WorldWideScience

Sample records for antegrade reamed technique

  1. Percutaneous nephrostomy and antegrade ureteral stenting: technique - indications - complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausegger, Klaus A. [Klagenfurt General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Klagenfurt (Austria); Portugaller, Horst R. [University Hospital of Graz, Department of Radiology, Graz (Austria)

    2006-09-15

    In this review the technique, indication for and complications of percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN) and antegrade ureter stent insertion are described. In the majority of the cases PCN is performed to relieve urinary obstruction, which can be of benign or malignant nature. Another indication for PCN is for treatment of urinary fistulas. PCN can be performed under ultrasound and/or fluoroscopic guidance, with a success rate of more than 90%. The complication rate is approximately 10% for major and minor complications together and 4-5% for major complications only. Percutaneous antegrade double-J stent insertion usually is performed if retrograde ureter stenting has not been successful. However, especially in malignant obstructions, the success rate for antegrade stenting is higher than for retrograde transvesical double-J stent insertion. In the case of severe infection and bleeding after PCN JJ-stent insertion may be contraindicated so long as there is no sufficient concomitant drainage via a PCN. Lower urinary tract dysfunction should be excluded before stent placement. The complication rate is 2-4%. Consequent stent surveillance with regular stent exchange is mandatory. (orig.)

  2. Percutaneous nephrostomy and antegrade ureteral stenting: technique - indications - complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausegger, Klaus A.; Portugaller, Horst R.

    2006-01-01

    In this review the technique, indication for and complications of percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN) and antegrade ureter stent insertion are described. In the majority of the cases PCN is performed to relieve urinary obstruction, which can be of benign or malignant nature. Another indication for PCN is for treatment of urinary fistulas. PCN can be performed under ultrasound and/or fluoroscopic guidance, with a success rate of more than 90%. The complication rate is approximately 10% for major and minor complications together and 4-5% for major complications only. Percutaneous antegrade double-J stent insertion usually is performed if retrograde ureter stenting has not been successful. However, especially in malignant obstructions, the success rate for antegrade stenting is higher than for retrograde transvesical double-J stent insertion. In the case of severe infection and bleeding after PCN JJ-stent insertion may be contraindicated so long as there is no sufficient concomitant drainage via a PCN. Lower urinary tract dysfunction should be excluded before stent placement. The complication rate is 2-4%. Consequent stent surveillance with regular stent exchange is mandatory. (orig.)

  3. The use of a cutting balloon in contemporary reverse controlled antegrade and retrograde subintimal tracking (reverse CART) technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakabayashi, Keisuke; Okada, Hisayuki; Oka, Toshiaki

    2017-07-01

    The key concept of reverse controlled antegrade and retrograde tracking (CART) technique is retrograde puncture with a tapered wire to an antegrade balloon (contemporary reverse CART) or new connections between the antegrade and retrograde subintimal space (classical reverse CART). In our case, a 75-year-old man with severe chronic total occlusion of the right coronary artery, reverse CART with conventional balloons could not be accomplished. Externalization wiring was completed by contemporary reverse CART using a cutting balloon as an antegrade balloon to improve the fenestration force of the retrograde guidewire. Thus, the use of a cutting balloon for contemporary reverse CART might be promising.

  4. Profunda Anchor Technique for Ipsilateral Antegrade Approach in Endovascular Treatment of Superficial Femoral Artery Ostial Occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pua, Uei

    2015-01-01

    Endovascular treatment of the superficial femoral artery (SFA) is challenging in the presence of flush ostial occlusion. One of the main challenges is the availability of access sites for intervention. Contralateral retrograde femoral access followed by cross-over and antegrade intervention while commonly used, may not be feasible in cases of altered iliac anatomy (e.g. kissing iliac stents). Ipsilateral antegrade intervention using common femoral artery (CFA) access in these instances while possible is typically challenging due to inadequate working length of the CFA for interrogation of the SFA ostium, compounded by the lack of sheath stability. The “profunda anchor” technique uses a buddy wire in the profunda femoris artery (PFA) to stabilize the sheath and allow catheter manipulation for antegrade intervention at the level of the SFA ostium. The PFA is further used as a conduit for deployment of closure device to avoid interference with the treated SFA

  5. Profunda Anchor Technique for Ipsilateral Antegrade Approach in Endovascular Treatment of Superficial Femoral Artery Ostial Occlusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pua, Uei, E-mail: druei@yahoo.com [Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Singapore)

    2015-04-15

    Endovascular treatment of the superficial femoral artery (SFA) is challenging in the presence of flush ostial occlusion. One of the main challenges is the availability of access sites for intervention. Contralateral retrograde femoral access followed by cross-over and antegrade intervention while commonly used, may not be feasible in cases of altered iliac anatomy (e.g. kissing iliac stents). Ipsilateral antegrade intervention using common femoral artery (CFA) access in these instances while possible is typically challenging due to inadequate working length of the CFA for interrogation of the SFA ostium, compounded by the lack of sheath stability. The “profunda anchor” technique uses a buddy wire in the profunda femoris artery (PFA) to stabilize the sheath and allow catheter manipulation for antegrade intervention at the level of the SFA ostium. The PFA is further used as a conduit for deployment of closure device to avoid interference with the treated SFA.

  6. Mitigation of Rayleigh crosstalk using noise suppression technique in 10-Gb/s REAM-SOA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jong Sool; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Choi, Byung-Seok; Kim, Dong Churl; Kim, Ki-Soo; Park, Mi-Ran; Kwon, O-Kyun

    2012-11-19

    We demonstrate a mitigation of Rayleigh back-scattering (RBS) impact in 10-Gb/s reflective electroabsorption modulator monolithically integrated with semiconductor optical amplifier (REAM-SOA). The technique is based on the intensity-noise suppression of the centralized incoherent seed-light, which enables smooth evolution of deployed DWDM applications. We exhibit the power penalty of less than 1 dB at the large RBS crosstalk value of about 8 dB when the optical power of seed-light is lowered about -10 dBm.

  7. Antegrade scrotal sclerotherapy of internal spermatic veins for varicocele treatment: technique, complications, and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Crestani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Varicocele repair is mainly indicated in young adult patients with clinical palpable varicocele and abnormal semen parameters. Varicocele treatment is associated with a significant improvement in sperm concentration, motility, morphology, and pregnancy rate. Antegrade scrotal sclerotherapy (ASS represented one of the main alternatives to the traditional inguinal or suprainguinal surgical ligation. This article reviews the use of ASS for varicocele treatment. We provide a brief overview of the history of the procedure and present our methods used in ASS. In addition, we review complication and success of ASS, including our own retrospective data of treating 674 patients over the last 17 years. Herein, we analyzed step by step the ASS technique and described our results with an original modified technique with a long follow-up. Between December 1997 and December 2014, we performed 674 ASS. Mean operative time was 14 min (range 9 to 50 min. No significant intraoperative complications were reported. Within 90 days from the procedure, postoperative complications were recorded in overall 49 (7.2% patients. No major complications were recorded. A persistent/recurrent varicocele was detected in 40 (5.9% cases. In 32/40 (80% cases, patients showed preoperative grade III varicoceles. In patients with a low sperm number before surgery, sperm count improved from 13 × 10 6 to 21 × 10 6 ml−1 (P < 0.001. The median value of the percentage of progressive motile forms at 1 h improved from 25% to 45% (P < 0.001. Percentage of normal forms increased from 17% before surgery to 35% 1 year after the procedure (P < 0.001. In the subgroup of the 168 infertile patients, 52 (31% fathered offspring at a 12-month-minimum follow-up. Therefore, ASS is an effective minimal invasive treatment for varicocele with low recurrence/persistence rate.

  8. Controlled antegrade intimal tracking with subintimal balloon inflation as a novel bailout technique for chronic total occlusion after failed intravascular ultrasound-guided parallel wire technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Yuta; Yajima, Junji; Hosaka, Fumitaka

    Failure to cross with a guidewire is the most common reason for failure of chronic total occlusion (CTO) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). In cases of CTO PCI with no interventional collaterals, an intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-guided parallel wire technique is usually the last-resort procedure. Failure of this technique sometimes causes enlarged subintimal space, resulting in procedure failure. We present a successful second attempt at left anterior descending artery CTO PCI with no interventional collaterals. After IVUS-guided parallel wire technique failed with an enlarged subintimal space, successful antegrade wire crossing was achieved using controlled antegrade intimal tracking with balloon inflation in the subintimal space to deflect a second wire. This technique may be useful as a bailout strategy in otherwise-failed CTO PCI with an enlarged subintimal space. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Mismatch analysis of humeral nailing. Antegrade versus retrograde insertion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahaisavariya, B.; Jiamwatthanachai, P.; Aroonjarattham, P.; Aroonjarattham, K.; Wongcumchang, M.; Sitthiseripratip, K.

    2011-01-01

    Closed humeral nailing is now considered an alternative treatment for humeral-shaft fracture. The nail can be inserted with either the antegrade or retrograde method. We investigated and compared the problem of geometric mismatch of the humeral nail to the humerus between the two methods of insertion. The study was performed using virtual simulation based on computed tomography (CT) data of 76 Thai cadaveric humeri and the commonly used Russell-Taylor humeral nail 8 mm in diameter and 220 mm long. Mismatch of the nail to the intact humerus was analyzed and compared between the antegrade and retrograde nailing approaches. The results showed: the diameter of the medullary canal averaged 7.9-13.8 mm; the minimal reaming diameter to accommodate virtual nail insertion averaged 8.8-14.8 mm for the antegrade and 8.8-29.3 mm for the retrograde approach; the minimal reaming thickness of the inner cortex averaged 0.1-1.5 mm for the antegrade and 0.1-9.9 mm for the retrograde approach; the percentages of cortical bone removed prior to nail insertion were 3.8-107.1% and 3.8-1,287.6% for the antegrade and retrograde approaches, respectively; the eccentricity of the nail-medullary canal center were 0.4-3.4 and 0.4-10.6 mm for the antegrade and retrograde approaches, respectively. Less mismatching occurred with antegrade nailing than with the retrograde approach. Retrograde nailing requires excessive reaming at the distal part of the humerus to accommodate nail insertion. This may create bone weakness and the risk of supracondylar fracture. (author)

  10. Transtibial versus anteromedial portal reaming in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: an anatomic and biomechanical evaluation of surgical technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedi, Asheesh; Musahl, Volker; Steuber, Volker; Kendoff, Daniel; Choi, Dan; Allen, Answorth A; Pearle, Andrew D; Altchek, David W

    2011-03-01

    with the manual and instrumented pivot-shift examinations more than the native ACL (P ≤ .05). Despite optimal guidewire positioning, the transtibial technique resulted in a mean position 1.94 mm anterior and 3.26 mm superior to the center of the femoral footprint. The guidewire was positioned at the center of the femoral footprint through the anteromedial portal in all cases. The tibial tunnel intra-articular aperture was 38% larger in the anteroposterior dimension with the transtibial versus anteromedial portal technique (mean, 14.9 mm v 10.8 mm; P ≤ .05). The anteromedial portal drilling technique allows for accurate positioning of the femoral socket in the center of the native footprint, resulting in secondary improvement in time-zero control of tibial translation with Lachman and pivot-shift testing compared with conventional transtibial ACL reconstruction. This technique respects the native ACL anatomy but cannot restore it with a single-bundle ACL reconstruction. Eccentric, posterolateral positioning of the guidewire in the tibial tunnel with the transtibial technique results in iatrogenic re-reaming of the tibial tunnel and significant intra-articular aperture expansion. Anteromedial portal drilling of the femoral socket may allow for improved restoration of anatomy and stability with ACL reconstruction compared with conventional transtibial drilling techniques. Copyright © 2011 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Ultrasound-guided antegrade access during laparoscopic pyeloplasty in infants less than one year of age: A point of technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Ganpule

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Access to urethras and ureters of infants may be hazardous and injurious through an endoscopic route. Placement and removal of stents in infants requires anaesthesia and access through these small caliber urethras. We describe our technique of placing antegrade splint during a laparoscopic pyeloplasty in these infants. Materials and Methods: An ultrasound-guided percutaneous renal access is obtained. Telescopic metal two part needle is passed into the kidney over a guide wire. A second guide wire is passed through the telescopic metal two part needle. The tract is dilated with 14 Fr screw dilator. Over one guide wire, a 5 Fr ureteric catheter is passed and coiled in the renal pelvis. Over the other wire, a 14 Fr malecot catheter is placed as nephrostomy. Laparoscopic pyeloplasty is then done. During pyelotomy, the ureteric catheter is pulled and advanced through the ureter before the pyeloplasty is completed. The ureteric catheter thus acts as a splint across the anastomosis. Ureteric catheter is removed on the 3 rd post operative day and nephrostomy is clamped. Nephrostomy is removed on 4 th post operative day if child is asymptomatic. The modified technique was successfully done in five patients aged less than one year old. All patients tolerated the procedure well. Post operative period was uneventful in all. Conclusion: Ultrasound-guided ante grade nephroureteral ureteral splint for infant laparoscopic pyeloplasty is safe. It avoids the need for urethral instrumentation for insertion and removal of stents in these small patients.

  12. Effect of unreamed, limited reamed, and standard reamed intramedullary nailing on cortical bone porosity and new bone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupel, T M; Weinberg, J A; Aksenov, S A; Schemitsch, E H

    2001-01-01

    To compare the effects of unreamed nail insertion and reamed nail insertion with limited and standard canal reaming on cortical bone porosity and new bone formation. A canine segmental tibial fracture was created in fifteen adult dogs. The tibiae were stabilized with a statically locked 6.5-millimeter intramedullary nail without prior canal reaming (n = 5), after limited reaming to 7.0 millimeters (n = 5), or after standard canal reaming to 9.0 millimeters (n = 5). Porosity, new bone formation, and the mineral apposition rate of cortical bone were directly compared between the three nailing techniques. A significant increase in cortical bone porosity and new bone formation was seen in all three groups of experimental animals compared with the control tibiae. The overall lowest porosity levels were measured in the limited reamed group, with similar porosity levels measured in the unreamed and standard reamed groups. Porosity was lower in the limited reamed group in the entire cortex of the segmental and distal cross sections, as well as the endosteal, anterior, and posterior cortices along the length of the tibia. Overall, there was no difference in the amount of new bone formation or the mineral apposition rate between the three groups of animals at eleven weeks after surgery. The results of this study suggest that limited intramedullary reaming is a biologically sound alternative for the treatment of tibial diaphyseal fractures in which the circulation is already compromised.

  13. Clinical Outcome of Ream Versus Unream Intramedullary Nailing for Femoral Shaft Fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Bagheri, Farshid; Sharifi, Seyed Reza; Mirzadeh, Navid Reza; Hootkani, Alireza; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohamad Hosein; Ashraf, Hami

    2013-01-01

    Background Stabilization of fractures with an intramedullary nail is a widespread technique in the treatment of femoral shaft fractures in adults; however, to ream or not to ream is still being debated. Objectives The primary objective of this study was to determine clinical results following unreamed versus ream intramedullary nailing of femoral fractures. Patients and Methods Between January 2008 and August 2009, 50 patients with femoral shaft fractures were treated with unreamed or reamed ...

  14. Understanding Antegrade Colonic Enema (ACE) Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Colonic Enema (ACE) Surgery Antegrade Colonic Enema (ACE) Surgery Antegrade colonic enema surgery (ACE) is a procedure ... Risks / Benefits What is antegrade colonic enema (ACE) surgery? Antegrade colonic enema surgery (ACE) or Malone antegrade ...

  15. Antegrade deligation of iatrogenic distal ureteric obstruction utilising a high pressure balloon dilatation technique.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rajendran, Simon

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Iatrogenic trauma is the leading cause of ureteric injury with an incidence in abdominal and pelvic surgery varying between 0.4 and 2.5%. CASE: We report a case of ureteric obstruction caused by a haemostatic clip. There was associated rupture of the ureter proximal to the clip with intra-peritoneal leakage of urine. The patient was unfit for surgery and was managed by a novel procedure of endoluminal balloon deligation. CONCLUSION: Ureteric injuries are rare but potentially serious complications. They require prompt diagnosis and management depends on the patients\\' clinical condition, extent of injury and interval from injury to diagnosis. We have successfully demonstrated a new technique to treat ureteric obstruction caused by a haemostatic clip with associated ureteral rupture in a patient unfit for surgery.

  16. Reproducibility of a reaming test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilny, Lukas; Müller, Pavel; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    The reproducibility of a reaming test was analysed to document its applicability as a performance test for cutting fluids. Reaming tests were carried out on a drilling machine using HSS reamers. Workpiece material was an austenitic stainless steel, machined using 4.75 m∙min-1 cutting speed and 0....

  17. Reproducibility of a reaming test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilny, Lukas; Müller, Pavel; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    The reproducibility of a reaming test was analysed to document its applicability as a performance test for cutting fluids. Reaming tests were carried out on a drilling machine using HSS reamers. Workpiece material was an austenitic stainless steel, machined using 4.75 m•min−1 cutting speed and 0....

  18. The female geriatric proximal humeral fracture: protagonist for straight antegrade nailing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindtner, Richard A; Kralinger, Franz S; Kapferer, Sebastian; Hengg, Clemens; Wambacher, Markus; Euler, Simon A

    2017-10-01

    Straight antegrade humeral nailing (SAHN) has become a standard technique for the surgical fixation of proximal humeral fractures, which predominantly affect elderly females. The nail's proximal anchoring point has been demonstrated to be critical to ensure reliable fixation in osteoporotic bone and to prevent iatrogenic damage to the superior rotator cuff bony insertion. Anatomical variations of the proximal humerus, however, may preclude satisfactory anchoring of the nail's proximal end and may bare the risk of rotator cuff violation, even though the nail is inserted as recommended. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anatomical suitability of proximal humeri of geriatric females aged 75 years and older for SAHN. Specifically, we sought to assess the proportion of humeri not anatomically amenable to SAHN for proximal humeral fracture. A total of 303 proximal humeri of 241 females aged 75 years and older (mean age 84.5 ± 5.0 years; range 75-102 years) were analyzed for this study. Multiplanar two-dimensional reformations (true ap, true lateral, and axial) were reconstructed from shoulder computed tomography (CT) data sets. The straight antegrade nail's ideal entry point, "critical point" (CP), and critical distance (CD; distance between ideal entry point and CP) were determined. The rate of proximal humeri not anatomically suitable for SAHN (critical type) was assessed regarding proximal reaming diameters of currently available straight antegrade humeral nails. Overall, 35.6% (108/303) of all proximal humeri were found to be "critical types" (CD straight antegrade nails currently in use. Moreover, 43.2% (131/303) of the humeri were considered "critical types" with regard to the alternatively used larger proximal reaming diameter of 11.5 mm. Mean CD was 9.0 ± 1.7 mm (range 3.5-13.5 mm) and did not correlate with age (r = -0.04, P = 0.54). No significant differences in CD and rate of "critical types" were found between left and right humeri

  19. Clinical outcome of ream versus unream intramedullary nailing for femoral shaft fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Farshid; Sharifi, Seyed Reza; Mirzadeh, Navid Reza; Hootkani, Alireza; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohamad Hosein; Ashraf, Hami

    2013-05-01

    Stabilization of fractures with an intramedullary nail is a widespread technique in the treatment of femoral shaft fractures in adults; however, to ream or not to ream is still being debated. The primary objective of this study was to determine clinical results following unreamed versus ream intramedullary nailing of femoral fractures. Between January 2008 and August 2009, 50 patients with femoral shaft fractures were treated with unreamed or reamed femoral nails in our clinic. From this prospective single centre study, 16 patients were excluded due to insufficient follow-up data. According to the AO classification, fractures in this study were either type A or B. Dynamic proximal locking was performed in all cases. The remaining 34 patients were divided into two groups of 17 with ream or unream nailing. During and after the operation, we evaluated some variables in whole series. After statistical analyzes, we found that there were no differences in radiologic union time (P = 1) or full weight bearing time (P = 0.73) between ream and unream nailing. Nail breakage or iatrogenic fractures during nail insertion did not occur and we did not have any fat emboli in both groups but one secondary loss of reduction occurred in the unream group. Superficial infection after the operation was seen in one case which was treated successfully with antibiotics. In the ream group surgical time was about thirty minutes longer and differences were significant (P = 0.000). Patients had to pay more for ream nailing but the difference was not significant. We found no statistical difference between union time with or without reaming; on the other hand, there was significant increased operation length, blood loss and systemic changes in BP or So2 in the ream group versus the unream group. We advocate that unream nailing in traumatic femoral shaft fractures is a simple, safe and effective procedure with significant advantages, especially in multitrauma patients.

  20. "Push-past" reaming as a reduction aid with intramedullary nailing of metadiaphyseal and diaphyseal femoral shaft fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, Joshua L; Munz, John W; Burgess, Andrew R

    2014-06-01

    Eccentric reaming of cortical bone near a fracture site can introduce malalignment when an intramedullary nail is placed. The authors describe a technique of reaming metadiaphyseal and diaphyseal femur fractures in which maintaining reduction at the fracture site is not necessary to obtain an excellent alignment of long bone fractures after intramedullary nailing. They have found that central reaming proximal and distal to, but not at, the fracture site allows for excellent reduction of long bone fractures when the intramedullary nail is passed. The reamer is stopped just before the fracture site and then "pushed" across the fracture prior to resumption of reaming. The authors present "push-past" reaming as a technical trick to facilitate reduction of femoral fractures treated with intramedullary nails and a consecutive series of 18 cases in which excellent postoperative alignment was achieved. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Comparative study between reamed versus unreamed interlocking intramedullary nailing in compound fractures of shaft tibia

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    Subhash Puri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tibia is the commonest bones to sustain open injury because of subcutaneous position. Treatment of open fractures requires simultaneous management of both skeletal and soft tissue injury. Intramedullary nailing with reaming is generally considered to be contraindicated for open fractures tibia, because it damages the endosteal blood supply which will lead to non-union, deep infection. However, recent studies with or without reaming in open fracture tibia shows no influence in healing of fracture. Purpose: To compare the clinical and radiological results of intramedullary interlocking nailing of open fractures of the tibial shaft after reaming versus unreamed medullary canal. Materials and Methods: Between 2008 and 2011, we have treated 40 patients with compound tibia fracture (type I, II, IIIA by simultaneous care of wound and skeletal injury. Primary fixation for fracture stabilization was done by closed intramedullary interlock nailing either reamed or unreamed; the allocation to the two groups made on alternating basis. Wound was managed by thorough debridement with primary/delayed primary closure by suturing, split thickness skin grafting or fasciocutaneous flap cover. Active, non-weight bearing exercises were started from next post-op day. Partial weight bearing after suture removal was started on 12 th day. Further follow-up was done at 6 weeks interval for union. Results: Open fractures of shaft of tibia treated with unreamed/reamed interlocking nailing gave excellent results. In present series, 19 fractures (95% treated by unreamed and 19 (95% fractures treated by reamed technique, united within 6 months of injury. Delay in union was noticed in one patient treated by unreamed technique who had segmental and extensive soft tissue injury and in reamed nailing there was one patient with deep infection, which was treated with antibiotic coated nail. Conclusion: Time to complete union was similar in both groups. Adequate

  2. Retrograde vs. Antegrade Puncture for Infra-Inguinal Angioplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nice, C.; Timmons, G.; Bartholemew, P.; Uberoi, R.

    2003-01-01

    This study was done to compare antegrade punctures with a retrograde puncture technique for infrainguinal angioplasty. A group of 100 consecutive patients (71 men, 29 women) were randomized for antegrade puncture or retrograde puncture of the common femoral artery. Following retrograde puncture the guidewire was 'turned' and placed into the superficial femoral artery. The time for gaining access, screening time, radiation dose, patient height, weight and complications were recorded. All patients were reviewed the day after the procedure and within 3 months. Data from 46 patients (34 males and 12 females) in the retrograde group and 44 (28 males and 16 females) in the antegrade group were available for analysis. Mean procedure time,screening time, radiation dose, height and weight were 8.3 minutes(range 3-22), 2.1 minutes (0.3-6.5), 7950 mGy cm -2 (820-71250), 169 cm (149-204) and 79 kg (32-108) for retrograde puncture and 8 min (2-60), 0.7 min (0.0-3.2), 1069 mGycm -2 (0-15400), 169 cm (152-186) and 75 kg (39-125) for antegrade punctures, respectively. An average of 1.2 (1-2) punctures was required for retrograde and 1.75 (1-8) for antegrade. Seven small hematomas occurred with antegrade and three for retrograde puncture.Retrograde puncture is technically easier with a tendency to fewer complications but results in a higher radiation dose. This technique should be used in difficult patients at high risk of haematoma formation

  3. Functional Outcomes of the Knee after Retrograde and Antegrade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Antegrade intramedullary nailing is currently considered the gold standard for treatment of femur shaft fractures although retrograde technique is gaining acceptance. Although introducing the nail through the knee has potential to damage the intra articular structures, several reports have indicated acceptable ...

  4. Reproducibility of surface roughness in reaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Pavel; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    An investigation on the reproducibility of surface roughness in reaming was performed to document the applicability of this approach for testing cutting fluids. Austenitic stainless steel was used as a workpiece material and HSS reamers as cutting tools. Reproducibility of the results was evaluat...

  5. Investigation on Capability of Reaming Process using Minimal Quantity Lubrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Tosello, Guido; Piska, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    . The reaming operations were compared with respect to a number of evaluation parameters, both hole quality (diameter, roundness, cylindricity and surface roughness) and cutting forces (reaming thrust and torque). Absolute average values as well as experimental standard deviations of the evaluation parameters...... depth of cut was employed. The suitability of MQL for reaming was proven under the investigated process conditions, concerning both the quality of the machined holes, in terms of geometrical characteristics and surface finishing, and the process quality, with respect to reaming torque and thrust, along...

  6. [Fresh femoral shaft fractures treated with un-reamed intramedullary nail: 203 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y; Wang, M; Sun, L; An, G; Rong, G

    2000-06-01

    To discuss the experience treating fresh femoral shaft fractures with un-reamed intramedullary nail. 203 cases of fresh femoral shaft fractures who had been treated with un-reamed intramedullary nail from November. 1995 to January. 1999 were analyzed retrospectively. 18 cases were open, classified as Gustilo I, and. 185 cases were closed. Traction table and image intensifier were used during operation. Closed reduction, un-reamed and free hand distal locking technique were used. Active movements of nearby joints were encouraged and partial weight bearing of 10 - 15 kg were allowed right after operation. All 203 cases of fresh femoral shaft fractures got bone union within 4 - 6 months. No case of delayed union and infection happened. 1 distal locking screw was broken. All patients gained normal extremity functions. Un-reamed intramedullary nailing of fresh femoral shaft fracture has less damage to the local soft tissue and blood supply. It has a relative stable fracture fixation, and less interruption to the healing procedure. It is one of the best methods for treating femoral fracture.

  7. Reamed versus minimally reamed nailing: a prospectively randomised study of 100 patients with closed fractures of the tibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaebler, C; McQueen, M M; Vécsei, V; Court-Brown, C M

    2011-09-01

    It is generally accepted that in tibial fractures the results of reamed intramedullary nailing are better than those of unreamed. However, it is not known whether the clinical effects of reaming are cumulative or if minimal reaming would induce the same beneficial effects as more extensive reaming. This international multicentre study has investigated the effects of different degrees of reaming. 100 patients with closed diaphyseal tibial fractures were prospectively randomised in two centres. Method of treatment was reamed nailing up to 12 mm inserting an 11 mm tibial nail (n: 50), and minimally reamed nailing up to 10 mm inserting a 9 mm tibial nail (n: 50). All patients included in the study had follow-up studies at 4,8,12,16,26 and 52 weeks after trauma. Sixty-six male and thirty-four female patients with an average age of 37.5 years were included in the study. Gender, age, and injury side were identical in both groups. There was no significant difference of complications in the two methods. The rate of deep wound infections was higher in the reamed group (n: 3) versus the minimally reamed group (n: 1). Union occurred earlier in the reamed group (17 wks) compared to patients with minimally reamed nailing (19 wks), and there were more patients with reamed nails in whom the fracture had healed by 16 weeks (57%) versus the minimally reamed group (43%), however, this was not statistically significant. Pain scales were similar for both groups from week 4 to week 52. A considerable number of outcome parameters including knee and ankle function, as well as the comparison of time intervals to restart certain activities, and return to work showed no significant statistical difference between the two groups. However, patients of the extensive reamed group returned earlier to running, training, and normal sports activities. This study found no significant evidence that more extensive reaming gave better results, however there seemed to be a tendency of more aggressive

  8. Outback catheter-assisted simultaneous antegrade and retrograde access for subintimal recanalization of peripheral arterial occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozlar, Ugur; Shih, Ming-Chen Paul; Harthun, Nancy L; Hagspiel, Klaus D

    2008-01-01

    Subintimal recanalization techniques have been shown to be beneficial in selected patients with severe peripheral vascular disease with tissue loss or rest pain and limited surgical options. In this report, we use an Outback catheter in order to gain access to the subintimal channel from the true lumen during percutaneous intentional extraluminal recanalization using the subintimal arterial flossing with antegrade-retrograde intervention (SAFARI) technique. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report where the Outback catheter was used in antegrade fashion in order to gain access to the subintimal space from the true lumen using the SAFARI technique.

  9. Treatment of humeral shaft fractures with antegrade intramedullary locking nail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsourvakas, Stefanos; Alexandropoulos, Christos; Papachristos, Ioannis; Tsakoumis, Grigorios; Ameridis, Nikolaos

    2011-12-01

    Antegrade interlocked humeral nailing for stabilization of humeral fractures was introduced many years ago, and studies on this method in the orthopedic literature have shown mixed results. The purpose of this investigation was to document the clinical outcome and complications associated with the use of an antegrade intramedullary nail (T2, Stryker) for the humeral fractures. Between 2005 and 2008, 52 fractures of the humeral shaft were treated operatively with this intramedullary nail in our department. Eight patients were polytraumatized, and four patients had an open fracture. The mean age of patients was 51.7 years. Forty-eight patients had an adequate duration of clinical follow-up (a mean of 18 months) for analysis. Complications were recorded, and the time to union was measured. Shoulder and elbow functions were assessed using the Constant Score and the Morrey Score, respectively. Forty-six fractures healed, with a mean time to clinical union of 10.3 weeks. Two patients developed pseudarthroses. There were four adverse events: two proximal screws backed out, one superficial infection at the insertion point, and one fracture at the distal end of the nail. Ninety-one percentage of patients had an excellent or good shoulder function. Five further operations were necessary: two for treatment of pseudarthroses, two for removal the backed out proximal screws, and one wound debridement for superficial infection. Antegrade humeral nailing is a valid therapeutic option for stabilization of humeral shaft fractures. By strictly adhering to the operation technique, the number and the severity of complications can be reduced. When good fracture alignment and stability are obtained, uneventful bone healing with good functional results is the rule.

  10. [Antegrade unilateral perfusion of the brain through the brachiocephalic trunk in operations on the aortic arch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, B N; Panfilov, D S; Kuznetsov, M S; Ponomarenko, I V; Nasrashvili, G G; Shipulin, V M

    2016-01-01

    Presented herein is a technique of unilateral antegrade perfusion of the brain in operations on the aortic arch. The method makes it possible to perform both systemic artificial circulation and adequate physiological perfusion of the brain, promoting minimization of the number of neurological complications.

  11. Surgical thromboendarterectomy for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension using circulatory arrest with selective antegrade cerebral perfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeebregts, CJAM; Dossche, KM; Morshuis, WJ; Knaepen, PJ; Schepens, MAAM

    The use of circulatory arrest with selective antegrade cerebral perfusion is described in a 59-year-old man who underwent thrombendarterectomy for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. The postoperative course was uneventful. The described surgical technique may prevent the patient from

  12. Treatment of tibial fractures by reaming and intramedullary nailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone, L B; Johnson, K D

    1986-07-01

    We treated 112 fractures of the tibia by manipulative reduction, reaming of the medullary canal, and fixation of the fracture fragments with an intramedullary nail. Seventy-six of the fractures were acute, and eight of these were second or third-degree open fractures. The other thirty-six fractures had a non-union, osteotomy for malunion, or failure of other types of treatment. Follow-up of 100 fractures showed union in all but one, which was in a drug abuser who had an amputation due to infection. The main complication was infection, which was successfully treated in six of seven fractures. The method of treatment, employing either closed or open technique and recently making use of interlocking bolts to stabilize one or both principal fracture fragments on the nail, is an excellent one for unstable acute fractures and for secondary procedures in fractures that are not associated with infection. The infection rate was increased with the open surgical technique. The few contraindications to its use are described.

  13. Randomized trial of reamed and unreamed intramedullary nailing of tibial shaft fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhandari, Mohit; Guyatt, Gordon; Tornetta, Paul; Schemitsch, Emil H.; Swiontkowski, Marc; Sanders, David; Walter, Stephen D.; Gregory Tennent Sanders, David W.; Macleod, Mark D.; Carey, Timothy; Leitch, Kellie; Bailey, Stuart; Gurr, Kevin; Konito, Ken; Bartha, Charlene; Low, Isolina; MacBean, Leila V.; Ramu, Mala; Reiber, Susan; Strapp, Ruth; Tieszer, Christina; Kreder, Hans J.; Stephen, David J. G.; Axelrod, Terry S.; Yee, Albert J. M.; Richards, Robin R.; Finkelstein, Joel; Ford, Michael; Gofton, Wade; Murnaghan, John; Schatztker, Joseph; Bulmer, Beverly; Conlan, Lisa; Laflamme, G. Yves; Berry, Gregory; Beaumont, Pierre; Ranger, Pierre; Laflamme, Georges-Henri; Gagnon, Sylvain; Malo, Michel; Fernandes, Julio; Poirier, Marie-France; McKee, Michael D.; Waddell, James P.; Bogoch, Earl R.; Daniels, Timothy R.; McBroom, Robert R.; Vicente, Milena R.; Storey, Wendy; Wild, Lisa M.; McCormack, Robert; Perey, Bertrand; Goetz, Thomas J.; Pate, Graham; Penner, Murray J.; Panagiotopoulos, Kostas; Pirani, Shafique; Dommisse, Ian G.; Loomer, Richard L.; Stone, Trevor; Moon, Karyn; Zomar, Mauri; Webb, Lawrence X.; Teasdall, Robert D.; Birkedal, John Peter; Martin, David Franklin; Ruch, David S.; Kilgus, Douglas J.; Pollock, David C.; Harris, Mitchel Brion; Wiesler, Ethan Ron; Ward, William G.; Shilt, Jeffrey Scott; Koman, Andrew L.; Poehling, Gary G.; Kulp, Brenda; Creevy, William R.; Stein, Andrew B.; Bono, Christopher T.; Einhorn, Thomas A.; Brown, T. Desmond; Pacicca, Donna; Sledge, John B.; Foster, Timothy E.; Voloshin, Ilva; Bolton, Jill; Carlisle, Hope; Shaughnessy, Lisa; Obremskey, William T.; LeCroy, C. Michael; Meinberg, Eric G.; Messer, Terry M.; Craig, William L.; Dirschl, Douglas R.; Caudle, Robert; Harris, Tim; Elhert, Kurt; Hage, William; Jones, Robert; Piedrahita, Luis; Schricker, Paul O.; Driver, Robin; Godwin, Jean; Kregor, Philip James; Tennent, Gregory; Truchan, Lisa M.; Sciadini, Marcus; Shuler, Franklin D.; Driver, Robin E.; Nading, Mary Alice; Neiderstadt, Jacky; Vap, Alexander R.; Vallier, Heather A.; Patterson, Brendan M.; Wilber, John H.; Wilber, Roger G.; Sontich, John K.; Moore, Timothy Alan; Brady, Drew; Cooperman, Daniel R.; Davis, John A.; Cureton, Beth Ann; Mandel, Scott; Orr, R. Douglas; Sadler, John T. S.; Hussain, Tousief; Rajaratnam, Krishan; Petrisor, Bradley; Drew, Brian; Bednar, Drew A.; Kwok, Desmond C. H.; Pettit, Shirley; Hancock, Jill; Sidorkewicz, Natalie; Cole, Peter A.; Smith, Joel J.; Brown, Gregory A.; Lange, Thomas A.; Stark, John G.; Levy, Bruce A.; Swiontkowski, Marc F.; Garaghty, Mary J.; Salzman, Joshua G.; Schutte, Carol A.; Tastad, Linda; Vang, Sandy; Seligson, David; Roberts, Craig S.; Malkani, Arthur L.; Sanders, Laura; Dyer, Carmen; Heinsen, Jessica; Smith, Langan; Madanagopal, Sudhakar; Frantz-Bush, Linda; Coupe, Kevin J.; Tucker, Jeffrey J.; Criswell, Allen R.; Buckle, Rosemary; Rechter, Alan Jeffrey; Sheth, Dhiren Shaskikant; Urquart, Brad; Trotscher, Thea; Anders, Mark J.; Kowalski, Joseph M.; Fineberg, Marc S.; Bone, Lawrence B.; Phillips, Matthew J.; Rohrbacher, Bernard; Stegemann, Philip; Mihalko, William M.; Buyea, Cathy; Augustine, Stephen J.; Jackson, William Thomas; Solis, Gregory; Ero, Sunday U.; Segina, Daniel N.; Berrey, Hudson B.; Agnew, Samuel G.; Fitzpatrick, Michael; Campbell, Lakina C.; Derting, Lynn; McAdams, June; Goslings, J. Carel; Ponsen, Kees Jan; Luitse, Jan; Kloen, Peter; Joosse, Pieter; Winkelhagen, Jasper; Duivenvoorden, Raphaël; Teague, David C.; Davey, Joseph; Sullivan, J. Andy; Ertl, William J. J.; Puckett, Timothy A.; Pasque, Charles B.; Tompkins, John F.; Gruel, Curtis R.; Kammerlocher, Paul; Lehman, Thomas P.; Puffinbarger, William R.; Carl, Kathy L.; Weber, Donald W.; Jomha, Nadr M.; Goplen, Gordon R.; Masson, Edward C. O.; Beaupre, Lauren A.; Greaves, Karen E.; Schaump, Lori N.; Jeray, Kyle J.; Goetz, David R.; Westberry, David E.; Broderick, J. Scott; Moon, Bryan S.; Tanner, Stephanie L.; Powell, James N.; Buckley, Richard E.; Elves, Leslie; Connolly, Stephen; Abraham, Edward P.; Steele, Trudy; Ellis, Thomas; Herzberg, Alex; Brown, George A.; Crawford, Dennis E.; Hart, Robert; Hayden, James; Orfaly, Robert M.; Vigland, Theodore; Vivekaraj, Maharani; Bundy, Gina L.; Miclau, Theodore; Matityahu, Amir; Coughlin, R. Richard; Kandemir, Utku; McClellan, R. Trigg; Lin, Cindy Hsin-Hua; Karges, David; Cramer, Kathryn; Watson, J. Tracy; Moed, Berton; Scott, Barbara; Beck, Dennis J.; Orth, Carolyn; Puskas, David; Clark, Russell; Jones, Jennifer; Egol, Kenneth A.; Paksima, Nader; France, Monet; Wai, Eugene K.; Johnson, Garth; Wilkinson, Ross; Gruszczynski, Adam T.; Vexler, Liisa

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There remains a compelling biological rationale for both reamed and unreamed intramedullary nailing for the treatment of tibial shaft fractures. Previous small trials have left the evidence for either approach inconclusive. We compared reamed and unreamed intramedullary nailing with

  14. Evaluation of Cutting Fluids in Multiple Reaming of Stainless Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belluco, Walter; Zeng, Z.; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2001-01-01

    An investigation on the effect of different cutting fluids in reaming is presented. The performance of three water based cutting fluids and one cutting oil was compared to that of a reference water based commercial product by measurement of cutting forces, surface roughness and part accuracy. Three...... subsequent reaming operations were carried out on austenitic stainless steel using high-speed-steel and solid carbide tools. The tested fluids were all significantly different from the reference fluid in at least some of the tested conditions. Significant differences down to 2 percent in cutting forces and 6...

  15. Gunshot fractures of tibia and femur - excellent results with reamed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To document the outcome of treatment of femur and tibia diaphyseal fractures due to gunshot injury grafted with reamed bone marrow and immobilised with Surgical Implant Generation Network (SIGN) interlocking nail. Design: A prospective study. Setting: Three referral centres in two developing countries

  16. Reaming process improvement and control: An application of statistical engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Pavel; Genta, G.; Barbato, G.

    2012-01-01

    A reaming operation had to be performed within given technological and economical constraints. Process improvement under realistic conditions was the goal of a statistical engineering project, supported by a comprehensive experimental investigation providing detailed information on single...... and combined effects of several parameters on key responses. Results supported selection of production parameters meeting specified quality and cost targets, as well as substantial improvements....

  17. Reamed intramedullary nailing of the femur: 551 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinsky, P R; McCarty, E; Shyr, Y; Johnson, K

    1999-03-01

    The care of the patient with the fractured femur entails a multiple surgical team approach. Healing of the fracture and expediency in the operating room are both important. We sought to determine the results of the treatment of fractures of the femoral shaft with interlocking femoral nails inserted with closed techniques, and to compare the outcomes of fractures nailed by using a fracture table with those stabilized with the leg draped free on a radiolucent table. Eight hundred eighty-two consecutive patients with fractures of the femoral shaft treated with a first-generation intramedullary nail at the authors' institution during the years 1986 to 1996 were identified. Five hundred fifty-one fractures in 515 patients met the inclusion criteria. Treatment with an intramedullary nail led to a union rate of 98.9%. There were six infections, all occurring in closed fractures. Thirty-eight percent of the fractures had hardware removed, most commonly because of pain. One nail and 13 locking bolts broke. Four hundred eighteen fractures had adequate radiographs available to assess fracture alignment. No fracture healed with more than 10 degrees of angulation in either plane. Forty-four fractures healed with more than 5 degrees of angulation. A distal third fracture was found to be associated with an increased incidence of malalignment. There were no differences in outcomes between fractures stabilized with or without a fracture table. Reamed intramedullary nailing of femoral shaft fractures results in a low rate of nonunion, malunion, infection, and hardware failure. There is no difference in the outcomes of fractures treated with and without the use of a fracture table. This is particularly useful in the patient with multiple injuries for whom transfer to a fracture table may not be time effective.

  18. Antegrade flexible ureteroscopy in supine position for impacted multiple ureteric calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Gupta

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Flexible retrograde ureteroscope is now being widely used in endoscopic management of the urinary calculi. We report technique of supine ante grade flexible ureteroscopy in treating impacted upper and mid ureteric calculi in a pediatric patient. A six year-old boy with a history of acute right ureteric colic was investigated and found to have right upper and middle impacted ureteric calculi. He was planned for ureteroscopy, but the intramural part of the ureter could not be dilated. Hence, a decision was taken to do an antegrade flexible ureteroscopy in the supine position. An antegrade renal access was established in the supine position using ultrasound- guided puncture, a 22 Fr Amplatz was placed after serial dilatation of the tract and the stones were accessed using a flexible ureteroscope. The stones were then disintegrated using holmium laser. The ureter was stented at the end of the procedure. IVU done after six months revealed normal right kidney.

  19. Laparoscopic common bile duct exploration and antegrade biliary stenting: Leaving behind the Kehr tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Martínez-Baena

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: single-stage laparoscopic surgery of cholelithiasis and associated common bile duct stones (CL-CBDS has shown similar results when compared to laparoscopic cholecystectomy combined with ERCP. Classically, choledochorrhaphy has been protected by a T-tube drain to allow external bypass of bile flow. However, its removal is associated with a significant complication rate. Use of antegrade biliary stents avoids T-tube removal associated morbidity. The aim of this study is to compare the results of choledochorrhaphy plus T-tube drainage versus antegrade biliary stenting in our series of laparoscopic common bile duct explorations (LCBDE. Material and methods: between 2004 and 2011, 75 patients underwent a LCBDE. Choledochorrhaphy was performed following Kehr tube placements in 47 cases and transpapillary biliary stenting was conducted in the remaining 28 patients. Results: postoperative hospital stay was shorter in the stent group (5 ± 10.26 days than in the Kehr group (12 ± 10.6 days, with a statistically significant difference. There was a greater trend to grade B complications in the stent group (10.7 vs. 4.3 % and to grade C complications in the Kehr group (6.4 vs. 3.6 %. There were 3 cases of residual common bile duct stones in the Kehr group (6.4 % and none in the stent group. Conclusions: antegrade biliary stenting following laparoscopic common bile duct exploration for CL-CBDS is an effective and safe technique that prevents T-tube related morbidity.

  20. Exoseal for puncture site closure after antegrade procedures in peripheral arterial disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackl, Gerald; Gary, Thomas; Belaj, Klara; Hafner, Franz; Rief, Peter; Deutschmann, Hannes; Brodmann, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    Exoseal is a vascular clo-sure device consisting of a plug applier and a bio-absorbent polyglycolic acid plug available in sizes 5 F, 6 F, and 7 F. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the Exoseal vascular closure device (Cordis Corporation, Bridgewater, New Jersey, USA) for puncture site closure after antegrade endovascular procedures in peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) patients. In this retrospective study, a total of 168 consecutive patients who underwent an interventional procedure due to PAOD, were included. In each case, an antegrade peripheral endovascular procedure was performed via the common femoral artery using the Seldinger technique, and Exoseal 5 F, 6 F, or 7 F was used for access site closure. The primary endpoint was a technically successful application of Exoseal. All complications at the access site within 24 hours were registered as a secondary endpoint. In a group of 168 patients (64.9% men, average age 71.9±11.9 years), the technical application of Exoseal was successful in 166 patients (98.8%). Within the first 24 hours after the procedure, 12 complications (7.2%) were recorded including, three pseudoaneurysms (1.8%) and nine hematomas (5.4%). None of the complications required surgical intervention. Exoseal is a safe and effective device with high technical success and acceptable complication rates for access site closure after antegrade peripheral endovascular procedures.

  1. Investigation on Capability of the Reaming Process using Minimal Quantity Lubrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Tosello, Guido; Píška, Miroslav

    2009-01-01

    . The reaming operations were compared with respect to a number of evaluation parameters, both hole quality (diameter, roundness, cylindricity and surface roughness) and cutting forces (reaming thrust and torque). Absolute average values as well as experimental standard deviations of the evaluation parameters...... depth of cut was employed. The suitability of MQL for reaming was proven under the investigated process conditions, concerning both the quality of the machined holes, in terms of geometrical characteristics and surface finishing, and the process quality, with respect to reaming torque and thrust, along...

  2. A novel navigation template for fixation of acetabular posterior column fractures with antegrade lag screws: design and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongfen; Wang, Gang; Li, Runguang; Sun, Yongjian; Wang, Fuming; Zhao, Hui; Zhang, Peijun; Zhang, Xuanxuan

    2016-04-01

    To test whether a novel guide template we designed can facilitate accurate insertion of antegrade lag screws in the fixation of acetabular posterior column fractures. We created virtual three-dimensional reconstruction models of the pelvis from CT scan data obtained from 96 adult patients without any bony problems. A virtual cylindrical implant was placed along the longitudinal axis of the acetabular posterior column passing through the ischial tuberosity. The diameter of cylindrical implant was augmented to 6.5 mm, and the direction was adjusted until the optimal screw path was found using the reverse engineering technique. The orifice of this cylinder from the iliac fossa was determined as the entry point for the antegrade lag screw. The anatomical parameters of the screw entry path were measured and saved in .stl format. The guide template was designed according to the acetabular morphology and the measured anatomical parameters before it was put into manufacture of a solid template with the rapid prototyping technique. The feasibility and accuracy of the guide template were tested in cadaveric pelvises. Finally, the guide template was used in real surgery for five patients. Furthermore, the time required for surgery was recorded. Under the guide of this navigation template, antegrade lag screws were successfully placed in the posterior column of the acetabulum in the cadaveric test. And five lag screws were successfully placed in five patients. The mean time of antegrade lag screw insertion required 5.8 (3-10) min. Antegrade lag screws can be more accurately put into the posterior column of the acetabulum with the help of this navigation template.

  3. Reaming debris as a novel source of autologous bone to enhance healing of bone defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, A.D.; Kroeze, R.J.; Korstjens, C.; Kleine, R.H.; Frolke, J.P.M.; Klein-Nulend, J.

    2011-01-01

    Reaming debris is formed when bone defects are stabilized with an intramedullary nail, and contains viable osteoblast-like cells and growth factors, and might thus act as a natural osteoinductive scaffold. The advantage of using reaming debris over stem cells or autologous bone for healing bone

  4. Reaming debris as a novel source of autologous bone to enhance healing of bone defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Astrid D.; Kroeze, Robert Jan; Korstjens, Clara; de Kleine, Ruben H.; Frolke, Jan Paul M.; Klein-Nulend, Jenneke

    Reaming debris is formed when bone defects are stabilized with an intramedullary nail, and contains viable osteoblast-like cells and growth factors, and might thus act as a natural osteoinductive scaffold. The advantage of using reaming debris over stem cells or autologous bone for healing bone

  5. Target ballon-assisted antegrade and retrograde approach for recanalization of thrombosed fem-pop bypass graft using the outbreak catheter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Jung Won; Chung, Hwan Hoon; Lee, Seung Hwa; Yeom, Suk Keu; Cha, Sang Hoon [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University College of Medicine, Ansan Hospital, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    The subintimal arterial flossing with antegrade-retrograde intervention (SAFARI) technique is reportedly effective in severe peripheral vascular disease that cannot be treated with standard endovascular techniques including subintimal angioplasty. In this report, we used a target balloon with the Outback catheter to recanalize a thrombosed bypass graft that could not be treated successfully with SAFARI.

  6. Locking intramedullary nailing with and without reaming for open fractures of the tibial shaft. A prospective, randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, J F; O'Brien, P J; Blachut, P A; Meek, R N; Broekhuyse, H M

    1997-03-01

    Ninety-one patients who had ninety-four open fractures of the tibial shaft were randomized into two treatment groups. Fifty fractures (nine type-I, eighteen type-II, sixteen type-IIIA, and seven type-IIIB fractures, according to the classification of Gustilo et al.) were treated with nailing after reaming, and forty-four fractures (five type-I, sixteen type-II, nineteen type-IIIA, and four type-IIIB fractures) were treated with nailing without reaming. The average diameter of the nail was 11.5 millimeters (range, nine to fourteen millimeters) in the group treated with reaming and 9.2 millimeters (range, eight to ten millimeters) in the group treated without reaming. Follow-up information was adequate for forty-five patients (forty-seven fractures) who had been managed with reaming and forty patients (forty-one fractures) who had been managed without reaming. No clinically important differences were found between the two groups with regard to the technical aspects of the procedure or the rate of early postoperative complications. The average time to union was thirty weeks (range, thirteen to seventy-two weeks) in the group treated with reaming and twenty-nine weeks (range, thirteen to fifty weeks) in the group treated without reaming. Four (9 per cent) of the fractures treated with reaming and five (12 per cent) of the fractures treated without reaming did not unite (p = 0.73). There were two infections in the group treated with reaming and one in the group treated without reaming. Significantly more screws broke in the group treated without reaming (twelve; 29 per cent) than in the group treated with reaming (four; 9 per cent) (p = 0.014). There was no difference between the two groups with regard to the frequency of broken nails (two nails that had been inserted after reaming broke, compared with one that had been inserted without reaming). The functional outcome, in terms of pain in the knee, range of motion, return to work, and recreational activity, did not

  7. Dual Antegrade Intramedullary Headless Screw Fixation for Treatment of Unstable Proximal Phalanx Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Michael P; Gandhi, Shiv D; Culp, Randall W; Kane, Patrick M

    2018-01-01

    Although intramedullary headless screw (IMHS) fixation is a promising minimally invasive surgical treatment option for unstable proximal phalanx fractures, a single IMHS may provide inadequate fixation for certain fracture patterns. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the short-term clinical outcomes in a pilot series of patients with proximal phalanx fractures treated with dual antegrade IMHS fixation. We performed a retrospective chart review of proximal phalanx fractures treated with dual antegrade IMHS fixation with a minimum 1 year of follow-up. Demographic information including patient age, sex, occupation, workers' compensation status, mechanism of injury, hand dominance, and injured digit were obtained. Postoperative outcomes measured included range of motion, grip strength, Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (QuickDASH) outcome scores, return to full-duty work interval, and complications. Ten fractures in 10 patients (4 male, 6 female) satisfied study inclusion. The mean age of patients was 39 years (range, 20-62), and average follow-up duration was 84 weeks (range, 61-106). Final postoperative total active motion was 258° (range, 245°-270°), mean grip strength was 97% (range, 84%-104%) of the uninjured side, and QuickDASH score was 3.9 (range, 0-13.6). No complications occurred, and no patients required additional intervention. Dual antegrade IMHS fixation of proximal phalanx fractures resulted in excellent postoperative motion, near-normal grip strength, positive self-reported patient outcomes, and no complications with follow-up of at least 1 year. Further study in a larger number of patients is warranted to determine if this promising technique is superior to other modes of fixation.

  8. Comparative study between reamed versus unreamed interlocking intramedullary nailing in compound fractures of shaft tibia

    OpenAIRE

    Subhash Puri; Samar Kumar Biswas; Anil Salgia; Sahil Sanghi; Tushar Agarwal; Rohit Malhotra

    2013-01-01

    Background: Tibia is the commonest bones to sustain open injury because of subcutaneous position. Treatment of open fractures requires simultaneous management of both skeletal and soft tissue injury. Intramedullary nailing with reaming is generally considered to be contraindicated for open fractures tibia, because it damages the endosteal blood supply which will lead to non-union, deep infection. However, recent studies with or without reaming in open fracture tibia shows no influence in heal...

  9. Tips and tricks for antegrade recanalization of chronic total occlusions using the CrossBoss catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Tak W; Diwan, Ravi; Ratcliffe, Justin A; Huang, Yili; Patri, Rahul; James, David; Liou, Michael; Fallahi, Arzhang; Young, Bruce; Nanjundappa, Aravinda; Daggubati, Ramesh

    2015-02-01

    To provide new strategies and techniques for the successful recanalization of chronic total occlusions (CTOs) with the sole use of the CrossBoss catheter. In addition, some common CTO scenarios are illustrated in detail. CTOs are one of the most challenging complex coronary lesion subsets to intervene upon. Even with the innovation of specialized catheters, the success rate of antegrade recanalization remains low. Between June and December 2013, a retrospective analysis of 50 consecutive patients who presented with a planned percutaneous intervention (PCI) of a CTO was performed. In all patients, the CrossBoss catheter was used. No additional reentry devices were necessary. Procedural success was defined as failure. The average fluoroscopy time was 45.9 minutes and the average amount of contrast use was 273.8 mL. No patient suffered a coronary perforation from the CrossBoss catheter. With increased experience using the CrossBoss catheter, the antegrade success rate of CTOs can be improved. Some tips include identifying the likely course of the artery with the aid of retrograde injection, proper guidewire selection and manipulation, and redirecting the CrossBoss catheter if there is substantial deviation from the original path.

  10. Percutaneous antegrade ureteric stent removal using a rigid alligator forceps.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Given, M F

    2008-12-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of percutaneous antegrade ureteric stent removal using a rigid alligator forceps. Twenty patients were included in our study. Indications for ureteric stent insertion included stone disease (n = 7), malignancy (n = 8) and transplant anastomotic strictures (n = 5). Stent retrieval was carried out for proximal stent placement\\/migration in seven patients and encrustation in the remaining 13. Twenty-two stents were successfully retrieved in 20 patients. There was one technical failure (5%). There were no major complications. We had four minor complications, which included nephrostomy site pain (n = 2), periprocedural sepsis (n = 1) and a small urinoma (n = 1). All patients settled with conservative management. Percutaneous radiologically guided antegrade ureteric stent removal with an alligator forceps is safe and effective, particularly when initial surgical removal has failed.

  11. Complex fractures of the humeral shaft treated with antegrade locked intramedullary nail: clinical experience and long-term results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campochiaro, Gabriele; Baudi, Paolo; Loschi, Roberta; Serafin, F; Catani, Fabio

    2015-04-27

    indications for surgical treatment of complex humeral shaft fractures are still controversial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of treating humeral shaft fractures using antegrade locked  intramedullary nail, compared to the treatment with traditional more aggressive techniques such as plate and screws. between February 2008 and January 2011 38 patients were treated with antegrade locked intramedullary nail for humeral shaft fractures, divided according to the AO classification. 28 patients were clinically followed: disability, pain and functional recovery were evaluated using the Constant score and DASH score and the ROM of the shoulder was checked. Bony union was obtained in 27 patients at a mean time of 2.7 months. One fracture ended in nonunion, healed after replacing the nail with a longer one. Patients achieved satisfactory shoulder function with a mean Constant score of  90.57 points and with a mean DASH score of 4.69 points. There were no other complications. the antegrade locked intramedullary nail represents a recommended option for the treatment of humeral shaft fractures, obtaining a steady synthesis, a short time of consolidation and a rapid functional recovery. (www.actabiomedica.it).

  12. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided hepaticogastrostomy and antegrade clearance of biliary lithiasis in patients with surgically-altered anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosmer, Amy; Abdelfatah, Mohamed M; Law, Ryan; Baron, Todd H

    2018-02-01

     Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) in patients with complex surgically-altered anatomy (SAA) is technically demanding and has limitations. Developments in EUS-guided procedures allow alternative approaches for patients with altered gastrointestinal anatomy and biliary lithiasis.  Single-center, retrospective review of prospectively entered patients with SAA who underwent EUS-guided hepaticogastrostomy (HGS) followed by an interval antegrade endoscopic clearance of biliary lithiasis.  9 patients with Roux-en-Y anatomy underwent HGS to allow clearance of biliary lithiasis after a mean of 2.5 procedures. Technical success was achieved in 100 % of patients utilizing subsequent antegrade endoscopic techniques after HGS including: balloon sweep (9), transpapillary balloon dilation (8), cholangioscopy with electrohydraulic lithotripsy (4), and mechanical lithotripsy (1). HGS stents were removed in all patients. 1 adverse event (cholangitis) occurred after cholangioscopy and prolonged intraductal electrohydraulic lithotripsy.  EUS-guided antegrade therapy for the management of biliary lithiasis in patients with altered gastrointestinal anatomy appears efficacious with a low risk of adverse events. These preliminary results suggest this approach should be considered at centers with available expertise.

  13. Reaming as an adjuvant to irrigation on bacterial presence and propagation: an open, cadaveric intramedullary fracture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archdeacon, Michael T; Kazemi, Namdar; Romanowski, James R; Mobberley-Schuman, Paula S; Weiss, Alison A

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate the effect of intramedullary reaming on bacterial presence and propagation in an open, cadaveric intramedullary fracture model. Twelve fresh-frozen human cadaveric femurs were osteotomized and inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus, the open, cadaveric intramedullary fracture model. Low-pressure pulsed lavage irrigation was performed to irrigate the osteotomy sites. The specimens were divided into two groups of six paired specimens: CNT, irrigation only; and REAM, irrigation coupled with intramedullary reaming. Intramedullary contents were cultured at the osteotomy site and in 1-cm increments through the distal femoral metaphysis. Mean bacterial colony-forming units were compared between groups using analysis of variance. A statistically significant higher bacterial colony-forming unit count was noted at the osteotomy site (bacterial presence) in the CNT group compared with the REAM group. In terms of bacterial propagation, when compared with the sterile osteotomy site, the CNT group demonstrated significant bacterial propagation only at the 1.1- to 2.0-cm increment and the REAM group demonstrated no significant propagation. In comparing bacterial propagation between the CNT and the REAM groups, no significant differences were noted at any distal increment. In this open, cadaveric intramedullary fracture model, low-pressure pulse lavage coupled with intramedullary reaming demonstrated significantly less bacterial presence at the osteotomy site compared with irrigation without reaming. Additionally, intramedullary reaming does not appear to significantly propagate bacteria into the intramedullary canal nor into the distal metaphysis. These observations might have clinical significance.

  14. Reaming does not add significant time to intramedullary nailing of diaphyseal fractures of the tibia and femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crist, Brett D; Wolinsky, Philip R

    2009-10-01

    Reamed intramedullary nailing is the current gold standard for the treatment of diaphyseal fractures of the femur and tibia. Current concepts of orthopedic damage control surgery for patients with multiple injuries have placed an emphasis on appropriate surgical timing, limiting blood loss, and the duration of the initial operative procedure(s). Proponents of unreamed nailing have stated that reaming places polytraumatized patients "at risk," in part because it adds to the length of the surgical procedure and may exacerbate the severity of a patient's pulmonary injury. The purpose of this study was to determine how many minutes reaming actually takes and what percentage of operative time reaming comprises during intramedullary nailing of femoral and tibial shaft fractures. Intraoperative timing data were collected prospectively on a total of 52 patients with 54 fractures (21 femoral and 33 tibial) who underwent reamed intramedullary nailing of acute closed or open femoral or tibial shaft fractures over a 10-month period. Total operating room, surgical, and reaming times were collected. The average reaming time for femur and tibia fractures was 6.9 minutes and 7 minutes, respectively. On average, reaming accounted for 4.9% of the surgical time and 3.2% of the total operating room time for femur fractures and 4.9% of the surgical time and 3.4% of the total operating room for tibia fractures. Our results show that reaming comprises a small percentage of the operative time and the total time a patient spends in the operating room.

  15. Thoracic aortic cannulation with antegrade perfusion for the procurement of abdominal organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Rodríguez, Francisco Javier; Fernández Pérez, Aquilino; Conde Freire, Rogelio; Martínez, Jorge; Pérez, Evaristo Varo; Bustamante Montalvo, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The definitive acceptance of an organ as valid for transplant depends on the surgical team performing the multiorgan recovery; and unexpected difficulties can occur. The demographic characteristics of donors has changed, and some accepted donors can present difficulties in surgical technique and risky decisions on the validity of the retrieved organ or organs. An alternative method to the cannulation of the abdominal aorta is proposed when there is evidence of disease in the infrarenal aorta during the multiorgan procurement. The retrocardiac descending thoracic aorta is cannulated using an antegrade perfusion; this technique allows an increase in organ recovery. Copyright © 2014 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Meta-analysis of reamed versus unreamed intramedullary nailing for open tibial fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Open fractures of the tibial diaphysis are usually caused by high-energy trauma and associated with severe bone and soft tissue injury. Reamed and unreamed intramedullary nailing are often used for treatment of tibial injury. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical efficacy of reamed versus unreamed intramedullary nailing for open tibial fractures (OTF). Methods A meta-analysis was conducted according to the guidelines of the Cochrane Collaboration using databases containing the Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMbase, Chinese Biomedical Database, Chinese VIP information, and WanFang Database. Randomized and semi-randomized controlled clinical trials of both reamed and unreamed intramedullary nailing for OTF treatment were analyzed using Reviewer Manager (RevMan5.0) software. Results A total of 695 references were initially identified from the selected databases. However, only four studies were assessed, matching all the eligibility criteria conducted by two independent reviewers. The result showed that there was no statistical difference in healing rate, secondary surgery rate, implant failure rate, osteofascial compartment syndrome, and infection during the postoperative period between reamed and unreamed nails in OTF. Conclusions Findings of this study suggest that there was no statistical difference between reamed and unreamed intramedullary nailing in clinical treatment of OTF. However, the result of this meta-analysis should be cautiously accepted due to some limitations, and further studies are still needed. PMID:25149501

  17. Hybrid aortic repair with antegrade supra-aortic and renovisceral debranching from ascending aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Castro-Madrazo, José Antonio; Rivas-Domínguez, Margarita; Fernández-Prendes, Carlota; Zanabili Al-Sibbai, Amer; Llaneza-Coto, José Manuel; Alonso-Pérez, Manuel

    2017-05-01

    Aortic dissection is a life threatening condition. Hybrid repair has been described for the treatment of complex aortic pathology such as thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms (TAAA) and type A and B dissections, although open and total endovascular repair are also possible. Open surgery is still associated with substantial perioperative morbi-mortality rates, thus less invasive techniques such as endovascular repair and hybrid procedures can achieve good results in centers with experience. We present the case of a patient with a chronic type B dissection and TAAA degeneration that was treated in a single stage hybrid procedure with antegrade supra-aortic and renovisceral debranching from the ascending aorta and TEVAR. At three-year follow up, the patient is free of intervention-related complications.

  18. Comparison of the OUTBACK®Elite Reentry Catheter and the Bi-directional Approach after Failed Antegrade Approach for Femoro-popliteal Occlusive Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Daizo; Fukunaga, Masashi; Nakata, Tsuyoshi; Kato, Masaaki; Ohkubo, Nobukazu

    2017-12-01

    A successful antegrade wire crossing for femoro-popliteal chronic total occlusion (FP-CTO) is still a technical challenge. We attempted to demonstrate the safety and feasibility of the OUTBACK ® Elite reentry catheter and the bi-directional approach for failed FP-CTO cases with the antegrade approach. Endovascular therapy for FP-CTO was performed in 219 lesions from May 2013 to December 2016 at Morinomiya Hospital. We retrospectively analyzed the data of 43 consecutive lesions which underwent endovascular therapy using the bi-directional approach with distal access and the mono-directional approach with the OUTBACK ® Elite reentry catheter for FP-CTO lesions. The antegrade success using a combination of traditional and Intravascular Ultrasound (IVUS) -guided techniques was achieved in 170 lesions out of a total of 219 lesions. From May 2013 to June 2016 (phase 1), the bi-directional approach with distal access was applied to 22 lesions after failed antegrade approaches. From July 2016 to December 2016 (phase 2), the mono-directional approach with the OUTBACK ® Elite reentry catheter was applied to 21 lesions. Clinical and lesion characteristics in phase 1 were not significantly different from those in phase 2. The overall initial technical success rate was 100% in both phases. The total wire number and amount of contrast media were significantly less, and the total procedure time and the total fluoroscopic time were significantly shorter in phase 2 than in phase 1 (p<0.01). Endovascular therapy for FP-CTO using the OUTBACK ® Elite reentry catheter is feasible and safe after a failed antegrade approach.

  19. Surface integrity and part accuracy in reaming and tapping stainless steel with new vegetable based cutting oils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belluco, Walter; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation on the effect of new formulations of vegetable oils on surface integrity and part accuracy in reaming and tapping operations with AISI 316L stainless steel. Surface integrity was assessed with measurements of roughness, microhardness, and using metallographic...... as part accuracy. Cutting fluids based on vegetable oils showed comparable or better performance than mineral oils. ÆÉ2002 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd....... techniques, while part accuracy was measured on a coordinate measuring machine. A widely diffused commercial mineral oil was used as reference for all measurements. Cutting fluid was found to have a significant effect on surface integrity and thickness of the strain hardened layer in the sub-surface, as well...

  20. Comparison of acetabular reamings during hip resurfacing versus uncemented total hip arthroplasty.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brennan, S A

    2009-04-01

    PURPOSE: To compare the quantity of bone removed from the acetabulum during resurfacing hip arthroplasty versus uncemented total hip arthroplasty (THA). METHODS: 62 consecutive patients with osteoarthritis of the hip were prospectively studied. 24 men and 7 women aged 40 to 86 (mean, 59) years underwent Birmingham hip resurfacing. 13 men and 18 women aged 34 to 88 (mean, 61) years underwent uncemented THA using the trident acetabular cup. Obese elderly women at risk of femoral neck fracture and patients with large subchondral pseudocysts or a history of avascular necrosis of the femoral head were assigned to uncemented THA. Acetabular reamings were collected; marginal osteophytes were not included. The reamings were dehydrated, defatted, and weighed. RESULTS: The mean weight of acetabular reamings was not significantly different between patients undergoing hip resurfacing and uncemented THA (p=0.57). CONCLUSION: In hip resurfacing, the use of an appropriately small femoral component avoids oversizing the acetabular component and removal of excessive bone stock.

  1. Antegrade continence enemas in the management of intractable faecal incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, E M; Ade-Ajayi, N; Wheeler, R

    1995-01-01

    The introduction of the Malone procedure has improved the outlook for children with severe faecal incontinence. Phosphate and saline enemas are administered through the exteriorized appendix in antegrade fashion to achieve evacuation and ensure cleanliness. The appendix functions as a non-refluxing catheterizable channel: If it is not available for use, a tubularized caecal flap is a safe alternative. We have constructed Malone stomas using the appendix in 20 patients and another seven patients have undergone the caecal flap modification. The mean age was 8.6 years. Eleven of the patients were boys and 16 (59%) were girls. Six children required dilatation or revision of their stomas for stenosis. One developed small bowel obstruction and another has stopped using the stoma. The results of the continence enemas were considered to be very good by the vast majority of patients and their carers. Our recent experience suggests that bisacodyl may be a valuable adjunct to the antegrade enemas of phosphate and saline. We believe that this procedure may be extended with benefit to adults with serious faecal incontinence in whom standard measures have failed. PMID:7769583

  2. Interlocking intramedullary nailing with and without reaming for the treatment of closed fractures of the tibial shaft. A prospective, randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blachut, P A; O'Brien, P J; Meek, R N; Broekhuyse, H M

    1997-05-01

    One hundred and fifty-two patients who had 154 closed fractures of the shaft of the tibia were prospectively randomized to management with interlocking intramedullary nailing either with or without reaming. Thirteen patients who had been randomized to treatment without reaming were switched to the group that had reaming because of technical reasons; these patients were excluded from the analysis of the results. An additional five patients were lost to follow-up. Thus, seventy-two patients (seventy-three fractures) who had been managed with nailing with reaming and sixty-three patients (sixty-three fractures) who had been managed with nailing without reaming were available for follow-up at an average of twelve months (range, three to thirty-three months) postoperatively. The two groups were similar with regard to demographics and the configurations of the fractures. The average total duration of the procedures performed without reaming was eleven minutes shorter than that of the procedures done with reaming (p = 0.0013). The duration of fluoroscopy was not significantly different between the two groups (p = 0.35, Mann-Whitney test). The average estimated blood loss was identical for the two groups. Seventy fractures (96 per cent) that were treated with nailing with reaming and fifty-six (89 per cent) that were treated with nailing without reaming united without the need for an additional operation (p = 0.19). Because of the small sample size, the study has insufficient power (34.7 per cent) to detect this difference if it is real. There was only one deep infection, which developed after nailing without reaming. The nail fractured after one procedure with reaming. A screw fractured after two procedures with reaming and after ten without reaming (p = 0.012); multiple screws fractured after three procedures in the latter group. Malunion occurred after three nailing procedures with reaming and after two without reaming. Four malunions were of very proximal fractures and

  3. Reamed versus unreamed intramedullary nailing for the treatment of femoral fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, A-Bing; Zhang, Wei-Jiang; Guo, Wei-Jun; Wang, Xin-Hua; Jin, Hai-Ming; Zhao, You-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background and objective: Intramedullary nailing is commonly used for treating femoral shaft fractures, one of the most common long bone fractures in adults. The reamed intramedullary nail is considered the standard implant for femoral fractures. This meta-analysis was performed to verify the superiority of reamed intramedullary nailing over unreamed intramedullary nailing in fractures of the femoral shaft in adults. Subgroup analysis of implant failure and secondary procedure was also performed. Methods: Electronic literature databases were used to identify relevant publications and included MEDLINE (Ovid interface), EMBASE (Ovid interface), and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; Wiley Online Library). The versions available on January 30, 2016, were utilized. Only human studies, which were designed as randomized controlled clinical trials, were included. Two authors independently evaluated the quality of original research publications and extracted data from the studies that met the criteria. Results: Around 8 randomized controlled trials involving 1078 patients were included. Reamed intramedullary nailing was associated with shorter time to consolidation of the fracture (SMD = –0.62, 95% CI = –0.89 to –0.35, P fractures using reamed intramedullary nailing is recommended. PMID:27442651

  4. Catastrophic failure of a raise boring machine during underground reaming operations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    James, A

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the investigation of the catastrophic failure of a raise boring machine used for underground reaming operations. The results of the investigation indicate that failure was due to the fracture of the 32 drive head bolts, 30...

  5. Glenohumeral kinematics after soft tissue interposition graft and glenoid reaming: A cadaveric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nickolas G Garbis

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Glenohumeral contact pressure is significantly improved with interposition of allograft at time zero compared to an arthritic state. Our findings suggest that concentric reaming did not differ from the arthritic model when compared to normal. These findings favor the use of allograft for interposition as a potential treatment option in patients with glenoid wear.

  6. Intramedullary nailing with reaming to treat non-union of the tibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sledge, S L; Johnson, K D; Henley, M B; Watson, J T

    1989-08-01

    The records of fifty-one patients who were treated by intramedullary nailing with reaming for non-union of the tibia were retrospectively reviewed. The fractures had been treated initially by closed reduction and immobilization in a cast, external fixation followed by immobilization in a cast, fixation by pins incorporated in a plaster cast, minimum internal fixation and immobilization in a cast, dynamic compression plating, or intramedullary nailing with or without reaming. After the initial treatment had failed, intramedullary nailing with reaming was done to gain union. Although closed nailing of the tibia was preferred, in thirty-three patients, the site of the non-union was opened to improve alignment by performing an osteotomy or to remove failed hardware. Bone grafts from the iliac crest were used in ten patients, and a fibular ostectomy or osteotomy was done in thirty-three. Of thirty-four open fractures (fourteen grade I, seven grade II, and thirteen grade III), eight were infected at the time of intramedullary nailing. The average time of the diagnosis of a non-union was 9.6 months; the average length of follow-up after nailing was twenty months. In forty-nine (96 per cent) of the fifty-one patients, tibial union occurred at an average of seven months postoperatively. Complications included persistent infection (three patients), acquired infection after intramedullary nailing with reaming (three patients), fracture of the nail that necessitated an additional operation (two patients), shortening of more than one centimeter (two patients), malrotation of more than 15 degrees (one patient), peroneal palsy (one patient), and amputation (one patient). When used to treat non-union of the tibia, intramedullary nailing with reaming can produce union as effectively as other alternatives, while enabling the patient to function more normally without external immobilization or walking aids.

  7. Use of the profunda femoris to facilitate closure of an antegrade puncture with the StarClose device after proximal SFA angioplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung-Ngok-Kao, Susan; Fisher, Robert Kendall; Williams, Robin Edward Thomas; Jackson, Ralph; Rose, John; Macdonald, Sumaira

    2006-08-01

    To report a novel technique for safely closing antegrade common femoral artery (CFA) punctures using the StarClose device after proximal superficial femoral artery (SFA) angioplasty. The vessel locator of the StarClose device should not be deployed within a recently dilated vessel, so after proximal SFA angioplasty, the sheath is withdrawn into the CFA. A second guidewire is inserted into the profunda femoris artery followed by insertion of the StarClose sheath. The vessel locator is deployed in the profunda main stem and withdrawn into the CFA until resistance is felt, indicating apposition to the luminal aspect of the vessel wall. The device is subsequently deployed according to the manufacturer's instructions. Use of profunda femoris artery allows safe closure of the CFA using the StarClose device following antegrade puncture for proximal SFA angioplasty.

  8. Reamed and unreamed intramedullary nailing for the treatment of open and closed tibial fractures: a subgroup analysis of randomised trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Deting; Zheng, Qiang; Li, Hang; Qian, Shengjun; Zhang, Bo

    2009-01-01

    The choice between reamed and unreamed intramedullary nailing for the treatment of open and closed tibial fractures is an ongoing controversy. We carried out a comprehensive search strategy. Six eligible randomised controlled trials were included. Three reviewers independently assessed methodological quality and extracted outcome data. Analyses were performed using Review Manager 5.0. The results showed lower risks of tibial fracture nonunion and implant failures with reamed nails compared to unreamed nails in closed tibial fractures [relative risk (RR): 0.41, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.21–0.89, P = 0.008 for nonunion and RR: 0.35, 95% CI: 0.22–0.56, P reamed and unreamed nails in open tibial fractures. In conclusion, our study recommended reamed nails for the treatment of closed tibial fractures. But the choice for open tibial fractures remains uncertain. PMID:19841919

  9. Stakeholder management for conservation projects: a case study of Ream National Park, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lopez, T T

    2001-07-01

    The paper gives an account of the development and implementation of a stakeholder management framework at Ream National Park, Cambodia. Firstly, the concept of stakeholder is reviewed in management and in conservation literatures. Secondly, the context in which the stakeholder framework was implemented is described. Thirdly, a five-step methodological framework is suggested: (1) stakeholder analysis, (2) stakeholder mapping, (3) development of generic strategies and workplan, (4) presentation of the workplan to stakeholders, and (5) implementation of the workplan. This framework classifies stakeholders according to their level of influence on the project and their potential for the conservation of natural resources. In a situation characterized by conflicting claims on natural resources, park authorities were able to successfully develop specific strategies for the management of stakeholders. The conclusion discusses the implications of the Ream experience and the generalization of the framework to other protected areas.

  10. Distal femoral complications following antegrade intramedullary nail placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda J. Fantry

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available While antegrade nailing for proximal and diaphyseal femur fractures is a commonly utilized fixation method with benefits including early mobilization and high rates of fracture union, both intraoperative and postoperative complications may occur. Intraoperative errors include leg length discrepancy, anterior cortical perforation, malreduction of the fracture, and neurovascular injury, and postoperative complications include nonunion, malunion, infection, and hardware failure. This case series reviews complications affecting the distal femur after intramedullary nailing including fracture surrounding a distal femoral interlocking screw (Case #1, nonunion after dynamization with nail penetration into the knee joint (Case #2, and anterior cortical perforation (Case #3. Prevention of intraoperative and postoperative complications surrounding intramedullary nailing requires careful study of the femoral anatomy and nail design specifications (radius of curvature, consideration of the necessity of distal interlocking screws, the need for close radiographic follow-up after nail placement with X-rays of the entire length of the nail, and awareness of possible nail penetration into the knee joint after dynamization.

  11. [Assisting plate with reamed intramedullary nailing for segmental fractures of proximal-middle tibia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jian; Wang, Qiu-Gen; Huang, Jian-Hua; Wang, Jian-Dong; Li, Fan; Gao, Wei; Li, Hao-Qing; Tao, Jie

    2013-10-18

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of combining reduction plating with reamed intramedullary nailing for segmental fractures of proximal-middle tibia. From June 2007 to October 2011, 31 patients with segmental fractures of proximal-middle tibia were admitted. There were 18 males and 13 females, with an average age of 45.2 years (range: 23-77 years), of whom, 9 were Gustilo I type open fractures and 22 were close fractures. All the patients were treated with assisting plate combined with reamed intramedullary nailing. The operation was performed averagely 35 h (range: 16-72 h) after injury. During the post-operation follow-up radiographic evaluation, the range of knee joint, and Johner-Wruhs scores were measured. All the patients were followed-up for 18.5 months (range: 17-24 months). No wound infection or osteofascial compartment syndrome happened. All the fractures healed after 5.1 months (range: 4-6 months). The proximal and distal fracture sites healed simultaneously. No malunion was found. In the last follow-up, the mean range of knee joint was 9°-0°-127°, and according to Johner-Wruhs scores, 19 were excellent, 10 good, and 2 fair. Assisting plate with reamed intramedullary nailing is a safe and effective alternative choice for segmental fractures of proximal-middle tibia, which can ease the difficulty of the procedure, improve the quantity of reduction and enhance the stability of the hardware.

  12. Failure of exchange reamed intramedullary nails for ununited femoral shaft fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weresh, M J; Hakanson, R; Stover, M D; Sims, S H; Kellam, J F; Bosse, M J

    2000-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of exchange reamed nails for treatment of aseptic femoral delayed unions and nonunions. Retrospective chart review. Nineteen patients admitted to the Carolinas Medical Center Level I trauma center from 1990 to 1996 for repair of femoral shaft fracture nonunion following contemporary locked nailing performed at least six months previously. These patients showed no radiographic evidence of progression of fracture healing for three months and had clinical symptoms of nonunion. Exchange reamed nails to treat ununited femoral shaft fracture. Radiographic and clinical evidence of union of the fracture or of the necessity for additional procedures. In 53 percent of the patients the secondary procedure resulted in fracture union, whereas in 47 percent, one or more additional procedures were required. Eight of the nine fractures that did not unite with exchange nailing united after a subsequent procedure (bone grafting, compression plating, or nail dynamization). Neither the type of nonunion, the location of the shaft fracture, the use of static versus dynamic cross-locking, nor the use of tobacco products was statistically predictive of the need for additional procedures. Reevaluation of routine exchange nailing as the recommended treatment for aseptic femoral delayed union or nonunion may be required. A significant number of patients who undergo reamed exchange nailing will require additional procedures to achieve fracture healing.

  13. Retrograde pedal access with a 20-gauge intravenous cannula after failed antegrade recanalization of a tibialis anterior artery in a diabetic patient: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yucel Colkesen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Retrograde tibiopedal approach is being used frequently in below-the-knee vascular interventions. In patients with diabetic foot pathology, complex anatomy often requires a retrograde technique when the distal vascular anatomy and puncture site is suitable. The dorsalis pedis and posterior tibial arteries can be punctured because of their relatively superficial position. We report a retrograde puncturing technique in patients with chronic total occlusions. After failed antegrade recanalization, puncturing and cannulation of a tiny dorsalis pedis artery with a narrow bore [20-gauge (0.8 mm] intravenous cannula is described.

  14. Predictors of antegrade flow at internal carotid artery during carotid artery stenting with proximal protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kei; Kakumoto, Kosuke; Oshikata, Shogo; Fukuyama, Kozo

    2018-02-16

    Carotid artery stenting (CAS) with proximal occlusion effectively prevent distal cerebral embolism by flow arrest at internal carotid artery (ICA); however, the method can expose antegrade flow at ICA due to incomplete flow arrest. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of antegrade flow during CAS with proximal protection. We retrospectively analyzed clinical and angiographic data among 143 lesions treated with CAS with proximal protection by occluding the common carotid artery (CCA) and external carotid artery (ECA). Flow arrest or antegrade flow at ICA was confirmed by contrast injection during proximal protection. Antegrade flow at ICA was observed in 12 lesions (8.4%). Compared with lesions in which flow arrest of ICA was achieved, the diameter of the superior thyroid artery (STA) was significantly larger (2.4 ± 0.34 vs. 1.4 ± 0.68 mm, p flow. Distal filter protection should be combined with proximal protection for the lesions with antegrade flow to prevent distal migration of the carotid debris.

  15. Systematic review shows lowered risk of nonunion after reamed nailing in patients with closed tibial shaft fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, S W; Teraa, M; Leenen, L P H; van der Heijden, G J M G

    2010-07-01

    Nonunion after intramedullary nailing (IMN) in patients with tibial shaft fractures occurs up to 16%. There is no agreement whether reaming prior to IMN insertion would reduce the nonunion rate. We aimed to compare the nonunion rate between reamed and unreamed IMN in patients with tibial shaft fractures. A systematic search was conducted in Pubmed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. The selected publications were: (1) randomised controlled trials; (2) comparing the nonunion rate; (3) in patients with tibial shaft fractures; (4) treated with either reamed or unreamed IMN. Seven studies that satisfied the criteria were identified. They showed that reamed IMN led to reduction of nonunion rate compared to unreamed IMN in closed tibial shaft fractures (risk difference ranging 7.0-20%, number needed to treat ranging 5-14), while the difference between compared treatments for open tibial shaft fractures was not clinically relevant. The evidence showed a consistent trend of reduced nonunion rate in closed tibial shaft fracture treated with reamed compared to unreamed IMN. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ipsilateral proximal femur and shaft fractures treated with hip screws and a reamed retrograde intramedullary nail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrum, Robert F; Tornetta, Paul; Watson, J Tracy; Christiano, Anthony; Vafek, Emily

    2014-09-01

    Although not common, proximal femoral fractures associated with ipsilateral shaft fractures present a difficult management problem. A variety of surgical options have been employed with varying results. We investigated the use of hip screws and a reamed retrograde intramedullary (IM) nail for the treatment of this combined fracture pattern in terms of postoperative alignment (malunion), nonunion, and complications. Between May 2002 and October 2011, a total of 95 proximal femoral fractures with associated shaft fractures were treated at three participating Level 1 trauma centers; all were treated with hip screw fixation (cannulated screws or sliding hip screws) and retrograde reamed IM nails. The medical records of these patients were reviewed retrospectively for alignment, malunion, nonunion, and complications. Followup was available on 92 of 95 (97%) of the patients treated with hip screws and a retrograde nail. Forty were treated with a sliding hip screw, and 52 were treated with cannulated screws. There were five proximal malunions in this series (5%). The union rate was 98% (90 of 92) for the femoral neck fractures and 91.3% (84 of 92) for the femoral shaft fractures after the initial surgery. There were two nonunions of comminuted femoral neck fractures after cannulated screw fixation. There was no difference in femoral neck union or alignment when comparing cannulated screws to a sliding hip screw. Four open comminuted femoral shaft fractures went on to nonunion and required secondary surgery to obtain union, and one patient developed symptomatic avascular necrosis. The treatment of ipsilateral proximal femoral neck and shaft fractures with hip screw fixation and a reamed retrograde nail demonstrated a high likelihood of union for the femoral neck fractures and a low risk of malunion. Comminution and initial displacement of the proximal femoral fracture may still lead to a small incidence of malunion or nonunion, and open comminuted femoral shaft fractures

  17. Treatment of tibial diaphysis fractures with reamed and locked intramedullary nailing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Coşar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of reamed and locked intramedullary nailing for tibial diaphysis fractures.Materials and methods: The study included 38 patients (26 males, 12 females who were treated with reamed and locked intramedullary nailing for tibial diaphysis fractures. Fractures were classified according to Gustilo-Anderson classification and functional results were assessed using the Johner-Wrush criteria.Results: The mean age was 36 years (range 18-61. There were 21 AO/ASIF type A, 16 type B, and 1 type C fractures. Twenty-four fracture were closed (63.1% and 14 (36.9% were open fractures. According to the Gustilo-Anderson classification, 9 were grade I, 4 patients grade II, and one grade IIIA open fractures. Intramedullary nailing was performed following open reduction in 18 patients, and closed reduction in 20. The mean time to surgery was 9.4 days and the mean follow-up was 29 months. Union was achieved in all patients within a mean of 17.6 weeks. Anterior knee pain developed in 18 patients and infection developed in three patients. Angular deformity less than 10º was developed 12 patients (31.6%. There were screw breakacge and synostosis in four and two patients respectively. According to the Johner-Wrush criteria, functional results were very good in 23 patients (60.5%, good in 12 patients (31.6% and fair in 3 (7.9% patients.Conclusion: Treatment of tibial diaphysis fractures with reamed and locked intramedullary nailing gives satisfactory results. It should be considered as first choice in the treatment of these fractures. J Clin Exp Invest 2011;2(2:168-74

  18. Optimisation of SOA-REAMs for hybrid DWDM-TDMA PON applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Alan; Antony, Cleitus; Ossieur, Peter; Porto, Stefano; Talli, Giuseppe; Townsend, Paul D

    2011-12-12

    We demonstrate how loss-optimised, gain-saturated SOA-REAM based reflective modulators can reduce the burst to burst power variations due to differential access loss in the upstream path in carrier distributed passive optical networks by 18 dB compared to fixed linear gain modulators. We also show that the loss optimised device has a high tolerance to input power variations and can operate in deep saturation with minimal patterning penalties. Finally, we demonstrate that an optimised device can operate across the C-Band and also over a transmission distance of 80 km. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  19. Reamed interlocking intramedullary nailing for the treatment of tibial diaphyseal fractures and aseptic nonunions. Can we expect an optimum result?

    OpenAIRE

    Chalidis, Byron E.; Petsatodis, George E.; Sachinis, Nick C.; Dimitriou, Christos G.; Christodoulou, Anastasios G.

    2009-01-01

    The need for reaming and the number of locking screws to be used in intramedullary (IM) tibial nailing of acute fractures as well as routine bone grafting of tibial aseptic nonunions have not been clearly defined. We describe the results of reamed interlocked IM nails in 233 patients with 247 tibial fractures (190 closed, 27 open and 30 nonunions). Ninety-six percent of the fractures were united at review after an average of 4.9?years. No correlation was found between union and nail diameter ...

  20. Intramedullary bone fragment obstructing passage of reaming guide wire with iatrogenic fractured tibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Suman; Lall, Hitesh; Jain, Vijay Kumar; Bansal, Pankaj; Khare, Rahul; Mittal, Deepak

    2010-02-01

    Reamed interlocking intramedullary fixation is the treatment of choice for displaced tibial shaft fractures in adults. In most cases it can be performed without difficulty; however, technical difficulties may be encountered during nailing in some cases. This article describes a case of closed nailing for a tibial shaft fracture in which intramedullary guide wire was obstructed by a small intramedullary bone fragment in the distal fracture segment. Forceful reaming and insertion of the nail led to a break in the cortex of the distal fragment and bending of guide wire. Finally, open reduction and intramedullary nailing was performed to retrieve the guide wire and intramedullary bone fragment and fix the tibia.A comminuted fracture with multiple close fragments in proximity to the fracture site should be preoperatively scrutinized to look for intramedullary bone fragment or a fragment that could be pushed in the intramedullary canal during the intramedullary nailing. The surgeon can then anticipate the potential operative difficulty that may be encountered during closed nailing of such a fracture; and the patient can be counseled, as open nailing is a safer and viable option. Finally it is pertinent that even if this fracture type is overlooked, catastrophe can be avoided by properly following all the steps of intramedullary nailing. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Open grade III fractures of femoral shaft: Outcome after early reamed intramedullary nailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, D; Garg, R; Bassi, J L; Tripathi, S K

    2011-09-01

    Open grade III fractures of femur are a challenging therapeutic problem as most of them are associated with multiple trauma. Method used for skeletal stabilization of these fractures should limit further soft tissue damage, bacterial spread and morbidity in addition to its ease of application, providing mechanical support and restoring normal alignment. Forty-six patients with open grade III fractures of femoral shaft were included in the study. There were 10 grade IIIA, 34 grade IIIB and two grade IIIC fractures that were treated with early reamed intramedullary nailing with adequate management of soft tissue. Patients were reviewed retrospectively. Mean time of union was 27 weeks. Infection rate was 4% and non-union rate was 9%. There were two cases (4%) with limb shortening. No case of angular or rotational deformity was noted. Early reamed intramedullary nailing for open grade III fractures of femoral shaft, after giving due respect to the soft tissue injury, gives satisfactory results with proper alignment, good range of motion, short rehabilitation period and low infection rate. Level IV. Retrospective therapeutic study. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Outcomes in closed reamed interlocking nail in fractures of shaft of femur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad, T.; Sawati, A.; Ahmed, A.

    2015-01-01

    Femoral shaft fracture is one of the common fractures seen in accident and emergency department of our hospital. Violent forces are required to break this and strongest of human bones. There are various treatment modalities for femoral shaft fractures in adults like traction, brace, platting, intramedullary nail (IMN), external fixators and inter locking nails. The study was done with an objective to evaluate the results of closed reamed interlocking nail in fractures of shaft of femur. Methods: A prospective study of 114 cases of femoral shaft fractures was carried out at orthopaedic unit of Ayub Teaching Hospital Abbottabad during 1 year. All these cases were treated with statically locked nails under spinal or general anaesthesia. These cases were followed up for up to one year and Results of the interlocking nail were observed in terms of union and complications. Results: Out of 114 patients, 95 underwent union in 90-150 days with a mean of 110.68 days. Ten patients had dynamization within six weeks because of obvious fracture gap in radiograph. There were 3 patients who had non-union, and 6 patients had delayed union which was treated with dynamization. Conclusion: Close reamed interlocking intramedullary nail in femoral shaft fractures is the treatment of choice. Patient rehabilitation is early, hospitalization is short, and fracture healing response is good. (author)

  3. OUTCOMES IN CLOSED REAMED INTERLOCKING NAIL IN FRACTURES OF SHAFT OF FEMUR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Taj; Khan, Alamzeb; Sawati, Alamzeb; Ahmed, Ashfaq; Awan, Abdus Saboor; Saboor, Abdus; Siddique

    2015-01-01

    Femoral shaft fracture is one of the common fractures seen in accident and emergency department of our hospital. Violent forces are required to break this and strongest of human bones. There are various treatment modalities for femoral shaft fractures in adults like traction, brace, platting, intramedullary nail (IMN), external fixators and inter locking nails. The study was done with an objective to evaluate the results of closed reamed interlocking nail in fractures of shaft of femur. A prospective study of 114 cases of femoral shaft fractures was carried out at orthopaedic unit of Ayub Teaching Hospital Abbottabad during 1 year. All these cases were treated with statically locked nails under spinal or general anaesthesia. These cases were followed up for up to one year and Results of the interlocking nail were observed in terms of union and complications. Out of 114 patients, 95 underwent union in 90-150 days with a mean of 110.68 days. Ten patients had dynamization within six weeks because of obvious fracture gap in radiograph. There were 3 patients who had non-union, and 6 patients had delayed union which was treated with dynamization. Close reamed interlocking intramedullary nail in femoral shaft fractures is the treatment of choice. Patient rehabilitation is early, hospitalization is short, and fracture healing response is good.

  4. Reamed versus unreamed intramedullary nailing for the treatment of femoral fractures: A meta-analysis of prospective randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, A-Bing; Zhang, Wei-Jiang; Guo, Wei-Jun; Wang, Xin-Hua; Jin, Hai-Ming; Zhao, You-Ming

    2016-07-01

    Intramedullary nailing is commonly used for treating femoral shaft fractures, one of the most common long bone fractures in adults. The reamed intramedullary nail is considered the standard implant for femoral fractures. This meta-analysis was performed to verify the superiority of reamed intramedullary nailing over unreamed intramedullary nailing in fractures of the femoral shaft in adults. Subgroup analysis of implant failure and secondary procedure was also performed. Electronic literature databases were used to identify relevant publications and included MEDLINE (Ovid interface), EMBASE (Ovid interface), and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; Wiley Online Library). The versions available on January 30, 2016, were utilized. Only human studies, which were designed as randomized controlled clinical trials, were included. Two authors independently evaluated the quality of original research publications and extracted data from the studies that met the criteria. Around 8 randomized controlled trials involving 1078 patients were included. Reamed intramedullary nailing was associated with shorter time to consolidation of the fracture (SMD = -0.62, 95% CI = -0.89 to -0.35, P fractures using reamed intramedullary nailing is recommended.

  5. A cadaver model evaluating femoral intramedullary reaming: a comparison between new reamer design (Pressure Sentinel) and a novel suction/irrigation reamer (RIA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goplen, Gordon; Wilson, Janie Astephen; McAffrey, Michael; Deluzio, Kevin; Leighton, Ross

    2010-11-01

    To compare the intramedullary pressures developed during reaming of cadaveric femurs with the Synthes Reamer/Irrigator/Aspirator (RIA) reamer and the Zimmer Pressure Sentinel (PS) reamer, controlling for the force and speed of reaming. Fifteen matched pairs of frozen unpreserved femurs were used in the study. Two pressure transducers and two thermocouples were screwed into holes drilled into the femoral shaft. The femurs were stabilized in the vertical position by mechanically attaching them to a custom jig equipped with a load cell to detect the vertical component of force applied to the reamer. Proximally a linear voltage displacement transducer (LVDT) was attached to the reamer to record the continuous position of the reamer. All femurs were reamed to a diameter 2 mm larger than the narrowest point of the canal. Proximal and distal pressures, proximal and distal temperatures, applied vertical force and displacement were measured continuously throughout the reaming process. Maximum and minimum, and average proximal and distal pressures for each reamer were obtained and compared using paired t-tests. Averages were also calculated and compared in the same manner. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. The maximum, minimum and average intramedullary pressures during reaming were significantly lower with the RIA system than the PS reamer. In general, the pressures produced by the RIA system were consistently below atmospheric pressure for the majority of the reaming time. This was not true for the PS system. No appreciable temperature changes were observed during any of the trials. The RIA reaming system significantly reduces the intramedullary pressures produced during the reaming process compared to the PS reaming system. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Novel Risk Score in Predicting Failure or Success for Antegrade Approach to Percutaneous Coronary Intervention of Chronic Total Occlusion: Antegrade CTO Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namazi, Mohammad Hasan; Serati, Ali Reza; Vakili, Hosein; Safi, Morteza; Parsa, Saeed Ali Pour; Saadat, Habibollah; Taherkhani, Maryam; Emami, Sepideh; Pedari, Shamseddin; Vatanparast, Masoomeh; Movahed, Mohammad Reza

    2017-06-01

    Total occlusion of a coronary artery for more than 3 months is defined as chronic total occlusion (CTO). The goal of this study was to develop a risk score in predicting failure or success during attempted percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of CTO lesions using antegrade approach. This study was based on retrospective analyses of clinical and angiographic characteristics of CTO lesions that were assessed between February 2012 and February 2014. Success rate was defined as passing through occlusion with successful stent deployment using an antegrade approach. A total of 188 patients were studied. Mean ± SD age was 59 ± 9 years. Failure rate was 33%. In a stepwise multivariate regression analysis, bridging collaterals (OR = 6.7, CI = 1.97-23.17, score = 2), absence of stump (OR = 5.8, CI = 1.95-17.9, score = 2), presence of calcification (OR = 3.21, CI = 1.46-7.07, score = 1), presence of bending (OR = 2.8, CI = 1.28-6.10, score = 1), presence of near side branch (OR = 2.7, CI = 1.08-6.57, score = 1), and absence of retrograde filling (OR = 2.5, CI = 1.03-6.17, score = 1) were independent predictors of PCI failure. A score of 7 or more was associated with 100% failure rate whereas a score of 2 or less was associated with over 80% success rate. Most factors associated with failure of CTO-PCI are related to lesion characteristics. A new risk score (range 0-8) is developed to predict CTO-PCI success or failure rate during antegrade approach as a guide before attempting PCI of CTO lesions.

  7. Definition of a safe zone for antegrade lag screw fixation of fracture of posterior column of the acetabulum by 3D technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaoreng; Zhang, Sheng; Luo, Qiang; Fang, Jintao; Lin, Chaowen; Leung, Frankie; Chen, Bin

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to define a safe zone for antegrade lag screw fixation of fracture of posterior column of the acetabulum using a novel 3D technology. Pelvic CT data of 59 human subjects were obtained to reconstruct three-dimensional (3D) models. The transparency of 3D models was then downgraded along the axial perspective (the view perpendicular to the cross section of the posterior column axis) to find the largest translucent area. The outline of the largest translucent area was drawn on the iliac fossa. The line segments of OA, AB, OC, CD, the angles of OAB and OCD that delineate the safe zone (ABDC) were precisely measured. The resultant line segments OA, AB, OC, CD, and angles OAB and OCD were 28.46mm(13.15-44.97mm), 45.89mm (34.21-62.85mm), 36.34mm (18.68-55.56mm), 53.08mm (38.72-75.79mm), 37.44° (24.32-54.96°) and 55.78° (43.97-79.35°) respectively. This study demonstrates that computer-assisted 3D modelling techniques can aid in the precise definition of the safe zone for antegrade insertion of posterior column lag screws. A full-length lag screw can be inserted into the zone (ABDC), permitting a larger operational error. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Rotational Mal-Alignment after Reamed Intramedullary Nailing for tibial shaft fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sher Baz; Mohib, Yasir; Rashid, Rizwan Haroon; Rashid, Haroonur

    2016-10-01

    Intra-medullary (IM) nailing is standard of care for unstable tibial shaft fractures. Malrotation is very common but it is under-recognised, inpart because of variation in normal anatomy and partly due to difficulty in accurately assessing rotation. This study was planned to evaluate the frequency of rotational mal-alignment after reamed tibia IMnailing. This cross-sectional study was conducted at Aga khan University Hospital, Karachi, and comprised patients with tibia shaft fractures managed with IMnailing from January to December 2014. All the patients were assessed intra-operatively for rotational alignment using the knee and ankle fluoroscopic images. There were 81 patients with a mean age of 38±16.9 years. There were 64(79%) male patients. Overall the incidence of malrotation was in 20(24.7%) cases. Rotational mal-alignment is one of the preventable complications after IMnailing which can be assesed intra-operatively under fluoroscope.

  9. Retrograde or antegrade double-pigtail stent placement for malignant ureteric obstruction?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uthappa, M.C.; Cowan, N.C.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To determine the optimum approach for double-pigtail stent placement in malignant ureteric obstruction. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrograde stent placement was attempted in a consecutive series of patients presenting with malignant ureteric obstruction. If retrograde stent placement was unsuccessful, percutaneous nephrostomy was performed immediately followed by elective antegrade stent placement. Identical digital C-arm fluoroscopy for image-guidance and conditions for anaesthesia and analgesia were employed for both retrograde and antegrade procedures. Identical 8 Fr (20-26 cm) double-pigtail hydrophilic coated stents were used for each approach. RESULTS: Retrograde placement was attempted in 50 ureters in 30 patients {19 male, 11 female, average age 61.4 yr (range 29-90 yr)} over a 24-month period. The success rate for retrograde ureteric stent placement was 50% (n=25/50). Technical failures were due to failure to identify the ureteric orifice (n=22), failure to cross the stricture (n=1), failure to pass the stent (n=1) and failure to pass a 4 Fr catheter (n=1). Antegrade placement was attempted in 25 ureters with a success rate of 96% (n=24/25). Failure in the one case was due to inability to cross an upper third stricture secondary to pyeloureteritis cystica. CONCLUSION: It is suggested that retrograde route should be the initial approach if imaging shows no involvement of ureteric orifice (UO), when nephrostomy is technically very difficult or in cases of solitary kidney. The antegrade route is preferred if imaging shows tumour occlusion of the UO or if there is a tight stricture very close to the uretero-vesical junction (UVJ) making purchase within the ureter difficult for crossing the stricture

  10. The effect of intact fibula on functional outcome of reamed intramedullary interlocking nail in open and closed isolated tibial shaft fractures: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Muthukumar Balaji

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: ITS fracture with intact fibula is a common occurrence, and they can be treated safely with reamed IM nailing that provides good union rates and the excellent functional result even in open fractures.

  11. Study to prospectively evaluate reamed intramedually nails in patients with tibial fractures (S.P.R.I.N.T.: Study rationale and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surgeons agree on the benefits of operative treatment of tibial fractures – the most common of long bone fractures – with an intramedullary rod or nail. Rates of re-operation remain high – between 23% and 60% in prior trials – and the two alternative nailing approaches, reamed or non-reamed, each have a compelling biological rationale and strong proponents, resulting in ongoing controversy regarding which is better. Methods/Design The objective of this trial was to assess the impact of reamed versus non-reamed intramedullary nailing on rates of re-operation in patients with open and closed fractures of the tibial shaft. The study to prospectively evaluate reamed intramedullary nails in tibial fractures (S.P.R.I.N.T was a multi-center, randomized trial including 29 clinical sites in Canada, the United States and the Netherlands which enrolled 1200 skeletally mature patients with open (Gustilo Types I-IIIB or closed (Tscherne Types 0–3 fractures of the tibial shaft amenable to surgical treatment with an intramedullary nail. Patients received a statically locked intramedullary nail with either reamed or non-reamed insertion. The first strategy involved fixation of the fracture with an intramedullary nail following reaming to enlarge the intramedullary canal (Reamed Group. The second treatment strategy involved fixation of the fracture with an intramedullary nail without prior reaming of the intramedullary canal (Non-Reamed Group. Patients, outcome assessors, and data analysts were blinded to treatment allocation. Peri-operative care was standardized, and re-operations before 6 months were proscribed. Patients were followed at discharge, 2 weeks post-discharge, and at 6 weeks, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months post surgery. A committee, blinded to allocation, adjudicated all outcomes. Discussion The primary outcome was re-operation to promote healing, treat infection, or preserve the limb (fasciotomy for compartment syndrome after

  12. Study to prospectively evaluate reamed intramedually nails in patients with tibial fractures (S.P.R.I.N.T.): study rationale and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Mohit; Guyatt, Gordon; Tornetta, Paul; Schemitsch, Emil; Swiontkowski, Marc; Sanders, David; Walter, Stephen D

    2008-06-23

    Surgeons agree on the benefits of operative treatment of tibial fractures - the most common of long bone fractures - with an intramedullary rod or nail. Rates of re-operation remain high - between 23% and 60% in prior trials - and the two alternative nailing approaches, reamed or non-reamed, each have a compelling biological rationale and strong proponents, resulting in ongoing controversy regarding which is better. The objective of this trial was to assess the impact of reamed versus non-reamed intramedullary nailing on rates of re-operation in patients with open and closed fractures of the tibial shaft. The study to prospectively evaluate reamed intramedullary nails in tibial fractures (S.P.R.I.N.T) was a multi-center, randomized trial including 29 clinical sites in Canada, the United States and the Netherlands which enrolled 1200 skeletally mature patients with open (Gustilo Types I-IIIB) or closed (Tscherne Types 0-3) fractures of the tibial shaft amenable to surgical treatment with an intramedullary nail. Patients received a statically locked intramedullary nail with either reamed or non-reamed insertion. The first strategy involved fixation of the fracture with an intramedullary nail following reaming to enlarge the intramedullary canal (Reamed Group). The second treatment strategy involved fixation of the fracture with an intramedullary nail without prior reaming of the intramedullary canal (Non-Reamed Group). Patients, outcome assessors, and data analysts were blinded to treatment allocation. Peri-operative care was standardized, and re-operations before 6 months were proscribed. Patients were followed at discharge, 2 weeks post-discharge, and at 6 weeks, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months post surgery. A committee, blinded to allocation, adjudicated all outcomes. The primary outcome was re-operation to promote healing, treat infection, or preserve the limb (fasciotomy for compartment syndrome after nailing). The primary outcome was a composite comprising the following

  13. Moderate Versus Deep Hypothermia With Unilateral Selective Antegrade Cerebral Perfusion for Acute Type A Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshnower, Bradley G; Thourani, Vinod H; Halkos, Michael E; Sarin, Eric L; Keeling, William B; Lamias, Mark J; Guyton, Robert A; Chen, Edward P

    2015-11-01

    Despite improved results with surgical therapy for acute type A aortic dissection (ATAAD), there remains a lack of consensus regarding the optimal method of cerebral protection and circulation management during ATAAD. The purpose of this study is to determine whether in the setting of antegrade cerebral perfusion, moderate hypothermic circulatory arrest (MHCA) provides equivalent cerebral and visceral protection as deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) for patients undergoing emergent ATAAD repair. A review of the Emory aortic surgery database from 2004 to 2014 identified 288 patients who underwent ATAAD with right axillary artery cannulation, unilateral selective antegrade cerebral perfusion (uSACP), and hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA). In all, 88 patients underwent HCA at 24 °C or lower (DHCA), and 206 patients underwent HCA at more than 24 °C (MHCA). Major adverse outcomes of death, stroke, temporary neurologic dysfunction, and dialysis-dependent renal failure were examined. The groups were well matched for age and major comorbidities. The DHCA patients underwent HCA at lower temperatures (DHCA 21.6 ± 3.1 °C vs MHCA 27.4 ± 1.6 °C, p 0.05). Moderate HCA with uSACP is an effective circulation management strategy that provides excellent cerebral and visceral protection during emergent ATAAD repair. In the setting of antegrade cerebral perfusion, deep hypothermia does not provide any additional benefit. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A prospective, randomized study of intramedullary nails inserted with and without reaming for the treatment of open and closed fractures of the tibial shaft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkemeier, C G; Schmidt, A H; Kyle, R F; Templeman, D C; Varecka, T F

    2000-01-01

    To determine if there are differences in healing, complications, or number of procedures required to obtain union among open and closed tibia fractures treated with intramedullary (IM) nails inserted with and without reaming. Prospective, surgeon-randomized comparative study. Level One trauma center. Ninety-four consecutive patients with unstable closed and open (excluding Gustilo Grade IIIB and IIIC) fractures of the tibial shaft treated with IM nail insertion between November 1, 1994, and June 30, 1997. Interlocked IM nail insertion with and without medullary canal reaming. Time to union, type and incidence of complications, and number of secondary procedures performed to obtain union. For open fractures, there were no significant differences in the time to union or number of additional procedures performed to obtain union in patients with reamed nail insertion compared with those without reamed insertion. A higher percentage of closed fractures were healed at four months after reamed nail insertion compared with unreamed insertion (p = 0.040), but there was not a difference at six and twelve months. More secondary procedures were needed to obtain union after unreamed nail insertion for the treatment of closed tibia fractures, but the difference was not statistically significant given the limited power of our study (p = 0.155). Broken screws were seen only in patients treated with smaller-diameter nails inserted without reaming, and the majority occurred in patients who were noncompliant with weight-bearing restrictions. There were no differences in rates of infection or compartment syndrome. Our findings support the use of reamed insertion of IM nails for the treatment of closed tibia fractures, which led to earlier time to union without increased complications. In addition, canal reaming did not increase the risk of complications in open tibia fractures.

  15. Outcome of antegrade continent enema (ACE) procedures in children and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masadeh, Maen M; Krein, Michael; Peterson, Joshua; Bauer, Molly; Phearman, Laura; Pitcher, Graeme; Liao, Junlin; Shilyansky, Joel

    2013-10-01

    Intractable incontinence affects a large number of children and young adults in the US. The goal of this study is to evaluate the long-term outcomes of surgical access for administration of antegrade continence enemas (ACE) in affected children and young adults. Patients who underwent surgical procedure to enable administration of ACE from 1994 to 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Data collected included patient demographics, primary diagnosis, surgical technique, conduit used, complications, follow-up duration, and social continence. Sixty eighty patients underwent surgery to enable ACE; mean follow up was 61 months. Enteral conduit (EC) was performed in 19 patients, tube cecostomy catheters (CC) in 49. Meningomyelocele was diagnosed in 60% of patients. Mean age was 11 (1.67-53) years. Complications included tube dislodgement (43%), granulation tissue (46%), site infection (13%), leakage (32%), break in the tube (6%) and tract stenosis (6%). Complete social continence was achieved in 68%, partial continence was achieved in 29%, and no benefit was achieved in 3% of patients. The rate of complications and incontinence resolution following CC was 78% and 66%, and following EC 89% and 74%. The differences were not statistically significant. CC patients developed granulation tissue more frequently (53%) and leaks of fecal material less frequently (20%) compared to EC patients (26% and 53%) (p < 0.05 and < 0.01). Although children 7 years or younger developed more overall complications (94%) than older patients (69%; p < 0.05), there was not a significant difference in the frequency of any one complication or in the rate of continence, between the two groups. Multivariate analysis showed that EC is three times more likely to be complicated by fecal leakage. CC patients are at greater risk to develop granulation tissue (p < 0.05). Most patients achieved social continence and improved hygiene with the aid of ACE. Younger children also benefited greatly from institution

  16. Use of Antegrade Continence Enema for the Treatment of Fecal Incontinence and Functional Constipation in Adults: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Abhilasha S; Saratzis, Athanasios; Arasaradnam, Ramesh; Harmston, Christopher

    2015-10-01

    Antegrade continence enema is a proximal colonic stoma that allows antegrade lavage of the colon for the treatment of fecal incontinence and functional constipation. Its role in the treatment of these conditions in adults has not been established. This review aimed to evaluate the clinical response and complications of antegrade continence enema in the adult population. A systematic literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases from January 1980 to October 2013 was conducted. Studies reporting clinical outcomes of antegrade continence enema in adult patients were considered. Only studies with participants aged 16 years and older were selected. Use of the antegrade continence enema for the treatment of constipation and incontinence in adults was investigated. The primary outcome was the number of patients irrigating their stoma. Secondary outcomes included the incidence of stoma stenosis, assessment of functional outcome, and evaluation of quality of life. Overall, 15 studies were selected, describing outcomes in 374 patients. All of the reports were observational cross-sectional studies, and 4 were prospective. The number of participants still using their stoma ranged from 47% to 100% over a follow-up period of 6 to 55 months. Eleven studies reported achievement of full continence in 33% to 100% of patients. Four studies described functional outcomes, and 7 studies reported a wide range of patient satisfaction. The rate of stoma stenosis varied from 8% to 50%. There were considerable heterogeneities within and across studies. Most studies were of poor quality, as reflected in the Methodological Index for Nonrandomized Studies score. Antegrade continence enema has been reported as an acceptable treatment of both functional constipation and fecal incontinence in adults across several analyses. There is wide variation regarding outcome measures. Larger prospective studies are required to assess the role of antegrade

  17. [Treatment results of aseptic non-unions of long bones with medullary canal reaming followed by intramedullary nailing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panasiuk, Michał; Kmieciak, Marek

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents results of treatment of 46 consecutive patients with pseudoarthroses of the long bones treated with closed intramedullary reaming followed by intramedullary nailing. There were 22 nonunions of the tibia, 15 of the femur, 3 of the humerus and 6 of the forearm. The union occurred in 40 cases, among them in 3 of 4 treated atrophic, that gives 87% success. None of treated pseudoarthrosis of the humerus united.

  18. [Antegrade femoral intramedullary nailing in a lateral position].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friederichs, J; von Rüden, C; Hierholzer, C; Bühren, V

    2015-04-01

    Intramedullary nailing is the gold standard for the treatment of femoral shaft fractures; however, rotational malalignment remains a common complication. The patient can be positioned on the fracture table in a supine position or alternatively in the lateral decubitus position without any traction. The aim of this article is to describe an effective method to control intraoperative torsion of the femur. The surgical technique described in this article is the standard procedure for femoral shaft fractures and subtrochanteric fractures in this level 1 trauma center. The patient is positioned in a lateral position on a radiolucent table with free draping of the injured leg. Using the C-arm, reduction can be performed with this technique with precise placing of the nails and torsion can be exactly adjusted and controlled with the aid of the femoral neck axis, the distal locking holes and both parallel femoral condyles. The described technique represents an effective method for the intraoperative control of femoral torsion. With an acceptable and most probably clinically irrelevant bias, this technique is able to avoid significant rotational malalignment. It does not prolong the operative procedure and does not require additional navigation settings. It has also been shown to be helpful in the treatment of subtrochanteric fractures. The surgical technique of anterograde intramedullary nailing using the lateral decubitus position without any traction device and free draping of the injured leg represents a safe and reliable treatment concept and offers logistical advantages compared to the supine position of the patient on a fracture table. Together with other described methods of intraoperative torsional control of femoral fractures, the radiological technique described in this study is an easily applicable and safe method, which needs to be confirmed in clinical studies.

  19. Feasibility study of ultrasonic elliptical vibration-assisted reaming of carbon fiber reinforced plastics/titanium alloy stacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Daxi; Zhang, Deyuan; Li, Zhe; Liu, Dapeng

    2017-03-01

    The production of high quality bolt holes, especially on the carbon fiber reinforced plastics/titanium alloy (CFRP/Ti) stacks, is essential to the manufacturing process in order to facilitate part assembly and improve the component mechanical integrity in aerospace industry. Reaming is widely used as a mandatory operation for bolt holes to meet the strict industry requirements. In this paper, the ultrasonic elliptical vibration-assisted reaming (UEVR) which is considered as a new method for finish machining of CFRP/Ti stacked holes is studied. The paper outlines an analysis of tool performance and hole quality in UEVR compared with that in conventional reaming (CR). Experimental results show that the quality of holes was significantly improved in UEVR. This is substantiated by monitoring cutting force, hole geometric precision and surface finish. The average thrust forces and torque in UEVR were decreased over 30% and 60% respectively. It is found that, during first 45 holes, better diameter tolerance (IT7 vs. IT8), smaller diameter difference of CFRP and Ti holes (around 3μm vs. 12μm), better geometrical errors were achieved in UEVR as compared to CR. As for surface finish, both of the average roughness and hole surface topography in UEVR were obviously improved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Reamed interlocking intramedullary nailing for the treatment of tibial diaphyseal fractures and aseptic nonunions. Can we expect an optimum result?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalidis, Byron E; Petsatodis, George E; Sachinis, Nick C; Dimitriou, Christos G; Christodoulou, Anastasios G

    2009-10-01

    The need for reaming and the number of locking screws to be used in intramedullary (IM) tibial nailing of acute fractures as well as routine bone grafting of tibial aseptic nonunions have not been clearly defined. We describe the results of reamed interlocked IM nails in 233 patients with 247 tibial fractures (190 closed, 27 open and 30 nonunions). Ninety-six percent of the fractures were united at review after an average of 4.9 years. No correlation was found between union and nail diameter (P = 0.501) or the number of locking screws used (P = 0.287). Nail dynamization was effective in 82% of fractures. Locking screw(s) breakage was associated with nonunion in 25% of cases. Bone grafting during IM nailing was found not to increase the healing rate in tibial nonunions (P = 0.623). None of the IM nails were removed or revised due to infection. A dropped hallux and postoperative compartment syndrome were found in 0.8 and 1.6% of cases, respectively. Anterior knee pain was reported in 42% of patients but nail removal did not alleviate the symptoms in almost half. This series confirms the place of reamed intramedullary nailing for the vast majority of tibial diaphyseal fractures. It provides an optimum outcome and minimizes the need for supplementary bone grafting in aseptic nonunions.

  1. Functional Outcomes of the Knee after Retrograde and Antegrade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    currently considered the gold standard for treatment of femur shaft fractures although retrograde technique is gaining acceptance. Although introducing the nail through the knee has potential to damage the intra articular structures, several reports have indicated acceptable functional outcome. The results are not known in ...

  2. Sacral nerve stimulation allows for decreased antegrade continence enema use in children with severe constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Peter L; Asti, Lindsey; Lodwick, Daniel L; Nacion, Kristine M; Deans, Katherine J; Minneci, Peter C; Teich, Steven; Alpert, Seth A; Yacob, Desale; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Mousa, Hayat M

    2017-04-01

    Sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) can be beneficial for children with constipation, but no studies have focused on children with constipation severe enough to require antegrade continence enemas (ACEs). Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of SNS in children with constipation treated with ACE. Using a prospective patient registry, we identified patients constipation dependent on ACE, SNS led to a steady decrease in ACE usage with nearly half of patients receiving cecostomy/appendicostomy closure within 2years. IV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A Dual Role for the dREAM/MMB Complex in the Regulation of Differentiation-Specific E2F/RB Target Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hangnoh; Ragusano, Linda; Martinez, Ana; Gill, Jagdip

    2012-01-01

    E2F and RB proteins regulate the expression of genes involved in cell cycle progression, apoptosis, differentiation, and development. Recent studies indicate that they function as part of an evolutionarily conserved multiprotein complex termed dREAM/DREAM/LINC. Here we characterize the role of the Drosophila complex, dREAM, in the regulation of differentiation-specific E2F target genes in actively proliferating cells. These genes are regulated differently from cell cycle-related E2F targets, they do not depend on E2F activation, and E2F/RB repression is maintained throughout the cell cycle. In proliferating cells, their repression is dependent on dREAM. We find that dREAM plays a dual role in their regulation. First, it is required for the stability of the repressive dE2F2/RBF complexes at their promoters during S phase. Second, we find that dREAM is indispensable for both transcriptional repression mechanisms employed at these genes. PMID:22451490

  4. Design and performance of 10-Gb/s L-band REAM-SOA for OLT Transmitter in next generation access networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Hun; Jeong, Jong Sool; Kim, Ki-Soo; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Kim, Dong Churl; Park, Mi-Ran; Han, Yong-Tak; Kwon, Oh Kee; Kwon, O-Kyun

    2015-02-09

    We present a 10-Gb/s L-band reflective electro-absorption modulator integrated with a semiconductor optical amplifier (REAM-SOA) having improved transmission performance at very low input power of seed light. To decrease the input power of seed light, the absorption characteristics of the REAM are adjusted to reduce the amplified spontaneous emission light returned into the SOA, suppressing the gain saturation effect of the SOA. At a considerably low input power of -16 dBm, the REAM-SOA exhibits a low transmission penalty of about 1.2 dB after 50-km SMF transmission. Over a wide input power range from -16 dBm to 5 dBm, a penalty of less than 1.6 dB is achieved at 50-km transmission.

  5. Reamed intramedullary exchange nailing in the operative treatment of aseptic tibial shaft nonunion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hierholzer, Christian; Friederichs, Jan; Glowalla, Claudio; Woltmann, Alexander; Bühren, Volker; von Rüden, Christian

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a standardized treatment protocol regarding the rate of secondary bone union, complications, and functional outcome. This study was started as a prospective study in a single Level I Trauma Centre between 2003 and 2012. The study group consisted of 188 patients with the diagnosis of an aseptic tibial shaft nonunion. Exchange nailing was performed following a standardized surgical protocol. Long-term follow-up was analyzed for rate of bone healing and functional outcome. Osseous healing was achieved in 182 out of 188 patients (97 %). In 165 out of 188 patients (88 %), bone healing was observed timely and uneventfully after a single exchange nailing procedure. An open approach was necessary in 32 patients (17 %). Twenty-three patients (12 %) required additional therapy such as extracorporeal shock wave therapy. Post-operative complications were observed in seven patients (4 %). Almost all patients demonstrated osseous healing within 12 months, with the majority of osseous healing occurring within six months. A relevant shortening of the fractured tibia was observed in 20 out of 188 patients (11 %). After a median follow-up of 23 months (range 12-45 months), outcome was evaluated using the assessment system of Friedman/Wyman. In summary, 154 out of 188 patients (82 %) had a good functional long-term result. Reamed intramedullary exchange nailing including correction of axis alignment is a safe and effective treatment of aseptic tibial shaft nonunion with a high rate of bone healing and a good radiological and functional long-term outcome.

  6. Biocompatibility of magnesium implants in primary human reaming debris-derived cells stem cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charyeva, Olga; Dakischew, Olga; Sommer, Ursula; Heiss, Christian; Schnettler, Reinhard; Lips, Katrin Susanne

    2016-03-01

    Use of magnesium for resorbable metal implants is a new concept in orthopaedic and dental medicine. The majority of studies on magnesium's biocompatibility in vitro have assessed the short-term effect of magnesium extract on cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of direct exposure to magnesium alloys on the bioactivity of primary human reaming debris-derived (HRD) cells. Pure Mg, Mg2Ag, WE43 and Mg10Gd were tested for biocompatibility. The study consisted of assessment of cell viability by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) test, evaluation of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) content, and study of cell morphology under light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), along with determination of calcification and pH changes induced by magnesium. The number of viable cells in the presence of Mg2Ag was high over the entire observation period. Inhibition of ALP content in osteogenic differentiating HRD was caused by pure Mg at day 14 and 28. All other magnesium alloys did not affect the ALP content. Exposure of HRD to magnesium increased the amount of lysosomes and endocytotic vesicles. Cellular attachment was generally the best for those crystals that formed on the surface of all materials. A decrease was observed in Ca(2+) in the medium from day 1 to day 14. In terms of cell morphology, cell viability and differentiation, cell density and the effect on the surrounding pH, Mg2Ag showed the most promising results. All magnesium materials induced calcification, which is beneficial for orthopaedic and dental applications.

  7. Functional Outcome After Antegrade Femoral Nailing : A Comparison of Trochanteric Fossa Versus Tip of Greater Trochanter Entry Point

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moein, Chloe Ansari; ten Duis, Henk-Jan; Oey, Liam; de Kort, Gerard; van der Meulen, Wout; Vermeulen, Karin; van der Werken, Christiaan

    Objectives: This study was performed to explore the relationship between entry point-related soft tissue damage in antegrade femoral nailing and the functional outcome in patients with a proximal third femoral shaft fracture. Design: Retrospective clinical trial. Setting: Level I university trauma

  8. Retrograde endovenous laser ablation through saphenopopliteal junctional area for incompetent small saphenous vein; Comparison with antegrade approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Seok; Park, Sang Woo; Yun, Ik Jin; Hwang, Jae Joon; Lee, Song Am; Chee, Hyun Keun; Hwang, Jin Ho [Konkuk University Hospital, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of retrograde endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) and to compare it with the conventional antegrade EVLA for incompetent small saphenous vein (SSV). Small saphenous vein was cannulated via two approaches under ultrasound-guidance. One method involved puncturing the SSV cranially at mid-calf (the antegrade group). If the antegrade puncture into the SSV failed twice, the other approach for puncture was selected that involved puncturing the SSV toward the ankle (the retrograde group). Patients were evaluated in terms of technical and clinical success, closure rates of the SSV, and complications including pain, bruising, or paresthesia at all follow-up visits. The 1470 nm endovenous laser was used in all limbs. Technical success was seen in all limbs in both groups (100%). Closure rate in both groups showed about 95%, without significant difference (p = 0.685). Similar linear endovenous energy density was supplied during the EVLA in both groups (p = 0.876). Three frequent complications including bruising, pain, and paresthesia did not show statistical significance between groups (p = 0.465, 0.823, 1.000, respectively). Major complications were absent in both groups. The EVLA for the incompetent SSV using a retrograde approach is safe and effective and should be considered the alternative method if the antegrade access fails due to vasospasm or small SSV diameter.

  9. Retrograde endovenous laser ablation through saphenopopliteal junctional area for incompetent small saphenous vein; Comparison with antegrade approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jun Seok; Park, Sang Woo; Yun, Ik Jin; Hwang, Jae Joon; Lee, Song Am; Chee, Hyun Keun; Hwang, Jin Ho

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of retrograde endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) and to compare it with the conventional antegrade EVLA for incompetent small saphenous vein (SSV). Small saphenous vein was cannulated via two approaches under ultrasound-guidance. One method involved puncturing the SSV cranially at mid-calf (the antegrade group). If the antegrade puncture into the SSV failed twice, the other approach for puncture was selected that involved puncturing the SSV toward the ankle (the retrograde group). Patients were evaluated in terms of technical and clinical success, closure rates of the SSV, and complications including pain, bruising, or paresthesia at all follow-up visits. The 1470 nm endovenous laser was used in all limbs. Technical success was seen in all limbs in both groups (100%). Closure rate in both groups showed about 95%, without significant difference (p = 0.685). Similar linear endovenous energy density was supplied during the EVLA in both groups (p = 0.876). Three frequent complications including bruising, pain, and paresthesia did not show statistical significance between groups (p = 0.465, 0.823, 1.000, respectively). Major complications were absent in both groups. The EVLA for the incompetent SSV using a retrograde approach is safe and effective and should be considered the alternative method if the antegrade access fails due to vasospasm or small SSV diameter

  10. Study to prospectively evaluate reamed intramedually nails in patients with tibial fractures (S.P.R.I.N.T.): Study rationale and design

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Background Surgeons agree on the benefits of operative treatment of tibial fractures – the most common of long bone fractures – with an intramedullary rod or nail. Rates of re-operation remain high – between 23% and 60% in prior trials – and the two alternative nailing approaches, reamed or non-reamed, each have a compelling biological rationale and strong proponents, resulting in ongoing controversy regarding which is better. Methods/Design The objective of this trial was to assess the impac...

  11. Hypothermia and Selective Antegrade Cerebral Perfusion Is Safe for Arch Repair in Type A Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, W Brent; Leshnower, Bradley G; Hunting, John C; Binongo, Jose; Chen, Edward P

    2017-09-01

    Unilateral selective antegrade cerebral perfusion with moderate hypothermic circulatory arrest has been shown to be a safe and effective method of cerebral protection during surgery for acute type A dissection. This study evaluates the impact of this cerebral protection strategy on clinical outcomes after extended aortic arch reconstruction in patients undergoing emergent repair of acute type A dissection. A retrospective review from 2004 to 2016 at a US academic center of patients undergoing surgery for acute type A dissections using moderate hypothermic circulatory arrest and selective antegrade cerebral perfusion was performed. Patient data were abstracted from The Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) institutional database and patient charts. Cohorts were established based on extent of arch replacement: a hemiarch group and a transverse arch group were created. Owing to a dearth of events, a risk score was estimated using a logistic regression model with 30-day mortality as outcome and preoperative variables as predictors, including non-STS variables such as malperfusion. Postoperative outcomes were then adjusted in subsequent regression analyses for the estimated risk score. In all, 342 patients met inclusion criteria and were included for analysis (299 hemiarch, 43 transverse arch). The mean age was 55.4 years and not different between groups (p = 0.79). Preoperative comorbidities, including prior stroke, diabetes mellitus, and renal failure, were also similar between groups (p > 0.2). Inhospital mortality was 11.7% for the entire cohort (11.7% hemiarch, 9.3% transverse arch; p = 0.60), and the permanent stroke rate was 7.3% (7.7% hemiarch, 4.3% transverse arch; p = 0.47). Median circulatory arrest time was 38.9 ± 19.2 minutes (35.0 ± 13.2 hemiarch, 65.1 ± 30.1 transverse arch; p optimal strategy for cerebral protection in this acute setting. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Is the Routine Check Nephrostogram Following Percutaneous Antegrade Ureteric Stent Placement Necessary?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soh, Keng Chuan; Tay, Kiang Hiong; Tan, Bien Soo; MM Htoo, Austin; HG Lo, Richard; Lin, Shueh En

    2008-01-01

    Our aim was to review our experience with percutaneous antegrade ureteric stent (PAUS) placement and to determine if the routinely conducted check nephrostogram on the day following ureteric stent placement was necessary. Retrospective review of patients who had undergone PAUS placement between January 2004 and December 2005 was performed. There were 83 subjects (36 males, 47 females), with a mean age of 59.9 years (range, 22-94 years). Average follow-up duration was 7.1 months (range, 1-24 months). The most common indications for PAUS placement were ureteric obstruction due to metastatic disease (n = 56) and urinary calculi (n = 34). Technical success was 93.2% (96/103 attempts), with no major immediate procedure-related complications or mortalities. The Bard 7Fr Urosoft DJ Stent was used in more than 95% of the cases. Eighty-one of 89 (91.0%) check nephrostograms demonstrated a patent ureteric stent with resultant safety catheter removal. Three check nephrostograms revealed distal stent migration requiring repositioning by a goose-snare, while five others showed stent occlusion necessitating permanent external drainage by nephrostomy drainage catheter reinsertion. Following PAUS placement, the serum creatinine level improved or stabilized in 82% of patients. The serum creatinine outcome difference between the groups with benign and malignant indications for PAUS placement was not statistically significant (p = 0.145) but resolution of hydronephrosis was significantly better (p = 0.008) in patients with benign indications. Percutaneous antegrade ureteric stent placement is a safe and effective means of relief for ureteric obstruction. The check nephrostogram following ureteric stent placement was unnecessary in the majority of patients

  13. (Sample) size matters! An examination of sample size from the SPRINT trial study to prospectively evaluate reamed intramedullary nails in patients with tibial fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhandari, Mohit; Tornetta, Paul; Rampersad, Shelly-Ann; Sprague, Sheila; Heels-Ansdell, Diane; Sanders, David W.; Schemitsch, Emil H.; Swiontkowski, Marc; Walter, Stephen; Guyatt, Gordon; Buckingham, Lisa; Leece, Pamela; Viveiros, Helena; Mignott, Tashay; Ansell, Natalie; Sidorkewicz, Natalie; Agel, Julie; Bombardier, Claire; Berlin, Jesse A.; Bosse, Michael; Browner, Bruce; Gillespie, Brenda; O'Brien, Peter; Poolman, Rudolf; Macleod, Mark D.; Carey, Timothy; Leitch, Kellie; Bailey, Stuart; Gurr, Kevin; Konito, Ken; Bartha, Charlene; Low, Isolina; MacBean, Leila V.; Ramu, Mala; Reiber, Susan; Strapp, Ruth; Tieszer, Christina; Kreder, Hans; Stephen, David J. G.; Axelrod, Terry S.; Yee, Albert J. M.; Richards, Robin R.; Finkelstein, Joel; Holtby, Richard M.; Cameron, Hugh; Cameron, John; Gofton, Wade; Murnaghan, John; Schatztker, Joseph; Bulmer, Beverly; Conlan, Lisa; Laflamme, Yves; Berry, Gregory; Beaumont, Pierre; Ranger, Pierre; Laflamme, Georges-Henri; Jodoin, Alain; Renaud, Eric; Gagnon, Sylvain; Maurais, Gilles; Malo, Michel; Fernandes, Julio; Latendresse, Kim; Poirier, Marie-France; Daigneault, Gina; McKee, Michael M.; Waddell, James P.; Bogoch, Earl R.; Daniels, Timothy R.; McBroom, Robert R.; Vicente, Milena R.; Storey, Wendy; Wild, Lisa M.; McCormack, Robert; Perey, Bertrand; Goetz, Thomas J.; Pate, Graham; Penner, Murray J.; Panagiotopoulos, Kostas; Pirani, Shafique; Dommisse, Ian G.; Loomer, Richard L.; Stone, Trevor; Moon, Karyn; Zomar, Mauri; Webb, Lawrence X.; Teasdall, Robert D.; Birkedal, John Peter; Martin, David Franklin; Ruch, David S.; Kilgus, Douglas J.; Pollock, David C.; Harris, Mitchel Brion; Wiesler, Ethan Ron; Ward, William G.; Shilt, Jeffrey Scott; Koman, Andrew L.; Poehling, Gary G.; Kulp, Brenda; Creevy, William R.; Stein, Andrew B.; Bono, Christopher T.; Einhorn, Thomas A.; Brown, T. Desmond; Pacicca, Donna; Sledge, John B.; Foster, Timothy E.; Voloshin, Ilva; Bolton, Jill; Carlisle, Hope; Shaughnessy, Lisa; Ombremsky, William T.; LeCroy, C. Michael; Meinberg, Eric G.; Messer, Terry M.; Craig, William L.; Dirschl, Douglas R.; Caudle, Robert; Harris, Tim; Elhert, Kurt; Hage, William; Jones, Robert; Piedrahita, Luis; Schricker, Paul O.; Driver, Robin; Godwin, Jean; Hansley, Gloria; Obremskey, William Todd; Kregor, Philip James; Tennent, Gregory; Truchan, Lisa M.; Sciadini, Marcus; Shuler, Franklin D.; Driver, Robin E.; Nading, Mary Alice; Neiderstadt, Jacky; Vap, Alexander R.; Vallier, Heather A.; Patterson, Brendan M.; Wilber, John H.; Wilber, Roger G.; Sontich, John K.; Moore, Timothy Alan; Brady, Drew; Cooperman, Daniel R.; Davis, John A.; Cureton, Beth Ann; Mandel, Scott; Orr, R. Douglas; Sadler, John T. S.; Hussain, Tousief; Rajaratnam, Krishan; Petrisor, Bradley; Drew, Brian; Bednar, Drew A.; Kwok, Desmond C. H.; Pettit, Shirley; Hancock, Jill; Cole, Peter A.; Smith, Joel J.; Brown, Gregory A.; Lange, Thomas A.; Stark, John G.; Levy, Bruce; Swiontkowski, Marc F.; Garaghty, Mary J.; Salzman, Joshua G.; Schutte, Carol A.; Tastad, Linda Toddie; Vang, Sandy; Seligson, David; Roberts, Craig S.; Malkani, Arthur L.; Sanders, Laura; Gregory, Sharon Allen; Dyer, Carmen; Heinsen, Jessica; Smith, Langan; Madanagopal, Sudhakar; Coupe, Kevin J.; Tucker, Jeffrey J.; Criswell, Allen R.; Buckle, Rosemary; Rechter, Alan Jeffrey; Sheth, Dhiren Shaskikant; Urquart, Brad; Trotscher, Thea; Anders, Mark J.; Kowalski, Joseph M.; Fineberg, Marc S.; Bone, Lawrence B.; Phillips, Matthew J.; Rohrbacher, Bernard; Stegemann, Philip; Mihalko, William M.; Buyea, Cathy; Augustine, Stephen J.; Jackson, William Thomas; Solis, Gregory; Ero, Sunday U.; Segina, Daniel N.; Berrey, Hudson B.; Agnew, Samuel G.; Fitzpatrick, Michael; Campbell, Lakina C.; Derting, Lynn; McAdams, June; Goslings, J. Carel; Ponsen, Kees Jan; Luitse, Jan; Kloen, Peter; Joosse, Pieter; Winkelhagen, Jasper; Duivenvoorden, Raphaël; Teague, David C.; Davey, Joseph; Sullivan, J. Andy; Ertl, William J. J.; Puckett, Timothy A.; Pasque, Charles B.; Tompkins, John F.; Gruel, Curtis R.; Kammerlocher, Paul; Lehman, Thomas P.; Puffinbarger, William R.; Carl, Kathy L.; Weber, Donald W.; Jomha, Nadr M.; Goplen, Gordon R.; Masson, Edward; Beaupre, Lauren A.; Greaves, Karen E.; Schaump, Lori N.; Jeray, Kyle J.; Goetz, David R.; Westberry, Davd E.; Broderick, J. Scott; Moon, Bryan S.; Tanner, Stephanie L.; Powell, James N.; Buckley, Richard E.; Elves, Leslie; Connolly, Stephen; Abraham, Edward P.; Eastwood, Donna; Steele, Trudy; Ellis, Thomas; Herzberg, Alex; Brown, George A.; Crawford, Dennis E.; Hart, Robert; Hayden, James; Orfaly, Robert M.; Vigland, Theodore; Vivekaraj, Maharani; Bundy, Gina L.; Miclau, Theodore; Matityahu, Amir; Coughlin, R. Richard; Kandemir, Utku; McClellan, R. Trigg; Lin, Cindy Hsin-Hua; Karges, David; Cramer, Kathryn; Watson, J. Tracy; Moed, Berton; Scott, Barbara; Beck, Dennis J.; Orth, Carolyn; Puskas, David; Clark, Russell; Jones, Jennifer; Egol, Kenneth A.; Paksima, Nader; France, Monet; Wai, Eugene K.; Johnson, Garth; Wilkinson, Ross; Gruszczynski, Adam T.; Vexler, Liisa

    2013-01-01

    Inadequate sample size and power in randomized trials can result in misleading findings. This study demonstrates the effect of sample size in a large clinical trial by evaluating the results of the Study to Prospectively evaluate Reamed Intramedullary Nails in Patients with Tibial fractures (SPRINT)

  14. Open fractures of the tibia treated by immediate intramedullary tibial nail insertion without reaming: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakar, S; Tornetta, P

    2007-03-01

    Does immediate tibial nail insertion without reaming as part of protocol-driven management provide a safe and effective treatment for open tibia fractures? Prospective cohort. Level 1 trauma center. A consecutive series of 161 patients with Gustilo grade I-IIIb open tibia fractures. Emergent incision and debridement of the wound with immediate tibial nail insertion without reaming, repeat incision and debridement, and soft-tissue coverage within 14 days. Time to union, number of secondary procedures performed to obtain union, implant failures, and the type and incidence of complications. One hundred and forty-three fractures were followed to union. Follow up averaged 2.2 years (0.6-5.5 years). Seventy-six fractures united in less than 6 months, 35 took between 6 and 9 months, and 32 took longer than 9 months. Twenty-five additional procedures were needed to obtain union in 16 of the delayed unions (12 nail exchanges, 4 bone grafts, 9 dynamizations). Complications included 3 patients with cellulitis, 1 superficial infection, 4 deep infections (1 grade I, 2 grade II, 1 grade IIIb), 3 loose screws, 2 broken screws, 5 malunions greater than 5 degrees, and 30 patients with decreased ankle motion when compared with the uninjured side. Not counting the ankle loss of motion, 18 complications occurred in 143 fractures (13%). Twenty-nine patients (20%) had complaints of minor knee pain and 30 (21%) had occasional fracture site pain after activity despite clinical and radiographic evidence of union. Eleven patients (8%) considered themselves completely disabled. Five patients were not treated by the standard protocol and are not included in the previously listed statistics; 3 were grade IIIB that did not have adequate coverage by 14 days, and 2 were grade II injuries that did not have a second debridement. Four of these 5 patients developed a complication. Protocol-driven management emphasizing meticulous soft-tissue management and the use of immediate tibial nailing without

  15. Percutaneous Antegrade Varicocele Embolization Via the Testicular Vein in a Patient with Recurrent Varicocele After Surgical Repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guevara, Carlos J., E-mail: guevarac@mir.wustl.edu; El-Hilal, Alexander H., E-mail: elhilala@mir.wustl.edu; Darcy, Michael D., E-mail: darcym@mir.wustl.edu [Washington University in St. Louis, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine (United States)

    2015-10-15

    This is a case report of an adolescent male who underwent surgical ligation for a left-sided varicocele that recurred 2 years later. Standard retrograde embolization via the left renal vein was not possible, because there was no connection from the renal vein to the gonadal vein following surgical ligation. The patient was treated via antegrade access of the spermatic vein at the inguinal level with subsequent coil embolization.

  16. Percutaneous Antegrade Varicocele Embolization Via the Testicular Vein in a Patient with Recurrent Varicocele After Surgical Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, Carlos J; El-Hilal, Alexander H; Darcy, Michael D

    2015-10-01

    This is a case report of an adolescent male who underwent surgical ligation for a left-sided varicocele that recurred 2 years later. Standard retrograde embolization via the left renal vein was not possible, because there was no connection from the renal vein to the gonadal vein following surgical ligation. The patient was treated via antegrade access of the spermatic vein at the inguinal level with subsequent coil embolization.

  17. The Use of ExoSeal Vascular Closure Device for Direct Antegrade Superficial Femoral Artery Puncture Site Hemostasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimon, Uri, E-mail: rimonu@sheba.health.gov.il; Khaitovich, Boris, E-mail: borislena@012.net.il [Tel-Aviv University, Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging Department, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, Affiliated to the Sackler School of Medicine (Israel); Yakubovich, Dmitry, E-mail: Dmitry.Yakubovitch@sheba.health.gov.il [Tel-Aviv University, Vascular Surgery Department, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, Affiliated to the Sackler School of Medicine (Israel); Bensaid, Paul, E-mail: paulbensaid@hotmail.com; Golan, Gil, E-mail: gilgolan201@gmail.com [Tel-Aviv University, Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging Department, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, Affiliated to the Sackler School of Medicine (Israel); Silverberg, Daniel, E-mail: Daniel.Silverberg@sheba.health.gov.il [Tel-Aviv University, Vascular Surgery Department, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, Affiliated to the Sackler School of Medicine (Israel)

    2015-06-15

    PurposeThis study was designed to assess the efficacy and safety of the ExoSeal vascular closure device (VCD) to achieve hemostasis in antegrade access of the superficial femoral artery (SFA).MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed the outcome of ExoSeal VCD used for hemostasis in 110 accesses to the SFA in 93 patients between July 2011 and July 2013. All patients had patent proximal SFA based on computer tomography angiography or ultrasound duplex. Arterial calcifications at puncture site were graded using fluoroscopy. The SFA was accessed in an antegrade fashion with ultrasound or fluoroscopic guidance. In all patients, 5–7F vascular sheaths were used. The ExoSeal VCD was applied to achieve hemostasis at the end of the procedure. All patients were clinically examined and had ultrasound duplex exam for any puncture site complications during the 24 h postprocedure.ResultsIn all procedures, the ExoSeal was applied successfully. We did not encounter any device-related technical failure. There were four major complications in four patients (3.6 %): three pseudoaneurysms, which were treated with direct thrombin injection, and one hematoma, which necessitated transfusion of two blood units. All patients with complications were treated with anticoagulation preprocedure or received thrombolytic therapy.ConclusionsThe ExoSeal VCD can be safely used for antegrade puncture of the SFA, with a high procedural success rate (100 %) and a low rate of access site complications (3.6 %)

  18. A comparison of a 'J' wire and a straight wire in successful antegrade cannulation of the superficial femoral artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, D.A.T.; Edwards, A.J.; Puckett, M.A.; Roobottom, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate the success of two different types of wire in common use in their ability to successfully cannulate the superficial femoral artery (SFA) using antegrade puncture. METHODS: 50 consecutive patients in whom antegrade infra-inguinal intervention was planned, underwent common femoral arterial puncture and then cannulation with either a standard 3 mm 'J' wire or a floppy tipped straight wire (William Cook--Europe). The frequency with which each type of wire entered the SFA or profunda femoris artery without image guidance was recorded. Further analysis was also made of the success of manipulation of the wire into the SFA following profunda cannulation and the use of alternative guide wires. RESULTS: In 19 out of 25 (76%) patients the 'J' wire correctly entered the SFA without image guidance. Only 5 out of 25 (25%) of straight wires entered the SFA with the initial pass (p<0.0001). Following further manipulation with the same wire all except 1 'J' wire was successfully negotiated into the SFA. The same was true for only 9 of the remaining straight wires with 11 patients requiring an alternative guide wire. CONCLUSIONS: When performing antegrade cannulation of the SFA a 'J' wire is more likely to be successful than a straight guide wire

  19. Risk of injury to the axillary nerve during antegrade proximal humeral blade nail fixation - an anatomical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegelberg, Ben G I; Riley, Nicholas D; Taylor, Geoffrey J

    2014-08-01

    The antegrade intramedullary Locking Blade Nail (Marquardt, Germany) is a device aimed at improving purchase in the humeral head and reducing varus displacement by providing medial buttress support and triangular stability within the humeral head. The aim of this study is to measure the relationship of the proximal fixation screws to the axillary nerve. 13 whole cadavers underwent insertion of an antegrade proximal humeral blade nail via a deltoid split approach to both shoulders. The anatomic proximity of the anterior branch of the axillary nerve to the screws was measured following soft tissue dissection and inspection of the nerve. The mean distance of the nerve from the anterolateral acromion was 62 mm (range 45-81 mm). The nerve lay closest to the distal blade fixation screw 4.9 mm (range 0-19 mm). In three cases the nerve lay directly underneath the washer and in all three cases there was macroscopic evidence of damage to the nerve. In 5 cases the nerve travelled obliquely in a cranial direction to lie 1.8 mm (range 0-3 mm) from the distal blade fixation screw, in 2 of these cases the nerve lay beneath the washer. The anterior branch of the axillary nerve is placed at risk during insertion of the locking screws despite use of protection sleeves and trocars. We advocate that when using antegrade intramedullary nails that incorporate an inferomedial calcar screw an extended anterolateral acromial approach is undertaken. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ultrasound for the early diagnosis of tibial fracture healing after static interlocked nailing without reaming: clinical results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moed, B R; Subramanian, S; van Holsbeeck, M; Watson, J T; Cramer, K E; Karges, D E; Craig, J G; Bouffard, J A

    1998-01-01

    Based on the results of a pilot study indicating the potential value of ultrasound (US) as a diagnostic tool for the early assessment of fracture healing and the related need for secondary operative procedures in patients treated by statically locked intramedullary (IM) nailing without reaming, a protocol was established for a larger scale prospective trial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of this follow-up trial. All skeletally mature patients admitted to the Henry Ford Hospital (Detroit, Michigan) from January 1993 to August 1994 who had sustained an acute fracture of the tibial shaft and who were treated by statically locked IM nailing, without reaming, were candidates for study. Forty-seven patients with fifty fractures that could be evaluated by US were included. The adopted determinants for fracture healing were complete disappearance of the IM nail on US examination performed at six weeks postoperatively, or progressive disappearance of the nail noted between the initial six-week study and a second nine-week US examination, both in conjunction with periosteal callus formation. Radiographs were obtained to monitor maintenance of reduction and to further evaluate fracture healing. Of thirty-eight fractures with a positive US (thirty-two at six weeks, six at nine weeks), thirty-seven healed uneventfully, a positive predictive value of 97 percent. Radiographic fracture healing was not evident until, on average, nineteen weeks after injury. The single false-positive fracture progressed to nonunion. Of the twelve fractures with negative US studies, ten underwent secondary procedures (nine dynamization, one bone graft), with four progressing to nonunion. Two patients refused secondary surgery; screw failure occurred in both. Otherwise, there were no hardware failures in this series. The results of this study indicate that US may provide important prognostic information concerning fracture healing after unreamed tibial nailing, upon which

  1. Meta-analysis of antegrade continence enema in adults with faecal incontinence and constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, D S Y; Delicata, R J

    2016-03-01

    Faecal incontinence and constipation affects up to 20 per cent of the general population, and can be a significant source of distress. The antegrade continence enema (ACE) procedure has been shown to be an effective alternative treatment option for children, but its use in adults requires clarification. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to determine outcomes of the ACE procedure in adults with faecal incontinence and constipation. PubMed, MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library (from January 1990 to January 2015) were searched for studies that reported outcomes of ACE in adults with faecal incontinence and constipation. The primary outcome measure was successful use of ACE in the management of symptoms, as determined by continued use at follow-up. Seventeen observational studies involving 426 patients (265 female patients; median age 42 (range 17-84) years) with faecal incontinence (165 patients), constipation (209) or both (52), who had undergone the ACE procedure, were analysed. At a median follow-up of 39 months, the pooled success rate was 74·3 (95 per cent c.i. 66·1 to 82·6) per cent (P constipation (both P constipation, and should be considered before performing a definitive colostomy. Patients with faecal incontinence appear to respond better than those with constipation. © 2016 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Antegrade-retrograde opposing lag screws for internal fixation of simple displaced talar neck fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkafy, Ashraf; Imam, Mohamed Abdelnabi; Sokkar, Sherif; Hirschmann, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The talar neck is deviated medially with reference to the long axis of the body of the talus. In addition, it deviates plantarward. The talar neck fracture line is sometimes observed to be oriented obliquely (not perpendicular to the long axis of the talar neck). This occurs when the medially deviated talar neck strikes the horizontally oriented anterior lower tibial edge. Internal fixation of a simple displaced talar neck fracture usually requires 2 lag screws. Because the fracture line is obliquely oriented, a better method for positioning the screws perpendicular to the fracture line is to place them in a reversed direction to provide maximum interfragmentary compression at the fracture site, which could increase the likelihood of absolute stability with subsequent improvement in the incidence of fracture union and a reduction of complications, such as avascular necrosis of the body of the talus. Two lag screws are used, with the first inserted from posteriorly to anteriorly (perpendicular to the fracture line) using a medial approach after medial malleolar chevron osteotomy. The second screw is inserted from anteriorly to posteriorly (perpendicular to the fracture line) using an anterolateral approach. Both screw heads should be countersunk. A series of 8 patients underwent this form of internal fixation for talar neck fracture repair, with satisfactory functional outcomes. In conclusion, the use of antegrade-retrograde opposing lag screws is a reasonable method of internal fixation for simple displaced talar neck fractures. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Histopathological examination of bone debris from reaming of interlocking intra-medullary nail fixation of long bone fractures with concomitant head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khallaf, Fathy G; Kehinde, Elijah O

    2015-12-01

    The aim of study was to test, for the presence of osteoblasts in the reaming debris of intramedullary nailing of femoral and tibial fracture in patients with and without severe head injury. Two groups of patients were studied. Group A (n = 32) had long bone fractures in addition to having head injuries. Group B (n = 35) had only long bone fractures. The fractures in the 2 groups of patients was treated by inter medullary nailing. Osteoblasts in the debris of the inter medullary nailing was compared between the 2 groups of patients. The results demonstrated that histopathological specimens from reaming debris of fractured femur and tibia in patients with head injury showed osteoblasts in (82.9%) and in (27.5%) of patients with isolated long bone fractures (p fractures and concomitant head injury confirm fast and adequate healing in these patients and the presence of plenty of osteoblasts in their reaming debris may reflect a proof of accelerated fracture healing environment.

  4. The effects of simultaneous antegrade/retrograde cardioplegia on cellular volumes and energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Tian, Weichen; Wang, Jian; Xiang, Bo; Wang, Lei; Deng, Jixian; Salerno, Tomas A; Deslauriers, Roxanne; Tian, Ganghong

    2008-01-01

    Simultaneous antegrade/retrograde cardioplegia (SARC) has been employed frequently during cardiac surgery to preserve the jeopardized myocardium. However, retrograde perfusion of SARC may interfere with myocardial drainage and disrupt myocardial fluid homeostasis, which may affect the myocardial energy metabolism and contractile function. The study was, therefore, designed to assess the effects of SARC on myocardial fluid homeostasis, cellular volumes, and energy metabolism. Eight isolated pig hearts were subjected to a protocol consisting of a 20-minute control perfusion, 120-minute SARC, and 20-minute reperfusion. The myocardial water content was monitored using near-infrared spectroscopy. Phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance ((31)P MR) spectroscopy was used to monitor the volumes of both intracellular and extracellular compartments and assess myocardial energy metabolism. The near-infrared spectra showed that the 120-min SARC resulted in a 60 +/- 12% increase in the myocardial water content. (31)P MR spectra showed a 36 +/- 4% increase in the intracellular compartment and a 54 +/- 8% increase in the extracellular compartment during SARC relative to their initial volumes measured during control perfusion (100%). However, the myocardial energy metabolites (adenosine triphosphate [ATP] and phosphocreatine [PCr]) remained unchanged during the 120-minute SARC. Moreover, during reperfusion, the hearts showed an almost complete recovery in the left ventricular-developed pressure. A prolonged SARC resulted in water accumulation in both extracellular and intracellular compartments in the normal myocardium. Although its detrimental effect on tissue fluid homeostasis did not jeopardize the myocardial energy metabolism, a prolonged use of SARC should be avoided, particularly in the diseased hearts.

  5. Obesity: An Independent Risk Factor for Insufficient Hemostasis Using the AngioSeal Vascular Closure Device After Antegrade Puncture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minko, Peter; Katoh, Marcus; Gräber, Stefan; Buecker, Arno

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to investigate the efficacy of the AngioSeal vascular closure device after antegrade puncture of the femoral artery. Methods: In a prospective study, 120 consecutive patients underwent lower limb vascular intervention by an antegrade access to the common femoral artery (CFA). After intervention, a 6F (n = 88) or an 8F (n = 32) AngioSeal vascular closure device was used to achieve hemostasis. The technical success or the cause of failure was documented. In addition, the coagulation status (platelets, INR, prothrombin time, atrial thromboplastin time (PTT)), hypertonus, locoregional habitus of the groin, body mass index (BMI), presence of calcifications, and history of previous surgical interventions of the CFA were evaluated. Results: Hemostasis was achieved in 97 patients (81%). In 12 patients (10%), persistent bleeding of the puncture site required manual compression. In another nine patients (8%) a kink of the sheath obviated the passage of the collagen plug toward the vessel, and in two patients the anchor dislodged out of the vessel, requiring manual compression. There were no significant differences between the groups of successful and unsuccessful sealing regarding the mean platelets (241 vs. 254 * 10 9 /l; P = 0.86), INR (1.06 vs. 1.02; P = 0.52), prothrombin time (90% vs. 90%; P = 0.86), and PTT (30 vs. 31 s; P = 0.82). However, unsuccessful sealing was more likely in obese patients with an increased BMI (26.6 vs. 28.8 kg/m 2 ; P = 0.04). Conclusions: Obesity seems to be an independent risk factor for insufficient sealing using the AngioSeal vascular closure device after antegrade puncture of the CFA. In 8% of our patients, hemostasis could not be achieved due to kink of the flexible sheath.

  6. Biomechanical evaluation of straight antegrade nailing in proximal humeral fractures: the rationale of the "proximal anchoring point".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euler, Simon A; Petri, Maximilian; Venderley, Melanie B; Dornan, Grant J; Schmoelz, Werner; Turnbull, Travis Lee; Plecko, Michael; Kralinger, Franz S; Millett, Peter J

    2017-09-01

    Varus failure is one of the most common failure modes following surgical treatment of proximal humeral fractures. Straight antegrade nails (SAN) theoretically provide increased stability by anchoring to the densest zone of the proximal humerus (subchondral zone) with the end of the nail. The aim of this study was to biomechanically investigate the characteristics of this "proximal anchoring point" (PAP). We hypothesized that the PAP would improve stability compared to the same construct without the PAP. Straight antegrade humeral nailing was performed in 20 matched pairs of human cadaveric humeri for a simulated unstable two-part fracture. Biomechanical testing, with stepwise increasing cyclic axial loading (50-N increments each 100 cycles) at an angle of 20° abduction revealed significantly higher median loads to failure for SAN constructs with the PAP (median, 450 N; range, 200-1.000 N) compared to those without the PAP (median, 325 N; range, 100-500 N; p = 0.009). SAN constructs with press-fit proximal extensions (endcaps) showed similar median loads to failure (median, 400 N; range, 200-650 N), when compared to the undersized, commercially available SAN endcaps (median, 450 N; range, 200-600 N; p = 0.240). The PAP provided significantly increased stability in SAN constructs compared to the same setup without this additional proximal anchoring point. Varus-displacing forces to the humeral head were superiorly reduced in this setting. This study provides biomechanical evidence for the "proximal anchoring point's" rationale. Straight antegrade humeral nailing may be beneficial for patients undergoing surgical treatment for unstable proximal humeral fractures to decrease secondary varus displacement and thus potentially reduce revision rates.

  7. Antegrade versus retrograde cerebral perfusion in relation to postoperative complications following aortic arch surgery for acute aortic dissection type A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolakis, Efstratios; Koletsis, Efstratios N; Dedeilias, Panagiotis; Kokotsakis, John N; Sakellaropoulos, George; Psevdi, Argini; Bolos, Konstantin; Dougenis, Dimitrios

    2008-01-01

    Aortic arch surgery is impossible without the temporary interruption of brain perfusion and therefore is associated with high incidence of neurologic injury. The deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA), in combination with antegrade or retrograde cerebral perfusion (RCP), is a well-established method of brain protection in aortic arch surgery. In this retrospective study, we compare the two methods of brain perfusion. From 1998 to 2006, 48 consecutive patients were urgently operated for acute type A aortic dissection and underwent arch replacement under deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA). All distal anastomoses were performed with open aorta, and the arch was replaced totally in 15 cases and partially in the remaining 33 cases. Our patient cohort is divided into those protected with antegrade cerebral perfusion (ACP) (group A, n = 23) and those protected with RCP (group B, n = 25). No significant difference was found between groups A and B with respect to cardiopulmonary bypass-time, brain-ischemia time, cerebral-perfusion time, permanent neurologic dysfunction, and mortality. The incidence of temporary neurologic dysfunction was 16.0% for group A and 43.50% for group B (p = 0.04). The mean extubation time was 3.39 +/- 1.40 days for group A and 4.96 +/- 1.83 days for group B (p = 0.0018). The mean ICU-stay was 4.4 +/- 2.3 days for group A and 6.9 +/- 2.84 days for group B (p = 0.0017). The hospital-stay was 14.38 +/- 4.06 days for group A and 19.65 +/- 6.91 days for group B (p = 0.0026). The antegrade perfusion seems to be related with significantly lower incidence of temporary neurological complications, earlier extubation, shorter ICU-stay, and hospitalization, and hence lower total cost.

  8. Combined antegrade femoral artery and retrograde popliteal artery recanalization for chronic occlusions of the superficial femoral artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Weihao; Yao, Ye; Wang, Wei; Yu, Bo; Wang, Song; Que, Huafa; Xiang, Huanyu; Li, Qiong; Zhao, Qiufeng; Zhang, Zhen; Xu, Jienan; Liu, Xiaodong; Shen, Liang; Xing, Jie; Wang, Yunfei; Shan, Wei; Zhou, Jie

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a dual femoral-popliteal approach in the supine position after failed antegrade recanalization attempts in chronic total occlusion (CTO) of the superficial femoral artery (SFA). From May 2011 to October 2012, 21 patients underwent dual femoral-popliteal recanalization for CTO of the SFA, with a mean lesion length of 87.4 mm ± 5.8. When contralateral antegrade recanalization of SFA occlusions via the common femoral artery could not be achieved, the occlusions were intrainterventionally accessed by retrograde approach via the popliteal artery, which was punctured anteriorly with gently flexed knee and crus extorsion. When the SFA had been recanalized, further angioplasty and stent placement procedures were completed via the femoral artery. A technical success rate of 100% (entailing puncture of the popliteal artery and SFA recanalization) was achieved, and no hemorrhage, hematoma, pseudoaneurysm, arteriovenous fistula, or other complications developed. During a mean follow-up of 9.8 months ± 1.5, claudication severity, rest pain, and toe ulcers improved significantly. The pulse of the distal arteries, as well as the filling of the veins, could be distinctly felt. Ankle-brachial index changed from 0.48 ± 0.17 to 0.84 ± 0.11 at 1 year after intervention (P < .001), and patency rates at 1, 6, and 12 months after interventions were 100%, 80%, and 42%, respectively. A dual femoral-popliteal approach in the supine position is an alternative backup option after failed attempts at the antegrade approach for patients with proximal barriers in CTO or lesions with major extending collateral vessels. Copyright © 2014 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Routine Use of Surgical Retrograde Transtibial Endovascular Approach for Failed Attempts at Antegrade Recanalization of Chronic Peripheral Artery Total Occlusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, GangZhu; Zhang, FuXian; Luo, XiaoYun; Zhang, ChangMing; Feng, YaPing; Niu, LuYuan; Zhang, Huan; Hu, Lu; Zhao, Hui; Cheng, Long; Zhang, MingYi

    2016-01-01

    PurposeOur aim was to describe the technical aspects and clinical outcomes of an open surgical approach to retrograde transtibial endovascular therapy for recanalization of chronic total occlusions (CTOs) of peripheral arteries because of inability to acquire antegrade intravascular access across the occlusion.Materials and MethodsBetween January 2011 and May 2014, conventional antegrade revascularization failed in 15 limbs of 15 patients (11 males, 4 females) with complex CTOs. The mean age of the patients was 74 years (range 48–83 years). Five patients had severe claudication (Rutherford Category 3), and 10 patients had critical limb-threatening ischemia (Rutherford Categories 4–5). For each of these cases of antegrade failure, an open surgical exposure of the tibial or dorsalis pedis artery was used to allow a safe retrograde transtibial endovascular approach to recanalize the CTO.ResultsSurgical retrograde access from the tibial artery was achieved successfully in 14 of the 15 patients. In the 14 successful retrograde endovascular approaches, surgical retrograde transtibial access was achieved from the dorsalis pedis artery in 8 patients and from the posterior tibial artery in 6. The average time to obtain retrograde access was 5 min (range 2–11 min). No stenosis or occlusion occurred in the tibial or dorsalis pedis arteries used for the retrograde access sites during follow-up.ConclusionsRoutine surgical exposure can be a safe and an effective method for retrograde transtibial access to the more proximal occluded arterial segments in selected patients with CTO.

  10. Routine Use of Surgical Retrograde Transtibial Endovascular Approach for Failed Attempts at Antegrade Recanalization of Chronic Peripheral Artery Total Occlusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, GangZhu; Zhang, FuXian, E-mail: gangzhuliang@126.com; Luo, XiaoYun; Zhang, ChangMing; Feng, YaPing; Niu, LuYuan; Zhang, Huan; Hu, Lu; Zhao, Hui; Cheng, Long; Zhang, MingYi [Capital Medical University, Department of Vascular Surgery, Beijing Shijitan Hospital (China)

    2016-12-15

    PurposeOur aim was to describe the technical aspects and clinical outcomes of an open surgical approach to retrograde transtibial endovascular therapy for recanalization of chronic total occlusions (CTOs) of peripheral arteries because of inability to acquire antegrade intravascular access across the occlusion.Materials and MethodsBetween January 2011 and May 2014, conventional antegrade revascularization failed in 15 limbs of 15 patients (11 males, 4 females) with complex CTOs. The mean age of the patients was 74 years (range 48–83 years). Five patients had severe claudication (Rutherford Category 3), and 10 patients had critical limb-threatening ischemia (Rutherford Categories 4–5). For each of these cases of antegrade failure, an open surgical exposure of the tibial or dorsalis pedis artery was used to allow a safe retrograde transtibial endovascular approach to recanalize the CTO.ResultsSurgical retrograde access from the tibial artery was achieved successfully in 14 of the 15 patients. In the 14 successful retrograde endovascular approaches, surgical retrograde transtibial access was achieved from the dorsalis pedis artery in 8 patients and from the posterior tibial artery in 6. The average time to obtain retrograde access was 5 min (range 2–11 min). No stenosis or occlusion occurred in the tibial or dorsalis pedis arteries used for the retrograde access sites during follow-up.ConclusionsRoutine surgical exposure can be a safe and an effective method for retrograde transtibial access to the more proximal occluded arterial segments in selected patients with CTO.

  11. Obesity: An Independent Risk Factor for Insufficient Hemostasis Using the AngioSeal Vascular Closure Device After Antegrade Puncture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minko, Peter, E-mail: peterminko@yahoo.com; Katoh, Marcus [University Hospital Saarland, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Graeber, Stefan [University Hospital Saarland, Institute of Medical Biometry, Epidemiology and Medical Informatics (Germany); Buecker, Arno [University Hospital Saarland, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to investigate the efficacy of the AngioSeal vascular closure device after antegrade puncture of the femoral artery. Methods: In a prospective study, 120 consecutive patients underwent lower limb vascular intervention by an antegrade access to the common femoral artery (CFA). After intervention, a 6F (n = 88) or an 8F (n = 32) AngioSeal vascular closure device was used to achieve hemostasis. The technical success or the cause of failure was documented. In addition, the coagulation status (platelets, INR, prothrombin time, atrial thromboplastin time (PTT)), hypertonus, locoregional habitus of the groin, body mass index (BMI), presence of calcifications, and history of previous surgical interventions of the CFA were evaluated. Results: Hemostasis was achieved in 97 patients (81%). In 12 patients (10%), persistent bleeding of the puncture site required manual compression. In another nine patients (8%) a kink of the sheath obviated the passage of the collagen plug toward the vessel, and in two patients the anchor dislodged out of the vessel, requiring manual compression. There were no significant differences between the groups of successful and unsuccessful sealing regarding the mean platelets (241 vs. 254 * 10{sup 9}/l; P = 0.86), INR (1.06 vs. 1.02; P = 0.52), prothrombin time (90% vs. 90%; P = 0.86), and PTT (30 vs. 31 s; P = 0.82). However, unsuccessful sealing was more likely in obese patients with an increased BMI (26.6 vs. 28.8 kg/m{sup 2}; P = 0.04). Conclusions: Obesity seems to be an independent risk factor for insufficient sealing using the AngioSeal vascular closure device after antegrade puncture of the CFA. In 8% of our patients, hemostasis could not be achieved due to kink of the flexible sheath.

  12. Safe surgical technique: intramedullary nail fixation of tibial shaft fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelle, Boris A; Boni, Guilherme

    2015-01-01

    Statically locked, reamed intramedullary nailing remains the standard treatment for displaced tibial shaft fractures. Establishing an appropriate starting point is a crucial part of the surgical procedure. Recently, suprapatellar nailing in the semi-extended position has been suggested as a safe and effective surgical technique. Numerous reduction techiques are available to achieve an anatomic fracture alignment and the treating surgeon should be familiar with these maneuvers. Open reduction techniques should be considered if anatomic fracture alignment cannot be achieved by closed means. Favorable union rates above 90 % can be achieved by both reamed and unreamed intramedullary nailing. Despite favorable union rates, patients continue to have functional long-term impairments. In particular, anterior knee pain remains a common complaint following intramedullary tibial nailing. Malrotation remains a commonly reported complication after tibial nailing. The effect of postoperative tibial malalignment on the clinical and radiographic outcome requires further investigation.

  13. Antegrade nailing of femoral shaft fractures combined with neck or distal femur fractures. A retrospective review of 25 cases, with a follow-up of 36-150 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okcu, Güvenir; Aktuglu, Kemal

    2003-12-01

    Complex femoral fractures pose considerable therapeutic challenges to orthopedic surgeons. We present a retrospective review of 25 patients with complex femoral fractures treated with intramedullary locked nailing and supplemental screw fixation. Fifteen patients with ipsilateral femoral neck and shaft fractures (group 1) and 10 patients with ipsilateral femoral shaft and distal femur fractures (group 2) were treated from 1990 to 1998. High-energy injuries occurred in all patients. There were 4 open fractures. Antegrade, locked nailing of diaphyseal fractures was performed in all cases. Supplemental screws for the neck were used in all patients in group 1 and in 3 patients in group 2. All of the fractures united during the follow-up. Five patients in group 1 underwent reoperation (33.3%): one due to a delayed union, the second due to an implant failure, the third due to a nonunion of a neck fracture, and the last two because of an initially missed femoral neck fracture. None of the patients in group 2 underwent reoperation. Angular malalignment of the shaft was found in 6 fractures in group 1 (average 4.8 degree, range 3 degree-11 degree) and in 4 fractures in group 2 (average 6 degree, range 3 degree-12 degree). Shortening of the limb occurred in 3 patients in group 1 (average 1.4 cm, range 1-1.8) and in 1 patient in group 2 (2 cm). Loss of fixation was seen in 1 patient in each group. Avascular necrosis and infection were not seen in any case in both groups. Femoral intramedullary nails with antegrade or retrograde options for insertion and different locking possibilities have extended the indications to include both diaphyseal and metaphyseal fractures. New nail designs, usually more expensive than the conventional nails, have been introduced into the market for this purpose. One has to keep in mind that antegrade, locked nailing of femoral shaft fractures combined with neck or distal femur fractures is a technically demanding but efficacious procedure. The

  14. Safe surgical technique: intramedullary nail fixation of tibial shaft fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Zelle, Boris A.; Boni, Guilherme

    2015-01-01

    Statically locked, reamed intramedullary nailing remains the standard treatment for displaced tibial shaft fractures. Establishing an appropriate starting point is a crucial part of the surgical procedure. Recently, suprapatellar nailing in the semi-extended position has been suggested as a safe and effective surgical technique. Numerous reduction techiques are available to achieve an anatomic fracture alignment and the treating surgeon should be familiar with these maneuvers. Open reduction ...

  15. The relationship of proximal locking screws to the axillary nerve during antegrade humeral nail insertion of four commercially available implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Edward J; Breien, Kristoffer M; Fehringer, Edward V; Mormino, Matthew A

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the proximity of proximal interlocking mechanisms in 4 current antegrade humeral nails to the axillary nerve and its branches. Cadaveric study. Anatomy laboratory. Anatomic relationships. Four humeral nail designs (labeled SS, SL, SZ, and SN) were each inserted in successive antegrade fashion in 10 cadaveric upper extremity specimens. Three variables were measured: from acromion to the axillary nerve, from acromion to entry sites of proximal locking devices, and from locking devices to axillary nerves and their branches. In nail SS, the proximally directed oblique locking screw came into contact with the ascending branch of the axillary nerve in 6 of 10 specimens. Mean distance from spiral blades in nails SS and SL were 26 mm to the axillary nerve and 16 mm to its ascending branch. Interlocking screws for nails SZ, SN, and SL did not violate the axillary nerve or its branches in any specimen. Mean distance from lateral acromion to the axillary nerve measured 58.7 mm. Nail SS's oblique locking screw may injure the ascending branch of the axillary nerve. Three of the 4 nails tested did not endanger the axillary nerve. However, when transverse proximal locking screws are inserted from a lateral-to-medial direction, they may endanger an arborized axillary nerve. Blunt dissection should be performed with a visible path to bone before instrumentation to reduce the risk of axillary nerve injury. Copyright 2004 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

  16. Shoulder function after surgical treatment of displaced fractures of the humeral shaft: a randomized trial comparing antegrade intramedullary nailing with minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benegas, Eduardo; Ferreira Neto, Arnaldo Amado; Gracitelli, Mauro Emilio Conforto; Malavolta, Eduardo Angeli; Assunção, Jorge Henrique; Prada, Flávia De Santis; Bolliger Neto, Raul; Mattar, Rames

    2014-06-01

    Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis for humeral shaft fractures has been described recently, but there are no randomized studies comparing the clinical results for shoulder function between this technique and locking intramedullary nailing. A prospective randomized study was performed. Forty-one humeral shaft fractures (40 patients) were randomized to be treated with a minimally invasive plate (n = 21) or a locking intramedullary nail (n = 19). Clinical and radiographic outcome assessments were conducted at 1 year postoperatively. Shoulder function was the primary outcome, as measured by the University of California, Los Angeles Shoulder Scale. Elbow function was measured by the Broberg-Morrey score, and fracture consolidation and complications were the main secondary outcomes. At 1 year postoperatively, no significant difference was found with regard to shoulder function according to the University of California, Los Angeles scale between the minimally invasive plate and locking intramedullary nail (31.4 points vs 31.2 points, P = .98). There was also no difference in elbow function (94.8 points vs 94.1 points, P = .96). Complications were similar between the groups, without significant differences regarding infection (P > .99), symptomatic shoulder stiffness (P = .488), and neurapraxia of the lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm (P = .475). Fracture union was achieved in all but 1 patient (2.4%) in the intramedullary nail group within 1 year after the surgical procedure. There is no significant difference in shoulder function between antegrade intramedullary nailing and minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis for the treatment of displaced humeral shaft fractures, despite the limited power of our study. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Malone Antegrade Continence Enema (MACE principle in children: is it important if the conduit is implanted in the left or the right colon?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine F. Meyer

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine which was the optimal side for the conduit to be placed (right or left colon for antegrade continence enema implantation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between July 1999 and March 2006, 31 patients underwent the construction of a catheterizable conduit using the Malone principle (MACE In 22 cases the conduit was re-implanted in the right colon and in 9 cases in the left colon. There were 20 male patients and 11 female patients, with a mean age of 10.23 years. The follow-up period varied from 3 from 83 months (average 25 months. Right and left implantation of the conduit in the colon were compared with regards to the presence of complications, volume of the solution utilized, frequency of colonic lavage, time needed for performing the enema, and degree of satisfaction. RESULTS: One patient with the conduit in the right colon, using the appendix, lost the mechanism after two month follow-up. Thirty patients remain clean and are all capable of performing self-catheterization. No statistically significant differences were found between the groups regarding the variables studied: complications (p = 1.000, solution volume (p = 0.996, time required (p = 0.790 and patient's rating (p = 0.670. The lavage frequency required for patients with the conduit in the right colon may be lower. CONCLUSION: The MACE principle was considered effective for treating fecal retention and leaks, independent of the implantation site. The success of this surgery appears to be directly related to the patient's motivation and not to the technique utilized.

  18. Diaphyseal humeral fractures and intramedullary nailing: Can we improve outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnavos, Christos

    2011-05-01

    While intramedullary nailing has been established as the treatment of choice for diaphyseal fractures of the femur and tibia, its role in the management of diaphyseal humeral fractures remains controversial. The reasons include not only the complicated anatomy and unique biomechanical characteristics of the arm but also the fact that surgical technique and nail designs devised for the treatment of femoral and tibial fractures are being transposed to the humerus. As a result there is no consensus on many aspects of the humeral nailing procedure, e.g., the basic nail design, nail selection criteria, timing of the procedure, and the fundamental principles of the surgical technique (e.g., antegrade/retrograde, reamed/unreamed, and static/dynamic). These issues will be analyzed and discussed in the present article. Proposals aiming to improve outcomes include the categorization of humeral nails in two distinct groups: "fixed" and "bio", avoidance of reaming for the antegrade technique and utilization of "semi-reaming" for the retrograde technique, guidelines for reducing complications, setting the best "timing" for nailing and criteria for selecting the most appropriate surgical technique (antegrade or retrograde). Finally, suggestions are made on proper planning and conducting clinical and biomechanical studies regarding the use of intramedullary nailing in the management of humeral shaft fractures.

  19. Diaphyseal humeral fractures and intramedullary nailing: Can we improve outcomes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Garnavos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available While intramedullary nailing has been established as the treatment of choice for diaphyseal fractures of the femur and tibia, its role in the management of diaphyseal humeral fractures remains controversial. The reasons include not only the complicated anatomy and unique biomechanical characteristics of the arm but also the fact that surgical technique and nail designs devised for the treatment of femoral and tibial fractures are being transposed to the humerus. As a result there is no consensus on many aspects of the humeral nailing procedure, e.g., the basic nail design, nail selection criteria, timing of the procedure, and the fundamental principles of the surgical technique (e.g., antegrade/retrograde, reamed/unreamed, and static/dynamic. These issues will be analyzed and discussed in the present article. Proposals aiming to improve outcomes include the categorization of humeral nails in two distinct groups: "fixed" and "bio", avoidance of reaming for the antegrade technique and utilization of "semi-reaming" for the retrograde technique, guidelines for reducing complications, setting the best "timing" for nailing and criteria for selecting the most appropriate surgical technique (antegrade or retrograde. Finally, suggestions are made on proper planning and conducting clinical and biomechanical studies regarding the use of intramedullary nailing in the management of humeral shaft fractures.

  20. Two-year concurrent observation of isoprene at 20 sites over China: comparison with MEGAN-REAM model simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Yang, W.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, Z.; Lyu, S.; Yu, J.; Wang, Y.; Wang, G.; Wang, X.

    2017-12-01

    Isoprene, the most abundant non-methane hydrocarbon emitted from plants, directly and indirectly affects atmospheric photochemistry and radiative forcing, yet narrowing its emission uncertainties is a continuous challenge. Comparison of observed and modelled isoprene on large spatiotemporal scales would help recognize factors that control isoprene variability, systematic field observation data are however quite lacking. Here we collected ambient air samples with 1 L silonite-treated stainless steel canisters simultaneously at 20 sites over China on every Wednesday at approximately 14:00 pm Beijing time from 2012 to 2014, and analyzed isoprene mixing ratios by preconcentrator-GC-MSD/FID. Observed isoprene mixing ratios were also compared with that simulated by coupling MEGAN 2.0 (Guenther et al., 2006) with a 3-D Regional chEmical trAnsport Model (REAM) (Zhang et al., 2017). Similar seasonal variations between observation and model simulation were obtained for most of sampling sites, but overall the average isoprene mixing ratios during growing months (May to October) was 0.37 ± 0.08 ppbv from model simulation, about 32% lower than that of 0.54 ± 0.20 ppbv based on ground-based observation, and this discrepancy was particularly significant in north China during wintertime. Further investigation demonstrated that emission of biogenic isoprene in northwest China might be underestimated and non-biogenic emission, such burning biomass/biofuel, might contribute to the elevated levels of isoprene during winter time. The observation-based empirical formulas for changing isoprene emission with solar radiation and temperature were also derived for different regions of China.

  1. The impact of antegrade intramedullary nailing start site using the SIGN nail in proximal femoral fractures: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa Diab, Mohamed; Wu, Hao-Hua; Eliezer, Edmund; Haonga, Billy; Morshed, Saam; Shearer, David W

    2018-02-01

    In many low and middle-income countries (LMICs) SIGN nail is commonly used for antegrade femoral intramedullary (IM) nailing, using a start site either at the tip of the greater trochanter or piriformis fossa. While a correct start site is considered an essential technical step; few studies have evaluated the impact of using an erroneous start site. This is particularly relevant in settings with limited access to fluoroscopy to aid in creating a nail entry point. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of antegrade SIGN IM nailing start site on radiographic alignment and health-related quality of life. In this prospective cohort study, adult patients with proximal femur fractures (OTA 32, subtrochanteric zone) treated with antegrade IM SIGN nail at Muhimbili Orthopaedic Institute (MOI), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania were enrolled. Start site was determined on the immediate postoperative X-ray and was graded on a continuous scale based on distance of the IM nail center from the greater trochanteric tip. The primary outcome measurement was coronal alignment on the post-operative x-ray. The secondary outcomes were reoperation rates, RUST scores and EQ5D scores at one year follow-up. Seventy-nine patients were enrolled. 50 of them (63.3%) had complete data at 1year and were included in the final data analysis. Of the fifty patients, nine (18%) had IM nails placed laterally, 26 (52%) medially and 15 (30%) directly over the tip of the greater trochanter. Compared to a start site at the tip or medial to the greater trochanter, a lateral start site was 9 times more likely to result in a varus malalignment (95% CI: 1.42-57.70, p=0.021). Lateral start site was associated with varus malalignment. Although lateral start site was not significantly associated with reoperation, varus deformity was associated with higher reoperation rates. Surgeons should consider avoiding a start site lateral to the tip of the greater trochanter or allow the nail to rotate to avoid

  2. Starclose SE® hemostasis after 6F direct antegrade superficial femoral artery access distal to the femoral head for peripheral endovascular procedures in obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiliopoulos, Stavros; Kitrou, Panagiotis; Christeas, Nikolaos; Karnabatidis, Dimitris

    2016-01-01

    Direct superficial femoral artery (SFA) antegrade puncture is a valid alternative to common femoral artery (CFA) access for peripheral vascular interventions. Data investigating vascular closure device (VCD) hemostasis of distant SFA 6F access are limited. We aimed to investigate the safety and effectiveness of the Starclose SE® VCD for hemostasis, following direct 6F antegrade SFA access distal to the femoral head. This prospective, single-center study included patients who were not suitable for CFA puncture and were scheduled to undergo peripheral endovascular interventions using direct antegrade SFA 6F access, at least 2 cm below the inferior edge of femoral head. Hemostasis was obtained with the Starclose SE® VCD (Abbott Laboratories). Primary endpoints were successful hemostasis rate and periprocedural (30-day) major complication rate. Secondary endpoint was the rate of minor complications. Clinical and Doppler ultrasound follow-up was performed at discharge and at one month. Between September 2014 and August 2015, a total of 30 patients (21 male; 70.0%) with a mean body mass index of 41.2 kg/m2 were enrolled. Mean age was 72±9 years (range, 67-88 years). Most patients suffered from critical limb ischemia (87.1%) and diabetes (61.3%). Calcifications were present in eight cases (26.6%). Reason for direct SFA puncture was obesity (100%). Successful hemostasis was achieved in 100% of the cases. No major complications were noted after one-month follow-up. Minor complications included two hemostasis of antegrade direct SFA puncture. Uncomplicated hemostasis was achieved even in cases of puncturing 2 to 7 cm below the inferior edge of the femoral head.

  3. Reaming in treatment of non-unions in long bones: cytokine expression course as a tool for evaluation of non-union therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westhauser, Fabian; Zimmermann, Gerald; Moghaddam, Sanaz; Bruckner, Tom; Schmidmaier, Gerhard; Biglari, Bahram; Moghaddam, Arash

    2015-08-01

    The analysis of peripheral serum cytokine expression patterns has been shown to be a possible method for demonstrating changes in bone metabolism. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of this method within the treatment of long bone non-union with intramedullary reaming, a well-established non-union treatment concept. Three groups were added to this study: group one (G1) suffered from long bone non-unions, treated successfully with intramedullary reaming; group two (G2) consisted of long bone fractures with proper fracture healing; and group three (G3) included long bone fractures resulting in non-unions. We took blood samples on day 2, and after week 1, 4, 6, month 3 and 6 after initial treatment. Clinical and radiological follow-up were provided for 6 months. We measured transforming growth factor ß-1 (TGFß-1), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-AB), and insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) at all-time points. TGF-ß1 levels in G1 and G2 increased from day 2 to 6 weeks after surgery. In general, G1 and G2 showed parallel TGF-ß1 expression patterns, and G3 had a significant peak during first week compared to G1 (p = 0.023). PDGF peaked in G3 during first week after treatment, whereas G1 had its maximum after 4 weeks and G2 after 6 weeks. We were able to detect a significantly lower PDGF concentration at 3 months in G1 compared to G3 (p = 0.029). IGF-1 showed a peak concentration in G1 during the first 4 weeks. Afterwards, concentration levels in both G1 and G2 were higher. Our study was able to show that the cytokine expression pattern in physiological bone healing is similar to that in successful non-union treatment with intramedullary reaming. Our results show that the effect of non-union therapy could be observed objectively by measuring cytokine expression patterns in peripheral blood even in a small group of patients.

  4. Chronic Total Occlusion-Angioplasty with Antegrade Approach: A two-Year Experience in “Modarres Hospital”, A Tertiary University Hospital, Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Safi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: New techniques for the percutaneous treatment of coronary chronic total occlusions (CTO have had a high success rate since a few years ago, so the interest for this treatment has been increasing these days.Methods: The current observational study was performed in Modarres hospital as a tertiary referral center. All the patients with documented stable angina who had failed to response to full guideline-mediated medical therapy, referred to our hospital, were candidates for coronary angiography. Antegrade strategy was applied for all these patients. The length of the lesion, the fluoroscopy time of the CTO angioplasty, consumed contrast volume, the number of guide wires used, whether a corsair or tornus micro-catheter was used or not, and the success rate of the angioplasty were documented for further analysis.Results: A total of 47 patients with documented stable angina were finally included. The median age was 59 (45-78 and 70.2% were male. The mean length of the lesion was 34.0 ± 1.1 .The mean fluoroscopy time and contrast volume were 57.9 ± 3.2 minutes and 525.9 ± 20.9 mL, respectively. In average, 2.2 guide wires were used. Corsair and tornus micro-catheters were applied in 30 (63.8% and 5 (10.6% of the cases, respectively. Seven complications (all including coronary dissection occurred. In-hospital major adverse cardiac events (MACE rate was 10.6%, all of which were non-Q wave myocardial infarction. The success rate was 85.1%. The higher number of used wires, use of corsair, and tornus micro-catheter were not significantly concordant with success rate (P-value > 0.05; in addition, longer lesion was not concordant with unsuccessfulness rate (P-value > 0.05.Conclusions: Patient selection for CTO-angioplasty should be performed more carefully. Patients’ quality of life and risk of probable procedural complications and future cardiac events should be assessed to decide the best treatment approach. Radiation exposure, contrast

  5. The effect of intact fibula on functional outcome of reamed intramedullary interlocking nail in open and closed isolated tibial shaft fractures: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, S Muthukumar; Chandra, P Madhu; Devadoss, Sathish; Devadoss, A

    2016-01-01

    Isolated tibial shaft (ITS) fracture with intact fibula is a common injury but records often fail to mention it. Our primary aim was to study the effect of the intact fibula in ITS fractures in closed and open injuries and that these fractures can unite without a primary fibulectomy. 56 patients who sustained an ITS fracture with an intact fibula who underwent closed or open reduction and reamed intramedullary interlocking nailing (IM IL nail) for closed and open fractures between August 2008 and April 2014 were included in this study. Four patients were lost to followup. One patient died due to causes not related to the surgery. At the time of final followup, 51 patients with 51 ITS fractures were available for the analysis. There were 33 closed and 18 open fractures. Patients were followed up at 4 weekly intervals until radiological signs of union were noted. They were assessed for functional outcome using the IOWA knee and ankle score systems at the time of final followup. The average time to union was 19.7 weeks. Closed fractures united in 17.7 weeks as compared to 23.5 weeks for open fractures (P fractures failed to unite (2 open). The functional outcome as per the knee score and ankle score evaluation system was 93.13 and 92.54, respectively. The knee scores were 93.81 and 91.8 for closed and open ITS fractures, respectively (P > 0.05). Similarly, the ankle scores were 94.96 and 88.1 for closed and open ITS fractures, respectively (P fracture with intact fibula is a common occurrence, and they can be treated safely with reamed IM nailing that provides good union rates and the excellent functional result even in open fractures.

  6. Comparing study with two venous approaches of antegrade catheterization for thrombolysis in acute iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Haobo; Gu Jianping; Lou Wensheng; He Xu; Chen Liang; Chen Guoping; Song Jinhua; Wang Tao

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of catheterization via the great saphenous vein for thrombolysis in acute iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis (IFVT). Methods: Patients with documented acute iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis were divided into two groups. Patients in group A received CDT with venous access through the ipsilateral great saphenous vein. The patients in group B received CDT via the ipsilateral popliteal vein. Clinical efficacy was evaluated by measuring the circumferences between the normal and affected limbs before and after treatment; the venous patency score, the rate of patency improvement based on venographic results; and the clinical results including the limbs edema reduction rate, the mean punctuation duration and complications; were all compared between the two groups. Results: The total effective rates between group A and group B showed no significant difference (95.2% vs 96%, P = 0.549); including the limbs edema reduction rates(86.6 ± 20.0% vs 85.7 ± 14.6%, P=0.868), likewise, the rates of venous patency improvement(57.9 ± 19.4% vs 57.7 ± 19.3%, P=0.968). The mean punctuation duration of group A was remarkable less than that of group B (7.3 minutes vs 16.7 minutes, P<0.05). The incidence of complications at the site of insertion in group A was lower than that in group B (P<0.05). Conclusions: The great saphenous vein is a new alternative access site for antegrade catheterization in catheter-directed thrombolysis for treatment of acute IFVT; more convenient and safe than popliteal venous approach. (authors)

  7. Low-flow antegrade cerebral perfusion attenuates early renal and intestinal injury during neonatal aortic arch reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algra, Selma O; Schouten, Antonius N J; van Oeveren, Wim; van der Tweel, Ingeborg; Schoof, Paul H; Jansen, Nicolaas J G; Haas, Felix

    2012-12-01

    Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) and antegrade cerebral perfusion (ACP) are 2 cardiopulmonary bypass strategies mainly used in aortic arch reconstructions. It has been suggested that during ACP, abdominal organs are better protected than during DHCA owing to partial perfusion via collaterals. We tested this hypothesis using intraoperative near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), lactate measurements, and biomarkers for early abdominal injury in neonates undergoing complex aortic arch repair. Neonates scheduled for aortic arch reconstruction via median sternotomy between 2009 and 2011 were randomized to either DHCA or ACP. During surgery, regional oxygen saturations of the abdomen were monitored using NIRS. Immediately aafter DHCA or ACP, lactate concentrations from the inferior vena cava were compared with those from the arterial cannula. Postoperatively, biomarkers for early abdominal organ injury were measured in urine. Twenty-five neonates were analyzed (DHCA, n = 12; ACP, n = 13). Procedures were performed at 18°C, and ACP flow was set at 35 to 50 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1). Median abdominal NIRS value during DHCA was 31% (IQR, 28%-41%) whereas during ACP it was 56% (IQR, 34%-64%; P intestinal damage (gluthatione s-transferase and intestinal fatty acid binding protein, respectively) were higher in the DHCA group than for the ACP group (P = .03, P = .04, respectively). These results substantiate earlier suggestions that ACP provides more abdominal organ protection than DHCA in neonates undergoing aortic arch reconstruction. Copyright © 2012 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Does electromagnetic-manual guided distal locking influence rotational alignment in antegrade femoral nailing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciftdemir, Mert; Tuncel, Sedat A; Ozcan, Mert; Copuroglu, Cem; Erem, Murat

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether distal locking using an electromagnetic-manual guided distal locking decreases the malrotation rate in femur fractures treated with intramedullary nailing. A total of 113 adult patients having unilateral femoral shaft fractures treated using IM nails were evaluated regarding demographic features, injury mechanism, fracture type, interval between trauma and nailing, operation time and number of image intensifier shots during the operation at least one year after nailing. Patients were divided into two groups according to distal locking technique. All patients had also undergone clinical examination for lower extremity alignment and range of motion and filled out the SF-36 questionnaire and undergone ultrasound measurement of femoral anteversion angles to reveal any rotational femoral malalignment. Group 1 consisted of 47 patients (41.6 %) with electromagnetic-manual targeting guided distal locking and group 2 consisted of 66 patients (58.4 %) with free-hand distal locking. Both groups were statistically similar regarding demographic features, injury mechanism, fracture type, interval between trauma and nailing, clinical examination and SF-36 results. Operation time and number of image intensifier shots were significantly less in group 1. No statistically significant difference was found between the femoral anteversion angles of injured and uninjured sides of the patients in both groups. Although there is no significant effect on malrotation, previously known advantages lead us to state that electromagnetic-manual guided distal interlocking is an advantageous treatment option in femoral shaft fractures.

  9. Diaphyseal humeral fractures and intramedullary nailing: Can we improve outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnavos, Christos

    2011-01-01

    While intramedullary nailing has been established as the treatment of choice for diaphyseal fractures of the femur and tibia, its role in the management of diaphyseal humeral fractures remains controversial. The reasons include not only the complicated anatomy and unique biomechanical characteristics of the arm but also the fact that surgical technique and nail designs devised for the treatment of femoral and tibial fractures are being transposed to the humerus. As a result there is no consensus on many aspects of the humeral nailing procedure, e.g., the basic nail design, nail selection criteria, timing of the procedure, and the fundamental principles of the surgical technique (e.g., antegrade/retrograde, reamed/unreamed, and static/dynamic). These issues will be analyzed and discussed in the present article. Proposals aiming to improve outcomes include the categorization of humeral nails in two distinct groups: “fixed” and “bio”, avoidance of reaming for the antegrade technique and utilization of “semi-reaming” for the retrograde technique, guidelines for reducing complications, setting the best “timing” for nailing and criteria for selecting the most appropriate surgical technique (antegrade or retrograde). Finally, suggestions are made on proper planning and conducting clinical and biomechanical studies regarding the use of intramedullary nailing in the management of humeral shaft fractures. PMID:21559099

  10. Membranous IVC Obstruction Presenting with Antegrade/Retrograde Respiratory Flow in the Intrahepatic Segment in Doppler Imaging and Prostatic and Urethral Congestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, Dinesh; Mistry, Kewal A.; Chadha, Veenal; Sharma, Sarthak; Morey, Parikshit D.; Suthar, Pokhraj P.; Patel, Dhruv G.

    2015-01-01

    Obstruction of the inferior vena cava (IVC) is infrequent, membranous obstruction of the IVC (MOIVC) being one of its rare causes. Early diagnosis is important, as it can lead to hepatic congestion, cirrhosis and Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) and can predispose to development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in severe cases. We report a case of membranous IVC obstruction at the junction of hepatic and suprahepatic segments in a young male with extensive collateralization and venous aneurysms. Unique findings involved antegrade and retrograde flow during respiration in the upper part of intrahepatic IVC proximal to a large collateral vein as well as prostatic and urethral congestion leading to intermittent urinary hesitancy, which have not yet been described in such cases. MOIVC is a rare cause of IVC obstruction with typical radiological features. Early diagnosis and management is required due to risk of cirrhosis and HCC. Antegrade and retrograde flow may be seen in incomplete MOIVC above the level of a large collateral vein and it may lead to prostatic and urethral congestion

  11. Implantation of the Corinthian IQ stent into the femoropopliteal arteries using 6-F introducer sheaths in antegrade and crossover procedures: midterm results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorffner, Roland; Neumann, Christian; Gergely, Istvan; Renner, Reinhold; Resinger, Mathias; Juhasz, Max; Dorffner, Georg

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the technical performance of the implantation of the Corinthian IQ stent into the femoropopliteal arteries using 6-F introducer sheaths. Thirty-three lesions (24 stenoses, 9 occlusions) in 32 patients (mean age 67 years) were stented. Selective stent implantation was performed after unsatisfactory percutaneous transluminal angioplasty result with an antegrade access in 21 patients and through a crossover sheath in 11 patients. A total of 36 stents were implanted. Stent delivery was successful in all cases (stent diameter 5 or 6 mm, stent length 11-38 mm). In none of the cases was stent dislodgement from the balloon observed. Stent placement was optimal without residual stenosis in 30 cases. In 1 case the stent was chosen too short requiring implantation of a second stent. In 1 patient distal embolization was observed which was treated with catheter embolectomy. Nine-month primary and secondary patency rates were 79±8.7 and 86±7.7%, respectively. Implantation of the Corinthian IQ stent into the femoropopliteal arteries using 6-F introducer sheaths is safe in antegrade and crossover procedures. (orig.)

  12. Implantation of the Corinthian IQ stent into the femoropopliteal arteries using 6-F introducer sheaths in antegrade and crossover procedures: midterm results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorffner, Roland; Neumann, Christian; Gergely, Istvan [Department of Radiology, Hospital of the Brothers of St. John, Esterhazystrasse 26, 7000, Eisenstadt (Austria); Renner, Reinhold; Resinger, Mathias [Department of Surgery, Hospital of the Brothers of St. John, Esterhazystrasse 26, 7000, Eisenstadt (Austria); Juhasz, Max [Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital of the Brothers of St. John, Esterhazystrasse 26, 7000, Eisenstadt (Austria); Dorffner, Georg [Department of Medical Cybernetics and Artificial Intelligence, University of Vienna, Freyung 6/2, 1010, Vienna (Austria)

    2003-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the technical performance of the implantation of the Corinthian IQ stent into the femoropopliteal arteries using 6-F introducer sheaths. Thirty-three lesions (24 stenoses, 9 occlusions) in 32 patients (mean age 67 years) were stented. Selective stent implantation was performed after unsatisfactory percutaneous transluminal angioplasty result with an antegrade access in 21 patients and through a crossover sheath in 11 patients. A total of 36 stents were implanted. Stent delivery was successful in all cases (stent diameter 5 or 6 mm, stent length 11-38 mm). In none of the cases was stent dislodgement from the balloon observed. Stent placement was optimal without residual stenosis in 30 cases. In 1 case the stent was chosen too short requiring implantation of a second stent. In 1 patient distal embolization was observed which was treated with catheter embolectomy. Nine-month primary and secondary patency rates were 79{+-}8.7 and 86{+-}7.7%, respectively. Implantation of the Corinthian IQ stent into the femoropopliteal arteries using 6-F introducer sheaths is safe in antegrade and crossover procedures. (orig.)

  13. Fracture Union in Closed Interlocking Nail in Humeral Shaft Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramji Lal Sahu

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The results of the present study indicates that in the presence of proper indications, reamed antegrade intramedullary interlocked nailing appears to be a method of choice for internal fixation of osteoporotic and pathologic fractures.

  14. The use of a mono-fluted reamer results in decreased enlargement of the tibial tunnel when using a transtibial ACL reconstruction technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Justin R; Condie, Daniel; Querry, Ross; Robertson, William J

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate whether femoral tunnel preparation using a mono-fluted reamer rather than an acorn reamer would result in less tibial tunnel deformation when using a transtibial technique for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Tibial and femoral tunnel preparation was performed in four matched pairs of cadaveric knees. The tibial tunnel was drilled using a standard acorn reamer. The femoral tunnel was prepared using a transtibial technique with a mono-fluted reamer, and then, the same femoral tunnel was re-reamed using an acorn reamer. The anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) dimensions of the tibial tunnel were recorded after each reamer. We then compared the measurements following the use of each reamer using a paired two-sample t test. There was a significantly larger degree of tibial tunnel deformation following femoral tunnel preparation with the acorn reamer when compared with the mono-fluted reamer. The initial tibial tunnel measured 10.5 and 10.1 mm in the AP and ML dimensions, respectively. The resultant AP diameter of the tibial tunnel after femoral reaming was 16.7 mm (p mono-fluted reamer. The ML diameters were 11.3 mm (p = 0.003) versus 10.2 mm (p = 0.07) for the acorn and mono-fluted reamer, respectively. The use of a mono-fluted reamer for femoral tunnel preparation results in less tibial tunnel deformation during transtibial reaming.

  15. Large impacted upper ureteral calculi: A comparative study between retrograde ureterolithotripsy and percutaneous antegrade ureterolithotripsy in the modified lateral position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moufid, Kamal; Abbaka, Najib; Touiti, Driss; Adermouch, Latifa; Amine, Mohamed; Lezrek, Mohammed

    2013-07-01

    The treatment for patients with large impacted proximal ureteral stone remains controversial, especially at institutions with limited resources. The aim of this study is to compare and to evaluate the outcome and complications of two main treatment procedures for impacted proximal ureteral calculi, retrograde ureterolithotripsy (URS), and percutaneous antegrade ureterolithotripsy (Perc-URS). Our inclusion criteria were solitary, radiopaque calculi, >15 mm in size in a functioning renal unit. Only those patients in whom the attempt at passing a guidewire or catheter beyond the calculus failed were included in this study. Between January 2007 and July 2011, a total of 52 patients (13 women and 39 men) with large impacted upper-ureteral calculi >15 mm and meeting the inclusion criteria were selected. Of these, Perc-URS was done in 22 patients (group 1) while retrograde ureteroscopy was performed in 30 patients (group 2). We analyzed operative time, incidence of complications during and after surgery, the number of postoperative recovery days, median total costs associated per patient per procedure, and the stone-free rate immediately after 5 days and after 1 month. Bivariate analysis used the Student t-test and the Mann-Whitney test to compare two means and Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests to compare two percentages. The significance level was set at 0.05. The mean age was 42.3 years (range 22-69). The mean stone sizes (mm) were 34 ± 1.2 and 29.3 ± 1.8 mm in group 1 and 2, respectively. In the Perc-URS group, 21 patients (95.45%) had complete calculus clearance through a single tract in one session of percutaneous surgery, whereas in the URS group, only 20 patients (66.7%) had complete stone clearance (P = 0.007). The mean operative time was higher in the Perc-URS group compared to group 2 (66.5 ± 21.7 vs. 52.13 ± 17.3 min, respectively; P = 0.013). Complications encountered in group 1 included transient postoperative fever (2 pts) and simple urine outflow (2

  16. [The risk non-union following closed-focus nailing and reaming. Results of 1059 interventions using the Kunstcher method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babin, S R; Graf, P; Vidal, P; Sur, N; Schvingt, E

    1983-01-01

    The authors have studied a series of 1059 compound and closed fractures of the diaphysis of long bones treated by intramedullary nailing according to the technique of Kuntscher, to assess the incidence of non-union. Between January 1st 1967 and December 31st 1980, 503 fractures of the tibia, 440 of the femur and 116 of the humerus were so treated in both adolescents and adults. The fractures were mostly sustained in road traffic accidents. The risk of aseptic non-union was small, but occurred more readily when the skin was damaged and when the site of the fracture was at the junction of the lower two quarters of the tibia; the incidence was highest when the technique of nailing was incorrect or when the going was undertaken too late. The incidence of non-union and infection are compared with those of other series using the same closed technique and with reports describing insertion of the nail of the plate by opening the fracture. It is concluded that intramedullary nailing using the Kuntscher technique is the most reliable treatment for this type of injury for routine use in an acute fracture service. In this series the incidence of aseptic non-union was approximately 1%, of infection with non-union less than 0.5% and of early infection with eventual union less than 1.5%.

  17. Balloon-Occluded Antegrade Transvenous Sclerotherapy to Treat Rectal Varices: A Direct Puncture Approach to the Superior Rectal Vein Through the Greater Sciatic Foramen Under CT Fluoroscopy Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Yasuyuki, E-mail: onoyasy@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp; Kariya, Shuji, E-mail: kariyas@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp; Nakatani, Miyuki, E-mail: nakatanm@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp; Yoshida, Rie, E-mail: yagir@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp; Kono, Yumiko, E-mail: kohnoy@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp; Kan, Naoki, E-mail: kanna@takii.kmu.ac.jp; Ueno, Yutaka, E-mail: uenoyut@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp; Komemushi, Atsushi, E-mail: komemush@takii.kmu.ac.jp; Tanigawa, Noboru, E-mail: tanigano@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp [Kansai Medical University, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    Rectal varices occur in 44.5 % of patients with ectopic varices caused by portal hypertension, and 48.6 % of these patients are untreated and followed by observation. However, bleeding occurs in 38 % and shock leading to death in 5 % of such patients. Two patients, an 80-year-old woman undergoing treatment for primary biliary cirrhosis (Child-Pugh class A) and a 63-year-old man with class C hepatic cirrhosis (Child-Pugh class A), in whom balloon-occluded antegrade transvenous sclerotherapy was performed to treat rectal varices are reported. A catheter was inserted by directly puncturing the rectal vein percutaneously through the greater sciatic foramen under computed tomographic fluoroscopy guidance. In both cases, the rectal varices were successfully treated without any significant complications, with no bleeding from rectal varices after embolization.

  18. Feasibility and Safety of Vascular Closure Devices in an Antegrade Approach to Either the Common Femoral Artery or the Superficial Femoral Artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutzeit, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.gutzeit@ksw.ch; Schie, Bram van, E-mail: Bram.vanschie@hotmail.com; Schoch, Eric, E-mail: eric.schoch@ksw.ch [Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Department of Radiology (Switzerland); Hergan, Klaus, E-mail: k.hergan@salk.at [Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Department of Radiology (Austria); Graf, Nicole, E-mail: graf@biostatistics.ch; Binkert, Christoph A., E-mail: christoph.binkert@ksw.ch [Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Department of Radiology (Switzerland)

    2012-10-15

    Introduction: The purpose of the present study was to analyze complications following antegrade puncture of the common femoral artery (CFA) and the superficial femoral artery (SFA) using vascular closure systems (VCS). Methods: A single-center, retrospective study was performed after obtaining approval from the institutional review board and informed consent from all patients. At our center, the CFA or SFA are used for arterial access. All patients were evaluated clinically on the same day. If there was any suspicion of an access site problem, Duplex ultrasound was performed. Results: Access location was the CFA in 50 patients and the SFA in 130 patients. The sheath size ranged from 4F to 10F. Two patients had to be excluded because of lack of follow-up. Successful hemostasis was achieved in 162 of 178 cases (91 %). The following complications were observed in 16 patients (8.9 %): 4 pseudoaneurysms (2.2 %), 11 hematomas (6.2 %), and 1 vascular occlusion (0.5 %). The two pseudoaneurysms healed spontaneously, in one case an ultrasound-guided thrombin injection was performed, and one aneurysm was compressed manually. No further medical therapy was needed for the hematomas. The one vascular occlusion was treated immediately with angioplasty using a contralateral approach. No significant difference was noted between the CFA and the SFA group with respect to complications (p = 1.000). Conclusions: The use of closure devices for an antegrade approach up to 10F is feasible and safe. No differences in low complication rates were observed between CFA and SFA.

  19. Ultrasonographic-guided, percutaneous antegarde pyelography: technique and clinical application in the dog and cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivers, B.J.; Walter, P.A.; Polzin, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    Fluoroscopically guided, percutaneous antegrade pyelography in canine patients has been described previously in the veterinary literature. This report describes the technique with ultrasonographic guidance and its clinical application in the diagnosis of four cases (two dogs, two cats) of obstructive uropathy. The technique provided successful diagnosis of ureteral obstruction in all four cases. No complications were observed in three cases. In one feline case, ureteral obstruction with a blood clot occurred following the procedure; however, it could not be ascertained whether this event represented a complication of the technique

  20. Crystal reaming during the assembly, maturation, and waning of an eleven-million-year crustal magma cycle: thermobarometry of the Aucanquilcha Volcanic Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Barry A.; Klemetti, Erik W.; Grunder, Anita L.; Dilles, John H.; Tepley, Frank J.; Giles, Denise

    2013-04-01

    extensively reams and accumulates crystals from disparate levels of the middle to upper crust.

  1. Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy by extraperitoneal access with duplication of the open technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tobias-Machado

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The laparoscopic radical prostatectomy is a continually developing technique. Transperitoneal access has been preferred by the majority of centers that employ this technique. Endoscopic extraperitoneal access is used by a few groups, nevertheless it is currently receiving a higher acceptance. In general, the antegrade technique is used, with dissection from the bladder neck to the prostate apex. The objective of the present paper is to describe the extraperitoneal technique with reproduction of the open surgery's surgical steps. SURGICAL TECHNIQUE: With this technique, the dissection of the prostate apex is performed and, following the section of the urethra while preserving the sphincteric apparatus, the Foley catheter is externally tied and internally recovered, which allows cranial traction, similarly to the way it is performed in conventional surgery. The retroprostatic space is posteriorly dissected and the seminal vesicles are identified by anterior and posterior approach, obtaining with this method an optimal exposure of the posterolateral pedicles and the prostate contour. The initial impression is that this technique does not present higher bleeding rate or difficulty level when compared with antegrade surgery. Potential advantages of this technique would be the greater familiarity with surgical steps, isolated extraperitoneal drainage of urine and secretions and a good definition of prostate limits and lateral pedicles, which are critical factors for preserving the neurovascular bundles and avoiding positive surgical margins. A higher number of cases and a long-term follow-up will demonstrate its actual value as a technical option for endoscopic access to the prostate.

  2. Use of both antegrade and retrograde internal mammary vessels in the bipedicled deep inferior epigastric perforator flap for unilateral breast reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez Rosa, Jonatan; Sherif, Rami D; Torina, Philip J; Harmaty, Marco A

    2017-01-01

    Autologous abdominal tissue transfer is a well-established method of breast reconstruction. The deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap has the additional benefit of minimal donor site morbidity as it spares the muscle and fascia. Conventional DIEP flaps may not provide adequate volume in cases where the patient is thin, has midline abdominal scars, and/or has a large volume of tissue to replace. One solution is to use a bipedicled DIEP flap, incorporating all the available abdominal tissue. Bipedicled DIEP flaps have been described in a number of different configurations. The literature appears to favor intra-flap anastomosis, with a minimal exposition of two recipient vessels. It has been demonstrated that both the antegrade internal mammary artery (aIMA) and retrograde internal mammary artery (rIMA) are adequate recipient vessels. Here, the authors present a single-center experience with bipedicled DIEP flaps to both the aIMA and rIMA, showing their feasibility and safety. A retrospective review of patients who underwent unilateral breast reconstruction using bipedicled DIEP flaps was performed to assess outcomes. A total of 20 patients who underwent unilateral breast reconstruction using a bipedicled DIEP flap were selected for this study. All of them were previously diagnosed with cancer. There were zero flap failure and zero instance of abdominal hernia or issue with abdominal wall functionality following the surgeries. The series of surgeries described in this study resulted in successful breast reconstruction in 20 women using a bipedicled DIEP flap. The results show that this approach allows for reconstruction in places where a conventional DIEP does not provide adequate volume, achieved safely, and does not increase morbidity. The bipedicled DIEP flap is a viable option for large-volume autologous breast reconstruction, providing ample tissue for successful reconstruction while also allowing for shorter recovery and limited donor site morbidity

  3. Controlling Bleeding from Proximal and Coronary Ostial Anastomoses by Using Blood Cardioplegia Delivering Antegradely while Performing Bentall Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol Şener

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Bentall procedure is one of the valved conduit techniques which is used in the treatment of aortic valve diseases accompanied by ascending aortic aneurysm and dissection and it is used commonly around the world. In Bentall procedure, which is a complicated and long surgery, the rate of mortality and morbidity are not only related to the operation itself but also to the complications like major neurological events, myocardial damage and bleeding which take place during the intraoperative and postoperative period. Although the quantity and frequency of bleeding is declined with teflon strips and biological tissue glues, modifications of Bentall procedure are still an important problem. This study was conducted retrospectively with 48 patients in terms of early results of complication of bleeding caused specifically by proximal suture line and coronary ostium anastomosis lines controlled by the method of blood cardioplegia while performing Bentall procedure and supracoronary aort replacement in our clinic.

  4. Computer-assisted three-dimensional correlation between the femoral neck-shaft angle and the optimal entry point for antegrade nailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastopoulos, George; Chissas, Dionisios; Dourountakis, Joseph; Ntagiopoulos, Panagiotis G; Magnisalis, Evaggelos; Asimakopoulos, Antonios; Xenakis, Theodore A

    2010-03-01

    Optimal entry point for antegrade femoral intramedullary nailing (IMN) remains controversial in the current medical literature. The definition of an ideal entry point for femoral IMN would implicate a tenseless introduction of the implant into the canal with anatomical alignment of the bone fragments. This study was undertaken in order to investigate possible existing relationships between the true 3D geometric parameters of the femur and the location of the optimum entry point. A sample population of 22 cadaveric femurs was used (mean age=51.09+/-14.82 years). Computed-tomography sections every 0.5mm for the entire length of femurs were produced. These sections were subsequently reconstructed to generate solid computer models of the external anatomy and medullary canal of each femur. Solid models of all femurs were subjected to a series of geometrical manipulations and computations using standard computer-aided-design tools. In the sagittal plane, the optimum entry point always lied a few millimeters behind the femoral neck axis (mean=3.5+/-1.5mm). In the coronal plane the optimum entry point lied at a location dependent on the femoral neck-shaft angle. Linear regression on the data showed that the optimal entry point is clearly correlated to the true 3D femoral neck-shaft angle (R(2)=0.7310) and the projected femoral neck-shaft angle (R(2)=0.6289). Anatomical parameters of the proximal femur, such as the varus-valgus angulation, are key factors in the determination of optimal entry point for nailing. The clinical relevance of the results is that in varus hips (neck-shaft angle shaft angle between 120 degrees and 130 degrees , the optimal entry point lies just medially to the trochanter tip (at the piriformis fossa) and the use of stiff implants is safe. In hips with neck-shaft angle over 130 degrees the anatomical axis of the canal is medially to the base of the neck, in a "restricted area". In these cases the entry point should be located at the insertion of the

  5. Subadventitial techniques for chronic total occlusion percutaneous coronary intervention: The concept of "vessel architecture".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzalini, Lorenzo; Carlino, Mauro; Brilakis, Emmanouil S; Vo, Minh; Rinfret, Stéphane; Uretsky, Barry F; Karmpaliotis, Dimitri; Colombo, Antonio

    2018-03-01

    Despite improvements in guidewire technologies, the traditional antegrade wire escalation approach to chronic total occlusion (CTO) recanalization is successful in only 60-80% of selected cases. In particular, long, calcified, and tortuous occlusions are less successfully approached with a true-to-true lumen approach. Frequently, the guidewire tracks into the subadventitial space, with no guarantee of distal re-entry into the true lumen. The ability to manage the subadventitial space has been a key step in the tremendous improvement in success rates of contemporary CTO percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), whether operating antegradely or retrogradely. A modern approach to CTO PCI involves understanding the concept of "vessel architecture," which is based on the distinction between coronary structures (occlusive plaque, comprising the disrupted intima and media, and the outer adventitia) and extravascular space. The vessel architecture represents a safe work environment for guidewire and device manipulation. This review provides an anatomy-based description of the concept of vessel architecture, along with a historical perspective of subadventitial techniques for CTO PCI, and outcome data of CTO PCI utilizing the subadventitial space. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Retrograde recanalization of complex SFA lesions indications and techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanelli, F; Cannavale, A

    2014-08-01

    Femoro-popliteal segment is often characterized by diffuse and severe steno-obstructive atheroclerotic disease. Most recent guidelines recommended endovascular techniques as a valid and safe treatment in highly symptomatic patients (Rutherford class 4 to 6) with complex femoropopliteal lesions (TASC C and D). Continuous technical development is increasing the efficacy of the endovascular technique with the introduction of new dedicated devices. In most complex situation also retrograde recanalization can be applied. The main indication to this technique is when conventional antegrade recanalisation fails or cannot be apply. The most common retrograde access is through the popliteal artery. However many operators do not like this approach due to the technical issue correlated to the patient position. Recently several reports have been published keeping the patient supine improving patient comfort and operator activity. This tehnique was also affected by several complications at the level of the popliteal puncture site, but those were resolved with the improvement of technique and operator skills. Hence several Authors described different variants of such technique (subintimal techniques, patient in supine position, puncture of the distal superficial femoral artery, tibial/pedal artery access) all obtaining an high rate of success with a low complication rate. In conclusion retrograde recanalization can be considered a safe and effective technique for complex femoral lesions. It is also less expensive than recanalisation devices, less time consuming and can increase the outcome due to the higher percentage of intraluminal recanalization.

  7. The 'SAFARI' Technique Using Retrograde Access Via Peroneal Artery Access

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, Kun Da, E-mail: zkunda@gmail.com [Singapore General Hospital, Interventional Radiology Centre (Singapore); Tan, Seck Guan [Singapore General Hospital, Department of General Surgery (Singapore); Tay, Kiang Hiong [Singapore General Hospital, Interventional Radiology Centre (Singapore)

    2012-08-15

    The 'SAFARI' technique or subintimal arterial flossing with antegrade-retrograde intervention is a method for recanalisation of chronic total occlusions (CTOs) when subintimal angioplasty fails. Retrograde access is usually obtained via the popliteal, distal anterior tibial artery (ATA)/dorsalis pedis (DP), or distal posterior tibial artery (PTA). Distal access via the peroneal artery has not been described and has a risk of continued bleeding, leading to compartment syndrome due to its deep location. We describe our experience in two patients with retrograde access via the peroneal artery and the use of balloon-assisted hemostasis for these retrograde punctures. This approach may potentially give more options for endovascular interventions in lower limb CTOs.

  8. Outcome of Interlocking Intramedullary Nailing in the Treatment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Fracture of the tibia is one of the commonest musculoskeletal injuries. The current practice is a locked intramedullary nailing of these fractures. This retrospective study aims to review the use of, and assess the clinical outcome of reamed locked antegrade intramedullary nailing of the tibia. Material and Methods: ...

  9. Current technical and clinical features of the antegrade and retrograde approaches to percutaneous transluminal coronary intervention for chronic total occlusion – 2013 version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiya Muramatsu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available PCI for the treatment of CTO has made remarkable progress in recent years, and interventional cardiologists in Japan have made a great contribution to this progress. Innovative techniques, including the retrograde approach, are hot topics in the CTO field. The long-term prognosis after initial success is also attracting considerable attention. Strategies for treating CTO are continually evolving, and the author’s strategy also continues to change over time. The author’s strategy as of 2013 is described here.

  10. [A minimally invasive technique of intramedullary femoral nailing using the RDS system. A new technique for insertion of retrograde femoral nail].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiletto, R J; Baacke, M

    2001-08-01

    A total of 72 patients with femoral fractures was treated between July 1997 and November 1999, 41 of them with retrograde intramedullary fixation. A minimally invasive technique was performed in 18 cases using a recently designed retrograde dilatator system (RDS) for the insertion of ACE-nail (DePuy), the reaming of the femoral canal and the locking of the distal screws. The mean age of the 18 patients (7 men and 11 women) was 49 (+/- 21) years. 8 type A, 6 type B and 4 type C fractures of the femoral shaft according to the AO classification were observed. 5 of the patients had sustained a severe polytrauma. The mean ISS of the total collective was 18 (+/- 19). No nail failed, no infection occurred, and no nerve palsies were recorded. The follow-up time was 10 (+/- 7) months. All fractures healed uneventfully. 16 patients were mobilized under full weight-bearing and regained a full range of motion without pain. In 2 cases of very old patients nursing was possible without pain. In 5 cases an implant removal was carried out in the same technique. The performed minimally invasive technique using the RDS minimizes damages to the patella ligament and the articular cartilage. It facilitates the control of rotational deformities and length discrepancies of the femur also under difficult conditions, e.g. polytrauma and obese patients.

  11. Experimental techniques; Techniques experimentales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roussel-Chomaz, P. [GANIL CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/DSM, 14 - Caen (France)

    2007-07-01

    This lecture presents the experimental techniques, developed in the last 10 or 15 years, in order to perform a new class of experiments with exotic nuclei, where the reactions induced by these nuclei allow to get information on their structure. A brief review of the secondary beams production methods will be given, with some examples of facilities in operation or under project. The important developments performed recently on cryogenic targets will be presented. The different detection systems will be reviewed, both the beam detectors before the targets, and the many kind of detectors necessary to detect all outgoing particles after the reaction: magnetic spectrometer for the heavy fragment, detection systems for the target recoil nucleus, {gamma} detectors. Finally, several typical examples of experiments will be detailed, in order to illustrate the use of each detector either alone, or in coincidence with others. (author)

  12. Endovascular treatment of diabetic foot syndrome: results from a single center prospective registry using mixed coronary and peripheral techniques and equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardaioli, Paolo; Rigatelli, Gianluca; Dell'avvocata, Fabio; Giordan, Massimo; Lisato, Giovanna; Mollo, Francesco; Vassilev, Dobrin; Nanjundappa, Aravinda

    2011-12-01

    To assess the long-term results of interventional treatment of diabetic foot using mixed coronary and peripheral equipments and techniques. The interventional diabetic foot syndrome treatment is rapidly becoming the therapy of choice in such patients, but proper materials and techniques are still debated. From January 2006 to December 2010, we prospectively enrolled 220 diabetic patients (78.5 ± 15.8 years, 107 females, all with Fontaine III or IV class), referred to our center for diabetic foot syndrome and severe limb ischemia. Mixed coronary and peripheral guidewires and balloons techniques were used. Doppler ultrasonography and foot transcutaneous oxygen pressure (TCPO2) before and after the procedure were calculated as well as the amputation rate. The preferred approach was ipsilateral femoral antegrade in 170/220 patients (77.7%), contralateral cross-over in 40/220 patients (18.8%), and popliteal retrograde + femoral antegrade in 10/220 patients (4.5%). The techniques included combined use of coronary and dedicated peripheral guidewires and coronary and peripheral dedicated balloons. Balloon angioplasty was performed in 252 legs (32 patients with bilateral disease): the procedure was successful in 239/252 legs with an immediate success rate of 94.8% and a significant improvement in TCPO2 and ankle-brachial index with ulcer healing in 233/252 legs (92.4%). The freedom from major amputation was 82.8% at a mean follow-up of 3.1 ± 1.8 years (range 1 to 5 years). The endovascular diabetic foot syndrome treatment using mixed coronary and peripheral materials and techniques seems to lead to high immediate success and limb salvage rates compared to historical series. ©2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Unreamed intramedullary nailing of femoral shaft fractures: operative technique and early clinical experience with the standard locking option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krettek, C; Rudolf, J; Schandelmaier, P; Guy, P; Könemann, B; Tscherne, H

    1996-05-01

    Nailing techniques have changed in recent years in ways which are not just limited to omitting the reaming process. These changes concern positioning patients, techniques of reduction and selecting implants. Techniques of approach and exposure have been modified to new, less-invasive procedures to fulfill technical, functional and cosmetic requirements. In addition, techniques have been developed to avoid fragment diastasis, rotational and sagittal malalignment, and leg-length discrepancy. Finally, simple algorithms have been elaborated for the management of specific fracture patterns (bilateral shaft fractures, ipsilateral tibial fractures or associated femoral neck fractures) and to determine the number and location of locking bolts. We developed these algorithms, techniques and procedures in a series of 133 femoral shafts, which were stabilized with the AO unreamed femoral nail (URFN) in a prospective study between 1991 and 1994. Of these, the first 57 cases with a mean follow-up of 17.9 months (range, 5-44) after injury were reviewed. Fractures were classified according to Müller's 1990 system: 12 type A, 29 type B and 16 type C. Closed soft-tissue injuries were classified by our classification of 1982: 17 type C 0/I, 42 type C II. Of 15 open fractures, six were OI, six OII, two OIIIA and one was OIIIB by Gustilo's classification of 1984. The major complications were two broken locking bolts, one nail breaking after 9 weeks, one case of osteitis and one of intra-operative lung embolism.

  14. Antegrade scrotal sclerotherapy versus inguinal microsurgical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les paramètres de l'efficacité ont inclus les taux sériques de l'hormone stimulante folliculaire (FSH), l'hormone de luteinisation (LH), analyse du sperme, le taux de grossesse de partenaires et estimation du coût impliqué. Résultats: Entre avril 2000 et décembre 2003, 25 patients ont été inclus dans l'étude. L'ASS a été ...

  15. Techniques of nerve-sparing and potency outcomes following robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanket Chauhan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Nerve sparing radical prostatectomy is the gold standard for the treatment of prostate cancer. Over the past decade, more and more surgeons and patients are opting for a robot-assisted procedure. The purpose of this paper is to briefly review different techniques and outcomes of nerve sparing robot assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a MEDLINE search from 2001 to 2009 using the keywords “robotic prostatectomy”, “cavernosal nerve”, “pelvic neuroanatomy”, “potency”, “outcomes” and “comparison”. Extended search was also performed using the references from these articles. RESULTS: Several techniques of nerve sparing are available in literature for RALP, which have been described in this manuscript. These include, “the veil of Aphrodite”, “athermal retrograde neurovascular release”, “clipless antegrade nerve sparing” and “clipless cautery free technique”. The comparative and the non comparative series showing outcomes of RALP have been described in the manuscript. CONCLUSIONS: The basic principles for nerve sparing revolve around minimal traction, athermal dissection, and approaching the correct planes. It has not been documented if any one technique is better than the other. Regardless of technique, patient selection, wise clinical judgment and a careful dissection are the keys to achieve optimal oncological outcomes following RALP.

  16. Cephalomedullary screws as the standard proximal locking screws for nailing femoral shaft fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinge, Cory; Liporace, Frank; Koval, Kenneth; Gilbert, George T

    2010-12-01

    In 2004, we modified our technique for the stabilization of femoral shaft fractures so that all fractures were stabilized using a reconstruction nail with proximal locking screws oriented into the femoral head. The rationale for this was twofold: first, potentially "missed" associated femoral neck fractures would be stabilized. Second, hip fractures that might occur later in life above the intramedullary nail might be avoided. The purpose of this study therefore was to determine whether there were any risks to patients treated for femoral shaft fractures with antegrade nails using cephalomedullary proximal locking screws. Retrospective. Two regional trauma centers. Eighty-seven consecutive patients were treated for a femoral shaft fracture treated with antegrade femoral nailing with a cephalomedullary locked nail. Reamed, trochanteric insertion of an intramedullary nail with proximal locking screws placed in a cephalomedullary direction. Patient and injury data, radiographic analyses, and complications of treatment were assessed at a minimum of 12 months. Sixty-one of 87 patients (70%) were available at a mean of 19.8 months (range, 12-44 months). Sixty of 61 fractures united after the index procedure. Complications included one delayed union successfully treated with exchange nailing, one distal locking screw fracture (allowing dynamization and completion of fracture healing), two patients with postoperative deformity that required a derotation procedure, and two drill bits that broke intraoperatively and were retained. There were no major complications at the hip, no migration or failure of proximal locking screws, and no screws required removal. Using a reconstruction nail and cephalomedullary proximal locking screws for antegrade femoral nailing of femoral shaft fractures was not associated with major complications in this series. This modification of standard femoral nailing offers potential advantages, including fixation of any "missed" associated femoral

  17. Dismantling techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiese, E.

    1998-01-01

    Most of the dismantling techniques used in a Decontamination and Dismantlement (D and D) project are taken from conventional demolition practices. Some modifications to the techniques are made to limit exposure to the workers or to lessen the spread of contamination to the work area. When working on a D and D project, it is best to keep the dismantling techniques and tools as simple as possible. The workers will be more efficient and safer using techniques that are familiar to them. Prior experience with the technique or use of mock-ups is the best way to keep workers safe and to keep the project on schedule

  18. Current concept in dysplastic hip arthroplasty: Techniques for acetabular and femoral reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicanic, Goran; Barbaric, Katarina; Bohacek, Ivan; Aljinovic, Ana; Delimar, Domagoj

    2014-01-01

    Adult patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip develop secondary osteoarthritis and eventually end up with total hip arthroplasty (THA) at younger age. Because of altered anatomy of dysplastic hips, THA in these patients represents technically demanding procedure. Distorted anatomy of the acetabulum and proximal femur together with conjoined leg length discrepancy present major challenges during performing THA in patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip. In addition, most patients are at younger age, therefore, soft tissue balance is of great importance (especially the need to preserve the continuity of abductors) to maximise postoperative functional result. In this paper we present a variety of surgical techniques available for THA in dysplastic hips, their advantages and disadvantages. For acetabular reconstruction following techniques are described: Standard metal augments (prefabricated), Custom made acetabular augments (3D printing), Roof reconstruction with vascularized fibula, Roof reconstruction with pedicled iliac graft, Roof reconstruction with autologous bone graft, Roof reconstruction with homologous bone graft, Roof reconstruction with auto/homologous spongious bone, Reinforcement ring with the hook in combination with autologous graft augmentation, Cranial positioning of the acetabulum, Medial protrusion technique (cotyloplasty) with chisel, Medial protrusion technique (cotyloplasty) with reaming, Cotyloplasty without spongioplasty. For femoral reconstruction following techniques were described: Distraction with external fixator, Femoral shortening through a modified lateral approach, Transtrochanteric osteotomies, Paavilainen osteotomy, Lesser trochanter osteotomy, Double-chevron osteotomy, Subtrochanteric osteotomies, Diaphyseal osteotomies, Distal femoral osteotomies. At the end we present author’s treatment method of choice: for acetabulum we perform cotyloplasty leaving only paper-thin medial wall, which we break during

  19. Acquired Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Nielsen, Espen; Halse, Karianne

    2013-01-01

    Acquired Techniques - a Leap into the Archive, at Aarhus School of Architecture. In collaboration with Karianne Halse, James Martin and Mika K. Friis. Following the footsteps of past travelers this is a journey into tools and techniques of the architectural process. The workshop will focus upon...

  20. Intensity techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn

    2008-01-01

    The Handbook of Signal Processing in Acoustics will compile the techniques and applications of signal processing as they are used in the many varied areas of Acoustics. The Handbook will emphasize the interdisciplinary nature of signal processing in acoustics. Each Section of the Handbook...... from different areas, will find the self-contained chapters accessible and will be interested in the similarities and differences between the approaches and techniques used in different areas of acoustics....

  1. Symptomatic portal vein occlusion: treated by interventional radiological techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Maoqiang; Gu Xiaofang; Guan Jun; Wang Zhongpu; Liu Fengyong; Wang Zhiqiang

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the interventional radiological techniques for management of symptomatic portal vein (PV) occlusion. Methods: Nine patients with PV trunk occlusion were treated using interventional procedures. Four patients presented with abdominal pain, distention, and malabsorption; five presented with portal hypertension and repeated bleeding from esophagogastric varices. The etiologic factors were identified in all 9 patients, including post-transplantation of the liver in 2, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) associated with PV tumor thrombus in 3, post abdominal operative state in 1, and PV thrombosis in 3 cases. The portal access was established via a percutaneous transhepatic route in 4, and via a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt ( TIPS) approach in 5 patients. The interventional procedures included stent placement in 4, balloon angioplasty in 6, and catheter directed pharmacologic and mechanical thrombolysis in 7 patients. Results: The technical success was achieved in all cases. No complications related to the procedure occurred. Portal flow was reestablished in all patients after the procedures. Clinical improvement was seen in 3 patients with symptomatic PV thrombosis, characterized by progressive reduction of abdominal pain, distention, and diarrhea. Follow-up time ranged from 4 to 36 months. One patient with HCC died of multiple organs metastases at 11 months after the treatment . One patient died of intraabdominal sepsis and multiple organs failure 12 days after the procedure even though the antegrade flow was re-established in the main trunk of the PV. Patency of the PV trunk was confirmed by follow-up color Doppler ultrasound scan in the rest 7 patients, without recurrence of variceal bleeding or PV thrombus. Conclusions: Interventional minimally invasive procedures, including balloon angioplasty, stent placement, catheter directed local pharmacologic and mechanical thrombolysis, are safe and effective in

  2. Evaluation of Visualization Using a 50/50 (Contrast Media/Glucose 5% Solution) Technique for Radioembolization as an Alternative to a Standard Sandwich Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paprottka, Karolin J; Todica, Andrei; Ilhan, Harun; Rübenthaler, Johannes; Schoeppe, Franziska; Michl, Marlies; Heinemann, Volker; Bartenstein, Peter; Reiser, Maximilian F; Paprottka, Philipp M

    2017-11-01

    Radioembolization (RE) with 90 yttrium ( 90 Y) resin microspheres generally employs a sandwich technique with separate sequential administration of contrast medium (CM), followed by vehicle (e.g., glucose 5% [G5] solution), then 90 Y resin microspheres (in G5), then G5, and then CM again to avoid contact of CM and microspheres under fluoroscopic guidance. This study evaluates the visualization quality and safety of a modified sandwich technique with a 50/50-mixture of CM (Imeron 300) and G5 for administration of 90 Y resin microspheres. A retrospective analysis of 81 RE procedures in patients with primary or secondary liver tumors was performed. The quality of angiographic visualization of the hepatic vessels was assessed before the first injection and immediately before the whole dose has been injected. Visualization and flow rate were graded on a 5-point scale: 1 = very good to 5 = not visible/no antegrade flow. Univariate logistic regression models and multiple linear regression models were used to evaluate the prognostic variables associated with visualization and flow scores. Visualization quality was inversely related to flow rate, the lower the flow rate the better the grade of the visualization. Visualization quality was also inversely related to body-mass-index (BMI). Performing RE with the 50/50-CM/G5 mixture resulted in a mean injection time for 1 GBq of 15 min. No clinically significant adverse events, including radiation-induced liver disease were reported. RE with a 50/50-mixture of CM and G5 for administration of 90 Y resin microspheres in a modified sandwich technique is a safe administration alternative and provides good visualization of hepatic vessels, which is inversely dependent on flow rate and BMI. Injection time was reduced compared with our experience with the standard sandwich technique.

  3. Radionuclide techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alazraki, N.

    1988-01-01

    During approximately 25 years of experience with bone scanning, broad expansions in the clinical impact of radionuclide imaging on disorders of bones, joints, and soft tissues have occurred. This increased impact had its groundwork laid by advances in radiopharmaceuticals and instruments that are used for bone imaging. The progression from /sup 85/Sr- to /sup 99m/Tc-labeled phosphate and phosphonate compounds, coupled with the advance from crude rectilinear scanning techniques to whole body scintillation imaging with large crystal cameras and sophisticated electronics, has encourage use of radionuclide techniques in the evaluation of muscoloskeletal diseases. Many clinical studies have documented the high degree of sensitivity of the bone scan compared with that of the radiograph in detecting osseous and articular abnormalities

  4. Astrophysical techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kitchin, CR

    2013-01-01

    DetectorsOptical DetectionRadio and Microwave DetectionX-Ray and Gamma-Ray DetectionCosmic Ray DetectorsNeutrino DetectorsGravitational Radiation Dark Matter and Dark Energy Detection ImagingThe Inverse ProblemPhotographyElectronic ImagingScanningInterferometrySpeckle InterferometryOccultationsRadarElectronic ImagesPhotometryPhotometryPhotometersSpectroscopySpectroscopy SpectroscopesOther TechniquesAstrometryPolarimetrySolar StudiesMagnetometryComputers and The Internet.

  5. Aseptic technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykowski, Tomasz; Stevenson, Brian

    2008-11-01

    This chapter describes common laboratory procedures that can reduce the risk of culture contaminations (sepsis), collectively referred as "aseptic technique." Two major strategies of aseptic work are described: using a Bunsen burner and a laminar flow hood. Both methods are presented in the form of general protocols applicable to a variety of laboratory tasks such as pipetting and dispensing aliquots, preparing growth media, and inoculating, passaging, and spreading microorganisms on petri dishes. Copyright 2008 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  6. Presentation Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froejmark, M.

    1992-10-01

    The report presents a wide, easily understandable description of presentation technique and man-machine communication. General fundamentals for the man-machine interface are illustrated, and the factors that affect the interface are described. A model is presented for describing the operators work situation, based on three different levels in the operators behaviour. The operator reacts routinely in the face of simple, known problems, and reacts in accordance with predetermined plans in the face of more complex, recognizable problems. Deep fundamental knowledge is necessary for truly complex questions. Today's technical status and future development have been studied. In the future, the operator interface will be based on standard software. Functions such as zooming, integration of video pictures, and sound reproduction will become common. Video walls may be expected to come into use in situations in which several persons simultaneously need access to the same information. A summary of the fundamental rules for the design of good picture ergonomics and design requirements for control rooms are included in the report. In conclusion, the report describes a presentation technique within the Distribution Automation and Demand Side Management area and analyses the know-how requirements within Vattenfall. If different systems are integrated, such as geographical information systems and operation monitoring systems, strict demands are made on the expertise of the users for achieving a user-friendly technique which is matched to the needs of the human being. (3 figs.)

  7. Crusade Microcatheter-Facilitated Reverse Wire Technique for Revascularization of Bifurcation Lesions of Coronary Arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsin-Fu; Chou, Shing-Hsien; Tung, Ying-Chang; Lin, Chia-Pin; Ko, Yu-Shien; Chang, Chi-Jen

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the lesion characteristics of bifurcations that required reverse wire technique and the efficacy and safety of this technique in approaching branches with a highly angulated take-off. We enrolled patients in whom reverse wire technique was used after failed conventional antegrade wiring with the support of a Crusade catheter. The study endpoints were the technical success defined as succeeding in sending the reversely bent wire to the targeted branches without complications and the procedural success defined as succeeding in revascularization of the bifurcation lesions without complications. Among 158 patients with bifurcation lesions undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention using a Crusade catheter to facilitate wiring, 23 (14.6%) requiring the reverse wire technique in an attempt to access branches of the bifurcation lesions with an acutely angulated take-off were enrolled for analysis. The obtainable angle of take-off was 162.9 ± 4.7 degrees. For the parent vessel, the ostium of the targeted branch, and nontargeted branch, the minimal luminal diameters were 0.3 ± 0.5 mm, 0.4 ± 0.2 mm, and 1.8 ± 0.5 mm, respectively; the diameter stenosis were 88.8 ± 18.5%, 83.0 ± 7.3%, and 32.0 ± 14.5%, respectively. Technical and procedural success was achieved in 22 cases (96% for both). We showed in the present study that the reverse wire technique is effective and safe for approaching highly angulated branches of bifurcation lesions and consequently for complete revascularization of difficult bifurcation lesions.

  8. Terahertz Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bründermann, Erik; Kimmitt, Maurice FitzGerald

    2012-01-01

    Research and development in the terahertz portion of the electromagnetic spectrum has expanded very rapidly during the past fifteen years due to major advances in sources, detectors and instrumentation. Many scientists and engineers are entering the field and this volume offers a comprehensive and integrated treatment of all aspects of terahertz technology. The three authors, who have been active researchers in this region over a number of years, have designed Terahertz Techniques to be both a general introduction to the subject and a definitive reference resource for all those involved in this exciting research area.

  9. Combinatorial techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Sane, Sharad S

    2013-01-01

    This is a basic text on combinatorics that deals with all the three aspects of the discipline: tricks, techniques and theory, and attempts to blend them. The book has several distinctive features. Probability and random variables with their interconnections to permutations are discussed. The theme of parity has been specially included and it covers applications ranging from solving the Nim game to the quadratic reciprocity law. Chapters related to geometry include triangulations and Sperner's theorem, classification of regular polytopes, tilings and an introduction to the Eulcidean Ramsey theory. Material on group actions covers Sylow theory, automorphism groups and a classification of finite subgroups of orthogonal groups. All chapters have a large number of exercises with varying degrees of difficulty, ranging from material suitable for Mathematical Olympiads to research.

  10. Microcatheter balloon pinning technique to facilitate wiring of a left circumflex chronic total occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguayo, Kevin N; Oguayo, Chris C; Vallabhan, Ravi; Choi, James W

    2017-12-01

    Coronary chronic total occlusions (CTOs) are commonly encountered during diagnostic angiograms. With recent advances, especially in experienced centers, success rates with CTO percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) have approached 80% or higher. It is important to note that despite these advancements in techniques, CTOs remain difficult to treat. We present a case of a left circumflex artery (LCX) CTO that was successfully revascularized using a microcatheter balloon pinning technique that allowed additional wire support. A 77-year-old woman status post-two-vessel coronary artery bypass graft surgery presented with new onset angina at rest and was found to have a patent graft to the left anterior descending artery, and an unrevascularized proximal LCX CTO. PCI was attempted with a microcatheter using an antegrade approach. This approach was unsuccessful due to the lack of support and the left circumflex angle. As a result, we used a balloon to pin the microcatheter to the wall of the left main to allow for successful wiring of the LCX. A stent was successfully deployed in the LCX, and the patient was discharged from the hospital 2 days later. At follow-up, the patient was asymptomatic and returned to her usual activity. After conducting a thorough literature search, it appears that this is the first case that a microcatheter has been pinned with a balloon. We believe that in LCX CTOs that require support, the microcatheter pinning technique can provide adequate support in wiring CTO's. LCX CTOs can be very difficult to treat, we present a case of a LCX CTO that required the use of the microcatheter balloon pinning technique to allow additional wire support for successful wiring and ultimately treatment. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Industrial technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1975-01-01

    An illustrative embodiment of the invention discloses a technique for disassembling a nuclear reactor fuel element without destroying the individual fuel pins and other structural components from which the element is assembled. A traveling bridge and trolley that span a water-filled spent fuel storage pool support a strongback. The strongback is under water and provides a working surface on which the spent fuel element is placed for inspection and for the manipulation that is associated with disassembly and assembly. To remove, in a non-destructive manner, the grids that hold the fuel pins in the proper relative positions within the element, bars are inserted through apertures in the grids with the aid of special tools. These bars are rotated to flex the adjacent grid walls and, in this way relax the physical engagement between protruding portions of the grid walls and the associated fuel pins. With the grid structure so flexed to relax the physical grip on the individual fuel pins, these pins can be withdrawn for inspection or replacement as necessary without imposing a need to destroy fuel element components. (U.S.)

  12. Techniques de combustion Combustin Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perthuis E.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'efficacité d'un processus de chauffage par flamme est étroitement liée à la maîtrise des techniques de combustion. Le brûleur, organe essentiel de l'équipement de chauffe, doit d'une part assurer une combustion complète pour utiliser au mieux l'énergie potentielle du combustible et, d'autre part, provoquer dans le foyer les conditions aérodynamiques les plus propices oux transferts de chaleur. En s'appuyant sur les études expérimentales effectuées à la Fondation de Recherches Internationales sur les Flammes (FRIF, au Groupe d'Étude des Flammes de Gaz Naturel (GEFGN et à l'Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP et sur des réalisations industrielles, on présente les propriétés essentielles des flammes de diffusion aux combustibles liquides et gazeux obtenues avec ou sans mise en rotation des fluides, et leurs répercussions sur les transferts thermiques. La recherche des températures de combustion élevées conduit à envisager la marche à excès d'air réduit, le réchauffage de l'air ou son enrichissement à l'oxygène. Par quelques exemples, on évoque l'influence de ces paramètres d'exploitation sur l'économie possible en combustible. The efficiency of a flame heating process is closely linked ta the mastery of, combustion techniques. The burner, an essential element in any heating equipment, must provide complete combustion sa as to make optimum use of the potential energy in the fuel while, at the same time, creating the most suitable conditions for heat transfers in the combustion chamber. On the basis of experimental research performed by FRIF, GEFGN and IFP and of industrial achievements, this article describesthe essential properties of diffusion flames fed by liquid and gaseous fuels and produced with or without fluid swirling, and the effects of such flames on heat transfers. The search for high combustion temperatures means that consideration must be given to operating with reduced excess air, heating the air or

  13. Reaming and the healing of fractures | Umebese | Nigerian Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OBJECTIVE: We quantified fracture healing response in the intramedullary nailed fractures of femur. PATIENTS AND METHOD: By a simple method of measuring size and mass of callus formation radiologically in 30 patients who had undergone open retrograde intramedullary Kuntscher nailing. We then compared the ...

  14. Retrograde myotomy: a variation in per oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsky, Jeffrey L; Marks, Jeffrey M; Orenstein, Sean B

    2014-11-01

    Per oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) has evolved as a novel therapeutic option for the treatment of esophageal motility disorders such as achalasia. The originally described dissection technique involves cutting the inner circular esophageal muscle fibers in an antegrade fashion. We have modified this technique by commencing the muscular division at the most distal aspect of the submucosal tunnel and continuing the dissection in a retrograde fashion. We present our initial series of patients performed using this modified technique. We retrospectively reviewed our prospectively collected database. Peri- and postoperative data were collected and analyzed. POEM procedures were performed in a near-identical manner as previously published. Retrograde myotomy was performed on five patients with a diagnosis of achalasia. Four had a history of prior treatment including balloon dilation, with one of these having a prior surgical myotomy. Retrograde POEM procedures were performed with trace blood loss and without any complications. Mean operative time was 85 min. All patients had normal esophagram studies, and diets were advanced as per protocol. POEM was developed as a minimally invasive method for the treatment of achalasia. Our retrograde dissection modification allows the most critical portion of the case, namely division of the lower esophageal and upper gastric circular muscle fibers, to be performed earlier in the case. This ensures adequate dissection of the primary site of esophageal dysfunction should problems arise during the procedure. The modification is straightforward, without the need for additional training or equipment, and appears to provide a more rapid myotomy with less charring in this small cohort of patients.

  15. Experimental antegrade enema: effects on water, electrolyte and acid-base balances with different solutions Enema anterógrado experimental: equilíbrio hídrico eletrolítico e ácido-base em coelhos submetidos a enema com diferentes soluções

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Helman

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study the effects on the water, electrolyte, and acid-base balances in rabbits submitted to antegrade enema with different solutions through appendicostomy. METHODS: Forty male New Zealand rabbits were submitted to appendicostomy, and distributed in 4 groups, according to the antegrade enema solution: PEG group, polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution (n=10; ISS group, isotonic saline solution (n=10; GS group, glycerin solution (n=10; SPS group, sodium phosphate solution (n=10. After being weighed, arterial blood gas analysis, red blood count, creatinine and electrolytes were measured at 4 times: preoperatively (T1; day 6 postop, before enema (T2; 4h after enema (T3; and 24h after T3 (T4. RESULTS: In PEG group occurred Na retention after 4h, causing alkalemia, sustained for 24h with HCO3 retention. In ISS group occurred isotonic water retention and hyperchloremic acidosis after 4h, which was partially compensated in 24h. GS group showed metabolic acidosis after 4h, compensated in 24h. In SPS group occurred hypernatremic dehydration, metabolic acidosis in 4h, and hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, and metabolic alkalosis with partially compensated dehydration in 24h. CONCLUSIONS: All solutions used in this study caused minor alterations on water, electrolyte or acid-base balances. The most intense ones were caused by hypertonic sodium phosphate solution (SPS and isotonic saline solution (ISS and the least by polyethyleneglycol electrolyte solution (PEG and glycerin solution 12% (GS.OBJETIVO: Estudar os efeitos no equilíbrio hídrico, eletrolítico e ácido-base, do enema anterógrado com diferentes soluções em coelhos através de apendicostomia. MÉTODOS: 40 coelhos Nova Zelândia, machos, submetidos a apendicostomia, distribuídos em quatro grupos segundo a solução de enema: grupo PEG (n = 10 solução de polietilenoglicol com eletrólitos; grupo SF (n = 10 solução fisiológica; grupo SG (n = 10 solução glicerinada

  16. Subintimal Recanalization of Occluded Stents: The Substent Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamantopoulos, Athanasios, E-mail: adiamant@upatras.gr; Katsanos, Konstantinos; Spiliopoulos, Stavros; Karnabatidis, Dimitris; Siablis, Dimitris [School of Medicine, Patras University Hospital, Department of Interventional Radiology (Greece)

    2013-08-01

    PurposeApplication of metal stents is complicated by neointimal hyperplasia leading to vessel restenosis and reocclusion. Treatment options in cases presenting with complete occlusion of the stented segment and recurrent critical limb ischemia (CLI) are limited. We present the option of the subintimal/substent technique in dealing with occluded stents.MethodsThe study included patients presenting with recurrent CLI due to impaired blood flow as a result of complete occlusion of previously inserted metal stents and unsuccessful intraluminal crossing of the lesion via either the antegrade or retrograde approach. In these cases, crossing the occlusion through the subintimal/substent plane was attempted. Primary end points included technical success, safety of the procedure, clinical improvement, and limb salvage, while secondary end points were patient survival, primary patency, and vessel restenosis rates at 1-year follow-up. Study end points were calculated by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis.ResultsBetween July 2006 and October 2011, a total of 14 patients (mean age 69.14 {+-} 12.59 years, 12 men) were treated with the substent technique and included in the analysis. Technical success rate was 85.71 % (12 of 14), with a total lesion length of 193.57 {+-} 90.78 mm. The mean occluded stented segment length was 90.21 {+-} 44.34 mm. In 10 (83.33 %) of 12 cases, a new stent had to be placed by the side of the old occluded one, while the remaining two cases (16.67 %) were treated only with balloon angioplasty. No serious adverse events were noted during the immediate postprocedural period. All successfully treated patients improved clinically. Estimated limb salvage was 90.9 %, and patient survival rate was 90.0 % at 1 year's follow-up. Primary patency was 45.50 % and vessel restenosis 77.30 %.ConclusionSubintimal recanalization of occluded metal stents through the substent plane is a valuable alternative treatment option, especially in patients with recurrent CLI

  17. Perfusão pulmonar anterógrada "versus" retrógrada na preservação pulmonar para transplante em modelo canino de viabilidade pulmonar pós-morte Antegrade versus retrograde lung perfusion in pulmonary preservation for transplantation in a canine model of post-mortem lung viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Carlo Kohmann

    1999-04-01

    reperfusão (p = 0,01 e ao término do período de avaliação (p = 0,01. Os autores concluem que, neste modelo experimental, a perfusão retrógrada hipotérmica resulta em função superior do enxerto após 3 horas de isquemia normotérmica sob ventilação mecânica.Lung retrieval following cardio-circulatory arrest has been studied experimentally, however severe ischemia/reperfusion injury requires improved methods of graft preservation. Allograft perfusion with crystalloid solution delivered via pulmonary artery (antegrade perfusion remains the standard procedure, however it does not provide adequate washout of the blood retained within the bronchial circulation which may trigger reperfusion injury. This has led the authors to test the impact of antegrade versus retrograde (via left atrium perfusion of lung grafts submitted to 3 hours of warm ischemia after cardio-circulatory arrest in a dog model of left lung allotransplantation. Twelve donor dogs were sacrificed with thiopental sodium and kept under mechanical ventilation at room temperature for 3 hours. They were randomized and the heart-lung blocks harvested after being perfused in a retrograde (group I, n = 6 or antegrade (group II, n = 6 fashion with modified Euro-Collins solution. Twelve recipient animals were submitted to a left lung transplant receiving the grafts from both groups and the assessment was performed during 6 hours. Hemodynamic parameters were similar for animals in both groups. The gas exchange (arterial PaO2 and PaCO2 in recipients of group I (retrograde perfusion was significantly better when compared to recipients of grafts perfused via pulmonary artery. Intracellular ATP did not show difference between the groups, however there was a measurable drop in its values when samples obtained upon extraction were compared to those measured after reperfusion and at the end of the assessment. The authors concluded that retrograde perfusion yields better pulmonary function after 6 hours of reperfusion

  18. Evaluation of the Stryker S2 IM Nail Distal Targeting Device for reduction of radiation exposure: a case series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastopoulos, George; Ntagiopoulos, Panagiotis G; Chissas, Dionisios; Loupasis, George; Asimakopoulos, Antonios; Athanaselis, Eustratios; Megas, Panagiotis

    2008-10-01

    Distal locking is one challenging step during intramedullary nailing of femoral shaft fractures that can lead to an increase of radiation exposure. In the present study, the authors describe a technique for the distal locking of femoral nails, implementing a new targeting device in an attempt to reduce radiation exposure and operational time. Over a 2-year period, 127 consecutive cases of femoral shaft fractures were included in the study. All cases were treated with nailing of femoral shaft fractures with an unslotted reamed antegrade femoral nail and distal locking was performed with the use of a proximally mounted aiming device. Mean duration of the procedure was 63.5 18.1 min while the duration for distal locking was 6.6 +/- 2.6 min. In all successful cases, exposure from intraoperative fluoroscopy was 17.2 +/- 7.4 s for the whole operative procedure, and for distal locking was 2 shots, 1.35 s (range, 0.9-2.2 s) and 1.9 mGy (range, 1.1-2.9 mGy). Five cases (3.9%) were unsuccessful, but overall no intraoperative complications were encountered from the application of this technique. The ability of the device to correspond to the level of nail deformation and to properly identify the distal holes, reduced exposure to radiation compared to other published reports, and should be considered as a valuable tool for distal locking of femoral fractures.

  19. Intro to Valve Guide Reconditioning. Automotive Mechanics. Valves. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, W.

    This instructional package, one in a series of individualized instructional units on tools and techniques for repairing worn valve guides in motor vehicles, provides practical experience for students in working on cylinder heads. Covered in the module are reaming valve guides that are oversized to match a new oversized valve, reaming valve guides…

  20. The incidence of non-union following unreamed intramedullary nailing of femoral shaft fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    el Moumni, M.; Leenhouts, P. A.; ten Duis, H. J.; Wendt, K. W.

    Introduction: Stabilisation. of fractures with an intramedullary nail is a widespread technique in the treatment of femoral shaft fractures in adults. To ream or not to ream is still debated. The primary objective of this Study was to determine the incidence of non-union following unreamed

  1. Point of Technique

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    .

    hotmail.com. Introduction. Minimally invasive techniques are becoming popular choice for the recent times. These techniques are lowering the cost and giving the best cosmetic results. For cardiovascular surgery these techniques are much more.

  2. Cogeneration techniques; Les techniques de cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-10-01

    This dossier about cogeneration techniques comprises 12 parts dealing successively with: the advantages of cogeneration (examples of installations, electrical and thermal efficiency); the combustion turbine (principle, performances, types); the alternative internal combustion engines (principle, types, rotation speed, comparative performances); the different configurations of cogeneration installations based on alternative engines and based on steam turbines (coal, heavy fuel and natural gas-fueled turbines); the environmental constraints of combustion turbines (pollutants, techniques of reduction of pollutant emissions); the environmental constraints of alternative internal combustion engines (gas and diesel engines); cogeneration and energy saving; the techniques of reduction of pollutant emissions (pollutants, unburnt hydrocarbons, primary and secondary (catalytic) techniques, post-combustion); the most-advanced configurations of cogeneration installations for enhanced performances (counter-pressure turbines, massive steam injection cycles, turbo-chargers); comparison between the performances of the different cogeneration techniques; the tri-generation technique (compression and absorption cycles). (J.S.)

  3. Effectiveness of Antegrade Access in Bladder Tumors With Inaccessible Urethra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, Abdul Rouf; Dar, Tanveer Iqbal; Maik, Sajad; Magray, Javaid; Bhat, Ashiq; Bhat, Arif Hameed; Wani, Mohd Saleem; Wazir, Baldev Singh

    2015-01-01

    Inaccessible urethra with no retrograde endoscopic access due to multiple/diffuse strictures or multiple urethrocutaneous fistulas with acute urinary retention due to posturethral instrumentation (transurethral resection of bladder tumor [TURBT], or TURBT with transurethral resection of the prostate [TURP]), is a rare entity. Management of such a case with a bladder tumor for TURBT/surveillance cystoscopy poses a great challenge. The authors present 12 cases of bladder tumor with inaccessible urethra, 10 cases due to multiple strictures (post-TURBT and/or TURP), and 2 cases due to urethrocutaneous fistulas (post-TURBT), who presented to our emergency department with acute urinary retention. Emergent suprapubic catheterization was used as a temporary treatment method.

  4. Non-Reversed Appendicostomy for Antegrade Continence Enema ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/Purpose: Constipation in children is considered when stool frequency is less than three times per week. Encopresis represents 80-90% of children with fecal incontinence. Operative strategy for management of encopresis ranges from resectional surgery to myotomy. The objective of the study was to evaluate ...

  5. Training techniques for industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.W.

    1978-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of commonly used training techniques in relation to cost-effective, prevention-oriented Quality Assurance are examined. Important questions are whether training techniques teach cost effectiveness and whether the techniques are, themselves, cost effective. To answer these questions, criteria for evaluating teaching techniques for cost effectiveness were developd, and then commonly used techniques are evaluated in terms of specific training program objectives. Motivation of personnel is also considered important to the success of a training program, and methods are outlined by which recognition of the academic quality of industrial training can be used as a motivational technique

  6. Surface science techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, Gianangelo

    2013-01-01

    The book describes the experimental techniques employed to study surfaces and interfaces. The emphasis is on the experimental method. Therefore all chapters start with an introduction of the scientific problem, the theory necessary to understand how the technique works and how to understand the results. Descriptions of real experimental setups, experimental results at different systems are given to show both the strength and the limits of the technique. In a final part the new developments and possible extensions of the techniques are presented. The included techniques provide microscopic as well as macroscopic information. They cover most of the techniques used in surface science.

  7. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of treatment options. Airway Clearance Active Cycle of Breathing Technique Airway Clearance Techniques Autogenic Drainage Basics of ... Pulmonary Exacerbations Clinical Care Guidelines SCREENING & TREATING DEPRESSION & ANXIETY GUIDELINES Clinician Resources As a clinician, you’re ...

  8. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CYSTIC FIBROSIS Learn about cystic fibrosis, a genetic lung disorder that affects the pancreas and other organs, ... Technique Airway Clearance Techniques Autogenic Drainage Basics of Lung Care Chest Physical Therapy Coughing and Huffing High- ...

  9. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cycle of Breathing Technique Airway Clearance Techniques Autogenic Drainage Basics of Lung Care Chest Physical Therapy Coughing ... Facebook Twitter Email More Related Content Medications Autogenic Drainage Positive Expiratory Pressure High-Frequency Chest Wall Oscillation ( ...

  10. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Airway Clearance Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs) There are different ways to clear your airways. Most are easy ... to loosen mucus from airway walls. See how different airway clearance techniques work to help you clear ...

  11. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CF Treatments and Therapies Airway Clearance Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs) There are different ways to clear your ... for fitting ACTs into daily life Airway Clearance Techniques | Webcast To learn more about how you can ...

  12. Nuclear techniques in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammad, F.H.

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear techniques are utilized in almost every industry. The discussion in this paper includes discussions on tracer methods and uses nucleonic control systems technology; non-destructive testing techniques and radiation technology. 1 fig., 2 tabs

  13. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... many challenges, including medical, social, and financial. By learning more about how you can manage your disease every day, you can ultimately help find a ... Cycle of Breathing Technique Airway Clearance Techniques Autogenic ...

  14. Variational Monte Carlo Technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ias

    RESONANCE ⎜ August 2014. GENERAL ⎜ ARTICLE. Variational Monte Carlo Technique. Ground State Energies of Quantum Mechanical Systems. Sukanta Deb. Keywords. Variational methods, Monte. Carlo techniques, harmonic os- cillators, quantum mechanical systems. Sukanta Deb is an. Assistant Professor in the.

  15. Introduction to perturbation techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Nayfeh, Ali H

    2011-01-01

    Similarities, differences, advantages and limitations of perturbation techniques are pointed out concisely. The techniques are described by means of examples that consist mainly of algebraic and ordinary differential equations. Each chapter contains a number of exercises.

  16. Semiconductor Research Experimental Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Balkan, Naci

    2012-01-01

    The book describes the fundamentals, latest developments and use of key experimental techniques for semiconductor research. It explains the application potential of various analytical methods and discusses the opportunities to apply particular analytical techniques to study novel semiconductor compounds, such as dilute nitride alloys. The emphasis is on the technique rather than on the particular system studied.

  17. Techniques in Teaching Deviance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheatwood, Derral; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Discusses two techniques for use on the college level in teaching about the sociology of deviance. The first technique helps students understand the relativity of their personal beliefs. The second technique deals with strategies for investigating membership in deviant social groups. (Author/DB)

  18. Point of Technique

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    .

    Minimally invasive techniques are becoming popular choice for the recent times. These techniques are lowering the cost and giving the best cosmetic results. For cardiovascular surgery these techniques are much more newer and much more unknown. Open lumbar sympathectomy for certain indications is a very well ...

  19. Techniques for characterizing lignin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole M. Stark; Daniel J. Yelle; Umesh P. Agarwal

    2016-01-01

    Many techniques are available to characterize lignin. The techniques presented in this chapter are considered nondegradative, which are commonly applied to lignin. A brief discussion of lignin structure is included with this chapter to aid the reader in understanding why the discussed characterization techniques are appropriate for the study of lignin. Because the...

  20. Nuclear techniques in hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, H.

    1976-01-01

    The nuclear techniques used in hydrology are usually tracer techniques based on the use of nuclides either intentionally introduced into, or naturally present in the water. The low concentrations of these nuclides, which must be detected in groundwater and surface water, require special measurement techniques for the concentrations of radioactive or of stable nuclides. The nuclear techniques can be used most fruitfully in conjunction with conventional methods for the solution of problems in the areas of hydrology, hydrogeology and glacier hydrology. Nuclear techniques are used in practice in the areas of prospecting for water, environment protection and engineering hydrogeology. (orig.) [de

  1. Low current beam techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint, A.; Laird, J.S.; Bardos, R.A.; Legge, G.J.F. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Nishijima, T.; Sekiguchi, H. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan).

    1993-12-31

    Since the development of Scanning Transmission Microscopy (STIM) imaging in 1983 many low current beam techniques have been developed for the scanning (ion) microprobe. These include STIM tomography, Ion Beam Induced Current, Ion Beam Micromachining and Microlithography and Ionoluminense. Most of these techniques utilise beam currents of 10{sup -15} A down to single ions controlled by beam switching techniques This paper will discuss some of the low beam current techniques mentioned above, and indicate, some of their recent applications at MARC. A new STIM technique will be introduced that can be used to obtain Z-contrast with STIM resolution. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Pulse holographic measurement techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Baik, Seong Hoon; Hong, Seok Kyung; Kim, Jeong Moog; Kim, Duk Hyun

    1992-01-01

    With the development of laser, remote inspection techniques using laser have been growing on. The inspection and measurement techniques by pulse holography are well-established technique for precise measurement, and widely used in various fields of industry now. In nuclear industry, this technology is practically used because holographic inspection is remote, noncontact, and precise measurement technique. In relation to remote inspection technology in nuclear industry, state-of-the art of pulse HNDT (Holographic non-destructive testing) and holographic measurement techniques are examined. First of all, the fundamental principles as well as practical problems for applications are briefly described. The fields of pulse holography have been divided into the HNDT, flow visualization and distribution study, and other application techniques. Additionally holographic particle study, bubble chamber holography, and applications to other visualization techniques are described. Lastly, the current status for the researches and applications of pulse holography to nuclear industry which are carried out actively in Europe and USA, is described. (Author)

  3. Early results from an angiosome-directed open surgical technique for venous arterialization in patients with critical lower limb ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Houlind

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with critical lower limb ischemia without patent pedal arteries cannot be treated by the conventional arterial reconstruction. Venous arterialization has been suggested to improve limb salvage in this subgroup of patients but has not gained wide acceptance. We report our early experience after implementing deep and superficial venous arterialization of the lower limb. Materials and methods: Ten patients with critical ischemia and without crural or pedal arteries available for conventional bypass surgery or angioplasty were treated with distal venous arterialization. Inflow was from the most distal unobstructed segment. Run-off was the dorsal pedal venous arch (n=5, the dorsal pedal venous arch and a concomitant vein of the posterior tibial artery (n=3, or the dorsal pedal venous arch and a concomitant vein of the common plantar artery (n=2 depending on the location of the ischemic lesion. Venous valves were destroyed using antegrade valvulotomes, guide wires, knob needles, or retrograde valvulotomes via an extra incision. Results: Seven of the operated limbs were amputated after 23 (1–256 days (median [range]. The main reasons for amputation were lack of healing of either the original wound, of incisional wounds on the foot, or persisting pain at rest. In three cases, the bypass was open at the time of amputation. Two patients experienced complete wound healing after 231 and 342 days, respectively. By the end of follow-up, the last patient was ambulating with slow wound healing but without pain 309 days after surgery. Conclusion: Venous arterialization may be used as a treatment of otherwise unsalveable limbs. The success rate is, however, limited. Technical optimization of the technique is warranted.

  4. Semiconductor Modeling Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Xavier, Marie

    2012-01-01

    This book describes the key theoretical techniques for semiconductor research to quantitatively calculate and simulate the properties. It presents particular techniques to study novel semiconductor materials, such as 2D heterostructures, quantum wires, quantum dots and nitrogen containing III-V alloys. The book is aimed primarily at newcomers working in the field of semiconductor physics to give guidance in theory and experiment. The theoretical techniques for electronic and optoelectronic devices are explained in detail.

  5. Materials characterization techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Sam; Li, L; Kumar, Ashok

    2009-01-01

    "With an emphasis on practical applications and real-world case studies, Materials Characterization Techniques presents the principles of widely used advanced surface and structural characterization...

  6. Persian fencing techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manouchehr Moshtagh Khorasani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous manuscripts, poems and stories that describe, specifically and in detail, the different techniques used in Persian swordsmanship. The present article explains the origins and the techniques of Persian swordsmanship. The article also describes the traditional code of conduct for Persian warriors. Additionally, it describes an array of techniques that were deployed in actual combat in Iran’s history. Some of these techniques are represented via the miniatures that are reproduced herein. This is the first article on Persian swordsmanship published in any periodical.

  7. Uranium exploration techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, C.E.

    1984-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction (genetic description of some uranium deposits; typical concentrations of uranium in the natural environment); sedimentary host rocks (sandstones; tabular deposits; roll-front deposits; black shales); metamorphic host rocks (exploration techniques); geologic techniques (alteration features in sandstones; favourable features in metamorphic rocks); geophysical techniques (radiometric surveys; surface vehicle methods; airborne methods; input surveys); geochemical techniques (hydrogeochemistry; petrogeochemistry; stream sediment geochemistry; pedogeochemistry; emanometry; biogeochemistry); geochemical model for roll-front deposits; geologic model for vein-like deposits. (U.K.)

  8. Laser induced pyrolysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderborgh, N.E.

    1976-01-01

    The application of laser pyrolysis techniques to the problems of chemical analysis is discussed. The processes occurring during laser pyrolysis are first briefly reviewed. The problems encountered in laser pyrolysis gas chromatography are discussed using the analysis of phenanthrene and binary hydrocarbons. The application of this technique to the characterization of naturally occurring carbonaceous material such as oil shales and coal is illustrated

  9. Emerging optical nanoscopy techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Paul C; Leong-Hoi, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    To face the challenges of modern health care, new imaging techniques with subcellular resolution or detection over wide fields are required. Far field optical nanoscopy presents many new solutions, providing high resolution or detection at high speed. We present a new classification scheme to help appreciate the growing number of optical nanoscopy techniques. We underline an important distinction between superresolution techniques that provide improved resolving power and nanodetection techniques for characterizing unresolved nanostructures. Some of the emerging techniques within these two categories are highlighted with applications in biophysics and medicine. Recent techniques employing wider angle imaging by digital holography and scattering lens microscopy allow superresolution to be achieved for subcellular and even in vivo, imaging without labeling. Nanodetection techniques are divided into four subcategories using contrast, phase, deconvolution, and nanomarkers. Contrast enhancement is illustrated by means of a polarized light-based technique and with strobed phase-contrast microscopy to reveal nanostructures. Very high sensitivity phase measurement using interference microscopy is shown to provide nanometric surface roughness measurement or to reveal internal nanometric structures. Finally, the use of nanomarkers is illustrated with stochastic fluorescence microscopy for mapping intracellular structures. We also present some of the future perspectives of optical nanoscopy. PMID:26491270

  10. A Technique: Exposure Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan AKKOYUNLU

    2013-08-01

    Conclusion: Exposure with response prevention is a basic and effective technique. Every cognitive behavior therapist must be able to implement this technique and be cognizant of pearls of this procedure. (Journal of Cognitive Behavioral Psychotherapy and Research 2013, 2: 121-128 [JCBPR 2013; 2(2.000: 121-128

  11. Analog signal isolation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beadle, E.R.

    1992-12-31

    This paper discusses several techniques for isolating analog signals in an accelerator environment. The techniques presented here encompass isolation amplifiers, voltage-to-frequency converters (VIFCs), transformers, optocouplers, discrete fiber optics, and commercial fiber optic links. Included within the presentation of each method are the design issues that must be considered when selecting the isolation method for a specific application.

  12. Analog signal isolation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beadle, E.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses several techniques for isolating analog signals in an accelerator environment. The techniques presented here encompass isolation amplifiers, voltage-to-frequency converters (VIFCs), transformers, optocouplers, discrete fiber optics, and commercial fiber optic links. Included within the presentation of each method are the design issues that must be considered when selecting the isolation method for a specific application.

  13. Contamination Control Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EBY, J.L.

    2000-01-01

    Welcome to a workshop on contamination Control techniques. This work shop is designed for about two hours. Attendee participation is encouraged during the workshop. We will address different topics within contamination control techniques; present processes, products and equipment used here at Hanford and then open the floor to you, the attendees for your input on the topics

  14. Microscopic techniques in biotechnology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoppert, M

    2003-01-01

    ... techniques. Over the past 50 years, electron microscopy has opened new pathways for biologists to understand structure-function interrelations at the subcellular level. New lightbased optical techniques involving the detection of fluorescent molecules have introduced a new dimension of imaging into light microscopy, enabling cellular events to be studied in vivo d...

  15. Contamination Control Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EBY, J.L.

    2000-05-16

    Welcome to a workshop on contamination Control techniques. This work shop is designed for about two hours. Attendee participation is encouraged during the workshop. We will address different topics within contamination control techniques; present processes, products and equipment used here at Hanford and then open the floor to you, the attendees for your input on the topics.

  16. Glycoprotein and proteoglycan techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beeley, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    The aim of this book is to describe techniques which can be used to answer some of the basic questions about glycosylated proteins. Methods are discussed for isolation, compositional analysis, and for determination of the primary structure of carbohydrate units and the nature of protein-carbohydrate linkages of glycoproteins and proteoglycans. High resolution NMR is considered, as well as radioactive labelling techniques. (Auth.)

  17. Emerging optical nanoscopy techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montgomery PC

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Paul C Montgomery, Audrey Leong-Hoi Laboratoire des Sciences de l'Ingénieur, de l'Informatique et de l'Imagerie (ICube, Unistra-CNRS, Strasbourg, France Abstract: To face the challenges of modern health care, new imaging techniques with subcellular resolution or detection over wide fields are required. Far field optical nanoscopy presents many new solutions, providing high resolution or detection at high speed. We present a new classification scheme to help appreciate the growing number of optical nanoscopy techniques. We underline an important distinction between superresolution techniques that provide improved resolving power and nanodetection techniques for characterizing unresolved nanostructures. Some of the emerging techniques within these two categories are highlighted with applications in biophysics and medicine. Recent techniques employing wider angle imaging by digital holography and scattering lens microscopy allow superresolution to be achieved for subcellular and even in vivo, imaging without labeling. Nanodetection techniques are divided into four subcategories using contrast, phase, deconvolution, and nanomarkers. Contrast enhancement is illustrated by means of a polarized light-based technique and with strobed phase-contrast microscopy to reveal nanostructures. Very high sensitivity phase measurement using interference microscopy is shown to provide nanometric surface roughness measurement or to reveal internal nanometric structures. Finally, the use of nanomarkers is illustrated with stochastic fluorescence microscopy for mapping intracellular structures. We also present some of the future perspectives of optical nanoscopy. Keywords: microscopy, imaging, superresolution, nanodetection, biophysics, medical imaging

  18. [New microbiological techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, S; Wieser, A; Bonkat, G

    2017-06-01

    Microbiological diagnostic procedures have changed rapidly in recent years. This is especially true in the field of molecular diagnostics. Classical culture-based techniques are still the gold standard in many areas; however, they are already complemented by automated and also molecular techniques to guarantee faster and better quality results. The most commonly used techniques include real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) based systems and nucleic acid hybridization. These procedures are used most powerfully from direct patient samples or in assays to detect the presence of nonculturable or fastidious organisms. Further techniques such as DNA sequencing are not yet used routinely for urological samples and can be considered experimental. However, in conjunction with dropping prices and further technical developments, these techniques promise to be used much more in the near future. Regarding bacterial identification from culture, mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has become the technique of choice in recent years especially in Europe. It has tremendously shortened the time to result. This is now going to be extended to antibiotic susceptibility testing. This is of paramount importance in view of ever rising antimicrobial resistance rates. Techniques described in this review offer a faster and better microbiological diagnosis. Such continuous improvements are critical especially in times of cost pressure and rising antimicrobial resistance rates. It is in our interest to provide the best possible care for patients and in this regard a good and effective communication between the laboratory and the clinician is of vital importance.

  19. Computer techniques for electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Mittra, R

    1973-01-01

    Computer Techniques for Electromagnetics discusses the ways in which computer techniques solve practical problems in electromagnetics. It discusses the impact of the emergence of high-speed computers in the study of electromagnetics. This text provides a brief background on the approaches used by mathematical analysts in solving integral equations. It also demonstrates how to use computer techniques in computing current distribution, radar scattering, and waveguide discontinuities, and inverse scattering. This book will be useful for students looking for a comprehensive text on computer techni

  20. Advanced analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrochek, J.E.; Shumate, S.E.; Genung, R.K.; Bahner, C.T.; Lee, N.E.; Dinsmore, S.R.

    1976-01-01

    The development of several new analytical techniques for use in clinical diagnosis and biomedical research is reported. These include: high-resolution liquid chromatographic systems for the early detection of pathological molecular constituents in physiologic body fluids; gradient elution chromatography for the analysis of protein-bound carbohydrates in blood serum samples, with emphasis on changes in sera from breast cancer patients; electrophoretic separation techniques coupled with staining of specific proteins in cellular isoenzymes for the monitoring of genetic mutations and abnormal molecular constituents in blood samples; and the development of a centrifugal elution chromatographic technique for the assay of specific proteins and immunoglobulins in human blood serum samples

  1. Spectrometric techniques 2

    CERN Document Server

    Vanasse, George A

    2013-01-01

    Spectrometric Techniques, Volume II provides information pertinent to vacuum ultraviolet techniques to complete the demonstration of the diversity of methods available to the spectroscopist interested in the ultraviolet visible and infrared spectral regions. This book discusses the specific aspects of the technique of Fourier transform spectroscopy.Organized into five chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the large number of systematic effects in the recording of an interferogram. This text then examines the design approach for a Fourier transform spectrometer with focus on optics.

  2. Spectrometric techniques 3

    CERN Document Server

    Vanasse, George A

    2013-01-01

    Spectrometric Techniques, Volume III presents the applications of spectrometric techniques to atmospheric and space studies. This book reviews the spectral data processing and analysis techniques that are of broad applicability.Organized into five chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the instrumentation used for obtaining field data. This text then reviews the contribution that space-borne spectroscopy in the thermal IR has made to the understanding of the planets. Other chapters consider the instruments that have recorded the planetary emission spectra. This book discusses as well

  3. Separation techniques: Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Ozlem

    2016-01-01

    Chromatography is an important biophysical technique that enables the separation, identification, and purification of the components of a mixture for qualitative and quantitative analysis. Proteins can be purified based on characteristics such as size and shape, total charge, hydrophobic groups present on the surface, and binding capacity with the stationary phase. Four separation techniques based on molecular characteristics and interaction type use mechanisms of ion exchange, surface adsorption, partition, and size exclusion. Other chromatography techniques are based on the stationary bed, including column, thin layer, and paper chromatography. Column chromatography is one of the most common methods of protein purification. PMID:28058406

  4. Spectrometric techniques 4

    CERN Document Server

    Vanasse, George A

    2013-01-01

    Spectrometric Techniques, Volume IV discusses three widely diversified areas of spectrometric techniques. The book focuses on three spectrometric methods. Chapter 1 discusses the phenomenology and applications of Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS), the most commonly used optical technique that exploit the Raman effect. The second chapter is concerned with diffraction gratings and mountings for the Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectral Region. Chapter 3 accounts the uses of mass spectrometry, detectors, types of spectrometers, and ion sources. Physicists and chemists will find the book a go

  5. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Techniques Autogenic Drainage Basics of Lung Care Chest Physical Therapy Coughing and Huffing High-Frequency Chest Wall Oscillation ... Children and Adults Clinical Care Guidelines Nutrition in Pediatrics Clinical Care Guidelines Pancreatic Enzymes Clinical Care Guidelines ...

  6. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Twitter YouTube Instagram Email DONATE Breadcrumb Navigation Home Life With CF Treatments and Therapies Airway Clearance Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs) There are different ways to clear your airways. Most are easy to ...

  7. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a Family Parenting as an Adult With CF Treatments & Therapies People with cystic fibrosis are living longer ... to specialized CF care and a range of treatment options. Airway Clearance Active Cycle of Breathing Technique ...

  8. Materials characterization techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Sam; Li, L; Kumar, Ashok

    2009-01-01

    ... techniques for quality assurance, contamination control, and process improvement. The book reviews the most popular and powerful analysis and quality control tools, explaining the appropriate uses and related technical requirements...

  9. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... another member of your CF care team can show you how to perform many different ACTs and ... of children with CF and a respiratory therapist talk about the different techniques they use for airway ...

  10. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Treatments and Therapies Airway Clearance Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs) There are different ways to clear your airways. ... or caregiver. Older kids and adults can choose ACTs that they can do on their own. Share ...

  11. RFCM Techniques Chamber Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides the capability to develop radio-frequency countermeasure (RFCM) techniques in a controlled environment from 2.0 to 40.0 GHz. The configuration of...

  12. Biaxial compression test technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansard, E. T.

    1975-01-01

    Fixture and technique have been developed for predicting behavior of stiffened skin panels under biaxial compressive loading. Tester can load test panel independently in longitudinal and transverse directions. Data can also be obtained in combined mode.

  13. Plant tissue culture techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Dieter Illg

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions.

  14. Small Scale Organic Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, V.; Crist, DeLanson R.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the advantages of using small scale experimentation in the undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory. Describes small scale filtration techniques as an example of a semi-micro method applied to small quantities of material. (MLH)

  15. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Techniques Autogenic Drainage Basics of Lung Care Chest Physical Therapy Coughing and Huffing High-Frequency Chest Wall ... Care Guidelines Newborn Screening Clinical Care Guidelines Sweat Test Clinical Care Guidelines Infection Prevention and Control Care ...

  16. Lightweight Cryptographic Techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yuen, Horace

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this project was to develop new cryptographic techniques, and to modify the important existing ones, for applications to encryption and authentication in energy-constrained sensors...

  17. Variational Monte Carlo Technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 8. Variational Monte Carlo Technique: Ground State Energies of Quantum Mechanical Systems. Sukanta Deb. General Article Volume 19 Issue 8 August 2014 pp 713-739 ...

  18. Radon survey techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    The report reviews radon measurement surveys in soils and in water. Special applications, and advantages and limitations of the radon measurement techniques are considered. The working group also gives some directions for further research in this field

  19. Stargate: Energy Management Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Vijay Raghunathan; Mani Srivastava; Trevor Pering; Roy Want

    2004-01-01

    This poster presents techniques for energy efficient operation of the Stargate wireless platform. In addition to conventional power management techniques such as dynamic voltage and scaling and processor shutdown, the Stargate features several mechanisms for energy efficient operation of the communication subsystem, such as support for hierarchical radios, Bluetooth based remote wakeup, mote based wakeup, etc. Finally, design optimizations including the use of power gating, and provision for ...

  20. Applying contemporary statistical techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Wilcox, Rand R

    2003-01-01

    Applying Contemporary Statistical Techniques explains why traditional statistical methods are often inadequate or outdated when applied to modern problems. Wilcox demonstrates how new and more powerful techniques address these problems far more effectively, making these modern robust methods understandable, practical, and easily accessible.* Assumes no previous training in statistics * Explains how and why modern statistical methods provide more accurate results than conventional methods* Covers the latest developments on multiple comparisons * Includes recent advanc

  1. Imaging Techniques in Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Payne, Emma Marie

    2013-01-01

    New imaging techniques are increasingly being used within cultural heritage. This paper explores potential uses of such technologies within conservation and implications of their use on object preservation and accessibility. Study of their effects on objects is crucial because their employment is becoming irreplaceable; for example, polynomial texture mapping (PTM) has revealed previously undetectable surface features. In such cases, it is necessary to continue to use the technique to monitor...

  2. Optimization techniques in statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Rustagi, Jagdish S

    1994-01-01

    Statistics help guide us to optimal decisions under uncertainty. A large variety of statistical problems are essentially solutions to optimization problems. The mathematical techniques of optimization are fundamentalto statistical theory and practice. In this book, Jagdish Rustagi provides full-spectrum coverage of these methods, ranging from classical optimization and Lagrange multipliers, to numerical techniques using gradients or direct search, to linear, nonlinear, and dynamic programming using the Kuhn-Tucker conditions or the Pontryagin maximal principle. Variational methods and optimiza

  3. Assisted reproductive techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jack Yu Jen; Rosenwaks, Zev

    2014-01-01

    Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) encompass fertility treatments, which involve manipulations of both oocyte and sperm in vitro. This chapter provides a brief overview of ART, including indications for treatment, ovarian reserve testing, selection of controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) protocols, laboratory techniques of ART including in vitro fertilization (IVF), and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), embryo transfer techniques, and luteal phase support. This chapter also discusses potential complications of ART, namely ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) and multiple gestations, and the perinatal outcomes of ART.

  4. Nonmammographic breast imaging techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heywang-Köbrunner, S H

    1992-10-01

    Significant progress in early detection of malignancy has been achieved by the improvement of mammographic technique, the introduction of quality control, the demonstration of benefits from screening, and appropriate application of supplementary methods such as ultrasound, cytology, and stereotaxis. Certain problems in breast imaging, however, are still unsolved. These include early detection and exclusion of malignancy without microcalcifications in mammographically dense tissue (particularly in younger women), the still-limited accuracy of mammographic signs, and the management of diagnostic problems after surgery, radiation therapy, or silicone implants. Therefore, research is needed to further improve diagnostic capabilities. The research can be subdivided into different approaches: 1) further development of the mammographic technique (digital luminescence radiography); 2) evaluation of techniques that image other physical tissue properties (sonography, thermography, trans-illumination, CT, non-contrast-enhanced MR imaging, biomagnetism, biostereometry, and ductoscopy); 3) investigation of techniques that image metabolic changes (MR spectroscopy, positron-emission tomography) or metabolism-induced differences in perfusion or vascularity (Doppler ultrasound, contrast-enhanced MR imaging); and 4) development of techniques that attempt tissue diagnosis using monoclonal antibodies. Among these techniques, digital luminescence radiography and contrast-enhanced MR imaging are the most developed and the most promising. They are at the threshold of becoming clinically important. Doppler ultrasound could be useful for certain indications. Whereas MR spectroscopy, positron-emission tomography, the search for appropriate antibodies, and possibly transillumination, ductoscopy, and biomagnetism offer interesting new aspects for research, the value of CT, thermography, and biostereometry is not yet established.

  5. Handbook of laboratory techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Authority in Argentina have laboratories of support to regulations functions on radiological and nuclear safety, safeguards and physical protection, that have a surface of 2950 m 2 in the Ezeiza Atomic Center. The manual describes in seven chapters the different techniques developed and applied in the laboratories along four decades of existence. The chapter 1: Dedicated to the treatment of environmental samples, described the procedures associated with the different types of samples: deposits, waters, sediments, vegetables, milk, fish and diet. The chapter 2: Details 48 radiochemical techniques associated to the measurements of americium 241, carbon 16, strontium 90, iodine 129, plutonium, radium 226, radon, uranium, nickel and actinides. The chapter 3: Describes the measurements techniques of alpha and gamma spectrometry. The different techniques of biological and physical dosimetry are described in the chapters 5 and 6 respectively. The final chapter is dedicated the techniques of external and internal contamination. It s important to emphasize that this manual contains the standardized technologies that the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Argentina submits regularly to international comparisons

  6. Imaging Techniques in Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Marie Payne

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available New imaging techniques are increasingly being used within cultural heritage. This paper explores potential uses of such technologies within conservation and implications of their use on object preservation and accessibility. Study of their effects on objects is crucial because their employment is becoming irreplaceable; for example, polynomial texture mapping (PTM has revealed previously undetectable surface features. In such cases, it is necessary to continue to use the technique to monitor object condition. 3D laser scanning, PTM, and CT scanning are investigated. Case studies are explored to investigate their current role in cultural heritage. The appropriateness of this role and whether it should be expanded is addressed by analysing advantages and disadvantages of the techniques, their feasibility, and risks caused to object preservation and accessibility. The results indicate that the technologies present some advantages over standard digital photography; PTM in particular is found to be an extremely useful, affordable technique. A more established role within conservation, especially for condition assessments, could be worthwhile. Use of the imaging techniques to create models for exhibition can also be advantageous; however, care must be taken to ensure that such models are used to enhance accessibility to original objects and not to replace them.

  7. Computer assisted audit techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dražen Danić

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to point to the possibilities of more efficient auditing. In the encirclement of more and more intensive use of computer techniques that help to CAAT all the aims and the volume of auditing do not change when the audit is done in the computer-informatics environment. The computer assisted audit technique (CAATs can improve the efficiency and productivity of audit procedures. In the computerized information system, the CAATs are the ways in which an auditor can use computer to gather or as help in gathering auditing evidence. There are more reasons why the auditors apply computer techniques that help in auditing. Most often, they do it to achieve improvement of auditing efficiency when the data volume is large. It depends on several factors whether the auditors will apply the computer techniques that help auditing and to what degree respectively. If they do it, the most important are the computer knowledge, professional skill, experience of auditors, and availability of computer technique, and adequacy of computer supports, infeasibility of hand tests, efficiency and time limit. Through several examples from practice, we showed the possibilities of ACL as one of the CAAT tools.

  8. Avoidance of malreduction of proximal femoral shaft fractures with the use of a minimally invasive nail insertion technique (MINIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Thomas A; Mir, Hassan R; Stoneback, Jason; Cohen, Jose; Downs, Brandon

    2008-07-01

    To determine our rate of malalignment in proximal femoral shaft fractures treated with intramedullary (IM) nails, with and without the use of a minimally invasive nail insertion technique (MINIT). Retrospective study. Level 1 trauma center. Between July 1, 2003, and June 31, 2005, 100 consecutive proximal femoral shaft fractures (97 patients) were treated with IM nails. The average age of the 56 men and 41 women was 43.5 years (range, 17 to 96 years). There were 92 closed fractures and 8 open fractures. Fractures were classified according to the Russell-Taylor classification (69 type 1A, 11 type 1B, 3 type 2A, 17 type 2B). All patients underwent antegrade IM nailing using a fracture table in the supine (83) or lateral (17) position. A total of 72 entry portals were trochanteric, and 28 were piriformis. Seventy-seven percent of the femurs were opened with MINIT, a technique that uses a percutaneous cannulated channel reamer over a guide pin as opposed to the standard method of Kuntscher, which employs a femoral awl. Nails were locked proximally using standard locking in 37 fractures, and recon mode in 63. Fracture reduction was examined on immediate postoperative films to determine angulation in the coronal and sagittal planes. Criteria for acceptable reduction were less than 5 degrees angulation in any plane. In addition, surgical position, entry portal, mechanism of injury, Russell-Taylor classification, OTA classification, open or closed fracture, open or closed reduction, and type of implant used were analyzed for significance. The frequency of malalignment was 10% for the entire group of patients. Malalignment occurred in 26% of fractures treated without the use of the MINIT and in 5.2% when the MINIT was used (P fracture types, although there was a trend towards more malalignment in type 2A and 2B fractures (P = 0.06). None of the other factors studied had a statistically significant effect on malalignment. A whole-model test of the factors that were surgeon

  9. Relaxation Techniques for Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotland-Coogan, Diane; Davis, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Physiological symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) manifest as increased arousal and reactivity seen as anger outburst, irritability, reckless behavior with no concern for consequences, hypervigilance, sleep disturbance, and problems with focus (American Psychiatric Association, 2013 ). In seeking the most beneficial treatment for PTSD, consideration must be given to the anxiety response. Relaxation techniques are shown to help address the physiological manifestations of prolonged stress. The techniques addressed by the authors in this article include mindfulness, deep breathing, yoga, and meditation. By utilizing these techniques traditional therapies can be complemented. In addition, those who are averse to the traditional evidence-based practices or for those who have tried traditional therapies without success; these alternative interventions may assist in lessening physiological manifestations of PTSD. Future research studies assessing the benefits of these treatment modalities are warranted to provide empirical evidence to support the efficacy of these treatments.

  10. Current techniques in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohm, B.

    1982-01-01

    This paper represents a literature survey of current techniques in mammography. The major objection to the otherwise acceptable methods in widespread use are the radiation doses given the patient, particularly the asymptomatic patient. Even using current techniques which involve x-raying the breast, all women over 50 should have yearly exams for the earliest possible cancer detection and hence improved diagnosis. It is for asymptomatic women under 50 that the risk versus benefit issue becomes controversial. Strong efforts are being made to reduce or eliminate this dose. Current methods in widespread clinical use and experimental methods are briefly covered, and the recommendations of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (released July 1980) are stressed. The current experimental techniques which include NMR, ultrasound, thermography, computer tomography, heavy particle radiography and ionography are capsulized

  11. Meniscal repair: Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufils, P; Pujol, N

    2018-02-01

    Meniscal repair aims to achieve meniscal healing, avoiding the adverse effects of meniscectomy. Longitudinal vertical tears in a vascularized area are the reference indication. The technique generally uses hybrid all-inside implants. The outside-in technique has other indications in more anterior tears. Healing has been demonstrated on CT-arthrography and arthroscopy. Specific techniques have been developed for other pathological situations. Posterior meniscosynovial lesions in a context of chronic anterior laxity are identified by exploration of the posterior compartment, and fixed by all-inside hook suture. Horizontal lesions in young athletes can be treated by open meniscal suture. Radial tears, when deep, can be repaired. Root tears, when traumatic, can be treated by transosseous pullout reinsertion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Telescopes and Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kitchin, C R

    2013-01-01

    Telescopes and Techniques has proved itself in its first two editions, having become probably one of the most widely used astronomy texts, both for amateur astronomers and astronomy and astrophysics undergraduates. Both earlier editions of the book were widely used for introductory practical astronomy courses in many universities. In this Third Edition the author guides the reader through the mathematics, physics and practical techniques needed to use today's telescopes (from the smaller models to the larger instruments installed in many colleges) and how to find objects in the sky. Most of the physics and engineering involved is described fully and requires little prior knowledge or experience. Both visual and electronic imaging techniques are covered, together with an introduction to how data (measurements) should be processed and analyzed. A simple introduction to radio telescopes is also included. Brief coverage of the more advanced topics of photometry and spectroscopy are included, but mainly to enable ...

  13. Radiological focusing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husmann, K.; Mehrkens, A.; Hancken, G.

    1995-01-01

    The textbook explains the most common and essential radiological focusing techniques and gives the relevant theory and technical fundamentals. The theory does not consume much space in this book, the theoretical part briefly addressing such aspects as film-screen combinations, doses administered by X-ray radiography, quality assurance, radiological protection, and potential patient reactions to contrast media applied. The textbook primarily is a practical guide giving general advice and guidance on focusing techniques, accompanied by an illustrative compilation of frequent mistakes. Arranged by body regions, the well over 80 examples of focusing techniques are presented by systematic texts and illustrations. There is an annex giving a glossary of terms, a bibliography, and a list of useful addresses. (orig./MG) [de

  14. Novel food processing techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Lelas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a lot of investigations have been focused on development of the novel mild food processing techniques with the aim to obtain the high quality food products. It is presumed also that they could substitute some of the traditional processes in the food industry. The investigations are primarily directed to usage of high hydrostatic pressure, ultrasound, tribomechanical micronization, microwaves, pulsed electrical fields. The results of the scientific researches refer to the fact that application of some of these processes in particular food industry can result in lots of benefits. A significant energy savings, shortening of process duration, mild thermal conditions, food products with better sensory characteristics and with higher nutritional values can be achieved. As some of these techniques act also on the molecular level changing the conformation, structure and electrical potential of organic as well as inorganic materials, the improvement of some functional properties of these components may occur. Common characteristics of all of these techniques are treatment at ambient or insignificant higher temperatures and short time of processing (1 to 10 minutes. High hydrostatic pressure applied to various foodstuffs can destroy some microorganisms, successfully modify molecule conformation and consequently improve functional properties of foods. At the same time it acts positively on the food products intend for freezing. Tribomechanical treatment causes micronization of various solid materials that results in nanoparticles and changes in structure and electrical potential of molecules. Therefore, the significant improvement of some rheological and functional properties of materials occurred. Ultrasound treatment proved to be potentially very successful technique of food processing. It can be used as a pretreatment to drying (decreases drying time and improves functional properties of food, as extraction process of various components

  15. Radiographic constant exposure technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanus, Joseph Czeslaw

    1985-01-01

    The constant exposure technique has been applied to assess various industrial radiographic systems. Different X-ray films and radiographic papers of two producers were compared. Special attention was given to fast film and paper used with fluorometallic screens. Radiographic image quality was tes...... was tested by the use of ISO wire IQI's and ASTM penetrameters used on Al and Fe test plates. Relative speed and reduction of kilovoltage obtained with the constant exposure technique were calculated. The advantages of fast radiographic systems are pointed out...

  16. Wireless communications algorithmic techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Vitetta, Giorgio; Colavolpe, Giulio; Pancaldi, Fabrizio; Martin, Philippa A

    2013-01-01

    This book introduces the theoretical elements at the basis of various classes of algorithms commonly employed in the physical layer (and, in part, in MAC layer) of wireless communications systems. It focuses on single user systems, so ignoring multiple access techniques. Moreover, emphasis is put on single-input single-output (SISO) systems, although some relevant topics about multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems are also illustrated.Comprehensive wireless specific guide to algorithmic techniquesProvides a detailed analysis of channel equalization and channel coding for wi

  17. Modern recording techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, David Miles

    2013-01-01

    As the most popular and authoritative guide to recording Modern Recording Techniques provides everything you need to master the tools and day to day practice of music recording and production. From room acoustics and running a session to mic placement and designing a studio Modern Recording Techniques will give you a really good grounding in the theory and industry practice. Expanded to include the latest digital audio technology the 7th edition now includes sections on podcasting, new surround sound formats and HD and audio.If you are just starting out or looking for a step up

  18. Radiographic constant exposure technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanus, Joseph Czeslaw

    1985-01-01

    The constant exposure technique has been applied to assess various industrial radiographic systems. Different X-ray films and radiographic papers of two producers were compared. Special attention was given to fast film and paper used with fluorometallic screens. Radiographic image quality...... was tested by the use of ISO wire IQI's and ASTM penetrameters used on Al and Fe test plates. Relative speed and reduction of kilovoltage obtained with the constant exposure technique were calculated. The advantages of fast radiographic systems are pointed out...

  19. Neutron visual sensing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kureta, Masatoshi; Segawa, Mariko

    2014-01-01

    The neutron visual sensing technique is a technology to extract physical quantities from the information on inner structures of complex materials or machineries which have been visualized and recorded by using neutron beams. Research and utilization of this technique is now under worldwide development since it can provide the information that is not possible by X-ray radiography. We show how to use stationary neutron sources (Research reactors) in chapter 2, and how to utilize pulsed neutron source (Japan Proton Accelerator Complex, J-PARC). Also the production of micro-element analyzer by an enterprise using the knowledge on radiological equipment is described as an example. (author)

  20. Millimicrosecond pulse techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Ian A D

    1959-01-01

    Millimicrosecond Pulse Techniques, Second Edition focuses on millimicrosecond pulse techniques and the development of devices of large bandwidth, extending down to comparatively low frequencies (1 Mc/s). Emphasis is on basic circuit elements and pieces of equipment of universal application. Specific applications, mostly in the field of nuclear physics instrumentation, are considered. This book consists of eight chapters and opens with an introduction to some of the terminology employed by circuit engineers as well as theoretical concepts, including the laws of circuit analysis, Fourier analysi

  1. Single well techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drost, W.

    1983-01-01

    The single well technique method includes measurement of parameters of groundwater flow in saturated rock. For determination of filtration velocity the dilution of radioactive tracer is measured, for direction logging the collimeter is rotated in the probe linked with the compass. The limiting factor for measurement of high filtration velocities is the occurrence of turbulent flow. The single well technique is used in civil engineering projects, water works and subsurface drainage of liquid waste from disposal sites. The radioactive tracer method for logging the vertical fluid movement in bore-holes is broadly used in groundwater survey and exploitation. (author)

  2. Surface science techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Walls, JM

    2013-01-01

    This volume provides a comprehensive and up to the minute review of the techniques used to determine the nature and composition of surfaces. Originally published as a special issue of the Pergamon journal Vacuum, it comprises a carefully edited collection of chapters written by specialists in each of the techniques and includes coverage of the electron and ion spectroscopies, as well as the atom-imaging methods such as the atom probe field ion microscope and the scanning tunnelling microscope. Surface science is an important area of study since the outermost surface layers play a crucial role

  3. Nonenhanced MR angiography techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanzman, R.S.; Kroepil, P.; Blondin, D.; Schmitt, P.

    2011-01-01

    Especially in regard to the potential risks for the development of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) following the administration of Gadolinium-based contrast material, nonenhanced MR angiography (MRA) methods are becoming ever more important. Besides well-established time-of-flight (TOF) and phase-contrast (PC) MRA, alternative imaging techniques based on balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) and turbo-spin-echo (TSE) sequences are increasingly used in combination with or without arterial spin labeling (ASL) strategies. This article provides an overview of the principles and clinical values of different nonenhanced MRA techniques. In addition, recent nonenhanced MRA developments are presented. (orig.)

  4. Advanced Techniques in Biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Arrondo, José Luis R

    2006-01-01

    Technical advancements are basic elements in our life. In biophysical studies, new applications and improvements in well-established techniques are being implemented every day. This book deals with advancements produced not only from a technical point of view, but also from new approaches that are being taken in the study of biophysical samples, such as nanotechniques or single-cell measurements. This book constitutes a privileged observatory for reviewing novel applications of biophysical techniques that can help the reader enter an area where the technology is progressing quickly and where a comprehensive explanation is not always to be found.

  5. Merchandising Techniques and Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Sylvie A.

    1981-01-01

    Proposes that libraries employ modern booksellers' merchandising techniques to improve circulation of library materials. Using displays in various ways, the methods and reasons for weeding out books, replacing worn book jackets, and selecting new books are discussed. Suggestions for learning how to market and 11 references are provided. (RBF)

  6. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NACFC Carolyn and C Richard Mattingly Leadership in Mental Health Care Award Mary M. Kontos Award NACFC Reflections ... help your infant or child manage their lung health, watch parents of children with CF and a respiratory therapist talk about the different techniques they use for airway clearance. ... Instagram Email Find a Clinical Trial Help us blaze ...

  7. Techniques of Wastewater Treatment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    need and importance of wastewater treatment and conven- tional methods of treatment. Currently the need is to develop low power consuming and yet effective techniques to handle complex wastes. As a result, new and ... ered as supplying energy to make an active oxidizable species of the pollutants. Generally speaking ...

  8. New measurements techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torras Rosell, Antoni

    uncertainties to the measurement process. Optical techniques may help overcoming this problem because the sensing element is not a bulky instrument, but a beam of light that does not change the properties of sound. Optical methods are thus non-invasive and can thereby enhance the current state of the art...

  9. The attribute measurement technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Langner, Diana; Smith, Morag; Thron, Jonathan; Razinkov, Sergey; Livke, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Any verification measurement performed on potentially classified nuclear material must satisfy two seemingly contradictory constraints. First and foremost, no classified information can be released. At the same time, the monitoring party must have confidence in the veracity of the measurement. An information barrier (IB) is included in the measurement system to protect the potentially classified information while allowing sufficient information transfer to occur for the monitoring party to gain confidence that the material being measured is consistent with the host's declarations, concerning that material. The attribute measurement technique incorporates an IB and addresses both concerns by measuring several attributes of the nuclear material and displaying unclassified results through green (indicating that the material does possess the specified attribute) and red (indicating that the material does not possess the specified attribute) lights. The attribute measurement technique has been implemented in the AVNG, an attribute measuring system described in other presentations at this conference. In this presentation, we will discuss four techniques used in the AVNG: (1) the 1B, (2) the attribute measurement technique, (3) the use of open and secure modes to increase confidence in the displayed results, and (4) the joint design as a method for addressing both host and monitor needs.

  10. Classifying variability modeling techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinnema, Marco; Deelstra, Sybren

    Variability modeling is important for managing variability in software product families, especially during product derivation. In the past few years, several variability modeling techniques have been developed, each using its own concepts to model the variability provided by a product family. The

  11. Techniques of Wastewater Treatment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 12. Techniques of Wastewater Treatment - Future Technologies. Amol A Kulkarni Mugdha ... Chemical Engineering Division, University Department of Chemical Technology, Nathalal Parik Marg, Matunga, Mumbai 400 019, India. Chemical ...

  12. Electronic waste recycling techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardes, Andréa

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the characterization of electronic waste. In addition, processing techniques for the recovery of metals, polymers and ceramics are described. This book serves as a source of information and as an educational technical reference for practicing scientists and engineers, as well as for students.

  13. 3. Techniques of Cartography

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 8. Mapmakers Techniques of Cartography. Harini Nagendra. Series Article Volume 4 Issue 8 August 1999 pp 8-15. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/08/0008-0015 ...

  14. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Their Families When There's More Than One Person With CF in the Same School Daily Life ... Awards and Grants Career Development Awards Research Awards Training Awards CF ... Clearance Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs) There are different ways to clear your ...

  15. Simple Driving Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    2002-01-01

    -like language. Our aim is to extract a simple notion of driving and show that even in this tamed form it has much of the power of more general notions of driving. Our driving technique may be used to simplify functional programs which use function composition and will often be able to remove intermediate data...

  16. 8. Algorithm Design Techniques

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 8. Algorithms - Algorithm Design Techniques. R K Shyamasundar. Series Article Volume 2 ... Author Affiliations. R K Shyamasundar1. Computer Science Group, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005, India ...

  17. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Team Your cystic fibrosis care team includes a group of CF health care professionals who partner with ... Awards and Grants Career Development Awards Research Awards Training Awards CF ... Clearance Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs) There are different ways to clear your ...

  18. Safeguards techniques and equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The current booklet is intended to give a full and balanced description of the techniques and equipment used for both nuclear material accountancy and containment and surveillance measures, and for the new safeguards measure of environmental sampling. As new verification measures continue to be developed, the material in the booklet will be periodically reviewed and updated versions issued. (author)

  19. Comparison with Other Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Giovanni Maria; Ferré, Sébastien; Tzitzikas, Yannis

    This chapter compares dynamic taxonomies with the other main approaches to information access and discusses analogies and differences. The approaches analyzed range from traditional retrieval paradigms, such as queries on structured data, to the most recent approaches, including the current effort on the Semantic Web: queries on structured data, and OLAP data analysis techniques;

  20. 8. Algorithm Design Techniques

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 8. Algorithms - Algorithm Design Techniques. R K Shyamasundar. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 8 August 1997 pp 6-17. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/08/0006-0017 ...

  1. Art Appreciation and Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Diane R.; Milam, Debora

    1985-01-01

    Presents examples of independent study units for gifted high school students in a resource room setting. Both art appreciation and technique are covered in activities concerned with media (basics of pencil, India ink, pastels, crayons, oil, acrylics, and watercolors), subject matter (landscapes, animals, the human figure), design and illustration…

  2. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Depression and CF Working With Your Care Team Fitness and Nutrition Fitness Nutrition and Your Digestive System Germs and Staying ... Techniques Autogenic Drainage Basics of Lung Care Chest Physical Therapy Coughing and Huffing High-Frequency Chest Wall ...

  3. 3. Techniques of Cartography

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 8. Mapmakers Techniques of Cartography. Harini Nagendra. Series Article Volume 4 Issue 8 August 1999 pp 8-15. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/08/0008-0015 ...

  4. Microwave Breast Imaging Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Rubæk, Tonny

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines the applicability of microwave radiation for breast cancer detection. Microwave imaging systems are categorized based on their hardware architecture. The advantages and disadvantages of various imaging techniques are discussed. The fundamental tradeoffs are indicated between...... various requirements to be fulfilled in the design of an imaging system for breast cancer detection and some strategies to overcome these limitations....

  5. Nuclear techniques in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhagwat, S.G.

    2012-01-01

    Crops provide us food grains and many other products. Demand for food and other agricultural products is increasing. There is also need for improvement of quality of the agricultural produce. There are several technologies in use for achieving the goal of increasing the quantity and quality of agricultural produce. Nuclear techniques provide us with an option which has certain advantages. The characteristics of crop plants are determined by the genetic make up of the plant. Traditionally the genetic make up was modified using conventional breeding techniques such as cross breeding to improve crops for yield, disease resistance, stress tolerance, resistance to insect pests or to improve quality. New varieties of crops are produced which replace the earlier ones and thus the demands are met. The process of development of new varieties is long and time consuming. Nuclear technique called mutation breeding provides an efficient way of breeding new varieties or improving the older ones. This technique merely enhances the process of occurrence of mutations. In nature mutations occur at a rate of approximately one in a million, while when mutations are induced using radiations such as gamma rays the efficiency of inducing mutations is enhanced. Useful mutations are selected, the mutants are evaluated and developed as a new variety. In the Nuclear Agriculture and Biotechnology Division (NA and BTD) this technique has been used to develop mutants of many crop plants. The mutants can be used to develop a variety directly or by using it in further breeding programme. Using these approaches the NA and BTD has developed 40 new varieties of crops such as groundnut, mungbean, urid, pigeon pea, mustard, soybean, sunflower, cowpea, jute. These varieties are developed in collaboration with other agricultural institutions and are popular among the farming community. The method of mutation breeding can be applied to many other crops for improvement. There is increasing interest among

  6. Managerial Techniques in Educational Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, John J.

    1983-01-01

    Management techniques developed during the past 20 years assume the rational bureaucratic model. School administration requires contingent techniques. Quality Circle, Theory Z, and the McKenzie 7-Framework are discussed as techniques to increase school productivity. (MD)

  7. Network acceleration techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Patricia (Inventor); Awrach, James Michael (Inventor); Maccabe, Arthur Barney (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Splintered offloading techniques with receive batch processing are described for network acceleration. Such techniques offload specific functionality to a NIC while maintaining the bulk of the protocol processing in the host operating system ("OS"). The resulting protocol implementation allows the application to bypass the protocol processing of the received data. Such can be accomplished this by moving data from the NIC directly to the application through direct memory access ("DMA") and batch processing the receive headers in the host OS when the host OS is interrupted to perform other work. Batch processing receive headers allows the data path to be separated from the control path. Unlike operating system bypass, however, the operating system still fully manages the network resource and has relevant feedback about traffic and flows. Embodiments of the present disclosure can therefore address the challenges of networks with extreme bandwidth delay products (BWDP).

  8. Laser beam shaping techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DICKEY,FRED M.; WEICHMAN,LOUIS S.; SHAGAM,RICHARD N.

    2000-03-16

    Industrial, military, medical, and research and development applications of lasers frequently require a beam with a specified irradiance distribution in some plane. A common requirement is a laser profile that is uniform over some cross-section. Such applications include laser/material processing, laser material interaction studies, fiber injection systems, optical data image processing, lithography, medical applications, and military applications. Laser beam shaping techniques can be divided into three areas: apertured beams, field mappers, and multi-aperture beam integrators. An uncertainty relation exists for laser beam shaping that puts constraints on system design. In this paper the authors review the basics of laser beam shaping and present applications and limitations of various techniques.

  9. Signal integrity characterization techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bogatin, Eric

    2009-01-01

    "Signal Integrity Characterization Techniques" addresses the gap between traditional digital and microwave curricula all while focusing on a practical and intuitive understanding of signal integrity effects within the data transmission channel. High-speed interconnects such as connectors, PCBs, cables, IC packages, and backplanes are critical elements of differential channels that must be designed using today's most powerful analysis and characterization tools.Both measurements and simulation must be done on the device under test, and both activities must yield data that correlates with each other. Most of this book focuses on real-world applications of signal integrity measurements - from backplane for design challenges to error correction techniques to jitter measurement technologies. The authors' approach wisely addresses some of these new high-speed technologies, and it also provides valuable insight into its future direction and will teach the reader valuable lessons on the industry.

  10. [Molecular techniques in mycology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Tudela, Juan Luis; Cuesta, Isabel; Gómez-López, Alicia; Alastruey-Izquierdo, Ana; Bernal-Martínez, Leticia; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel

    2008-11-01

    An increasing number of molecular techniques for the diagnosis of fungal infections have been developed in the last few years, due to the growing prevalence of mycoses and the length of time required for diagnosis when classical microbiological methods are used. These methods are designed to resolve the following aspects of mycological diagnosis: a) Identification of fungi to species level by means of sequencing relevant taxonomic targets; b) early clinical diagnosis of invasive fungal infections; c) detection of molecular mechanisms of resistance to antifungal agents; and d) molecular typing of fungi. Currently, these methods are restricted to highly developed laboratories. However, some of these techniques will probably be available in daily clinical practice in the near future.

  11. Miniaturization Techniques for Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, James E.

    2003-05-27

    The possibility of laser driven accelerators [1] suggests the need for new structures based on micromachining and integrated circuit technology because of the comparable scales. Thus, we are exploring fully integrated structures including sources, optics (for both light and particle) and acceleration in a common format--an accelerator-on-chip (AOC). Tests suggest a number of preferred materials and techniques but no technical or fundamental roadblocks at scales of order 1 {micro}m or larger.

  12. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy: Surgical techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Mellon

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since its first description in 1992, laparoscopic adrenalectomy has become the gold standard for the surgical treatment of most adrenal conditions. The benefits of a minimally invasive approach to adrenal resection such as decreased hospital stay, shorter recovery time and improved patient satisfaction are widely accepted. However, as this procedure becomes more widespread, critical steps of the operation must be maintained to ensure expected outcomes and success. This article reviews the surgical techniques for the laparoscopic adrenalectomy.

  13. Electronic Packaging Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    A characteristic of aerospace system design is that equipment size and weight must always be kept to a minimum, even in small components such as electronic packages. The dictates of spacecraft design have spawned a number of high-density packaging techniques, among them methods of connecting circuits in printed wiring boards by processes called stitchbond welding and parallel gap welding. These processes help designers compress more components into less space; they also afford weight savings and lower production costs.

  14. Pipeline Leak Detection Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timur Chis, Ph.D., Dipl.Eng.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Leak detection systems range from simple, visual line walking and checking ones to complex arrangements of hard-ware and software. No one method is universally applicable and operating requirements dictate which method is the most cost effective. The aim of the paper is to review the basic techniques of leak detection that are currently in use. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed and some indications of applicability are outlined.

  15. Pipeline Leak Detection Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Timur Chis, Ph.D., Dipl.Eng.

    2007-01-01

    Leak detection systems range from simple, visual line walking and checking ones to complex arrangements of hard-ware and software. No one method is universally applicable and operating requirements dictate which method is the most cost effective. The aim of the paper is to review the basic techniques of leak detection that are currently in use. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed and some indications of applicability are outlined.

  16. Nuclear techniques in hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahadur, J.; Saxena, R.K.

    1974-01-01

    Several types of sealed radioactive sources, stable isotopes and water soluble radioactive tracers, used by different investigators, have been listed for studying the dynamic behaviour of water in nature. In general, all the facets of hydrological cycle, are amenable to these isotopic techniques. It is recommended that environmental isotopes data collection should be started for studying the water balance and also the interrelationships between surface and subsurface water in various rivers catchments with changing physical, geological and climatic parameters. (author)

  17. Management of science technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Byeong Han; Lee, Gap Du

    2002-08-01

    This book mentions change of environment and management of technique, business environment in information age technology and management such as classification of technology, innovation of technology and meaning of technology management, item innovation and technology about meaning of item development, innovation and item development, creation of item concept and item development, process of product innovation, product activity, product innovation product innovation and technology, development of product innovation, technology and marketing innovation, innovation of skill of marketing information system and globalization.

  18. Resin infiltration transfer technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David V [Pittsburgh, PA; Baranwal, Rita [Glenshaw, PA

    2009-12-08

    A process has been developed for fabricating composite structures using either reaction forming or polymer infiltration and pyrolysis techniques to densify the composite matrix. The matrix and reinforcement materials of choice can include, but are not limited to, silicon carbide (SiC) and zirconium carbide (ZrC). The novel process can be used to fabricate complex, net-shape or near-net shape, high-quality ceramic composites with a crack-free matrix.

  19. Techniques for Wireless Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Gaaloul, Fakhreddine

    2012-05-01

    Switching techniques have been first proposed as a spacial diversity techniques. These techniques have been shown to reduce considerably the processing load while letting multi-antenna systems achieve a specific target performance. In this thesis, we take a different look at the switching schemes by implementing them for different other wireless applications. More specifically, this thesis consists of three main parts, where the first part considers a multiuser environment and an adaptive scheduling algorithm based on the switching with post-selection scheme for statistically independent but non-identically distributed channel conditions. The performance of this switched based scheduler is investigated and a multitude of performance metrics are presented. In a second part, we propose and analyze the performance of three switched-based algorithms for interference reduction in the downlink of over-loaded femtocells. For instance, performance metrics are derived in closed-form and these metrics are used to compare these three proposed schemes. Finally in a third part, a switch based opportunistic channel access scheme is proposed for a cognitive radio system and its performance is analyzed in terms of two new proposed metrics namely the average cognitive radio access and the waiting time duration.

  20. Covariance mapping techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasinski, Leszek J.

    2016-08-01

    Recent technological advances in the generation of intense femtosecond pulses have made covariance mapping an attractive analytical technique. The laser pulses available are so intense that often thousands of ionisation and Coulomb explosion events will occur within each pulse. To understand the physics of these processes the photoelectrons and photoions need to be correlated, and covariance mapping is well suited for operating at the high counting rates of these laser sources. Partial covariance is particularly useful in experiments with x-ray free electron lasers, because it is capable of suppressing pulse fluctuation effects. A variety of covariance mapping methods is described: simple, partial (single- and multi-parameter), sliced, contingent and multi-dimensional. The relationship to coincidence techniques is discussed. Covariance mapping has been used in many areas of science and technology: inner-shell excitation and Auger decay, multiphoton and multielectron ionisation, time-of-flight and angle-resolved spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, stimulated Raman scattering, directional gamma ray sensing, welding diagnostics and brain connectivity studies (connectomics). This review gives practical advice for implementing the technique and interpreting the results, including its limitations and instrumental constraints. It also summarises recent theoretical studies, highlights unsolved problems and outlines a personal view on the most promising research directions.

  1. Vibration transducer calibration techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkley, D. J.

    1980-09-01

    Techniques for the calibration of vibration transducers used in the Aeronautical Quality Assurance Directorate of the British Ministry of Defence are presented. Following a review of the types of measurements necessary in the calibration of vibration transducers, the performance requirements of vibration transducers, which can be used to measure acceleration, velocity or vibration amplitude, are discussed, with particular attention given to the piezoelectric accelerometer. Techniques for the accurate measurement of sinusoidal vibration amplitude in reference-grade transducers are then considered, including the use of a position sensitive photocell and the use of a Michelson laser interferometer. Means of comparing the output of working-grade accelerometers with that of previously calibrated reference-grade devices are then outlined, with attention given to a method employing a capacitance bridge technique and a method to be used at temperatures between -50 and 200 C. Automatic calibration procedures developed to speed up the calibration process are outlined, and future possible extensions of system software are indicated.

  2. Computer Assisted Audit Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Iancu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available From the modern point of view, audit takes intoaccount especially the information systems representingmainly the examination performed by a professional asregards the manner for developing an activity by means ofcomparing it to the quality criteria specific to this activity.Having as reference point this very general definition ofauditing, it must be emphasized that the best known segmentof auditing is the financial audit that had a parallel evolutionto the accountancy one.The present day phase of developing the financial audithas as main trait the internationalization of the accountantprofessional. World wide there are multinational companiesthat offer services in the financial auditing, taxing andconsultancy domain. The auditors, natural persons and auditcompanies, take part at the works of the national andinternational authorities for setting out norms in theaccountancy and auditing domain.The computer assisted audit techniques can be classified inseveral manners according to the approaches used by theauditor. The most well-known techniques are comprised inthe following categories: testing data techniques, integratedtest, parallel simulation, revising the program logics,programs developed upon request, generalized auditsoftware, utility programs and expert systems.

  3. Empirical techniques in finance

    CERN Document Server

    Bhar, Ramaprasad

    2005-01-01

    This book offers the opportunity to study and experience advanced empi- cal techniques in finance and in general financial economics. It is not only suitable for students with an interest in the field, it is also highly rec- mended for academic researchers as well as the researchers in the industry. The book focuses on the contemporary empirical techniques used in the analysis of financial markets and how these are implemented using actual market data. With an emphasis on Implementation, this book helps foc- ing on strategies for rigorously combing finance theory and modeling technology to extend extant considerations in the literature. The main aim of this book is to equip the readers with an array of tools and techniques that will allow them to explore financial market problems with a fresh perspective. In this sense it is not another volume in eco- metrics. Of course, the traditional econometric methods are still valid and important; the contents of this book will bring in other related modeling topics tha...

  4. Enseignement technique/Technical Training

    CERN Multimedia

    1998-01-01

    Bureautique et techniques administratives/Office Automation & Administrative Techniques - Premiers pas/Getting started - E-Mail - Management Tools - WWW - Applications bureautiques/Office applications

  5. Multimodality imaging techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Bonmatí, Luis; Sopena, Ramón; Bartumeus, Paula; Sopena, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    In multimodality imaging, the need to combine morphofunctional information can be approached by either acquiring images at different times (asynchronous), and fused them through digital image manipulation techniques or simultaneously acquiring images (synchronous) and merging them automatically. The asynchronous post-processing solution presents various constraints, mainly conditioned by the different positioning of the patient in the two scans acquired at different times in separated machines. The best solution to achieve consistency in time and space is obtained by the synchronous image acquisition. There are many multimodal technologies in molecular imaging. In this review we will focus on those multimodality image techniques more commonly used in the field of diagnostic imaging (SPECT-CT, PET-CT) and new developments (as PET-MR). The technological innovations and development of new tracers and smart probes are the main key points that will condition multimodality image and diagnostic imaging professionals' future. Although SPECT-CT and PET-CT are standard in most clinical scenarios, MR imaging has some advantages, providing excellent soft-tissue contrast and multidimensional functional, structural and morphological information. The next frontier is to develop efficient detectors and electronics systems capable of detecting two modality signals at the same time. Not only PET-MR but also MR-US or optic-PET will be introduced in clinical scenarios. Even more, MR diffusion-weighted, pharmacokinetic imaging, spectroscopy or functional BOLD imaging will merge with PET tracers to further increase molecular imaging as a relevant medical discipline. Multimodality imaging techniques will play a leading role in relevant clinical applications. The development of new diagnostic imaging research areas, mainly in the field of oncology, cardiology and neuropsychiatry, will impact the way medicine is performed today. Both clinical and experimental multimodality studies, in

  6. Applied ALARA techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waggoner, L.O.

    1998-01-01

    The presentation focuses on some of the time-proven and new technologies being used to accomplish radiological work. These techniques can be applied at nuclear facilities to reduce radiation doses and protect the environment. The last reactor plants and processing facilities were shutdown and Hanford was given a new mission to put the facilities in a safe condition, decontaminate, and prepare them for decommissioning. The skills that were necessary to operate these facilities were different than the skills needed today to clean up Hanford. Workers were not familiar with many of the tools, equipment, and materials needed to accomplish:the new mission, which includes clean up of contaminated areas in and around all the facilities, recovery of reactor fuel from spent fuel pools, and the removal of millions of gallons of highly radioactive waste from 177 underground tanks. In addition, this work has to be done with a reduced number of workers and a smaller budget. At Hanford, facilities contain a myriad of radioactive isotopes that are 2048 located inside plant systems, underground tanks, and the soil. As cleanup work at Hanford began, it became obvious early that in order to get workers to apply ALARA and use hew tools and equipment to accomplish the radiological work it was necessary to plan the work in advance and get radiological control and/or ALARA committee personnel involved early in the planning process. Emphasis was placed on applying,ALARA techniques to reduce dose, limit contamination spread and minimize the amount of radioactive waste generated. Progress on the cleanup has,b6en steady and Hanford workers have learned to use different types of engineered controls and ALARA techniques to perform radiological work. The purpose of this presentation is to share the lessons learned on how Hanford is accomplishing radiological work

  7. Pileup Mitigation Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Matthew Henry; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    We report on recent progress in the ATLAS experiment in developing tools to mitigate the effects of pile-up. Forward pile-up jet tagging techniques, as well as constituent-level pile-up suppression algorithms are discussed in details. The impacts of these approaches on both jet energy and angular resolution, as well as jet substructure and boosted object tagging performance are discussed. Improvements to various physics channels of interest are discussed and the potential future of such algorithms — both online and offline, and both at the current LHC and a future high-luminosity LHC and beyond — is considered in detail

  8. Techniques et technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Boscus, Alain; Comet, Georges; Fiocchi, Laurent; Fournier, Patrick; Morel, David; Phalip, Bruno; Pignot, Isabelle; Reveyron, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    L’histoire des techniques est en train de réapparaître dans notre vision actuelle de l’histoire, non sans quelques difficultés, dues notamment au fait qu’histoire et histoire de l’art restent encore en retrait, dans l’appréhension concrète des technologies, par rapport aux arts et métiers ou à l’archéologie. Souhaitant ne céder ni à l’apparente fatalité des documentations inexplorées, ni à de trop belles évidences historiographiques, ce volume rassemble des auteurs travaillant aux limites de ...

  9. Electricity demand forecasting techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnanalingam, K.

    1994-01-01

    Electricity demand forecasting plays an important role in power generation. The two areas of data that have to be forecasted in a power system are peak demand which determines the capacity (MW) of the plant required and annual energy demand (GWH). Methods used in electricity demand forecasting include time trend analysis and econometric methods. In forecasting, identification of manpower demand, identification of key planning factors, decision on planning horizon, differentiation between prediction and projection (i.e. development of different scenarios) and choosing from different forecasting techniques are important

  10. High voltage test techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kind, Dieter

    2001-01-01

    The second edition of High Voltage Test Techniques has been completely revised. The present revision takes into account the latest international developments in High Voltage and Measurement technology, making it an essential reference for engineers in the testing field.High Voltage Technology belongs to the traditional area of Electrical Engineering. However, this is not to say that the area has stood still. New insulating materials, computing methods and voltage levels repeatedly pose new problems or open up methods of solution; electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) or components and systems al

  11. Imaging Techniques and Indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, James M

    2017-04-01

    This article evaluates the utility of radiography, ultrasonography, and MRI in diagnosing Achilles tendon injuries. It reviews the pertinent anatomy of the Achilles and associated structures, and signs of disorder with each imaging technique. The economics of use ultrasonography and MRI are discussed. They should serve as complementary diagnostic tools, with ultrasonography the first choice because of its ease of use, ability to view dynamic function, and cost. However, clinical examination is often best for diagnosis; MRI and ultrasonography often should be considered only when the diagnosis is confounding or a patient does not respond to recommended conservative care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Western Blot Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Brianna

    2017-01-01

    The Western blot is an important laboratory technique that allows for specific identification and characterization of proteins. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE)-separated proteins are electophoretically transferred to a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane which is then incubated with specific antibodies, then developed to show the protein of interest. Here, we describe the transfer and detection of Outer surface protein A (OspA), a protein only found on the surface of Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacteria responsible for Lyme disease.

  13. Isotope techniques for hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-01-01

    In the body of the Panel's report specific conclusions and recommendations are presented in the context of each subject. The general consensus of the Panel is as follows: by the study of this report, the 1961 Panel report, the Proceedings of the March 1963 Tokyo Symposium and other reports of research and technological advances, isotope-technique applications to hydrologic problems have provided some useful avenues for understanding the nature of the hydrologic cycle and in the solution of specific engineering problems. Some techniques are developed thoroughly enough for fairly routine application as tools for use in the solution of practical problems, but further research and development is needed on other concepts to determined whether or not they can be beneficially applied to either research or engineering problems. A concerted effort is required on the part of both hydrologists and isotope specialists working as teams to assure that proper synthesis of scientific advances in the respective fields and translation of these advances into practical technology is achieved

  14. A Technique: Exposure Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan AKKOYUNLU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exposure with response prevention is an effective treatment for all anxiety disorders. According to the behavioral learning theories, fears which are conditioned via classical conditioning are reinforced by respondent conditioning. Avoidance and safety seeking behaviors prevent disconfirmation of anxious beliefs. In exposure client faces stimulates or cues that elicit fear or distress, by this avoidance is inhibited. Clients are also encouraged to resists performing safety seeking behaviors or rituals that they utilize to reduce fear or distress. Accomplishing these habituation or extinction is achieved. In addition to this clients learn that feared consequences does not realize or not harmful as they believed by experiencing. Emotional processing is believed to be the mechanism of change in exposure.Objective: The aim of this review is to provide a definition of exposure and its effectiveness briefly, and describe how to implement exposure, its steps and remarkable aspects using. Exposure therapies and treatments that involve exposure are proved to be effective in all anxiety disorders. Exposure therapy can be divided in three parts: Assessment and providing a treatment rationale, creating an exposure hierarchy and response prevention plan, implementing exposure sessions. Clients must also continue to perform exposure between sessions. Therapy transcripts are also provided to exemplify these parts. Conclusion: Exposure with response prevention is a basic and effective technique. Every cognitive behavior therapist must be able to implement this technique and be cognizant of pearls of this procedure.

  15. Single-borehole techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, D.; Moser, H.; Trimborn, P.

    1978-01-01

    Proceeding on the theoretical considerations and on the experience and practice derived from laboratory and field testing, a system consisting of tracer injection units, detector units, measuring probe units and packers is presented, from which the different borehole probes required can be combined. A couple of examples of recent applications shows the position of the Single-Borehole Techniques with respect to the traditional methods used for the measurement of the ground-water flow. A confrontation of the permeabilities of different aquifers consents, both on the basis of the Single-Borehole Techniques as by pumping experiments, the determination of the reliability of the Point-Dilution-Method. The Point-Dilution-Method is giving information about the vertical and horizontal distribution of the permeabilities in an aquifer. By measuring the vertical current in two karst wells, the tributary horizons of a well have been determined, which gave valuable information for the subsequent well construction. Local leakages could be detected by measuring the vertical flow rate through observation wells arranged along a grout curtain erected on both sides of the retaining barrage of the Keban dam. (orig.) [de

  16. Techniques de hacking

    CERN Document Server

    Erickson, Jon

    2008-01-01

    Dans cet ouvrage, Jon Erickson présente les bases de la programmation en C du point de vue du hacker et dissèque plusieurs techniques de hacking, passées et actuelles, afin de comprendre comment et pourquoi elles fonctionnent. Même si vous ne savez pas programmer, ce livre vous donnera une vue complète de la programmation, de l'architecture des machines, des communications réseau et des techniques de hacking existantes. Associez ces connaissances à l'environnement Linux fourni et laissez libre cours à votre imagination. Avec ce livre vous apprendrez à : • programmer les ordinateurs en C, en assembleur et avec des scripts shell ; • inspecter les registres du processeur et la mémoire système avec un débogueur afin de comprendre précisément ce qui se passe ; Vous découvrirez comment les hackers parviennent à : • corrompre la mémoire d'un système, en utilisant les débordements de tampons et les chaînes de format, pour exécuter un code quelconque ; • surpasser les mesures de sécurit...

  17. Evolution of radiotherapeutic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, L.W.; Lewis, G.C. Jr.; Antoniades, J.; Prasasvinichai, S.; Torpie, R.J.; Asbell, S.O.; Glassburn, J.R.; Schatanoff, D.; MacMurray, T.

    1974-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma is the most common kind of tumor involving the uterine corpus, occurring in a frequency of 90 percent or better and found predominantly in post-menopausal women. Because of vaginal bleeding, diagnosis is made early and control rates are good. Regional lymph node metastases are found to occur in about 20 percent of all operable patients and more frequently in those with advanced lesions near the cervix. Surgery alone fails not only because of metastases but also because of persistence in the vaginal vault and in the periurethral region. From a theoretical and practical viewpoint, preoperative irradiation is a valuable and important role in the treatment of carcinoma of the endometrium. Treatment calls for a technique that will effectively irradiate the uterine tissue, the vaginal vault, and and the immediate extrauterine tissues in which postsurgical persistence is known to appear. From the standpoint of survival, both preoperative external therapy and preoperative radium therapy are effective with equivalent survival figures. The incidence in our experience of vaginal recurrence in those patients who were irradiated preoperatively with external beam therapy techniques would indicate the need for supplemental radium within the vaginal vault

  18. Underwater cutting techniques developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bach, F.-W.

    1990-01-01

    The primary circuit structures of different nuclear powerplants are constructed out of stainless steels, ferritic steels, plated ferritic steels and alloys of aluminium. According to the level of the specific radiation of these structures, it is necessary for dismantling to work with remote controlled cutting techniques. The most successful way to protect the working crew against exposure of radiation is to operate underwater in different depths. The following thermal cutting processes are more or less developed to work under water: For ferritic steels only - flame cutting; For ferritic steels, stainless steels, cladded steels and aluminium alloys - oxy-arc-cutting, arc-waterjet-cutting with a consumable electrode, arc-saw-cutting, plasma-arc-cutting and plasma-arc-saw. The flame cutting is a burning process, all the other processes are melt-cutting processes. This paper explains the different techniques, giving a short introduction of the theory, a discussion of the possibilities with the advantages and disadvantages of these processes giving a view into the further research work in this interesting field. (author)

  19. Information hiding technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, Michael; Budulas, Peter P.; Young, Stuart H.

    2002-08-01

    Spread spectrum communication techniques have been recognized as a viable method to gain an advantage in interference environments. Many military-oriented systems have been initiated, and some civil systems have been attempted. Spread spectrum allows the ability to hide the signal of interest below or in the noise floor, so as not to be detected. A spread spectrum system is one in which the transmitted signal is spread over a wide frequency band, much wider, in fact, than the minimum bandwidth required to transmit the information being sent. We at Army Research Lab (ARL) are proposing using the same technique on the Internet with port hopping. The information would be transmitted in data packets over multiple ports. The port used would vary per packet or per session basis. This port hopping gives you and the recipients the ability to take datagram's and spread them out over a multitude of ports. This will hide information among the Internet noise. This will allow trusted communications between the transmitter and receiver because of the port coding sequence. There are 64K possible ports to span datagram. Jamming of transmission would be limiting the ability of the sniffer/listener. Also, the listener will find it difficult to use a man in the middle attach, since the data will be spread over multiple ports and only the receiver and transmitter will know the specific port sequencing for the datagram.

  20. Technique murale picturale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Coupry

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Après des études remarquables publiées, entre autres, dans Peindre à Auxerre au Moyen Âge, IXe-XIVe siècles, l’étude technique et analytique des peintures murales n’avait pas donné lieu à de nouvelles recherches méthodologiques en dépit des travaux de terrain (Souvigny, Stavelot… où l’archéologie du bâti avait permis des rencontres entre archéologues, historiens de l’art et restaurateurs particulièrement impliqués pour la période qui nous intéresse, de la basse Antiquité au haut Moyen Âge.Ce...

  1. Diagnostic radiology - focussing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicke, L.

    1983-01-01

    The material presented in this book has been grouped under two main headings, namely General Aspects and Technical Aspects. The first part, dealing with more general aspects, discusses the occupational background of X-ray medical technicians, places of work and equipment. This is supplemented by an outline of contrast media, exposure tables, explanation of terms for movement and positioning, and of symbols. X-ray films, and how they ought to be used and handled, are discussed and hints are given as to the preparations to be taken prior to X-ray examinations. The part on Technical Aspects deals with focussing techniques for the most current X-ray examinations, presenting drawings and symbols. This part is subdivided into various chapters in accordance with the various body regions such as skull, spine, pelvis, lower extremities, osseous thorax, upper extremities, thorax, and abdomen. (MG) [de

  2. The Sterile Insect Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiragu, J.

    2006-01-01

    Insect pests have caused an increasing problem in agriculture and human health through crop losses and disease transmission to man and livestock. Intervention to ensure food security and human health has relied on Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies to keep the pests population below economic injury levels. IPM integrate a variety of methods, but there has been over-reliance on chemical control following the discovery of insecticidal properties of DDT. It is now realized that, maintaining pest populations at controlled levels is unsustainable and eradication options is now being considered. Although the Sterile Insect Technique(SIT) could be used for insect suppression, it is gaining favour in the elimination (eradication) of the target pest population through Areawide-based IPM (Author)

  3. Advanced enrichment techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.

    1988-01-01

    BNFL is in a unique position in that it has commercial experience of diffusion enrichment, and of centrifuge enrichment through its associate company Urenco. In addition BNFL is developing laser enrichment techniques as part of a UK development programme in this area. The paper describes the development programme which led to the introduction of competitive centrifuge enrichment technology by Urenco and discusses the areas where improvements have and will continue to be made in the centrifuge process. It also describes the laser development programme currently being undertaken in the UK. The paper concludes by discussing the relative merits of the various methods of uranium enrichment, with particular reference to the enrichment market likely to obtain over the rest of the century

  4. [Therapeutic education didactic techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Maite; Vidal, Mercè; Jansa, Margarida

    2012-10-01

    This article includes an introduction to the role of Therapeutic Education for Diabetes treatment according to the recommendations of the American Diabetes Association (ADA), the Diabetes Education Study Group (DESG) of the "European Association for Study of Diabetes (EASD) and the clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG) of the Spanish Ministry of Health. We analyze theoretical models and the differences between teaching vs. learning as well as current trends (including Internet), that can facilitate meaningful learning of people with diabetes and their families and relatives. We analyze the differences, similarities, advantages and disadvantages of individual and group education. Finally, we describe different educational techniques (metaplan, case method, brainstorming, role playing, games, seminars, autobiography, forums, chats,..) applicable to individual, group or virtual education and its application depending on the learning objective.

  5. Mouldroom techniques for teletherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Mould room techniques are necessary to get the best from teletherapy treatment. They are directed at: Ensuring that the part of the patient being treated remains in the same position from start to end of a fraction of radiotherapy; Ensuring that the fields, as originally imaged and planned, can be accurately reproduced for each fraction; Ensuring that, if more than one planned volume is treated, these volumes maintain a constant, reproducible relationship to each other; Deriving contours for planning teletherapy; Facilitating accuracy of setting up individual fields with respect to position on the patient and treatment unit; Fabricating and mounting blocks or shields within any field that will adequately and reproducibly shield healthy tissue or sensitive organs; Fabricating and mounting compensators and bolus material within any field that will adequately and reproducibly modify the beam as required. Immobilisation is approached initially by assessing an anatomical region, the disease and the favoured treatment machine. The versatility of each technique to accomplish immobilisation for various purposes is addressed. Immobilisation is most commonly used in the head and neck region for the treatment of cancers of the oral and nasal passages and the treatment of brain tumours. As this part of the anatomy is very flexible, the immobilisation device must not only ensure that the head is kept in a symmetrical position, but also that the degree of flexion or extension of the neck (needed for treating a pituitary as opposed to a larynx) is maintained. Sensitive structures in that region are predominantly the eyes and spinal cord but on occasions a parotid salivary gland or part of the brain may require limitation of the dose. This may be achieved by planning the teletherapy beams with shielding blocks within selected fields

  6. Mouldroom techniques for teletherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Mould room techniques are necessary to get the best from teletherapy treatment. They are directed at: Ensuring that the part of the patient being treated remains in the same position from start to end of a fraction of radiotherapy. Ensuring that the fields, as originally imaged and planned, can be accurately reproduced for each fraction. Ensuring that, if more than one planned volume is treated, these volumes maintain a constant, reproducible relationship to each other. Deriving contours for planning teletherapy. Facilitating accuracy of setting up individual fields with respect to position on the patient and treatment unit. Fabricating and mounting blocks or shields within any field that will adequately and reproducibly shield healthy tissue or sensitive organs. Fabricating and mounting compensators and bolus material within any field that will adequately and reproducibly modify the beam as required. Immobilisation is approached initially by assessing an anatomical region, the disease and the favoured treatment machine. The versatility of each technique to accomplish immobilisation for various purposes is addressed. Immobilisation is most commonly used in the head and neck region for the treatment of cancers of the oral and nasal passages and the treatment of brain tumours. As this part of the anatomy is very flexible, the immobilisation device must not only ensure that the head is kept in a symmetrical position, but also that the degree of flexion or extension of the neck (needed for treating a pituitary as opposed to a larynx) is maintained. Sensitive structures in that region are predominantly the eyes and spinal cord but on occasions a parotid salivary gland or part of the brain may require limitation of the dose. This may be achieved by planning the teletherapy beams with shielding blocks within selected fields

  7. Geological data integration techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-09-01

    The objectives of this Technical Committee are to bring together current knowledge on geological data handling and analysis technologies as developed in the mineral and petroleum industries for geological, geophysical, geochemical and remote sensing data that can be applied to uranium exploration and resource appraisal. The recommendation for work on this topic was first made at the meeting of the NEA-IAEA Joint Group of Experts on R and D in Uranium Exploration Techniques (Paris, May 1984). In their report, processing of integrated data sets was considered to be extremely important in view of the very extensive data sets built up over the recent years by large uranium reconnaissance programmes. With the development of large, multidisciplinary data sets which includes geochemical, geophysical, geological and remote sensing data, the ability of the geologist to easily interpret large volumes of information has been largely the result of developments in the field of computer science in the past decade. Advances in data management systems, image processing software, the size and speed of computer systems and significantly reduced processing costs have made large data set integration and analysis practical and affordable. The combined signatures which can be obtained from the different types of data significantly enhance the geologists ability to interpret fundamental geological properties thereby improving the chances of finding a significant ore body. This volume is the product of one of a number of activities related to uranium geology and exploration during the past few years with the intent of bringing new technologies and exploration techniques to the IAEA Member States

  8. MFIX documentation numerical technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syamlal, M.

    1998-01-01

    MFIX (Multiphase Flow with Interphase eXchanges) is a general-purpose hydrodynamic model for describing chemical reactions and heat transfer in dense or dilute fluid-solids flows, which typically occur in energy conversion and chemical processing reactors. The calculations give time-dependent information on pressure, temperature, composition, and velocity distributions in the reactors. The theoretical basis of the calculations is described in the MFIX Theory Guide. Installation of the code, setting up of a run, and post-processing of results are described in MFIX User`s manual. Work was started in April 1996 to increase the execution speed and accuracy of the code, which has resulted in MFIX 2.0. To improve the speed of the code the old algorithm was replaced by a more implicit algorithm. In different test cases conducted the new version runs 3 to 30 times faster than the old version. To increase the accuracy of the computations, second order accurate discretization schemes were included in MFIX 2.0. Bubbling fluidized bed simulations conducted with a second order scheme show that the predicted bubble shape is rounded, unlike the (unphysical) pointed shape predicted by the first order upwind scheme. This report describes the numerical technique used in MFIX 2.0.

  9. Specialized financing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, J.

    1992-01-01

    Specific financing techniques applicable to wind energy projects in Canada are discussed. A limited partnership is the classic Canadian approach to tax-advantaged financing. For a typical wind project, the limited partners would get an internal rate of return of around 8% over 20 years as well as income tax deductions on Class 34 investments. This rate can be improved if the investors borrow some of the money; they get tax-free cash flow while having deductible loan interest, raising their rate of return after taxes to ca 9-10%. Special situation investors can get to take all of the Class 34 deduction right away, raising their return up to the 12% range. These investors include principal business corporations (such as utilities or oil companies), or companies who have sold their business. A second type of financing structure is related to inflation-indexed debt. The loan is structured like a mortgage, with the annual payments indexed to inflation but nevertheless low enough to provide an early positive cash flow from the project. Other possible financing structures are the immigrant investor fund and the provincial incentive corporations

  10. A hybrid straightwire technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celli, Daniel; Catalfamo, Lorenza; Gasperoni, Enrico; Deli, Roberto

    2017-09-01

    An original straightwire appliance was developed in order to easily adapt force and friction to the different stages and needs of treatment. The appliance features: (1) conventional brackets with a 0.020×0.030″ slot in the anterior area, passive self-ligating brackets with a 0.022×0.030″ slot in the lateral area, and tubes with a 0.022×0.030″ slot in the molar area; (2) archwires which adapt to the different stages of treatment and increase their section and stiffness progressively, starting with 0.014″ superelastic NiTi, passing through 0.016×0.025″ and 0.019×0.025″ heat-activated NiTi and reaching 0.019×0.025″ stainless steel working archwires; (3) use of several ligation systems which progressively increase their binding (low-friction ligatures, "O"- or "8"-shape elastomeric ligatures). Clinical cases are shown to illustrate the technique. Copyright © 2017 CEO. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Restrictive techniques: gastric banding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Cristina da Cunha

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Surgery for the treatment of severe obesity has a definite role onthe therapeutic armamentarium all over the world. Initiated 40years ago, bariatric surgery has already a long way thanks tohundred of surgeons, who had constantly searched for the besttechnique for the adequate control of severe obesity. Among theimportant breakthroughs in obesity surgery there is theadjustable gastric band. It is a sylastic band, inflatable andadjustable, which is placed on the top of the stomach in order tocreate a 15-20 cc pouch, with an outlet of 1.3cm. The adjustablegastric band has also a subcutaneous reservoir through whichadjustments can be made, according to the patient evolution.The main feature of the adjustable gastric band is the fact thatis minimal invasive, reversible, adjustable and placedlaparoscopically. Then greatly diminishing the surgical traumato the severe obese patient. Belachew and Favretti’s techniqueof laparoscopic application of the adjustable gastric band isdescribed and the evolution of the technique during this years,as we has been practiced since 1998. The perioperative care ofthe patient is also described, as well as the follow-up and shortand long term controls.

  12. Neutron detection technique

    CERN Document Server

    Oblath, N S

    2000-01-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) has the ability to measure the total flux of all active flavors of neutrinos using the neutral current reaction, whose signature is a neutron. By comparing the rates of the neutral current reaction to the charged current reaction, which only detects electron neutrinos, one can test the neutrino oscillation hypothesis independent of solar models. It is necessary to understand the neutron detection efficiency of the detector to make use of the neutral current reaction. This report demonstrates a coincidence technique to identify neutrons emitted from the sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf neutron calibration source. The source releases on average four neutrons when a sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf nucleus spontaneously fissions. Each neutron is detected as a separate event when the neutron is captured by a deuteron, releasing a gamma ray of approximately 6.25 MeV. This gamma ray is in turn detected by the photomultiplier tube (PMT) array. By investigating the time and spatial separation between n...

  13. Dating technique tested

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    An analytical technique for dating ground water and polar ice up to a million years old has been successfully tested by scientists at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The system, known as a rare gas atom counter, extends the capabilities of resonance ionization mass spectrometry to include counting single atoms of krypton-81. The counter is composed of a pulsed dye laser operated in tandem with a mass spectrometer to separate the various isotopes of krypton. In a collaborative study, ORNL scientists recently used the method for the first time to count krypton-81 in a liter of ground water removed from a sandstone aquifer near Zurich. Fewer than 1000 krypton-81 atoms were isolated from the ground water samples. According to Bernard Lehman, a collaborating geochemist at the University of Bern, this first test proved that counting the small numbers of krypton-81 atoms necessary to make an estimate of the age of water could actually be done. Among the applications of this method, Lehman says, could be improved siting of locations for the disposal of radioactive wastes

  14. Dose Reduction Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Waggoner, L O

    2000-01-01

    As radiation safety specialists, one of the things we are required to do is evaluate tools, equipment, materials and work practices and decide whether the use of these products or work practices will reduce radiation dose or risk to the environment. There is a tendency for many workers that work with radioactive material to accomplish radiological work the same way they have always done it rather than look for new technology or change their work practices. New technology is being developed all the time that can make radiological work easier and result in less radiation dose to the worker or reduce the possibility that contamination will be spread to the environment. As we discuss the various tools and techniques that reduce radiation dose, keep in mind that the radiological controls should be reasonable. We can not always get the dose to zero, so we must try to accomplish the work efficiently and cost-effectively. There are times we may have to accept there is only so much you can do. The goal is to do the sm...

  15. Ethical Use of Gestalt Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given, Jane A.

    The purpose of this paper is to engender a healthy respect for Gestalt theory and techniques and the use of the techniques in the client's best interest and in the interest of positive professional and self-development in the practitioner. An overview of Gestalt techniques is provided, concentrating on the two category divisions of experiments and…

  16. Dose Reduction Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WAGGONER, L.O.

    2000-01-01

    As radiation safety specialists, one of the things we are required to do is evaluate tools, equipment, materials and work practices and decide whether the use of these products or work practices will reduce radiation dose or risk to the environment. There is a tendency for many workers that work with radioactive material to accomplish radiological work the same way they have always done it rather than look for new technology or change their work practices. New technology is being developed all the time that can make radiological work easier and result in less radiation dose to the worker or reduce the possibility that contamination will be spread to the environment. As we discuss the various tools and techniques that reduce radiation dose, keep in mind that the radiological controls should be reasonable. We can not always get the dose to zero, so we must try to accomplish the work efficiently and cost-effectively. There are times we may have to accept there is only so much you can do. The goal is to do the smart things that protect the worker but do not hinder him while the task is being accomplished. In addition, we should not demand that large amounts of money be spent for equipment that has marginal value in order to save a few millirem. We have broken the handout into sections that should simplify the presentation. Time, distance, shielding, and source reduction are methods used to reduce dose and are covered in Part I on work execution. We then look at operational considerations, radiological design parameters, and discuss the characteristics of personnel who deal with ALARA. This handout should give you an overview of what it takes to have an effective dose reduction program

  17. Advanced qualification techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winokur, P.S.; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Meisenheimer, T.L.; Fleetwood, D.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper demonstrates use of the Qualified Manufacturers List (QML) methodology to qualify commercial and military microelectronics for use in space applications. QML ''builds in'' the hardness of product through statistical process control (SPC) of technology parameters relevant to the radiation response, test structure to integrated circuit (IC) correlations, and techniques for extrapolating laboratory test results to low-dose-rate space scenarios. Each of these elements is demonstrated and shown to be a cost-effective alternative to expensive end-of-line IC testing. Several examples of test structured-IC correlations are provided and recent work on complications arising from transistor scaling and geometry is discussed. The use of a 10-keV x-ray wafer-level test system to support SPC and establish ''process capability'' is illustrated and a comparison of 10-keV x-ray and Co 60 gamma irradiations is provided for a wide range of CMOS technologies. The x-ray tester is shown to be cost-effective and its use in lot acceptance/qualification is recommended. Finally, a comparison is provided between MIL-STD-883D, Test Method 1019.4, which governs the testing of packaged semiconductor microcircuits in the DoD, and ESA/SSC Basic Specification No. 22900, Europe's Total Dose Steady-State Irradiation Test Method. Test Method 1019.4 focuses on conservative estimates of MOS hardness for space and tactical applications, while Basic Specification 22900 focuses on improved simulation of low-dose-rate space environments

  18. Dose Reduction Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WAGGONER, L.O.

    2000-05-16

    As radiation safety specialists, one of the things we are required to do is evaluate tools, equipment, materials and work practices and decide whether the use of these products or work practices will reduce radiation dose or risk to the environment. There is a tendency for many workers that work with radioactive material to accomplish radiological work the same way they have always done it rather than look for new technology or change their work practices. New technology is being developed all the time that can make radiological work easier and result in less radiation dose to the worker or reduce the possibility that contamination will be spread to the environment. As we discuss the various tools and techniques that reduce radiation dose, keep in mind that the radiological controls should be reasonable. We can not always get the dose to zero, so we must try to accomplish the work efficiently and cost-effectively. There are times we may have to accept there is only so much you can do. The goal is to do the smart things that protect the worker but do not hinder him while the task is being accomplished. In addition, we should not demand that large amounts of money be spent for equipment that has marginal value in order to save a few millirem. We have broken the handout into sections that should simplify the presentation. Time, distance, shielding, and source reduction are methods used to reduce dose and are covered in Part I on work execution. We then look at operational considerations, radiological design parameters, and discuss the characteristics of personnel who deal with ALARA. This handout should give you an overview of what it takes to have an effective dose reduction program.

  19. Advanced qualification techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winokur, P.S; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Meisenheimer, T.L.; Fleetwood, D.M.

    1993-12-01

    This paper demonstrates use of the Qualified Manufacturers List (QML) methodology to qualify commercial and military microelectronics for use in space applications. QML ``builds in`` the hardness of product through statistical process control (SPC) of technology parameters relevant to the radiation response, test structure to integrated circuit (IC) correlations, and techniques for extrapolating laboratory test results to low-dose-rate space scenarios. Each of these elements is demonstrated and shown to be a cost-effective alternative to expensive end-of-line IC testing. Several examples of test structured-IC correlations are provided and recent work on complications arising from transistor scaling and geometry is discussed. The use of a 10-keV x-ray wafer-level test system to support SPC and establish ``process capability`` is illustrated and a comparison of 10-keV x-ray and Co{sup 60} gamma irradiations is provided for a wide range of CMOS technologies. The x-ray tester is shown to be cost-effective and its use in lot acceptance/qualification is recommended. Finally, a comparison is provided between MIL-STD-883D, Test Method 1019.4, which governs the testing of packaged semiconductor microcircuits in the DoD, and ESA/SSC Basic Specification No. 22900, Europe`s Total Dose Steady-State Irradiation Test Method. Test Method 1019.4 focuses on conservative estimates of MOS hardness for space and tactical applications, while Basic Specification 22900 focuses on improved simulation of low-dose-rate space environments.

  20. Intramedullary Tibial Nailing Reduces the Attachment Area and Ultimate Load of the Anterior Medial Meniscal Root: A Potential Explanation for Anterior Knee Pain in Female Patients and Smaller Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPrade, Matthew D; LaPrade, Christopher M; Hamming, Mark G; Ellman, Michael B; Turnbull, Travis Lee; Rasmussen, Matthew T; Wijdicks, Coen A; LaPrade, Robert F

    2015-07-01

    Intramedullary (IM) nailing is the treatment of choice among orthopaedic surgeons for tibial shaft fractures. However, because of the close proximity of the nail's insertion site to the anterior medial (AM) meniscal root on the tibial plateau, there is increased risk of iatrogenic injury to the meniscal root during nailing. To quantify the area of the AM meniscal root footprint damaged by IM tibial reaming and determine its subsequent effects on the ultimate failure load in female versus male knees. Controlled laboratory study. Twelve matched pairs (6 male and 6 female pairs; average age, 50.2 years) of human cadaveric knees were randomly assigned to native and reamed groups. In the reamed group, knees were reamed within the "safe zone" according to current guidelines for IM tibial nail insertion (3 mm lateral to the center of the tibial tubercle and adjacent to the anterior margin of the tibial plateau). The attachment areas and ultimate failure load were quantified and compared with paired knees in the native group. Intra-articular reaming within the "safe zone" for IM tibial nail insertion did not significantly decrease the AM root attachment area or ultimate failure load in male specimens, as only 2 of the 6 knees were damaged by reaming. In contrast, all 6 of the AM roots in the female knees were damaged by reaming, and on average, reaming decreased the female AM root attachment area by 19% and significantly decreased ultimate failure load by 37% (P = .028). There was a strong negative correlation (R(2) = 0.77) between reamed tunnel-AM root overlap area and medial-lateral width in female but not in male knees. Standard reaming for an IM tibial nail induced significant damage to the AM meniscal root in smaller, female specimens, whereas larger, male specimens were not affected. These findings may suggest that improvements in current guidelines and surgical techniques are warranted to prevent iatrogenic injury to the AM meniscal root during intramedullary

  1. Ultra high speed image processing techniques. [electronic packaging techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, T.; Hoeschele, D. F.; Connery, R.; Ehland, J.; Billings, J.

    1981-01-01

    Packaging techniques for ultra high speed image processing were developed. These techniques involve the development of a signal feedthrough technique through LSI/VLSI sapphire substrates. This allows the stacking of LSI/VLSI circuit substrates in a 3 dimensional package with greatly reduced length of interconnecting lines between the LSI/VLSI circuits. The reduced parasitic capacitances results in higher LSI/VLSI computational speeds at significantly reduced power consumption levels.

  2. Handbook of Forecasting Techniques. Part I. List of 73 Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-08-01

    differently by most practitioners. Techniques such ab meditation, certain games, psychedelic drugs , biofeedback, yoga, etc., often help in producing...m ~TIP JA\\’AB’fY 2E I lllltlt l! I i List of 73 Forecasting Techniques Cost- Benefit Analysis ,Statistical Models (Bayesian) Marginal Analysis...Steiner 1969, p. 412 FORECASTING EVALUATION FORM #1 What is it? Name: BENEFIT -COST ANALYSIS Definition/description: A technique to measure the coats of an

  3. Theorists and Techniques: Connecting Education Theories to Lamaze Teaching Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgurski, Mary Jo

    2016-01-01

    Should childbirth educators connect education theory to technique? Is there more to learning about theorists than memorizing facts for an assessment? Are childbirth educators uniquely poised to glean wisdom from theorists and enhance their classes with interactive techniques inspiring participant knowledge and empowerment? Yes, yes, and yes. This article will explore how an awareness of education theory can enhance retention of material through interactive learning techniques. Lamaze International childbirth classes already prepare participants for the childbearing year by using positive group dynamics; theory will empower childbirth educators to address education through well-studied avenues. Childbirth educators can provide evidence-based learning techniques in their classes and create true behavioral change.

  4. A STUDY ON INTERNAL FIXATION OF COMPOUND FRACTURES OF TIBIA USING INTERLOCKING NAIL WITHOUT REAMING

    OpenAIRE

    Pradeep Chandra; Chandra Sekhar; Krishna Reddy; Bachu

    2016-01-01

    As one-third of the tibial surface is subcutaneous throughout its length, open fractures are commonly encountered in this bone. The factors which determine the outcome of these fractures are severity of the injury, indicated by the degree of initial displacement, comminution and soft tissue injury and the damage to the tibial blood supply. In open fractures not only is the endosteal circulation disrupted but also the periosteal circulation, because of periosteal stripping. The va...

  5. Treatment of acute fractures of the femoral shaft with reamed intramedullary interlocking AO nails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umer, M; Niazi, A K; Hussain, D; Ahmad, M

    2004-08-01

    To review and audit our experience with closed intramedullary interlocking nailing for acute femoral shaft fractures. All patients admitted to The Aga Khan University Hospital, over the last six years and with a minimum follow-up of twelve months, with acute fractures of the femoral shaft were included in the study. All patients treated for established non-unions and infections or with pathological fractures were excluded from the study. There were 89 fractures, 74% of whom were closed and 50% were associated with other orthopedic injuries. Most of these were younger patients involved in high velocity road traffic accidents. The union rate was 88% with 4.4% of fractures going into non-union. The remaining 8% of the fractures went into a phase of delayed union, but ultimately united, making the overall success rate to be 95.6%. The mean time for union was 11.5 weeks. At the final clinical follow-up, 4% of the patients had minor pain, 7% had limp, 4% had leg length discrepancy of more than 2 cm and 4% had decreased range of motion at the hip or knee joints. We had a 4% rate of superficial infection. There were 3 cases of pudendal nerve neuropraxia and 2 cases of deep vein thrombosis. Intramedullary Interlocking nailing is a safe and effective treatment modality for acute fractures of the femoral shaft. Proper surgical decision making regarding static versus dynamic mode of locking can avoid problems of delayed union.

  6. Ultrasonic techniques for fluids characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Povey, Malcolm J W

    1997-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive and practical guide to the use of ultrasonic techniques for the characterization of fluids. Focusing on ultrasonic velocimetry, the author covers the basic topics and techniques necessaryfor successful ultrasound measurements on emulsions, dispersions, multiphase media, and viscoelastic/viscoplastic materials. Advanced techniques such as scattering, particle sizing, and automation are also presented. As a handbook for industrial and scientific use, Ultrasonic Techniques for Fluids Characterization is an indispensable guide to chemists and chemical engineers using ultrasound for research or process monitoring in the chemical, food processing, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, biotechnology,and fuels industries. Key Features * Appeals to anyone using ultrasound to study fluids * Provides the first detailed description of the ultrasound profiling technique for dispersions * Describes new techniques for measuring phase transitions and nucleation, such as water/ice and oil/fat * Presents the l...

  7. Luminescence techniques: Instrumentation and methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes techniques, instruments and methods used in luminescence dating and environmental dosimetry in many laboratories around the world. These techniques are based on two phenomena - thermally stimulated luminescence and optically stimulated luminescence. The most commonly used...... luminescence stimulation and detection techniques are reviewed and information is given on recent developments in instrument design and on the stale of the art in luminescence measurements and analysis. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  8. Informationization nuclear apparatus communication technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Tiqi; Fang Zongliang; Wen Qilin

    2006-01-01

    The paper explains the request of communication ability in nuclear technique application area. Based on the actuality of nuclear apparatus communication ability, and mainly combining with the development of communication technique, the authors analyzes the application trend of communication technique applying in nuclear apparatus, for the apparatus and system needing communication ability, they need selecting suitable communication means to make them accomplish the task immediately and effectively. (authors)

  9. Radar interferometry persistent scatterer technique

    CERN Document Server

    Kampes, Bert M

    2014-01-01

    This volume is devoted to the Persistent Scatterer Technique, the latest development in radar interferometric data processing. It is the only book on Permanent Scatterer (PS) technique of radar interferometry, and it details a newly developed stochastic model and estimator algorithm to cope with possible problems for the application of the PS technique. The STUN (spatio-temporal unwrapping network) algorithm, developed to cope with these issues in a robust way, is presented and applied to two test sites.

  10. Optical pulses, lasers, measuring techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Früngel, Frank B A

    1965-01-01

    High Speed Pulse Technology: Volume II: Optical Pulses - Lasers - Measuring Techniques focuses on the theoretical and engineering problems that result from the capacitor discharge technique.This book is organized into three main topics: light flash production from a capacitive energy storage; signal transmission and ranging systems by capacitor discharges and lasers; and impulse measuring technique. This text specifically discusses the air spark under atmospheric conditions, industrial equipment for laser flashing, and claims for light transmitting system. The application of light impulse sign

  11. Comparison Of Clustering Techniques And A Univariate Technique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In further analysis of clustering technique and with the application of either complete linkage or further neighbour linkage methods, there was a positive perfect correlation on the memberships of the groups. Therefore, any of these two techniques could be used to group locations. The only difference is that clustering ...

  12. Developing Fighting Technique Through Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Lajcik

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Visualization is a training technique that involves creating a detailed mental “movie” of successful performance. This article describes a type of visualization called “mental rehearsal” and explains how it can be used to reinforce the neuromuscular pattern of proper fighting technique. Drawing on his experience as a professional fighter and college coach, his studies in sport psychology as a college student, and his exposure to mental training techniques at the U.S. Olympic Training Center, the author reveals how to use mental imagery to facilitate the mastery of martial art technique.    

  13. GPU Pro advanced rendering techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Engel, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    This book covers essential tools and techniques for programming the graphics processing unit. Brought to you by Wolfgang Engel and the same team of editors who made the ShaderX series a success, this volume covers advanced rendering techniques, engine design, GPGPU techniques, related mathematical techniques, and game postmortems. A special emphasis is placed on handheld programming to account for the increased importance of graphics on mobile devices, especially the iPhone and iPod touch.Example programs and source code can be downloaded from the book's CRC Press web page. 

  14. Techniques to Bring Up Mucus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sexual Activity Less Strenuous Positions for Sexual Intercourse Techniques to Bring Up Mucus COPD: Exercises Giving Up Smoking Managing Your Environment Nutrition Patients & Visitors Giving For ...

  15. Algorithms Design Techniques and Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Alsuwaiyel, M H

    1999-01-01

    Problem solving is an essential part of every scientific discipline. It has two components: (1) problem identification and formulation, and (2) solution of the formulated problem. One can solve a problem on its own using ad hoc techniques or follow those techniques that have produced efficient solutions to similar problems. This requires the understanding of various algorithm design techniques, how and when to use them to formulate solutions and the context appropriate for each of them. This book advocates the study of algorithm design techniques by presenting most of the useful algorithm desi

  16. Parachute technique for partial penectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Korkes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Penile carcinoma is a rare but mutilating malignancy. In this context, partial penectomy is the most commonly applied approach for best oncological results. We herein propose a simple modification of the classic technique of partial penectomy, for better cosmetic and functional results. TECHNIQUE: If partial penectomy is indicated, the present technique can bring additional benefits. Different from classical technique, the urethra is spatulated only ventrally. An inverted "V" skin flap with 0.5 cm of extension is sectioned ventrally. The suture is performed with vicryl 4-0 in a "parachute" fashion, beginning from the ventral portion of the urethra and the "V" flap, followed by the "V" flap angles and than by the dorsal portion of the penis. After completion of the suture, a Foley catheter and light dressing are placed for 24 hours. CONCLUSIONS: Several complex reconstructive techniques have been previously proposed, but normally require specific surgical abilities, adequate patient selection and staged procedures. We believe that these reconstructive techniques are very useful in some specific subsets of patients. However, the technique herein proposed is a simple alternative that can be applied to all men after a partial penectomy, and takes the same amount of time as that in the classic technique. In conclusion, the "parachute" technique for penile reconstruction after partial amputation not only improves the appearance of the penis, but also maintains an adequate function.

  17. A disposition of interpolation techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knotters, M.; Heuvelink, G.B.M.

    2010-01-01

    A large collection of interpolation techniques is available for application in environmental research. To help environmental scientists in choosing an appropriate technique a disposition is made, based on 1) applicability in space, time and space-time, 2) quantification of accuracy of interpolated

  18. GENERALIZED PROCESSOR SHARING (GPS) TECHNIQUES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Olumide

    popular technique, Generalized Processor Sharing (GPS), provided an effective and efficient utilization of the available resources at the face of stringent and varied QoS requirements. This paper, therefore, presents the comparison of two GPS techniques –. PGPS and CDGPS – based on performance with limited resources ...

  19. Software Testing Techniques and Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Isha,; Sunita Sangwan

    2014-01-01

    Software testing provides a means to reduce errors, cut maintenance and overall software costs. Numerous software development and testing methodologies, tools, and techniques have emerged over the last few decades promising to enhance software quality. This paper describes Software testing, need for software testing, Software testing goals and principles. Further it describe about different Software testing techniques and different software testing strategies.

  20. Magnetic characterization techniques for nanomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    Sixth volume of a 40 volume series on nanoscience and nanotechnology, edited by the renowned scientist Challa S.S.R. Kumar. This handbook gives a comprehensive overview about Magnetic Characterization Techniques for Nanomaterials. Modern applications and state-of-the-art techniques are covered and make this volume an essential reading for research scientists in academia and industry.

  1. Diagram Techniques in Group Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedman, Geoffrey E.

    2009-09-01

    Preface; 1. Elementary examples; 2. Angular momentum coupling diagram techniques; 3. Extension to compact simple phase groups; 4. Symmetric and unitary groups; 5. Lie groups and Lie algebras; 6. Polarisation dependence of multiphoton processes; 7. Quantum field theoretic diagram techniques for atomic systems; 8. Applications; Appendix; References; Indexes.

  2. Software Agent Techniques in Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvig, Susanne C

    1998-01-01

    This paper briefly presents studies of software agent techniques and outline aspects of these which can be applied in design agents in integrated civil engineering design environments.......This paper briefly presents studies of software agent techniques and outline aspects of these which can be applied in design agents in integrated civil engineering design environments....

  3. TECHNIQUES FOR TEACHING CONSERVATION EDUCATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BROWN, ROBERT E.; MOUSER, G.W.

    CONSERVATION PRINCIPLES, FIELD METHODS AND TECHNIQUES, AND SPECIFIC FIELD LEARNING ACTIVITIES ARE INCLUDED IN THIS REFERENCE VOLUME FOR TEACHERS. CONSERVATION PRINCIPLES INCLUDE STATEMENTS PERTAINING TO (1) SOIL, (2) WATER, (3) FOREST, AND (4) WILDLIFE. FIELD METHODS AND TECHNIQUES INCLUDE (1) PREPARING FOR A FIELD TRIP, (2) GETTING STUDENT…

  4. Microirradiation techniques in radiobiological research

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The aim of this work is to review the uses of laser microirradiation and ion microbeam techniques within the scope of radiobiological research. Laser microirradiation techniques can be used for many different purposes. In a specific condition, through the use of pulsed lasers, cell lysis can be produced for subsequent ...

  5. Strongly correlated systems experimental techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    The continuous evolution and development of experimental techniques is at the basis of any fundamental achievement in modern physics. Strongly correlated systems (SCS), more than any other, need to be investigated through the greatest variety of experimental techniques in order to unveil and crosscheck the numerous and puzzling anomalous behaviors characterizing them. The study of SCS fostered the improvement of many old experimental techniques, but also the advent of many new ones just invented in order to analyze the complex behaviors of these systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. The volume presents a representative collection of the modern experimental techniques specifically tailored for the analysis of strongly correlated systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognize...

  6. Theorists and Techniques: Connecting Education Theories to Lamaze Teaching Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgurski, Mary Jo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Should childbirth educators connect education theory to technique? Is there more to learning about theorists than memorizing facts for an assessment? Are childbirth educators uniquely poised to glean wisdom from theorists and enhance their classes with interactive techniques inspiring participant knowledge and empowerment? Yes, yes, and yes. This article will explore how an awareness of education theory can enhance retention of material through interactive learning techniques. Lamaze International childbirth classes already prepare participants for the childbearing year by using positive group dynamics; theory will empower childbirth educators to address education through well-studied avenues. Childbirth educators can provide evidence-based learning techniques in their classes and create true behavioral change. PMID:26848246

  7. Food Physics and Radiation Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, A. S.

    1999-01-01

    In the lecture information is given about food physics, which is a rather new, interdisciplinary field of science, connecting food science and applied physics. The topics of radioactivity of foodstuffs and radiation techniques in the food industry are important parts of food physics. Detailed information will be given about the main fields (e.g. radio stimulation, food preservation) of radiation techniques in the agro-food sector. Finally some special questions of radioactive contamination of foodstuffs in Hungary and applicability of radioanalytical techniques (e.g. INAA) for food investigation will be analyzed and discussed

  8. Nuclear techniques in analytical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Moses, Alfred J; Gordon, L

    1964-01-01

    Nuclear Techniques in Analytical Chemistry discusses highly sensitive nuclear techniques that determine the micro- and macro-amounts or trace elements of materials. With the increasingly frequent demand for the chemical determination of trace amounts of elements in materials, the analytical chemist had to search for more sensitive methods of analysis. This book accustoms analytical chemists with nuclear techniques that possess the desired sensitivity and applicability at trace levels. The topics covered include safe handling of radioactivity; measurement of natural radioactivity; and neutron a

  9. A simplified indirect bonding technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha Katiyar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of lingual orthodontics, indirect bonding technique has become an integral part of practice. It involves placement of brackets initially on the models and then their transfer to teeth with the help of transfer trays. Problems encountered with current indirect bonding techniques used are (1 the possibility of adhesive flash remaining around the base of the brackets which requires removal (2 longer time required for the adhesive to gain enough bond strength for secure tray removal. The new simplified indirect bonding technique presented here overcomes both these problems.

  10. Scalable Techniques for Formal Verification

    CERN Document Server

    Ray, Sandip

    2010-01-01

    This book presents state-of-the-art approaches to formal verification techniques to seamlessly integrate different formal verification methods within a single logical foundation. It should benefit researchers and practitioners looking to get a broad overview of the spectrum of formal verification techniques, as well as approaches to combining such techniques within a single framework. Coverage includes a range of case studies showing how such combination is fruitful in developing a scalable verification methodology for industrial designs. This book outlines both theoretical and practical issue

  11. Statistical Techniques for Project Control

    CERN Document Server

    Badiru, Adedeji B

    2012-01-01

    A project can be simple or complex. In each case, proven project management processes must be followed. In all cases of project management implementation, control must be exercised in order to assure that project objectives are achieved. Statistical Techniques for Project Control seamlessly integrates qualitative and quantitative tools and techniques for project control. It fills the void that exists in the application of statistical techniques to project control. The book begins by defining the fundamentals of project management then explores how to temper quantitative analysis with qualitati

  12. Food physics and radiation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, A. S.

    1999-01-01

    In the lecture information is given about food physics, which is a rather new, interdisciplinary field of science, connecting food science and applied physics. The topics of radioactivity of foodstuffs and radiation techniques in the food industry are important parts of food physics detailed information will be given about the main fields (e.g. radio stimulation, food preservation) of radiation techniques in the agro-food sector. Finally some special questions of radioactive contamination of foodstuffs in hungary and applicability of radioanalytical techniques (e.g. Inaa) for food investigation will be analyzed and discussed

  13. PIGE technique implementation at ININ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Policroniades, R., E-mail: rafael.policroniades@inin.gob.mx; Martínez-Quiroz, E.; Méndez-Garrido, B.; Murillo, G.; Moreno, E.; Villaseñor, P. [Departamento de Aceleradores, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ), Carr. México-Toluca S/N, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, México CP 52750 (Mexico)

    2015-07-23

    In this work, we present a general overview about the implementation at ININ of a Particle Induced Gamma Emission (PIGE) analysis technique, based on the bombardment of samples by protons and deuterons at different energies within our tandem accelerator facility. As it is well known, this technique is based on the detection of γ-rays emitted by nuclei in a target following a charged particle irradiation. The main feature of this technique, apart from being non-destructive and low time consuming, is that it allows a multi-elemental analysis of a sample, permitting an isotopic identification of many nuclides. Advances and some preliminary results are presented.

  14. PIGE technique implementation at ININ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Policroniades, R.; Martínez-Quiroz, E.; Méndez-Garrido, B.; Murillo, G.; Moreno, E.; Villaseñor, P.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we present a general overview about the implementation at ININ of a Particle Induced Gamma Emission (PIGE) analysis technique, based on the bombardment of samples by protons and deuterons at different energies within our tandem accelerator facility. As it is well known, this technique is based on the detection of γ-rays emitted by nuclei in a target following a charged particle irradiation. The main feature of this technique, apart from being non-destructive and low time consuming, is that it allows a multi-elemental analysis of a sample, permitting an isotopic identification of many nuclides. Advances and some preliminary results are presented

  15. Artificial intelligence techniques in Prolog

    CERN Document Server

    Shoham, Yoav

    1993-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Prolog introduces the reader to the use of well-established algorithmic techniques in the field of artificial intelligence (AI), with Prolog as the implementation language. The techniques considered cover general areas such as search, rule-based systems, and truth maintenance, as well as constraint satisfaction and uncertainty management. Specific application domains such as temporal reasoning, machine learning, and natural language are also discussed.Comprised of 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of Prolog, paying particular attention to Prol

  16. [Impressions techniques--Part 2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levartovsky, S; Masri, M; Alter, E; Pilo, R

    2012-10-01

    A dental impression is a positive replica of the teeth, the surrounding gingiva and the border between them; the purpose of which is to create an accurate master model. Two major techniques for impressions exist today: The conventional and the digital impressions. The current article describes both techniques. In the conventional impressions, it is important to choose a proper tray, stock or custom, and to mix the material properly. The commonly used impression techniques for making a conventional impression are described with a review on the effect of the technique on its accuracy. The effect of the wash bulk on the accuracy of the stone dies and/or the restoration is discussed, as well. The digital impressions with their advantages and disadvantages are described in comparison to the conventional impressions. Although, digital impressions eliminate some of the negative characteristics of conventional impressions, proper soft-tissue management and isolation of tooth preparation margins is still mandatory.

  17. Computer systems performance measurement techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-06-01

    Computer system performance measurement techniques, tools, and approaches are presented as a foundation for future recommendations regarding the instrumentation of the ARTS ATC data processing subsystem for purposes of measurement and evaluation.

  18. Research Development Techniques and Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Barry

    1986-01-01

    The growth and development of research activities at a state psychiatric research and training institute while under the new management of a local medical school is described, and specific techniques and initiatives to enhance research are outlined. (MSE)

  19. Experimental techniques and measurement accuracies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, E.F.; Yule, T.J.; DiIorio, G.; Nakamura, T.; Maekawa, H.

    1985-02-01

    A brief description of the experimental tools available for fusion neutronics experiments is given. Attention is paid to error estimates mainly for the measurement of tritium breeding ratio in simulated blankets using various techniques

  20. Radiotracer techniques in hydrological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oladipo, M.O.A.; Funtua, I.I.

    2000-07-01

    The use of radioactive tracers particularly short-lived radioisotopes frequently offers advantages over conventional methods of analyses. Applications of nuclear techniques in the field of hydrology constitute important and sometimes unique tools for obtaining critical information needed for water resources management. Essentially, radiotracer techniques offer a safe, cost effective and powerful tool in the assessment, management and protection of water resources. The Centre for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria of late has been offering consultancy services to some industries in the area of radiotracer technique. The first nuclear reactor in Nigeria, the MNSR, is expected to be commissioned in the Centre very soon. Many short-lived radioisotopes such as Cu-64, Ga-72, Br-82, Hg-197 etc which are very important in hydrological studies can be produced by the MNSR facility. This article reports on the basic principles of the technique and its roles in hydrology

  1. Modern techniques of surface science

    CERN Document Server

    Woodruff, D Phil

    2016-01-01

    This fully revised, updated and reorganised third edition provides a thorough introduction to the characterisation techniques used in surface science and nanoscience today. Each chapter brings together and compares the different techniques used to address a particular research question, including how to determine the surface composition, surface structure, surface electronic structure, surface microstructure at different length scales (down to sub-molecular), and the molecular character of adsorbates and their adsorption or reaction properties. Readers will easily understand the relative strengths and limitations of the techniques available to them and, ultimately, will be able to select the most suitable techniques for their own particular research purposes. This is an essential resource for researchers and practitioners performing materials analysis, and for senior undergraduate students looking to gain a clear understanding of the underlying principles and applications of the different characterisation tec...

  2. Experimental technique of neutron reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Bo; Huang Chaoqiang; Li Xinxi

    2006-12-01

    It is presented that the classifications, structures and components of neutron reflectometer (NR), as well s functions and parameters of each components, detailed characters of NR facility 'PRN-2M'. Based on the practical experiments, the basic experimental techniques, the measurement and the related experimental settings are described, including the choice of experimental conditions, adjustments of polarized neutron beam line, basic experimental technique and approach of measurement. The above can be an instruction for NR experiments and a reference for NR construction. (authors)

  3. Uranium exploration techniques in Bolivia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virreira, V.

    1981-01-01

    The exploration techniques used by the Bolivian Nuclear Energy Commission/Comision Boliviana de Energia Nuclear (COBOEN) in certain areas of Bolivia that are considered promising from the standpoint of uranium deposits are presented in summary form. The methods and results obtained are described, including the techniques used by the Italian company AGIP-URANIUM during four years of exploration under contract with COBOEN. Statistical data are also given explaining the present level of uranium exploration in Bolivia. (author)

  4. Survey of semantic modeling techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.L.

    1975-07-01

    The analysis of the semantics of programing languages was attempted with numerous modeling techniques. By providing a brief survey of these techniques together with an analysis of their applicability for answering semantic issues, this report attempts to illuminate the state-of-the-art in this area. The intent is to be illustrative rather than thorough in the coverage of semantic models. A bibliography is included for the reader who is interested in pursuing this area of research in more detail.

  5. PERSONALISED DENTURES WITH BRANCHING TECHNIQUE

    OpenAIRE

    Puneet; Priyanka

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: While the basic process of making dentures has chang ed little over the past several decades, new materials and techniques can help labor atories and clinicians provide functional, esthetic restorations that offer exceptional value t o patients. Unlike the conventional “linear” methods which foll ow specific steps in a cookbook fashion, the Branching Technique is a dynamic conce pt which can be adjusted to meet the clinical needs of each patient. Thi...

  6. Infrared Devices And Techniques (Revision)

    OpenAIRE

    Rogalski A.; Chrzanowski K.

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to produce an applications-oriented review covering infrared techniques and devices. At the beginning infrared systems fundamentals are presented with emphasis on thermal emission, scene radiation and contrast, cooling techniques, and optics. Special attention is focused on night vision and thermal imaging concepts. Next section concentrates shortly on selected infrared systems and is arranged in order to increase complexity; from image intensifier systems,...

  7. Highly reliable TOFD UT Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharya, G.D.; Trivedi, S.A.R.; Pai, K.B.

    2003-01-01

    The high performance of the time of flight diffraction technique (TOFD) with regard to the detection capabilities of weld defects such as crack, slag, lack of fusion has led to a rapidly increasing acceptance of the technique as a pre?service inspection tool. Since the early 1990s TOFD has been applied to several projects, where it replaced the commonly used radiographic testing. The use of TOM lead to major time savings during new build and replacement projects. At the same time the TOFD technique was used as base line inspection, which enables monitoring in the future for critical welds, but also provides documented evidence for life?time. The TOFD technique as the ability to detect and simultaneously size flows of nearly any orientation within the weld and heat affected zone. TOM is recognized as a reliable, proven technique for detection and sizing of defects and proven to be a time saver, resulting in shorter shutdown periods and construction project times. Thus even in cases where inspection price of TOFD per welds is higher, in the end it will result in significantly lower overall costs and improve quality. This paper deals with reliability, economy, acceptance criteria and field experience. It also covers comparative study between radiography technique Vs. TOFD. (Author)

  8. Teaching Speaking Through Debate Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Suranto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract : Teaching Speaking Through Debate Technique. Speaking is one of the basic competence from the other fourth basic competence (listening, speaking, reading and writing. Speaking ability should be mastered by every students, in order to achieve that competence students should be given the right technique to study sepaking. The successfull of the students speaking can be seen from their ability to express idea, thought and feeling through speaking. The objective of this Action Research is to improve students’s oral communication skill through the debate technique. This study was conducted at MA Ma’arif Nu 5 Sekampung Lampung Timur from March to April 2014. The research data were taken from students in the eleventh class, with 28 students and analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. The research findings indicate that there are improvements in students’ english speaking skill through the debate technique. By analyzing data qualitatively and quantitatively from the end of the first cycle to the second cycle and it was found that the students’ English speaking skill increased 20,9% over the standard that has been determined by the researcher that is 65%. The researcher concludes that the students’ english speaking skill can be improve through the debate technique in learning process.   Key words : action research, debate technique, english speaking skill

  9. Microscopy techniques in flavivirus research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Mun Keat; Chua, Anthony Jin Shun; Tan, Terence Tze Tong; Tan, Suat Hoon; Ng, Mah Lee

    2014-04-01

    The Flavivirus genus is composed of many medically important viruses that cause high morbidity and mortality, which include Dengue and West Nile viruses. Various molecular and biochemical techniques have been developed in the endeavour to study flaviviruses. However, microscopy techniques still have irreplaceable roles in the identification of novel virus pathogens and characterization of morphological changes in virus-infected cells. Fluorescence microscopy contributes greatly in understanding the fundamental viral protein localizations and virus-host protein interactions during infection. Electron microscopy remains the gold standard for visualizing ultra-structural features of virus particles and infected cells. New imaging techniques and combinatory applications are continuously being developed to push the limit of resolution and extract more quantitative data. Currently, correlative live cell imaging and high resolution three-dimensional imaging have already been achieved through the tandem use of optical and electron microscopy in analyzing biological specimens. Microscopy techniques are also used to measure protein binding affinities and determine the mobility pattern of proteins in cells. This chapter will consolidate on the applications of various well-established microscopy techniques in flavivirus research, and discuss how recently developed microscopy techniques can potentially help advance our understanding in these membrane viruses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Review of advanced imaging techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathology informatics encompasses digital imaging and related applications. Several specialized microscopy techniques have emerged which permit the acquisition of digital images ("optical biopsies" at high resolution. Coupled with fiber-optic and micro-optic components, some of these imaging techniques (e.g., optical coherence tomography are now integrated with a wide range of imaging devices such as endoscopes, laparoscopes, catheters, and needles that enable imaging inside the body. These advanced imaging modalities have exciting diagnostic potential and introduce new opportunities in pathology. Therefore, it is important that pathology informaticists understand these advanced imaging techniques and the impact they have on pathology. This paper reviews several recently developed microscopic techniques, including diffraction-limited methods (e.g., confocal microscopy, 2-photon microscopy, 4Pi microscopy, and spatially modulated illumination microscopy and subdiffraction techniques (e.g., photoactivated localization microscopy, stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy, and stimulated emission depletion microscopy. This article serves as a primer for pathology informaticists, highlighting the fundamentals and applications of advanced optical imaging techniques.

  11. Techniques for thyroid imaging; Les techniques d`imagerie thyroidienne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermans, J.

    1995-12-31

    Advances in imaging techniques has improved our understanding of diseases. The different imaging techniques for visualizing the thyroid parenchyma, including cyto-puncture, sonography, CT-scan, scintigraphy, magnetic resonance imaging, have provided various types of information. Do these techniques really provide the clinician with the answers to his questions. The information provided by the different imaging techniques is presented together with the insufficiencies of each method. Faced with the rising cost of health services, we developed analysis instruments which should help the clinician in a more rational use of diagnostic examinations. The question which most often arises is that of an isolated nodule within a multi-nodular goiter : is it malignant or benign. the analysis of the available techniques shows that cost-effective strategy uses conventional Tc99m or I123 scintigraphy and thallium 201 scintigraphy. With this strategy, the risk of missing a thyroid cancer is approximately 1.75%. With cyto-puncture, this risk is multiplied by a factor of 2.5 reaching 4.5%. (Author). 31 refs., 7 tabs.

  12. MODIFIED TECHNIQUE OF TOTAL LARYNGECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Spirić

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Surgical technique of total laryngectomy is well presented in many surgical textbooks. Essentially, it has remained the same since Gluck an Soerensen in 1922 described all its details. Generally, it stresses the U shape skin incision with releasing laryngeal structures and removing larynx from up to down. Further, pharyngeal reconstruction is performed with different kinds of sutures in two or more layers and is finished with skin suture and suction drainage. One of worst complications following this surgery is pharyngocutaneous fistula (PF. Modifications proposed in this this article suggests vertical skin incision with larynx removal from below upwards. In pharyngeal reconstruction we used the running locked suture in submucosal plan with „tobacco sac“ at the end on the tongue base instead of traditional T shaped suture. Suction drains were not used.The aim of study was to present the modified surgical technique of total laryingectomy and its impact on hospital stay duration and pharyngocutanous fistula formation. In this randomized study we analyzed 49 patients operated with modified surgical technique compared to 49 patient operated with traditional surgical technique of total laryngectomy. The modified technique of total laryngectomy was presented. Using modified technique we managed to decrease the PF percentage from previous 20,41% to acceptable 8,16% (p=0,0334. Also, the average hospital stay was shortened from 14,96 to 10,63 days (t =-2.9850; p=0.0358.The modified technique of total laryngectomy is safe, short and efficient surgical intervention which decreases the number of pharyngocutaneos fistulas and shortens the hospital stay.

  13. Landing Techniques in Beach Volleyball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilp, Markus; Rindler, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to establish a detailed and representative record of landing techniques (two-, left-, and right-footed landings) in professional beach volleyball and compare the data with those of indoor volleyball. Beach volleyball data was retrieved from videos taken at FIVB World Tour tournaments. Landing techniques were compared in the different beach and indoor volleyball skills serve, set, attack, and block with regard to sex, playing technique, and court position. Significant differences were observed between men and women in landings following block actions (χ2(2) = 18.19, p volleyball revealed overall differences both in men (χ2(2) = 161.4, p volleyball players land more often on both feet than indoor volleyball players. Besides the softer surface in beach volleyball, and therefore resulting lower loads, these results might be another reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions compared to indoor volleyball. Key Points About 1/3 of all jumping actions in beach volleyball result in a landing on one foot. Especially following block situations men land on one foot more often than women. Landing techniques are related to different techniques and positions. Landings on one foot are less common in beach volleyball than indoor volleyball. This could be a reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions. PMID:24149150

  14. Authentication techniques for smart cards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.A.

    1994-02-01

    Smart card systems are most cost efficient when implemented as a distributed system, which is a system without central host interaction or a local database of card numbers for verifying transaction approval. A distributed system, as such, presents special card and user authentication problems. Fortunately, smart cards offer processing capabilities that provide solutions to authentication problems, provided the system is designed with proper data integrity measures. Smart card systems maintain data integrity through a security design that controls data sources and limits data changes. A good security design is usually a result of a system analysis that provides a thorough understanding of the application needs. Once designers understand the application, they may specify authentication techniques that mitigate the risk of system compromise or failure. Current authentication techniques include cryptography, passwords, challenge/response protocols, and biometrics. The security design includes these techniques to help prevent counterfeit cards, unauthorized use, or information compromise. This paper discusses card authentication and user identity techniques that enhance security for microprocessor card systems. It also describes the analysis process used for determining proper authentication techniques for a system

  15. LANDING TECHNIQUES IN BEACH VOLLEYBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Tilp

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to establish a detailed and representative record of landing techniques (two-, left-, and right-footed landings in professional beach volleyball and compare the data with those of indoor volleyball. Beach volleyball data was retrieved from videos taken at FIVB World Tour tournaments. Landing techniques were compared in the different beach and indoor volleyball skills serve, set, attack, and block with regard to sex, playing technique, and court position. Significant differences were observed between men and women in landings following block actions (χ²(2 = 18.19, p < 0.01 but not following serve, set, and attack actions. Following blocking, men landed more often on one foot than women. Further differences in landings following serve and attack with regard to playing technique and position were mainly observed in men. The comparison with landing techniques in indoor volleyball revealed overall differences both in men (χ²(2 = 161.4, p < 0.01 and women (χ²(2 = 84.91, p < 0.01. Beach volleyball players land more often on both feet than indoor volleyball players. Besides the softer surface in beach volleyball, and therefore resulting lower loads, these results might be another reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions compared to indoor volleyball

  16. Radar rainfall image repair techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Wesson

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available There are various quality problems associated with radar rainfall data viewed in images that include ground clutter, beam blocking and anomalous propagation, to name a few. To obtain the best rainfall estimate possible, techniques for removing ground clutter (non-meteorological echoes that influence radar data quality on 2-D radar rainfall image data sets are presented here. These techniques concentrate on repairing the images in both a computationally fast and accurate manner, and are nearest neighbour techniques of two sub-types: Individual Target and Border Tracing. The contaminated data is estimated through Kriging, considered the optimal technique for the spatial interpolation of Gaussian data, where the 'screening effect' that occurs with the Kriging weighting distribution around target points is exploited to ensure computational efficiency. Matrix rank reduction techniques in combination with Singular Value Decomposition (SVD are also suggested for finding an efficient solution to the Kriging Equations which can cope with near singular systems. Rainfall estimation at ground level from radar rainfall volume scan data is of interest and importance in earth bound applications such as hydrology and agriculture. As an extension of the above, Ordinary Kriging is applied to three-dimensional radar rainfall data to estimate rainfall rate at ground level. Keywords: ground clutter, data infilling, Ordinary Kriging, nearest neighbours, Singular Value Decomposition, border tracing, computation time, ground level rainfall estimation

  17. Authentication techniques for smart cards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, R.A.

    1994-02-01

    Smart card systems are most cost efficient when implemented as a distributed system, which is a system without central host interaction or a local database of card numbers for verifying transaction approval. A distributed system, as such, presents special card and user authentication problems. Fortunately, smart cards offer processing capabilities that provide solutions to authentication problems, provided the system is designed with proper data integrity measures. Smart card systems maintain data integrity through a security design that controls data sources and limits data changes. A good security design is usually a result of a system analysis that provides a thorough understanding of the application needs. Once designers understand the application, they may specify authentication techniques that mitigate the risk of system compromise or failure. Current authentication techniques include cryptography, passwords, challenge/response protocols, and biometrics. The security design includes these techniques to help prevent counterfeit cards, unauthorized use, or information compromise. This paper discusses card authentication and user identity techniques that enhance security for microprocessor card systems. It also describes the analysis process used for determining proper authentication techniques for a system.

  18. Twin - Arch technique. Revival of the "edgewise -Technique"?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Karp

    2012-01-01

    The SNB – Bracket brings a new dimension into the orthodontic world which is most apparent in extraction cases. Its Teflon – like material has a very low friction coefficient thus, reducing the treatment time considerably. Through the use of low dimensioned arch wires, the Twin – Arch Technique becomes a Light – wire system and simultaneously provides good anchorage and torque control.

  19. The Matador Technique: A technique to improve prostatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A. Pai

    Abstract. The accuracy of brachytherapy seed implantation is reduced by the movement of the prostate when needles are introduced transperineally. This report describes a simple method of introducing the first two needles, which reduces prostate deflection. This technique is analogous to the way a matador uses two ...

  20. Overview of leak testing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, N.G.

    2002-01-01

    In the past ten years leak testing techniques have gained greater importance as a powerful non-destructive testing tool particularly in nuclear, space, petro-chemical, fertilizer and chemical industries. Leak for various reasons is an undesirable feature in a component or system, still leaks do occur in practice and can some-times cause significant loss in terms of both money and human life. Hence it is essential that leaks are effectively detected and remedial measures to plug the leaks are taken sufficiently in advance. Over the years more than twenty different leak test methods have been developed with different detection sensitivities. In this article commonly used leak-detection methods have been described with emphasis to Helium leak detection technique which is one of the most widely used techniques today

  1. Prendre le pli des techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Latour, Bruno

    1983-01-01

    À partir de la notion de mode d’existence développée par Gilbert Simondon et surtout par Etienne Souriau, il est possible d’aborder la question de la technique sans se laisser arrêter par la présence excessive de l’un de ses résultats : les objets techniques. On peut alors essayer de définir le mode propre de la technique comme un mouvement, un projet, un plissage, une forme très particulière de transcendance, qui n’a pas reçu en philosophie le traitement que mérite son importance et son ubiq...

  2. The Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (ART)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raparia, D.; Alessi, J.; Kponou, A.

    1997-01-01

    Projections of charged particle beam current density (profiles) are frequently used as a measure of beam position and size. In conventional practice only two projections, usually horizontal and vertical, are measured. This puts a severe limit on the detail of information that can be achieved. A third projection provides a significant improvement. The Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (ART) uses three or more projections to reconstruct 3-dimensional density profiles. At the 200 MeV H-linac, we have used this technique to measure beam density, and it has proved very helpful, especially in helping determine if there is any coupling present in x-y phase space. We will present examples of measurements of current densities using this technique

  3. Infrared Devices And Techniques (Revision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogalski A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to produce an applications-oriented review covering infrared techniques and devices. At the beginning infrared systems fundamentals are presented with emphasis on thermal emission, scene radiation and contrast, cooling techniques, and optics. Special attention is focused on night vision and thermal imaging concepts. Next section concentrates shortly on selected infrared systems and is arranged in order to increase complexity; from image intensifier systems, thermal imaging systems, to space-based systems. In this section are also described active and passive smart weapon seekers. Finally, other important infrared techniques and devices are shortly described, among them being: non-contact thermometers, radiometers, LIDAR, and infrared gas sensors.

  4. New techniques in neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayter, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    New neutron sources being planned, such as the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) or the European Spallation Source (ESS), will provide an order of magnitude flux increase over what is available today, but neutron scattering will still remain a signal-limited technique. At the same time, the development of new materials, such as polymer and ceramic composites or a variety of complex fluids, will increasingly require neutron-based research. This paper will discuss some of the new techniques which will allow us to make better use of the available neutrons, either through improved instrumentation or through sample manipulation. Discussion will center primarily on unpolarized neutron techniques since polarized neutrons will be the subject of the next paper. (author)

  5. Resolution enhancement techniques in microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Christoph; Masters, Barry R.

    2013-05-01

    We survey the history of resolution enhancement techniques in microscopy and their impact on current research in biomedicine. Often these techniques are labeled superresolution, or enhanced resolution microscopy, or light-optical nanoscopy. First, we introduce the development of diffraction theory in its relation to enhanced resolution; then we explore the foundations of resolution as expounded by the astronomers and the physicists and describe the conditions for which they apply. Then we elucidate Ernst Abbe's theory of optical formation in the microscope, and its experimental verification and dissemination to the world wide microscope communities. Second, we describe and compare the early techniques that can enhance the resolution of the microscope. Third, we present the historical development of various techniques that substantially enhance the optical resolution of the light microscope. These enhanced resolution techniques in their modern form constitute an active area of research with seminal applications in biology and medicine. Our historical survey of the field of resolution enhancement uncovers many examples of reinvention, rediscovery, and independent invention and development of similar proposals, concepts, techniques, and instruments. Attribution of credit is therefore confounded by the fact that for understandable reasons authors stress the achievements from their own research groups and sometimes obfuscate their contributions and the prior art of others. In some cases, attribution of credit is also made more complex by the fact that long term developments are difficult to allocate to a specific individual because of the many mutual connections often existing between sometimes fiercely competing, sometimes strongly collaborating groups. Since applications in biology and medicine have been a major driving force in the development of resolution enhancing approaches, we focus on the contribution of enhanced resolution to these fields.

  6. Reactor vital equipment determination techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bott, T.F.; Thomas, W.S.

    1983-01-01

    The Reactor Vital Equipment Determination Techniques program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is discussed. The purpose of the program is to provide the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with technical support in identifying vital areas at nuclear power plants using a fault-tree technique. A reexamination of some system modeling assumptions is being performed for the Vital Area Analysis Program. A short description of the vital area analysis and supporting research on modeling assumptions is presented. Perceptions of program modifications based on the research are outlined, and the status of high-priority research topics is discussed

  7. Radioimmunoassay and other related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, Moutaz

    1993-04-01

    The article reviews principles, requirements and reliability criteria of radioimmunoassay (RIA). Since basic reactions involved in RIA and related techniques are derived from reactions which take place in the immune system (IS) of humans and animals, the IS and the way it works will be described. In addition to RIA which involves the use of isotopes as tracers (labels), other non-radioisotopic and recent immunoassay techniques i.e. enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) and fluoroimmunoassay (FIA) will be dealt with. Some important and related terms will be defined and explained. (author). 59 refs., 4 figs

  8. A rapid micrograft implantation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, E L

    1995-11-01

    A rapid and simple method for the implantation of micrografts is presented. A 14-gauge needle is used to deliver the micrograft to the recipient hole created by the needle. Jeweler's forceps are used to seat the graft once it is in place. The needle-guided implantation technique described here is a fast and effective method for insertion of one- or two-hair grafts at the frontal hairline or over extensive areas of hair loss. The technique described can be readily learned and produces excellent cosmetic results.

  9. Slit aperture technique for mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, M.

    1984-01-01

    Following a discussion of various principles used in the elimination of scatter, the prototype of a simple slit aperture mammography apparatus is described (modified Mammomat, Siemens). The main advantage of this technique compared with grid mammography is a halving of the radiation dose for identical image quality, using an identical film system. The technical requirements (heavy duty tube, new generator) are, however, considerable. If the film-screen systems currently in use are to remain the common systems for the future, then the development of a multi-lamellar slit diaphragm technique carries much promise for mammography. (orig.) [de

  10. CLEAN Technique for Polarimetric ISAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Martorella

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR images are often used for classifying and recognising targets. To reduce the amount of data processed by the classifier, scattering centres are extracted from the ISAR image and used for classifying and recognising targets. This paper addresses the problem of estimating the position and the scattering vector of target scattering centres from polarimetric ISAR images. The proposed technique is obtained by extending the CLEAN technique, which was introduced in radar imaging for extracting scattering centres from single-polarisation ISAR images. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, namely, the Polarimetric CLEAN (Pol-CLEAN is tested on simulated and real data.

  11. Surface analysis the principal techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Vickerman, John C

    2009-01-01

    This completely updated and revised second edition of Surface Analysis: The Principal Techniques, deals with the characterisation and understanding of the outer layers of substrates, how they react, look and function which are all of interest to surface scientists. Within this comprehensive text, experts in each analysis area introduce the theory and practice of the principal techniques that have shown themselves to be effective in both basic research and in applied surface analysis. Examples of analysis are provided to facilitate the understanding of this topic and to show readers how they c

  12. High-speed pulse techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Coekin, J A

    1975-01-01

    High-Speed Pulse Techniques covers the many aspects of technique in digital electronics and encompass some of the more fundamental factors that apply to all digital systems. The book describes the nature of pulse signals and their deliberate or inadvertent processing in networks, transmission lines and transformers, and then examines the characteristics and transient performance of semiconductor devices and integrated circuits. Some of the problems associated with the assembly of these into viable systems operating at ultra high speed are also looked at. The book examines the transients and w

  13. Experimental techniques in unsteady flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldfield, M. L. G.

    1990-12-01

    Notes for four lectures intended as a practical user guide to some unsteady aerodynamic flow experimental measurement techniques are presented. Unsteady flows to be measured, including frequency and length scale, large scale unsteadiness, turbulence, boundary layer transition, shear layers and wakes, periodically time varying flows, shock waves and vortex flows, are explained. Wind tunnel requirements, intrusive measurements by hot wire and film anemometry and pressure probes, and surface measurements are described. Optical techniques covered include Schlieren photography, shadowgraph, holography, laser anemometry and flow tracing. Instrumentation and data acquisition and processing of unsteady data, using frequency analysis by fast Fourier transforms, convolution and correlation are described.

  14. Computer animation algorithms and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Parent, Rick

    2012-01-01

    Driven by the demands of research and the entertainment industry, the techniques of animation are pushed to render increasingly complex objects with ever-greater life-like appearance and motion. This rapid progression of knowledge and technique impacts professional developers, as well as students. Developers must maintain their understanding of conceptual foundations, while their animation tools become ever more complex and specialized. The second edition of Rick Parent's Computer Animation is an excellent resource for the designers who must meet this challenge. The first edition establ

  15. Inverse design technique for cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannetti, L.; Pandolfi, M.

    1984-01-01

    A numerical technique to generate cascades is presented. The basic prescribed parameters are: inlet angle, exit pressure, and distribution of blade thickness and lift along a blade. Other sets of parameters are also discussed. The technique is based on the lambda scheme. The problem of stability of the computation as a function of the prescribed set of parameters and the treatment of boundary conditions is discussed. A one dimensional analysis to indicate a possible way for assuring stability for any two dimensional calculation is provided.

  16. A new technique for minilaparotomy

    OpenAIRE

    Durmuşoğlu, F.; Tüfekçi, E.C.; Kutlay, K.; Pekin, T.

    1992-01-01

    This new technique provides better exposure, adequate control of pelvic viscera and furthermore, excludes unnecessary ancillary instrumentation as in sounding or elevation of the uterus. We strongly recommend this procedure, especially in developing countries where there is room for and need of minilaparotomy for surgical sterilization.

  17. Brain Friendly Techniques: Mind Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Cristine

    2004-01-01

    Mind Mapping can be called the Swiss Army Knife for the brain, a total visual thinking tool or a multi-handed thought catcher. Invented by Tony Buzan in the early 1970s and used by millions around the world, it is a method that can be a part of a techniques repertoire when teaching information literacy, planning, presenting, thinking, and so…

  18. Schlenk Techniques for Anionic Polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Ratkanthwar, Kedar

    2015-09-01

    Anionic polymerization-high vacuum techniques (HVTs) are doubtlessly the most prominent and reliable experimental tools to prepare polymer samples with well-defined and, in many cases, complex macromolecular architectures. Due to the high demands for time and skilled technical personnel, HVTs are currently used in only a few research laboratories worldwide. Instead, most researchers in this filed are attracted to more facile Schlenk techniques. The basic principle of this technique followed in all laboratories is substantially the same, i.e. the use of alternate vacuum and inert gas atmosphere in glass apparatus for the purification/charging of monomer, solvents, additives, and for the manipulation of air-sensitive compounds such as alkyl metal initiators, organometallic or organic catalysts. However, it is executed quite differently in each research group in terms of the structure of Schlenk apparatus (manifolds, connections, purification/storage flasks, reactors, etc.), the use of small supplementary devices (soft tubing, cannulas, stopcocks, etc.) and experimental procedures. The operational methods are partly purpose-oriented while also featured by a high flexibility, which makes it impossible to describe in detail each specific one. In this chapter we will briefly exemplify the application of Schlenk techniques for anionic polymerization by describing the performance of a few experiments from our own work.

  19. Elongation Cutoff Technique: Parallel Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Korchowiec

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available It is demonstrated that the elongation cutoff technique (ECT substantially speeds up thequantum-chemical calculation at Hartree-Fock (HF level of theory and is especially wellsuited for parallel performance. A comparison of ECT timings for water chains with thereference HF calculations is given. The analysis includes the overall CPU (central processingunit time and its most time consuming steps.

  20. Uranium Detection - Technique Validation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colletti, Lisa Michelle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Division; Garduno, Katherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Division; Lujan, Elmer J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Division; Mechler-Hickson, Alexandra Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Division; Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); May, Iain [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Division; Reilly, Sean Douglas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Division

    2016-04-14

    As a LANL activity for DOE/NNSA in support of SHINE Medical Technologies™ ‘Accelerator Technology’ we have been investigating the application of UV-vis spectroscopy for uranium analysis in solution. While the technique has been developed specifically for sulfate solutions, the proposed SHINE target solutions, it can be adapted to a range of different solution matrixes. The FY15 work scope incorporated technical development that would improve accuracy, specificity, linearity & range, precision & ruggedness, and comparative analysis. Significant progress was achieved throughout FY 15 addressing these technical challenges, as is summarized in this report. In addition, comparative analysis of unknown samples using the Davies-Gray titration technique highlighted the importance of controlling temperature during analysis (impacting both technique accuracy and linearity/range). To fully understand the impact of temperature, additional experimentation and data analyses were performed during FY16. The results from this FY15/FY16 work were presented in a detailed presentation, LA-UR-16-21310, and an update of this presentation is included with this short report summarizing the key findings. The technique is based on analysis of the most intense U(VI) absorbance band in the visible region of the uranium spectra in 1 M H2SO4, at λmax = 419.5 nm.

  1. Inoculation Technique for Fungus Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusaro, Ramon M.

    1972-01-01

    A plastic straw and wood applicator stick serve as a simple, inexpensive, and disposable inoculation unit for fungal studies. The method gives a uniform and intact inoculum. The technique is especially useful because a large number of agar plates can be inoculated rapidly. Images PMID:5059618

  2. Projective techniques in consumer research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    privaat

    Various projective techniques for personality assess- ment and psychoanalytic treatment in clinical psychol- .... Some social conventions or barriers may constrain the expression of feelings and reporting of behav- .... ject-stipulated characteristic. Brand mapping may be used in new product development and as a way to.

  3. Techniques for assessing extramarket values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald F. Dennis

    1995-01-01

    Central to effective policy development and management of natural resources is an understanding of the trade-offs stakeholders are willing to accept and the values they hold. Although market prices reflect society's preferences to some degree, they clearly do not encompass all values or costs. Conjoint techniques offer a means to estimate and analyze stakeholder...

  4. Affinity biosensors: techniques and protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rogers, Kim R; Mulchandani, Ashok

    1998-01-01

    ..., and government to begin or expand their biosensors research. This volume, Methods in Biotechnology vol. 7: Affinity Biosensors: Techniques and Protocols, describes a variety of classical and emerging transduction technologies that have been interfaced to bioaffinity elements (e.g., antibodies and receptors). Some of the reas...

  5. Tokamak impurity-control techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    A brief review is given of the impurity-control functions in tokamaks, their relative merits and disadvantages and some prominent edge-interaction-control techniques, and there is a discussion of a new proposal, the particle scraper, and its potential advantages. (author)

  6. New techniques for particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sessler, A.M.

    1990-06-01

    A review is presented of the new techniques which have been proposed for use in particle accelerators. Attention is focused upon those areas where significant progress has been made in the last two years--in particular, upon two-beam accelerators, wakefield accelerators, and plasma focusers. 26 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  7. Identifying Major Techniques of Persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makosky, Vivian Parker

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this class exercise is to increase undergraduate psychology students' awareness of common persuasion techniques used in advertising, including the appeal to or creation of needs, social and prestige suggestion, and the use of emotionally loaded words and images. Television commercials and magazine advertisements are used as…

  8. Digital synchronization and communication techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, William C.

    1992-01-01

    Information on digital synchronization and communication techniques is given in viewgraph form. Topics covered include phase shift keying, modems, characteristics of open loop digital synchronizers, an open loop phase and frequency estimator, and a digital receiver structure using an open loop estimator in a decision directed architecture.

  9. Some techniques of correlation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allas, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    Some general remarks concerning correlation techniques are made. Most of the remarks are limited to correlated pairs of charged particles. The relatively simple system 3 He + 3 H → A + B + C, where all possible charged particle pairs A,B are detected and particle C is left undetected either charged or neutral, is considered. (G.T.H.)

  10. Biopsy techniques for intraocular tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pukhraj Rishi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biopsy involves the surgical removal of a tissue specimen for histopathologic evaluation. Most intraocular tumors are reliably diagnosed based on the clinical evaluation or with noninvasive diagnostic techniques. However, accurately diagnosing a small percentage of tumors can be challenging. A tissue biopsy is thus needed to establish a definitive diagnosis and plan the requisite treatment. From fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB to surgical excision, all tissue collection techniques have been studied in the literature. Each technique has its indications and limitations. FNAB has been reported to provide for 88-95% reliable and safe ophthalmic tumor diagnosis and has gained popularity for prognostic purposes and providing eye conserving treatment surgeries. The technique and instrumentation for biopsy vary depending upon the tissue involved (retina, choroid, subretinal space, vitreous, and aqueous, suspected diagnosis, size, location, associated retinal detachment, and clarity of the media. The cytopathologist confers a very important role in diagnosis and their assistance plays a key role in managing and planning the treatment for malignancies.

  11. Developments in functional neuroimaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aine, C.J.

    1995-01-01

    A recent review of neuroimaging techniques indicates that new developments have primarily occurred in the area of data acquisition hardware/software technology. For example, new pulse sequences on standard clinical imagers and high-powered, rapidly oscillating magnetic field gradients used in echo planar imaging (EPI) have advanced MRI into the functional imaging arena. Significant developments in tomograph design have also been achieved for monitoring the distribution of positron-emitting radioactive tracers in the body (PET). Detector sizes, which pose a limit on spatial resolution, have become smaller (e.g., 3--5 mm wide) and a new emphasis on volumetric imaging has emerged which affords greater sensitivity for determining locations of positron annihilations and permits smaller doses to be utilized. Electromagnetic techniques have also witnessed growth in the ability to acquire data from the whole head simultaneously. EEG techniques have increased their electrode coverage (e.g., 128 channels rather than 16 or 32) and new whole-head systems are now in use for MEG. But the real challenge now is in the design and implementation of more sophisticated analyses to effectively handle the tremendous amount of physiological/anatomical data that can be acquired. Furthermore, such analyses will be necessary for integrating data across techniques in order to provide a truly comprehensive understanding of the functional organization of the human brain

  12. Simultaneous multislice (SMS) imaging techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barth, M.; Breuer, F.; Koopmans, P.J.; Norris, David Gordon; Poser, B.A.

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneous multislice imaging (SMS) using parallel image reconstruction has rapidly advanced to become a major imaging technique. The primary benefit is an acceleration in data acquisition that is equal to the number of simultaneously excited slices. Unlike in-plane parallel imaging this can have

  13. Advances phase-lock techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Crawford, James A

    2008-01-01

    From cellphones to micrprocessors, to GPS navigation, phase-lock techniques are utilized in most all modern electronic devices. This high-level book takes a systems-level perspective, rather than circuit-level, which differentiates it from other books in the field.

  14. New techniques in digital holography

    CERN Document Server

    Picart, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    A state of the art presentation of important advances in the field of digital holography, detailing advances related to fundamentals of digital holography, in-line holography applied to fluid mechanics, digital color holography, digital holographic microscopy, infrared holography, special techniques in full field vibrometry and inverse problems in digital holography

  15. BNFL decommissioning strategy and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the range of reactor decommissioning projects being managed by BNFL, both on its own sites and for other client organizations in the UK and abroad. It also describes the decommissioning strategies and techniques that have been developed by BNFL and adopted in order to carry out this work

  16. Advances of the IBIC technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breese, M.B.H.; Laird, J.S.; Jamieson, D.N. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1993-12-31

    The ion beam induced charge (IBIC) technique has been used for a wide variety of analytical applications in the study of semiconductor materials. This paper briefly reviews these uses and identifies those areas which require further development in order to facilitate the more widespread use of the IBIC method. Progress towards implementing these improvements is discussed. 14 refs., 1 fig.

  17. Novel radar techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Klemm, Richard; Lombardo, Pierfrancesco; Nickel, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Novel Radar Techniques and Applications presents the state-of-the-art in advanced radar, with emphasis on ongoing novel research and development and contributions from an international team of leading radar experts. This volume covers: Real aperture array radar; Imaging radar and Passive and multistatic radar.

  18. Core calculational techniques and procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, J.J.

    1977-10-01

    Described are the procedures and techniques employed by B and W in core design analyses of power peaking, control rod worths, and reactivity coefficients. Major emphasis has been placed on current calculational tools and the most frequently performed calculations over the operating power range

  19. UML-ising formal techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Dines; George, Chris W.; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2004-01-01

    these different UML views are unified, integrated, correlated or merely co-located is for others to dispute. We also seek to support multiple views, but are also in no doubt that there must be sound, well defined relations between such views. We thus report on ways and means of integrating formal techniques...

  20. Novel radar techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Klemm, Richard; Koch, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Novel Radar Techniques and Applications presents the state-of-the-art in advanced radar, with emphasis on ongoing novel research and development and contributions from an international team of leading radar experts. This volume covers: Waveform diversity and cognitive radar and Target tracking and data fusion.

  1. Parallel pseudospectral domain decomposition techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, David; Hirsch, Richard S.

    1989-01-01

    The influence of interface boundary conditions on the ability to parallelize pseudospectral multidomain algorithms is investigated. Using the properties of spectral expansions, a novel parallel two domain procedure is generalized to an arbitrary number of domains each of which can be solved on a separate processor. This interface boundary condition considerably simplifies influence matrix techniques.

  2. Food security, technology, and techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Ghani, Saud; Aljabri, Hareb; El Kharbotly, Ali

    2017-01-01

    CENG held a seminar on “Food Security, Technology and Techniques” on November 9, in collaboration with the Ministry of Municipality and Environment (MME). The event aimed to discuss the main techniques that should be followed to enhance food security through investing in technology.

  3. New techniques for wine aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    m Hatice Kalkan Yıldırı

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aging of wine requires a long time therefore it can cause loss of time and money. Therefore using of new techniques for wine aging shortens the length of aging time and wines may be placed on the market more quickly. Nowadays, gamma irradiation, ultrasonic waves, AC electric field and micro-oxygenation are the new techniques for wine aging. Gamma irradiation (after fermentation is accelerated physical maturation method. Gamma irradiation, in a suitable dosage (200 Gy, is a suitable method for improving some wine defects and producing a higher taste quality in wine. The 20 kHz ultrasonic waves aged wine much more quickly than standard aging, with similar quality. The wine treated by 20 kHz ultrasonic waves had a taste equivalent to 1 year aged wine. Wine maturing with AC electric field promises novel process accelerating aging process of fresh wine when suitable conditions are applied. As a result of research, an optimum treatment (electric field 600 V/cm and duration time 3 min was identified to accelerate wine aging. Harsh and pungent raw wine become harmonious and dainty. This process is equivalent to 6 month aging in oak barrel. Microoxygenation is a very important technique used in aging wines in order to improve their characteristics. The techniques of wine tank aging imply the use of small doses of oxygen (2 ml L−1 month−1 and the addition of wood pieces of oak to the wine. Studies concerning these new techniques demonstrated that maturation of wines become more quickly than standard maturation procedures with keeping and improving the wine quality.

  4. Motion Capture Technique Applied Research in Sports Technique Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwu LIU

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The motion capture technology system definition is described in the paper, and its components are researched, the key parameters are obtained from motion technique, the quantitative analysis are made on technical movements, the method of motion capture technology is proposed in sport technical diagnosis. That motion capture step includes calibration system, to attached landmarks to the tester; to capture trajectory, and to analyze the collected data.

  5. Higher-order techniques in computational electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Graglia, Roberto D

    2016-01-01

    Higher-Order Techniques in Computational Electromagnetics explains 'high-order' techniques that can significantly improve the accuracy, computational cost, and reliability of computational techniques for high-frequency electromagnetics, such as antennas, microwave devices and radar scattering applications.

  6. Barley Transformation Using Biolistic Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Wendy A.; Smedley, Mark A.

    Microprojectile bombardment or biolistic techniques have been widely used for cereal transformation. These methods rely on the acceleration of gold particles, coated with plasmid DNA, into plant cells as a method of directly introducing the DNA. The first report of the generation of fertile, transgenic barley plants used biolistic techniques. However, more recently Agrobacterium-mediated transformation has been adopted as the method of choice for most cereals including barley. Biolistic procedures are still important for some barley transformation applications and also provide transient test systems for the rapid checking of constructs. This chapter describes methods for the transformation of barley using biolistic procedures and also highlights the use of the technology in transient assays.

  7. Tracer techniques in food industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pertsovskij, E.S.; Sakharov, Eh.V.; Dolinin, V.A.

    1980-01-01

    The appicability of radioactive tracer techniques to process control in food industry are considered. Investigations in the field of food industry carried out using the above method are classified. The 1 class included investigations with preliminary preparation of a radioactive indicator and its following introduction in the system studied. The 2 class includes investigations based on the introduction in the system studied of a non-active indicator which is activated in a neutron flux being in samples selected in or after the process investigated. The 3 class includes studies based on investigations of natural radioactivity of certain nuclides in food stuff. The application of tracer techniques to the above classes of investigations in various fields of food industry and the equipment applied are considered in detail [ru

  8. The approach of mammography technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Xiaomei; Pan Bitao; He Jiejun; Liu Mingjuan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the mammography technique to improved the film' s quality and to meet the clinical application. Methods: The mammography of 500 cases were classified according to their age, breast type and project- ed position. The highlights and quality control of the mammography technique were summarized. Results: Among the 500 cases, 95% met the clinical diagnostic demands. Of the grand type, 17.2% were dense type, 43.4% were adenoid type, atrophy and degeneration type were 10% and 29.4% respectively. The grand type and age range overlapped a lot. Routine MLO and CCM position of bilateral breasts mammography could mostly meet the diagnostic demands. Conclusion: The quality of mammography is the precondition of exact clinical diagnosis. Sufficient pre-exam preparation, suitable position and parameter were the key point of high quality mammography. (authors)

  9. Bases of technique of sprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Druz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the biomechanical consistent patterns of a movement of a body providing the highest speed of sprinting. Material and Methods: the analysis of scientific and methodical literature on the considered problem, the anthropometrical characteristics of the surveyed contingent of sportsmen, the analysis of high-speed shootings of the leading runners of the world. Results: the biomechanical bases of technique of sprinting make dispersal and movement of the general center of body weight of the sportsman on a parabolic curve in a start phase taking into account the initial height of its stay in a pose of a low start. Its further movement happens on a cycloidal trajectory which is formed due to a pendulum movement of the extremities creating the lifting power which provides flight duration more in a running step, than duration of a basic phase. Conclusions: the received biomechanical regularities of technique of sprinting allow increasing the efficiency of training of sportsmen in sprinting.

  10. Ultrasonic thermometry using pulse techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynnworth, L. C.; Carnevale, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    Ultrasonic pulse techniques have been developed which, when applied to inert gases, provide temperature measurements up to 8000 K. The response time can be less than 1 msec. This is a significant feature in studying shock-heated or combusting gases. Using a momentary contact coupling technique, temperature has been measured inside steel from 300 to 1500 K. Thin-wire sensors have been used above 2000 K in nuclear and industrial applications where conditions preclude the use of thermocouples, resistance devices, or optical pyrometers. At 2500 K, temperature sensitivity of 0.1% is obtained in Re wire sensors 5 cm long by timing five round trips with an electronic instrument that resolves the time interval between selected echoes to 0.1 microsec. Sensors have been operated at rotational speeds over 2000 rpm and in noisy environments. Temperature profiling of up to ten regions using only a single guided path or beam has also been accomplished.

  11. The ancient Chinese casting techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Derui

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the course of Chinese civilization, which lasted more than 5,000 years, casting production has made a huge contribution. In this paper, some representative metal castings were presented. According to their forming techniques, they can be grouped into stone mould casting, clay mould casting, ablation casting, lost wax casting, stack casting, permanent mould casting, sand casting, etc. According to their materials, they can be categorized into tin bronze, bimetallic bronze, malleable cast iron, ductile cast iron, brass, cupronickel alloy (Packtong, etc. According to their surface decorative techniques they can be devided into gem inlay, gilding, gold and silver inlay, copper inlay, engraved decoration, surface tin-enrichment, mother-of-pearl inlay, burnished works with gold or silver inlay, surface coloring and cloisonné enamel, etc.

  12. Non destructive assay (NDA) techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mafra Guidicini, Olga; Llacer, Carlos D.; Rojo, Marcelo

    2001-01-01

    In the IAEA Safeguards System the basic verification method used is nuclear material accountancy, with containment and surveillance as important complementary measures. If nuclear material accountancy is to be effective, IAEA inspectors have to make independent measurements to verify declared material quantities. Most of the equipment available to the inspectors is designed to measure gamma rays and/or neutrons emitted by various nuclear materials. Equipment is also available to measure the gross weight of an item containing nuclear material. These types of measurement techniques are generally grouped under the title of nondestructive assay (NDA). The paper describes the NDA techniques and instruments used to verify the total amount of nuclear material held at a nuclear facility. (author)

  13. CT colonography: Techniques, indications, findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mang, Thomas; Graser, Anno; Schima, Wolfgang; Maier, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    Computed tomographic colonography (CTC) is a minimally invasive technique for imaging the entire colon. Based on a helical thin-section CT of the cleansed and air-distended colon, two-dimensional and three-dimensional projections are used for image interpretation. Several clinical improvements in patient preparation, technical advances in CT, and new developments in evaluation software have allowed CTC to develop into a powerful diagnostic tool. It is already well established as a reliable diagnostic tool in symptomatic patients. Many experts currently consider CTC a comparable alternative to conventional colonoscopy, although there is still debate about its sensitivity for the detection of colonic polyps in a screening population. This article summarizes the main indications, the current techniques in patient preparation, data acquisition and data analysis as well as imaging features for common benign and malignant colorectal lesions

  14. Progress in thin film techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weingarten, W.

    1996-01-01

    Progress since the last Workshop is reported on superconducting accelerating RF cavities coated with thin films. The materials investigated are Nb, Nb 3 Sn, NbN and NbTiN, the techniques applied are diffusion from the vapour phase (Nb 3 Sn, NbN), the bronze process (Nb 3 Sn), and sputter deposition on a copper substrate (Nb, NbTiN). Specially designed cavities for sample evaluation by RF methods have been developed (triaxial cavity). New experimental techniques to assess the RF amplitude dependence of the surface resistance are presented (with emphasis on niobium films sputter deposited on copper). Evidence is increasing that they are caused by magnetic flux penetration into the surface layer. (R.P.)

  15. Alternative Techniques for Teaching Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihindun arumi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Writing as one of language skill is often considered very difficult. It is due to the fact that writing needs to produce and organize ideas using appropriate vocabulary, language use, paragraph organization, and mechanism. It also needs to turn the ideas into a readable text and for foreign language learners, they should also transfer ideas from their native language into target language (foreign language. It raises any problems for them to create a good text. Moreover, the situation in the class does not always supportthem in which the techniques of the teacher in teaching writing is boring and monotonous, do not give enough attention to help students explore their writing skills. So that they attend the writing class only for procedural formality.Thus, it is considered important to elaborate various techniques to build nice classroom atmosphere as well as to improve students’ writing skills.

  16. Data mining concepts and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Jiawei

    2005-01-01

    Our ability to generate and collect data has been increasing rapidly. Not only are all of our business, scientific, and government transactions now computerized, but the widespread use of digital cameras, publication tools, and bar codes also generate data. On the collection side, scanned text and image platforms, satellite remote sensing systems, and the World Wide Web have flooded us with a tremendous amount of data. This explosive growth has generated an even more urgent need for new techniques and automated tools that can help us transform this data into useful information and knowledge.Like the first edition, voted the most popular data mining book by KD Nuggets readers, this book explores concepts and techniques for the discovery of patterns hidden in large data sets, focusing on issues relating to their feasibility, usefulness, effectiveness, and scalability. However, since the publication of the first edition, great progress has been made in the development of new data mining methods, systems, and app...

  17. Bulk analysis using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsaru, M.; Holmes, R.J.; Mathew, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    Bulk analysis techniques developed for the mining industry are reviewed. Using penetrating neutron and #betta#-radiations, measurements are obtained directly from a large volume of sample (3-30 kg) #betta#-techniques were used to determine the grade of iron ore and to detect shale on conveyor belts. Thermal neutron irradiation was developed for the simultaneous determination of iron and aluminium in iron ore on a conveyor belt. Thermal-neutron activation analysis includes the determination of alumina in bauxite, and manganese and alumina in manganese ore. Fast neutron activation analysis is used to determine silicon in iron ores, and alumina and silica in bauxite. Fast and thermal neutron activation has been used to determine the soil in shredded sugar cane. (U.K.)

  18. Metabolomics techniques for nanotoxicity investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Mengying; Huang, Wanqiu; Chen, Zhipeng; Jiang, Hulin; Chen, Jiaqing; Tian, Yuan; Zhang, Zunjian; Xu, Fengguo

    2015-01-01

    Nanomaterials are commonly defined as engineered structures with at least one dimension of 100 nm or less. Investigations of their potential toxicological impact on biological systems and the environment have yet to catch up with the rapid development of nanotechnology and extensive production of nanoparticles. High-throughput methods are necessary to assess the potential toxicity of nanoparticles. The omics techniques are well suited to evaluate toxicity in both in vitro and in vivo systems. Besides genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic profiling, metabolomics holds great promises for globally evaluating and understanding the molecular mechanism of nanoparticle-organism interaction. This manuscript presents a general overview of metabolomics techniques, summarizes its early application in nanotoxicology and finally discusses opportunities and challenges faced in nanotoxicology.

  19. Nuclear techniques in food production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merlin, J.P.C.

    1975-01-01

    This study is divided into three parts. The first, devoted to the use of radiations in food production, deals especially with artificial mutagenesis, selectors taking advantage of altered hereditary features in plants from irradiated seed; sterilization of animals to eliminate harmful insects (male sterilization technique); the lethal power of radiations used for the production of animal vaccins, attenuated by irradiation, against organisms which infest or degrade food products. Part two shows that radioactive atoms used as tracers to reveal migrations and chemical transformations of products such as fertilizers and pesticides can speed up all kinds of agronomical research. Their possibilities in research on animal feeding and to detect poisonous substances in foodstuffs are also mentioned. The last part is devoted to the use of nuclear techniques in irrigation and more precisely in the study of underground water flows soil moisture and lastly the future of nuclear desalination [fr

  20. Historical Techniques of Lie Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicianova, Martina

    2015-08-01

    Since time immemorial, lying has been a part of everyday life. For this reason, it has become a subject of interest in several disciplines, including psychology. The purpose of this article is to provide a general overview of the literature and thinking to date about the evolution of lie detection techniques. The first part explores ancient methods recorded circa 1000 B.C. (e.g., God's judgment in Europe). The second part describes technical methods based on sciences such as phrenology, polygraph and graphology. This is followed by an outline of more modern-day approaches such as FACS (Facial Action Coding System), functional MRI, and Brain Fingerprinting. Finally, after the familiarization with the historical development of techniques for lie detection, we discuss the scope for new initiatives not only in the area of designing new methods, but also for the research into lie detection itself, such as its motives and regulatory issues related to deception.

  1. Translumbar aortography by catheter technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, B.; Honemeyer, U.; Meier-Duis, H.

    1982-01-01

    400 examinations performed during the last three years by TLA (only catheter technique) were subjected to critical analysis and studied particularly in respect to the rate of complications. We observed 13 complications (3.25%) of moderate severity, including 3 large hematomas (documented by CT), 3 paravasations and 7 dissections, but no fatal complication. Two (0.5%) of these complications had clinical evidence. The advantages of the catheter technique of TLA are described. Injections through rigid metal cannula should be avoided because of the high incidence of complications (mainly the increased risk of dissection). Downstream injection resulted in excellent visualization of peripheral occluding vascular disease. Upstream injection should be preferred to demonstrate the major abdominal arteries as well as supraceliac collateral circulation in the case of high Leriche syndrome. The low or intermediate puncture of the aorta is preferable to facilitate caudad direction of the catheter and to diminish the risk of damaging other vessels or puncturing an organ. (orig.) [de

  2. The hologram principles and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, Martin J

    2018-01-01

    Written by Martin Richardson (an acclaimed leader and pioneer in the field) and John Wiltshire, The Hologram: Principles and Techniques is an important book that explores the various types of hologram in their multiple forms and explains how to create and apply the technology. The authors offer an insightful overview of the currently available recording materials, chemical formulas, and laser technology that includes the history of phase imaging and laser science. Accessible and comprehensive, the text contains a step-by-step guide to the production of holograms. In addition, The Hologram outlines the most common problems encountered in producing satisfactory images in the laboratory, as well as dealing with the wide range of optical and chemical techniques used in commercial holography. The Hologram is a well-designed instructive tool, involving three distinct disciplines: physics, chemistry, and graphic arts. This vital resource offers a guide to the development and understanding of the recording of mater...

  3. Nanorobotics current approaches and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    Nanorobot devices now perform a wide variety of tasks at the nanoscale in a wide variety of fields including but not limited to fields such as manufacturing, medicine, supply chain, biology, and outer space. Nanorobotics: Current Approaches and Techniques is a comprehensive overview of this interdisciplinary field with a wide ranging discussion that includes nano-manipulation and industrial nanorobotics, nanorobotics in biology and medicine, nanorobotic sensing, navigation and swarm behavior, and protein and DNA-based nanorobotics. Also included is the latest on topics such as bio-nano-actuators and propulsion and navigation of nanorobotic systems using magnetic fields. Nanorobotics: Current Approaches and Techniques is an ideal book for scientists, researchers, and engineers actively involved in applied and robotic research and development.

  4. Nuclear analytical techniques in medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesareo, R.

    1988-01-01

    This book acquaints one with the fundamental principles and the instrumentation relevant to analytical technique based on atomic and nuclear physics, as well as present and future biomedical applications. Besides providing a theoretical description of the physical phenomena, a large part of the book is devoted to applications in the medical and biological field, particularly in hematology, forensic medicine and environmental science. This volume reviews methods such as the possibility of carrying out rapid multi-element analysis of trace elements on biomedical samples, in vitro and in vivo, by XRF-analysis; the ability of the PIXE-microprobe to analyze in detail and to map trace elements in fragments of biomedical samples or inside the cells; the potentiality of in vivo nuclear activation analysis for diagnostic purposes. Finally, techniques are described such as radiation scattering (elastic and inelastic scattering) and attenuation measurements which will undoubtedly see great development in the immediate future.

  5. Nuclear analytical techniques in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesareo, R.

    1988-01-01

    This book acquaints one with the fundamental principles and the instrumentation relevant to analytical technique based on atomic and nuclear physics, as well as present and future biomedical applications. Besides providing a theoretical description of the physical phenomena, a large part of the book is devoted to applications in the medical and biological field, particularly in hematology, forensic medicine and environmental science. This volume reviews methods such as the possibility of carrying out rapid multi-element analysis of trace elements on biomedical samples, in vitro and in vivo, by XRF-analysis; the ability of the PIXE-microprobe to analyze in detail and to map trace elements in fragments of biomedical samples or inside the cells; the potentiality of in vivo nuclear activation analysis for diagnostic purposes. Finally, techniques are described such as radiation scattering (elastic and inelastic scattering) and attenuation measurements which will undoubtedly see great development in the immediate future

  6. Size Adaptive Region Based Huffman Compression Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Nandi, Utpal; Mandal, Jyotsna Kumar

    2014-01-01

    A loss-less compression technique is proposed which uses a variable length Region formation technique to divide the input file into a number of variable length regions. Huffman codes are obtained for entire file after formation of regions. Symbols of each region are compressed one by one. Comparisons are made among proposed technique, Region Based Huffman compression technique and classical Huffman technique. The proposed technique offers better compression ratio for some files than other two.

  7. Aneurysm jig for anastomosis technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, R. M.; Eastcott, H. H.; Mansfield, A. O.; Taylor, D. E.

    1987-01-01

    A new jig is described which enables the technique for abdominal aortic aneurysm to be taught and practiced as it is performed by arterial surgeons at the present time. The aneurysm jig enables a plastic simulated aortic aneurysm to be opened as at operation to allow the inlaying of a Dacron tube sutured into place with continuous sutures. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:3674680

  8. Radar techniques using array antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Wirth, Wulf-Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Radar Techniques Using Array Antennas is a thorough introduction to the possibilities of radar technology based on electronic steerable and active array antennas. Topics covered include array signal processing, array calibration, adaptive digital beamforming, adaptive monopulse, superresolution, pulse compression, sequential detection, target detection with long pulse series, space-time adaptive processing (STAP), moving target detection using synthetic aperture radar (SAR), target imaging, energy management and system parameter relations. The discussed methods are confirmed by simulation stud

  9. Advanced Atmospheric Ensemble Modeling Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Chiswell, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Kurzeja, R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Maze, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Viner, B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Werth, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-09-29

    Ensemble modeling (EM), the creation of multiple atmospheric simulations for a given time period, has become an essential tool for characterizing uncertainties in model predictions. We explore two novel ensemble modeling techniques: (1) perturbation of model parameters (Adaptive Programming, AP), and (2) data assimilation (Ensemble Kalman Filter, EnKF). The current research is an extension to work from last year and examines transport on a small spatial scale (<100 km) in complex terrain, for more rigorous testing of the ensemble technique. Two different release cases were studied, a coastal release (SF6) and an inland release (Freon) which consisted of two release times. Observations of tracer concentration and meteorology are used to judge the ensemble results. In addition, adaptive grid techniques have been developed to reduce required computing resources for transport calculations. Using a 20- member ensemble, the standard approach generated downwind transport that was quantitatively good for both releases; however, the EnKF method produced additional improvement for the coastal release where the spatial and temporal differences due to interior valley heating lead to the inland movement of the plume. The AP technique showed improvements for both release cases, with more improvement shown in the inland release. This research demonstrated that transport accuracy can be improved when models are adapted to a particular location/time or when important local data is assimilated into the simulation and enhances SRNL’s capability in atmospheric transport modeling in support of its current customer base and local site missions, as well as our ability to attract new customers within the intelligence community.

  10. Data mining and visualization techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Pak Chung [Richland, WA; Whitney, Paul [Richland, WA; Thomas, Jim [Richland, WA

    2004-03-23

    Disclosed are association rule identification and visualization methods, systems, and apparatus. An association rule in data mining is an implication of the form X.fwdarw.Y where X is a set of antecedent items and Y is the consequent item. A unique visualization technique that provides multiple antecedent, consequent, confidence, and support information is disclosed to facilitate better presentation of large quantities of complex association rules.

  11. Electromigration techniques theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Dziubakiewicz, Ewelina; Szumski, Michal

    2013-01-01

    The book provides the broad knowledge on electromigration techniques including: theory of CE, description of instrumentation, theory and practice in micellar electrokinetic chromatography, isotachophoresis, capillary isoelectric focusing, capillary and planar electrochromatography (including description of instrumentation and packed and monolithic column preparation), 2D-gel electrophoresis (including sample preparation) and lab-on-a-chip systems. The book also provides the most recent examples of applications including food, environmental, pharmaceutical analysis as well as proteomics.

  12. The ancient Chinese casting techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Tan Derui; Lian Haiping

    2011-01-01

    In the course of Chinese civilization, which lasted more than 5,000 years, casting production has made a huge contribution. In this paper, some representative metal castings were presented. According to their forming techniques, they can be grouped into stone mould casting, clay mould casting, ablation casting, lost wax casting, stack casting, permanent mould casting, sand casting, etc. According to their materials, they can be categorized into tin bronze, bimetallic bronze, malleable cast ir...

  13. New techniques in lamellar keratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alio, Jorge L; Shah, Sunil; Barraquer, Carmen; Bilgihan, Kamil; Anwar, Mohammed; Melles, Gerrit R J

    2002-08-01

    In the past years, several lamellar keratoplasty surgical techniques have been developed, modified or improved in the past years, including microkeratome assisted anterior and posterior lamellar keratoplasty, anterior lamellar keratoplasty using air-dissection or visco-dissection, sutureless posterior lamellar keratoplasty, LASIK for postkeratoplasty astigmatism, and excimer laser assisted keratophakia for keratoconus or to manage complications after LASIK. These procedures may continue to gain interest as alternative procedures for a penetrating keratoplasty in the treatment of various corneal disorders.

  14. A Technique: Generating Alternative Thoughts

    OpenAIRE

    Serkan AKKOYUNLU; M. Hakan TÜRKÇAPAR

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: One of the basic techniques of cognitive therapy is examination of automatic thoughts and reducing the belief in them. By employing this, we can overcome the cognitive bias apparent in mental disorders. Despite this view, according to another cognitive perspective in a given situation, there are distinct cognitive representations competing for retrieval from memory just like positive and negative schemas. In this sense generating or strengthening alternative explanations or bala...

  15. Processing techniques applying laser technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Yuji; Makino Yoshinobu

    2000-01-01

    The requirements for the processing of nuclear energy equipment include high precision, low distortion, and low heat input. Toshiba has developed laser processing techniques for cutting, welding, and surface heat treatment of nuclear energy equipment because the zone affected by distortion and heat in laser processing is very small. Laser processing contributes to the manufacturing of high-quality and high-reliability equipment and reduces the manufacturing period. (author)

  16. Thyroid ultrasonography: Pitfalls and techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seon hyeong; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kim, Soo Jin; Kwak, Jin Young [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    Thyroid ultrasonography (US) plays a key role in the diagnosis and management of thyroid-related diseases. The aim of this article was to illustrate various pitfalls that can occur in utilizing thyroid US and techniques to prevent them. In this article, we present cases demonstrating the common pitfalls associated with US equipment, performance, normal thyroid structures, misinterpretations, and surrounding structures. Knowledge of these areas is essential to avoid misdiagnosis or improper disease management.

  17. Submucosal tunneling techniques: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobara H

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hideki Kobara,1 Hirohito Mori,1 Kazi Rafiq,2 Shintaro Fujihara,1 Noriko Nishiyama,1 Maki Ayaki,1 Tatsuo Yachida,1 Tae Matsunaga,1 Johji Tani,1 Hisaaki Miyoshi,1 Hirohito Yoneyama,1 Asahiro Morishita,1 Makoto Oryu,1 Hisakazu Iwama,3 Tsutomu Masaki1 1Department of Gastroenterology and Neurology, 2Department of Pharmacology, 3Life Science Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Miki-cho, Kita-Gun, Kagawa, Japan Abstract: Advances in endoscopic submucosal dissection include a submucosal tunneling technique, involving the introduction of tunnels into the submucosa. These tunnels permit safer offset entry into the peritoneal cavity for natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery. Technical advantages include the visual identification of the layers of the gut, blood vessels, and subepithelial tumors. The creation of a mucosal flap that minimizes air and fluid leakage into the extraluminal cavity can enhance the safety and efficacy of surgery. This submucosal tunneling technique was adapted for esophageal myotomy, culminating in its application to patients with achalasia. This method, known as per oral endoscopic myotomy, has opened up the new discipline of submucosal endoscopic surgery. Other clinical applications of the submucosal tunneling technique include its use in the removal of gastrointestinal subepithelial tumors and endomicroscopy for the diagnosis of functional and motility disorders. This review suggests that the submucosal tunneling technique, involving a mucosal safety flap, can have potential values for future endoscopic developments. Keywords: submucosal endoscopy, submucosal tunneling method, natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery, peroral endoscopic myotomy, gastrointestinal subepithelial tumor, functional and motility disorders

  18. Thermal measurements and inverse techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Orlande, Helcio RB; Maillet, Denis; Cotta, Renato M

    2011-01-01

    With its uncommon presentation of instructional material regarding mathematical modeling, measurements, and solution of inverse problems, Thermal Measurements and Inverse Techniques is a one-stop reference for those dealing with various aspects of heat transfer. Progress in mathematical modeling of complex industrial and environmental systems has enabled numerical simulations of most physical phenomena. In addition, recent advances in thermal instrumentation and heat transfer modeling have improved experimental procedures and indirect measurements for heat transfer research of both natural phe

  19. TBI technique with long SAD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Kozo

    1991-01-01

    We studied the physical and technical situation of total body irradiation (TBI) for long SAD and a 6 MV X-rays. In principle this paper consists of the following points: physical characteristics of 6 MV X-rays; basic TBI dosimetry; dose distribution in the phantom; compensating method for inhomogeneity; practical TBI technique; in vivo dosimetry of the oesophagus. For TBI, it is very important to have uniformity of the three-dimensional dose distribution in the whole body. TBI technique is performed by AP/PA opposing fields, bilateral opposing fields and four fields (combined AP/PA and bilateral opposing fields). As a result of measured dose distribution in the phantom, four fields with compensators is the best TBI technique, indicating unaccuracy dose of ±10%. It is impossible to deliver a dose uniformity of ±10% for bilateral fields. For TBI dosimetry, it needs to measure for the phantom size needs to be measured to achieve the full scattering conditions, but the phantom size for dosimetry is practically suitable for use of a minimum dimension of 30 x 30 x 30 cm 3 . Compensating methods are used to give homogeneous dose to different thick bodys and inhomogeneities. We use tissue-equivalent bolus and compensator such as lead or copper. For in vivo measurement, expected dose ratio in the oesophagus is 0.947±0.044 for four fields, 0.994±0.025 for AP/PA fields, and 0.987±0.077 for the bilateral fields. The unaccuracy of irradiation doses are less than 5% for various TBI. In the future, TBI technique should be established the best irradiated method that the uncertainty dose is delivered within ±5%. (author)

  20. Uranium exploration and evaluation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowie, S.H.U.

    1977-01-01

    Ground, carborne and airborne surveys for uranium commenced with GM-counters and developed to total-count scintillation counters which have subsequently been replaced to some extent by gamma spectrometers. Stabilisation of the last mentioned is important and has only been achieved recently. Hydrogeochemistry has been revitalised by the introduction of neutron activation analysis and has considerable promise of success in the discovery of surface and near-surface uranium deposits. Soil, stream sediment and lake sediment analyses also have potential particularly in follow-up surveys. One of the most encouraging methods of detecting relatively deeply buried uranium ore bodies is by measuring the radon content of air retained in soil or sub-soil; also that dissolved in stream or lake water. Helium, particularly 4 He, which is also a decay product of uranium but which has an infinite half-life could be measured along with radon. Theoretically this could not only give additional information on buried ore bodies, but on the depth of burial. Another possible technique for use in the detection of buried ore bodies is that of measuring the increased heat flow at surface which, in favourable circumstatnces, should be associated with significant uranium occurrences. Measurement of heat flow could either be by surface thermal sensors or by thermal infra-red scanning techniques from aircraft. For the purposes of preliminary surveys of large areas, airborne geochemical techniques offer considerable scope. Possibilities include the measurement of 222 Rn in the atmosphere. Alternatively, one or more of the decay products of radon could be measured. These are 210 Pb, 210 Bi and 210 Po. It is concluded that there is ample evidence to suggest that the more widespread application of known exploration methods, together with new techniques that can already be envisaged, will result in important new discoveries of uranium reserves