results. The corrective action investigation and closure activities have been planned to include data collection and hold points throughout the process. Hold points are designed to allow decision makers to review the existing data and decide which of the available options are most suitable. Hold points include the review of radiological, geophysical, and analytical data and field observations

  12. Brucella seroprevalence of the Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) and Black lechwe (Kobus leche smithemani): exposure associated to contact with cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muma, J B; Munyeme, M; Matope, G; Siamudaala, V M; Munang'andu, H M; Matandiko, W; Godfroid, J; Skjerve, E; Tryland, M

    2011-07-01

    We investigated Brucella seroprevalence in Kafue (Kobus leche kafuensis) and Black (Kobus leche smithemani) lechwe antelopes to assess Brucella infections in relation to presence/absence of cattle interaction on the wetlands. Accordingly, two study populations based on cattle interaction were assesed: Kafue lechwe from Kafue flats which interact with cattle; and the Black lechwe with no known interaction with cattle from the Bangweulu swamps. Fourteen Kafue lechwe and thirty Black lechwe were slaughtered between October and December 2009 using special research licenses obtained from the Zambia wildlife authority to investigate diseases in lechwe antelope. For the purpose of this study, blood was collected and sera separated for Rose Bengal and indirect ELISA tests. Seroprevalence of Brucella in the Kafue lechwe was estimated at 42.9% [95% CI: 15.2-70.5] while that in Black lechwe was 0% [95% CI:0.0-11.6]. On the Kafue flats, cattle were spotted grazing in the same areas as lechwe while there was no evidence of cattle presence on the Bangweulu swamps. These differences in seroprevalence between Kafue lechwe and Black lechwe were assumed to be associated with interaction between Kafue lechwe and Brucella infected cattle, and no such contact existed between cattle and the Black lechwe. Our study suggests that brucellosis in the Kafue lechwe may have originated from cattle but has now established a reservoir in wild animals. It is also important to keep in mind that the Black lechwe can easily become infected with Brucella spp. once cattle are introduced in the surrounding areas.

  13. Trace element analysis of wild rodent tissues using the PIXE method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five species of rodents have been collected in an area near Lake Powell Utah. Common names of the five species are: Long-tailed Mouse, Small Pocket Mouse, Deer Mouse, Antelope Ground Squirrel and Kangaroo Rat. Liver, lung, kidney and hair tissues from each animal were analyzed for trace element content by proton particle-induced x-ray emission (proton PIXE) analysis. Mean concentrations for the following elements were established for the tissues of each animal type: K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Rb and Pb. Analyses of variance were performed on the set of elements common to all tissues. Some significant differences in element concentrations were found between animal species and between tissue types. These differences lead to the following orders based on element concentration: Long-tailed Mouse greater than or equal to Antelope Ground Squirrel greater than or equal to Kangaroo Rat greater than or equal to Small Pocket Mouse and liver greater than or equal to kidney greater than or equal to lung greater than or equal to hair. Linear regression analyses were also performed on mean elemental concentrations in tissues. These analyses lead to several conclusions. First, the pattern of trace element concentrations in each of the four tissues is the same in all five species. Second, the pattern of trace element concentrations is the same in all four tissues of one species with the exception of Ti and Fe in hair. Third, the variation of an element in the hair cannot predict the variation of that same element in the other three tissues. Only K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn were included in the third study

  14. Web-based Data Mining to Systematically Determine Data Quality From the EarthScope USArray Seismic Observatory Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, R. L.; Lindquist, K. G.; Hansen, T. S.; Vernon, F. L.; Eakins, J.; Foley, S.

    2004-12-01

    When fully operational, the Transportable Array (TA) and Flexible Array (FA) components of the continent-scale EarthScope USArray seismic observatory project will provide telemetered real-time data from up to 600 stations. By the fifth year of the deployment the predicted total amount of data production for the TA and FA will be approximately 1500 Gb/yr and approximately 1000 Gb/yr respectively. In addition to delivering the data to the IRIS Data Management Center (DMC) for permanent archiving, the Array Network Facility (ANF) is charged with real-time data quality control, calibration, metadata storage and retrieval, network monitoring and local archiving. The Antelope real-time processing software provides the back-bone to this effort, supported by the Storage Resource Broker data replication/archiving system and the Nagios network monitoring tool. Real-time, web-based data mining, with support for multiple database schemas, is provided by an Antelope interface to both Perl and PHP scripting languages. This allows embedding of database functions in HTML. A suite of online tools allows query and graphical display of dynamic real-time sensor network parameters such as data latency, network topologies, and data return rates. Data and metadata are also web-accessible, for example XML trees of seismic data and graphical display of instrument response functions. The purpose of these tools is to provide the ANF, IRIS and end-users of USArray data with a real-time systematic method of determining data quality for the spatio-temporal area of interest. The tools are accessible at http://anf.ucsd.edu

  15. Real-Time Continuous Response Spectra Exceedance Calculation Displayed in a Web-Browser Enables Rapid and Robust Damage Evaluation by First Responders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, M.; Skolnik, D. A.; Harvey, D.; Lindquist, K.

    2014-12-01

    A novel and robust approach is presented that provides near real-time earthquake alarms for critical structures at distributed locations and large facilities using real-time estimation of response spectra obtained from near free-field motions. Influential studies dating back to the 1980s identified spectral response acceleration as a key ground motion characteristic that correlates well with observed damage in structures. Thus, monitoring and reporting on exceedance of spectra-based thresholds are useful tools for assessing the potential for damage to facilities or multi-structure campuses based on input ground motions only. With as little as one strong-motion station per site, this scalable approach can provide rapid alarms on the damage status of remote towns, critical infrastructure (e.g., hospitals, schools) and points of interests (e.g., bridges) for a very large number of locations enabling better rapid decision making during critical and difficult immediate post-earthquake response actions. Details on the novel approach are presented along with an example implementation for a large energy company. Real-time calculation of PSA exceedance and alarm dissemination are enabled with Bighorn, an extension module based on the Antelope software package that combines real-time spectral monitoring and alarm capabilities with a robust built-in web display server. Antelope is an environmental data collection software package from Boulder Real Time Technologies (BRTT) typically used for very large seismic networks and real-time seismic data analyses. The primary processing engine produces continuous time-dependent response spectra for incoming acceleration streams. It utilizes expanded floating-point data representations within object ring-buffer packets and waveform files in a relational database. This leads to a very fast method for computing response spectra for a large number of channels. A Python script evaluates these response spectra for exceedance of one or more

  16. Lithologically influenced geomorphic responses to Holocene climatic changes in the Southern Colorado Plateau, Arizona: A soil-geomorphic and ecologic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Leslie D.; McAuliffe, Joseph R.

    1997-07-01

    The semiarid landscape occupied by the Navajo and Hopi peoples on the Colorado Plateau in northeastern Arizona in the southwestern United States is characterized by an extensive network of deeply incised arroyos. Since the early 20th century, many researchers have proposed that the recent formation of arroyos in this region and also many attributes of modern vegetation communities were caused directly by overgrazing of vegetation by domestic livestock of the Navajo. Other researchers, however, have proposed other causes for such features, such as climatic change. We believe that the landforms, soils and vegetation of a small area located on Antelope Mesa in this region, underlain by the highly erodible materials of the Miocene Bidahochi Formation, may have been more sensitive to minor climatic changes of the Holocene than landscapes of massive Mesozoic sandstones that dominate the Colorado Plateau. In the Antelope Mesa area, the presence of actively filling channels rather than arroyos in the upper parts of many drainage basins and associated soils and ecologic patterns indicate that the aggradation (1) was initiated in downstream reaches and within the past two centuries, (2) may be linked to recently accelerated slope erosion, and (3) is unrelated to past or ongoing grazing. This suggests the ongoing aggradation may be related to recent minor climatic changes. Geochronologic and soil-geomorphic evidence indicate that the most recent cycle of arroyo incision and filling may be a small-scale analogue for larger-magnitude, older cycles that produced regionally recognizable, paired terraces that are attributable to previous Holocene climate changes. We propose that climatic change, and more specifically, increases in precipitation, caused an acceleration in the erosion of the steep, typically minimally vegetated slopes of the Bidahochi Formation. The beginning of the 'Neoglacial Period' (ca. 2-3 ka), effects of which are documented by other proxy records in this

  17. Identifying Space Use at Foraging Arena Scale within the Home Ranges of Large Herbivores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Owen-Smith

    Full Text Available An intermediate spatiotemporal scale of food procurement by large herbivores is evident within annual or seasonal home ranges. It takes the form of settlement periods spanning several days or weeks during which foraging activity is confined to spatially discrete foraging arenas, separated by roaming interludes. Extended by areas occupied for other activities, these foraging arenas contribute towards generating the home range structure. We delineated and compared the foraging arenas exploited by two African large herbivores, sable antelope (a ruminant and plains zebra (a non-ruminant, using GPS-derived movement data. We developed a novel approach to specifically delineate foraging arenas based on local change points in distance relative to adjoining clusters of locations, and compared its output with modifications of two published methods developed for home range estimation and residence time estimation respectively. We compared how these herbivore species responded to seasonal variation in food resources and how they differed in their spatial patterns of resource utilization. Sable antelope herds tended to concentrate their space use locally, while zebra herds moved more opportunistically over a wider set of foraging arenas. The amalgamated extent of the foraging arenas exploited by sable herds amounted to 12-30 km2, compared with 22-100 km2 for the zebra herds. Half-day displacement distances differed between settlement periods and roaming interludes, and zebra herds generally shifted further over 12h than sable herds. Foraging arenas of sable herds tended to be smaller than those of zebra, and were occupied for period twice as long, and hence exploited more intensively in days spent per unit area than the foraging arenas of zebra. For sable both the intensity of utilization of foraging arenas and proportion of days spent in foraging arenas relative to roaming interludes declined as food resources diminished seasonally, while zebra showed no

  18. The varieties of formulaic diction in Turkic oral epics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reichl Karl

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article tries to show that the formulaic diction on the level of verse line and formulaic patterning in the composition of scenes are closely related and must be studied together. The analysis is done on the example of Turkic epics. Of the formulaic patterns the most prominent one is the variety of use of the attribute ak (white, which appears to be one of the most common epithets in Turkic epic poetry. It is usually connected with cloth (e.g. caftan, yurt, different parts of body (face, bosom, antelope, the lumps of gold given as bride-price and various kinds of arms (sword, spear etc. It is usually denoted evaluatively as purity and beauty. In this matter Turkic epics share its position with many national epics of the middle ages including Serbian, Old English, Old German etc. The same role is analyzed for the opposite pattern “dust of earth”, and for the two themes: preparation of the hero for his journey and council scenes which are also mutual to many medieval epic traditions such as aforementioned Serbian and others.

  19. ObsPy – What can it do for data centers and observatories?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Wassermann

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Data acquisition by seismic centers relies on real-time systems, like SeisComP3, Antelope and Earthworm. However, these are complex systems that are designed for fast and precisely defined standard real-time analyses. Therefore, it is not a simple task to access or modify internal routines, and to integrate them into custom-processing workflows or to perform in-depth data analyses. Often a library is necessary that provides convenient access to data and allows easy control over all of the operations that are to be performed on the data. ObsPy is such a library, which is designed to access and process seismological waveform data and metadata. We use short and simple examples here to demonstrate how effective it is to use Python for seismological data analysis. Then, we illustrate the general capabilities of ObsPy, and highlight some of its specific aspects that are relevant for seismological data centers and observatories, through presentation of real-world examples. Finally, we demonstrate how the ObsPy library can be used to develop custom graphical user interface applications.

  20. Développement rural et conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linet, C.

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Développement rural et conservation. Open strip mining for cement production, out of fossil coral limestone has left hectares of man-made quarry, a stone desert at Bamburi near Mombasa. A rehabilitation programme initiated in 1971, started with a Casuarina plantation and fish pond culture. Later on, the production of humus assisted by introducing millipedes created soils, which enabled the planting of other trees and the creation of a forest. Simultaneously, intensive Tilapia tank culture was developed to a pilot commercial scale. A small nature trail has also been set up with tortoises, hippopotamus, crocodiles, waterbucks, antelopes, and numerous other wild animals as well as plenty of birds. A small herd of oryx and elands is also successfully reared while snail, earthworm and wild fowl production experiments are under way. The principes adopted here constitute a very impressive example of how man can correct the environmental damage he is making, and that reafforestation and rehabilitation programmes can be effective under near desert like conditions.

  1. Historical accounts of the transformation of a prairie town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd D. Fagin

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Prior to European settlement, the area that would later become Norman, Oklahoma was dominated by prairie vegetation. Woody vegetation was limited to riparian zones and isolated groves presumably protected from the effects of fire. The contemporary landscape of Norman, stands in stark contrast to this “treeless” prairie, and is now characterized by a so-called urban forest. In this paper, we analyze a number of archival sources, ranging from early expedition and traveler accounts to postsettlement photography in order to qualitatively assess the nature of the landscape in and around the present-day city of Norman prior to and immediately following European settlement. We also utilize repeat photography to document the floristic and vegetation changes that have occurred. We found that the pre-European settlement landscape was characterized by rolling prairies heavily influenced by the grazing of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus, bison (Bison bison, and pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana. Forbs were limited and herbaceous vegetation was dominated primarily by closely grazed grasses. Woody vegetation was limited primarily to watercourses and ravines, though numerous accounts cite thickets of oaks (Quercusspp. occurring in the adjacent cross timbers. Today, the vegetation of Norman is characterized by the dominance of woody vegetation. Within Norman’s historical residential areas, commonly occurring species include hackberry (Celtis occidentalis, Shumard’s oak (Q. shumardii, silver maple (Acer saccharinum, and sycamore (Platanus occidentalis.

  2. Mrs. Hugh Dryden unveils the memorial to her late husband at center dedication, with center director

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    On March 26, 1976, the NASA Flight Research Center opened its doors to hundreds of guests for the dedication of the center in honor of Hugh Latimer Dryden. The dedication was very much a local event; following Center Director David Scott's opening remarks, the Antelope Valley High School's symphonic band played the national anthem. Invocation was given followed by recognition of the invited guests. Dr. Hugh Dryden, a man of total humility, received praise from all those present. Dryden, who died in 1965, had been a pioneering aeronautical scientist who became director of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) in 1949 and then deputy administrator of the NACA's successor, NASA, in 1958. Very much interested in flight research, he had been responsible for establishing a permanent facility at the location later named in his honor. As Center Director David Scott looks on, Mrs. Hugh L. Dryden (Mary Libbie Travers) unveils the memorial to her husband at the dedication ceremony.On March 26, 1976, the NASA Flight Research Center opened its doors to hundreds of guests for the dedication of the center in honor of Hugh Latimer Dryden.

  3. 小反刍兽疫分子生物学研究进展%Advance in Molecular Biology of Peste Des Petits Ruminants Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董浩; 段小波

    2011-01-01

    小反刍兽疫(peste des petits ruminants,PPR)是由小反刍兽疫病毒(peste des petits ruminants virus,PPRV)引起的一种急性、烈性、接触性传染病.山羊高度易感;牛、猪等动物也可以感染带毒,野生动物偶有发生.作者主要介绍了小反刍兽疫病毒各基因结构特点,6种结构蛋白的功能,以及小反刍兽疫的诊断技术等方面的最新研究进展.%Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) is the etiological agent of peste des petits ruminants (PPR). Which is an acute and highly contagious viral disease, mainly infectes goats, sheep, antelope and other small ruminants, is especially susceptible to goats. Cattle, pigs, etc. Can also be infected with the virus, but usually appearing subclinical effect, wildlife happen once in a while. This article described the advance in the structure features of PPRV genes, the functions of the six structural protein, expressing protein in vitro and the molecular biological diagnostic techniques.

  4. Molecular Detection and Characterization of Theileria Infecting Wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus in the Maasai Mara National Reserve, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Wamuyu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Theileria is a genus of tick-borne protozoan that is globally widespread and infects nearly all ungulates in which they cause either latent infection or lethal disease. Wild animals are considered reservoir hosts of many species of Theileria and their diversity in wildlife species is increasingly becoming of interest. The molecular characterization and identification of Theileria infecting wildlife has been studied in a few species including buffalo, which are considered reservoir host for Theileria parva infecting cattle. In this study, we sequenced Theileria species infecting wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus and used molecular-genetic and phylogenetic analysis of the 18 Small Subunit of the Ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA to identify their relationships with known species of Theileria. Our results revealed three new Theileria haplotypes infecting wildebeest. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that haplotype 1 and 2 clustered in the same clade as Theileria separata and with Theileria sp. isolated from other small to medium sized antelopes. Haplotype 3 clustered close to the Theileria ovis clade. This is the first molecular description and characterization of Theileria species infecting blue wildebeest in East Africa. This study demonstrates the potential for Theileria transmission between wildebeest and small domestic ungulates, such as sheep and goats.

  5. Influence of social upbringing on the activity pattern of captive lion Panthera leo cubs: Benefits of behavior enrichment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibonokuhle NCUBE, Hilton Garikai Taambuka NDAGURWA

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of social upbringing on the activity pattern of lion Panthera leo cubs was investigated at three sites. In this study, stimulus objects such as sticks, grass, fresh dung (elephant Loxondota africana, zebra Equus quagga, impala Aepyceros melampus, duiker Sylvicapra grimmia, kudu Tragelaphus strepsiceros, giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis and wildebeest Connochaetes taurinus and cardboard boxes, were utilized in an enrichment program aimed at encouraging active behaviors of captive lion cubs at Antelope Park and Masuwe. Lion cubs at Chipangali were not behaviorally enriched. Activity patterns were recorded for 10 days at each site. We recorded moving, resting, playing, grooming, visual exploration and display of hunting instincts. We found that behavioral enrichment enhanced the active behaviors of captive lion cubs. Orphan-raised cubs spent more time moving, playing and displaying hunting instincts than mother-raised cubs, but the time spent grooming was similar across areas and suggests that grooming is not influenced by enrichment. Mother-raised cubs spent more time engaged in visual exploration than orphan-raised cubs and this could be a behavior acquired from mothers or a result of confidence to explore because of their presence. Activity patterns were different among time treatments across our three study sites. Based on these findings, we suggest that lion cubs raised in captivity could benefit from behavioral enrichment to encourage active behaviors essential for eventual reintroduction into the wild [Current Zoology 56 (4: 389–394, 2010].

  6. Genetic structure of desert ground squirrels over a 20-degree-latitude transect from Oregon through the Baja California peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whorley, Joshua R; Alvarez-Castañeda, S Ticul; Kenagy, G J

    2004-09-01

    The genetic structure of populations over a wide geographical area should reflect the demographic and evolutionary processes that have shaped a species across its range. We examined the population genetic structure of antelope ground squirrels (Ammospermophilus leucurus) across the complex of North American deserts from the Great Basin of Oregon to the cape region of the Baja California peninsula. We sampled 73 individuals from 13 major localities over this 2500-km transect, from 43 to 22 degrees north. Our molecular phylogeographical analysis of 555 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and 510 bp of the control region revealed great genetic uniformity in a single clade that extends from Oregon to central Baja California. A second distinct clade occupies the southern half of the peninsula. The minimal geographical structure of the northern clade, its low haplotype diversity and the distribution of pairwise differences between haplotypes suggest a rapid northward expansion of the population that must have followed a northward desert habitat shift associated with the most recent Quaternary climate warming and glacial retreat. The higher haplotype diversity within the southern clade and distribution of pairwise differences between haplotypes suggest that the southern clade has a longer, more stable history associated with a southern peninsular refugium. This system, as observed, reflects both historical and contemporary ecological and evolutionary responses to physical environmental gradients within genetically homogeneous populations. PMID:15315683

  7. Observations of brachygnathia superior (underbite in wild ruminates in Western Montana, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith A Hoy

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Beginning spring of 1995 until present, unusual developmental malformations have been observed on many species of vertebrate and documented on individuals of four species of wild ruminates. The most frequently observed of a variety of skeletal anomalies is brachygnathia superior, also called mandibular prognathia or more commonly, underbite, caused by underdevelopment in length and width of the premaxillary bone forward of the premolars. Facial anatomy was examined for bone and tooth malformations on 724 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus that were accident-killed or died of natural causes between January 1996 and December 2009 in northern Ravalli County in the Bitterroot Valley of west-central, Montana, USA. Smaller samples (145 total of hunter-killed elk (Cervis canadensis, mule deer (O. hemionus and pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana from throughout Montana were examined for facial malformations in 2005-09. Incidences of underbite increased from none observed prior to spring of 1995 to more than 35% in 8 of 9 years since 2000 and over 70% in 2008 and 2009. This abnormality appeared abruptly, vastly exceeding expected and previously documented percentages in wild ruminates, and is a characteristic symptom of congenital hypothyroidism. Our data strongly indicates widespread interference with maternal and fetal thyroid hormone function has been occurring in wild ruminants in Montana since autumn 1994.

  8. Challenges and economic implications in the control of foot and mouth disease in sub-saharan Africa: lessons from the zambian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkala, Y; Simuunza, M; Pfeiffer, D U; Munang'andu, H M; Mulumba, M; Kasanga, C J; Muma, J B; Mweene, A S

    2014-01-01

    Foot and mouth disease is one of the world's most important livestock diseases for trade. FMD infections are complex in nature and there are many epidemiological factors needing clarification. Key questions relate to the control challenges and economic impact of the disease for resource-poor FMD endemic countries like Zambia. A review of the control challenges and economic impact of FMD outbreaks in Zambia was made. Information was collected from peer-reviewed journals articles, conference proceedings, unpublished scientific reports, and personal communication with scientists and personal field experiences. The challenges of controlling FMD using mainly vaccination and movement control are discussed. Impacts include losses in income of over US$ 1.6 billion from exports of beef and sable antelopes and an annual cost of over US$ 2.7 million on preventive measures. Further impacts included unquantified losses in production and low investment in agriculture resulting in slow economic growth. FMD persistence may be a result of inadequate epidemiological understanding of the disease and ineffectiveness of the control measures that are being applied. The identified gaps may be considered in the annual appraisal of the FMD national control strategy in order to advance on the progressive control pathway. PMID:25276472

  9. Suspected lead poisoning in two captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus jubatus in South Africa, in 2008 and 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle A. North

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Whilst lead poisoning in raptors, scavenging birds and waterfowl is well studied and common knowledge, there is surprisingly little literature detailing the risk to mammalian scavengers and captive carnivores fed hunted meat. This case report describes the death of two captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus jubatus following acute onset of nervous symptoms. Clinical signs included hyper-excitability, seizures, arched back, tail held abnormally high and hyper-salivation. Necropsy findings included bullets or a bullet in their stomachs. Kidney and liver lead levels from one cheetah (15.6 ppm and 17 ppm respectively were consistent with a diagnosis of lead poisoning; liver from the second cheetah was not available for testing. Both animals were routinely fed hunted antelope or game birds. This is the first report of oral lead poisoning in captive large carnivores, although these are unlikely to be the first cases. Without awareness of the risks of feeding hunted game, lead exposure will continue to be an underdiagnosed reality in the rehabilitation of endangered carnivores.

  10. A Database of Tornado Events as Perceived by the USArray Transportable Array Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tytell, J. E.; Vernon, F.; Reyes, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Over the course of the deployment of Earthscope's USArray Transportable Array (TA) network there have numerous tornado events that have occurred within the changing footprint of its network. The Array Network Facility based in San Diego, California, has compiled a database of these tornado events based on data provided by the NOAA Storm Prediction Center (SPC). The SPC data itself consists of parameters such as start-end point track data for each event, maximum EF intensities, and maximum track widths. Our database is Antelope driven and combines these data from the SPC with detailed station information from the TA network. We are now able to list all available TA stations during any specific tornado event date and also provide a single calculated "nearest" TA station per individual tornado event. We aim to provide this database as a starting resource for those with an interest in investigating tornado signatures within surface pressure and seismic response data. On a larger scale, the database may be of particular interest to the infrasound research community

  11. Hydrological and ecological impacts of dams on the Kafue Flats floodplain system, southern Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumba, M.; Thompson, J. R.

    Developmental changes in river basins in Africa have become a reality. Many wetland ecosystems have been impacted by dams and other hydrological interventions resulting in both foreseen and unexpected consequences. The Kafue Flats in southern Zambia is an extensive floodplain system that lies within the middle Kafue river basin. The floodplain is about 255 km long and 60 km wide, covering an area of approximately 6,500 km 2. It is currently sandwiched between two large dams which are approximately 270 km apart. These dams have completely altered the hydrological regime of the system. Backwater from the downstream dam and releases from upstream have created a permanently flooded area within the floodplain that was not present in the past. Elsewhere, flooding has been reduced. The ecological consequences of these changes for the floodplain, which hosts two national parks (both Ramsar sites), have been extensive. Hydrological and vegetation changes have impacted the habitat for important wildlife communities including the endemic antelope, Kobus leche kafuensis. The most dramatic change in vegetation is associated with the colonisation of parts of the floodplain by the invasive alien plant, Mimosa pigra. This paper discusses these changes and their potential consequences.

  12. Home on the range: workers and wildlife tread warily between astronomical underground flows of energy and live shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On a 2,600 square kilometres parcel of grassland that was once home to 300 species of dinosaurs, three Canadian entities, the military, the Alberta Energy Company and a community of rare and endangered animals provide an example of peaceful co-existence. For eight months of the year the Alberta Energy Company shares the land with Canadian and British military units; all shallow wells have been placed underground so the military can hold annual live-fire exercises. Gas reservoirs exists beneath 57 square kilometres of the range lying at 1,000 metres depth at 4,540 pounds of pressure, which can be increased to 2,050 pounds. The surface of the Suffield range belongs to the federal government, the mineral rights are held by the Province of Alberta, and proghorn antelopes, apparently unconcerned, graze on the ground as if the land belonged to them. They, and the golden eagles that nest in the banks of the South Saskatchewan River appear to be surviving the activities of their two giant co-habitants relatively well

  13. Large mammals from the Upper Neopleistocene reference sections in the Tunka rift valley, southwestern Baikal Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchetnikov, A. A.; Klementiev, A. M.; Filinov, I. A.; Semeney, E. Yu.

    2015-03-01

    This work presents the data on new finds of fossil macrotheriofauna in the reference sections of the Upper Neopleistocene sediments in the Tunka rift valley (southwestern Baikal Region). The osteological material of a number of Late Neopleistocene mammals including extinct species rare for the Baikal region such as Crocuta spelaea, Panthera spelaea, and Spirocerus kiakhtensis (?) was directly dated with a radiocarbon (AMS) method. The obtained 14C data (18000-35000 years) allow one to rejuvenate significantly the upper limit of the common age interval of habitat of these animals in southern part of Eastern Siberia. Cave hyena and spiral-horned antelope lived in the Tunka rift valley in the Baikal region in Late Kargino time (37-24 ka), and cave lion survived the maximum in the Sartan cryochron in the region (21-20 ka). The study of collected paleontological collections provides a basis for selection of independent Kargino (MIS 3) faunal assemblages to use them for regional biostratigraphic analysis of Pleistocene deposits. Radiocarbon age dating of samples allows one to attribute confidently all paleofaunal remains available to the second half of the Late Pleistocene.

  14. Historical overview of prion diseases: a view from afar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberski, Pawel P

    2012-01-01

    The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), or prion diseases, are a group of neurodegenerative disorders which include kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker (GSS) syndrome, and fatal familial insomnia in men, natural scrapie in sheep, goats and mufflons, transmissible mink encephalopathy in ranch-reared mink, chronic wasting disease of mule deer and elk, bovine spongiform encephalopathy or "mad cow disease" and its analogues in several exotic species of antelopes and wild felids in zoological gardens, and feline spongiform encephalopathy in domestic cats. This short review summarizes the history of the research to find the nature of the scrapie agent, especially as I have witnessed it unfolding before my eyes. I review the historical background of TSEs starting from the first description of scrapie in 1732. In 1957, the first prion disease in humans, kuru was described and its transmissibility was demonstrated in 1965 by seminal work of Gajdusek, Gibbs and colleagues, followed by transmission of CJD and then, GSS. In 1982, Stanley B. Prusiner formulated "prion hypothesis" which has dominated the field for the last 30 years. This theory had been recently extended to cover other neurodegenerations which are caused by misfolded proteins; these disease are called prionoids. PMID:22505359

  15. Epidemiology, disease and control of infections in ruminants by herpesviruses - an overview : review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Patel

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available There are at least 16 recognised herpesviruses that naturally infect cattle, sheep, goats and various species of deer and antelopes. Six of the viruses are recognised as distinct alphaherpesviruses and 9 as gammaherpesviruses. Buffalo herpesvirus (BflHV and ovine herpesvirus-1 (OvHV-1 remain officially unclassified. The prevalence of ruminant herpesviruses varies from worldwide to geographically restricted in distribution. Viruses in both subfamilies Alphaherpesvirinae and Gammaherpesvirinae cause mild to moderate and severe disease in respective natural or secondary ruminant hosts. Accordingly, the economic and ecological impact of the viruses is also variable. The molecular characteristics of some members have been investigated in detail. This has led to the identification of virulence-associated genes and construction of deletion mutants and recombinant viruses. Some of the latter have been developed as commercial vaccines. This paper aims to give an overview of the epidemiology and pathogenesis of infection by these viruses, immuno-prophylaxis and mechanisms of recovery from infection. Since there are 128 ruminant species in the family Bovidae, it is likely that some herpesviruses remain undiscovered. We conclude that currently known ruminant alphaherpesviruses occur only in their natural hosts and do not cross stably into other ruminant species. By contrast, gammaherpesviruses have a much broader host range as evidenced by the fact that antibodies reactive to alcelaphine herpesvirus type 1 have been detected in 4 subfamilies in the family Bovidae, namely Alcelaphinae, Hippotraginae, Ovibovinae and Caprinae. New gammaherpesviruses within these subfamilies are likely to be discovered in the future.

  16. Moving Targets and Biodiversity Offsets for Endangered Species Habitat: Is Lesser Prairie Chicken Habitat a Stock or Flow?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd K. BenDor

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The US Fish and Wildlife Service will make an Endangered Species Act listing decision for the lesser prairie chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus; “LPC” in March 2014. Based on the findings of a single, Uzbek antelope study, conservation plans put forth for the LPC propose to modify and re-position habitat in the landscape through a series of temporary preservation/restoration efforts. We argue that for certain species, including the LPC, dynamic habitat offsets represent a dangerous re-interpretation of habitat provision and recovery programs, which have nearly-universally viewed ecosystem offsets (habitat, wetlands, streams, etc. as “stocks” that accumulate characteristics over time. Any effort to create a program of temporary, moving habitat offsets must consider species’ (1 life history characteristics, (2 behavioral tendencies (e.g., avoidance of impacted areas, nesting/breeding site fidelity, and (3 habitat restoration characteristics, including long temporal lags in reoccupation. If misapplied, species recovery programs using temporary, moving habitat risk further population declines.

  17. Spiny plants, mammal browsers, and the origin of African savannas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles-Dominique, Tristan; Davies, T Jonathan; Hempson, Gareth P; Bezeng, Bezeng S; Daru, Barnabas H; Kabongo, Ronny M; Maurin, Olivier; Muasya, A Muthama; van der Bank, Michelle; Bond, William J

    2016-09-20

    Savannas first began to spread across Africa during the Miocene. A major hypothesis for explaining this vegetation change is the increase in C4 grasses, promoting fire. We investigated whether mammals could also have contributed to savanna expansion by using spinescence as a marker of mammal herbivory. Looking at the present distribution of 1,852 tree species, we established that spinescence is mainly associated with two functional types of mammals: large browsers and medium-sized mixed feeders. Using a dated phylogeny for the same tree species, we found that spinescence evolved at least 55 times. The diversification of spiny plants occurred long after the evolution of Afrotherian proboscideans and hyracoids. However, it is remarkably congruent with diversification of bovids, the lineage including the antelope that predominantly browse these plants today. Our findings suggest that herbivore-adapted savannas evolved several million years before fire-maintained savannas and probably, in different environmental conditions. Spiny savannas with abundant mammal herbivores occur in drier climates and on nutrient-rich soils, whereas fire-maintained savannas occur in wetter climates on nutrient-poor soils. PMID:27601649

  18. 黑龙江友谊县凤林古城址的发掘%Excavation on the Ancient Fenglin City-site in Youyi County, Heilongjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黑龙江省文物管理委员会

    2004-01-01

    In 2001, the Heilongjiang Provincial Commission for the Preservation of Ancient Monuments carried out survey and excavation on the Fenglin city-site. The unearthed remains can be divided into two phases. The early remains include house-foundations, as well as pottery jars, single-handle jars and balls and jade cicadas. The late vestiges are house-foundations, ash-pits and city-wall ruins. Among the objects from Phase Ⅱ, the pottery consists of jars, bowls, dou stemmed vessels, zeng steamers, cups, spindle whorls, net weights and sculptures. The stone implements embrace axes,knives, grindstones, querns and tubes; the bone artifacts belong to the types of arrowhead, hairpin, belt buckle, chisel-shaped object, oracle bone, etc. The bronzes fall into gilt buttons, ornamental tubes, finger rings, loops and belt buckles; and the ironware, into knives, needles, arrowheads, awls, fishhooks and plates of armor. In addition, there are a number of animal bones, which belong to the wild boar, ox,deer, cat, antelope, roe deer, musk deer, dog and fish. The excavation results reveal the distinctive structural forms of the city and its walls and houses, and suggest that the site represents a new cultural type.

  19. Challenges and Economic Implications in the Control of Foot and Mouth Disease in Sub-Saharan Africa: Lessons from the Zambian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Sinkala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Foot and mouth disease is one of the world’s most important livestock diseases for trade. FMD infections are complex in nature and there are many epidemiological factors needing clarification. Key questions relate to the control challenges and economic impact of the disease for resource-poor FMD endemic countries like Zambia. A review of the control challenges and economic impact of FMD outbreaks in Zambia was made. Information was collected from peer-reviewed journals articles, conference proceedings, unpublished scientific reports, and personal communication with scientists and personal field experiences. The challenges of controlling FMD using mainly vaccination and movement control are discussed. Impacts include losses in income of over US$ 1.6 billion from exports of beef and sable antelopes and an annual cost of over US$ 2.7 million on preventive measures. Further impacts included unquantified losses in production and low investment in agriculture resulting in slow economic growth. FMD persistence may be a result of inadequate epidemiological understanding of the disease and ineffectiveness of the control measures that are being applied. The identified gaps may be considered in the annual appraisal of the FMD national control strategy in order to advance on the progressive control pathway.

  20. Budgets and chemical characterization of groundwater for the Diamond Valley flow system, central Nevada, 2011–12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, David L.; Mayers, C. Justin; Garcia, C. Amanda; Buto, Susan G.; Huntington, Jena M.

    2016-07-29

    The Diamond Valley flow system consists of six hydraulically connected hydrographic areas in central Nevada. The general down-gradient order of the areas are southern and northern Monitor Valleys, Antelope Valley, Kobeh Valley, Stevens Basin, and Diamond Valley. Groundwater flow in the Diamond Valley flow system terminates at a large playa in the northern part of Diamond Valley. Concerns relating to continued water-resources development of the flow system resulted in a phased hydrologic investigation that began in 2005 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with Eureka County. This report presents the culmination of the phased investigation to increase understanding of the groundwater resources of the basin-fill aquifers in the Diamond Valley flow system through evaluations of groundwater chemistry and budgets. Groundwater chemistry was characterized using major ions and stable isotopes from groundwater and precipitation samples. Groundwater budgets accounted for all inflows, outflows, and changes in storage, and were developed for pre-development (pre-1950) and recent (average annual 2011–12) conditions. Major budget components include groundwater discharge by evapotranspiration and groundwater withdrawals; groundwater recharge by precipitation, and interbasin flow; and storage change.

  1. Continuous evolutionary change in Plio-Pleistocene mammals of eastern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Faysal; Kiessling, Wolfgang

    2015-08-25

    Much debate has revolved around the question of whether the mode of evolutionary and ecological turnover in the fossil record of African mammals was continuous or pulsed, and the degree to which faunal turnover tracked changes in global climate. Here, we assembled and analyzed large specimen databases of the fossil record of eastern African Bovidae (antelopes) and Turkana Basin large mammals. Our results indicate that speciation and extinction proceeded continuously throughout the Pliocene and Pleistocene, as did increases in the relative abundance of arid-adapted bovids, and in bovid body mass. Species durations were similar among clades with different ecological attributes. Occupancy patterns were unimodal, with long and nearly symmetrical origination and extinction phases. A single origination pulse may be present at 2.0-1.75 Ma, but besides this, there is no evidence that evolutionary or ecological changes in the eastern African record tracked rapid, 100,000-y-scale changes in global climate. Rather, eastern African large mammal evolution tracked global or regional climatic trends at long (million year) time scales, while local, basin-scale changes (e.g., tectonic or hydrographic) and biotic interactions ruled at shorter timescales. PMID:26261300

  2. Greater sage-grouse of Grand Teton National Park: where do they roam?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, G.W.; Wetzel, W.C.; Holloran, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) population declines may be caused by range-wide degradation of sagebrush (woody Artemisia spp.) steppe ecosystems. Understanding how greater sage-grouse use the landscape is essential for successful management. We assessed greater sage-grouse habitat selection on a landscape level in Jackson Hole, Wyoming. We used a Geographic Information System (GIS) and radio-collared sage-grouse to compare habitat used and the total available landscape. Greater sage-grouse selected mountain big sagebrush (A. tridentata var. vaseyana) communities or mixed mountain big sagebrush–antelope bitterbrush (Purshia tridentata) communities and avoided low-sagebrush (A. arbuscula) dwarf shrubland. In spring and summer, sage-grouse primarily used sagebrush-dominated habitats on the valley floor and did not concentrate in mesic areas later in the summer as is typical of the species. The diversity of habitats used in winter exceeds that reported in the literature. In winter, Jackson Hole greater sage-grouse moved to hills, where they used various communities in proportion to their availability, including tall deciduous shrublands, cottonwood (Populus angustifolia) stands, exposed hillsides, and aspen (P. tremuloides) stands. Because seasonal habitat selection is not necessarily consistent across populations residing in different landscapes, habitat management should be specific to each population and landscape. This sage-grouse population provides an example that may offer insight into other species with seasonal habitat needs.

  3. Utility of nuclear DNA intron markers at lower taxonomic levels: phylogenetic resolution among nine Tragelaphus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willows-Munro, Sandi; Robinson, Terence J; Matthee, Conrad A

    2005-06-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among the nine spiral-horn antelope species of the African bovid tribe Tragelaphini are controversial. In particular, mitochondrial DNA sequencing studies are not congruent with previous morphological investigations. To test the utility of nuclear DNA intron markers at lower taxonomic levels and to provide additional data pertinent to tragelaphid evolution, we sequenced four nuclear DNA segments (MGF, PRKCI, SPTBN, and THY) and combined these data with mitochondrial DNA sequences from three genes (cytochrome b, 12S rRNA, and 16S rRNA). Our molecular supermatrix comprised 4682 characters which were analyzed independently and in combination. Parsimony and model based phylogenetic analyses of the combined nuclear DNA data are congruent with those derived from the analysis of mitochondrial gene sequences. The corroboration between nuclear and mtDNA gene trees reject the possibility that genetic processes such as lineage sorting, gene duplication/deletion and hybrid speciation account for the conflict evident in the previously published phylogenies. It suggests rather that the morphological characters used to delimit the Tragelaphid species are subject to convergent evolution. Divergence times among species, calculated using a relaxed Bayesian molecular clock, are consistent with hypotheses proposing that climatic oscillations and their impact on habitats were the major forces driving speciation in the tribe Tragelaphini. PMID:15878131

  4. A recombinant nucleocapsid-based indirect ELISA for serodiagnosis of Rift Valley fever in African wildlife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An indirect ELISA (I-ELISA) based on the recombinant nucleocapsid protein (rNp) of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) was evaluated for the detection of specific serum IgG antibody in African wildlife. Data sets derived from field-collected sera (n = 918) in Africa (antelopes = 570, black rhinoceros = 43, common zebra = 24, elephant = 73, giraffe = 81, grevy zebra = 78, warthog = 49) were categorised according to the results of a virus neutralisation test (VNT). At cut-offs optimised by the two-graph receiver operating characteristics analysis, the diagnostic sensitivity of the I-ELISA was 100% and diagnostic specificity ranged from 99.8% to 100% while estimates for the Youden's index (J) and efficiency (Ef) ranged from 0.99 to 1 and from 99.7% to 100%, respectively. The rNp-based I-ELISA is highly accurate, safe, and offers a single assay format for rapid detection of IgG antibody to RVFV in sera of different wildlife species. (author)

  5. Ebola Virus ─ A Global Threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejbah Uddin Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus is a filamentous, enveloped, non-segmented, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus. It belongs to the Filoviridae and was first recognized near the Ebola River valley in Zaire in 1976. Since then most of the outbreaks have occurred to both human and nonhuman primates in sub-Saharan Africa. Ebola virus causes highly fatal hemorrhagic fever in human and nonhuman primates. In addition to hemorrhagic fever, it could be used as a bioterrorism agent. Although its natural reservoir is yet to be proven, current data suggest that fruit bats are the possibility. Infection has also been documented through the handling of infected chimpanzees, gorillas, monkeys, forest antelope and porcupines. Human infection is caused through close contact with the blood, secretion, organ or other body fluids of infected animal. Human-to-human transmission is also possible. Ebola virus infections are characterized by immune suppression and a systemic inflammatory response that causes impairment of the vascular, coagulation, and immune systems, leading to multiorgan failure and shock. The virus constitutes an important public health threat in Africa and also worldwide as no effective treatment or vaccine is available till now

  6. Vanwaar die eenhoring in Bybelvertalings?

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    L. F. Schulze

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Luther’s translation of Psalm 22:22 reads: "Deliver me from the unicorns" (errette mich von den Einhömem. This translation arouses curiosity for it is common knowledge that the unicorn has never existed but yet figures as a prominent symbol of the New Age. Besides, the Hebrew word means antelope, buffalo, or wild bull. The question thus arises why the Hebrew re'em was translated by Luther with unicorn While the official Dutch translation of 1633 (Statenvertaling, translated according to the title page from the original languages gives the same translation as Luther, the obvious deduction was that the unicorn was such a powerful symbol in 16th century Europe that it slipped into the Bible translations. However, Calvin, tending even less than Luther to allegory and non-literal interpretation, also mentions the unicorns in his commentary on Psalm 22:22. This renders Jerome’s Vulgate suspect and, indeed, the Vulgate translates the Hebrew word with unicorns. The next stop was the translation of the Septuagint, which reads monokeros. In this way the cultural background as a possible explanation of this translation shifted from the 16th century to the first centuries B.C.

  7. Re-introduction of globally threatened Arabian Gazelles Gazella Arabica (Pallas, 1766 (Mammalia: Bovidae in fenced protected area in central Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Z. Islam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Arabian Gazelle is a globally threatened antelope (Vulnerable in Saudi Arabia. Small relict populations remain in limited areas, while historically Arabian Gazelles occurred in Mahazat as-Sayd protected area in central Saudi Arabia but were exterminated by anthropogenic and other pressures, including habitat loss and hunting. Important habitat has been lost to agricultural developments, fencing of pasture for livestock and the construction of human settlements and roads. The reintroduction of Arabian Gazelles was undertaken in Mahazat during 2011-2014 to bring back this locally extinct species study its ecology and biology in a fenced protected area. We released a total of 49 (12 males, 37 females animals. A year after release animals started breeding and six calves have been recorded so far with more to come. The gazelles prefer to use more rocky areas where shrubs and acacia trees occur in the reserve, and do not move long distances except for one individual that moved more than 50km. Mahazat is fenced, which prevents local people from entering the reserve to poach or otherwise disturb animals. Management lessons include the need for continued monitor-ing of reintroduced populations. Interactions between Arabian and Sand Gazelles (Gazella subgutturosa marica and Arabian Oryx (Oryx leucoryx were also studied.

  8. Prevalence of parasitic infection in captive wild animals in Bir Moti Bagh mini zoo (Deer Park, Patiala, Punjab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Q. Mir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was conducted to know the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of captive wild animals at Bir Moti Bagh Mini Zoo (Deer Park, Patiala, Punjab. Materials and Methods: A total of 31 fecal samples from eight species of captive animals including Civet cat (Viverra zibetha, Porcupine (Hystrix indica, Nilgai (Boselaphus tragocamelus, Spotted deer (Axis axis, Black buck (Antelope cervicapra, Sambar deer (Cervus unicolor, Hog deer (Axis porcinus, and Barking deer (Muntiacus muntjak were screened using classical parasitological techniques including sedimentation and floatation technique. Results: Out of 31 fecal samples examined, 20 were positive for parasitic ova/oocysts of different species indicating an overall prevalence of 68.0%. The six different types of parasites observed in the study included strongyle (67%, Strongyloides spp. (14%, coccidia (38%, Trichuris spp. (19%, ascarid (10%, and Capillaria spp. (10%. Strongyles were the most common parasites observed (67% followed by coccidia (38%. Mixed helminth and protozoan infection were observed in 48% of animals. No cestode or trematodes were detected during the study. Conclusion: The high prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites without overt clinical signs of disease or mortality as observed in this study is suggestive of subclinical infection. The findings will help in formulating the appropriate deworming protocol for parasitic control in these captive animals.

  9. The new Algerian Digital Seismic Network (ADSN): towards an earthquake early-warning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelles-Chaouche, A.; Allili, T.; Alili, A.; Messemen, W.; Beldjoudi, H.; Semmane, F.; Kherroubi, A.; Djellit, H.; Larbes, Y.; Haned, S.; Deramchi, A.; Amrani, A.; Chouiref, A.; Chaoui, F.; Khellaf, K.; Nait Sidi Said, C.

    2013-10-01

    Seismic monitoring in Algeria has seen great changes since the Boumerdes earthquake of 21 May 2003. Indeed, the installation of a new digital seismic network has resulted in a significant upgrade of the previous analog telemetry network. During the last four years, the number of stations in operation has increased substantially from 25 to 69, and 20 of these are broadband, 2 are very broadband, 47 are short period. 21 are equipped with accelerometers. They are all managed by Antelope software from Kinemetrics (US Cie), and they are all connected in real time and use various modes of transmission (e.g., satellite, internet, mobile phone). The spatial repartition of the stations now cover most of northern Algeria. In addition, 70 GPS stations have recently been added to this seismological network, most of them collocated with the seismological stations. Since the installation of the network, the records of local or distant events have improved significantly. The automatic processing of the data in a few minutes allows alert messages to be distributed to Civil Defense and other national authorities to react promptly to any emergency. The current strategy is to improve the data quality, to increase the density of the network by adding about 50 new stations, to reduce the processing time, and to reduce the time needed to send out an alert message. The result should be greatly improved network performance, which will lead to an effective early-warning system.

  10. Nut-like oil seeds: food for monkeys, chimpanzees, humans, and probably ape-men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, C R

    1987-07-01

    The hypothetical hyperrobust australopithecine gnathic nutcracker adaptation is reexamined in light of ecobotanical information on edible wild nuts provided by the flora of tropical and subtropical Africa. The nut producing species are tree-forms. Those of the forest region do not as a rule produce fruits with edible mesocarps. In contrast, the woodland savanna species (particularly in the Zambezian region) characteristically provide an important whole fruit, i.e., a nutritious mesocarp in addition to edible oil-rich nut seeds. These fruits drop from the tree before they are fully mature and go through the final ripening phase on the ground. They are important seasonal foods for a variety of vertebrates, including primates, elephants, and antelope. Altogether the nuts exhibit a broad range of toughness values, measured here as strength under compression. The woodland nuts are not as tough (177-934 kg force, breaking load) as those of the tropical forest (192-1,673 kg force). The seed-predators of the woodland species include squirrels, baboons, warthogs, and parrots. Paleoecological analyses indicate that it was the woodland nuts that were probably available to Australopithecus boisei and A. robustus. Preliminary estimates of adult male gnathic nut-cracking capabilities suggest that A. boisei could have orally cracked a significant portion of the woodland nuts. In spite of this, ecobotanical data indicate that we can probably reject the hypothesis that these hominids were year-round gnathic nut-cracking specialists. Both the indirect and direct evidence support this conclusion. PMID:3113265

  11. Conserving wildlife amongst the cotton fields. A third of a century of experience at the Nazinga Game Ranch, Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouché, Philippe; Lejeune, Philippe; Bailly, Vincent; Muyle, Margaux; Zinque, Marie-Hélène; Mercier, Alizé; Cornélis, Daniel; Lungren, Clark; Portier, Bruno; Marchal, Antoine; Renault, Florent; Yaméogo, Dieudonné; Kafando, Pierre; Sawadogo, Prosper; Vermeulen, Cédric

    2016-07-01

    Established in the early 1970 as a participatory wildlife production area, the Nazinga Game Ranch turned into an island of conservation surrounded by cultivation. We asked ourselves how long-term ungulate trends are affected in a context of continuous human pressure. To find out, we compiled and analysed the data of yearly line-transect counts of mammals carried out since 1985. Results showed that large species such as the elephant (Loxodonta africana) and large antelopes increased or showed stable populations. In contrast, medium and small ungulates showed continuously decreasing trends. During the same period, rainfall, water availability from artificial water points and the crop encroaching outside Nazinga Game Ranch increased. After an initial significant reduction, illegal human signs increased. However, we showed that human signs were positively correlated with the abundance of large ungulates but negatively correlated with the abundance of medium and small ones. In conclusion, this study showed that some isolated mammal populations could be restored and maintained in the long term, in spite of being surrounded by highly cultivated areas. PMID:27350287

  12. Molecular Detection and Characterization of Theileria Infecting Wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) in the Maasai Mara National Reserve, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamuyu, Lucy; Obanda, Vincent; Kariuki, Daniel; Gakuya, Francis; Makanda, Moni; Otiende, Moses; Ommeh, Sheila

    2015-01-01

    Theileria is a genus of tick-borne protozoan that is globally widespread and infects nearly all ungulates in which they cause either latent infection or lethal disease. Wild animals are considered reservoir hosts of many species of Theileria and their diversity in wildlife species is increasingly becoming of interest. The molecular characterization and identification of Theileria infecting wildlife has been studied in a few species including buffalo, which are considered reservoir host for Theileria parva infecting cattle. In this study, we sequenced Theileria species infecting wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) and used molecular-genetic and phylogenetic analysis of the 18 Small Subunit of the Ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) to identify their relationships with known species of Theileria. Our results revealed three new Theileria haplotypes infecting wildebeest. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that haplotype 1 and 2 clustered in the same clade as Theileria separata and with Theileria sp. isolated from other small to medium sized antelopes. Haplotype 3 clustered close to the Theileria ovis clade. This is the first molecular description and characterization of Theileria species infecting blue wildebeest in East Africa. This study demonstrates the potential for Theileria transmission between wildebeest and small domestic ungulates, such as sheep and goats. PMID:26295263

  13. A molecular epidemiological study of rabies epizootics in kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros in Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nel Louis H

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A panel of 37 rabies virus isolates were collected and studied, originating mainly from the northern and central regions of Namibia, between 1980 and 2003. Results These virus isolates demonstrated a high degree of genetic similarity with respect to a 400 bp region of the nucleoprotein gene, with the virus isolates originating from kudu antelope (n = 10 sharing 97.2–100% similarity with jackal isolates, and 97–100% similarity with those isolated from domestic dogs. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that these viruses were all of the canid rabies biotype of southern Africa. The viruses from kudu were closely associated with jackal isolates (n = 6, bat-eared fox isolates (n = 2 and domestic dog isolates (n = 2 at the genetic level and identical at the amino acid level, irrespective of the year of isolation. Conclusion These data suggest that jackal and kudu may form part of the same epidemiological cycle of rabies in Namibian wildlife, and might demonstrate the close-relationship between rabies virus strains that circulate within Namibia and those that circulate between Namibia and its neighbouring countries such as Botswana and South Africa.

  14. Terrestrial Real-Time Volcano Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, M.

    2013-12-01

    As volcano monitoring involves more and different sensors from seismic to GPS receivers, from video and thermal cameras to multi-parameter probes measuring temperature, ph values and humidity in the ground and the air, it becomes important to design real-time networks that integrate and leverage the multitude of available parameters. In order to do so some simple principles need to be observed: a) a common time base for all measurements, b) a packetized general data communication protocol for acquisition and distribution, c) an open and well documented interface to the data permitting standard and emerging innovative processing, and d) an intuitive visualization platform for scientists and civil defense personnel. Although mentioned as simple principles, the list above does not necessarily lead to obvious solutions or integrated systems, which is, however, required to take advantage of the available data. Only once the different data streams are put into context to each other in terms of time and location can a broader view be obtained and additional information extracted. The presentation is a summary of currently available technologies and how they can achieve the goal of an integrated real-time volcano monitoring system. A common time base are standard for seismic and GPS networks. In different projects we extended this to video feeds and time-lapse photography. Other probes have been integrated with vault interface enclosures (VIE) as used in the Transportable Array (TA) of the USArray. The VIE can accommodate the sensors employed in volcano monitoring. The TA has shown that Antelope is a versatile and robust middleware. It provides the required packetized general communication protocol that is independent from the actual physical communication link leaving the network design to adopt appropriate and possible hybrid solutions. This applies for the data acquisition and the data/information dissemination providing both a much needed collaboration platform, as

  15. Seasonality of Shallow Icequakes at Mount Erebus Volcano, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, H. A.; Aster, R. C.; Kyle, P. R.

    2010-12-01

    Background (non-eruptive) seismicity at Mount Erebus Volcano is dominated by icequake activity on its extensive ice fields and glaciers. We examine icequake seismograms recorded by both long-running and temporary densification deployments spanning seven years (2003-2009) to assess event frequency, size, apparent seasonality, event mechanism, and geographic distribution. In addition to generally investigating mountain glacial ice seismicity in cold and dry glacial environments, we also hope to exploit icequakes as local sources for tomographic imaging of the volcano’s interior in conjunction with 2008-2010 active source and explosive volcanism data. Using Antelope-based methodologies, we determined the distribution and magnitude of a subset of well-recorded icequakes using data from the long-running Mount Erebus Volcano Network (MEVO) network, as well as two dense IRIS PASSCAL supported temporary networks deployed during 2008 and 2009 (the MEVO network consists of six broadband and nine short period stations with environmental data streams; the dense arrays consisted of 24 broadband stations arranged in two concentric rings around the volcano and 99 short period stations deployed near the summit of Erebus volcano and along the Terror-Erebus axis of Ross Island). During each of the seven years, we note a number of large icequake swarms (up to many hundreds of events per day). We hypothesize that many of these events occur in very shallow ice, based on the apparent ambient temperature-driven seasonality of the events. Specifically, approximately 43% of the events occur between March and May and approximately 30% occur between October and December. Each of these times feature rapidly changing ambient air temperatures due to the high latitude appearance/disappearance of the sun. A shallow mechanism is predicted by 1-D thermal skin depth calculations that show that annual temperature fluctuations decay by 1/e within the top few meters of ice.

  16. Applying Science: opportunities to inform disease management policy with cooperative research within a One Health framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason K. Blackburn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing Ebola outbreak in West Africa and the current saiga antelope die off in Kazakhstan each represent very real and difficult to manage public or veterinary health crises. They also illustrate the importance of stable and funded surveillance and sound policy for intervention or disease control. While these two events highlight extreme cases of infectious disease (Ebola or (possible environmental exposure (saiga, diseases such as anthrax, brucellosis, tularemia, and plague are all zoonoses that pose risks and present surveillance challenges at the wildlife-livestock-human interfaces. These four diseases are also considered important actors in the threat of biological terror activities and have a long history as legacy biowarfare pathogens. This paper reviews recent studies done cooperatively between American and institutions within nations of the Former Soviet Union (FSU focused on spatiotemporal, epidemiological, and ecological patterns of these four zoonoses. We examine recent studies and discuss the possible ways in which techniques, including ecological niche modeling, disease risk modeling, and spatio-temporal cluster analysis, can inform disease surveillance, control efforts and impact policy. Our focus is to posit ways to apply science to disease management policy and actual management or mitigation practices. Across these examples, we illustrate the value of cooperative studies that bring together modern geospatial and epidemiological analyses to improve our understanding of the distribution of pathogens and diseases in livestock, wildlife, and humans. For example, ecological niche modeling can provide national level maps of pathogen distributions for surveillance planning, while space-time models can identify the timing and location of significant outbreak events for defining active control strategies. We advocate for the need to bring the results and the researchers from cooperative studies into the meeting rooms where policy is

  17. Septicemic pasteurellosis in free-ranging neonatal pronghorn in Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Michael R.; Wolcott, Mark J.; Rimler, R.B.; Berlowski, Brenda M.

    2000-01-01

    As part of a study to determine the cause(s) of population decline and low survival of pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) neonates on Hart Mountain National Antelope Refuge (HMNAR), Oregon (USA), 55 of 104 neonates captured during May 1996 and 1997 were necropsied (n = 28, 1996; n = 27, 1997) to determine cause of death. Necropsies were conducted on fawns that died during May, June, or July of each year. The objectives of this study were to report the occurrence and pathology of pasteurellosis in neonates and determine if the isolated strain of Pasteurella multocida was unique. Septicemic pasteurellosis, caused by P. multocida, was diagnosed as the cause of death for two neonates in May and June 1997. Necropsy findings included widely scattered petechial and ecchymotic hemorrhages found over a large portion of the subcutaneous tissue, meninges of the brain, epicardium, skeletal muscle, and serosal surface of the thorasic and abdominal cavities. Histological examination of lung tissues revealed diffuse congestion and edema and moderate to marked multifocal infiltrate of macrophages, neutrophils, and numerous bacteria within many terminal bronchioles and alveoli. Pasteurella multocida serotypes A:3,4, and B:1 were isolated from several tissues including lung, intestinal, thorasic fluid, and heart blood. Each B:1 isolate had DNA restriction endonuclease fingerprint profiles distinct from isolates previously characterized from domestic cattle, swan (Olor spp.), moose (Alces alces), and pronghorn from Montana (USA). This is the first report of pasteurellosis in pronghorn from Oregon and the B:1 isolates appear to be unique in comparison to DNA fingerprint profiles from selected domestic and wild species.

  18. Arsenic management through well modification and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, Keith J.; Stamos, Christina L.; Nishikawa, Tracy; Martin, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic concentrations can be managed with a relatively simple strategy of grouting instead of completely destroying a selected interval of well. The strategy of selective grouting was investigated in Antelope Valley, California, where groundwater supplies most of the water demand. Naturally occurring arsenic typically exceeds concentrations of 10 (mu or u)g/L in the water produced from these long-screened wells. The vertical distributions of arsenic concentrations in intervals of the aquifer contributing water to selected supply wells were characterized with depth-dependent water-quality sampling and flow logs. Arsenic primarily entered the lower half of the wells where lacustrine clay deposits and a deeper aquifer occurred. Five wells were modified by grouting from below the top of the lacustrine clay deposits to the bottom of the well, which reduced produced arsenic concentrations to less than 2 (mu or u)g/L in four of the five wells. Long-term viability of well modification and reduction of specific capacity was assessed for well 4-54 with AnalyzeHOLE, which creates and uses axisymmetric, radial MODFLOW models. Two radial models were calibrated to observed borehole flows, drawdowns, and transmissivity by estimating hydraulicconductivity values in the aquifer system and gravel packs of the original and modified wells. Lithology also constrained hydraulic-conductivity estimates as regularization observations. Well encrustations caused as much as 2 (mu or u)g/L increase in simulated arsenic concentration by reducing the contribution of flow from the aquifer system above the lacustrine clay deposits. Simulated arsenic concentrations in the modified well remained less than 3 (mu or u)g/L over a 20-year period.

  19. Forensic DNA barcoding and bio-response studies of animal horn products used in traditional medicine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Animal horns (AHs have been applied to traditional medicine for more than thousands of years, of which clinical effects have been confirmed by the history. But now parts of AHs have been listed in the items of wildlife conservation, which limits the use for traditional medicine. The contradiction between the development of traditional medicine and the protection of wild resources has already become the common concern of zoophilists, traditional medical professionals, economists, sociologists. We believe that to strengthen the identification for threatened animals, to prevent the circulation of them, and to seek fertile animals of corresponding bioactivities as substitutes are effective strategies to solve this problem. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A powerful technique of DNA barcoding based on the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase I (COI was used to identify threatened animals of Bovidae and Cervidae, as well as their illegal adulterants (including 10 species and 47 specimens. Meanwhile, the microcalorimetric technique was used to characterize the differences of bio-responses when those animal specimens acted on model organism (Escherichia coli. We found that the COI gene could be used as a universal primer to identify threatened animals and illegal adulterants mentioned above. By analyzing 223 mitochondrial COI sequences, a 100% identification success rate was achieved. We further found that the horns of Mongolian Gazelle and Red Deer could be exploited as a substitute for some functions of endangered Saiga Antelope and Sika Deer in traditional medicine, respectively. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Although it needs a more comprehensive evaluation of bioequivalence in order to completely solve the problem of substitutes for threatened animals, we believe that the identification (DNA barcoding of threatened animals combined with seeking substitutions (bio-response can yet be regarded as a valid strategy for establishing a balance

  20. MQUAKE multicast software early warning demonstrated for 31 October 2001 Anza Ml5.1 earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakins, J. A.; Hansen, T.; Vernon, F. L.; Braun, H.

    2003-12-01

    MQUAKE distributes real-time multicast parametric information from individual sensors as well as a summarized location and magnitude based on the data recorded from sensors of the ANZA seismic network with the goal of providing event notification prior to arrival of the actual shock wave at the client's location. The program gathers detection and triggering information from an operational Antelope real-time data collection system and sends them to clients via multicast and unicast UDP packets. Multicast packets are preferred as they allow multiple people to receive event packets in the fastest time possible (however, a unicast mode is available since most IP networks do not support multicast). These packets are decrypted in a client software which then produces a list of triggers/events that will be used in future versions of the code to generate wavefront estimate plots and approximate maximum shock wave travel times based on the client's location and limited current information. This systems works in both a wired and wireless environment, such as HPWREN, the High Performance Wireless Research and Education Network. A real-time example of this system was obtained during the Ml5.1 31 October 2001 earthquake that occurred directly under the ANZA seismic network, approximately 70 km away from an MQUAKE client. The MQUAKE program was able to deliver a warning of a significant "event" 10 seconds after the initial ground motion was recorded and about 4 seconds prior to ground motion reaching the client. An actual event location and magnitude approximation was received 71 seconds after the local ground shaking at the client's location (85 seconds after the event). Had the client been located along the coast of San Diego, they would have had additional warning time prior to the shaking. Clients in San Diego, the closest major metropolitan area to this event, could have received up to 12 seconds of early warning.

  1. Tomographic Imaging of the Magmatic System at Mount St. Helens with the iMUSH Broadband Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulberg, C. W.; Creager, K. C.; Levander, A.; Kiser, E.; Moran, S. C.; Abers, G. A.; Schmandt, B.; Vidale, J. E.; Houston, H.; Denlinger, R. P.; Williams, M. C. B.

    2015-12-01

    We deployed 70 broadband seismometers in the summer of 2014 to image the velocity structure beneath Mount St. Helens (MSH), Washington, USA as part of a collaborative project called imaging Magma Under St. Helens (iMUSH). Our goal is to illuminate the MSH magmatic system, using active- and passive-source seismology, magnetotellurics and petrology. Details of the velocity structure, coupled with other geophysical and geologic data, can help constrain the geometry and physical state of any bodies of melt beneath the volcano. The broadband array has a diameter of ~100 km centered on MSH with an average station spacing of 10 km, and will remain deployed through summer 2016. It is augmented by dozens of permanent stations in the area. We determine P-wave arrival times using Antelope software and incorporate permanent network picks for the region. We use the program struct3DP to invert travel times to obtain a 3-D seismic velocity model and relocate hypocenters, computing travel times using a 3-D eikonal-equation solver. There were more than 500 useable local events during the first year of iMUSH broadband recording, which to date have provided 5000 arrival times, with the number growing rapidly. The local events include 23 active shots that were set off in the summer of 2014 as part of the iMUSH experiment, which recorded with good signal-to-noise ratios across the entire array. The absolute P times will be augmented by differential times calculated by cross-correlation between observations at the same station for nearby event pairs. These will be incorporated into our model using double-difference tomography. We anticipate that our 3D velocity model will provide the highest resolution image of volcanic plumbing at MSH thus far. Our model interpretation will incorporate results from active-source and ambient noise tomography, receiver functions, magnetotellurics, and petrology.

  2. Enhanced development of lacustrine microbialites on gravity flow deposits, Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouton, Anthony; Vennin, Emmanuelle; Mulder, Thierry; Pace, Aurélie; Bourillot, Raphaël; Thomazo, Christophe; Brayard, Arnaud; Goslar, Tomasz; Buoncristiani, Jean-François; Désaubliaux, Guy; Visscher, Pieter T.

    2016-07-01

    The Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA is a shallow, hypersaline, intracontinental lake hosting extensive microbial deposits. At a large spatial scale, the distribution of these deposits is driven by environmental and geodynamical factors (i.e. water-level fluctuations and a fault-related framework). A detailed mapping of the Buffalo Point area, in the north-western part of Antelope Island, indicates the presence of an anomalous concentration of microbial deposits dated ca. 5.8 ka BP and distributed along a lobe-shaped geometry. This uncommon microbial deposit geometry results from an extensive colonization of a conglomerate substrate exhibiting an accumulation of m-sized rounded Cambrian quartzite boulders. We suggest that this conglomerate substrate provides a stable nucleation point that promotes the development and preservation of the lobe-shaped microbial deposits. Microbial deposits may also have protected the conglomerate substrate from erosional processes and thereby increased the preservation potential of the lobe-shaped structure. Based on the characteristics of the conglomerate (e.g. grain size, texture) and its location (i.e. 200 m beyond the average shoreline), this lobe-shaped structure likely results from subaqueous debris or a hyperconcentrated density flow that transports sedimentary material from the Buffalo Point slopes downward to the shore. We estimate the age of the conglomerate deposition to be between 21 and 12 ka BP. The initiation of the flow may have been triggered by various mechanisms, but the existence of a major active normal fault in the vicinity of these deposits suggests that an earthquake could have destabilized the accumulated sediments and resulted in conglomerate emplacement. The catastrophic 15 ka BP Bonneville Flood, which led to a drop in the lake level (approximately 110 m), may also provide an explanation for the initiation of the flow.

  3. Comparative Study on Small Intestinal Mucosal Structure between Tibetan Sheep and Tibetan Goat%藏绵羊和藏山羊小肠黏膜结构的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏飞; 陈付菊; 叶先林; 常兰

    2012-01-01

    [目的]探讨藏绵羊和藏山羊在高寒低氧环境中小肠黏膜结构的适应特征.[方法]采用组织学和图像分析法,对4只藏绵羊和4只藏山羊小肠不同肠段的黏膜结构的形态特征进行比较.[结果]藏山羊小肠绒毛长度和V/C值均显著高于藏绵羊(P<0.05),而藏绵羊小肠黏膜的厚度大于藏山羊,但差异不显著(P>0.05),藏绵羊小肠肌层的厚度显著大于藏山羊的(P<0.05).[结论]藏山羊的消化吸收功能强于藏绵羊.%[ Objective] The aim was to investigate the characteristics of adaptation of small intestinal mucosal structure in Tibetan sheep and Tibetan goat. [Method] The morphology characteristics of mucosal structure in different parts of small intestine between Tibetan antelope (n =5) and Tibetan sheep(n =5) were measured by histological method and the scion image software analysis techniques method. [ Result] The length of small intestine villi and V/C values of Tibetan goat were significantly higher than those of Tibetan sheep { P 0.05). The muscle thickness in Tibetan sheep was significantly greater than that of Tibetan sheep (P<0.05). [Conclusion] The small intestinal digestion and absorption function of Tibetan goat are stronger than that of Tibetan sheep.

  4. Effects of age, sex, lactation and social dominance on faecal egg count patterns of gastrointestinal nematodes in farmed eland (Taurotragus oryx).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadlejch, J; Kotrba, R; Čadková, Z; Růžičková, A; Langrová, I

    2015-10-01

    The eland is a large African antelope that can be bred in a temperate climate, under similar conditions and production systems as cattle. However, knowledge of parasites in farmed elands outside the area of their native habitat is still limited, and information concerning factors that influence these parasites is lacking. Therefore, faecal samples from an entire herd of elands, including calves and adult females and males, were examined monthly over a one year period. Almost 84% of the animals were found to be positive for gastrointestinal nematodes. Strongyle-type eggs were most frequently detected (prevalence 75%), followed by Capillaria sp., Nematodirus sp. and Trichuris sp. eggs. Following culturing eggs to infective larvae, Teladorsagia sp., Trichostrongylus sp., Nematodirus sp., Cooperia sp. and Oesophagostomum sp. were identified. Following necropsy of two calves that died during the study one abomasal nematode (Teladorsagia circumcincta), five small intestinal nematode species (Nematodirus helvetianus, N. spathiger, Cooperia oncophora, C. curticei and Capillaria bovis) and two large intestinal nematodes (Oesophagostomum venulosum and Trichuris ovis) were recovered. From these findings, it is evident that the eland harbours nematodes that are typical for domestic cattle and small ruminants. Morphological and morphometric analyses of recovered nematodes revealed that these parasites do not require any special morphological adaptation to establish infection in elands. The faecal output of strongyle-type and Nematodirus sp. eggs was seasonal, with the highest egg production taking place during spring and summer. Calves had higher faecal egg counts (for all the monitored nematode species) than adults did. Lactation in females was significantly (Pnematode egg shedding. Social dominance also affected faecal egg count patterns. The lower the hierarchical position among adults (regardless of sex), the higher the risk of nematode infection. This effect was evident

  5. Radioecological investigations of uranium-mill-tailings systems. Second technical progress report, October 1, 1980-September 30, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides a status report on studies which address some of the problems and questions regarding the integrity and transport of uranium and certain radioactive progeny in active and reclaimed uranium mill tailings. The studies reported are being conducted at Pathfinder Mines Corporation's Shirley Basin Uranium Mine, located in a remote area of Carbon County in southeastern Wyoming. A considerable amount of effort, especially during the first few years of the study, must relate to basic characterization of the general environs as well as of specific study plots. Such characterization, which is essential for interpretation of analytical results for radionuclides, involves investigation of climate, soils, underground water, vegetation, and animals. Early results of such characterization work are reported herein. This investigation includes as a major component, studies relating to disposal of mill tailings by earthern covers. Of interest are the effects of various types and thicknesses of covers on radon emanation, ambient gamma radiation, biological incorporation of radionuclides, stability of soil and plant communities and physical migration of radioactivity. This report also summarizes work relating to levels of 230Th, 226Ra and 210Po in water, soils and vegetation from background (uncontaminated) sites, from areas near the tailings pond, and from reclaimed overburden areas. Another major activity is the investigation of specific mechanisms which lead to contamination of vegetation with radionuclides. The processes of root uptake and aerial deposition are under study through a variety of designed experiments and sampling schemes. A small-scale study on the metabolism of 210Po by mule deer and antelope is also reported

  6. Ecological survey for the siting of the Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility and the Idaho Waste Processing Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the results of field ecological surveys conducted by the Center for Integrated Environmental Technologies (CIET) on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) at four candidate locations for the siting of the Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility (MLLWTF) and the Idaho Waste Processing Facility (IWPF). The purpose of these surveys was to comply with all Federal laws and Executive Orders to identify and evaluate any potential environmental impacts because of the project. The boundaries of the candidate location were marked with blaze-orange lath survey marker stakes by the project management. Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements of the marker stakes were made, and input to the Arc/Info reg-sign geographic information system (GIS). Field surveys were conducted to assess any potential impact to any important species, important habitats, and to any environmental study areas. The GIS location data was overlayed onto the INEL vegetation map and an analysis of vegetation classes on the locations was done. Results of the field surveys indicate use of Candidate Location number-sign 1 by pygmy rabbits (Sylvilagus idahoensis) and expected use by them of Candidate Locations number-sign 3 and number-sign 9. Pygmy rabbits are categorized as a C2 species by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). Two other C2 species, the ferruginous hawk (Buteo regalis) and the loggerhead shrike (Lanius ludovicianus) would also be expected to frequent the candidate locations. Candidate Location number-sign 5 at the north end of the INEL is in the winter range of a large number of pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana)

  7. Seasonal diet and prey preference of the African lion in a waterhole-driven semi-arid savanna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeke Davidson

    Full Text Available Large carnivores inhabiting ecosystems with heterogeneously distributed environmental resources with strong seasonal variations frequently employ opportunistic foraging strategies, often typified by seasonal switches in diet. In semi-arid ecosystems, herbivore distribution is generally more homogeneous in the wet season, when surface water is abundant, than in the dry season when only permanent sources remain. Here, we investigate the seasonal contribution of the different herbivore species, prey preference and distribution of kills (i.e. feeding locations of African lions in Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe, a semi-arid African savanna structured by artificial waterholes. We used data from 245 kills and 74 faecal samples. Buffalo consistently emerged as the most frequently utilised prey in all seasons by both male (56% and female (33% lions, contributing the most to lion dietary biomass. Jacobs' index also revealed that buffalo was the most intensively selected species throughout the year. For female lions, kudu and to a lesser extent the group "medium Bovidae" are the most important secondary prey. This study revealed seasonal patterns in secondary prey consumption by female lions partly based on prey ecology with browsers, such as giraffe and kudu, mainly consumed in the early dry season, and grazers, such as zebra and suids, contributing more to female diet in the late dry season. Further, it revealed the opportunistic hunting behaviour of lions for prey as diverse as elephants and mice, with elephants taken mostly as juveniles at the end of the dry season during droughts. Jacobs' index finally revealed a very strong preference for kills within 2 km from a waterhole for all prey species, except small antelopes, in all seasons. This suggested that surface-water resources form passive traps and contribute to the structuring of lion foraging behaviour.

  8. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment: Task 6 Topical Report, Utah Clean Coal Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.J.; Deo, M.; Edding, E.G.; Hradisky, M.; Kelly, K.E.; Krumm, R.; Sarofim, Adel; Wang, D.

    2014-08-15

    The long-term objective of this task is to develop a transformational energy production technology by in- situ thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas and/or liquid transportation fuels while leaving much of the coal’s carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-greenhouse gas (GHG) emitting fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This task focused on three areas: Experimental. The Underground Coal Thermal Treatment (UCTT) team focused on experiments at two scales, bench-top and slightly larger, to develop data to understand the feasibility of a UCTT process as well as to develop validation/uncertainty quantification (V/UQ) data for the simulation team. Simulation. The investigators completed development of High Performance Computing (HPC) simulations of UCTT. This built on our simulation developments over the course of the task and included the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)- based tools to perform HPC simulations of a realistically sized domain representative of an actual coal field located in Utah. CO2 storage. In order to help determine the amount of CO2 that can be sequestered in a coal formation that has undergone UCTT, adsorption isotherms were performed on coals treated to 325, 450, and 600°C with slow heating rates. Raw material was sourced from the Sufco (Utah), Carlinville (Illinois), and North Antelope (Wyoming) mines. The study indicated that adsorptive capacity for the coals increased with treatment temperature and that coals treated to 325°C showed less or similar capacity to the untreated coals.

  9. Arsenic management through well modification and simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, Keith J; Stamos, Christina L; Nishikawa, Tracy; Martin, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic concentrations can be managed with a relatively simple strategy of grouting instead of completely destroying a selected interval of well. The strategy of selective grouting was investigated in Antelope Valley, California, where groundwater supplies most of the water demand. Naturally occurring arsenic typically exceeds concentrations of 10 microg/L in the water produced from these long-screened wells. The vertical distributions of arsenic concentrations in intervals of the aquifer contributing water to selected supply wells were characterized with depth-dependent water-quality sampling and flow logs. Arsenic primarily entered the lower half of the wells where lacustrine clay deposits and a deeper aquifer occurred. Five wells were modified by grouting from below the top of the lacustrine clay deposits to the bottom of the well, which reduced produced arsenic concentrations to less than 2 microg/L in four of the five wells. Long-term viability of well modification and reduction of specific capacity was assessed for well 4-54 with AnalyzeHOLE, which creates and uses axisymmetric, radial MODFLOW models. Two radial models were calibrated to observed borehole flows, drawdowns, and transmissivity by estimating hydraulic-conductivity values in the aquifer system and gravel packs of the original and modified wells. Lithology also constrained hydraulic-conductivity estimates as regularization observations. Well encrustations caused as much as 2 microg/L increase in simulated arsenic concentration by reducing the contribution of flow from the aquifer system above the lacustrine clay deposits. Simulated arsenic concentrations in the modified well remained less than 3 microg/L over a 20-year period. PMID:20113363

  10. Effect of anthropogenic landscape features on population genetic differentiation of Przewalski's gazelle: main role of human settlement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Yang

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic landscapes influence evolutionary processes such as population genetic differentiation, however, not every type of landscape features exert the same effect on a species, hence it is necessary to estimate their relative effect for species management and conservation. Przewalski's gazelle (Procapra przewalskii, which inhabits a human-altered area on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, is one of the most endangered antelope species in the world. Here, we report a landscape genetic study on Przewalski's gazelle. We used skin and fecal samples of 169 wild gazelles collected from nine populations and thirteen microsatellite markers to assess the genetic effect of anthropogenic landscape features on this species. For comparison, the genetic effect of geographical distance and topography were also evaluated. We found significant genetic differentiation, six genetic groups and restricted dispersal pattern in Przewalski's gazelle. Topography, human settlement and road appear to be responsible for observed genetic differentiation as they were significantly correlated with both genetic distance measures [F(ST/(1-F(ST and F'(ST/(1-F'(ST] in Mantel tests. IBD (isolation by distance was also inferred as a significant factor in Mantel tests when genetic distance was measured as F(ST/(1-F(ST. However, using partial Mantel tests, AIC(c calculations, causal modeling and AMOVA analysis, we found that human settlement was the main factor shaping current genetic differentiation among those tested. Altogether, our results reveal the relative influence of geographical distance, topography and three anthropogenic landscape-type on population genetic differentiation of Przewalski's gazelle and provide useful information for conservation measures on this endangered species.

  11. Saiga fossils in the Southern-Lower Volga of Astrakhan, Russia

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    Golovachev Mikhail Vladimirovich

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Conservation of declining migratory species is a challenging task, as the factors that may have determined their past distribution may not determine their extant and future distribution. Saiga tatarica Linnaeus, 1766 is an essential element of faunistic complexes of the Middle and the Late Pleistocene (upper Middle and Upper Neopleistocene according to the Russian stratigraphic scale, and the Holocene of the lower Volga of Astrakhan, Russia (N 46º19’16’’, E 47º59’27’’. Saiga populations have massively declined due to human impacts. It is well known that any endangered and overwhelm antelope species can be recognized and known through the fossils of these species. In this context, fossils of saiga, preserved in collections of he Astrakhan Memorial Museum of Russia, were studied on the basis of comparative analysis of cranial characteristics, to attribute them to the exact species. Some features such as sizes and proportions of fossil skulls were studied through the morphological characters of local fossil population of saiga in the Middle Pleistocene to Holocene. Comparative analysis of cranial characteristics showed that remains fossils of saigas belong to the modern species, S. tatarica. The applied technique of the comparative analysis to determine the gender by cranial measurement of facial part of a skull showed that the fossil AMZ KP 47411 (collected from Khazarian alluvia of village Nikolskoe in 2012 represents a male of S. tatarica. On the other hand, comparison of saiga cranial remains among themselves from different layers of the Late Pleistocene did not show any significant results.

  12. Estimating species richness and modelling habitat preferences of tropical forest mammals from camera trap data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovero, Francesco; Martin, Emanuel; Rosa, Melissa; Ahumada, Jorge A; Spitale, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Medium-to-large mammals within tropical forests represent a rich and functionally diversified component of this biome; however, they continue to be threatened by hunting and habitat loss. Assessing these communities implies studying species' richness and composition, and determining a state variable of species abundance in order to infer changes in species distribution and habitat associations. The Tropical Ecology, Assessment and Monitoring (TEAM) network fills a chronic gap in standardized data collection by implementing a systematic monitoring framework of biodiversity, including mammal communities, across several sites. In this study, we used TEAM camera trap data collected in the Udzungwa Mountains of Tanzania, an area of exceptional importance for mammal diversity, to propose an example of a baseline assessment of species' occupancy. We used 60 camera trap locations and cumulated 1,818 camera days in 2009. Sampling yielded 10,647 images of 26 species of mammals. We estimated that a minimum of 32 species are in fact present, matching available knowledge from other sources. Estimated species richness at camera sites did not vary with a suite of habitat covariates derived from remote sensing, however the detection probability varied with functional guilds, with herbivores being more detectable than other guilds. Species-specific occupancy modelling revealed novel ecological knowledge for the 11 most detected species, highlighting patterns such as 'montane forest dwellers', e.g. the endemic Sanje mangabey (Cercocebus sanjei), and 'lowland forest dwellers', e.g. suni antelope (Neotragus moschatus). Our results show that the analysis of camera trap data with account for imperfect detection can provide a solid ecological assessment of mammal communities that can be systematically replicated across sites. PMID:25054806

  13. Estimating species richness and modelling habitat preferences of tropical forest mammals from camera trap data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Rovero

    Full Text Available Medium-to-large mammals within tropical forests represent a rich and functionally diversified component of this biome; however, they continue to be threatened by hunting and habitat loss. Assessing these communities implies studying species' richness and composition, and determining a state variable of species abundance in order to infer changes in species distribution and habitat associations. The Tropical Ecology, Assessment and Monitoring (TEAM network fills a chronic gap in standardized data collection by implementing a systematic monitoring framework of biodiversity, including mammal communities, across several sites. In this study, we used TEAM camera trap data collected in the Udzungwa Mountains of Tanzania, an area of exceptional importance for mammal diversity, to propose an example of a baseline assessment of species' occupancy. We used 60 camera trap locations and cumulated 1,818 camera days in 2009. Sampling yielded 10,647 images of 26 species of mammals. We estimated that a minimum of 32 species are in fact present, matching available knowledge from other sources. Estimated species richness at camera sites did not vary with a suite of habitat covariates derived from remote sensing, however the detection probability varied with functional guilds, with herbivores being more detectable than other guilds. Species-specific occupancy modelling revealed novel ecological knowledge for the 11 most detected species, highlighting patterns such as 'montane forest dwellers', e.g. the endemic Sanje mangabey (Cercocebus sanjei, and 'lowland forest dwellers', e.g. suni antelope (Neotragus moschatus. Our results show that the analysis of camera trap data with account for imperfect detection can provide a solid ecological assessment of mammal communities that can be systematically replicated across sites.

  14. Applying Science: Opportunities to Inform Disease Management Policy with Cooperative Research within a One Health Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Jason K; Kracalik, Ian T; Fair, Jeanne Marie

    2015-01-01

    The ongoing Ebola outbreak in West Africa and the current saiga antelope die off in Kazakhstan each represent very real and difficult to manage public or veterinary health crises. They also illustrate the importance of stable and funded surveillance and sound policy for intervention or disease control. While these two events highlight extreme cases of infectious disease (Ebola) or (possible) environmental exposure (saiga), diseases such as anthrax, brucellosis, tularemia, and plague are all zoonoses that pose risks and present surveillance challenges at the wildlife-livestock-human interfaces. These four diseases are also considered important actors in the threat of biological terror activities and have a long history as legacy biowarfare pathogens. This paper reviews recent studies done cooperatively between American and institutions within nations of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) focused on spatiotemporal, epidemiological, and ecological patterns of these four zoonoses. We examine recent studies and discuss the possible ways in which techniques, including ecological niche modeling, disease risk modeling, and spatiotemporal cluster analysis, can inform disease surveillance, control efforts, and impact policy. Our focus is to posit ways to apply science to disease management policy and actual management or mitigation practices. Across these examples, we illustrate the value of cooperative studies that bring together modern geospatial and epidemiological analyses to improve our understanding of the distribution of pathogens and diseases in livestock, wildlife, and humans. For example, ecological niche modeling can provide national level maps of pathogen distributions for surveillance planning, while space-time models can identify the timing and location of significant outbreak events for defining active control strategies. We advocate for the need to bring the results and the researchers from cooperative studies into the meeting rooms where policy is negotiated and

  15. Deep sequencing of plant and animal DNA contained within traditional Chinese medicines reveals legality issues and health safety concerns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan L Coghlan

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM has been practiced for thousands of years, but only within the last few decades has its use become more widespread outside of Asia. Concerns continue to be raised about the efficacy, legality, and safety of many popular complementary alternative medicines, including TCMs. Ingredients of some TCMs are known to include derivatives of endangered, trade-restricted species of plants and animals, and therefore contravene the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES legislation. Chromatographic studies have detected the presence of heavy metals and plant toxins within some TCMs, and there are numerous cases of adverse reactions. It is in the interests of both biodiversity conservation and public safety that techniques are developed to screen medicinals like TCMs. Targeting both the p-loop region of the plastid trnL gene and the mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene, over 49,000 amplicon sequence reads were generated from 15 TCM samples presented in the form of powders, tablets, capsules, bile flakes, and herbal teas. Here we show that second-generation, high-throughput sequencing (HTS of DNA represents an effective means to genetically audit organic ingredients within complex TCMs. Comparison of DNA sequence data to reference databases revealed the presence of 68 different plant families and included genera, such as Ephedra and Asarum, that are potentially toxic. Similarly, animal families were identified that include genera that are classified as vulnerable, endangered, or critically endangered, including Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus and Saiga antelope (Saiga tatarica. Bovidae, Cervidae, and Bufonidae DNA were also detected in many of the TCM samples and were rarely declared on the product packaging. This study demonstrates that deep sequencing via HTS is an efficient and cost-effective way to audit highly processed TCM products and will assist in monitoring their legality and safety

  16. Oldowan hominin behavior and ecology at Kanjera South,Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Thomas; Bishop, Laura

    2016-06-20

    The Early Stone Age archaeological record does not become persistent and widespread until approximately 2.0-1.7 million years ago, when Oldowan sites spread across Africa and ultimately into Eurasia. However, good records of hominin behavior from this important time interval are uncommon. Here we describe recent findings from the two million year old Oldowan site of Kanjera South, on the Homa Peninsula of southwestern Kenya. Kanjera South is the oldest Oldowan site with large assemblages of stone artifacts and well-preserved archaeological fauna. Our research indicates that hominin activities were situated in an open habitat within a grassland dominated ecosystem, the first documentation of an archaeological site in such an open setting. Hominins selectively collected and transported stone materials (30% of the lithic assemblage) over longer distances (at least 10 km) than is typical for the Oldowan, reflecting their preference for hard, easily-flaked lithologies unavailable on the northern half of the Homa Peninsula. They deployed different technological strategies to more intensively utilize these hard, non-local raw materials. Artifacts were used for a variety of tasks, including butchering small antelopes probably obtained by hunting, working wood, working soft plant material, and processing underground storage organs. These data suggest that the Kanjera hominins utilized a technological system that allowed them to extract nutrient dense animal and plant foods from their environment. This shift towards the acquisition of nutritious, hard-to-acquire foods in packets large enough to be shared may have facilitated brain and body size expansion in the genus Homo. PMID:27081012

  17. Wimuas: Developing a Tool to Review Wildlife Data from Various Uas Flight Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linchant, J.; Lhoest, S.; Quevauvillers, S.; Semeki, J.; Lejeune, P.; Vermeulen, C.

    2015-08-01

    To get around UAS limitations and propose a viable solution for wildlife monitoring, the development of new inventory methods is needed. However, most authors use the classic systematic transect method as data processing and statistics are easier. We thus created an application to process data from every type of flight plan and to help detect and compare observations on large datasets. WiMUAS is a small software compatible with the open-source QGISthat allows the creation of visual maps compatible with geographical information systems based on telemetry data and payload parameters to estimate the covered area. The application also has a slider for animal detection that allows multiple observers to record and compare their results for accurate counts. We then tested it on data from a trial realized on savannah animal populations in Democratic Republic of Congo using the Falcon UAS. We created a new type of flight plan, a rosette-shaped design that can be covered in three flights,.and repeated it twice. More than 5000 images were collected during the six flights. Image projection gives an area of 12,4 km2 for the first trial and of 12,1 km2 for the second. The mean sampling rate for both test is 6,1 %. Observers spotted buffaloes, hippos, warthogs and various antelopes with different success over an average rate of 8 images reviewed per minute. Resulting densities observed by the three observers are similar for each test (coefficient of variation 6,9 and 8,6 % respectively) but mean densities vary a lot between the two trials (23,8 and 6,5 animals/km2 respectively).

  18. The Algerian Seismic Network: Performance from data quality analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelles, Abdelkarim; Allili, Toufik; Alili, Azouaou

    2013-04-01

    Seismic monitoring in Algeria has seen a great change after the Boumerdes earthquake of May 21st, 2003. Indeed the installation of a New Digital seismic network (ADSN) upgrade drastically the previous analog telemetry network. During the last four years, the number of stations in operation has greatly increased to 66 stations with 15 Broad Band, 02 Very Broad band, 47 Short period and 21 accelerometers connected in real time using various mode of transmission ( VSAT, ADSL, GSM, ...) and managed by Antelope software. The spatial distribution of these stations covers most of northern Algeria from east to west. Since the operation of the network, significant number of local, regional and tele-seismic events was located by the automatic processing, revised and archived in databases. This new set of data is characterized by the accuracy of the automatic location of local seismicity and the ability to determine its focal mechanisms. Periodically, data recorded including earthquakes, calibration pulse and cultural noise are checked using PSD (Power Spectral Density) analysis to determine the noise level. ADSN Broadband stations data quality is controlled in quasi real time using the "PQLX" software by computing PDFs and PSDs of the recordings. Some other tools and programs allow the monitoring and the maintenance of the entire electronic system for example to check the power state of the system, the mass position of the sensors and the environment conditions (Temperature, Humidity, Air Pressure) inside the vaults. The new design of the network allows management of many aspects of real time seismology: seismic monitoring, rapid determination of earthquake, message alert, moment tensor estimation, seismic source determination, shakemaps calculation, etc. The international standards permit to contribute in regional seismic monitoring and the Mediterranean warning system. The next two years with the acquisition of new seismic equipment to reach 50 new BB stations led to

  19. Isolation and molecular characterization of Mycobacterium bovis from Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) from Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malama, Sydney; Johansen, Tone Bjordal; Muma, John Bwalya; Mwanza, Sydney; Djønne, Berit; Godfroid, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a chronic bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis. Infections due to M. bovis, which serves as a stable reservoir, can pose serious challenge to control and eradicate in both wildlife and livestock at the interface. This study aimed at isolating and characterizing M. bovis from Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) and black lechwe (Kobus leche smithemani) at the animal/human interface in Zambia. The samples with lesions compatible with BTB collected during the hunting seasons of 2009 and 2010 were cultured for isolation of mycobacteria using Stonebrink with pyruvate (BD Diagnostics, MD, USA) and Middlebrook 7H10 (BD Diagnostics) slants. Isolated mycobacteria were identified using IS6110 polymerase chain reaction and deletion analysis. Molecular characterization of the isolates was performed using spoligotyping and mycobacteria interspersed repetitive unit-variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) with nine loci. Data was analyzed using BioNumerics software 6.1. Out of the 39 samples, acid fast bacilli were detected in 27 (69.2 %) based on smear microscopy. Seven isolates were found to belong to Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, and all were identified as M. bovis based on deletion analysis. All seven isolates were identical on spoligotyping as belonging to the SB0120 (SIT 482). MIRU-VNTR differentiated the isolates into five different patterns. This study has confirmed that M. bovis circulates in the Kafue lechwe, and non-tuberculous mycobacteria were detected in the black lechwe in Zambia which represents a wildlife reservoir, with a potential to spillover to cattle and humans. Isolates of M. bovis from lechwe antelopes are much conserved as only one spoligotype was detected. The study has shown that three loci differentiated fairly well. This option is cheap and less laborious, and hence a better option in resource-strained country like Zambia. The study further showed that some of the loci recommended by the European

  20. Shallow seismicity patterns in the northwestern section of the Mexico Subduction Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Elizabeth R.; Brudzinski, Michael R.

    2015-11-01

    This study characterizes subduction related seismicity with local deployments along the northwestern section of the Mexico Subduction Zone where 4 portions of the plate interface have ruptured in 1973, 1985, 1995, and 2003. It has been proposed that the subducted boundary between the Cocos and Rivera plates occurs beneath this region, as indicated by inland volcanic activity, a gap in tectonic tremor, and the Manzanillo Trough and Colima Graben, which are depressions thought to be associated with the splitting of the two plates after subduction. Data from 50 broadband stations that comprised the MARS seismic array, deployed from January 2006 to June 2007, were processed with the software program Antelope and its generalized source location algorithm, genloc, to detect and locate earthquakes within the network. Slab surface depth contours from the resulting catalog indicate a change in subduction trajectory between the Rivera and Cocos plates. The earthquake locations are spatially anti-correlated with tectonic tremor, supporting the idea that they represent different types of fault slip. Hypocentral patterns also reveal areas of more intense seismic activity (clusters) that appear to be associated with the 2003 and 1973 megathrust rupture regions. Seismicity concentrated inland of the 2003 rupture is consistent with slip on a shallowly dipping trajectory for the Rivera plate interface as opposed to crustal faulting in the overriding North American plate. A prominent cluster of seismicity within the suspected 1973 rupture zone appears to be a commonly active portion of the megathrust as it has been active during three previous deployments. We support these interpretations by determining focal mechanisms and detailed relocations of the largest events within the 1973 and inland 2003 clusters, which indicate primarily thrust mechanisms near the plate interface.

  1. Incentivizing monitoring and compliance in trophy hunting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnefeld, Nils; Edwards, Charles T T; Atickem, Anagaw; Hailu, Fetene; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2013-12-01

    Conservation scientists are increasingly focusing on the drivers of human behavior and on the implications of various sources of uncertainty for management decision making. Trophy hunting has been suggested as a conservation tool because it gives economic value to wildlife, but recent examples show that overharvesting is a substantial problem and that data limitations are rife. We use a case study of trophy hunting of an endangered antelope, the mountain nyala (Tragelaphus buxtoni), to explore how uncertainties generated by population monitoring and poaching interact with decision making by 2 key stakeholders: the safari companies and the government. We built a management strategy evaluation model that encompasses the population dynamics of mountain nyala, a monitoring model, and a company decision making model. We investigated scenarios of investment into antipoaching and monitoring by governments and safari companies. Harvest strategy was robust to the uncertainty in the population estimates obtained from monitoring, but poaching had a much stronger effect on quota and sustainability. Hence, reducing poaching is in the interests of companies wishing to increase the profitability of their enterprises, for example by engaging community members as game scouts. There is a threshold level of uncertainty in the population estimates beyond which the year-to-year variation in the trophy quota prevented planning by the safari companies. This suggests a role for government in ensuring that a baseline level of population monitoring is carried out such that this level is not exceeded. Our results illustrate the importance of considering the incentives of multiple stakeholders when designing frameworks for resource use and when designing management frameworks to address the particular sources of uncertainty that affect system sustainability most heavily. Incentivando el Monitoreo y el Cumplimiento en la Caza de Trofeos.

  2. Ecological survey for the siting of the Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility and the Idaho Waste Processing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoskinson, R.L.

    1994-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of field ecological surveys conducted by the Center for Integrated Environmental Technologies (CIET) on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) at four candidate locations for the siting of the Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility (MLLWTF) and the Idaho Waste Processing Facility (IWPF). The purpose of these surveys was to comply with all Federal laws and Executive Orders to identify and evaluate any potential environmental impacts because of the project. The boundaries of the candidate location were marked with blaze-orange lath survey marker stakes by the project management. Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements of the marker stakes were made, and input to the Arc/Info{reg_sign} geographic information system (GIS). Field surveys were conducted to assess any potential impact to any important species, important habitats, and to any environmental study areas. The GIS location data was overlayed onto the INEL vegetation map and an analysis of vegetation classes on the locations was done. Results of the field surveys indicate use of Candidate Location {number_sign}1 by pygmy rabbits (Sylvilagus idahoensis) and expected use by them of Candidate Locations {number_sign}3 and {number_sign}9. Pygmy rabbits are categorized as a C2 species by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). Two other C2 species, the ferruginous hawk (Buteo regalis) and the loggerhead shrike (Lanius ludovicianus) would also be expected to frequent the candidate locations. Candidate Location {number_sign}5 at the north end of the INEL is in the winter range of a large number of pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana).

  3. Bioadvection of mercury from the Great Salt Lake to surrounding terrestrial ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, F.; Goodman, J.; Collins, J.; Saxton, H.; Mansfield, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Great Salt Lake (GSL), Utah, USA, is a hypersaline terminal lake that is home to some of the highest concentrations of methylmercury (MeHg) ever measured in natural waters. While terrestrial organisms typically have very low concentrations of MeHg because it is produced almost exclusively in sub-oxic aquatic environments, we documented elevated concentrations of MeHg in brine flies (Ephydra spp.) and spiders along the shores of the GSL. We hypothesized that brine flies, with their larval and pupal stages in the GSL, act as vectors that transfer Hg from the lake to surrounding terrestrial ecosystems as flying adults where they are eaten by spiders and other organisms. The GSL is visited annually by millions of migratory birds, and a major food source for both resident and migratory birds at the GSL are brine flies, so brine flies may represent an important source of Hg to birds here. We conducted a spatial and temporal study of HgT and MeHg in surface waters, brine flies, spiders, and Loggerhead Shrikes (Lanius ludovicianus) a predatory terrestrial songbird of conservation concern, and investigated sublethal effects due to Hg exposure on Antelope Island in the GSL. Samples were also analyzed for their stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratios. While HgT and MeHg concentrations in surface waters were elevated, they varied relatively little throughout the year and exhibited no clear seasonal trends. However, seasonal maxima in concentrations of HgT and MeHg in brine flies and spiders occurred in spring and fall, periods of peak migratory bird numbers at the GSL. Approximately 20% of adult/juvenile shrikes had blood HgT concentrations above thresholds previously shown to reduce breeding success in other songbirds, with these concentrations increasing after the annual appearance of orb weaving spiders. HgT concentrations of shrikes decreased with increasing distance from the shoreline and decreasing brine fly abundance, again suggesting the GSL is the ultimate

  4. Kosmiline jaht. Põhja-Ameerika müüdi Siberi variandid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juri Berezkin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The mythological motif of the Cosmic Hunt (F59.2 is characteristic of northern and central Eurasia and the Americas but seems to be missing in other parts of the globe. Two distinct Eurasian versions demonstrate North-American parallels at the level of minor details which could be explained only by particular historic links between the corresponding traditions. According to the first variant, three stars of the handle of the Big Dipper are hunters and the dipper itself is an animal (elk in Siberia, bear in North America, while Alcor (a weak star near Mizar, which is the second star of the handle, occupies a special place in this picture. Its association with a dog (Orochon Evenk, Udeghe, Oroch, Lillooet, Coastal Salish, Wasco, Mohawks, Delaware, Fox and especially with a cooking pot (Khakas, Khanty, Selkup, Ket, the northern and western groups of Evenk, Seneca, Cherokee carried by the second hunter is highly specific and could not emerge independently in Asia and in the New World. According to the second variant of the Cosmic Hunt motif, the stars of the Orion's Belt represent three (sometimes one deer, antelopes, mountain sheep or buffaloes. The hunter is Rigel or some other star or constellation below the Orion's Belt. Hunter's arrow has pierced the game and is seen either as the red star Betelgeuze (in Asia or as the stars of Orion's Head (in America. Both in Asia (Hinduism, Tibetans, Kalmyk, Kazakh, Kirgiz, Tuva, Teleut, Altai, Telengit, Khakas, Tofa, Buryat, Mongol and in North America (Gros Ventre, Cahuilla, Paviotso, Chemehuevi, Ute, Yavapai, Mohave, Maricopa, Kiliwa, Seri, Western Apache, Mescalero, Lipan, the second version of the Cosmic Hunt is localised further away from the Bering Strait than the first variant. It is an argument in favour of its slightly later introduction into the New World. Both episodes, however, probably date to the first settling of the New World; their absence in the circum-Beringian region excludes the

  5. Modernization of the Slovenian National Seismic Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidrih, R.; Godec, M.; Gosar, A.; Sincic, P.; Tasic, I.; Zivcic, M.

    2003-04-01

    The Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia, the Seismology Office is responsible for the fast and reliable information about earthquakes, originating in the area of Slovenia and nearby. In the year 2000 the project Modernization of the Slovenian National Seismic Network started. The purpose of a modernized seismic network is to enable fast and accurate automatic location of earthquakes, to determine earthquake parameters and to collect data of local, regional and global earthquakes. The modernized network will be finished in the year 2004 and will consist of 25 Q730 remote broadband data loggers based seismic station subsystems transmitting in real-time data to the Data Center in Ljubljana, where the Seismology Office is located. The remote broadband station subsystems include 16 surface broadband seismometers CMG-40T, 5 broadband seismometers CMG-40T with strong motion accelerographs EpiSensor, 4 borehole broadband seismometers CMG-40T, all with accurate timing provided by GPS receivers. The seismic network will cover the entire Slovenian territory, involving an area of 20,256 km2. The network is planned in this way; more seismic stations will be around bigger urban centres and in regions with greater vulnerability (NW Slovenia, Krsko Brezice region). By the end of the year 2002, three old seismic stations were modernized and ten new seismic stations were built. All seismic stations transmit data to UNIX-based computers running Antelope system software. The data is transmitted in real time using TCP/IP protocols over the Goverment Wide Area Network . Real-time data is also exchanged with seismic networks in the neighbouring countries, where the data are collected from the seismic stations, close to the Slovenian border. A typical seismic station consists of the seismic shaft with the sensor and the data acquisition system and, the service shaft with communication equipment (modem, router) and power supply with a battery box. which provides energy in case

  6. Seismotetonics of the Eastern Taiwan offshore area from OBS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, S.; Lin, J.

    2013-12-01

    Located at the arc-continental collision region between the Eurasian (EU) and Philippine Sea Plate (PSP), Taiwan is characterized by a complex tectonic environment, especially the eastern part of the island. Based on geodetic, geological and geophysical data, the tectonic structures in the eastern Taiwan have been well studied by several former works. However, the seismotectonic structures in the offshore area of eastern Taiwan are still poorly understood, because most seismic stations are inland and the earthquakes occur offshore cannot be located accurately. To understand the seismic activities in the offshore area of the eastern Taiwan, we deployed 8 OBSs (Ocean Bottom Seismometer) from Jul. 9th to Aug. 3rd, 2012 to record the seismic signal. The continuous waveform data recorded by the CWB (Central Weather Bureau) land stations were also used to increase the precision of the hypocenter determination. Seismic events were detected manually and the Antelope software and the global velocity model iasp91 (Kennett and Engdahl, 1991) were used for the initial localization. As a result, a total of 714 events were located in the previous 17-day data. Because of the complexity of the crustal structures around Taiwan, a 1-D seismic velocity model is not accurate sufficiently for a reliable hypocenter determination. For improving the precision of the location, we relocated the earthquakes with the HypoDD relocation method (Waldhauser and Ellsworth, 2000) which could minimize errors result from the velocity structure without the use of station corrections. Finally, 306 events were relocated successfully. Compared with the earthquakes determined by the Taiwanese seismic network (CWB and BATS- Broadband Array in Taiwan for Seismology), our preliminary result has a similar seismic pattern with these two catalogs but contains much more offshore earthquakes in the same time period. The relocated earthquakes show an east-dipping seismic zone in the southern part of eastern Taiwan

  7. Viral diseases of northern ungulates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Frölich

    2000-03-01

    has a multi-factorial etiology. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV can infect deer and many other wild artiodactyls. Moose, roe deer and the saiga antelope (Saiga tatarica are the main hosts of FMDV in the Russian Federation. In addition, serological evidence of a FMD infection without clinical disease was detected in red deer in France. Epizootic haemorrhage disease of deer (EHD and bluetongue (BT are acute non-contagious viral diseases of wild ruminants characterised by extensive haemorrhage. Culicoides insects are the main vectors. EHD and BT only play a minor role in Europe but both diseases are widespread in North America.

  8. High resolution visualization of USArray data on a 50 megapixel display using OptIPuter technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, A. M.; Vernon, F.; Kent, G.; Orcutt, J.; Kilb, D.; Newman, R.; Smarr, L.; Defanti, T.; Leigh, J.; Renambot, L.; Johnson, A.

    2004-12-01

    A 50 megapixel display wall is under construction at the Cecil H. & Ida M. Green Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics (IGPP) for the display of multiple interactive 3D visualizations of various geophysical datasets. This system is designed through collaboration between major NSF funded projects such as OptIPuter and USArray (Earthscope), and will allow researchers to visually analyze data and present results at extremely high resolution. The OptIPuter project (www.optiputer.net) leverages the capabilities of dedicated optical networks that interconnect instruments, processors, computer storage and visualization resources to aid in Earth Sciences research. This system comprises a cluster of seven Apple Power Mac G5 machines and twelve Apple 30" LCD screens (of maximum resolution 2560 x 1600 each) tiled to form a 4x3 array and will be the first Apple-driven tiled display to our knowledge. The Antelope software will be used for seismic data monitoring and archiving along with web-based analytical tools developed at the Array Network Facility (ANF http://anf.ucsd.edu/) at IGPP. OptIPuter software (developed by the Electronic Visualization Laboratory) such as JuxtaView (an image viewer for interacting with remotely located extremely high resolution 2D images) and Vol-a-Tile (interactive volume rendering software allowing navigation into gigabyte-sized seismic volumes) will also be used. Interactive visualizations created by scientists at IGPP that overlay heterogeneous datasets such as seismic profiles, geology strata, earthquake locations, bathymetry and high resolution satellite imagery and aerial photos, using the Fledermaus software will also be viewed. The configuration of each cluster node is: dual CPU 2.5 GHz PowerPC G5, 8 GB RAM, 500 GB disk space, NVIDIA Ultra 6800 GeForce card, and the nodes are interconnected over gigabit Ethernet. This system will also be part of the OptIPuter infrastructure, with fiber connections to the OptIPuter CAVEwave on the

  9. Traditional Chinese Medicine Induced Liver Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, Rolf

    2014-06-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is popular around the world and encompasses many different practices with particular emphasis on herbal TCM. Using the PubMed database, a literature search was undertaken to assess the extent herbal TCM products exert rare hepatotoxicity. Analysis of reported cases revealed numerous specified herbal TCM products with potential hepatotoxicity. Among these were An Shu Ling, Bai Fang, Bai Xian Pi, Ban Tu Wan, Bo He, Bo Ye Qing Niu Dan, Bofu Tsu Sho San, Boh Gol Zhee, Cang Er Zi, Chai Hu, Chaso, Chi R Yun, Chuan Lian Zi, Ci Wu Jia, Da Chai Hu Tang, Da Huang, Du Huo, Gan Cao, Ge Gen, Ho Shou Wu, Hu Bohe You, Hu Zhang, Huang Qin, Huang Yao Zi, Hwang Geun Cho, Ji Gu Cao, Ji Ji, Ji Xue Cao, Jiguja, Jin Bu Huan, Jue Ming Zi, Kamishoyosan, Kudzu, Lei Gong Teng, Long Dan Xie Gan Tang, Lu Cha, Ma Huang, Mao Guo Tian Jie Cai, Onshido, Polygonum multiflorum, Qian Li Guang, Ren Shen, Sairei To, Shan Chi, Shen Min, Shi Can, Shi Liu Pi, Shou Wu Pian, Tian Hua Fen, White flood, Wu Bei Zi, Xi Shu, Xiao Chai Hu Tang, Yin Chen Hao, Zexie, Zhen Chu Cao, and various unclassified Chinese herbal mixtures. Causality was firmly established for a number of herbal TCM products by a positive reexposure test result, the liver specific scale of CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences), or both. Otherwise, the quality of case data was mixed, especially regarding analysis of the herb ingredients because of adulteration with synthetic drugs, contamination with heavy metals, and misidentification. In addition, non-herbal TCM elements derived from Agaricus blazei, Agkistrodon, Antelope, Bombyx, Carp, Fish gallbladder, Phellinus, Scolopendra, Scorpio, and Zaocys are also known or potential hepatotoxins. For some patients, the clinical course was severe, with risks for acute liver failure, liver transplantation requirement, and lethality. In conclusion, the use of few herbal TCM products may rarely be associated with hepatotoxicity in some

  10. Systematical Search for remotely triggered earthquakes in Tibet Plateau following the 2004 M9.2 Sumatra and the 2005 M8.6 Nias earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, D.; Peng, Z.; Meng, X.

    2013-12-01

    of Qiangtang Terrane. However, no moderate to large earthquakes occurred following those dynamically triggered microearthquakes. Our next step is to use the Antelope software to manually pick and locate more local events first, then use the waveform matching technique to detect additional small events, and use them to better understand the triggering behavior in Tibet Plateau.

  11. Phylogenetic reconstruction and the identification of ancient polymorphism in the Bovini tribe (Bovidae, Bovinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacEachern Sean

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Bovinae subfamily incorporates an array of antelope, buffalo and cattle species. All of the members of this subfamily have diverged recently. Not surprisingly, a number of phylogenetic studies from molecular and morphological data have resulted in ambiguous trees and relationships amongst species, especially for Yak and Bison species. A partial phylogenetic reconstruction of 13 extant members of the Bovini tribe (Bovidae, Bovinae from 15 complete or partially sequenced autosomal genes is presented. Results We identified 3 distinct lineages after the Bovini split from the Boselaphini and Tragelaphini tribes, which has lead to the (1 Buffalo clade (Bubalus and Syncerus species and a more recent divergence leading to the (2 Banteng, Gaur and Mithan and (3 Domestic cattle clades. A fourth lineage may also exist that leads to Bison and Yak. However, there was some ambiguity as to whether this was a divergence from the Banteng/Gaur/Mithan or the Domestic cattle clade. From an analysis of approximately 30,000 sites that were amplified in all species 133 sites were identified with ambiguous inheritance, in that all trees implied more than one mutation at the same site. Closer examination of these sites has identified that they are the result of ancient polymorphisms that have subsequently undergone lineage sorting in the Bovini tribe, of which 53 have remained polymorphic since Bos and Bison species last shared a common ancestor with Bubalus between 5–8 million years ago (MYA. Conclusion Uncertainty arises in our phylogenetic reconstructions because many species in the Bovini diverged over a short period of time. It appears that a number of sites with ambiguous inheritance have been maintained in subsequent populations by chance (lineage sorting and that they have contributed to an association between Yak and Domestic cattle and an unreliable phylogenetic reconstruction for the Bison/Yak clade. Interestingly, a number of these

  12. NASA's Electronic Procurement System and the Impact on Small Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, Ken

    1998-01-01

    Three workshops, held in Lancaster, Orange County and Compton, were produced by the Los Angeles Regional Technology Alliance (LARTA) and NASA Far West Technology Transfer Center (FWRTTC). The workshops were held on December 12, 1997, February 5, 1998, and March 30, 1998, respectively. The purpose behind these workshops was to spread information regarding NASA procurement opportunities to small businesses in the region. This was accomplished by inviting economic and business development organizations to the three workshops, presenting NASA procurement resources to them, and asking them to distribute this information to the small businesses in their communities. With the assistance of LARTA, marketing and publicity in the form of direct mail, telemarketing, and promotion via a web site was implemented to publicize the workshops. These methods were remarkably effective because they enabled the workshops to attain its full capacity. Further publicity was provided by Wendy Reed of Valley Focus Magazine, an Antelope Valley Magazine aimed at business people. Her article entitled, "Doing Business with the Government" recapped the Lancaster workshop that she had attended and made references to several presentations. In the article, she discussed selling to the government via electronic commerce, and specifically mentioned Robert Medina, the NASA Dryden Small Business Specialist, as a contact person for those interested in pursuing procurement opportunities. The feedback provided by the participants is illustrated by the enclosed graphs and charts. These figures represent the number of participants who have frequented web sites presented at workshops, specifically the NASA procurement resources, and how extensive information dissemination was. Input from participants was favorable and encouraged more NASA Dryden workshops directly to the small business communities. There was an overwhelming response to the benefit of the NASA procurement opportunities presented at the

  13. Serodiagnosis of Rift Valley fever in African wildlife using a recombinant nucleocapsid-based indirect ELISA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antibodies to Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) have been found in many wildlife species but their importance in the epidemiology of the disease during the inter-epidemic and epidemic periods, and including their possible specific role in the cryptic maintenance of the virus is not elucidated. A recently developed indirect ELISA (I-ELISA) based on recombinant nucleocapsid protein (rNp) of RVF virus was reported to have high analytical accuracy for the detection of IgG antibody in African buffalo sera. An indirect ELISA (I-ELISA) based on the recombinant nucleocapsid protein (rNp) of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) was evaluated for the detection of specific serum IgG antibody in African wildlife. Data sets derived from field-collected sera (n = 877) in Africa (antelopes = 529, black rhinoceros = 43, common zebra = 24, elephant = 73, giraffe = 81, grevy zebra = 78, warthog = 49) were categorized according to the results of a virus neutralization test. Dose response curves using different dilutions of sera known to be positive or negative in the virus neutralisation test had the expected analytical slope and the I-ELISA clearly differentiated between different levels of specific IgG antibody against RVFV in African wildlife. At cut-offs optimised by the two-graph receiver operating characteristics analysis, the diagnostic sensitivity of the I-ELISA was 100% and diagnostic specificity ranged from 99.8% to 100% while estimates for the Youden's index (J) and efficiency (Ef) ranged from 0.99 to 1 and from 99.7% to 100%, respectively. The rNp-based I-ELISA is highly accurate, safe, and offers a single assay format for rapid detection of IgG antibody to RVFV in sera of different wildlife species. This study confirm previous findings that the rNp-based I-ELISA accurately identifies sera with different concentrations of specific IgG antibodies to RVF virus, and compared to virus neutralization test it has very high diagnostic performance in various wildlife animal species. As a

  14. Enhancing Carbon Reactivity in Mercury Control in Lignite-Fired Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chad Wocken; Michael Holmes; John Pavlish; Jeffrey Thompson; Katie Brandt; Brandon Pavlish; Dennis Laudal; Kevin Galbreath; Michelle Olderbak

    2008-06-30

    This project was awarded through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory Program Solicitation DE-PS26-03NT41718-01. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) led a consortium-based effort to resolve mercury (Hg) control issues facing the lignite industry. The EERC team-the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); the URS Corporation; the Babcock & Wilcox Company; ADA-ES; Apogee; Basin Electric Power Cooperative; Otter Tail Power Company; Great River Energy; Texas Utilities; Montana-Dakota Utilities Co.; Minnkota Power Cooperative, Inc.; BNI Coal Ltd.; Dakota Westmoreland Corporation; the North American Coal Corporation; SaskPower; and the North Dakota Industrial Commission-demonstrated technologies that substantially enhanced the effectiveness of carbon sorbents to remove Hg from western fuel combustion gases and achieve a high level ({ge} 55% Hg removal) of cost-effective control. The results of this effort are applicable to virtually all utilities burning lignite and subbituminous coals in the United States and Canada. The enhancement processes were previously proven in pilot-scale and limited full-scale tests. Additional optimization testing continues on these enhancements. These four units included three lignite-fired units: Leland Olds Station Unit 1 (LOS1) and Stanton Station Unit 10 (SS10) near Stanton and Antelope Valley Station Unit 1 (AVS1) near Beulah and a subbituminous Powder River Basin (PRB)-fired unit: Stanton Station Unit 1 (SS1). This project was one of three conducted by the consortium under the DOE mercury program to systematically test Hg control technologies available for utilities burning lignite. The overall objective of the three projects was to field-test and verify options that may be applied cost-effectively by the lignite industry to reduce Hg emissions. The EERC, URS, and other team members tested sorbent injection technologies for plants equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and

  15. Isolation of non-tuberculous mycobacteria from pastoral ecosystems of Uganda: Public Health significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opuda-Asibo John

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM infections in humans and animals in sub-Saharan Africa at the human-environment-livestock-wildlife interface has recently received increased attention. NTM are environmental opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals. Recent studies in pastoral ecosystems of Uganda detected NTM in humans with cervical lymphadenitis and cattle with lesions compatible with bovine tuberculosis. However, little is known about the source of these mycobacteria in Uganda. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify NTM in the environment of pastoral communities in Uganda, as well as assess the potential risk factors and the public health significance of NTM in these ecosystems. Method A total of 310 samples (soil, water and faecal from cattle and pigs were examined for mycobacteria. Isolates were identified by the INNO-Lipa test and by 16S rDNA sequencing. Additionally, a questionnaire survey involving 231 pastoralists was conducted during sample collection. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics followed by a multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results Forty-eight isolates of NTM were detected; 25.3% of soil samples, 11.8% of water and 9.1% from animal faecal samples contained mycobacteria. Soils around water sources were the most contaminated with NTM (29.8%. Of these samples, M. fortuitum-peregrinum complex, M. avium complex, M. gordonae, and M. nonchromogenicum were the most frequently detected mycobacteria. Drinking untreated compared to treated water (OR = 33, use of valley dam versus stream water for drinking and other domestic use (OR = 20, sharing of water sources with wild primates compared to antelopes (OR = 4.6, sharing of water sources with domestic animals (OR = 5.3, and close contact with cattle or other domestic animals (OR = 13.8 were the most plausible risk factors for humans to come in contact with NTM in the environment. Conclusions The study detected a

  16. Correlation of the Klamath Mountains and Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, William P.

    2003-01-01

    along the suture zone beneath the overriding accreted terranes. Examples of this in the Klamath Mountains are the Devonian Salmon and Abrams Schists of the Central Metamorphic terrane, the Triassic(?) schist of the Fort Jones terrane , and the Early Cretaceous South Fork Mountain Schist that structurally underlies Klamath Mountains terranes along much of the western edge of the province. The Fort Jones terrane and South Fork Mountains Schist were metamorphosed under blueschist-facies conditions. In the Sierra Nevada, schist that is correlative with the Central Metamorphic terrane is present in patches along the Feather River terrane (see Hacker and Peacock, 1990); the Triassic(?) Red Ant Schist is correlative with the Fort Jones terrane; but a correlative of the South Fork Mountain Schist is not present. In addition to the similarities in the sequences of accretion, plutonism, volcanism, and metamorphism, strong ties between the two provinces are also provided by paleontologic data. The Permian McCloud fusulinid fauna of the Redding subterrane also is present in the Northern Sierra terrane. Rare Tethyan fusulinids are found in Permian limestone of the Eastern Hayfork terrane of the Klamath Mountains and also in limestone blocks in the Central Belt of the Sierra Nevada. Ichthyosaur fossils have been collected from the Triassic of both the Redding subterrane and Northern Sierra terrane. Jurassic ammonites and the pelecypod Buchia concentrica occur in both the Galice Formation of the western Klamath Mountains and the Mariposa Formation of the western Sierra Nevada. Events that preceded the Central Metamorphic episode prior to Silurian-Devonian time are not clearly understood and are not shown in the succession of diagrams on Sheet 2. The oldest rocks of the Klamath Mountains are Neoproterozic and they predate the Central Metamorphic episode by possibly a hundred million years or more. They include ophiolitic rocks of the Trinity subterrane and the Antelope Mountain

  17. The OBS Survey of Seismogenic Processes: Using 2010 Chile M=8.8 Mega Earthquake as example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C.; Wei, H.; Wang, S.

    2012-12-01

    In the early morning of February 27, 2010, a mega-earthquake now known as the "Maule Earthquake" (M=8.8) took place in central Chile. In May 1960, Chile was hit by the largest earthquake ever recorded with a magnitude of 9.5. In general, the west coast of Chile is a convergent boundary between the Nazca and South American Plates, with the Nazca Plate subducting beneath the South American Plate in a NE direction. With a convergence rate of 6-7 cm per year, stress accumulates in the lower part of the oceanic plate to a certain extent resulting in huge destructive earthquakes. In 2010, our team deployed two OBS arrays (the A and B arrays), with a total of 33 deployments to record the aftershocks along the rupture area. We collected data for a total of 46 days (July 15 to August 7 for the A array and August 14 to September 6 for the B array). The aim of our study was to analyze the distribution and characteristics of the aftershocks to get a better understanding of the tectonic activity after the main event, and conjecture on the seismogenic processes that occurred during the rupture. Using the Antelope software on the data we picked the P- and S-wave arrivals and located the events. To obtain more accurate earthquake epicenter locations we also applied the HypoDD software. We recognized a total of 3,807 events in 46 days of monitoring (in average of 80 some earthquakes per day) with many of them distributed along both sides of the trench. Immediately behind the trench axis, along the frontal accretionary prism, there is an aseismic zone, possibly due to the high content of water in the sedimentary strata. On the other hand, the paleo-accretionary prism on the landward side of the trench accumulated most of the earthquakes. These events focus at depths of 50-100 km in the subduction zone. This is called the seismogenic zone. The comparison of events before the main shock and the HypoDD results of this study show that most of the events cluster along the edge of the

  18. The IRIS DMC: Perspectives on Real-Time Data Management and Open Access From a Large Seismological Archive: Challenges, Tools, and Quality Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, R. B.

    2007-05-01

    current, tools for evaluating and viewing them, along with measuring and creating databases of other performance metrics and how monitoring them closer to real- time helps reduce operation costs, creates a richer repository, and eliminates problems over generations of duty cycles of data usage. I will describe a new resource, called the Nominal Response Library, which hopes to provide accurate and representative examples of sensor and data logger configurations that are hosted at the DMC and constitute a high-graded subset for crafting your own metadata. Finally, I want to encourage all network operators who do not currently submit SEED format data to an archive to consider these benefits, and briefly discuss how robust transfer mechanisms that include Earthworm, LISS, Antelope, NRTS and SeisComp, to name a few, can assist you in contributing your network data and help create this enabling virtual network of networks. In this era of high performance Internet capacity, the process that enables others to share your data and allows you to utilize external sources of data is nearly seamless with your current mission of network operation.

  19. Seismic calibration shots conducted in 2009 in the Imperial Valley, southern California, for the Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Janice; Goldman, Mark; Fuis, Gary; Rymer, Michael; Sickler, Robert; Miller, Summer; Butcher, Lesley; Ricketts, Jason; Criley, Coyn; Stock, Joann; Hole, John; Chavez, Greg

    2011-01-01

    .9 Whittier Narrows earthquakes. The project also succeeded in determining the depths and seismic-velocity distributions of several sedimentary basins, including the Los Angeles Basin, San Fernando Valley, and Antelope Valley. These results advanced our ability to understand and assess earthquake hazards in the Los Angeles region. In order to facilitate permitting and planning for the data collection phase of SSIP, in June of 2009 we set off calibration shots and recorded the seismic data with a variety of instruments at varying distances. We also exposed sections of buried clay drainage pipe near the shot points to determine the effect of seismic energy on the pipes. Clay drainage pipes are used by the irrigation districts in both the Coachella and Imperial Valleys to prevent ponding and remove salts and irrigation water. This report chronicles the calibration project. We present new near-source velocity data that are used to test the regression curves that were determined for the LARSE project. These curves are used to create setback tables to determine explosive charge size and for placement of shot points. We also found that our shots did not damage the irrigation pipes and that the ODEX drilling system did well in the clay rich soils of the Imperial Valley.

  20. 南非克留格尔国家公园马羚的种群下降:一个备择假说%Roan Hippotragus equinus population decline in Kruger National Park, South Africa: an alternative complimentary hypothesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. KR(O)GER; K. H. ROGERS

    2006-01-01

    We report on the potential role that ephemeral wetland boundaries played in the population decline of roan antelope Hippotragus equinus equinus on the northern plains of Kruger National Park (KNP) between 1979 and the present.Broadly described, drought, associated habitat deterioration and concomitant competition for grazing by generalist herbivores were possible hypotheses explaining the decline of the roan population. We propose that understanding the grazing patch selection of roan and identifying the factors linking ephemeral wetland boundaries and roan population decline reveals an alternative, complimentary hypothesis. The wetland boundary is patchily distributed in space within the northern plains landscape that roan utilize as a mineral rich grazing resource. Most of the artificial water holes placed on the northern plains during the Water for Game management project are situated within or closely adjacent to the wetland boundary attracting increased grazing competition with generalist grazers and predation pressure. Lack of dry season rainfall, coupled with competition for grazing at the ephemeral wetland boundary, and an increase in predation pressure could have provided a trigger for the decline of roan earlier than the general broad scale habitat deterioration of the northern plains landscape [Acta Zoologica Sinica 52 (2): 406-409, 2006].%本研究报道了1979年以来南非克留格尔国家公园暂时性沼泽边界对马羚(Hippotragus equinus equinus)种群下降的影响.干旱和由此导致的生境退化以及随之产生的食草动物之间的采食竞争是解释马羚种群数量下降的可能假说.我们认为,确定马羚的生境斑块选择并测定影响暂时性沼泽边界变化与马羚种群下降的关联性因子,可解释马羚种群下降的备择假说.在北部平原区,边界呈斑块状分布的沼泽是马羚的高矿质采食源.实施狩猎管理工程期间,人工做成的大多数水道分布于沼泽边界及其

  1. The Jalisco Seismic Telemetric Network (RESJAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Reyes-Davila, G.; Reyes-Davila, G.; Suarez-Plascencia, C.; Suarez-Plascencia, C.; Gonzalez-Ledezma, M.; Garcia-Puga, J.

    2001-12-01

    ; these stations were deployed in two cells, each one with three stations. The first one in the area of Bahía de Banderas with direct telemetric links to SisVOc in Campus Puerto Vallarta where is located the central station. The second cell is located from the Colima Volcano to north of CRZ, the first three stations of this cell were installed on the volcano to complement RESCO and to improve the quantity and quality of data from volcano. The stations transmit to the Jalisco Civil Defense base in Cd. Guzman (Zapotlan) which is linked to Campus Cd. Guzman located aside of the base, then from the Campus Cd. Guzman the data are sending through UdeG computer network to Campus Puerto Vallarta where are processed and analysed and returned to Civil Defense base in Cd. Guzman. To guarantee continuity in the transmission of data, these will be sending by INTERNET-2 protocols using Quality of Service. Second phase will start as soon first phase be completely operational, this phase include six additional seismic station, three for each cell and install Antelope system for data acquisition and control. In third phase two cells more will be added in the north and the east of the region; also meteorological instruments will be installed in each seismic station and video cameras and GPS instruments in selected stations.

  2. Characterization of Oxy-combustion Impacts in Existing Coal-fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley Adams; Andrew Fry; Constance Senior; Hong Shim; Huafeng Wang; Jost Wendt; Christopher Shaddix

    2009-06-30

    fouling mechanisms in coal-fired power plants to understand key issues influencing these deposition regimes and infer their behavior under oxy-fired conditions. Based on the results of this survey, an algorithm for integrating slagging predictions into CFD models was outlined. This method accounts for ash formation, particle impaction and sticking, deposit growth and physical properties and impact of the deposit on system flow and heat transfer. A model for fouling in the back pass has also been identified which includes vaporization of sodium, deposition of sodium sulfate on fly ash particles and tube surfaces, and deposit growth rate on tubes. In Year 1, REI has also performed a review of the literature describing corrosion in order to understand the behavior of oxidation, sulfidation, chloridation, and carburization mechanisms in air-fired and oxy-combustion systems. REI and Vattenfall have met and exchanged information concerning oxy-coal combustion mechanisms for CFD simulations currently used by Vattenfall. In preparation for Year 2 of this program, two coals (North Antelope PRB, Western bituminous) have been ordered, pulverized and delivered to the University of Utah and Sandia National Labs. Materials for the corrosion experiments have been identified, suppliers located, and a schedule for equipment fabrication and shakedown has been established. Finally, a flue gas recycle system has been designed and is being constructed for the OFC.

  3. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 408: Bomblet Target Area Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Krauss

    2010-09-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 408: Bomblet Target Area (TTR), Tonopah Test Range, Nevada. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management. Corrective Action Unit 408 is located at the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, and consists of Corrective Action Site (CAS) TA-55-002-TAB2, Bomblet Target Areas. This CAS includes the following seven target areas: • Mid Target • Flightline Bomblet Location • Strategic Air Command (SAC) Target Location 1 • SAC Target Location 2 • South Antelope Lake • Tomahawk Location 1 • Tomahawk Location 2 The purpose of this CR is to provide documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and data confirming that the closure objectives for the CAS within CAU 408 were met. To achieve this, the following actions were performed: • Review the current site conditions, including the concentration and extent of contamination. • Implement any corrective actions necessary to protect human health and the environment. • Properly dispose of corrective action and investigation wastes. • Document Notice of Completion and closure of CAU 408 issued by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. From July 2009 through August 2010, closure activities were performed as set forth in the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for CAU 408: Bomblet Target Area, Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. The purposes of the activities as defined during the data quality objectives process were as follows: • Identify and remove munitions of explosive concern (MEC) associated with DOE activities. • Investigate potential disposal pit locations. • Remove depleted uranium-contaminated fragments and soil. • Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are

  4. The Book as a “Contact Zone” - Textualizing Orality in James Welch’s Fools Crow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tea Bartulović

    2011-12-01

    Owens’s statement that “contemporary Native American authors are requiring that the readers cross over the conceptual horizon into an Indian world” (20. Right at the beginning, it invites a number of conceptual turns necessary for its understanding and interpretation. Blackfeet expressions and literal translations of words and concepts from the Pikuni culture blend with English sentences, making the novel a linguistic and conceptual amalgam. With no glossary provided, the text forces the reader to acquire the words like Napikwans (white settlers, blackhorn (buffalo, prairie runner (antelope, skunk ear (wolverine, ears-far-apart (owl, elk dog (horse, and accede to an anthropomorphic worldview in which swift silver people (fish and the deities – Night Red Light (moon, Sun Chief (sun, Seven Persons (a constellation, Earth Mother and Wind Maker – are an integral part of human and earthly events. Throughout the novel, Pikuni words and cosmology continue to suppress Western ones, proving Onion’s thesis that, by inserting Pikuni words, Welch not only translates and mediates between cultures, but also creates a contact zone, invoking and affirming Blackfeet worldview (cf. Onion.

  5. REVIEW: TIBET WILD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William V Bleisch

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Review of: George B. Schaller. 2012. Tibet Wild: A Naturalist's Journeys on the Roof of the World. Washington, D.C.; Island Press George Schaller's remarkable career spans nearly six decades of work resulting in field studies of wildlife in the most remote regions, including pioneering investigations on four continents. More than half of that time was spent involved with studies of the wildlife of the Tibetan Plateau and neighboring regions. Following each new phase of his career, from his work on mountain gorillas in Rwanda, tigers in India, lions on the Serengeti, wild sheep in the Himalayas, and Tibetan antelope and other wildlife on the Tibetan steppes, he has made the time to publish a book on each of his expeditions – or more exactly, two (see full list in Appendix. One is always a scholarly monograph full of data, tables, and maps, the other a popular account for the general public. These paired volumes are usually published within one year of each other, and there have been six such pairings so far. For example, Schaller's classic the Mountain Monarchs: Wild Sheep and Goats of the Himalaya was published in 1978; in 1980, he published Stones of Silence: Journeys in the Himalaya; in 1997 he published the popular Tibet's Hidden Wilderness: Wildlife and Nomads of the Chang Tang Reserve; and the next year, 1998, saw the appearance of his scholarly monograph Wildlife of the Tibetan Steppe. By this accounting, this latest book, coming fifteen years after the last, seems an outlier – perhaps we can expect a scholarly monograph on Schaller's work in Tibet and Central Asia soon. And yet, this current book is scholarly enough, being filled with facts, figures, maps, and even data tables. Perhaps it is meant to pair with the highly personal A Naturalist and Other Beasts, a collection of essays that Schaller has written over the past fifty years. However, this new book has few references and is interspersed with anecdotes, bibliographic

  6. Cloning of ovine Prolactin Releasing Hormone and Its Receptor Gene and Their Different Expression in the HPG Axis%绵羊 PRLH 及其受体基因的克隆及在下丘脑-垂体-性腺轴中差异表达的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵强; 马友记; 李菁华

    2015-01-01

    To explore the expression of PRLH and its receptor gene in sheep gonadal axis , we successfully cloned the PRLH and receptor gene in organizations at the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis by used the sheep as experimental animal ,got the phylogenetic tree .Also we used qRT-PCR technology to research different expression of PRLH and its receptor gene in different tissues at HPG axis .The results showed that sheep PRLH and PRLHR nu-cleotide sequences of mRNA were 113,237 bp.PRLH gene nucleotide sequence and goats ,cattle,human,mouse ho-mology were 96.8%,93.3%,80.3%,74.6%.PRLHR gene and the Tibetan antelope , goat, cattle, human and mouse homology were 100%,99.3%,97.3%,90.4%,84.4%.PRLH and its receptor gene in sheep hypothala-mus,pituitary,uterine and ovary were expressed ,and the expression of PRLH gene in hypothalamus ,pituitary and o-vary was significantly less than the uterine ( P0.05).So the hypothalamus,pituitary,o-vary and uterus were the main organ for the synthesis of secretion .%为了探讨PRLH及其受体基因在绵羊性腺轴中的表达,以绵羊下丘脑-垂体-性腺轴系为研究对象,克隆了PRLH及其受体基因PRLHR,构建了系统进化树,并利用qRT-PCR技术对PRLH及其受体基因在绵羊性腺轴中不同组织的表达差异做了研究。结果表明,绵羊PRLH和PRLHR mRNA核苷酸序列分别为113,237 bp,PRLH基因核苷酸序列与山羊、牛、人、小鼠的同源性分别为96.8%,93.3%,80.3%,74.6%,PRLHR基因与藏羚羊、山羊、牛、人和小鼠的同源性分别为100%,99.3%,97.3%,90.4%,84.4%;PRLH及其受体基因在绵羊的下丘脑、垂体、子宫和卵巢中均有一定量的表达,且PRLH基因在下丘脑、垂体和卵巢中的表达要显著低于子宫( P<0.05);PRLHR在子宫与垂体中的表达差异显著( P<0.05),其他差异不明显。说明下丘脑、垂体、子宫和卵巢是PRLH合成分泌和发挥作用的主要器官。

  7. Incentivizing Monitoring and Compliance in Trophy Hunting

    Science.gov (United States)

    BUNNEFELD, NILS; EDWARDS, CHARLES T T; ATICKEM, ANAGAW; HAILU, FETENE; MILNER-GULLAND, E J

    2014-01-01

    Conservation scientists are increasingly focusing on the drivers of human behavior and on the implications of various sources of uncertainty for management decision making. Trophy hunting has been suggested as a conservation tool because it gives economic value to wildlife, but recent examples show that overharvesting is a substantial problem and that data limitations are rife. We use a case study of trophy hunting of an endangered antelope, the mountain nyala (Tragelaphus buxtoni), to explore how uncertainties generated by population monitoring and poaching interact with decision making by 2 key stakeholders: the safari companies and the government. We built a management strategy evaluation model that encompasses the population dynamics of mountain nyala, a monitoring model, and a company decision making model. We investigated scenarios of investment into antipoaching and monitoring by governments and safari companies. Harvest strategy was robust to the uncertainty in the population estimates obtained from monitoring, but poaching had a much stronger effect on quota and sustainability. Hence, reducing poaching is in the interests of companies wishing to increase the profitability of their enterprises, for example by engaging community members as game scouts. There is a threshold level of uncertainty in the population estimates beyond which the year-to-year variation in the trophy quota prevented planning by the safari companies. This suggests a role for government in ensuring that a baseline level of population monitoring is carried out such that this level is not exceeded. Our results illustrate the importance of considering the incentives of multiple stakeholders when designing frameworks for resource use and when designing management frameworks to address the particular sources of uncertainty that affect system sustainability most heavily. Incentivando el Monitoreo y el Cumplimiento en la Caza de Trofeos Resumen Científicos conservacionistas cada vez se

  8. VIth World Congress on Science and Football, Book of Abstracts, January 16-20, 2007, Antalya, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-02-01

    and shooting but each of the football codes has its own unique skills. From Ronaldhinho's "elastico" (stretching an opponent one way and pass him on the other at top speed to Zidane's "roulette" (360-degree turn at high-speed to dribble past an opponent watching the game is more exciting than any other entertainment on the planet. The average number of viewers that watched the 2002 World Cup final exceeded 1.3 billion; the Superbowl final later this month and the Rugby Union World Cup in September 2007 will be watched live worldwide. Isn't there a passion involved; a passion that expands from the suburbs of Rio de Janeiro to the ivory league of the rich? Scientists cannot control all the variables involved but may measure the social, psychological and physical strength of the players. Still a trainer armed with information may go through the challenge with small and/or no losses.The profound beauty of football in any of its codes lies in the fact that football requires power, accuracy and coordination. Unlimited options are assessed, decisions are taken and action is conducted in less than seconds during the course of every game whether it is played in a street or in a stadium that holds hundred thousands. This is not only done by "the black antelopes" of Angola but also by children of age five to veteran adult players of 75 years. The scale of association football, for example, is evident in more than 200 nations; Federation Internationale de Football Association (FIFA has 207 members as of 2006 whereas United Nations has 191 members: Involvement of a natural instinct!Preventing injuries by training is equally important as the Brazilian samba, the German and Japanese efficiency, the Italian defence and the English fast players. Social and psychological aspects are apparent at world cups, whether soccer, rugby league or rugby union. Besides those who stock their food and beverage at home throughout the month of games, many others can easily find a seat in their

  9. 夏季可可西里雌性藏原羚行为时间分配及活动节律%Behavioural time budgets and diurnal rhythms of the female Tibetan gazelles in the Kekexili National Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连新明; 李晓晓; 颜培实; 张同作; 苏建平

    2012-01-01

    <0.01) and less time to lying ( P<0.05 ) than those of females without a lamb. Increasing moving could not only allow them to find new food resources easily but also avoid the predation risk in time, so the moving behaviour could play the role of vigilance to a certain extent. The peaks of foraging were recorded at 8:00-8:59, 10:00-12:59 and 16:00-19:59, which were staggered with the foraging peaks of Tibetan antelopes inhabiting the same area. Temporal niche division could explain fhe coexistence of sympatric ungulates. The trend of lying was opposite to that of foraging owing to the trade-off among behaviours. Similar lying-foraging-lying transformation could be shown in many other ungulates. The only peak of vigilance occurred at 14 : 00-14 : 59, which could be explained by the variation of traffic flow on the QTH. The QTH plays an important role in Tibetan economic development and transports in 85% of imports and about 90% of exports from the Tibetan Autonomous Region. There was a significant trend of traffic flow and the peak, which occurred during 12:00- 15:00. According to the risk-disturbance hypothesis, the Tibetan gazelles would express high vigilance level with the high human distance, I. E. The high traffic flow. The Kruskal-Wallis H tests indicated that the five behavioural categories showed significant variance among the periods of diurnal time ( P<0.05 ).%2005和2010两年的6-8月,在可可西里采用目标动物观察法记录藏原羚的行为时间分配和活动节律.所有行为被划分为觅食、警戒、躺卧、移动和其它5种类型.研究结果表明,觅食和躺卧是藏原羚的主要行为类型,分别占总行为时间的(42.02±2.22)%和(31.21±2.71)%,警戒、移动和其它3种行为类型时间比例依次减少.藏原羚的集群大小为1-10和12只,随着集群规模的增加,藏原羚的觅食时间增加,警戒时间减少,但其余3种行为类型与集群规模无显著相关性.与无羔藏原羚个体相比,有

  10. Incentivizing Monitoring and Compliance in Trophy Hunting

    Science.gov (United States)

    BUNNEFELD, NILS; EDWARDS, CHARLES T T; ATICKEM, ANAGAW; HAILU, FETENE; MILNER-GULLAND, E J

    2014-01-01

    Conservation scientists are increasingly focusing on the drivers of human behavior and on the implications of various sources of uncertainty for management decision making. Trophy hunting has been suggested as a conservation tool because it gives economic value to wildlife, but recent examples show that overharvesting is a substantial problem and that data limitations are rife. We use a case study of trophy hunting of an endangered antelope, the mountain nyala (Tragelaphus buxtoni), to explore how uncertainties generated by population monitoring and poaching interact with decision making by 2 key stakeholders: the safari companies and the government. We built a management strategy evaluation model that encompasses the population dynamics of mountain nyala, a monitoring model, and a company decision making model. We investigated scenarios of investment into antipoaching and monitoring by governments and safari companies. Harvest strategy was robust to the uncertainty in the population estimates obtained from monitoring, but poaching had a much stronger effect on quota and sustainability. Hence, reducing poaching is in the interests of companies wishing to increase the profitability of their enterprises, for example by engaging community members as game scouts. There is a threshold level of uncertainty in the population estimates beyond which the year-to-year variation in the trophy quota prevented planning by the safari companies. This suggests a role for government in ensuring that a baseline level of population monitoring is carried out such that this level is not exceeded. Our results illustrate the importance of considering the incentives of multiple stakeholders when designing frameworks for resource use and when designing management frameworks to address the particular sources of uncertainty that affect system sustainability most heavily. Incentivando el Monitoreo y el Cumplimiento en la Caza de Trofeos Resumen Científicos conservacionistas cada vez se

  11. 贺兰山国家重点保护野生动物的现状及分析%Status of the national key protected wildlife in Helan Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡天华; 李元刚; 王兆锭

    2012-01-01

    根据2000年以来的监测及2007—2009年对贺兰山脊椎动物综合考察结果,分析了国家重点保护野生动物在贺兰山的分布状况.贺兰山分布有国家重点保护野生动物43种,包括30种鸟类和13种哺乳类;其中国家Ⅰ级重点保护野生动物8种,国家Ⅱ级重点保护野生动物35种,列入《中国物种红色名录》(2004)的有17种,列入《濒危野生动植物种国际贸易公约》(CITES)附录(2010)的有37种;由于调查过程中没有发现可以确证的实体或痕迹,雪豹(Panthera uncia)、盘羊(Ovis ammon)、黄羊(Procapra gutturosa)、斑羚(Naemorhedus goral)在贺兰山的存在与否及分布范围有待以后的调查研究;国家重点保护野生动物在贺兰山的分布存在明显的差异,主要以隼形目鹰科(16种)及隼科(7种)鸟类为主;山地草原带(1 400~1 600m)出现的重点保护动物数量最多,有31种,其次是山地疏林草原带(1 600~2 000m)和山地针叶林带(1 900~3 000m),分别有29种和16种,亚高山灌丛和草甸带(3 000~3 556m)出现的动物数最少,有11种.针对贺兰山国家重点保护野生动物资源的现状与分布格局提出了相应的保护建议.%Based on the results of surveys from 1996, and the integrative wildlife surveys from 2007 to 2009, we found there were 43 species of national key protected animals in Helan Mountain in total, include 30 avifauna and 13 mammals; 8 species are listed in the category Ⅰ of nationally protected animals of China, 35 are in category Ⅱ , 17 species are listed in the China Species Red List, 37 are in the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES: 2010). As not seen the animal or the trace of snow leopard (Panthera uncia), goral (Naernorhedus goral), Argali sheep (Ovis ammon) and antelope (Procapra gutturosa), we should do more work to confirm the existence of these

  12. PREPARATION AND TESTING OF CORROSIONAND SPALLATION-RESISTANT COATINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurley, John

    2014-11-01

    has been entered into a finite element model using ANSYS so that appropriate force-applying structures can be designed for use in joining structures composed of APMT and the nickel alloys. Finite element modeling has been performed to finalize the fabrication geometry for the corrosion-testing phase. The addition of another bolt increases stress uniformity away from the region where the clamping is applied. It appears that a bolt spacing of approximately 25 mm in each jig is appropriate. This will allow the fabrication of 50-mm-wide sections of joints for the corrosion-testing task. Gasifier sampling activities continue to determine what types of trace contaminants may occur in cleaned syngas that could lead to corrosion or deposition in turbines firing coal syngas. The EERC has several pilot-scale gasifiers that are continually used in a variety of test configurations as determined by the needs of the projects that are funding the tests. We are sampling both noncombusted and combusted syngas produced during some of the pilot-scale gasifier tests. This year sampling was performed of both syngas and combusted syngas while the entrained-flow gasifier (EFG) was firing subbituminous coal from the Antelope Mine in Wyoming. Results of scanning electron microscope analyses of the syngas before combustion showed no submicron particles, only flakes of iron oxide that had likely formed on steel surfaces inside the combustor. As shown in the 2013 annual report, soot was also collected from the syngas when the much-lower-temperature fluid-bed gasifier (FBG) was fired, indicating that the much higher temperature of the EFG prevented soot formation. However, particles collected from the combusted syngas consist almost entirely of submicron soot, and little to no vaporized metals made it past the warm-gas filters and scrubbers in the high-temperature EFG system which could then deposit in a turbine system burning a higher hydrogen syngas. These results are consistent with the

  13. 全自动微生物分析系统对布鲁杆菌属和种鉴定效果的研究%Identification effects of automatic microbial analysis system on brucella genus and species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖春霞; 赵鸿雁; 侯临平; 荣蓉; 刘熹; 赵赤鸿; 朴东日; 赵娜; 姜海

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify and analyse the biochemical characterization of brucella and to evaluate its clinical application by VITEK2 COMPACT automatic microbial identification analyzer.Methods Seventeen strains of standard strains and 121 strains of experimental strains were from bacteria storehouse of brucella disease,Institute of Infectious Diseases Prevention and Control,China Center for Disease Control and Prevention.Experimental strains were from 26 provinces (municipalities and autonomous regions) from 1957 to 2014,including all previous strains from patients and goats,antelope,sheep,cattle,and pig.Reference standard strains and experimental strains were analyzed using the GN identification card on VITEK2 COMPACT automatic microbial identification analyzer,and biochemical identification of brucella strains was done.Identified abnormal strains were rechecked by traditional test methods,including oxidase experiment,urease experiment,semisolid experiment,determination of hydrogen sulfide experiment,basic fuchsin susceptibility experiment,phage lysis experiment,and A/M single-phase specific serum agglutination experiment.Results Of the 138 strains of brucella analyzed by the automatic microbial identification system,the results showed that the main identification indicators of brucella genus were:L-proline arylamidase (ProA),tyrosine arylamidase (TyrA),urease (URE),glycine arylamidase (GlyA),L-lactate alkalinisation (1LATK),and ELLMAN (ELLM).Compared with the system values,all strains biochemical function similar rate was 97.99% (135.23/138),including standard strains was 96.71% (16.44/17),experimental strains was 98.17% (118.79/ 121);time required for strains identification was 6.1-7.7 h,including standard strains was 7.3 h,experimental strains was 6.9 h.Identification indicators for distinguish brucella species were:ProA,TyrA,URE,and GlyA;for distinguish brucella melitensis was ELLM;for distinguish brucella abortus was 1LATK;for distinguish brucella suis was