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Sample records for antegrade reamed technique

  1. New puncture needle (Seldinger technique) for easy antegrade catheterization of the superficial femoral artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saltzmann, J.; Probst, P.

    1987-02-01

    Mainly for anatomical reasons a guide-wire or a catheter has a tendency to turn into the deep femoral artery during antegrade catheterization of the lower limb. To overcome this problem a curved puncture needle has been designed which allows positioning of the guide-wire in an anterior direction. Antegrade catheterization of the superficial femoral artery was achieved in 25 patients without lengthy manipulations or complications. With this technique the rate of complications at antegrade catheterization will probably be reduced.

  2. The use of a cutting balloon in contemporary reverse controlled antegrade and retrograde subintimal tracking (reverse CART) technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakabayashi, Keisuke; Okada, Hisayuki; Oka, Toshiaki

    2016-07-11

    The key concept of reverse controlled antegrade and retrograde tracking (CART) technique is retrograde puncture with a tapered wire to an antegrade balloon (contemporary reverse CART) or new connections between the antegrade and retrograde subintimal space (classical reverse CART). In our case, a 75-year-old man with severe chronic total occlusion of the right coronary artery, reverse CART with conventional balloons could not be accomplished. Externalization wiring was completed by contemporary reverse CART using a cutting balloon as an antegrade balloon to improve the fenestration force of the retrograde guidewire. Thus, the use of a cutting balloon for contemporary reverse CART might be promising.

  3. Comparison of Ultrasound-Guided and Fluoroscopy-Assisted Antegrade Common Femoral Artery Puncture Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slattery, Michael M.; Goh, Gerard S.; Power, Sarah; Given, Mark F.; McGrath, Frank P.; Lee, Michael J., E-mail: mlee@rcsi.ie [Beaumont Hospital, Department of Radiology (Ireland)

    2015-06-15

    PurposeTo prospectively compare the procedural time and complication rates of ultrasound-guided and fluoroscopy-assisted antegrade common femoral artery (CFA) puncture techniques.Materials and MethodsHundred consecutive patients, undergoing a vascular procedure for which an antegrade approach was deemed necessary/desirable, were randomly assigned to undergo either ultrasound-guided or fluoroscopy-assisted CFA puncture. Time taken from administration of local anaesthetic to vascular sheath insertion in the superficial femoral artery (SFA), patients’ age, body mass index (BMI), fluoroscopy radiation dose, haemostasis method and immediate complications were recorded. Mean and median values were calculated and statistically analysed with unpaired t tests.ResultsSixty-nine male and 31 female patients underwent antegrade puncture (mean age 66.7 years). The mean BMI was 25.7 for the ultrasound-guided (n = 53) and 25.3 for the fluoroscopy-assisted (n = 47) groups. The mean time taken for the ultrasound-guided puncture was 7 min 46 s and for the fluoroscopy-assisted technique was 9 min 41 s (p = 0.021). Mean fluoroscopy dose area product in the fluoroscopy group was 199 cGy cm{sup 2}. Complications included two groin haematomas in the ultrasound-guided group and two retroperitoneal haematomas and one direct SFA puncture in the fluoroscopy-assisted group.ConclusionUltrasound-guided technique is faster and safer for antegrade CFA puncture when compared to the fluoroscopic-assisted technique alone.

  4. Antegrade scrotal sclerotherapy of internal spermatic veins for varicocele treatment: technique, complications, and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Crestani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Varicocele repair is mainly indicated in young adult patients with clinical palpable varicocele and abnormal semen parameters. Varicocele treatment is associated with a significant improvement in sperm concentration, motility, morphology, and pregnancy rate. Antegrade scrotal sclerotherapy (ASS represented one of the main alternatives to the traditional inguinal or suprainguinal surgical ligation. This article reviews the use of ASS for varicocele treatment. We provide a brief overview of the history of the procedure and present our methods used in ASS. In addition, we review complication and success of ASS, including our own retrospective data of treating 674 patients over the last 17 years. Herein, we analyzed step by step the ASS technique and described our results with an original modified technique with a long follow-up. Between December 1997 and December 2014, we performed 674 ASS. Mean operative time was 14 min (range 9 to 50 min. No significant intraoperative complications were reported. Within 90 days from the procedure, postoperative complications were recorded in overall 49 (7.2% patients. No major complications were recorded. A persistent/recurrent varicocele was detected in 40 (5.9% cases. In 32/40 (80% cases, patients showed preoperative grade III varicoceles. In patients with a low sperm number before surgery, sperm count improved from 13 × 10 6 to 21 × 10 6 ml−1 (P < 0.001. The median value of the percentage of progressive motile forms at 1 h improved from 25% to 45% (P < 0.001. Percentage of normal forms increased from 17% before surgery to 35% 1 year after the procedure (P < 0.001. In the subgroup of the 168 infertile patients, 52 (31% fathered offspring at a 12-month-minimum follow-up. Therefore, ASS is an effective minimal invasive treatment for varicocele with low recurrence/persistence rate.

  5. The Use of the 'Preclosure' Technique for Antegrade Aspiration Thrombectomy with Large Catheters in Acute Limb Ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funke, C., E-mail: claas_funke@hotmail.com; Pfiffner, R. [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Switzerland); Husmann, M. [University Hospital Zurich, Clinic of Angiology (Switzerland); Pfammatter, T. [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Switzerland)

    2013-04-15

    This study was designed to assess retrospectively short- and mid-term outcomes of the use of a suture-mediated closure device to close the antegrade access in patients undergoing percutaneous aspiration thrombectomy with large catheters for acute leg ischemia. Between November 2005 and February 2010, a suture-mediated active closure system (ProGlide{sup Registered-Sign} 6F, Abbott) was placed before arterial sheath (mean 9 F, range 6-12 F) introduction in 101 patients (74 men, 73 %, mean age 70.1 {+-} 12.6 years standard deviation). Data regarding mortality, complications, and factors contributing to vascular complications at the access site was collected for 6 month after the intervention to detect device-related problems. As a coincidence, 77 patients had follow-up visits for a duplex ultrasound. There were a total of 19 vascular complications (19 %) at the puncture site, all of which were of hemorrhagic nature and none of which consisted of vessel occlusion. Two major outcome complications (2 %) occurred. A retroperitoneal hematoma and a serious inguinal bleeding required additive treatment and did not result in permanent sequelae. Nine cases involved death of which eight were not attributable to the closure and one remained unclear. Successful closure was achieved in 95 patients (94 %); additional manual compression was sufficient in the majority of the remaining patients. Numerous factors contributing to vascular complications were encountered. With acceptable short- and mid-term outcomes, the 'preclose' technique can be a reliable option for the closure of a large antegrade femoral access even for patients at a high risk of vascular complications, such as those undergoing aspiration thrombectomy.

  6. Understanding Antegrade Colonic Enema (ACE) Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enema (ACE) Surgery Understanding Antegrade Colonic Enema (ACE) Surgery Antegrade colonic enema surgery (ACE) or Malone antegrade ... Email Print What is antegrade colonic enema (ACE) surgery? Antegrade colonic enema surgery (ACE) or Malone antegrade ...

  7. Antegrade deligation of iatrogenic distal ureteric obstruction utilising a high pressure balloon dilatation technique.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rajendran, Simon

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Iatrogenic trauma is the leading cause of ureteric injury with an incidence in abdominal and pelvic surgery varying between 0.4 and 2.5%. CASE: We report a case of ureteric obstruction caused by a haemostatic clip. There was associated rupture of the ureter proximal to the clip with intra-peritoneal leakage of urine. The patient was unfit for surgery and was managed by a novel procedure of endoluminal balloon deligation. CONCLUSION: Ureteric injuries are rare but potentially serious complications. They require prompt diagnosis and management depends on the patients\\' clinical condition, extent of injury and interval from injury to diagnosis. We have successfully demonstrated a new technique to treat ureteric obstruction caused by a haemostatic clip with associated ureteral rupture in a patient unfit for surgery.

  8. Antegrade scrotah sclerotherapy and varicocele

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VincenzoFicarra; AlessandraSarti

    2002-01-01

    Antegrade scrotal sclerotherapy is a simple and easy technique for the treatment of varicocele.The success rate varies between87%and95%,The initlal reflux grade and the number of collateral vessels of the spermatic vein are the most important factors to predict the outcome of the technique.The postoperative complica-tion rate is about7%and the common ones are scrotal hematoma and epididymo-orchitis of slight severity.Testicular athrophy is a rare event(0.6%).This technique offers a considerable cost eduction compared to other therapeutic optione currently available for varicocele.

  9. Reproducibility of a reaming test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilny, Lukas; Müller, Pavel; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    The reproducibility of a reaming test was analysed to document its applicability as a performance test for cutting fluids. Reaming tests were carried out on a drilling machine using HSS reamers. Workpiece material was an austenitic stainless steel, machined using 4.75 m∙min-1 cutting speed and 0...... a built-up edge occurrence hindering a robust evaluation of cutting fluid performance, if the data evaluation is based on surface finish only. Measurements of hole geometry provide documentation to recognize systematic error distorting the performance test....

  10. Reproducibility of a reaming test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilny, Lukas; Müller, Pavel; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    .3 mm•rev−1 feed. A mineral straight oil and a water–based lubricant at two different oil concentrations were compared with respect to hole quality, evaluated in terms of surface finish (conventional arithmetic mean roughness Ra and roughness profiles), and hole geometry (hole diameter and roundness......The reproducibility of a reaming test was analysed to document its applicability as a performance test for cutting fluids. Reaming tests were carried out on a drilling machine using HSS reamers. Workpiece material was an austenitic stainless steel, machined using 4.75 m•min−1 cutting speed and 0...... a built–up edge occurrence hindering a robust evaluation of cutting fluid performance, if the data evaluation is based on surface finish only. Measurements of hole geometry provide documentation to recognise systematic error distorting the performance test....

  11. Comparative study between reamed versus unreamed interlocking intramedullary nailing in compound fractures of shaft tibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash Puri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tibia is the commonest bones to sustain open injury because of subcutaneous position. Treatment of open fractures requires simultaneous management of both skeletal and soft tissue injury. Intramedullary nailing with reaming is generally considered to be contraindicated for open fractures tibia, because it damages the endosteal blood supply which will lead to non-union, deep infection. However, recent studies with or without reaming in open fracture tibia shows no influence in healing of fracture. Purpose: To compare the clinical and radiological results of intramedullary interlocking nailing of open fractures of the tibial shaft after reaming versus unreamed medullary canal. Materials and Methods: Between 2008 and 2011, we have treated 40 patients with compound tibia fracture (type I, II, IIIA by simultaneous care of wound and skeletal injury. Primary fixation for fracture stabilization was done by closed intramedullary interlock nailing either reamed or unreamed; the allocation to the two groups made on alternating basis. Wound was managed by thorough debridement with primary/delayed primary closure by suturing, split thickness skin grafting or fasciocutaneous flap cover. Active, non-weight bearing exercises were started from next post-op day. Partial weight bearing after suture removal was started on 12 th day. Further follow-up was done at 6 weeks interval for union. Results: Open fractures of shaft of tibia treated with unreamed/reamed interlocking nailing gave excellent results. In present series, 19 fractures (95% treated by unreamed and 19 (95% fractures treated by reamed technique, united within 6 months of injury. Delay in union was noticed in one patient treated by unreamed technique who had segmental and extensive soft tissue injury and in reamed nailing there was one patient with deep infection, which was treated with antibiotic coated nail. Conclusion: Time to complete union was similar in both groups. Adequate

  12. "Push-past" reaming as a reduction aid with intramedullary nailing of metadiaphyseal and diaphyseal femoral shaft fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, Joshua L; Munz, John W; Burgess, Andrew R

    2014-06-01

    Eccentric reaming of cortical bone near a fracture site can introduce malalignment when an intramedullary nail is placed. The authors describe a technique of reaming metadiaphyseal and diaphyseal femur fractures in which maintaining reduction at the fracture site is not necessary to obtain an excellent alignment of long bone fractures after intramedullary nailing. They have found that central reaming proximal and distal to, but not at, the fracture site allows for excellent reduction of long bone fractures when the intramedullary nail is passed. The reamer is stopped just before the fracture site and then "pushed" across the fracture prior to resumption of reaming. The authors present "push-past" reaming as a technical trick to facilitate reduction of femoral fractures treated with intramedullary nails and a consecutive series of 18 cases in which excellent postoperative alignment was achieved.

  13. Understanding Antegrade Colonic Enema (ACE) Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enema. Lancet. 1990;336:1217-1218. Bruce RG, el-Galley RE, Wells J, et al. Antegrade continence ... for Medical Professionals Site Information & Policies Send Us Feedback Site Map About this Website Copyright, Reprint & Licensing ...

  14. Investigation on Capability of Reaming Process using Minimal Quantity Lubrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Tosello, Guido; Piska, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    An investigation on reaming using minimal quantity lubrication (MQL) was carried out with the scope of documenting process capability using a metrological approach. Reaming tests were carried out on austenitic stainless steel, using HSS reamers with different cutting data and lubrication conditions...

  15. Retrograde versus Antegrade Approach for the Management of Large Proximal Ureteral Stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykoniatis, Ioannis; Isid, Ayman; Gofrit, Ofer N.; Rosenberg, Shilo; Hidas, Guy; Landau, Ezekiel H.; Pode, Dov; Duvdevani, Mordechai

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate and compare the efficacy and safety of retrograde versus antegrade ureteroscopic lithotripsy for the treatment of large proximal ureteral stones. Patients and Methods. We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of patients with proximal ureteral stones >15 mm, treated in our institution from January 2011 to January 2016. Intraoperative parameters, postoperative outcomes, and complications were recorded and compared between the two techniques. Results. Our analysis included 57 patients. Thirty-four patients (59.6%) underwent retrograde and 23 patients (40.4%) underwent antegrade ureteroscopy. There was no significant difference in patients' demographics and stone characteristics between the groups. Stone-free rate was significantly higher (p = 0.033) in the antegrade group (100%) compared to retrograde one (82.4%). Fluoroscopy time, procedure duration, and length of hospitalization were significantly (p < 0.001) lower in retrograde approach. On the other hand, the need for postoperative stenting was significantly lower in the antegrade group (p < 0.001). No difference was found between the groups (p = 0.745) regarding postoperative complications. Conclusions. Antegrade ureteroscopy is an efficient and safe option for the management of large proximal ureteral stones. It may achieve high stone-free rates compared to retrograde ureteroscopy with the drawback of longer operative time, fluoroscopy time, and length of hospitalization. PMID:27766263

  16. Reproducibility of surface roughness in reaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Pavel; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    concentration of the oil in water-based cutting fluid (or when using a straight mineral oil) results in surface profiles that are more reproducible at higher cutting speed. Moreover, it can be seen that three cutting fluids (two water-based cutting fluids with different oil concentration and a straight mineral......An investigation on the reproducibility of surface roughness in reaming was performed to document the applicability of this approach for testing cutting fluids. Austenitic stainless steel was used as a workpiece material and HSS reamers as cutting tools. Reproducibility of the results was evaluated...... oil) used in connection with a low cutting speed result in "identical" surface profiles. Biggest uncertainty contributors were due to the process repeatability and repeatability around the hole circumference. This was however only in the case of high cutting speeds and low degree of oil concentration...

  17. Treatment of humeral shaft fractures with antegrade intramedullary locking nail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsourvakas, Stefanos; Alexandropoulos, Christos; Papachristos, Ioannis; Tsakoumis, Grigorios; Ameridis, Nikolaos

    2011-12-01

    Antegrade interlocked humeral nailing for stabilization of humeral fractures was introduced many years ago, and studies on this method in the orthopedic literature have shown mixed results. The purpose of this investigation was to document the clinical outcome and complications associated with the use of an antegrade intramedullary nail (T2, Stryker) for the humeral fractures. Between 2005 and 2008, 52 fractures of the humeral shaft were treated operatively with this intramedullary nail in our department. Eight patients were polytraumatized, and four patients had an open fracture. The mean age of patients was 51.7 years. Forty-eight patients had an adequate duration of clinical follow-up (a mean of 18 months) for analysis. Complications were recorded, and the time to union was measured. Shoulder and elbow functions were assessed using the Constant Score and the Morrey Score, respectively. Forty-six fractures healed, with a mean time to clinical union of 10.3 weeks. Two patients developed pseudarthroses. There were four adverse events: two proximal screws backed out, one superficial infection at the insertion point, and one fracture at the distal end of the nail. Ninety-one percentage of patients had an excellent or good shoulder function. Five further operations were necessary: two for treatment of pseudarthroses, two for removal the backed out proximal screws, and one wound debridement for superficial infection. Antegrade humeral nailing is a valid therapeutic option for stabilization of humeral shaft fractures. By strictly adhering to the operation technique, the number and the severity of complications can be reduced. When good fracture alignment and stability are obtained, uneventful bone healing with good functional results is the rule.

  18. Reaming process improvement and control: An application of statistical engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Pavel; Genta, G.; Barbato, G.;

    2012-01-01

    A reaming operation had to be performed within given technological and economical constraints. Process improvement under realistic conditions was the goal of a statistical engineering project, supported by a comprehensive experimental investigation providing detailed information on single...

  19. Popliteal artery local technique in superficial femoral artery antegrade subintimal recanalization%腘动脉局域超选技术用于股浅动脉内膜下顺行开通

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴轶飞; 刘广钦; 包俊敏

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate popliteal artery local technique in superficial femoral artery antegrade subintimal recanalization.Methods From January 2009 to Dec 2011,550 limbs in 476 TASC (Trans-Atlantic Inter-Society Consensus) Ⅱ C/D cases underwent endo-therapy at our department.The success rate、operation time、symptom progress and follow up were analyzed retrospectively.Results In the 550 limbs,62 limbs received popliteal artery local technique directly.There was 9 technical failures.Procedures succeeded in 53 limbs(85.5% ).The average operation time was (69 ±24) min,(1.8 ±0.6) stents were used and the main covered length was ( 33 ± 6) cm.Symptoms of 46 limbs was improved and unchanged in 6,amputation needed to be done in one limb.One year follow up accomplished for 39 limb.The 6 and 12 months patence rate was 87.1% and 69.2%.For 488 limbs using traditional approach 378 achieved anti-grade recanalization,the average operation time was ( 89 ± 30) min,average (2.1 ± 0.6) stents were used and the main covered length is (31 ± 13) cm.Symptom in 300 limbs improved.The half and one year patence rate in 292 limbs was 92.1% and 61.0%.Conclusions The popliteal artery local technique is as effective as with traditional approach and is time saving.%目的 研究腘动脉局域超选法在完成股浅动脉顺向内膜下开通中的作用.方法 2009年1月至2011年12月对467例患者(550条肢体)行腔内治疗,病变均为泛大西洋协作组(Trans-Atlantic Inter-Society Consensus,TASC)定义的ⅡC/D级股腘动脉闭塞.统计其中直接应用腘动脉局域超选技术和传统真腔超选方法的62条肢体,观察其手术成功率、手术时间、症状改善和随访情况.结果 在550条肢体中,62条肢体直接应用了腘动脉局域超选技术,其中9条肢体未能顺向返回真腔操作.53条肢体(85.5%)完成手术,平均手术时间(69 ±24) min,平均支架应用数(1.8±0.6)枚,平均覆盖长度(33 ±6) cm.46条肢体(86.8

  20. Effect of the modified nerve-sparing technique in open antegrade radical prostatectomy for 30 patients with prostate cancer%改良的保留神经根治性前列腺癌切除术30例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱再生; 付强; 徐礼臻; 罗荣利; 张春霆; 刘全启; 陈良佑

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨改良的保留神经根治性前列腺癌切除术的临床疗效.方法 30例前列腺癌患者采用改良根治性保留神经的前列腺切除术.改良的关键点:采用注水分离前列腺周围筋膜的方法,将Veil保留神经技术应用于开放手术中(即改良Veil保留神经技术);扩大分区(9区5组)盆腔淋巴结清扫;完整保留膀胱颈;集束捆扎背深静脉复合体;跳针套叠技术行膀胱与尿道的吻合.术后行控尿及勃起功能国际问卷-5(IIEF-5)随访.结果 患者平均年龄62岁,前列腺特异性抗原(PSA)水平平均11.9 ng/ml,手术时间平均150 min(75~240 min),术中出血量平均350 ml(100~1 600 ml),术前IIEF-5评分平均为21分,病理分期pT18例、pT2a 15例、pT2b4例、pT3a 3例.Gleason评分5分2例、6分7例、7分20例、8分1例.手术切缘阳性4例,其中2例为T2期,占T2期的10.5%(2/19),2例为T3期.无围手术期严重并发症.平均随访19个月(6-48个月),术后1个月完全控尿27例(90%),3个月达100%.术后3个月和6个月IIEF-5评分分别为13、19分,分别恢复到术前水平的40%和70%.结论 对选择性的前列腺癌患者,改良的保留神经根治性前列腺切除术较完整保留了前列腺周围所有的筋膜神经,使术后控尿及性功能得到早期、快速恢复,切缘阳性发生率低,疗效可靠.%Objective To evaluate the clinical value of the modified nerve-sparing open antegrade retropubic radical prostatectomy (MNS-ORP).Methods MNS-ORPs were performed in 30 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer.The modified technique included: endopelvic fascia was not incised, the prostate capsule was freed laterally from surrounding fasciae and dorsally;using the method of separating the peripheral fascia of the prostate, the Veil technique was applied to the open operation, that is, the modified Veil perserving nerve technology;pelvic lymph node dissections (9 regions and 5 groups) were extended;bladder neck

  1. Evaluation of Cutting Fluids in Multiple Reaming of Stainless Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belluco, Walter; Zeng, Z.; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2001-01-01

    subsequent reaming operations were carried out on austenitic stainless steel using high-speed-steel and solid carbide tools. The tested fluids were all significantly different from the reference fluid in at least some of the tested conditions. Significant differences down to 2 percent in cutting forces and 6...

  2. Steerable antegrade stenting: a new trick of the trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udo Nagele

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Whereas a retrograde attempt to insert an indwelling stent is performed in lithotomy position, usually renal access is gained in a prone position. To overcome the time loss of patient repositioning, a renal puncture can be performed in a modified lithotomy position with torqued truncus and slightly elevated flank. There is a two-fold advantage of this position: transurethral and transrenal access can be obtained using a combined approach. In the present study, this simple technique is used to position a floppy guide wire through a modified needle directly through the renal pelvis into the ureter. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The kidney is punctured in the modified lithotomy position under sonographic control using an initial three-part puncture needle. A floppy tip guide-wire is inserted into the collecting system via the needle after retrieving the stylet. The retracted needle is bent at the tip while the guide-wire is secured in the needle and the collecting system. The use of the floppy tip guide-wire helps to insert the curved needle back into the kidney pelvis, which becomes the precise guidance for the now steerable wire. The desired steerable stent is positioned under radiographic control in a retrograde fashion over the endoscopically harbored tip of the guide-wire. Two patient cohorts (newly described method and conventional method were compared. RESULTS: The presented steering procedure saves 16.5 mean minutes compared to the conventional antegrade stenting and 79.5 Euros compared to the control group. CONCLUSION: The described combined antegrade-retrograde stent placement through a bent three-part puncture needle results in both clinical superiority (OR time, success rate and financial benefits.

  3. Thermal damage during humeral reaming in total shoulder resurfacing

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    Philip A McCann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Total shoulder resurfacing (TSR provides a reliable solution for the treatment of glenohumeral arthritis. It confers a number of advantages over traditional joint replacement with stemmed humeral components, in terms of bone preservation and improved joint kinematics. This study aimed to determine if humeral reaming instruments produce a thermal insult to subchondral bone during TSR. Patients and Methods: This was tested in vivo on 13 patients (8 with rheumatoid arthritis and 5 with osteoarthritis with a single reaming system and in vitro with three different humeral reaming systems on saw bone models. Real-time infrared thermal video imaging was used to assess the temperatures generated. Results : Synthes (Epoca instruments generated average temperatures of 40.7°C (SD 0.9°C in the rheumatoid group and 56.5°C (SD 0.87°C in the osteoarthritis group (P = 0.001. Irrigation with room temperature saline cooled the humeral head to 30°C (SD 1.2°C. Saw bone analysis generated temperatures of 58.2°C (SD 0.79°C in the Synthes (Epoca 59.9°C (SD 0.81°C in Biomet (Copeland and 58.4°C (SD 0.88°C in the Depuy Conservative Anatomic Prosthesis (CAP reamers (P = 0.12. Conclusion: Humeral reaming with power driven instruments generates considerable temperatures both in vivo and in vitro. This paper demonstrates that a significant thermal effect beyond the 47°C threshold needed to induce osteonecrosis is observed with humeral reamers, with little variation seen between manufacturers. Irrigation with room temperature saline cools the reamed bone to physiological levels and should be performed regularly during this step in TSR.

  4. A STUDY ON INTERNAL FIXATION OF COMPOUND FRACTURES OF TIBIA USING INTERLOCKING NAIL WITHOUT REAMING

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    Pradeep Chandra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As one-third of the tibial surface is subcutaneous throughout its length, open fractures are commonly encountered in this bone. The factors which determine the outcome of these fractures are severity of the injury, indicated by the degree of initial displacement, comminution and soft tissue injury and the damage to the tibial blood supply. In open fractures not only is the endosteal circulation disrupted but also the periosteal circulation, because of periosteal stripping. The various available options of treatment such as conservative short leg or long leg casting, open reduction and internal fixation with plates and screws, intramedullary fixation (Including Ender pins, Intramedullary nails and Interlocking Intramedullary nails with reaming or without reaming and external fixation techniques have their own advantages and disadvantages. The present study was conducted in the Department of Orthopaedics, Gandhi Hospital, during the period from October 2013 to November 2015, to evaluate the results of internal fixation with interlocking intramedullary nailing without reaming in the treatment of the open fractures of tibia. In our study, we got 91% good-to-excellent results evaluated by Johner and Wruh criteria. We opine that closed unreamed interlocking intramedullary nailing yields good-to-excellent results in compound diaphyseal fractures of the tibia, as this technique allows a good control over the rotations with axial stability of the fracture, thus maintaining the length of the limb and enabling early joint motion. The endosteal blood supply is also well preserved. These factors help in lowering the rates of infection, malunions and non-unions.

  5. Laparoscopic common bile duct exploration and antegrade biliary stenting: Leaving behind the Kehr tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Martínez-Baena

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: single-stage laparoscopic surgery of cholelithiasis and associated common bile duct stones (CL-CBDS has shown similar results when compared to laparoscopic cholecystectomy combined with ERCP. Classically, choledochorrhaphy has been protected by a T-tube drain to allow external bypass of bile flow. However, its removal is associated with a significant complication rate. Use of antegrade biliary stents avoids T-tube removal associated morbidity. The aim of this study is to compare the results of choledochorrhaphy plus T-tube drainage versus antegrade biliary stenting in our series of laparoscopic common bile duct explorations (LCBDE. Material and methods: between 2004 and 2011, 75 patients underwent a LCBDE. Choledochorrhaphy was performed following Kehr tube placements in 47 cases and transpapillary biliary stenting was conducted in the remaining 28 patients. Results: postoperative hospital stay was shorter in the stent group (5 ± 10.26 days than in the Kehr group (12 ± 10.6 days, with a statistically significant difference. There was a greater trend to grade B complications in the stent group (10.7 vs. 4.3 % and to grade C complications in the Kehr group (6.4 vs. 3.6 %. There were 3 cases of residual common bile duct stones in the Kehr group (6.4 % and none in the stent group. Conclusions: antegrade biliary stenting following laparoscopic common bile duct exploration for CL-CBDS is an effective and safe technique that prevents T-tube related morbidity.

  6. Subintimal arterial flossing with antegrade-retrograde intervention technique in the treatment of long-segment occlusion of the lower extremity artery%双向内膜下血管成形术治疗长段下肢动脉闭塞

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨景明; 张小明; 张学民; 李伟; 李清乐; 蒋京军; 沈晨阳; 张永保

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the technical details regarding subintimal arterial flossing with antegrade-retrograde intervention (SAFARI) and evaluate its role in long-segment occlusion of the lower extremity artery.Methods Between May 2012 and Oct 2013,25 patients underwent endovascular recanalization with SAFARI technique.There were 22 male patients and 3 female patients,aged between 55 to 85 years (mean:69 ± 9 years).All patients had intermittent claudication,with distance less than 200 meters,in whom 4 patients had rest pain,3 with gangrene of the toes.The post-treatment and pre-treatment ankle-brachial index (ABI) and symptoms were analyzed.Results In this group,all 25 patients were followed up for 3 to 12 months(mean:5.9 months).One patient had re-occlusion of femoral artery stenting after 6 months.After the treatment,the ischemic symptoms were markedly improved or even disappeared.No severe perioperative complications occurred.The ABI recheck results were 0.90 ± 0.15,with significance compared with that before surgery (mean 0.40 ± 0.28,t =5.28,P < 0.05).Conclusions SAFARI can be used as a remedy to antegrade technique when the wire could not pass the conclusive lesion,significantly improving the success rate of interventional treatment.%目的 分析双向内膜下血管成形术(subintimal arterial flossing with antegrade-retrograde intervention,SAFARI)的技术要点,并评估该技术在长段下肢动脉闭塞人群中的应用. 方法 2012年5月至2013年10月应用SAFARI技术对25例长段下肢动脉闭塞患者进行介入治疗,其中男22例,女3例,年龄55~ 85岁,平均(69±9)岁.临床表现所有患者均有间歇性跛行,跛行距离均<200 m,4例有静息痛,合并足趾坏疽3例.比较手术前、后患者症状及踝肱指数的变化.结果 本组共25例患者均获得随访,随访时间3~12个月,平均随访(6±3)个月.1例患者术后6个月出现股浅动脉支架内再闭塞.所有患者术后缺血引起的症状消失或明

  7. Investigation on Capability of the Reaming Process using Minimal Quantity Lubrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Tosello, Guido; Píška, Miroslav

    2009-01-01

    An investigation on reaming usingminimal quantity lubrication (MQL) was carried out with the scope of documenting process capability using a metrological approach. Reaming tests were carried out on austenitic stainless steel, using HSS reamers with different cutting data and lubrication conditions...

  8. Reaming debris as a novel source of autologous bone to enhance healing of bone defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Astrid D.; Kroeze, Robert Jan; Korstjens, Clara; de Kleine, Ruben H.; Frolke, Jan Paul M.; Klein-Nulend, Jenneke

    2011-01-01

    Reaming debris is formed when bone defects are stabilized with an intramedullary nail, and contains viable osteoblast-like cells and growth factors, and might thus act as a natural osteoinductive scaffold. The advantage of using reaming debris over stem cells or autologous bone for healing bone defe

  9. Target ballon-assisted antegrade and retrograde approach for recanalization of thrombosed fem-pop bypass graft using the outbreak catheter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Jung Won; Chung, Hwan Hoon; Lee, Seung Hwa; Yeom, Suk Keu; Cha, Sang Hoon [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University College of Medicine, Ansan Hospital, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    The subintimal arterial flossing with antegrade-retrograde intervention (SAFARI) technique is reportedly effective in severe peripheral vascular disease that cannot be treated with standard endovascular techniques including subintimal angioplasty. In this report, we used a target balloon with the Outback catheter to recanalize a thrombosed bypass graft that could not be treated successfully with SAFARI.

  10. An Investigation of Reaming Test Parameters Used for Cutting Fluid Evaluations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Zeng, Z.; Belluco, Walter

    2001-01-01

    It has been suggested that the lubricating efficiency of cutting fluids can be assessed using a reaming test that measures cutting forces and surface roughness. In the present work, an investigation was undertaken to ream austenitic stainless steel using water based fluids and to evaluate...... of the force analysis, are discussed. For mean reaming torque, a measurement uncertainty of 5 percent (with 6 repetitions) was achieved. Results show that torque and thrust measurements offer a reliable description of the lubricating properties of cutting fluids, while conventional surface roughness evaluation...

  11. Locking intramedullary nailing with and without reaming for open fractures of the tibial shaft. A prospective, randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, J F; O'Brien, P J; Blachut, P A; Meek, R N; Broekhuyse, H M

    1997-03-01

    Ninety-one patients who had ninety-four open fractures of the tibial shaft were randomized into two treatment groups. Fifty fractures (nine type-I, eighteen type-II, sixteen type-IIIA, and seven type-IIIB fractures, according to the classification of Gustilo et al.) were treated with nailing after reaming, and forty-four fractures (five type-I, sixteen type-II, nineteen type-IIIA, and four type-IIIB fractures) were treated with nailing without reaming. The average diameter of the nail was 11.5 millimeters (range, nine to fourteen millimeters) in the group treated with reaming and 9.2 millimeters (range, eight to ten millimeters) in the group treated without reaming. Follow-up information was adequate for forty-five patients (forty-seven fractures) who had been managed with reaming and forty patients (forty-one fractures) who had been managed without reaming. No clinically important differences were found between the two groups with regard to the technical aspects of the procedure or the rate of early postoperative complications. The average time to union was thirty weeks (range, thirteen to seventy-two weeks) in the group treated with reaming and twenty-nine weeks (range, thirteen to fifty weeks) in the group treated without reaming. Four (9 per cent) of the fractures treated with reaming and five (12 per cent) of the fractures treated without reaming did not unite (p = 0.73). There were two infections in the group treated with reaming and one in the group treated without reaming. Significantly more screws broke in the group treated without reaming (twelve; 29 per cent) than in the group treated with reaming (four; 9 per cent) (p = 0.014). There was no difference between the two groups with regard to the frequency of broken nails (two nails that had been inserted after reaming broke, compared with one that had been inserted without reaming). The functional outcome, in terms of pain in the knee, range of motion, return to work, and recreational activity, did not

  12. Percutaneous antegrade ureteric stent removal using a rigid alligator forceps.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Given, M F

    2008-12-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of percutaneous antegrade ureteric stent removal using a rigid alligator forceps. Twenty patients were included in our study. Indications for ureteric stent insertion included stone disease (n = 7), malignancy (n = 8) and transplant anastomotic strictures (n = 5). Stent retrieval was carried out for proximal stent placement\\/migration in seven patients and encrustation in the remaining 13. Twenty-two stents were successfully retrieved in 20 patients. There was one technical failure (5%). There were no major complications. We had four minor complications, which included nephrostomy site pain (n = 2), periprocedural sepsis (n = 1) and a small urinoma (n = 1). All patients settled with conservative management. Percutaneous radiologically guided antegrade ureteric stent removal with an alligator forceps is safe and effective, particularly when initial surgical removal has failed.

  13. Secondary effects of femoral instrumentation on pulmonary physiology in a standardised sheep model: what is the effect of lung contusion and reaming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Frank; Giannoudis, Peter; van Griensven, Martijn; Chawda, Majur; Probst, Christian; Harms, Oliver; Harwood, Paul; Otto, Karl; Fehr, M; Krettek, Christian; Pape, Hans-Christoph

    2005-04-01

    Intramedullary nailing is the treatment of choice for patients with femoral shaft fractures. However, there is an ongoing debate in multiple trauma patients with associated lung contusion when primary or secondary definitive stabilisation of the long bone fracture should be performed, as nailing is thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In a standardised sheep model, this study aimed to quantify the development of acute pulmonary endothelial changes, to assess the activation of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNL) and to observe the effects on the coagulation system associated with the reamed nailing procedure. Furthermore, the effect of coexisting lung contusion in an experimental model was evaluated. The animals were randomly assigned to one of four different groups (6 animals/group). In control groups, only a sham operation (thoracotomy) was performed, whereas in study groups, lung contusion was induced prior to femoral stabilisation either by external fixation or reamed femoral nailing. Using bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) pulmonary permeability changes were quantified and PMNL activation was assessed by chemiluminescence. Additionally PMNL diapedesis and interstitial lung oedema were determined by histological analysis. All animals were sacrificed 4 h after the start of the femoral instrumentation. Without an associated lung injury, instrumentation of the femoral canal with the reamed nailing technique induced a transient increase in pulmonary permeability. In the face of an induced lung contusion, reamed femoral nailing resulted in significant increases in PMNL activation, pulmonary permeability and interstitial lung oedema, compared with external fixation. Without pulmonary contusion, reaming of the femoral canal was associated with a transient increase in pulmonary permeability. This was exacerbated in the presence of lung contusion along with increased PMNL activation. External fixation did not

  14. Healing pattern of reamed bone following bone harvesting by a RIA device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DM Devine

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intramedullary nailing has been used for decades to treat fractures of the long bones. However, complications related to the increase in medullary pressure culminated in the development of the Reamer Irrigator Aspirator (RIA. Since its first clinical use, the RIA has moved from a reaming device to a cell and autologous bone-harvesting tool. This increase in use brings with it further clinical questions; namely, does the endosteal bone regenerate sufficiently to allow subsequent reaming procedures. In the current study, endosteal bone regeneration post reaming was assessed in an ovine model. The study included six animals that had one tibia reamed, while the contralateral tibia acted as an intact control. Animals were administered fluorochrome labels in vivo, and bone regeneration was assessed using radiographical analysis. The endpoint of the study was 12 weeks post-surgery, at which time ex vivo analysis consisted of computed tomography and histological assessments. In vivo radiographs indicated limited healing of the reamed bone. However, ex vivo computer tomographical analysis indicated no significant differences in terms of bone volume between the reamed bone and the intact bone. Histological assessment of these regions indicated new bone formation. Fluorescent labelling indicates strong bone formation from 9 weeks post-surgery and as such, the bone formed at 12 weeks was immature in nature and was actively undergoing remodelling. These results indicate that bone regeneration post-reaming was continuing at three months. Therefore, given more time it may have sufficiently healed to allow a surgeon to use the intramedullary canal for a re-reaming procedure.

  15. Subintimal arterial flossing with antegrade-retrograde intervention technique to treat long-segment occlusion of peripheral artery%同期双向内膜下血管成形技术治疗慢性下肢动脉全堵病变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶猛; 施娅雪; 赵意平; 黄晓钟; 梁卫; 张皓; 周兆熊; 张纪蔚

    2011-01-01

    Objective To discuss the technique details of subintimal arterial flossing with antegrade-retrograde intervention(SAFARI)to improve technical success in the treatment of chronic total occlusions(CTO)diseases in lower extremity when there is failure to reenter the distal true lumen. Methods Between May 2009 and Aug 2010, 15 patients underwent endovascular recanalization with SAFARI technique. There were 8 male and 7 female patients with a mean age of 74.9 years. There were 3 patients with severe claudication(Rutherford category 3)and 12 patients with critical limb ischemia(Rutherford category 4 to 6). The clinical and follow-up data of these patients were analyzed retrospectively. Results Fourteen patients were treated with SAFARI techqiue successfully. The technique success rates were 93.3%. The mean ankle brachial index increased from 0. 39 to 0.83. Symptoms were relived in 86.6%patients, Ulcer were healed in 93.3% patients. Conclusions SAFARI technique is a safe and effective method in treating CTO diseases, when it is failure to renter the distal true lumen with subintimal angioplasty technique.%目的 探讨同期双向内膜下血管成形技术(subintimal arterial flossing with antegraderetrograde intervention,SAFARI)治疗下肢动脉慢性全堵病变(chronic total occlusions,CTO)的技术要点和注意事项.方法 2009年5月至2010年8月应用SAFARI技术对15例下肢动脉CTO病变患者进行了血管腔内治疗,其中男性8例,女性7例;年龄65~91岁,平均年龄74.9岁.按Rutherford下肢缺血分级标准:3级3例,4级6例,5级5例,6级1例.本组患者均为经传统内膜下血管成形术失败,进行了血管腔内动脉重建.结果 全组手术技术成功率为14/15.踝肱指数由术前0.39提高至术后1周的0.83.随访2~14个月,平均随访时间5.9个月.1例于术后1个月内发生支架内血栓形成.症状缓解率13/15,溃疡愈合率14/15.结论 SAFARI技术治疗下肢动脉CTO腔内治疗,成功率及保肢率高,

  16. Performance of antegrade suture passers according to tendon thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Sun Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the effect of tendon thickness on the needle penetration ability of four different designs of antegrade suture passers. Materials and Methods: Four antegrade suture passers were tested: (a ExpresSew II (Depuy Mitek Inc., Raynham, MA, (b Arthrex Scorpion (Arthrex, Naples, FL, (c Concept (Linvatec Corp, Largo, FL, and (d ElitePass (Smith and Nephew Endoscopy, Andover, MA. Bovine tendons were divided into five thickness groups: 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11 mm. At each tendon thickness, we performed 15 trials with the suture loaded and 15 unloaded per device. Successful needle penetration was recorded, and in case of success, the exit point of the needle was noted in relation to the superior arm of the grasping component. Results: All tested suture passing devices successfully penetrated tendon thicknesses of 3 and 5 mm. With the suture loaded, one device (Concept only successfully penetrated 7 mm group tendons in 3/15 (20% trials. Success rates at 9 mm with the suture loaded were 40% in ExpresSew II, 53% in Arthrex Scorpion, 0% in Concept and 53% in ElitePass. Among successful passages with a loaded suture in the 7 and 9 mm-groups, about 20-50% of passages were oblique, and the needle came out distal to the superior arm of grasping the component. No trial with any device succeeded with 11 mm tendons in the suture loading condition. Conclusion: Using an antegrade suture passer during arthroscopic rotator cuff repair should be carefully considered when the torn end of the tendon is thicker than about 7-9 mm due to potential failure of needle penetration and/or too oblique a suture passage. Level of Evidence: Controlled laboratory study.

  17. Comparison of acetabular reamings during hip resurfacing versus uncemented total hip arthroplasty.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brennan, S A

    2009-04-01

    PURPOSE: To compare the quantity of bone removed from the acetabulum during resurfacing hip arthroplasty versus uncemented total hip arthroplasty (THA). METHODS: 62 consecutive patients with osteoarthritis of the hip were prospectively studied. 24 men and 7 women aged 40 to 86 (mean, 59) years underwent Birmingham hip resurfacing. 13 men and 18 women aged 34 to 88 (mean, 61) years underwent uncemented THA using the trident acetabular cup. Obese elderly women at risk of femoral neck fracture and patients with large subchondral pseudocysts or a history of avascular necrosis of the femoral head were assigned to uncemented THA. Acetabular reamings were collected; marginal osteophytes were not included. The reamings were dehydrated, defatted, and weighed. RESULTS: The mean weight of acetabular reamings was not significantly different between patients undergoing hip resurfacing and uncemented THA (p=0.57). CONCLUSION: In hip resurfacing, the use of an appropriately small femoral component avoids oversizing the acetabular component and removal of excessive bone stock.

  18. Glenohumeral kinematics after soft tissue interposition graft and glenoid reaming: A cadaveric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nickolas G Garbis

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Glenohumeral contact pressure is significantly improved with interposition of allograft at time zero compared to an arthritic state. Our findings suggest that concentric reaming did not differ from the arthritic model when compared to normal. These findings favor the use of allograft for interposition as a potential treatment option in patients with glenoid wear.

  19. Diagnostic and therapeutical aspects of antegrade uretero-pyelography in percutaneous nephro-pyelostomy in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, K.; Helmig, F.J.; Wisser, J.; Fendel, H.

    1986-12-01

    In a sample of 18 children aging one day to eighteen years 21 percutaneous nephrostomies and 27 antegrade pyelographies were performed using sonography and fluoroscopy. Thirteen patients had both nephrostomy and pyelography and 5 had only pyelography. Three of 13 patients needed bilateral nephrostomies. The results indicate that the combination of percutaneous nephrostomy and antegrade pyelography is helpful in diagnosis and treatment of various obstructive disorders of the urinary tract especially in the newborn period.

  20. [Diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of antegrade ureteropyelography and percutaneous nephropyelostomy in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, K; Helmig, F J; Wisser, J; Fendel, H

    1986-12-01

    In a sample of 18 children aging one day to eighteen years 21 percutaneous nephrostomies and 27 antegrade pyelographies were performed using sonography and fluoroscopy. Thirteen patients had both nephrostomy and pyelography and 5 had only pyelography. Three of 13 patients needed bilateral nephrostomies. The results indicate that the combination of percutaneous nephrostomy and antegrade pyelography is helpful in diagnosis and treatment of various obstructive disorders of the urinary tract especially in the newborn period.

  1. Reamed versus unreamed intramedullary nailing for the treatment of femoral fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, A-Bing; Zhang, Wei-Jiang; Guo, Wei-Jun; Wang, Xin-Hua; Jin, Hai-Ming; Zhao, You-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background and objective: Intramedullary nailing is commonly used for treating femoral shaft fractures, one of the most common long bone fractures in adults. The reamed intramedullary nail is considered the standard implant for femoral fractures. This meta-analysis was performed to verify the superiority of reamed intramedullary nailing over unreamed intramedullary nailing in fractures of the femoral shaft in adults. Subgroup analysis of implant failure and secondary procedure was also performed. Methods: Electronic literature databases were used to identify relevant publications and included MEDLINE (Ovid interface), EMBASE (Ovid interface), and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; Wiley Online Library). The versions available on January 30, 2016, were utilized. Only human studies, which were designed as randomized controlled clinical trials, were included. Two authors independently evaluated the quality of original research publications and extracted data from the studies that met the criteria. Results: Around 8 randomized controlled trials involving 1078 patients were included. Reamed intramedullary nailing was associated with shorter time to consolidation of the fracture (SMD = –0.62, 95% CI = –0.89 to –0.35, P < 0.00001), lower secondary procedure rate (OR = 0.25, 95% CI 0.10–0.62, P = 0.003), lower nonunion rate (OR = 0.14, 95% CI = 0.05–0.40, P < 0.01), and lower delayed-union rate (OR = 0.19, 95% CI = 0.07–0.49, P < 0.01) compared to unreamed intramedullary nailing. The 2 groups showed no significant differences in risk of implant failure (OR = 0.50, 95% CI 0.14–1.74, P = 0.27), mortality risk (OR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.19–4.68, P = 0.94), risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS; OR = 1.55, 95% CI 0.36–6.57, P = 0.55), or blood loss (SMD = 0.57, 95% CI = –0.22 to 1.36, P = 0.15). Conclusion: Reamed intramedullary nailing

  2. Experimental research on characteristics of hole reaming and side cutting of one-cone bits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Kai'an

    2008-01-01

    The hole reaming and side cutting characteristics of offset one-cone bit and conventional one-cone bit were investigated on simulated drilling experimental equipment.The borehole diameter was a little larger than the bit diameter due to side force.However,the reaming effect was not very apparent,whether drilling with an offset or conventional one-cone bit.The side cutting displacement increased gradually with increasing depth of drilling and side force.The side cutting displacement of offset one-cone bits was larger than that of conventional ones under the same conditions of weight-on-bit(WOB),rotary speed,side force and borehole depth.

  3. Reamed or unreamed intramedullary nailing for tibial fractures: a meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Guangshu; Lin Yanbin; Wang Yu; Xu Zhiqing

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To compare the treating effects of different intramedullary nailing methods on tibial fractures in adults.Methods:Literature reports in both Chinese and English languages were retrieved (from the earliest available records to October 1,2013) from the PubMed,FMJS,CNKI,Wanfang Data using randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to compare reamed and unreamed intramedullary nailing for treatment of tibial fractures.Methodological quality of the trials was critically assessed,and relevant data were extracted.Statistical software Revman 5.0 was used for data-analysis.Results:A total of 12 randomized controlled trials,comprising 985 patients (475 in the unreamed group and 510 in the reamed group),were eligible for inclusion in this meta-analysis.The results of metaanalysis showed that there were no statistically significant differences between the two methods in the reported outcomes of infection (RR=0.64; 95%CI,0.39 to 1.07;P=0.09),compartment syndrome (RR=1.44; 95%CI,0.8to 2.41; P=0.16),thrombosis (RR=1.29; 95%CI,0.43to 3.87; P=0.64),time to union (WMD=5.01; 95%CI,-1.78 to 11.80; P=0.15),delayed union (nonunion)(RR=1.56; 95%CI,0.97 to 2.49; P=0.06),malunion (RR=1.75; 95%CI,1.00 to 3.08; P=0.05) and knee pain (RR=0.94; 95%CI,0.73 to 1.22; P=0.66).But there was a significantly higher fixation failure rate in the unreamed group than in the reamed group (RR=4.29; 95%CI,2.58to 7.14; P<0.00001).Conclusion:There is no significant difference in the reamed and unreamed intramedullary nailing for the treatment of tibial fractures,but our result recommends reamed nails for the treatment of closed tibial fractures for their lower fixation failure rate.

  4. Retrograde pedal access with a 20-gauge intravenous cannula after failed antegrade recanalization of a tibialis anterior artery in a diabetic patient: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yucel Colkesen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Retrograde tibiopedal approach is being used frequently in below-the-knee vascular interventions. In patients with diabetic foot pathology, complex anatomy often requires a retrograde technique when the distal vascular anatomy and puncture site is suitable. The dorsalis pedis and posterior tibial arteries can be punctured because of their relatively superficial position. We report a retrograde puncturing technique in patients with chronic total occlusions. After failed antegrade recanalization, puncturing and cannulation of a tiny dorsalis pedis artery with a narrow bore [20-gauge (0.8 mm] intravenous cannula is described.

  5. Surface integrity and part accuracy in reaming and tapping stainless steel with new vegetable based cutting oils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belluco, Walter; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation on the effect of new formulations of vegetable oils on surface integrity and part accuracy in reaming and tapping operations with AISI 316L stainless steel. Surface integrity was assessed with measurements of roughness, microhardness, and using metallographic ...

  6. Research Study on Influence of Predefined Factors on Drilling Produced Hole before Reaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorná, Václava; Roub, Jan; Řehoř, Jan; Fulemová, Jaroslava

    2016-10-01

    The topic of producing accurate holes (IT6 and better) has been often discussed these days. Many research projects have started under the Department Technology of Machining, Faculty of Engineering at the University of West Bohemia in Pilsen. These projects are focused on measuring the influence of defined factors of machining on required quality, i.e. integrity of the hole surface. The first phase of the research was focused on issues of parameters of drilling technology, which almost always comes before the reaming technology. This text explores this study, which serves as a core resource for related experiments. The main aim was to gather and sort the information from authors, who discuss in their publications questions of key factors to drilling and lathing technology, with regards to evaluating accuracy of produced holes. Foreign publications were used for this research as well as Czech information sources.

  7. The effect of intact fibula on functional outcome of reamed intramedullary interlocking nail in open and closed isolated tibial shaft fractures: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Muthukumar Balaji

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: ITS fracture with intact fibula is a common occurrence, and they can be treated safely with reamed IM nailing that provides good union rates and the excellent functional result even in open fractures.

  8. Cannulation in the Diseased Aorta: A Safe Approach Using the Seldinger Technique

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    The Seldinger technique is a method of femoral cannulation that has been used to establish cardiopulmonary bypass. Reports of cannulation of the ascending aorta for antegrade perfusion using the Seldinger method are anecdotal. To the best of our knowledge, the approach described herein for direct cannulation of the ascending aorta with use of the Seldinger technique for antegrade perfusion has not been previously described in the English-language medical literature. This method is helpful whe...

  9. Antegrade bowel intussusception after remote Whipple and Puestow procedures for treatment of pancreas divisum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To date, antegrade intussusception involving a Roux-en-Y reconstruction has been reported only once. We report a case of acute bowel obstruction due to an intussusception involving two Roux-en-Y limbs in a 40-year-old woman with a history of chronic pancreatitis due to pancreas divisum. Four years preceding this event, the patient had undergone a Whipple procedure, and three years prior to that, a Puestow operation. The patient was successfully treated with bowel resection and a side-to-side anastomosis between the most distal aspect of the bowel and the most distal Roux-en-Y reconstruction, which preserved both Roux-en-Y reconstructions.

  10. Functional Outcome After Antegrade Femoral Nailing : A Comparison of Trochanteric Fossa Versus Tip of Greater Trochanter Entry Point

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moein, Chloe Ansari; ten Duis, Henk-Jan; Oey, Liam; de Kort, Gerard; van der Meulen, Wout; Vermeulen, Karin; van der Werken, Christiaan

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This study was performed to explore the relationship between entry point-related soft tissue damage in antegrade femoral nailing and the functional outcome in patients with a proximal third femoral shaft fracture. Design: Retrospective clinical trial. Setting: Level I university trauma c

  11. Retrograde endovenous laser ablation through saphenopopliteal junctional area for incompetent small saphenous vein; Comparison with antegrade approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Seok; Park, Sang Woo; Yun, Ik Jin; Hwang, Jae Joon; Lee, Song Am; Chee, Hyun Keun; Hwang, Jin Ho [Konkuk University Hospital, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of retrograde endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) and to compare it with the conventional antegrade EVLA for incompetent small saphenous vein (SSV). Small saphenous vein was cannulated via two approaches under ultrasound-guidance. One method involved puncturing the SSV cranially at mid-calf (the antegrade group). If the antegrade puncture into the SSV failed twice, the other approach for puncture was selected that involved puncturing the SSV toward the ankle (the retrograde group). Patients were evaluated in terms of technical and clinical success, closure rates of the SSV, and complications including pain, bruising, or paresthesia at all follow-up visits. The 1470 nm endovenous laser was used in all limbs. Technical success was seen in all limbs in both groups (100%). Closure rate in both groups showed about 95%, without significant difference (p = 0.685). Similar linear endovenous energy density was supplied during the EVLA in both groups (p = 0.876). Three frequent complications including bruising, pain, and paresthesia did not show statistical significance between groups (p = 0.465, 0.823, 1.000, respectively). Major complications were absent in both groups. The EVLA for the incompetent SSV using a retrograde approach is safe and effective and should be considered the alternative method if the antegrade access fails due to vasospasm or small SSV diameter.

  12. Antegrade ureteroscopic assistance during percutaneous nephrolithotomy for complete renal staghorn stone: Technique and outcomes

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    Yuh-Shyan Tsai

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: Such an ancillary procedure might be suitable for the management of complete staghorn stones or other complex renal stones in patients in whom adequate intracalyceal space was not available for the creation of nephrostomy access.

  13. ANTEGRADE INTRAMEDULLARY FIXATION OF HUMERAL SHAFT FRACTURES WITH INTERLOCKING NAIL - AN ANALYSIS OF COMPLICATIONS

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    Arvinder

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT : Fractures of the humeral shaft account for 3% of all the fractures . Primary cause of these fractures i s high energy traumas. Goals in managing these fractures are osseous union, minimal deformity and return of maximal extremity function. The union rate of simple fractures of humerus treated conservatively is over 90%. Surgical management of these fractures is preferred in Segmental fractures, Polytrauma patients, Pathological fractures, Open fractures , Failed conservative treatment, Associated progressive neurological deficit , Vascular injury, Morbid obesity. We analysed intraoperative and postoperative com plications in twelve patients with humeral shaft fractures managed with antegrade interlocking nails. There were seven males and five females. Their ages ranged between 20 – 60 years with an average of 32.6 years. There were 11 close and one Gustilo grade I open fractures. There were six comminuted , four transverse, and two oblique fractures. Nine fractures were in middle third one in proximal third and two in distal third. Five patients had associated injuries. We faced difficulty in localizing entry port al in 2 patients . There was difficulty in reduction in 2 patients We had one patient with iatrogenic comminution . Three patients had improper locking screw size. One had nail protrusion proximally , one patient had distraction at the fracture site . There we re two superficial entry portal skin infections and one deep proximal cross screw infection. We had two patients with shoulder and one patient with elbow stiffness. Chronic rotator cuff irritation was present in three patients. We recorded three delayed un ions, one nonunion and one rotatory malunion The results of the present study indicate that antegrade intramedullary interlocked nailing is one of the best method of treatment among the currently available methods.

  14. Percutaneous Antegrade Varicocele Embolization Via the Testicular Vein in a Patient with Recurrent Varicocele After Surgical Repair

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    Guevara, Carlos J., E-mail: guevarac@mir.wustl.edu; El-Hilal, Alexander H., E-mail: elhilala@mir.wustl.edu; Darcy, Michael D., E-mail: darcym@mir.wustl.edu [Washington University in St. Louis, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine (United States)

    2015-10-15

    This is a case report of an adolescent male who underwent surgical ligation for a left-sided varicocele that recurred 2 years later. Standard retrograde embolization via the left renal vein was not possible, because there was no connection from the renal vein to the gonadal vein following surgical ligation. The patient was treated via antegrade access of the spermatic vein at the inguinal level with subsequent coil embolization.

  15. The Use of ExoSeal Vascular Closure Device for Direct Antegrade Superficial Femoral Artery Puncture Site Hemostasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimon, Uri, E-mail: rimonu@sheba.health.gov.il; Khaitovich, Boris, E-mail: borislena@012.net.il [Tel-Aviv University, Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging Department, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, Affiliated to the Sackler School of Medicine (Israel); Yakubovich, Dmitry, E-mail: Dmitry.Yakubovitch@sheba.health.gov.il [Tel-Aviv University, Vascular Surgery Department, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, Affiliated to the Sackler School of Medicine (Israel); Bensaid, Paul, E-mail: paulbensaid@hotmail.com; Golan, Gil, E-mail: gilgolan201@gmail.com [Tel-Aviv University, Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging Department, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, Affiliated to the Sackler School of Medicine (Israel); Silverberg, Daniel, E-mail: Daniel.Silverberg@sheba.health.gov.il [Tel-Aviv University, Vascular Surgery Department, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, Affiliated to the Sackler School of Medicine (Israel)

    2015-06-15

    PurposeThis study was designed to assess the efficacy and safety of the ExoSeal vascular closure device (VCD) to achieve hemostasis in antegrade access of the superficial femoral artery (SFA).MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed the outcome of ExoSeal VCD used for hemostasis in 110 accesses to the SFA in 93 patients between July 2011 and July 2013. All patients had patent proximal SFA based on computer tomography angiography or ultrasound duplex. Arterial calcifications at puncture site were graded using fluoroscopy. The SFA was accessed in an antegrade fashion with ultrasound or fluoroscopic guidance. In all patients, 5–7F vascular sheaths were used. The ExoSeal VCD was applied to achieve hemostasis at the end of the procedure. All patients were clinically examined and had ultrasound duplex exam for any puncture site complications during the 24 h postprocedure.ResultsIn all procedures, the ExoSeal was applied successfully. We did not encounter any device-related technical failure. There were four major complications in four patients (3.6 %): three pseudoaneurysms, which were treated with direct thrombin injection, and one hematoma, which necessitated transfusion of two blood units. All patients with complications were treated with anticoagulation preprocedure or received thrombolytic therapy.ConclusionsThe ExoSeal VCD can be safely used for antegrade puncture of the SFA, with a high procedural success rate (100 %) and a low rate of access site complications (3.6 %)

  16. Antegrade Rush nailing for fractures of humeral shaft- an analysis of 200 cases with an average follow up of 1 year

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    Gadegone W

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The incidence of humeral fracture has significantly increased during the recent times due to the rising age of the population and the number of automobile accidents. In order to achieve a stable fixation and early mobilization, numerous surgical implants have been devised. Method : We carried out a prospective analysis of the data of 200 consecutive patients who had closed fractures of the humeral shaft treated with ante-grade closed Rush nails at our institute. Patients with preoperative radial nerve injury were excluded from this study. In 186 patients we achieved close to anatomic reduction of the fracture fragments. In 14 patients we had to resort to limited open reduction. Results : Fracture united in 186 of 188 patient followed up for one year. Complications occurred in 26 patients. We strongly advise a careful surgical technique and modification as per the individual fracture pattern to reduce the complications. Conclusion : Osteosynthesis with multiple Rush nails features the advantages of rotational stability of the head-neck fragment to the diaphysis, an unreamed implantation technique without any special instruments, the speed of execution and minimal economic burden so important for the developing country like ours.

  17. The effect of muscle contusion on cortical bone and muscle perfusion following reamed, intramedullary nailing: a novel canine tibia fracture model

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    Zdero Rad

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Management of tibial fractures associated with soft tissue injury remains controversial. Previous studies have assessed perfusion of the fractured tibia and surrounding soft tissues in the setting of a normal soft tissue envelope. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of muscle contusion on blood flow to the tibial cortex and muscle during reamed, intramedullary nailing of a tibial fracture. Methods Eleven adult canines were distributed into two groups, Contusion or No-Contusion. The left tibia of each canine underwent segmental osteotomy followed by limited reaming and locked intramedullary nailing. Six of the 11 canines had the anterior muscle compartment contused in a standardized fashion. Laser doppler flowmetry was used to measure cortical bone and muscle perfusion during the index procedure and at 11 weeks post-operatively. Results Following a standardized contusion, muscle perfusion in the Contusion group was higher compared to the No-Contusion group at post-osteotomy and post-reaming (p 0.05. There was a sustained decrease in overall bone perfusion in the Contusion group at 11 weeks, compared to the No-Contusion group (p Conclusions Injury to the soft tissue envelope may have some deleterious effects on intraosseous circulation. This could have some influence on the fixation method for tibia fractures linked with significant soft tissue injury.

  18. Obesity: An Independent Risk Factor for Insufficient Hemostasis Using the AngioSeal Vascular Closure Device After Antegrade Puncture

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    Minko, Peter, E-mail: peterminko@yahoo.com; Katoh, Marcus [University Hospital Saarland, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Graeber, Stefan [University Hospital Saarland, Institute of Medical Biometry, Epidemiology and Medical Informatics (Germany); Buecker, Arno [University Hospital Saarland, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to investigate the efficacy of the AngioSeal vascular closure device after antegrade puncture of the femoral artery. Methods: In a prospective study, 120 consecutive patients underwent lower limb vascular intervention by an antegrade access to the common femoral artery (CFA). After intervention, a 6F (n = 88) or an 8F (n = 32) AngioSeal vascular closure device was used to achieve hemostasis. The technical success or the cause of failure was documented. In addition, the coagulation status (platelets, INR, prothrombin time, atrial thromboplastin time (PTT)), hypertonus, locoregional habitus of the groin, body mass index (BMI), presence of calcifications, and history of previous surgical interventions of the CFA were evaluated. Results: Hemostasis was achieved in 97 patients (81%). In 12 patients (10%), persistent bleeding of the puncture site required manual compression. In another nine patients (8%) a kink of the sheath obviated the passage of the collagen plug toward the vessel, and in two patients the anchor dislodged out of the vessel, requiring manual compression. There were no significant differences between the groups of successful and unsuccessful sealing regarding the mean platelets (241 vs. 254 * 10{sup 9}/l; P = 0.86), INR (1.06 vs. 1.02; P = 0.52), prothrombin time (90% vs. 90%; P = 0.86), and PTT (30 vs. 31 s; P = 0.82). However, unsuccessful sealing was more likely in obese patients with an increased BMI (26.6 vs. 28.8 kg/m{sup 2}; P = 0.04). Conclusions: Obesity seems to be an independent risk factor for insufficient sealing using the AngioSeal vascular closure device after antegrade puncture of the CFA. In 8% of our patients, hemostasis could not be achieved due to kink of the flexible sheath.

  19. [Practical experiences with antegrade local chemolysis of struvite/apatite, uric acid and cystine calculi in the kidney].

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    Weirich, W; Frohneberg, D; Ackermann, D; Alken, P

    1984-03-01

    In 18 patients (20 kidneys) with struvite/apatite-, uric acid- and cystine stones antegrade local chemolysis was performed via percutaneous or operative nephrostomy. Complete stone dissolution was achieved in 11 kidneys, while in six kidneys partial dissolution of stones was performed. In these six cases added instrumental manipulations shortened the time of therapy. In three cases chemolysis was unsuccessful. Average irrigation time was 21 days per renal unit. Only minor complications like dysuria and skin rashes were seen. Due to long time of irrigation we recommend chemolitholysis mainly as an additional form of therapy in case of residual stones after operative or percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

  20. Surgical outcome of pancreatic cancer using radical antegrade modular pancreatosplenectomy procedure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Rim Chang; Sung-Sik Han; Sang-Jae Park; Seung Duk Lee; Tae Suk Yoo; Young-Kyu Kim; Tae Hyun Kim

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the surgical outcomes following radical antegrade modular pancreatosplenectomy (RAMPS)for pancreatic cancer.METHODS:Twenty-four patients underwent RAMPS with curative intent between January 2005 and June 2009 at the National Cancer Center,South Korea.Clinicopathologic data,including age,sex,operative findings,pathologic results,adjuvant therapy,postoperative clinical course and follow-up data were retrospectively collected and analyzed for this study.RESULTS:Twenty-one patients (87.5%) underwent distal pancreatectomy and 3 patients (12.5%) underwent total pancreatectomy using RAMPS.Nine patients (37.5%) underwent combined vessel resection,including 8 superior mesenteric-portal vein resections and 1 celiac axis resection.Two patients (8.3%) underwent combined resection of other organs,including the colon,stomach or duodenum.Negative tangential margins were achieved in 22 patients (91.7%).The mean tumor diameter for all patients was 4.09 ± 2.15 cm.The 2 patients with positive margins had a mean diameter of 7.25 cm.The mean number of retrieved lymph nodes was 20.92 ± 11.24 and the node positivity rate was 70.8%.The median survival of the 24 patients was 18.23 ± 6.02 mo.Patients with negative margins had a median survival of 21.80 ± 5.30 mo and those with positive margins had a median survival of 6.47 mo (P =0.021).Nine patients (37.5%) had postoperative complications,but there were no postoperative mortalities.Pancreatic fistula occurred in 4 patients (16.7%):2 patients had a grade A fistula and 2 had a grade B fistula.On univariate analysis,histologic grade,positive tangential margin,pancreatic fistula and adjuvant therapy were significant prognostic factors for survival.CONCLUSION:RAMPS is a feasible procedure for achieving negative tangential margins in patients with carcinoma of the body and tail of the pancreas.

  1. The Malone Antegrade Continence Enema (MACE principle in children: is it important if the conduit is implanted in the left or the right colon?

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    Karine F. Meyer

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine which was the optimal side for the conduit to be placed (right or left colon for antegrade continence enema implantation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between July 1999 and March 2006, 31 patients underwent the construction of a catheterizable conduit using the Malone principle (MACE In 22 cases the conduit was re-implanted in the right colon and in 9 cases in the left colon. There were 20 male patients and 11 female patients, with a mean age of 10.23 years. The follow-up period varied from 3 from 83 months (average 25 months. Right and left implantation of the conduit in the colon were compared with regards to the presence of complications, volume of the solution utilized, frequency of colonic lavage, time needed for performing the enema, and degree of satisfaction. RESULTS: One patient with the conduit in the right colon, using the appendix, lost the mechanism after two month follow-up. Thirty patients remain clean and are all capable of performing self-catheterization. No statistically significant differences were found between the groups regarding the variables studied: complications (p = 1.000, solution volume (p = 0.996, time required (p = 0.790 and patient's rating (p = 0.670. The lavage frequency required for patients with the conduit in the right colon may be lower. CONCLUSION: The MACE principle was considered effective for treating fecal retention and leaks, independent of the implantation site. The success of this surgery appears to be directly related to the patient's motivation and not to the technique utilized.

  2. Subintimal TRAnscatheter Withdrawal (STRAW) of hematomas compressing the distal true lumen: a novel technique to facilitate distal reentry during recanalization of chronic total occlusion (CTO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elliot J; Di Mario, Carlo; Spratt, James C; Hanratty, Colm G; de Silva, Ranil; Lindsay, Alistair C; Grantham, J Aaron

    2015-01-01

    The development of a large hematoma impairing visualization of the distal true lumen is a recognized complication of antegrade recanalization of chronic total occlusions, often forcing the operator to abort the procedure or switch to a retrograde approach. We describe a novel technique utilizing an over-the-wire balloon inflated in the proximal occluded vessel to block inflow and allow aspiration of the blood from the subintimal space. This decompressed the true lumen, restored distal visualization, and allowed successful reentry using a dedicated technology. Utilization of this novel technique may rescue antegrade recanalization attempts complicated by large subintimal hematomas.

  3. Safe surgical technique: intramedullary nail fixation of tibial shaft fractures.

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    Zelle, Boris A; Boni, Guilherme

    2015-01-01

    Statically locked, reamed intramedullary nailing remains the standard treatment for displaced tibial shaft fractures. Establishing an appropriate starting point is a crucial part of the surgical procedure. Recently, suprapatellar nailing in the semi-extended position has been suggested as a safe and effective surgical technique. Numerous reduction techiques are available to achieve an anatomic fracture alignment and the treating surgeon should be familiar with these maneuvers. Open reduction techniques should be considered if anatomic fracture alignment cannot be achieved by closed means. Favorable union rates above 90 % can be achieved by both reamed and unreamed intramedullary nailing. Despite favorable union rates, patients continue to have functional long-term impairments. In particular, anterior knee pain remains a common complaint following intramedullary tibial nailing. Malrotation remains a commonly reported complication after tibial nailing. The effect of postoperative tibial malalignment on the clinical and radiographic outcome requires further investigation.

  4. Percutaneous retrograde crossing of a near-occluded celiac trunk via the superior mesenteric artery as an adjuvant maneuver for antegrade stenting

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    Martin Andreas Geiger

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We describe the case of a 63-year-old woman with chronic mesenteric ischemia, persistent postprandial upper abdominal pain and progressive weight loss. Retrograde recanalization was performed via the superior mesenteric artery in order to achieve the goal of crossing the near-occlusion, showing that retrograde catheterization of the celiac trunk can be a feasible approach in challenging cases in which an antegrade approach fails as a single maneuver.

  5. Cerebral Metabolic Profiling of Hypothermic Circulatory Arrest with and Without Antegrade Selective Cerebral Perfusion: Evidence from Nontargeted Tissue Metabolomics in a Rabbit Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Hua Zou; Jin-Ping Liu; Hao Zhang; Shu-Bin Wu; Bing-Yang Ji

    2016-01-01

    Background:Antegrade selective cerebral perfusion (ASCP) is regarded to perform cerebral protection during the thoracic aorta surgery as an adjunctive technique to deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA).However,brain metabolism profile after ASCP has not been systematically investigated by metabolomics technology.Methods:To clarify the metabolomics profiling of ASCP,12 New Zealand white rabbits were randomly assigned into 60 min DHCA with (DHCA+ASCP [DA] group,n =6) and without (DHCA [D] group,n =6) ASCP according to the random number table.ASCP was conducted by cannulation on the right subclavian artery and cross-clamping of the innominate artery.Rabbits were sacrificed 60 min after weaning off cardiopulmonary bypass.The metabolic features of the cerebral cortex were analyzed by a nontargeted metabolic profiling strategy based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.Variable importance projection values exceeding 1.0 were selected as potentially changed metabolites,and then Student's t-test was applied to test for statistical significance between the two groups.Results:Metabolic profiling of brain was distinctive significantly between the two groups (Q2y =0.88 for partial least squares-DA model).In comparing to group D,62 definable metabolites were varied significantly after ASCP,which were mainly related to amino acid metabolism,carbohydrate metabolism,and lipid metabolism.Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis revealed that metabolic pathways after DHCA with ASCP were mainly involved in the activated glycolytic pathway,subdued anaerobic metabolism,and oxidative stress.In addition,L-kynurenine (P =0.0019),5-methoxyindole-3-acetic acid (P =0.0499),and 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (P =0.0495) in tryptophan metabolism pathways were decreased,and citrulline (P =0.0158) in urea cycle was increased in group DA comparing to group D.Conclusions:The present study applied metabolomics analysis to identify the cerebral metabolic profiling in rabbits with ASCP

  6. EUS-Guided Antegrade Transhepatic Placement of a Self-Expandable Metal Stent in Hepatico-Jejunal Anastomosis

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    Everson LA Artifon

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Context To demonstrate an EUS-guided biliary drainage in patient with gastrointestinal tract modified surgically. Case report An EUS guided access to the left intra hepatic duct, followed by an antegrade passage of a partially self-expandable metal stent that was removed by using an enteroscope, in one patient with hepatico-jejunal anastomosis. There were no early or delayed complications and the procedure was effective in relieving jaundice until the self-expandable metal stent was removed, 3 months later. A cholangiogram was obtained via enteroscopy, after removal of self-expandable metal stent, and found to be normal. The patient had an uneventful evaluation afterwards. Conclusion The indication of these procedures must be made under a multidisciplinary view while sharing information with the patient or legal guardian. EUS-guided biliary drainage is feasible when performed by professionals with expertise in biliopancreatic endoscopy and advanced echo-endoscopy and should be performed currently under rigorous protocol in educational institutions.

  7. Induction of spermatogenesis in men with azoospermia or severe oligoteratoasthenospermia after antegrade internal spermatic vein sclerotherapy for the treatment of varicocele

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vassilis Poulakis; Nikolaos Ferakis; Rachelle de Vries; Ulrich Witzsch; Edward Becht

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the treatment outcome of antegrade internal spermatic vein sclerotherapy in men with non-obstructive azoospermia or severe oligoteratoasthenospermia (OTA) as a result of varicocele. Methods: Between September 1995 and January 2004, 47 patients (mean age 33.8 ± 6.3 years) underwent antegrade internal spermatic vein sclerotherapy for the treatment of varicocele with azoospermia (14 patients) or severe OTA (33 patients). Testicular core biopsy was also performed in complete azoospermic patients who provided informed consent. The outcome was assessed in terms of improvement in semen parameters and conception rate. Results: Forty-two (89.4%) of 47patients had bilateral varicocele. Serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) did not differ between patients with azoospermia and severe OTA. After the follow-up of 24.8 ± 9.2 months, significant improvement was noted in mean sperm concentration, motility and morphology in 35 patients (74.5%). Comparison between groups during the follow-up revealed significantly higher values of sperm concentration, motility and normal morphology in the severe OTA group. Pregnancy was achieved in 14 cases (29.8%). Testicular histopathology of the azoospermic patients with postoperative induction of spermatogenesis revealed maturation arrest at spermatid stage, Sertoli-cell-only (SCO)with focal spermatogenesis or hypospermatogenesis. None of the patients with pure SCO pattern or maturation arrest at spermatocyte stage achieved spermatogenesis after the treatment. Preoperative serum FSH levels didn't relate to treatment outcome. Conclusion: Antegrade internal spermatic vein sclerotherapy is an easy and effective treatment for symptomatic varicocele. It can significantly reverse testicular dysfunction and improve spermatogenesis in men with severe OTA, as well as induce sperm production in men with azoospermia, improving pregnancy rates in subfertile couples.

  8. SURGICAL OUTCOME OF DIAPHYSEAL FRACTURES OF HUMERUS BY ANTEGRADE INTERLOCKING NAILING IN CLOSED REDUCTION

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    Koramutla Harsha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fractures involving the shaft of humerus are commonly encountered by orthopedic surgeons in day to day practice. Humeral shaft fracture can be treated using intramedullary fixation technique. Flexibl e intramedullary nails like Rush nail, Enders nail have been used utilizing ante grade and retrograde methods. This technique has largely replaced plating method very often. But, retrograde nailing can be regarded as a minimally invasive procedure and just ifiable to use for fixation of isolated humeral shaft fractures in certain situation. In this study we have evaluated the effectiveness of surgical and functional outcomes of closed ante grade interlocking nailing in the management of diaphyseal fractures of humerus. METHODS: A series of 30 patients with diaphyseal fractures of humerus were treated with ante grade interlocking nailing during October 2008 to October 2010. All the patients were followed up 6 weeks, 12 weeks and 24 weeks and results were analy sed. X rays were taken to assess radiological union of fracture during the follow up. Assessment of fracture union and shoulder and elbow movement was recorded. Final evaluation was done at the end of 6 months. Data was presented as mean ± SD, actual numbe rs and percentages. Wilcoxo n test and chi - square test were used appropriately. RESULTS: All 30 patients in our study were followed up for a minimum period of 6 months. 56.7%cases were male patients 43.3% were female patients. More than 50 % of cases in the series were between the ages of 18 - 35 years. 60% fractures were comminuted 6.6% were of oblique type, 33.3% were of transverse type. The average time interval from the time of admission to the time of surgery was 3 days. The most common mode of injury was road traffic accident. Commented fractures are predominant in our study. Clinical outcome was 60% of cases had excellent results and 30 % had moderate result. 3 patients (10% had poor result, due to limitation of shoulder

  9. Initial Experience and Feasibility of the New Low-Profile Stingray Catheter as Part of the Antegrade Dissection and Re-Entry Revascularization Strategy for Coronary Chronic Total Occlusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeremans, Joren; Palmers, Pieter-Jan; Dens, Joseph

    2017-01-31

    BACKGROUND During antegrade dissection re-entry (ADR) of chronic total occlusions (CTO), the first-generation Stingray catheter requires the use of large-bore guides (sheathless 7.5 Fr or 8 Fr), which increases the risk for access site-related complications and compromises radial approaches. Smaller guiding sizes necessitate long guidewires (e.g., 300 cm) or guidewire extensions for catheter advancement or removal. However, friction between guides and the Stingray catheter can result in unstable guidewire position or unintentional removal. Furthermore, failure to deliver the catheter at the distal re-entry zone is a common problem. To overcome issues of deliverability and reduce the need for pre-dilatations, with its inherent risk of creating subintimal hematomas, the Stingray low-profile (LP) balloon catheter was developed. CASE REPORT We describe 3 cases of successful application of the novel Stingray LP catheter during ADR. In all cases, 7 Fr guiding catheters were successfully used in combination with the device. The lower profile facilitated a good exchange and delivery of the device, without the need for balloon pre-dilatations in 2 cases. This resulted in a limited subintimal plane, enabling a smooth puncture into the true lumen. One case presented with extreme levels of calcification and tortuosity, resulting in a high degree of friction, despite the lower catheter profile. No in-hospital coronary or access site-related complications occurred. CONCLUSIONS This case report illustrates the feasibility of the Stingray LP catheter for the treatment of CTOs via the ADR technique. The lower profile of the catheter potentially increases the deliverability, safety, and exchangeability of the device.

  10. Balloon-Occluded Antegrade Transvenous Sclerotherapy to Treat Rectal Varices: A Direct Puncture Approach to the Superior Rectal Vein Through the Greater Sciatic Foramen Under CT Fluoroscopy Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Yasuyuki, E-mail: onoyasy@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp; Kariya, Shuji, E-mail: kariyas@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp; Nakatani, Miyuki, E-mail: nakatanm@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp; Yoshida, Rie, E-mail: yagir@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp; Kono, Yumiko, E-mail: kohnoy@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp; Kan, Naoki, E-mail: kanna@takii.kmu.ac.jp; Ueno, Yutaka, E-mail: uenoyut@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp; Komemushi, Atsushi, E-mail: komemush@takii.kmu.ac.jp; Tanigawa, Noboru, E-mail: tanigano@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp [Kansai Medical University, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    Rectal varices occur in 44.5 % of patients with ectopic varices caused by portal hypertension, and 48.6 % of these patients are untreated and followed by observation. However, bleeding occurs in 38 % and shock leading to death in 5 % of such patients. Two patients, an 80-year-old woman undergoing treatment for primary biliary cirrhosis (Child-Pugh class A) and a 63-year-old man with class C hepatic cirrhosis (Child-Pugh class A), in whom balloon-occluded antegrade transvenous sclerotherapy was performed to treat rectal varices are reported. A catheter was inserted by directly puncturing the rectal vein percutaneously through the greater sciatic foramen under computed tomographic fluoroscopy guidance. In both cases, the rectal varices were successfully treated without any significant complications, with no bleeding from rectal varices after embolization.

  11. Similar cerebral protective effectiveness of antegrade and retrograde cerebral perfusion during deep hypothermic circulatory arrest in aortic surgery: a meta-analysis of 7023 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shasha; Sun, Yanhua; Ji, Bingyang; Liu, Jinping; Wang, Guyan; Zheng, Zhe

    2015-04-01

    In aortic arch surgery, deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) combined with cerebral perfusion is employed worldwide as a routine practice. Even though antegrade cerebral perfusion (ACP) is more widely used than retrograde cerebral perfusion (RCP), the difference in benefit and risk between ACP and RCP during DHCA is uncertain. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to compare neurologic outcomes and early mortality between ACP and RCP in patients who underwent aortic surgery during DHCA. PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched using the key words "antegrade," "retrograde," "cerebral perfusion," "cardiopulmonary bypass," "extracorporeal circulation," and "cardiac surgery" for studies reporting on clinical endpoints including early mortality, stroke, temporary neurologic dysfunction (TND), and permanent neurologic dysfunction (PND) in aortic surgery requiring DHCA with ACP or RCP. Heterogeneity was analyzed with the Cochrane Q statistic and I(2) statistic. Publication bias was tested with Begg's funnel plot and Egger's test. Thirty-four studies were included in this meta-analysis, with 4262 patients undergoing DHCA + ACP and 2761 undergoing DHCA + RCP. The overall pooled relative risk for TND was 0.722 (95% CI = [0.579, 0.900]), and the z-score for overall effect was 2.9 (P = 0.004). There was low heterogeneity (I(2) = 18.7%). The analysis showed that patients undergoing DHCA + ACP had better outcomes than those undergoing DHCA + RCP in terms of TND, while there were no significant differences between groups in terms of PND, stroke, and early mortality. This meta-analysis indicates that DHCA + ACP has an advantage over DHCA + RCP in terms of TND, while the two methods show similar results in terms of PND, early mortality, and stroke.

  12. Feasibility and Safety of Vascular Closure Devices in an Antegrade Approach to Either the Common Femoral Artery or the Superficial Femoral Artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutzeit, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.gutzeit@ksw.ch; Schie, Bram van, E-mail: Bram.vanschie@hotmail.com; Schoch, Eric, E-mail: eric.schoch@ksw.ch [Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Department of Radiology (Switzerland); Hergan, Klaus, E-mail: k.hergan@salk.at [Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Department of Radiology (Austria); Graf, Nicole, E-mail: graf@biostatistics.ch; Binkert, Christoph A., E-mail: christoph.binkert@ksw.ch [Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Department of Radiology (Switzerland)

    2012-10-15

    Introduction: The purpose of the present study was to analyze complications following antegrade puncture of the common femoral artery (CFA) and the superficial femoral artery (SFA) using vascular closure systems (VCS). Methods: A single-center, retrospective study was performed after obtaining approval from the institutional review board and informed consent from all patients. At our center, the CFA or SFA are used for arterial access. All patients were evaluated clinically on the same day. If there was any suspicion of an access site problem, Duplex ultrasound was performed. Results: Access location was the CFA in 50 patients and the SFA in 130 patients. The sheath size ranged from 4F to 10F. Two patients had to be excluded because of lack of follow-up. Successful hemostasis was achieved in 162 of 178 cases (91 %). The following complications were observed in 16 patients (8.9 %): 4 pseudoaneurysms (2.2 %), 11 hematomas (6.2 %), and 1 vascular occlusion (0.5 %). The two pseudoaneurysms healed spontaneously, in one case an ultrasound-guided thrombin injection was performed, and one aneurysm was compressed manually. No further medical therapy was needed for the hematomas. The one vascular occlusion was treated immediately with angioplasty using a contralateral approach. No significant difference was noted between the CFA and the SFA group with respect to complications (p = 1.000). Conclusions: The use of closure devices for an antegrade approach up to 10F is feasible and safe. No differences in low complication rates were observed between CFA and SFA.

  13. Application of Reaming Honing Technology in Valve Sleeve of Automobile Steering Gear%铰珩工艺在汽车转向器阀套中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓石

    2012-01-01

    A single - pass honing technology with super hard abrasive, named reaming honing technology, is used to solve the Sow accuracy and efficiency caused by the traditional honing technology which is used to machine the valve sleeve of automobile steering gear. The fixture and cutter proposal is given according to the machining characters of the valve sleeve, and the orthogonal test is used to investigate the effects of the reaming honing parameters on the machining performance. The reaming honing technology with the optimized parameters proves itself to solve the accuracy problem in the machining of valve sleeve effectively, as a result the match grinding processing is cancelled and the machining efficiency is improved.%针对传统珩磨工艺在汽车转向器阀套加工中存在的精度不足和效率不高问题,引入一种单冲程超硬磨料珩磨孔加工技术,即铰珩工艺.根据阀套的加工特点,设计相应的夹具和刀具方案,并通过正交试验法研究铰珩工艺参数对加工性能的影响.参数经过优化的铰珩工艺,有效解决了阀套内孔加工的精度问题,取消了配磨工序,提高了加工效率.

  14. Fracture Union in Closed Interlocking Nail in Humeral Shaft Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramji Lal Sahu

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The results of the present study indicates that in the presence of proper indications, reamed antegrade intramedullary interlocked nailing appears to be a method of choice for internal fixation of osteoporotic and pathologic fractures.

  15. Comparison Between Honing and Reaming Honing in Machining Steering Valve Sleeve%转向器阀套内孔珩磨与铰珩工艺对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨筱蓉; 朱永伟; 朱振峰; 徐正选

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,the traditional honing is compared with the reaming homing from machining principle,processing parameters and machining results of the steering valve sleeve.Results show that:compared with traditional honing,reaming honing is characteristic of simple motion,high efficiency.perfect durability and rigdity,low cost and stable quality.This is the ixeal process for the batch process of the inner holes.%从加工原理、工艺参数、加工结果几个方面对加工转向器阀套使用的传统珩磨和铰珩工艺进行了对比研究.结果表明:铰珩相比传统珩磨工艺具有运动简洁高效、刀具耐用度高、刚性好、成本低、加工品质稳定、效率高等特点,是大批量加工内孔的理想工艺.

  16. 基于正交实验的转向器阀套铰珩工艺优化的研究%Optimization of the reaming honing process of valve sleeve based on orthogonal test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨筱蓉; 朱永伟; 齐翔; 徐正选

    2013-01-01

    Reaming honing process of valve sleeve are studied by orthogonal tests and theoretical analysis. Influence factors of honing quality are as follows: the roundness value are determined by spindle speed and feed speed; the surface roughness value are determined by diamond size; the honing straightness value are determined by position accuracy of machine spindle, re-positioning accuracy of bench and the positioning accuracy of clamp system. Finally, process parameters of reaming honing are optimized for the high quality machining of valve sleeve.%运用正交实验设计方法和理论分析对加工转向器阀套内孔的铰珩工艺进行了研究,确定了影响阀套内孔铰珩质量的因素.结果表明:主轴转速和进给速度是圆度的决定性因素;珩具金刚石粒度的大小决定了粗糙度大小;机床加工轴的位置精度、工作台重复定位精度和夹具系统的定位精度决定了铰珩直线度.最终优化了铰珩工艺参数,实现了阀套的高质量加工.

  17. Strategies for Successful Percutaneous Revascularization of Chronic Total Occlusion of the Femoropopliteal Arteries When the Antegrade Passage of a Guide Wire Fails

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hui Jin; Park, Sang Woo; Chang, So Il; Jeon, Hae Jeong; Park, Jeong Hee [Konkuk University Hospital, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    To evaluate the efficacy of various strategies for revascularization of chronic total occlusion of femoropopliteal arteries when the guide wire does not pass in an anterograde direction. Twenty-four patients with totally occluded femoropopliteal arteries (mean occlusion length 13.75 cm; range, 6-22 cm) were treated by using a retrograde approach and two novel catheters. After successful recanalization or reentry, balloon angioplasty followed by stent placement was performed to complete the revascularization. In 16 cases in which to cross the occlusion via intraluminal or subintimal route was failed, we used Frontrunner catheters in five cases and Outback catheters in 11 cases. In eight cases in which to reenter after subintimal passage of the guide wire was failed, we used Outback catheters. Successful recanalization was achieved intraluminally or subintimally in all cases. One perforation occurred during subintimal passage of the guide wire that was controlled by recanalization of another subintimal tract. There were no cases of distal thromboembolism or other complications. A retrograde approach and using the Frontrunner and Outback catheters are safe and effective for successful revascularization of chronic total occlusion of femoropopliteal arteries. In particular, they are useful when the initial antegrade attempts at recanalization have failed.

  18. Reducing subtrochanteric femur fractures: tips and tricks, do's and don'ts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Richard S; Donegan, Derek J; Liporace, Frank A

    2015-04-01

    Treatment of subtrochanteric fracture remains a challenge, but evolution of strategy has allowed for reliable results with low complications. Although several fixation options exist, reamed, antegrade intramedullary nailing (IMN) has evolved as the standard of care. Cognizant effort to achieve anatomic reduction before IMN passage allows for desired outcomes. Several reduction techniques can be used to overcome the deforming forces present in the proximal femur to allow for proper IMN placement. The purpose of this article is to review the tips, tricks, and pitfalls to avoid in the treatment of subtrochanteric femur fractures with IMN.

  19. Controlling Bleeding from Proximal and Coronary Ostial Anastomoses by Using Blood Cardioplegia Delivering Antegradely while Performing Bentall Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol Şener

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Bentall procedure is one of the valved conduit techniques which is used in the treatment of aortic valve diseases accompanied by ascending aortic aneurysm and dissection and it is used commonly around the world. In Bentall procedure, which is a complicated and long surgery, the rate of mortality and morbidity are not only related to the operation itself but also to the complications like major neurological events, myocardial damage and bleeding which take place during the intraoperative and postoperative period. Although the quantity and frequency of bleeding is declined with teflon strips and biological tissue glues, modifications of Bentall procedure are still an important problem. This study was conducted retrospectively with 48 patients in terms of early results of complication of bleeding caused specifically by proximal suture line and coronary ostium anastomosis lines controlled by the method of blood cardioplegia while performing Bentall procedure and supracoronary aort replacement in our clinic.

  20. Computer-assisted three-dimensional correlation between the femoral neck-shaft angle and the optimal entry point for antegrade nailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastopoulos, George; Chissas, Dionisios; Dourountakis, Joseph; Ntagiopoulos, Panagiotis G; Magnisalis, Evaggelos; Asimakopoulos, Antonios; Xenakis, Theodore A

    2010-03-01

    Optimal entry point for antegrade femoral intramedullary nailing (IMN) remains controversial in the current medical literature. The definition of an ideal entry point for femoral IMN would implicate a tenseless introduction of the implant into the canal with anatomical alignment of the bone fragments. This study was undertaken in order to investigate possible existing relationships between the true 3D geometric parameters of the femur and the location of the optimum entry point. A sample population of 22 cadaveric femurs was used (mean age=51.09+/-14.82 years). Computed-tomography sections every 0.5mm for the entire length of femurs were produced. These sections were subsequently reconstructed to generate solid computer models of the external anatomy and medullary canal of each femur. Solid models of all femurs were subjected to a series of geometrical manipulations and computations using standard computer-aided-design tools. In the sagittal plane, the optimum entry point always lied a few millimeters behind the femoral neck axis (mean=3.5+/-1.5mm). In the coronal plane the optimum entry point lied at a location dependent on the femoral neck-shaft angle. Linear regression on the data showed that the optimal entry point is clearly correlated to the true 3D femoral neck-shaft angle (R(2)=0.7310) and the projected femoral neck-shaft angle (R(2)=0.6289). Anatomical parameters of the proximal femur, such as the varus-valgus angulation, are key factors in the determination of optimal entry point for nailing. The clinical relevance of the results is that in varus hips (neck-shaft angle shaft angle between 120 degrees and 130 degrees , the optimal entry point lies just medially to the trochanter tip (at the piriformis fossa) and the use of stiff implants is safe. In hips with neck-shaft angle over 130 degrees the anatomical axis of the canal is medially to the base of the neck, in a "restricted area". In these cases the entry point should be located at the insertion of the

  1. Alternative Techniques for Treatment of Complex Below-the Knee Arterial Occlusions in Diabetic Patients With Critical Limb Ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandini, Roberto [IRCCS Policlinico di Tor Vergata, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Interventional Radiology, Radiotherapy, and Nuclear Medicine (Italy); Uccioli, Luigi [IRCCS Policlinico di Tor Vergata, Department of Internal Medicine (Italy); Spinelli, Alessio; Del Giudice, Costantino, E-mail: costantino.delgiudice@yahoo.it; Ros, Valerio Da; Volpi, Tommaso [IRCCS Policlinico di Tor Vergata, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Interventional Radiology, Radiotherapy, and Nuclear Medicine (Italy); Meloni, Marco [IRCCS Policlinico di Tor Vergata, Department of Internal Medicine (Italy); Simonetti, Giovanni [IRCCS Policlinico di Tor Vergata, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Interventional Radiology, Radiotherapy, and Nuclear Medicine (Italy)

    2013-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to describe alternative endovascular (EV) techniques and assess their feasibility and efficacy in minimizing failure rates in limb salvage for the treatment of complex below-the knee (BTK) occlusions that could not be crossed with a conventional antegrade access. Between December 2007 and November 2010, 1,035 patients (557 male) underwent EV treatment for critical limb ischemia in our institution. In 124 (12% [83 male], mean age 68.2 {+-} 0.5 years) patients, transfemoral antegrade revascularization attempt failed, and an alternative approach was used. Follow-up was performed at 1 and 6 months. Results were compared with 56 patients treated between November 2002 and November 2007, in whom conventional technique was unsuccessful and unconventional techniques were not adopted. Technical success was achieved in 119 (96%) patients. The limb-salvage rates were 96.8% and 83% at 1- and 6-month follow-up, respectively. Sixteen (12.9%) and 33 (26.6%) patients underwent reintervention at 1- and 6-month follow-up, respectively. Transcutaneous oxygen tension increased at 1 month (44.7 {+-} 1.1 vs. 15.7 {+-} 0.8 mmHg; p < 0.001) and remained stable at follow-up. Twenty (16.1%) patients required major amputation. Thirteen (10.4%) patients died during follow-up. In our previous experience, percutaneous transluminal angioplasty failure, amputation, and death rates were 10.9, 39.2, and 23.2%, respectively. Alternative techniques allowed a significant decrease of major amputation and death rates (p = 0.0001 and p = 0.02, respectively). The use of alternative techniques seems feasible in case of a failed antegrade BTK revascularization attempt and could minimize failure rates in the treatment of complex occlusions while providing satisfying clinical success rates at 6 months.

  2. Cannulation in the diseased aorta: a safe approach using the Seldinger technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoynezhad, Ali; Plestis, Konstadinos A

    2006-01-01

    The Seldinger technique is a method of femoral cannulation that has been used to establish cardiopulmonary bypass. Reports of cannulation of the ascending aorta for antegrade perfusion using the Seldinger method are anecdotal. To the best of our knowledge, the approach described herein for direct cannulation of the ascending aorta with use of the Seldinger technique for antegrade perfusion has not been previously described in the English-language medical literature. This method is helpful when the surgeon is treating a patient who has a calcified ascending aorta, complicated aortic dissection, calcified femoral vessels, or a diseased thoracoabdominal aorta. In such cases, retrograde perfusion has been associated with severe complications as a result of atheromatous embolization from the descending thoracic aorta. Herein, we describe our approach to cannulation for cardiopulmonary bypass, which entails insertion of an aortic cannula into the ascending aorta by means of the Seldinger technique. A soft-tip guidewire is inserted through an arterial entry catheter that has been used to puncture a hole in the wall of the vessel. Then the aortic cannula is introduced into the vessel, sliding along the guidewire. Guided by transesophageal echocardiography, the tip of the cannula is positioned carefully and is then advanced into the descending aorta. This positioning of the cannula decreases the chance of arterial embolization, thereby improving cerebral protection. If cannulation of the ascending aorta is not feasible, the transverse aortic arch or proximal descending aorta can be used.

  3. 顺行区域性切除腮腺浅叶良性肿瘤可行性分析%Analysis of antegrade partial superficial parotidectomy in treating benign parotid gland tumor 47 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙永强; 杨雯雯; 梁宪斌

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the feasibility of anterograde dissections in superficial parotid-ectomy for benign tumor of the parotid gland. Methods Clinical data of 47 patients who underwent an-tegrade partial superficial parotidectomy of benign superficial parotid gland tumor was analyzed retrospectively from January 1995 to December 2006. Results Of the 47 patients, 8 patients had a temporary facial deficit and not a permanent facial nerve paralysis. Frey syndrome was found in 4 patients. None of them had salivary gland fistula, seroma formation and apparent face deformity. The lesion did not recurred after operation in 6 month to 5 year follow - up study. Conclusions It is quite safe and effective that benign parotid gland tumor is removed by antegrade partial superficial parotidectomy.%目的 探讨腮腺浅叶良性肿瘤顺行区域性切除的可行性.方法 回顾分析了1995年1月至2006年12月间收治的47例经顺行区域性切除的腮腺浅叶良性肿瘤患者的病例资料.结果 47例患者中并发暂时性面瘫的8例,无永久性面瘫;Frey综合症4例;无腮腺瘘及皮下积液;面部无明显畸形;随访6个月~5年无复发.结论 顺行区域性切除在腮腺浅叶良性肿瘤治疗中是一种安全、可靠的方法.

  4. The effect of malone's procedure with antegrade irrigation on patients with refractory fecal continence%Malone顺行灌肠在治疗顽固性大便失禁中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王若义; 丁庆光; 刘倩; 陈维秀; 孙小兵; 李金良; 陈雨历

    2011-01-01

    Objective The Malone antegrade colonic enema (MACE) procedure is a minimally invasive therapy for refractory fecal continence.The aim of this study was to assess curative efficacy for patients undergoing MACE via questionnaire investigation.Methods Totally 32 children patients underwent MACE due to fractory fecal continence between 2000 and 2009.The follow-up period was averagely 3.4 years,and all patients filled in the questionnaire form based on scoring system raised by Li-Zheng and Shell.Surgical methods,applications,complications and clinical curative satisfaction as the main content,were involved in questionnaire for evaluation of curative efficacy of MACE.Results 30 patients of all were followed-up after MACE procedure.The clinical satisfaction was 83.3%,and they could administer the enema by themselves.Regarding to the post-operative complications,no significantly statistical difference was seen in procedures with differential techniques and ostomies.57 percent of patients administered the enema once and 28 percent of patients did twice,aiming to keep anal clearance.4 patients were complicated with the anal or stoma soiling,stoma stenosis,skin inflammation,abdominal distension or pain.Further treatment made improvement.Conclusions MACE procedure is a reliable,minimally invasive surgery with low morbidity for refractory fecal continence.%目的 Malone顺行灌肠(MACE)是一种对机体损伤较小的手术方式,通过问卷调查的形式来评估其在顽固性大便失禁治疗的临床疗效.方法 以2000年1月至2009年12月期间接受MACE治疗的32例患儿为研究对象,临床观察和随访时间平均约3.4年,结合李正和Shell的评价项目内容并根据临床实际情况,设计了一张问卷调查,其内容主要包括手术方式、应用情况、术后并发症和临床满意度等方面,通过该问卷综合评价MACE在治疗顽固性大便失禁中的作用.结果 32例手术患儿中30例获得随访,患儿总体满意率为83

  5. Development of Large Diameter Jetting PDC Reaming Tool of CBM Wells%煤层气井射流式 PDC 大直径扩孔工具研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李壮

    2014-01-01

    Based on the principle and performance of reamer both at home and abroad,according to the characteristics of coal petrography,a large diameter jetting PDC reaming tool (RT152-500) which is applied to cavitation completion of CBM wells completion is developed.Based on high pressure jet fluid mechanics mechanism,high and low pressure flow channel and nozzle diameter are optimal designed by using CFD software.It is an effective pressure compensation and energy storage device,and driven by hydraulic power in the whole process.The synergistic effect of high pressure jet broken and mechanical broken can be achieved.Larger than 500 mm diameter hole is formation after expanding when used 142mm small size tool.The structure of the tool is simple, the operation is safe and reliable and the cavitation ability is strong.%在深入调研国内外扩孔器原理和性能的基础上,研制出适应煤层气完井造穴用的 RT152-500型射流式 PDC 大直径扩孔工具。依据流体力学的高压喷射作用机理,利用 CFD 计算软件对工具内高、低压流道及喷嘴直径进行优化设计,形成有效的压降补偿蓄能装置,全程水力驱动,达到高压喷射破岩和机械破岩的协同作用,实现φ142 mm 小通径工具进入,扩孔后直径大于φ500 mm 的大直径洞穴。该工具结构简单,作业安全可靠,造穴能力强。

  6. Clinical experience of antegrade radical retropublic prostatectomy in 30 patients%耻骨后顺行前列腺癌根治术30例临床体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张军晖; 邢念增; 平浩

    2010-01-01

    目的 总结耻骨后顺行前列腺癌根治术的手术经验及疗效.方法 采用耻骨后顺行前列腺癌根治术治疗前列腺癌患者30例.平均年龄64(51~73)岁.T_1 8例、T_2 15例、T_3 7例.手术采用先离断前列腺底部和膀胱颈,游离舣侧精囊及输精管并顺行向下分离直至前列腺尖部,紧贴前列腺尖部切断尿道,将尿道与膀胱颈重新吻合. 结果 30例手术顺利,手术时间平均150(75~240)min,术中出血量平均350(100~1600)ml,无直肠、输尿管等周围脏器损伤,无围手术期严重并发症.术后病理报告均为前列腺腺癌,切缘阳性4例.30例平均随访25(6~48)个月,均存活,排尿通畅,无尿失禁者.术前13例有勃起功能者术后7例(54%)恢复勃起功能. 结论 耻骨后顺行前列腺癌根治术并发症发生率低、出血量少,切缘阳性率低,手术效果良好.%Objective To discuss the experience of antegrade radical retropublic prostatectomy. Methods Thirty cases of prostate cancer were treated by antegrade radical retropublie prostateeto-my. The mean age of patients was 64 years. There were 8 cases of T_1, 15 cases of T_2, and 7 cases of T_3. The surgery included following procedures: Firstly the vesical neck was divided. Then the seminal vesicle and the prostate were freed from above downward. After the urethra was separated from the prostatic apex, the proximal end of urethra was sutured to the new vesical neck. Results All the 30 laparoscopic surgeries were accomplished successfully. The mean operative time was 2.5 hours. The mean blood loss was 350 ml in the operation. No ureteral injury, rectal injury and other severe compli-cation was observed. Histopathologic study showed prostate cancer for all the cases. Four cases had positive surgical margins. All cases were followed up from 6 to 48 months (average 25 months) with-out dysuria and permanent incontinence. No death occurred. Sexual function recovered in 7/13(54%) cases after the operation

  7. Subadventitial techniques for chronic total occlusion percutaneous coronary intervention: The concept of "vessel architecture".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzalini, Lorenzo; Carlino, Mauro; Brilakis, Emmanouil S; Vo, Minh; Rinfret, Stéphane; Uretsky, Barry F; Karmpaliotis, Dimitri; Colombo, Antonio

    2017-03-17

    Despite improvements in guidewire technologies, the traditional antegrade wire escalation approach to chronic total occlusion (CTO) recanalization is successful in only 60-80% of selected cases. In particular, long, calcified, and tortuous occlusions are less successfully approached with a true-to-true lumen approach. Frequently, the guidewire tracks into the subadventitial space, with no guarantee of distal re-entry into the true lumen. The ability to manage the subadventitial space has been a key step in the tremendous improvement in success rates of contemporary CTO percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), whether operating antegradely or retrogradely. A modern approach to CTO PCI involves understanding the concept of "vessel architecture," which is based on the distinction between coronary structures (occlusive plaque, comprising the disrupted intima and media, and the outer adventitia) and extravascular space. The vessel architecture represents a safe work environment for guidewire and device manipulation. This review provides an anatomy-based description of the concept of vessel architecture, along with a historical perspective of subadventitial techniques for CTO PCI, and outcome data of CTO PCI utilizing the subadventitial space. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. A Technique for Removal of Forearm Dynamic Compression Plate with Stripped Screws: A Report of Three Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CK Lee

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Removal of plates is a procedure commonly performed by orthopaedic surgeons and stripped screws are probably the most common problem encountered during this procedure. Stripped screws are caused by slippage between the screwdriver and the screw. Due to the inherent difficulty in removing such screws, surgeons should be knowledgeable in techniques for their removal and should be equipped with the proper instruments to expedite the procedure. There are few published articles about such techniques. This report describes a technique for removal of plates with stripped screws. The tip of a stripped screw is approached from the far cortex and then reamed with a trephine reamer in the direction of the screw until both cortices are cleared. The plate is then removed with stripped screws attached. All the removals utilizing this technique to date have been successful with no complications, and this method is safe, efficient and technically easy to learn.

  9. Impact of the Intracoronary Rendezvous technique on coronary angioplasty for chronic total occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nihei, Taro; Yamamoto, Yoshito; Kudo, Shun; Hanawa, Kenichiro; Hasebe, Yuhi; Takagi, Yusuke; Minatoya, Yutaka; Sugi, Masafumi; Shimokawa, Hiroaki

    2016-08-30

    The Rendezvous technique, which requires bidirectional wiring, is one of the useful methods for improving the success rate of recanalization for chronic total occlusion (CTO) in the field of peripheral intervention. Recently, advanced new devices for percutaneous coronary intervention have enabled us to perform the Rendezvous technique for peripheral as well as for coronary CTO lesions. We used the Intracoronary Rendezvous technique to perform angioplasty for coronary CTO. "Intracoronary Rendezvous" means that Rendezvous was achieved within the CTO lesion. From March 2009 to November 2015, 189 patients underwent CTO angioplasty at our institute, and we treated 10 patients with the Intracoronary Rendezvous technique. This technique involves crossing the Gaia series guidewire to the contralateral Corsair microcatheter located inside the plaque of CTO lesions. The majority of the CTO sites examined were in the proximal RCA (60 %). Lesion length of the occlusion was relatively long (64.4 ± 12.2 mm). Using the biplane imaging system, we were able to control the Gaia guidewires in a specific direction. Furthermore, if the antegrade and retrograde wires can be advanced into contiguous space inside the CTO lesion, we intentionally entered either wire into the contralateral Corsair microcatheter, followed by successful CTO crossing. CTO recanalization was completed for all patients without controlled antegrade retrograde subintimal tracking (CART) or reverse CART. No major complications occurred during hospitalization. These results indicate that the Rendezvous technique, assisted by new devices and a biplane imaging system, represents one of the primary options to achieve successful coronary CTO recanalization. (249/250 words).

  10. Current technical and clinical features of the antegrade and retrograde approaches to percutaneous transluminal coronary intervention for chronic total occlusion – 2013 version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiya Muramatsu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available PCI for the treatment of CTO has made remarkable progress in recent years, and interventional cardiologists in Japan have made a great contribution to this progress. Innovative techniques, including the retrograde approach, are hot topics in the CTO field. The long-term prognosis after initial success is also attracting considerable attention. Strategies for treating CTO are continually evolving, and the author’s strategy also continues to change over time. The author’s strategy as of 2013 is described here.

  11. The 'SAFARI' Technique Using Retrograde Access Via Peroneal Artery Access

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, Kun Da, E-mail: zkunda@gmail.com [Singapore General Hospital, Interventional Radiology Centre (Singapore); Tan, Seck Guan [Singapore General Hospital, Department of General Surgery (Singapore); Tay, Kiang Hiong [Singapore General Hospital, Interventional Radiology Centre (Singapore)

    2012-08-15

    The 'SAFARI' technique or subintimal arterial flossing with antegrade-retrograde intervention is a method for recanalisation of chronic total occlusions (CTOs) when subintimal angioplasty fails. Retrograde access is usually obtained via the popliteal, distal anterior tibial artery (ATA)/dorsalis pedis (DP), or distal posterior tibial artery (PTA). Distal access via the peroneal artery has not been described and has a risk of continued bleeding, leading to compartment syndrome due to its deep location. We describe our experience in two patients with retrograde access via the peroneal artery and the use of balloon-assisted hemostasis for these retrograde punctures. This approach may potentially give more options for endovascular interventions in lower limb CTOs.

  12. Intramedullary nailing of the proximal humerus: evolution, technique, and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilisio, Matthew F; Nowinski, Robert J; Hatzidakis, Armodios M; Fehringer, Edward V

    2016-05-01

    Proximal humerus fractures are the third most common fracture in the elderly. Although most fractures can be treated conservatively with acceptable outcomes, certain fracture patterns are at high risk for progression to humeral malunions, nonunions, stiffness, and post-traumatic arthrosis. The goal of antegrade humeral nailing of proximal humerus fractures is to provide stability to a reduced fracture that allows early motion to optimize patient outcomes. Certain technical pearls are pivotal in managing these difficult fractures with nails; these include rotator cuff management, respect of the soft tissues, anatomic tuberosity position, blood supply maintenance, knowledge of the deforming forces on the proximal humerus, fracture reduction, and rehabilitation strategies. Modern proximal humeral nail designs and techniques assist the surgeon in adhering to these principles and have demonstrated promising outcomes. Humeral nail designs have undergone significant innovation during the past 40 years and now can provide stable fixation in the humeral shaft distally as well as improved stability in the head and tuberosity fragments, which were the common site of fixation failure with earlier generation implants. Compared with other fixation strategies, such as locking plate fixation, no compelling evidence exists to suggest one technique over another. The purpose of this review is to describe the history, results, new designs, and techniques that make modern intramedullary nailing of proximal humerus fractures a viable treatment option.

  13. Surgical correction of ruptured aneurysms of the sinus of Valsalva using on-pump beating-heart technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Hui

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rupture of aneurysms of the sinus of Valsalva results in abrupt onset of congestive heart failure. On-pump beating-heart surgery may reduce cardiac impairment by maintaining coronary blood flow and avoiding cardioplegia. Herein, we report the operative correction of thirty-one patients of ruptured aneurysms of the sinus of Valsalva, using the on-pump beating-heart technique. Methods Thirty-one patients with ruptured aneurysms of the sinus of Valsalva underwent operative corrections using the on-pump beating-heart technique. In patients with fistula diameter less than 1 cm and no aortic regurgitation, the aorta was unclamped throughout cardiopulmonary bypass(CPB while receiving antegrade heart perfusion. In remainder of patients, retrograde perfusion was used. Results After intracardiac manipulation was complete and the nasopharyngeal temperature was raised to 36-37°C, the patients were smoothly weaned off CPB. There were no early or late postoperative deaths. All patients were in New York Heart Association functional class I at follow-up (range, 0.5-1 year. Mild-to-moderate aortic valve regurgitation was observed in one patient. No recurrence of the left-to-right shunt from ruptured aneurysms of the sinus of Valsalva was observed. Conclusions Beating heart on pump allows adequate examination of the aortic lesion under near-physiologic conditions, allows decrease in ischemia-reperfusion injury and potentially decreases the risk of serious or fatal rhythm disturbances. On-pump beating-heart technique for repair of ruptured aneurysm of sinus of Valsalva is feasible and promising. Antegrade heart perfusion is suitable for patients with a fistula diameter

  14. Hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm after surgical treatment for pancreatic cancer: Minimally invasive angiographic techniques as the preferred treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sucandy Iswanto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Delayed intra-abdominal bleeding related to hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm is a potentially lethal complication after pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic cancer. Locally advanced tumors, which result in vessel erosion or extensive operative skeletonization, may contribute to weakness of the arterial wall. Reoperation is often technically difficult with high rate of mortality; therefore, alternative less invasive options are ideal. Aims: The study was to present an alternative endovascular treatment of a large hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm after pancreatic resection for locally advanced multicystic adenocarcinoma. Materials and Methods: Transcatheteric mesenteric angiography with deployment of detachable coils in the pseudoaneurysm sac was utilized to manage the hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm. Results: Completion angiography confirmed cessation of contrast enhancement in the pseudoaneurysm sac with preservation of normal antegrade hepatic artery flow. Conclusion: Minimally invasive angiographic technique is the preferred treatment for hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm after pancreatic resections.

  15. Ureteral catheter antegrade lavage combined with the analysis of the effect of ureteroscopic lithotripsy (report of 58 cases)%输尿管导管顺行灌洗配合输尿管镜碎石的效果分析(附58例报告)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于金刚

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the feasibility of implementing the ureteral catheter antegrade lavage in ureteroscopic lithotripsy in. Methods from 2013 May to ureteral calculi in patients with _2014 in May in our hospital 58 cases, given the ureteroscope lithotripsy for ureteral catheter, F4 antegrade lavage combined intraoperative, study its treatment effect. Results in this group, 58 cases were successfully crushed stone, the success rate of operation is 100%, no patients with ureteral perforation or laceration of disease, average operation time ( 32.7+4.6) min, the time of hospitalization ( 3.02+0.88) d. Conclusion the ureteroscopic lithotripsy in patients with ureteral catheter antegrade lavage has good effect, can avoid the movement of calculus, to ensure the successful operation, suitable for clinical popularization.%目的:探讨在输尿管镜碎石中实施输尿管导管顺行灌洗的可行性。方法选取2013年5月_2014年5月来我院治疗的输尿管结石患者共58例,给予输尿管镜碎石术治疗,术中配合F4输尿管导管顺行灌洗,研究其治疗效果。结果本组58例病例均得到成功碎石,手术成功率是100%,未见患者发生输尿管穿孔或撕裂等症,平均手术时间(32.7±4.6)min,住院时间(3.02±0.88)d。结论对输尿管镜碎石术患者结合输尿管导管顺行灌洗有良好效果,可避免结石上移,确保手术成功,适合临床普及使用。

  16. Antegrade Versus Retrograde Cerebral Perfusion in Relation to Postoperative Complications Following Aortic Arch Surgery for Acute Aortic Dissection Type A%双侧顺行与上腔逆行脑灌注在A型主动脉夹层中应用效果对比的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴智勇; 王志维; 夏军; 张遵严; 陈雪芬; 邓宏平; 徐鹏; 李罗成; 王杰

    2011-01-01

    Objective Antegrade or retrograde cerebral perfusion ( RCP) , is a well - established method of brain protection in aortic arch surgery. In this retrospective study, we compard the two methods of brain perfusion. Methods From Oct 2008 to Jan 2011,63 consecutive patients were urgently operated for acute type A aortic dissection and underwent arch replacement under deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA). Our patient cohort was divided into those protected with antegrade cerebral perfusion ( ACP) (group A, n = 54) and those protected with RCP (group B, n = 9). Results There was no siguificant difference in operative time, cardiopulmonary bypass - time, myocardial blocking time, cerebral - perfusion time between groups B and A, but the incidence of temporary neurologic dysfunction, the mean extubation time,the mean ICU -stay,the hospital -stay increased. Conclusion The antegrade perfusion was related with significantly lower incidence of temporary neurological complications, earlier extubation, shorter ICU - stay, and hospitalization.%目的 深低温停循环(DHCA)的同时顺行或逆行脑灌注,是一种行之有效的脑保护方法.在这个回顾性研究中,我们比较顺行、逆行两种方法的临床疗效.方法 从2008年10月~2011年1月,63例患者行Stanford A型主动脉夹层手术,均在深低温停循环下行全弓置换.其中选择双侧顺行脑灌注的A组病人54例,B组采用上腔静脉逆灌(RCP)脑保护的病人9例.结果 B组与A组比较在手术时间、体外循环时间、心肌阻断时间、脑灌注时间差异不明显,而B组短暂脑神经功能障碍发生率、拔管时间、ICU滞留时间、住院时间有所增加.结论 顺行脑灌注较上腔逆灌降低短暂脑神经功能障碍发生率从而拔管早,缩短ICU及住院时间.

  17. First reported revascularization of complex occlusion of the right coronary artery using the IVUS-guided reverse CART technique via a gastroepiploic artery graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jian; Katoh, Osamu; Zhou, Hua; Kyo, Eisho

    2016-02-01

    When patients who have previously undergone coronary artery bypass graft surgery develop ischemia symptoms that cannot be controlled by optimal medical therapy, repeat revascularization is indicated. The revascularization strategy should be based on individual clinical and anatomical characteristics. We report here a challenging patient who presented with recurrent stable angina due to worsening of a proximal right coronary artery (RCA) stenosis to chronic total occlusion (CTO) after anastomosis of the right gastroepiploic artery (GEA) to the posterior descending artery. A soft guidewire was advanced through the right GEA collateral channel to the distal end of the CTO, but the dedicated CTO guidewires could not be advanced across the severely calcified CTO using the retrograde wire crossing or kissing wire techniques. The RCA was eventually revascularized by implantation of drug-eluting stents using the intravascular ultrasound-guided reverse controlled antegrade and retrograde subintimal tracking technique.

  18. Wire trapping technique combined with retrograde approach for recanalization of chronic total occlusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Jun-bo; ZHANG Feng; GE Lei; QIAN Ju-ying; WANG Hao

    2008-01-01

    @@ Coronary chronic total occlusion (CTO),defined as a total occlusion of duration >3 months,remains a technical challenge for the interventional cardiologists.The major limitation in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of CTO is the inability to penetrate and cross the occlusion with a guidewire.It was reported that the immediate angiographic success rate varied from 50%to 70% using the standard antegrade techniques,1 To improve this suboptimal success rate,the authors firstly introduced retrograde approach through the collateral channels as a novel technique2 and successfully recanalized a left main CTO using this technique when demonstrating the live cases in Transcatheter Cardiovascular Therapeutics (TCT) 2005.Recently,modified techniques based on the retrograde approach have demonstrated that this approach could provide a high success rate with PCI.3-5 In the present report,we described a new method,wire trapping technique combined with retrograde approach,which was applied successfully in three patients with CTO.

  19. Experimental techniques; Techniques experimentales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roussel-Chomaz, P. [GANIL CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/DSM, 14 - Caen (France)

    2007-07-01

    This lecture presents the experimental techniques, developed in the last 10 or 15 years, in order to perform a new class of experiments with exotic nuclei, where the reactions induced by these nuclei allow to get information on their structure. A brief review of the secondary beams production methods will be given, with some examples of facilities in operation or under project. The important developments performed recently on cryogenic targets will be presented. The different detection systems will be reviewed, both the beam detectors before the targets, and the many kind of detectors necessary to detect all outgoing particles after the reaction: magnetic spectrometer for the heavy fragment, detection systems for the target recoil nucleus, {gamma} detectors. Finally, several typical examples of experiments will be detailed, in order to illustrate the use of each detector either alone, or in coincidence with others. (author)

  20. Techniques to resect the distal ureter in robotic/laparoscopic nephroureterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weil R. Lai

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of clinically-organ confined high grade urothelial carcinoma of the upper tract has historically comprised open nephroureterectomy, with the distal ureter and bladder cuff mobilized through a separate open pelvic incision. To decrease morbidity, urologists have increasingly adopted laparoscopy and robotics in performing nephroureterectomy. In many published series of laparoscopic nephroureterectomy, the distal ureter and bladder cuff are detached from the bladder endoscopically by a variation of the “pluck” technique, with the resulting bladder defect left to heal by prolonged indwelling urethral catheter drainage. While the distal ureter and bladder cuff can be excised laparoscopically, it does require advanced laparoscopic skills. With the wrist articulation and stereoscopic vision in robotic surgery, robotic nephroureterectomy (RNU and bladder cuff excision can be performed in antegrade fashion to mimic the open technique together with the ability to intracorporeally close the bladder defect in a watertight, mucosa to mucosa fashion after excising the bladder cuff. In this review, we discuss the published minimally invasive techniques in resecting the distal ureter and bladder cuff during laparoscopic and RNU.

  1. Application of a snare technique in retrograde chronic total occlusion percutaneous coronary intervention - a step by step practical approach and an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hsiu-Yu; Lee, Wei-Chieh; Fang, Chih-Yuan; Wu, Chiung-Jen

    2016-10-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for chronic total occlusion (CTO) has recently become popular among interventional cardiologists. CTO originating from the ostium has been one of the most difficult CTO lesions to treat with PCI for a number of reasons. Our aim was to illustrate a specific technique during retrograde CTO PCI referred to as the "snare technique."We retrospectively examined the use of "snare technique" among 371 consecutive retrograde CTO PCIs performed at our institution between 2006 and 2015."Snare technique" was used in 10 patients among the 371 retrograde CTO PCIs. The baseline clinical and angiographic characteristics of patients with or without "snare technique" were similar. The "snare technique" group had significantly fewer side branches at occlusion (30.0% vs 71.2%, P = 0.01) and a higher incidence of externalization (90% vs 25.5%, P technique" group (285.0 ± 68.5 vs 379.2 ± 144.0, P = 0.04). The incidence of major complications, retrograde success, or final success did not differ between the groups.The "snare technique" is safe and feasible in retrograde CTO PCI, especially in cases of difficult coronary engagement in cases such as ostial occlusion, challenging coronary anatomy, or retrograde guidewire cannot get in antegrade guiding catheter.

  2. Endovascular stenting in superior vena cava syndrome: utility of a through-and-through guidewire technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, T.W.I. [Dalhousie Univ., Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre, Section of Interventional Radiology, Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2000-08-01

    Objective: To describe an ancillary technique when a conventional femoral approach to superior vena cava (SVC) stent placement is not feasible because of buckling of balloon catheters or stent-deployment systems during device advancement. Patients and methods: Three patients in whom device advancement across the SVC lesion from a femoral or axillary approach was unsuccessful were managed by accessing the right jugular vein; SVC lesions were crossed from an antegrade direction, and the jugular guidewire was secured at the femoral access site to create a through-and-through guidewire. Results: Countertraction on the through-and-through guidewire during stent placement and dilation permitted unhindered advancement of stent delivery systems and catheters across the SVC. Technical and clinical success was achieved in each patient with relief of SVC syndrome within 24-72 hours. Survival ranged from 26 to 137 days. Conclusion: A through-and-through guidewire technique is useful when stenting a highly stenotic or thrombosed SVC in patients with superior vena cava syndrome. (author)

  3. 根治性顺行模块化胰脾切除术治疗胰体尾癌的临床疗效%Clinical effect of radical antegrade modular pancreatosplenectomy for carcinoma of pancreatic body and tail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐冬; 蒋奎荣; 陆子鹏; 郭峰; 陈建敏; 卫积书; 尹杰; 张凯; 吴鹏飞

    2016-01-01

    例、2例,胃排空障碍分别为1例、1例,胸腔积液分别为7例、18例,肺部感染分别为0例、4例,腹腔积液分别为6例、15例,腹腔感染分别为4例、5例,切口感染分别为1例、1例,下肢深静脉血栓分别为0例、2例,MODS分别为0例、1例,再次手术分别为0例、1例,两组上述指标比较,差异均无统计学意义(x2=1.554,1.642,P>0.05).RAMPS组和经典手术组患者术后住院时间分别为15 d(13 d,23 d)、12 d(10 d,16 d),住院费用分别为74 632元(67 041元,92 445元)、64 410元(54 709元,80 842元),两组比较,差异均有统计学意义(Z =3.529,2.675,P<0.05).(3)随访情况:99例患者中,86例获得术后随访,其中RAMPS组18例,经典手术组68例.中位随访时间为18个月(5 ~37个月).RAMPS组患者中位生存时间为19个月,复发转移率为33.3% (6/18);经典手术组患者中位生存时间为14个月,复发转移率为45.6%(31/68);两组上述指标比较,差异均无统计学意义(x2=0.060,0.366,P>0.05).结论 采用RAMPS治疗胰体尾癌安全、可行,与经典胰体尾+脾切除术比较,不增加手术并发症发生率,可能提高 R0切除率.%Objective To explore the safety and feasibility of radical antegrade modular pancreatosplenectomy (RAMPS) for carcinoma of pancreatic body and tail (CPBT).Methods The retrospective cohort study was adopted.The clinical data of 99 patients with CPBT who were admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University from January 2013 to October 2015 were collected.Among the 99 patients,21 receiving RAMPS were allocated into the RAMPS group and 78 receiving traditional resection of body and tail of pancreas and splenectomy were allocated into the operation group.Observation indexes included (1) surgical situation:operation time,volume of intraoperative blood loss,volume of blood transfusion,combined organ resection,combined vascular resection,status of the resection margin,(2) postoperative situation

  4. 逆向技术在冠状动脉慢性完全闭塞病变介入治疗中的应用%The application of retrograde technique in the interventional treatment for chronic total coronary occlusion(CTO) lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左梅; 黎军德; 吴栋梁; 李阳; 王芝荣; 李新国

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the feasibility and security of applying retrograde technique in the interventional treatment for chronic total coronary occlusion(CTO) lesions. Methods:We elected 3 cases of chronic total coronary occlusion (CTO) patients confirmed by coronary angiography (CAG) via radial artery which all exist collateral circulations with another coronary artery at the distal portion whose coronary angiographies (CAG) suggested the images developed from distal to proximal portion . During the interventional operations, as the previously failed antegrade double guiding catheters, microcatheters and different special Guidings for chronic total coronary occlusion (CTO) and accuratelypercutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) , we tried to get through the occlusion lesions by the retrograde combined application of controlling directions of the guides wires, then performed balloon dilatation anchoring through antegrade guiding catheter and retrograde balloon dilatation, implanted and expanded sents successfully, when antegrade guide wire passed the lesion. Results:Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) have been performed successfully for 3 cases of chronic total coronary occlusion (CTO) patients, without coronary dissection and perforation. Conclusions:The retrograde technique is an ideal technique in the interventional treatment for chronic total coronary occlusion (CTO) lesions%目的:评价逆向技术在慢性冠状动脉完全闭塞病变(CTO)介入治疗中应用的可行性及安全性.方法:3例经造影证实的CTO,均有另一支冠状动脉向远端血管提供良好侧枝循环,造影时CTO血管由远及近逆向显影.正向技术失败后,使用双指引导管法,逆向联合应用微导管和不同CTO专用导丝,导丝通过CTO病变后,继续进入正向指引导管内进行球囊扩张锚定,行逆向球囊扩张,正向导丝通过病变,植入支架.结果:3例成功通过逆向技术植入支架,术中无冠状动脉夹层及穿孔并发

  5. Effect of apical clearing technique on the treatment outcome of teeth with asymptomatic apical periodontitis: A randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Priya; Logani, Ajay; Shah, Naseem; Pandey, R. M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study aims to compare the periapical healing of teeth with asymptomatic apical periodontitis treated either by conventional apical preparation (CAP) or apical clearing technique (ACT). Materials and Methods: Twenty subjects with bilateral nonvital similar teeth exhibiting comparable periapical index (PAI) score were enrolled and randomly allocated. Group I (CAP, n = 20): Apical preparation three sizes greater (master apical file [MAF]) than the first binding file at the established working length. Group II (ACT, n = 20): Apical preparation three sizes greater than the MAF that was followed by dry reaming. Root canal therapy was accomplished in single-visit for all the teeth. They were pursued radiographically at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. Pre- and post-treatment PAI scores were compared. To ascertain the proportion of healed teeth between the two groups, McNemar Chi-square test was applied. Results: At 3, 6, and 9 months’ time interval the proportion of healed teeth for Group II (ACT) was greater in comparison to Group I (CAP) (P < 0.05). However, at 12 months follow-up period this difference was not significant (P = 0.08). Conclusion: ACT enhanced the healing kinetics. However, the long-term (12 months) radiographic outcome was similar for either technique. PMID:27656054

  6. Experimental antegrade enema: effects on water, electrolyte and acid-base balances with different solutions Enema anterógrado experimental: equilíbrio hídrico eletrolítico e ácido-base em coelhos submetidos a enema com diferentes soluções

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Helman

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study the effects on the water, electrolyte, and acid-base balances in rabbits submitted to antegrade enema with different solutions through appendicostomy. METHODS: Forty male New Zealand rabbits were submitted to appendicostomy, and distributed in 4 groups, according to the antegrade enema solution: PEG group, polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution (n=10; ISS group, isotonic saline solution (n=10; GS group, glycerin solution (n=10; SPS group, sodium phosphate solution (n=10. After being weighed, arterial blood gas analysis, red blood count, creatinine and electrolytes were measured at 4 times: preoperatively (T1; day 6 postop, before enema (T2; 4h after enema (T3; and 24h after T3 (T4. RESULTS: In PEG group occurred Na retention after 4h, causing alkalemia, sustained for 24h with HCO3 retention. In ISS group occurred isotonic water retention and hyperchloremic acidosis after 4h, which was partially compensated in 24h. GS group showed metabolic acidosis after 4h, compensated in 24h. In SPS group occurred hypernatremic dehydration, metabolic acidosis in 4h, and hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, and metabolic alkalosis with partially compensated dehydration in 24h. CONCLUSIONS: All solutions used in this study caused minor alterations on water, electrolyte or acid-base balances. The most intense ones were caused by hypertonic sodium phosphate solution (SPS and isotonic saline solution (ISS and the least by polyethyleneglycol electrolyte solution (PEG and glycerin solution 12% (GS.OBJETIVO: Estudar os efeitos no equilíbrio hídrico, eletrolítico e ácido-base, do enema anterógrado com diferentes soluções em coelhos através de apendicostomia. MÉTODOS: 40 coelhos Nova Zelândia, machos, submetidos a apendicostomia, distribuídos em quatro grupos segundo a solução de enema: grupo PEG (n = 10 solução de polietilenoglicol com eletrólitos; grupo SF (n = 10 solução fisiológica; grupo SG (n = 10 solução glicerinada

  7. Subintimal Arterial Flossing with Antegrade-Retrograde Intervention for Subintimal Recanalization in Treatment of Superficial Femoral Artery Long Segment Occlusion in 16 Patients%双向内膜下血管成形术治疗股浅动脉长段硬化性闭塞疾病16例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐树彬; 梁志会; 李亮; 刘晶磊; 李佳; 崔进国; 赵红恩; 谢永伟

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨经双向内膜下血管成形术(subintimal arterial flossing with antegrade retrograde intervention,SAFARI)治疗股浅动脉长段硬化性闭塞疾病的临床效果和应用价值.方法 选择2011年5月—2013年8月收治的经内膜下血管成形术治疗失败的股浅动脉长段硬化性闭塞疾病16例,经SAFARI开通,采用经皮穿刺腔内血管成形术(PTA)联合内支架(stent)置入.结果 全组治疗技术成功率为100%,无严重并发症发生;术后平均随访10(3 ~18)个月,一期通畅率为93.75%(15/16),二期通畅率为100%.踝肱指数由术前的0.25±0.15增加至术后的0.89±0.19(P <0.05).结论 SAFARI是治疗股浅动脉长段硬化性闭塞所致慢性严重肢体缺血的安全有效的方法.

  8. 经腹直肌外侧切口入路重建钢板辅助后柱顺行拉力螺钉治疗复杂髋臼骨折%Surgical treatment of complex acetabular fractures through the lateral-rectus approach with the pelvic reconstructive plate and antegrade posterior-column lag screw

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张潇; 杨晓东; 夏广; 李涛; 王华; 熊然; 樊仕才

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical value of the lateral-rectus approach with the pelvic recon-structive plate and antegrade posterior -column lag screw in the treatment of complex acetabular fractures .Meth-ods Between May 2012 and Jan.2014,9 patients with complex acetabular fractures were treated with pelvic recon-structive plate and antegrade posterior-column lag screw through the lateral-rectus approach . There were 6 males and 3 females,aged 27-74 years(mean,39 years).Fractures were caused by traffic accident in 5 cases,by falling in 2 cases,and by heavy crash in 2 cases.According to Letournel classification ,there were 2 cases of transverse frac-ture,4 cases of anterior column with posterior hemi-transverse lesion fracture,and 3 cases of both-column fracture with 1 case of central dislocation of hip joint .The operation time and blood loss were statistically analyzed .The pa-tients were evaluated clinically according to Merle d'Aubigne-Postel scoring system and X ray performance based on the criteria described by Matta .Results The average time of operation was 200 minutes ( 150-255 minutes );the average blood loss was 730ml(300-1250ml);the average follow up was 15.9 months(9-30 months);the clinical results were excellent in 5 patients,good in 2 and fair in 2.The radiological results were anatomical reduction in 5 patients,satisfactory in 3 and fair in 1.All the patients were healed within 3 months and there were no complications such as infection ,avascular necrosis of the femoral head ( ANFH) ,or heterotopic ossification .Conclusion The lat-eral-rectus approach is suitable for some complex acetabular fractures ,with advantages of the adequate exposure of quadrilateral surface and insertion of the posterior column antegrade lag screw .%目的:评价经腹直肌外侧切口入路以前柱重建钢板配合后柱顺行拉力螺钉内固定治疗复杂髋臼骨折的临床疗效。方法回顾性分析自2012年5月~2014年1月本科

  9. Perfusão pulmonar anterógrada "versus" retrógrada na preservação pulmonar para transplante em modelo canino de viabilidade pulmonar pós-morte Antegrade versus retrograde lung perfusion in pulmonary preservation for transplantation in a canine model of post-mortem lung viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Carlo Kohmann

    1999-04-01

    reperfusão (p = 0,01 e ao término do período de avaliação (p = 0,01. Os autores concluem que, neste modelo experimental, a perfusão retrógrada hipotérmica resulta em função superior do enxerto após 3 horas de isquemia normotérmica sob ventilação mecânica.Lung retrieval following cardio-circulatory arrest has been studied experimentally, however severe ischemia/reperfusion injury requires improved methods of graft preservation. Allograft perfusion with crystalloid solution delivered via pulmonary artery (antegrade perfusion remains the standard procedure, however it does not provide adequate washout of the blood retained within the bronchial circulation which may trigger reperfusion injury. This has led the authors to test the impact of antegrade versus retrograde (via left atrium perfusion of lung grafts submitted to 3 hours of warm ischemia after cardio-circulatory arrest in a dog model of left lung allotransplantation. Twelve donor dogs were sacrificed with thiopental sodium and kept under mechanical ventilation at room temperature for 3 hours. They were randomized and the heart-lung blocks harvested after being perfused in a retrograde (group I, n = 6 or antegrade (group II, n = 6 fashion with modified Euro-Collins solution. Twelve recipient animals were submitted to a left lung transplant receiving the grafts from both groups and the assessment was performed during 6 hours. Hemodynamic parameters were similar for animals in both groups. The gas exchange (arterial PaO2 and PaCO2 in recipients of group I (retrograde perfusion was significantly better when compared to recipients of grafts perfused via pulmonary artery. Intracellular ATP did not show difference between the groups, however there was a measurable drop in its values when samples obtained upon extraction were compared to those measured after reperfusion and at the end of the assessment. The authors concluded that retrograde perfusion yields better pulmonary function after 6 hours of reperfusion

  10. Acquired Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Nielsen, Espen; Halse, Karianne

    2013-01-01

    Acquired Techniques - a Leap into the Archive, at Aarhus School of Architecture. In collaboration with Karianne Halse, James Martin and Mika K. Friis. Following the footsteps of past travelers this is a journey into tools and techniques of the architectural process. The workshop will focus upon...... architectural production as a conglomerate of various analogue and digital methods, and provide the basics, the tips/tricks - and how the tool themselves becomes operational for spatial/thematic investigations. Eventually, this will become a city, exhibition and phamplet inhabited by the (by...

  11. Experimental Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Engelfried, J

    1999-01-01

    In this course we will give examples for experimental techniques used in particle physics experiments. After a short introduction, we will discuss applications in silicon microstrip detectors, wire chambers, and single photon detection in Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) counters. A short discussion of the relevant physics processes, mainly different forms of energy loss in matter, is enclosed.

  12. Translation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Pinheiro

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss three translation techniques: literal, cultural, and artistic. Literal translation is a well-known technique, which means that it is quite easy to find sources on the topic. Cultural and artistic translation may be new terms. Whilst cultural translation focuses on matching contexts, artistic translation focuses on matching reactions. Because literal translation matches only words, it is not hard to find situations in which we should not use this technique.  Because artistic translation focuses on reactions, judging the quality of an artistic translation work is one of the most difficult things one can do. We end up having a score of complexity and humanity for each one of the mentioned techniques: Literal translation would be the closest thing we have to the machines world and artistic translation would be the closest thing we have to the purely human world. By creating these classifications and studying the subtleties of each one of them, we are adding degrees of quality to our courses and to translation as a professional field. The main contribution of this paper is then the formalization of such a piece of knowledge. We, however, also lay the foundations for studies of this type.

  13. Intensity techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn

    2008-01-01

    The Handbook of Signal Processing in Acoustics will compile the techniques and applications of signal processing as they are used in the many varied areas of Acoustics. The Handbook will emphasize the interdisciplinary nature of signal processing in acoustics. Each Section of the Handbook...... will present topics on signal processing which are important in a specific area of acoustics. These will be of interest to specialists in these areas because they will be presented from their technical perspective, rather than a generic engineering approach to signal processing. Non-specialists, or specialists...... from different areas, will find the self-contained chapters accessible and will be interested in the similarities and differences between the approaches and techniques used in different areas of acoustics....

  14. Electrochemical Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Gang; Lin, Yuehe

    2008-07-20

    Sensitive and selective detection techniques are of crucial importance for capillary electrophoresis (CE), microfluidic chips, and other microfluidic systems. Electrochemical detectors have attracted considerable interest for microfluidic systems with features that include high sensitivity, inherent miniaturization of both the detection and control instrumentation, low cost and power demands, and high compatibility with microfabrication technology. The commonly used electrochemical detectors can be classified into three general modes: conductimetry, potentiometry, and amperometry.

  15. Subintimal Recanalization of Occluded Stents: The Substent Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamantopoulos, Athanasios, E-mail: adiamant@upatras.gr; Katsanos, Konstantinos; Spiliopoulos, Stavros; Karnabatidis, Dimitris; Siablis, Dimitris [School of Medicine, Patras University Hospital, Department of Interventional Radiology (Greece)

    2013-08-01

    PurposeApplication of metal stents is complicated by neointimal hyperplasia leading to vessel restenosis and reocclusion. Treatment options in cases presenting with complete occlusion of the stented segment and recurrent critical limb ischemia (CLI) are limited. We present the option of the subintimal/substent technique in dealing with occluded stents.MethodsThe study included patients presenting with recurrent CLI due to impaired blood flow as a result of complete occlusion of previously inserted metal stents and unsuccessful intraluminal crossing of the lesion via either the antegrade or retrograde approach. In these cases, crossing the occlusion through the subintimal/substent plane was attempted. Primary end points included technical success, safety of the procedure, clinical improvement, and limb salvage, while secondary end points were patient survival, primary patency, and vessel restenosis rates at 1-year follow-up. Study end points were calculated by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis.ResultsBetween July 2006 and October 2011, a total of 14 patients (mean age 69.14 {+-} 12.59 years, 12 men) were treated with the substent technique and included in the analysis. Technical success rate was 85.71 % (12 of 14), with a total lesion length of 193.57 {+-} 90.78 mm. The mean occluded stented segment length was 90.21 {+-} 44.34 mm. In 10 (83.33 %) of 12 cases, a new stent had to be placed by the side of the old occluded one, while the remaining two cases (16.67 %) were treated only with balloon angioplasty. No serious adverse events were noted during the immediate postprocedural period. All successfully treated patients improved clinically. Estimated limb salvage was 90.9 %, and patient survival rate was 90.0 % at 1 year's follow-up. Primary patency was 45.50 % and vessel restenosis 77.30 %.ConclusionSubintimal recanalization of occluded metal stents through the substent plane is a valuable alternative treatment option, especially in patients with recurrent CLI

  16. Experimental Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wyer, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Gas-phase ion spectroscopy requires specialised apparatus, both when it comes to measuring photon absorption and light emission (fluorescence). The reason is much lower ion densities compared to solution-phase spectroscopy. In this chapter different setups are described, all based on mass spectro...... in data interpretation, and the advantages and disadvantages of the different techniques are clarified. New instrumental developments involving cryo-cooled storage rings, which show great promise for the future, are briefly touched upon.......Gas-phase ion spectroscopy requires specialised apparatus, both when it comes to measuring photon absorption and light emission (fluorescence). The reason is much lower ion densities compared to solution-phase spectroscopy. In this chapter different setups are described, all based on mass...... to circumvent this is discussed based on a chemical approach, namely tagging of ammonium groups by crown ether. Prompt dissociation can sometimes be identified from the total beam depletion differing from that due to statistical dissociation. Special emphasis in this chapter is on the limitations and pitfalls...

  17. CART and Reverse CART Technique in the Retrograde Percutaneous Coronary Intervention of Chronic Total Occlusion%CART和反向CART技术在逆向PCI中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙党辉; 李悦

    2011-01-01

    控制性正向-逆向内膜下寻径(CART)和反向CART技术是近年来慢性完全闭塞病变介入治疗重要的技术进展,大大提高了慢性完全闭塞病变经皮冠状动脉介入治疗(PCI)成功率.CART和反向CART技术的开展要求术者具有较丰富的正向PCI操作经验,根据自身技术能力、设备条件和患者病变特点合理选择恰当的PCI治疗技术.在血管内超声指导下反向CART技术的应用进一步提高了手术的成功率和安全性.%CART and reverse CART technique are considered as the important current techniques in percutaneous coronary interven-tion for chronic total occlusion, and have great improved success rates of the recanalization of the chronic total occlusion. IVUS-guided re-verse CART could further elevate the success rate and safety of CTO recanalization. Because of the learning-carve, the operator should per-form antegrade recanalization well first, and choose best way according to the skill of the operator,and the facilities and the lesion condition.

  18. Application of a snare technique in retrograde chronic total occlusion percutaneous coronary intervention – a step by step practical approach and an observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hsiu-Yu; Lee, Wei-Chieh; Fang, Chih-Yuan; Wu, Chiung-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for chronic total occlusion (CTO) has recently become popular among interventional cardiologists. CTO originating from the ostium has been one of the most difficult CTO lesions to treat with PCI for a number of reasons. Our aim was to illustrate a specific technique during retrograde CTO PCI referred to as the “snare technique.” We retrospectively examined the use of “snare technique” among 371 consecutive retrograde CTO PCIs performed at our institution between 2006 and 2015. “Snare technique” was used in 10 patients among the 371 retrograde CTO PCIs. The baseline clinical and angiographic characteristics of patients with or without “snare technique” were similar. The “snare technique” group had significantly fewer side branches at occlusion (30.0% vs 71.2%, P = 0.01) and a higher incidence of externalization (90% vs 25.5%, P CTO PCI, especially in cases of difficult coronary engagement in cases such as ostial occlusion, challenging coronary anatomy, or retrograde guidewire cannot get in antegrade guiding catheter. PMID:27741138

  19. Percutaneous elastic intramedullary nailing of metacarpal fractures: Surgical technique and clinical results study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farook Mohamed Z

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We reviewed our results and complications of using a pre-bent 1.6 mm Kirschner wire (K-wire for extra-articular metacarpal fractures. The surgical procedure was indicated for angulation at the fracture site in a true lateral radiograph of at least 30 degrees and/or in the presence of a rotatory deformity. Methods A single K-wire is pre-bent in a lazy-S fashion with a sharp bend at approximately 5 millimeters and a longer smooth curve bent in the opposite direction. An initial entry point is made at the base of the metacarpal using a 2.5 mm drill by hand. The K-wire is inserted blunt end first in an antegrade manner and the fracture reduced as the wire is passed across the fracture site. With the wire acting as three-point fixation, early mobilisation is commenced at the metacarpo-phalangeal joint in a Futuro hand splint. The wire is usually removed with pliers post-operatively at four weeks in the fracture clinic. Results We studied internal fixation of 18 little finger and 2 ring finger metacarpal fractures from November 2007 to August 2009. The average age of the cohort was 25 years with 3 women and 17 men. The predominant mechanism was a punch injury with 5 diaphyseal and 15 metacarpal neck fractures. The time to surgical intervention was a mean 13 days (range 4 to 28 days. All fractures proceeded to bony union. The wire was extracted at an average of 4.4 weeks (range three to six weeks. At an average follow up of 8 weeks, one fracture had to be revised for failed fixation and three superficial wound infections needed antibiotic treatment. Conclusions With this simple and minimally invasive technique performed as day-case surgery, all patients were able to start mobilisation immediately. The general outcome was good hand function with few complications.

  20. Bailout techniques for failed coronary angioplasty using 6 French guiding catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiemeneij, F; Laarman, G J

    1994-08-01

    Coronary angioplasty (PTCA) through 6 French (F) guiding catheters is feasible, although acute or threatened closure following coronary artery dissections may occur. This report describes our experience with the treatment of suboptimal results in 13 patients from a population of 144 patients who had PTCA through 6F guiding catheters. Patients were treated with a new low profile autoperfusion catheter (ACS, Flowtrack40) or with Palmaz Schatz stents, advanced through 6F guiding catheters. PTCA was performed via the radial artery in 11 pts (85%) or via the femoral artery in two patients (15%). In two patients, (15%) PTCA was complicated by an dissection associated with complete loss of flow (TIMI 0) and a dissection was considered to lead to abrupt closure in the remaining 11 patients (85%), despite the presence of normal flow. A Flow-track40 perfusion catheter was successfully applied in three of four patients. In one patient a persisting dissection after restoration of flow by a perfusion catheter was treated with three Palmaz Schatz stents. Implantation of Palmaz Schatz stents was attempted as primary technique in nine patients. In one patient the stent could not cross a dissection in the proximal LAD via the radial artery. With an 8F system via the femoral artery, two stents could successfully be deployed with the stent delivery system. In another patient the stent could not be advanced across a subtotal residual stenosis in a tortuous left anterior descending coronary artery. Despite normal antegrade flow and emergency bypass surgery, this patient developed a non-Q-myocardial infarction. In the remaining patients, the clinical course was uncomplicated.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Stress Management Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czesław Czabała

    2016-05-01

    Of all the stress management techniques people used mostly those included in the categories of “problem solving”, “vicarious gratification” and “distancing”. This points to the use of techniques that require no effort but are not fully effective. It could be so that they have not skills to use other techniques, or are aware that such techniques exist.

  2. Radiologic imaging technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bushong, S.C. (Dept. of Radiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (US)); Eastman, T.R. (Agfagavert Inc., Irving, TX (US))

    1990-01-01

    The authors focus on the subject of clinical radiographic technique. Emphasizing correct radiographic technique, it's heavily illustrated with radiographs that demonstrate proper exposure and show what happens when exposure variables are changed. A key feature is a discussion and evaluation of radiographic technique charts. Basic technique charts are provided for every body part examined.

  3. Tools & techniques--statistics: propensity score techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Bruno R; Gahl, Brigitta; Jüni, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Propensity score (PS) techniques are useful if the number of potential confounding pretreatment variables is large and the number of analysed outcome events is rather small so that conventional multivariable adjustment is hardly feasible. Only pretreatment characteristics should be chosen to derive PS, and only when they are probably associated with outcome. A careful visual inspection of PS will help to identify areas of no or minimal overlap, which suggests residual confounding, and trimming of the data according to the distribution of PS will help to minimise residual confounding. Standardised differences in pretreatment characteristics provide a useful check of the success of the PS technique employed. As with conventional multivariable adjustment, PS techniques cannot account for confounding variables that are not or are only imperfectly measured, and no PS technique is a substitute for an adequately designed randomised trial.

  4. Radiolocation Techniques (Les Techniques de Radiolocalisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    importants sont occasionnds par Ia rifraction atmosphdnque. Sur route la bande de fr~quences radio. Ic bruit, aussi bien naturel qu’artificieljoue souvent...rdscau, techniques multi- capteurs ; aspects brouillage. - Uimpact de la propagation sur la gomornidmie et la tdlddetection: Les grandesi ondes, HF, VHF...par 36 Capteur At Analyse Sliquentielle en Balayage Rapide par D.Josset Radio Location through High Resolution Eigenstructure Processing Techniques 37

  5. Surface science techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, Gianangelo

    2013-01-01

    The book describes the experimental techniques employed to study surfaces and interfaces. The emphasis is on the experimental method. Therefore all chapters start with an introduction of the scientific problem, the theory necessary to understand how the technique works and how to understand the results. Descriptions of real experimental setups, experimental results at different systems are given to show both the strength and the limits of the technique. In a final part the new developments and possible extensions of the techniques are presented. The included techniques provide microscopic as well as macroscopic information. They cover most of the techniques used in surface science.

  6. Introduction to perturbation techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Nayfeh, Ali H

    2011-01-01

    Similarities, differences, advantages and limitations of perturbation techniques are pointed out concisely. The techniques are described by means of examples that consist mainly of algebraic and ordinary differential equations. Each chapter contains a number of exercises.

  7. Semiconductor Research Experimental Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Balkan, Naci

    2012-01-01

    The book describes the fundamentals, latest developments and use of key experimental techniques for semiconductor research. It explains the application potential of various analytical methods and discusses the opportunities to apply particular analytical techniques to study novel semiconductor compounds, such as dilute nitride alloys. The emphasis is on the technique rather than on the particular system studied.

  8. Low current beam techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint, A.; Laird, J.S.; Bardos, R.A.; Legge, G.J.F. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Nishijima, T.; Sekiguchi, H. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan).

    1993-12-31

    Since the development of Scanning Transmission Microscopy (STIM) imaging in 1983 many low current beam techniques have been developed for the scanning (ion) microprobe. These include STIM tomography, Ion Beam Induced Current, Ion Beam Micromachining and Microlithography and Ionoluminense. Most of these techniques utilise beam currents of 10{sup -15} A down to single ions controlled by beam switching techniques This paper will discuss some of the low beam current techniques mentioned above, and indicate, some of their recent applications at MARC. A new STIM technique will be introduced that can be used to obtain Z-contrast with STIM resolution. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Clasroom Observation Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Akbayrak, Burcu

    1999-01-01

    In this article observation techniques as a data collecting tool used in social and educational research are examined and discussed. First the concepts and purposes of the observation technique are explained and later systematic and non-systematic observation techniques are described. Two research projects conducted in the classroom are then summarized. These are ‘ORACLE’ (Observational Research and Classroom Learning Evaluation Project), and ‘PRINDEP’ (Primary Needs Independent Evaluation Pr...

  10. Principles of fluorescence techniques

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence techniques are being used and applied increasingly in academics and industry. The Principles of Fluorescence Techniques course will outline the basic concepts of fluorescence techniques and the successful utilization of the currently available commercial instrumentation. The course is designed for students who utilize fluorescence techniques and instrumentation and for researchers and industrial scientists who wish to deepen their knowledge of fluorescence applications. Key scientists in the field will deliver theoretical lectures. The lectures will be complemented by the direct utilization of steady-state and lifetime fluorescence instrumentation and confocal microscopy for FLIM and FRET applications provided by leading companies.

  11. Persian fencing techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manouchehr Moshtagh Khorasani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous manuscripts, poems and stories that describe, specifically and in detail, the different techniques used in Persian swordsmanship. The present article explains the origins and the techniques of Persian swordsmanship. The article also describes the traditional code of conduct for Persian warriors. Additionally, it describes an array of techniques that were deployed in actual combat in Iran’s history. Some of these techniques are represented via the miniatures that are reproduced herein. This is the first article on Persian swordsmanship published in any periodical.

  12. Emerging optical nanoscopy techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montgomery PC

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Paul C Montgomery, Audrey Leong-Hoi Laboratoire des Sciences de l'Ingénieur, de l'Informatique et de l'Imagerie (ICube, Unistra-CNRS, Strasbourg, France Abstract: To face the challenges of modern health care, new imaging techniques with subcellular resolution or detection over wide fields are required. Far field optical nanoscopy presents many new solutions, providing high resolution or detection at high speed. We present a new classification scheme to help appreciate the growing number of optical nanoscopy techniques. We underline an important distinction between superresolution techniques that provide improved resolving power and nanodetection techniques for characterizing unresolved nanostructures. Some of the emerging techniques within these two categories are highlighted with applications in biophysics and medicine. Recent techniques employing wider angle imaging by digital holography and scattering lens microscopy allow superresolution to be achieved for subcellular and even in vivo, imaging without labeling. Nanodetection techniques are divided into four subcategories using contrast, phase, deconvolution, and nanomarkers. Contrast enhancement is illustrated by means of a polarized light-based technique and with strobed phase-contrast microscopy to reveal nanostructures. Very high sensitivity phase measurement using interference microscopy is shown to provide nanometric surface roughness measurement or to reveal internal nanometric structures. Finally, the use of nanomarkers is illustrated with stochastic fluorescence microscopy for mapping intracellular structures. We also present some of the future perspectives of optical nanoscopy. Keywords: microscopy, imaging, superresolution, nanodetection, biophysics, medical imaging

  13. UIAGM Ropehandling Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloutier, K. Ross

    The Union Internationale des Associations des Guides de Montagne's (UIAGM) rope handling techniques are intended to form the standard for guiding ropework worldwide. These techniques have become the legal standard for instructional institutions and commercial guiding organizations in UIAGM member countries: Austria, Canada, France, Germany, Great…

  14. Techniques for Teachers Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, A., Ed.

    1973-01-01

    Includes a simple technique to demonstrate Millikan's oil drop experiment, an environmental studies experiment to measure dissolved oxygen in water samples, and a technique to demonstrate action-reaction. Science materials described are the Pol-A-Star Tomiscope, Nuffield chemistry film loops, air pucks and pH meters. (JR)

  15. Internal septorhinoplasty technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Peter D

    2012-02-01

    The internal septorhinoplasty was the standard operating procedure until the popularity of the external or open rhinoplasty technique. The internal technique of the rhinoplasty should be in the armamentarium of every cosmetic surgeon. There will always be indications for both internal and external rhinoplasty. The advantages of the internal technique are several. Rhinoplasty should be treatment planned based on the individual diagnosis. With experience, most surgeons find the internal rhinoplasty to be successful and extremely rewarding. A simple internal rhinoplasty will produce a good result and satisfied patients.

  16. Spectrometric techniques 3

    CERN Document Server

    Vanasse, George A

    2013-01-01

    Spectrometric Techniques, Volume III presents the applications of spectrometric techniques to atmospheric and space studies. This book reviews the spectral data processing and analysis techniques that are of broad applicability.Organized into five chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the instrumentation used for obtaining field data. This text then reviews the contribution that space-borne spectroscopy in the thermal IR has made to the understanding of the planets. Other chapters consider the instruments that have recorded the planetary emission spectra. This book discusses as well

  17. Spectrometric techniques 4

    CERN Document Server

    Vanasse, George A

    2013-01-01

    Spectrometric Techniques, Volume IV discusses three widely diversified areas of spectrometric techniques. The book focuses on three spectrometric methods. Chapter 1 discusses the phenomenology and applications of Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS), the most commonly used optical technique that exploit the Raman effect. The second chapter is concerned with diffraction gratings and mountings for the Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectral Region. Chapter 3 accounts the uses of mass spectrometry, detectors, types of spectrometers, and ion sources. Physicists and chemists will find the book a go

  18. Approximation techniques for engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Komzsik, Louis

    2006-01-01

    Presenting numerous examples, algorithms, and industrial applications, Approximation Techniques for Engineers is your complete guide to the major techniques used in modern engineering practice. Whether you need approximations for discrete data of continuous functions, or you''re looking for approximate solutions to engineering problems, everything you need is nestled between the covers of this book. Now you can benefit from Louis Komzsik''s years of industrial experience to gain a working knowledge of a vast array of approximation techniques through this complete and self-contained resource.

  19. Computer techniques for electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Mittra, R

    1973-01-01

    Computer Techniques for Electromagnetics discusses the ways in which computer techniques solve practical problems in electromagnetics. It discusses the impact of the emergence of high-speed computers in the study of electromagnetics. This text provides a brief background on the approaches used by mathematical analysts in solving integral equations. It also demonstrates how to use computer techniques in computing current distribution, radar scattering, and waveguide discontinuities, and inverse scattering. This book will be useful for students looking for a comprehensive text on computer techni

  20. Spectrometric techniques 2

    CERN Document Server

    Vanasse, George A

    2013-01-01

    Spectrometric Techniques, Volume II provides information pertinent to vacuum ultraviolet techniques to complete the demonstration of the diversity of methods available to the spectroscopist interested in the ultraviolet visible and infrared spectral regions. This book discusses the specific aspects of the technique of Fourier transform spectroscopy.Organized into five chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the large number of systematic effects in the recording of an interferogram. This text then examines the design approach for a Fourier transform spectrometer with focus on optics.

  1. Short-and long-term outcomes of kidney transplants with kidneys lavaged by retrograde perfusion technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu-Wu Han; Xiao-Dong Zhang; Yong Wang; Xi-Quan Tian; Jian-Wen Wang; Bu-He Amin; Wei Yan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical safety and efficacy of the retrograde perfusion technique in kidney transplantation.Methods: Between January 2001 and June 2011, 24 cases of kidney transplantation with kidneys perfused using the retrograde perfusion technique due to renal artery variations or injury were selected as the observation group (retrograde perfussion roup, RP group).Twenty-two cases of kidney transplantation via conventional perfusion were chosen as the control group (antegrade perfussion group, AP group).There were no statistically significant differences in donor data between the two groups.Cold ischemia time, warm ischemia time, renal perfusion time, amount of perfusion fluid, acute renal tubular necrosis, wound infection, urinary fistula, graft kidney function, and the 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year survival rates for the grafted kidney in both groups were observed and recorded.Results: The kidney perfusion time was shorter in the RP group than that in the AP group (3.14 ± 1.00 vs.5.02 ± 1.15 min, P =0.030).There were 10 cases of acute renal tubule necrosis in the RP group and 5 in the AP group.The length of hospital stay was 40 ± 14 d in the RP group and 25 ± 12 d in the AP group.The follow-up time was 3.5-8.5 years (mean 6.25 years).The 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates for the grafted kidney were 95.8%, 75.5%, and 65.5% in the RP group and 97.1%, 82.5%, and 68.4% in the AP group, respectively (P>0.05).Conclusions: This study indicates that retrograde perfusion is safe and practicable for cadaveric kidney harvesting and can be regarded as a better alternative or remedial measure for a poorly perfused kidney due to vascular deformity or injury.Copyright 2015, Chinese Medical Association Production.Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.on behalf of KeAi Communications Co., Ltd.This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/ by-nc-nd/4.0/).

  2. Microwave Breast Imaging Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Rubæk, Tonny

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines the applicability of microwave radiation for breast cancer detection. Microwave imaging systems are categorized based on their hardware architecture. The advantages and disadvantages of various imaging techniques are discussed. The fundamental tradeoffs are indicated between v...

  3. Plant tissue culture techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Rolf Dieter Illg

    1991-01-01

    Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus) or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions.

  4. Reversible Data Hiding Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhananjay Yadav

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Reversible data hiding is a technique that is used to hide data inside an image. The data is hidden in such a way that the exact or original data is not visible. The hidden data can be retrieved as and when required. There are several methods that are used in reversible data hiding techniques like Watermarking, Lossless embedding and encryption. In this paper we present a review of reversible watermarking techniques and show different methods that are used to get reversible data hiding technique with higher embedding capacity and invisible objects. Watermark need not be hidden. Watermarking can be applied to 1. Images, 2. Text, 3. Audio/video, 4. Software.

  5. RFCM Techniques Chamber Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides the capability to develop radio-frequency countermeasure (RFCM) techniques in a controlled environment from 2.0 to 40.0 GHz. The configuration of...

  6. Symbolic rewriting techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Weispfenning, Volker; Grabmeier, Johannes

    1998-01-01

    Symbolic rewriting techniques are methods for deriving consequences from systems of equations, and are of great use when investigating the structure of the solutions. Such techniques appear in many important areas of research within computer algebra: • the Knuth-Bendix completion for groups, monoids and general term-rewriting systems, • the Buchberger algorithm for Gröbner bases, • the Ritt-Wu characteristic set method for ordinary differential equations, and • the Riquier-Janet method for partial differential equations. This volume contains invited and contributed papers to the Symbolic Rewriting Techniques workshop, which was held at the Centro Stefano Franscini in Ascona, Switzerland, from April 30 to May 4, 1995. That workshop brought together 40 researchers from various areas of rewriting techniques, the main goal being the investigation of common threads and methods. Following the workshops, each contribution was formally refereed and 14 papers were selected for publication.

  7. Healthy Cooking Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... By using healthy-cooking techniques, you can cut saturated fats. Consider, for instance, that many of the fats ... such as butter and lard — are high in saturated fats. Adults should limit calories from saturated fat to ...

  8. Renal Tumor Biopsy Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Zhang; Xue-Song Li; Li-Qun Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To review hot issues and future direction of renal tumor biopsy (RTB) technique.Data Sources:The literature concerning or including RTB technique in English was collected from PubMed published from 1990 to 2015.Study Selection:We included all the relevant articles on RTB technique in English,with no limitation of study design.Results:Computed tomography and ultrasound were usually used for guiding RTB with respective advantages.Core biopsy is more preferred over fine needle aspiration because of superior accuracy.A minimum of two good-quality cores for a single renal tumor is generally accepted.The use of coaxial guide is recommended.For biopsy location,sampling different regions including central and peripheral biopsies are recommended.Conclusion:In spite of some limitations,RTB technique is relatively mature to help optimize the treatment of renal tumors.

  9. Plant tissue culture techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Dieter Illg

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions.

  10. Relaxation techniques for stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problems such as high blood pressure, stomachaches, headaches, anxiety, and depression. Using relaxation techniques can help you feel calm. These exercises can also help you manage stress and ease the effects of stress on your body.

  11. Paris haute couture:a sector in crisis still makes s come ream true

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    PARtS (AFP) - Fashion-savvy women from around the wodd are eagerly await ing the presentation in Paris of haute couture collections for autumn-winter 2003-04, as the industry faces a severe financial crisis. Despite a positive 2002, the strength of the euro against the dollar, the effects of the war on traq, the SARS epidemic and plunging consumer confidence have left the world's

  12. Separation techniques: Chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Coskun, Ozlem

    2016-01-01

    Chromatography is an important biophysical technique that enables the separation, identification, and purification of the components of a mixture for qualitative and quantitative analysis. Proteins can be purified based on characteristics such as size and shape, total charge, hydrophobic groups present on the surface, and binding capacity with the stationary phase. Four separation techniques based on molecular characteristics and interaction type use mechanisms of ion exchange, surface adsorp...

  13. Gulliver, medium, technique

    OpenAIRE

    Bullard, Paddy

    2016-01-01

    In the four Parts of Gulliver’s Travels the narrator attends closely to the manual skills, crafts and techniques of the different countries visited and to the materials and instruments by which they are mediated. The patterned, motif-like presentation of these observations and their rich contextual background, historical and literary, indicate their special significance. These references to technique play an important, previously underappreciated roll in Gulliver. They form a thematic connect...

  14. Apollo Onboard Navigation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews basic navigation concepts, describes coordinate systems and identifies attitude determination techniques including Primary Guidance, Navigation and Control System (PGNCS) IMU management and Command and Service Module Stabilization and Control System/Lunar Module (LM) Abort Guidance System (AGS) attitude management. The presentation also identifies state vector determination techniques, including PGNCS coasting flight navigation, PGNCS powered flight navigation and LM AGS navigation.

  15. Optimization techniques in statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Rustagi, Jagdish S

    1994-01-01

    Statistics help guide us to optimal decisions under uncertainty. A large variety of statistical problems are essentially solutions to optimization problems. The mathematical techniques of optimization are fundamentalto statistical theory and practice. In this book, Jagdish Rustagi provides full-spectrum coverage of these methods, ranging from classical optimization and Lagrange multipliers, to numerical techniques using gradients or direct search, to linear, nonlinear, and dynamic programming using the Kuhn-Tucker conditions or the Pontryagin maximal principle. Variational methods and optimiza

  16. Techniques for colorectal anastomosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yik-Hong; Ho; Mohamed; Ahmed; Tawfi; k; Ashour

    2010-01-01

    Colorectal anastomotic leak remains one of the most feared post-operative complications, particularly after anterior resection of the rectum with, the shift from abdomino-peritoneal resections to total mesorectal excision and primary anastomosis. The literature fails to demonstrate superiority of stapled over hand-sewn techniques in colorectal anastomosis, regardless of the level of anastomosis, although a high stricture rate was noted in the former technique. Thus, improvements in safety aspects of anastom...

  17. Computer assisted audit techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dražen Danić

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to point to the possibilities of more efficient auditing. In the encirclement of more and more intensive use of computer techniques that help to CAAT all the aims and the volume of auditing do not change when the audit is done in the computer-informatics environment. The computer assisted audit technique (CAATs can improve the efficiency and productivity of audit procedures. In the computerized information system, the CAATs are the ways in which an auditor can use computer to gather or as help in gathering auditing evidence. There are more reasons why the auditors apply computer techniques that help in auditing. Most often, they do it to achieve improvement of auditing efficiency when the data volume is large. It depends on several factors whether the auditors will apply the computer techniques that help auditing and to what degree respectively. If they do it, the most important are the computer knowledge, professional skill, experience of auditors, and availability of computer technique, and adequacy of computer supports, infeasibility of hand tests, efficiency and time limit. Through several examples from practice, we showed the possibilities of ACL as one of the CAAT tools.

  18. Communication Analysis modelling techniques

    CERN Document Server

    España, Sergio; Pastor, Óscar; Ruiz, Marcela

    2012-01-01

    This report describes and illustrates several modelling techniques proposed by Communication Analysis; namely Communicative Event Diagram, Message Structures and Event Specification Templates. The Communicative Event Diagram is a business process modelling technique that adopts a communicational perspective by focusing on communicative interactions when describing the organizational work practice, instead of focusing on physical activities1; at this abstraction level, we refer to business activities as communicative events. Message Structures is a technique based on structured text that allows specifying the messages associated to communicative events. Event Specification Templates are a means to organise the requirements concerning a communicative event. This report can be useful to analysts and business process modellers in general, since, according to our industrial experience, it is possible to apply many Communication Analysis concepts, guidelines and criteria to other business process modelling notation...

  19. Novel Foraminal Expansion Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senturk, Salim; Ciplak, Mert; Oktenoglu, Tunc; Sasani, Mehdi; Egemen, Emrah; Yaman, Onur; Suzer, Tuncer

    2016-01-01

    The technique we describe was developed for cervical foraminal stenosis for cases in which a keyhole foraminotomy would not be effective. Many cervical stenosis cases are so severe that keyhole foraminotomy is not successful. However, the technique outlined in this study provides adequate enlargement of an entire cervical foraminal diameter. This study reports on a novel foraminal expansion technique. Linear drilling was performed in the middle of the facet joint. A small bone graft was placed between the divided lateral masses after distraction. A lateral mass stabilization was performed with screws and rods following the expansion procedure. A cervical foramen was linearly drilled medially to laterally, then expanded with small bone grafts, and a lateral mass instrumentation was added with surgery. The patient was well after the surgery. The novel foraminal expansion is an effective surgical method for severe foraminal stenosis. PMID:27559460

  20. Neuronavigation. Principles. Surgical technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Marcel; Ciurea, Alexandru Vlad

    2009-01-01

    Neuronavigation and stereotaxy are techniques designed to help neurosurgeons precisely localize different intracerebral pathological processes by using a set of preoperative images (CT, MRI, fMRI, PET, SPECT etc.). The development of computer assisted surgery was possible only after a significant technological progress, especially in the area of informatics and imagistics. The main indications of neuronavigation are represented by the targeting of small and deep intracerebral lesions and choosing the best way to treat them, in order to preserve the neurological function. Stereotaxis also allows lesioning or stimulation of basal ganglia for the treatment of movement disorders. These techniques can bring an important amount of confort both to the patient and to the neurosurgeon. Neuronavigation was introduced in Romania around 2003, in four neurosurgical centers. We present our five-years experience in neuronavigation and describe the main principles and surgical techniques.

  1. Vibrating wire alignment technique

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao-Long, Wang; lei, Wu; Chun-Hua, Li

    2013-01-01

    Vibrating wire alignment technique is a kind of method which through measuring the spatial distribution of magnetic field to do the alignment and it can achieve very high alignment accuracy. Vibrating wire alignment technique can be applied for magnet fiducialization and accelerator straight section components alignment, it is a necessary supplement for conventional alignment method. This article will systematically expound the international research achievements of vibrating wire alignment technique, including vibrating wire model analysis, system frequency calculation, wire sag calculation and the relation between wire amplitude and magnetic induction intensity. On the basis of model analysis this article will introduce the alignment method which based on magnetic field measurement and the alignment method which based on amplitude and phase measurement. Finally, some basic questions will be discussed and the solutions will be given.

  2. Radiation techniques for acromegaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minniti Giuseppe

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Radiotherapy (RT remains an effective treatment in patients with acromegaly refractory to medical and/or surgical interventions, with durable tumor control and biochemical remission; however, there are still concerns about delayed biochemical effect and potential late toxicity of radiation treatment, especially high rates of hypopituitarism. Stereotactic radiotherapy has been developed as a more accurate technique of irradiation with more precise tumour localization and consequently a reduction in the volume of normal tissue, particularly the brain, irradiated to high radiation doses. Radiation can be delivered in a single fraction by stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS or as fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT in which smaller doses are delivered over 5-6 weeks in 25-30 treatments. A review of the recent literature suggests that pituitary irradiation is an effective treatment for acromegaly. Stereotactic techniques for GH-secreting pituitary tumors are discussed with the aim to define the efficacy and potential adverse effects of each of these techniques.

  3. Telescopes and Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kitchin, C R

    2013-01-01

    Telescopes and Techniques has proved itself in its first two editions, having become probably one of the most widely used astronomy texts, both for amateur astronomers and astronomy and astrophysics undergraduates. Both earlier editions of the book were widely used for introductory practical astronomy courses in many universities. In this Third Edition the author guides the reader through the mathematics, physics and practical techniques needed to use today's telescopes (from the smaller models to the larger instruments installed in many colleges) and how to find objects in the sky. Most of the physics and engineering involved is described fully and requires little prior knowledge or experience. Both visual and electronic imaging techniques are covered, together with an introduction to how data (measurements) should be processed and analyzed. A simple introduction to radio telescopes is also included. Brief coverage of the more advanced topics of photometry and spectroscopy are included, but mainly to enable ...

  4. Clustering Techniques in Bioinformatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Masood

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dealing with data means to group information into a set of categories either in order to learn new artifacts or understand new domains. For this purpose researchers have always looked for the hidden patterns in data that can be defined and compared with other known notions based on the similarity or dissimilarity of their attributes according to well-defined rules. Data mining, having the tools of data classification and data clustering, is one of the most powerful techniques to deal with data in such a manner that it can help researchers identify the required information. As a step forward to address this challenge, experts have utilized clustering techniques as a mean of exploring hidden structure and patterns in underlying data. Improved stability, robustness and accuracy of unsupervised data classification in many fields including pattern recognition, machine learning, information retrieval, image analysis and bioinformatics, clustering has proven itself as a reliable tool. To identify the clusters in datasets algorithm are utilized to partition data set into several groups based on the similarity within a group. There is no specific clustering algorithm, but various algorithms are utilized based on domain of data that constitutes a cluster and the level of efficiency required. Clustering techniques are categorized based upon different approaches. This paper is a survey of few clustering techniques out of many in data mining. For the purpose five of the most common clustering techniques out of many have been discussed. The clustering techniques which have been surveyed are: K-medoids, K-means, Fuzzy C-means, Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise (DBSCAN and Self-Organizing Map (SOM clustering.

  5. Novel food processing techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Lelas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a lot of investigations have been focused on development of the novel mild food processing techniques with the aim to obtain the high quality food products. It is presumed also that they could substitute some of the traditional processes in the food industry. The investigations are primarily directed to usage of high hydrostatic pressure, ultrasound, tribomechanical micronization, microwaves, pulsed electrical fields. The results of the scientific researches refer to the fact that application of some of these processes in particular food industry can result in lots of benefits. A significant energy savings, shortening of process duration, mild thermal conditions, food products with better sensory characteristics and with higher nutritional values can be achieved. As some of these techniques act also on the molecular level changing the conformation, structure and electrical potential of organic as well as inorganic materials, the improvement of some functional properties of these components may occur. Common characteristics of all of these techniques are treatment at ambient or insignificant higher temperatures and short time of processing (1 to 10 minutes. High hydrostatic pressure applied to various foodstuffs can destroy some microorganisms, successfully modify molecule conformation and consequently improve functional properties of foods. At the same time it acts positively on the food products intend for freezing. Tribomechanical treatment causes micronization of various solid materials that results in nanoparticles and changes in structure and electrical potential of molecules. Therefore, the significant improvement of some rheological and functional properties of materials occurred. Ultrasound treatment proved to be potentially very successful technique of food processing. It can be used as a pretreatment to drying (decreases drying time and improves functional properties of food, as extraction process of various components

  6. Brachytherapy applications and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Devlin, Phillip M

    2015-01-01

    Written by the foremost experts in the field, this volume is a comprehensive text and practical reference on contemporary brachytherapy. The book provides detailed, site-specific information on applications and techniques of brachytherapy in the head and neck, central nervous system, breast, thorax, gastrointestinal tract, and genitourinary tract, as well as on gynecologic brachytherapy, low dose rate and high dose rate sarcoma brachytherapy, vascular brachytherapy, and pediatric applications. The book thoroughly describes and compares the four major techniques used in brachytherapy-intraca

  7. Radiographic constant exposure technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanus, Joseph Czeslaw

    1985-01-01

    The constant exposure technique has been applied to assess various industrial radiographic systems. Different X-ray films and radiographic papers of two producers were compared. Special attention was given to fast film and paper used with fluorometallic screens. Radiographic image quality...... was tested by the use of ISO wire IQI's and ASTM penetrameters used on Al and Fe test plates. Relative speed and reduction of kilovoltage obtained with the constant exposure technique were calculated. The advantages of fast radiographic systems are pointed out...

  8. Craniospinal irradiation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarlatescu, Ioana, E-mail: scarlatescuioana@gmail.com; Avram, Calin N. [Faculty of Physics, West University of Timisoara, Bd. V. Parvan 4, 300223 Timisoara (Romania); Virag, Vasile [County Hospital “Gavril Curteanu” - Oradea (Romania)

    2015-12-07

    In this paper we present one treatment plan for irradiation cases which involve a complex technique with multiple beams, using the 3D conformational technique. As the main purpose of radiotherapy is to administrate a precise dose into the tumor volume and protect as much as possible all the healthy tissues around it, for a case diagnosed with a primitive neuro ectoderm tumor, we have developed a new treatment plan, by controlling one of the two adjacent fields used at spinal field, in a way that avoids the fields superposition. Therefore, the risk of overdose is reduced by eliminating the field divergence.

  9. Surface science techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Walls, JM

    2013-01-01

    This volume provides a comprehensive and up to the minute review of the techniques used to determine the nature and composition of surfaces. Originally published as a special issue of the Pergamon journal Vacuum, it comprises a carefully edited collection of chapters written by specialists in each of the techniques and includes coverage of the electron and ion spectroscopies, as well as the atom-imaging methods such as the atom probe field ion microscope and the scanning tunnelling microscope. Surface science is an important area of study since the outermost surface layers play a crucial role

  10. Advanced Techniques in Biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Arrondo, José Luis R

    2006-01-01

    Technical advancements are basic elements in our life. In biophysical studies, new applications and improvements in well-established techniques are being implemented every day. This book deals with advancements produced not only from a technical point of view, but also from new approaches that are being taken in the study of biophysical samples, such as nanotechniques or single-cell measurements. This book constitutes a privileged observatory for reviewing novel applications of biophysical techniques that can help the reader enter an area where the technology is progressing quickly and where a comprehensive explanation is not always to be found.

  11. Wireless communications algorithmic techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Vitetta, Giorgio; Colavolpe, Giulio; Pancaldi, Fabrizio; Martin, Philippa A

    2013-01-01

    This book introduces the theoretical elements at the basis of various classes of algorithms commonly employed in the physical layer (and, in part, in MAC layer) of wireless communications systems. It focuses on single user systems, so ignoring multiple access techniques. Moreover, emphasis is put on single-input single-output (SISO) systems, although some relevant topics about multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems are also illustrated.Comprehensive wireless specific guide to algorithmic techniquesProvides a detailed analysis of channel equalization and channel coding for wi

  12. Modern recording techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, David Miles

    2013-01-01

    As the most popular and authoritative guide to recording Modern Recording Techniques provides everything you need to master the tools and day to day practice of music recording and production. From room acoustics and running a session to mic placement and designing a studio Modern Recording Techniques will give you a really good grounding in the theory and industry practice. Expanded to include the latest digital audio technology the 7th edition now includes sections on podcasting, new surround sound formats and HD and audio.If you are just starting out or looking for a step up

  13. Techniques for Vocal Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiest, Lori

    1997-01-01

    Outlines a series of simple yet effective practices, techniques, and tips for improving the singing voice and minimizing stress on the vocal chords. Describes the four components for producing vocal sound: respiration, phonation, resonation, and articulation. Provides exercises for each and lists symptoms of sickness and vocal strain. (MJP)

  14. Art Appreciation and Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Diane R.; Milam, Debora

    1985-01-01

    Presents examples of independent study units for gifted high school students in a resource room setting. Both art appreciation and technique are covered in activities concerned with media (basics of pencil, India ink, pastels, crayons, oil, acrylics, and watercolors), subject matter (landscapes, animals, the human figure), design and illustration…

  15. Problem Solving Techniques Seminar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massachusetts Career Development Inst., Springfield.

    This booklet is one of six texts from a workplace literacy curriculum designed to assist learners in facing the increased demands of the workplace. Six problem-solving techniques are developed in the booklet to assist individuals and groups in making better decisions: problem identification, data gathering, data analysis, solution analysis,…

  16. Imaging techniques in microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, D C; Theriot, J A

    1998-06-01

    Recent advances in optical imaging have dramatically expanded the capabilities of the light microscope and its usefulness in microbiology research. Some of these advances include improved fluorescent probes, better cameras, new techniques such as confocal and deconvolution microscopy, and the use of computers in imaging and image analysis. These new technologies have now been applied to microbiological problems with resounding success.

  17. Electronic waste recycling techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardes, Andréa

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the characterization of electronic waste. In addition, processing techniques for the recovery of metals, polymers and ceramics are described. This book serves as a source of information and as an educational technical reference for practicing scientists and engineers, as well as for students.

  18. Simple Driving Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    2002-01-01

    Driving was introduced as a program transformation technique by Valentin Turchin in some papers around 1980. It was intended for the programming language REFAL and used in metasystem transitions based on super compilation. In this paper we present one version of driving for a more conventional li...

  19. Process measuring techniques; Prozessmesstechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freudenberger, A.

    2000-07-01

    This introduction into measurement techniques for chemical and process-technical plant in science and industry describes in detail the methods used to measure basic quantities. Most prominent are modern measuring techniques by means of ultrasound, microwaves and the Coriolis effect. Alongside physical and measuring technique fundamentals, the practical applications of measuring devices are described. Calculation examples are given to illustrate the subject matter. The book addresses students of physical engineering, process engineering and environmental engineering at technical schools as well as engineers of other disciplines wishing to familiarize themselves with the subject of process measurement techniques. (orig.) [German] Diese Einfuehrung in die Messtechnik fuer chemische und verfahrens-technische Forschungs- und Produktionsanlagen beschreibt ausfuehrlich die Methoden zur Messung der Basisgroessen. Moderne Messverfahren mit Ultraschall, Mikrowellen und Coriolis-Effekt stehen dabei im Vordergrund. Beruecksichtigung finden sowohl die physikalischen und messtechnischen Grundlagen als auch die praktischen Anwendungen der Geraete. Berechnungsbeispiele dienen der Erlaeuterung und Vertiefung des Stoffes. Angesprochen sind Studenten der Ingenieurstufengaenge Physikalische Technik und Verfahrens- und Umwelttechnik an Fachhochschulen als auch Ingenieure anderer Fachrichtungen, die sich in das Gebiet der Prozessmesstechnik einarbeiten wollen. (orig.)

  20. Differential doppler heterodyning technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lading, Lars

    1971-01-01

    Measuring velocity without disturbing the moving object is possible by use of the laser doppler heterodyning technique. Theoretical considerations on the doppler shift show that the antenna property of the photodetector can solve an apparent conflict between two different ways of calculating the ...

  1. Managerial Techniques in Educational Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, John J.

    1983-01-01

    Management techniques developed during the past 20 years assume the rational bureaucratic model. School administration requires contingent techniques. Quality Circle, Theory Z, and the McKenzie 7-Framework are discussed as techniques to increase school productivity. (MD)

  2. Exoplanet Detection Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Debra A; Laughlin, Greg P; Macintosh, Bruce; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Sahlmann, Johannes; Yee, Jennifer C

    2015-01-01

    We are still in the early days of exoplanet discovery. Astronomers are beginning to model the atmospheres and interiors of exoplanets and have developed a deeper understanding of processes of planet formation and evolution. However, we have yet to map out the full complexity of multi-planet architectures or to detect Earth analogues around nearby stars. Reaching these ambitious goals will require further improvements in instrumentation and new analysis tools. In this chapter, we provide an overview of five observational techniques that are currently employed in the detection of exoplanets: optical and IR Doppler measurements, transit photometry, direct imaging, microlensing, and astrometry. We provide a basic description of how each of these techniques works and discuss forefront developments that will result in new discoveries. We also highlight the observational limitations and synergies of each method and their connections to future space missions.

  3. New measurements techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torras Rosell, Antoni

    Acoustic measurements are traditionally based on transducers, and in particular, the most advanced measurement techniques are nowadays based on transducer arrays. This poses a fundamental problem, namely the influence of the transducer itself on the actual properties of sound when the transducer...... is immersed into the sound field. Typically, this influence is assumed to be negligible when the size of the transducer is small compared to the wavelength of the sound wave, or is rendered negligible by using a transducerbased correction that depends on the frequency. Either solution introduces additional...... uncertainties to the measurement process. Optical techniques may help overcoming this problem because the sensing element is not a bulky instrument, but a beam of light that does not change the properties of sound. Optical methods are thus non-invasive and can thereby enhance the current state of the art...

  4. [Molecular techniques in mycology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Tudela, Juan Luis; Cuesta, Isabel; Gómez-López, Alicia; Alastruey-Izquierdo, Ana; Bernal-Martínez, Leticia; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel

    2008-11-01

    An increasing number of molecular techniques for the diagnosis of fungal infections have been developed in the last few years, due to the growing prevalence of mycoses and the length of time required for diagnosis when classical microbiological methods are used. These methods are designed to resolve the following aspects of mycological diagnosis: a) Identification of fungi to species level by means of sequencing relevant taxonomic targets; b) early clinical diagnosis of invasive fungal infections; c) detection of molecular mechanisms of resistance to antifungal agents; and d) molecular typing of fungi. Currently, these methods are restricted to highly developed laboratories. However, some of these techniques will probably be available in daily clinical practice in the near future.

  5. Nozzle fabrication technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Dennis L. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    This invention relates to techniques for fabricating hour glass throat or convergent divergent nozzle shapes, and more particularly to new and improved techniques for forming rocket nozzles from electrically conductive material and forming cooling channels in the wall thereof. The concept of positioning a block of electrically conductive material so that its axis is set at a predetermined skew angle with relation to a travelling electron discharge machine electrode and thereafter revolving the body about its own axis to generate a hyperbolic surface of revolution, either internal or external is novel. The method will generate a rocket nozzle which may be provided with cooling channels using the same control and positioning system. The configuration of the cooling channels so produced are unique and novel. Also the method is adaptable to nonmetallic material using analogous cutting tools, such as, water jet, laser, abrasive wire and hot wire.

  6. Whole cell entrapment techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trelles, Jorge A; Rivero, Cintia W

    2013-01-01

    Microbial whole cells are efficient, ecological, and low-cost catalysts that have been successfully applied in the pharmaceutical, environmental, and alimentary industries, among others. Microorganism immobilization is a good way to carry out the bioprocess under preparative conditions. The main advantages of this methodology lie in their high operational stability, easy upstream separation and bioprocess scale-up feasibility. Cell entrapment is the most widely used technique for whole cell immobilization. This technique-in which the cells are included within a rigid network-is porous enough to allow the diffusion of substrates and products, protects the selected microorganism from the reaction medium, and has high immobilization efficiency (100 % in most cases).

  7. [Seldinger modified technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Cuenca, Francisco; Linares Escudero, Joaquín; Romo García, Raquel; Cubo Amaya, Manuel; Climent Villanueva, Magdalena; Santos Sarria, Remedios

    2008-12-01

    The authors describe the procedure to insert central blood vessel catheters through peripheral blood vessel catheters using the Seldinger modified technique since critically ill patients service at the Carlos Haya Regional University Hospital in Malaga cares for a high number of patients who need to have canalized a central blood vessel catheter to maximize the treatment they receive. In many cases it is not possible to insert a DRUM type central blood vessel catheter due to an insufficient blood vessel caliber and then the nursing team at this hospital opts to carry out a procedure to canalize a central blood vessel using the Seldinger modified technique. This report was presented at the III National Social-Sanitary Nursing Congress.

  8. Oberst beam test technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasana, Alessandro; Garibaldi, Luigi; Giorcelli, Ermanno; Ruzzene, Massimo

    1998-06-01

    The definition of the mechanical properties of viscoelastic materials, i.e. the elastic modulus and the loss factor, is carried out, according to many national and international standards, with many different techniques, both of the resonant and non-resonant type. In this paper we focus our attention on the pros and cons of the resonant technique based on the classical Oberst beam method. When the damping material to be tested is not self-supporting, its properties are determined taking start from the measured modal frequencies and loss factors of a laminated beam, constituted by one or two metallic strips, ideally undamped, and one or two viscoelastic layers. The formulae specified on the standards hold valid under the assumptions of the theory developed by Kerwin, Ungar and Ross and we try in this paper to quantify witch deviation of the results should be expected when moving away from their ideal hypotheses.

  9. SUSY using boosted techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Stark, Giordon; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    In this talk, I present a discussion of techniques used in supersymmetry searches in papers published by the ATLAS Collaboration from late Run 1 to early Run 2. The goal is to highlight concepts the analyses have in common, why/how they work, and possible SUSY searches that could benefit from boosted studies. Theoretical background will be provided for reference to encourage participants to explore in depth on their own time.

  10. Colorimetric protein assay techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapan, C V; Lundblad, R L; Price, N C

    1999-04-01

    There has been an increase in the number of colorimetric assay techniques for the determination of protein concentration over the past 20 years. This has resulted in a perceived increase in sensitivity and accuracy with the advent of new techniques. The present review considers these advances with emphasis on the potential use of such technologies in the assay of biopharmaceuticals. The techniques reviewed include Coomassie Blue G-250 dye binding (the Bradford assay), the Lowry assay, the bicinchoninic acid assay and the biuret assay. It is shown that each assay has advantages and disadvantages relative to sensitivity, ease of performance, acceptance in the literature, accuracy and reproducibility/coefficient of variation/laboratory-to-laboratory variation. A comparison of the use of several assays with the same sample population is presented. It is suggested that the most critical issue in the use of a chromogenic protein assay for the characterization of a biopharmaceutical is the selection of a standard for the calibration of the assay; it is crucial that the standard be representative of the sample. If it is not possible to match the standard with the sample from the perspective of protein composition, then it is preferable to use an assay that is not sensitive to the composition of the protein such as a micro-Kjeldahl technique, quantitative amino acid analysis or the biuret assay. In a complex mixture it might be inappropriate to focus on a general method of protein determination and much more informative to use specific methods relating to the protein(s) of particular interest, using either specific assays or antibody-based methods. The key point is that whatever method is adopted as the 'gold standard' for a given protein, this method needs to be used routinely for calibration.

  11. Techniques for Wireless Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Gaaloul, Fakhreddine

    2012-05-01

    Switching techniques have been first proposed as a spacial diversity techniques. These techniques have been shown to reduce considerably the processing load while letting multi-antenna systems achieve a specific target performance. In this thesis, we take a different look at the switching schemes by implementing them for different other wireless applications. More specifically, this thesis consists of three main parts, where the first part considers a multiuser environment and an adaptive scheduling algorithm based on the switching with post-selection scheme for statistically independent but non-identically distributed channel conditions. The performance of this switched based scheduler is investigated and a multitude of performance metrics are presented. In a second part, we propose and analyze the performance of three switched-based algorithms for interference reduction in the downlink of over-loaded femtocells. For instance, performance metrics are derived in closed-form and these metrics are used to compare these three proposed schemes. Finally in a third part, a switch based opportunistic channel access scheme is proposed for a cognitive radio system and its performance is analyzed in terms of two new proposed metrics namely the average cognitive radio access and the waiting time duration.

  12. Empirical techniques in finance

    CERN Document Server

    Bhar, Ramaprasad

    2005-01-01

    This book offers the opportunity to study and experience advanced empi- cal techniques in finance and in general financial economics. It is not only suitable for students with an interest in the field, it is also highly rec- mended for academic researchers as well as the researchers in the industry. The book focuses on the contemporary empirical techniques used in the analysis of financial markets and how these are implemented using actual market data. With an emphasis on Implementation, this book helps foc- ing on strategies for rigorously combing finance theory and modeling technology to extend extant considerations in the literature. The main aim of this book is to equip the readers with an array of tools and techniques that will allow them to explore financial market problems with a fresh perspective. In this sense it is not another volume in eco- metrics. Of course, the traditional econometric methods are still valid and important; the contents of this book will bring in other related modeling topics tha...

  13. Computer Assisted Audit Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Iancu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available From the modern point of view, audit takes intoaccount especially the information systems representingmainly the examination performed by a professional asregards the manner for developing an activity by means ofcomparing it to the quality criteria specific to this activity.Having as reference point this very general definition ofauditing, it must be emphasized that the best known segmentof auditing is the financial audit that had a parallel evolutionto the accountancy one.The present day phase of developing the financial audithas as main trait the internationalization of the accountantprofessional. World wide there are multinational companiesthat offer services in the financial auditing, taxing andconsultancy domain. The auditors, natural persons and auditcompanies, take part at the works of the national andinternational authorities for setting out norms in theaccountancy and auditing domain.The computer assisted audit techniques can be classified inseveral manners according to the approaches used by theauditor. The most well-known techniques are comprised inthe following categories: testing data techniques, integratedtest, parallel simulation, revising the program logics,programs developed upon request, generalized auditsoftware, utility programs and expert systems.

  14. Covariance mapping techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasinski, Leszek J.

    2016-08-01

    Recent technological advances in the generation of intense femtosecond pulses have made covariance mapping an attractive analytical technique. The laser pulses available are so intense that often thousands of ionisation and Coulomb explosion events will occur within each pulse. To understand the physics of these processes the photoelectrons and photoions need to be correlated, and covariance mapping is well suited for operating at the high counting rates of these laser sources. Partial covariance is particularly useful in experiments with x-ray free electron lasers, because it is capable of suppressing pulse fluctuation effects. A variety of covariance mapping methods is described: simple, partial (single- and multi-parameter), sliced, contingent and multi-dimensional. The relationship to coincidence techniques is discussed. Covariance mapping has been used in many areas of science and technology: inner-shell excitation and Auger decay, multiphoton and multielectron ionisation, time-of-flight and angle-resolved spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, stimulated Raman scattering, directional gamma ray sensing, welding diagnostics and brain connectivity studies (connectomics). This review gives practical advice for implementing the technique and interpreting the results, including its limitations and instrumental constraints. It also summarises recent theoretical studies, highlights unsolved problems and outlines a personal view on the most promising research directions.

  15. Applied ALARA techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waggoner, L.O.

    1998-02-05

    The presentation focuses on some of the time-proven and new technologies being used to accomplish radiological work. These techniques can be applied at nuclear facilities to reduce radiation doses and protect the environment. The last reactor plants and processing facilities were shutdown and Hanford was given a new mission to put the facilities in a safe condition, decontaminate, and prepare them for decommissioning. The skills that were necessary to operate these facilities were different than the skills needed today to clean up Hanford. Workers were not familiar with many of the tools, equipment, and materials needed to accomplish:the new mission, which includes clean up of contaminated areas in and around all the facilities, recovery of reactor fuel from spent fuel pools, and the removal of millions of gallons of highly radioactive waste from 177 underground tanks. In addition, this work has to be done with a reduced number of workers and a smaller budget. At Hanford, facilities contain a myriad of radioactive isotopes that are 2048 located inside plant systems, underground tanks, and the soil. As cleanup work at Hanford began, it became obvious early that in order to get workers to apply ALARA and use hew tools and equipment to accomplish the radiological work it was necessary to plan the work in advance and get radiological control and/or ALARA committee personnel involved early in the planning process. Emphasis was placed on applying,ALARA techniques to reduce dose, limit contamination spread and minimize the amount of radioactive waste generated. Progress on the cleanup has,b6en steady and Hanford workers have learned to use different types of engineered controls and ALARA techniques to perform radiological work. The purpose of this presentation is to share the lessons learned on how Hanford is accomplishing radiological work.

  16. Formulation techniques for nanofluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Solorio, Carlos I; Payán-Rodríguez, Luis A; García-Cuéllar, Alejandro J; Ramón-Raygoza, E D; L Cadena-de-la-Peña, Natalia; Medina-Carreón, David

    2013-11-01

    Fluids with suspended nanoparticles, commonly known as nanofluids, may be formulated to improve the thermal performance of industrial heat transfer systems and applications. Nanofluids may show enhanced thermal and electrical properties such as thermal conductivity, viscosity, heat transfer coefficient, dielectric strength, etc. However, stability problems may arise as nanoparticles usually have the tendency to agglomerate and sediment producing deterioration in the increment of these properties. In this review, we discuss patents that report advances in the formulation of nanofluids including: production methods, selection of components (nanoparticles, base fluid and surfactants), their chemical compositions and morphologies, and characterization techniques. Finally, current and future directions in the development of nanofluid formulation are discussed.

  17. A fuzzy disaggregation technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Polli

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze a problem of time series disaggregation in presence of broad information lack. In this framework it is not possible to follow standard methodologies, like those stemming from the Chow and Lin algorithm and based on probabilistic assumptions. In general terms, when information sets are limited, instead of referring to probabilistic measures it could be more appropriate to adopt an uncertainty measure satisfying only some general properties, like the fuzzy one. After a synthetic survey about fuzzy aggregation operators, we introduce a fuzzy disaggregation technique, based on Choquet capacity theory and characterized by De Finetti coherence.

  18. APPLICATION OF NUCLEAR TECHNIQUE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    1 Application of Fission Track Technique in Stratigraphy Guo Shilun Hao Xiuhong Chen Baoliu Huang Weiwen (Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China) Laterite (red soil) is distributed in the south of China from Qinling mountains to Hainan province and extends to Southeast Asia. The age of the formation and deposition of the laterite is an important subject in geological research. Due to lack of fossils of ancient animals and plants, as well as other objects which could be used for dating , the age of the laterite and its related stratum is unknown in the south of China.

  19. Automatic Threshold Detector Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-07-15

    TECHNIQUES Contract No. DAAH01-76-C-0363 ER76-4208 15 July 1976 Prepared for: HEADQUA RTERS U.S. Army Missile Command Redstone Arsenal, Alabama 35809 j...rain cross section each FFT filter) a MUT, MUCL , KCL, MUN, MUCLF (2 ), MUl, MUWI= MUW2 where MUT = Target cross section (M2), MUCL = total ground...variable is currently not used by the program. Since there is yet no point clutter model, MUCL represents the fluctuating component. Until a point plus

  20. Submersible Packaging Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    Butyraldehyde E,K Aniline Hydrochloride E Butyric Acid V,E Fluid codes are defined in paragraph 40.2.1 and are listed in order of recommended use . 20...Furfuryl Alcohol E Ethyl Chloride E,B,N Gallic Acid V,FE Ethyl Chiorocarbonate V,F Gasoline BV,F Ethyl Chioroformate V,F Glycerine B,E Ethylene Chloride...This document describes packaging techniques that would allow sophisticated electronics to be used and transported reliably underwater. 20. DISTRIBUTION

  1. Pileup Mitigation Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Matthew Henry; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    We report on recent progress in the ATLAS experiment in developing tools to mitigate the effects of pile-up. Forward pile-up jet tagging techniques, as well as constituent-level pile-up suppression algorithms are discussed in details. The impacts of these approaches on both jet energy and angular resolution, as well as jet substructure and boosted object tagging performance are discussed. Improvements to various physics channels of interest are discussed and the potential future of such algorithms — both online and offline, and both at the current LHC and a future high-luminosity LHC and beyond — is considered in detail

  2. Diamond Anvil Cell Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piermarini, Gasper J.

    It has often been said that scientific advances are made either in a dramatic and revolutionary way, or, as in the case of the diamond anvil cell (DAC), in a slow and evolutionary manner over a period of several years. For more than 2 decades, commencing in 1958, the DAC developed stepwise from a rather crude qualitative instrument to the sophisticated quantitative research tool it is today, capable of routinely producing sustained static pressures in the multi-megabar range and readily adaptable to numerous scientific measurement techniques because of its optical accessibility, miniature size, and portability.

  3. DNA Microarray Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakare SP

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available DNA Microarray is the emerging technique in Biotechnology. The many varieties of DNA microarray or DNA chip devices and systems are described along with their methods for fabrication and their use. It also includes screening and diagnostic applications. The DNA microarray hybridization applications include the important areas of gene expression analysis and genotyping for point mutations, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, and short tandem repeats (STRs. In addition to the many molecular biological and genomic research uses, this review covers applications of microarray devices and systems for pharmacogenomic research and drug discovery, infectious and genetic disease and cancer diagnostics, and forensic and genetic identification purposes.

  4. Optical techniques in optogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Samarendra K.; Lakshminarayananan, Vasudevan

    2015-07-01

    Optogenetics is an innovative technique for optical control of cells. This field has exploded over the past decade or so and has given rise to great advances in neuroscience. A variety of applications both from the basic and applied research have emerged, turning the early ideas into a powerful paradigm for cell biology, neuroscience, and medical research. This review aims at highlighting the basic concepts that are essential for a comprehensive understanding of optogenetics and some important biological/biomedical applications. Further, emphasis is placed on advancement in optogenetics-associated light-based methods for controlling gene expression, spatially controlled optogenetic stimulation and detection of cellular activities.

  5. High voltage test techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kind, Dieter

    2001-01-01

    The second edition of High Voltage Test Techniques has been completely revised. The present revision takes into account the latest international developments in High Voltage and Measurement technology, making it an essential reference for engineers in the testing field.High Voltage Technology belongs to the traditional area of Electrical Engineering. However, this is not to say that the area has stood still. New insulating materials, computing methods and voltage levels repeatedly pose new problems or open up methods of solution; electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) or components and systems al

  6. A Technique: Exposure Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan AKKOYUNLU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exposure with response prevention is an effective treatment for all anxiety disorders. According to the behavioral learning theories, fears which are conditioned via classical conditioning are reinforced by respondent conditioning. Avoidance and safety seeking behaviors prevent disconfirmation of anxious beliefs. In exposure client faces stimulates or cues that elicit fear or distress, by this avoidance is inhibited. Clients are also encouraged to resists performing safety seeking behaviors or rituals that they utilize to reduce fear or distress. Accomplishing these habituation or extinction is achieved. In addition to this clients learn that feared consequences does not realize or not harmful as they believed by experiencing. Emotional processing is believed to be the mechanism of change in exposure.Objective: The aim of this review is to provide a definition of exposure and its effectiveness briefly, and describe how to implement exposure, its steps and remarkable aspects using. Exposure therapies and treatments that involve exposure are proved to be effective in all anxiety disorders. Exposure therapy can be divided in three parts: Assessment and providing a treatment rationale, creating an exposure hierarchy and response prevention plan, implementing exposure sessions. Clients must also continue to perform exposure between sessions. Therapy transcripts are also provided to exemplify these parts. Conclusion: Exposure with response prevention is a basic and effective technique. Every cognitive behavior therapist must be able to implement this technique and be cognizant of pearls of this procedure.

  7. Decision Analysis Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammad Dabo Baba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most significant step in building structure maintenance decision is the physical inspection of the facility to be maintained. The physical inspection involved cursory assessment of the structure and ratings of the identified defects based on expert evaluation. The objective of this paper is to describe present a novel approach to prioritizing the criticality of physical defects in a residential building system using multi criteria decision analysis approach. A residential building constructed in 1985 was considered in this study. Four criteria which includes; Physical Condition of the building system (PC, Effect on Asset (EA, effect on Occupants (EO and Maintenance Cost (MC are considered in the inspection. The building was divided in to nine systems regarded as alternatives. Expert's choice software was used in comparing the importance of the criteria against the main objective, whereas structured Proforma was used in quantifying the defects observed on all building systems against each criteria. The defects severity score of each building system was identified and later multiplied by the weight of the criteria and final hierarchy was derived. The final ranking indicates that, electrical system was considered the most critical system with a risk value of 0.134 while ceiling system scored the lowest risk value of 0.066. The technique is often used in prioritizing mechanical equipment for maintenance planning. However, result of this study indicates that the technique could be used in prioritizing building systems for maintenance planning

  8. Techniques de hacking

    CERN Document Server

    Erickson, Jon

    2008-01-01

    Dans cet ouvrage, Jon Erickson présente les bases de la programmation en C du point de vue du hacker et dissèque plusieurs techniques de hacking, passées et actuelles, afin de comprendre comment et pourquoi elles fonctionnent. Même si vous ne savez pas programmer, ce livre vous donnera une vue complète de la programmation, de l'architecture des machines, des communications réseau et des techniques de hacking existantes. Associez ces connaissances à l'environnement Linux fourni et laissez libre cours à votre imagination. Avec ce livre vous apprendrez à : • programmer les ordinateurs en C, en assembleur et avec des scripts shell ; • inspecter les registres du processeur et la mémoire système avec un débogueur afin de comprendre précisément ce qui se passe ; Vous découvrirez comment les hackers parviennent à : • corrompre la mémoire d'un système, en utilisant les débordements de tampons et les chaînes de format, pour exécuter un code quelconque ; • surpasser les mesures de sécurit...

  9. Other imaging techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isard, H J

    1984-02-01

    Images of the breast can now be produced by five modalities: x-ray, heat, sound, light, and magnetism. X-ray mammography is generally accepted as the most accurate of these in the detection of breast cancer, and the standard by which the others are judged. Despite the obvious attraction of nonionizing techniques, the economic factor attendant on multiple studies requires consideration. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is currently being investigated in several clinics, but as yet there is no large series of documented cases. This report addresses itself to thermography, ultrasonography and diaphanography (transillumination). The unique characteristics of each and their respective roles in evaluation of the breast, particularly in the detection of breast cancer, will be discussed. When used in conjunction with mammography, potential advantages include: enhanced diagnostic accuracy, reduction of unnecessary surgery, and, in proven cases of breast cancer, prognostic capability. Thus far it has not been demonstrated that any of the nonionizing techniques can serve as a sole screening modality for breast cancer detection in asymptomatic women.

  10. Psoriatic arthritis: imaging techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lubrano

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Imaging techniques to assess psoriatic arthritis (PsA include radiography, ultrasonography (US, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, computed tomography (CT and bone scintigraphy. The radiographic hallmark of PsA is the combination of destructive changes (joint erosions, tuft resorption, osteolysis with bone proliferation (including periarticular and shaft periostitis, ankylosis, spur formation and non-marginal syndesmophytes. US has an increasing important role in the evaluation of PsA. In fact, power Doppler US is useful mainly for its ability to assess musculoskeletal (joints, tendons, entheses and cutaneous (skin and nails involvement, to monitor efficacy of therapy and to guide steroid injections at the level of inflamed joints, tendon sheaths and entheses. MRI allows direct visualization of inflammation in peripheral and axial joints, and peripheral and axial entheses, and has dramatically improved the possibilities for early diagnosis and objective monitoring of the disease process in PsA. MRI has allowed explaining the relationships among enthesitis, synovitis and osteitis in PsA, supporting a SpA pattern of inflammation where enthesitis is the primary target of inflammation. CT has little role in assessment of peripheral joints, but it may be useful in assessing elements of spine disease. CT accuracy is similar to MRI in assessment of erosions in sacroiliac joint involvement, but CT is not as effective in detecting synovial inflammation. Bone scintigraphy lacks specificity and is now supplanted with US and MRI techniques.

  11. Advanced Coating Removal Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Jon

    2006-01-01

    An important step in the repair and protection against corrosion damage is the safe removal of the oxidation and protective coatings without further damaging the integrity of the substrate. Two such methods that are proving to be safe and effective in this task are liquid nitrogen and laser removal operations. Laser technology used for the removal of protective coatings is currently being researched and implemented in various areas of the aerospace industry. Delivering thousands of focused energy pulses, the laser ablates the coating surface by heating and dissolving the material applied to the substrate. The metal substrate will reflect the laser and redirect the energy to any remaining protective coating, thus preventing any collateral damage the substrate may suffer throughout the process. Liquid nitrogen jets are comparable to blasting with an ultra high-pressure water jet but without the residual liquid that requires collection and removal .As the liquid nitrogen reaches the surface it is transformed into gaseous nitrogen and reenters the atmosphere without any contamination to surrounding hardware. These innovative technologies simplify corrosion repair by eliminating hazardous chemicals and repetitive manual labor from the coating removal process. One very significant advantage is the reduction of particulate contamination exposure to personnel. With the removal of coatings adjacent to sensitive flight hardware, a benefit of each technique for the space program is that no contamination such as beads, water, or sanding residue is left behind when the job is finished. One primary concern is the safe removal of coatings from thin aluminum honeycomb face sheet. NASA recently conducted thermal testing on liquid nitrogen systems and found that no damage occurred on 1/6", aluminum substrates. Wright Patterson Air Force Base in conjunction with Boeing and NASA is currently testing the laser remOval technique for process qualification. Other applications of liquid

  12. Technique murale picturale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Coupry

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Après des études remarquables publiées, entre autres, dans Peindre à Auxerre au Moyen Âge, IXe-XIVe siècles, l’étude technique et analytique des peintures murales n’avait pas donné lieu à de nouvelles recherches méthodologiques en dépit des travaux de terrain (Souvigny, Stavelot… où l’archéologie du bâti avait permis des rencontres entre archéologues, historiens de l’art et restaurateurs particulièrement impliqués pour la période qui nous intéresse, de la basse Antiquité au haut Moyen Âge.Ce...

  13. [Therapeutic education didactic techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Maite; Vidal, Mercè; Jansa, Margarida

    2012-10-01

    This article includes an introduction to the role of Therapeutic Education for Diabetes treatment according to the recommendations of the American Diabetes Association (ADA), the Diabetes Education Study Group (DESG) of the "European Association for Study of Diabetes (EASD) and the clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG) of the Spanish Ministry of Health. We analyze theoretical models and the differences between teaching vs. learning as well as current trends (including Internet), that can facilitate meaningful learning of people with diabetes and their families and relatives. We analyze the differences, similarities, advantages and disadvantages of individual and group education. Finally, we describe different educational techniques (metaplan, case method, brainstorming, role playing, games, seminars, autobiography, forums, chats,..) applicable to individual, group or virtual education and its application depending on the learning objective.

  14. Extended Ewald summation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kylänpää, Ilkka; Räsänen, Esa

    2016-09-01

    We present a technique to improve the accuracy and to reduce the computational labor in the calculation of long-range interactions in systems with periodic boundary conditions. We extend the well-known Ewald method by using a linear combination of screening Gaussian charge distributions instead of only one. This enables us to find faster converging real-space and reciprocal space summations. The combined simplicity and efficiency of our method is demonstrated, and the scheme is readily applicable to large-scale periodic simulations, classical as well as quantum. Moreover, apart from the required a priori optimization the method is straightforward to include in most routines based on the Ewald method within, e.g., density-functional, molecular dynamics, and quantum Monte Carlo calculations.

  15. Kinetic Actviation Relaxation Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Béland, Laurent Karim; El-Mellouhi, Fedwa; Joly, Jean-François; Mousseau, Normand

    2011-01-01

    We present a detailed description of the kinetic Activation-Relaxation Technique (k-ART), an off-lattice, self-learning kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm with on-the-fly event search. Combining a topological classification for local environments and event generation with ART nouveau, an efficient unbiased sampling method for finding transition states, k-ART can be applied to complex materials with atoms in off-lattice positions or with elastic deformations that cannot be handled with standard KMC approaches. In addition to presenting the various elements of the algorithm, we demonstrate the general character of k-ART by applying the algorithm to three challenging systems: self-defect annihilation in c-Si, self-interstitial diffusion in Fe and structural relaxation in amorphous silicon.

  16. Data flow modeling techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavi, K. M.

    1984-01-01

    There have been a number of simulation packages developed for the purpose of designing, testing and validating computer systems, digital systems and software systems. Complex analytical tools based on Markov and semi-Markov processes have been designed to estimate the reliability and performance of simulated systems. Petri nets have received wide acceptance for modeling complex and highly parallel computers. In this research data flow models for computer systems are investigated. Data flow models can be used to simulate both software and hardware in a uniform manner. Data flow simulation techniques provide the computer systems designer with a CAD environment which enables highly parallel complex systems to be defined, evaluated at all levels and finally implemented in either hardware or software. Inherent in data flow concept is the hierarchical handling of complex systems. In this paper we will describe how data flow can be used to model computer system.

  17. Changes in urological surgical techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktay Üçer

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, laparoscopic and afterwards robotic techniques have constituted most of urologic surgery procedures. Open surgery may give place to robotic surgery due to possible widespread use of robots in the future. Studies, that compare these two techniques are usually designed about radical prostatectomy, since it is the most common operation performed by using these techniques. In literature,robotic surgery seems more advantageous than other techniques but the most important disadvantage of this technique is cost-effective problems. In present review,history of open, laparoscopic and robotic surgery, and comparison of advantages, disadvantages and cost of these techniques have been discussed with literature.

  18. INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caescu Stefan Claudiu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Theme The situation analysis, as a separate component of the strategic planning, involves collecting and analysing relevant types of information on the components of the marketing environment and their evolution on the one hand and also on the organization’s resources and capabilities on the other. Objectives of the Research The main purpose of the study of the analysis techniques of the internal environment is to provide insight on those aspects that are of strategic importance to the organization. Literature Review The marketing environment consists of two distinct components, the internal environment that is made from specific variables within the organization and the external environment that is made from variables external to the organization. Although analysing the external environment is essential for corporate success, it is not enough unless it is backed by a detailed analysis of the internal environment of the organization. The internal environment includes all elements that are endogenous to the organization, which are influenced to a great extent and totally controlled by it. The study of the internal environment must answer all resource related questions, solve all resource management issues and represents the first step in drawing up the marketing strategy. Research Methodology The present paper accomplished a documentary study of the main techniques used for the analysis of the internal environment. Results The special literature emphasizes that the differences in performance from one organization to another is primarily dependant not on the differences between the fields of activity, but especially on the differences between the resources and capabilities and the ways these are capitalized on. The main methods of analysing the internal environment addressed in this paper are: the analysis of the organizational resources, the performance analysis, the value chain analysis and the functional analysis. Implications Basically such

  19. Improved Search Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albornoz, Caleb Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Thousands of millions of documents are stored and updated daily in the World Wide Web. Most of the information is not efficiently organized to build knowledge from the stored data. Nowadays, search engines are mainly used by users who rely on their skills to look for the information needed. This paper presents different techniques search engine users can apply in Google Search to improve the relevancy of search results. According to the Pew Research Center, the average person spends eight hours a month searching for the right information. For instance, a company that employs 1000 employees wastes $2.5 million dollars on looking for nonexistent and/or not found information. The cost is very high because decisions are made based on the information that is readily available to use. Whenever the information necessary to formulate an argument is not available or found, poor decisions may be made and mistakes will be more likely to occur. Also, the survey indicates that only 56% of Google users feel confident with their current search skills. Moreover, just 76% of the information that is available on the Internet is accurate.

  20. INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE MONITORING TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Bagus Adi Kayana

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Head injury is the most significant cause of increased morbidity and mortality. An estimated 1.4 million head injuries occur each year, with and more than 1.1 million come to the Emergency Unit. On each patient head injury, an increase in intracranial pressure (ICP related to poor outcomes and aggressive therapy to increased ICP can improve the outcomes. ICP monitoring is the most widely used because of the prevention and control of ICP as well as maintain the pressure increase perfusion of cerebral (Cerebral Perfusion Pressure/CPP is the basic purpose of handling head injury. There are two methods of monitoring ICP that is an invasive methods (directly and non-invasive techniques (indirectly. The method commonly used, namely intraventricular and intraparenkimal (microtransducer sensor because it is more accurate but keep attention to the existence of the risk of bleeding and infection resulting from installation. Monitoring of ICT can determine the actions that avoid further brain injury, which can be lethal and irreversibel.

  1. Fenestration obscuration techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalley, Michael

    2007-10-01

    There are situations where it is advantageous to visually obscure through glass, to an external observer, the movement of people within a well lit room. It may be that the building use has changed or existing measures which had provided obscuration such as 'Bomb-blast' curtains have been discontinued. Recognising that implemented solutions must create the minimum disruption to outward visibility and involve the least procedural effort (be simple to use), the Centre for Protection of National Infrastructure, CPNI, commissioned this study, defining key requirements including: (a) Automatic or simple manual operation (b) Obscuration of movement within the building from outside (c) Varying levels of obscuration depending on the difference in internal and external light levels. (d) Minimum disruption to outward visibility (e) Acceptable for use on heritage and iconic sites (f) Easy to retrofit (g) Low cost This report reviews earlier work carried out into the protection of Guardrooms by the use of lighting techniques coupled with the use of reflective and screen printed films. Other innovative solutions including Electrochromatic controllable glazing which may prove more appropriate to office and commercial buildings are also considered. It is seen that some measures, (window films or blinds), are cost effective and unsophisticated while more complex automatic systems using reactive glazing can offer critical design advantages. It must be noted however that some of the key requirements are mutually exclusive and any solution chosen will always be a compromise based on client needs and circumstances.

  2. Dose Reduction Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Waggoner, L O

    2000-01-01

    As radiation safety specialists, one of the things we are required to do is evaluate tools, equipment, materials and work practices and decide whether the use of these products or work practices will reduce radiation dose or risk to the environment. There is a tendency for many workers that work with radioactive material to accomplish radiological work the same way they have always done it rather than look for new technology or change their work practices. New technology is being developed all the time that can make radiological work easier and result in less radiation dose to the worker or reduce the possibility that contamination will be spread to the environment. As we discuss the various tools and techniques that reduce radiation dose, keep in mind that the radiological controls should be reasonable. We can not always get the dose to zero, so we must try to accomplish the work efficiently and cost-effectively. There are times we may have to accept there is only so much you can do. The goal is to do the sm...

  3. COHERENT-LIGHT RECORDING TECHNIQUES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this report is to summarize, define and demonstrate techniques necessary for the application of coherent light to the problems of...Investigations into such areas as the coherent light source itself, modulation, deflection or scanning techniques, readout techniques and the evaluation of recording media are reported.

  4. Techniques in Broadband Interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erskine, D J

    2004-01-04

    This is a compilation of my patents issued from 1997 to 2002, generally describing interferometer techniques that modify the coherence properties of broad-bandwidth light and other waves, with applications to Doppler velocimetry, range finding, imaging and spectroscopy. Patents are tedious to read in their original form. In an effort to improve their readability I have embedded the Figures throughout the manuscript, put the Figure captions underneath the Figures, and added section headings. Otherwise I have resisted the temptation to modify the words, though I found many places which could use healthy editing. There may be minor differences with the official versions issued by the US Patent and Trademark Office, particularly in the claims sections. In my shock physics work I measured the velocities of targets impacted by flyer plates by illuminating them with laser light and analyzing the reflected light with an interferometer. Small wavelength changes caused by the target motion (Doppler effect) were converted into fringe shifts by the interferometer. Lasers having long coherence lengths were required for the illumination. While lasers are certainly bright sources, and their collimated beams are convenient to work with, they are expensive. Particularly if one needs to illuminate a wide surface area, then large amounts of power are needed. Orders of magnitude more power per dollar can be obtained from a simple flashlamp, or for that matter, a 50 cent light bulb. Yet these inexpensive sources cannot practically be used for Doppler velocimetry because their coherence length is extremely short, i.e. their bandwidth is much too wide. Hence the motivation for patents 1 & 2 is a method (White Light Velocimetry) for allowing use of these powerful but incoherent lamps for interferometry. The coherence of the illumination is modified by passing it through a preparatory interferometer.

  5. Dose Reduction Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WAGGONER, L.O.

    2000-05-16

    As radiation safety specialists, one of the things we are required to do is evaluate tools, equipment, materials and work practices and decide whether the use of these products or work practices will reduce radiation dose or risk to the environment. There is a tendency for many workers that work with radioactive material to accomplish radiological work the same way they have always done it rather than look for new technology or change their work practices. New technology is being developed all the time that can make radiological work easier and result in less radiation dose to the worker or reduce the possibility that contamination will be spread to the environment. As we discuss the various tools and techniques that reduce radiation dose, keep in mind that the radiological controls should be reasonable. We can not always get the dose to zero, so we must try to accomplish the work efficiently and cost-effectively. There are times we may have to accept there is only so much you can do. The goal is to do the smart things that protect the worker but do not hinder him while the task is being accomplished. In addition, we should not demand that large amounts of money be spent for equipment that has marginal value in order to save a few millirem. We have broken the handout into sections that should simplify the presentation. Time, distance, shielding, and source reduction are methods used to reduce dose and are covered in Part I on work execution. We then look at operational considerations, radiological design parameters, and discuss the characteristics of personnel who deal with ALARA. This handout should give you an overview of what it takes to have an effective dose reduction program.

  6. ADOPTABLE TECHNIQUE(S FOR MANAGING GHANAIAN SALINE SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akwasi Asamoah

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available : Salinization of Ghanaian soils is on the rise. Organic matter application has not proved an effective and feasible technique for curbing this rise. Hence this paper seeks to review techniques that Ghana is using to manage its saline soils and further recommend a feasible, cost effective and beneficial technique for exhaustive research and possible adoption in the future. Halophytes appear to be the most feasible, cost effective and beneficial technique which could be adopted for the effective management of Ghanaian saline soils. But where halophytes are exotic, care must be taken to avoid competition with native species and allow preservation of agrobiodiversity

  7. Classroom Assessment Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2003-12-01

    and the learner should be carefully observed and monitored. Forrest says that Student Portfolios, which document learning in more detail, seldom reveal how teaching contributes to students' progress. Cerbin further indicates that a course portfolio is essentially, a like a manuscript of scholarly work in progress. In this example, it is a work that explains what, how, and why students learn or do not learn in a course. In this paper, the author reports on a dozen techniques that could perhaps be used to document assessment of student learning. References : Cerbin, W. (1993). Fostering a culture of teaching as scholarship. The Teaching Professor, 7(3), 1-2. Edgerton, R., Hutchings, P., & Quinlan, P. (1991). The teaching portfolio: Capturing the scholarship in teaching. Washington, DC: American Association for Higher Education. Forrest, A. (1990). Time will tell: Portfolio-assisted assessment of general education. Washington, DC: American Association for Higher Education. Linn, R., Baker, E., & Dunbar, S. (1991). Complex, Performance-based Assessment: Expectations and Validation Criteria. Educational Researcher, 20 (8), 15-21. Narayanan, M. (2003). Assessment in Higher Education: Partnerships in Learning. Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Lilly Conference on College Teaching, Miami University, Oxford, OH. Seldin, P. (1991). The teaching portfolio. Bolton, MA: Anker. Young, C. O., Sr., & Young, L. H. (1999). Assessing Learning in Interactive Courses. Journal on Excellence in College Teaching, 10 (1), 63-76.

  8. Antegrade pressure measurement of urinary tract in children with persistent hydronephrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Traballi de Carvalho Pegolo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Dilation of urinary tract occurs without the presence of obstruction. Diagnostic methods that depend on renal function may elicit mistaken diagnosis. Whitaker (1973 proposed the evaluation of urinary tract pressure submitted to constant flow. Other investigators proposed perfusion of renal pelvis under controlled pressure, making the method more physiological and reproducible. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the results of the anterograde pressure measurement (APM of the urinary tract of children with persistent hydronephrosis after surgery suspected to present persistent obstruction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Along 12 years, 26 renal units with persistent hydronephrosis after surgery (12 PUJ and 14 VUJ were submitted to evaluation of the renal tract pressure in order to decide the form of treatment. Previous radionuclide scans with DTPA, intravenous pyelographies and ultrasounds were considered undetermined in relation to obstruction in 10 occasions and obstructive in 16. APM was performed under radioscopy through renal pelvis puncture or previous stoma. Saline with methylene blue + iodine contrast was infused under constant pressure of 40 cm H2O to fill the urinary system. The ureteral opening pressure was measured following the opening of the system and stabilization of the water column. RESULTS: Among the 10 cases with undetermined previous diagnosis, APM was considered non-obstructive in two and those were treated clinically and eight were considered obstructive and were submitted to surgery. Among the 16 cases previously classified as obstructive, nine confirmed obstruction and were submitted to surgery. Seven cases were considered non-obstructive, and were treated clinically, with stable DMSA and hydronephrosis. CONCLUSIONS: APM avoided unnecessary surgery in one third of the cases and was important to treatment decision in 100%. We believe that this simple test is an excellent diagnostic tool when selectively applied mainly in the presence of functional deficit.

  9. Microvascular hemodynamics in human hypothermic circulatory arrest and selective antegrade cerebral perfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.W.G. Elbers; A. Ozdemir; R.H. Heijmen; J. Heeren; M. van Iterson; E.P.A. van Dongen; C. Ince

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The behavior of the human microcirculation in the setting of cardiac arrest is largely unknown. Animal experiments have consistently revealed that global hemodynamics do not necessarily reflect microvascular perfusion. In addition, the time it takes for capillary blood flow to stop after

  10. The combined ipsilateral antegrade-retrograde approach to insert an endoluminal femoropopliteal bypass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensvelt, M.M.A.; Zeebregts, C.J.A.; Stoer-Bouwman, M.; Reijnen, M.M.P.J.

    2011-01-01

    The endoluminal femoropopliteal bypass is a minimally invasive treatment modality for occlusive superficial femoral artery disease. Technical failure of endovascular treatment of chronic total occlusions is often caused by the inability to re-enter the true lumen. Re-entry devices have a high techni

  11. Practical hacking techniques and countermeasures

    CERN Document Server

    Spivey, Mark D

    2006-01-01

    Examining computer security from the hacker''s perspective, Practical Hacking Techniques and Countermeasures employs virtual computers to illustrate how an attack is executed, including the script, compilation, and results. It provides detailed screen shots in each lab for the reader to follow along in a step-by-step process in order to duplicate and understand how the attack works. It enables experimenting with hacking techniques without fear of corrupting computers or violating any laws.Written in a lab manual style, the book begins with the installation of the VMware® Workstation product and guides the users through detailed hacking labs enabling them to experience what a hacker actually does during an attack. It covers social engineering techniques, footprinting techniques, and scanning tools. Later chapters examine spoofing techniques, sniffing techniques, password cracking, and attack tools. Identifying wireless attacks, the book also explores Trojans, Man-in-the-Middle (MTM) attacks, and Denial of S...

  12. A summary of virtualization techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Haro, Fernando; Freitag, Fèlix; Navarro Moldes, Leandro; Hernández Sánchez, Efraín; Farías Mendoza, Nicandro; Guerrero Ibáñez, Juan Antonio; González Potes, Apolinar

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, virtualization is a technology that is applied for sharing the capabilities of physical computers by splitting the resources among OSs. The concept of Virtual Machines (VMs) started back in 1964 with a IBM project called CP/CMS system. Currently, there are several virtualization techniques that can be used for supporting the execution of entire operating systems. We classify the virtualization techniques from the OS view. First, we discuss two techniques that executes modified gu...

  13. Luminescence techniques: Instrumentation and methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes techniques, instruments and methods used in luminescence dating and environmental dosimetry in many laboratories around the world. These techniques are based on two phenomena - thermally stimulated luminescence and optically stimulated luminescence. The most commonly used...... luminescence stimulation and detection techniques are reviewed and information is given on recent developments in instrument design and on the stale of the art in luminescence measurements and analysis. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  14. Detection Techniques of Femtosecond Lasers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Li-peng; ZHOU Ming; DAI Qi-xun; CAI Lan

    2004-01-01

    The measurement techniques of femtosecond spectroscopy are effective method to investigate ultrafast dynamics, they are widely used in the fields of physics, chemistry and biology. In this paper, the principle, experiment setup and the approaches to deal with the experiment data were presented. Then different measurement techniques such as transient absorption spectroscopy, photon echoes, optical Kerr effect and degenerate four-wave mixing were explained with special examples. At last, the application prospect of measurement techniques of femtosecond spectroscopy was forecasted.

  15. Optical pulses, lasers, measuring techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Früngel, Frank B A

    1965-01-01

    High Speed Pulse Technology: Volume II: Optical Pulses - Lasers - Measuring Techniques focuses on the theoretical and engineering problems that result from the capacitor discharge technique.This book is organized into three main topics: light flash production from a capacitive energy storage; signal transmission and ranging systems by capacitor discharges and lasers; and impulse measuring technique. This text specifically discusses the air spark under atmospheric conditions, industrial equipment for laser flashing, and claims for light transmitting system. The application of light impulse sign

  16. Correlation of cure monitoring techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S. S.; Mopsik, F. I.; Hunston, D. L.

    Six different composite matrix or neat resin cure-monitoring methods are presently used to follow the cure process in a model epoxy system, and the results obtained are compared. Differential scanning calorimetry, viscosity monitoring, the ultrasonic shear wave propagation technique, dielectric spectrometry, and two different fluorescence intensity techniques are compared with a view to common traits and differences. Dielectric fluorescence and ultrasonic measurement techniques are noted to be applicable to on-line process monitoring.

  17. Geolocation Techniques Principles and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gentile, Camillo; Raulefs, Ronald; Teolis, Carole

    2013-01-01

    Geolocation Techniques: Principles and Applications provides a comprehensive overview of geolocation technologies and techniques, from radio-frequency based to inertial based. The focus of this book is to provide an overview on the different types of infra-structure supported by most commercial localization systems as well as on the most popular computational techniques which these systems employ. This book can serve as a reference for scholarly activities such as teaching, self-learning, or research.

  18. Developing Fighting Technique Through Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Lajcik

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Visualization is a training technique that involves creating a detailed mental “movie” of successful performance. This article describes a type of visualization called “mental rehearsal” and explains how it can be used to reinforce the neuromuscular pattern of proper fighting technique. Drawing on his experience as a professional fighter and college coach, his studies in sport psychology as a college student, and his exposure to mental training techniques at the U.S. Olympic Training Center, the author reveals how to use mental imagery to facilitate the mastery of martial art technique.    

  19. Helium II level measurement techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, D.; Hilton, D. K.; Zhang, T.; Van Sciver, S. W.

    2001-05-01

    In this paper, a survey of cryogenic liquid level measurement techniques applicable to superfluid helium (He II) is given. The survey includes both continuous and discrete measurement techniques. A number of different probes and controlling circuits for this purpose have been described in the literature. They fall into one of the following categories: capacitive liquid level gauges, superconducting wire liquid level gauges, thermodynamic (heat transfer-based) liquid level gauges, resistive gauges, ultrasound and transmission line-based level detectors. The present paper reviews these techniques and their suitability for He II service. In addition to these methods, techniques for measuring the total liquid volume and mass gauging are also discussed.

  20. Common Tuina Techniques in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Editor

    2004-01-01

    @@ Tuina techniques in children are similar to those in adults. Some are same in name, but different in methods,such as pushing technique. Some techniques are just applied to children rather than to adults, such as pushing method. In clinical practice, such intense Tuina techniques as nailing, grasping, and pinching are practiced as the ending manipulations, so as not to hurt children and affect treatment. Such media as ginger juice,Talcum powder and egg white are commonly used to prevent from skin abrasion and improve therapeutic effects.

  1. Radar interferometry persistent scatterer technique

    CERN Document Server

    Kampes, Bert M

    2006-01-01

    Only book on Permanent Scatterer technique of radar interferometryExplains the Permanent Scatterer technique in detail, possible pitfalls, and details a newly developed stochastic model and estimator algorithm to cope with possible problems for the application of the PS techniqueThe use of Permanent Scatterer allows very precise measurements of the displacement of hundreds of points per square kilometerDescribes the only technique currently able to perform displacement measurements in the past, utilizing the ERS satellite data archive using data acquired from 1992-prese

  2. GPU Pro advanced rendering techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Engel, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    This book covers essential tools and techniques for programming the graphics processing unit. Brought to you by Wolfgang Engel and the same team of editors who made the ShaderX series a success, this volume covers advanced rendering techniques, engine design, GPGPU techniques, related mathematical techniques, and game postmortems. A special emphasis is placed on handheld programming to account for the increased importance of graphics on mobile devices, especially the iPhone and iPod touch.Example programs and source code can be downloaded from the book's CRC Press web page. 

  3. Optical techniques in regenerative medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Morgan, Stephen P

    2013-01-01

    In regenerative medicine, tissue engineers largely rely on destructive and time-consuming techniques that do not allow in situ and spatial monitoring of tissue growth. Furthermore, once the therapy is implanted in the patient, clinicians are often unable to monitor what is happening in the body. To tackle these barriers, optical techniques have been developed to image and characterize many tissue properties, fabricate tissue engineering scaffolds, and characterize the properties of the scaffolds. Optical Techniques in Regenerative Medicine illustrates how to use optical imaging techniques and

  4. Parachute technique for partial penectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Korkes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Penile carcinoma is a rare but mutilating malignancy. In this context, partial penectomy is the most commonly applied approach for best oncological results. We herein propose a simple modification of the classic technique of partial penectomy, for better cosmetic and functional results. TECHNIQUE: If partial penectomy is indicated, the present technique can bring additional benefits. Different from classical technique, the urethra is spatulated only ventrally. An inverted "V" skin flap with 0.5 cm of extension is sectioned ventrally. The suture is performed with vicryl 4-0 in a "parachute" fashion, beginning from the ventral portion of the urethra and the "V" flap, followed by the "V" flap angles and than by the dorsal portion of the penis. After completion of the suture, a Foley catheter and light dressing are placed for 24 hours. CONCLUSIONS: Several complex reconstructive techniques have been previously proposed, but normally require specific surgical abilities, adequate patient selection and staged procedures. We believe that these reconstructive techniques are very useful in some specific subsets of patients. However, the technique herein proposed is a simple alternative that can be applied to all men after a partial penectomy, and takes the same amount of time as that in the classic technique. In conclusion, the "parachute" technique for penile reconstruction after partial amputation not only improves the appearance of the penis, but also maintains an adequate function.

  5. A disposition of interpolation techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knotters, M.; Heuvelink, G.B.M.

    2010-01-01

    A large collection of interpolation techniques is available for application in environmental research. To help environmental scientists in choosing an appropriate technique a disposition is made, based on 1) applicability in space, time and space-time, 2) quantification of accuracy of interpolated v

  6. A numerical grid generation technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilding, B.H.

    1988-01-01

    The paper describes a technique for the generation of boundary-fitted curvilinear coordinate systems for the numerical solution of partial differential equations in two space dimensions. The technique is algebraic, has a transfinite character, and is based on the blending of shearing transformations

  7. Instrumental Techniques in Archeological Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    leather, amber, and mummified material. Evidently this is preliminary work. Schwarcz , H. P., 1986, "ESR Dating of Tooth Enamel," Abstracts of the 1984...Radiocarbon dating Contact: H. P. Schwarcz Technique(s): ESR 79 Illinois State Geological Survey McCrone Associates Inc. State Geological Survey

  8. Software Agent Techniques in Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvig, Susanne C

    1998-01-01

    This paper briefly presents studies of software agent techniques and outline aspects of these which can be applied in design agents in integrated civil engineering design environments.......This paper briefly presents studies of software agent techniques and outline aspects of these which can be applied in design agents in integrated civil engineering design environments....

  9. Passage Retrieval: A Probabilistic Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melucci, Massimo

    1998-01-01

    Presents a probabilistic technique to retrieve passages from texts having a large size or heterogeneous semantic content. Results of experiments comparing the probabilistic technique to one based on a text segmentation algorithm revealed that the passage size affects passage retrieval performance; text organization and query generality may have an…

  10. Strongly correlated systems experimental techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    The continuous evolution and development of experimental techniques is at the basis of any fundamental achievement in modern physics. Strongly correlated systems (SCS), more than any other, need to be investigated through the greatest variety of experimental techniques in order to unveil and crosscheck the numerous and puzzling anomalous behaviors characterizing them. The study of SCS fostered the improvement of many old experimental techniques, but also the advent of many new ones just invented in order to analyze the complex behaviors of these systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. The volume presents a representative collection of the modern experimental techniques specifically tailored for the analysis of strongly correlated systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognize...

  11. Photogrammetric techniques for aerospace applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianshu; Burner, Alpheus W.; Jones, Thomas W.; Barrows, Danny A.

    2012-10-01

    Photogrammetric techniques have been used for measuring the important physical quantities in both ground and flight testing including aeroelastic deformation, attitude, position, shape and dynamics of objects such as wind tunnel models, flight vehicles, rotating blades and large space structures. The distinct advantage of photogrammetric measurement is that it is a non-contact, global measurement technique. Although the general principles of photogrammetry are well known particularly in topographic and aerial survey, photogrammetric techniques require special adaptation for aerospace applications. This review provides a comprehensive and systematic summary of photogrammetric techniques for aerospace applications based on diverse sources. It is useful mainly for aerospace engineers who want to use photogrammetric techniques, but it also gives a general introduction for photogrammetrists and computer vision scientists to new applications.

  12. Nuclear techniques in analytical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Moses, Alfred J; Gordon, L

    1964-01-01

    Nuclear Techniques in Analytical Chemistry discusses highly sensitive nuclear techniques that determine the micro- and macro-amounts or trace elements of materials. With the increasingly frequent demand for the chemical determination of trace amounts of elements in materials, the analytical chemist had to search for more sensitive methods of analysis. This book accustoms analytical chemists with nuclear techniques that possess the desired sensitivity and applicability at trace levels. The topics covered include safe handling of radioactivity; measurement of natural radioactivity; and neutron a

  13. PIGE technique implementation at ININ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Policroniades, R.; Martínez-Quiroz, E.; Méndez-Garrido, B.; Murillo, G.; Moreno, E.; Villaseñor, P.

    2015-07-01

    In this work, we present a general overview about the implementation at ININ of a Particle Induced Gamma Emission (PIGE) analysis technique, based on the bombardment of samples by protons and deuterons at different energies within our tandem accelerator facility. As it is well known, this technique is based on the detection of γ-rays emitted by nuclei in a target following a charged particle irradiation. The main feature of this technique, apart from being non-destructive and low time consuming, is that it allows a multi-elemental analysis of a sample, permitting an isotopic identification of many nuclides. Advances and some preliminary results are presented.

  14. PIGE technique implementation at ININ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Policroniades, R., E-mail: rafael.policroniades@inin.gob.mx; Martínez-Quiroz, E.; Méndez-Garrido, B.; Murillo, G.; Moreno, E.; Villaseñor, P. [Departamento de Aceleradores, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ), Carr. México-Toluca S/N, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, México CP 52750 (Mexico)

    2015-07-23

    In this work, we present a general overview about the implementation at ININ of a Particle Induced Gamma Emission (PIGE) analysis technique, based on the bombardment of samples by protons and deuterons at different energies within our tandem accelerator facility. As it is well known, this technique is based on the detection of γ-rays emitted by nuclei in a target following a charged particle irradiation. The main feature of this technique, apart from being non-destructive and low time consuming, is that it allows a multi-elemental analysis of a sample, permitting an isotopic identification of many nuclides. Advances and some preliminary results are presented.

  15. A simplified indirect bonding technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha Katiyar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of lingual orthodontics, indirect bonding technique has become an integral part of practice. It involves placement of brackets initially on the models and then their transfer to teeth with the help of transfer trays. Problems encountered with current indirect bonding techniques used are (1 the possibility of adhesive flash remaining around the base of the brackets which requires removal (2 longer time required for the adhesive to gain enough bond strength for secure tray removal. The new simplified indirect bonding technique presented here overcomes both these problems.

  16. Low Light Level TV Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildea, J

    1970-10-01

    As the science of low light level sensing becomes better understood, the demand for systems with this capability has increased considerably in recent years. Low light level television systems are part of these low light sensing devices in which interest has grown. Development of low light level TV systems has, in turn, stimulated technical advances in new tube types with improved performance, development of electronic techniques which enhance the over-all performance, and design techniques which make the system more versatile and adaptable. A general look at some of these developments and techniques gives insight into the versatility and adaptability of low light level TV.

  17. Artificial intelligence techniques in Prolog

    CERN Document Server

    Shoham, Yoav

    1993-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Prolog introduces the reader to the use of well-established algorithmic techniques in the field of artificial intelligence (AI), with Prolog as the implementation language. The techniques considered cover general areas such as search, rule-based systems, and truth maintenance, as well as constraint satisfaction and uncertainty management. Specific application domains such as temporal reasoning, machine learning, and natural language are also discussed.Comprised of 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of Prolog, paying particular attention to Prol

  18. New techniques on embryo manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribá, M J; Valbuena, D; Remohí, J; Pellicer, A; Simón, C

    2002-01-01

    For many years, experience has been accumulated on embryo and gamete manipulation in livestock animals. The present work is a review of these techniques and their possible application in human embryology in specific cases. It is possible to manipulate gametes at different levels, producing paternal or maternal haploid embryos (hemicloning), using different techniques including nuclear transfer. At the embryonic stage, considering practical, ethical and legal issues, techniques will be reviewed that include cloning and embryo splitting at the cleavage stage, morula, or blastocyst stage.

  19. Scalable Techniques for Formal Verification

    CERN Document Server

    Ray, Sandip

    2010-01-01

    This book presents state-of-the-art approaches to formal verification techniques to seamlessly integrate different formal verification methods within a single logical foundation. It should benefit researchers and practitioners looking to get a broad overview of the spectrum of formal verification techniques, as well as approaches to combining such techniques within a single framework. Coverage includes a range of case studies showing how such combination is fruitful in developing a scalable verification methodology for industrial designs. This book outlines both theoretical and practical issue

  20. Statistical Techniques for Project Control

    CERN Document Server

    Badiru, Adedeji B

    2012-01-01

    A project can be simple or complex. In each case, proven project management processes must be followed. In all cases of project management implementation, control must be exercised in order to assure that project objectives are achieved. Statistical Techniques for Project Control seamlessly integrates qualitative and quantitative tools and techniques for project control. It fills the void that exists in the application of statistical techniques to project control. The book begins by defining the fundamentals of project management then explores how to temper quantitative analysis with qualitati

  1. Modern techniques of surface science

    CERN Document Server

    Woodruff, D Phil

    2016-01-01

    This fully revised, updated and reorganised third edition provides a thorough introduction to the characterisation techniques used in surface science and nanoscience today. Each chapter brings together and compares the different techniques used to address a particular research question, including how to determine the surface composition, surface structure, surface electronic structure, surface microstructure at different length scales (down to sub-molecular), and the molecular character of adsorbates and their adsorption or reaction properties. Readers will easily understand the relative strengths and limitations of the techniques available to them and, ultimately, will be able to select the most suitable techniques for their own particular research purposes. This is an essential resource for researchers and practitioners performing materials analysis, and for senior undergraduate students looking to gain a clear understanding of the underlying principles and applications of the different characterisation tec...

  2. Swabs and other sampling techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, J C; Ameen, H

    1998-05-01

    This study explores the absorptive capacity of standard cotton wool-tipped swabs in vitro and in vivo. An alternative wound exudate sampling technique using small filter paper discs is also briefly examined. Results showed a poor uniformity of fluid absorption by swabs and a limited correlation of wound exudate quantities in relation to visual estimates and size of wound. It was found, however, that swabs reliably removed material from a wound surface. The filter paper technique appeared to offer no advantages.

  3. RECAT - Redundant Channel Alignment Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES NUWC2015 14. ABSTRACT A problem in the analog-to- digital , (A/D), conversion of broadband tape recorded...Alignment Technique, is used to align data taken on one pass with data from any other pass. The accuracy of this alignment is a function of the digital ...Redundant Channel Alignment Technique; analog-to- digital ; A/D; Broadband Bearing Time Processing 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF

  4. Simple techniques can increase motivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, E.A.

    1982-12-01

    Productivity depends upon strong motivation. This article describes how the symptoms of weak motivation can be detected among engineers and other employees and what to do about it. Fortunately, most people want to be productive and respond to simple motivation building techniques. These techniques include establishing twoway communication between supervisor and subordinate, delegating authority on the basis of responsibility, effective organization of time, and the use of positive reinforcement (or rewards) and, when conditions merit it, negative reinforcement (or sanctions).

  5. Discovering the Botnet Detection Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Aneel; Bin Muhaya, Fahad T.

    Botnet is a network of compromised computers. It just fellow the master slave concept. Bots are comprised computers and do the tasks what ever their master orders them. Internet Relay Chat (IRC) is used for the communication between the master and bots. Information is also encrypted to avoid the effect of third party. In this paper we discuss the Botnets detection techniques and comparative analysis of these techniques on the basis of DNS query, History data and group activity.

  6. Survey of semantic modeling techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.L.

    1975-07-01

    The analysis of the semantics of programing languages was attempted with numerous modeling techniques. By providing a brief survey of these techniques together with an analysis of their applicability for answering semantic issues, this report attempts to illuminate the state-of-the-art in this area. The intent is to be illustrative rather than thorough in the coverage of semantic models. A bibliography is included for the reader who is interested in pursuing this area of research in more detail.

  7. Review of advanced imaging techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathology informatics encompasses digital imaging and related applications. Several specialized microscopy techniques have emerged which permit the acquisition of digital images ("optical biopsies" at high resolution. Coupled with fiber-optic and micro-optic components, some of these imaging techniques (e.g., optical coherence tomography are now integrated with a wide range of imaging devices such as endoscopes, laparoscopes, catheters, and needles that enable imaging inside the body. These advanced imaging modalities have exciting diagnostic potential and introduce new opportunities in pathology. Therefore, it is important that pathology informaticists understand these advanced imaging techniques and the impact they have on pathology. This paper reviews several recently developed microscopic techniques, including diffraction-limited methods (e.g., confocal microscopy, 2-photon microscopy, 4Pi microscopy, and spatially modulated illumination microscopy and subdiffraction techniques (e.g., photoactivated localization microscopy, stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy, and stimulated emission depletion microscopy. This article serves as a primer for pathology informaticists, highlighting the fundamentals and applications of advanced optical imaging techniques.

  8. Microscopy techniques in flavivirus research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Mun Keat; Chua, Anthony Jin Shun; Tan, Terence Tze Tong; Tan, Suat Hoon; Ng, Mah Lee

    2014-04-01

    The Flavivirus genus is composed of many medically important viruses that cause high morbidity and mortality, which include Dengue and West Nile viruses. Various molecular and biochemical techniques have been developed in the endeavour to study flaviviruses. However, microscopy techniques still have irreplaceable roles in the identification of novel virus pathogens and characterization of morphological changes in virus-infected cells. Fluorescence microscopy contributes greatly in understanding the fundamental viral protein localizations and virus-host protein interactions during infection. Electron microscopy remains the gold standard for visualizing ultra-structural features of virus particles and infected cells. New imaging techniques and combinatory applications are continuously being developed to push the limit of resolution and extract more quantitative data. Currently, correlative live cell imaging and high resolution three-dimensional imaging have already been achieved through the tandem use of optical and electron microscopy in analyzing biological specimens. Microscopy techniques are also used to measure protein binding affinities and determine the mobility pattern of proteins in cells. This chapter will consolidate on the applications of various well-established microscopy techniques in flavivirus research, and discuss how recently developed microscopy techniques can potentially help advance our understanding in these membrane viruses.

  9. Indirect bonding technique in orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kübra Yıldırım

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ‘Direct Bonding Technique’ which allows the fixed orthodontic appliances to be directly bonded to teeth without using bands decreased the clinic time for bracket bonding and increased esthetics and oral hygiene during orthodontic treatment. However, mistakes in bracket positioning were observed due to decreased direct visual sight and access to posterior teeth. ‘Indirect Bonding Technique’ was developed for eliminating these problems. Initially, decreased bond strength, higher bond failure rate, periodontal tissue irritation, compromised oral hygiene and increased laboratory time were the main disadvantages of this technique when compared to direct bonding. The newly developed materials and modified techniques help to eliminate these negative consequences. Today, the brackets bonded with indirect technique have similar bond strength with brackets bonded directly. Moreover, indirect and direct bonding techniques have similar effects on periodontal tissues. However, indirect bonding technique requires more attention and precision in laboratory and clinical stage, and has higher cost. Orthodontist's preference between these two bonding techniques may differ according to time spent in laboratory and clinic, cost, patient comfort and personal opinion.

  10. Genetic techniques for the archaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Joel A; Picking, Jonathan W; Santangelo, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    Genetic techniques for the Archaea have undergone a rapid expansion in complexity, resulting in increased exploration of the role of Archaea in the environment and detailed analyses of the molecular physiology and information-processing systems in the third domain of life. Complementary gains in describing the ever-increasing diversity of archaeal organisms have allowed these techniques to be leveraged in new and imaginative ways to elucidate shared and unique aspects of archaeal diversity and metabolism. In this review, we introduce the four archaeal clades for which advanced genetic techniques are available--the methanogens, halophiles, Sulfolobales, and Thermococcales--with the aim of providing an overall profile of the advantages and disadvantages of working within each clade, as essentially all of the genetically accessible archaeal organisms require unique culturing techniques that present real challenges. We discuss the full repertoire of techniques possible within these clades while highlighting the recent advances that have been made by taking advantage of the most prominent techniques and approaches.

  11. [Current techniques in tonsil surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coromina Isern, Jordi; Esteller Moré, Eduard

    2010-12-01

    In recent years, consolidation of tonsillar hypertrophy as the principal surgical procedure has led to the emergence of new techniques. Most aim to reduce volume (tonsillectomy or tonsil reduction). These techniques have considerably decreased intra- and postoperative hemorrhages and pain intensity. The present article describes the mechanisms and the advantages and disadvantages of the various techniques, including electro-dissection using electrical scalpels, reduction using a microdebrider, ultrasonic scalpel, radiofrequency (with its different variations) and CO(2) laser. When techniques that reduce tonsil volume are used, the possibility of recurrence of the tonsillar hypertrophy is high if less than 85% of the tonsil is removed. There is also a considerable possibility of infection of the remaining tonsils, whichever technique is used, and therefore these techniques are not valid in the case of repetitive tonsillitis. Recently, alternatives to classical adenoidectomy using adenoid curette have also appeared. Bleeding can be minimized by using a microdebrider, radiofrequency or a blood coagulator. We also discuss the concept of partial adenoidectomy, which is preferred in patients at risk of velopharyngeal insufficiency.

  12. Nontraditional manufacturing technique-Nano machining technique based on SPM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG; Shen; YAN; Yongda; SUN; Tao; LIANG; Yingchun; CHENG

    2004-01-01

    Nano machining based on SPM is a novel, nontraditional advanced manufacturing technique. There are three main machining methods based on SPM, i.e.single atom manipulation, surface modification using physical or chemical actions and mechanical scratching. The current development of this technique is summarized. Based on the analysis of mechanical scratching mechanism, a 5 μm micro inflation hole is fabricated on the surface of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target. The processing technique is optimized. The machining properties of brittle material, single crystal Ge, are investigated. A micro machining system combining SPM and a high accuracy stage is developed. Some 2D and 3D microstructures are fabricated using the system. This method has broad applications in the field of nano machining.

  13. Modified technique in treating recurrent priapism: a technique report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent ischemic priapism is a problem in clinical treatment. Most of the cases require more invasive surgery to shunt the blood stasis. We introduce a modified technique in treating recurrent ischemic priapism. The technique described is applied to acute ischaemic priapic episodes in patients with a history of stuttering priapism. It was carried out by a Winter's shunt combined with a continuous cavernosal irrigation system. Priapism was effectively resolved on the patients without recurrence. The four patients who received this treatment recovered most sexual function after 6 months follow-up.

  14. LANDING TECHNIQUES IN BEACH VOLLEYBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Tilp

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to establish a detailed and representative record of landing techniques (two-, left-, and right-footed landings in professional beach volleyball and compare the data with those of indoor volleyball. Beach volleyball data was retrieved from videos taken at FIVB World Tour tournaments. Landing techniques were compared in the different beach and indoor volleyball skills serve, set, attack, and block with regard to sex, playing technique, and court position. Significant differences were observed between men and women in landings following block actions (χ²(2 = 18.19, p < 0.01 but not following serve, set, and attack actions. Following blocking, men landed more often on one foot than women. Further differences in landings following serve and attack with regard to playing technique and position were mainly observed in men. The comparison with landing techniques in indoor volleyball revealed overall differences both in men (χ²(2 = 161.4, p < 0.01 and women (χ²(2 = 84.91, p < 0.01. Beach volleyball players land more often on both feet than indoor volleyball players. Besides the softer surface in beach volleyball, and therefore resulting lower loads, these results might be another reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions compared to indoor volleyball

  15. Twin - Arch technique. Revival of the "edgewise -Technique"?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Karp

    2012-01-01

    The SNB – Bracket brings a new dimension into the orthodontic world which is most apparent in extraction cases. Its Teflon – like material has a very low friction coefficient thus, reducing the treatment time considerably. Through the use of low dimensioned arch wires, the Twin – Arch Technique becomes a Light – wire system and simultaneously provides good anchorage and torque control.

  16. Jig for Hole Reaming and Burnishing in Turret Lathe%转塔车床铰挤孔夹具

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张燕

    2007-01-01

    百分表主体部件两端同轴孔的加工工艺有一定的难度,文中利用闲置的转塔车床,设计并制造工艺装备,来完成铰孔和挤孔的工作,确保两端轴孔的尺寸精度、同轴度和粗糙度.

  17. Spreading of Exhaust Jet from 16 Inch Ream Jet at Mach Number 2.0 / Fred Wilcox, Donald Pennington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Fred; Pennington, Donald

    1952-01-01

    An investigation of the jet-spreading characteristics of a 16 inch ram-jet engine was conducted in the 8 by 6 foot supersonic tunnel at a Mach number of 2.0; both a converging nozzle having a contraction ratio of 0.71 and a cylindrical extension to the combustion chamber were used. The jet boundaries determined by means of pitot pressure surveys were compared with boundaries calculated from one-dimensional continuity and momentum relations. For the cylindrical nozzle, the jet reaches its maximum diameter, 4 percent greater than calculated, about 0.6 nozzle-exit diameter downstream of the nozzle exit. The maximum diameter for the converging nozzle was 7 percent greater than calculated from one dimensional relations and occurred from 1 to 1.5 nozzle-exit diameters downstream of the exit. Non dimensional maximum jet diameters agreed closely with results of an investigation by Rousso and Baughman; these data were obtained with low-temperature jets exhausting into a stream at a Mach number of 1.91 from nozzles having exit diameters of 0.75 inch.

  18. Infrared Devices And Techniques (Revision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogalski A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to produce an applications-oriented review covering infrared techniques and devices. At the beginning infrared systems fundamentals are presented with emphasis on thermal emission, scene radiation and contrast, cooling techniques, and optics. Special attention is focused on night vision and thermal imaging concepts. Next section concentrates shortly on selected infrared systems and is arranged in order to increase complexity; from image intensifier systems, thermal imaging systems, to space-based systems. In this section are also described active and passive smart weapon seekers. Finally, other important infrared techniques and devices are shortly described, among them being: non-contact thermometers, radiometers, LIDAR, and infrared gas sensors.

  19. Lead extraction. Indications and techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, C L; Schwartz, S J; Hedin, N

    1992-11-01

    Each of the extraction techniques and their ancillary tools was reported as used successfully; however, until now, no technique has been successful when used in more than a few isolated instances. The technique for intravascular countertraction and the associated tools described in this paper were devised and selected in an attempt to develop one technique to be used on all patients, with all types of leads, and with a very low complication rate. Its versatility permitted single or multiple lead extractions combined with the precision of selecting and extracting a specific lead. In our experience, as well as the experience of others, the techniques described in this paper have proved to be superior by minimizing the inherent risk and morbidity, allowing us to expand the indications for lead removal beyond septicemia and free-floating leads, to include infection, abandonment of pockets, and replacement of malfunctioning or fractured leads. Intravascular countertraction was a consistently safe and efficacious method of removing transvenous pacemaker leads regardless of the duration of the implant, thus permitting extractions in patients not considered candidates for a more extensive surgical procedure. Intravascular countertraction encompasses surgical and fluoroscopic techniques possessed by most physicians experienced in pacemaker and automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator implants. However, there is a learning curve, predicating caution for the inexperienced physician. In addition, advanced surgical skills may be needed in handling associated conditions such as debridement and primary closure of chronically inflamed tissues, especially in submuscular pockets and sinus tracts in the neck. Although the potential for a cardiovascular complication is small, it does exist, and cardiovascular surgical backup is a recommended precaution.

  20. Resolution enhancement techniques in microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Christoph; Masters, Barry R.

    2013-05-01

    We survey the history of resolution enhancement techniques in microscopy and their impact on current research in biomedicine. Often these techniques are labeled superresolution, or enhanced resolution microscopy, or light-optical nanoscopy. First, we introduce the development of diffraction theory in its relation to enhanced resolution; then we explore the foundations of resolution as expounded by the astronomers and the physicists and describe the conditions for which they apply. Then we elucidate Ernst Abbe's theory of optical formation in the microscope, and its experimental verification and dissemination to the world wide microscope communities. Second, we describe and compare the early techniques that can enhance the resolution of the microscope. Third, we present the historical development of various techniques that substantially enhance the optical resolution of the light microscope. These enhanced resolution techniques in their modern form constitute an active area of research with seminal applications in biology and medicine. Our historical survey of the field of resolution enhancement uncovers many examples of reinvention, rediscovery, and independent invention and development of similar proposals, concepts, techniques, and instruments. Attribution of credit is therefore confounded by the fact that for understandable reasons authors stress the achievements from their own research groups and sometimes obfuscate their contributions and the prior art of others. In some cases, attribution of credit is also made more complex by the fact that long term developments are difficult to allocate to a specific individual because of the many mutual connections often existing between sometimes fiercely competing, sometimes strongly collaborating groups. Since applications in biology and medicine have been a major driving force in the development of resolution enhancing approaches, we focus on the contribution of enhanced resolution to these fields.

  1. Surface analysis the principal techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Vickerman, John C

    2009-01-01

    This completely updated and revised second edition of Surface Analysis: The Principal Techniques, deals with the characterisation and understanding of the outer layers of substrates, how they react, look and function which are all of interest to surface scientists. Within this comprehensive text, experts in each analysis area introduce the theory and practice of the principal techniques that have shown themselves to be effective in both basic research and in applied surface analysis. Examples of analysis are provided to facilitate the understanding of this topic and to show readers how they c

  2. Development of laser decontamination technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Ryuichiro; Fukui, Yasutaka; Tanimoto, Kenichi [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    2002-06-01

    For decommissioning of nuclear fuel facilities, a laser decontamination technique has been developed. The technique was expected to decontaminate high-level radioactive waste to back ground levels, keep the amount of secondary waste low, and be operated by remote control. In the development, a decontamination experiment was executed. Type and operation mode of the laser oscillator, Type and flow rate of the assist gas, repetition rate of the laser pulse, moving velocity of the laser nozzle and irradiation energy were parameters in the experiment. Hot radioactive waste could be decontaminated to background levels uniformly with optimized parameters, which were determined by comparative evaluation. (author)

  3. High-speed pulse techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Coekin, J A

    1975-01-01

    High-Speed Pulse Techniques covers the many aspects of technique in digital electronics and encompass some of the more fundamental factors that apply to all digital systems. The book describes the nature of pulse signals and their deliberate or inadvertent processing in networks, transmission lines and transformers, and then examines the characteristics and transient performance of semiconductor devices and integrated circuits. Some of the problems associated with the assembly of these into viable systems operating at ultra high speed are also looked at. The book examines the transients and w

  4. Multiple frequency atmospheric radar techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stitt, Gary Richard

    The use of multiple frequency coding to improve the vertical resolution of pulsed-Doppler very high frequency atmospheric radars, especially with regards to the two-frequency techniques known as frequency domain interferometry (FDI), is presented. This technique consists of transmitting alternate pulses on two distinct carrier frequencies. The two resulting time series are used to evaluate the normalized cross-correlation function, whose magnitude and phase are related to the thickness and position of a scattering layer. These same time series are also used to evaluate cross-spectra, which yield magnitude and phase values for each Doppler frequency component of the return signal.

  5. CLEAN Technique for Polarimetric ISAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Martorella

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR images are often used for classifying and recognising targets. To reduce the amount of data processed by the classifier, scattering centres are extracted from the ISAR image and used for classifying and recognising targets. This paper addresses the problem of estimating the position and the scattering vector of target scattering centres from polarimetric ISAR images. The proposed technique is obtained by extending the CLEAN technique, which was introduced in radar imaging for extracting scattering centres from single-polarisation ISAR images. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, namely, the Polarimetric CLEAN (Pol-CLEAN is tested on simulated and real data.

  6. Simple technique for facial dimple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Hassan El-Sabbagh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Subjects seeking aesthetic surgery for facial dimples are increasing in number. Literature on dimple creation surgery are sparse. Various techniques have been used with their own merits and disadvantages. Materials and Methods: Facial dimples were created in 23 cases. All the subjects were females. Five cases were bilateral and the rest were unilateral. Results: Minor complications such as swelling and hematoma were observed in four cases. Infection occurred in two cases. Most of the subjects were satisfied with the results. Conclusions: Suturing technique is safe, reliable and an easily reproducible way to create facial dimple. Level of Evidence: IV: Case series.

  7. Computerized proof techniques for undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher J.; Tefera, Akalu; Zeleke, Aklilu

    2012-12-01

    The use of computer algebra systems such as Maple and Mathematica is becoming increasingly important and widespread in mathematics learning, teaching and research. In this article, we present computerized proof techniques of Gosper, Wilf-Zeilberger and Zeilberger that can be used for enhancing the teaching and learning of topics in discrete mathematics. We demonstrate by examples how one can use these computerized proof techniques to raise students' interests in the discovery and proof of mathematical identities and enhance their problem-solving skills.

  8. Computer animation algorithms and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Parent, Rick

    2012-01-01

    Driven by the demands of research and the entertainment industry, the techniques of animation are pushed to render increasingly complex objects with ever-greater life-like appearance and motion. This rapid progression of knowledge and technique impacts professional developers, as well as students. Developers must maintain their understanding of conceptual foundations, while their animation tools become ever more complex and specialized. The second edition of Rick Parent's Computer Animation is an excellent resource for the designers who must meet this challenge. The first edition establ

  9. EDITORIAL: Imaging Systems and Techniques Imaging Systems and Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giakos, George; Yang, Wuqiang; Petrou, M.; Nikita, K. S.; Pastorino, M.; Amanatiadis, A.; Zentai, G.

    2011-10-01

    This special feature on Imaging Systems and Techniques comprises 27 technical papers, covering essential facets in imaging systems and techniques both in theory and applications, from research groups spanning three different continents. It mainly contains peer-reviewed articles from the IEEE International Conference on Imaging Systems and Techniques (IST 2011), held in Thessaloniki, Greece, as well a number of articles relevant to the scope of this issue. The multifaceted field of imaging requires drastic adaptation to the rapid changes in our society, economy, environment, and the technological revolution; there is an urgent need to address and propose dynamic and innovative solutions to problems that tend to be either complex and static or rapidly evolving with a lot of unknowns. For instance, exploration of the engineering and physical principles of new imaging systems and techniques for medical applications, remote sensing, monitoring of space resources and enhanced awareness, exploration and management of natural resources, and environmental monitoring, are some of the areas that need to be addressed with urgency. Similarly, the development of efficient medical imaging techniques capable of providing physiological information at the molecular level is another important area of research. Advanced metabolic and functional imaging techniques, operating on multiple physical principles, using high resolution and high selectivity nanoimaging techniques, can play an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, as well as provide efficient drug-delivery imaging solutions for disease treatment with increased sensitivity and specificity. On the other hand, technical advances in the development of efficient digital imaging systems and techniques and tomographic devices operating on electric impedance tomography, computed tomography, single-photon emission and positron emission tomography detection principles are anticipated to have a significant impact on a

  10. Digital synchronization and communication techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, William C.

    1992-01-01

    Information on digital synchronization and communication techniques is given in viewgraph form. Topics covered include phase shift keying, modems, characteristics of open loop digital synchronizers, an open loop phase and frequency estimator, and a digital receiver structure using an open loop estimator in a decision directed architecture.

  11. Teaching Techniques in Clinical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Diane

    This master's thesis presents several instructional methods and techniques developed for each of eleven topics or subject areas in clinical chemistry: carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, diagnostic enzymology, endocrinology, toxicology, quality control, electrolytes, acid base balance, hepatic function, nonprotein nitrogenous compounds, and…

  12. Hlaallele Detection Using Molecular Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip A. Dyer

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available There are now many molecular biological techniques available to define HLA class I and class II alleles. Some of these are also applicable to other human polymorphic genes, in particular to those non-HLA genes encoded within the Mhc. The range of techniques available allows laboratories to choose those most suited to their purpose. The routine laboratory supporting solid organ transplants will need to type large numbers of potential recipients over a period of time, probably using PCR-SSOP while donors will be typed singly and rapidly using PCR-SSP with HLA allele compatibility determined by heteroduplex analysis. Laboratories supporting bone marrow transplantation, where time is less pressing, can choose from the whole range of techniques to determine accurately donor recipient Mhc compatibility. For disease studies, techniques defining precise HLA allele sequence polymorphisms are needed and high sample numbers have to be accommodated. When an association is established allele sequencing has to be used. In the near future, the precise role of HLA alleles in transplantation and disease susceptibility is likely to be established unambiguously.

  13. Advances of the IBIC technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breese, M.B.H.; Laird, J.S.; Jamieson, D.N. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1993-12-31

    The ion beam induced charge (IBIC) technique has been used for a wide variety of analytical applications in the study of semiconductor materials. This paper briefly reviews these uses and identifies those areas which require further development in order to facilitate the more widespread use of the IBIC method. Progress towards implementing these improvements is discussed. 14 refs., 1 fig.

  14. Advances phase-lock techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Crawford, James A

    2008-01-01

    From cellphones to micrprocessors, to GPS navigation, phase-lock techniques are utilized in most all modern electronic devices. This high-level book takes a systems-level perspective, rather than circuit-level, which differentiates it from other books in the field.

  15. Microprocessor Simulation: A Training Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oscarson, David J.

    1982-01-01

    Describes the design and application of a microprocessor simulation using BASIC for formal training of technicians and managers and as a management tool. Illustrates the utility of the modular approach for the instruction and practice of decision-making techniques. (SK)

  16. Practical Techniques for Achieving Consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, John A.

    Consensus is important in the making of a policy decision. If a decision is reached without consensus, morale and unit satisfaction may both suffer. With genuine consensus, a unit tends to willingly support and implement the new policy. After analyzing how observed small groups had actually reached consensus, the following ten techniques were…

  17. DEMINERALIZATION AND REMINERALIZATION EVALUATION TECHNIQUES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ARENDS, J; TENBOSCH, JJ

    1992-01-01

    This paper compares the experimental techniques utilized to assess the de- or remineralization of enamel or dentin in intra-oral studies. In in situ studies, it is important for one to know how much mineral has been lost or gained, and where the loss or gain occurred. The main emphasis in this paper

  18. Dressing Technique for Intermediate Hierarchies

    OpenAIRE

    Holod, P.; Pakuliak, S.

    1994-01-01

    A generalized AKNS systems introduced and discussed recently in \\cite{dGHM} are considered. It was shown that the dressing technique both in matrix pseudo-differential operators and formal series with respect to the spectral parameter can be developed for these hierarchies.

  19. Uranium Detection - Technique Validation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colletti, Lisa Michelle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Division; Garduno, Katherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Division; Lujan, Elmer J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Division; Mechler-Hickson, Alexandra Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Division; Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); May, Iain [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Division; Reilly, Sean Douglas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Division

    2016-04-14

    As a LANL activity for DOE/NNSA in support of SHINE Medical Technologies™ ‘Accelerator Technology’ we have been investigating the application of UV-vis spectroscopy for uranium analysis in solution. While the technique has been developed specifically for sulfate solutions, the proposed SHINE target solutions, it can be adapted to a range of different solution matrixes. The FY15 work scope incorporated technical development that would improve accuracy, specificity, linearity & range, precision & ruggedness, and comparative analysis. Significant progress was achieved throughout FY 15 addressing these technical challenges, as is summarized in this report. In addition, comparative analysis of unknown samples using the Davies-Gray titration technique highlighted the importance of controlling temperature during analysis (impacting both technique accuracy and linearity/range). To fully understand the impact of temperature, additional experimentation and data analyses were performed during FY16. The results from this FY15/FY16 work were presented in a detailed presentation, LA-UR-16-21310, and an update of this presentation is included with this short report summarizing the key findings. The technique is based on analysis of the most intense U(VI) absorbance band in the visible region of the uranium spectra in 1 M H2SO4, at λmax = 419.5 nm.

  20. Biomedical engineering and rehabilitation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaussens, G.; Jouve, B.; Laizier, J. (Office des Rayonnements Ionisants, CEN Saclay (France))

    The authors outline the programmes set up by the ORIS for the development of biomaterials and rehabilitation products using the radiochemical techniques. They then discuss the development of instruments designed to make the handling and use of radioactive isotopes easier for users.

  1. Wavelength conversion techniques and devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Søren Lykke; Mikkelsen, Benny; Hansen, Peter Bukhave

    1997-01-01

    interesting for use in WDM optical fibre networks. However, the perfect converter has probably not yet been fabricated and new techniques such as conversion relying on cross-absorption modulation in electro-absorption modulators might also be considered in pursue of effective conversion devices...

  2. New techniques in digital holography

    CERN Document Server

    Picart, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    A state of the art presentation of important advances in the field of digital holography, detailing advances related to fundamentals of digital holography, in-line holography applied to fluid mechanics, digital color holography, digital holographic microscopy, infrared holography, special techniques in full field vibrometry and inverse problems in digital holography

  3. FUTURE ENGINEER TRAINING: MOTIVATING TECHNIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The motivating techniques for training future engineer are proposed. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations in professional training have been analyzed. The peculiarities of the formation process of students’ motivation in learning language at non-language universities have been systematized. Heuristic training technology based on students’ motivation to cognitive research has been implemented.

  4. Thematic Repetition as Rhetorical Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jo

    1991-01-01

    Explores William Harvey's work, "On the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals." Highlights Harvey's fear of publication and his strategies for reducing resistance to his ideas. Underscores his use of circular references, metaphors, and organizational techniques that enhance and demonstrate his underlying thesis. (SG)

  5. Generalized fast automatic differentiation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evtushenko, Yu. G.; Zubov, V. I.

    2016-11-01

    A new efficient technique intended for the numerical solution of a broad class of optimal control problems for complicated dynamical systems described by ordinary and/or partial differential equations is investigated. In this approach, canonical formulas are derived to precisely calculate the objective function gradient for a chosen finite-dimensional approximation of the objective functional.

  6. Techniques for evaluating cash flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvestre, J; Urbancic, F

    1994-01-01

    Jean Sylvestre, Ph.D., and Frank Urbancic, D.B.A., CPA, of the University of South Alabama, write that because of the financial challenges for health care, cash flow problems can arise. They offer techniques for interpreting and evaluating cash flow information as a means to more effective decision making.

  7. A measurement technique for hydroxyacetone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klotz, P.J.

    1999-10-04

    Hydroxyacetone (HA) is mainly produced in the atmosphere from oxidation of hydrocarbons of the type, CH{sub 3}(R)C{double{underscore}bond}CH{sub 2}. Tuazon and Atkinson (1990) reported HA yield of 41% from the OH-initiated oxidation of methacrolein in the presence of NOx. Since methacrolein is a major product of isoprene oxidation (Carter and Atkinson, 1996), isoprene, a key biogenic hydrocarbon, is therefore expected to be an important source for HA. Consequently, knowledge of ambient concentration of HA would provide information needed to examine the applicability of isoprene reaction mechanisms developed in laboratory and to assess the contribution of isoprene to photooxidant production. The commonly used GC-FID technique involving cryo-focusing is unsuitable for HA owing to HA's thermal instability. When subjected to a temperature of 100 C for only a few seconds, HA was found to disappear completely. Since HA is highly soluble in water, the authors developed a wet chemical technique similar in principle to the one they reported earlier, namely, derivatization following liquid scrubbing. To increase the sensitivity, they adopted a fluorescence detection scheme based on o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) chemistry. The technique was deployed in the field during two measurement periods at a NARSTO site located on Long Island, New York. The authors report the principle and the operation of this technique and the results obtained from these field studies.

  8. Schlenk Techniques for Anionic Polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Ratkanthwar, Kedar

    2015-09-01

    Anionic polymerization-high vacuum techniques (HVTs) are doubtlessly the most prominent and reliable experimental tools to prepare polymer samples with well-defined and, in many cases, complex macromolecular architectures. Due to the high demands for time and skilled technical personnel, HVTs are currently used in only a few research laboratories worldwide. Instead, most researchers in this filed are attracted to more facile Schlenk techniques. The basic principle of this technique followed in all laboratories is substantially the same, i.e. the use of alternate vacuum and inert gas atmosphere in glass apparatus for the purification/charging of monomer, solvents, additives, and for the manipulation of air-sensitive compounds such as alkyl metal initiators, organometallic or organic catalysts. However, it is executed quite differently in each research group in terms of the structure of Schlenk apparatus (manifolds, connections, purification/storage flasks, reactors, etc.), the use of small supplementary devices (soft tubing, cannulas, stopcocks, etc.) and experimental procedures. The operational methods are partly purpose-oriented while also featured by a high flexibility, which makes it impossible to describe in detail each specific one. In this chapter we will briefly exemplify the application of Schlenk techniques for anionic polymerization by describing the performance of a few experiments from our own work.

  9. Quantitative Techniques in Volumetric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, John; Jacobsen, Jerrold J.

    1996-12-01

    Quantitative Techniques in Volumetric Analysis is a visual library of techniques used in making volumetric measurements. This 40-minute VHS videotape is designed as a resource for introducing students to proper volumetric methods and procedures. The entire tape, or relevant segments of the tape, can also be used to review procedures used in subsequent experiments that rely on the traditional art of quantitative analysis laboratory practice. The techniques included are: Quantitative transfer of a solid with a weighing spoon Quantitative transfer of a solid with a finger held weighing bottle Quantitative transfer of a solid with a paper strap held bottle Quantitative transfer of a solid with a spatula Examples of common quantitative weighing errors Quantitative transfer of a solid from dish to beaker to volumetric flask Quantitative transfer of a solid from dish to volumetric flask Volumetric transfer pipet A complete acid-base titration Hand technique variations The conventional view of contemporary quantitative chemical measurement tends to focus on instrumental systems, computers, and robotics. In this view, the analyst is relegated to placing standards and samples on a tray. A robotic arm delivers a sample to the analysis center, while a computer controls the analysis conditions and records the results. In spite of this, it is rare to find an analysis process that does not rely on some aspect of more traditional quantitative analysis techniques, such as careful dilution to the mark of a volumetric flask. Figure 2. Transfer of a solid with a spatula. Clearly, errors in a classical step will affect the quality of the final analysis. Because of this, it is still important for students to master the key elements of the traditional art of quantitative chemical analysis laboratory practice. Some aspects of chemical analysis, like careful rinsing to insure quantitative transfer, are often an automated part of an instrumental process that must be understood by the

  10. Advanced Tools and Techniques for Formal Techniques in Aerospace Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, John C.

    2005-01-01

    This is the final technical report for grant number NAG-1-02101. The title of this grant was "Advanced Tools and Techniques for Formal Techniques In Aerospace Systems". The principal investigator on this grant was Dr. John C. Knight of the Computer Science Department, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904-4740. This report summarizes activities under the grant during the period 7/01/2002 to 9/30/2004. This report is organized as follows. In section 2, the technical background of the grant is summarized. Section 3 lists accomplishments and section 4 lists students funded under the grant. In section 5, we present a list of presentations given at various academic and research institutions about the research conducted. Finally, a list of publications generated under this grant is included in section 6.

  11. Fracture Union in Closed Interlocking Nail in Humeral Shaft Fractures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramji Lal Sahu; Rajni Ranjan; Ajay Lal

    2015-01-01

    Background:Fracture shaft humerus is a major cause of morbidity in patients with upper extremity injuries.The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of interlocking nail in humeral shaft fractures.Methods:This study was conducted in the Department of Orthopedic Surgery in SMS and R Sharda University from January 2010 to November 2013.Seventy-eight patients were recruited from emergency and out-patient department having a close fracture of humerus shaft.All patients were operated under general anesthesia and closed reamed interlocking nailing was done.All patients were followed for 9 months.Results:Out of 78 patients,69 patients underwent union in 90-150 days with a mean of 110.68 days.Complications found in four patients who had nonunion,and five patients had delayed union,which was treated with bone grafting.All the patients were assessed clinically and radiologically for fracture healing,joint movements and implant failure.The results were excellent in 88.46% and good in 6.41% patients.Complete subjective,functional,and clinical recovery had occurred in almost 100% of the patients.Conclusions:The results of the present study indicates that in the presence of proper indications,reamed antegrade intramedullary interlocked nailing appears to be a method of choice for internal fixation of osteoporotic and pathologic fractures.

  12. Higher-order techniques in computational electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Graglia, Roberto D

    2016-01-01

    Higher-Order Techniques in Computational Electromagnetics explains 'high-order' techniques that can significantly improve the accuracy, computational cost, and reliability of computational techniques for high-frequency electromagnetics, such as antennas, microwave devices and radar scattering applications.

  13. Pinch Technique: Theory and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Binosi, D; 10.1016/j.physrep.2009.05.001

    2009-01-01

    We review the theoretical foundations and most important physical applications of the Pinch Technique (PT). This method allows the construction of off-shell Green's functions in non-Abelian gauge theories that are independent of the gauge-fixing parameter and satisfy ghost-free Ward identities. We first present the diagrammatic formulation of the technique in QCD, deriving at one loop the gauge independent gluon self-energy, quark-gluon vertex, and three-gluon vertex, together with their Abelian Ward identities. The generalization to theories with spontaneous symmetry breaking is carried out in detail, and the connection with the optical theorem and the dispersion relations are explained within the electroweak sector of the Standard Model. The equivalence between the PT and the Feynman gauge of the Background Field Method (BFM) is elaborated, and the crucial differences between the two methods are critically scrutinized. The Batalin-Vilkovisky quantization method and the general formalism of algebraic renorma...

  14. Data mining concepts and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Jiawei

    2005-01-01

    Our ability to generate and collect data has been increasing rapidly. Not only are all of our business, scientific, and government transactions now computerized, but the widespread use of digital cameras, publication tools, and bar codes also generate data. On the collection side, scanned text and image platforms, satellite remote sensing systems, and the World Wide Web have flooded us with a tremendous amount of data. This explosive growth has generated an even more urgent need for new techniques and automated tools that can help us transform this data into useful information and knowledge.Like the first edition, voted the most popular data mining book by KD Nuggets readers, this book explores concepts and techniques for the discovery of patterns hidden in large data sets, focusing on issues relating to their feasibility, usefulness, effectiveness, and scalability. However, since the publication of the first edition, great progress has been made in the development of new data mining methods, systems, and app...

  15. UML-ising formal techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Dines; George, Chris W.; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2004-01-01

    these different UML views are unified, integrated, correlated or merely co-located is for others to dispute. We also seek to support multiple views, but are also in no doubt that there must be sound, well defined relations between such views. We thus report on ways and means of integrating formal techniques...... Modeling Language [10,67,36,20] has caused, for one reason or another, the research community to try formalise one or another facet of UML. In this paper we report on another way to achieve what UML attempts to achieve: Broadness of application, convenience of notation, and multiplicity of views. Whether...... techniques, one that can be believably deployed for as wide a spectrum, or even a wider spectrum of software (and hardware) development, as, respectively than UML....

  16. Nanorobotics current approaches and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    Nanorobot devices now perform a wide variety of tasks at the nanoscale in a wide variety of fields including but not limited to fields such as manufacturing, medicine, supply chain, biology, and outer space. Nanorobotics: Current Approaches and Techniques is a comprehensive overview of this interdisciplinary field with a wide ranging discussion that includes nano-manipulation and industrial nanorobotics, nanorobotics in biology and medicine, nanorobotic sensing, navigation and swarm behavior, and protein and DNA-based nanorobotics. Also included is the latest on topics such as bio-nano-actuators and propulsion and navigation of nanorobotic systems using magnetic fields. Nanorobotics: Current Approaches and Techniques is an ideal book for scientists, researchers, and engineers actively involved in applied and robotic research and development.

  17. Embodying embodied design research techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilde, Danielle; Tomico, Oscar; Lucero, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    ideation, communication and collaboration techniques enable enhanced creative engagement and assist creativity [2]. By applying such methods to the problem of their reporting, we hope to deepen understanding of how to move towards enriched, nuanced and repeatable methods for embodied design and knowledge...... propose to investigate how embodied research techniques may be used as direct and unmediated vehicles for their own reporting. Rather than engaging in oral presentations, participants will lead other workshop participants through a proven embodied method or approach. Small groups will create mash...... of reporting embodied experiments, so that intangible elements are not lost. Participants will be supported to reflect on unfolding discoveries, to share impressions, as well as outcomes, including documentation experiments that aim to tangibly capture and communicate the processes undertaken. Embodied...

  18. Apoptosis Evaluation by Electrochemical Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jian; Miao, Peng

    2016-03-01

    Apoptosis has close relevance to pathology, pharmacology, and toxicology. Accurate and convenient detection of apoptosis would be beneficial for biological study, clinical diagnosis, and drug development. Based on distinct features of apoptotic cells, a diversity of analytical techniques have been exploited for sensitive analysis of apoptosis, such as surface plasmon resonance, electrochemical methods, flow cytometry, and some imaging assays. Among them, the features of simplicity, easy operation, low cost, and high sensitivity make electrochemical techniques powerful tools to investigate electron-transfer processes of in vitro biological systems. In this contribution, a general overview of current knowledge on various technical approaches for apoptosis evaluation is provided. Furthermore, recently developed electrochemical biosensors for detecting apoptotic cells and their advantages over traditional methods are summarized. One of the main considerations focuses on designing the recognition elements based on various biochemical events during apoptosis.

  19. The ancient Chinese casting techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Derui

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the course of Chinese civilization, which lasted more than 5,000 years, casting production has made a huge contribution. In this paper, some representative metal castings were presented. According to their forming techniques, they can be grouped into stone mould casting, clay mould casting, ablation casting, lost wax casting, stack casting, permanent mould casting, sand casting, etc. According to their materials, they can be categorized into tin bronze, bimetallic bronze, malleable cast iron, ductile cast iron, brass, cupronickel alloy (Packtong, etc. According to their surface decorative techniques they can be devided into gem inlay, gilding, gold and silver inlay, copper inlay, engraved decoration, surface tin-enrichment, mother-of-pearl inlay, burnished works with gold or silver inlay, surface coloring and cloisonné enamel, etc.

  20. Historical Techniques of Lie Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Vicianova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Since time immemorial, lying has been a part of everyday life. For this reason, it has become a subject of interest in several disciplines, including psychology. The purpose of this article is to provide a general overview of the literature and thinking to date about the evolution of lie detection techniques. The first part explores ancient methods recorded circa 1000 B.C. (e.g., God’s judgment in Europe. The second part describes technical methods based on sciences such as phrenology, polygraph and graphology. This is followed by an outline of more modern-day approaches such as FACS (Facial Action Coding System, functional MRI, and Brain Fingerprinting. Finally, after the familiarization with the historical development of techniques for lie detection, we discuss the scope for new initiatives not only in the area of designing new methods, but also for the research into lie detection itself, such as its motives and regulatory issues related to deception.

  1. Barley Transformation Using Biolistic Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Wendy A.; Smedley, Mark A.

    Microprojectile bombardment or biolistic techniques have been widely used for cereal transformation. These methods rely on the acceleration of gold particles, coated with plasmid DNA, into plant cells as a method of directly introducing the DNA. The first report of the generation of fertile, transgenic barley plants used biolistic techniques. However, more recently Agrobacterium-mediated transformation has been adopted as the method of choice for most cereals including barley. Biolistic procedures are still important for some barley transformation applications and also provide transient test systems for the rapid checking of constructs. This chapter describes methods for the transformation of barley using biolistic procedures and also highlights the use of the technology in transient assays.

  2. Submucosal tunneling techniques: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobara H

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hideki Kobara,1 Hirohito Mori,1 Kazi Rafiq,2 Shintaro Fujihara,1 Noriko Nishiyama,1 Maki Ayaki,1 Tatsuo Yachida,1 Tae Matsunaga,1 Johji Tani,1 Hisaaki Miyoshi,1 Hirohito Yoneyama,1 Asahiro Morishita,1 Makoto Oryu,1 Hisakazu Iwama,3 Tsutomu Masaki1 1Department of Gastroenterology and Neurology, 2Department of Pharmacology, 3Life Science Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Miki-cho, Kita-Gun, Kagawa, Japan Abstract: Advances in endoscopic submucosal dissection include a submucosal tunneling technique, involving the introduction of tunnels into the submucosa. These tunnels permit safer offset entry into the peritoneal cavity for natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery. Technical advantages include the visual identification of the layers of the gut, blood vessels, and subepithelial tumors. The creation of a mucosal flap that minimizes air and fluid leakage into the extraluminal cavity can enhance the safety and efficacy of surgery. This submucosal tunneling technique was adapted for esophageal myotomy, culminating in its application to patients with achalasia. This method, known as per oral endoscopic myotomy, has opened up the new discipline of submucosal endoscopic surgery. Other clinical applications of the submucosal tunneling technique include its use in the removal of gastrointestinal subepithelial tumors and endomicroscopy for the diagnosis of functional and motility disorders. This review suggests that the submucosal tunneling technique, involving a mucosal safety flap, can have potential values for future endoscopic developments. Keywords: submucosal endoscopy, submucosal tunneling method, natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery, peroral endoscopic myotomy, gastrointestinal subepithelial tumor, functional and motility disorders

  3. Radar techniques using array antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Wirth, Wulf-Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Radar Techniques Using Array Antennas is a thorough introduction to the possibilities of radar technology based on electronic steerable and active array antennas. Topics covered include array signal processing, array calibration, adaptive digital beamforming, adaptive monopulse, superresolution, pulse compression, sequential detection, target detection with long pulse series, space-time adaptive processing (STAP), moving target detection using synthetic aperture radar (SAR), target imaging, energy management and system parameter relations. The discussed methods are confirmed by simulation stud

  4. Believing in the buttonhole technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kregness, Allison

    2008-11-01

    Vascular access cannulation for dialysis staff is the most difficult obstacle to overcome during the orientation process and can remain a challenge throughout one's career in caring for patients with renal disease. Learning the "buttonhole technique" can make venipuncture more comfortable for the patient and can eliminate the fear of failure for the cannulator. Not only does it preserve the timeframe of the patient's access, but establishes a routine process for the dialysis facility to follow for successful cannulation.

  5. Electromigration techniques theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Dziubakiewicz, Ewelina; Szumski, Michal

    2013-01-01

    The book provides the broad knowledge on electromigration techniques including: theory of CE, description of instrumentation, theory and practice in micellar electrokinetic chromatography, isotachophoresis, capillary isoelectric focusing, capillary and planar electrochromatography (including description of instrumentation and packed and monolithic column preparation), 2D-gel electrophoresis (including sample preparation) and lab-on-a-chip systems. The book also provides the most recent examples of applications including food, environmental, pharmaceutical analysis as well as proteomics.

  6. Cobbler's technique for Iridodialysis repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surinder Singh Pandav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a novel “Cobbler's technique” for iridodialysis repair in the right eye of a patient aged 18 years, with a traumatic iridodialysis secondary to open globe injury with an iron rod. Our technique is simple with easy surgical maneuvers, that is, effective for repairing iridodialysis. The “Cobbler's technique” allows a maximally functional and cosmetic result for iridodialysis.

  7. Thermal measurements and inverse techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Orlande, Helcio RB; Maillet, Denis; Cotta, Renato M

    2011-01-01

    With its uncommon presentation of instructional material regarding mathematical modeling, measurements, and solution of inverse problems, Thermal Measurements and Inverse Techniques is a one-stop reference for those dealing with various aspects of heat transfer. Progress in mathematical modeling of complex industrial and environmental systems has enabled numerical simulations of most physical phenomena. In addition, recent advances in thermal instrumentation and heat transfer modeling have improved experimental procedures and indirect measurements for heat transfer research of both natural phe

  8. The ancient Chinese casting techniques

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    In the course of Chinese civilization, which lasted more than 5,000 years, casting production has made a huge contribution. In this paper, some representative metal castings were presented. According to their forming techniques, they can be grouped into stone mould casting, clay mould casting, ablation casting, lost wax casting, stack casting, permanent mould casting, sand casting, etc. According to their materials, they can be categorized into tin bronze, bimetallic bronze, malleable cast ir...

  9. Full scale lightning test technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walko, L. C.; Schneider, J. G.

    1980-01-01

    A test technique was developed for applying a full scale mean value (30 kiloampere peak) simulated lightning return stroke current on a complete flight ready aircraft to assess the threat of lightning to aircraft electrical circuits. A computer-aided generator design was used to establish the parameters of the test system. Data from previous work done on development of low inductance current paths determined the basic system configuration.

  10. AINV AND BILUM PRECONDITIONING TECHNIQUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷同祥; 迟学斌; 刘兴平

    2004-01-01

    It was proposed that a robust and efficient parallelizable preconditioner for solving general sparse linear systems of equations, in which the use of sparse approximate inverse (AINV) techniques in a multi-level block ILU (BILUM) preconditioner were investigated. The resulting preconditioner retains robustness of BILUM preconditioner and has two advantages over the standard BILUM preconditioner: the ability to control sparsity and increased parallelism. Numerical experiments are used to show the effectiveness and efficiency of the new preconditioner.

  11. A MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUE FOR HYDROXYACETONE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KLOTZ,P.J.

    1999-10-04

    Hydroxyacetone (HA) is mainly produced in the atmosphere from oxidation of hydrocarbons of the type, CH{sub 3}(R)C=CH{sub 2}. Tuazon and Atkinson (1990) reported HA yield of 41% from the OH-initiated oxidation of methacrolein in the presence of NO{sub x}. Since methacrolein is a major product of isoprene oxidation (Carter and Atkinson, 1996), isoprene, a key biogenic hydrocarbon, is therefore expected to be an important source for HA. Consequently, knowledge of ambient concentration of HA would provide information needed to examine the applicability of isoprene reaction mechanisms developed in laboratory and to assess the contribution of isoprene to photooxidant production. The commonly used GC-FID technique involving cryo-focusing is unsuitable for HA owing to HA's thermal instability. When subjected to a temperature of 100 C for only a few seconds, HA was found to disappear completely. Since HA is highly soluble in water (it's Henry's law constant being {approx}2 x 10{sup 4} M atm{sup -1} at 20 C, Zhou and Lee, unpublished data), we developed a wet chemical technique similar in principle to the one we reported earlier (Lee and Zhou, 1993), namely, based on derivatization following liquid scrubbing. To increase the sensitivity, we adopted a fluorescence detection scheme based on o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) chemistry. The technique was deployed in the field during two measurement periods at a NARSTO site located on Long Island (LI), New York. We report the principle and the operation of this technique and the results obtained from these field studies.

  12. Hip: Anatomy and US technique

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) has always had a relatively limited role in the evaluation of the hip due to the deep location of this joint. However, many hip diseases are well detectable at US, but before approaching such a study it is necessary to be thoroughly familiar with the normal anatomy and related US images. The study technique is particularly important as optimization of various parameters is required, such as probe frequency, focalization, positioning of the probe, etc. Also the patient’s positi...

  13. Techniques for Specifying Bug Patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinlan, D J; Vuduc, R W; Misherghi, G

    2007-04-30

    We present our on-going work to develop techniques for specifying source code signatures of bug patterns. Specifically, we discuss two approaches. The first approach directly analyzes a program in the intermediate representation (IR) of the ROSE compiler infrastructure using ROSE's API. The second analyzes the program using the bddbddb system of Lam, Whaley, et al.. In this approach, we store the IR produced by ROSE as a relational database, express patterns as declarative inference rules on relations in the language Datalog, and bddbddb implements the Datalog programs using binary decision diagram (BDD) techniques. Both approaches readily apply to large-scale applications, since ROSE provides full type analysis, control flow, and other available analysis information. In this paper, we primarily consider bug patterns expressed with respect to the structure of the source code or the control flow, or both. More complex techniques to specify patterns that are functions of data flow properties may be addressed by either of the above approaches, but are not directly treated here. Our Datalog-based work includes explicit support for expressing patterns on the use of the Message Passing Interface (MPI) in parallel distributed memory programs. We show examples of this on-going work as well.

  14. Microirradiation techniques in radiobiological research

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Guido A Drexler; Miguel J Ruiz-Gómez

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this work is to review the uses of laser microirradiation and ion microbeam techniques within the scope of radiobiological research. Laser microirradiation techniques can be used for many different purposes. In a specific condition, through the use of pulsed lasers, cell lysis can be produced for subsequent separation of different analytes. Microsurgery allows for the identification and isolation of tissue sections, single cells and subcellular components, using different types of lasers. The generation of different types of DNA damage, via this type of microirradiation, allows for the investigation of DNA dynamics. Ion microbeams are important tools in radiobiological research. There are only a limited number of facilities worldwide where radiobiological experiments can be performed. In the beginning, research was mostly focused on the bystander effect. Nowadays, with more sophisticated molecular and cellular biological techniques, ion microirradiation is used to unravel molecular processes in the field of radiobiology. These include DNA repair protein kinetics or chromatin modifications at the site of DNA damage. With the increasing relevance of charged particles in tumour therapy and new concepts on how to generate them, ion microbeam facilities are able to address unresolved questions concerning particle tumour therapy.

  15. Triangulation of Data Analysis Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauri, M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In psychology, as in other disciplines, the concepts of validity and reliability are considered essential to give an accurate interpretation of results. While in quantitative research the idea is well established, in qualitative research, validity and reliability take on a different dimension. Researchers like Miles and Huberman (1994 and Silverman (2000, 2001, have shown how these issues are addressed in qualitative research. In this paper I am proposing that the same corpus of data, in this case the transcripts of focus group discussions, can be analysed using more than one data analysis technique. I refer to this idea as ‘triangulation of data analysis techniques’ and argue that such triangulation increases the reliability of the results. If the results obtained through a particular data analysis technique, for example thematic analysis, are congruent with the results obtained by analysing the same transcripts using a different technique, for example correspondence analysis, it is reasonable to argue that the analysis and interpretation of the data is valid.

  16. [Our technique in orthotopic neobladder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Boca, C; Colloi, D; Guardamagna, A; Giuberti, A C; Ferrari, C

    1995-09-01

    The strive in the field of orthotopic neobladders derives from the need to improve their morphofunctional aspects and to simplify the surgical procedures. The Authors propose their experience on a new method of orthotopic neobladder in 8 patients submitted to radical cystectomy for advanced bladder neoplasia from march 91 until june 93. The surgical technique was to prepare a reservoir with a simile Camey 2 type procedure modified by them using 50 cm of ileus, 30 of which detubularized and reconfigured into a simile spheric shape with Polygia 75 staplers. The remaining length was left intact for the ureteral anastomosis performing the Wallace 1 type procedure. The advantages of this technique are that: the neobladder is prepared rapidly using staplers, thus reducing operating time the presence of an isoperistaltic segment of ileus for ureteral anastomosis permits an reduced ureteral mobilization with a low probability of reflux a simple reconversion in ileal conduit in case of reservoir failure or neoplastic urethral recurrence is possible. The criteria for selecting the patients are reported and the diagnostic algorithm regarding the follow-up presented. The latter is done with biochemical, echographic, radiological and pressure studies, every 4-6 or 12 months. Particular attention has been focused on the quality of life in relation to the diurnal/nocturnal continence and micturation interval. They conclude that this technique is surgically simple and rapid with satisfactory clinical and urodynamic results.

  17. EDITORIAL: Imaging systems and techniques Imaging systems and techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wuqiang; Giakos, George; Nikita, Konstantina; Pastorino, Matteo; Karras, Dimitrios

    2009-10-01

    The papers in this special issue focus on providing the state-of-the-art approaches and solutions to some of the most challenging imaging areas, such as the design, development, evaluation and applications of imaging systems, measuring techniques, image processing algorithms and instrumentation, with an ultimate aim of enhancing the measurement accuracy and image quality. This special issue explores the principles, engineering developments and applications of new imaging systems and techniques, and encourages broad discussion of imaging methodologies, shaping the future and identifying emerging trends. The multi-faceted field of imaging requires drastic adaptation to the rapid changes in our society, economy, environment and technological evolution. There is an urgent need to address new problems, which tend to be either static but complex, or dynamic, e.g. rapidly evolving with time, with many unknowns, and to propose innovative solutions. For instance, the battles against cancer and terror, monitoring of space resources and enhanced awareness, management of natural resources and environmental monitoring are some of the areas that need to be addressed. The complexity of the involved imaging scenarios and demanding design parameters, e.g. speed, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), specificity, contrast, spatial resolution, scatter rejection, complex background and harsh environments, necessitate the development of a multi-functional, scalable and efficient imaging suite of sensors, solutions driven by innovation, and operation on diverse detection and imaging principles. Efficient medical imaging techniques capable of providing physiological information at the molecular level present another important research area. Advanced metabolic and functional imaging techniques, operating on multiple physical principles, and using high-resolution, high-selectivity nano-imaging methods, quantum dots, nanoparticles, biomarkers, nanostructures, nanosensors, micro-array imaging chips

  18. Swept Impact Seismic Technique (SIST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, C.B.; Miller, R.D.; Steeples, D.W.; Black, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    A coded seismic technique is developed that can result in a higher signal-to-noise ratio than a conventional single-pulse method does. The technique is cost-effective and time-efficient and therefore well suited for shallow-reflection surveys where high resolution and cost-effectiveness are critical. A low-power impact source transmits a few to several hundred high-frequency broad-band seismic pulses during several seconds of recording time according to a deterministic coding scheme. The coding scheme consists of a time-encoded impact sequence in which the rate of impact (cycles/s) changes linearly with time providing a broad range of impact rates. Impact times used during the decoding process are recorded on one channel of the seismograph. The coding concept combines the vibroseis swept-frequency and the Mini-Sosie random impact concepts. The swept-frequency concept greatly improves the suppression of correlation noise with much fewer impacts than normally used in the Mini-Sosie technique. The impact concept makes the technique simple and efficient in generating high-resolution seismic data especially in the presence of noise. The transfer function of the impact sequence simulates a low-cut filter with the cutoff frequency the same as the lowest impact rate. This property can be used to attenuate low-frequency ground-roll noise without using an analog low-cut filter or a spatial source (or receiver) array as is necessary with a conventional single-pulse method. Because of the discontinuous coding scheme, the decoding process is accomplished by a "shift-and-stacking" method that is much simpler and quicker than cross-correlation. The simplicity of the coding allows the mechanical design of the source to remain simple. Several different types of mechanical systems could be adapted to generate a linear impact sweep. In addition, the simplicity of the coding also allows the technique to be used with conventional acquisition systems, with only minor modifications.

  19. Enseignement technique : Séminaire de l'enseignement technique

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    Mardi 4 mai 2004 SEMINAIRE DE L'ENSEIGNEMENT TECHNIQUE de 14:00 à 17:00 - Training Centre Auditorium - bât. 593 Le SPC - Statistical Process Control - dans une démarche de qualité totale Hakim Bourahla, Maurice Arrius, Charbel Tannous - ABW Concept - F-74950 SCIONZIER, France Ce nouveau séminaire de l'Enseignement Technique sera consacré à la présentation du SPC, le Statistical Process Control. Le SPC apporte une grande efficacité dans l'amélioration de la qualité des produits. Cette méthode, permettant d'assurer une qualité optimum à l'aide d'un outil statistique, est fondée sur deux concepts de base : le suivi et le pilotage des procédés industriels par cartes de contrôle, et l'étude des capabilités des systèmes de production. - Origine et objectifs du SPC - Concepts du ...

  20. Enseignement technique : Séminaire de l'enseigement technique

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    Mardi 4 mai 2004 SEMINAIRE DE L'ENSEIGNEMENT TECHNIQUE de 14:00 à 17:00 - Training Centre Auditorium - bât. 593 Le SPC - Statistical Process Control - dans une démarche de qualité totale Hakim Bourahla, Maurice Arrius, Charbel Tannous - ABW Concept - F-74950 SCIONZIER, France Ce nouveau séminaire de l'Enseignement Technique sera consacré à la présentation du SPC, le Statistical Process Control. Le SPC apporte une grande efficacité dans l'amélioration de la qualité des produits. Cette méthode, permettant d'assurer une qualité optimum à l'aide d'un outil statistique, est fondée sur deux concepts de base : le suivi et le pilotage des procédés industriels par cartes de contrôle, et l'étude des capabilités des systèmes de production. - Origine et objectifs du SPC - Concepts du ...

  1. Research Techniques Made Simple: Skin Carcinogenesis Models: Xenotransplantation Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollo, Maria Rosaria; Antonini, Dario; Cirillo, Luisa; Missero, Caterina

    2016-02-01

    Xenotransplantation is a widely used technique to test the tumorigenic potential of human cells in vivo using immunodeficient mice. Here we describe basic technologies and recent advances in xenotransplantation applied to study squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the skin. SCC cells isolated from tumors can either be cultured to generate a cell line or injected directly into mice. Several immunodeficient mouse models are available for selection based on the experimental design and the type of tumorigenicity assay. Subcutaneous injection is the most widely used technique for xenotransplantation because it involves a simple procedure allowing the use of a large number of cells, although it may not mimic the original tumor environment. SCC cell injections at the epidermal-to-dermal junction or grafting of organotypic cultures containing human stroma have also been used to more closely resemble the tumor environment. Mixing of SCC cells with cancer-associated fibroblasts can allow the study of their interaction and reciprocal influence, which can be followed in real time by intradermal ear injection using conventional fluorescent microscopy. In this article, we will review recent advances in xenotransplantation technologies applied to study behavior of SCC cells and their interaction with the tumor environment in vivo.

  2. Blob-enhanced reconstruction technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrillo, Giusy; Cafiero, Gioacchino; Discetti, Stefano; Astarita, Tommaso

    2016-09-01

    A method to enhance the quality of the tomographic reconstruction and, consequently, the 3D velocity measurement accuracy, is presented. The technique is based on integrating information on the objects to be reconstructed within the algebraic reconstruction process. A first guess intensity distribution is produced with a standard algebraic method, then the distribution is rebuilt as a sum of Gaussian blobs, based on location, intensity and size of agglomerates of light intensity surrounding local maxima. The blobs substitution regularizes the particle shape allowing a reduction of the particles discretization errors and of their elongation in the depth direction. The performances of the blob-enhanced reconstruction technique (BERT) are assessed with a 3D synthetic experiment. The results have been compared with those obtained by applying the standard camera simultaneous multiplicative reconstruction technique (CSMART) to the same volume. Several blob-enhanced reconstruction processes, both substituting the blobs at the end of the CSMART algorithm and during the iterations (i.e. using the blob-enhanced reconstruction as predictor for the following iterations), have been tested. The results confirm the enhancement in the velocity measurements accuracy, demonstrating a reduction of the bias error due to the ghost particles. The improvement is more remarkable at the largest tested seeding densities. Additionally, using the blobs distributions as a predictor enables further improvement of the convergence of the reconstruction algorithm, with the improvement being more considerable when substituting the blobs more than once during the process. The BERT process is also applied to multi resolution (MR) CSMART reconstructions, permitting simultaneously to achieve remarkable improvements in the flow field measurements and to benefit from the reduction in computational time due to the MR approach. Finally, BERT is also tested on experimental data, obtaining an increase of the

  3. Pinch technique: Theory and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binosi, Daniele; Papavassiliou, Joannis

    2009-08-01

    We review the theoretical foundations and the most important physical applications of the Pinch Technique (PT). This general method allows the construction of off-shell Green’s functions in non-Abelian gauge theories that are independent of the gauge-fixing parameter and satisfy ghost-free Ward identities. We first present the diagrammatic formulation of the technique in QCD, deriving, at one loop, the gauge independent gluon self-energy, quark-gluon vertex, and three-gluon vertex, together with their Abelian Ward identities. The generalization of the PT to theories with spontaneous symmetry breaking is carried out in detail, and the profound connection with the optical theorem and the dispersion relations are explained within the electroweak sector of the Standard Model. The equivalence between the PT and the Feynman gauge of the Background Field Method (BFM) is elaborated, and the crucial differences between the two methods are critically scrutinized. A variety of field theoretic techniques needed for the generalization of the PT to all orders are introduced, with particular emphasis on the Batalin-Vilkovisky quantization method and the general formalism of algebraic renormalization. The main conceptual and technical issues related to the extension of the technique beyond one loop are described, using the two-loop construction as a concrete example. Then the all-order generalization is thoroughly examined, making extensive use of the field theoretic machinery previously introduced; of central importance in this analysis is the demonstration that the PT-BFM correspondence persists to all orders in perturbation theory. The extension of the PT to the non-perturbative domain of the QCD Schwinger-Dyson equations is presented systematically, and the main advantages of the resulting self-consistent truncation scheme are discussed. A plethora of physical applications relying on the PT are finally reviewed, with special emphasis on the definition of gauge

  4. Tracing Technique for Blaster Attack

    CERN Document Server

    S., Siti Rahayu; S., Shahrin; A., Faizal M; M, Mohd Zaki; R, Irda

    2009-01-01

    Blaster worm of 2003 is still persistent, the infection appears to have successfully transitioned to new hosts as the original systems are cleaned or shut off, suggesting that the Blaster worm, and other similar worms, will remain significant Internet threats for many years after their initial release. This paper is to propose technique on tracing the Blaster attack from various logs in different OSI layers based on fingerprint of Blaster attack on victim logs, attacker logs and IDS alert log. The researchers intended to do a preliminary investigation upon this particular attack so that it can be used for further research in alert correlation and computer forensic investigation.

  5. An Effective Fingerprint Verification Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Gogoi, Minakshi

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an effective method for fingerprint verification based on a data mining technique called minutiae clustering and a graph-theoretic approach to analyze the process of fingerprint comparison to give a feature space representation of minutiae and to produce a lower bound on the number of detectably distinct fingerprints. The method also proving the invariance of each individual fingerprint by using both the topological behavior of the minutiae graph and also using a distance measure called Hausdorff distance.The method provides a graph based index generation mechanism of fingerprint biometric data. The self-organizing map neural network is also used for classifying the fingerprints.

  6. A Survey: Face Recognition Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sharif

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the existing techniques of face recognition are to be encountered along with their pros and cons to conduct a brief survey. The most general methods include Eigenface (Eigenfeatures, Hidden Markov Model (HMM, geometric based and template matching approaches. This survey actually performs analysis on these approaches in order to constitute face representations which will be discussed as under. In the second phase of the survey, factors affecting the recognition rates and processes are also discussed along with the solutions provided by different authors.

  7. Operations Research – Tools & Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Sreeramana Aithal

    2017-01-01

    Chapter 1 : Introduction to Operations Research   Chapter 2 : Linear Programming (LP)   Chapter  3 : Graphical Method in LP   Chapter  4 :  Simplex Method in LP   Chapter  5 :  Transportation Problems   Chapter  6 :  Assignment Problems   Chapter  7 :  Network Scheduling   Chapter  8 :  Game Theory   Chapter  9 :  Queuing Theory   Chapter  10 :  Markov Analysis   Chapter  11 :  Simulation Techniques   Chap...

  8. Deconvolution Method for TOFD Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sun Heum; Kim, Sun Hyoung; Kong, Yong Hae [Soonchunhyang University, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Weon Heum [Acohlap, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-12-15

    Time of flight diffraction(TOFD) method is used in nondestructive tests of piping and pressure vessels because of its advantages over a pulse echo technique: its speed, objectivity, repeatability and its insensitivity to specimen surface conditions and discontinuity orientation. But it is the one of weak points in TOFD method that it has the dead zone in sub-surface resolution induced by lateral waves. We solved the dead-zone problem near the sub-surface by using the deconvolution method and the developed ultrasonic testing system showed high performance

  9. New Techniques in Neutron Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Jonas Okkels

    Neutron scattering is an important experimental technique in amongst others solid state physics, biophysics, and engineering. This year construction of European Spallation Source (ESS) was commenced in Lund, Sweeden. The facility will use a new long pulsed source principle to obtain higher...... potential performance than any existing facility, however in order to use this pulse structure optimally many existing neutron scattering instruments will need to be redesigned. This defense will concentrate on the design and optimization of the inverse time-of-flight cold neutron spectrometer CAMEA...

  10. Negotiation Techniques (That Really Work!)

    CERN Document Server

    Schiffman, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    Sales is all about negotiation. Price. Delivery. Terms. And every day, salespeople leave money on the table. They just don't have the skills to get what they want. Now Stephan Schiffman, drawing on years of experience, shows you how to nail the sale, hit quotas, and boost the bottom line. Schiffman-style negotiation is all about getting the best deal. And he outlines specific techniques to get there. Things can be tough out there. But with Schiffman's negotiation skills in your pocket, you can do battle and win.

  11. EPR techniques for space biodosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haskell, E.; Hayes, R.; Kenner, G.; Sholom, S.; Chumak, V.

    1996-12-31

    Retrospective dosimetry of tooth enamel has become an increasingly complex and difficult discipline to undertake while still attaining accuracy. The paper provides a review of the major obstacles, advances and pertinent phenomenon associated with low level retrospective dosimetry of human tooth enamel. Also covered is the many sources of error in EPR dosimetry, their potential solutions, as well as the different analysis and scanning techniques in use with their prospective pros and cons. Prospective directions for new approaches, methods, and instruments are also reviewed.

  12. Multimedia watermarking techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kirovski, Darko

    2006-01-01

    Intellectual property owners must continually exploit new ways of reproducing, distributing, and marketing their products. However, the threat of piracy looms as a major problem with digital distribution and storage technologies. Multimedia Watermarking Techniques and Applications covers all current and future trends in the design of modern systems that use watermarking to protect multimedia content. Containing the works of contributing authors who are worldwide experts in the field, this volume is intended for researchers and practitioners, as well as for those who want a broad understanding

  13. Raman Imaging Techniques and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Raman imaging has long been used to probe the chemical nature of a sample, providing information on molecular orientation, symmetry and structure with sub-micron spatial resolution. Recent technical developments have pushed the limits of micro-Raman microscopy, enabling the acquisition of Raman spectra with unprecedented speed, and opening a pathway to fast chemical imaging for many applications from material science and semiconductors to pharmaceutical drug development and cell biology, and even art and forensic science. The promise of tip-enhanced raman spectroscopy (TERS) and near-field techniques is pushing the envelope even further by breaking the limit of diffraction and enabling nano-Raman microscopy.

  14. Study of Face Recognition Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Kaushik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A study of both face recognition and detection techniques is carried out using the algorithms like Principal Component Analysis (PCA, Kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA, Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA and Line Edge Map (LEM. These algorithms show different rates of accuracy under different conditions. The automatic recognition of human faces presents a challenge to the pattern recognition community. Typically, human faces are different in shapes with minor similarity from person to person. Furthermore, lighting condition changes, facial expressions and pose variations further complicate the face recognition task as one of the difficult problems in pattern analysis.

  15. Data acquisition techniques using PC

    CERN Document Server

    Austerlitz, Howard

    1991-01-01

    Data Acquisition Techniques Using Personal Computers contains all the information required by a technical professional (engineer, scientist, technician) to implement a PC-based acquisition system. Including both basic tutorial information as well as some advanced topics, this work is suitable as a reference book for engineers or as a supplemental text for engineering students. It gives the reader enough understanding of the topics to implement a data acquisition system based on commercial products. A reader can alternatively learn how to custom build hardware or write his or her own software.

  16. Techniques for Automated Performance Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcus, Ryan C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-09-02

    The performance of a particular HPC code depends on a multitude of variables, including compiler selection, optimization flags, OpenMP pool size, file system load, memory usage, MPI configuration, etc. As a result of this complexity, current predictive models have limited applicability, especially at scale. We present a formulation of scientific codes, nodes, and clusters that reduces complex performance analysis to well-known mathematical techniques. Building accurate predictive models and enhancing our understanding of scientific codes at scale is an important step towards exascale computing.

  17. Assessment Techniques To Enhance Organizational Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Paul

    This paper addresses the need for group-based or team-based techniques to facilitate organizational learning. It identifies two process-oriented strategies: the role analysis technique (RAT) and the diagnostic window technique. These techniques can be used in meetings to model the intellectual tasks that need to occur in today's learning…

  18. A Comparative of business process modelling techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangkawarow, I. R. H. T.; Waworuntu, J.

    2016-04-01

    In this era, there is a lot of business process modeling techniques. This article is the research about differences of business process modeling techniques. For each technique will explain about the definition and the structure. This paper presents a comparative analysis of some popular business process modelling techniques. The comparative framework is based on 2 criteria: notation and how it works when implemented in Somerleyton Animal Park. Each technique will end with the advantages and disadvantages. The final conclusion will give recommend of business process modeling techniques that easy to use and serve the basis for evaluating further modelling techniques.

  19. Minimally invasive technique for curettage of chondroblastoma using endoscopic technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errani, C; Traina, F; Chehrassan, M; Donati, D; Faldini, C

    2014-11-01

    Chondroblastoma is a rare benign bone tumor. The treatment for chondroblastoma usually consists of curettage of the lesion and packing the tumor cavity with bone grafts or bone cement. However, chondroblastomas are known to recur in 10% to 20% of cases after excision, possibly because the incomplete removal of pathological tissue at surgery. We present a case of chondroblastoma in the distal femur treated by endoscopic curettage, which allowed a complete resection of tumor tissue and a minimal damage of the bone. The patient had relief of symptoms, rapid function restoration and no local recurrence. Endoscopic curettage is a promising new treatment for chondroblastoma. In fact, the extra-articular technique enters the tumor cavity via a tunnel drilled through the medullary canal, allowing to visualize possible residual tumor tissue or defects of the articular surface, without violating the joint and without taking away a much bigger cortical window.

  20. Immunological techniques in viral hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehermann, Barbara; Naoumov, Nikolai V

    2007-03-01

    The need to quantitate and monitor immune responses of large patient cohorts with standardized techniques is increasing due to the growing range of treatment options for hepatitis B and hepatitis C, the development of combination therapies, and candidate experimental vaccines for HCV. In addition, advances in immunological techniques have provided new tools for detailed phenotypic and functional analysis of cellular immune responses. At present, there is substantial variation in laboratory protocols, reagents, controls and analysis and presentation of results. Standardization of immunological assays would therefore allow better comparison of results amongst individual laboratories and patient cohorts. The EASL-sponsored and AASLD-endorsed Monothematic Conference on Clinical Immunology in Viral Hepatitis was held at the University College London, United Kingdom, Oct 7-8, 2006 to bring together investigators with research experience in clinical immunology of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections for in-depth discussion, critical evaluation and standardization of immunological assays. This report summarizes the information presented and discussed at the conference, but is not intended to represent a consensus statement. Our aim is to highlight topics and issues that were supported by general agreement and those that were controversial, as well as to provide suggestions for future work.

  1. SHADOW: a new welding technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Thorsten; Olowinsky, Alexander M.; Durand, Friedrich

    2002-06-01

    The new welding technique 'SHADOW ' is introduced. SHADOW means the use of a single pulse to generate a quasi continuous weld of several millimeters in length. HET processing time is defined by the pulse duration of the pulsed laser. At present, a state-of-the-art laser is capable of a maximum pulse duration of 20 ms. The variation of the laser power depend on time is a vital capability of the pulsed laser to adapt the energy deposition into the workpiece. Laser beam welds of several watch components were successfully performed. Similar metals like crowns and axes made out of stainless steel have been welded using pulsed laser radiation. Applying a series of about 130 single pulses for the crown-axis combination the total energy accumulates to 19.5 J. The use of the SHADOW welding technique reduces the energy to 2.5 J. While welding dissimilar metals like stainless steel and bras, the SHADOW welding reduces drastically the contamination as well as the distortion. Laser beam welding of copper has a low process reliability due to the high reflection and the high thermal conductivity. SHADOW welds of 3.6 mm length were performed on 250 micrometers thick copper plates with very high reproducibility. As a result, a pilot plant for laser beam welding of copper plates has been set up. The work to be presented has partly been funded by the European Commission in a project under the contract BRPR-CT-0634.

  2. Compensation Techniques in Accelerator Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayed, Hisham Kamal [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Accelerator physics is one of the most diverse multidisciplinary fields of physics, wherein the dynamics of particle beams is studied. It takes more than the understanding of basic electromagnetic interactions to be able to predict the beam dynamics, and to be able to develop new techniques to produce, maintain, and deliver high quality beams for different applications. In this work, some basic theory regarding particle beam dynamics in accelerators will be presented. This basic theory, along with applying state of the art techniques in beam dynamics will be used in this dissertation to study and solve accelerator physics problems. Two problems involving compensation are studied in the context of the MEIC (Medium Energy Electron Ion Collider) project at Jefferson Laboratory. Several chromaticity (the energy dependence of the particle tune) compensation methods are evaluated numerically and deployed in a figure eight ring designed for the electrons in the collider. Furthermore, transverse coupling optics have been developed to compensate the coupling introduced by the spin rotators in the MEIC electron ring design.

  3. [Other techniques of arterial recanalization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lablanche, J M; Bauters, C; Leroy, F; Bertrand, M E

    1990-11-11

    During the last few years several new instruments have been added to the armentarium of endovascular procedures. They are aimed at destroying atheromatous plaques and recalibrating the arteries. The plaque destruction techniques include atherectomy which may be directional (as with Simpson's Atherocath) and applicable only to very proximal vascular segments, or rotational, pulverizing the plaques with a bur. In this category are the flexible Auth's rotablator and Stack's transluminal extraction catheter (TEC) where planning is combined with extraction. To traverse complete occlusions, Kaltenbach's rotating guide increases the success rate, but its use must always be completed by conventional angioplasty. Vascular recalibration can be achieved by stents or heating balloons. Numerous types of stent are now available. The best known are the Medivent stent which is self-expansive and stents with expanding balloons, such as the Palmaz Schatz stent or the radio-opaque Wiktor stent made of tantalum. These stents require an important anticoagulant therapy. These technique have widened the limits of angioplasty by tackling stenoses that have long been regarded as inaccessible. They have also made it possible to treat a number of acute occlusions. On the other hand, none of them has yet proved effective in the prevention of restenosis.

  4. A Technique: Generating Alternative Thoughts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan AKKOYUNLU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the basic techniques of cognitive therapy is examination of automatic thoughts and reducing the belief in them. By employing this, we can overcome the cognitive bias apparent in mental disorders. Despite this view, according to another cognitive perspective in a given situation, there are distinct cognitive representations competing for retrieval from memory just like positive and negative schemas. In this sense generating or strengthening alternative explanations or balanced thoughts that explain the situation better than negative automatic thoughts is one of the important process goals of cognitive therapy.Objective: Aim of this review is to describe methods used to generate alternative/balanced thoughts that are used in examining automatic thoughts and also a part of automatic thought records. Alternative/balanced thoughts are the summary and end point of automatic thought work. In this text different ways including listing alternative thoughts, using examining the evidence for generating balanced thoughts, decatastrophizing in anxiety and a meta-cognitive method named two explanations are discussed. Different ways to use this technique as a homework assignment is also reviewed. Remarkable aspects of generating alternative explanations and realistic/balanced thoughts are also reviewed and exemplified using therapy transcripts. Conclusion: Generating alternative explanations and balanced thoughts are the end point and important part of therapy work on automatic thoughts. When applied properly and rehearsed as homework between sessions, these methods may lead to improvement in many mental disorders

  5. Model building techniques for analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walther, Howard P.; McDaniel, Karen Lynn; Keener, Donald; Cordova, Theresa Elena; Henry, Ronald C.; Brooks, Sean; Martin, Wilbur D.

    2009-09-01

    The practice of mechanical engineering for product development has evolved into a complex activity that requires a team of specialists for success. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has product engineers, mechanical designers, design engineers, manufacturing engineers, mechanical analysts and experimentalists, qualification engineers, and others that contribute through product realization teams to develop new mechanical hardware. The goal of SNL's Design Group is to change product development by enabling design teams to collaborate within a virtual model-based environment whereby analysis is used to guide design decisions. Computer-aided design (CAD) models using PTC's Pro/ENGINEER software tools are heavily relied upon in the product definition stage of parts and assemblies at SNL. The three-dimensional CAD solid model acts as the design solid model that is filled with all of the detailed design definition needed to manufacture the parts. Analysis is an important part of the product development process. The CAD design solid model (DSM) is the foundation for the creation of the analysis solid model (ASM). Creating an ASM from the DSM currently is a time-consuming effort; the turnaround time for results of a design needs to be decreased to have an impact on the overall product development. This effort can be decreased immensely through simple Pro/ENGINEER modeling techniques that summarize to the method features are created in a part model. This document contains recommended modeling techniques that increase the efficiency of the creation of the ASM from the DSM.

  6. A Survey on Design Pattern Recovery Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Ghulam Rasool; Detlef Streitfdert

    2011-01-01

    The evaluation of design pattern recovery techniques and tools is significant as numbers of emergent techniques are presented and used in the past to recover patterns from source code of legacy applications. The problem of very diverse precision and recall values extracted by different pattern recovery techniques and tools on the same examined applications is not investigated thoroughly. It is very desirable to compare features of existing techniques as abundance of techniques supplemented wi...

  7. Kinetic activation-relaxation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béland, Laurent Karim; Brommer, Peter; El-Mellouhi, Fedwa; Joly, Jean-François; Mousseau, Normand

    2011-10-01

    We present a detailed description of the kinetic activation-relaxation technique (k-ART), an off-lattice, self-learning kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) algorithm with on-the-fly event search. Combining a topological classification for local environments and event generation with ART nouveau, an efficient unbiased sampling method for finding transition states, k-ART can be applied to complex materials with atoms in off-lattice positions or with elastic deformations that cannot be handled with standard KMC approaches. In addition to presenting the various elements of the algorithm, we demonstrate the general character of k-ART by applying the algorithm to three challenging systems: self-defect annihilation in c-Si (crystalline silicon), self-interstitial diffusion in Fe, and structural relaxation in a-Si (amorphous silicon).

  8. FIRAS wire grid characterization techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, Richard D.; Magner, Thomas J.

    1989-01-01

    Characterization techniques used to verify the quality and spectral performance of the large freestanding wire grid polarizing beamsplitters and input/output polarizers used in the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) are presented. The clear aperture of these grids is lined with 20.8 micron diameter gold coated tungsten wire, spaced 33 microns apart. The grid characteristics measured throughout fabrication and space flight qualification are the center to center wire spacing and wire plane flatness. Ideally, the wire grids should produce coherent wavefronts with equal reflectance and transmittance properties. When the spacing is inconsistent, these wavefront intensities are unequal, thus decreasing the efficiency of the grids and reducing the output signal of the FIRAS. The magnitude of the output interferogram is also reduced by incoherence in the interfering wave fronts caused by uneven flatness.

  9. Optimization Techniques To Record Deduplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangarajan Rangaswamy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Duplicate record detection is important for data preprocessing and cleaning. Artificial Bee Colony (ABC is one of the most recently introduced algorithms based on the intelligent foraging behavior of a honey bee swarm. Our approach to duplicate detection is the use of ABC algorithm for generating the optimal similarity measure to decide whether the data is duplicate or not. In the training phase, ABC algorithm is used to generate the optimal similarity measure. Once the optimal similarity measure obtained, the deduplication of remaining datasets is done with the help of optimal similarity measure generated from the ABC algorithm. We have used Restaurant and Cora datasets to analyze the proposed algorithm and the performance of the proposed algorithm is compared against the genetic programming technique with the help of evaluation metrics.

  10. Present challenges in hadrontherapy techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaldi, U.; Braccini, S.

    2011-07-01

    Hadrontherapy is a high-precision technique in cancer radiation therapy, which allows obtaining a superior conformal treatment with respect to photons used in conventional radiation therapy. To reach this ambitious goal without reducing the patient throughput needed in a hospital-based environment, the physical and radiobiological properties of charged hadrons, protons and carbon ions in particular, have to be exploited at best, making use of the most modern technologies issued from research in nuclear and particle physics. In the present days, we are assisting to a continuous technological challenge, leading to the conception and to the development of innovative methods and instruments. In this paper, the most relevant challenges in dose delivery systems, gantries, imaging, quality assurance and particle accelerators are reviewed.

  11. Fabrication Technique of Holographic Sight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Ling; LIU Shou; ZHANG Xiang-su

    2005-01-01

    There are several types of sights used for small arms. All of them have advantages and disadvantages. A new type of sight-holographic sight-is introduced in the paper, with the emphasis on the fabrication technique of the hologram which is the most important part in the sight. A Gaussian dot and a reticle pattern are recorded in the hologram. When illuminated by a laser diode, the virtual images of the dot and the reticle pattern for aiming are observed through the hologram. Compared with other sights, the holographic sight provides quicker, more accurate and covert aiming at moving targets, particularly in close quarter combat situations. It significantly improves the capability of small arms used in close quarter fighting in all weathers.

  12. [Tomodensitometry: current technique and perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, J C

    1994-10-01

    The inventors of computed tomography were rewarded by the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1979. This apparatus, now used routinely, is based on the physical principle of attenuation of x-rays combined with computerised calculation to generate a tomographic image of the human body. This article describes the components of computed tomography, the mode of acquisition, calculation and image reconstruction and the criteria of image quality and artefacts. Continuous rotation of the x-ray tube, now available on the latest machines, allows rapid 3D acquisition of raw data, largely eliminating movement artefacts, particularly those related to respiration. It is also possible to reconstitute images in a different plane from the plane of acquisition and to obtain 3D representations of the volume studied. The advantages and disadvantages of this recent technique are discussed.

  13. Asset management techniques for transformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Elanien, Ahmed E.B.; Salama, M.M.A. [University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON (Canada)

    2010-04-15

    In a deregulated/reformed environment, the electric utilities are under constant pressure for reducing operating costs, enhancing the reliability of transmission and distribution equipments, and improving quality of power and services to the customer. Moreover, the risk involved in running the system without proper attention to assets integrity in service is quite high. Additionally, the probability of losing any equipment vital to the transmission and distribution system, such as power and distribution transformers, is increasing especially with the aging of power system's assets. Today the focus of operating the power system is changed and efforts are being directed to explore new approaches/techniques of monitoring, diagnosis, condition evaluation, maintenance, life assessment, and possibility of extending the life of existing assets. In this paper, a comprehensive illustration of the transformer asset management activities is presented. The importance of each activity together with the latest researches done in the area is highlighted. (author)

  14. Kinetic activation-relaxation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béland, Laurent Karim; Brommer, Peter; El-Mellouhi, Fedwa; Joly, Jean-François; Mousseau, Normand

    2011-10-01

    We present a detailed description of the kinetic activation-relaxation technique (k-ART), an off-lattice, self-learning kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) algorithm with on-the-fly event search. Combining a topological classification for local environments and event generation with ART nouveau, an efficient unbiased sampling method for finding transition states, k-ART can be applied to complex materials with atoms in off-lattice positions or with elastic deformations that cannot be handled with standard KMC approaches. In addition to presenting the various elements of the algorithm, we demonstrate the general character of k-ART by applying the algorithm to three challenging systems: self-defect annihilation in c-Si (crystalline silicon), self-interstitial diffusion in Fe, and structural relaxation in a-Si (amorphous silicon).

  15. Wavelet Based Image Denoising Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin D Ruikar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes different approaches of wavelet based image denoising methods. The search for efficient image denoising methods is still a valid challenge at the crossing of functional analysis and statistics. In spite of the sophistication of the recently proposed methods, most algorithms have not yet attained a desirable level of applicability. Wavelet algorithms are useful tool for signal processing such as image compression and denoising. Multi wavelets can be considered as an extension of scalar wavelets. The main aim is to modify the wavelet coefficients in the new basis, the noise can be removed from the data. In this paper, we extend the existing technique and providing a comprehensive evaluation of the proposed method. Results based on different noise, such as Gaussian, Poisson’s, Salt and Pepper, and Speckle performed in this paper. A signal to noise ratio as a measure of the quality of denoising was preferred.

  16. Special Issue: Single Molecule Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans H. Gorris

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Technological advances in the detection and manipulation of single molecules have enabled new insights into the function, structure and interactions of biomolecules. This Special Issue was launched to account for the rapid progress in the field of “Single Molecule Techniques”. Four original research articles and seven review articles provide an introduction, as well as an in-depth discussion, of technical developments that are indispensable for the characterization of individual biomolecules. Fluorescence microscopy takes center stage in this Special Issue because it is one of the most sensitive and flexible techniques, which has been adapted in many variations to the specific demands of single molecule analysis. Two additional articles are dedicated to single molecule detection based on atomic force microscopy.

  17. Developments in luminescence measurement techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov; Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Denby, Phil M.

    2006-01-01

    We report on our continuing investigation and development of new measurement facilities for use in irradiation, optical stimulation and luminescence signal detection; these facilities have potential application to all forms of luminescence-based retrospective dosimetry, and are particularly...... intended for use with the Riso TL/OSL reader. We have investigated the potential of new more powerful blue (455 nm) and green (530nm) LEDs, and of gated counting combined with pulsed stimulation light techniques using conventional LEDs. Measurement of time-resolved OSL has resulted in a method of real......; both types are very stable and reproducible. Other recent developments include the modification of a Riso reader to measure both thermally and optically stimulated electrons (TSE and OSE) from granular or chip phosphors. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  18. Surgical skin-marking techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granick, M S; Heckler, F R; Jones, E W

    1987-04-01

    Surgical skin-marking inks and dyes are in everyday use for designing and planning incisions in plastic and reconstructive surgery. We have traced the historical development of surgical skin-marking techniques from ancient times to the present. The biochemical characteristics of the commonly used marking agents are discussed. A three-part experiment utilizing a pig model was carried out to test the tissue inflammatory response to the various dyes and inks when used intradermally as tattoos, the persistence of such tattoos, and the ease of skin erasure for each of eight stains. Methylene blue and gentian violet are recommended as the best all-purpose marking agents. The use of proprietary inks is discouraged.

  19. Robotic pyeloplasty: technique and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschel, Reinhard; Neururer, Richard; Bartsch, Georg; Gettman, Matthew T

    2004-11-01

    The da Vinci robotic system can be used to perform dismembered and nondismembered pyeloplasty techniques effectively. Robotics not only seems to improve dexterity and surgical precision but also provides an ergonomic surgical environment for a surgeon performing complex reconstructive procedures such as pyeloplasty. Although performance-enhancing features of the da Vinci robot seem to decrease the difficulty of intracorporeal suturing, a learning curve also exists for telerobotic procedures. This learning curve may decrease as experience with telerobotics increases and as advances in technology are introduced. Presently, the interaction between the primary and assistant surgeon seems crucial to the success of the procedure. Although the early clinical experience with robotic pyeloplasty is favorable, continuing clinical evaluation and careful follow-up are required to determine if the procedure is as efficacious in the long run as open pyeloplasty and laparoscopic pyeloplasty.

  20. New techniques in systems neuroscience

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This volume is essential reading for anyone wishing to understand the recent explosion of experimental tools in neuroscience that now make it possible to manipulate, record, and understand neuronal activity within the intact brain, and which are helping us to learn how the many neurons that comprise a network act together to control behavior. Leaders in the field discuss the latest developments in optogenetics, functional imaging, circuit mapping, and the application of these tools to complex biological problems. New Techniques in Systems Neuroscience Explores cutting-edge methodological developments and their biological motivations Covers state-of-the-art advances in optogenetics, imaging, circuit mapping, and the molecular characterization of individual neurons Describes key examples of how these methods have been applied in different model organisms Is appropriate for experts and those just entering the field alike.

  1. Techniques for Solving Sudoku Puzzles

    CERN Document Server

    Chi, Eric C

    2012-01-01

    Solving Sudoku puzzles is one of the most popular pastimes in the world. Puzzles range in difficulty from easy to very challenging; the hardest puzzles tend to have the most empty cells. The current paper compares the performance of three computer algorithms in solving puzzles. Backtracking, simulated annealing, and alternating projections are generic methods for attacking combinatorial optimization problems. Our results favor backtracking. It infallibly solves Sudoku puzzles or deduces that a unique solution does not exist. However, backtracking does not scale well in high-dimensional combinatorial optimization. Hence, it is useful to expose statistics students to the other two solution techniques in a concrete setting. Simulated annealing shares a common structure with MCMC (Markov chain Monte Carlo) and enjoys wide applicability. The method of alternating projections solves the feasibility problem in convex programming. Converting a discrete optimization problem into a continuous optimization problem opens...

  2. Medium voltage switching techniques; Techniques de coupure en moyenne tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theoleyre, S. [Schneider Electric S.A., 92 - Boulogne-Billancourt (France)

    1999-08-01

    The link between power production plants and users is ensured by a grid or an arborescence of connections, lines and cables. For exploitation, maintenance or safety reasons it may be necessary to switch off and switch on the current at any point of the network. Switching devices are used for this purpose and the choice of a given device depends on the nature of the current (load, overload and fault currents) and of the domain of application. During switching and during continuous operation, these devices are submitted to dielectric, thermal, electrodynamical and mechanical stresses. The most important stresses are those linked with transient phenomena and involving an electric arc. This paper deals principally with the switching of medium voltage (1 to 52 kV) AC currents using circuit breakers. The first part analyzes the phenomena that occur during the operation of circuit breakers while the second part presents the four switching techniques currently used: in air, oil, vacuum and in sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}). (J.S.) 35 refs.

  3. [Review of effervescent technique in pharmaceutics research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiao-Jian; Xin, Hong-Liang; Rao, Xiao-Yong; Xiao, Zhi-Qiang; Gao, Li-Li; Sun, Ting-Ting; Guo, Qi-Li

    2008-04-01

    Effervescent technique, which can accelerate drug disintegration and dissolution, is usually applied in quick release preparations. Along with the development of pharmaceutical technique and theory, effervescent technique is used more and more extensively to adjust the behavior of drug release, such as in sustained and controlled release preparations, pulsatile drug delivery systems, and so on. This review demonstrated the new applying of effervescent technique in effervescent tablets, stomach floating forms, osmotic pump tablets and pulsatile drug delivery systems, adding to the critical common technique of effervescent forms in drug research. This will be benefit for the further research and development of effervescent technique.

  4. Photomontage technique for artists using stereograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Patrick K.

    1994-01-01

    With more and more holographers using Stereograms, existing photographic techniques can be employed for creative uses. Using stereograms gives the artist/holographer new increased creative possibilities with fewer restrictions in subject matter. Photomontage techniques increase these possibilities even more.

  5. Plant Variety Protection and DUS Testing Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-hui; LI Xin-hai; ZHANG Shi-huang; LI Ming-shun; LI Wen-hua

    2002-01-01

    DUS testing technique used for plant variety protection was reviewed in the paper, and somesuggestions were made on how to establish the appropriate technology system in China. Meanwhile, the poten-tial exploitation of the technique was discussed.

  6. Bisection technique for designing synchronous parallel algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王能超

    1995-01-01

    A basic technique for designing synchronous parallel algorithms, the so-called bisection technique, is proposed. The basic pattern of designing parallel algorithms is described. The relationship between the designing idea and I Ching (principles of change) is discussed.

  7. Computational optimization techniques applied to microgrids planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamarra, Carlos; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    appear along the planning process. In this context, technical literature about optimization techniques applied to microgrid planning have been reviewed and the guidelines for innovative planning methodologies focused on economic feasibility can be defined. Finally, some trending techniques and new...

  8. Success of Hall technique crowns questioned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nainar, S M Hashim

    2012-01-01

    Hall technique is a method of providing stainless steel crowns for primary molars without tooth preparation and requires no local anesthesia. Literature review showed inconclusive evidence and therefore this technique should not be used in clinical practice.

  9. TECHNIQUE OF THINKING STYLE EVALUATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Belousova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of psychometric analysis of the new technique of thinking styles diagnostics are presented. The fundamental principles of thinking style concept by A. Belousova, according to which the thinking style is determined by the dominance of a person’s function in the structure of thinking activity during the problem solving, are covered. In accordance with A. Belousova’s ideas that the collaborative thinking activity as a self-organizing system is carried out by means of functions assumed by each participant: function of generating ideas, the function of selection (review and evaluation of information, functions of sense transfer and function of implementation. Thinking of adult, acting as a complex self-organizing system, combines the same functions: generation, selection, sense transfer and implementation. In this connection, we believe that the thinking style is defined as a characteristic set of functions actualized by a person in different situations of the problem solving. Domination of generation function determines the development of initiative thinking style, selection - critical, sense transfer - administrative, implementation - practical. The results of testing the reliability and validity of a new questionnaire for the thinking style diagnostics on a representative sample of Russians are given. The author’s version of the questionnaire is presented.

  10. Prefractionation techniques in proteome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Castagna, Annalisa; Herbert, Ben; Reymond, Frederic; Rossier, Joël S

    2003-08-01

    The present review deals with a number of prefractionation protocols in preparation for two-dimensional map analysis, both in the fields of chromatography and in the field of electrophoresis. In the first case, Fountoulaki's groups has reported just about any chromatographic procedure useful as a prefractionation step, including affinity, ion-exchange, and reversed-phase resins. As a result of the various enrichment steps, several hundred new species, previously undetected in unfractionated samples, could be revealed for the first time. Electrophoretic prefractionation protocols include all those electrokinetic methodologies which are performed in free solution, essentially all relying on isoelectric focusing steps. The devices here reviewed include multichamber apparatus, such as the multicompartment electrolyzer with Immobiline membranes, Off-Gel electrophoresis in a multicup device and the Rotofor, an instrument also based on a multichamber system but exploiting the conventional technique of carrier-ampholyte-focusing. Other instruments of interest are the Octopus, a continuous-flow device for isoelectric focusing in a upward flowing liquid curtain, and the Gradiflow, where different pI cuts are obtained by a multistep passage through two compartments buffered at different pH values. It is felt that this panoply of methods could offer a strong step forward in "mining below the tip of the iceberg" for detecting the "unseen proteome".

  11. Pediatric DXA: technique and interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binkovitz, Larry A. [Columbus Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Columbus, OH (United States); Henwood, Maria J. [Columbus Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Columbus, OH (United States); Columbus Children' s Hospital, Department of Endocrinology, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2007-01-15

    This article reviews dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) technique and interpretation with emphasis on the considerations unique to pediatrics. Specifically, the use of DXA in children requires the radiologist to be a ''clinical pathologist'' monitoring the technical aspects of the DXA acquisition, a ''statistician'' knowledgeable in the concepts of Z-scores and least significant changes, and a ''bone specialist'' providing the referring clinician a meaningful context for the numeric result generated by DXA. The patient factors that most significantly influence bone mineral density are discussed and are reviewed with respect to available normative databases. The effects the growing skeleton has on the DXA result are also presented. Most important, the need for the radiologist to be actively involved in the technical and interpretive aspects of DXA is stressed. Finally, the diagnosis of osteoporosis should not be made on DXA results alone but should take into account other patient factors. (orig.)

  12. ON NUMERICAL TECHNIQUES IN CFD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhuang Fenggan

    2000-01-01

    Numerical techniques play an important role in CFD. Some of them are reviewed in this paper. The necessity of using high order difference scheme is demonstrated for the study of high Reynolds number viscous flow. Physical guide lines are provided for the construction of these high order schemes. To avoid unduly ad hoc treatment in the boundary region the use of compact scheme is recommended because it has a small stencil size compared with the traditional finite difference scheme. Besides preliminary Fourier analysis shows the compact scheme can also yield better space resolution which makes it more suitable to study flow with multiscales e.g. turbulence. Other approaches such as perturbation method and finite spectral method are also emphasized. Typical numerical simulations were carried out. The first deals with Euler equations to show its capabilities to capture flow discontinuity.The second deals with Navier-Stokes equations studying the evolution of a mixing layer, the pertinent structures at different times are shown. Asymmetric break down occurs and also the appearance of small vortices.

  13. Nanotechnology in Disease Diagnostic Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savaliya, Reema; Shah, Darshini; Singh, Ragini; Kumar, Ashutosh; Shankar, Rishi; Dhawan, Alok; Singh, Sanjay

    2015-06-25

    Currently the major research highlights of bioengineering and medical technology are directed towards development of improved diagnostic techniques to screen complex diseases. Screening requirements are for the identification of the cause of illnesses, monitoring the improvement or progression of the state of diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular or neurodegenerative diseases. Nanotechnology enables the manipulation of materials at nanoscale and has shown potential to enhance sensitivity, selectivity and lower the cost of a diagnosis. The causative biomolecules (DNA, proteins) can be detected by red-shifted absorbance of gold nanoparticles or alteration in the conductance of a nanowire or nanotubes, and deflection of a micro or nano-cantilever. Several types of nanomaterials such as metals, metal-oxides and quantum dots have shown ample advantages over traditional diagnosis, intracellular labeling and visualization of target cells/tissues. Nanotechnology has also opened several avenues which could be further developed to enable enhanced visualization of tissues, cells, DNA and proteins over a point-of-care device. Protein or gene chips created using nanomaterials could be further be integrated into a convenient nano-fluidic device for better disease diagnosis.

  14. Reattachment techniques - Few case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Shah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Anterior crown fractures are a common form of injury that mainly affects children and adolescents. In the pre-adhesive era fractured teeth needed to be restored either with pin-retained inlays or cast restorations that sacrificed healthy tooth structure. Achieving aesthetic requirements were also a challenge for the clinicians. The development of adhesive dentistry has allowed dentists to use the broken fragment to restore the fractured tooth. The acid etch adhesive technique may be used to restore function and esthetics of fractured anterior teeth. Reattachment of the fractured segment offers some advantages over composite restorations. The original enamel translucency is maintained, and the incisal edge will wear at the same rate as the adjacent teeth. Esthetic, biologic and restorative problems may occur as a result of the fracture extending subgingivally and impinging on the biologic width. The treatment options depend on the relationship of the fracture to the alveolar crest, degree of pulpal involvement, amount of eruption, apex formation and esthetic requirement of the patient. This article presents two clinical reports describing the treatment modalities of patients who sustained fractures of maxillary anterior teeth due to trauma.

  15. An acoustic mode measurement technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joppa, P. D.

    1984-10-01

    Turbomachinery noise propagates in aircraft jet engine ducts in a complicated manner. Measurement of this propagation is useful both to identify source mechanisms and to design efficient linings. A practical method of making these measurements has been developed, using linear arrays of equally spaced microphones mounted flush with the duct wall. Circumferential or axial arrays are analyzed by spatial Fourier transform, giving sound level as a function of spinning order or axial wavenumber respectively. Complex demodulation is used to acquire data in a modest bandwidth around a high frequency of interest. A joint NASA/Boeing test of the system used 32 microphones in a JT15D turbofan engine inlet. A 400-Hz bandwidth centered at blade passage frequency and at half blade passage frequency was studied. The theoretically predicted modes were clearly seen at blade passage frequency; broadband noise at half blade passage frequency was biased towards modes corotating with the fan. Interference between similar modes was not a significant problem. A lining design study indicated a 15 percent improvement in lining efficiency was possible when mode data were used, for this particular engine. The technique has proven reliable and useful for source diagnostics and lining design.

  16. Catalytic reforming feed characterisation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larraz Mora, R.; Arvelo Alvarez, R. [Univ. of La Laguna, Chemical Engineering Dept., La Laguna (Spain)

    2002-09-01

    The catalytic reforming of naphtha is one of the major refinery processes, designed to increase the octane number of naphtha or to produce aromatics. The naphtha used as catalytic reformer feedstock usually contains a mixture of paraffins, naphthenes, and aromatics in the carbon number range C{sub 6} to C{sub 10}. The detailed chemical composition of the feed is necessary to predict the aromatics and hydrogen production as well as the operation severity. The analysis of feed naphtha is usually reported in terms of its ASTM distillation curve and API or specific gravity. Since reforming reactions are described in terms of lumped chemical species (paraffins, naphthenes and aromatics), a feed characterisation technique should be useful in order to predict reforming operating conditions and detect feed quality changes. Unfortunately online analyzer applications as cromatography or recently introduced naphtha NMR [1] are scarce in most of refineries. This work proposes an algorithmic characterisation method focusing on its main steps description. The method could help on the subjects previously described, finally a calculation example is shown. (orig.)

  17. Recent developments in building diagnosis techniques

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a collection of recent research on building diagnosis techniques related to construction pathology, hygrothermal behavior and durability, and diagnostic techniques. It highlights recent advances and new developments in the field of building physics, building anomalies in materials and components, new techniques for improved energy efficiency analysis, and diagnosis techniques such as infrared thermography. This book will be of interest to a wide readership of professionals, scientists, students, practitioners, and lecturers.

  18. Microtia reconstruction: autologous rib and alloplast techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabin, Jonathan A; Bassiri-Tehrani, Michael; Sclafani, Anthony P; Romo, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    Microtia represents a spectrum of maldevelopment of the external ear. Reconstructive techniques may utilize an autogenous rib cartilage framework and require 2-4 stages; alternatively, an alloplastic framework can be used and typically requires 1-2 stages. Successful reconstruction of microtia with either technique can provide a significant quality of life improvement, and both techniques are described in this article.

  19. Aerospace management techniques: Commercial and governmental applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliken, J. G.; Morrison, E. J.

    1971-01-01

    A guidebook for managers and administrators is presented as a source of useful information on new management methods in business, industry, and government. The major topics discussed include: actual and potential applications of aerospace management techniques to commercial and governmental organizations; aerospace management techniques and their use within the aerospace sector; and the aerospace sector's application of innovative management techniques.

  20. The Technique of Special-Effects Cinematography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Raymond

    The author describes the many techniques used to produce cinematic effects that would be too costly, too difficult, too time-consuming, too dangerous, or simply impossible to achieve with conventional photographic techniques. He points out that these techniques are available not only for 35 millimeter work but also to the 16 mm. photographer who…

  1. Information Hiding Techniques: A Tutorial Review

    CERN Document Server

    Thampi, Sabu M

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this tutorial is to present an overview of various information hiding techniques. A brief history of steganography is provided along with techniques that were used to hide information. Text, image and audio based information hiding techniques are discussed. This paper also provides a basic introduction to digital watermarking.

  2. Nuclear Technique and Agriculture in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu B.J.

    2004-01-01

    @@ Nuclear technique is a powerful scientific tool in agricultural research, an area with fruitful achievements in China. Application of nuclear technique in agriculture (Nuclear Agricultural Sciences) based on the development of related science and technology is a high-tech area, and also a significant aspect of non-electrical power application of nuclear technique.

  3. Nuclear Technique and Agriculture in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu; B.J.

    2004-01-01

      Nuclear technique is a powerful scientific tool in agricultural research, an area with fruitful achievements in China. Application of nuclear technique in agriculture (Nuclear Agricultural Sciences) based on the development of related science and technology is a high-tech area, and also a significant aspect of non-electrical power application of nuclear technique.……

  4. Fog collectors and collection techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhler, I.; Suau, C.

    2010-07-01

    collection’s techniques and climatic design simulations. DropNet© is a lightweight fog collector kit -a standing-alone web- resistant against very strong winds. It is constructed with an elastic mesh according to the required tension. Apart from this, it is ease to be transported, assemble and relocated due to its tent-like construction. As a flexible construction it can be installed on flatten or uneven grounds. FogHive© is a modular space-frame, fully wrapped with a light waxy mesh, that can collect water fog and also performs like a shading/cooling device and a soil humidifier for greenery and potential inhabitation. Its body consists of a deployable polygonal structure with an adjustable polyvalent membrane which performs as water repellent skin (facing prevailing winds) and shading device facing Equator. In addition, a domestic wind turbine is installed within the structural frame to provide autonomous electrification. Both models have great applicability to provide drinking water in remote place and also irrigating water to repair or re-establish flora. Water collector, filtering (purification) and irrigation network are designed with appropriate materials and techniques.

  5. Survey of data compression techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gryder, R.; Hake, K.

    1991-09-01

    PM-AIM must provide to customers in a timely fashion information about Army acquisitions. This paper discusses ways that PM-AIM can reduce the volume of data that must be transmitted between sites. Although this paper primarily discusses techniques of data compression, it also briefly discusses other options for meeting the PM-AIM requirements. The options available to PM-AIM, in addition to hardware and software data compression, include less-frequent updates, distribution of partial updates, distributed data base design, and intelligent network design. Any option that enhances the performance of the PM-AIM network is worthy of consideration. The recommendations of this paper apply to the PM-AIM project in three phases: the current phase, the target phase, and the objective phase. Each recommendation will be identified as (1) appropriate for the current phase, (2) considered for implementation during the target phase, or (3) a feature that should be part of the objective phase of PM-AIM's design. The current phase includes only those measures that can be taken with the installed leased lines. The target phase includes those measures that can be taken in transferring the traffic from the leased lines to the DSNET environment with minimal changes in the current design. The objective phase includes all the things that should be done as a matter of course. The objective phase for PM-AIM appears to be a distributed data base with data for each site stored locally and all sites having access to all data.

  6. Survey of data compression techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gryder, R.; Hake, K.

    1991-09-01

    PM-AIM must provide to customers in a timely fashion information about Army acquisitions. This paper discusses ways that PM-AIM can reduce the volume of data that must be transmitted between sites. Although this paper primarily discusses techniques of data compression, it also briefly discusses other options for meeting the PM-AIM requirements. The options available to PM-AIM, in addition to hardware and software data compression, include less-frequent updates, distribution of partial updates, distributed data base design, and intelligent network design. Any option that enhances the performance of the PM-AIM network is worthy of consideration. The recommendations of this paper apply to the PM-AIM project in three phases: the current phase, the target phase, and the objective phase. Each recommendation will be identified as (1) appropriate for the current phase, (2) considered for implementation during the target phase, or (3) a feature that should be part of the objective phase of PM-AIM`s design. The current phase includes only those measures that can be taken with the installed leased lines. The target phase includes those measures that can be taken in transferring the traffic from the leased lines to the DSNET environment with minimal changes in the current design. The objective phase includes all the things that should be done as a matter of course. The objective phase for PM-AIM appears to be a distributed data base with data for each site stored locally and all sites having access to all data.

  7. Imaging Techniques for Microwave Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donne, T. [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, PO Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Luhmann Jr, N.C. [University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Park, H.K. [POSTECH, Pohang, Gyeongbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Tobias, B.

    2011-07-01

    Advances in microwave technology have made it possible to develop a new generation of microwave imaging diagnostics for measuring the parameters of magnetic fusion devices. The most prominent of these diagnostics is electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECE-I). After the first generation of ECE-I diagnostics utilized at the TEXT-U, RTP and TEXTOR tokamaks and the LHD stellarator, new systems have recently come into operation on ASDEX-UG and DIII-D, soon to be followed by a system on KSTAR. The DIII-D and KSTAR systems feature dual imaging arrays that observe different parts of the plasma. The ECE-I diagnostic yields two-dimensional movies of the electron temperature in the plasma and has given already new insights into the physics of sawtooth oscillations, tearing modes and edge localized modes. Microwave Imaging Reflectometry (MIR) is used on LHD to measure electron density fluctuations. A pilot MIR system has been tested at TEXTOR and, based on the promising results, a new system is now under design for KSTAR. The system at TEXTOR was used to measure the plasma rotation velocity. The system at KSTAR and also the one on LHD will be/are used for measuring the profile of the electron density fluctuations in the plasma. Other microwave imaging diagnostics are phase imaging interferometry, and imaging microwave scattering. The emphasis in this paper will be largely focused on ECE-I. First an overview of the advances in microwave technology are discussed, followed by a description of a typical ECE-I system along with some typical experimental results. Also the utilization of imaging techniques in other types of microwave diagnostics will be briefly reviewed. This document is composed of the slides of the presentation. (authors)

  8. POSIVA groundwater flow measuring techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oehberg, A. [Saanio and Riekkola Consulting Engineers, Helsinki (Finland); Rouhiainen, P. [PRG-Tec Oy (Finland)

    2000-08-01

    Posiva Oy has carried out site characterisation for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Finland since 1987. To meet the demanding needs to measure the hydraulic parameters in bedrock Posiva launched development of new flowmeter techniques including measuring methods and equipment in co-operation with PRG-Tec Oy. The techniques have been tested and used in the ongoing site investigations in Finland, in the underground Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) at Aespoe in Sweden and in URL in Canada. The new methods are called difference flow and transverse flow methods. The difference flow method includes two modes, normal and detailed flow logging methods. In the normal mode the flow rate measurement is based on thermal pulse and thermal dilution methods, in the detailed logging mode only on thermal dilution method. The measuring ranges for flow rate with thermal pulse and dilution methods are 0.1-10 ml/min and 2-5000 ml/min, respectively. The difference flow method(normal mode) for small flows (0.1-10 ml/min) is based on measuring the pulse transit time and direction of a thermal pulse in the sensor. For high flows (2-5000 ml/min) the method is based on thermal dilution rate of a sensor. Direction is measured with monitoring thermistors. Inflow or outflow in the test interval is created due to natural or by pumping induced differences between heads in the borehole water and groundwater around the borehole. The single point resistance (and the temperature of borehole water) measurement is carried out simultaneously with the difference flow measurements, both in normal and detailed flow logging modes, while the tool is moving. The result is utilised for checking the exact depth of the tool. As the result a continuous log is obtained from which single fractures can be detected. The transverse flowmeter is able to measure the groundwater flow across a borehole. A special packer system guides the flow through the flow sensors. Four inflatable seals between conventional

  9. Surgical technique of orthotopic liver transplantation in rats: the Kamada technique and a new splint technique for hepatic artery reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Eiichi; Shimizu, Akira; Takahashi, Mikiko; Terasaki, Mika; Kunugi, Shinobu; Nagasaka, Shinya; Terasaki, Yasuhiro; Ohashi, Ryuji; Masuda, Yukinari; Fukuda, Yuh

    2013-01-01

    Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) in rats is technically feasible and useful for the assessment of clinical liver transplantation and analysis of inflammatory liver diseases. OLT in rats was pioneered by Lee et al. in 1973 using hand-suture techniques of all vessels. This model has not been widely used due to the long operative time and technical demand. The cuff method was introduced by Kamada in 1979, and today, the Kamada technique is the one most commonly used worldwide. However, this technique does not include hepatic artery reconstruction, although this procedure is routinely performed in clinical transplantation. Nevertheless, several techniques for hepatic artery reconstruction in rat OLT have been reported recently, and our group also developed a simple splint technique from recipient right renal artery to donor celiac axis bearing the hepatic artery. In the present article, we describe the Kamada technique, as a standard surgical method for rat OLT. In addition, we also describe our splint technique for hepatic artery reconstruction. Then, we compare the features of Kamada technique and our splint technique for hepatic artery reconstruction and all other surgical techniques currently in use for rat OLT. The widespread use of the rat OLT model should help to provide full assessment of transplant immunology and the mechanism and treatment of inflammatory liver diseases.

  10. A Proposed Multi Images Visible Watermarking Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruba G. Al-Zamil

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Visible watermarking techniques are proposed to secure digital data against unauthorized attacks. These techniques protect data from illegal access and use. In this work, a multi visible watermarking technique that allows embedding different types of markers into different types of background images has been proposed It also allows adding multiple markers on the same background image with different sizes, positions and opacity levels without any interference. The proposed technique improves the flexibility issues of visible watermarking and helps in increasing the security levels. A visible watermarking system is designed to implement the proposed technique. The system facilitates single and multiple watermarking as illustrated in the proposed technique. Experimental results indicate that the proposed technique applies visible watermarking successfully.

  11. Fundamentals and Techniques of Nonimaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Gallagher, J. J.; Winston, R.

    2003-07-10

    This is the final report describing a long term basic research program in nonimaging optics that has led to major advances in important areas, including solar energy, fiber optics, illumination techniques, light detectors, and a great many other applications. The term ''nonimaging optics'' refers to the optics of extended sources in systems for which image forming is not important, but effective and efficient collection, concentration, transport, and distribution of light energy is. Although some of the most widely known developments of the early concepts have been in the field of solar energy, a broad variety of other uses have emerged. Most important, under the auspices of this program in fundamental research in nonimaging optics established at the University of Chicago with support from the Office of Basic Energy Sciences at the Department of Energy, the field has become very dynamic, with new ideas and concepts continuing to develop, while applications of the early concepts continue to be pursued. While the subject began as part of classical geometrical optics, it has been extended subsequently to the wave optics domain. Particularly relevant to potential new research directions are recent developments in the formalism of statistical and wave optics, which may be important in understanding energy transport on the nanoscale. Nonimaging optics permits the design of optical systems that achieve the maximum possible concentration allowed by physical conservation laws. The earliest designs were constructed by optimizing the collection of the extreme rays from a source to the desired target: the so-called ''edge-ray'' principle. Later, new concentrator types were generated by placing reflectors along the flow lines of the ''vector flux'' emanating from lambertian emitters in various geometries. A few years ago, a new development occurred with the discovery that making the design edge-ray a functional of some

  12. Progress involving new techniques for liposome preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenjun Huang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a review of new techniques being used for the preparation of liposomes. A total of 28 publications were examined. In addition to the theories, characteristics and problems associated with traditional methods, the advantages and drawbacks of the latest techniques were reviewed. In the light of developments in many relevant areas, a variety of new techniques are being used for liposome preparation and each of these new technique has particular advantages over conventional preparation methods. However, there are still some problems associated with these new techniques that could hinder their applications and further improvements are needed. Generally speaking, due to the introduction of these latest techniques, liposome preparation is now an improved procedure. These applications promote not only advances in liposome research but also the methods for their production on an industrial scale.

  13. Strength of different meniscus suturing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aşik, M; Sener, N; Akpinar, S; Durmaz, H; Göksan, A

    1997-01-01

    We measured and compared the primary stabilities of five different meniscal suturing techniques. The techniques tested were horizontal mattress, vertical mattress, knot-end, vertical, and vertical loop. Twenty bovine medial menisci were cut to simulate peripheral longitudinal tears and repaired with one of the five suture techniques. Then the two parts of the meniscus were pulled using the Instron Tensometer until failure occurred. Knot-end techniques gave inferior results (mean ultimate failure strength 64 +/- 5 N) compared with the other techniques. Vertical mattress failed at 130 +/- 3 N, vertical loop at 128 +/- 4.5 N, horizontal mattress at 98 +/- 5 N and vertical suturing at 136 +/- 2.7 N. This study shows the superior mechanical characteristic of the vertical suturing technique.

  14. A hashing technique using separate binary tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Mehedi Masud

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available It is always a major demand to provide efficient retrieving and storing of data and information in a large database system. For this purpose, many file organization techniques have already been developed, and much additional research is still going on. Hashing is one developed technique. In this paper we propose an enhanced hashing technique that uses a hash table combined with a binary tree, searching on the binary representation of a portion the primary key of records that is associated with each index of the hash table. The paper contains numerous examples to describe the technique. The technique shows significant improvements in searching, insertion, and deletion for systems with huge amounts of data. The paper also presents the mathematical analysis of the proposed technique and comparative results.

  15. Machine learning techniques in dialogue act recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Fišel

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This report addresses dialogue acts, their existing applications and techniques of automatically recognizing them, in Estonia as well as elsewhere. Three main applications are described: in dialogue systems to determine the intention of the speaker, in dialogue systems with machine translation to resolve ambiguities in the possible translation variants and in speech recognition to reduce word recognition error rate. Several recognition techniques are described on the surface level: how they work and how they are trained. A summary of the corresponding representation methods is provided for each technique. The paper also includes examples of applying the techniques to dialogue act recognition.The author comes to the conclusion that using the current evaluation metric it is impossible to compare dialogue act recognition techniques when these are applied to different dialogue act tag sets. Dialogue acts remain an open research area, with space and need for developing new recognition techniques and methods of evaluation.

  16. A biological treatment technique for wool textile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Xiao-Wei

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A biological treatment technique for wool textile was carried out by enzymes degradation coupled with H2O2 oxidation. The results demonstrated that the technique had ideal effects on wool textile such as better softness, plump and less loss of bursting stress. Because of mild reaction conditions, less textile damage and less environmental pollution, this technique for wool textile treatment could have promising prospect.

  17. Simple technique for maximal thoracic muscle harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, M Blair; Kaiser, Larry R; Kucharczuk, John C

    2004-04-01

    We present a modification of technique for standard muscle flap harvest, the placement of cutaneous traction sutures. This technique allows for maximal dissection of the thoracic muscles even through minimal incisions. Through improved exposure and traction, complete dissection of the muscle bed can be performed and the tissue obtained maximized. Because more muscle bulk is obtained with this technique, the need for a second muscle may be prevented.

  18. Cathodic Cage Plasma Nitriding: An Innovative Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa,R.R.M.; de Araújo, F. O.; J. A. P. da Costa; Brandim,A.S.; R. A. de Brito; C. Alves

    2012-01-01

    Cylindrical samples of AISI 1020, AISI 316, and AISI 420 steels, with different heights, were simultaneously treated by a new technique of ionic nitriding, entitled cathodic cage plasma nitriding (CCPN), in order to evaluate the efficiency of this technique to produce nitrided layers with better properties compared with those obtained using conventional ionic nitriding technique. This method is able to eliminate the edge effect in the samples, promoting a better uniformity of temperature, and...

  19. Modulation Techniques for Li-Fi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed Sufyan Islim; Harald Haas

    2016-01-01

    Modulation techniques for light fidelity (Li⁃Fi) are reviewed in this paper. Li⁃Fi is the fully networked solution for multiple users that combines communication and illumination simultaneously. Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are used in Li⁃Fi as visible light transmitters, therefore, only intensity modulated direct detected modulation techniques can be achieved. Single carrier modulation techniques are straightforward to be used in Li⁃Fi, however, computationally complex equalization processes are required in fre⁃quency selective Li⁃Fi channels. On the other hand, multicarrier modulation techniques offer a viable solution for Li⁃Fi in terms of power, spectral and computational efficiency. In particular, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) based modula⁃tion techniques offer a practical solution for Li⁃Fi, especially when direct current (DC) wander, and adaptive bit and power load⁃ing techniques are considered. Li⁃Fi modulation techniques need to also satisfy illumination requirements. Flickering avoidance and dimming control are considered in the variant modulation techniques presented. This paper surveys the suitable modulation techniques for Li⁃Fi including those which explore time, frequency and colour domains.

  20. Two sampling techniques for game meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Merwe, Maretha; Jooste, Piet J; Hoffman, Louw C; Calitz, Frikkie J

    2013-03-20

    A study was conducted to compare the excision sampling technique used by the export market and the sampling technique preferred by European countries, namely the biotrace cattle and swine test. The measuring unit for the excision sampling was grams (g) and square centimetres (cm2) for the swabbing technique. The two techniques were compared after a pilot test was conducted on spiked approved beef carcasses (n = 12) that statistically proved the two measuring units correlated. The two sampling techniques were conducted on the same game carcasses (n = 13) and analyses performed for aerobic plate count (APC), Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, for both techniques. A more representative result was obtained by swabbing and no damage was caused to the carcass. Conversely, the excision technique yielded fewer organisms and caused minor damage to the carcass. The recovery ratio from the sampling technique improved 5.4 times for APC, 108.0 times for E. coli and 3.4 times for S. aureus over the results obtained from the excision technique. It was concluded that the sampling methods of excision and swabbing can be used to obtain bacterial profiles from both export and local carcasses and could be used to indicate whether game carcasses intended for the local market are possibly on par with game carcasses intended for the export market and therefore safe for human consumption.

  1. FPGA implementation of image enhancement techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Karan; Jain, Aditya; Srivastava, Atul Kumar

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this paper is designing, modeling, simulation and synthesis of four Image Enhancement techniques on FPGA. Image Enhancement Algorithms can be classified as point processing Techniques, in which operation is done on pixel level and Spatial Filtering Technique, in which operation is performed within neighborhood of a pixel. Algorithms of all the techniques are studied and hardware circuits are realized for them. Then hardware logic is modeled in Matlab Simulink using Xilinx System Generator Block set and synthesized onto Virtex4 xc4vsx35-10ff668 FPGA chip. Using hardware co-simulation feature of FPGA kit, the algorithms developed are validated.

  2. Premature Ejaculation and Utilization of Cognitive Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan AKKOYUNLU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Premature ejaculation is the most common male sexual dysfunction leading to distress in many couples. Master and Johnson emphasized the concept of early learned experiences and Kaplan emphasized lack of sensory awareness. For treatment sex therapists mainly utilize start-stop and squeeze techniques as homework. Couples enter sex therapy with some cognitive distortions and beliefs about sex and sexuality. These beliefs are also named sexual myths. For some couples using techniques to challenge cognitive distortions and maladaptive beliefs about sex and sexuality can be used. In this paper by presenting a case we discussed how cognitive techniques can be used along with behaviour techniques with couples. Case: Presenting clients are five years married couple who are thirty and twenty nine years old respectively. They attended to the outpatient clinic with the request of the female client. Their main complaint was premature ejaculation. They were diagnosed premature ejaculation using clinical interview. In treatment besides start and stop technique, cognitive techniques were utilized to address dysfunctional beliefs about sexuality. Discussion: Premature ejaculation is a male sexual dysfunction that causes distress and intimacy problems between couples. Stop start and squeeze techniques were accepted as the choice of treatment but their effectiveness is questioned recently. Also cognitive distortions and maladaptive beliefs may hamper therapy progress. Besides that, behavioral techniques utilizing cognitive techniques to lessen the degree of dysfunctional beliefs about sex and sexuality may help the couple to overcome premature ejaculation and enhance sexual satisfaction and intimacy.

  3. Microencapsulation techniques, factors influencing encapsulation efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyothi, N Venkata Naga; Prasanna, P Muthu; Sakarkar, Suhas Narayan; Prabha, K Surya; Ramaiah, P Seetha; Srawan, G Y

    2010-05-01

    Microencapsulation is one of the quality preservation techniques of sensitive substances and a method for production of materials with new valuable properties. Microencapsulation is a process of enclosing micron-sized particles in a polymeric shell. There are different techniques available for the encapsulation of drug entities. The encapsulation efficiency of the microparticle or microsphere or microcapsule depends upon different factors like concentration of the polymer, solubility of polymer in solvent, rate of solvent removal, solubility of organic solvent in water, etc. The present article provides a literature review of different microencapsulation techniques and different factors influencing the encapsulation efficiency of the microencapsulation technique.

  4. Advanced in-flight measurement techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Lawson, Nicholas; Jentink, Henk; Kompenhans, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    The book presents a synopsis of the main results achieved during the 3 year EU-project "Advanced Inflight Measurement Techniques (AIM)" which applied advanced image based measurement techniques to industrial flight testing. The book is intended to be not only an overview on the AIM activities but also a guide on the application of advanced optical measurement techniques for future flight testing. Furthermore it is a useful guide for engineers in the field of experimental methods and flight testing who face the challenge of a future requirement for the development of highly accurate non-intrusive in-flight measurement techniques.

  5. Integrated diagnostic technique for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gofuku, Akio [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, Okayama (Japan)

    2014-12-15

    It is very important to detect and identify small anomalies and component failures for the safe operation of complex and large-scale artifacts such as nuclear power plants. Each diagnostic technique has its own advantages and limitations. These facts inspire us not only to enhance the capability of diagnostic techniques but also to integrate the results of diagnostic subsystems in order to obtain more accurate diagnostic results. The article describes the outline of four diagnostic techniques developed for the condition monitoring of the fast breeder reactor 'Monju'. The techniques are (1) estimation technique of important state variables based on a physical model of the component, (2) a state identification technique by non-linear discrimination function applying SVM (Support Vector Machine), (3) a diagnostic technique applying WT (Wavelet Transformation) to detect changes in the characteristics of measurement signals, and (4) a state identification technique effectively using past cases. In addition, a hybrid diagnostic system in which a final diagnostic result is given by integrating the results from subsystems is introduced, where two sets of values called confidence values and trust values are used. A technique to determine the trust value is investigated under the condition that the confidence value is determined by each subsystem.

  6. Large impacted upper ureteral calculi: A comparative study between retrograde ureterolithotripsy and percutaneous antegrade ureterolithotripsy in the modified lateral position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Moufid

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: In our series, Perc-URS is a safe and efficient treatment option for proximal ureteral stone, especially when the stone size is superior to 15 mm with the presence of moderate or severe hydronephrosis.

  7. Soft tissue injury related to choice of entry point in antegrade femoral nailing : piriform fossa or greater trochanter tip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moein, CMA; Verhofstad, MHJ; Bleys, RLAW; van der Werken, C

    2005-01-01

    Intramedullary nailing through the piriform fossa results in some cases in toss of abduction strength and persistent pain. Nail insertion at the tip of the greater trochanter may be favourable. The aim of this study was to assess (possible) iatrogenic injury to the abductor and external rotator musc

  8. Soft tissue injury related to choice of entry point in antegrade femoral nailing: piriform fossa or greater trochanter tip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moein, C.M.A.; Verhofstad, M.H.J.; Bleys, R.L.A.W.; van der Werken, C.

    2005-01-01

    Intramedullary nailing through the piriform fossa results in some cases in toss of abduction strength and persistent pain. Nail insertion at the tip of the greater trochanter may be favourable. The aim of this study was to assess (possible) iatrogenic injury to the abductor and external rotator musc

  9. Transfusion free radical antegrade modular pancreaticosplenectomy of metastatic neuroendocrine tumor of the pancreas in Jehovah's Witness patient

    OpenAIRE

    Jeon, Young Bae; Yun, Sangchul; Choi, Dongho

    2015-01-01

    In a popular sense, Jehovah's Witnesses (JW) have their creeds, one of which is refusal of blood transfusion. Such refusal may impinge on their proper management, especially in critical situations. We present a case of successful bloodless multimodality therapy, which was performed for a JW. The patient was a 49-year-old woman and JW who had general weakness 7 days before admission. She was diagnosed with a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET) with hepatic metastases. Transcatheter arterial...

  10. Spectral Estimation by the Random DEC Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Jensen, J. Laigaard; Krenk, S.

    This paper contains an empirical study of the accuracy of the Random Dec (RDD) technique. Realizations of the response from a single-degree-of-freedom system loaded by white noise are simulated using an ARMA model. The Autocorrelation function is estimated using the RDD technique and the estimated...

  11. Spectral Estimation by the Random Dec Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Jensen, Jacob L.; Krenk, Steen

    1990-01-01

    This paper contains an empirical study of the accuracy of the Random Dec (RDD) technique. Realizations of the response from a single-degree-of-freedom system loaded by white noise are simulated using an ARMA model. The Autocorrelation function is estimated using the RDD technique and the estimated...

  12. Principles of modern radar advanced techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Melvin, William

    2012-01-01

    Principles of Modern Radar: Advanced Techniques is a professional reference for practicing engineers that provides a stepping stone to advanced practice with in-depth discussions of the most commonly used advanced techniques for radar design. It will also serve advanced radar academic and training courses with a complete set of problems for students as well as solutions for instructors.

  13. Advanced structural equation modeling issues and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Marcoulides, George A

    2013-01-01

    By focusing primarily on the application of structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques in example cases and situations, this book provides an understanding and working knowledge of advanced SEM techniques with a minimum of mathematical derivations. The book was written for a broad audience crossing many disciplines, assumes an understanding of graduate level multivariate statistics, including an introduction to SEM.

  14. Interactive data visualization foundations, techniques, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ward, Matthew; Keim, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Interactive Data Visualization: Foundations, Techniques, and Applications, Second Edition provides all the theory, details, and tools necessary to build visualizations and systems involving the visualization of data. In color throughout, it explains basic terminology and concepts, algorithmic and software engineering issues, and commonly used techniques and high-level algorithms. Full source code is provided for completing implementations.

  15. Communications techniques and equipment: A compilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    This Compilation is devoted to equipment and techniques in the field of communications. It contains three sections. One section is on telemetry, including articles on radar and antennas. The second section describes techniques and equipment for coding and handling data. The third and final section includes descriptions of amplifiers, receivers, and other communications subsystems.

  16. Functional chromatographic technique for natural product isolation†

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Eric C.; Mason, Damian J.; Eichhorst, Nicole; Engelder, Pearce; Mesa, Celestina; Kithsiri Wijeratne, E. M.; Gunaherath, G. M. Kamal B.; Leslie Gunatilaka, A. A.; La Clair, James J.; Chapman, Eli

    2015-01-01

    Natural product discovery arises through a unique interplay between chromatographic purification and biological assays. Currently, most techniques used for natural product purification deliver leads without a defined biological action. We now describe a technique, referred to herein as functional chromatography, that deploys biological affinity as the matrix for compound isolation.

  17. The Delphi Technique in Educational Research

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Ravonne A.

    2014-01-01

    The Delphi Technique has been useful in educational settings in forming guidelines, standards, and in predicting trends. Judd lists these major uses of the Delphi Technique in higher education: (a) cost-effectiveness, (b) cost–benefit analysis, (c) curriculum and campus planning, and (d) university-wide educational goals and objectives. The thorough Delphi researcher seeks to reconcile the Delphi consensus with current...

  18. Techniques For Focusing In Zone Electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharnez, Rizwan; Twitty, Garland E.; Sammons, David W.

    1994-01-01

    In two techniques for focusing in zone electrophoresis, force of applied electrical field in each charged particle balanced by restoring force of electro-osmosis. Two techniques: velocity-gradient focusing (VGF), suitable for rectangular electrophoresis chambers; and field-gradient focusing (FGF), suitable for step-shaped electrophoresis chambers.

  19. Clinical techniques of artificial insemination in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makloski, Chelsea L

    2012-05-01

    This article provides an overview of the current breeding techniques used in small animal reproduction today with an emphasis on artificial insemination techniques such as transvaginal and transcervical insemination as well as surgical deposition of semen in the uterus and oviduct. Breeding management and ovulation timing will be mentioned but are discussed in further detail in another article in this issue.

  20. Classroom Observation Techniques. IDEA Paper No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheson, Keith A.

    Techniques for observing the classroom behavior of teachers and students are examined. These techniques provide a framework for analyzing and understanding classroom interaction, for making decisions about what should be happening, and for changing instructional behavior when it is necessary. The observation methods allow collection, analysis, and…

  1. Solution techniques for elementary partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Constanda, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Incorporating a number of enhancements, Solution Techniques for Elementary Partial Differential Equations, Second Edition presents some of the most important and widely used methods for solving partial differential equations (PDEs). The techniques covered include separation of variables, method of characteristics, eigenfunction expansion, Fourier and Laplace transformations, Green’s functions, perturbation methods, and asymptotic analysis.

  2. Scanning reference electrode techniques in localized corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaacs, H.S.; Vyas, B.

    1979-04-01

    The principles, advantages, and implementations of scanning reference electrode techniques are reviewed. Data related to pitting, intergranular corrosion, welds and stress corrosion cracking are presented. The technique locates the position of localized corrosion and can be used to monitor the development of corrosion and changes in the corrosion rate under a wide range of conditions.

  3. A structured design technique for distributed programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Polman; M.R. van Steen; A. de Bruin (Arie)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis report contains a non-formal motivation and description of ADL-d, a graphical design technique for parallel and distributed software. ADL-d allows a developer to construct an application in terms of communicating processes. The technique distinguishes itself from others by its use o

  4. Psychodrama Techniques for Inservice Teacher Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohut, Sylvester, Jr.

    1976-01-01

    By using psychodrama techniques in inservice programming, improvement in communication among members of the school community occurs. With modification the psychodrama approach can be used with inservice teachers and administrators to improve self-realization and communication. A program using psychodrama techniques is described in the article.…

  5. Histopathology of fish: I. Techniques and principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, E.M.; Yasutake, W.T.

    1955-01-01

    The techniques of histopathology have been used for many years in the study of human and animal diseases. Until very recent times, however, histology has been applied to fish studies only very infrequently. This brief discussion is intended to acquaint the reader with the techniques and principles involved and to explain how histological studies may help to overcome fish diseases and nutritional problems.

  6. Offset Correction Techniques for Voltage Sense Amplifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, S.

    2006-01-01

    This report deals with offset correction techniques for voltage sense amplifiers and is divided into two different parts: 1) mismatch and 2) offset correction techniques. First a literature study is done on the subject mismatch with specially focus on the future. Mismatch of a transistor is determin

  7. Advances in China's Oil Reservoir Description Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu Longxin; Huang Shiyan; Jia Ailin; Rong Jiashu

    1997-01-01

    @@ Oil reservoir description in China has undergone rapid development in recent years. Extensive research carried out at various oilfields and petroleum universities has resulted in the formulation of comprehensive oil reservoir description techniques and methods uniquely suited to the various development phases of China's continental facies. The new techniques have the following characteristics:

  8. Tow techniques for marine pipeline installation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernández, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    Tow techniques for marine pipelines frequently offer competitive and commercially attactive solutions over other installation methods and, on occasion, may represent the only alternative to traditional techniques. An assessment is also made of where each tow method is applicable and technically feas

  9. Tellurium purification: various techniques and limitations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D S Prasad; Ch Sudheer; N R Munirathnam; T L Prakash

    2002-11-01

    Limitations and techniques to purify tellurium metal especially using non-chemical techniques such as vacuum distillation and zone refining are discussed. It was found that the clean environments, design, handling and cleaning of quartz ware are equally important in achieving the desired purity levels.

  10. The Fragility of a Robust Therapeutic Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikkelsø, Signe

    2012-01-01

    How can therapeutic techniques simultaneously be tools for emancipation and act as subtle forms of control? The article investigates this seeming paradox by examining a technique for group analysis developed by Wilfred Bion aimed at surfacing the inclination of a group to prompt inexpedient leade...

  11. Citizen Participation: A Manual of Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Charldean, Ed.

    Directed to the local government of smaller cities, this guide discusses five techniques for valid and feasible citizen participation. In each of the five selections the author describes the technique and indicates when its use is appropriate and what both its advantages and disadvantages are. The sections are arranged in order from the least to…

  12. Techniques for laser welding polymeric devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, I A

    2003-04-01

    Recent advances in laser techniques mean that lasers are now being considered as an alternative to vibration, ultrasonic, dielectric, hot plate or hot bar welding, and adhesive bonding of plastics. The techniques required to put laser welding methods into practice are described for medical devices, tubular systems, films and synthetic fabrics.

  13. Using Data Mining Techniques in Customer Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Ziafat

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Data mining plays important role in marketing and is quite new. Although this field expands rapidly, data mining is still foreign issue for many marketers who trust only their experiences. Data mining techniques cannot substitute the significant role of domain experts and their business knowledge. In the other words, data mining algorithms are powerful but cannot effectively work without the active support of business experts. We can gain useful results by combining these techniques and business expertise. For instance ability of a data mining technique can be substantially increased by combining person experience in the field or information of business can be integrated into a data mining model to build a more successful result. Moreover, these results should always be evaluated by business experts. Thus, business knowledge can help and enrich the data mining results. On the other hand, data mining techniques can extract patterns that even the most experienced business people may have missed. In conclusion, the combination of business domain expertise with the power of data mining techniques can help organizations gain a competitive advantage in their efforts to optimize customer management. Clustering algorithms, a group of data mining technique, is one of most common used way to segment data set according to their similarities. This paper focuses on the topic of customer segmentation using data mining techniques. In the other words, we theoretically discuss about customer relationship management and then utilize couple of data mining algorithm specially clustering techniques for customer segmentation. We concentrated on behavioral segmentation.

  14. Dancers' Application of the Alexander Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Sylvie; Girard, Fernande

    2005-01-01

    This qualitative study describes the experience of professional contemporary dancers studying and applying the Alexander Technique to their dancing. This study was motivated by: 1. years of teaching both dance and somatics, 2. a strong desire to better understand how the Alexander Technique can be applied by dancers, and 3. a gap that the…

  15. Lie Group Techniques for Neural Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-03

    Lie group techniques for Neural Learning Edinburgh June 2004 Elena Celledoni SINTEF Applied Mathematics, IMF-NTNU Lie group techniques for Neural...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) SINTEF Applied Mathematics, IMF-NTNU 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND

  16. Performance Monitoring Techniques Supporting Cognitive Optical Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caballero Jambrina, Antonio; Borkowski, Robert; Zibar, Darko;

    2013-01-01

    High degree of heterogeneity of future optical networks, such as services with different quality-of-transmission requirements, modulation formats and switching techniques, will pose a challenge for the control and optimization of different parameters. Incorporation of cognitive techniques can hel...

  17. Some Approaches for Integration of Specification Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2000-01-01

    It is often useful to apply several specification techniques within the same software development project. This raises the question how specification techniques can be integrated. In this presentation we give three different examples of how this can be done. In the first example, we summarise how...

  18. Cognitive Support in Teaching Football Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Henryk

    2009-01-01

    Study aim: To improve the teaching of football techniques by applying cognitive and imagery techniques. Material and methods: Four groups of subjects, n = 32 each, were studied: male and female physical education students aged 20-21 years, not engaged previously in football training; male juniors and minors, aged 16 and 13 years, respectively,…

  19. A REVIEW OF ADAPTIVE AUTORECLOSURE TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PHILIP YAW OKYERE

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive autoreclosing is a fast emerging technology for improving power system marginal stability during faults. It avoids reclosing untopermanent faults and recloses unto transient faults only after the secondary arc has extinguished. This paper presents a comprehensive review of various adaptive autoreclosure techniques. It aims at providing a broad perspective on adaptive autoreclosing techniques to researchers and application engineers.

  20. Essential ultrasound techniques of the pediatric airway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stafrace, Samuel; Engelhardt, Thomas; Teoh, Wendy H;

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound of the airways is a technique which has been described in a number of recent articles and reviews highlighting the diagnostic possibilities and simple methodology. However, there is a paucity of information focusing specifically on such methods in children where equipment, technique, a...

  1. Q-Technique and Graphics Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, Roger R.

    Because Q-technique is as appropriate for use with visual and design items as for use with words, it is not stymied by the topics one is likely to encounter in graphics research. In particular Q-technique is suitable for studying the so-called "congeniality" of typography, for various copytesting usages, and for multivariate graphics research. The…

  2. Incremental Pressing Technique in Explosive Charge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A pressing technique has become available that might be useful for compressing granular explosives. If the height-diameter ratio of the charge is unfavorable,the high quality charge can not be obtained with the common single-action pressing. This paper presents incremental pressing technique, which can obtain the charge with higher overall density and more uniform density.

  3. Indirect techniques in nuclear astrophysics: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribble, R E; Bertulani, C A; Cognata, M La; Mukhamedzhanov, A M; Spitaleri, C

    2014-10-01

    In this review, we discuss the present status of three indirect techniques that are used to determine reaction rates for stellar burning processes, asymptotic normalization coefficients, the Trojan Horse method and Coulomb dissociation. A comprehensive review of the theory behind each of these techniques is presented. This is followed by an overview of the experiments that have been carried out using these indirect approaches.

  4. Functional chromatographic technique for natural product isolation†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Eric C.; Mason, Damian J.; Eichhorst, Nicole; Engelder, Pearce; Mesa, Celestina; Kithsiri Wijeratne, E. M.; Gunaherath, G. M. Kamal B.; Leslie Gunatilaka, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Natural product discovery arises through a unique interplay between chromatographic purification and biological assays. Currently, most techniques used for natural product purification deliver leads without a defined biological action. We now describe a technique, referred to herein as functional chromatography, that deploys biological affinity as the matrix for compound isolation. PMID:25588099

  5. Comparing Face Detection and Recognition Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Korra, Jyothi

    2016-01-01

    This paper implements and compares different techniques for face detection and recognition. One is find where the face is located in the images that is face detection and second is face recognition that is identifying the person. We study three techniques in this paper: Face detection using self organizing map (SOM), Face recognition by projection and nearest neighbor and Face recognition using SVM.

  6. Double swab technique for collecting touched evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, B C M; Cheung, B K K

    2007-07-01

    Touched evidence is often submitted to forensic laboratories for DNA analysis. Classical stain recovery technique, involving one wet cotton swab, is commonly used for recovering the touched evidence. Double swab technique, using a wet cotton swab followed by a dry cotton swab, was compared with the classical technique for recovering the touched evidence. The wet cotton swabs and the dry cotton swabs were individually extracted. DNA extracts were quantified and amplified at 15 polymorphic loci. DNA recovered in some of the second dry swabs contained sufficient amount of DNA to yield a DNA profile. This study shows that the double swab technique improves the quality of the resulting DNA profiles. The double swab technique for recovering touched evidence at crime scenes is recommended.

  7. A century of indicator dilution technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens H; Jensen, Gorm B; Larsson, Henrik B W

    2014-01-01

    This review imparts the history and the present status of the indicator dilution technique with quantitative bolus injection. The first report on flow measurement with this technique appeared 100 years ago. In 1928, the use of intravascular dyes made possible a widespread application in animals...... and kidneys developed, and powerful computers in the 1980s and 1990s accorded the technique a new dimension. Today, the indicator dilution technique, on one hand, is applied in the same way as 100 years ago, on the other hand it forms the basis of quantitative SPECT, positron emission tomography, and dynamic...... MR scans. The technique still undergoes refinement and elaboration as a lasting concept with a high potential for further development....

  8. Advanced sensing techniques for cognitive radio

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Guodong; Li, Shaoqian

    2017-01-01

    This SpringerBrief investigates advanced sensing techniques to detect and estimate the primary receiver for cognitive radio systems. Along with a comprehensive overview of existing spectrum sensing techniques, this brief focuses on the design of new signal processing techniques, including the region-based sensing, jamming-based probing, and relay-based probing. The proposed sensing techniques aim to detect the nearby primary receiver and estimate the cross-channel gain between the cognitive transmitter and primary receiver. The performance of the proposed algorithms is evaluated by simulations in terms of several performance parameters, including detection probability, interference probability, and estimation error. The results show that the proposed sensing techniques can effectively sense the primary receiver and improve the cognitive transmission throughput. Researchers and postgraduate students in electrical engineering will find this an exceptional resource.

  9. Two techniques to make swallowing pills easier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiele, Julia T; Schneider, Hendrik; Quinzler, Renate; Reich, Gabriele; Haefeli, Walter E

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate whether 2 techniques (the pop-bottle method for tablets and the lean-forward technique for capsules) ease swallowing of tablets and capsules, we conducted a cross-sectional study including 151 adults of the general German population. Participants swallowed 16 differently shaped placebos, rated their ease of swallowing on an 8-point Likert scale, and swallowed the 2 dosage forms that they had rated most difficult again using the appropriate technique. The pop-bottle method substantially improved swallowing of tablets in 59.7% (169/283) and the lean-forward technique for capsules in 88.6% (31/35). Both techniques were remarkably effective in participants with and without reported difficulties swallowing pills and should be recommended regularly.

  10. SELECTIVE PRESSURE IMPRESSION TECHNIQUE: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Impression is basically an interaction between tissues and impression material. The variety of impression materials and the range of working characteristics of these materials, make possible the development of impression procedures best suited for specific conditions. Our method for making impressions should be based on the basic principles of maximum area coverage and intimate contact so as to achieve the objectives of retention, support, stability, esthetics, preservation of ridge (supporting structures. Various impression techniques have been mentioned in the literature for recording impression of edentulous ridges. These techniques have been classified by different authors as functional, mucostatic, mucocompressive, selective pressure, minimal pressure etc. However none of these techniques has been designated as the ‘time best’ for a particular patient though selective pressure technique has got much attention in the literature. This article is presenting a critical review on the selective pressure impression technique used for edentulous patients.

  11. Application of three insertion techniques of elastic stable intramedullary nail in the treatment of pediatric humeral diaphyseal fractures%三种弹性髓内针固定技术在治疗儿童肱骨干骨折上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张骥; 冯超; 闫桂森

    2014-01-01

    Objective To discuss the indications,surgical techniques,efficacies and complications in the treatment of pediatric humeral diaphyseal fractures with elastic stable intramedullary nail (ESIN).Methods A retrospective study was conducted for all pediatric humeral diaphyseal fractures with ESIN treated at our hospital between 2004 and 2012.The complete clinic data were collected from 57 patients aged 24-173 months.The mean follow-up period was 17 months.The humeral fracture sites were proximal third (n =10),middle third (n =29) and distal third (n =18).The surgical indications included unstable fractures,failure after conservative treatment,open fractures or associated multiple injures.And the manners of surgical techniques were antegrade (n =5),radial retrograde (n =21) and bilateral retrograde (n =31).Results Bilateral retrograde manner could provide the stability for middle and distal thirds of humeral shaft fractures.Two cases of radial retrograde manner had angular displacement while 3 cases of antegrade manner translational displacement for distal third.And external immobilization should be combined.All fractures united without abnormal appearance or decreased range of motion.Among 9 patients with skin irritation,three of whom developed nail protrusion through skin.There was no occurrence of infection,neurovascular injury or secondary fracture displacement.Conclusions ESIN provides an option for stabilizing pediatric humeral diaphyseal fractures.The technique of bilateral retrograde insertion is secure,simple and effective.%目的 探讨采用弹性髓内针(elastic stable intramedullary nail,ESIN)技术治疗儿童肱骨干骨折的手术适应证、固定方式的选择、治疗效果及并发症的处理.方法 本文总结2004年至2012年在积水潭医院小儿骨科采用ESIN技术治疗儿童肱骨干骨折的所有病例.资料完整并完成随访的共57例.患儿年龄2岁~14岁5个月,术后平均随访时间1年5个月.其中肱骨干上1/3

  12. Magnetic Nondestructive Testing Techniques of Constructional Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Er-gang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Steel is a kind of ferromagnetic material, which is extensively applied in such fields as buildings, bridges, railways, machines and lifeline engineering etc. Those engineering structures built of constructional steel will unavoidably experience some damages during their service lifetime, thus which will influence the distribution regularity of internal forces in structures, result in over-stresses, cause the local failure of structures, and even lead to collapse of the whole structure. Therefore, it is a pressing topic to study how to directly evaluate the real-time stressed states of structural members, damages and steel characteristics in present structural health monitoring and diagnosing fields. And the achievements of this research will be of theoretical significance and of application value of engineering. This paper summarizes varieties of new magnetic nondestructive testing techniques used in constructional steel, respectively investigates the testing principles, characteristics and application for the magnetic Barkhausen noise technique, magnetic acoustic emission technique, magnetic flux leakage technique, magnetic memory technique and magnetic absorption technique, and points out the problems present in the application of these new techniques to actual testing and the further research objective.

  13. Redo thoracic endovascular aortic repair due to endoleak with celiac artery snorkeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planer, David; Bliagos, Dimitrios; Gray, William A

    2011-10-01

    Reintervention due to endoleak of aortic endograft repair is often challenging. Herein, we report endovascular endoleak repair in a patient with previous thoracic and abdominal endovascular grafts with extensive coverage of the aorta. The present technique included snorkeling of the celiac trunk to preserve antegrade flow in the celiac artery and to maintain future options for reintervention.

  14. Femoral nailing in adults : doctor and patient reported outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Moumni, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of traumatic femoral shaft fractures using an unreamed nail is associated with good results. Both antegrade and retrograde unreamed nailing techniques result in high union rates and low rates of complications, such as non-union, deep infection and septic arthritis. These results are co

  15. Superhydrophobic Materials Technology-PVC Bonding Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, Scott R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Efird, Marty [VeloxFlow, LLC

    2013-05-03

    The purpose of the technology maturation project was to develop an enhanced application technique for applying diatomaceous earth with pinned polysiloxane oil to PVC pipes and materials. The oil infiltration technique is applied as a spray of diluted oil in a solvent onto the superhydrophobic diatomaceous earth substrate. This makes the surface take on the following characteristics: wet-cleanable; anti-biofouling; waterproof; and anti-corrosion. The project involved obtaining input and supplies from VeloxFlow and the development of successful techniques that would quickly result in a commercial license agreement with VeloxFlow and other companies that use PVC materials in a variety of other fields of use.

  16. Gastrointestinal tract imaging in children: current techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiorns, Melanie P. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Radiology Department, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    Imaging of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in children continues to evolve, with new techniques, both radiological and non-radiological, being added to the repertoire. This article provides a summary of current imaging techniques of the GI tract (primarily the upper GI tract) and the relationship between those techniques. It covers the upper GI series and other contrast studies, US, CT and MRI. Note is also made of the contribution now made by capsule endoscopy (CE). Abdominal emergency imaging is not covered in this article. (orig.)

  17. Temperature Control System Using Fuzzy Logic Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isizoh A N

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fuzzy logic technique is an innovative technology used in designing solutions for multi-parameter and non-linear control models for the definition of a control strategy. As a result, it delivers solutions faster than the conventional control design techniques. This paper thus presents a fuzzy logic based-temperature control system, which consists of a microcontroller, temperature sensor, and operational amplifier, Analogue to Digital Converter, display interface circuit and output interface circuit. It contains a design approach that uses fuzzy logic technique to achieve a controlled temperature output function.

  18. A True Open-Loop Synchronization Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestan, Saeed; Vidal, Ana; Yepes, Alejandro G.;

    2016-01-01

    Synchronization techniques can be broadly classified into two major categories: Closed-loop and open-loop methods. The open-loop synchronization (OLS) techniques, contrary to the closed-loop ones, are unconditionally stable and benefit from a fast dynamic response. Their performance, however, tends...... drawback of most of the available OLS techniques is that their implementation involves the computation of sine and cosine functions, which is undesirable from the computational standpoint, particularly when the implementation with low-cost digital signal processors is intended. The aim of this paper...

  19. GPU PRO 3 Advanced rendering techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Engel, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    GPU Pro3, the third volume in the GPU Pro book series, offers practical tips and techniques for creating real-time graphics that are useful to beginners and seasoned game and graphics programmers alike. Section editors Wolfgang Engel, Christopher Oat, Carsten Dachsbacher, Wessam Bahnassi, and Sebastien St-Laurent have once again brought together a high-quality collection of cutting-edge techniques for advanced GPU programming. With contributions by more than 50 experts, GPU Pro3: Advanced Rendering Techniques covers battle-tested tips and tricks for creating interesting geometry, realistic sha

  20. An Overview of Portable Distributed Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Bansal

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we reviewed of several portable parallel programming paradigms for use in a distributed programming environment. The Techniques reviewed here are portable. These are mainly distributing computing using MPI pure java based, MPI native java based (JNI and PVM. We will discuss architecture and utilities of each technique based on our literature review. We explored these portable distributed techniques in four important characteristics scalability, fault tolerance, load balancing and performance. We have identified the various factors and issues for improving these four important characteristics.

  1. Active learning techniques for librarians practical examples

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    A practical work outlining the theory and practice of using active learning techniques in library settings. It explains the theory of active learning and argues for its importance in our teaching and is illustrated using a large number of examples of techniques that can be easily transferred and used in teaching library and information skills to a range of learners within all library sectors. These practical examples recognise that for most of us involved in teaching library and information skills the one off session is the norm, so we need techniques that allow us to quickly grab and hold our

  2. The Evolution of Kicking Techniques in Taekwondo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udo Moenig

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to explain the evolution of kicking techniques of taekwondo and to provide a historical time frame for this process. This study analyzes early karate and taekwondo literature, including diverse and varied Korean sources. In addition, some interviews were conducted with relevant persons of the period researched. Taekwondo and karate training and techniques had been very similar until the 1960s. However, taekwondo diverged from karate techniques with the introduction of full-contact competitions during the 1960s.

  3. New analytical techniques in food science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañez, E; Cifuentes, A

    2001-09-01

    In this review, some of the latest analytical techniques that are being used for the study and characterization of food are examined. This work intends to provide an updated overview (including works published up to June 1999) on the principal applications of such techniques together with their main advantages and drawbacks in food analysis. Some future developments of these systems and their foreseeable application in food characterization are also discussed. The reviewed techniques are those based on spectroscopic, biological, separation, and electrochemical procedures. Moreover, some relevant facts on new systems for sample preparation and on-line couplings are also given.

  4. A New Technique for Digital Image Watermarking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang-Sheng Wu

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a new technique is proposed for rotation, scaling and translation (RST) invariant image watermarking based on log-polar mappings (LPM) and phase-only filtering (POF). The watermark is embedded in the LPM of Fourier magnitude spectrum of the original image, and a small portion of resulting LPM spectrum is used to calculate the watermark positions. This technique avoids computing inverse log-polar mapping (ILPM) to preserve the quality of the watermarked image, and avoids exhaustive search to save computation time and reduce false detection. Experimental results demonstrate that the digital watermarking technique is invariant and robust to rotation, scaling, and translation transformation.

  5. Advances in speckle metrology and related techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufmann, Guillermo H

    2010-01-01

    Speckle metrology includes various optical techniques that are based on the speckle fields generated by reflection from a rough surface or by transmission through a rough diffuser. These techniques have proven to be very useful in testing different materials in a non-destructive way. They have changed dramatically during the last years due to the development of modern optical components, with faster and more powerful digital computers, and novel data processing approaches. This most up-to-date overview of the topic describes new techniques developed in the field of speckle metrology over the l

  6. An Overview of Portable Distributed Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bansal, Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we reviewed of several portable parallel programming paradigms for use in a distributed programming environment. The Techniques reviewed here are portable. These are mainly distributing computing using MPI pure java based, MPI native java based (JNI) and PVM. We will discuss architecture and utilities of each technique based on our literature review. We explored these portable distributed techniques in four important characteristics scalability, fault tolerance, load balancing and performance. We have identified the various factors and issues for improving these four important characteristics.

  7. Magnetic Particle Technique: Lab Case of CAMAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Ruth Rincón Urbina

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the general procedure for the use of the technique of magnetic particles; generally describes the main characteristics of the test and inspection procedure from CAMAN Lab developed at the Graduate School of the Colombian Air Force. The method used in the research and development of the project was documentary, in order to establish the rules and regulations required for certification of the magnetic particles technique in nondestructive testing laboratory by the Aeronautical Authority. Finally, based on the data analysis, an Inspection Procedure Manual was developed in order to certify the magnetic particles technique.

  8. EMI filter techniques in power electronic converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredy Edimer Hoyos Velasco

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of EMI reduction techniques applied to power electronic converters. The techniques applied included shielding control and power signals, separating power system references regarding reference for instrumentation and measurement signals, implementing analog filters and configuring an appropriate switch trigger system for electronic power to decrease shifting EMI emissions to the maximum. This paper presents the results before and after applying the techniques to reduce interference. The results were also veryfied by using two real time control strategies rapid control prototyping (RCP.

  9. Direct and indirect laryngoscopy: equipment and techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Stephen R

    2014-06-01

    Visualization of the larynx by direct or indirect means is referred to as laryngoscopy and is the principal aim during airway management for passage of a tracheal tube. This paper presents a brief background regarding the development and practice of laryngoscopy and examines the equipment and techniques for both direct and indirect methods. Patient evaluation during the airway examination is discussed, as are predictors for difficult intubation. Laryngoscope blade design, newer intubating techniques, and a variety of indirect laryngoscopic technologies are reviewed, as is the learning curve for these techniques and devices.

  10. Arthroscopic Posterior Subtalar Arthrodesis: Surgical Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilá y Rico, Jesús; Ojeda Thies, Cristina; Parra Sanchez, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Surgical fusion of the subtalar joint is a procedure indicated to alleviate pain of subtalar origin, such as in post-traumatic osteoarthritis, adult-acquired flatfoot deformity, and other disorders. Open subtalar arthrodesis has been performed with predictable results, but concerns exist regarding injury to proprioception and local vascularity due to wide surgical dissection. Minimally invasive techniques try to improve results by avoiding these issues but have a reputation for being technically demanding. We describe the surgical technique for arthroscopic subtalar arthrodesis, which has proved to be a safe and reliable technique in our experience, with consistent improvements in American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society scores. PMID:27073783

  11. Flow Modeling Based Wall Element Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabah Tamimi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Two types of flow where examined, pressure and combination of pressure and Coquette flow of confined turbulent flow with a one equation model used to depict the turbulent viscosity of confined flow in a smooth straight channel when a finite element technique based on a zone close to a solid wall has been adopted for predicting the distribution of the pertinent variables in this zone and examined even with case when the near wall zone was extended away from the wall. The validation of imposed technique has been tested and well compared with other techniques.

  12. Open palm technique in Dupuytren's disease treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Carpi Malta

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the results of the open palm technique for the treatment of Dupuytren's disease. METHOD: The authors used the technique described by McCash. Twelve patients (13 hands were surgically treated, between october 2002 and september 2011. RESULTS: The wounds healed in a medium of 25 days (variation of 17 to 30 days. There were no complications, such as infection, haematoma formation, skin necrosis, residual edema. CONCLUSION: The open palm technique remains a safe alternative for the treatment of Dupuytren's disease, with satisfactory results and low risk of complications.

  13. Advances in pediatric colorectal surgical techniques.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rangel, S.J.; Blaauw, I. de

    2010-01-01

    The operative management of pediatric colorectal diseases has improved significantly in recent years through the development of innovative approaches for operative exposure and a better understanding of colorectal anatomy. Advances in transanal and minimal access techniques have formed the cornersto

  14. Multibeam swath bathymetry signal processing techniques

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ranade, G.; Sudhakar, T.

    Mathematical advances and the advances in the real time signal processing techniques in the recent times, have considerably improved the state of art in the bathymetry systems. These improvements have helped in developing high resolution swath...

  15. High-contrast Nulling Interferometry Techniques Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — "We are developing rotating-baseline nulling-interferometry techniques and algorithms on the single-aperture Hale and Keck telescopes at near-infrared wavelengths,...

  16. Proposition of an Unexploited Multiple Access Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidi Ahmed Djennas

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Continual growth in number of telecommunication network users encourages engineers to bring solutions to avoid overload and conflict. The situation is remedied by multiple access techniques and protocols. In fact, several ideas were applied with success to overcome difficulties. Basically, these ideas are based on discrimination in time, frequency, space and modulating code or time management. Within the context, we propose in this paper a new technique which helps us to avoid the conflict between users and manage optimally the information convoy. The basic idea for the new technique, baptized on the occasion by FAT (Fundamentals Agreement Technique, is to develop every signal and to convert it into a form with fundamentals as components. Of course emission and reception parts are in agreement about fundamentals to allow signals recovery later.

  17. Novel noninvasive techniques in management of diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadaf Sameer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery, insulin remains as effective means of curing the diabetes. During the last decades, diabetes has become a life-threatening disease, because of this people initially goes for insulin injections but the inconvenience leads to the development of noninvasive techniques, which has recently replaced the insulin injection. These techniques overcome the barrier for the insulin treatment and ultimately control the glucose level of patient effectively than invasive technique. In these review, an attempt has been made to cover overall techniques available for diabetes treatment noninvasively. In an attempt of this, data has been collected, which includes insulin delivery via oral, nasal, pulmonary, rectal, buccal and ocular route. Along with these devices available in the market and under trials for diabetes treatment has also been covered. As this disease requires continuous treatment, it is advisable to go with noninvasive means of insulin delivery.

  18. Video Watermarking Using RST Resilient Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramya. C

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Watermarking is a process of staganography or embedding process. It is mainly proposed for copy right protection, data security, data hiding, convey other information etc. In this paper, watermarking process is achieved by RST resilient technique. The advantage of this technique is providing a data security. RST resilient technique can avoid a data loss, due to disorder caused by Rotation, Scaling and Translation (RST attack. Embedding data to the video frames is achieved by two steps. At first step, by using RST technique data or message is watermarked to an image. At second step, data embedded image is watermarked to a selective frames in the video sequence. This process can be done in both spatial domain and frequency domain.

  19. Improving TMD classification using the Delphi technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, M T

    2010-10-01

    The classification of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) is still controversial. Consensus methods such as the Delphi technique, a method that polls experts' anonymous opinion in an iterative process with controlled feedback and statistical aggregation of group response, could be valuable to improve this challenging topic. The article illustrates the application of the Delphi technique for deciding whether the terms myalgia or myofascial pain should be used in a TMD classification system and discusses the technique's potential for TMD classification in general. In three Delphi rounds, 14 TMD experts from the Division of TMD and Orofacial Pain of the University of Minnesota reached a consensus about which TMD diagnoses should be included in a TMD classification system. They preferred the term myofascial pain over myalgia. The Delphi technique has the potential to provide answers to complex questions in TMD classification, e.g., TMD nomenclature and range as well as scope of conditions included in a future TMD classification system.

  20. Ultrasonic non invasive techniques for microbiological instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvira, L.; Sierra, C.; Galán, B.; Resa, P.

    2010-01-01

    Non invasive techniques based on ultrasounds have advantageous features to study, characterize and monitor microbiological and enzymatic reactions. These processes may change the sound speed, viscosity or particle distribution size of the medium where they take place, which makes possible their analysis using ultrasonic techniques. In this work, two different systems for the analysis of microbiological liquid media based on ultrasounds are presented. In first place, an industrial application based on an ultrasonic monitoring technique for microbiological growth detection in milk is shown. Such a system may improve the quality control strategies in food production factories, being able to decrease the time required to detect possible contaminations in packed products. Secondly, a study about the growing of the Escherichia coli DH5 α in different conditions is presented. It is shown that the use of ultrasonic non invasive characterization techniques in combination with other conventional measurements like optical density provides complementary information about the metabolism of these bacteria.