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Sample records for antegrade continence enema

  1. The Malone antegrade continence enema for neurogenic and structural fecal incontinence and constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyle, M A; Kaji, D M; Duque, M; Wild, J; Galansky, S H

    1995-08-01

    Problems of fecal elimination are commonly encountered by the pediatric urologist and surgeon. The Malone antegrade continence enema has been described as a means to administer a large volume enema via a continent catheterizable appendicocecostomy, resulting in reliable fecal elimination. Of 22 patients undergoing this procedure 16 reported total continence 4 months or longer after surgery. Complications are relatively minor and tap water appears to be a safe solution for the antegrade continence enema. A nonrefluxing, imbricated appendicocecostomy is preferable to prevent cutaneous fecal or gas leaks.

  2. Left-colon antegrade continence enema (LACE) procedure for fecal incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Bernard M; De Ugarte, Daniel A; Atkinson, James B

    2003-12-01

    Antegrade continence enemas (ACE) are an efficacious therapeutic option for patients with fecal incontinence. The authors review their institution's experience with a variation of the Monti-Malone ACE procedure using the left colon as a source of an intestinal conduit and enema reservoir. From 2000 to 2002, 18 patients with fecal incontinence or intractable constipation underwent left-colon ACE (LACE) procedure. Concomitant Mitrofanoff appendicovesicostomy was performed in 15 patients and bladder augmentation in 9. The majority of patients had neural tube defects. A segment of left colon was tubularized, tunneled into the muscular wall of the distal colon, and exteriorized through the left upper quadrant or midabdomen. Stomal catherization and enema installation were started one month postoperatively. Fifteen patients (83%) achieved fecal continence, 2 remain incontinent of stool, and 1 experienced stomal closure (mean follow-up was 24 +/- 9 months). Two patients had stomal stenosis that required revision. The mean enema volume in patient's achieving continence was 360 +/- 216 mL, and the mean transit time was 18 +/- 12 minutes. LACE is an efficacious procedure for fecal incontinence that can be performed safely at the time of major urologic reconstruction. Administration of enemas into the left colon has several physiologic advantages that result in predictable bowel evacuation.

  3. [Perineal colostomy with antegrade continence enemas as an alternative after abdominoperineal resection for low rectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penninckx, F; D'Hoore, A; Vanden Bosch, A

    2005-06-01

    Some young and active patients requiring abdominoperineal resection for rectum cancer ask for an alternative of an abdominal colostomy. We analysed the results after a combination of a perineal colostomy and antegrade continence enemas (ACE). Fifteen patients have been operated between 1999 and 2004. Follow-up was >six months in 12 patients with a mean of two years and with a maximum of 55 months. The QLQ-C30 (version 3) and CR 38 questionnaires of the EORTC have been used to evaluate quality of life aspects. Five out of 15 patients presented complications: infection of the caecal conduit (2), small bowel obstruction (1), prolapse of the perineal colostomy (1), eventration (1), urologic complications (2). ACE are still used by all patients. The volume needed was 400 ml and duration of irrigation was 30 minutes (15-45 minutes). The median score for faecal incontinence was 0 ; faecal pseudocontinence was obtained by 7/12 patients. The scores for all aspects of functioning were excellent, as well as the score for body image. The general health status and quality of life were estimated at 75% from normal value. The procedure is simple and can be performed in one operative session. A perineal colostomy with ACE seems to be a valuable and less expensive alternative for an abdominal colostomy, and certainly for total anorectal reconstruction.

  4. Antegrade continence enemas improve quality of life in patients with medically-refractory encopresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Joseph T; Simha, Sidd; Wild, Laurie C; Teitelbaum, Daniel H; Ehrlich, Peter F

    2017-05-01

    Fecal incontinence is a socially debilitating problem for many children. We hypothesized that in selected patients with medically-refractory encopresis, placement of an appendicostomy or cecostomy tube for administration of antegrade continence enemas (ACE) would improve quality of life (QOL). We reviewed all patients with encopresis who underwent appendicostomy or cecostomy placement from 2003 to 2014 at our institution. We contacted subjects' parents by phone and administered 3 surveys: a survey reflecting current stooling habits, a disease-specific QOL survey, and the PedsQL™ QOL survey. QOL surveys were completed twice by parents, once reflecting pre-operative QOL, then again reflecting current QOL. Pre-procedure and post-procedure scores were compared by paired t-test. Ten patients underwent appendicostomy/cecostomy for encopresis. Eight completed phone surveys. All procedures were performed laparoscopically. All patients experienced fecal soiling pre-operatively, whereas 5/8 surveyed patients (63%) noted complete resolution of soiling post-procedure (pencopresis, likely related to resolution of soiling. 4. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. After the honeymoon comes divorce: long-term use of the antegrade continence enema procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yardley, Iain E; Pauniaho, Satu-Liisa; Baillie, Colin T; Turnock, Rick R; Coldicutt, Pat; Lamont, Graham L; Kenny, Simon E

    2009-06-01

    Having reported that 18% of children discontinue use of the antegrade continence enema (ACE) after 5 years, we aimed to determine long-term use after an ACE procedure. A postal/telephone questionnaire was conducted. Subjects were consecutive children undergoing an ACE between 1993 and 1999. Outcome measures were use of ACE, reasons for nonuse, complications, and overall satisfaction. Of 84 eligible subjects, data were available on 61 (73%) aged 22.4 years (15.5-35.1 years). Underlying diagnoses included spina bifida (n = 27), anorectal malformations (n = 18), constipation (n = 11), Hirschsprung's disease (n = 1), sacral agenesis (n = 2), and trauma/tumor (n = 2). Follow-up was 11.02 years (8.34-14.39 years). Thirty-six (59%) of 61 patients were still using their ACE. Reasons for nonuse were lack of effectiveness (n = 14), complications (n = 5), psychologic issues (n = 2), and poor compliance (n = 2). There was no association between diagnosis and nonuse (chi(2), P = .63). In those still using ACE, the overall satisfaction score was 4.1 (1-5). Several individuals reported feeling abandoned on becoming adults and losing the support they had in childhood. There is a late "failure" rate for the ACE procedure. However, satisfaction was high among those still using the ACE. This study further emphasizes the need for robust transitional care arrangements.

  6. Long-term follow-up of patients after antegrade continence enema procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Anees A; Fishman, Steven J; Bauer, Stuart B; Nurko, Samuel

    2011-05-01

    Antegrade continence enema (ACE) has become an important therapeutic modality in the treatment of intractable constipation and fecal incontinence. There are little data available on the long-term performance of the ACE procedure in children. A retrospective review of patients who underwent the ACE procedure was conducted. Irrigation characteristics and complications were noted. Outcome was assessed for individual encounters based on frequency of bowel movements, incontinence, pain, and predictability. One hundred seventeen patients underwent an ACE. One hundred five patients had at least 6 months of follow-up, and were included in the analysis. Diagnoses included myelodysplasia (39%), functional intractable constipation (26%), anorectal malformations (21%), nonrelaxing internal anal sphincter (7%), cerebral palsy (3%), and other diagnoses (4%). The average follow-up was 68 months (range 7-178 months). At the last follow-up, 69% of patients had successful bowel management. Of the 31% of patients who did not have successful bowel management, 20% were using the ACE despite suboptimal results, 10% required surgical removal, and 2% were not using the ACE because of behavioral opposition to it. Patients were started on normal saline, but were switched to GoLYTELY (PEG-3350 and electrolyte solution) if there was an inadequate response (61% at final encounter). Additives were needed in 34% of patients. The average irrigation dose was 23 ± 0.7 mL/kg. The average toilet sitting time was 51.7 ± 3.5 minutes, with infusions running for 12.1 ± 1.2 minutes. Stomal complications occurred in 63% (infection, leakage, and stenosis) of patients, 33% required surgical revision and 6% eventually required diverting ostomies. Long-term use of the ACE gives successful results in 69% of patients, whereas 63% had a stoma-related complication and 33% required surgical revision of the stoma.

  7. Understanding Antegrade Colonic Enema (ACE) Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enema (ACE) Surgery Menu Overview Procedure Details Risks / Benefits What is antegrade colonic enema (ACE) surgery? Antegrade ... Accepted Insurance Make a Donation Refer a Patient Phone Directory Blog, News & Mobile Apps Consult QD Health Essentials Newsroom Mobile Apps ...

  8. Non-Reversed Appendicostomy for Antegrade Continence Enema ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/Purpose: Constipation in children is considered when stool frequency is less than three times per week. Encopresis represents 80-90% of children with fecal incontinence. Operative strategy for management of encopresis ranges from resectional surgery to myotomy. The objective of the study was to evaluate ...

  9. Experimental antegrade enema: effects on water, electrolyte and acid-base balances with different solutions Enema anterógrado experimental: equilíbrio hídrico eletrolítico e ácido-base em coelhos submetidos a enema com diferentes soluções

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Helman

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study the effects on the water, electrolyte, and acid-base balances in rabbits submitted to antegrade enema with different solutions through appendicostomy. METHODS: Forty male New Zealand rabbits were submitted to appendicostomy, and distributed in 4 groups, according to the antegrade enema solution: PEG group, polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution (n=10; ISS group, isotonic saline solution (n=10; GS group, glycerin solution (n=10; SPS group, sodium phosphate solution (n=10. After being weighed, arterial blood gas analysis, red blood count, creatinine and electrolytes were measured at 4 times: preoperatively (T1; day 6 postop, before enema (T2; 4h after enema (T3; and 24h after T3 (T4. RESULTS: In PEG group occurred Na retention after 4h, causing alkalemia, sustained for 24h with HCO3 retention. In ISS group occurred isotonic water retention and hyperchloremic acidosis after 4h, which was partially compensated in 24h. GS group showed metabolic acidosis after 4h, compensated in 24h. In SPS group occurred hypernatremic dehydration, metabolic acidosis in 4h, and hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, and metabolic alkalosis with partially compensated dehydration in 24h. CONCLUSIONS: All solutions used in this study caused minor alterations on water, electrolyte or acid-base balances. The most intense ones were caused by hypertonic sodium phosphate solution (SPS and isotonic saline solution (ISS and the least by polyethyleneglycol electrolyte solution (PEG and glycerin solution 12% (GS.OBJETIVO: Estudar os efeitos no equilíbrio hídrico, eletrolítico e ácido-base, do enema anterógrado com diferentes soluções em coelhos através de apendicostomia. MÉTODOS: 40 coelhos Nova Zelândia, machos, submetidos a apendicostomia, distribuídos em quatro grupos segundo a solução de enema: grupo PEG (n = 10 solução de polietilenoglicol com eletrólitos; grupo SF (n = 10 solução fisiológica; grupo SG (n = 10 solução glicerinada

  10. Barium enema

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    ... series; Colorectal cancer - lower GI series; Colorectal cancer - barium enema; Crohn disease - lower GI series; Crohn disease - barium enema; Intestinal blockage - lower GI series; Intestinal blockage - ...

  11. Barium enema (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A barium enema is performed to examine the walls of the colon. During the procedure, a well lubricated enema tube is inserted gently into the rectum. The barium, a radiopaque (shows up on X-ray) contrast ...

  12. Perforations during contrast enema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, H.; Steinkamp, U.; Grabbe, E.; Allgemeines Krankenhaus Ochsenzoll, Hamburg

    1983-01-01

    During contrast enema, perforation into the retroperitoneal space can be differentiated from perforation into the peritoneum and perforation into the intestinal wall associated with formation of barium granulomas or submucosal spreading of the contrast medium. Other special forms are perforation with contrast medium embolism of diverticula; of the processus vermiformis; penetration of contrast medium into fistulous systems and from the operated areas. Risk factors are: balloon catheter, intestinal tubes with a hard tip, preternatural anus, excessive enema pressure, contrast medium additions, preceding manipulations, intestinal diseases, advanced age and delegation of manipulations to assistants and unskilled staff. Children are particularly at risk. (orig.) [de

  13. Colonic motility and enema spreading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, J.G.; Wood, E.; Clark, A.G.; Reynolds, J.R.; Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham

    1986-01-01

    Radiolabelled enema solution was administered to eight healthy subjects, both in fasted and fed states. Enema spreading was monitored over a 4-h period using gamma scintigraphy and colonic motility was recorded simultaneously using a pressure sensitive radiotelemetry capsule. The rate and extent of enema dispersion were unaffected by eating. Spreading could be correlated with colonic motility and was inhibited by aboral propulsion of the colonic contents. (orig.)

  14. Antegrade Colonic Lavage in Acute Colonic Obstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Michael E.; Johnson, Colin D.

    1986-01-01

    Conventional management of acute left sided colonic obstruction employs some form of proximal colostomy. Intraoperative antegrade colonic irrigation relieves proximal faecal loading and may permit safer primary resection and anastomosis. The results of a pilot study are presented, and are shown to be favourable.

  15. Evolving Continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Warren

    Brian Windley succeeds very well indeed at the formidable task he sets for himself in this greatly revised second edition of a book that first appeared in 1977. He synthesizes primarily the tectonic and petrologic evolution of the continents and secondarily their economic geologic, stratigraphic, and biologic history. The book is organized in well-balanced time sequence and topical chapters, followed by a fine overview. The author describes examples, generalizes from them, and seeks understanding of variations with time and with depth of the process acting on continents within a plate tectonic framework.

  16. Percutaneous antegrade pyelgraphy guided by ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Gyoo; Chung, Chun Phil; Lee, Suk Hong; Sol, Chang Hyo; Kim, Byung Soo

    1985-01-01

    The authors performed percutaneous antegrade pyelography guided by ultrasound on 33 patients, from June 1982 to October 1984, at the Department of Radiology, Busan National University Hospital. The results obtained were as follows: 1. Of the 31 cases, 17 cases (51.5%) were female and 16 cases (48.5%) were male, and age distribution was nearly even, but most prevalent age group was third decade. 2. Comparing intravenous pyelographic findings with ultrasonographic findings, pyelographically nonvisualized kidney 15 cases (45.5%) were hydronephrosis 12 cases, multiple cysts 2 cases, and intrarenal cystic mass 1 case, ultrasonographically. Pyelographically hydronephrosis 9 cases (27.3%) were all hydronephrosis, ultrasonographically. Intrarenal mass 5 cases (15.2%) were all intrarenal cystic mass, NVK with air kidney 1 case (3.0%) was air in perirenal space, partial NVK 1 case (3.0%) was perirenal fluid, suprarenal mass 1 case (3.0%) was suprarenal intrarenal and huge perirenal cystic masses, ultrasonographically. 3. On technical reliability of antegrade pyelography under ultrasound guide, 31 cases (93.9%) could be done fluid aspiration and visualization, and 2 cases (6.1%) could be only done fluid aspiration but failed visualization. 31 successful cases were visualization of collecting systems 23 cases, visualization of cyst 6 case, and visualization of perirenal space 2 cases. 2 partical successful cases were perirenal injection 1 case and parenchymal injection 1 case. 4. On fluid aspiration, 22 cases (66.7%) were clear, but 11 cases (33.3%) were not clear, which were pus 7 cases, turbid urine 2 cases, bloody urine 1 case, and bloody pus and air 1 case. 5. Comparing ultrasonographic findings with antegrade pyelographic findings, ultrasonographiclly hydronephrosis 21 cases revealed obstruction in 16 cases, antegrade pyelographicaaly, which were consisted of ureteral stricture 14 case, ureteral stone 1 case, and ureteral mass 1 case, non-obstruction in 4 cases, which

  17. A new double contrast barium enema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jun Sang; Cho, Won Sik; Lee, Sung Woo; Lee, Mun Gyu; Jeon, Jeong Dong; Jaun, Woo Ki; Han, Chung Yul

    1987-01-01

    A new technic of the barium enema was proposed for the better colonic double contrast study with the average 204ml of 50w/v% barium, applied to 109 serial patients. The barium was introduced to sigmoid colon, and then pushed to a mid transverse colon by the air insufflation through an enema syringe, a new device. An advance to cecum is accomplished by the air insufflation and/or the position change of the patient. The barium transfer method was developed for the best spot film exposure, through colon, by the position change of the patient, the tilting of the x-ray table and the air insufflation with the enema syringe. The mean angle of the x-ray table tilted was -10 .deg. at the beginning the barium enema till the barium sent past the splenic flexure, -15 . deg. for the best lateral view of rectum and -18 .deg. for the bet prone PA view of rectosigmoid colon. This was a simple, better and economic double contrast barium enema for the cooperative patients

  18. Enema abuse by mothers of children presenting to the emergency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enema is largely used and widely abused in our community for various ailments including fever, constipation; abdominal pains vomiting and even diarrhoea. Objectives: To describe the abuse of enema at home in the Calabar area, and the associated findings among children who received enema. Method: Children ...

  19. Blood pressure changes during barium enema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roach, S.C.; Martin, O.J.D.; Owen, A.; Martin, D.F.

    2001-01-01

    AIMS: To document blood pressure changes during barium enema examination and to determine at what point in the examination changes are likely to occur. METHODS AND RESULTS: Blood pressure measurements were taken at seven points during the course of barium enema examination in 107 consecutive patients. We found that patients over the age of 60 years had statistically significant decreases in blood pressure when they were stood up during the course of the examination. Many of these patients were asymptomatic. Patients who had symptoms (15/107, 14%) when standing up had a degree of hypotension. The duration of barium enema examination is longer in those patients who experience symptoms. CONCLUSION: During a barium enema examination hypotension occurs at the point of standing up more frequently in patients over 60 years and in those who suffer symptoms at this time. Patients who fall into one of these groups should be considered at risk of fainting at this point in the examination. A modified technique to avoid standing should be considered in at-risk patients. Roach, S.C. et al. (2001)

  20. Functional Outcomes of the Knee after Retrograde and Antegrade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of femur shaft fractures although retrograde technique is gaining acceptance. Although ... Antegrade group, while the rate of knee stiffness was higher in the retrograde .... reaching direct and indirect social economic effect within the society.

  1. Outcome of barium enema in patients with colorectal symptoms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: For many years, double contrast barium enema has been an effective way to evaluate the large bowel. With the development of the colonoscope, the role of barium enema has been questioned. However it is still useful in investigating patients with colorectal symptoms especially in the developing world where ...

  2. Extra-anatomical complications of antegrade double-J insertion

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    A R Rao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Insertion of a double-J (JJ stent is a common procedure often carried out in the retrograde route by the urologists and the antegrade route by the radiologists. Reported complications include stent migration, encrustation, and fracture. Extra-anatomic placement of an antegrade JJ stent is a rare but infrequently recognized complication. Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective audit of 165 antegrade JJ stent insertions performed over three consecutive years by a single interventional radiologist. All renal units were hydronephrotic at the time of nephrostomy. All procedures were performed under local anaesthetic with antibiotic prophylaxis. Results: Antegrade stent insertion was carried out simultaneously at the time of nephrostomy in 55 of the 165 cases (33%. The remainder were inserted at a mean of 2 weeks following decompression. In five (3% patients, who had delayed antegrade stenting following nephrostomy, the procedure was complicated by silent ureteric perforation and an extra-anatomic placement of the stent. These complications had delayed manifestations, which included two retroperitoneal abscesses, a pelvic urinoma, a case each of ureterorectal fistula, and ureterovaginal fistula. Risk factors for ureteric perforation include previous pelvic malignancy, pelvic surgery, pelvic radiation, and a history of ureteric manipulation. Conclusion: Antegrade ureteric JJ stenting is a procedure not without complications. Extra-anatomic placement of the antegrade stent is a hitherto the infrequently reported complication but needs a high index of suspicion to be diagnosed. Risk factors for ureteric perforation at the time of stent insertion have to be considered to prevent this potential complication.

  3. Mismatch analysis of humeral nailing. Antegrade versus retrograde insertion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahaisavariya, B.; Jiamwatthanachai, P.; Aroonjarattham, P.; Aroonjarattham, K.; Wongcumchang, M.; Sitthiseripratip, K.

    2011-01-01

    Closed humeral nailing is now considered an alternative treatment for humeral-shaft fracture. The nail can be inserted with either the antegrade or retrograde method. We investigated and compared the problem of geometric mismatch of the humeral nail to the humerus between the two methods of insertion. The study was performed using virtual simulation based on computed tomography (CT) data of 76 Thai cadaveric humeri and the commonly used Russell-Taylor humeral nail 8 mm in diameter and 220 mm long. Mismatch of the nail to the intact humerus was analyzed and compared between the antegrade and retrograde nailing approaches. The results showed: the diameter of the medullary canal averaged 7.9-13.8 mm; the minimal reaming diameter to accommodate virtual nail insertion averaged 8.8-14.8 mm for the antegrade and 8.8-29.3 mm for the retrograde approach; the minimal reaming thickness of the inner cortex averaged 0.1-1.5 mm for the antegrade and 0.1-9.9 mm for the retrograde approach; the percentages of cortical bone removed prior to nail insertion were 3.8-107.1% and 3.8-1,287.6% for the antegrade and retrograde approaches, respectively; the eccentricity of the nail-medullary canal center were 0.4-3.4 and 0.4-10.6 mm for the antegrade and retrograde approaches, respectively. Less mismatching occurred with antegrade nailing than with the retrograde approach. Retrograde nailing requires excessive reaming at the distal part of the humerus to accommodate nail insertion. This may create bone weakness and the risk of supracondylar fracture. (author)

  4. Antegrade jj stenting after percutaneous renal procedures: The ‘pull and push’ technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratkal, Jaideep M.; Sharma, Elias

    2014-01-01

    A JJ stent is inserted antegradely after percutaneous renal procedures like percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) for renal calculus disease, and for endopyelotomy for pelvi-ureteric junction obstruction. We describe a technique for antegrade stent insertion after PCNL. PMID:26413327

  5. Antegrade jj stenting after percutaneous renal procedures: The 'pull and push' technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratkal, Jaideep M; Sharma, Elias

    2015-06-01

    A JJ stent is inserted antegradely after percutaneous renal procedures like percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) for renal calculus disease, and for endopyelotomy for pelvi-ureteric junction obstruction. We describe a technique for antegrade stent insertion after PCNL.

  6. Cost-effectiveness of barium enemas performed by radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Lorraine; Desai, Sharad

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To assess the cost-effectiveness of barium enemas performed by radiographers compared to those performed by consultant radiologists. METHOD: Prospective study of 200 barium enemas carried out by a senior radiographer and a consultant radiologist. The sample was a consecutive sample of adult out-patients over a 3-month period, with no exclusion. The length of time of the enema and the numbers and grades of staff involved in the procedure were recorded. This was translated into staffing costs using the appropriate pay scales. RESULTS: The barium enemas performed by the superintendent radiographer were more cost-effective than those performed by the consultant radiologist (1406 pounds for 100 radiographer-performed barium enemas compared to 1787 pounds for 100 carried out by the consultant radiologist). CONCLUSION: In terms of staffing costs, radiographers performing barium enemas not only liberates radiologist time, it is also a cost-effective method of providing an out-patient barium enema service. Brown, L. and Desai, S. (2002)

  7. Antegrade or Retrograde Accessory Pathway Conduction: Who Dies First?

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    Claudio Hadid, MD

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A 36 year-old man with Wolff Parkinson White syndrome due to a left-sided accessory pathway (AP was referred for catheter ablation. Whether abolition of antegrade and retrograde AP conduction during ablation therapy occurs simultaneously, is unclear. At the ablation procedure, radiofrequency delivery resulted in loss of preexcitation followed by a short run of orthodromic tachycardia with eccentric atrial activation, demonstrating persistence of retrograde conduction over the AP after abolition of its antegrade conduction. During continued radiofrequency delivery at the same position, the fifth non-preexcitated beat failed to conduct retrogradely and the tachycardia ended. In this case, antegrade AP conduction was abolished earlier than retrograde conduction.

  8. Retrograde vs. Antegrade Puncture for Infra-Inguinal Angioplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nice, C.; Timmons, G.; Bartholemew, P.; Uberoi, R.

    2003-01-01

    This study was done to compare antegrade punctures with a retrograde puncture technique for infrainguinal angioplasty. A group of 100 consecutive patients (71 men, 29 women) were randomized for antegrade puncture or retrograde puncture of the common femoral artery. Following retrograde puncture the guidewire was 'turned' and placed into the superficial femoral artery. The time for gaining access, screening time, radiation dose, patient height, weight and complications were recorded. All patients were reviewed the day after the procedure and within 3 months. Data from 46 patients (34 males and 12 females) in the retrograde group and 44 (28 males and 16 females) in the antegrade group were available for analysis. Mean procedure time,screening time, radiation dose, height and weight were 8.3 minutes(range 3-22), 2.1 minutes (0.3-6.5), 7950 mGy cm -2 (820-71250), 169 cm (149-204) and 79 kg (32-108) for retrograde puncture and 8 min (2-60), 0.7 min (0.0-3.2), 1069 mGycm -2 (0-15400), 169 cm (152-186) and 75 kg (39-125) for antegrade punctures, respectively. An average of 1.2 (1-2) punctures was required for retrograde and 1.75 (1-8) for antegrade. Seven small hematomas occurred with antegrade and three for retrograde puncture.Retrograde puncture is technically easier with a tendency to fewer complications but results in a higher radiation dose. This technique should be used in difficult patients at high risk of haematoma formation

  9. Enterogastroesophageal reflux during barium enema: Report of a case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Hyoun Ja; Rhee, Hak Song

    1972-01-01

    Enterogastric reflux during barium enema examination has been ascribed to various causes including incompetence of the ilepcecal valve, shunt, fistula, excessive barium etc. Recently we have encountered a case of complete enterogastroesphageal regurgitation during barium enema examination performed for the reduction of the ileocolic intuosusception in 6 months old baby. The regurgitation occurred only in the first of two barium enema examinations conducted at one month interval for recurring intussusception. The barium-saline solution used in the present study was not more than 350 ml in quantity. No organic or physical causes of such a complete regurgitation could be determined

  10. Combined antegrade and retrograde ureteral stenting: the rendezvous technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macri, A.; Magno, C.; Certo, A.; Basile, A.; Scuderi, G.; Crescenti, F.; Famulari, C.

    2005-01-01

    Ureteral stenting is a routine procedure in endourology. To increase the success rate in difficult cases, it may be helpful to use the rendezvous technique, a combined antegrade and retrograde approach. We performed 16 urological rendezvous in 11 patients with ureteral strictures or urologic lesions. The combined approach was successful in all patients, without morbidity or mortality. In our experience the rendezvous technique increased the success rate of antegrade ureteral stenting from 78.6 to 88.09% (p>0.05). This procedure is a valid option in case of failure of conventional ureteral stenting

  11. Extreme hyperphosphatemia and hypocalcemic coma associated with phosphate enema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Heng Jung; Wu, Mai-Szu

    2008-01-01

    Fleet enema (sodium phosphate, C.B. Fleet Co., Inc., Lynchburg, Virginia) is widely used for bowel preparation or constipation relief in the hospital and over the counter. The potential risks, including hyperphosphatemia and hypocalcemic coma should be kept in mind of primary care physician. The patients with older age, bowel obstruction, small intestinal disorders, poor gut motility, and renal disease are contraindicated or should be administered with caution. We present a patient with old age and chronic renal failure who developed severe hyperphosphatemia and hypocalcemic tetany with coma after sodium phosphate enema. We recommend the use of alternative enema preparations, such as simple tap water or saline solution enemas, which can prevent fatal complications in high risk patients.

  12. Indications for repeated enema reduction of intussusception in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujović Dragana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intussusception is a common abdominal emergency in early childhood. It is idiopathic in more than 90% of cases with incidence of 1.5-4 per 1,000 live births. The treatment of choice is nonoperative hydrostatic or air enema reduction. Objective. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of clinical presentation and symptom duration in non-operative treatment, considering the indications for delayed enema reduction and its efficacy. Methods. From the total number of 107 patients with intusussception, aged from 2 months to 14 years (median 9 months, 102 (95% patients with ileo-colic intussusceptions were treated initially by ultrasound guided saline enema. Records were reviewed for patients with failed initial treatment and delayed repeated enemas or operative procedure. The predictor variable included duration of presenting symptoms. Results. Successful treatment by hydrostatic saline enemas had 58/102 (57% patients. Success in reduction was greater if symptom duration was 24 hours, (4/45 cases; 9%. Despite failed initial attempts, enema reduction was reattempted in 12 patients, with success in 7/12 (60% patients. Children with symptom duration >24 hours had a greater risk of requiring surgery (41/45 cases; 91%, p<0.001, including 5 (5% patients with ileo-ileal intussusceptions. Conclusion. The accuracy of ultrasound guided saline enema in intussusception reduction is high. Delay in presentation decreases success of non-operative treatment. Delayed enema reduction is important therapeutic option for intussusceptions. Surgical treatment is indicated in cases of complications.

  13. Antegrade pyelography in ureteric duplications with obstructed upper segments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macpherson, R.I.; Kaufman, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Percutaneous puncture under fluoroscopic control followed by antegrade pyelography was employed in three children, two of them neonates, suspected of having complete duplication of the ureter with obstructed upper segments on the basis of the excretory pyelographic and ultrasonographic findings. This simple, uncomplicated and definitive method confirmed the diagnosis and demonstrated the course, termination and effects of the dilated ectopic ureter

  14. [Tetany secondary to phosphate enema toxicity, case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez Sánchez, María José; Leighton Swaneck, Sofía; Díaz, Franco

    2017-06-01

    Phosphate enemas are frequently used in the treatment of constipation. Errors in dosage and administration can lead to severe complications. To report a case of severe toxicity of phosphate enemas in a child with no risk factors. 2 years old female, with functional constipation, was brought to emergency department because abdominal pain. She was diagnosed with fecal impaction and received half a bottle of Fleet Adult® (Laboratorio Synthon, Chile) two times, with no clinical resolution, deciding to start proctoclisis in pediatric ward. Soon after admission, she presented painful tetany, but alert and oriented. Patient was transferred to PICU where severe hyperphosphatemia and secondary hypocalcemia were confirmed. Her treatment included electrolyte correction; removal of residual phosphate enema and hyperhydration. Tetany resolved over 2 hours after admission and no other complications. Proctoclisis was performed and patient was discharged three days after admission with pharmacological management of constipation. Phosphate enemas may cause serious complications in children with no risk factors. Errors in dosage, administration and removal of the enema are causes of toxicity in this group. Pediatricians and health personnel must be aware of risks and signs of toxicity of phosphate enema.

  15. Barium enema in frail elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, R; Khahil, A; Leibovitz, A; Gil, I; Annuar, M; Habot, B

    2000-01-01

    Barium enema (BE) examinations for the investigation of suspected colonic disease are often unsuccessful in elderly patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the success rate of BE in hospitalized frail elderly patients. Four hundred and seventy-two elderly patients hospitalized for different reasons underwent BE examinations. The medical charts and radiological reports were retrospectively reviewed. One hundred and ninety-two (41%) BE examinations were considered inadequate; mostly (32%) because of inappropriate preparation. Sixty-seven patients (14%) were not cooperative and could not retain the contrast material, and in 25 patients (5%), the examination failed due to both these reasons. The characteristics associated with unsuccessful BE examination were the mean number of medical problems (p < 0.001), the mean number of scheduled medications (p < 0.05) and in particular the long-term use of laxatives (p < 0.01) or antiparkinsonian drugs (p < 0.01). Of great significance in predicting an inadequate BE were the patient's functional status (p < 0.001) and the presence of dementia (p < 0.001). The high percentage of unsuccessful BEs in the frail elderly suggests that clinicians should carefully consider the need for that examination in these patients. We suggest that only in patients where there is a clear suspicion of a bleeding or obstructing tumor should a BE examination be performed, and even in these cases, colonoscopy or CT may be preferable as the initial examination in the frail elderly. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  16. Isoosmolar enemas demonstrate preferential gastrointestinal distribution, safety, and acceptability compared with hyperosmolar and hypoosmolar enemas as a potential delivery vehicle for rectal microbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva, Francisco J; Bakshi, Rahul P; Fuchs, Edward J; Li, Liye; Caffo, Brian S; Goldsmith, Arthur J; Ventuneac, Ana; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Du, Yong; Leal, Jeffrey P; Lee, Linda A; Torbenson, Michael S; Hendrix, Craig W

    2013-11-01

    Rectally applied antiretroviral microbicides for preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) of HIV infection are currently in development. Since enemas (rectal douches) are commonly used by men who have sex with men prior to receptive anal intercourse, a microbicide enema could enhance PrEP adherence by fitting seamlessly within the usual sexual practices. We assessed the distribution, safety, and acceptability of three enema types-hyperosmolar (Fleet), hypoosmolar (distilled water), and isoosmolar (Normosol-R)-in a crossover design. Nine men received each enema type in random order. Enemas were radiolabeled [(99m)Tc-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA)] to assess enema distribution in the colon using single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) imaging. Plasma (99m)Tc-DTPA indicated mucosal permeability. Sigmoidoscopic colon tissue biopsies were taken to assess injury as well as tissue penetration of the (99m)Tc-DTPA. Acceptability was assessed after each product use and at the end of the study. SPECT/CT imaging showed that the isoosmolar enema had greater proximal colonic distribution (up to the splenic flexure) and greater luminal and colon tissue concentrations of (99m)Tc-DTPA when compared to the other enemas (pgood with no clear preferences among the three enema types. The isoosmolar enema was superior or similar to the other enemas in all categories and is a good candidate for further development as a rectal microbicide vehicle.

  17. Multidetector computerized tomography enema versus magnetic resonance enema in the diagnosis of rectosigmoid endometriosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biscaldi, Ennio, E-mail: ennio.biscaldi@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Galliera Hospital, via Mura delle Capuccine 14, 16128 Genoa (Italy); Ferrero, Simone, E-mail: simone.ferrero@unige.it [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, San Martino Hospital and National Institute for Cancer Research, University of Genoa, Largo Rosanna Benzi, 1, 16132 Genoa (Italy); Leone Roberti Maggiore, Umberto, E-mail: ulrm@libero.it [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, San Martino Hospital and National Institute for Cancer Research, University of Genoa, Largo Rosanna Benzi, 1, 16132 Genoa (Italy); Remorgida, Valentino, E-mail: vremorgida@yahoo.it [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, San Martino Hospital and National Institute for Cancer Research, University of Genoa, Largo Rosanna Benzi, 1, 16132 Genoa (Italy); Venturini, Pier Luigi, E-mail: venturini@unige.it [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, San Martino Hospital and National Institute for Cancer Research, University of Genoa, Largo Rosanna Benzi, 1, 16132 Genoa (Italy); Rollandi, Gian Andrea, E-mail: rollandi@galliera.it [Department of Radiology, Galliera Hospital, via Mura delle Capuccine 14, 16128 Genoa (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: To compare the accuracy of multidetector computerized tomography enema (MDCT-e) and magnetic resonance enema (MRI-e) in determining the presence of sigmoid and rectal endometriotic nodules. Materials and methods: 260 women (32.6 ± 4.3 years) with symptoms suggestive of rectosigmoid endometriosis underwent MDCT-e and MRI-e prior to laparoscopy. After retrograde colonic distention and injection of intravenous contrast medium, patients were scanned on a 64-row MDCT scanner. MRI-e was performed on a 1.5 T magnet using an 8 channels phased array coil; intestinal distention was achieved by introducing in the rectum 250–300 ml of ultrasonographic gel diluted with saline solution. Radiological findings were compared with surgical and histological results. Results: 176 women had rectosigmoid endometriosis at surgery. There was no significant difference in the accuracy of MDCT-e (98.5%) and MRI-e (96.9%) in the diagnosis of sigmoid and rectal endometriosis (p = 0.248). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive likelihood ratio and negative likelihood ratio of MDCT-e and MRI-e were respectively 98.3%, 98.8%, 99.4%, 96.5%, 81.59, 0.02 and 97.2%, 96.4%, 98.3%, 94.1%, 26.89, 0.03. Conclusions: Both MDCT-e and MRI-e are accurate in the diagnosis of rectal and sigmoid endometriosis.

  18. Multidetector computerized tomography enema versus magnetic resonance enema in the diagnosis of rectosigmoid endometriosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biscaldi, Ennio; Ferrero, Simone; Leone Roberti Maggiore, Umberto; Remorgida, Valentino; Venturini, Pier Luigi; Rollandi, Gian Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the accuracy of multidetector computerized tomography enema (MDCT-e) and magnetic resonance enema (MRI-e) in determining the presence of sigmoid and rectal endometriotic nodules. Materials and methods: 260 women (32.6 ± 4.3 years) with symptoms suggestive of rectosigmoid endometriosis underwent MDCT-e and MRI-e prior to laparoscopy. After retrograde colonic distention and injection of intravenous contrast medium, patients were scanned on a 64-row MDCT scanner. MRI-e was performed on a 1.5 T magnet using an 8 channels phased array coil; intestinal distention was achieved by introducing in the rectum 250–300 ml of ultrasonographic gel diluted with saline solution. Radiological findings were compared with surgical and histological results. Results: 176 women had rectosigmoid endometriosis at surgery. There was no significant difference in the accuracy of MDCT-e (98.5%) and MRI-e (96.9%) in the diagnosis of sigmoid and rectal endometriosis (p = 0.248). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive likelihood ratio and negative likelihood ratio of MDCT-e and MRI-e were respectively 98.3%, 98.8%, 99.4%, 96.5%, 81.59, 0.02 and 97.2%, 96.4%, 98.3%, 94.1%, 26.89, 0.03. Conclusions: Both MDCT-e and MRI-e are accurate in the diagnosis of rectal and sigmoid endometriosis

  19. Barium enema findings of milk allergy in infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gyoung Ju; Kim, Mi Jeong; Lee, Hee Jung

    2006-01-01

    We wanted to evaluate the barium enema findings of milk allergy in infants. Retrospective evaluation of the plain abdominal radiography and barium enema findings was performed in fifteen young infants suffering with milk allergy. The presence of gaseous distension, rectal gas, paralytic ileus and mechanical obstruction was evaluated on the plain radiography. The presence of spasm, a transitional zone, a reversed rectosigmoid index and mucosal irregularity was analyzed on the barium enema; the presence of barium retention was also evaluated on 24-hour-delayed plain radiography. Paralytic ileus was the most common finding on the plain radiography (93%). On the barium enema, continuous spasm of the colon, ranging from the rectum to the descending colon, was revealed in ten infants (67%). A transitional zone was observed in one infant and a reversed rectosigmoid index was revealed in four. Mucosal irregularity was observed in two infants. Barium retention was demonstrated in 11 of fifteen cases: throughout the entire colon (n = 3), from the rectum to the descending colon (n = 7), and up to the transverse colon (n = 1). The most common barium enema finding of milk allergy in infants was spasm of the distal colon. The other findings were a transitional zone, a reversed rectosigmoid index, mucosal irregularity and barium retention

  20. Ultrasound-guided antegrade pyelography of renal transplants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wernecke, K.; Heckemann, R.; Rehwald, U.; Ringert, R.H.; Essen Univ.

    1983-01-01

    The indications for, and technique of, ultrasound-guided antegrade pyelography of renal transplants are illustrated by eight patients. Because of the detailed anatomical information which the antegrade method provides, it is superior to other diagnostic methods for the investigation of ureteric obstruction or fistulae. The severity of renal pelvis dilatation as shown by sonography must not be taken as a criterian for the grade of obstruction, since transplants may show dilated collecting systems, even in the absence of obstruction. In our view, real time sonography with a suitable probe provides the best means of achieving successful puncture of the renal pelvis. The combination of ultrasound-guided puncture and radiological contrast examination of the ureter is the best diagnostic method available and lead, in all eight cases, to immediate and definitive treatment. (orig.)

  1. Robot-Assisted Antegrade In-Situ Fenestrated Stent Grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riga, Celia V.; Bicknell, Colin D.; Wallace, Daniel; Hamady, Mohamad; Cheshire, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    To determine the technical feasibility of a novel approach of in-situ fenestration of aortic stent grafts by using a remotely controlled robotic steerable catheter system in the porcine model. A 65-kg pig underwent robot-assisted bilateral antegrade in-situ renal fenestration of an abdominal aortic stent graft with subsequent successful deployment of a bare metal stent into the right renal artery. A 16-mm iliac extension covered stent served as the porcine aortic endograft. Under fluoroscopic guidance, the graft was punctured with a 20-G customized diathermy needle that was introduced and kept in place by the robotic arm. The needle was exchanged for a 4 x 20 mm cutting balloon before successful deployment of the renal stent. Robot-assisted antegrade in-situ fenestration is technically feasible in a large mammalian model. The robotic system enables precise manipulation, stable positioning, and minimum instrumentation of the aorta and its branches while minimizing radiation exposure.

  2. Percutaneous antegrade ureteric stent removal using a rigid alligator forceps.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Given, M F

    2008-12-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of percutaneous antegrade ureteric stent removal using a rigid alligator forceps. Twenty patients were included in our study. Indications for ureteric stent insertion included stone disease (n = 7), malignancy (n = 8) and transplant anastomotic strictures (n = 5). Stent retrieval was carried out for proximal stent placement\\/migration in seven patients and encrustation in the remaining 13. Twenty-two stents were successfully retrieved in 20 patients. There was one technical failure (5%). There were no major complications. We had four minor complications, which included nephrostomy site pain (n = 2), periprocedural sepsis (n = 1) and a small urinoma (n = 1). All patients settled with conservative management. Percutaneous radiologically guided antegrade ureteric stent removal with an alligator forceps is safe and effective, particularly when initial surgical removal has failed.

  3. Percutaneous nephrostomy and antegrade ureteral stenting: technique - indications - complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausegger, Klaus A. [Klagenfurt General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Klagenfurt (Austria); Portugaller, Horst R. [University Hospital of Graz, Department of Radiology, Graz (Austria)

    2006-09-15

    In this review the technique, indication for and complications of percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN) and antegrade ureter stent insertion are described. In the majority of the cases PCN is performed to relieve urinary obstruction, which can be of benign or malignant nature. Another indication for PCN is for treatment of urinary fistulas. PCN can be performed under ultrasound and/or fluoroscopic guidance, with a success rate of more than 90%. The complication rate is approximately 10% for major and minor complications together and 4-5% for major complications only. Percutaneous antegrade double-J stent insertion usually is performed if retrograde ureter stenting has not been successful. However, especially in malignant obstructions, the success rate for antegrade stenting is higher than for retrograde transvesical double-J stent insertion. In the case of severe infection and bleeding after PCN JJ-stent insertion may be contraindicated so long as there is no sufficient concomitant drainage via a PCN. Lower urinary tract dysfunction should be excluded before stent placement. The complication rate is 2-4%. Consequent stent surveillance with regular stent exchange is mandatory. (orig.)

  4. Diagnostic role of barium enema in carcinoma rectum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asghar, M.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: The main aim of this barium enema study was to evaluate its role in patients suspected to have rectal pathologies with complaints of change in bowel habit, anorexia/weight loss, bleeding per rectum and acute/sub-acute colonic obstruction. Results: barium enema study as screening test for colo-rectal carcinoma was undertaken. Contrast outlined the colonic growth in 35 cases, out of which the cases of carcinoma colon were 24 including 13 patients suffering from carcinoma rectum. The percentage of carcinoma colon to total colonic growth was 68% while, carcinoma rectum to total carcinoma colon was 54%. Conclusion: On the basis of these investigations, it is concluded that patient's compliance is important factor in the early detection of colonic neoplasia. Though results of colonoscopy are more reliable but in practice, barium enema (double contrast) is performed initially to outline the lesion and then colonoscopy for biopsy purpose. (author)

  5. The diagnostic value of barium enema in acute appendicitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Ga; Chung, Duck Soo; Kim, Ok Dong

    1986-01-01

    Acute appendicitis is the most common acute surgical condition of the abdomen. When the clinical presentation is atypical, barium enema has proven to be safe and useful in confirming the diagnosis and reducing the negative surgical exploration. However, the performance of barium enema in acute appendicitis has known contraindication primarily because of fear of leakage by perforation of the inflamed appendix. This study using barium enema as a diagnostic aid in acute appendicitis with atypical clinical presentation was performed to further support the previously noted efficacy and safety of this procedure. The results were as followings: 1. In case of acute appendicitis with atypical clinical presentation, the use of barium enema as a diagnostic aid increased the accuracy of diagnosis and decreased the negative surgical exploration. In women between 11 to 50 years old age, especially, it played important role differentiating appendicitis from nonsurgical acute abdomen. 2. The results of the study were 92.31% in sensitivity, 7.69% in false positive, 6.9% in false negative, and 10.26% in negative appendectomy. 3. None of case of leakage of barium by perforation of the inflamed appendix was noted, therefore, barium enema was thought to be safe as a diagnostic aid in acute appendicitis. 4. A simple partial or non filling of appendix without other associated positive finding could not exclude appendicitis, therefore, close clinical observation was necessary. 5. The positive findings of barium enema and their sensitivity were as followings: 1. Non filling of appendix: 90% 2. Partial filling of appendix: 91.7% 3. Displacement or a local impression on terminal ileum: 100%

  6. 21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201.304... Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. (a) It has become a widespread practice for tannic acid to be added to barium enemas to improve X-ray pictures. Tannic acid is capable of causing diminished liver...

  7. Carcinoma of the colon: Diagnosis by ultrasound and enema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cremin, B.J.; Brown, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Carcinoma of the colon presenting before puberty is rare and few cases have been recorded in radiological literature. The symptomatology is usually vague but may be similar to the classical presentation of adults. The barium enema will also show the same constricting lesions. Two cases are reported, in one of which the initial diagnosis was made by ultrasound. (orig.)

  8. Carcinoma of the colon: Diagnosis by ultrasound and enema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremin, B.J.; Brown, R.A.

    1987-05-01

    Carcinoma of the colon presenting before puberty is rare and few cases have been recorded in radiological literature. The symptomatology is usually vague but may be similar to the classical presentation of adults. The barium enema will also show the same constricting lesions. Two cases are reported, in one of which the initial diagnosis was made by ultrasound.

  9. Lower rectal cancer. Preoperative staging with CT air enema technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanazawa, Amane; Fujii, Shouichi; Iwata, Seiichirou

    2009-01-01

    Preoperative assessment of rectal cancer wall invasion is an important indication of the need for lateral side wall dissection. The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy rates and clinical usefulness of air-enema CT in preoperative staging of lower rectal cancer. A total of 88 patients diagnosed with lower rectal cancer were examined with an air-enema CT preoperatively and had surgical resection performed. One group was T1-T2 while the other was T3-T4. Forty-two patients were T1-T2, and 46 patients were T3-T4. In univariate and multivariate analysis, irregularities of the rectal wall and spiculated appearance of the rectal wall were significant predictive factors in T3-T4. In patients with air-enema CT findings of rectal wall irregularities and speculated appearance, the accuracy rate for detecting T3-T4 was 85.2-86.45 percent. These results show that air-enema CT is useful for determining the preoperative staging of lower rectal cancer and indication of the need for lateral side wall dissection. (author)

  10. Iatrogen perforation of the rectum following barium enema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggum, R.; Kressner, U.; Haffner, J.

    1998-01-01

    Perforation of the rectum following barium enema is relatively rare, occurring in 1 of 3,000 procedures. Colorectal perforation is a serious condition and early diagnosis is of paramount importance in order to avoid any delay in treating the patient. Direct suture of the perforation, lavage, presacral drainage and stomia are the preferred methods of primary surgical treatment. 10 refs., 1 fig

  11. Effects of high volume saline enemas vs no enema during labour – The N-Ma Randomised Controlled Trial [ISRCTN43153145

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernal María

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enemas are used during labour in obstetric settings with the belief that they reduce puerperal and neonatal infections, shorten labour duration, and make delivery cleaner for attending personnel. However, a systematic review of the literature found insufficient evidence to support the use of enemas. The objective of this RCT was to address an identified knowledge gap by determining the effect of routine enemas used during the first stage of labour on puerperal and neonatal infection rates. Methods Design: RCT (randomised controlled trial; randomized clinical trial. Outcomes: Clinical diagnosis of maternal or neonatal infections, labour duration, delivery types, episiotomy rates, and prescription of antibiotics Setting: Tertiary care referral hospital at the Javeriana University (Bogotá, Colombia that attended 3170 births during study period with a caesarean section rate of 26%. Participants: 443 women admitted for delivery to the obstetrics service (February 1997 to February 1998 and followed for a month after delivery. Inclusion criteria were women with: low risk pregnancy and expected to remain in Bogotá during follow up; gestational age ≥ 36 weeks; no pelvic or systemic bacterial infection; intact membranes; cervix dilatation ≤7 cm. Intervention: 1 litre saline enema, versus no enema, allocated following a block random allocation sequence and using sealed opaque envelopes. Results Allocation provided balanced groups and 86% of the participants were followed up for one month. The overall infection rate for newborns was 21%, and 18% for women. We found no significant differences in puerperal or neonatal infection rates (Puerperal infection: 41/190 [22%] with enema v 26/182 [14%] without enema; RR 0.66 CI 95%: 0.43 to 1.03; neonatal infection 38/191 [20%] with enema v 40/179 [22%] without enema; RR 1.12, 95% CI 95% 0.76 to 1.66, and median labour time was similar between groups (515 min. with enema v 585 min. without

  12. Effectiveness of therapeutic barium enema for diverticular hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Mizue; Inamori, Masahiko; Nakajima, Atsushi; Komiya, Yasuhiko; Inoh, Yumi; Kawasima, Keigo; Naitoh, Mai; Fujita, Yuji; Eduka, Akiko; Kanazawa, Noriyoshi; Uchiyama, Shiori; Tani, Rie; Kawana, Kennichi; Ohtani, Setsuya; Nagase, Hajime

    2015-05-14

    To evaluate the effectiveness of barium impaction therapy for patients with colonic diverticular bleeding. We reviewed the clinical charts of patients in whom therapeutic barium enema was performed for the control of diverticular bleeding between August 2010 and March 2012 at Yokohama Rosai Hospital. Twenty patients were included in the review, consisting of 14 men and 6 women. The median age of the patients was 73.5 years. The duration of the follow-up period ranged from 1 to 19 mo (median: 9.8 mo). Among the 20 patients were 11 patients who required the procedure for re-bleeding during hospitalization, 6 patients who required it for re-bleeding that developed after the patient left the hospital, and 3 patients who required the procedure for the prevention of re-bleeding. Barium (concentration: 150 w%/v%) was administered per the rectum, and the leading edge of the contrast medium was followed up to the cecum by fluoroscopy. After confirmation that the ascending colon and cecum were filled with barium, the enema tube was withdrawn, and the patient's position was changed every 20 min for 3 h. Twelve patients remained free of re-bleeding during the follow-up period (range: 1-19 mo) after the therapeutic barium enema, including 9 men and 3 women with a median age of 72.0 years. Re-bleeding occurred in 8 patients including 5 men and 3 women with a median age of 68.5 years: 4 developed early re-bleeding, defined as re-bleeding that occurs within one week after the procedure, and the remaining 4 developed late re-bleeding. The DFI (disease-free interval) decreased 0.4 for 12 mo. Only one patient developed a complication from therapeutic barium enema (colonic perforation). Therapeutic barium enema is effective for the control of diverticular hemorrhage in cases where the active bleeding site cannot be identified by colonoscopy.

  13. Antegrade Ureteral Stenting is a Good Alternative for the Retrograde Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Rutger W; Weltings, Saskia; van Erkel, Arian R; Roshani, Hossain; Elzevier, Henk W; van Dijk, Lukas C; van Overhagen, Hans

    2017-07-01

    Double J (JJ) stents for treating obstructive ureteral pathology are generally inserted through a retrograde route with cystoscopic guidance. Antegrade percutaneous insertion using fluoroscopy can be performed alternatively but is less known. Indications, success rate and complications of antegrade ureteral stenting were evaluated. Data of consecutive patients in which antegrade ureteral stenting was performed were retrospectively analysed using the radiology information system and patient records. Patient characteristics, details of the antegrade JJ stent insertion procedure and registered complications were collected. Furthermore, it was investigated if prior to the antegrade procedure a retrograde attempt for JJ stent insertion was performed. Total 130 attempts for antegrade JJ stent insertion were performed in 100 patients. A percutaneous nephrostomy catheter had already been placed in the majority of kidneys (n = 109) for initial treatment of hydronephrosis. Most prevelant indication for a JJ stent was obstructive ureteral pathology due to malignancy (n = 63). A JJ stent was successfully inserted in 125 of 130 procedures. In 21 cases, previous retrograde ureteral stenting had failed but, subsequent antegrade ureteral stenting was successful. There were 8 procedure related complications; 6 infections, 1 false tract and 1 malposition. Antegrade percutaneous insertion of a JJ stent is a good alternative for retrograde insertion.

  14. Treatment of humeral shaft fractures with antegrade intramedullary locking nail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsourvakas, Stefanos; Alexandropoulos, Christos; Papachristos, Ioannis; Tsakoumis, Grigorios; Ameridis, Nikolaos

    2011-12-01

    Antegrade interlocked humeral nailing for stabilization of humeral fractures was introduced many years ago, and studies on this method in the orthopedic literature have shown mixed results. The purpose of this investigation was to document the clinical outcome and complications associated with the use of an antegrade intramedullary nail (T2, Stryker) for the humeral fractures. Between 2005 and 2008, 52 fractures of the humeral shaft were treated operatively with this intramedullary nail in our department. Eight patients were polytraumatized, and four patients had an open fracture. The mean age of patients was 51.7 years. Forty-eight patients had an adequate duration of clinical follow-up (a mean of 18 months) for analysis. Complications were recorded, and the time to union was measured. Shoulder and elbow functions were assessed using the Constant Score and the Morrey Score, respectively. Forty-six fractures healed, with a mean time to clinical union of 10.3 weeks. Two patients developed pseudarthroses. There were four adverse events: two proximal screws backed out, one superficial infection at the insertion point, and one fracture at the distal end of the nail. Ninety-one percentage of patients had an excellent or good shoulder function. Five further operations were necessary: two for treatment of pseudarthroses, two for removal the backed out proximal screws, and one wound debridement for superficial infection. Antegrade humeral nailing is a valid therapeutic option for stabilization of humeral shaft fractures. By strictly adhering to the operation technique, the number and the severity of complications can be reduced. When good fracture alignment and stability are obtained, uneventful bone healing with good functional results is the rule.

  15. Adjustable continence balloons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Line; Fode, Mikkel; Nørgaard, Nis

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective. This study aimed to evaluate the results of the Danish experience with the ProACT urinary continence device inserted in men with stress urinary incontinence. Material and methods. The ProACT was inserted in 114 patients. Data were registered prospectively. The main endpoints...... in urinary leakage > 50% was seen in 72 patients (80%). Complications were seen in 23 patients. All of these were treated successfully by removal of the device in the outpatient setting followed by replacement of the device. Another eight patients had a third balloon inserted to improve continence further....... Fourteen patients (12%) ended up with an artificial sphincter or a urethral sling. Sixty patients (63%) experienced no discomfort and 58 (61%) reported being dry or markedly improved. Overall, 50 patients (53%) reported being very or predominantly satisfied. Conclusions. Adjustable continence balloons seem...

  16. Barium enema and CT findings of Douglas pouch metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyakawa, Kunihisa; Uchiyama, Nachiko; Iinuma, Hajime; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    1999-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed barium enema and CT findings of Douglas pouch metastasis in 170 patients. The findings were divided into three types: Anterior compression type, anterior fixed folds type, and stenosis type. Patients with gastric cancer usually showed a stenosis type, especially in those with poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Patients with colon and ovary cancer usually showed an anterior compression type. In patients with gastric cancer, those who showed a stenosis type had the most favorable prognosis among these three types. (author)

  17. Early colon cancer : findings on double contrast barium enema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Kwon; Lim, Jae Hoon; Lee, Soon Jin; Lim, Hyo Keun

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the radiologic findings of early colon cancer on double-contrast barium enema. We retrospectively reviewed the double-contrast barium enemas of eight patients (M:F = 6:2; mean age : 67 yrs; range : 48-77 yrs) who were pathologically proven to be early colon cancer. The location, size and gross morphology of lesions was evaluated using double-contrast barium enema, while depth of invasion, degree of differentiation, precancerous lesions and lymph node metastasis were evaluated histopathologically. Early colon cancer was found in the rectum (n=4), sigmoid colon (n=3) and ascending colon (n=1). The size of mass ranged from 2.3 ∼ 8.3 (mean, 4.6) cm. And the polypoid type was most common (n=7); this was subdivided into sessile (Is, n=5), semipedunculated (Isp, n=1) and pedunculated type (Ip, n=1). Another mass was a sessile polypoid combined with a flat depressed lesion. In eight cases, four cancers were confined to the mucosa, while the remaining four had infiltrated the submucosa. Most cancers arose from villous and villotubular adenoma. All cases were well-differentiated adenocarcinoma and no metastasis to lymph nodes had occurred. In early colon cancer, lesions were mainly polypoid and large. Most arose from villous and villotubular adenoma. (author). 19 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  18. Complications from radiographer-performed double contrast barium enemas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vora, P.; Chapman, A. E-mail: anthony.chapman@leedsth.nhs.uk

    2004-04-01

    AIM: To determine the types and rates of complications encountered by radiographers when performing double contrast barium enemas (DCBE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seven hundred and forty-one questionnaires were posted to radiographers who had in the last 5 years attended one of the biannual barium enema training courses. RESULTS: Of 741 questionnaires posted 407 (54.9%) were returned completed. Approximately 348,000 barium enema examinations had been performed. Fifty-nine radiographers reported 89 complications, including 13 intra-peritoneal and 11 extra-peritoneal perforations. There were five deaths (mortality 1 in 70,000). Deaths resulted from two of 24 (10%) perforations, two of 45 (5%) cardiac events and one cerebrovascular accident that occurred during an examination. CONCLUSIONS: Radiographers have been regularly performing DCBEs for almost a decade. The mortality for radiographer-performed DCBE is similar to that previously reported for radiologists, although a slightly higher rate of perforation is noted and so this is an area where radiographer training should be targeted.

  19. Complications from radiographer-performed double contrast barium enemas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vora, P.; Chapman, A.

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To determine the types and rates of complications encountered by radiographers when performing double contrast barium enemas (DCBE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seven hundred and forty-one questionnaires were posted to radiographers who had in the last 5 years attended one of the biannual barium enema training courses. RESULTS: Of 741 questionnaires posted 407 (54.9%) were returned completed. Approximately 348,000 barium enema examinations had been performed. Fifty-nine radiographers reported 89 complications, including 13 intra-peritoneal and 11 extra-peritoneal perforations. There were five deaths (mortality 1 in 70,000). Deaths resulted from two of 24 (10%) perforations, two of 45 (5%) cardiac events and one cerebrovascular accident that occurred during an examination. CONCLUSIONS: Radiographers have been regularly performing DCBEs for almost a decade. The mortality for radiographer-performed DCBE is similar to that previously reported for radiologists, although a slightly higher rate of perforation is noted and so this is an area where radiographer training should be targeted

  20. Effectiveness of therapeutic barium enema for diverticular hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Mizue; Inamori, Masahiko; Nakajima, Atsushi; Komiya, Yasuhiko; Inoh, Yumi; Kawasima, Keigo; Naitoh, Mai; Fujita, Yuji; Eduka, Akiko; Kanazawa, Noriyoshi; Uchiyama, Shiori; Tani, Rie; Kawana, Kennichi; Ohtani, Setsuya; Nagase, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness of barium impaction therapy for patients with colonic diverticular bleeding. METHODS: We reviewed the clinical charts of patients in whom therapeutic barium enema was performed for the control of diverticular bleeding between August 2010 and March 2012 at Yokohama Rosai Hospital. Twenty patients were included in the review, consisting of 14 men and 6 women. The median age of the patients was 73.5 years. The duration of the follow-up period ranged from 1 to 19 mo (median: 9.8 mo). Among the 20 patients were 11 patients who required the procedure for re-bleeding during hospitalization, 6 patients who required it for re-bleeding that developed after the patient left the hospital, and 3 patients who required the procedure for the prevention of re-bleeding. Barium (concentration: 150 w%/v%) was administered per the rectum, and the leading edge of the contrast medium was followed up to the cecum by fluoroscopy. After confirmation that the ascending colon and cecum were filled with barium, the enema tube was withdrawn, and the patient’s position was changed every 20 min for 3 h. RESULTS: Twelve patients remained free of re-bleeding during the follow-up period (range: 1-19 mo) after the therapeutic barium enema, including 9 men and 3 women with a median age of 72.0 years. Re-bleeding occurred in 8 patients including 5 men and 3 women with a median age of 68.5 years: 4 developed early re-bleeding, defined as re-bleeding that occurs within one week after the procedure, and the remaining 4 developed late re-bleeding. The DFI (disease-free interval) decreased 0.4 for 12 mo. Only one patient developed a complication from therapeutic barium enema (colonic perforation). CONCLUSION: Therapeutic barium enema is effective for the control of diverticular hemorrhage in cases where the active bleeding site cannot be identified by colonoscopy. PMID:25987779

  1. DIAGNOSTIC ACCURACY OF BARIUM ENEMA FINDINGS IN HIRSCHSPRUNG'S DISEASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyvasteh, Mehran; Askarpour, Shahnam; Ostadian, Nasrollah; Moghimi, Mohammad-Reza; Javaherizadeh, Hazhir

    2016-01-01

    Hirschsprung's disease is the most common cause of pediatric intestinal obstruction. Contrast enema is used for evaluation of the patients with its diagnosis. To evaluate sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of radiologic findings for diagnosis of Hirschsprung in patients underwent barium enema. This cross sectional study was carried out in Imam Khomeini Hospital for one year starting from 2012, April. Sixty patients were enrolled. Inclusion criteria were: neonates with failure to pass meconium, abdominal distention, and refractory constipation who failed to respond with medical treatment. Transitional zone, delay in barium evacuation after 24 h, rectosigmoid index (maximum with of the rectum divided by maximum with of the sigmoid; abnormal if de Hirschsprung é a causa mais comum de obstrução intestinal pediátrica. Enema baritado é usado para a avaliação dos pacientes com o diagnóstico . Avaliar a sensibilidade, especificidade, valor preditivo positivo e valor preditivo negativo de achados radiológicos para diagnóstico de Hirschsprung em pacientes submetidos ao enema opaco. Este estudo transversal foi realizado em Imam Khomeini Hospital por um ano a partir de abril de 2012. Sessenta pacientes foram incluídos. Os critérios de inclusão foram: recém-nascidos com insuficiência de passagem de mecônio, distensão abdominal, e constipação refratária sem resposta ao tratamento médico. Foram avaliadas no enema zona de transição, atraso na evacuação de bário após 24 h, índice retossigmoide (máximo do diâmetro do reto dividido pelo máximo do sigmóide; anormal se casos com a doença de Hirschsprung e sem foi 17,90±18,29 meses e 17,8±18,34 meses, respectivamente (p=0,983). Confirmou-se em 30 (M=20, F=10) dos casos. Falha no mecônio foi encontrada em 21 (70%) casos. Sensibilidade, especificidade, VPP e VPN foram de 90%, 80%, 81,8% e 88,8%, respectivamente, para a zona de transição no enema

  2. Steerable antegrade stenting: a new trick of the trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udo Nagele

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Whereas a retrograde attempt to insert an indwelling stent is performed in lithotomy position, usually renal access is gained in a prone position. To overcome the time loss of patient repositioning, a renal puncture can be performed in a modified lithotomy position with torqued truncus and slightly elevated flank. There is a two-fold advantage of this position: transurethral and transrenal access can be obtained using a combined approach. In the present study, this simple technique is used to position a floppy guide wire through a modified needle directly through the renal pelvis into the ureter. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The kidney is punctured in the modified lithotomy position under sonographic control using an initial three-part puncture needle. A floppy tip guide-wire is inserted into the collecting system via the needle after retrieving the stylet. The retracted needle is bent at the tip while the guide-wire is secured in the needle and the collecting system. The use of the floppy tip guide-wire helps to insert the curved needle back into the kidney pelvis, which becomes the precise guidance for the now steerable wire. The desired steerable stent is positioned under radiographic control in a retrograde fashion over the endoscopically harbored tip of the guide-wire. Two patient cohorts (newly described method and conventional method were compared. RESULTS: The presented steering procedure saves 16.5 mean minutes compared to the conventional antegrade stenting and 79.5 Euros compared to the control group. CONCLUSION: The described combined antegrade-retrograde stent placement through a bent three-part puncture needle results in both clinical superiority (OR time, success rate and financial benefits.

  3. Experimental study of faecal continence and colostomy irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bichere, A; Sibbons, P; Doré, C; Green, C; Phillips, R K

    2000-07-01

    Colostomy irrigation is a useful method of achieving faecal continence in selected conditions, but remains largely underutilized because it is time consuming. This study investigated the effect of modifying irrigation technique (route, infusion regimen and pharmacological manipulation) on colonic emptying time in a porcine model. An end-colostomy and caecostomy were fashioned in six pigs. Twenty markers were introduced into the caecum immediately before colonic irrigation. Irrigation route (antegrade or retrograde), infusion regimen (tap water, polyethylene glycol (PEG), 1.5 per cent glycine) and pharmacological agent (glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) 0.25 mg/kg, diltiazem 3.9 mg/kg, bisacodyl 0.25 mg/kg) were assigned to each animal at random. Colonic transit was assessed by quantifying cumulative expelled markers (CEM) and stool every hour for 12 h. Mean CEM at 6 h for bisacodyl, GTN and diltiazem were 18.17, 12.17 and zero respectively; all pairwise differences in means were significant (P irrigation. PEG and glycine enhance emptying similar to bisacodyl and GTN solution. These findings show promise for improved faecal continence by colostomy irrigation and may justify construction of a Malone conduit at the time of colostomy in selected patients who wish to irrigate. Presented in part to the British Society of Gastroenterology in Glasgow, UK, March 1999, and published in abstract form as Gut 1999; 44(Suppl 1): A135

  4. Self-Administered Ethanol Enema Causing Accidental Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Peterson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive ethanol consumption is a leading preventable cause of death in the United States. Much of the harm from ethanol comes from those who engage in excessive or hazardous drinking. Rectal absorption of ethanol bypasses the first pass metabolic effect, allowing for a higher concentration of blood ethanol to occur for a given volume of solution and, consequently, greater potential for central nervous system depression. However, accidental death is extremely rare with rectal administration. This case report describes an individual with klismaphilia whose death resulted from acute ethanol intoxication by rectal absorption of a wine enema.

  5. Rectal Fecal Impaction Treatment in Childhood Constipation: Enemas Versus High Doses Oral PEG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkali, Noor-L.-Houda; van den Berg, Maartje-Maria; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G. W.; van Wijk, Michiel P.; Bongers, Marloes E. J.; Liem, Olivia; Benninga, Marc A.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that enemas and polyethylene glycol (PEG) would be equally effective in treating rectal fecal impaction (RFI) but enemas would be less well tolerated and colonic transit time (CTT) would improve during disimpaction. METHODS: Children (4-16 years) with functional

  6. Coffee Enema for Preparation for Small Bowel Video Capsule Endoscopy: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Sun; Keum, Bora; Seo, Yeon Seok; Jeen, Yoon Tae; Lee, Hong Sik; Um, Soon Ho; Kim, Chang Duck; Ryu, Ho Sang

    2014-01-01

    Coffee enemas are believed to cause dilatation of bile ducts and excretion of bile through the colon wall. Proponents of coffee enemas claim that the cafestol palmitate in coffee enhances the activity of glutathione S-transferase, an enzyme that stimulates bile excretion. During video capsule endoscopy (VCE), excreted bile is one of the causes of poor preparation of the small bowel. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and effect of coffee enema for preparation of the small bowel during VCE. In this pilot study, 17 of 34 patients were assigned to the coffee enema plus polyethylene glycol (PEG) 2 L ingestion group, whereas the 17 remaining control patients received 2 L of PEG only. The quality of bowel preparation was evaluated in the two patient groups. Bowel preparations in the proximal segments of small bowel were not differ between two groups. In the mid and distal segments of the small intestine, bowel preparations tend to be better in patients who received coffee enemas plus PEG than in patients who received PEG only. The coffee enema group did not experience any complications or side effects. Coffee enemas may be a feasible option, and there were no clinically significant adverse events related to coffee enemas. More prospective randomized studies are warranted to improve small bowel preparation for VCE. PMID:25136541

  7. Prospective comparison of double contrast barium enema plus flexible sigmoidoscopy v colonoscopy in rectal bleeding: barium enema v colonoscopy in rectal bleeding.

    OpenAIRE

    Irvine, E J; O'Connor, J; Frost, R A; Shorvon, P; Somers, S; Stevenson, G W; Hunt, R H

    1988-01-01

    Rectal bleeding often heralds serious colonic disease. The literature suggests that colonoscopy is superior to barium enema plus sigmoidoscopy, although no good comparative studies exist. Seventy one patients with overt rectal bleeding had prospectively flexible sigmoidoscopy, double contrast barium enema and colonoscopy completed independently. Against the gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity of colonoscopy were 0.69 and 0.78 respectively for a spectrum of colonic lesions, while fo...

  8. Patient dose variation investigated in four Irish hospitals for barium meal and barium enema examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, E.; Brennan, P.C.

    2001-01-01

    Four hospitals have been studied, intra- and inter-hospital variations examined and the mean DAP values recorded for barium enemas and barium meals. Mean DAP values for barium meals and barium enemas at 11.4 Gy.cm 2 and 20.1 Gy.cm 2 respectively have been shown. Differences between individual examinations for barium meals varied by up to a factor of 185 and for barium enemas, up to a factor of 19, with hospital means for barium meal and enema examinations each differing by up to a factor of 3. The data provided by this study have suggested that large variations in patient dose do exist in Ireland for barium meal and barium enema examinations. Fluoroscopy time was shown to be a major contributor to the variations reported, with number of images playing a minor role. Results have demonstrated the need for standardisation of technique throughout the country for these examinations. (author)

  9. Bonanza from the frozen continent

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G.A.P.

    Antarctica is a circumpolar continent surrounded by the Southern Ocean which is about 36 million sq kms and about 10% of the worlds oceans. Ice covers 98% of the continent and the rest is a non glacial terrain. Temperatures on Antarctica...

  10. Evaluation of sucralfate enema in experimental diversion colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Aires Pereira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Diversion colitis (DC is an inflammatory disease that develops in segments with fecal di- version. Sucralfate (SCF complex, which consists of sucrose octasulfate and polyaluminum hydroxide, has been demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of different forms of colitis. However, until now, the effects of SCF have not been evaluated in DC. Objective: to evaluate whether the use of enemas containing SFC improves histological find- ings in experimental DC. Methods: Thirty-six rats underwent right colon bypass procedure through the creation of a proximal colostomy and a distal mucous fistula. The animals were divided into two groups according to the euthanization procedure to be performed two to four weeks after sur- gery. Each experimental group was divided into three subgroups of six animals, which were submitted to daily application of enemas containing saline solution 0.9% or SCF at con- centrations of 1.0 g/kg/day or 2.0 g/kg/day, respectively. The diagnosis of DC in segments with fecal diversion was established by histopathological study considering the following variables: epithelial loss, formation of crypt abscesses, the population of goblet cells, in- flammatory infiltrate and presence of fibrosis. For statistical analysis, the nonparametric Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used, with a significance level of 5% (p <0.05. Results: It was observed that the daily application of SCF enemas decreased epithelial loss, formation of colon crypt abscesses, inflammatory infiltrate and tissue fibrosis (p <0.05, un- related to time of intervention. The intervention with SCF preserves the goblet cell popula- tion. The effects of the substance on the preservation of colonic epithelium; the decrease in the inflammatory process and subsequent abscess formation in the colon crypts are associated with the concentration used, whereas tissue fibrosis decrease is associated with the concentration and time of intervention. Conclusion

  11. Predictors of antegrade flow at internal carotid artery during carotid artery stenting with proximal protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kei; Kakumoto, Kosuke; Oshikata, Shogo; Fukuyama, Kozo

    2018-06-01

    Carotid artery stenting (CAS) with proximal occlusion effectively prevent distal cerebral embolism by flow arrest at internal carotid artery (ICA); however, the method can expose antegrade flow at ICA due to incomplete flow arrest. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of antegrade flow during CAS with proximal protection. We retrospectively analyzed clinical and angiographic data among 143 lesions treated with CAS with proximal protection by occluding the common carotid artery (CCA) and external carotid artery (ECA). Flow arrest or antegrade flow at ICA was confirmed by contrast injection during proximal protection. Antegrade flow at ICA was observed in 12 lesions (8.4%). Compared with lesions in which flow arrest of ICA was achieved, the diameter of the superior thyroid artery (STA) was significantly larger (2.4 ± 0.34 vs. 1.4 ± 0.68 mm, p protection should be combined with proximal protection for the lesions with antegrade flow to prevent distal migration of the carotid debris.

  12. Paleomagnetism continents and oceans

    CERN Document Server

    McElhinny, Michael W; Dmowska, Renata; Holton, James R; Rossby, H Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Paleomagnetism is the study of the fossil magnetism in rocks. It has been paramount in determining that the continents have drifted over the surface of the Earth throughout geological time. The fossil magnetism preserved in the ocean floor has demonstrated how continental drift takes place through the process of sea-floor spreading. The methods and techniques used in paleomagnetic studies of continental rocks and of the ocean floor are described and then applied to determining horizontal movements of the Earth''s crust over geological time. An up-to-date review of global paleomagnetic data enables 1000 millionyears of Earth history to be summarized in terms of the drift of the major crustal blocks over the surface of the Earth. The first edition of McElhinny''s book was heralded as a "classic and definitive text." It thoroughly discussed the theory of geomagnetism, the geologicreversals of the Earth''s magnetic field, and the shifting of magnetic poles. In the 25 years since the highly successful first editio...

  13. Preventing intra-urethral migration of a guidewire during antegrade placement of a JJ stent: a technical modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Ankur; Gupta, Piyush; Dalela, Disha; Dalela, Diwakar

    2016-03-07

    A JJ stent is usually inserted in antegrade fashion after percutaneous renal surgery. We describe a new technical modification for antegrade stent insertion that prevents intraoperative intra-urethral migration of the guidewire and saves operative time and cost. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  14. Assessment of patient exposure for barium enema examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bednarek, D.R.; Rudin, S.; Wong, R.

    1983-01-01

    Methods are described for the assessment of patient exposure during clinical fluoroscopic procedures. Values of the roentgen-area-product (RAP) and their distribution throughout the examination are presented for both single-contrast and double-contrast barium enema studies. The double-contrast procedure was measured to give 50% more radiation to the patient than the single-contrast procedure when the same size optical aperture is used between the intensifier and TV pick-up tube. However, it was possible to decrease the fluoroscopic RAP value by over a factor of two for the double-contrast procedure without an adverse clinical effect by increasing the area of the aperture diaphragm

  15. Profunda Anchor Technique for Ipsilateral Antegrade Approach in Endovascular Treatment of Superficial Femoral Artery Ostial Occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pua, Uei

    2015-01-01

    Endovascular treatment of the superficial femoral artery (SFA) is challenging in the presence of flush ostial occlusion. One of the main challenges is the availability of access sites for intervention. Contralateral retrograde femoral access followed by cross-over and antegrade intervention while commonly used, may not be feasible in cases of altered iliac anatomy (e.g. kissing iliac stents). Ipsilateral antegrade intervention using common femoral artery (CFA) access in these instances while possible is typically challenging due to inadequate working length of the CFA for interrogation of the SFA ostium, compounded by the lack of sheath stability. The “profunda anchor” technique uses a buddy wire in the profunda femoris artery (PFA) to stabilize the sheath and allow catheter manipulation for antegrade intervention at the level of the SFA ostium. The PFA is further used as a conduit for deployment of closure device to avoid interference with the treated SFA

  16. Profunda Anchor Technique for Ipsilateral Antegrade Approach in Endovascular Treatment of Superficial Femoral Artery Ostial Occlusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pua, Uei, E-mail: druei@yahoo.com [Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Singapore)

    2015-04-15

    Endovascular treatment of the superficial femoral artery (SFA) is challenging in the presence of flush ostial occlusion. One of the main challenges is the availability of access sites for intervention. Contralateral retrograde femoral access followed by cross-over and antegrade intervention while commonly used, may not be feasible in cases of altered iliac anatomy (e.g. kissing iliac stents). Ipsilateral antegrade intervention using common femoral artery (CFA) access in these instances while possible is typically challenging due to inadequate working length of the CFA for interrogation of the SFA ostium, compounded by the lack of sheath stability. The “profunda anchor” technique uses a buddy wire in the profunda femoris artery (PFA) to stabilize the sheath and allow catheter manipulation for antegrade intervention at the level of the SFA ostium. The PFA is further used as a conduit for deployment of closure device to avoid interference with the treated SFA.

  17. Rectosigmoid endometriosis: comparison between CT water enema and video laparoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabile Ianora, A A; Moschetta, M; Lorusso, F; Lattarulo, S; Telegrafo, M; Rella, L; Scardapane, A

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of water enema computed tomography (CT) for predicting the location of endometriosis in patients with contraindications to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), focusing on rectosigmoid lesions and having laparoscopic and histological data as the reference standard. Thirty-three women (mean age 33.4 ± 3.1 years) suspected of having deep pelvic endometriosis underwent 64-row CT and video laparoscopy within 4 weeks. Two radiologists blinded to the clinical data evaluated the CT images obtained after colonic retrograde distension using water as the contrast medium, and a comparison with laparoscopic and histological findings was performed. CT sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and diagnostic accuracy were calculated. The radiation dose to patients was estimated. Cohen's weighted kappa (κ) test was used to evaluate the interobserver agreement. In 23 out of 33 patients (69%) intestinal implants were found at surgery and pathological examinations. CT confirmed the diagnosis of rectosigmoid endometriosis in 20 out of 23 implants. Three nodules located on the proximal sigmoid colon (two serosal lesions and one infiltrating the muscularis layer) with a diameter of less than 1 cm were not diagnosed. CT sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy values were 87, 100, 100, 77, and 91%, respectively. The mean effective dose estimate was 6.30 ± 1.7 mSv. Almost perfect agreement between the two readers was found (k = 0.84). Water enema CT can play a role in the diagnosis of bowel endometriosis and represents another accurate potential tool for video laparoscopic approaches, especially in patients for whom MRI is contraindicated. Copyright © 2013 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Rectosigmoid endometriosis: Comparison between CT water enema and video laparoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stabile Ianora, A.A.; Moschetta, M.; Lorusso, F.; Lattarulo, S.; Telegrafo, M.; Rella, L.; Scardapane, A.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the accuracy of water enema computed tomography (CT) for predicting the location of endometriosis in patients with contraindications to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), focusing on rectosigmoid lesions and having laparoscopic and histological data as the reference standard. Materials and methods: Thirty-three women (mean age 33.4 ± 3.1 years) suspected of having deep pelvic endometriosis underwent 64-row CT and video laparoscopy within 4 weeks. Two radiologists blinded to the clinical data evaluated the CT images obtained after colonic retrograde distension using water as the contrast medium, and a comparison with laparoscopic and histological findings was performed. CT sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and diagnostic accuracy were calculated. The radiation dose to patients was estimated. Cohen's weighted kappa (κ) test was used to evaluate the interobserver agreement. Results: In 23 out of 33 patients (69%) intestinal implants were found at surgery and pathological examinations. CT confirmed the diagnosis of rectosigmoid endometriosis in 20 out of 23 implants. Three nodules located on the proximal sigmoid colon (two serosal lesions and one infiltrating the muscularis layer) with a diameter of less than 1 cm were not diagnosed. CT sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy values were 87, 100, 100, 77, and 91%, respectively. The mean effective dose estimate was 6.30 ± 1.7 mSv. Almost perfect agreement between the two readers was found (k = 0.84). Conclusion: Water enema CT can play a role in the diagnosis of bowel endometriosis and represents another accurate potential tool for video laparoscopic approaches, especially in patients for whom MRI is contraindicated

  19. [The Kock continent urinary diversion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, S D; Skinner, D G; Lieskovsky, G

    1989-07-01

    The continent ileal reservoir as conceived by Kock produces a low-pressure, high-capacity reservoir with continent and nonrefluxing valves constructed from ileum. From August 1982 through March 1988, 531 patients underwent continent urinary diversion via a Kock reservoir at our institution. Of these, 39 males had a Kock bladder substitution, while the rest underwent cutaneous Kock diversion. Early complications occurred in 16% of all patients, and there was an operative mortality rate of 1.9%. Surgical modifications of nipple fixation, which are discussed in detail in this paper, help to reduce late complications to less than 10%. Patient satisfaction with both procedures remains excellent.

  20. A controlled trial of colostomy management by natural evacuation, irrigation and foam enema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, J; Hardcastle, J D

    1981-10-01

    Twenty patients entered a prospective controlled trial of colostomy management by three techniques--natural evacuation, colostomy irrigation and foam enema. Every patient spent 2 months using each technique. The mean number of colostomy actions weekly was 17 during natural evacuation, 6 during irrigation and 10 with the enema. There was no significant difference in the time taken to manage the colostomy by each technique. Eighteen patients considered that both irrigation and the foam enema improved the quality of their life, and opted to continue with irrigation on completion of the study. There were no major complications during the trial but leakage of foam and an increase in flatus were problems with the foam enema. It is concluded that patients should be made aware of the alternative methods available for colostomy management and be encouraged to use the method of their choice.

  1. Computed tomography of the colo-rectal cancer using the olive oil enema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, Hiroshi; Hori, Shinichi; Ohkawa, Motoomi; Fujikawa, Koichi; Mori, Masaki; Katsuta, Shizutomo.

    1983-01-01

    The recent widespread use of the double contrast Ba enema method has allowed considerable progress to be made in the diagnosis of colo-rectal cancer. However, the double contrast Ba enema technique has been found to be inadequate in the detection of the extra-luminal extensions of cancer in its early stage. CT can be utilized as an accurate non-invasive technique for evaluating colon tumors, particularly in the rectum and sigmoid colon which are adjacent to many organs. It is possible to apply CT for evaluating whether the cancer's extra-luminal extensions are at a preoperative stage or not. Due to the many limitations inherent in the Ba enema study. We developed a new olive oil enema technique to make it possible to more accurately differentiate the intra-luminal lesion, the intestinal wall and the extra-luminal extension. (author)

  2. Sensitivity of single contrast barium enema with regard to colorectal disease as diagnosed by colonoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaude, J.V.; Harty, R.F.

    1982-01-01

    The results of single contrast barium enema were retrospectively correlated with colonoscopically diagnosed colorectal disease in 54 patients (75 lesions). Altogether 66 lesions (88%) were correctly diagnosed. The sensitivity of barium enema for polyps was 81% (26/32). There were three perceptive errors and three polyps 5 mm or less in size were not demonstrated by barium enema. Twenty-nine cases of inflammatory disorders were all correctly diagnosed. One of 12 malignancies was missed by perceptive error. In two cases with vascular malformations the barium enema was normal. 4/9 (44%) of missed lesions were perceptive errors and could have been probably avoided by a second independent reading of films. (orig.)

  3. How changes in a radiologist's technique can reduce patient dose in barium enema studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, R.H.

    2001-01-01

    Changes in a radiologist's technique, especially utilising digital technology, can lead to substantial dose savings in barium enema examinations. Data will be provided showing a 20% saving with only minimal change in technique. (author)

  4. Antegrade balloon dilatation and ureteral stenting for the benign ureteral strictures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Hyup; Park, Jae Hyung; Han, Man Chung

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the role of antegrade balloon dilatation and ureteral stenting in benign ureteral strictures. Percutaneous antegrade balloon dilatation was attempted in 46 patients with benign ureteral strictures. The underlying causes of the strictures were urinary tract tuberculosis in 20 patients, congenital ureteropelvic junction obstruction in eight, ureteroneocystostomy or ureteroileostomy state in five, postoperative or post-extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy state for ureteral calculi in eight, ureteral injury during surgery in four, and retroperitoneal fibrosis in one. Antegrade balloon dilatation was performed with initial technical success in 43 patients but the procedure was aborted in the remaining three with urinary tract tuberculosis due to the failure in passing a guidewire through the stenotic lesions. Intravenous urograms obtained 4-76 months after the procedure showed improvements in 76% (13/17) with urinary tract tuberculosis, in 63%(5/8) with congenital ureteropelvic junction obstruction, in 88%(7/8) with strictures associated with ureteral calculi, and in 100%(4/4) with iatrogenic ureteral injury. The results were relatively poor in strictures of the ureteral anastomosis(1/5) and in ureteral strictures associated with retroperitoneal fibrosis (0/1). Antegrade balloon dilatation of the urinary tract combined with ureteral stenting was an effective technique for the management of the benign ureteral strictures

  5. Surgical thromboendarterectomy for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension using circulatory arrest with selective antegrade cerebral perfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeebregts, CJAM; Dossche, KM; Morshuis, WJ; Knaepen, PJ; Schepens, MAAM

    The use of circulatory arrest with selective antegrade cerebral perfusion is described in a 59-year-old man who underwent thrombendarterectomy for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. The postoperative course was uneventful. The described surgical technique may prevent the patient from

  6. Case series of ante-grade biliary stenting: An option during bile duct exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qaiser Jalal

    Full Text Available Background: Managing choledochotomy after bile duct clearance is an ongoing debate. T-tube insertion is not without complication and morbidity, requires significant post-operative care. Primary closure alone can result in a high pressure biliary system and bile leak. The placement of an ante-grade stent through the choledochotomy prior to primary closure is an option for ensuring biliary drainage after bile duct exploration. We reviewed our series of open bile duct explorations, where an ante-grade stent was placed when managing choledochotomy. Methods: Patients who had ante-grade stent placement, all performed by same senior hepatobiliary surgeon, were identified retrospectively. Case note review was used to gather demographic, complication, length of stay, post-operative clinic visits and readmission data. Results: 22 (M:F, 7:15 patients with a median age of 64 years (22–82. The indication for surgical stone clearance was failed ERCP in 20.2 patients were not suitable for ERCP. The median post-operative stay was 8 days (379 with the abdominal drain remaining for a median of 4 days (137. 16 (73% patients had no complications. 4 (18% had bile leaks, 5 (22% wound infections, 1 (5% cholangitis and 1 (5% pancreatitis. All complications were Clavien-Dindo grade 3 or less. Conclusion: In situations where primary CBD closure is not safe due to concern over high pressure in the biliary tree the placement of ante-grade stent may be preferred to T-tube placement. Keywords: Choledocholithiasis, Ante-grade stenting, Choledochotomy

  7. Colorectal carcinoma: preoperative staging with water enema spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Sheng; Gao Jianbo; Li Yintai; Chen Xuejun; Yang Xuehua; Yang Xiaopeng; Cheng Jingliang

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To determine the value and limitation of water enema spiral CT (WESCT) in staging of colorectal carcinoma. Methods: Forty-eight patients with histologically proven rectum or colon carcinoma were included in this study. All of them were examined by SCT, and the preoperative staging of TNM and Duke were used based on the findings of SCT. The results of WESCT were compared with those of surgical and pathological examination in all cases. Results: All lesions in the 47 cases were demonstrated clearly by WESCT and the sensitivity was 97.9%; 39 cases of 48 patients were correctly staged with TNM and 42 cases with Duke, the accuracy was 81.3% and 87.5% respectively, which were higher than the overall 50 % accuracy reported by references; (3) The accuracy of WESCT was 89.6% (43/48) in T stage and 81.3% (39/48) in N stage. Three cases in M stage were all diagnosed correctly; Conclusion: WESCT scan is a better method of depicting the colorectal carcinoma. It allows for accurate depiction and staging of colorectal carcinoma, especially detecting the invasion of adjacent tissues and distant metastasis. It is the best imaging method for staging the colorectal carcinoma . However the value of WESCT for early T staging in colorectal carcinoma and minute metastasis of lymph nodes or liver is limited

  8. Colonic diverticulosis: evaluation with double contrast barium enema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Jae Kook; Lee, Jong Koo; Yun, Eun Joo; Moon, Hee Jung; Shin, Hyun Ja

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the pattern of colonic diverticulosis according to age and sex, and recent trend. The authors retrospectively reviewed 120 cases of colonic diverticulosis in 1,020 patients who had undergone a double contrast barium enema examination between January 1st, 1993, and December 31st, 1995, and analyzed the frequency, size, multiplicity and anatomical site, according to age and sex. Diverticulum size was classified into one of three groups : less than 5mm, 5-10mm, over 10mm in diameter. The overall incidence of colonic diverticulosis was 120 cases among 1,020 patients(11.8%) with an incidence 5.3 times higher in males than in females. Peak incidence was in the fifth decade, with 19 cases (15.8%) among males, and after the sixth decade, with four cases(3.3%) among females. Mean age was 57.7 years. Diverticulum size of 5-10mm in diameter was predominant (2% of cases); average diameter was 5-6mm. The incidence of colonic diverticulosis was 5.1 times more frequent in the right colon (101 cases) than in the left (20 cases). The overall incidence of colonic diverticulosis has continually increased; in addition it has also recently increased slightly in left-sided colon. This is thought to be due to various factors, both congenital and acquired, including longer life with good health care, constipation, irritable bowel syndrome, stress and the tendency of eating patterns to more closely resemble those of the west

  9. Colonic diverticulosis: evaluation with double contrast barium enema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Jae Kook; Lee, Jong Koo; Yun, Eun Joo; Moon, Hee Jung; Shin, Hyun Ja [Korea Veterans Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-02-01

    To evaluate the pattern of colonic diverticulosis according to age and sex, and recent trend. The authors retrospectively reviewed 120 cases of colonic diverticulosis in 1,020 patients who had undergone a double contrast barium enema examination between January 1st, 1993, and December 31st, 1995, and analyzed the frequency, size, multiplicity and anatomical site, according to age and sex. Diverticulum size was classified into one of three groups : less than 5mm, 5-10mm, over 10mm in diameter. The overall incidence of colonic diverticulosis was 120 cases among 1,020 patients(11.8%) with an incidence 5.3 times higher in males than in females. Peak incidence was in the fifth decade, with 19 cases (15.8%) among males, and after the sixth decade, with four cases(3.3%) among females. Mean age was 57.7 years. Diverticulum size of 5-10mm in diameter was predominant (2% of cases); average diameter was 5-6mm. The incidence of colonic diverticulosis was 5.1 times more frequent in the right colon (101 cases) than in the left (20 cases). The overall incidence of colonic diverticulosis has continually increased; in addition it has also recently increased slightly in left-sided colon. This is thought to be due to various factors, both congenital and acquired, including longer life with good health care, constipation, irritable bowel syndrome, stress and the tendency of eating patterns to more closely resemble those of the west.

  10. Îles et continents

    OpenAIRE

    Resztak, Karolina; Sanson, Hervé

    2017-01-01

    Ce numéro huit de la revue Continents manuscrits, à l’enseigne des « Iles et continents », se veut un numéro de varias, une fois n’est pas coutume. Iles et continents car : du Congo aux Antilles, en passant par l’Amérique du Nord, le numéro assume sa géographie plurielle, polycentrée. Le panorama d’auteurs représentés dans la revue est riche et varié : de Joseph Zobel à Sony Labou Tansi, d’Aimé Césaire à Nathanaël, ou René Maran, c’est bien des cartographies mises en relation que ce numéro té...

  11. Perforation and mortality after cleansing enema for acute constipation are not rare but are preventable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niv G

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Galia Niv,1 Tamar Grinberg,2 Ram Dickman,3 Nir Wasserberg,4 Yaron Niv1,3 1Risk Management and Quality Assurance, 2Emergency Department, 3Department of Gastroenterology, 4Department of Surgery B, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Hospital and Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel Objectives: Constipation is a common complaint, frequently treated with cleansing enema. Enemas can be very effective but may cause serious adverse events, such as perforation or metabolic derangement. Our aim was to evaluate the outcome of the use of cleansing enema for acute constipation and to assess adverse events within 30 days of therapy. Methods: We performed a two-phase study: an initial retrospective and descriptive study in 2010, followed by a prospective study after intervention, in 2011. According to the results of the first phase we established guidelines for the treatment of constipation in the Emergency Department and then used these in the second phase. Results: There were 269 and 286 cases of severe constipation in the first and second periods of the study, respectively. In the first study period, only Fleet® Enema was used, and in the second, this was changed to Easy Go enema (free of sodium phosphate. There was a 19.2% decrease in the total use of enema, in the second period of the study (P < 0.0001. Adverse events and especially, the perforation rate and the 30-day mortality in patients with constipation decreased significantly in the second phase: 3 (1.4% versus 0 (P = 0.0001 and 8 (3.9% versus 2 (0.7% (P = 0.0001, for perforation and death in the first and second period of the study, respectively. Conclusion: Enema for the treatment of acute constipation is not without adverse events, especially in the elderly, and should be applied carefully. Perforation, hyperphosphatemia (after Fleet Enema, and sepsis may cause death in up to 4% of cases. Guidelines for the treatment of acute constipation and for enema administration are urgently needed. Keywords

  12. Benefits of Barium Enema in Patients with Incomplete Colonoscopy. Prospective Study of 45 Cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gispert, S.; Mayolas, N.; Hidalgo, A.

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of barium enema in patients with incomplete colonoscopy. There was carried out a prospective 10-month study of 45 patients with incomplete colonoscopy (27 men and 18 women), who were later examined by means of barium enema (33 conventional, 12 double-contrast) in order to check for additional pathology in portions of the colon not visualized by colonoscopy. Barium enema diagnosed six possible additional lesions (13.3%) in portions of the colon not visualized by incomplete colonoscopy (four neoplasia and two non-neoplasia). Regarding the neoplasia two were true positives and two false positives. Both true positives were adenocarcinomas (one synchronous caecum, and another in splenic angle). The two false positives corresponded to fecal matter stuck to the intestinal wall. Regarding the non-neoplasia, multiple stenosis was detected in a patient with Crohn's disease and an enterocolic fistula was found in a patient with sigmoid colon neoplasia. The diagnostic yield of barium enema in the detection of additional pathology in colon portions not visualized by colonoscopy was of 9%. Barium enema following incomplete colonoscopy permits a complete colon evaluation in most cases, and it offers additional diagnostic information. (Author) 21 refs

  13. Virtual colonoscopy with electron beam CT: correlation with barium enema, colonoscopy and pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Hye Suk; Kim, Min Jung; Chung, Jae Joon; Kim, Myeong Jin; Lee, Jong Tae; Yoo, Hyung Sik

    1998-01-01

    To perform virtual colonoscopy using electron beam tomography(EBT) in patients in whom a colonic mass was present, and to compare the results with those obtained using barium enema, colonoscopy and gross pathologic specimens. Materials and Methods : Ten patients in whom colonic masses were diagnosed by either barium enema or colonoscopy were involved in this study. There were nine cases of adenocarcinoma and one of tubulovillous adenoma. Using EBT preoperative abdominopelvic CT scans were performed. Axial scans were then three-dimensionally reconstructed to produce virtual colonoscopic images and were compared with barium enema, colonoscopy and gross pathologic specimens. Virtual colonoscopic images of the masses were classified as either 1)polyploid, 2)sessile,3)fungating, or 4)annular constrictive. We also determined whether ulcers were present within the lesions and whether there was obstruction. Results : After virtual colonoscopy, two lesions were classified as polyploid, one as sessile, five as fungating and two as annular constrictive. Virtual colonoscopic images showed good correlation with the findings of barium enema, colonoscopy and gross pathologic specimens. Three of six ulcerative lesions were observed on colonoscopy; in seven adenocarcinomas with partial or total luminal obstruction, virtual colonoscopy visualized the colon beyond the obstructed sites. In one case, barium contrast failed to pass through the obstructed portion and in six cases, the colonoscope similarly failed. Conclusion : Virtual colonoscopies correlated well with barium enema, colonoscopy and gross pathologic specimens. They provide three dimensional images of colonic masses and are helpful for the evaluation of obstructive lesions

  14. Colonoscopy can miss diverticula of the left colon identified by barium enema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niikura, Ryota; Nagata, Naoyoshi; Shimbo, Takuro; Akiyama, Junichi; Uemura, Naomi

    2013-04-21

    To identify the diagnostic value of colonoscopy for diverticulosis as determined by barium enema. A total of 65 patients with hematochezia who underwent colonoscopy and barium enema were analyzed, and the diagnostic value of colonoscopy for diverticula was assessed. The receiver operating characteristic area under the curve was compared in relation to age (barium enema. Colonoscopy had a sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 90%. No significant differences were found in the receiver operating characteristic area under the curve (ROC-AUC) for age group or sex. The ROC-AUC of the left colon was significantly lower than that of the right colon (0.81 vs 0.96, P = 0.02). Colonoscopy identified 486 colonic diverticula, while barium enema identified 1186. The detection ratio for the entire colon was therefore 0.41 (486/1186). The detection ratio in the left colon (0.32, 189/588) was significantly lower than that of the right colon (0.50, 297/598) (P barium enema, only half the number of colonic diverticula can be detected by colonoscopy in the entire colon and even less in the left colon.

  15. Conditional cooperation on three continents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocher, M.G.; Cherry, T.; Kroll, S.; Netzer, R.; Sutter, M.

    2007-01-01

    We show in a public goods experiment on three continents that conditional cooperation is a universal behavioral regularity. Yet, the number of conditional cooperators and the extent of conditional cooperation are much higher in the U.S.A. than anywhere else.

  16. A Novel Risk Score in Predicting Failure or Success for Antegrade Approach to Percutaneous Coronary Intervention of Chronic Total Occlusion: Antegrade CTO Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namazi, Mohammad Hasan; Serati, Ali Reza; Vakili, Hosein; Safi, Morteza; Parsa, Saeed Ali Pour; Saadat, Habibollah; Taherkhani, Maryam; Emami, Sepideh; Pedari, Shamseddin; Vatanparast, Masoomeh; Movahed, Mohammad Reza

    2017-06-01

    Total occlusion of a coronary artery for more than 3 months is defined as chronic total occlusion (CTO). The goal of this study was to develop a risk score in predicting failure or success during attempted percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of CTO lesions using antegrade approach. This study was based on retrospective analyses of clinical and angiographic characteristics of CTO lesions that were assessed between February 2012 and February 2014. Success rate was defined as passing through occlusion with successful stent deployment using an antegrade approach. A total of 188 patients were studied. Mean ± SD age was 59 ± 9 years. Failure rate was 33%. In a stepwise multivariate regression analysis, bridging collaterals (OR = 6.7, CI = 1.97-23.17, score = 2), absence of stump (OR = 5.8, CI = 1.95-17.9, score = 2), presence of calcification (OR = 3.21, CI = 1.46-7.07, score = 1), presence of bending (OR = 2.8, CI = 1.28-6.10, score = 1), presence of near side branch (OR = 2.7, CI = 1.08-6.57, score = 1), and absence of retrograde filling (OR = 2.5, CI = 1.03-6.17, score = 1) were independent predictors of PCI failure. A score of 7 or more was associated with 100% failure rate whereas a score of 2 or less was associated with over 80% success rate. Most factors associated with failure of CTO-PCI are related to lesion characteristics. A new risk score (range 0-8) is developed to predict CTO-PCI success or failure rate during antegrade approach as a guide before attempting PCI of CTO lesions.

  17. Dose optimisation of double-contrast barium enema examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, K; Båth, M; Jonasson, P; Cappelen-Smith, J; Fogelstam, P; Söderberg, J

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was to optimise the filtration and dose setting for double-contrast barium enema examinations using a Philips MultiDiagnost Eleva FD system. A phantom study was performed prior to a patient study. A CDRAD phantom was used in a study where copper and aluminium filtration, different detector doses and tube potentials were examined. The image quality was evaluated using the software CDRAD Analyser and the phantom dose was determined using the Monte Carlo-based software PCXMC. The original setting [100 % detector dose (660 nGy air kerma) and a total filtration of 3.5 mm Al, at 81 kVp] and two other settings identified by the phantom study (100 % detector dose and additional filtration of 1 mm Al and 0.2 mm Cu as well as 80 % detector dose and added filtration of 1 mm Al and 0.2 mm Cu) were included in the patient study. The patient study included 60 patients and up to 8 images from each patient. Six radiologists performed a visual grading characteristics study to evaluate the image quality. A four-step scale was used to judge the fulfillment of three image quality criteria. No overall statistical significant difference in image quality was found between the three settings (P > 0.05). The decrease in the effective dose for the settings in the patient study was 15 % when filtration was added and 34 % when both filtrations was added and detector dose was reduced. The study indicates that additional filtration of 1 mm Al and 0.2 mm Cu and a decrease in detector dose by 20 % from the original setting can be used in colon examinations with Philips MultiDiagnost Eleva FD to reduce the patient dose by 30 % without significantly affecting the image quality. For 20 exposures, this corresponds to a decrease in the effective dose from 1.6 to 1.1 mSv.

  18. Clinical application of continent anal plug in bedridden patients with intractable diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J; Shim, M C; Choi, B Y; Ahn, S H; Jang, S H; Shin, H J

    2001-08-01

    Some patients bedridden from various causes such as stroke or spinal cord injury experience poor control of bowel movement. This causes fecal leakage and diarrhea, increases the risk of perianal excoriation and bed sores, and is a burden on caregivers. To evaluate the efficacy of fecal evacuation and the prevention and treatment of skin complications in intractable diarrhea patients using a new device. A continent anal plug (US Patent No. 5 569 216) comprises an inner balloon surrounded by an outer balloon, both of which are mounted on a silicone tube containing a pair of air passages and an enema fluid inlet. The tube is secured in place in the rectum by the inflatable outer balloon and is designed to drain fecal matter through a thin collapsible hose situated in the anal canal. Thirty-two patients (21 male; median age 61 (range, 28-76) years) were evaluated after fully informed consent. Median duration was 12 (range, 3-37) days. The continent anal plug evacuated efficiently in those patients with loose or watery stools who only required irrigation once daily or not at all. Skin excoriations improved in three to seven days. Minimal leakage was seen around the anus. There was no anorectal mucosal injury noted over 37 days. The continent anal plug is an efficient method of treating patients with loss of bowel control and incontinence because it enables controlled fecal evacuation and helps reduce skin complications without causing anorectal mucosal injury.

  19. Treatment of varicocele: a prospective randomized comparison of laparoscopy versus antegrade sclerotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sautter, T; Sulser, T; Suter, St; Gretener, H; Hauri, D

    2002-04-01

    To compare the therapeutic success, the morbidity and the costs of antegrade sclerotherapy versus laparoscopic varicocelectomy. Seventy-six consecutive varicocele patients were randomly assigned to two treatment arms. Preoperative and 3 month postoperative sperm density, motility and morphology were analysed. The diagnosis of the varicocele was established clinically and with Doppler ultrasonography. Fifty-eight patients treated by either of the two methods were followed up. The recurrence rate increased progressively with the size of the varicocele in both groups. The postoperative incidence of complications particularly hydrocele formation was significantly higher in the laparoscopic group. The costs of the disposable material for laparoscopic varicocelectomy was twice as high as for sclerotherapy. Antegrade sclerotherapy is the less invasive treatment method of male varicocele with lower costs and better outcome and should therefore be the preferred treatment method for male varicocele.

  20. Epidermal growth factor enemas for induction of remission in left-sided ulcerative colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Nodarse-Cuní

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: ulcerative colitis is a little known chronic inflammatory disease in colonic mucosa. The positive effect of epidermal growth factor was shown in a previous report, with enema use for treatment of mild to moderate left-sided manifestation of the disease. This evidence provided the basis for evaluating the efficacy and safety profile of a viscous solution of this product. Methods: thirty-one patients were randomized to three groups for daily medications during 14 days. Twelve received one 10 mg enema of epidermal growth factor dissolved in 100 mL of viscous solution whereas nine were treated with placebo enema; both groups also received 1.2 g of oral mesalamine per day. The other group included ten patients with 3 g / 100 mL of mesalamine enema. Primary end point was clinical responses after two weeks of treatment, defined as a decreased of, at least three points from baseline, the Disease Activity Index and endoscopic or histological evidences of improvement. Results: remission of disease was observed in all patients in the epidermal growth factor group, and six in both, mesalamine enema and placebo group. All the comparisons between groups showed statistically significant superiority for epidermal growth factor, the only product with significant reduction in disease activity index as well as the presence and intensity of digestive symptoms in patients after treatment. None adverse event was reported. Conclusions: the results agree with previous molecular and clinical evidences, indicating that the epidermal growth factor is effective to reduce disease activity and to induce remission. A new study involving more patients should be conducted to confirm the efficacy of the epidermal growth factor enemas.

  1. Intussusception reduction: Effect of air vs. liquid enema on radiation dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, Summer L.; Edgar, J.C.; Anupindi, Sudha A.; Zhu, Xiaowei [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Magill, Dennise; Felice, Marc A. [University of Pennsylvania, Environmental Health and Radiation Safety, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2017-10-15

    Both air and radiopaque liquid contrast are used to reduce ileocolic intussusception under fluoroscopy. Some suggest air lowers radiation dose due to shorter procedure times. However, air enema likely lowers radiation dose regardless of fluoroscopy time due to less density over the automatic exposure control cells. We test the hypothesis that air enema reduction of ileocolic intussusception results in lower radiation dose than liquid contrast enema independent of fluoroscopy time. We describe a role for automatic exposure control in this dose difference. We retrospectively evaluated air and liquid intussusception reductions performed on a single digital fluoroscopic unit during a 26-month period. We compared patient age, weight, gender, exam time of day and year, performing radiologist(s), radiographic image acquisitions, grid and magnification use, fluoroscopy time and dose area product. We compared categorical and continuous variables statistically using chi-square and Mann-Whitney U tests, respectively. The mean dose area product was 2.7-fold lower for air enema, 1.3 ± 0.9 dGy.cm{sup 2}, than for liquid, 3.5 ± 2.5 dGy.cm{sup 2} (P<0.005). The mean fluoroscopy time was similar between techniques. The mean dose area product/min was 2.3-fold lower for air, 0.6 ± 0.2 dGy.cm{sup 2}/min, than for liquid, 1.4 ± 0.5 dGy.cm{sup 2}/min (P<0.001). No group differences were identified in other measured dose parameters. Fluoroscopic intussusception reduction using air enema uses less than half the radiation dose of liquid contrast enema. Dose savings are independent of fluoroscopy time and are likely due to automatic exposure control interaction. (orig.)

  2. Retrograde or antegrade double-pigtail stent placement for malignant ureteric obstruction?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uthappa, M.C.; Cowan, N.C.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To determine the optimum approach for double-pigtail stent placement in malignant ureteric obstruction. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrograde stent placement was attempted in a consecutive series of patients presenting with malignant ureteric obstruction. If retrograde stent placement was unsuccessful, percutaneous nephrostomy was performed immediately followed by elective antegrade stent placement. Identical digital C-arm fluoroscopy for image-guidance and conditions for anaesthesia and analgesia were employed for both retrograde and antegrade procedures. Identical 8 Fr (20-26 cm) double-pigtail hydrophilic coated stents were used for each approach. RESULTS: Retrograde placement was attempted in 50 ureters in 30 patients {19 male, 11 female, average age 61.4 yr (range 29-90 yr)} over a 24-month period. The success rate for retrograde ureteric stent placement was 50% (n=25/50). Technical failures were due to failure to identify the ureteric orifice (n=22), failure to cross the stricture (n=1), failure to pass the stent (n=1) and failure to pass a 4 Fr catheter (n=1). Antegrade placement was attempted in 25 ureters with a success rate of 96% (n=24/25). Failure in the one case was due to inability to cross an upper third stricture secondary to pyeloureteritis cystica. CONCLUSION: It is suggested that retrograde route should be the initial approach if imaging shows no involvement of ureteric orifice (UO), when nephrostomy is technically very difficult or in cases of solitary kidney. The antegrade route is preferred if imaging shows tumour occlusion of the UO or if there is a tight stricture very close to the uretero-vesical junction (UVJ) making purchase within the ureter difficult for crossing the stricture

  3. Primary antegrade ureteric stenting: Prospective experience and cost-effectiveness analysis in 50 ureters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Gillian M.T.; Patel, Uday

    2001-07-01

    AIM: To evaluate the success rate and cost efficiency of primary antegrade ureteric stenting (antegrade ureteric stent insertion as a single procedure without preliminary drainage). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A policy of primary stenting was tested in 38 patients (50 ureters) with obstructive hydronephrosis, of acute or chronic onset and of benign or malignant origin. Patients with suspected pyonephrosis were excluded. Patients successfully primarily stented (group 1) were compared to a group stented as a traditional two-stage procedure (group 2). End point assessments were screening time, equipment used, procedure-related costs, bed occupancy and technical and clinical success rate. Using these cost and outcome measures, a cost-efficiency analysis was performed comparing the two strategies. RESULTS: 40/50 (80%) ureters were considered primary stent successes. The average procedure-related bed occupancy was 2 days (range 1-2 days). Simple equipment alone was successful in 16 cases. Van Andel dilatation catheters and peel-away sheaths were frequently used (23 ureters). Expensive equipment was rarely necessary (four cases) and average extra equipment cost was small (46 pounds/case). The mean screening time was similar for the two groups (13.5 min vs 15.3 min;P {>=} 0.05). There was a minimum saving of 800 pounds per successful primary stent. The cost-effectiveness of a primary antegrade stenting strategy was 1229 pounds vs 2093 pounds for secondary stenting. CONCLUSION: In carefully selected patients, the majority of obstructed ureters can be primarily stented using simple equipment. The reduced hospital stay and overall success rate significantly improves the cost competitiveness of antegrade ureteric stenting. Watson, G.M.T. and Patel, U. (2001)

  4. Comparison of Ultrasound-Guided and Fluoroscopy-Assisted Antegrade Common Femoral Artery Puncture Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slattery, Michael M.; Goh, Gerard S.; Power, Sarah; Given, Mark F.; McGrath, Frank P.; Lee, Michael J., E-mail: mlee@rcsi.ie [Beaumont Hospital, Department of Radiology (Ireland)

    2015-06-15

    PurposeTo prospectively compare the procedural time and complication rates of ultrasound-guided and fluoroscopy-assisted antegrade common femoral artery (CFA) puncture techniques.Materials and MethodsHundred consecutive patients, undergoing a vascular procedure for which an antegrade approach was deemed necessary/desirable, were randomly assigned to undergo either ultrasound-guided or fluoroscopy-assisted CFA puncture. Time taken from administration of local anaesthetic to vascular sheath insertion in the superficial femoral artery (SFA), patients’ age, body mass index (BMI), fluoroscopy radiation dose, haemostasis method and immediate complications were recorded. Mean and median values were calculated and statistically analysed with unpaired t tests.ResultsSixty-nine male and 31 female patients underwent antegrade puncture (mean age 66.7 years). The mean BMI was 25.7 for the ultrasound-guided (n = 53) and 25.3 for the fluoroscopy-assisted (n = 47) groups. The mean time taken for the ultrasound-guided puncture was 7 min 46 s and for the fluoroscopy-assisted technique was 9 min 41 s (p = 0.021). Mean fluoroscopy dose area product in the fluoroscopy group was 199 cGy cm{sup 2}. Complications included two groin haematomas in the ultrasound-guided group and two retroperitoneal haematomas and one direct SFA puncture in the fluoroscopy-assisted group.ConclusionUltrasound-guided technique is faster and safer for antegrade CFA puncture when compared to the fluoroscopic-assisted technique alone.

  5. Small bowel volvulus in children. Its appearance on the barium enema examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegel, M.J.; Shackelford, G.D.; McAlister, W.H.

    1980-01-01

    Two children with small bowel volvulus diagnosed on barium enema examination are reported. In one patient the volvulus was associated with malrotation and in the other patient there was a post-operative peritoneal adhesion. In both cases the diagnosis was based on beaking of the head of the barium column at the site of volvulus. Radiographic demonstration of a beak sign in the small bowel on barium enema examination should suggest a diagnosis of small bowel volvulus, and indicates the need for immediate surgery.

  6. Endoscopic dilation of complete oesophageal obstructions with a combined antegrade-retrograde rendezvous technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolini, Reto; Meyenberger, Christa; Putora, Paul Martin; Albrecht, Franziska; Broglie, Martina Anja; Stoeckli, Sandro J; Sulz, Michael Christian

    2016-02-21

    To investigate the combined antegrade-retrograde endoscopic rendezvous technique for complete oesophageal obstruction and the swallowing outcome. This single-centre case series includes consecutive patients who were unable to swallow due to complete oesophageal obstruction and underwent combined antegrade-retrograde endoscopic dilation (CARD) within the last 10 years. The patients' demographic characteristics, clinical parameters, endoscopic therapy, adverse events, and outcomes were obtained retrospectively. Technical success was defined as effective restoration of oesophageal patency. Swallowing success was defined as either percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG)-tube independency and/or relevant improvement of oral food intake, as assessed by the functional oral intake scale (FOIS) (≥ level 3). The cohort consisted of six patients [five males; mean age 71 years (range, 54-74)]. All but one patient had undergone radiotherapy for head and neck or oesophageal cancer. Technical success was achieved in five out of six patients. After discharge, repeated dilations were performed in all five patients. During follow-up (median 27 mo, range, 2-115), three patients remained PEG-tube dependent. Three of four patients achieved relevant improvement of swallowing (two patients: FOIS 6, one patient: FOIS 7). One patient developed mediastinal emphysema following CARD, without a need for surgery. The CARD technique is safe and a viable alternative to high-risk blind antegrade dilation in patients with complete proximal oesophageal obstruction. Although only half of the patients remained PEG-tube independent, the majority improved their ability to swallow.

  7. Laparoscopic common bile duct exploration and antegrade biliary stenting: Leaving behind the Kehr tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Martínez-Baena

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: single-stage laparoscopic surgery of cholelithiasis and associated common bile duct stones (CL-CBDS has shown similar results when compared to laparoscopic cholecystectomy combined with ERCP. Classically, choledochorrhaphy has been protected by a T-tube drain to allow external bypass of bile flow. However, its removal is associated with a significant complication rate. Use of antegrade biliary stents avoids T-tube removal associated morbidity. The aim of this study is to compare the results of choledochorrhaphy plus T-tube drainage versus antegrade biliary stenting in our series of laparoscopic common bile duct explorations (LCBDE. Material and methods: between 2004 and 2011, 75 patients underwent a LCBDE. Choledochorrhaphy was performed following Kehr tube placements in 47 cases and transpapillary biliary stenting was conducted in the remaining 28 patients. Results: postoperative hospital stay was shorter in the stent group (5 ± 10.26 days than in the Kehr group (12 ± 10.6 days, with a statistically significant difference. There was a greater trend to grade B complications in the stent group (10.7 vs. 4.3 % and to grade C complications in the Kehr group (6.4 vs. 3.6 %. There were 3 cases of residual common bile duct stones in the Kehr group (6.4 % and none in the stent group. Conclusions: antegrade biliary stenting following laparoscopic common bile duct exploration for CL-CBDS is an effective and safe technique that prevents T-tube related morbidity.

  8. Treatment of humeral shaft fractures using antegrade nailing: functional outcome in the shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino, Juan Martin

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate shoulder outcomes and function after humeral shaft fractures treated with antegrade nailing. Thirty patients with acute humeral shaft fractures who underwent antegrade locked intramedullary nailing were retrospectively studied. Range of motion (ROM) of the affected shoulder was evaluated, comparing it with the nonaffected shoulder, radiologic position of the nails, complications, and need for a second surgery. The study enrolled 20 men and 10 women (average age, 41.9 years). The average follow-up was 35.8 months. The average shoulder elevation averaged 157°, internal rotation was variable (reaching the sacroiliac joint to T7), and external rotation averaged 75°. Elbow flexion-extension ROM averaged 133° (115°-145°). According to the Rodriguez-Merchan criteria, 12 patients achieved excellent results (40%), 7 good (20%), and 6 fair (23.3%); poor results were found in 5 cases (16.6%). Twelve patients achieved full mobility of the shoulder, whereas 18 had some loss of motion, with significant differences between the affected and nonaffected shoulders (P = .001). Decreased shoulder ROM is common after antegrade nailing of humeral shaft fractures. Avoidance of nail impingement can improve final outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The importance of continent tectonic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, C.D.R.

    1992-01-01

    Some aspects of tectonic study in the continents are presented, including the use of methods that measure the isotope radioactive disintegration of some elements presents in rocks and the mineral distribution in African and South American continents. (author)

  10. Prospective comparison of air-contrast barium enema and colonoscopy in patients with fecal occult blood: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockey, Don C; Koch, Johannes; Yee, Judy; McQuaid, Kenneth R; Halvorsen, Robert A

    2004-12-01

    The utility of air-contrast barium enema and colonoscopy for evaluation of the colon has been debated. Air-contrast barium enema is less expensive and invasive than colonoscopy, but it also is less sensitive and specific. Further, although air-contrast barium enema may be less painful than colonoscopy, it often is poorly tolerated by patients. Thus, this study compared the sensitivity and the specificity of air-contrast barium enema and colonoscopy for detection of colonic lesions in patients with fecal occult blood. Over a 30-month period, patients with fecal occult blood were recruited. Patients underwent standard air-contrast barium enema, followed by colonoscopy 7 to 14 days later. Colonoscopists were blinded to the results of air-contrast barium enema until the colonoscopy was completed, after which the results were disclosed. If the findings were discrepant, colonoscopy was repeated. A total of 100 patients were evaluated. Nine air-contrast barium enemas were reported to be inadequate, and the cecum was not intubated at colonoscopy in two patients. In the remaining patients, 5 cancers were identified (1 each cecum, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, and rectum) by both studies. Sixty-six polypoid lesions were identified in 30 patients. Diverticula were identified in 42 patients by air-contrast barium enema and in 18 patients by colonoscopy. Air-contrast barium enema detected 3 of 36 polypoid lesions 5 mm or less in diameter, 5 of 15 adenomas 6 to 9 mm in size, and 4 of 15 adenomas 10 mm or greater in diameter (sensitivity 8%, 33%, and 27%, respectively). After excluding patients with diverticula, air-contrast barium enema detected 3 of 7 adenomas 10 mm or greater in size. Overall, 12 polypoid lesions or filling defects were identified by air-contrast barium enema that could not be verified by colonoscopy. The specificity of air-contrast barium enema for lesions 1.0 cm or greater in size was 100%; for those 6 mm or greater, it was 97%. Air

  11. Assessing colonic anatomy normal values based on air contrast enemas in children younger than 6 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppen, Ilan J. N.; Yacob, Desale; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Saps, Miguel; Benninga, Marc A.; Cooper, Jennifer N.; Minneci, Peter C.; Deans, Katherine J.; Bates, D. Gregory; Thompson, Benjamin P.

    2017-01-01

    Contrast enemas with barium or water-soluble contrast agents are sometimes performed in children with severe intractable constipation to identify anatomical abnormalities. However there are no clear definitions for normal colonic size or abnormalities such as colonic dilation or sigmoid redundancy

  12. Compensation filtration for decubitus radiography during double-contrast barium enema examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feczko, P.J.; Haggar, A.M.; Rauch, P.L.; Halpert, R.D.; Simms, S.M.

    1983-01-01

    Lateral decubitus images obtained during double-contrast barium enema examinations may be difficult to interpret because of the large difference in density between the various parts of the radiographs. Several types of filters are described which can be used to rectify this problem, thus improving the quality of the decubitus radiographs and achieving a slight reduction in radiation exposure

  13. Barium enema and endoscopy for the detection of colorectal neoplasia: Sensitivity, specificity, complications and its determinants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwart, Ingrid M. de; Griffioen, Gerrit; Shaw, M. Pertaap Chandie; Lamers, Cornelis B.H.W.; Roos, Albert de

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To analyse sensitivity, specificity and complication rate of endoscopy, and barium enema for the detection of colorectal neoplasia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A MEDLINE search was performed (1980-2000) directed at the endoscopic and radiologic literature on barium enema. Articles were selected based on the type of study, availability of sensitivity and specificity values in sizeable patient groups, and reports on complications. Sixty articles were included in the analysis. RESULTS: Endoscopy proved to have superior sensitivity for polyps in patients at high-risk for colorectal neoplasia. The role of endoscopy and radiology in average-risk screening populations is not known. Sensitivity and specificity rates ranged widely, probably due to bias. For the detection of small polyps endoscopy has superior performance, whereas sensitivity is similar for endoscopy and barium enema for the detection of larger (>1 cm) polyps and tumours. Overall, endoscopy is associated with a higher complication rate. CONCLUSION: Endoscopy is the preferred detection method in high-risk patients. The role of endoscopy and radiology in a screening setting requires evaluation. This review provides the test characteristics of endoscopy and radiology which are relevant for a cost-effectiveness analysis. Double-contrast barium enema may play an important role for screening purposes, owing to its good sensitivity for detecting larger (>1 cm) polyps and its lack of major complications. Zwart, I.M. de et al. (2001)

  14. Sensitivity of single and double contrast barium enema in the detection of colorectal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myllylae, V.; Paeivansalo, M.; Laitinen, S.; Oulu Univ.

    1984-01-01

    The preoperative barium enema of the 188 colorectal carcinoma patients operated at the Oulu University Central Hospital (Finland) during 1977-1982 were examined retrospectively. Altogether 112 single contrast studies and 87 double contrast studies had been made on these patients. The single contrast barium enemas had resulted in a correct diagnosis of colorectal carcinoma in 93 cases (sensitivity 83%). The correct diagnosis in the double contrast studies numbered 71 (sensitivity 82%). Most of the overlooked carcinomas were located in the caecum, in the sigmoid or the rectum. Most of the errors made in the single contrast studies were due to detection errors and poor evacuation. The most common failures in double contrast enemas were detection errors and nonvisualisation of the sigmoid. The authors recommend use of the double contrast technique and suggest that the two methods of barium enema be used to complement each other. A false negative diagnosis delayed the operation of the colorectal carcinoma patients by 2.2 months (median). (orig.) [de

  15. An assessment of the accuracy of contrast enema for the diagnosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diagnostic accuracy levels were calculated by comparing radiological results with histology results, which is the gold standard. Results: Diagnostic accuracy of contrast enema was 78%, sensitivity was 94.4% and the negative predictive value was 95.7%. Specificity (68.8%) and positive predictive values (63%) were ...

  16. Sucralfate paste enema: a new method of topical treatment for haemorrhagic radiation proctitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElvanna, K; Wilson, A; Irwin, T

    2014-04-01

    Rectal sucralfate has been reported to deliver clinical improvement in haemorrhagic radiation proctitis, but patients with active proctitis find the enema suspension difficult to retain thus reducing compliance and effectiveness. We describe a novel method of rectal administration via a low-volume sucralfate paste and report its results in a series of 23 patients. Patients with rectal bleeding occurring more than 6 months after radiotherapy were shown how to prepare and self-administer sucralfate paste enemas (SPEs) twice daily for 6 weeks. The SPE was prepared using two sucralfate 1-g tablets mixed with 4.5 ml of water in an enema applicator producing a low-volume paste. The clinical response was evaluated by comparison of pre- and posttreatment clinical proctitis scores (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer). Eighteen male (postprostatic radiotherapy) and five female (postcervical radiotherapy) patients with a median age of 67 (32-75) years were included. The median interval between pelvic irradiation and SPE treatment was 24 (7-69) months. Twenty-two patients had full clinical scoring, of whom 16 (73%) demonstrated clinical improvement. Six (27%) had neither clinical improvement nor deterioration. Seven (32%) had resolution of all symptoms. Most patients demonstrated clinical improvement. This initial experience of the sucralfate paste enema may provide the basis for a prospective study of its effectiveness in the treatment of haemorrhagic radiation proctitis. Colorectal Disease © 2013 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  17. Iatrogen perforation of the rectum following barium enema; Iatrogen perforasjon av rectum ved roentgen colon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggum, R.; Kressner, U.; Haffner, J. [Buskerud Central Hospital, Drammen (Norway)

    1998-05-01

    Perforation of the rectum following barium enema is relatively rare, occurring in 1 of 3,000 procedures. Colorectal perforation is a serious condition and early diagnosis is of paramount importance in order to avoid any delay in treating the patient. Direct suture of the perforation, lavage, presacral drainage and stomia are the preferred methods of primary surgical treatment. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Effect of rectal enema on intrafraction prostate movement during image-guided radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Youngmin; Kwak, Dong-Won; Lee, Hyung-Sik; Hur, Won-Joo; Cho, Won-Yeol; Sung, Gyung Tak; Kim, Tae-Hyo; Kim, Soo-Dong; Yun, Seong-Guk

    2015-04-01

    Rectal volume and movement are major factors that influence prostate location. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a rectal enema on intrafraction prostate motion. The data from 12 patients with localised prostate cancer were analysed. Each patient underwent image-guided radiotherapy (RT), receiving a total dose of 70 Gy in 28 fractions. Rectal enemas were administered to all of the patients before each RT fraction. The location of the prostate was determined by implanting three fiducial markers under the guidance of transrectal ultrasound. Each patient underwent preparation for IGRT twice before an RT fraction and in the middle of the fraction. The intrafraction displacement of the prostate was calculated by comparing fiducial marker locations before and in the middle of an RT fraction. The rectal enemas were well tolerated by patients. The mean intrafraction prostate movement in 336 RT fractions was 1.11 ± 0.77 mm (range 0.08-7.20 mm). Intrafraction motions of 1, 2 and 3 mm were observed in 56.0%, 89.0% and 97.6% of all RT fractions, respectively. The intrafraction movements on supero-inferior and anteroposterior axes were larger than on the right-to-left axes (P movement, calculated using the van Herk formula (2.5Σ + 0.7σ), was 1.50 mm. A daily rectal enema before each RT fraction was tolerable and yielded little intrafraction prostate displacement. We think the use of rectal enemas is a feasible method to reduce prostate movement during RT. © 2014 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  19. Granulomatous colitis: findings on double contrast barium enema and follow-up studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jong Gi; Han, Joon Koo; Kim, Seung Hoon; Choo, Sung Wook; Kim, Seung Cheol; Choi, Byung Ihn

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the radiologic findings of granulomatous colitis on double contrast barium enema and changes on follow-up studies. Serial double contrast barium enema of six patients with granulomatous colitis confirmed by endoscopic biopsy were reviewed. We analyzed the radiologic findings and their follow-up changes, including aphthous ulcers, lymphoid hyperplasia, deep ulcers, cobble stone appearance, geographic ulcers, asymmetric involvement of ulcers, skip lesions, sinus tract, fistula formation, pseudosacculation, focal stricture, and small bowel involvement. Pretreatment double contrast barium enema findings were aphthous ulcers in five patients, deep ulcer in six, cobble stone appearance in five, longitudinal geographic ulcers in two, fistulas in one, pseudosacculations in two, focal stricture in one, and pseudopolyps in six. Also, anal ulcers were observed in two patients, asymmetric involvement of ulcers in three, skip lesions in four, and small bowel involvement in five in five patients proved to have inactive disease after treatment, aphthous ulcers and deep ulcers disappeared. Geographic ulcers of two patients and anal ulcer of one patients decreased in size or depth. Pseudosacculation in one patient disappeared. Pseudopolyps decreased in two patients, increased in one, and decreased after increase in two. One patient whose disease remained active after treatment showed maintenance or increase of ulcers or fistula. And their pseudosacculation or focal stricture unchanged and pseudopolyps decreased. The major radiologic findings of chronic granulomatous colitis on double contrast barium enema are aphthous ulcer, deep ulcer, cobble stone appearance, discontinuity of the lesion and coexistence of ulcers and pseudopolyps. And, double contrast barium enema is good follow-up modality because its findings correlate with clinical course of the granulomatous colitis after treatment

  20. Glycerin enemas and suppositories in premature infants: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Michael H; Shawyer, Anna C; Rosenbaum, Peter L; Williams, Connie; Jones, Sarah A; Walton, J Mark

    2015-06-01

    Premature infants are often given glycerin enemas or suppositories to facilitate meconium evacuation and transition to enteral feeding. The purpose of this study was to assess the available evidence for this treatment strategy. We conducted a systematic search of Medline, Embase, Central, and trial registries for randomized controlled trials of premature infants treated with glycerin enemas or suppositories. Data were extracted in duplicate and meta-analyzed using a random effects model. We identified 185 premature infants treated prophylactically with glycerin enemas in one trial (n = 81) and suppositories in two other trials (n = 104). All infants were less than 32 weeks gestation and had no congenital malformations. Treatment was associated with earlier initiation of stooling in one trial (2 vs 4 days, P = .02) and a trend towards earlier meconium evacuation in another (6.5 vs 9 days, P = .11). Meta-analysis demonstrated no effect on transition to enteral feeding (0.7 days faster, P = .43) or mortality (P = 0.50). There were no reports of rectal bleeding or perforation but there was a trend towards increased risk of necrotizing enterocolitis with glycerin enemas or suppositories (risk ratio = 2.72, P = .13). These three trials are underpowered and affected by one or more major methodological issues. As a result, the quality of evidence is low to very low. Three other trials are underway. The evidence for the use glycerin enemas or suppositories in premature infants in inconclusive. Meta-analyzed data suggest that treatment may be associated with increased risk of necrotizing enterocolitis. Careful monitoring of ongoing trials is required. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  1. Effect of rectal enema on intrafraction prostate movement during image-guided radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Youngmin; Kwak, Dong-Won; Lee, Hyung-Sik; Hur, Won-Jooh; Cho, Won-Yeol; Sung, Gyung Tak; Kim, Tae-Hyo; Kim, Soo-Dong; Yun, Seong-Guk

    2015-01-01

    Rectal volume and movement are major factors that influence prostate location. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a rectal enema on intrafraction prostate motion. The data from 12 patients with localised prostate cancer were analysed. Each patient underwent image-guided radiotherapy (RT), receiving a total dose of 70 Gy in 28 fractions. Rectal enemas were administered to all of the patients before each RT fraction. The location of the prostate was determined by implanting three fiducial markers under the guidance of transrectal ultrasound. Each patient underwent preparation for IGRT twice before an RT fraction and in the middle of the fraction. The intrafraction displacement of the prostate was calculated by comparing fiducial marker locations before and in the middle of an RT fraction. The rectal enemas were well tolerated by patients. The mean intrafraction prostate movement in 336 RT fractions was 1.11 ± 0.77 mm (range 0.08–7.20 mm). Intrafraction motions of 1, 2 and 3 mm were observed in 56.0%, 89.0% and 97.6% of all RT fractions, respectively. The intrafraction movements on supero-inferior and anteroposterior axes were larger than on the right-to-left axes (P < 0.05). The CTV-to-PTV margin necessary to allow for movement, calculated using the van Herk formula (2.5Σ + 0.7σ), was 1.50 mm. A daily rectal enema before each RT fraction was tolerable and yielded little intrafraction prostate displacement. We think the use of rectal enemas is a feasible method to reduce prostate movement during RT.

  2. A prospective randomized single blind trial of Fleet phosphate enema versus glycerin suppositories as preparation for flexible sigmoidoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, D; Makar, R R; Gidwani, A L; Najfi, S M; Neilly, P; Gilliland, R

    2010-03-01

    This study compared the efficacy and patient acceptability of two methods of bowel preparation for flexible sigmoidoscopy. Patients attending for outpatient flexible sigmoidoscopy were prospectively randomized to receive one Fleet ready-to-use enema or 2 x 4 g glycerin suppositories, 2 h preprocedure. Patient and endoscopist questionnaires were used to compare the outcomes. From November 2000 to August 2001, 203 (male = 95; female = 108) patients were randomized. Patient data available for 163 patients (enema = 93; suppository = 70) revealed: ease of use (enema = 52; suppository = 25; P suppositories.

  3. Does antegrade JJ stenting affect the total operative time during laparoscopic pyeloplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolat, Mustafa Suat; Çınar, Önder; Akdeniz, Ekrem

    2017-12-01

    We aimed to show the effect of retrograde JJ stenting and intraoperative antegrade JJ stenting techniques on operative time in patients who underwent laparoscopic pyeloplasty. A total of 34 patients were retrospectively investigated (15 male and 19 female) with ureteropelvic junction obstruction. Of the patients stentized under local anesthesia preoperatively, as a part of surgery, 15 were retrogradely stentized at the beginning of the procedure (Group 1), and 19 were antegradely stentized during the procedure (Group 2). A transperitoneal dismembered pyeloplasty technique was performed in all patients. The two groups were retrospectively compared in terms of complications, the mean total operative time, and the mean stenting times. The mean ages of the patients were 31.5±15.5 and 33.2±15.5 years (p=0.09), and the mean body mass indexes were 25.8±5.6 and 26.2.3±8.4 kg/m 2 in Group 1 and Group 2, respectively. The mean total operative times were 128.9±38.9 min and 112.7±21.9 min (p=0.04); the mean stenting times were 12.6±5.4 min and 3.5±2.4 min (p=0.02); and the mean rates of catheterization-to-total surgery times were 0.1 and 0.03 (p=0.01) in Group 1 and 2, respectively. The mean hospital stays and the mean anastomosis times were similar between the two groups (p>0.05). Antegrade JJ stenting during laparoscopic pyeloplasty significantly decreased the total operative time.

  4. Antegrade bowel intussusception after remote Whipple and Puestow procedures for treatment of pancreas divisum

    OpenAIRE

    Gigena, Manuel; Villar, Hugo V; Knowles, Negar G; Cunningham, John T; Outwater, Erik K; Leon Jr, Luis R

    2007-01-01

    To date, antegrade intussusception involving a Roux-en-Y reconstruction has been reported only once. We report a case of acute bowel obstruction due to an intussusception involving two Roux-en-Y limbs in a 40-year-old woman with a history of chronic pancreatitis due to pancreas divisum. Four years preceding this event, the patient had undergone a Whipple procedure, and three years prior to that, a Puestow operation. The patient was successfully treated with bowel resection and a side-to-side ...

  5. Antegrade bowel intussusception after remote Whipple and Puestow procedures for treatment of pancreas divisum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigena, Manuel; Villar, Hugo V; Knowles, Negar G; Cunningham, John T; Outwater, Erik K; Leon, Luis R

    2007-11-28

    To date, antegrade intussusception involving a Roux-en-Y reconstruction has been reported only once. We report a case of acute bowel obstruction due to an intussusception involving two Roux-en-Y limbs in a 40-year-old woman with a history of chronic pancreatitis due to pancreas divisum. Four years preceding this event, the patient had undergone a Whipple procedure, and three years prior to that, a Puestow operation. The patient was successfully treated with bowel resection and a side-to-side anastomosis between the most distal aspect of the bowel and the most distal Roux-en-Y reconstruction, which preserved both Roux-en-Y reconstructions.

  6. [Continent colostomy and colon irrigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostov, D; Temelkov, T; Kiriazov, E; Ivanov, K; Ignatov, V; Kobakov, G

    2000-01-01

    The authors have studied a functional activity of a continent colostomy at 20 patients, undergone an abdomeno-perineal extirpation of rectum and carried out periodic colonirrigations, during a period of 6 months. A conus type, closed irrigating system has been used. The degree of an incontinency at patients has been compared before and after the beginning of the colonirrigations. The irrigating procedures have reduced spontaneous defications at patients during a week 28 times and have improved the quality of life significantly. The application of colostomy bags has been restricted in 8 (40%) patients. An intraluminal ultrasonographic investigation has been done at 12 (60%) patients at the end of 6 month irrigating period. No changes of the ultrasonographic image of the precolostomic segment of colon has been observed.

  7. Revaluation on detection of metastatic cancer of the colorectum with barium enema. Comparison with computed tomography and colonoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watari, Jiro; Mizukami, Yusuke; Tanabe, Hirotaka

    1996-01-01

    The findings with barium enema were analyzed and compared to those with computed tomography and colonoscopy in 15 patients with metastatic cancer of the colorectum, which were from 8 gastric, 2 colonic, 2 ovarian, 1 pancreatic, 1 prostatic carcinomas and 1 unknown origin. Primary cancers of intra-abdominal cavity origin tended to make multiple colorectal metastases (91.7%). With barium enema colonic and rectal involvement was mostly expressed as the tethered type and the diffuse type by Ishikawa's classification, respectively. Computed tomography detected direct tumor invasion to the colorectum in 4 cases. Of the other 11 cases, 8 patients (72.3%) showed abnormally thickened colorectal wall. Colonoscopy detected only 3 (37.5%) out of 8 lesions seen in 4 patients who had undergone colonoscopy before barium enema. Many of the lesions missed were the tethered type involvement. Barium enema is the most sensitive method to detect metastatic cancer of the colorectum. (author)

  8. A randomized trial of enema versus polyethylene glycol 3350 for fecal disimpaction in children presenting to an emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Melissa K; Dowd, Mary Denise; Friesen, Craig A; Walsh-Kelly, Christine M

    2012-02-01

    This study aimed to compare efficacy of enema versus polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350 for pediatric fecal impaction treatment. We conducted a prospective, randomized comparison of treatments of fecal impaction in children in a pediatric emergency department (ED). Treatment arms were a single milk and molasses enema in the ED or PEG 3350 for 3 days outpatient. Telephone follow-up was done on days 1, 3, and 5. The primary outcome was main symptom improvement. Additional outcomes were stool frequency, consistency, and ease of stool passage. Treatment failures (home enema, ED return, or hospital admission) were tracked. Seventy-nine subjects participated (39 PEG; 40 enema). At day 1, PEG subjects were less likely to have improved main symptom (odds ratio [OR], 0.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.1-0.8) but no difference in other outcomes. Half (54%) in enema arm were reported as upset by ED therapy, whereas no children in PEG arm were upset (P PEG arm (83%; P = 0.08). This pilot study suggests that disimpaction by enema may be superior to PEG for immediate relief of symptoms. Larger trials are needed to assess any advantage.

  9. Intra-individual comparison of patient acceptability of multidetector-row CT colonography and double-contrast barium enema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, S.A. [Department of Intestinal Imaging, St Mark' s and Northwick Park Hospitals, London (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: csytaylor@yahoo.co.uk; Halligan, S. [Department of Intestinal Imaging, St Mark' s and Northwick Park Hospitals, London (United Kingdom); Burling, D. [Department of Intestinal Imaging, St Mark' s and Northwick Park Hospitals, London (United Kingdom); Bassett, P. [Department of Intestinal Imaging, St Mark' s and Northwick Park Hospitals, London (United Kingdom); Bartram, C.I. [Department of Intestinal Imaging, St Mark' s and Northwick Park Hospitals, London (United Kingdom)

    2005-02-01

    AIMS: To compare the subjective acceptability of CT colonography in comparison with barium enema in older symptomatic patients, and to ascertain preferences for future colonic investigation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study population comprised 78 persons aged 60 years or over with symptoms suggestive of colorectal neoplasia, who underwent CT colonography followed the same day by barium enema. A 25-point questionnaire was administered after each procedure and an additional follow-up questionnaire a week later. Responses were compared using Wilcoxon matched pairs testing, Mann-Whitney test statistics and binomial exact testing. RESULTS: Participants suffered less physical discomfort during CT colonography (p=0.03) and overall satisfaction was greater compared with barium enema (p=0.03). On follow-up, respondents reported significantly better tolerance of CT colonography (p=0.002), and were less prepared to undergo barium enema again (p<0.001). Of 52 subjects expressing an opinion, all preferred CT to barium enema. CONCLUSION: Patient satisfaction was higher with CT colonography than barium enema. CT colonography caused significantly less physical discomfort and was overwhelmingly preferred by patients.

  10. Intra-individual comparison of patient acceptability of multidetector-row CT colonography and double-contrast barium enema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, S.A.; Halligan, S.; Burling, D.; Bassett, P.; Bartram, C.I.

    2005-01-01

    AIMS: To compare the subjective acceptability of CT colonography in comparison with barium enema in older symptomatic patients, and to ascertain preferences for future colonic investigation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study population comprised 78 persons aged 60 years or over with symptoms suggestive of colorectal neoplasia, who underwent CT colonography followed the same day by barium enema. A 25-point questionnaire was administered after each procedure and an additional follow-up questionnaire a week later. Responses were compared using Wilcoxon matched pairs testing, Mann-Whitney test statistics and binomial exact testing. RESULTS: Participants suffered less physical discomfort during CT colonography (p=0.03) and overall satisfaction was greater compared with barium enema (p=0.03). On follow-up, respondents reported significantly better tolerance of CT colonography (p=0.002), and were less prepared to undergo barium enema again (p<0.001). Of 52 subjects expressing an opinion, all preferred CT to barium enema. CONCLUSION: Patient satisfaction was higher with CT colonography than barium enema. CT colonography caused significantly less physical discomfort and was overwhelmingly preferred by patients

  11. Failure of 5-aminosalicylic acid enemas to improve chronic radiation proctitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, C.A.; Biddle, W.L.; Miner, P.B. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation proctitis is a well-known complication of abdominal and pelvic radiation. Conventional medical and surgical treatment often is disappointing. 5-Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) is the active component in sulfasalazine and is effective in the treatment of distal ulcerative colitis. Four patients with radiation proctitis were treated with 4 g 5-ASA by enema nightly for two to six months. Patients were seen monthly, interviewed, and a sigmoidoscopic exam performed. No change was seen in the degree of mucosal inflammation on follow-up sigmoidoscopic exams. Three patients noted no change in their symptoms of bleeding, pain, or tenesmus. One patient noted initial improvement, but this was not sustained. 5-ASA enemas do not appear to be effective in the treatment of radiation proctitis

  12. Detection of colonic polyps in the elderly: Optimization of the single-contrast barium enema examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelfand, D.W.; Chen, Y.M.; Ott, D.J.; Munitz, H.A.

    1986-01-01

    Single-contrast studies account for 75% of barium enema examinations and are often performed in the elderly. By optimizing all factors, the following results were obtained: for polyps of less than 1 cm, 40 of 57 were detected (sensitivity, 70.2%); for polyps of 1 cm or larger, 33 of 35 were detected (sensitivity, 94%). Overall, 73 of 92 polyps were detected (sensitivity, 79.3%). These sensitivities result from meticulous preparation and the use of compression filming, low-density barium, moderate kilovoltages, high-resolution screens, remote control apparatus, and high-bandpass TV fluoroscopy. The authors conclude that an optimal single-contrast barium enema examination detects colonic polyps with a sensitivity approaching that of the double-contrast study and may be employed in elderly patients who cannot undergo the double-contrast study

  13. Contrast enema depiction of small-bowel volvulus in complicated neonatal bowel obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, Oscar M.; Daneman, Alan; Miller, Stephen F. [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2004-12-01

    About one-half of patients with meconium ileus (MI) present with a complication such as volvulus, atresia, meconium peritonitis or giant cystic meconium peritonitis. The treatment of these complications requires surgery. However, the preoperative diagnosis of complicated MI is difficult. We describe two neonates with complicated small-bowel obstruction, one with MI related to cystic fibrosis and the other not related to cystic fibrosis. In both, contrast enema depicted a spiral appearance of the distal small bowel, which at surgery proved to be the result of volvulus associated with antenatal bowel perforation. This appearance of the small bowel on contrast enema in this clinical setting has not been previously described. The recognition of this spiral appearance of the distal small bowel suggests the need for surgery. (orig.)

  14. Contrast enema depiction of small-bowel volvulus in complicated neonatal bowel obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, Oscar M.; Daneman, Alan; Miller, Stephen F.

    2004-01-01

    About one-half of patients with meconium ileus (MI) present with a complication such as volvulus, atresia, meconium peritonitis or giant cystic meconium peritonitis. The treatment of these complications requires surgery. However, the preoperative diagnosis of complicated MI is difficult. We describe two neonates with complicated small-bowel obstruction, one with MI related to cystic fibrosis and the other not related to cystic fibrosis. In both, contrast enema depicted a spiral appearance of the distal small bowel, which at surgery proved to be the result of volvulus associated with antenatal bowel perforation. This appearance of the small bowel on contrast enema in this clinical setting has not been previously described. The recognition of this spiral appearance of the distal small bowel suggests the need for surgery. (orig.)

  15. Tips and tricks for antegrade recanalization of chronic total occlusions using the CrossBoss catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Tak W; Diwan, Ravi; Ratcliffe, Justin A; Huang, Yili; Patri, Rahul; James, David; Liou, Michael; Fallahi, Arzhang; Young, Bruce; Nanjundappa, Aravinda; Daggubati, Ramesh

    2015-02-01

    To provide new strategies and techniques for the successful recanalization of chronic total occlusions (CTOs) with the sole use of the CrossBoss catheter. In addition, some common CTO scenarios are illustrated in detail. CTOs are one of the most challenging complex coronary lesion subsets to intervene upon. Even with the innovation of specialized catheters, the success rate of antegrade recanalization remains low. Between June and December 2013, a retrospective analysis of 50 consecutive patients who presented with a planned percutaneous intervention (PCI) of a CTO was performed. In all patients, the CrossBoss catheter was used. No additional reentry devices were necessary. Procedural success was defined as failure. The average fluoroscopy time was 45.9 minutes and the average amount of contrast use was 273.8 mL. No patient suffered a coronary perforation from the CrossBoss catheter. With increased experience using the CrossBoss catheter, the antegrade success rate of CTOs can be improved. Some tips include identifying the likely course of the artery with the aid of retrograde injection, proper guidewire selection and manipulation, and redirecting the CrossBoss catheter if there is substantial deviation from the original path.

  16. Randomized clinical trial on the use of antispasmodic drugs in barium enema: impact on radiological practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goei, Reginald; Kessels, Alphons H.; Nix, Maarten; Knipschild, Paul G.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the willingness of radiologists to change their practice when the results of a randomized clinical trial (RCT) on the use of antispasmodic drugs in barium enema are presented. Materials and Methods: During the years 1994 and 1995 two postal questionnaires were sent to 481 practicing radiologists who were all members of the Netherlands Society of Radiology. In the first questionnaire the respondents were asked to give the characteristics of their practices in performing daily barium enema. The data from this questionnaire was used as a reference. The second questionnaire was sent to the respondents together with an abstract on the randomized clinical trial supporting the use of antispasmodic drugs in barium enema. We also indicated a preference for Buscopan over Glucagon as the antispasmodic drug. The willingness to change prescription habits was measured by comparing the data of the two questionnaires. Results: Of 481 practicing radiologists, 312 responded to the first questionnaire and gave information of their prescription habits (response rate 64%). These 312 responders were sent an abstract of the RCT and were asked to fill out a second questionnaire to determine their willingness to change their practice. Two hundred and sixty-seven radiologists responded (response rate 86%). A significant number of 119 (51%) were willing to increase the use of antispasmodic drugs. A significant number of 128 (55%) chose to increase the use of Buscopan, while a significant number of 81 (32%) were willing to decrease the use of Glucagon. Conclusion: Direct exposure to the results of an RCT recommending the use of antispasmodic drugs in barium enema, especially Buscopan, is likely to increase its use by practicing radiologists

  17. Radiographer and radiologist perception error in reporting double contrast barium enemas: A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, Alison M.; Mannion, Richard A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The practice of radiographers performing double contrast barium enemas (DCBE) is now widespread and in many centres the radiographer's opinion is, at least, contributing to a dual reporting system [Bewell J, Chapman AH. Radiographer performed barium enemas - results of a survey to assess progress. Radiography 1996;2:199-205; Leslie A, Virjee JP. Detection of colorectal carcinoma on double contrast barium enema when double reporting is routinely performed: an audit of current practice. Clin Radiol 2001;57:184-7; Culpan DG, Mitchell AJ, Hughes S, Nutman M, Chapman AH. Double contrast barium enema sensitivity: a comparison of studies by radiographers and radiologists. Clin Radiol 2002;57:604-7]. To ensure this change in practice does not lead to an increase in reporting errors, this study aimed to compare the perception abilities of radiographers with those of radiologists. Methods: Three gastro-intestinal (GI) radiographers and three consultant radiologists independently reported on a selection of 50 DCBE examinations, including the level of certainty in their comments for each examination. A blinded comparison of the results with an independent 'standard report' was recorded. Results: The results demonstrate there was no significant difference in perception error for any of the levels of certainty, for single reporting, for double reading by a radiographer/radiologist or by two radiologists. Conclusions: The study shows that radiographers can perceive abnormalities on DCBE at similar sensitivities and specificities as radiologists. While the participants in the study may be typical of a district general hospital, the nature of the study gives it limited external validity. As a pilot, the results demonstrate that, with slight modification, the methodology could be used for a larger study

  18. Barium enema and CT volumetry for predicting pathologic response to preoperative chemoradiotherapy in rectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murono, Koji; Kawai, Kazushige; Tsuno, Nelson H; Ishihara, Soichiro; Yamaguchi, Hironori; Sunami, Eiji; Kitayama, Joji; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2014-06-01

    Preoperative chemoradiotherapy has been widely used for the prevention of local recurrence of locally advanced rectal cancer, and the effect of chemoradiotherapy is known to be associated with overall survival. We aimed to evaluate the association of the pathologic response grade with tumor recurrence rate after chemoradiotherapy, using radiographic analysis and the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors as the parameters. This study was conducted at a single tertiary care institution in Japan. This was a retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing preoperative chemoradiotherapy. A total of 101 low rectal cancer patients receiving preoperative chemoradiotherapy from July 2004 to August 2012 were enrolled. The tumor reduction rate was measured with the use of traditional Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, barium enema, and CT volumetry, and the correlation between the reduction rate and the pathologic response grade was examined. The tumor reduction rate assessed according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors showed no association with the pathologic response grade (p =0.61). In contrast, the radiographic response rate by both barium enema and CT volumetry strongly correlated with the pathologic response grade (p volumetry had a lower recurrence rate (p =0.03, p =0.03, p =0.0002, and p =0.001). The difference between high responders and low responders was especially prominent by barium enema and CT volumetry. The study is limited by its retrospective nature. Double-contrast barium enema and CT volumetry were superior to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors in evaluating the effect of chemoradiotherapy and predicting the likelihood of tumor recurrence.

  19. Contrast enema findings in patients presenting with poor functional outcome after primary repair for Hirschsprung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Kevin M; Levitt, Marc A; Peña, Alberto; Kraus, Steven J

    2012-09-01

    The radiologic evaluation of Hirschsprung disease is well described in the literature. However, there is a paucity of literature describing the appearance of the neo-rectum and colon after repair, specifically describing findings in patients with poor functional outcome, which would suggest the need for reoperation. We describe findings on contrast enema and correlate them with surgical findings at reoperation in children with poor functional outcome after primary repair for Hirschsprung disease who suffer from bowel dysfunction that can manifest with either soiling or obstructive symptoms such as enterocolitis. Children were identified from our colorectal surgery database. At the time of abstract submission, 35 children had contrast enemas prior to reoperation. Additional children continue to present for evaluation. The majority of children included in the study had their primary repair performed elsewhere. The initial procedures included: Duhamel (n = 11), Soave (n = 20) or Swenson (n = 3). One child had undergone a primary Soave repair and subsequently had a Swenson-type reoperation but continued to have a poor outcome. One child's initial surgical repair could not be determined. Images were reviewed by a staff pediatric radiologist and a pediatric radiology fellow. Findings encountered on contrast enema in these children include a distal narrowed segment due to stricture or aganglionic/transitional zone segment (8), dilated/hypomotile distal segment (7), thickened presacral space due to compressing Soave cuff (11), dilated Duhamel pouch (8), active enterocolitis (3) and partially obstructing twist of the pull-through segment (1). Multiple anatomical and pathological complications exist that can lead to bowel dysfunction in children after repair of Hirschsprung disease. Little recent literature exists regarding the radiographic findings in children. We had the opportunity to review a substantial series of these children, describe the contrast enema

  20. Water enema CT examination of rectum cancer by reduced amount of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palko, A.; Gyulai, Cs.; Fedinecz, N.; Balogh, A.; Nagy, F.

    2000-01-01

    To define whether volume of water, administered during water enema CT (WE-CT) for local staging of rectal cancer, may be reduced without compromising the diagnostic value of the examination. Materials and Methods: 29 patients with rectum cancer underwent preoperative WE-CT. Contrast-enhanced CT (equilibrium phase) measurements were performed after i.v. injection of smooth muscle relaxant and rectal administration of 400 - 500 ml lukewarm tap water. Quality of the obtained scans was evaluated and the images were analyzed for depth of tumor invasion. Results of the CT examinations were compared to findings at surgery. Results: Despite reduced dose of water enema, 19/29 examinations were of excellent quality, 6/29 good, and 4/29 poor, but still diagnostic. We achieved sensitivity (90.1), specificity (70.1) and accuracy (86.2) in differentiating tumors confined to the bowel wall from those extending beyond it. Conclusion: Large volume of water enema administered during CT examination of the rectum may cause complaints and increases the risk of complications. Our results prove that using lower amount of water does not impair the quality of examination and accuracy of local staging of rectum carcinomas. (orig.) [de

  1. Efficacy and Safety of Gwakhyangjeonggi-San Retention Enema in Normal Rats and Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunyoung Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to establish a protocol of retention-enema experiments and evaluate the antihypertensive effect and the safety of Gwakhyangjeonggi-san retention enema. Normal and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs were divided into treatment and control groups, respectively. We applied the Gwakhyangjeonggi-san extract by decoction and 0.9% NaCl in each group, estimated the blood pressure and body weight, and performed HPLC analysis. ALT, AST, BUN, and creatinine were examined. The systolic blood pressure within each group in normal rats differed significantly in time effect, and so did the diastolic blood pressure in the treatment group of normal rats. The systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure showed significant differences in group effect in the treatment group of the SHRs. The time effect of the body weight in both groups of normal rats differed significantly, so did group × time and time effects in both groups of SHRs. AST, ALT, BUN, and creatinine showed no significant difference between groups. We concluded that the Gwakhyangjeonggi-san retention enema has a hypotensive effect in normal rats within the regular range of blood pressure, but an antihypertensive effect in SHRs. Also, the intervention is safe and does not affect the liver and kidney functions in normal rats.

  2. Routine filtration for decubitus radiography during double contrast barium enema examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camellini, V.; Abelli, P.; Marconi, G.

    1987-01-01

    A wedge-shaped plexiglass compensation filter for use in lateral decubitus radiographs of double contrast barium enema examinations has been designed. This filter, which has been used since February 1985, was compared with a second plexiglass filter, made by E-Z-EM. Voltage and amperage were kept contrast. Two different experiments were conducted in order to demonstrate the benefits of routine use of this compensation filter. First, the changes in skin dose were assessed using an ionization chamber on phantom. Secondly, three radiologists examined a series of 80 consecutive barium enemas without knowing which had been performed using the new filter. Out of the 70 examinations they considered excellent, as many as 45 had been performed with the new filter. Personal experience and the studies described show that the use of a compensation filter improves the accuracy and thus the diagnostic quality of the examinations as it enhances the detail of the anatomic structure of the colon; moreover the filter reduces skin exposure by up to 73.1% (EZ-E-EM filter 47.3%) and, at the same time, less radiographic films are needed. Routine use of a plexiglass compensation filter in lateral decubitus radiographs while performing a double contrast barium enema examination, is strongly recommended especially in obese patients

  3. Functional Outcome After Antegrade Femoral Nailing : A Comparison of Trochanteric Fossa Versus Tip of Greater Trochanter Entry Point

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moein, Chloe Ansari; ten Duis, Henk-Jan; Oey, Liam; de Kort, Gerard; van der Meulen, Wout; Vermeulen, Karin; van der Werken, Christiaan

    Objectives: This study was performed to explore the relationship between entry point-related soft tissue damage in antegrade femoral nailing and the functional outcome in patients with a proximal third femoral shaft fracture. Design: Retrospective clinical trial. Setting: Level I university trauma

  4. Retrograde endovenous laser ablation through saphenopopliteal junctional area for incompetent small saphenous vein; Comparison with antegrade approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Seok; Park, Sang Woo; Yun, Ik Jin; Hwang, Jae Joon; Lee, Song Am; Chee, Hyun Keun; Hwang, Jin Ho [Konkuk University Hospital, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of retrograde endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) and to compare it with the conventional antegrade EVLA for incompetent small saphenous vein (SSV). Small saphenous vein was cannulated via two approaches under ultrasound-guidance. One method involved puncturing the SSV cranially at mid-calf (the antegrade group). If the antegrade puncture into the SSV failed twice, the other approach for puncture was selected that involved puncturing the SSV toward the ankle (the retrograde group). Patients were evaluated in terms of technical and clinical success, closure rates of the SSV, and complications including pain, bruising, or paresthesia at all follow-up visits. The 1470 nm endovenous laser was used in all limbs. Technical success was seen in all limbs in both groups (100%). Closure rate in both groups showed about 95%, without significant difference (p = 0.685). Similar linear endovenous energy density was supplied during the EVLA in both groups (p = 0.876). Three frequent complications including bruising, pain, and paresthesia did not show statistical significance between groups (p = 0.465, 0.823, 1.000, respectively). Major complications were absent in both groups. The EVLA for the incompetent SSV using a retrograde approach is safe and effective and should be considered the alternative method if the antegrade access fails due to vasospasm or small SSV diameter.

  5. Retrograde endovenous laser ablation through saphenopopliteal junctional area for incompetent small saphenous vein; Comparison with antegrade approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jun Seok; Park, Sang Woo; Yun, Ik Jin; Hwang, Jae Joon; Lee, Song Am; Chee, Hyun Keun; Hwang, Jin Ho

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of retrograde endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) and to compare it with the conventional antegrade EVLA for incompetent small saphenous vein (SSV). Small saphenous vein was cannulated via two approaches under ultrasound-guidance. One method involved puncturing the SSV cranially at mid-calf (the antegrade group). If the antegrade puncture into the SSV failed twice, the other approach for puncture was selected that involved puncturing the SSV toward the ankle (the retrograde group). Patients were evaluated in terms of technical and clinical success, closure rates of the SSV, and complications including pain, bruising, or paresthesia at all follow-up visits. The 1470 nm endovenous laser was used in all limbs. Technical success was seen in all limbs in both groups (100%). Closure rate in both groups showed about 95%, without significant difference (p = 0.685). Similar linear endovenous energy density was supplied during the EVLA in both groups (p = 0.876). Three frequent complications including bruising, pain, and paresthesia did not show statistical significance between groups (p = 0.465, 0.823, 1.000, respectively). Major complications were absent in both groups. The EVLA for the incompetent SSV using a retrograde approach is safe and effective and should be considered the alternative method if the antegrade access fails due to vasospasm or small SSV diameter

  6. Renal excretion of water-soluble contrast media after enema in the neonatal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Sun; Je, Bo-Kyung; Cha, Sang Hoon; Choi, Byung Min; Lee, Ki Yeol; Lee, Seung Hwa

    2014-08-01

    When abdominal distention occurs or bowel obstruction is suspected in the neonatal period, a water-soluble contrast enema is helpful for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The water-soluble contrast medium is evacuated through the anus as well as excreted via the kidneys in some babies. This study was designed to evaluate the incidence of renal excretion after enemas using water-soluble contrast media and presume the causes. Contrast enemas using diluted water-soluble contrast media were performed in 23 patients under 2 months of age. After the enema, patients were followed with simple abdominal radiographs to assess the improvement in bowel distention, and we could also detect the presence of renal excretion of contrast media on the radiographs. Reviewing the medical records and imaging studies, including enemas and consecutive abdominal radiographs, we evaluated the incidence of renal excretion of water-soluble contrast media and counted the stay duration of contrast media in urinary tract, bladder, and colon. Among 23 patients, 12 patients (52%) experienced the renal excretion of water-soluble contrast media. In these patients, stay-in-bladder durations of contrast media were 1-3 days and stay-in-colon durations of contrast media were 1-10 days, while stay-in-colon durations of contrast media were 1-3 days in the patients not showing renal excretion of contrast media. The Mann-Whitney test for stay-in-colon durations demonstrated the later evacuation of contrast media in the patients with renal excretion of contrast media (p = 0.07). The review of the medical records showed that 19 patients were finally diagnosed as intestinal diseases, including Hirschsprung's disease, meconium ileum, meconium plug syndrome, and small bowel atresia or stenosis. Fisher's exact test between the presence of urinary excretion and intestinal diseases indicated a statistically significant difference (p = 0.04). The intestinal diseases causing bowel obstruction may increase the

  7. A Brief Review of Therapeutic and Diagnostic Applications of Enema in Iranian Traditional Medicine and Other Complementary Medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamideh khorrampazouh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Enema or ‘hoqne’ is a therapeutic approach used for a wide range of diseases in the Iranian traditional medicine. The use of this method dates back to thousands of years to Hippocrates and Galen. The aim of this study was to review the history of enema and its methods and indices in the Iranian medicine and other complementary medicine.Methods: This review study was conducted on the Iranian medicine textbooks and articles published in the international databases, including Google Scholar, PubMed, Embase, and Scopus, as well as the Iranian databases, such as SID and Magiran. The searching process was performed using the following keywords: ‘Hoqne’, ‘Enema’, ‘Vasta’, ‘Basta’, and ‘Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM’. There was no limitation regarding the publication data of the included studies.Result: In the Iranian medicine, the term “hoqne” is equivalent to enema. Enema is used in various diseases of the brain, respiratory system, digestive system, urogenital system, and musculoskeletal system, as well as systemic diseases. Enema is one of the five main therapies in the Indian medicine or Ayurveda. In other types of complementary medicine, including Chinese medicine, this procedure has therapeutic applications. Although enema has been recognized as a diagnostic method in modern medicine, it has been considered as a therapeutic approach in the recent years.Conclusion: According to the findings of the reviewed studies, enema is a major therapeutic focus in complementary medicine, part of which has been confirmed in the recent studies. Given the low side effects and high success rate of this treatment, it can be used as a supplemental therapy for the management of poisoning, febrile seizures, prolonged functional constipation, and chronic kidney disease, as well as the prevention of swelling. However, this theory requires further investigation and targeted clinical trials. This method has been

  8. Benefits of Barium Enema in Patients with Incomplete Colonoscopy. Prospective Study of 45 Cases; Valor del enema de bario en pacientes con colonoscopia incompleta. Estudio prospectivo de 45 casos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gispert, S.; Mayolas, N.; Hidalgo, A. [Hospital General Universitario Vall de Hebron. Barcelona (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of barium enema in patients with incomplete colonoscopy. There was carried out a prospective 10-month study of 45 patients with incomplete colonoscopy (27 men and 18 women), who were later examined by means of barium enema (33 conventional, 12 double-contrast) in order to check for additional pathology in portions of the colon not visualized by colonoscopy. Barium enema diagnosed six possible additional lesions (13.3%) in portions of the colon not visualized by incomplete colonoscopy (four neoplasia and two non-neoplasia). Regarding the neoplasia two were true positives and two false positives. Both true positives were adenocarcinomas (one synchronous caecum, and another in splenic angle). The two false positives corresponded to fecal matter stuck to the intestinal wall. Regarding the non-neoplasia, multiple stenosis was detected in a patient with Crohn's disease and an enterocolic fistula was found in a patient with sigmoid colon neoplasia. The diagnostic yield of barium enema in the detection of additional pathology in colon portions not visualized by colonoscopy was of 9%. Barium enema following incomplete colonoscopy permits a complete colon evaluation in most cases, and it offers additional diagnostic information. (Author) 21 refs.

  9. The female geriatric proximal humeral fracture: protagonist for straight antegrade nailing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindtner, Richard A; Kralinger, Franz S; Kapferer, Sebastian; Hengg, Clemens; Wambacher, Markus; Euler, Simon A

    2017-10-01

    Straight antegrade humeral nailing (SAHN) has become a standard technique for the surgical fixation of proximal humeral fractures, which predominantly affect elderly females. The nail's proximal anchoring point has been demonstrated to be critical to ensure reliable fixation in osteoporotic bone and to prevent iatrogenic damage to the superior rotator cuff bony insertion. Anatomical variations of the proximal humerus, however, may preclude satisfactory anchoring of the nail's proximal end and may bare the risk of rotator cuff violation, even though the nail is inserted as recommended. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anatomical suitability of proximal humeri of geriatric females aged 75 years and older for SAHN. Specifically, we sought to assess the proportion of humeri not anatomically amenable to SAHN for proximal humeral fracture. A total of 303 proximal humeri of 241 females aged 75 years and older (mean age 84.5 ± 5.0 years; range 75-102 years) were analyzed for this study. Multiplanar two-dimensional reformations (true ap, true lateral, and axial) were reconstructed from shoulder computed tomography (CT) data sets. The straight antegrade nail's ideal entry point, "critical point" (CP), and critical distance (CD; distance between ideal entry point and CP) were determined. The rate of proximal humeri not anatomically suitable for SAHN (critical type) was assessed regarding proximal reaming diameters of currently available straight antegrade humeral nails. Overall, 35.6% (108/303) of all proximal humeri were found to be "critical types" (CD straight antegrade nails currently in use. Moreover, 43.2% (131/303) of the humeri were considered "critical types" with regard to the alternatively used larger proximal reaming diameter of 11.5 mm. Mean CD was 9.0 ± 1.7 mm (range 3.5-13.5 mm) and did not correlate with age (r = -0.04, P = 0.54). No significant differences in CD and rate of "critical types" were found between left and right humeri

  10. Hybrid aortic repair with antegrade supra-aortic and renovisceral debranching from ascending aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Castro-Madrazo, José Antonio; Rivas-Domínguez, Margarita; Fernández-Prendes, Carlota; Zanabili Al-Sibbai, Amer; Llaneza-Coto, José Manuel; Alonso-Pérez, Manuel

    2017-05-01

    Aortic dissection is a life threatening condition. Hybrid repair has been described for the treatment of complex aortic pathology such as thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms (TAAA) and type A and B dissections, although open and total endovascular repair are also possible. Open surgery is still associated with substantial perioperative morbi-mortality rates, thus less invasive techniques such as endovascular repair and hybrid procedures can achieve good results in centers with experience. We present the case of a patient with a chronic type B dissection and TAAA degeneration that was treated in a single stage hybrid procedure with antegrade supra-aortic and renovisceral debranching from the ascending aorta and TEVAR. At three-year follow up, the patient is free of intervention-related complications.

  11. Hypothermia and Selective Antegrade Cerebral Perfusion Is Safe for Arch Repair in Type A Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, W Brent; Leshnower, Bradley G; Hunting, John C; Binongo, Jose; Chen, Edward P

    2017-09-01

    Unilateral selective antegrade cerebral perfusion with moderate hypothermic circulatory arrest has been shown to be a safe and effective method of cerebral protection during surgery for acute type A dissection. This study evaluates the impact of this cerebral protection strategy on clinical outcomes after extended aortic arch reconstruction in patients undergoing emergent repair of acute type A dissection. A retrospective review from 2004 to 2016 at a US academic center of patients undergoing surgery for acute type A dissections using moderate hypothermic circulatory arrest and selective antegrade cerebral perfusion was performed. Patient data were abstracted from The Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) institutional database and patient charts. Cohorts were established based on extent of arch replacement: a hemiarch group and a transverse arch group were created. Owing to a dearth of events, a risk score was estimated using a logistic regression model with 30-day mortality as outcome and preoperative variables as predictors, including non-STS variables such as malperfusion. Postoperative outcomes were then adjusted in subsequent regression analyses for the estimated risk score. In all, 342 patients met inclusion criteria and were included for analysis (299 hemiarch, 43 transverse arch). The mean age was 55.4 years and not different between groups (p = 0.79). Preoperative comorbidities, including prior stroke, diabetes mellitus, and renal failure, were also similar between groups (p > 0.2). Inhospital mortality was 11.7% for the entire cohort (11.7% hemiarch, 9.3% transverse arch; p = 0.60), and the permanent stroke rate was 7.3% (7.7% hemiarch, 4.3% transverse arch; p = 0.47). Median circulatory arrest time was 38.9 ± 19.2 minutes (35.0 ± 13.2 hemiarch, 65.1 ± 30.1 transverse arch; p optimal strategy for cerebral protection in this acute setting. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Is the Routine Check Nephrostogram Following Percutaneous Antegrade Ureteric Stent Placement Necessary?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soh, Keng Chuan; Tay, Kiang Hiong; Tan, Bien Soo; MM Htoo, Austin; HG Lo, Richard; Lin, Shueh En

    2008-01-01

    Our aim was to review our experience with percutaneous antegrade ureteric stent (PAUS) placement and to determine if the routinely conducted check nephrostogram on the day following ureteric stent placement was necessary. Retrospective review of patients who had undergone PAUS placement between January 2004 and December 2005 was performed. There were 83 subjects (36 males, 47 females), with a mean age of 59.9 years (range, 22-94 years). Average follow-up duration was 7.1 months (range, 1-24 months). The most common indications for PAUS placement were ureteric obstruction due to metastatic disease (n = 56) and urinary calculi (n = 34). Technical success was 93.2% (96/103 attempts), with no major immediate procedure-related complications or mortalities. The Bard 7Fr Urosoft DJ Stent was used in more than 95% of the cases. Eighty-one of 89 (91.0%) check nephrostograms demonstrated a patent ureteric stent with resultant safety catheter removal. Three check nephrostograms revealed distal stent migration requiring repositioning by a goose-snare, while five others showed stent occlusion necessitating permanent external drainage by nephrostomy drainage catheter reinsertion. Following PAUS placement, the serum creatinine level improved or stabilized in 82% of patients. The serum creatinine outcome difference between the groups with benign and malignant indications for PAUS placement was not statistically significant (p = 0.145) but resolution of hydronephrosis was significantly better (p = 0.008) in patients with benign indications. Percutaneous antegrade ureteric stent placement is a safe and effective means of relief for ureteric obstruction. The check nephrostogram following ureteric stent placement was unnecessary in the majority of patients

  13. The origin of continents and oceans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wegener, Alfred 1880-1930; Biram, John

    1966-01-01

    .... Wegener proposed that in the remote past the earth's continents were not separate (as now), but formed one supercontinent which later split apart, the fragments gradually drifting away from one another...

  14. Continence care is every nurse's business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Joanne

    Maintaining continence lies at the heart of a sense of adulthood and is essential to preserving dignity, a core and universal nursing value. This article explores the reasons why poor continence care was found at Mid Staffordshire Foundation Trust, the changes to the culture of the health service that led to it, and why it is so important for nurses to maintain patients' dignity. Recommendations for changing this culture in the future are discussed.

  15. Continent cecostomy. An account of 30 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, N G; Myrvold, H E; Philipson, B M; Svaninger, G; Ojerskog, B

    1985-10-01

    In this paper, an account is given of our experience with continent colostomy in man. In five patients, the end-sigmoidostomy was provided with an intussusception valve. Evacuation of the bowel by irrigation through a catheter was laborious and time-consuming and this method was abandoned. In another group of 30 patients, the cecum was isolated from the rest of the colon and its distal end was provided with an intussusception valve. Of the 30 patients, eight were later given continent ileostomies, two were converted to conventional sigmoidostomies, and one patient with fecal incontinence preferred to have intestinal continuity reestablished. Thus, 19 patients still have continent cecostomies and are satisfied with their function. When comparing the function of the continent cecostomy with that of the continent ileostomy, however, it is obvious that the ileostomy function is superior. The experience obtained with this group of patients has resulted in a widening of the indications for constructing a continent ileostomy, including selected patients with various anorectal disorders.

  16. Limitations of combined flexible sigmoidoscopy and double contrast barium enema in patients with rectal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hixson, L.J.; Sampliner, R.E.; Chernin, M.; Amberg, J.; Kogan, F.; Veterans Administration Medical Center, Tucson, AZ

    1989-01-01

    Eighty-seven outpatients with non-massive rectal bleeding or asymptomatic positive fecal occult blood were evaluated with 35 cm flexible sigmoidoscopy, double contrast barium enema (DBCE) and colonoscopy. 82% had hemorrhoids and 35% harbored colorectal neoplasia. The combination of flexible sigmoidoscopy and DCBE missed none of 7 malignant lesions. However, 35% of benign polyps ≥ 1 cm and 60.5% of those < 1 cm were not detected by this combination. The presence of hemorrhoids should not prevent a search for colon neoplasia and colonoscopy is the preferred method. (orig.)

  17. Double-contrast barium enema in the diagnosis of intestinal deeply infiltrating endometriosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Helizabet Salomão Abdalla Ayroza; Ribeiro, Paulo Augusto Ayroza Galvão; Rodrigues, Francisco César; Donadio, Nilson; Auge, Antônio Pedro Flores; Aoki, Tsutomu

    2008-01-01

    OBJETIVO: avaliar a sensibilidade, especificidade, valor preditivo positivo e valor preditivo negativo do enema de bário com duplo contraste (EBDC) para o diagnóstico da endometriose do reto e sigmóide. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal prospectivo que incluiu 37 pacientes com quadro clínico suspeito de endometriose profunda. As pacientes foram submetidas ao EBDC de acordo com a técnica padrão descrita na literatura. Em seguida, foram submetidas à laparoscopia. Os exames foram realizados e seus res...

  18. Double contrast barium enema combined with non-invasive imaging in peritoneal mesothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cozzi, G.; Bellomi, M.; Frigerio, L.F.; Ostinelli, C.; Marchiano, A.; Petrillo, R.; Severini, A.; Milan Univ.

    1989-01-01

    Mesotheliomas are rare tumors arising from serosal linings of the major serous cavities. Five patients with peritoneal mesothelioma underwent a double contrast barium enema (DCBE) and ultrasonography (US) (2 patients), computed tomography (CT) (3 patients) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (3 patients). The diagnosis was confirmed at laparotomy. The radiologic pattern at DCBE is unspecific and consists of compression and dislocation of bowel loops by extrinsic masses. Mesenteric retraction and segmental stenosis may be present. In one patient DCBE was normal. US, CT and MRI findings are also unspecific but when combined with information obtained from DCBE the site and abdominal extension of the disease are well defined. (orig.)

  19. Early manifestation of Yersinia colitis demonstrated by the double-contrast barium enema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aspestrand, F.

    1986-11-01

    A 19-year old female with a bloody, diarrheal illness of acute onset where Crohn's disease primarly was suspected is presented. The double-contrast barium enema revealed multiple, diffusely scattered aphthous erosions of the colonic mucosa: the rectum was scarcely affected. Biopsies taken by endoscopy demonstrated nonspecific inflammatory changes of the mucous membrane. However, routinely taken stool cultures revealed an infectious colitis due to Yersinia enterocolitica. Our case demonstrates the necessity to consider Yersinia enterocolitis in the radiographic differential diagnosis when the diagnosis of Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis seems obvious.

  20. The early manifestation of Yersinia colitis demonstrated by the double-contrast barium enema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspestrand, F.

    1986-01-01

    A 19-year old female with a bloody, diarrheal illness of acute onset where Crohn's disease primarly was suspected is presented. The double-contrast barium enema revealed multiple, diffusely scattered aphthous erosions of the colonic mucosa: the rectum was scarcely affected. Biopsies taken by endoscopy demonstrated nonspecific inflammatory changes of the mucous membrane. However, routinely taken stool cultures revealed an infectious colitis due to Yersinia enterocolitica. Our case demonstrates the necessity to consider Yersinia enterocolitis in the radiographic differential diagnosis when the diagnosis of Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis seems obvious. (orig.) [de

  1. Imaging assessment of the modified double contrast barium enema using carboxymethylcellulose on radiography and ultrasonography in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mihyun; Lee, Namsoon; Kim, Junyoung; Yi, Kangjae; Jung, Joohyun; Yoon, Junghee; Choi, Mincheol

    2011-01-01

    A modified double contrast barium enema using carboxymethylcellulose was evaluated in beagle dogs and compared with dogs receiving a conventional barium enema. The experimental group was divided into three groups (1, 2, and 3) and given 30 ml/kg of different volume ratios of a barium vs. carboxymethylcellulose mixture. Each group underwent sonography following radiography. The volume ratio of one part barium to three parts carboxymethylcellulose was judged to be the optimal mixture, resulting in a general distribution of contrast and bowel radiolucency on radiographs and adequate postradiography sonography. The modified barium enema using carboxymethylcellulose is useful for assessing the general morphology and mucosal layers of the colon simultaneously on radiographs and ultrasonographs.

  2. Effect of rectal enemas on rectal dosimetric parameters during high-dose-rate vaginal cuff brachytherapy. A prospective trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabater, Sebastia; Andres, Ignacio; Sevillano, Marimar; Berenguer, Roberto; Aguayo, Manuel; Villas, Maria Victoria; Gascon, Marina; Arenas, Meritxell; Rovirosa, Angeles; Camacho-Lopez, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of rectal enemas on rectal doses during postoperative high-dose-rate (HDR) vaginal cuff brachytherapy (VCB). This prospective trial included 59 patients. Two rectal cleansing enemas were self-administered before the second fraction, and fraction 1 was considered the basal status. Dose-volume histogram (DVH) values were generated for the rectum and correlated with rectal volume variation. Statistical analyses used paired and unpaired t-tests. Despite a significant 15 % reduction in mean rectal volume (44.07 vs. 52.15 cc, p = 0.0018), 35.6 % of patients had larger rectums after rectal enemas. No significant rectal enema-related DVH differences were observed compared to the basal data. Although not statistically significant, rectal cleansing-associated increases in mean rectal DVH values were observed: D 0.1 cc : 6.6 vs. 7.21 Gy; D 1 cc : 5.35 vs. 5.52 Gy; D 2 cc : 4.67 vs. 4.72 Gy, before and after rectal cleaning, respectively (where D x cc is the dose to the most exposed x cm 3 ). No differences were observed in DVH parameters according to rectal volume increase or decrease after the enema. Patients whose rectal volume increased also had significantly larger DVH parameters, except for D 5 % , D 25 % , and D 50 % . In contrast, in patients whose rectal volume decreased, significance was only seen for D 25 % and D 50 % (D x % dose covering x % of the volume). In the latter patients, nonsignificant reductions in D 2 cc , D 5 cc and V 5 Gy (volume receiving at least 5 Gy) were observed. The current rectal enemas protocol was ineffective in significantly modifying rectal DVH parameters for HDR-VCB. (orig.) [de

  3. Efficacy and Safety of Combined Oral and Enema Therapy Using Polyethylene Glycol 3350-Electrolyte for Disimpaction in Pediatric Constipation

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Taeyeon; Bae, Sun Hwan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated the efficacy and safety of combined oral and enema therapy using polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350 with electrolyte solution for disimpaction in hospitalized children. Methods We retrospectively studied 28 children having functional constipation who received inpatient treatment between 2008 and 2016. The amount of oral PEG 3350 electrolyte solution administered was 50–70 mL/kg/d (PEG 3350, 3–4.1 g/kg/d), and an enema solution was administered 1–2 times a day as a single dose...

  4. Percutaneous Antegrade Varicocele Embolization Via the Testicular Vein in a Patient with Recurrent Varicocele After Surgical Repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guevara, Carlos J., E-mail: guevarac@mir.wustl.edu; El-Hilal, Alexander H., E-mail: elhilala@mir.wustl.edu; Darcy, Michael D., E-mail: darcym@mir.wustl.edu [Washington University in St. Louis, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine (United States)

    2015-10-15

    This is a case report of an adolescent male who underwent surgical ligation for a left-sided varicocele that recurred 2 years later. Standard retrograde embolization via the left renal vein was not possible, because there was no connection from the renal vein to the gonadal vein following surgical ligation. The patient was treated via antegrade access of the spermatic vein at the inguinal level with subsequent coil embolization.

  5. [Continent ileostomy--indication and possibilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahnloser, P; Säuberli, H; Geroulanos, S; Schauwecker, H H; Kock, N G

    1975-06-21

    Proctocolectomy with conventional ileostomy cures patients with severe ulcerative colitis but ileostomy appliances must be worn for the rest of their lives. The continent ileostomy, as devised by Kock, provides the patient with an intraabdominal ileal reservoir and a valve constructed by invaginating the efferent ileal segment into the reservoir. The patient empties his reservoir 2-3 times a day by inserting a catheter through the valve. Our experience with 14 patients is reported. The continent ileostomy was in most cases constructed as a second procedure after proctocolectomy. Minor postoperative complications, such as abscess, fistula or partial luxation of the valve were easily corrected. One patient who underwent proctocolectomy and simultaneous construction of a continent ileostomy died in acute liver failure due to a severe preexisting cirrhosis. All the other patients are continent for feces and gas and do not need external appliances. The construction of a continent ileostomy as a secondary procedure can be recommended in patients with proctocolectomy. It offers patients a life situation with differs only insignificantly from that of normal persons.

  6. Improving Quality and Efficiency for Intussusception Management After Successful Enema Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raval, Mehul V; Minneci, Peter C; Deans, Katherine J; Kurtovic, Kelli J; Dietrich, Ann; Bates, D Gregory; Rangel, Shawn J; Moss, R Lawrence; Kenney, Brian D

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this project was to implement a protocol facilitating discharge from the emergency department (ED) after successful radiologic ileocolic intussusception reduction in a pediatric referral center. A multidisciplinary team identified drivers for successful quality improvement including educational brochures, a standardized radiologic report, an observation period in the ER with oral hydration challenges, and follow-up phone calls the day after discharge. Patient outcomes were tracked, and quarterly feedback was provided. Of 80 patients identified over a 24-month period, 34 (42.5%) did not qualify for discharge home due to need for surgical intervention (n = 9), specific radiologic findings (n = 11), need for additional intravenous hydration (n = 4), or other reasons (n = 7). Of 46 patients who qualified for discharge, 30 (65.2%) were successfully sent home from the ED. One patient returned with recurrent symptoms that required repeat enema reduction. Sixteen patients were observed and discharged within 23 hours. Adherence with discharge from the ED improved over time. Discharge from the ED was associated with cost savings and improved net margins at the hospital level for each encounter. A sustainable multidisciplinary quality improvement project to discharge intussusception patients from the ED after air-contrast enema reduction was successfully integrated in a high-volume referral center through education, standardized radiologic reporting, and protocoled follow-up. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. Double contrast barium enema sensitivity: A comparison of studies by radiographers and radiologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culpan, D.G.; Mitchell, A.J.; Hughes, S.; Nutman, M.; Chapman, A.H.

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: A retrospective study of histologically proven cases of colorectal cancer (CRC) was performed to assess whether the sensitivity of the radiographer-performed double contrast barium enema (DCBE) differed from that of the radiologist-performed study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Histologically proven cases of CRC were reviewed over a 3-year period to ascertain whether: the diagnosis had been made by DCBE in the 3 years before histological diagnosis; the lesion had been correctly diagnosed; the examination had been performed by a radiologist or radiographer. RESULTS: In the 3-year period there were 478 cases with histologically proven CRC. Of these, 239 (50%) had undergone DCBE as the initial radiological investigation of the colon. Sixty-four examinations had been performed by radiographers. A correct diagnosis was made in 58 cases (90.6%), the report was equivocal in one case (1.6%), there were four false-negatives (6.25%), and one case was abandoned (1.6%). One hundred and seventy-five examinations were performed by radiologists. A correct diagnosis was made in 157 cases (89.7%), the report was equivocal in one case (0.6%), there were 16 false-negatives (9.1%), and one case was abandoned (0.6%). CONCLUSION: A sensitivity of 90.6% for radiographer-performed studies compared favourably with 89.7% for radiologist-performed studies and supports the practice of radiographers undertaking barium enemas. Culpan, D.G. et al. (2002)

  8. A comparison of a 'J' wire and a straight wire in successful antegrade cannulation of the superficial femoral artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, D.A.T.; Edwards, A.J.; Puckett, M.A.; Roobottom, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate the success of two different types of wire in common use in their ability to successfully cannulate the superficial femoral artery (SFA) using antegrade puncture. METHODS: 50 consecutive patients in whom antegrade infra-inguinal intervention was planned, underwent common femoral arterial puncture and then cannulation with either a standard 3 mm 'J' wire or a floppy tipped straight wire (William Cook--Europe). The frequency with which each type of wire entered the SFA or profunda femoris artery without image guidance was recorded. Further analysis was also made of the success of manipulation of the wire into the SFA following profunda cannulation and the use of alternative guide wires. RESULTS: In 19 out of 25 (76%) patients the 'J' wire correctly entered the SFA without image guidance. Only 5 out of 25 (25%) of straight wires entered the SFA with the initial pass (p<0.0001). Following further manipulation with the same wire all except 1 'J' wire was successfully negotiated into the SFA. The same was true for only 9 of the remaining straight wires with 11 patients requiring an alternative guide wire. CONCLUSIONS: When performing antegrade cannulation of the SFA a 'J' wire is more likely to be successful than a straight guide wire

  9. The Use of ExoSeal Vascular Closure Device for Direct Antegrade Superficial Femoral Artery Puncture Site Hemostasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimon, Uri, E-mail: rimonu@sheba.health.gov.il; Khaitovich, Boris, E-mail: borislena@012.net.il [Tel-Aviv University, Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging Department, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, Affiliated to the Sackler School of Medicine (Israel); Yakubovich, Dmitry, E-mail: Dmitry.Yakubovitch@sheba.health.gov.il [Tel-Aviv University, Vascular Surgery Department, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, Affiliated to the Sackler School of Medicine (Israel); Bensaid, Paul, E-mail: paulbensaid@hotmail.com; Golan, Gil, E-mail: gilgolan201@gmail.com [Tel-Aviv University, Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging Department, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, Affiliated to the Sackler School of Medicine (Israel); Silverberg, Daniel, E-mail: Daniel.Silverberg@sheba.health.gov.il [Tel-Aviv University, Vascular Surgery Department, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, Affiliated to the Sackler School of Medicine (Israel)

    2015-06-15

    PurposeThis study was designed to assess the efficacy and safety of the ExoSeal vascular closure device (VCD) to achieve hemostasis in antegrade access of the superficial femoral artery (SFA).MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed the outcome of ExoSeal VCD used for hemostasis in 110 accesses to the SFA in 93 patients between July 2011 and July 2013. All patients had patent proximal SFA based on computer tomography angiography or ultrasound duplex. Arterial calcifications at puncture site were graded using fluoroscopy. The SFA was accessed in an antegrade fashion with ultrasound or fluoroscopic guidance. In all patients, 5–7F vascular sheaths were used. The ExoSeal VCD was applied to achieve hemostasis at the end of the procedure. All patients were clinically examined and had ultrasound duplex exam for any puncture site complications during the 24 h postprocedure.ResultsIn all procedures, the ExoSeal was applied successfully. We did not encounter any device-related technical failure. There were four major complications in four patients (3.6 %): three pseudoaneurysms, which were treated with direct thrombin injection, and one hematoma, which necessitated transfusion of two blood units. All patients with complications were treated with anticoagulation preprocedure or received thrombolytic therapy.ConclusionsThe ExoSeal VCD can be safely used for antegrade puncture of the SFA, with a high procedural success rate (100 %) and a low rate of access site complications (3.6 %)

  10. [The continent ileostomy--indication and results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Säuberli, H; Akovbiantz, A; Hahnloser, P

    1982-01-01

    Proctocolectomy with conventional ileostomy cures patients with severe ulcerative colitis, however ileostomy appliances had to be worn for the rest of their lives. The continent ileostomy as devised by Kock provides the patient with an intraabdominal ileal reservoir and a valve constructed by invaginating the efferent ileal segment into the reservoir. The patient empties his reservoir 2 to 3 times a day by inserting a catheter through the valve. Our experience with 45 patients is reported. In most cases the continent ileostomy was constructed as a second procedure after proctocolectomy. The construction of a continent ileostomy as a secondary procedure can be recommended in patients with proctocolectomy. It offers patients a life situation differing only insignificantly from that of normal persons.

  11. Role of the double-contrast barium enema in rectal stenosis due to suppositories containing paracetamol and acetylsalicylic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannouri, F.; Lalmand, B.; Zalcman, M.; Gansbeke, D. van; Gevenois, P.A.; Struyven, J.; Peny, M.O.; Gossum, A. van

    1998-01-01

    Self-treatment of chronic headache with suppositories containing paracetamol and acetylsalaicylic acid may lead to serious complications. We report the radiological features of five cases of rectal stenosis following the use of such suppositories. The role of the double-contrast barium enema in suggesting the diagnosis of this complication of a chronic and often unrecognized self-treatment is emphasized. (orig.)

  12. A randomized controlled trial of enemas in combination with oral laxative therapy for children with chronic constipation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, Marloes E. J.; van den Berg, Maartje M.; Reitsma, Johannes B.; Voskuijl, Wieger P.; Benninga, Marc A.

    2009-01-01

    After 5 years of intensive oral laxative use, up to 30% of constipated children still have an unsuccessful outcome. Children refractory to oral laxatives might benefit from regular rectal evacuation by enemas. This randomized controlled trial compared the effects of additional treatment with rectal

  13. Is CT effective in diagnosing the acute appendicitis?: Focus on comparison of unenhanced CT with barium enema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Seong Hee; Hahm, So Hee; Kang Jin Hwa; Moon, Jeong Hwa

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the role of unenhanced CT in diagnosing the acute appendicitis. We retrospectively analyzed conventional contrast-enhanced abdominal CT scans of 197 normal patients and barium enemas of 26 out of the 197 patients. Additional unenhanced CT scans of right lower abdomen were performed on 30 patients who were suspected of having acute appendicitis; barium enema was performed in 26 patients. In the analysis of the conventional CT scans, we could detect 132 (67%) normal appendices. On barium enema of 26 out of 197 patients, abruptly narrowed appendix was visualized in 5 cases and luminal irregularity in 4 cases but all 26 cases showed normal appendix on CT. In the 30 cases of unenhanced CT, all appendices were visualized. Among 12 cases which were proved as acute appendicitis, barium enema was done in 10 cases; abruptly narrowed appendix was shown in 3 and luminal irregularity in 1. Among 18 cases which were diagnosed as normal appendix, nonvisualization of appendix was in 1 case, abruptly narrowed lumen in 3, and luminal irregularity in 9. Unenhanced CT in the area of the cecum may be an effective and safe diagnostic tool acute appendicitis

  14. Popliteal versus tibial retrograde access for subintimal arterial flossing with antegrade-retrograde intervention (SAFARI) technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, W R; Yi, M Q; Min, T L; Feng, S N; Xuan, L Z; Xing, J

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to ascertain differences in benefit and effectiveness of popliteal versus tibial retrograde access in subintimal arterial flossing with the antegrade-retrograde intervention (SAFARI) technique. This was a retrospective study of SAFARI-assisted stenting for long chronic total occlusion (CTO) of TASC C and D superficial femoral lesions. 38 cases had superficial femoral artery lesions (23 TASC C and 15 TASC D). All 38 cases underwent SAFARI-assisted stenting. The ipsilateral popliteal artery was retrogradely punctured in 17 patients. A distal posterior tibial (PT) or dorsalis pedis (DP) artery was retrogradely punctured in 21 patients, and 16 of them were punctured after open surgical exposure. SAFARI technical success was achieved in all cases. There was no significant difference in 1-year primary patency (75% vs. 78.9%, p = .86), secondary patency (81.2% vs. 84.2%, p = .91) and access complications (p = 1.00) between popliteal and tibial retrograde access. There was statistical difference in operation time between popliteal (140.1 ± 28.4 min) and tibial retrograde access with PT/DP punctures after surgical vessel exposure (120.4 ± 23.0 min, p = .04). The SAFARI technique is a safe and feasible option for patients with infrainguinal CTO (TASC II C and D). The PT or DP as the retrograde access after surgical vessel exposure is a good choice when using the SAFARI technique. Copyright © 2013 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Continence following radical retropubic prostatectomy using self-reporting instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepor, Herbert; Kaci, Ledia; Xue, Xiaonan

    2004-03-01

    We performed a global self-assessment of continence following radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) and determined how this global self-assessment of continence correlates with commonly used definitions of continence. Between October 2000 and February 2002 all men who underwent RRP were encouraged to complete the University of California-Los Angeles Prostate Cancer Index 3, 6, 12 and 24 months postoperatively. Beginning October 2002 a single question capturing the patient global self-assessment of continence status was added to the postoperative continence assessment. The study design was cross-sectional since only continence surveys submitted between October 2002 through February 2003 were evaluated. Sensitivity, specificity and kappa coefficient was determined for the relationship between the patient global assessment of continence vs the definition of continence based on pad requirement, problem due to incontinence and frequency of incontinence. Continence progressively improved 3 to 24 months following RRP for all continence outcomes. At 24 months following RRP 97.1% of men considered themselves continent, while 97.1%, 94.1% and 97.1% were considered continent using continence definitions, including the requirement of no or 1 pad in a 24-hour interval, no or slight bother due to incontinence and total control or occasional dribbling, respectively. Our 3 definitions of continence derived from responses to the University of California-Los Angeles Prostate Cancer Index had excellent agreement with patient global self-assessment of continence (kappa coefficients between 0.76 and 0.83). The majority of men achieve continence without invasive intervention following RRP. Final continence status should be ascertained at 24 months. The patient global assessment of continence provides face validity for other definitions of continence based on responses to validated self-administered questionnaires.

  16. Europe the continent with the lowest fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baird, D. T.; Collins, J.; Evers, J. L. H.; Leridon, H.; Lutz, W.; Velde, E. Te; Thevenon, O.; Crosignani, P. G.; Devroey, P.; Diedrich, K.; Fauser, B. C. J. M.; Fraser, L.; Geraedts, J. P. M.; Gianaroli, L.; Glasier, A.; Sunde, A.; Tarlatzis, B.; Van Steirteghem, A.; Veiga, A.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Although fertility rates are falling in many countries, Europe is the continent with the lowest total fertility rate (TFR). This review assesses trends in fertility rates, explores possible health and social factors and reviews the impact of health and social interventions designed to

  17. Efficacy and Safety of Combined Oral and Enema Therapy Using Polyethylene Glycol 3350-Electrolyte for Disimpaction in Pediatric Constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Taeyeon; Bae, Sun Hwan

    2017-12-01

    We evaluated the efficacy and safety of combined oral and enema therapy using polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350 with electrolyte solution for disimpaction in hospitalized children. We retrospectively studied 28 children having functional constipation who received inpatient treatment between 2008 and 2016. The amount of oral PEG 3350 electrolyte solution administered was 50-70 mL/kg/d (PEG 3350, 3-4.1 g/kg/d), and an enema solution was administered 1-2 times a day as a single dose of 15-25 mL/kg (PEG 3350, 0.975-1.625 g/kg/d). A colon transit time (CTT) test based on the Metcalf protocol was performed in some patients. Administration of oral and enema doses of PEG 3350 electrolyte solution showed 2.1±0.3 times and 2.9±0.4 times, respectively. After disimpaction, the frequency of defecation increased from 2.2±0.3 per week to once a day (1.1±0.1 per day). The number of patients who complained of abdominal pain was reduced from 15 (53.6%) to 4 (14.3%). Before hospitalization, nine patients underwent a CTT test, and 5 of 9 patients (55.6%) were classified as belonging to a group showing abnormalities. And in some patients, mild adverse effects were noted. We examined electrolytes and osmolality before and after disimpaction in 16 of 28 patients, and no abnormalities were noted. In terms of therapeutic efficacy and safety, combined oral and enema therapy using high-dose PEG 3350 with electrolytes is considered superior to conventional oral monotherapy or combined oral and enema therapy on an outpatient basis.

  18. Enemas, suppositories and rectal stimulation are not effective in accelerating enteral feeding or meconium evacuation in low-birthweight infants: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphorst, Kim; Sietsma, Ydelette; Brouwer, Annemieke J; Rood, Paul J T; van den Hoogen, Agnes

    2016-11-01

    Early full enteral feeding in preterm infants decreases morbidity and mortality. Our systematic review covered the effectiveness of rectal stimulation, suppositories and enemas on stooling patterns and feeding tolerance in low-birthweight infants born at up to 32 weeks. It comprised seven studies published between 2007 and 2014 and covered 495 infants. Suppositories were ineffective in shortening the time to reach full enteral feeding, and the evidence on enemas was contradictory. Enemas and rectal stimulation did not shorten the time until complete meconium evacuation was reached. Further research into safe, effective interventions to accelerate meconium excretion is needed. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Hemodialysis for near-fatal sodium phosphate toxicity in a child receiving sodium phosphate enemas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becknell, Brian; Smoyer, William E; O'Brien, Nicole F

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to demonstrate the importance of considering hemodialysis as a treatment option in the management of sodium phosphate toxicity. This is a case report of a 4-year-old who presented to the emergency department with shock, decreased mental status, seizures, and tetany due to sodium phosphate toxicity from sodium phosphate enemas. Traditional management of hyperphosphatemia with aggressive hydration and diuretics was insufficient to reverse the hemodynamic and neurological abnormalities in this child. This is the first report of the use of hemodialysis in a child without preexisting renal failure for the successful management of near-fatal sodium phosphate toxicity. Hemodialysis can safely be used as an adjunctive therapy in sodium phosphate toxicity to rapidly reduce serum phosphate levels and increase serum calcium levels in children not responding to conventional management.

  20. Radiation doses to patients undergoing barium meal and barium enema examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delichas, M. G.; Hatziioannou, K.; Papanastassiou, E.; Albanopoulou, P.; Chatzi, E.; Sioundas, A.; Psarrakos, K.

    2004-01-01

    The radiation doses received by patients during 41 barium meal (BM) and 42 barium enema (BE) examinations in two Greek hospitals are presented. Radiation dose was measured in terms of the dose area product (DAP). The effective dose and doses to certain organs were estimated using the ODS-60 software. Mean total DAP values were found to be 25 ± 11 Gy cm 2 for BM and 60 ± 35 Gy cm 2 for BE examinations, whereas the estimated mean values of effective dose were 8.6 ± 4.0 and 24 ± 16 mSv respectively. DAP to effective dose conversion coefficients were estimated to be 0.34 mSv per Gy cm 2 for BM and 0.41 mSv per Gy cm 2 for BE. (authors)

  1. Choice of double contrast barium enema (DCBE) method based on patient exposure dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartal, G; Ben Hasid, I [Hillel Yaffe Medical Center, Hadera (Israel)

    1997-11-16

    Morbidity of colon cancer continues to increase, taking second and third places in malignant tumors. The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) increases exponentially with age; those over 50 years of age represent 37% of general population, yet account for 95% of the cases, and more than 96% of the deaths from colon malignancies For a long time radiologic examinations were considered as a main pre-operative diagnostic method for cancer of the colon. The sensitivity of the barium enema with regard to diagnosis of the carcinoma and polyps ranges from 92-98.5%. Sigmoidoscopy for detection and removal of polyps has been shown to decrease the incidence of subsequent CRC`s by 70-80% in distal colon. However, the sigmoid colon is often difficult to examine because of associated diverticular disease, and about 15% of tumors in the sigmoid colon are overlooked. (Authors)

  2. Choice of double contrast barium enema (DCBE) method based on patient exposure dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartal, G.; Ben Hasid, I.

    1997-01-01

    Morbidity of colon cancer continues to increase, taking second and third places in malignant tumors. The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) increases exponentially with age; those over 50 years of age represent 37% of general population, yet account for 95% of the cases, and more than 96% of the deaths from colon malignancies For a long time radiologic examinations were considered as a main pre-operative diagnostic method for cancer of the colon. The sensitivity of the barium enema with regard to diagnosis of the carcinoma and polyps ranges from 92-98.5%. Sigmoidoscopy for detection and removal of polyps has been shown to decrease the incidence of subsequent CRC's by 70-80% in distal colon. However, the sigmoid colon is often difficult to examine because of associated diverticular disease, and about 15% of tumors in the sigmoid colon are overlooked. Authors)

  3. Intestinal preparation for colon enema with fosfo-soda fleet versus the conventional method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vecchioli Caldazza, A.; Celi, G.; De Franco, A.; Parrella, A.; Minordi, L.M.; Marano, P.

    1999-01-01

    The authors evaluate the possible optimization of a well-tolerated and versatile method of intestinal preparation able to adequately free the lumen and consequently improve diagnostic results with a lower risk of prolonged hospital stay for incorrectly prepared patients. They examined 40 patients, namely 20 men and 20 women referred to the Institute of radiology of the 'Sacro Cuore' Catholic University of Rome (Italy), Gastrointestinal tract unit, to undergo double contrast colonic enema. The statistical analysis of all data was performed with Wilcoxon test. Intestinal preparation with fosfo-soda fleet appeared to be definitely better than the conventional method relative to tolerance, while providing similarly satisfactory data relative to the other parameters [it

  4. An evaluation of a radiographer-led barium enema service in the diagnosis of colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, R.L.; Slack, N.F.; Harvey, R.F.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study was undertaken to assess the sensitivity and efficacy of a radiographer-led double contrast barium enema (DCBE) service in the diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods: All patients on the CRC database from its inception in 1997 until the end of 2004 were cross-referenced with the radiology database. Details were recorded of any patient who had undergone a DCBE examination at any time prior to histological confirmation of colorectal cancer. All the DCBE in this review were performed and reported by radiographers as part of a protocol of double reporting with a consultant radiologist. The radiographers and radiologists reports were reviewed for each patient. Notes and X-rays were also reviewed when necessary. Reporting sensitivity was compared with the Royal College of Radiologists (RCR) barium enema examination targets for the diagnosis of colorectal carcinoma. Results: 362 of the 1005 patients on the CRC database had undergone a DCBE. Combined radiographer and radiologist reporting demonstrated a diagnostic sensitivity of 98% for CRC and were cancer specific in 93% of cases. These results compared favourably with the referenced RCR sensitivity targets for colorectal cancer. Reporting discord only occurred with the terminology of reporting 13 equivocal polyps. None of these polyps were neoplastic and thus did not affect CRC sensitivity. Conclusion: Radiographer reporting compares favourably with published CRC sensitivity data of more expensive techniques such as CT colonography. A protocol of radiographer/radiographer double reporting is now used at this hospital with radiological second opinion being acquired for more complex abnormal DCBE examination appearances. This service is a safe, cost-effective option that should not be overlooked with the increasing demand for CRC screening

  5. Antegrade scrotal sclerotherapy of internal spermatic veins for varicocele treatment: technique, complications, and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Crestani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Varicocele repair is mainly indicated in young adult patients with clinical palpable varicocele and abnormal semen parameters. Varicocele treatment is associated with a significant improvement in sperm concentration, motility, morphology, and pregnancy rate. Antegrade scrotal sclerotherapy (ASS represented one of the main alternatives to the traditional inguinal or suprainguinal surgical ligation. This article reviews the use of ASS for varicocele treatment. We provide a brief overview of the history of the procedure and present our methods used in ASS. In addition, we review complication and success of ASS, including our own retrospective data of treating 674 patients over the last 17 years. Herein, we analyzed step by step the ASS technique and described our results with an original modified technique with a long follow-up. Between December 1997 and December 2014, we performed 674 ASS. Mean operative time was 14 min (range 9 to 50 min. No significant intraoperative complications were reported. Within 90 days from the procedure, postoperative complications were recorded in overall 49 (7.2% patients. No major complications were recorded. A persistent/recurrent varicocele was detected in 40 (5.9% cases. In 32/40 (80% cases, patients showed preoperative grade III varicoceles. In patients with a low sperm number before surgery, sperm count improved from 13 × 10 6 to 21 × 10 6 ml−1 (P < 0.001. The median value of the percentage of progressive motile forms at 1 h improved from 25% to 45% (P < 0.001. Percentage of normal forms increased from 17% before surgery to 35% 1 year after the procedure (P < 0.001. In the subgroup of the 168 infertile patients, 52 (31% fathered offspring at a 12-month-minimum follow-up. Therefore, ASS is an effective minimal invasive treatment for varicocele with low recurrence/persistence rate.

  6. Aortic arch reconstruction: deep and moderate hypothermic circulatory arrest with selective antegrade cerebral perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, YanWen; Xiao, LiQiong; Yang, Ting; Wang, Lei; Chen, Xin

    2017-07-01

    To compare the effects of moderate and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) with selective antegrade cerebral perfusion (SACP) during aortic arch surgery in adult patients and to offer the evidence for the detection of the temperature which provides best brain protection in the subjects who accept aortic arch reconstruction surgery. A total of 109 patients undergoing surgery of the aortic arch were divided into the moderate hypothermic circulatory arrest group (Group I) and the deep hypothermic circulatory arrest group (Group II). We recorded the data of the patients and their cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) time, aortic clamping time, SACP time and postoperative anesthetized recovery time, tracheal intubation time, time in the intensive care unit (ICU) and postoperative neurologic dysfunction. Patient characteristics were similar in the two groups. There were four patients who died in Group II and 1 patient in Group I. There were no significant differences in aortic clamping time of each group (111.4±58.4 vs. 115.9±16.2) min; SACP time (27.4±5.9 vs. 23.5±6.1) min of the moderate hypothermic circulatory arrest group and the deep hypothermic circulatory arrest group; there were significant differences in cardiopulmonary bypass time (207.4±20.9 vs. 263.8±22.6) min, postoperative anesthetized recovery time (19.0±11.1 vs. 36.8±25.3) hours, extubation time (46.4±15.1 vs. 64.4±6.0) hours; length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) (4.7±1.7 vs. 8±2.3) days and postoperative neurologic dysfunction in the two groups. Compared to deep hypothermic circulatory arrest, moderate hypothermic circulatory arrest can provide better brain protection and achieve good clinical results.

  7. Predictors of Interventional Success of Antegrade PCI for CTO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chun; Huang, Meiping; Li, Jinglei; Liang, Changhong; Zhang, Qun; Liu, Hui; Liu, Zaiyi; Qu, Yanji; Jiang, Jun; Zhuang, Jian

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to identify significant lesion features of chronic total occlusions (CTOs) that predict failure of antegrade (A) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) using pre-procedure coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) combined with conventional coronary angiography (CCA). The current predictors of successful A-PCI in the setting of CTOs are uncertain. Such knowledge might prompt early performance of a retrograde (R)-PCI approach if predictors of A-PCI failure are present. Consecutive patients confirmed to have at least 1 CTO of native coronary arteries underwent coronary CTA- and CCA-guided PCI in which computed tomography and fluoroscopic images were placed side by side before or during PCI. The study included 103 patients with 108 CTOs; 80 lesions were successfully treated with A-PCI and 28 lesions failed this approach, for an A-PCI success rate of 74%. A total of 15 of 28 failed cases underwent attempted R-PCI. Only 1 case also failed R-PCI; thus, the total PCI success rate was 87%. By multivariable analysis, the factors significantly predictive of failed A-PCI included negative remodeling (odds ratio [OR]: 137.82) and lesion length >31.89 mm on coronary CTA (OR: 7.04), and ostial or bifurcation lesions on CCA (OR: 8.02). R-PCI was successful in 14 of 15 patients (93.3%), in whom good appearance of the occluded distal segment and well-developed collateral vessels were present. Morphologic predictors of failed A-PCI on the basis of pre-procedure coronary CTA and CCA imaging may be identified, which may assist in determining which patients with CTO lesions would benefit from an early R-PCI strategy. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Biomechanical evaluation of straight antegrade nailing in proximal humeral fractures: the rationale of the "proximal anchoring point".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euler, Simon A; Petri, Maximilian; Venderley, Melanie B; Dornan, Grant J; Schmoelz, Werner; Turnbull, Travis Lee; Plecko, Michael; Kralinger, Franz S; Millett, Peter J

    2017-09-01

    Varus failure is one of the most common failure modes following surgical treatment of proximal humeral fractures. Straight antegrade nails (SAN) theoretically provide increased stability by anchoring to the densest zone of the proximal humerus (subchondral zone) with the end of the nail. The aim of this study was to biomechanically investigate the characteristics of this "proximal anchoring point" (PAP). We hypothesized that the PAP would improve stability compared to the same construct without the PAP. Straight antegrade humeral nailing was performed in 20 matched pairs of human cadaveric humeri for a simulated unstable two-part fracture. Biomechanical testing, with stepwise increasing cyclic axial loading (50-N increments each 100 cycles) at an angle of 20° abduction revealed significantly higher median loads to failure for SAN constructs with the PAP (median, 450 N; range, 200-1.000 N) compared to those without the PAP (median, 325 N; range, 100-500 N; p = 0.009). SAN constructs with press-fit proximal extensions (endcaps) showed similar median loads to failure (median, 400 N; range, 200-650 N), when compared to the undersized, commercially available SAN endcaps (median, 450 N; range, 200-600 N; p = 0.240). The PAP provided significantly increased stability in SAN constructs compared to the same setup without this additional proximal anchoring point. Varus-displacing forces to the humeral head were superiorly reduced in this setting. This study provides biomechanical evidence for the "proximal anchoring point's" rationale. Straight antegrade humeral nailing may be beneficial for patients undergoing surgical treatment for unstable proximal humeral fractures to decrease secondary varus displacement and thus potentially reduce revision rates.

  9. Obesity: An Independent Risk Factor for Insufficient Hemostasis Using the AngioSeal Vascular Closure Device After Antegrade Puncture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minko, Peter, E-mail: peterminko@yahoo.com; Katoh, Marcus [University Hospital Saarland, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Graeber, Stefan [University Hospital Saarland, Institute of Medical Biometry, Epidemiology and Medical Informatics (Germany); Buecker, Arno [University Hospital Saarland, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to investigate the efficacy of the AngioSeal vascular closure device after antegrade puncture of the femoral artery. Methods: In a prospective study, 120 consecutive patients underwent lower limb vascular intervention by an antegrade access to the common femoral artery (CFA). After intervention, a 6F (n = 88) or an 8F (n = 32) AngioSeal vascular closure device was used to achieve hemostasis. The technical success or the cause of failure was documented. In addition, the coagulation status (platelets, INR, prothrombin time, atrial thromboplastin time (PTT)), hypertonus, locoregional habitus of the groin, body mass index (BMI), presence of calcifications, and history of previous surgical interventions of the CFA were evaluated. Results: Hemostasis was achieved in 97 patients (81%). In 12 patients (10%), persistent bleeding of the puncture site required manual compression. In another nine patients (8%) a kink of the sheath obviated the passage of the collagen plug toward the vessel, and in two patients the anchor dislodged out of the vessel, requiring manual compression. There were no significant differences between the groups of successful and unsuccessful sealing regarding the mean platelets (241 vs. 254 * 10{sup 9}/l; P = 0.86), INR (1.06 vs. 1.02; P = 0.52), prothrombin time (90% vs. 90%; P = 0.86), and PTT (30 vs. 31 s; P = 0.82). However, unsuccessful sealing was more likely in obese patients with an increased BMI (26.6 vs. 28.8 kg/m{sup 2}; P = 0.04). Conclusions: Obesity seems to be an independent risk factor for insufficient sealing using the AngioSeal vascular closure device after antegrade puncture of the CFA. In 8% of our patients, hemostasis could not be achieved due to kink of the flexible sheath.

  10. Routine Use of Surgical Retrograde Transtibial Endovascular Approach for Failed Attempts at Antegrade Recanalization of Chronic Peripheral Artery Total Occlusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, GangZhu; Zhang, FuXian; Luo, XiaoYun; Zhang, ChangMing; Feng, YaPing; Niu, LuYuan; Zhang, Huan; Hu, Lu; Zhao, Hui; Cheng, Long; Zhang, MingYi

    2016-01-01

    PurposeOur aim was to describe the technical aspects and clinical outcomes of an open surgical approach to retrograde transtibial endovascular therapy for recanalization of chronic total occlusions (CTOs) of peripheral arteries because of inability to acquire antegrade intravascular access across the occlusion.Materials and MethodsBetween January 2011 and May 2014, conventional antegrade revascularization failed in 15 limbs of 15 patients (11 males, 4 females) with complex CTOs. The mean age of the patients was 74 years (range 48–83 years). Five patients had severe claudication (Rutherford Category 3), and 10 patients had critical limb-threatening ischemia (Rutherford Categories 4–5). For each of these cases of antegrade failure, an open surgical exposure of the tibial or dorsalis pedis artery was used to allow a safe retrograde transtibial endovascular approach to recanalize the CTO.ResultsSurgical retrograde access from the tibial artery was achieved successfully in 14 of the 15 patients. In the 14 successful retrograde endovascular approaches, surgical retrograde transtibial access was achieved from the dorsalis pedis artery in 8 patients and from the posterior tibial artery in 6. The average time to obtain retrograde access was 5 min (range 2–11 min). No stenosis or occlusion occurred in the tibial or dorsalis pedis arteries used for the retrograde access sites during follow-up.ConclusionsRoutine surgical exposure can be a safe and an effective method for retrograde transtibial access to the more proximal occluded arterial segments in selected patients with CTO.

  11. Routine Use of Surgical Retrograde Transtibial Endovascular Approach for Failed Attempts at Antegrade Recanalization of Chronic Peripheral Artery Total Occlusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, GangZhu; Zhang, FuXian, E-mail: gangzhuliang@126.com; Luo, XiaoYun; Zhang, ChangMing; Feng, YaPing; Niu, LuYuan; Zhang, Huan; Hu, Lu; Zhao, Hui; Cheng, Long; Zhang, MingYi [Capital Medical University, Department of Vascular Surgery, Beijing Shijitan Hospital (China)

    2016-12-15

    PurposeOur aim was to describe the technical aspects and clinical outcomes of an open surgical approach to retrograde transtibial endovascular therapy for recanalization of chronic total occlusions (CTOs) of peripheral arteries because of inability to acquire antegrade intravascular access across the occlusion.Materials and MethodsBetween January 2011 and May 2014, conventional antegrade revascularization failed in 15 limbs of 15 patients (11 males, 4 females) with complex CTOs. The mean age of the patients was 74 years (range 48–83 years). Five patients had severe claudication (Rutherford Category 3), and 10 patients had critical limb-threatening ischemia (Rutherford Categories 4–5). For each of these cases of antegrade failure, an open surgical exposure of the tibial or dorsalis pedis artery was used to allow a safe retrograde transtibial endovascular approach to recanalize the CTO.ResultsSurgical retrograde access from the tibial artery was achieved successfully in 14 of the 15 patients. In the 14 successful retrograde endovascular approaches, surgical retrograde transtibial access was achieved from the dorsalis pedis artery in 8 patients and from the posterior tibial artery in 6. The average time to obtain retrograde access was 5 min (range 2–11 min). No stenosis or occlusion occurred in the tibial or dorsalis pedis arteries used for the retrograde access sites during follow-up.ConclusionsRoutine surgical exposure can be a safe and an effective method for retrograde transtibial access to the more proximal occluded arterial segments in selected patients with CTO.

  12. Failed pelvic pouch substituted by continent ileostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasmuth, H H; Tranø, G; Wibe, A; Endreseth, B H; Rydning, A; Myrvold, H E

    2010-07-01

    The long-term failure rate of ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) is 10-15%. When salvage surgery is unsuccessful, most surgeons prefer pouch excision with conventional ileostomy, thus sacrificing 40-50 cm of ileum. Conversion of a pelvic pouch to a continent ileostomy (CI, Kock pouch) is an alternative that preserves both the ileal surface and pouch properties. The aim of the study was to evaluate clinical outcome after the construction of a CI following a failed IPAA. During 1984-2007, 317 patients were operated with IPAA at St Olavs Hospital and evaluated for failure, treatment and outcome. Seven patients with IPAA failure had CI. Four patients with IPAA failure referred from other hospitals underwent conversion to CI and are included in the final analysis. Seven patients had a CI constructed from the transposing pelvic pouch and four had the pelvic pouch removed and a new continent pouch constructed from the distal ileum. Median follow up after conversion to CI was 7 years (0-17 years). Two CI had to be removed due to fistulae. One patient needed a revision of the nipple valve due to pouch loosening. At the end of follow-up, 8 of the 11 patients were fully continent. One patient with Crohn's disease had minor leakage. In patients with pelvic pouch failure, the possibility of conversion to CI should be presented to the patient as an alternative to pouch excision and permanent ileostomy. The advantage is the continence and possibly a better body image. Construction of a CI on a new ileal segment may be considered, but the consequences of additional small bowel loss and risk of malnutrition if the Kock pouch fails should be appraised.

  13. Quality of life after antegrade intramedullary nail fixation of humeral fractures: a survey in a selected cohort of Brazilian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocco, Luiz Fernando; Ejnisman, Benno; Belangero, Paulo Santoro; Cohen, Moises; Dos Reis, Fernando Baldy

    2018-01-01

    The treatment of humeral fractures remains controversial. Systematic reviews demonstrate similar results between dynamic compression plating and locked intramedullary nailing in the surgical treatment of these fractures. However, it appears that antegrade intramedullary nailing causes higher residual pain in the shoulder. The proposal of this work is to evaluate through the WORC protocol (Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index) the consequences in the quality of life of patients submitted to osteosynthesis of the humerus with antegrade locked intramedullary nailing. This work is a cohort retrospective study in addition to the application of a questionnaire for self-rated quality of life with its 05 domains (WORC - Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index) for patients ( N  = 26) classified in the Trauma Sector of the Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology of the Federal University of São Paulo (DOT/UNIFESP) submitted to Humerus Osteosynthesis with Antegrade Locked Intramedullary Nailing. There was also the inclusion of data related to the time since surgery, age, sex, surgical laterality, dominance among members and work leave, which were not considered in the original protocol. After, the data were statistically assessed to evaluate the association between numerical and categorical variables. The overall WORC score was 82.75 ± 17.00 (Mean ± SD) and was not different considering sex, age and postoperative period. Among the WORC domains, both Work and Sport / Recreation Protocols were the most unfavorable factors in the evaluation of patients. Although not statistically significant, those who had the procedure on the dominant side presented a lower quality of life score than those who had the surgery on the non-dominant side. Although non-significant again, those who were away from work had an overall lower quality of life score than those who were not. The WORC Quality of Life Protocol shows good results for evaluating patients submitted to humerus

  14. Spreading continents kick-started plate tectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Patrice F; Coltice, Nicolas; Flament, Nicolas

    2014-09-18

    Stresses acting on cold, thick and negatively buoyant oceanic lithosphere are thought to be crucial to the initiation of subduction and the operation of plate tectonics, which characterizes the present-day geodynamics of the Earth. Because the Earth's interior was hotter in the Archaean eon, the oceanic crust may have been thicker, thereby making the oceanic lithosphere more buoyant than at present, and whether subduction and plate tectonics occurred during this time is ambiguous, both in the geological record and in geodynamic models. Here we show that because the oceanic crust was thick and buoyant, early continents may have produced intra-lithospheric gravitational stresses large enough to drive their gravitational spreading, to initiate subduction at their margins and to trigger episodes of subduction. Our model predicts the co-occurrence of deep to progressively shallower mafic volcanics and arc magmatism within continents in a self-consistent geodynamic framework, explaining the enigmatic multimodal volcanism and tectonic record of Archaean cratons. Moreover, our model predicts a petrological stratification and tectonic structure of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle, two predictions that are consistent with xenolith and seismic studies, respectively, and consistent with the existence of a mid-lithospheric seismic discontinuity. The slow gravitational collapse of early continents could have kick-started transient episodes of plate tectonics until, as the Earth's interior cooled and oceanic lithosphere became heavier, plate tectonics became self-sustaining.

  15. Comparison of Sucralfate and Hydrocortisone Enemas in Treatment of Active Ulcerative Proctitis; A Double-Blind Randomized ClinicalL Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Javadi

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Sucralfate enema has been proposed and investigated in treatment of ulcerative proctitis, but its efficacy is still a matter of debate. Hydrocortisone enema is still an established drug in treatment of ulcerative proctitis. This study was designed to compare the effect of sucralfate enema with hydrocortisone enema. Patients with active sigmoidoscopic and histologic features of ulcerative proctitis were included. All patients had clinical manifestations of proctitis for at least four weeks prior to the study and had negative parasitic stool culture. The total of 25 patients entered the study. They were randomly divided in two groups; group I (n =14 and group II (n = 11 who received sucralfate and hydrocortisone enemas respectively for 4 weeks. Both groups had a significant improvement in clinical features, histologic activity and sigmoidoscopic evaluation in comparison with the baseline. Furthermore there was no significant differences between the two groups concerning mean changes of clinical, sigmoidoscopic, and histologic grading, after treatment. Considering the low cost and minimal adverse effects of sucralfate, and almost equal efficacy in comparison with hydrocortisone enema, its usage can be recommended.

  16. 21 CFR 876.5030 - Continent ileostomy catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Continent ileostomy catheter. 876.5030 Section 876...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5030 Continent ileostomy catheter. (a) Identification. A continent ileostomy catheter is a flexible tubular device used as a form...

  17. Epidermal growth factor enemas for induction of remission in left-sided ulcerative colitis Enemas de factor de crecimiento epidérmico para inducir la remisión de la colitis ulcerosa izquierda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Nodarse-Cuní

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: ulcerative colitis is a little known chronic inflammatory disease in colonic mucosa. The positive effect of epidermal growth factor was shown in a previous report, with enema use for treatment of mild to moderate left-sided manifestation of the disease. This evidence provided the basis for evaluating the efficacy and safety profile of a viscous solution of this product. Methods: thirty-one patients were randomized to three groups for daily medications during 14 days. Twelve received one 10 mg enema of epidermal growth factor dissolved in 100 mL of viscous solution whereas nine were treated with placebo enema; both groups also received 1.2 g of oral mesalamine per day. The other group included ten patients with 3 g / 100 mL of mesalamine enema. Primary end point was clinical responses after two weeks of treatment, defined as a decreased of, at least three points from baseline, the Disease Activity Index and endoscopic or histological evidences of improvement. Results: remission of disease was observed in all patients in the epidermal growth factor group, and six in both, mesalamine enema and placebo group. All the comparisons between groups showed statistically significant superiority for epidermal growth factor, the only product with significant reduction in disease activity index as well as the presence and intensity of digestive symptoms in patients after treatment. None adverse event was reported. Conclusions: the results agree with previous molecular and clinical evidences, indicating that the epidermal growth factor is effective to reduce disease activity and to induce remission. A new study involving more patients should be conducted to confirm the efficacy of the epidermal growth factor enemas.Introducción: la colitis ulcerosa es una enfermedad inflamatoria crónica de etiología poco conocida, que afecta la mucosa del colon. El efecto positivo del factor de crecimiento epidérmico fue reportado en estudio previo con uso de

  18. Is a Double Contrast Barium Enema Necessary in Patients who Undergo a CT Colonography as a Preoperative Work-up?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Won; Lee, Soon Jin; Choi, Dong Il; Kim, Hee Jung; Chun, Ho Kyung; Yun, Seong Hyeon; Jeon, Yong Hwan; Park, Seung Bae; Kim, Min Ju

    2009-01-01

    To determine the efficiency of CT colonography (CTC), as compared with the double contrast barium enema (DCBE) for the preoperative work-up of colorectal neoplasms. A total of 39 patients underwent both a CTC and DCBE before surgery. Three abdominal radiologists and three colorectal surgeons retrospectively reviewed virtual double contrast (VDC) and DCBE images, regarding each examination for localization, conspicuity, extent and morphology of neoplasms. We reviewed the radiological reports of the CTC and DCBE for the polyps. In the case of both VDC and DCBE, 40 cancers were detected in 39 patients. According to abdominal radiologists, VDC showed the same ability to identify DCBE for localization of neoplasms (p 0.05). The performance of the CTC is comparable to the DCBE for the localization of main mass and polyps in patients with colorectal neoplasm. Barium enema don't seem to be necessary for patients who undergo a CTC as preoperative work-up

  19. An oral modified-release nifedipine tablet (Adalat LA) and its appearance on double contrast barium enema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleehen, Robert E.

    2000-01-01

    Adalat LA 30 mg and 60 mg tablets are widely prescribed oral modified release nifedipine preparations with a porous, non-digestible plastic tablet coating which is required in order to effect the osmotically driven slow release mechanism. These tablets may therefore be seen anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract and are passed apparently whole in the faeces. An example of the appearance within the rectum of Adalat LA 30 (Bayer) on double contrast barium enema is shown and the main features described. A review of the literature is given. Recognition of the appearances during the barium enema examination will prompt those performing the procedure to question the drug history where relevant and will reduce the incidence of false-positive reporting. Bleehen, R.E. (2000)

  20. The value of sonography, CT and air enema for detection of complicated Meckel diverticulum in children with nonspecific clinical presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daneman, A.; Lobo, E.; Alton, D.J.; Shuckett, B.

    1998-01-01

    Background. Complicated Meckel diverticulum (MD) in children does not always present with painless rectal bleeding and its presentation can then produce a difficult diagnostic dilemma. In this clinical setting, sonography (US), CT or even air enema may be the first modality chosen to evaluate these children rather than the radionuclide Meckel scan (RNMS). Purpose. To assess the value of US, CT and air enema for detection of complicated MD. Materials and methods. Review of clinical, imaging, surgical and pathological findings in 64 children (55 males, 9 females) aged 4 days -14 years (mean = 3.7 years) with MD seen during an 8-year period, 1990-1997. Results. (a) In 33 patients with rectal bleeding, MD was detected on RNMS in 32. Ten of these 32 had other imaging studies, all of which were negative. (b) The other 31 patients, with varied clinical presentations, did not undergo RNMS. In these 31 and the 1 with a negative RNMS, 14 (44 %) had imaging features highly suggestive for the diagnosis of MD on US in all 14, on CT in 1, and on air enema in 3. The radiological spectrum of the inflamed, hemorrhagic MD is illustrated. Conclusion. The inflamed, hemorrhagic and the inverted, intussuscepted MD have a spectrum of features recognizable on US, CT and air enema. Some of these appearances are specific, others are not. Knowledge of and recognition of these features will facilitate detection of complicated MD in larger numbers of children presenting with symptoms other than the classic history of painless rectal bleeding and also in those with normal RNMS. (orig.)

  1. Rectal water contrast transvaginal ultrasound versus double-contrast barium enema in the diagnosis of bowel endometriosis

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Jipeng; Liu, Ying; Wang, Kun; Wu, Xixiang; Tang, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aim of study was to compare the accuracy between rectal water contrast transvaginal ultrasound (RWC-TVS) and double-contrast barium enema (DCBE) in evaluating the bowel endometriosis presence as well as its extent. Design and setting 198 patients at reproductive age with suspicious bowel endometriosis were included. Physicians in two groups specialised at endometriosis performed RWC-TVS as well as DCBE before laparoscopy and both groups were blinded to other groups’ results. Fi...

  2. EVALUATION OF ENEMAS CONTAINING SUCRALFATE IN TISSUE CONTENT OF MUC-2 PROTEIN IN EXPERIMENTAL MODEL OF DIVERSION COLITIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Oscar Orlando Araya; Pereira, José Aires; Campos, Fábio Guilherme; Araya, Carolina Mardegan; Marinho, Gabriele Escocia; Novo, Rafaela de Souza; Oliveira, Thais Silva de; Franceschi, Yara Tinoco; Martinez, Carlos Augusto Real

    2017-01-01

    The effects of topical application of sucralfate (SCF) on the tissue content of MUC-2 protein have not yet been evaluated in experimental models of diversion colitis. To measure the tissue content of MUC-2 protein in the colonic mucosa diverted from fecal stream submitted to the SCF intervention. Thirty-six rats underwent derivation of intestinal transit through proximal colostomy and distal mucous fistula. The animals were divided into three groups which were submitted application of enemas with saline, SCF 1 g/kg/day and SCF 2 g/kg/day. Each group was divided into two subgroups, according to euthanasia was done after two or four weeks. The colitis diagnosis was established by histopathological study and the inflammatory intensity was evaluated by previously validated scale. The MUC-2 protein was identified by immunohistochemistry and the tissue content was measured computerized morphometry). The application of enemas with SCF in the concentration of 2 g/kg/day reduced inflammatory score of the segments that were diverted from fecal stream. The content of MUC-2 in diverted colon of the animals submitted to the intervention with SCF, independently of intervention period and the used concentration, was significantly greater than animals submitted to the application of enemas containing saline (p< 0.01). The content of MUC-2 after the intervention with SCF in the concentration of 2 g/kg/day was significantly higher when compared to the animals submitted to the application containing SCF at concentration of 1.0 g/kg/day (p<0.01). The tissue content of MUC-2 reached the highest values after intervention with SCF in the concentration of 2 g/kg/day for four weeks (p<0.01). Conclusion: The preventive application of enemas containing SCF reduces the inflammatory score and avoids the reduction of tissue content of MUC-2, suggesting that the substance is a valid therapeutic strategy to preserve the mucus layer that covers the intestinal epithelium.

  3. Role of the double-contrast barium enema in rectal stenosis due to suppositories containing paracetamol and acetylsalicylic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tannouri, F.; Lalmand, B.; Zalcman, M.; Gansbeke, D. van; Gevenois, P.A.; Struyven, J. [Department of Radiology, Hopital Erasme, University of Brussels (Belgium); Peny, M.O. [Department of Pathology, University of Brussels (Belgium); Gossum, A. van [Department of Gastroenterology, University of Brussels (Belgium)

    1998-09-01

    Self-treatment of chronic headache with suppositories containing paracetamol and acetylsalaicylic acid may lead to serious complications. We report the radiological features of five cases of rectal stenosis following the use of such suppositories. The role of the double-contrast barium enema in suggesting the diagnosis of this complication of a chronic and often unrecognized self-treatment is emphasized. (orig.) With 6 figs., 20 refs.

  4. Assessing colonic anatomy normal values based on air contrast enemas in children younger than 6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppen, Ilan J N; Yacob, Desale; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Saps, Miguel; Benninga, Marc A; Cooper, Jennifer N; Minneci, Peter C; Deans, Katherine J; Bates, D Gregory; Thompson, Benjamin P

    2017-03-01

    Contrast enemas with barium or water-soluble contrast agents are sometimes performed in children with severe intractable constipation to identify anatomical abnormalities. However there are no clear definitions for normal colonic size or abnormalities such as colonic dilation or sigmoid redundancy in children. To describe characteristics of colonic anatomy on air contrast enemas in children without constipation to provide normal values for colonic size ratios in children. We performed a retrospective chart review of children aged 0-5 years who had undergone air contrast enemas for intussusception. The primary outcome measures were the ratios of the diameters and lengths of predetermined colonic segments (lengths of rectosigmoid and descending colon; diameters of rectum, sigmoid, descending colon, transverse colon and ascending colon) in relation to the L2 vertebral body width. We included 119 children (median age 2.0 years, range 0-5 years, 68% boys). Colonic segment length ratios did not change significantly with age, although the differences for the rectosigmoid/L2 ratio were borderline significant (P = 0.05). The ratios that involved the rectal and ascending colon diameters increased significantly with age, while diameter ratios involving the other colonic segments did not. Differences by gender and race were not significant. These data can be used for reference purposes in young children undergoing contrast studies of the colon.

  5. Double contrast barium enema: technique, indications, results and limitations of a conventional imaging methodology in the MDCT virtual endoscopy era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollandi, Gian Andrea; Biscaldi, Ennio; DeCicco, Enzo

    2007-03-01

    The double contrast barium enema of the colon continues to be a diffused conventional radiological technique and allows for the diagnosis of neoplastic and inflammatory pathology. After the '70s, a massive initiative is undertaken to simplify, perfect and encode the method of the double contrast barium enema: Altaras from Germany, Miller from USA and Cittadini from Italy are responsible for the perfection of this technique in the last 30 years. The tailored patient preparation, a perfect technique of execution and a precise radiological documentation are essentials steps to obtain a reliable examination. The main limit of double contrast enema is that it considers the pathology only from the mucosal surface. In neoplastic pathology evaluation the main limit is the "T" parameter staging, but more limited are the "N" and "M" parameters evaluation. Today the double contrast technique continues to be a refined, sensitive and specific diagnostic method, moreover, diagnostic results cannot compete with the new CT multislice techniques (CT-enteroclysis and virtual colonoscopy) which can examine both the lumen and the wall of the colon. The double contrast is a cheap and simple examination but in the next future is predictably a progressive substitution of conventional radiology from new multislice techniques, because the cross sectional imaging is more frequently able to detect causes of the symptoms whether resulting both from colonic or non colonic origin.

  6. Double contrast barium enema: Technique, indications, results and limitations of a conventional imaging methodology in the MDCT virtual endoscopy era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rollandi, Gian Andrea; Biscaldi, Ennio; DeCicco, Enzo

    2007-01-01

    The double contrast barium enema of the colon continues to be a diffused conventional radiological technique and allows for the diagnosis of neoplastic and inflammatory pathology. After the '70s, a massive initiative is undertaken to simplify, perfect and encode the method of the double contrast barium enema: Altaras from Germany, Miller from USA and Cittadini from Italy are responsible for the perfection of this technique in the last 30 years. The tailored patient preparation, a perfect technique of execution and a precise radiological documentation are essentials steps to obtain a reliable examination. The main limit of double contrast enema is that it considers the pathology only from the mucosal surface. In neoplastic pathology evaluation the main limit is the 'T' parameter staging, but more limited are the 'N' and 'M' parameters evaluation. Today the double contrast technique continues to be a refined, sensitive and specific diagnostic method, moreover, diagnostic results cannot compete with the new CT multislice techniques (CT-enteroclysis and virtual colonoscopy) which can examine both the lumen and the wall of the colon. The double contrast is a cheap and simple examination but in the next future is predictably a progressive substitution of conventional radiology from new multislice techniques, because the cross sectional imaging is more frequently able to detect causes of the symptoms whether resulting both from colonic or non colonic origin

  7. Castor oil, bath and/or enema for cervical priming and induction of labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Anthony J; Kavanagh, Josephine; Thomas, Jane

    2013-07-24

    Castor oil, a potent cathartic, is derived from the bean of the castor plant. Anecdotal reports, which date back to ancient Egypt have suggested the use of castor oil to stimulate labour. Castor oil has been widely used as a traditional method of initiating labour in midwifery practice. Its role in the initiation of labour is poorly understood and data examining its efficacy within a clinical trial are limited. This is one of a series of reviews of methods of cervical ripening and labour induction using standardised methodology. To determine the effects of castor oil or enemas for third trimester cervical ripening or induction of labour in comparison with other methods of cervical ripening or induction of labour. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 April 2013) and bibliographies of relevant papers. Clinical trials comparing castor oil, bath or enemas used for third trimester cervical ripening or labour induction with placebo/no treatment or other methods listed above it on a predefined list of labour induction methods. A strategy was developed to deal with the large volume and complexity of trial data relating to labour induction. This involved a two-stage method of data extraction. Three trials, involving 233 women, are included. There was no evidence of differences in caesarean section rates between the two interventions in the two trials reporting this outcome (risk ratio (RR) 2.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92 to 4.55). There were no data presented on neonatal or maternal mortality or morbidity.There was no evidence of a difference between castor oil and placebo/no treatment for the rate of instrumental delivery, meconium-stained liquor, or Apgar score less than seven at five minutes. The number of participants was too small to detect all but large differences in outcome. All women who ingested castor oil felt nauseous (RR 59.92, 95% CI 8.46 to 424.52). The three trials included in the review contain small numbers

  8. Colorectal cancer: screening double-contrast barium enema examination in average-risk adults older than 50 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Justin W; Levine, Marc S; Glick, Seth N; Lakhani, Paras; Rubesin, Stephen E; Laufer, Igor

    2006-09-01

    To retrospectively determine the diagnostic yield of double-contrast barium enema examinations performed for colorectal cancer screening of neoplasms 1 cm or larger or advanced neoplastic lesions of any size in average-risk adults older than 50 years. The Institutional Review Board at the affiliated Veterans Affairs Medical Center approved this HIPAA-compliant study protocol and did not require informed consent from patients. Computerized databases revealed 276 double-contrast barium enema examinations performed for colorectal cancer screening in average-risk adults older than 50 years. Radiographic and pathologic reports were reviewed to determine the number of patients who had polypoid lesions 1 cm or larger, polyps smaller than 1 cm, or advanced neoplastic lesions of any size. Forty-five (16.3%) of the 276 patients underwent follow-up sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy. Medical, endoscopic, and pathologic records were reviewed and compared with radiographic findings. The results of double-contrast barium enema examination revealed 74 (26.8%) of 276 patients with 104 polypoid lesions in the colon, including 32 patients (11.6%) with 41 polypoid lesions 1 cm or larger, 15 patients (5.4%) with 19 polyps 6-9 mm, and 27 patients (9.8%) with 44 polyps 5 mm or smaller. Endoscopy was performed in 24 (75%) of 32 patients, the results of which confirmed 23 (72%) of 32 radiographically diagnosed lesions 1 cm or larger in 16 (67%) of 24 patients. In two of these individuals, the polyps were hyperplastic. The remaining 14 patients had a total of 21 neoplastic lesions 1 cm or larger, including 11 tubular adenomas, seven tubulovillous adenomas, one villous adenoma with marked dysplasia, and two cancers. The diagnostic yield of screening double-contrast barium enema examination was 5.1% (14 of 276 patients) for neoplastic lesions 1 cm or larger and 6.2% (17 of 276 patients) for advanced neoplastic lesions of any size. Double-contrast barium enema examinations performed in average

  9. Target ballon-assisted antegrade and retrograde approach for recanalization of thrombosed fem-pop bypass graft using the outbreak catheter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Jung Won; Chung, Hwan Hoon; Lee, Seung Hwa; Yeom, Suk Keu; Cha, Sang Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The subintimal arterial flossing with antegrade-retrograde intervention (SAFARI) technique is reportedly effective in severe peripheral vascular disease that cannot be treated with standard endovascular techniques including subintimal angioplasty. In this report, we used a target balloon with the Outback catheter to recanalize a thrombosed bypass graft that could not be treated successfully with SAFARI

  10. Target ballon-assisted antegrade and retrograde approach for recanalization of thrombosed fem-pop bypass graft using the outbreak catheter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Jung Won; Chung, Hwan Hoon; Lee, Seung Hwa; Yeom, Suk Keu; Cha, Sang Hoon [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University College of Medicine, Ansan Hospital, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    The subintimal arterial flossing with antegrade-retrograde intervention (SAFARI) technique is reportedly effective in severe peripheral vascular disease that cannot be treated with standard endovascular techniques including subintimal angioplasty. In this report, we used a target balloon with the Outback catheter to recanalize a thrombosed bypass graft that could not be treated successfully with SAFARI.

  11. Diverticulitis of the sigmoid colon. A comparison of CT, colonic enema and laparoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefansson, T.; Univ. Hospital, Uppsala; Nyman, R.; Nilsson, S.; Ekbom, A.; Univ. Hospital, Uppsala; Paahlman, L.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the use of laparoscopy, CT, colonic enema (CE), and laboratory tests (white blood cell count (WBC), sedimentation rate (SR), and C-reactive protein (CRP)) in diagnosing diverticulitis of the sigmoid colon. Material and Methods: The diagnostic methods were prospectively evaluated in 88 patients, 30 of whom were referred for laparoscopy. Results: Fity-two patients were found to have sigmoid diverticulitis: 20 patients by lanparoscopy, 21 by CT, and 11 by CE combined with one positive laboratory test. Laparoscopy proved to be superior to the other diagnostic methods in diagnosing diverticulitis of the sigmoid colon. CT had a high specificity (1.0; 95% CI: 0.92-1.0) but low sensitivity (0.69; 95% CI: 0.56-0.79) in detecting diverticulitis. CE had a higher sensitivity (0.82; 95% CI: 0.71-0.90) but a lower specificity (0.81; 95% CI: 0.67-0.91) than CT. Conclusion: CT was the best method for diagnosing abdominal pathology outside the colon. CT can be recommended as the first examination in seriously ill patients where abscesses and other causes of the symptoms than diverticulitis must first be rule out. Laparoscopy is probably the most accurate method in diagnosing diverticulitis. (orig.)

  12. Soap Suds Enemas Are Efficacious and Safe for Treating Fecal Impaction in Children With Abdominal Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumpitazi, Corrie E; Henkel, Erin B; Valdez, Karina L; Chumpitazi, Bruno P

    2016-07-01

    Constipation is a common cause of pediatric abdominal pain and emergency department (ED) presentation. Despite the high prevalence, there is a dearth of clinical information and wide practice variation in childhood constipation management in the ED. The objective of the study was to assess the efficacy and safety of soap suds enema (SSE) in the therapy for fecal impaction in children with abdominal pain within the pediatric ED setting. The primary outcome was stool output following SSE. Secondary outcomes were adverse events, admissions, and return visits within 72 hours. The present study is a retrospective cross-sectional study performed in the ED at a quaternary care children's hospital of patients seen during a 12-month period who received an SSE for fecal impaction. Five hundred twelve patients (53% girls, median age 7.8 years, range: 8 months-23 years) received SSE therapy during a 1-year period. Successful therapy (bowel movement) following SSE occurred in 419 (82%). Adverse events included abdominal pain in 24 (5%) and nausea/vomiting in 18 (4%). No SSE-related serious adverse events were identified. Following SSE, 405 (79%) were subsequently discharged, of which 15 (3.7%) returned to the ED for re-evaluation within 72 hours. SSE is an efficacious and safe therapeutic option for the acute treatment of childhood fecal impaction in the ED setting.

  13. Evaluation of colonic involvement in endometriosis: double-contrast barium enema vs. magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccioli, N; Foti, G; Manfredi, R; Mainardi, P; Spoto, E; Ruffo, G; Minelli, L; Mucelli, R Pozzi

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the accuracy of double-contrast barium enema (DCBE) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of intestinal endometriosis using the histological examination on resected specimen as comparative standard. Eighty-three consecutive patients with suspected intestinal endometriosis, resected between 2005 and 2007, were prospectively evaluated. All of the women underwent preoperative DCBE and MRI on the same day. We evaluated number, site (rectum, sigmoid, cecum), and size of the lesions. The imaging findings were correlated with those resulting at pathology. Among the 65 women who underwent surgery, 50/65 (76.9%) were found to have bowel endometriosis, with 9/50 (18%) patients presenting two lesions; DCBE allowed to detect 50/59 (84.7%) lesions. MRI allowed to detect 42/59 (71.1%) lesions. DCBE showed sensibility, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of respectively 84.7, 93.7, 98.0, 62.5, and 86.6%, MRI of 71.1, 83.3, 93.3, 46.8, and 74.6%. DCBE is more accurate than unenhanced MRI in the diagnosis of bowel endometriosis, and should be preferred in the preoperative management of this disease, since it usually enables a proper surgical planning.

  14. The utility of the contrast enema in neonates with suspected Hirschsprung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Luke R; John, Susan D; Greenfield, Susan A; Kellagher, Caroline M; Austin, Mary T; Lally, Kevin P; Tsao, Kuojen

    2015-06-01

    The contrast enema (CE) is commonly utilized for suspected Hirschsprung disease (HD) patients. We set out to determine the utility of the CE in the newborn for clinically suspicious HD. All CEs performed for suspicion of HD in neonates from January 2004 to December 2013 were reviewed by two pediatric radiologists who were blinded to the original interpretations and final diagnoses. A standardized scoring sheet was utilized to document essential radiographic findings. Definitive diagnoses were determined by pathology. Descriptive statistics, likelihood ratios, and interrater agreement were determined. 158 CEs were reviewed. Interrater agreement was 89% with kappa (95% CI) of 0.63 (0.47-0.76). Common indications for CE were similar between non-HD and HD groups. The positive, inconclusive, and negative likelihood ratios (95% CI) were 38 (10-172), 3.2 (1.3-9.1), and 0.15 (0.06-0.47), respectively, leading to posttest probabilities for positive, inconclusive, and negative tests of 83%, 32%, and 2.5%, respectively. Although radiographic positive CE for HD portends a high probability of HD, inconclusive studies still represent a significant increased risk. In clinically suspicious infants for HD, those with inconclusive studies may benefit from a lower threshold to perform follow-up rectal biopsy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Functional anatomy of the male continence mechanism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalenberg, T; Neuhaus, J; Dartsch, M; Weissenfels, P; Löffler, S; Stolzenburg, J-U

    2010-04-01

    The basic structures and organs contributing to continence in men are far less well investigated than in women. This concerns anatomical and functional aspects as well. Especially the cooperation of single components and the dynamic anchoring in the pelvic floor require further investigation. An improved anatomical-functional interpretation is needed to generate therapeutic concepts orientated at the physiology of the bladder neck.Therefore, the focus of anatomical investigations should be on the external sphincter which is the main muscle responsible for urethral closure as well as on the connective tissue, smooth muscular and neuronal structures in the pelvis. The smooth muscular structures involved are the internal sphincter, the inner parts of the external sphincter, the urethral longitudinal musculature, and parts of the centrum perinei and of the ventral suspension apparatus which fixes the position of the bladder neck and seems to be vital for continence and initiation of micturition. These new findings imply an integral concept for men as was developed for women. A first step in this regard would be a consistent and updated anatomical nomenclature.

  16. The impact of antegrade intramedullary nailing start site using the SIGN nail in proximal femoral fractures: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa Diab, Mohamed; Wu, Hao-Hua; Eliezer, Edmund; Haonga, Billy; Morshed, Saam; Shearer, David W

    2018-02-01

    In many low and middle-income countries (LMICs) SIGN nail is commonly used for antegrade femoral intramedullary (IM) nailing, using a start site either at the tip of the greater trochanter or piriformis fossa. While a correct start site is considered an essential technical step; few studies have evaluated the impact of using an erroneous start site. This is particularly relevant in settings with limited access to fluoroscopy to aid in creating a nail entry point. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of antegrade SIGN IM nailing start site on radiographic alignment and health-related quality of life. In this prospective cohort study, adult patients with proximal femur fractures (OTA 32, subtrochanteric zone) treated with antegrade IM SIGN nail at Muhimbili Orthopaedic Institute (MOI), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania were enrolled. Start site was determined on the immediate postoperative X-ray and was graded on a continuous scale based on distance of the IM nail center from the greater trochanteric tip. The primary outcome measurement was coronal alignment on the post-operative x-ray. The secondary outcomes were reoperation rates, RUST scores and EQ5D scores at one year follow-up. Seventy-nine patients were enrolled. 50 of them (63.3%) had complete data at 1year and were included in the final data analysis. Of the fifty patients, nine (18%) had IM nails placed laterally, 26 (52%) medially and 15 (30%) directly over the tip of the greater trochanter. Compared to a start site at the tip or medial to the greater trochanter, a lateral start site was 9 times more likely to result in a varus malalignment (95% CI: 1.42-57.70, p=0.021). Lateral start site was associated with varus malalignment. Although lateral start site was not significantly associated with reoperation, varus deformity was associated with higher reoperation rates. Surgeons should consider avoiding a start site lateral to the tip of the greater trochanter or allow the nail to rotate to avoid

  17. Effects of single antegrade hot shot in comparison with no hot shot administration during coronary artery bypass grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouya Mirmohammadsadeghi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Superior results will be achieved from cardiac surgery by minimizing the effect of ischemia/reperfusion injury during cross-clamping of the aorta. Different cardioplegia solutions have been introduced, but the optimum one is still ambiguous. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of single antegrade hot shot terminal warm blood cardioplegia (TWBC on patients who had undergone coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG. METHODS: In total, 2488 patients who had CABG surgery in Sina Hospital, Isfahan, Iran, from 2003 to 2011 were enrolled in this case-control study. They were divided into two groups, those who received cold cardioplegia only and those who received a hot shot following cold cardioplegia. Demographics, and clinical data, such as; premature atrial contraction (PAC arrhythmia, diabetes treatment, and left ventricular ejection fraction (EF, were collected and logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the data. RESULTS: There were significant differences found between subjects receiving antegrade hot shot based on direct current (DC shocks, with regard to; female, EF levels, diabetes treatment (P < 0.050. Those who did not receive the hot shot and were not diabetic received more DC shock (P = 0.019. The prevalence of subjects who did no need DC shock was significantly higher among male subjects who had good EF and acceptable diabetic treatment. Multiple logistic regression showed that PAC arrhythmia did not have a significant effect on receiving DC shock during CAGB [0.84 (0.25, 2.85, (P = 0.780]. Having poor EF increased the risk of receiving DC shock among subjects by 2.81 [(1.69, 4.69, (P ≤ 0.001] (P < 0.001. Among the diabetic subjects, receiving insulin decreased the risk of receiving DC shock by 0.54 (0.29, 0.98 (P = 0.042. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that single antegrade hot shot following cold cardioplegia was not particularly effective in the CABG group. TWBC will decrease the need for DC shock.   

  18. Young Africans Tackle Their Continent's Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olwoch, Jane Mukarugwiza

    2008-11-01

    Young African Scientists Session at the Fourth International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Congress; Cape Town, South Africa, 7 May 2008; Africa is often described as a unique and diverse continent. This is reflected in its biodiversity, economic and social circumstances, and diversity in culture and environment. The Young African Scientists (YAS) session at the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Congress was one of the congress's highlights. Global environmental change research in Africa was presented to an audience that included visiting international and national scientists, policy makers, and a group of schoolchildren. From the uniqueness of Africa's paleoclimate to the diversity and complexity of current and future impacts of environmental change on Africa, the session not only provided an overview of current projects but also highlighted the problems that are intertwined with poverty. This session was sponsored by the Global Change System for Analysis, Research, and Training (START).

  19. The novel appearance of low rectal anastomosis on contrast enema following laparoscopic anterior resection: discriminating anastomotic leaks from "dog-ears" on water-soluble contrast enema and flexible sigmoidoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katory, Mark; McLean, Ross; Osman, Khalid; Ahmad, Mukhtar; Hughes, Tracey; Newby, Mike; Dennison, Christopher; O'Loughlin, Paul

    2017-02-01

    Interpretation of water-soluble contrast enema following laparoscopic low anterior resection can be very challenging for both radiologists and colorectal surgeons. Discriminating the radiological appearances secondary to anastomotic configuration from those caused by actual anastomotic dehiscence is a common problem and may be made worse with the advent of laparoscopic surgery. The aim of this study is to identify potential novel appearances of the water-soluble contrast enema (WSCE) images of rectal anastomosis following laparoscopic low anterior resection to radiologists and surgeons. We enrolled 45 patients who underwent laparoscopic low anterior resection with proximal de-functioning loop ileostomy within a specialized colorectal unit. The water-soluble contrast enema reports were reviewed. Two blinded colorectal radiologists independently reviewed the images of patients suspected of anastomotic leak. All of these patients also underwent a flexible sigmoidoscopy to confirm or exclude anastomotic leak before reversal of loop ileostomy. Inter-observer concordance was calculated. Seven out of eighteen patients (38.9%) were found to have true anastomotic leaks on flexible sigmoidoscopy (15% overall leak rate). In the remaining eleven patients the image appearances were attributed to the appearance of the anastomotic 'dog-ear effect', created by the anastomotic configuration due to multiple firing of the intra-corporeal laparoscopic stapling device. Radiologist inter-observer concordance was 83%. Sensitivity was 100%, specificity 71%, positive-predictive value (38.9%) and negative-predictive value (100%). The novel appearances of laparoscopic-stapled rectal anastomoses in WSCE can be mistaken for anastomotic leak. To avoid delay in reversal of ileostomy, a flexible sigmoidoscopy can be used to confirm or exclude a leak.

  20. The Use of the “Preclosure” Technique for Antegrade Aspiration Thrombectomy with Large Catheters in Acute Limb Ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funke, C.; Pfiffner, R.; Husmann, M.; Pfammatter, T.

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to assess retrospectively short- and mid-term outcomes of the use of a suture-mediated closure device to close the antegrade access in patients undergoing percutaneous aspiration thrombectomy with large catheters for acute leg ischemia. Between November 2005 and February 2010, a suture-mediated active closure system (ProGlide ® 6F, Abbott) was placed before arterial sheath (mean 9 F, range 6–12 F) introduction in 101 patients (74 men, 73 %, mean age 70.1 ± 12.6 years standard deviation). Data regarding mortality, complications, and factors contributing to vascular complications at the access site was collected for 6 month after the intervention to detect device-related problems. As a coincidence, 77 patients had follow-up visits for a duplex ultrasound. There were a total of 19 vascular complications (19 %) at the puncture site, all of which were of hemorrhagic nature and none of which consisted of vessel occlusion. Two major outcome complications (2 %) occurred. A retroperitoneal hematoma and a serious inguinal bleeding required additive treatment and did not result in permanent sequelae. Nine cases involved death of which eight were not attributable to the closure and one remained unclear. Successful closure was achieved in 95 patients (94 %); additional manual compression was sufficient in the majority of the remaining patients. Numerous factors contributing to vascular complications were encountered. With acceptable short- and mid-term outcomes, the “preclose” technique can be a reliable option for the closure of a large antegrade femoral access even for patients at a high risk of vascular complications, such as those undergoing aspiration thrombectomy.

  1. The Use of the 'Preclosure' Technique for Antegrade Aspiration Thrombectomy with Large Catheters in Acute Limb Ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funke, C., E-mail: claas_funke@hotmail.com; Pfiffner, R. [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Switzerland); Husmann, M. [University Hospital Zurich, Clinic of Angiology (Switzerland); Pfammatter, T. [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Switzerland)

    2013-04-15

    This study was designed to assess retrospectively short- and mid-term outcomes of the use of a suture-mediated closure device to close the antegrade access in patients undergoing percutaneous aspiration thrombectomy with large catheters for acute leg ischemia. Between November 2005 and February 2010, a suture-mediated active closure system (ProGlide{sup Registered-Sign} 6F, Abbott) was placed before arterial sheath (mean 9 F, range 6-12 F) introduction in 101 patients (74 men, 73 %, mean age 70.1 {+-} 12.6 years standard deviation). Data regarding mortality, complications, and factors contributing to vascular complications at the access site was collected for 6 month after the intervention to detect device-related problems. As a coincidence, 77 patients had follow-up visits for a duplex ultrasound. There were a total of 19 vascular complications (19 %) at the puncture site, all of which were of hemorrhagic nature and none of which consisted of vessel occlusion. Two major outcome complications (2 %) occurred. A retroperitoneal hematoma and a serious inguinal bleeding required additive treatment and did not result in permanent sequelae. Nine cases involved death of which eight were not attributable to the closure and one remained unclear. Successful closure was achieved in 95 patients (94 %); additional manual compression was sufficient in the majority of the remaining patients. Numerous factors contributing to vascular complications were encountered. With acceptable short- and mid-term outcomes, the 'preclose' technique can be a reliable option for the closure of a large antegrade femoral access even for patients at a high risk of vascular complications, such as those undergoing aspiration thrombectomy.

  2. Enema reduction of intussusception: the success rate of hydrostatic and pneumatic reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorana, Jiraporn; Singhavejsakul, Jesda; Ukarapol, Nuthapong; Laohapensang, Mongkol; Wakhanrittee, Junsujee; Patumanond, Jayanton

    2015-01-01

    Intussusception is a common surgical emergency in infants and children. The incidence of intussusception is from one to four per 2,000 infants and children. If there is no peritonitis, perforation sign on abdominal radiographic studies, and nonresponsive shock, nonoperative reduction by pneumatic or hydrostatic enema can be performed. The purpose of this study was to compare the success rates of both the methods. Two institutional retrospective cohort studies were performed. All intussusception patients (ICD-10 code K56.1) who had visited Chiang Mai University Hospital and Siriraj Hospital from January 2006 to December 2012 were included in the study. The data were obtained by chart reviews and electronic databases, which included demographic data, symptoms, signs, and investigations. The patients were grouped according to the method of reduction followed into pneumatic reduction and hydrostatic reduction groups with the outcome being the success of the reduction technique. One hundred and seventy episodes of intussusception occurring in the patients of Chiang Mai University Hospital and Siriraj Hospital were included in this study. The success rate of pneumatic reduction was 61% and that of hydrostatic reduction was 44% (P=0.036). Multivariable analysis and adjusting of the factors by propensity scores were performed; the success rate of pneumatic reduction was 1.48 times more than that of hydrostatic reduction (P=0.036, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.03-2.13). Both pneumatic and hydrostatic reduction can be performed safely according to the experience of the radiologist or pediatric surgeon and hospital setting. This study showed that pneumatic reduction had a higher success rate than hydrostatic reduction.

  3. Water soluble contrast enema examination of the integrity of the rectal anastomosis prior to loop ileostomy reversal may be superfluous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Anna; Lindmark, Gudrun; Syk, Ingvar; Buchwald, Pamela

    2015-03-01

    Defunctioning loop ileostomy in low anterior resection (LAR) is routinely used to reduce consequences of anastomotic leakage. The purpose of this study was to analyze which examination technique is optimal for evaluating the integrity of the anastomosis prior to loop ileostomy reversal. Retrospective analysis of 95 patients who had been subjected to LAR at Helsingborg Hospital and Skåne University Hospital, Sweden, was undertaken between January 2007 and June 2009. The examination techniques of the rectal anastomosis prior to reversal and the clinical outcome after reversal were studied. Radiologic anastomosis control using water soluble contrast enema, digital rectal examination (DRE), and rectoscopy were performed in 53 % (50/95), 98 % (93/95), and 69 % (66/95), respectively. In two patients, no control of the anastomosis was performed before reversal. Fifty-two percent (49/95) of the patients were examined using all techniques. Six patients demonstrated leakage detected before reversal of which two were only radiological leakages. These two patients underwent loop ileostomy reversal after delay without complications. They were the only ones where the three examination techniques did not prove coherence. Four patients had symptomatic leakage; these were detected with rectoscopy and DRE and verified with enema. Three patients developed anastomotic leakage after loop ileostomy reversal despite normal preoperative examinations. Two of these patients had rectovaginal fistulas (AVFs). This retrospective study indicates that contrast enema does not provide additional information if rectoscopy and DRE are normal. Despite negative examinations, three of nine leakages were diagnosed after loop ileostomy reversal. Especially, AVFs seem difficult to diagnose.

  4. Our Continent, Our Future: African Perspectives on Structural ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Our Continent, Our Future: African Perspectives on Structural Adjustment ... Our Continent, Our Future presents the emerging African perspective on this complex issue. ... approach to structural adjustment, and it does so with the input and support ... Committee of the Association of African Universities, the International Board ...

  5. A continent in chaos: Africa's environmental issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, R

    1994-12-01

    Half of Africa's almost 450 million inhabitants have no access to health services, while two-thirds lack safe drinking water, according to a 1991 report by the World Bank. Most Africans are also seriously affected by poverty, civil war, indoor and outdoor pollutants, diarrhea-causing microbes, tropical diseases such as malaria, rapid population growth, inadequate sanitation and sewage treatment, poor environmental management, corrupt government policies, desertification and deforestation, mining, and the overuse of pesticides and insecticides. Environmentally-related diseases compromise the continent's productivity, making it more difficult to generate revenue to fight the environmental health problems. Industrial pollutants remain rare, however, since almost 80% of sub-Saharan Africa remains pastoral or agro-pastoral. Even so, urbanization is exposing growing numbers of sub-Saharan Africans to hazardous and toxic wastes. Developing countries ship their most dangerous wastes to Africa because their own domestic environmental laws and the high costs of disposal make it difficult and expensive to dispose of them at home. The author discusses population growth in Africa; the lack of good data on the environment and health in Africa; infant and child mortality; water, sewage, and garbage; agriculture, mining, and industry; and sustainable development and the future.

  6. Correlation of double-contrast high-density barium enema, colonoscopy, and histology in children with special attention to disparities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stringer, D.A.; Sherman, P.M.; Jakowenko, N.

    1986-01-01

    Colonscopic and double-contrast high-density barium enema (DCBE) findings were correlated in 68 patients (39 boys and 29 girls) aged 6 months to 18 years (mean 11.6 years) evaluated over a 24-month period. There was excellent correlation in 53 patients (78.0%) and good correlation in another 3 (4.4%) who had identical diagnoses and only slightly differing extent of disease reported. In 2 of these, DCBE showed more extensive disease, confirmed histologically in 1. Distal colitis seen on colonoscopy as reddening and neovascularity was missed on DCBE in 6 patients. Colonoscopy and DEBE failed to show a polyp in 1 patient each. One patient who had a normal DCBE and colonoscopy demonstrated a histological abnormality, and 1 patient with an abnormality on histology and DCBE was normal on colonscopy. A disparity resulted from the time between procedures in 1 patient and observer error in another. This high correlation is far better than any previously reported in children, supporting the use of high-density barium sulfate and double-contrast barium enemas in pediatric patients. (orig.)

  7. Barium sulfate aspiration: Severe chemical pneumonia induced by a massive reflux of contrast medium during small bowel barium enema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Yang, Yi; Zhang, Ji; Zhou, Xiaowei; Dong, Hongmei; Zhou, Yiwu

    2015-08-01

    Barium contrast radiography is a conventional procedure aimed at revealing lesions of the alimentary tract using barium sulfate on X-ray irradiation. Although it is widely used in clinics, adverse effects and complications are observed, such as anaphylaxis, granuloma, fecalithes, abdomen-leaking, embolism, bacterial contamination, and aspiration. We report a case of death due to a massive barium sulfate aspiration resulted from an air-barium double contrast enema radiography. A 25-year-old female patient was hospitalized with symptoms of abdominal distention, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea for three days. A progressive respiratory distress presented only 1h after a small bowel air-barium double contrast enema. The patient died 11h later. The result of autopsy revealed the cause of death to be severe chemical pneumonitis induced by gastric fluid which was aspirated into her lungs. Barium sulfate is generally recognized to be chemically inert for the respiratory system, but a mixture of barium sulfate with gastric contents is fatal. Here we intend to suggest that, when determining the potential cause of death, medical examiners should consider a patient's status quo as well as the possible adverse effects and complications caused by the barium sulfate preparation during gastrointestinal radiography. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Free fatty acid suppositories are as effective as docusate sodium and sorbitol enemas in treating constipation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormarsson, Orri Thor; Asgrimsdottir, Gudrun Marta; Loftsson, Thorsteinn; Stefansson, Einar; Lund, Sigrun Helga; Bjornsson, Einar Stefan

    2016-06-01

    A well-documented, clinically proven per rectum treatment for childhood constipation is needed. This phase two clinical trial evaluated the efficacy of suppositories containing free fatty acids (FFA) compared with Klyx docusate sodium and sorbitol enemas. A randomised, controlled, single-blind study was undertaken on 77 children aged between one and 17 who presented to an emergency department in Iceland and were diagnosed with constipation. In stage one, 23 patients were randomised to receive lower dose FFA suppositories or Klyx (n = 33). In stage two, 21 different patients were randomised to receive higher dose suppositories and compared with the same Klyx control subjects. The suppositories were effective at bowel emptying in 39% of the group who received the lower FFA doses and 81% of the group receiving higher doses, compared with 88% in the Klyx control group. Symptom relief was obtained in 30% of the group receiving the lower doses and 71% of the group receiving the higher doses, compared with 73% in the control group. The higher dose FFA suppositories were as effective as the Klyx enemas with regard to bowel emptying and symptom relief and might provide an important and less invasive alternative for childhood constipation. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Starclose SE® hemostasis after 6F direct antegrade superficial femoral artery access distal to the femoral head for peripheral endovascular procedures in obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiliopoulos, Stavros; Kitrou, Panagiotis; Christeas, Nikolaos; Karnabatidis, Dimitris

    2016-01-01

    Direct superficial femoral artery (SFA) antegrade puncture is a valid alternative to common femoral artery (CFA) access for peripheral vascular interventions. Data investigating vascular closure device (VCD) hemostasis of distant SFA 6F access are limited. We aimed to investigate the safety and effectiveness of the Starclose SE® VCD for hemostasis, following direct 6F antegrade SFA access distal to the femoral head. This prospective, single-center study included patients who were not suitable for CFA puncture and were scheduled to undergo peripheral endovascular interventions using direct antegrade SFA 6F access, at least 2 cm below the inferior edge of femoral head. Hemostasis was obtained with the Starclose SE® VCD (Abbott Laboratories). Primary endpoints were successful hemostasis rate and periprocedural (30-day) major complication rate. Secondary endpoint was the rate of minor complications. Clinical and Doppler ultrasound follow-up was performed at discharge and at one month. Between September 2014 and August 2015, a total of 30 patients (21 male; 70.0%) with a mean body mass index of 41.2 kg/m2 were enrolled. Mean age was 72±9 years (range, 67-88 years). Most patients suffered from critical limb ischemia (87.1%) and diabetes (61.3%). Calcifications were present in eight cases (26.6%). Reason for direct SFA puncture was obesity (100%). Successful hemostasis was achieved in 100% of the cases. No major complications were noted after one-month follow-up. Minor complications included two <5 cm hematomas (6.6%) not necessitating treatment. In this prospective study, Starclose SE® VCD was safe and effective for hemostasis of antegrade direct SFA puncture. Uncomplicated hemostasis was achieved even in cases of puncturing 2 to 7 cm below the inferior edge of the femoral head.

  10. Continous Infusion of Remifentanil Plus Ketamine Compared with Continous Remifentanil for Pain Relief in Labour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anooshe Khajehdehi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objective: Pain relief during labour is an important determinant of a women’s birth experience. There are numerous pain relief techniques which can be used either with or without pain medication. The aim of our study was to compare the effect of remifentanil alone and its effect in pain relief while using with ketamine during labour. Methods: After obtaining informed consent and approval of hospital ethics committee, 40 women with gestational age between 38 and 42 weeks gestation in early labour were recruited for this study. They were randomly allocated into two groups: group RK (20 cases received 25 μg remifentanil as a starting dose and continuous infusion of 0.06 μg/kg/min remifentanil plus 0.5 mg/kg/h ketamine for 4 hours via pump and group R (20 cases received 25 μg remifentanil as a starting dose and continous infusion of 0.06 μg/kg/min remifentanil. Results: The baseline of pain scores were similar in both groups (5.75 ± 2.51 vs 7 ± 2.45, p= 0.12 but after 30 minutes to 120 minutes the VAS scores were significantly higher in R group (p< 0.001. The rate of patients who were satisfied (excellent and very good in RK was 80% but in R group was 45% (p = 0.03. Nausea and vomiting were significantly higher in R group (p<0.05. Conclusion: The remifentanil plus ketamine produced better pain relief during labour with continous monitoring than continous remifentanil with no adverse effects for mothers and infants.

  11. TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RADICAL PROSTATECTOMY FOR EARLY CONTINENCE RECOVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Perepechay

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the technical characteristics of radical prostatectomy (RPE for early continence recovery in patients with prostate cancer. Restoration of the fascial structures of the small pelvis after RPE has been found to promote early urinary continence recovery. A method for total restoration of the fascial structures of the small pelvis (an operation after A. Tewari and a procedure for performing posterior suspension of urethrocystic neoanastomosis in Denonvilliers’ fascia length deficit are considered, which show the similar results in the time of continence recovery.

  12. Factors predicting early return of continence after radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Jaspreet S; Eastham, James A

    2010-05-01

    Success of radical prostatectomy is measured by control of cancer and return of urinary and sexual function. Urinary incontinence is generally considered the greatest impairment in immediate postoperative urinary function. Multiple factors are associated with earlier return of urinary continence after radical prostatectomy. These factors can be divided into those known prior to surgery, and therefore possibly not modifiable, and factors that can be controlled during surgery or surgical planning. In addition, various postoperative maneuvers can help hasten urinary continence. This article examines the effect of known factors related to early return of urinary continence after radical prostatectomy.

  13. Técnicas y procedimientos: Sondaje rectal. Administración de un enema de limpieza. Extracción de fecalomas

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Rodrigo, María Teresa; Giménez Maroto, Ana Ma

    2001-01-01

    Sondaje rectal. Definición: Introducción de una sonda flexible a través de los esfínteres anales externo e interno. Objetivo: Administrar un enema o ayudar a reducir la flatulencia. Material: Sonda rectal, lubricante, empapador, guantes limpios, esparadrapo antialérgico y bolsa colectora (opcional)...

  14. Enemas, suppositories and rectal stimulation are not effective in accelerating enteral feeding or meconium evacuation in low-birthweight infants : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphorst, Kim; Sietsma, Ydelette; Brouwer, Annemieke J; Rood, Paul J T; van den Hoogen, Agnes

    2016-01-01

    Early full enteral feeding in preterm infants decreases morbidity and mortality. Our systematic review covered the effectiveness of rectal stimulation, suppositories and enemas on stooling patterns and feeding tolerance in low-birthweight infants born at up to 32 weeks. It comprised seven studies

  15. Ultrasound-guided antegrade access during laparoscopic pyeloplasty in infants less than one year of age: A point of technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Ganpule

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Access to urethras and ureters of infants may be hazardous and injurious through an endoscopic route. Placement and removal of stents in infants requires anaesthesia and access through these small caliber urethras. We describe our technique of placing antegrade splint during a laparoscopic pyeloplasty in these infants. Materials and Methods: An ultrasound-guided percutaneous renal access is obtained. Telescopic metal two part needle is passed into the kidney over a guide wire. A second guide wire is passed through the telescopic metal two part needle. The tract is dilated with 14 Fr screw dilator. Over one guide wire, a 5 Fr ureteric catheter is passed and coiled in the renal pelvis. Over the other wire, a 14 Fr malecot catheter is placed as nephrostomy. Laparoscopic pyeloplasty is then done. During pyelotomy, the ureteric catheter is pulled and advanced through the ureter before the pyeloplasty is completed. The ureteric catheter thus acts as a splint across the anastomosis. Ureteric catheter is removed on the 3 rd post operative day and nephrostomy is clamped. Nephrostomy is removed on 4 th post operative day if child is asymptomatic. The modified technique was successfully done in five patients aged less than one year old. All patients tolerated the procedure well. Post operative period was uneventful in all. Conclusion: Ultrasound-guided ante grade nephroureteral ureteral splint for infant laparoscopic pyeloplasty is safe. It avoids the need for urethral instrumentation for insertion and removal of stents in these small patients.

  16. Development and Validation of the Role Profile of the Nurse Continence Specialist: A Project of the International Continence Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Janice; Ostaszkiewicz, Joan; Suyasa, I Gede Putu Darma; Skelly, Jennifer; Bellefeuille, Lesley

    Although nurses have specialized in the management of incontinence, bladder, bowel, and pelvic floor dysfunction for more than 30 years, there is a lack of awareness and underutilization of their role. This article describes a 6-year project to define, characterize, and validate a role profile of the Nurse Continence Specialist. Data collection used a 2-phase, mixed-methods design. Phase 1 of the project resulted in a draft Nurse Continence Specialist role profile and Phase 2 led to validation of the draft profile. The result was a broad consensus about what constitutes the specific skill set for Nurse Continence Specialist specialization within nursing.

  17. Preferential rifting of continents - A source of displaced terranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, G. E.; Morgan, W. J.; Zhao, W.-L.

    1984-01-01

    Lithospheric rifting, while prevalent in the continents, rarely occurs in oceanic regions. To explain this preferential rifting of continents, the total strength of different lithospheres is compared by integrating the limits of lithospheric stress with depth. Comparisons of total strength indicate that continental lithosphere is weaker than oceanic lithosphere by about a factor of three. Also, a thickened crust can halve the total strength of normal continental lithosphere. Because the weakest area acts as a stress guide, any rifting close to an ocean-continent boundary would prefer a continental pathway. This results in the formation of small continental fragments or microplates that, once accreted back to a continent during subduction, are seen as displaced terranes. In addition, the large crustal thicknesses associated with suture zones would make such areas likely locations for future rifting episodes. This results in the tendency of new oceans to open along the suture where a former ocean had closed.

  18. Literature review of factors affecting continence after radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalibor Pacik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Radical prostatectomy (RP is the most common cause of stress urinary incontinence (UI in men. Several anatomic structures affect or may affect urinary continence - urethral sphincter, levator ani muscle, puboprostatic ligaments, bladder neck, endopelvic fascia, neurovascular bundle - and understanding of the anatomy of pelvic floor and urethra is crucial for satisfactory functional outcome of the procedure. Surgical techniques implemented to improve continence rates include nerve-sparing procedure, bladder neck preservation/plication, urethral length preservation, musculofascial reconstruction, puboprostatic ligaments preservation or seminal vesicle preservation. Perioperative (preoperative and postoperative pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT aims to shorten the duration of postoperative UI and thus, improve early continence rates postoperatively. In the review, complex information regarding anatomical, intra- and perioperative factors affecting urinary continence after RP is provided, including description of important anatomical structures, possible implications for surgical technique and evaluation of different PFMT strategies in perioperative period.

  19. Combination of pseudocontinent perineal colostomy and appendicostomy: a new approach in the treatment of low rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Rasoul; Alvandipour, Mina; Shoar, Saeed; Mahjoubi, Bahar

    2013-10-01

    Abdominal perineal resection (APR) with applied colostomy remains the standard treatment for low rectal cancer; however, to date, a very high morbidity rate has been reported. The aims of this study were to assess fecal continence, persistence of disease-related symptoms, and quality of life in patients with low rectal cancer after APR and pseudocontinent perineal colostomy and concomitant appendicostomy. We included 17 patients with low rectal cancer who underwent APR at our hospital in this cross-sectional study. Following APR, pseudocontinent perineal colostomy and concomitant appendicostomy were performed. Patients then underwent antegrade colonic enema with tap water. Patients' symptoms, fecal continence, and quality of life were evaluated at regular time intervals. After a median follow-up of 12 months, 15 of 17 patients completed the study period. All patients were able to perform an antegrade enema by themselves. Mean continence score was 7 (out of 20) based on the Wexner Scale scoring system. Mean global health status score was 78, physical function was 93, and emotional function was 88. Minor morbidity was observed in 6 patients (40%). Pseudocontinent perineal colostomy with appendicostomy provides an acceptable level of continence and functional and emotional improvement in patients with low rectal cancer undergoing APR. Hence, this combinative method could be considered as an alternative for abdominal colostomy in selected patients.

  20. The utilization and valuation of the program CONTIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Weizhong; Sun Yizhan

    2000-01-01

    The updated analysis program CONTIN(PALS2) based on the Laplace inversion of positron annihilation spectra has been studied comprehensively. The principle and utilization of the program have been explained exhaustively. Three auxiliary programs have been made to help the transportation of data and adjustment of the data's pattern. Four experiments have been made, the results computed by program CONTIN(PALS2) have been analyzed, and compared with those by POSIREONFIT program

  1. Fission track imaging of the Australian continent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleadow, A.; Kohn, B.; O'Sullivan, P.; Brown, R.; Gallagher, K.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Techniques to reconstruct the thermal histories of rocks in the low-temperature environment of the upper crust have previously found important applications in such areas as sedimentary basin analysis, the evolution of convergent orogenic belts and studies of extensional tectonic environments. Increasingly large sets of thermochronology data are now becoming available on an even larger scale from the apatite fission-track system (for temperatures <∼110 deg C). Additional information is also now starting to emerge at even lower temperatures (<∼75 deg C) from the apatite (U-Th)/He system. The results from such systems can be used in novel ways to examine and visualise the evolution of the upper part of the continental crust. Quantitative modelling has brought a new dimension to this work and forward-modelling procedures are now well established which give 'best fit' thermal histories for temperatures less than about 110 deg C. In many cases the modelled thermal histories provide a proxy for rock transport towards the surface as overlying material is removed by denudation. Such information allows a reconstruction of the denudation history of the land surface. Applying these modelling procedures to large regional arrays of fission-track data means that the thermal history information can now be integrated with other regional data sets to provide an important new perspective on crustal and surface evolution. Apatite fission track analysis has now been completed on nearly 3000 surface outcrop samples across Australia under an AGCRC project to image the thermotectonic evolution of the exposed basement rocks of the continent. The samples analysed are mostly from rocks of broadly granitic composition and the apatites separated from these are overwhelmingly fluorapatites, which are consistent in their fission-track annealing properties with those on which the numerical annealing models are based. By interpolating the calculated thermal histories a series of

  2. Selective use of the biphasic-contrast barium enema study for evaluation of colonic lesions: Results of a prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Lange, E.E.; Shaffer, H.A. Jr.; Riddervold, H.O.

    1987-01-01

    The authors performed a prospective study to determine the value of selective use of the biphasic contrast technique for a variety of indications. In a series of 571 double-contrast barium enema examinations, the examination was immediately followed by a single-contrast study in 85 cases. The biphasic procedure was performed to reexamine a colonic segment that was poorly evaluated initially because of diverticulosis (eta = 35), incomplete filling (eta = 28), or poor mucosal coating (eta = 26); or to verify or exclude a possible lesion identified during the double-contrast examination (eta = 22). The single-contrast study confirmed five polyps and excluded lesions in 17 cases with suspected polyps (eta = 5), strictures (eta = 4), and spasm (eta = 8). Six polyps not visualized on the double-contrast examination were detected with the single-contrast procedure

  3. [Practical usage of a quality management system according to ISO 9001 : 2000 focusing on the double contrast (barium) enema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzle, G; Hergan, K; Fleisch, M; Hubmann, M; Oser, W

    2001-12-01

    We describe the implementation of quality improvement measures in a quality management system. With questionnaires for radiologists and patients, we investigated the relations between patient preparation and diagnostic quality serving the main purpose, to improve diagnostic quality with the help of more detailed patient information (e.g., changing preparation sheets and handling out "peri-med" information sheets to the patients). Furthermore, a comparative data ascertainment at other institutes was integrated. For the group of outpatients, increasing process quality (patient information) and outcome (diagnostic quality) could be achieved. Taking aspects of quality costs into consideration, a decrease in costs due to failures was achieved. More detailed patient information has positive effects on diagnostic quality of the double contrast (barium) enema.

  4. Effect of rectal enemas on rectal dosimetric parameters during high-dose-rate vaginal cuff brachytherapy. A prospective trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabater, Sebastia; Andres, Ignacio; Sevillano, Marimar; Berenguer, Roberto; Aguayo, Manuel; Villas, Maria Victoria [Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Albacete (CHUA), Department of Radiation Oncology, Albacete (Spain); Gascon, Marina; Arenas, Meritxell [Hospital Universitari Sant Joan, Department of Radiation Oncology, Reus (Spain); Rovirosa, Angeles; Camacho-Lopez, Cristina [University of Barcelona, IDIBAPS, Gynecological Cancer Unit, Radiation Oncology Department, ICMHO, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-04-15

    To evaluate the effects of rectal enemas on rectal doses during postoperative high-dose-rate (HDR) vaginal cuff brachytherapy (VCB). This prospective trial included 59 patients. Two rectal cleansing enemas were self-administered before the second fraction, and fraction 1 was considered the basal status. Dose-volume histogram (DVH) values were generated for the rectum and correlated with rectal volume variation. Statistical analyses used paired and unpaired t-tests. Despite a significant 15 % reduction in mean rectal volume (44.07 vs. 52.15 cc, p = 0.0018), 35.6 % of patients had larger rectums after rectal enemas. No significant rectal enema-related DVH differences were observed compared to the basal data. Although not statistically significant, rectal cleansing-associated increases in mean rectal DVH values were observed: D{sub 0.1} {sub cc}: 6.6 vs. 7.21 Gy; D{sub 1} {sub cc}: 5.35 vs. 5.52 Gy; D{sub 2} {sub cc}: 4.67 vs. 4.72 Gy, before and after rectal cleaning, respectively (where D{sub x} {sub cc} is the dose to the most exposed x cm {sup 3}). No differences were observed in DVH parameters according to rectal volume increase or decrease after the enema. Patients whose rectal volume increased also had significantly larger DVH parameters, except for D{sub 5} {sub %}, D{sub 25} {sub %}, and D{sub 50} {sub %}. In contrast, in patients whose rectal volume decreased, significance was only seen for D{sub 25} {sub %} and D{sub 50} {sub %} (D{sub x} {sub %} dose covering x % of the volume). In the latter patients, nonsignificant reductions in D{sub 2} {sub cc}, D{sub 5} {sub cc} and V{sub 5} {sub Gy} (volume receiving at least 5 Gy) were observed. The current rectal enemas protocol was ineffective in significantly modifying rectal DVH parameters for HDR-VCB. (orig.) [German] Beurteilung der Auswirkungen von rektalen Dosen waehrend postoperativer High-Dose-Rate-(HDR-)Brachytherapie an der Scheidenmanschette (''vaginal cuff brachytherapy'', VCB). An

  5. External carotid compression: a novel technique to improve cerebral perfusion during selective antegrade cerebral perfusion for aortic arch surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grocott, Hilary P; Ambrose, Emma; Moon, Mike

    2016-10-01

    Selective antegrade cerebral perfusion (SACP) involving cannulation of either the axillary or innominate artery is a commonly used technique for maintaining cerebral blood flow (CBF) during the use of hypothermic cardiac arrest (HCA) for operations on the aortic arch. Nevertheless, asymmetrical CBF with hypoperfusion of the left cerebral hemisphere is a common occurrence during SACP. The purpose of this report is to describe an adjunctive maneuver to improve left hemispheric CBF during SACP by applying extrinsic compression to the left carotid artery. A 77-yr-old male patient with a history of aortic valve replacement presented for emergent surgical repair of an acute type A aortic dissection of a previously known ascending aortic aneurysm. His intraoperative course included cannulation of the right axillary artery, which was used as the aortic inflow during cardiopulmonary bypass and also allowed for subsequent SACP during HCA. After the onset of HCA, the innominate artery was clamped at its origin to allow for SACP. Shortly thereafter, however, the left-sided cerebral oxygen saturation (SrO2) began to decrease. Augmenting the PaO2, PaCO2 and both SACP pressure and flow failed to increase left hemispheric SrO2. Following the use of ultrasound guidance to confirm the absence of atherosclerotic disease in the carotid artery, external pressure was applied partially compressing the artery. With the carotid compression, the left cerebral saturation abruptly increased, suggesting pressurization of the left cerebral hemispheric circulation and augmentation of CBF. Direct ultrasound visualization and cautious partial compression of the left carotid artery may address asymmetrical CBF that occurs with SACP during HCA for aortic arch surgery. This strategy may lead to improved symmetry of CBF and corresponding cerebral oximetry measurements during aortic arch surgery.

  6. [Pseudo-continent perineal colostomy. Results and techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasser, P; Dubé, P; Guillot, J M; Elias, D

    1997-09-01

    This prospective study was conducted to assess functional results obtained after pseudo-continent perineal colostomy using the Schmidt procedure. Functional outcome was assessed in 40 patients who had undergone amputation of the rectum for cancer and pseudo-continent perineal colostomy reconstruction between 1989 and 1995 in our institution. The cancer pathology, operative procedure and post-operative care were noted. Morbidity, functional outcome and degree of patient satisfaction were recorded. Mean follow-up was 45 months (18-87) in 100% of the patients. There were no operative deaths. Twenty patients had post-operative complications and 2 patients required early conversion to definitive abdominal colostomy due to severe perineal complications. Function outcome showed normal continence in 4 patients, air incontinence in 23, occasional minimal leakage in 9 and incontinence requiring iliac colostomy in 2. Eighty-six percent of the patients were highly satisfied or satisfied with their continence capacity. Pseudo-continent perineal colostomy is a reliable technique which can be proposed as an alternative to left iliac colostomy after amputation of the rectum for cancer if a rigorous procedure is applied: careful patient selection, informed consent, rigorous surgical procedure, daily life-long irrigation of the colon.

  7. Retrograde pedal access with a 20-gauge intravenous cannula after failed antegrade recanalization of a tibialis anterior artery in a diabetic patient: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yucel Colkesen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Retrograde tibiopedal approach is being used frequently in below-the-knee vascular interventions. In patients with diabetic foot pathology, complex anatomy often requires a retrograde technique when the distal vascular anatomy and puncture site is suitable. The dorsalis pedis and posterior tibial arteries can be punctured because of their relatively superficial position. We report a retrograde puncturing technique in patients with chronic total occlusions. After failed antegrade recanalization, puncturing and cannulation of a tiny dorsalis pedis artery with a narrow bore [20-gauge (0.8 mm] intravenous cannula is described.

  8. Study on sediments from Almirantado Bay in the Antarctica continent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Marcelo da Silva; Montone, Rosalinda Carmela; Weber, Rolf Roland

    1999-01-01

    The Antarctic Continent is relatively free from human activities but it already comes presenting low levels of environmental contamination for anthropogenic sources. The anthropogenic contamination can be taken mainly to the continent through different manners for the marine and atmospheric currents. This work has as objective to analyze samples of sediments from Antarctic Continent in the area of Almirantado Bay, where the Brazilian Station of Resource Comandante Ferraz is located. The concentrations of ten metallic elements (Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Sn, Pb, U, Al, Fe and Li) were analyzed in twelve collection sites along the whole Bay. AAS and HR-ICPMS accomplished the analyses of those metallic elements. It was verified in the obtained results that a variation does not exist in the concentrations obtained among the collection sites, indicating a homogeneity in the area and there is no evidence of polluting source, at least at those obtained concentration levels. (author)

  9. A Geological Model for the Evolution of Early Continents (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, P. F.; Coltice, N.; Flament, N. E.; Thébaud, N.

    2013-12-01

    Geochemical probing of ancient sediments (REE in black shales, strontium composition of carbonates, oxygen isotopes in zircons...) suggests that continents were a late Archean addition at Earth's surface. Yet, geochemical probing of ancient basalts reveals that they were extracted from a mantle depleted of its crustal elements early in the Archean. Considerations on surface geology, the early Earth hypsometry and the rheology and density structure of Archean continents can help solve this paradox. Surface geology: The surface geology of Archean cratons is characterized by thick continental flood basalts (CFBs, including greenstones) emplaced on felsic crusts dominated by Trondhjemite-Tonalite-Granodiorite (TTG) granitoids. This simple geology is peculiar because i/ most CFBs were emplaced below sea level, ii/ after their emplacement, CFBs were deformed into relatively narrow, curviplanar belts (greenstone basins) wrapping around migmatitic TTG domes, and iii/ Archean greenstone belts are richly endowed with gold and other metals deposits. Flat Earth hypothesis: From considerations on early Earth continental geotherm and density structure, Rey and Coltice (2008) propose that, because of the increased ability of the lithosphere to flow laterally, orogenic processes in the Archean produced only subdued topography (continents, Flament et al. (2008) proposed a theory for the hypsometry of the early Earth showing that, until the late Archean, most continents were flooded and Earth was largely a water world. From this, a model consistent with many of the peculiar attributes of Archean geology, can be proposed: 1/ Continents appeared at Earth's surface at an early stage during the Hadean/Archean. However, because they were i/ covered by continental flood basalts, ii/ below sea level, and iii/ deprived of modern-style mountain belts and orogenic plateaux, early felsic

  10. Effects of budesonide and probiotics enemas on the systemic inflammatory response of rats with experimental colitis Efeito de enemas contendo budesonida e probióticos na resposta inflamatória sistêmica de ratos com colite experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardem Machado de Souza

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of enemas containing probiotics and budesonide on the systemic inflammatory response in experimental colitis. METHODS: Fifty male Wistar rats with experimental colitis induced by 10% acetic acid enema were randomized to five groups (10 rats each according to the treatment: group 1 - saline solution, group 2 - budesonide (0.75 mg/kg/day, group 3 - probiotics (1mg/day, group 4 - probiotics plus budesonide, and group 5 - control, with not-treated rats. The following variables were studied: body weight, serum levels of albumin, C-reactive protein and interleucine-6 (IL-6. RESULTS: All animals lost weight between the beginning and the end of the experiment (280+ 16 mg versus 249+21 mg, p0.05. Only probiotic rats presented a significant decrease of IL-6 than controls (0,30±0,08 mg/dL vs. 0,19±0,03 mg/dL; pOBJETIVO: Investigar o efeito da administração retal de probióticos e budesonida na resposta inflamatória de ratos com colite experimental. MÉTODOS: Cinqüenta ratos Wistar com colite experimental induzida pelo acido acético à 10% foram randomizados em 5 grupos (n=10 por grupo para diferentes tratamentos: grupo 1 - solução fisiológica; grupo 2 budesonida (0,75mg/kg/dia; grupo 3 - probióticos (1 g/dia; grupo 4 - probióticos associados a budesonida; e finalmente grupo 5 - controle, composto por ratos sem tratamento. As seguintes variáveis foram estudadas: peso corporal, dosagens séricas de albumina, proteína C reativa (PCR e interleucina-6 (IL-6. RESULTADOS: Todos os animais perderam peso entre o inicio e o fim do experimento (280±16 vs 249±21g; p0.05. As comparações entre o grupo controle (0,30±0,08 mg/dL e outros mostraram que houve uma queda significante nos níveis de IL-6 apenas no grupo probiótico (0,19±0,03 mg/dL; p<0.01. CONCLUSÃO: Probióticos são efetivos na diminuição do estado inflamatório mediado pela IL-6 na colite experimental.

  11. Early reported rectal sensation predicts continence in anorectal anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerritt, Clare; Tyraskis, Athanasios; Rees, Clare; Cockar, Iram; Kiely, Edward

    2016-03-01

    Straining at stool is an automatic reflex in babies and implies the presence of rectal sensation. We hypothesised that early reported rectal sensation would predict future continence in children with anorectal anomalies. The aim of this study is to determine if early straining at stool was a useful predictor of future continence in infants born with high anorectal malformations. A retrospective case note review of prospectively collected clinical information was performed with institutional review board approval. All patients with intermediate/high anorectal malformation operated on by a single surgeon from 1984 to 2010 were included. After stoma closure, parents were asked: The responses were noted within the first year of stoma closure and then all patients were followed up until they were at least 3 ½years old and continence could be assessed using the Krickenbeck outcome classification. Data were compared using Fisher's exact test and sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) were calculated. Forty-eight patients were included in the study. Sixteen (33%) were female (12 cloacal malformation, 3 rectovaginal fistula, 1 rectal atresia) and 32 (66%) were male (6 rectovesical fistulae, 22 rectourethral fistulae, 4 no fistula). Median follow-up was 9.7years (range 3.5-17.9). Twenty-one children were noted by their parents to exhibit early straining at stool after stoma closure. Twenty of them achieved long term continence. The sensitivity of early straining as a predictor for long term continence was 77%, specificity 95% and positive predictive value 95%. The presence of early rectal sensation reported by parents is a good predictor of long term continence. This allows more informed discussion with families in the early years of life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of the application of enemas containing sucralfate in tissue content of neutral and acid mucins in experimental model of diversion colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaim, Felipe Mendonça; Sato, Daniela Tiemi; Rodrigues, Murilo Rocha; Dias, Alice Moreira; Silveira Júnior, Paulo Pedroso; Pereira, José Aires; Martinez, Carlos Augusto Real

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the effects of sucralfate on tissue content of neutral and acids mucins in rats with diversion colitis. Thirty-six rats were submitted to a proximal right colostomy and a distal mucous fistula. They were divided into two groups according to sacrifice to be performed two or four weeks after intervention. Each group was divided into three subgroups according daily application of enemas containing saline, sucralfate at 1.0 g/kg/day or 2.0 g/kg/day. Colitis was diagnosed by histological analysis and neutral and acid mucins by Periodic Acid Schiff and Alcian Blue techniques, respectively. The contents of mucins were quantified by computer-assisted image analysis. Student's t paired and ANOVA test were used to compare the contents of both types of mucins among groups, and to verify the variance with time, establishing level of signification of 5% for both (p<0.05). Enemas containing sucralfate improves the inflammation and increases the tissue contents of neutral and acid mucins. The content of neutral mucins does not change with the time or concentration of sucralfate used, while acid mucins increases with concentration and time of intervention. Sucralfate enemas improve the inflammatory process and increase the tissue content of neutral and acid mucins in colon without fecal stream.

  13. Membranous IVC Obstruction Presenting with Antegrade/Retrograde Respiratory Flow in the Intrahepatic Segment in Doppler Imaging and Prostatic and Urethral Congestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, Dinesh; Mistry, Kewal A.; Chadha, Veenal; Sharma, Sarthak; Morey, Parikshit D.; Suthar, Pokhraj P.; Patel, Dhruv G.

    2015-01-01

    Obstruction of the inferior vena cava (IVC) is infrequent, membranous obstruction of the IVC (MOIVC) being one of its rare causes. Early diagnosis is important, as it can lead to hepatic congestion, cirrhosis and Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) and can predispose to development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in severe cases. We report a case of membranous IVC obstruction at the junction of hepatic and suprahepatic segments in a young male with extensive collateralization and venous aneurysms. Unique findings involved antegrade and retrograde flow during respiration in the upper part of intrahepatic IVC proximal to a large collateral vein as well as prostatic and urethral congestion leading to intermittent urinary hesitancy, which have not yet been described in such cases. MOIVC is a rare cause of IVC obstruction with typical radiological features. Early diagnosis and management is required due to risk of cirrhosis and HCC. Antegrade and retrograde flow may be seen in incomplete MOIVC above the level of a large collateral vein and it may lead to prostatic and urethral congestion

  14. Definition of a safe zone for antegrade lag screw fixation of fracture of posterior column of the acetabulum by 3D technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaoreng; Zhang, Sheng; Luo, Qiang; Fang, Jintao; Lin, Chaowen; Leung, Frankie; Chen, Bin

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to define a safe zone for antegrade lag screw fixation of fracture of posterior column of the acetabulum using a novel 3D technology. Pelvic CT data of 59 human subjects were obtained to reconstruct three-dimensional (3D) models. The transparency of 3D models was then downgraded along the axial perspective (the view perpendicular to the cross section of the posterior column axis) to find the largest translucent area. The outline of the largest translucent area was drawn on the iliac fossa. The line segments of OA, AB, OC, CD, the angles of OAB and OCD that delineate the safe zone (ABDC) were precisely measured. The resultant line segments OA, AB, OC, CD, and angles OAB and OCD were 28.46mm(13.15-44.97mm), 45.89mm (34.21-62.85mm), 36.34mm (18.68-55.56mm), 53.08mm (38.72-75.79mm), 37.44° (24.32-54.96°) and 55.78° (43.97-79.35°) respectively. This study demonstrates that computer-assisted 3D modelling techniques can aid in the precise definition of the safe zone for antegrade insertion of posterior column lag screws. A full-length lag screw can be inserted into the zone (ABDC), permitting a larger operational error. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Association of Antegrade Pulmonary Artery Diastolic Velocity with Spontaneous Closure of the Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Extremely Low-Birth-Weight Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Dawn M; Kaiser, Jeffrey R; Swearingen, Christopher; Malik, Sadia; Sachdeva, Ritu

    2015-11-01

    This study aims to determine echocardiographic parameters associated with spontaneous patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) closure in extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW) infants. Retrospective demographic review and analysis of echocardiograms from 189 ELBW infants with suspected and confirmed hemodynamically significant PDA identified on an initial echocardiogram was performed. Comparison of echocardiographic parameters was made between infants with spontaneous closure versus those who received treatment. The mean birth weight (787 ± 142 vs. 724 ± 141 g, p = 0.04) and gestational age (27.4 ± 2.8 vs. 26.2 ± 1.6 weeks, p = 0.03) were higher in the spontaneous closure versus the treatment group. Antegrade pulmonary artery (PA) diastolic velocity was lower in infants with spontaneous PDA closure versus those who received treatment (0.15 ± 0.06 vs. 0.22 ± 0.12 m/s, p = 0.009). Heavier and more mature ELBW infants with a lower antegrade PA diastolic velocity were likely to have spontaneous closure of the PDA. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  16. Impact of aerosols from the Asian Continent on the adjoining ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. Earth Syst. Sci. ... aerosol impact on weather and climate, which is ... factor in climate models. The impact of aerosols from the Asian Continent .... as cloudy. Such data grids generated for each month in different years for the period of study.

  17. Our Continent, Our Future: African Perspectives on Structural ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Our Continent, Our Future: African Perspectives on Structural Adjustment ... Our Future presents the emerging African perspective on this complex issue. ... This important book should be read by students, professors, academics, and ... the Council for the Development of Social Research in Africa in Dakar, Senegal.

  18. a simple test to predict faecal continence before colostomy closure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reconstituted with water to a consistency that matches the surgeon's notion of normal faeces. ... there be no leakage the colostomy can be reversed. The study was a .... 100 mmHg, more than a quarter of matched continent controls also had a ...

  19. Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer: not just a barium enema{exclamation_point} Radiographic manifestations and screening tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, L.; Jeon, P. [Health Sciences Center, Diagnostic Imaging, St. John' s, Newfoundland (Canada)]. E-mail: u43dlb@mun.ca; Green, J. [Health Sciences Center, Discipline of Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, St. John' s, Newfoundland (Canada)

    2007-10-15

    Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is an autosomal dominant trait characterized by presentation of colorectal cancer (CRC) at an early age and by an increased risk of other primary malignancies, including those of the endometrium. ovaries, stomach, small bowel, upper biliary tract, skin, and brain, as well as by transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) that especially involves the renal pelvis and ureter. Because specific genetic mutations causing HNPCC have been recently discovered, genetic screening options have been developed for some families. Subsequently, radiology has an increasing role in surveillance for and management of these HNPCC-associated tumours. Although colonoscopy is the mainstay of a screening regimen for colon cancer, the barium enema has been a standard radiologic investigation. Further, computed tomography (CT) colonography (now practised in various centres) will, with further refinement, prove to be of increasing value. Ultrasonography is a standard investigation for endometrial and ovarian cancer, with CT and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging often playing a central role. As for TCC, intravenous urography (IVU) had been a standard investigation tool. However, with continued evolution of multidetector row CT with postprocessing manipulation (CT urography [CTU]), the role of IVU is diminishing in most centres. Newfoundland has a high prevalence of HNPCC exhibiting a broad range of manifestations. In this article, radiologic images of various tumours from individuals with HNPCC demonstrate a radiologic spectrum of this fascinating hereditary disease. Screening implications and specific screening methods are reviewed. (author)

  20. CT colonography versus double-contrast barium enema for screening of colorectal cancer: comparison of radiation burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Emanuele; Faggioni, Lorenzo; Cerri, Francesca; Turini, Francesca; Angeli, Simone; Cini, Lorenzo; Perrone, Franco; Paolicchi, Fabio; Bartolozzi, Carlo

    2010-10-01

    Our aim is to compare the radiation dose associated with a low-dose CT colonography (CTC) protocol for colorectal cancer screening with that delivered by double-contrast barium enema (DCBE). CTC of twenty asymptomatic individuals (M:F = 10:10) participating to a colorectal cancer screening program and DCBE of fifteen patients (M:F = 6:9) were evaluated. For CTC, absorbed dose was determined by calculating the dose-length product for each CTC examination from measurements on a CT dose phantom equipped with a CT ion chamber. For DCBE, the free-in-air Kerma at the patient's X-ray entry surface and the Kerma-area product during fluoroscopy and fluorography were measured with a Barracuda system, with fluoroscopy times being recorded blinded to the performing operator. Effective dose at CTC was 2.17 ± 0.12 mSv, with good and excellent image quality in 14/20 (70%) and 6/20 cases (30%), respectively. With DCBE, effective patient dose was 4.12 ± 0.17 mSv, 1.9 times greater than CTC (P < 0.0001). Our results show that effective dose from screening CTC is substantially lower than that from DCBE, suggesting that CTC is the radiological imaging technique of the large bowel with the lowest risk of stochastic radiation effects.

  1. Degree of mucosal coating on double contrast barium enema : comparison of distilled water and normal saline as a suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Tae Seok; Lee, Dong Ho; Ko, Young Tae; Lim, Joo Won; Han, Tae Il; Kim, Hyoung Jung

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the degree of mucosal coating on double contrast barium enema (DCBE), using barium suspension made with distilled water or normal saline Between June 1 and July 30, 1996, fifty-four patients prospectively underwent DCBE using 83% w/v(weight-to-volume) of barium suspension (room temperature, 24 deg C), which was made with 1,200mL of distilled water (Group 1;29cases) and normal saline (Group 2;25cases) per 1Kg of Solotop (Taejoon Pharmacy, Seoul, Korea). Bowel preparation and examination methods were the same in both groups, and four projections(erect view, supine view, both decubitus views) were taken. The mucosal coating was graded as excellent, good, ordinary, or poor by three radiologists working independently, and scored from 3 to 0. Significance was analyzed by t-test. Mean grading scores were 2.33±0.70 in group 1 and 1.56±0.99 in group 2 (P<0.003). When barium suspension made with distilled water was used, the degree of mucosal coating on DCBE was better than when the suspension was made with normal saline

  2. Preliminary evaluation of helical CT colonography in detection of colonic diseases compared with double contrast barium enema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai Xiaoli; Zhang Lei; Zhai Renyou; Li Jie; Wang Yajie; Ding Yi

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate helical CT colonography in regard to technology principles, limitations, and clinical applications. Methods: Fifty-six patients underwent volume scanning using helical CT. The diseases included adenocarcinoma 39, adenomatous polyp 3, multiple diverticular 7, mucocele of appendix 1, and normal colon 6. All cases had been compared with double contrast barium enema (DCBE), proved by histology except the 6 normal colon and the 7 multiple diverticular. All CTC images were reconstructed using shaded surface display (SSD) on workstation. Then, perspective images such as the ones from DCBE were generated via ray sum. The images could clearly demonstrate the extent and detail of the disorder by using 'CUT' software, 'revolve' function, and zoom. Results: CTC correctly demonstrated 3-5 mm diverticulum, 3 mm ulcer, and 6 mm polyps. Not only show colon straitness clearly, CTC is also very sensitive to demonstrate the stenotic end of masses. In these cases, discovery rate of CTC is 100.0%, the rate of DCBE is 88.6%; CTC is more sensitive than DCBE in cases of tumor nodules. Ray sum can show the boundary of colonic mass extending to both proximal and distal ends, its discovery rate is 62.6%. Accuracy of localization for CTC is 100.0%. Conclusion: CTC is a novel technique for detecting colonic diseases. It is a safe, accurate, and non-invasive means for detection of lesions and is an efficient complement for DCBE. Further development in CTC technique is expected in the future

  3. The effect of timing of intravenous muscle relaxant on the quality of double-contrast barium enema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elson, E.M.; Elson, E.M.; Campbell, D.M.; Halligan, S.; Shaikh, I.; Davitt, S.; Bartram, C.I.

    2000-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether the timing of buscopan administration during double-contrast barium enema examination (DCBE) affects diagnostic quality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a prospective setting, 100 consecutive adult out-patients referred for DCBE received 20 mg buscopan (hyoscine-N-butylbromide) intravenously, either before infusion of barium suspension (Group A) or after barium infusion and gas insufflation (Group B). A subjective assessment of ease of contrast medium infusion was made at the time of examination and the films subsequently analysed by two radiologists unaware of the mode of relaxant administration, who noted the quality of mucosal coating and made subjective and objective measurements of segmental distension. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in screening times, infusion difficulty or colonic contrast medium coating between the two groups. Subjective assessment of distension of the caecum, ascending colon, transverse colon and rectum were not significantly different. Patients receiving intravenous relaxant after barium and gas infusion had less subjective descending (P = 0.05) and sigmoid (P = 0.04) colon distension, but there was no significant difference with respect to maximal bowel diameter in any of the segments measured. CONCLUSION: The timing of intravenous administration during DCBE is likely to have no significant effect on the diagnostic quality of the study. Elson, E.M. (2000)

  4. Rectal water contrast transvaginal ultrasound versus double-contrast barium enema in the diagnosis of bowel endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jipeng; Liu, Ying; Wang, Kun; Wu, Xixiang; Tang, Ying

    2017-09-07

    The aim of study was to compare the accuracy between rectal water contrast transvaginal ultrasound (RWC-TVS) and double-contrast barium enema (DCBE) in evaluating the bowel endometriosis presence as well as its extent. 198 patients at reproductive age with suspicious bowel endometriosis were included. Physicians in two groups specialised at endometriosis performed RWC-TVS as well as DCBE before laparoscopy and both groups were blinded to other groups' results. Findings from RWC-TVS or DCBE were compared with histological results. The severity of experienced pain severity through RWC-TVS or DCBE was assessed by an analogue scale of 10 cm. In total, 110 in 198 women were confirmed to have endometriosis nodules in the bowel by laparoscopy as well as histopathology. For bowel endometriosis diagnosis, DCBE and RWC-TVS demonstrated sensitivities of 96.4% and 88.2%, specificities of 100% and 97.3%, positive prediction values of 100% and 98.0%, negative prediction values of 98.0% and 88.0%, accuracies of 98.0% and 92.4%, respectively. DCBE was related to more tolerance than RWC-TVS. RWC-TVS and DCBE demonstrated similar accuracies in the bowel endometriosis diagnosis; however, patients showed more tolerance for RWC-TVS than those with DCBE. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Outcome of excision of megarectum in children with anorectal malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshtgar, Alireza S; Ward, Harry C; Richards, Catherine; Clayden, Graham S

    2007-01-01

    Megarectum in association with anorectal malformation contributes to chronic constipation and fecal incontinence. Resection of megarectum in anorectal malformation improves bowel function, but neuropathy and poor sphincter quality may affect the outcome of fecal continence adversely. The aim of this study was to evaluate the benefits of resection of megarectum in anorectal malformation and to ascertain the impact of anal sphincter quality and neuropathy on the outcome. We studied 62 children with intractable fecal incontinence after repair of anorectal malformation between January 1991 and January 2005. All patients were investigated with anorectal manometry and anal endosonography under ketamine anesthesia. On endosonography, an intact or scarred internal anal sphincter (IAS) was classified as good and a fragmented or absent IAS as poor. On manometry, a resting anal sphincter pressure equal to or more than 30 mm Hg was classified as good and a lower pressure as poor. Functional assessment of fecal continence was done before and after excision of megarectum using a modified Wingfield scores. Sixteen children had excision of megarectum with median age of 9 years (range, 2-15 years) and postoperative follow-up of 5 years (range, 1-10 years). Seven had formation of antegrade continent enema stoma before excision of megarectum. Children were classified into three groups of anomalies: low (n = 6), intermediate (n = 4), and high (n = 6). All children were incontinent of feces. After excision of megarectum, of the 9 children with good IAS and no neuropathy, 7 became continent of feces. Of the remaining 7 children, 4 had poor IAS and 3 had neuropathy, 5 of whom required an antegrade continent enema stoma to be clean. Excision of megarectum in children who had previous repair of anorectal malformation results in fecal continence in the presence of a good IAS and absence of neuropathy. Patients with a poor IAS or neuropathy will often require artificial means of fecal

  6. The problem of early continence recovery after radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kachmazov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The highest rate of incontinence after radical prostatectomy (RP is observed in the first 2–6 months after surgery. In order  to decrease the period of incontinence, virous surgical methods aimed at preservation and reconstruction of structures participating  in the mechanism of urine retention has been developed and improved.The study objective is to evaluate effectiveness of an original method of formation of an urethral anastomosis in the early continence recovery.Materials and methods. Data on 126 patients who underwent retropubic RP were analyzed. Depending on the method of urethral anastomosis formation, patients were divided into 2 groups: in the 1st group (n = 52 the patients underwent PR with urethra suspension m. levator ani, in the 2nd (n = 74 – standard RP. In the 1st group, 6 ligatures were applied to the anterior and posterior urethra walls: at the 12 and 6 hour projections through the mucosa, submucosa, and smooth muscle; at the 10, 2, 4, and 8 hour projections – more laterally with capture of the m. levator ani medial margins. Continence recovery was evaluated on days 1, 7, and 14 after urinary catheter removal and then at days 30, 90, 180, and 365 after RP. The criteria of continence were absence of urine leakage at rest and during physical activity and a necessity of using a safety liner.Results. There weren’t any significant differences at day 1 after urinary catheter removal between the two groups (р > 0.05. In the 1st group, continence values at days 30, 90, and 180 after RP were significantly higher (57.7, 69.2, and 71.1 %, respectively compared to the 2nd group (35.1, 41.9, and 51.3 %, respectively (р <0.05.Conclusion. Results of this work show significant benefits of RP with urethra suspension m. levator ani compared to standard RP per continence recovery criteria at days 7, 14, 30, 90, and 180 after the surgery. The technique of urethra suspension m. levator ani is easy to perform and ensures

  7. Mantle temperature under drifting deformable continents during the supercontinent cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Masaki

    2013-04-01

    The thermal heterogeneity of the Earth's mantle under the drifting continents during a supercontinent cycle is a controversial issue in earth science. Here, a series of numerical simulations of mantle convection are performed in 3D spherical-shell geometry, incorporating drifting deformable continents and self-consistent plate tectonics, to evaluate the subcontinental mantle temperature during a supercontinent cycle. Results show that the laterally averaged temperature anomaly of the subcontinental mantle remains within several tens of degrees (±50 °C) throughout the simulation time. Even after the formation of the supercontinent and the development of subcontinental plumes due to the subduction of the oceanic plates, the laterally averaged temperature anomaly of the deep mantle under the continent is within +10 °C. This implies that there is no substantial temperature difference between the subcontinental and suboceanic mantles during a supercontinent cycle. The temperature anomaly immediately beneath the supercontinent is generally positive owing to the thermal insulation effect and the active upwelling plumes from the core-mantle boundary. In the present simulation, the formation of a supercontinent causes the laterally averaged subcontinental temperature to increase by a maximum of 50 °C, which would produce sufficient tensional force to break up the supercontinent. The periodic assembly and dispersal of continental fragments, referred to as the supercontinent cycle, bear close relation to the evolution of mantle convection and plate tectonics. Supercontinent formation involves complex processes of introversion, extroversion or a combination of these in uniting dispersed continental fragments, as against the simple opening and closing of individual oceans envisaged in Wilson cycle. In the present study, I evaluate supercontinent processes in a realistic mantle convection regime. Results show that the assembly of supercontinents is accompanied by a

  8. Valor do enema de bário com duplo contraste no diagnóstico da endometriose do reto e sigmóide Double-contrast barium enema in the diagnosis of intestinal deeply infiltrating endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helizabet Salomão Abdalla Ayroza Ribeiro

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a sensibilidade, especificidade, valor preditivo positivo e valor preditivo negativo do enema de bário com duplo contraste (EBDC para o diagnóstico da endometriose do reto e sigmóide. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal prospectivo que incluiu 37 pacientes com quadro clínico suspeito de endometriose profunda. As pacientes foram submetidas ao EBDC de acordo com a técnica padrão descrita na literatura. Em seguida, foram submetidas à laparoscopia. Os exames foram realizados e seus resultados e imagens foram interpretados e comparados com base na avaliação histológica. A análise estatística foi realizada pela análise de associação (teste do χ2 e análise de concordância (teste de Kappa. RESULTADOS: a média de idade das pacientes estudadas foi de 35,8±4,4 anos (faixa de 28 a 48 anos, sendo 85,6% brancas e 14,4% negras. A endometriose profunda foi confirmada por laparoscopia e pelo exame histológico em todas as pacientes estudadas. A endometriose intestinal foi confirmada histologicamente em 27 mulheres (72,9%. O EBDC demonstrou sinais radiológicos sugestivos de infiltração intestinal por endometriose em 24 mulheres (64,9% e ausência de sinais em 13 mulheres (35,1%. A sensibilidade do método foi de 87,5%, especificidade de 53,8%, valor preditivo positivo de 77,8% e valor preditivo negativo de 70%. Dentre os 24 exames anormais, 16 (43,2% apresentaram imagem radiológica do tipo espícula, 16 (43,2% apresentavam imagem compatível com estenose e quatro (10,8% o duplo contorno. CONCLUSÕES: o EBDC apresenta elevada sensibilidade e elevado valor preditivo positivo no diagnóstico da endometriose do reto e sigmóide. As imagens radiológicas do tipo espícula e estenose apresentam elevada sensibilidade e valor preditivo positivo para a infiltração intestinal por endometriose.PURPOSE: to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of double contrast barium enema (DCBE for the diagnoses

  9. Madagascar: Heads It's a Continent, Tails It's an Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Maarten J.

    Neither geologists nor biologists have a definition that is capable of classifying Madagascar unambiguously as an island or a continent; nor can they incorporate Malagasy natural history into a single model rooted in Africa or Asia. Madagascar is a microcosm of the larger continents, with a rock record that spans more than 3000 million years (Ma), during which it has been united episodically with, and divorced from, Asian and African connections. This is reflected in its Precambrian history of deep crustal tectonics and a Phanerozoic history of biodiversity that fluctuated between cosmopolitanism and parochialism. Both vicariance and dispersal events over the past 90 Ma have blended a unique endemism on Madagascar, now in decline following rapid extinctions that started about 2000 years ago.

  10. A review of continent scale hydrological datasets available for Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Bonsor, H.C.

    2010-01-01

    As rainfall becomes less reliable with predicted climate change the ability to assess the spatial and seasonal variations in groundwater availability on a large-scale (catchment and continent) is becoming increasingly important (Bates, et al. 2007; MacDonald et al. 2009). The scarcity of observed hydrological data, or difficulty in obtaining such data, within Africa means remotely sensed (RS) datasets must often be used to drive large-scale hydrological models. The different ap...

  11. What is important for continent catheterizable stomas: angulations or extension?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo L. Vilela

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We developed an experimental ex-vivo model to define factors that may influence continence of catheterizable channels by urinary and colonic stomas based on the principle of imbrication of the outlet tube. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 20 pigs, colon specimens with 25 cm length were obtained and a transverse flap with 3.0 cm length x 1.5 cm width in the average point of the intestine was tubulated to create an efferent tube. With the tube configured, it was embedded by 3 seromuscular stitches far 0.5 cm each other. A pressure study of both intra-luminal surface and channel was then conducted during the filling of the submerse piece with environmental air in a water container, to define the efferent channel continence. The study was repeated after the progressive release of suture stitches until only one stitch remains. RESULTS: Channel continence analyzed in each segment in three different valve length situations, making a total of 20 segments, revealed that with 3 stitches (1.5 cm valve the maximum average pressure prior to overflow was 54 cm H2O; 53.65 cm H2O with 2 stitches (1.0 cm of valve, and 55.45 cm H2O with only one stitch (0.5 cm of valve, which are the same values. The record at the segment explosion pressure was 67.87 cm H2O. CONCLUSION: The study showed that angulation of channel with colon, maintained by only one stitch (0.5 cm imbrication was more important than a larger extension of the valve, represented by 3 suture stitches (1.5 cm imbrication in order to allow continence to the efferent channel.

  12. Colon pouch (Mainz III) for continent urinary diversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Schwalenberg, Thilo; Liatsikos, Evangelos N; Sakelaropoulos, George; Rödder, Kilian; Hohenfellner, Rudolph; Fisch, Margit

    2007-06-01

    To evaluate the use of a continent cutaneous pouch made exclusively of colon (Mainz pouch III), as excellent results with the Mainz pouch III in irradiated patients suggested that the indication for this type of urinary diversion could be extended. The outcome of 24 patients with continent cutaneous urinary diversions using colon segments (Mainz pouch III) was investigated retrospectively. Overall, 22 of the patients had a malignant disease and two a benign disease; 16 had a hysterectomy and pelvic exenteration for gynaecological tumours; two men with a rhabdomyosarcoma of the prostate had a radical cystoprostatectomy; one woman had pelvic exenteration for bladder cancer; one man had a simultaneous rectum resection due to infiltrating rectal cancer, and another a left nephrectomy with cystectomy for concomitant kidney and bladder tumour. Benign indications were hyper-reflexive bladder after polytrauma and two cases of neurogenic bladder dysfunction. Eighteen patients had radiotherapy (32-48 Gy) before the urinary diversion. The mean (range) follow-up was 35 (12-65) months. The mean pouch capacity was 293.8 mL. Three patients died during the follow-up (two from disease progression and one suicide); 20 patients were fully continent, four with reduced pouch capacity (<300 mL) had slight incontinence and are wearing a protective pad (band-aid at the umbilicus). All patients use intermittent self-catheterization (mean catheterization frequency 6.8/day, range 6-12). Complications related to the pouch were one outlet stenosis that required revision. Postoperative pouchograms showed asymptomatic reflux in four patients. None of the patients developed metabolic acidosis or diarrhoea. The Mainz pouch III is an alternative to other types of continent urinary diversion.

  13. Multiple sclerosis and continence issues: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollin, Judy; Bennie, Mary; Leech, Christine; Windsor, Carol; Spencer, Nancy

    The study described in this article aimed to identify issues relating to incontinence and assess the impact of referral to a continence adviser on the lives of people with multiple sclerosis (MS). The study design used an in-depth, two-phase anonymous mail survey within a general community as nominated by the participants. Fifty-six people participated in phase 1 and eleven people completed phase 2. The results indicated that incontinence is a problem for the vast majority of participants--people with MS. One-third of the eligible participants took up the option of a consultation, assessment and treatment from a continence nurse. Reasons for not taking up the visit from the continence nurse included 'managing OK', 'didn't think it would help', 'embarrassed' and 'too busy'. Increasing awareness of urinary incontinence in the community is important and education needs to focus on at-risk groups in presenting the range of options available to assist people experiencing incontinence.

  14. Smart wireless continence management system for persons with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai, Aung Aung Phyo; Fook, Victor Foo Siang; Jayachandran, Maniyeri; Biswas, Jit; Nugent, Chris; Mulvenna, Maurice; Lee, Jer-En; Kiat, Philp Yap Lian

    2008-10-01

    Incontinence is highly prevalent in the elderly population, especially in nursing home residents with dementia. It is a distressing and costly health problem that affects not only the patients but also the caregivers. Effective continence management is required to provide quality care, and to eliminate high labor costs and annoyances to the caregivers resulting from episodes of incontinence. This paper presents the design, development, and preliminary deployment of a smart wireless continence management system for dementia-impaired elderly or patients in institutional care settings such as nursing homes and hospitals. Specifically, the mote wireless platform was used to support the deployment of potentially large quantities of wetness sensors with wider coverage and with dramatically less complexity and cost. It consists of an intelligent signal relay mechanism so that the residents are free to move about in the nursing home or hospital and allows personalized continence management service. Preliminary results from a trial in a local nursing home are promising and can significantly improve the quality of care for patients.

  15. Large impacted upper ureteral calculi: A comparative study between retrograde ureterolithotripsy and percutaneous antegrade ureterolithotripsy in the modified lateral position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moufid, Kamal; Abbaka, Najib; Touiti, Driss; Adermouch, Latifa; Amine, Mohamed; Lezrek, Mohammed

    2013-07-01

    The treatment for patients with large impacted proximal ureteral stone remains controversial, especially at institutions with limited resources. The aim of this study is to compare and to evaluate the outcome and complications of two main treatment procedures for impacted proximal ureteral calculi, retrograde ureterolithotripsy (URS), and percutaneous antegrade ureterolithotripsy (Perc-URS). Our inclusion criteria were solitary, radiopaque calculi, >15 mm in size in a functioning renal unit. Only those patients in whom the attempt at passing a guidewire or catheter beyond the calculus failed were included in this study. Between January 2007 and July 2011, a total of 52 patients (13 women and 39 men) with large impacted upper-ureteral calculi >15 mm and meeting the inclusion criteria were selected. Of these, Perc-URS was done in 22 patients (group 1) while retrograde ureteroscopy was performed in 30 patients (group 2). We analyzed operative time, incidence of complications during and after surgery, the number of postoperative recovery days, median total costs associated per patient per procedure, and the stone-free rate immediately after 5 days and after 1 month. Bivariate analysis used the Student t-test and the Mann-Whitney test to compare two means and Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests to compare two percentages. The significance level was set at 0.05. The mean age was 42.3 years (range 22-69). The mean stone sizes (mm) were 34 ± 1.2 and 29.3 ± 1.8 mm in group 1 and 2, respectively. In the Perc-URS group, 21 patients (95.45%) had complete calculus clearance through a single tract in one session of percutaneous surgery, whereas in the URS group, only 20 patients (66.7%) had complete stone clearance (P = 0.007). The mean operative time was higher in the Perc-URS group compared to group 2 (66.5 ± 21.7 vs. 52.13 ± 17.3 min, respectively; P = 0.013). Complications encountered in group 1 included transient postoperative fever (2 pts) and simple urine outflow (2

  16. Comparison between CT Colonography and Double-Contrast Barium Enema for Colonic Evaluation in Patients with Renal Insufficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Sun Young; Park, Seong Ho; Lee, Seung Soo; Lee, Ju Hee; Kim, Ah Young; Park, Su Ki; Han, Duck Jong; Ha, Hyun Kwon

    2012-01-01

    To compare the CT colonography (CTC) and double-contrast barium enema (DCBE) for colonic evaluation in patients with renal insufficiency. Two sequential groups of consecutive patients with renal insufficiency who had a similar risk for colorectal cancer, were examined by DCBE (n = 182; mean ± SD in age, 51 ± 6.4 years) and CTC (n = 176; 50 ± 6.7 years), respectively. CTC was performed after colon cleansing with 250-mL magnesium citrate (n = 87) or 4-L polyethylene glycol (n = 89) and fecal tagging. DCBE was performed after preparation with 250-mL magnesium citrate. Patients with colonic polyps/masses of ≥ 6 mm were subsequently recommended to undergo a colonoscopy. Diagnostic yield and positive predictive value (PPV) for colonic polyps/masses, examination quality, and examination-related serum electrolyte change were retrospectively compared between the two groups. Both the CTC and DCBE were positive for colonic polyps/masses in 28 (16%) of 176 and 11 (6%) of 182 patients, respectively (p = 0.004). Among patients with positive findings, 17 CTC and six DCBE patients subsequently underwent a colonoscopy and yielded a PPV of 88% (15 of 17 patients) and 50% (3 of 6 patients), respectively (p = 0.089). Thirteen patients with adenomatous lesions were detected in the CTC group (adenocarcinoma [n = 1], advanced adenoma [n = 6], and non-advanced adenoma [n = 6]), as compared with two patients (each with adenocarcinoma and advanced adenoma) in the DCBE group (p = 0.003). Six (3%) of 176 CTC and 16 (9%) of 182 DCBE examinations deemed to be inadequate (p 0.046). Electrolyte changes were similar in the two groups. In patients with renal insufficiency, CTC has a higher diagnostic yield and a marginally higher PPV for detecting colorectal neoplasia, despite a similar diagnostic yield for adenocarcinoma, and a lower rate of inadequate examinations as compared with DCBE.

  17. Comparison between CT colonography and double-contrast barium enema for colonic evaluation in patients with renal insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sun-Young; Park, Seong Ho; Lee, Seung Soo; Lee, Ju Hee; Kim, Ah Young; Park, Su-Kil; Han, Duck Jong; Ha, Hyun Kwon

    2012-01-01

    To compare the CT colonography (CTC) and double-contrast barium enema (DCBE) for colonic evaluation in patients with renal insufficiency. Two sequential groups of consecutive patients with renal insufficiency who had a similar risk for colorectal cancer, were examined by DCBE (n = 182; mean ± SD in age, 51 ± 6.4 years) and CTC (n = 176; 50 ± 6.7 years), respectively. CTC was performed after colon cleansing with 250-mL magnesium citrate (n = 87) or 4-L polyethylene glycol (n = 89) and fecal tagging. DCBE was performed after preparation with 250-mL magnesium citrate. Patients with colonic polyps/masses of ≥ 6 mm were subsequently recommended to undergo a colonoscopy. Diagnostic yield and positive predictive value (PPV) for colonic polyps/masses, examination quality, and examination-related serum electrolyte change were retrospectively compared between the two groups. Both the CTC and DCBE were positive for colonic polyps/masses in 28 (16%) of 176 and 11 (6%) of 182 patients, respectively (p = 0.004). Among patients with positive findings, 17 CTC and six DCBE patients subsequently underwent a colonoscopy and yielded a PPV of 88% (15 of 17 patients) and 50% (3 of 6 patients), respectively (p = 0.089). Thirteen patients with adenomatous lesions were detected in the CTC group (adenocarcinoma [n = 1], advanced adenoma [n = 6], and non-advanced adenoma [n = 6]), as compared with two patients (each with adenocarcinoma and advanced adenoma) in the DCBE group (p = 0.003). Six (3%) of 176 CTC and 16 (9%) of 182 DCBE examinations deemed to be inadequate (p = 0.046). Electrolyte changes were similar in the two groups. In patients with renal insufficiency, CTC has a higher diagnostic yield and a marginally higher PPV for detecting colorectal neoplasia, despite a similar diagnostic yield for adenocarcinoma, and a lower rate of inadequate examinations as compared with DCBE.

  18. Comparison of transvaginal sonography and double-contrast barium enema for diagnosing deep infiltrating endometriosis of the posterior compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savelli, L; Manuzzi, L; Coe, M; Mabrouk, M; Di Donato, N; Venturoli, S; Seracchioli, R

    2011-10-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of transvaginal sonography (TVS) and double-contrast barium enema (DCBE) in the preoperative detection of deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) of the posterior compartment. This was a prospective study of 69 consecutive patients with results of pelvic examination or symptoms suggestive of DIE of the posterior compartment. TVS and DCBE were performed before surgery by two groups of physicians specialized in endometriosis, each blinded to the results of the other technique. Imaging data were compared with histopathologic analysis of the resected specimen (gold standard). Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and test accuracies were calculated for both imaging modalities. Sixty seven of the 69 women had a nodule of DIE confirmed at laparoscopy and histopathologic examination. TVS diagnosed DIE in 57 (85%) of these patients, while DCBE revealed the presence of the lesion in 24 (36%) women. For the diagnosis of posterior DIE, TVS and DCBE had, respectively, a sensitivity of 85% and 36%, specificity of 100% and 100%, positive predictive value of 100% and 100%, negative predictive value of 17% and 4% and accuracy of 85.5% and 38%. In patients with pure bowel DIE the sensitivity was 91% and 43%, specificity was 100% and 100%, positive predictive value was 100% and 100%, negative predictive value was 29% and 6% and accuracy was 91% and 45%, respectively. TVS has a much higher sensitivity than does DCBE in detecting the presence of posterior DIE and should thus be regarded as the imaging modality of choice when there is clinical suspicion of the disease. Copyright © 2011 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Outcomes of asymptomatic anastomotic leaks found on routine postoperative water-soluble enema following anterior resection for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killeen, S; Souroullas, P; Ho Tin, H; Hunter, I A; O'Grady, H; Gunn, J; Hartley, J E

    2013-11-01

    The incidence and consequence of an anastomotic leak associated with low anterior resection for cancer mandates covering stoma in most cases. A water-soluble enema is often performed to assess anastomotic integrity prior to stoma reversal. The functional outcome following reversal in patients with occult radiologically detected leaks is poorly defined. The goal of the present study was to determine the functional outcome in patients with a radiologically detected anastomotic leak who subsequently underwent stoma reversal. This case control study used patients with and without radiologically detected occult anastomotic leak having undergone reversal of covering stomata. The study group was matched with controls for age, gender, procedure, tumor stage, and adjuvant/neoadjuvant therapy. Validated fecal incontinence quality of life (FIQL), Cleveland Clinic Fecal Incontinence Score (CCFIS), and the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) Bowel Function Index (BFI) were used. Patient satisfaction, medication use, and ancillary procedures prior to closure were also recorded. Thirteen patients with radiologically detected occult anastomotic leaks and 13 matched controls were identified from a prospectively maintained database. The FIQL, CCFIS, and MSKCC BFI scores were significantly reduced in those with occult leaks. The mean number of radiological and surgical interventions was significantly greater in the patients with occult leaks. Antidiarrheal and bulking agent use, as well as patient satisfaction, were the same for both groups. Only one patient in the occult leak group would not undergo stoma reversal again. Reversal of a defunctioning ileostomy in the presence of an occult radiological leak can be associated with poorer functional outcomes, but patient satisfaction is undiminished.

  20. Balloon-Occluded Antegrade Transvenous Sclerotherapy to Treat Rectal Varices: A Direct Puncture Approach to the Superior Rectal Vein Through the Greater Sciatic Foramen Under CT Fluoroscopy Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Yasuyuki, E-mail: onoyasy@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp; Kariya, Shuji, E-mail: kariyas@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp; Nakatani, Miyuki, E-mail: nakatanm@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp; Yoshida, Rie, E-mail: yagir@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp; Kono, Yumiko, E-mail: kohnoy@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp; Kan, Naoki, E-mail: kanna@takii.kmu.ac.jp; Ueno, Yutaka, E-mail: uenoyut@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp; Komemushi, Atsushi, E-mail: komemush@takii.kmu.ac.jp; Tanigawa, Noboru, E-mail: tanigano@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp [Kansai Medical University, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    Rectal varices occur in 44.5 % of patients with ectopic varices caused by portal hypertension, and 48.6 % of these patients are untreated and followed by observation. However, bleeding occurs in 38 % and shock leading to death in 5 % of such patients. Two patients, an 80-year-old woman undergoing treatment for primary biliary cirrhosis (Child-Pugh class A) and a 63-year-old man with class C hepatic cirrhosis (Child-Pugh class A), in whom balloon-occluded antegrade transvenous sclerotherapy was performed to treat rectal varices are reported. A catheter was inserted by directly puncturing the rectal vein percutaneously through the greater sciatic foramen under computed tomographic fluoroscopy guidance. In both cases, the rectal varices were successfully treated without any significant complications, with no bleeding from rectal varices after embolization.

  1. How Do People Make Continence Care Happen? An Analysis of Organizational Culture in Two Nursing Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Stacie Salsbury

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Although nursing homes (NHs) are criticized for offering poor quality continence care, little is known about the organizational processes that underlie this care. This study investigated the influence of organizational culture on continence care practices in two NHs. Design and Methods: This ethnographic study explored continence care…

  2. The usefulness of T2-weighted MR urography and contrast enhanced MR urography in the evaluation of obstructive uropathy: comparisonal study with antegrade pyelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Chang Hoon; Lee, Jeong Min; Jin, Kong Yong; Chung, Gyung Ho; Cho, Seung Il; Lee, Sang Hun; Kim, Young Kon; Oh, Gyung Jae

    2002-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of contrast-enhanced and T2-weighted magnetic resonance urography (MRU) for the depiction of obstruction and evaluation of the causes of obstructive uropathy with that of antegrade pyelography. Twenty-five patients with obstructive uropathy who underwent percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN) and antegrade pyelography( AGP) were included in the study. We performed MR urography, comprising half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin-echo (HASTE) T2- weighted imaging and 3-D fast imaging with steady state precession (3-D FISP) T1-weighted imaging after gadolinium enhancement and compared the quality of the images of both the HASTE and 3-D FISP MRU technique in terms of their depiction of the dilated pelvocalyceal system, and the level, type, and causes of obstruction. In terms of anatomical depiction of the pelvocalyceal system (p=0.002) and the causes of obstruction (p=0.003). T1-weighted MRU using 3D-FISP was significantly better than T2-weighted MRU using the HASTE sequence. Regarding level of obstruction, T2-weighted MRU using the HASTE sequence and contrast enhanced T1-weighted MRU using 3D-FISP showed an accuracy of 76% (19/25) and 84% (21/25), respectively. In terms of type of obstruction, the accuracy of T2-weighted MRU and T1-weighted CEMRU was 72% (18/25) and 88% (22/25), respectively. T2-weighted MRU and Ta-weighted CEMRU provided both anatomical information and that relating to impaired renal function. The two modelities played a complementary role and their use could decrease the unnecessary use of invasive diagnostic examination for the evaluation of obstructive uropathy

  3. Feasibility and Safety of Vascular Closure Devices in an Antegrade Approach to Either the Common Femoral Artery or the Superficial Femoral Artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutzeit, Andreas; Schie, Bram van; Schoch, Eric; Hergan, Klaus; Graf, Nicole; Binkert, Christoph A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of the present study was to analyze complications following antegrade puncture of the common femoral artery (CFA) and the superficial femoral artery (SFA) using vascular closure systems (VCS). Methods: A single-center, retrospective study was performed after obtaining approval from the institutional review board and informed consent from all patients. At our center, the CFA or SFA are used for arterial access. All patients were evaluated clinically on the same day. If there was any suspicion of an access site problem, Duplex ultrasound was performed. Results: Access location was the CFA in 50 patients and the SFA in 130 patients. The sheath size ranged from 4F to 10F. Two patients had to be excluded because of lack of follow-up. Successful hemostasis was achieved in 162 of 178 cases (91 %). The following complications were observed in 16 patients (8.9 %): 4 pseudoaneurysms (2.2 %), 11 hematomas (6.2 %), and 1 vascular occlusion (0.5 %). The two pseudoaneurysms healed spontaneously, in one case an ultrasound-guided thrombin injection was performed, and one aneurysm was compressed manually. No further medical therapy was needed for the hematomas. The one vascular occlusion was treated immediately with angioplasty using a contralateral approach. No significant difference was noted between the CFA and the SFA group with respect to complications (p = 1.000). Conclusions: The use of closure devices for an antegrade approach up to 10F is feasible and safe. No differences in low complication rates were observed between CFA and SFA.

  4. Feasibility and Safety of Vascular Closure Devices in an Antegrade Approach to Either the Common Femoral Artery or the Superficial Femoral Artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutzeit, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.gutzeit@ksw.ch; Schie, Bram van, E-mail: Bram.vanschie@hotmail.com; Schoch, Eric, E-mail: eric.schoch@ksw.ch [Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Department of Radiology (Switzerland); Hergan, Klaus, E-mail: k.hergan@salk.at [Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Department of Radiology (Austria); Graf, Nicole, E-mail: graf@biostatistics.ch; Binkert, Christoph A., E-mail: christoph.binkert@ksw.ch [Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Department of Radiology (Switzerland)

    2012-10-15

    Introduction: The purpose of the present study was to analyze complications following antegrade puncture of the common femoral artery (CFA) and the superficial femoral artery (SFA) using vascular closure systems (VCS). Methods: A single-center, retrospective study was performed after obtaining approval from the institutional review board and informed consent from all patients. At our center, the CFA or SFA are used for arterial access. All patients were evaluated clinically on the same day. If there was any suspicion of an access site problem, Duplex ultrasound was performed. Results: Access location was the CFA in 50 patients and the SFA in 130 patients. The sheath size ranged from 4F to 10F. Two patients had to be excluded because of lack of follow-up. Successful hemostasis was achieved in 162 of 178 cases (91 %). The following complications were observed in 16 patients (8.9 %): 4 pseudoaneurysms (2.2 %), 11 hematomas (6.2 %), and 1 vascular occlusion (0.5 %). The two pseudoaneurysms healed spontaneously, in one case an ultrasound-guided thrombin injection was performed, and one aneurysm was compressed manually. No further medical therapy was needed for the hematomas. The one vascular occlusion was treated immediately with angioplasty using a contralateral approach. No significant difference was noted between the CFA and the SFA group with respect to complications (p = 1.000). Conclusions: The use of closure devices for an antegrade approach up to 10F is feasible and safe. No differences in low complication rates were observed between CFA and SFA.

  5. Design of a multicentre randomized trial to evaluate CT colonography versus colonoscopy or barium enema for diagnosis of colonic cancer in older symptomatic patients: The SIGGAR study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwards Rob

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Aims The standard whole-colon tests used to investigate patients with symptoms of colorectal cancer are barium enema and colonoscopy. Colonoscopy is the reference test but is technically difficult, resource intensive, and associated with adverse events, especially in the elderly. Barium enema is safer but has reduced sensitivity for cancer. CT colonography ("virtual colonoscopy" is a newer alternative that may combine high sensitivity for cancer with safety and patient acceptability. The SIGGAR trial aims to determine the diagnostic efficacy, acceptability, and economic costs associated with this new technology. Methods The SIGGAR trial is a multi-centre randomised comparison of CT colonography versus standard investigation (barium enema or colonoscopy, the latter determined by individual clinician preference. Diagnostic efficacy for colorectal cancer and colonic polyps measuring 1 cm or larger will be determined, as will the physical and psychological morbidity associated with each diagnostic test, the latter via questionnaires developed from qualitative interviews. The economic costs of making or excluding a diagnosis will be determined for each diagnostic test and information from the trial and other data from the literature will be used to populate models framed to summarise the health effects and costs of alternative approaches to detection of significant colonic neoplasia in patients of different ages, prior risks and preferences. This analysis will focus particularly on the frequency, clinical relevance, costs, and psychological and physical morbidity associated with detection of extracolonic lesions by CT colonography. Results Recruitment commenced in March 2004 and at the time of writing (July 2007 5025 patients have been randomised. A lower than expected prevalence of end-points in the barium enema sub-trial has caused an increase in sample size. In addition to the study protocol, we describe our approach to

  6. Polysorbate 80 and low-osmolality water-soluble contrast medium enema in diagnosis and treatment of faecal obstruction in malignant phaeochromocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratcliffe, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    Stercoral obstruction in a young woman with disseminated phaeochromocytoma was diagnosed and treated successfully using an enema of isosmolar iohexol (Omnipaque) and 1% polysorbate 80 (Tween 80) without complication. Surgical intervention was thus avoided. A low osmolality water-soluble contrast medium (iohexol 150 mg I/ml) with a wetting agent (1% Tween 80) was used because a barium suspension would have inspissated, exacerbating the constipation and a hyperosmolar contrast medium might have precipitated a hypertensive crisis and destablished her critical salt and water balance. (orig.)

  7. Groundwater systems of the Indian Sub-Continent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Mukherjee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Indian Sub-Continent is one of the most densely populated regions of the world, hosting ∼23% of the global population within only ∼3% of the world's land area. It encompasses some of the world's largest fluvial systems in the world (River Brahmaputra, Ganges and Indus Basins, which hosts some of the highest yielding aquifers in the world. The distribution of usable groundwater in the region varies considerably and the continued availability of safe water from many of these aquifers (e.g. Bengal Basin is constrained by the presence of natural contaminants. Further, the trans-boundary nature of the aquifers in the Indian Sub-Continent makes groundwater resource a potentially politically sensitive issue, particularly since this region is the largest user of groundwater resources in the world. Indeed, there is considerable concern regarding dwindling well yield and declining groundwater levels, even for the highly productive aquifers. Though irrigation already accounts for >85% of the total ground water extraction of the region, there is a mounting pressure on aquifers for food security of the region. Highly variable precipitation, hydrogeological conditions and predicted, impending climate change effects provide substantial challenges to groundwater management. The observed presence of natural groundwater contaminants together with the growing demand for irrigated food production and predicted climate change further complicate the development of strategies for using groundwater resources sustainably. We provide an introduction and overview of 11 articles, collated in this special issue, which describe the current condition of vulnerable groundwater resources across the Indian Sub-Continent.

  8. A Zn isotope perspective on the rise of continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, M-L; Fujii, T; Rosing, M; Quitté, G; Télouk, P; Albarède, F

    2013-05-01

    Zinc isotope abundances are fairly constant in igneous rocks and shales and are left unfractionated by hydrothermal processes at pH 1‰ during the ~2.35 Ga Great Oxygenation Event. By 1.8 Ga, BIF δ(66) Zn has settled to the modern value of FeMn nodules and encrustations (~0.9‰). The Zn cycle is largely controlled by two different mechanisms: Zn makes strong complexes with phosphates, and phosphates in turn are strongly adsorbed by Fe hydroxides. We therefore review the evidence that the surface geochemical cycles of Zn and P are closely related. The Zn isotope record echoes Sr isotope evidence, suggesting that erosion starts with the very large continental masses appearing at ~2.7 Ga. The lack of Zn fractionation in pre-2.9 Ga BIFs is argued to reflect the paucity of permanent subaerial continental exposure and consequently the insignificant phosphate input to the oceans and the small output of biochemical sediments. We link the early decline of δ(66) Zn between 3.0 and 2.7 Ga with the low solubility of phosphate in alkaline groundwater. The development of photosynthetic activity at the surface of the newly exposed continents increased the oxygen level in the atmosphere, which in turn triggered acid drainage and stepped up P dissolution and liberation of heavy Zn into the runoff. Zinc isotopes provide a new perspective on the rise of continents, the volume of carbonates on continents, changing weathering conditions, and compositions of the ocean through time. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Promoting Simulation Globally: Networking with Nursing Colleagues Across Five Continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfes, Celeste M; Madigan, Elizabeth A

    Simulation education is gaining momentum internationally and may provide the opportunity to enhance clinical education while disseminating evidence-based practice standards for clinical simulation and learning. There is a need to develop a cohesive leadership group that fosters support, networking, and sharing of simulation resources globally. The Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing at Case Western Reserve University has had the unique opportunity to establish academic exchange programs with schools of nursing across five continents. Although the joint and mutual simulation activities have been extensive, each international collaboration has also provided insight into the innovations developed by global partners.

  10. A randomized prospective triaI comparing oral sodium phosphate with magnesium citrate in preparing of patients for double contrast barium enema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Joo; Lee, Sung Woo; Lee, Hyeon Kyeong; Yang, Chang Hun; Kim, Soon; Oh, Yoen Hee; Kim, Seung Hyeon

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare two bowel preparation agents, sodium phosphate solution with magnesium citrate solution. A total of 94 subjects that underwent a double-contrast barium enema were included in this study. Bowel preparation before performing the barium study was done by using a sodium phosphate solution in 47 subjects and by using a magnesium citrate solution in the other 47 subjects. We evaluated the presence or absence of side effects when using these bowel preparation agents. Two radiologist who were blinded to the type of bowel preparation evaluated the quality of bowel preparation at the colonic segments (ascending, descending, and sigmoid colon) on the radiographs obtained by double-contrast barium enema, with regard to stool cleansing, water retention, barium coating and bubble formation. The side effects, such as abdominal clamping pain, nausea, hunger pain and chill occurred more frequently in the sodium phosphate group than in the magnesium citrate group (p< 0.001). Stool retention was more frequently found in the magnesium citrate group (p< 0.001). However, no statistical difference was noted on the status of water retention and barium coating between two groups. Gas bubble formation was more commonly seen in the sodium phosphate group (p< 0.001). The sodium phosphate solution appeared to be more effective in cleansing the right colon (p=0.001). Sodium phosphate solution appears to be more effective for colonic cleansing, with a lower incidence of side effects, than when using magnesium citrate solution

  11. Archean komatiite volcanism controlled by the evolution of early continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mole, David R; Fiorentini, Marco L; Thebaud, Nicolas; Cassidy, Kevin F; McCuaig, T Campbell; Kirkland, Christopher L; Romano, Sandra S; Doublier, Michael P; Belousova, Elena A; Barnes, Stephen J; Miller, John

    2014-07-15

    The generation and evolution of Earth's continental crust has played a fundamental role in the development of the planet. Its formation modified the composition of the mantle, contributed to the establishment of the atmosphere, and led to the creation of ecological niches important for early life. Here we show that in the Archean, the formation and stabilization of continents also controlled the location, geochemistry, and volcanology of the hottest preserved lavas on Earth: komatiites. These magmas typically represent 50-30% partial melting of the mantle and subsequently record important information on the thermal and chemical evolution of the Archean-Proterozoic Earth. As a result, it is vital to constrain and understand the processes that govern their localization and emplacement. Here, we combined Lu-Hf isotopes and U-Pb geochronology to map the four-dimensional evolution of the Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia, and reveal the progressive development of an Archean microcontinent. Our results show that in the early Earth, relatively small crustal blocks, analogous to modern microplates, progressively amalgamated to form larger continental masses, and eventually the first cratons. This cratonization process drove the hottest and most voluminous komatiite eruptions to the edge of established continental blocks. The dynamic evolution of the early continents thus directly influenced the addition of deep mantle material to the Archean crust, oceans, and atmosphere, while also providing a fundamental control on the distribution of major magmatic ore deposits.

  12. Climate control of terrestrial carbon exchange across biomes and continents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi Chuixiang; Wolbeck, John; Xu Xiyan [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Queens College, City University of New York, NY 11367 (United States); Ricciuto, Daniel [Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Li Runze [Department of Statistics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Nilsson, Mats [Department of Forest Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-901 83 Umeaa (Sweden); Aires, Luis [CESAM and Department of Environmental Engineering, School of Technology and Management, Polytechnic Institute of Leiria (Portugal); Albertson, John D [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC 22708-0287 (United States); Ammann, Christof [Federal Research Station Agroscope Reckenholz-Taenikon, Reckenholzstrasse 191, 8046 Zuerich (Switzerland); Arain, M Altaf [School of Geography and Earth Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4K1 (Canada); De Araujo, Alessandro C [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Programa LBA, Campus-II, Manaus-Amazonas 69060 (Brazil); Aubinet, Marc [University of Liege, Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, Unit of Biosystem Physics, 2 Passage des Deportes, 5030 Gembloux (Belgium); Aurela, Mika [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Climate Change Research, FI-00101 Helsinki (Finland); Barcza, Zoltan [Department of Meteorology, Eoetvoes Lorand University, H-1117 Budapest, Pazmany setany 1/A (Hungary); Barr, Alan [Climate Research Division, Environment Canada, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 3H5 (Canada); Berbigier, Paul [INRA, UR1263 EPHYSE, Villenave d' Ornon F-33883 (France); Beringer, Jason [School of Geography and Environmental Science, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Bernhofer, Christian [Institute of Hydrology and Meteorology, Dresden University of Technology, Pienner Strasse 23, D-01737, Tharandt (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    Understanding the relationships between climate and carbon exchange by terrestrial ecosystems is critical to predict future levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide because of the potential accelerating effects of positive climate-carbon cycle feedbacks. However, directly observed relationships between climate and terrestrial CO{sub 2} exchange with the atmosphere across biomes and continents are lacking. Here we present data describing the relationships between net ecosystem exchange of carbon (NEE) and climate factors as measured using the eddy covariance method at 125 unique sites in various ecosystems over six continents with a total of 559 site-years. We find that NEE observed at eddy covariance sites is (1) a strong function of mean annual temperature at mid- and high-latitudes, (2) a strong function of dryness at mid- and low-latitudes, and (3) a function of both temperature and dryness around the mid-latitudinal belt (45 deg. N). The sensitivity of NEE to mean annual temperature breaks down at {approx} 16 deg. C (a threshold value of mean annual temperature), above which no further increase of CO{sub 2} uptake with temperature was observed and dryness influence overrules temperature influence.

  13. Continents as lithological icebergs: The importance of buoyant lithospheric roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, D.H.; Drury, R.; Mooney, W.D.

    1997-01-01

    An understanding of the formation of new continental crust provides an important guide to locating the oldest terrestrial rocks and minerals. We evaluated the crustal thicknesses of the thinnest stable continental crust and of an unsubductable oceanic plateau and used the resulting data to estimate the amount of mantle melting which produces permanent continental crust. The lithospheric mantle is sufficiently depleted to produce permanent buoyancy (i.e., the crust is unsubductable) at crustal thicknesses greater than 25-27 km. These unsubductable oceanic plateaus and hotspot island chains are important sources of new continental crust. The newest continental crust (e.g., the Ontong Java plateau) has a basaltic composition, not a granitic one. The observed structure and geochemistry of continents are the result of convergent margin magmatism and metamorphism which modify the nascent basaltic crust into a lowermost basaltic layer overlain by a more silicic upper crust. The definition of a continent should imply only that the lithosphere is unsubductable over ??? 0.25 Ga time periods. Therefore, the search for the oldest crustal rocks should include rocks from lower to mid-crustal levels.

  14. Climate control of terrestrial carbon exchange across biomes and continents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Chuixiang; Wolbeck, John; Xu Xiyan; Ricciuto, Daniel; Li Runze; Nilsson, Mats; Aires, Luis; Albertson, John D; Ammann, Christof; Arain, M Altaf; De Araujo, Alessandro C; Aubinet, Marc; Aurela, Mika; Barcza, Zoltan; Barr, Alan; Berbigier, Paul; Beringer, Jason; Bernhofer, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the relationships between climate and carbon exchange by terrestrial ecosystems is critical to predict future levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide because of the potential accelerating effects of positive climate-carbon cycle feedbacks. However, directly observed relationships between climate and terrestrial CO 2 exchange with the atmosphere across biomes and continents are lacking. Here we present data describing the relationships between net ecosystem exchange of carbon (NEE) and climate factors as measured using the eddy covariance method at 125 unique sites in various ecosystems over six continents with a total of 559 site-years. We find that NEE observed at eddy covariance sites is (1) a strong function of mean annual temperature at mid- and high-latitudes, (2) a strong function of dryness at mid- and low-latitudes, and (3) a function of both temperature and dryness around the mid-latitudinal belt (45 deg. N). The sensitivity of NEE to mean annual temperature breaks down at ∼ 16 deg. C (a threshold value of mean annual temperature), above which no further increase of CO 2 uptake with temperature was observed and dryness influence overrules temperature influence.

  15. A double-blind randomised, placebo-controlled trial evaluating the influence of oral long-acting muscle relaxant (Mebeverine MR), and insufflation with CO{sub 2} on pain associated with barium enema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, A.S.; Chapman, A.H.; Wilson, D.; Culpan, A.G. [Department of Radiology, St. James' s University Hospital, Beckett Street, LS9 7TF, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-01

    Previous investigators have shown significant benefit using CO{sub 2} for bowel insufflation. Others have suggested that the long-acting smooth muscle relaxant, Mebeverine, may be of benefit. We subjected this to a randomised double-blind trial. A total of 181 outpatients were randomised to receive either Mebeverine or placebo as pre-medication, and either air or CO{sub 2} for bowel insufflation, thus creating four treatment groups. Visual-analogue lines were used to record pain scores before, during, and up to 8 h following the enema. All groups showed increased pain scores during the enema, with peak pain scores at the end of the examination, falling to baseline scores by 8 h. Patients receiving the combination of C0{sub 2} and placebo had significantly lower pain scores at 1 and 4 h (P=0.00 and P=0.014, respectively; Kruskal-Wallis test) compared with all other groups. Having Mebeverine as a pre-medication did not significantly lower pain scores compared with placebo, and decreased the amount of benefit received from the CO{sub 2}. We confirm that CO{sub 2} is of benefit in decreasing pain during barium enema, and we recommend its routine use to improve the comfort of patients. Mebeverine is not of benefit, and its use as a pre-medication for enemas is not recommended. (orig.)

  16. Clinical value of colonic irrigation in patients with continence disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briel, J W; Schouten, W R; Vlot, E A; Smits, S; van Kessel, I

    1997-07-01

    Continence disturbances, especially fecal soiling, are difficult to treat. Irrigation of the distal part of the large bowel might be considered as a nonsurgical alternative for patients with impaired continence. This study is aimed at evaluating the clinical value of colonic irrigation. Thirty-two patients (16 females; median age, 47 (range, 23-72) years) were offered colonic irrigation on an ambulatory basis. Sixteen patients suffered from fecal soiling (Group I), whereas the other 16 patients were treated for fecal incontinence (Group II). Patients were instructed by enterostomal therapists how to use a conventional colostomy irrigation set to obtain sufficient irrigation of the distal part of their large bowel. Patients with continence disturbances during the daytime were instructed to introduce 500 to 1,000 ml of warm (38 degrees C) water within 5 to 10 minutes after they passed their first stool. In addition, they were advised to wait until the urge to defecate was felt. Patients with soiling during overnight sleep were advised to irrigate during the evening. To determine clinical outcome, a detailed questionnaire was used. Median duration of follow-up was 18 months. Ten patients discontinued irrigation within the first month of treatment. Symptoms resolved completely in two patients. They believed that there was no need to continue treatment any longer. Irrigation had no effect in two patients. Despite the fact that symptoms resolved, six patients discontinued treatment because they experienced pain (n = 2) or they considered the irrigation to be too time-consuming (n = 4). Twenty-two patients are still performing irrigations. Most patients irrigated the colon in the morning after the first stool was passed. Time needed for washout varied between 10 and 90 minutes. Frequency of irrigations varied from two times per day to two times per week. In Group I, irrigation was found to be beneficial in 92 percent of patients, whereas 60 percent of patients in Group II

  17. Anorectal function in patients with complete rectal prolapse. Differences between continent and incontinent individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig, J V; Buch, E; Alós, R; Solana, A; Fernández, C; Villoslada, C; García-Armengol, J; Hinojosa, J

    1998-11-01

    A study is made of the alterations in anorectal physiology among rectal prolapse patients, evaluating the differences between fecal continent and incontinent individuals. Eighteen patients with complete rectal prolapse were divided into two groups: Group A (8 continent individuals) and Group B (10 incontinent women), while 22 healthy women were used as controls (Group C). Clinical exploration and perineal level measurements were performed, along with anorectal manometry, electrophysiology, and anorectal sensitivity to electrical stimuli. The main antecedents of the continent subjects were excess straining efforts, while the incontinent women presented excess straining and complex deliveries. Pathological perineal descent was a frequent finding in both groups, with a hypotonic anal canal at rest (p rest than the continent women (p rest, regardless of whether they are continent to feces or not. Continent patients have less pudendal neuropathy and therefore less pressure alterations at voluntary sphincter squeeze than incontinent individuals.

  18. Social Work in a Developing Continent: The Case of Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Chitereka

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Social work is a professional approach to ameliorating social problems. It is generally understood as a helping profession that utilizes professionally qualified personnel who use its knowledge base to help people tackle their social problems (Mupedziswa, 2005. Nevertheless, in developing countries, social work is a relatively young profession which was influenced by colonialism in its formation. The type of social work practiced in these countries largely mirrors the one that is being practiced in Britain, France and Portugal among others. Utilizing the continent of Africa as a case study, this article argues that social work practice in Africa tends to be curative or remedial in nature and is not adequately addressing people’s problems. It therefore proposes a paradigm shift from remedial to a social development paradigm if it is to make an impact in the 21st century.

  19. International Continence Society Good Urodynamic Practices and Terms 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosier, Peter F W M; Schaefer, Werner; Lose, Gunnar

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: The working group initiated by the ICS Standardisation Steering Committee has updated the International Continence Society Standard "Good Urodynamic Practice" published in 2002. METHODS: On the basis of the manuscript: "ICS standard to develop evidence-based standards," a new ICS Standard......). RESULTS: This evidence-based ICS-GUP2016 has newly or more precisely defined more than 30 terms and provides standards for the practice, quality control, interpretation, and reporting of urodynamics; cystometry and pressure-flow analysis. Furthermore, the working group has included recommendations for pre......-testing information and for patient information and preparation. On the basis of earlier ICS standardisations and updating according to available evidence, the practice of uroflowmetry, cystometry, and pressure-flow studies are further detailed. CONCLUSION: ICS-GUP2016 updates and adds on to ICS-GUP2002 to improve...

  20. Radon at the Mauna Loa Observatory: transport from distant continents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittlestone, S.; Robinson, E.; Ryan, S.

    1992-01-01

    Continuous measurements of radon have been made at an altitude of 3400m at the Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii. Concentrations ranged from about 20 to more than 700mBq m -3 . These were similar to values at remote Macquarie I., some 2000 km south of Australia in the Southern Ocean. At Mauna Loa, the radon concentrations could usually be separated into free tropospheric and island influenced categories on the basis of local meteorological observations. On one occasion a long range transport event from Asia brought relatively high radon concentrations to Mauna Loa and persisted for several days. The Asian origin of this event was supported by wind trajectories. This measurement program demonstrates the value of radon data in evaluating air transport models and the influence of transport from distant continents on baseline atmospheric measurements. (author)

  1. Using a handbook to improve nurses' continence care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, K; Roe, B; Sindhu, F

    Nursing care should be based on sound research evidence with demonstrated clinical effectiveness. Dissemination of this research evidence is, therefore, of paramount importance. A study using focus groups was undertaken during 1993-1994 to evaluate the dissemination of a clinical handbook for continence care to qualified nurses, in relation to reported nursing practice in care of the elderly wards/units in one health authority. A total of 124 nurses participated in the study and 98 variables were included. Improvements were recorded in nurses' responses between the pre-test and post-test for 84 (86 per cent) variables in the experimental group and 58 (59 per cent) in the control group. This demonstrates the positive value of the clinical handbook as a method of disseminating research evidence.

  2. Electricity in Africa or the continent of paradoxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuraux, Christine

    2011-01-01

    This article first proposes an overview of the present situation of the electricity sector in Africa: the continent is an energy giant because of all the resources it possesses, but an electricity dwarf regarding its present and actual capacities. The author outlines the differences between potential and actual productions, gives an overview of the current status of supply and of production capacities. She comments the status of electricity demand, electricity consumption and electricity markets in the different parts of Africa (data of electricity consumption, of global, urban and rural electrification in Northern Africa, Western Africa, Central Africa, Eastern Africa, Southern Africa with or without South Africa), and issues related to costs and tariffs. She proposes some explanations for the observed discrepancies between African regions and countries: history, too small markets supported by too fragile economies, political and economic failures. Then, she discusses how to favour a durable development of the African electricity sector

  3. Plants of the American continent with antimalarial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid R. Mariath

    Full Text Available Malaria is a human parasitic disease caused by protozoa species of the Plasmodium genus. This disease has affected populations of the tropical and subtropical regions. About 500 million new cases occur annually on the world and therefore it is considered an emerging disease of important public health problem. In this context, the natural products as vegetables species have their bioactive molecules as targets for pharmacological, toxicological and phytochemical studies towards the development of more effective medicines for the treatment of many diseases. So this work intends to aid the researchers in the study of natural products to the treatment of malaria. In this review, 476 plants of the American continent were related for the antimalarial activity and of these vegetables species 198 were active and 278 inactive for some type of Plasmodium when they were evaluated through of in vitro or in vivo bioassays models.

  4. Children with chronic continence problems: the challenges for families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, David V; Ray, Lynne D

    2004-01-01

    For families who are raising children with myelomeningocele, bowel and bladder incontinence presents unique challenges for everyday life. The Parenting and Childhood Chronicity model is used to describe the work of raising a child with a chronic condition in 6 areas, including medical care, adapted parenting, dealing with the systems, caring for siblings, maintaining relationships, and personal coping (keeping yourself going). This article provides an overview of the physiologic and developmental challenges inherent in this neural tube defect and illustrates the work that is involved in the child's care and the challenges of maintaining a balance in family life. Clinical implications are discussed, including the setting of appropriate expectations, providing parents with accurate information, ensuring that a focus on continence is not at the expense of other important aspects of the child's functioning, and supporting parents in their interaction with the school system. The medical team, consisting of nursing, urology, nephrology, and psychology working together, can be a strong support for families.

  5. Plasmodium vivax Diversity and Population Structure across Four Continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepfli, Cristian; Rodrigues, Priscila T; Antao, Tiago; Orjuela-Sánchez, Pamela; Van den Eede, Peter; Gamboa, Dionicia; van Hong, Nguyen; Bendezu, Jorge; Erhart, Annette; Barnadas, Céline; Ratsimbasoa, Arsène; Menard, Didier; Severini, Carlo; Menegon, Michela; Nour, Bakri Y M; Karunaweera, Nadira; Mueller, Ivo; Ferreira, Marcelo U; Felger, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax is the geographically most widespread human malaria parasite. To analyze patterns of microsatellite diversity and population structure across countries of different transmission intensity, genotyping data from 11 microsatellite markers was either generated or compiled from 841 isolates from four continents collected in 1999-2008. Diversity was highest in South-East Asia (mean allelic richness 10.0-12.8), intermediate in the South Pacific (8.1-9.9) Madagascar and Sudan (7.9-8.4), and lowest in South America and Central Asia (5.5-7.2). A reduced panel of only 3 markers was sufficient to identify approx. 90% of all haplotypes in South Pacific, African and SE-Asian populations, but only 60-80% in Latin American populations, suggesting that typing of 2-6 markers, depending on the level of endemicity, is sufficient for epidemiological studies. Clustering analysis showed distinct clusters in Peru and Brazil, but little sub-structuring was observed within Africa, SE-Asia or the South Pacific. Isolates from Uzbekistan were exceptional, as a near-clonal parasite population was observed that was clearly separated from all other populations (FST>0.2). Outside Central Asia FST values were highest (0.11-0.16) between South American and all other populations, and lowest (0.04-0.07) between populations from South-East Asia and the South Pacific. These comparisons between P. vivax populations from four continents indicated that not only transmission intensity, but also geographical isolation affect diversity and population structure. However, the high effective population size results in slow changes of these parameters. This persistency must be taken into account when assessing the impact of control programs on the genetic structure of parasite populations.

  6. Earth's first stable continents did not form by subduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tim E; Brown, Michael; Gardiner, Nicholas J; Kirkland, Christopher L; Smithies, R Hugh

    2017-03-09

    The geodynamic environment in which Earth's first continents formed and were stabilized remains controversial. Most exposed continental crust that can be dated back to the Archaean eon (4 billion to 2.5 billion years ago) comprises tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite rocks (TTGs) that were formed through partial melting of hydrated low-magnesium basaltic rocks; notably, these TTGs have 'arc-like' signatures of trace elements and thus resemble the continental crust produced in modern subduction settings. In the East Pilbara Terrane, Western Australia, low-magnesium basalts of the Coucal Formation at the base of the Pilbara Supergroup have trace-element compositions that are consistent with these being source rocks for TTGs. These basalts may be the remnants of a thick (more than 35 kilometres thick), ancient (more than 3.5 billion years old) basaltic crust that is predicted to have existed if Archaean mantle temperatures were much hotter than today's. Here, using phase equilibria modelling of the Coucal basalts, we confirm their suitability as TTG 'parents', and suggest that TTGs were produced by around 20 per cent to 30 per cent melting of the Coucal basalts along high geothermal gradients (of more than 700 degrees Celsius per gigapascal). We also analyse the trace-element composition of the Coucal basalts, and propose that these rocks were themselves derived from an earlier generation of high-magnesium basaltic rocks, suggesting that the arc-like signature in Archaean TTGs was inherited from an ancestral source lineage. This protracted, multistage process for the production and stabilization of the first continents-coupled with the high geothermal gradients-is incompatible with modern-style plate tectonics, and favours instead the formation of TTGs near the base of thick, plateau-like basaltic crust. Thus subduction was not required to produce TTGs in the early Archaean eon.

  7. Clustered and transient earthquake sequences in mid-continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, M.; Stein, S. A.; Wang, H.; Luo, G.

    2012-12-01

    Earthquakes result from sudden release of strain energy on faults. On plate boundary faults, strain energy is constantly accumulating from steady and relatively rapid relative plate motion, so large earthquakes continue to occur so long as motion continues on the boundary. In contrast, such steady accumulation of stain energy does not occur on faults in mid-continents, because the far-field tectonic loading is not steadily distributed between faults, and because stress perturbations from complex fault interactions and other stress triggers can be significant relative to the slow tectonic stressing. Consequently, mid-continental earthquakes are often temporally clustered and transient, and spatially migrating. This behavior is well illustrated by large earthquakes in North China in the past two millennia, during which no single large earthquakes repeated on the same fault segments, but moment release between large fault systems was complementary. Slow tectonic loading in mid-continents also causes long aftershock sequences. We show that the recent small earthquakes in the Tangshan region of North China are aftershocks of the 1976 Tangshan earthquake (M 7.5), rather than indicators of a new phase of seismic activity in North China, as many fear. Understanding the transient behavior of mid-continental earthquakes has important implications for assessing earthquake hazards. The sequence of large earthquakes in the New Madrid Seismic Zone (NMSZ) in central US, which includes a cluster of M~7 events in 1811-1812 and perhaps a few similar ones in the past millennium, is likely a transient process, releasing previously accumulated elastic strain on recently activated faults. If so, this earthquake sequence will eventually end. Using simple analysis and numerical modeling, we show that the large NMSZ earthquakes may be ending now or in the near future.

  8. CYGNSS Surface Wind Validation and Characteristics in the Maritime Continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asharaf, S.; Waliser, D. E.; Zhang, C.; Wandala, A.

    2017-12-01

    Surface wind over tropical oceans plays a crucial role in many local/regional weather and climate processes and helps to shape the global climate system. However, there is a lack of consistent high quality observations for surface winds. The newly launched NASA Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS) mission provides near surface wind speed over the tropical ocean with sampling that accounts for the diurnal cycle. In the early phase of the mission, validation is a critical task, and over-ocean validation is typically challenging due to a lack of robust validation resources that a cover a variety of environmental conditions. In addition, it can also be challenging to obtain in-situ observation resources and also to extract co-located CYGNSS records for some of the more scientifically interesting regions, such as the Maritime Continent (MC). The MC is regarded as a key tropical driver for the mean global circulation as well as important large-scale circulation variability such as the Madian-Julian Oscillation (MJO). The focus of this project and analysis is to take advantage of local in-situ resources from the MC regions (e.g. volunteer shipping, marine buoys, and the Year of Maritime Continent (YMC) campaign) to quantitatively characterize and validate the CYGNSS derived winds in the MC region and in turn work to unravel the complex multi-scale interactions between the MJO and MC. This presentation will show preliminary results of a comparison between the CYGNSS and the in-situ surface wind measurements focusing on the MC region. Details about the validation methods, uncertainties, and planned work will be discussed in this presentation.

  9. National audit of continence care: laying the foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, Sarah; Wagg, Adrian; Irwin, Penny; Lowe, Derek; Potter, Jonathan; Pearson, Michael

    2005-12-01

    National audit provides a basis for establishing performance against national standards, benchmarking against other service providers and improving standards of care. For effective audit, clinical indicators are required that are valid, feasible to apply and reliable. This study describes the methods used to develop clinical indicators of continence care in preparation for a national audit. To describe the methods used to develop and test clinical indicators of continence care with regard to validity, feasibility and reliability. A multidisciplinary working group developed clinical indicators that measured the structure, process and outcome of care as well as case-mix variables. Literature searching, consensus workshops and a Delphi process were used to develop the indicators. The indicators were tested in 15 secondary care sites, 15 primary care sites and 15 long-term care settings. The process of development produced indicators that received a high degree of consensus within the Delphi process. Testing of the indicators demonstrated an internal reliability of 0.7 and an external reliability of 0.6. Data collection required significant investment in terms of staff time and training. The method used produced indicators that achieved a high degree of acceptance from health care professionals. The reliability of data collection was high for this audit and was similar to the level seen in other successful national audits. Data collection for the indicators was feasible to collect, however, issues of time and staffing were identified as limitations to such data collection. The study has described a systematic method for developing clinical indicators for national audit. The indicators proved robust and reliable in primary and secondary care as well as long-term care settings.

  10. Continent-Ocean Interactions Within East Asian Marginal Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clift, Peter; Kuhnt, Wolfgang; Wang, Pinxian; Hayes, Dennis

    The study of the complex interactions between continents and oceans has become a leading area for 21st century earth cience. In this volume, continent—ocean interactions in tectonics, arc-continent collision, sedimentology, and climatic volution within the East Asian Marginal Seas take precedence. Links between oceanic and continental climate, the sedimentology of coastal and shelf areas, and the links between deformation of continental and oceanic lithosphere are also discussed. As an introduction to the science presented throughout the volume, Wang discusses many of the possible interactions between the tectonic evolution of Asia and both regional and global climate. He speculates that uplift of central Asia in the Pliocene may have triggered the formation of many of the major rivers that drain north through Siberia into the Arctic Ocean. He also argues that it is the delivery of this fresh water that allows the formation of sea ice in that area and triggered the start of Northern Hemispheric glaciation. This may be one of the most dramatic ways in which Asia has shaped the Earth's climate and represents an alternative to the other competing models that have previously emphasized the role of oceanic gateway closure in Central America. Moreover, his proposal for major uplift of at least part of Tibet and Mongolia as late as the Pliocene, based on the history of drainage evolution in Siberia, supports recent data from the southern Tarim Basin and from the Qilian Shan and Qaidam and Jiuxi Basins in northeast Tibet that indicate surface uplift at that time. Constraining the timing and patterns of Tibetan surface uplift is crucial to testing competing models for strain accommodation in Asia following India—Asia collision.

  11. Reduction in oxidative stress levels in the colonic mucosa without fecal stream after the application of enemas containing aqueous Ilex paraguariensis extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Fernando Lorenzetti da; Silva, Camila Morais Gonçalves da; Almeida, Marcos Gonçalves de; Lameiro, Thais Miguel do Monte; Marques, Letícia Helena Souza; Margarido, Nelson Fontana; Martinez, Carlos Augusto Real

    2011-08-01

    To evaluate the antioxidant effects of enemas containing aqueous extract of Ilex paraguariensis, comparing segments with and without fecal stream and correlating the segments with the duration of intervention. Twenty-six Wistar rats were subjected to a diversion of the fecal stream in the left colon by a proximal colostomy and distal mucosal fistula. The rats were distributed randomly into two experimental groups of 13 animals each based on the time of sacrifice after surgical procedure (two or four weeks). Each group was then divided into two experimental subgroups that received either second daily enemas containing 0.9% saline solution or aqueous extract of Ilex paraguariensis at 0.2g/100g. Colitis was diagnosed by histopathological analysis and the detection of oxidative tissue damage by measuring the levels of malondialdehyde. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the tissue levels of malondialdehyde between colon segments with and without fecal stream in each experimental group, and the Kruskal-Wallis test was used to verify the variance between the levels of oxidative stress according the duration of the irrigation; both tests determined significance at 5% (pirrigation were 0.05±0.006 and 0.06±0.006, and 0.05± 0.03 and 0.08 ±0.02, respectively. The malondialdehyde levels in the animals irrigated with Ilex paraguariensis with and without fecal stream after two and four weeks of irrigation were 0.010±0.002 and 0.02±0.004, and 0.03±0.007 and 0.04±0.01, respectively. After two and four weeks of intervention, the levels of malondialdehyde were lower in the animals irrigated with Ilex paraguariensis regardless of the time of irrigation (p=0.0001 and p=0.002, respectively). The daily rectal application of enemas containing aqueous extract of Ilex paraguariensis decreases oxidative tissue damage in the colon without fecal stream regardless of the time of irrigation.

  12. Incidental physiological sliding hiatal hernia: a single center comparison study between CT with water enema and CT colonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revelli, Matteo; Furnari, Manuele; Bacigalupo, Lorenzo; Paparo, Francesco; Astengo, Davide; Savarino, Edoardo; Rollandi, Gian Andrea

    2015-08-01

    Hiatal hernia is a well-known factor impacting on most mechanisms underlying gastroesophageal reflux, related with the risk of developing complications such as erosive esophagitis, Barrett's esophagus and ultimately, esophageal adenocarcinoma. It is our firm opinion that an erroneous reporting of hiatal hernia in CT exams performed with colonic distention may trigger a consecutive diagnostic process that is not only unnecessary, inducing a unmotivated anxiety in the patient, but also expensive and time-consuming for both the patient and the healthcare system. The purposes of our study were to determine whether colonic distention at CT with water enema and CT colonography can induce small sliding hiatal hernias and to detect whether hiatal hernias size modifications could be considered significant for both water and gas distention techniques. We retrospectively evaluated 400 consecutive patients, 200 undergoing CT-WE and 200 undergoing CTC, including 59 subjects who also underwent a routine abdominal CT evaluation on a different time, used as internal control, while a separate group of 200 consecutive patients who underwent abdominal CT evaluation was used as external control. Two abdominal radiologists assessed the CT exams for the presence of a sliding hiatal hernia, grading the size as small, moderate, or large; the internal control groups were directly compared with the corresponding CT-WE or CTC study looking for a change in hernia size. We used the Student's t test applying a size-specific correction factor, in order to account for the effect of colonic distention: these "corrected" values were then individually compared with the external control group. A sliding hiatal hernia was present in 51 % (102/200) of the CT-WE patients and in 48.5 % (97/200) of the CTC patients. Internal control CT of the 31 patients with a hernia at CT-WE showed resolution of the hernia in 58.1 % (18/31) of patients, including 76.5 % (13/17) and 45.5 % (5/11) of small and moderate

  13. Continent at a Crossroads: Prosperity, Justice, and Security in South America

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scott, Frances K

    2006-01-01

    This Special Bibliography Series, Number 107, "Continent at the Crossroads: Prosperity, Justice, and Security in South America," was developed by Social Sciences Bibliographer and Reference Librarian Frances K...

  14. Selective blockade of leukotriene production by a single dose of the FPL 64170XX 0.5% enema in active ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, J; Laursen, L S; Hillingsø, Jens

    1995-01-01

    5-Lipoxygenase products of arachidonic acid metabolism are thought to play a central role in the secondary amplification of the inflammatory response of several inflammatory diseases, including ulcerative colitis. FPL 64170XX is a selective inhibitor of the enzyme 5-lipoxygenase. Concentrations...... containing 0.5% of FPL 64170XX. Repeated measures analysis of leukotriene B4, after adjusting for baseline, showed a significant treatment effect (P = 0.0014). The concentration of leukotriene B4 from rectal dialysates in patients receiving the active drug dropped to 15% (95% confidence interval 5......-40%) of the placebo level in the second dialysis following administration of FPL 64170XX 0.5%. By contrast, prostaglanding E2 concentrations doubled (P = 0.0068) in patients receiving FPL 64170XX 0.5% with no change in the placebo group. These findings demonstrate that a single dose of FPL 64170XX 0.5% enema...

  15. Ultrasound guided reduction of an ileocolic intussusception by a hydrostatic method by using normal saline enema in paediatric patients: a study of 30 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digant, Shastri Mona; Rucha, Seth; Eke, Dessai

    2012-12-01

    The conventional hydrostatic reduction of an intussusception with barium enema or the pneumatic reduction of an intussusception is associated with considerable ionizing radiations and a risk of perforation; while the hydrostatic reduction of an intussusception under ultrasound guidance is a very safe method because the whole procedure is visualized with real time ultrasound. Also, being a non-invasive method with a high success rate, this procedure has emerged as a useful alternative to a surgical intervention. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of ultrasound and colour Doppler studies for the guidance of the hydrostatic reduction of a childhood intussusception by using normal saline. Among 41 children who were evaluated with ultrasonography for the confirmation of the presence of intussusceptions, hydrostatic reduction of intussusception were performed under a sonographic guidance in 30 patients, whereas 11 patients were excluded due to clinical contraindications. This disease was observed mostly at the ages of 6 months to 24 months. In 80% of the patients, there was a recent history of gastroenteritis and 40 % had a history of common cold. The most common site of the intussusception was the transverse colon near the hepatic flexor of the colon (90%), with a mean duration of 22.1±17.3 hours. The overall rate of a successful reduction was 87% and the mean reduction time was 14 minutes. None of the cases showed recurrence within 24 hrs. No complications were observed. We conclude that ultrasound with colour Doppler study is very useful for the diagnosis of intussusceptions, as well as for guided hydrostatic reductions by using normal saline enema. This is an optimal, simple, and a safe procedure for the treatment of intussusceptions in paediatric patients.

  16. GOCE observations for Mineral exploration in Africa and across continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braitenberg, Carla

    2014-05-01

    The gravity anomaly field over the whole Earth obtained by the GOCE satellite is a revolutionary tool to reveal geologic information on a continental scale for the large areas where conventional gravity measurements have yet to be made (e.g. Alvarez et al., 2012). It is, however, necessary to isolate the near-surface geologic signal from the contributions of thickness variations in the crust and lithosphere and the isostatic compensation of surface relief (e.g. Mariani et al., 2013) . Here Africa is studied with particular emphasis on selected geological features which are expected to appear as density inhomogeneities. These include cratons and fold belts in the Precambrian basement, the overlying sedimentary basins and magmatism, as well as the continental margins. Regression analysis between gravity and topography shows coefficients that are consistently positive for the free air gravity anomaly and negative for the Bouguer gravity anomaly (Braitenberg et al., 2013; 2014). The error and scatter on the regression is smallest in oceanic areas, where it is a possible tool for identifying changes in crustal type. The regression analysis allows the large gradient in the Bouguer anomaly signal across continental margins to be removed. After subtracting the predicted effect of known topography from the original Bouguer anomaly field, the residual field shows a continent-wide pattern of anomalies that can be attributed to regional geological structures. A few of these are highlighted, such as those representing Karoo magmatism, the Kibalian foldbelt, the Zimbabwe Craton, the Cameroon and Tibesti volcanic deposits, the Benue Trough and the Luangwa Rift. A reconstruction of the pre-break up position of Africa, South and North America is made for the residual GOCE gravity field obtaining today's gravity field of the plates forming West Gondwana. The reconstruction allows the positive and negative anomalies to be compared across the continental fragments, and so helps

  17. Recent Aeromagnetic Anomaly views of the Antarctic continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraccioli, F.

    2012-04-01

    Antarctica is a keystone within the Gondwana and Rodinia supercontinents. However, despite intense geological research along the coastal fringes of Antarctica, the interior of the continent remains one of the most poorly understood regions on Earth. Aeromagnetic investigations are a useful tool to help disclose the structure and the evolution of continents from the Precambrian to the Cenozoic and Antarctica is no exception. Here I review a variety of aeromagnetic studies in East and West Antarctica performed since the completion of the first generation ADMAP -Antarctic Digital Magnetic Anomaly Project- in 2001. In western Dronning Maud, in East Antarctica, aeromagnetic data help delineate the extent of the Jurassic Jutulstraumen subglacial rift that is flanked by remnants of a Grenvillian-age (ca 1.1. Ga) igneous province and magmatic arc. Different magnetic signatures appear to characterize the Coats Land block but reconnaissance surveys are insufficient to fully delineate the extent and significance of the Coats Land block, a possible tectonic tracer of Laurentia within Rodinia (Loewy et al., 2011). Further in the interior of East Antarctica, a mosaic of distinct and hitherto largely unknown Precambrian provinces has recently been revealed by combining aeromagnetic and satellite magnetic data with models of crustal thickness constrained by gravity modeling and seismology (Ferraccioli et al., 2011, Nature). A major collisional suture may lie between the Archean Ruker Province and an inferred Proterozoic Gamburtsev Province but the age of final assembly of central East Antarctica remains uncertain and controversial. I favour a Grenville-age collisional event (linked to Rodinia assembly) or possibly older Paleoproteroic collision, followed by intraplate reactivation, as opposed to Neoproterozoic or Early Cambrian collision linked to East-West Gondwana assembly (Boger, 2011). New aerogeophysical surveys over Prince Elizabeth and Queen Mary Land could test this

  18. Urethral pressure response patterns induced by squeeze in continent and incontinent women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teleman, Pia M; Mattiasson, Anders

    2007-09-01

    Our aim was to compare the urethral pressure response pattern to pelvic floor muscle contractions in 20-27 years old, nulliparous continent women (n = 31) to that of continent (n = 28) and formerly untreated incontinent (n = 59) (53-63 years old) women. These women underwent urethral pressure measurements during rest and repeated pelvic muscle contractions. The response to the contractions was graded 0-4. The young continent women showed a mean urethral pressure response of 2.8, the middle-aged continent women 2.2 (NS vs young continent), and the incontinent women 1.5 (p continent, p continent). Urethral pressures during rest were significantly higher in the younger women than in both groups of middle-aged women. The decreased ability to increase urethral pressure on demand seen in middle-aged incontinent women compared to continent women of the same age as well as young women seems to be a consequence of a neuromuscular disorder rather than of age.

  19. Comparison of symptom severity and treatment response in patients with incontinent and continent overactive bladder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, Martin C.; de La Rosette, Jean J. M. C. H.; Piro, Maria; Schneider, Tim

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Two thirds of patients with overactive bladder (OAB) are continent, but our knowledge on the treatment of the syndrome is largely based on studies with incontinent patients. Therefore, we have explored baseline symptoms and treatment responses to tolterodine in continent relative to

  20. Earth's early O2 cycle suppressed by primitive continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Matthijs A.; Mezger, Klaus

    2017-10-01

    Free oxygen began to accumulate in Earth's surface environments between 3.0 and 2.4 billion years ago. Links between oxygenation and changes in the composition of continental crust during this time are suspected, but have been difficult to demonstrate. Here we constrain the average composition of the exposed continental crust since 3.7 billion years ago by compiling records of the Cr/U ratio of terrigenous sediments. The resulting record is consistent with a predominantly mafic crust prior to 3.0 billion years ago, followed by a 500- to 700-million-year transition to a crust of modern andesitic composition. Olivine and other Mg-rich minerals in the mafic Archaean crust formed serpentine minerals upon hydration, continuously releasing O2-scavenging agents such as dihydrogen, hydrogen sulfide and methane to the environment. Temporally, the decline in mafic crust capable of such process coincides with the first accumulation of O2 in the oceans, and subsequently the atmosphere. We therefore suggest that Earth's early O2 cycle was ultimately limited by the composition of the exposed upper crust, and remained underdeveloped until modern andesitic continents emerged.

  1. Volcanic passive margins: another way to break up continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffroy, L; Burov, E B; Werner, P

    2015-10-07

    Two major types of passive margins are recognized, i.e. volcanic and non-volcanic, without proposing distinctive mechanisms for their formation. Volcanic passive margins are associated with the extrusion and intrusion of large volumes of magma, predominantly mafic, and represent distinctive features of Larges Igneous Provinces, in which regional fissural volcanism predates localized syn-magmatic break-up of the lithosphere. In contrast with non-volcanic margins, continentward-dipping detachment faults accommodate crustal necking at both conjugate volcanic margins. These faults root on a two-layer deformed ductile crust that appears to be partly of igneous nature. This lower crust is exhumed up to the bottom of the syn-extension extrusives at the outer parts of the margin. Our numerical modelling suggests that strengthening of deep continental crust during early magmatic stages provokes a divergent flow of the ductile lithosphere away from a central continental block, which becomes thinner with time due to the flow-induced mechanical erosion acting at its base. Crustal-scale faults dipping continentward are rooted over this flowing material, thus isolating micro-continents within the future oceanic domain. Pure-shear type deformation affects the bulk lithosphere at VPMs until continental breakup, and the geometry of the margin is closely related to the dynamics of an active and melting mantle.

  2. Mid-Continent Rift: Rift, LIP, or Both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, C. A.; Stein, S. A.; Kley, J.; Hindle, D.; Keller, G. R., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    North America's Midcontinent Rift (MCR) is traditionally considered to have formed by midplate extension and volcanism ~1.1 Ga that ended due to compression from the Grenville orogeny, the ~1.3 - ~0.98 Ga assembly of Amazonia (Precambrian northeast South America), Laurentia (Precambrian North America), and other continents into the supercontinent of Rodinia. We find that a more plausible scenario is that it formed as part of the rifting of Amazonia from Laurentia and became inactive once seafloor spreading was established. The MCR has aspects both of a continental rift - a segmented linear depression filled with sedimentary and igneous rocks - and a large igneous province (LIP). Comparison of areas and volumes for a range of continental LIPS shows that the MCR volcanic rocks are significantly thicker than the others. The MCR flood basalts have steeper dips and thicker overlying sediments than other continental flood basalts, and were deposited in a subsiding basin after most extension ended, indicating that they are better viewed as post-rift than syn-rift rocks. Hence we view the MCR as a LIP deposited in crust weakened by rifting, and thus first a rift and then a LIP.

  3. Continent Idiopathic Vesicovaginal Fistula Coexisting with Moyamoya Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Güven Kartal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Vesicovaginal fistula (VVF is the abnormal anatomic communication between the female bladder and vagina. Usually presents itself as continuous urinary incontinence. There are many etiologic risk factors such as obstetric trauma, pelvic surgery, infections, congenital abnormalities, foreign materials, malignancy and pelvic radiation (1. Due to high education and sociocultural levels, the incidence seems to be low in the developed countries. On the other hand, in the developing countries, there is an obviously high incidence and prevalence. Considering the low level of medical informative feed-back mechanisms and poor obstetrics health care services, it seems very hard to keep VVF patient data that can be used for epidemiological research studies. In those areas, due to high maternal mortality and obstetric complications, the incidence of VVF is significantly increased (2. In this paper, we report a female patient with known moyamoya disease and a stable right ovarian cyst who was regularly followed up by the departments of neurology, gynecology and presented with radiological and cystoscopy findings of incidentally diagnosed asymptomatic continent VVF.

  4. International Continence Society supported pelvic physiotherapy education guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Els; Shelly, Beth; Esch, Fetske H; Frawley, Helena; McClurg, Doreen; Meyers, Peter

    2018-02-01

    To provide a guideline of desired knowledge, clinical skills and education levels in Pelvic Physiotherapy (PT). Physiotherapy (PT) involves "using knowledge and skills unique to physiotherapists" and, "is the service only provided by, or under the direction and supervision of a physiotherapist." 1 METHODS: The PT Committee, within the body of the International Continence Society (ICS), collected information regarding existing educational levels for pelvic floor PT. Through face to face and on on-line discussion consensus was reached which was summarized in three progressive educational levels based on knowledge and skills and brought together in a guideline. The guideline was submitted to all physiotherapists and the Educational Committee of the ICS, and after approval, submitted to the Executive Board of the ICS. The guideline lists, in a progressive way, knowledge areas and skills to be achieved by education. It is broad and allows for individual interpretation based on local situations regarding education and healthcare possibilities. It is intended to be dynamic and updated on a regular basis. The proposed Pelvic PT education guideline is a dynamic document that allows course creators to plan topics for continuing course work and to recognize educational level of a therapist in the field of Pelvic PT. This education guideline can be used to set minimum worldwide standards resulting in higher skill levels for local pelvic physiotherapists and thereby better patient care outcome. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Representations of OxyContin in North American Newspapers and Medical Journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Whelan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the approval of OxyContin (Purdue Pharma, Canada for medical use, the media began to report the use of OxyContin as a street drug, representing the phenomenon as a social problem. Meanwhile, the pain medicine community has criticized the inaccurate and one-sided media coverage of the OxyContin problem. The authors of this study aimed to contribute to an understanding of both sides of this controversy by analyzing the coverage of OxyContin in newspapers and medical journals. The analyses revealed inconsistent messages about the drug from physicians in the news media and in medical journals, which has likely contributed to the drug’s perception as a social problem. The authors suggest ways to address the lack of medical consensus surrounding OxyContin. The results of this study may help resolve the concerns and conflicts surrounding this drug and other opioids.

  6. Clinical and economic impact of using macrogol 3350 plus electrolytes in an outpatient setting compared to enemas and suppositories and manual evacuation to treat paediatric faecal impaction based on actual clinical practice in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Julian F; Candy, David C A; Clegg, John P; Edwards, Di; Helter, Marianne T; Dale, Anne K; Fell, John; Cosgrove, Michael; Debelle, Geoffrey

    2007-09-01

    To estimate the clinical and economic impact of using macrogol 3350 plus electrolytes (macrogol 3350; Movicol; Movicol Paediatric Plain) in an outpatient setting compared to enemas and suppositories and manual evacuation to treat paediatric faecal impaction. A chart review was undertaken to extract clinical outcomes and resource use from the case notes of a cohort of children aged 2-11 years with faecal impaction who initially received either macrogol 3350 (in an outpatient setting) or enemas and suppositories or manual evacuation for initial disimpaction. Five centres across England and Wales participated in the study. These data were used to inform a decision model which depicted the management of children during the disimpaction phase and for a period of 12 weeks following initial disimpaction. Unit resource costs at 2005/2006 prices were applied to the resource utilisation estimates within the model, enabling the incremental costs and consequences of using macrogol 3350 in an outpatient setting, compared to the other treatments, to be estimated. 112 patients treated with macrogol 3350, 101 who received enemas and suppositories and 11 who underwent a manual evacuation were eligible for analysis. Ninety-seven per cent of children treated with macrogol 3350 were successfully disimpacted within 5 days, compared to 73% of those who received enemas and suppositories and 89% of those who underwent a manual evacuation (p suppositories and manual evacuation respectively; p suppositories or underwent a manual evacuation, respectively. Hence, using macrogol 3350 instead of enemas and suppositories and manual evacuation to disimpact the whole annual cohort of faecally impacted children aged 2-11 years in England could potentially reduce annual NHS expenditure on this condition by 59% (5 million pounds sterling) and reduce the annual number of paediatric hospital admissions for this condition by 92% (4330). Within the limitations of our model, macrogol 3350 affords the NHS

  7. Guidewire and microcatheter utilization patterns during antegrade wire escalation in chronic total occlusion percutaneous coronary intervention: Insights from a contemporary multicenter registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatasakis, Aris; Tarar, Muhammad Nauman J; Karmpaliotis, Dimitri; Alaswad, Khaldoon; Yeh, Robert W; Jaffer, Farouc A; Wyman, R Michael; Lombardi, William L; Grantham, J Aaron; Kandzari, David E; Lembo, Nicholas J; Moses, Jeffrey W; Kirtane, Ajay J; Parikh, Manish; Garcia, Santiago; Doing, Anthony; Pershad, Ashish; Shah, Alpesh; Patel, Mitul; Bahadorani, John; Shoultz, Charles A; Danek, Barbara A; Thompson, Craig A; Banerjee, Subhash; Brilakis, Emmanouil S

    2017-03-01

    We sought to describe contemporary guidewire and microcatheter utilization for antegrade wire escalation (AWE) during chronic total occlusion (CTO) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Equipment utilization for AWE has been variable and evolving over time. We examined device utilization during 694 AWE attempts in 679 patients performed at 15 experienced US centers between May 2012 and April 2015. Mean age was 65.6 ± 9.7 years, and 85% of the patients were men. Successful wiring occurred in 436 AWE attempts (63%). Final technical and procedural success was 91% and 89%, respectively. The mean number of guidewire types used for AWE was 2.2 ± 1.4. The most frequently used guidewire types were the Pilot 200 (Abbott Vascular, 56% of AWE procedures), Fielder XT (Asahi Intecc, 45%), and the Confianza Pro 12 (Asahi Intecc, 28%). The same guidewires were the ones that most commonly crossed the occlusion: Pilot 200 (36% of successful AWE crossings), Fielder XT (20%), and Confianza Pro 12 (11%). A microcatheter or over-the-wire balloon was used for 81% of AWE attempts; the Corsair microcatheter (Asahi Intecc) was the most commonly used (44%). No significant association was found between guidewire type and incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE). Our contemporary, multicenter CTO PCI registry demonstrates that the most commonly used wires for AWE are polymer-jacketed guidewires. "Stiff" and polymer-jacketed guidewires appear to provide high crossing rates without an increase in MACE or perforation, and may thus be considered for upfront use. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Antegrade versus retrograde cerebral perfusion for hemiarch replacement with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest: does it matter? A propensity-matched analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapathi, Asvin M; Hanna, Jennifer M; Schechter, Matthew A; Englum, Brian R; Castleberry, Anthony W; Gaca, Jeffrey G; Hughes, G Chad

    2014-12-01

    The choice of cerebral perfusion strategy for aortic arch surgery has been debated, and the superiority of antegrade (ACP) or retrograde (RCP) cerebral perfusion has not been shown. We examined the early and late outcomes for ACP versus RCP in proximal (hemi-) arch replacement using deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA). A retrospective analysis of a prospectively maintained database was performed for all patients undergoing elective and nonelective hemiarch replacement at a single referral institution from June 2005 to February 2013. Total arch cases were excluded to limit the analysis to shorter DHCA times and a more uniform patient population for whom clinical equipoise regarding ACP versus RCP exists. A total of 440 procedures were identified, with 360 (82%) using ACP and 80 (18%) using RCP. The endpoints included 30-day/in-hospital and late outcomes. A propensity score with 1:1 matching of 40 pre- and intraoperative variables was used to adjust for differences between the 2 groups. All 80 RCP patients were propensity matched to a cohort of 80 similar ACP patients. The pre- and intraoperative characteristics were not significantly different between the 2 groups after matching. No differences were found in 30-day/in-hospital mortality or morbidity outcomes. The only significant difference between the 2 groups was a shorter mean operative time in the RCP cohort (P = .01). No significant differences were noted in late survival (P = .90). In proximal arch operations using DHCA, equivalent early and late outcomes can be achieved with RCP and ACP, although the mean operative time is significantly less with RCP, likely owing to avoidance of axillary cannulation. Questions remain regarding comparative outcomes with straight DHCA and lesser degrees of hypothermia. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Wetland dynamics influence mid-continent duck recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anteau, Michael J.; Pearse, Aaron T.; Szymankski, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    Recruitment is a key factor influencing duck population dynamics. Understanding what regulates recruitment of ducks is a prerequisite to informed habitat and harvest management. Quantity of May ponds (MP) has been linked to recruitment and population size (Kaminski and Gluesing 1987, Raveling and Heitmeyer 1989). However, wetland productivity (quality) is driven by inter-annual hydrological fluctuations. Periodic drying of wetlands due to wet-dry climate cycles releases nutrients and increases invertebrate populations when wet conditions return (Euliss et al. 1999). Wetlands may also become wet or dry within a breeding season. Accordingly, inter-annual and intra-seasonal hydrologic variation potentially influence duck recruitment. Here, we examined influences of wetland quantity, quality, and intra-seasonal dynamics on recruitment of ducks. We indexed duck recruitment by vulnerability-corrected age ratios (juveniles/adult females) for mid-continent Gadwall (Anas strepera). We chose Gadwall because the majority of the continental population breeds in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR), where annual estimates of MP exist since 1974. We indexed wetland quality by calculating change in MP (?MP) over the past two years (?MP = 0.6[MPt – MPt-1] + 0.4[MPt – MPt-2]). We indexed intra-seasonal change in number of ponds by dividing the PPR mean standardized precipitation index for July by MP (hereafter summer index). MP and ?MP were positively correlated (r = 0.65); therefore, we calculated residual ?MP (?MPr) with a simple linear regression using MP, creating orthogonal variables. Finally, we conducted a multiple regression to examine how MP, ?MPr, and summer index explained variation in recruitment of Gadwall from 1976–2010. Our model explained 67% of the variation in mid-continent Gadwall recruitment and all three hydrologic indices were positively correlated with recruitment (Figure 1). Type II semi-partial R2 estimates indicated that MP accounted for 41%, ?MPr

  10. Stable Isotopes in Precipitation over Indonesia Maritime Continent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichiyanagi, K. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, and Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) (Japan); Suwarman, R. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University (Japan); Yamanaka, M. D. [Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) (Japan)

    2013-07-15

    Daily variability of stable isotopes in precipitation was observed at 6 stations in the Indonesian Maritime Continent from 2000 to 2006. The annual mean {delta}{sup 18}O at Bukit Kototabang (GAW), Jambi, and Makassar are heavier than those for others. The precipitation amount effect was observed only at Denpasar and Makassar. There are 2 groups resulting from the local Meteoric Water line; (1) slope is nearly 7.0 and high d-excess more than 10 at GAW, Denpasar, and Manado, (2) slope is around 7.4 and low d-excess less than 7.5 per mille at Jambi, Makassar, and Palau. Seasonal variability of {delta}{sup 18}O and d-excess were classified into three patterns. There are no seasonal variations in {delta}{sup 18}O and d-excess at GAW and Jambi, but clear seasonal variations at Denpasar (DPS) and Makassar (MKS). Due to the amount effect, {delta}{sup 18}O in precipitation is high when the precipitation amount is low from May to october. In contrast, the amount effect is not significant and d-excess is constant throughout the year in Manado and Palau. The {delta}{sup 18}O in precipitation at 2 stations located in sumatra Island corresponded with the Madden-Jullian Oscillation index, while those for the other 4 stations in more easterly locations did not. This finding indicates that water vapour evaporated from the Indian Ocean can reach the Island of sumatra, but can't reach more easterly locations. (author)

  11. Smoke aerosol transport patterns over the Maritime Continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Peng; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Atwood, Samuel A.; Johnson, Randall S.; Hyer, Edward J.; Westphal, Douglas L.; Sessions, Walter

    2013-03-01

    Smoke transport patterns over the Maritime Continent (MC) are studied through a combination of approaches, including a) analyzing AODs obtained from satellite products; b) aerosol transport modeling with AOD assimilation along with the atmospheric flow patterns; c) analyzing smoke wet deposition distributions; and d) examining forward trajectories for smoke events defined in this study. It is shown that smoke transport pathways are closely related to the low-level atmospheric flow, i.e., during June-Sept, smoke originating from the MC islands with a dominant source over central and southern Sumatra, and southern and western Borneo, is generally transported northwestward south of the equator and northeastward north of the equator with the cross-equatorial flow, to the South China Sea (SCS), the Philippines and even further to the western Pacific. During the October-November transitional period, smoke transport paths are more zonally oriented compared to June-September. Smoke originating from Java, Bali, Timor etc, and southern New Guinea, which are in the domain of easterlies and southeasterlies during the boreal summer (June-November), is generally transported westward. It is also found that smoke transport over the MC exhibits multi-scale variability. Smoke typically lives longer and can be transported farther in El Niño years and later MJO phases compared with non El Niño years and earlier MJO phases. During El Niño periods there is much stronger westward transport to the east tropical Indian Ocean. Finally, orographic effect on smoke transport over the MC is also clearly discernable.

  12. MONTI as continent catheterized stoma using serosal-lined trough "Ghoneim Abolenin" technique in ileocystoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed T Sammour

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a great challenge to select and perform continent mechanism in a stoma for urinary reservoir. A new technique by combining MONTI ileal conduit with the serosal lined trough in order to achieve continent catheterizable stoma to the umbilicus as a part of augmentation ileocystoplasty. We applied serosal-lined trough as a continent mechanism with MONTI ileal tube in 12 years smart girl underwent ileocystoplasty for neuropathic bladder due to meylomeningocele in whom continence failed to be achieved by using Mitrofanoff with submucosal tunnel of the bladder as continent mechanism before, also the previous operation included left to right transuretero-ureterostomy, ureterocystoplasty and reimplantation of the right ureter. The patient became completely continent; she was able to do self-catheterization easily through the umbilical stoma using 16-French catheter and was able to wash the mucous easily. The capacity of the augmented bladder was 300ccs. She became independent from her mother and stopped using diapers, anticholinergic and antibiotics. Combining MONTI conduit with serosal-lined extramural valve trough (The Ghoneim technique is an effective continent technique and gives wider channel for catheterization and washing out the mucous.

  13. Modified Le Bag Pouch after Radical Cystectomy: Continence, Uro dynamic Results and Morbidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassar, O.A.H.

    2010-01-01

    To revaluate ileocolonic pouch for ortho-topic neobladder reconstruction, a cohort of patients with bladder cancer was selected to undergo radical cystectomy and modified Le Bag pouch. Evaluation concentrates on continence and associated morbidity observed on close follow-up. Patients and Methods: A total of 37 patients including 16 females with T2 3 bladder cancer (19 transitional, 15 : squamous and 3 adenocarcinoma) were treated by radical cystectomy and totally detubularized ileocolic neobladder. Post operative morbidity, continence and urodynamic studies were evaluated. Mean time to have full daytime continence was tested against age, gender, postoperative complications, technique of pouch creation either stapler or hand suture and adjuvant irradiation. Results: Cystometry 12 months post surgery showed 493 ml median capacity with basal and maximum reservoir median pressures of 16 and 38 cm H 2 O respectively. Uro-flowmetry had maximum voiding volume of 370ml, voiding time 45s and maximum flow rate of 11.6ml/s. Within the first 2 months post operative 44% were continent by day, 33% by night and 67% had stress incontinence. By 12 months post surgery 89% were continent by day, 73% by night and 27% had stress incontinence. Two years post surgery 94% were continent by day and 81 % had complete day and night control of uri-ne. Urinary leakage was the most frequent early complication (10.8%). Late complications were urinary tract infection (13.5%), metabolic acidosis (13.5%) and reflux (10.8%). Pouch over distension (5.4%) was consistent with bladder neck obstruction. Patient's gender and postoperative morbidity were statistically significant factors to increase the mean time to continence; whereas, age, use of stapler and adjuvant radiotherapy had no significant effect. Conclusion: Modified Le Bag pouch is a simple technique with adequate pouch capacity that offers excellent slowly progressing continence rates with minor morbidity rate. Post operative morbidity and

  14. "Dignity": A central construct in nursing home staff understandings of quality continence care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostaszkiewicz, Joan; Tomlinson, Emily; Hutchinson, Alison M

    2018-02-03

    To explore nursing home staff members' beliefs and expectations about what constitutes "quality continence care" for people living in nursing homes. Most nursing home residents require assistance to maintain continence or manage incontinence. Best practice guidelines promote active investigation of incontinence, treatment of underlying potentially reversible causes, and initial conservative interventions to prevent, minimise and/or treat incontinence. Despite research showing the positive benefits of implementing active interventions, translating the findings of research into practice in nursing homes has been modest. Understanding the perspectives of individuals who provide continence care may help bridge the gap between evidence and practice. A qualitative exploratory descriptive design. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 19 nursing home staff: eight registered nurses, four enrolled nurses and seven personal care workers working in a nursing home in Australia between 2014-2015. Data were analysed inductively to identify themes and subthemes that described and explained staff beliefs about quality continence care in nursing homes. Participants' understanding and expectations about quality continence care were linked to beliefs about incontinence being an intractable and undignified condition in nursing homes. The key theme to emerge was "protecting residents' dignity" which was supported by the following six subthemes: (i) using pads, ii) providing privacy, (iii) knowing how to "manage" incontinence, (iv) providing timely continence care, (v) considering residents' continence care preferences and (vi) communicating sensitively. The findings provide new insight into the basis for continence care practices in nursing homes. Education about continence care should challenge beliefs that limit continence care practice to cleaning, containing and concealing incontinence. There is a need for a multidimensional framework that is informed by social, psychological

  15. The thermal influence of continents on a model-generated January climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spar, J.; Cohen, C.; Wu, P.

    1981-01-01

    Two climate simulations were compared. Both climate computations were initialized with the same horizontally uniform state of rest. However, one is carried out on a water planet (without continents), while the second is repeated on a planet with geographically realistic but flat (sea level) continents. The continents in this experiment have a uniform albedo of 0.14, except where snow accumulates, a uniform roughness height of 0.3 m, and zero water storage capacity. Both runs were carried out for a 'perpetual January' with solar declination fixed at January 15.

  16. The “potato road” and biogeographic history of potato cyst nematode populations from different continents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Or Violeta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The general opinion about the introduction of potato in Europe is the one regarding the direction from South America to Spain and subsequent distribution to other continents. Some historical data point out an alternative road. The potato spread from its place of origin to other continents in the light of parasite-host relationship, relying on nematode molecular data, is discussed in the present work. Biogeographic history of potato cyst nematode populations from different continents is in congruence with historical records. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31018 i br. III 46007

  17. The change of radiation doses to the patient when switching from conventional technique to digital technique without films in barium enema and IVU examinations. Final report SSI research project P933

    CERN Document Server

    Sjöholm, B

    2003-01-01

    X-ray examinations of the colon (barium enema) and the kidneys (IVU) are combined with rather high radiation doses to the patients when using analogue technique with film-screen systems. It is therefore of great interest to see if the change from analogue to digital technique involves a reduction of doses. Barium enema and IVU examinations were monitored with DAP-meters before and after the X-ray department changed to digital techniques. For IVU also the change from storage phosphor plates to a Direct Digital detector is included. The study comprises between 53 and 87 patients for each modality of the two examinations. A considerable dose reduction was observed. In barium enema the overview images with large field sizes were omitted when using digital technique. On the other hand the number of spot images was increased from 6 to 22. The fluoroscopy time was increased from 4 minutes to 6 minutes. The DAP value was reduced from 54,3 Gy cm sup 2 to 21,9 Gy cm sup 2. For IVU a dose reduction from 44,5 Gy cm sup 2...

  18. Climate controls on fire pattern in African and Australian continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubkova, M.; Boschetti, L.; Abatzoglou, J. T.

    2017-12-01

    Studies have primarily attributed the recent decrease in global fire activity in many savanna and grassland regions as detected by the Global Fire Emission Database (GFEDv4s) to anthropogenic changes such as deforestation and cropland expansion (Andela et al. 2017, van der Werf et al. 2008). These changes have occurred despite increases in fire weather season length (Jolly et al. 2015). Efforts to better resolve retrospective and future changes in fire activity require refining the host of influences on societal and environmental factors on fire activity. In this study, we analyzed how climate variability influences interannual fire activity in Africa and Australia, the two continents most affected by fire and responsible for over half of the global pyrogenic emissions. We expand on the analysis presented in Andela et al. (2017) by using the most recent Collection 6 MODIS MCD64 Burned Area Product and exploring the explanatory power of a broader suite of climate variables that have been previously shown to explain fire variability (Bowman et al. 2017). We examined which climate metrics show a strong interannual relationship with the amount of burned area and fire size accounting for antecedent and in-season atmospheric conditions. Fire characteristics were calculated using the 500m resolution MCD64A1 product (2002-2016); the analysis was conducted at the ecoregion scale, and further stratified by landcover using a broad aggregation (forest, shrublands and grasslands) of the Landcover CCI maps (CCI-LC, 2014); all agricultural areas fires were excluded from the analysis. The results of the analysis improve our knowledge of climate controls on fire dynamics in the most fire-prone places in the world which is critical for statistical fire and vegetation models. Being able to predict the impact of climate on fire activity has a strategic importance in designing future fire management scenarios, help to avoid degradation of biodiversity and ecosystem services and improve

  19. BRICS: challenges of cooperation on the African continent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Ivanovich Yurtaev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The happening paradigm shift of development both the kernel of world economy, and its periphery appearing by the hostage of limitation of financial resources updates task of judgment of the happening processes, especially with participation of the Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS or the countries of the “big economies” which are looking for new formats of entry into worldwide policy. Also the problem of correlation of the monopolar structure of a world economic system which has arisen in the conditions of globalization of economies at the end of the 20th century with processes of forming of the new centers of world economic power is actual, including - in Africa, under the influence of an exit to the world scene of China and other countries of BRICS, disappearance of the so-called “second world”, opposition mitigation “East-West” and increase of contradictions on an axis “North-South”. The countries of Africa at the beginning of the second decade of the third millennium are more and more considerably involved in process of globalization which signs can be found everywhere on the African continent. First of all, it is necessary to pay attention on much the increased dynamics of political process, especially in North Africa where under the influence of “the Arab spring” scales and depth of the happened transformation of a socio-political context were shown, civilization breaks and perspective scenarios of development were more accurately designated. To conformably new challenges questions of regional integration have come under the spotlight in Africa, search of solutions of global problems of mankind in Africa is conducted (poverty, hunger, diseases, refugees, etc. new formats of interaction of the states for the benefit of effective development are developed. It is possible that in so dynamic and turbulent socio-political and economic situation regional vector of interaction and interregional international

  20. A Surface Wave's View of the Mid-Continent Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, A. E.; Darbyshire, F. A.; Schaeffer, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    The presence of the Mid-Continent Rift (MCR), a 1.1Ga failed rift in central North America, raises many questions. We address the following: what lasting effects has it had on the continental lithosphere? Though many studies have looked at the area with a variety of data types, the combination of USArray Transportable Array stations to the south, permanent and temporary Canadian stations to the north, and SPREE stations in strategic locations crossing the rift provide a new opportunity for a regional surface-wave study. We select 80 stations with roughly 200 km spacing, resulting in dense path coverage of a broad area centered on the MCR. We use teleseismic data for all earthquakes from January 2005-August 2016 with a magnitude greater than 6.0, amounting to over 1200 events, and we make Rayleigh wave two-station dispersion measurements for all station pairs with suitable event-station geometry. We invert these measurements for anisotropic phase-velocity maps at periods of 20-200 s, yielding information not only on the wave speed but also the current fabric of the lithosphere, a complicated record of strain from formation, through modification from orogeny, attempted rifting, and hotspot interaction, to present day plate motion. We observe a clear signature of the MCR at short (20-25 s) periods, with the slowest phase-velocity anomaly in the region aligning with the strongest gravity anomaly. At increasing periods, and thus greater depths, this slowest anomaly shifts to beneath the center of Lake Superior (30-40 s). Eventually, it appears to merge with a slow anomaly to the north associated with the Nipigon Embayment, and contrasts sharply with an adjacent fast anomaly in the western Superior Province. In our preliminary anisotropy results, we observe weak anisotropy at the latitude of the MCR and to the south, whereas to the north of the MCR we find strong anisotropy. This is similar to the spatial variations in magnitude of delay times from shear-wave splitting

  1. 77 FR 35959 - Atlas Pipeline Mid-Continent WestTex, LLC; Pioneer Natural Resources USA, Inc.; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... Mid-Continent WestTex, LLC; Pioneer Natural Resources USA, Inc.; Notice of Application Take notice that on May 30, 2012, Atlas Pipeline Mid-Continent WestTex, LLC (Atlas) and Pioneer Natural Resources... President and General Counsel, Atlas Pipeline Mid-Continent, LLC, 110 W. 7th Street, Suite 2300, Tulsa, OK...

  2. The dual influences of age and obstetric history on fecal continence in parous women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Eogan, Maeve

    2011-02-01

    To assess whether women who underwent forceps delivery were more likely than those who delivered either normally (spontaneous vaginal delivery [SVD]) or by cesarean to experience deterioration in fecal continence as they aged.

  3. Bibliography of sandy beaches and sandy beach organisms on the African continent

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bally, R

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available This bibliography covers the literature relating to sandy beaches on the African continent and outlying islands. The bibliography lists biological, chemical, geographical and geological references and covers shallow marine sediments, surf zones off...

  4. The Aristotelian continence: channeling of righteous actions in the scientist´s experiments with animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Garcés Giraldo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In Aristotelian ethics, the virtue of continence is responsible for mastering the soul and direct it towards the right reason; thus the continent, knowing that passions are bad does not follow them because of the reason; this virtuous is the one who subdues the passions, since both, reason and passions, oppose each other. For Aristotle the desire is the beginning of the action, followed by the discussion leading to choose the best and the most perfect virtuous action. It is important for bioethics that the virtue of continence applies to the actions of scientists who use animals for experimentation and that all their actions are mediated by the good actions. This article will deal with the virtue of continence as the channeling of actions mediated by right reason in the scientist who is experimenting with animals.

  5. Impact of metabolic syndrome on early recovery of continence after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Masatomo; Watanabe, Hiromitsu; Kurahashi, Toshifumi

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the impact of metabolic syndrome on the early recovery of urinary continence after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. The present study included a total of 302 consecutive Japanese patients with clinically localized prostate cancer who underwent robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. In this study, postoperative urinary continence was defined as no leak or the use of a security pad. The continence status was assessed by interviews before and 1 and 3 months after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. Metabolic syndrome was defined as follows: body mass index ≥25 kg/m 2 and two or more of the following: hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia. The effect of the presence of metabolic syndrome on the continence status of these patients was retrospectively examined. A total of 116 (38.4%) and 203 (67.2%) of the 302 patients were continent at 1 and 3 months after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy, respectively. A total of 31 (10.3%) patients were judged to have metabolic syndrome. Despite the operative time being longer in patients with metabolic syndrome, no significant differences were observed in the remaining preoperative, intraoperative or postoperative variables between patients with or without metabolic syndrome. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, metabolic syndrome and the duration of hospitalization were significantly correlated with the 1-month continence status. Similarly, metabolic syndrome and estimated blood loss during surgery were independent predictors of continence rates at 3 months after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. These findings suggest that the presence of metabolic syndrome could have a significant impact on the early recovery of urinary continence after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. © 2017 The Japanese Urological Association.

  6. Effect of Nerve-Sparing Radical Prostatectomy on Urinary Continence in Patients With Preoperative Erectile Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Hyun Park

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We aimed to assess whether nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy (nsRP is associated with improved recovery of urinary continence compared to non–nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy (nnsRP in patients with localized prostate cancer and preoperative erectile dysfunction. Methods: A total of 360 patients with organ-confined prostate cancer and an International Index of Erectile Function score of less than 17 were treated with nsRP or nnsRP in Seoul St. Mary’s Hospital. Patients who received neoadjuvant or adjuvant androgen deprivation therapy or had a history of prostate-related surgery were excluded. Recovery of urinary continence was assessed at 0, 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Postoperative recovery of continence was defined as zero pad usage. The association between nerve-sparing status and urinary continence was assessed by using univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses after controlling for known predictive factors. Results: Urinary continence recovered in 279 patients (77.5% within the mean follow-up period of 22.5 months (range, 6–123 months. Recovery of urinary continence was reported in 74.6% and 86.4% of patients after nnsRP and nsRP, respectively, at 12 months (P=0.022. All groups had comparable perioperative criteria and had no significant preoperative morbidities. Age, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, and nerve-sparing status were significantly associated with recovery of urinary continence on univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis, age (hazard ratio [HR], 1.254; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.002–1.478; P=0.026 and nerve-sparing status (HR, 0.713; 95% CI, 0.548–0.929; P=0.012 were independently associated with recovery of urinary continence. Conclusions: nsRP, as compared to nnsRP, improves recovery rates of urinary incontinence and decreases surgical morbidity without compromising pathologic outcomes.

  7. Patient acceptability of CT colonography compared with double contrast barium enema: results from a multicentre randomised controlled trial of symptomatic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, Christian von; Smith, Samuel; Ghanouni, Alex; Power, Emily; Wardle, Jane; Halligan, Steve; Lilford, Richard J.; Morton, Dion; Dadswell, Edward; Atkin, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    To determine patient acceptability of barium enema (BE) or CT colonography (CTC). After ethical approval, 921 consenting patients with symptoms suggestive of colorectal cancer who had been randomly assigned and completed either BE (N = 606) or CTC (N = 315) received a questionnaire to assess experience of the clinical episode including bowel preparation, procedure and complications. Satisfaction, worry and physical discomfort were assessed using an adapted version of a validated acceptability scale. Non-parametric methods assessed differences between the randomised tests and the effect of patient characteristics. Patients undergoing BE were significantly less satisfied (median 61, interquartile range [IQR] 54-67 vs. median 64, IQR 56-69; p = 0.003) and experienced more physical discomfort (median 40, IQR 29-52 vs. median 35.5, IQR 25-47; p < 0.001) than those undergoing CTC. Post-test, BE patients were significantly more likely to experience 'abdominal pain/cramps' (68% vs. 57%; p = 0.007), 'soreness' (57% vs. 37%; p < 0.001), 'nausea/vomiting' (16% vs. 8%; p = 0.009), 'soiling' (31% vs. 23%; p = 0.034) and 'wind' (92% vs. 84%; p = 0.001) and in the case of 'wind' to also rate it as severe (27% vs. 15%; p < 0.001). CTC is associated with significant improvements in patient experience. These data support the case for CTC to replace BE. (orig.)

  8. Patient acceptability of CT colonography compared with double contrast barium enema: results from a multicentre randomised controlled trial of symptomatic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Christian von; Smith, Samuel; Ghanouni, Alex; Power, Emily; Wardle, Jane [University College London, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, London (United Kingdom); Halligan, Steve [University College London, Centre for Medical Imaging, London (United Kingdom); University College Hospital, Centre for Medical Imaging, London (United Kingdom); Lilford, Richard J. [Birmingham University, Department of Epidemiology, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Morton, Dion [Birmingham University, Department of Surgery, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Dadswell, Edward; Atkin, Wendy [Imperial College London, Department of Surgery and Cancer, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    To determine patient acceptability of barium enema (BE) or CT colonography (CTC). After ethical approval, 921 consenting patients with symptoms suggestive of colorectal cancer who had been randomly assigned and completed either BE (N = 606) or CTC (N = 315) received a questionnaire to assess experience of the clinical episode including bowel preparation, procedure and complications. Satisfaction, worry and physical discomfort were assessed using an adapted version of a validated acceptability scale. Non-parametric methods assessed differences between the randomised tests and the effect of patient characteristics. Patients undergoing BE were significantly less satisfied (median 61, interquartile range [IQR] 54-67 vs. median 64, IQR 56-69; p = 0.003) and experienced more physical discomfort (median 40, IQR 29-52 vs. median 35.5, IQR 25-47; p < 0.001) than those undergoing CTC. Post-test, BE patients were significantly more likely to experience 'abdominal pain/cramps' (68% vs. 57%; p = 0.007), 'soreness' (57% vs. 37%; p < 0.001), 'nausea/vomiting' (16% vs. 8%; p = 0.009), 'soiling' (31% vs. 23%; p = 0.034) and 'wind' (92% vs. 84%; p = 0.001) and in the case of 'wind' to also rate it as severe (27% vs. 15%; p < 0.001). CTC is associated with significant improvements in patient experience. These data support the case for CTC to replace BE. (orig.)

  9. Preoperative assessment of intestinal endometriosis: A comparison of transvaginal sonography with water-contrast in the rectum, transrectal sonography, and barium enema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamini, Valentino; Ghezzi, Fabio; Scarperi, Stefano; Raffaelli, Ricciarda; Cromi, Antonella; Franchi, Massimo

    2010-12-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of Transrectal Sonography (TRS) and a new technique, Transvaginal Sonography with Water-Contrast in the Rectum (RWC-TVS), in the diagnosis of rectosigmoid endometriosis, and the accuracy of Barium Enema (BE) and RWC-TVS in the detection of intestinal stenosis due to endometriosis. In a prospective study, we compared the findings of TRS and RWC-TVS performed before surgery with the operative and pathologic findings in 61 consecutive patients who underwent laparoscopy or laparotomy for suspected rectosigmoid endometriosis. The accuracy of BE and RWC-TVS in the detection of intestinal stenosis was evaluated comparing the radiologic and ultrasonographic results with the macroscopic findings at surgery and pathology. RWC-TVS diagnosed rectosigmoid endometriosis with the same accuracy of TRS and was equally efficient as BE in the detection of a significant intestinal lumen stenosis. For the diagnosis of rectosigmoid endometriosis the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of TRS and RWC-TVS were 88.2% and 96%, 80%, and 90%, 95.7%, and 98%, and 57.1% and 81.8%, respectively. For the detection of intestinal stenosis the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of BE and RWC-TVS were 93.7% and 87.5%, 94.2% and 91.4%, 88.2% and 82.3%, and 97% and 94.1%, respectively. RWC-TVS is a new, simple technique for a single-step and accurate preoperative assessment of rectosigmoid endometriosis.

  10. Patient acceptability of CT colonography compared with double contrast barium enema: results from a multicentre randomised controlled trial of symptomatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Wagner, Christian; Smith, Samuel; Halligan, Steve; Ghanouni, Alex; Power, Emily; Lilford, Richard J; Morton, Dion; Dadswell, Edward; Atkin, Wendy; Wardle, Jane

    2011-10-01

    To determine patient acceptability of barium enema (BE) or CT colonography (CTC). After ethical approval, 921 consenting patients with symptoms suggestive of colorectal cancer who had been randomly assigned and completed either BE (N = 606) or CTC (N = 315) received a questionnaire to assess experience of the clinical episode including bowel preparation, procedure and complications. Satisfaction, worry and physical discomfort were assessed using an adapted version of a validated acceptability scale. Non-parametric methods assessed differences between the randomised tests and the effect of patient characteristics. Patients undergoing BE were significantly less satisfied (median 61, interquartile range [IQR] 54-67 vs. median 64, IQR 56-69; p = 0.003) and experienced more physical discomfort (median 40, IQR 29-52 vs. median 35.5, IQR 25-47; p < 0.001) than those undergoing CTC. Post-test, BE patients were significantly more likely to experience 'abdominal pain/cramps' (68% vs. 57%; p = 0.007), 'soreness' (57% vs. 37%; p < 0.001), 'nausea/vomiting' (16% vs. 8%; p = 0.009), 'soiling' (31% vs. 23%; p = 0.034) and 'wind' (92% vs. 84%; p = 0.001) and in the case of 'wind' to also rate it as severe (27% vs. 15%; p < 0.001). CTC is associated with significant improvements in patient experience. These data support the case for CTC to replace BE.

  11. Free-volume distributions of polymers by positron annihilation spectroscopy: further experiences in using CONTIN for continuous lifetime distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, G.H.; Jean, Y.C.

    1995-01-01

    Thorough examinations of the CONTIN program were carried out by using the simulated positron lifetime spectra, to reveal the capability of CONTIN in the reconstruction of the positron lifetime distributions. It is shown that: 1. very high statistics is strongly desired by CONTIN to reproduce reliable lifetime distributions; 2. improving the time resolution of the measurement system, to the level of 0.030 ns full width at half maximum, does not significantly improve the resolving power of CONTIN; and 3. reducing the time width per channel is a practical way of improving the reconstruction of the lifetime probability density functions by CONTIN. (orig.)

  12. Computer-assisted three-dimensional correlation between the femoral neck-shaft angle and the optimal entry point for antegrade nailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastopoulos, George; Chissas, Dionisios; Dourountakis, Joseph; Ntagiopoulos, Panagiotis G; Magnisalis, Evaggelos; Asimakopoulos, Antonios; Xenakis, Theodore A

    2010-03-01

    Optimal entry point for antegrade femoral intramedullary nailing (IMN) remains controversial in the current medical literature. The definition of an ideal entry point for femoral IMN would implicate a tenseless introduction of the implant into the canal with anatomical alignment of the bone fragments. This study was undertaken in order to investigate possible existing relationships between the true 3D geometric parameters of the femur and the location of the optimum entry point. A sample population of 22 cadaveric femurs was used (mean age=51.09+/-14.82 years). Computed-tomography sections every 0.5mm for the entire length of femurs were produced. These sections were subsequently reconstructed to generate solid computer models of the external anatomy and medullary canal of each femur. Solid models of all femurs were subjected to a series of geometrical manipulations and computations using standard computer-aided-design tools. In the sagittal plane, the optimum entry point always lied a few millimeters behind the femoral neck axis (mean=3.5+/-1.5mm). In the coronal plane the optimum entry point lied at a location dependent on the femoral neck-shaft angle. Linear regression on the data showed that the optimal entry point is clearly correlated to the true 3D femoral neck-shaft angle (R(2)=0.7310) and the projected femoral neck-shaft angle (R(2)=0.6289). Anatomical parameters of the proximal femur, such as the varus-valgus angulation, are key factors in the determination of optimal entry point for nailing. The clinical relevance of the results is that in varus hips (neck-shaft angle shaft angle between 120 degrees and 130 degrees , the optimal entry point lies just medially to the trochanter tip (at the piriformis fossa) and the use of stiff implants is safe. In hips with neck-shaft angle over 130 degrees the anatomical axis of the canal is medially to the base of the neck, in a "restricted area". In these cases the entry point should be located at the insertion of the

  13. Prospective comparative study of brain protection in total aortic arch replacement: deep hypothermic circulatory arrest with retrograde cerebral perfusion or selective antegrade cerebral perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okita, Y; Minatoya, K; Tagusari, O; Ando, M; Nagatsuka, K; Kitamura, S

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the results of total aortic arch replacement using two different methods of brain protection, particularly with respect to neurologic outcome. From June 1997, 60 consecutive patients who underwent total arch replacement through a midsternotomy were alternately allocated to one of two methods of brain protection: deep hypothermic circulatory arrest with retrograde cerebral perfusion (RCP: 30 patients) or with selective antegrade cerebral perfusion (SCP: 30 patients). Preoperative and postoperative (3 weeks) brain CT scan, neurological examination, and cognitive function tests were performed. Serum 100b protein was assayed before and after the cardiopulmonary bypass, as well as 24 hours and 48 hours after the operation. Hospital mortality occurred in 2 patients in the RCP group (6.6%) and 2 in the SCP group (6.6%). New strokes occurred in 1 (3.3%) of the RCP group and in 2 (6.6%) of the SCP group (p = 0.6). The incidence of transient brain dysfunction was significantly higher in the RCP group than in the SCP group (10, 33.3% vs 4, 13.3%, p = 0.05). Except in patients with strokes, S-100b values showed no significant differences in the two groups (RCP: SCP, prebypass 0.01+/-0.04: 0.05+/-0.16, postbypass 2.17+/-0.94: 1.97+/-1.00, 24 hours 0.61+/-0.36: 0.60+/-0.37, 48 hours 0.36+/-0.45: 0.46+/-0.40 microg/L, p = 0.7). There were no intergroup differences in the scores of memory decline (RCP 0.74+/-0.99; SCP 0.55+/-1.19, p = 0.6), orientation (RCP 1.11+/-1.29; SCP 0.50+/-0.76, p = 0.08), or intellectual function (RCP 1.21+/-1.27; SCP 1.05+/-1.15, p = 0.7). Both methods of brain protection for patients undergoing total arch replacement resulted in acceptable levels of mortality and morbidity. However, the prevalence of transient brain dysfunction was significantly higher in patients with the RCP.

  14. Diagnosis of local tumor recidivations after continence excision of rectal carcinoma by means of CAT scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castrup, W.; Schlueter, B.; Wedell, J.; Banzhaf, G.

    1984-05-01

    On a patient collective of 19 with recurrent rectal carcinomas following previous resection and one patient with tumor recidivation after local excision of a villiferous adenoma, the demonstration of the different intra and extraluminal tumor infiltration paths by means of CAT scanning is investigated. After thorough cleaning of the intestine and additional application of a contrast enema using a watery contrast medium it is even possible to demonstrate tumor stenoses or a circumscribed thickening of the intestinal wall. With the majority of patients the tumor extends mainly outside the region of the anastomosis in the perirectal area. Early diagnosis of such perirectal infiltration therefore is decisive for the further treatment. As the possibilities of X-ray investigations of the colon and endoscopy for judging the extraluminal growth are limited, CAT scanning is an essential method in tumor aftercare.

  15. A unified model of avian species richness on islands and continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmar, Attila; Currie, David J

    2007-05-01

    How many species in a given taxon should be found in a delimited area in a specified place in the world? Some recent literature suggests that the answer to this question depends strongly on the geographical, evolutionary, and ecological context. For example, current theory suggests that species accumulate as a function of area differently on continents and islands. Species richness-climate relationships have been examined separately on continents and on islands. This study tests the hypotheses that (1) the functional relationship between richness and climate is the same on continents and islands; (2) the species-area slope depends on distance-based isolation; (3) species-area relationships differ among land bridge islands, oceanic islands, and continents; (4) richness differs among biogeographic regions independently of climate and isolation. We related bird species numbers in a worldwide sample of 240 continental parcels and 346 islands to several environmental variables. We found that breeding bird richness varies similarly on islands and on continents as a function of mean annual temperature, an area x precipitation interaction, and the distance separating insular samples from the nearest continent (R2 = 0.86). Most studies to date have postulated that the slope of the species-area relationship depends upon isolation. In contrast, we found no such interaction. A richness-environment relationship derived using Old World sites accurately predicts patterns of richness in the New World and vice versa (R2 = 0.85). Our results suggest that most of the global variation in richness is not strongly context-specific; rather, it reflects a small number of general environmental constraints operating on both continents and islands.

  16. Representations of OxyContin in North American newspapers and medical journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Emma; Asbridge, Mark; Haydt, Susan

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are public concerns regarding OxyContin (Purdue Pharma, Canada) and charges within the pain medicine community that media coverage of the drug has been biased. OBJECTIVE: To analyze and compare representations of OxyContin in medical journals and North American newspapers in an attempt to shed light on how each contributes to the ‘social problem’ associated with OxyContin. METHODS: Using searches of newspaper and medical literature databases, two samples were drawn: 924 stories published between 1995 and 2005 in 27 North American newspapers, and 197 articles published between 1995 and 2007 in 33 medical journals in the fields of addiction/substance abuse, pain/anesthesiology and general/internal medicine. The foci, themes, perspectives represented and evaluations of OxyContin presented in these texts were analyzed statistically. RESULTS: Newspaper coverage of OxyContin emphasized negative evaluations of the drug, focusing on abuse, addiction, crime and death rather than the use of OxyContin for the legitimate treatment of pain. Newspaper stories most often conveyed the perspectives of law enforcement and courts, and much less often represented the perspectives of physicians. However, analysis of physician perspectives represented in newspaper stories and in medical journals revealed a high degree of inconsistency, especially across the fields of pain medicine and addiction medicine. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of negative representations of OxyContin is often blamed on biased media coverage and an ignorant public. However, the proliferation of inconsistent messages regarding the drug from physicians plays a role in the drug’s persistent status as a social problem. PMID:22059195

  17. Report on workshop"Structure and evolution of Eurasia (super- continent"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Kanao

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available A workshop on Structure and evolution of Eurasia (super- continent" was held on 23rd February 2004, at the National Institute of Polar Research with 29 participants. This provided an opportunity to review the history of amalgamation and breakup of past super-continents in the Earth's evolution, and speculate on the possibility of future super-continent formation. The largest continent on the present Earth, Eurasia, has been formed from an assembly of several sub-continental blocks including Asia, India and Europe, etc: it is also considered to be the nucleus of a future super-continent expected to form 250 m.y. after the present. In this workshop, several interesting topics were presented regarding the formation process, structure and dynamics of Eurasia, in particular in the deep crust and upper mantle. The first half of the workshop covered structural geology, shallow and deep seismic structure, and a simulation model of the Himalaya-Tibet region, known as a typical ongoing continent-continent collision zone. Inner crustal deformation of Eurasia was demonstrated by a newly developed Discrete Element method. In the latter half of the workshop, the possibility of formation of a future super-continent in the Western Pacific Triangular Zone was introduced with geological interpretation associated with an origin of the hot super-plumes. Seismic tomographic studies, particularly in China, which have revealed interesting features such as low velocity anomalies beneath the volcanic area, together with the presence of subducting Indian plates beneath the Tibet region were introduced. In the northwest Pacific region, remnant subducted slabs of the Kula plate have been found by local seismic tomography. Finally, a review of continental dynamics from gravity studies, and broadband seismic observations in the Baikal rift zones, were presented associated with the tectonics and evolution of central Eurasia. The formation mechanism of a hot super-plume in the

  18. The OxyContin crisis: problematisation and responsibilisation strategies in addiction, pain, and general medicine journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Emma; Asbridge, Mark

    2013-09-01

    OxyContin(®) (Purdue Pharma, L.P., Stamford, CT) is now widely regarded as a drug of abuse fueling a larger opioid health crisis. While coverage in the North American press about OxyContin overwhelmingly focused upon the problems of related crime and addiction/misuse and the perspectives of law enforcement officials and police, coverage in those fields of medicine most intimately concerned with OxyContin-pain medicine and addiction medicine-was more nuanced. In this article, we draw upon the constructivist social problems tradition and Hunt's theory of moral regulation in a qualitative analysis of 24 medical journal articles. We compare and contrast pain medicine and addiction medicine representations of the OxyContin problem, the agents responsible for it, and proposed solutions. While there are some significant differences, particularly concerning the nature of the problem and the agents responsible for it, both pain medicine and addiction medicine authors 'take responsibility' in ways that attempt to mitigate the potential appropriation of the issue by law enforcement and regulatory agencies. The responses of pain medicine and addiction medicine journal articles represent strategic moves to recapture lost credibility, to retain client populations and tools necessary to their jobs, and to claim a seat at the table in responding to the OxyContin crisis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The AP diameter of the pelvis: a new criterion for continence in the exstrophy complex?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ait-Ameur, A.; Kalifa, G.; Adamsbaum, C.; Wakim, A.; Dubousset, J.

    2001-01-01

    Reconstructive surgery of bladder exstrophy remains a challenge. By using CT of the pelvis, we suggest a new pre- and post-operative investigative procedure to define the AP diameter (APD) as a predictive criterion for continence in this anomaly. Patients and methods: Three axial CT slices were selected in nine children with exstrophy who had undergone neonatal reconstructive surgery. The three levels selected were the first sacral plate, the mid acetabular plane and the superior pubic spine. We used combined slices to measure: circle APD = distance between the first sacral vertebra and the pubic symphysis. circle Pubic diastasis (PD) circle Three angles defined on the transverse plane of the first sacral vertebra - iliac wing angle, sacropubic angle and acetabular version. In exstrophy, the angles demonstrate opening of the iliac wings and the pubic ramus, and acetabular retroversion compared to controls. Comparisons between controls, continent and incontinent patients reveal that in continent patients, APD increases with growth and seems to be a predictive criterion for continence, independent of diastasis of the pubic symphysis. We believe that CT of the pelvis with measurements of the APD should be performed in all neonates with bladder exstrophy before reconstructive surgery and for better understanding of the malformation. The APD seems to be predictive and may be a major criterion for continence, independent of PD. (orig.)

  20. Quality audit--a review of the literature concerning delivery of continence care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaffield, J

    1995-09-01

    This paper outlines the role of quality audit within the framework of quality assurance, presenting the concurrent and retrospective approaches available. The literature survey provides a review of the limited audit tools available and their application to continence services and care delivery, as well as attempts to produce tools from national and local standard setting. Audit is part of a process; it can involve staff, patients and their relatives and the team of professionals providing care, as well as focusing on organizational and management levels. In an era of market delivery of services there is a need to justify why audit is important to continence advisors and managers. Effectiveness, efficiency and economics may drive the National Health Service, but quality assurance, which includes standards and audit tools, offers the means to ensure the quality of continence services and care to patients and auditing is also required in the purchaser/provider contracts for patient services. An overview and progress to date of published and other a projects in auditing continence care and service is presented. By outlining and highlighting the audit of continence service delivery and care as a basis on which to build quality assurance programmes, it is hoped that this knowledge will be shared through the setting up of a central auditing clearing project.

  1. Cecal rupture after continent ileocecal urinary diversion during total pelvic exenteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brand, E.

    1991-01-01

    Continent ureteral diversion at the time of pelvic exenteration avoids an external appliance and allows patients to retain bladder reservoir function. The technical difficulty of this procedure requires meticulous attention to operative and perioperative care, particularly after pelvic irradiation. A patient with recurrent stage IIIB carcinoma of the cervix underwent total pelvic exenteration with reconstructive procedures including low rectal anastomosis, neovagina formation, and ileocecal (Indiana) continent diversion. Early catheterization of the reservoir began 2 weeks postoperatively. One week later cecal rupture occurred, not related to suture line (technical) failure. Because of the high wall tension and reduced compliance in the irradiated cecum, the authors do not recommend catheterization of the urinary reservoir before 4-6 weeks. In order for continent diversion to become the standard diversion in exenteration patients, the major complication rate must remain comparable to that of noncontinent diversion

  2. Early biochemical recurrence, urinary continence and potency outcomes following robot-assisted radical prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Kasper Drimer; Thomsen, Frederik Birkebæk; Hvarness, Helle

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe recovery of urinary continence and potency and report oncological and functional outcomes using the survival, continence and potency (SCP) system for patients undergoing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). MATERIAL AND METHODS: From 2009...... with preoperative ESI, 77.6% (67.9-86.1) and 34.4% (24.1-47.5) maintained ESI 12 months postoperatively after bilateral and unilateral nerve-sparing surgery (NS), respectively. NS (p .... Using the SCP system and defining potency as ESI, functional and oncological success 12 months after surgery was achieved in 69 out of 135 (51.1%) preoperative continent and potent patients who underwent unilateral or bilateral NS, and did not require adjuvant treatment; when defining potency as IIEF...

  3. Presentación: La Historia continúa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Perez Serrano

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Por fortuna para quienes humildemente cultivamos este conocimiento, la Historia continúa. Las utopías finalistas que hace sólo una década inundaron el mercado de la letra impresa han sido borradas de un plumazo por la tozudez de los hechos. Aunque parezca increíble, en muchos aspectos nuestro futuro es hoy más incierto de lo que lo era hace veinte, treinta o cincuenta años. En lógica correspondencia con ello, el presente ha recobrado un impetuoso protagonismo. Siempre cambiante, punta de flecha del tiempo, el presente no puede dejar de ser visto en nuestros días sino como una angosta ventana hacia el futuro. Por esta ventana se han asomado ya desde antiguo, en tiempos de crisis, literatos y filósofos, y más recientemente lo han hecho periodistas, sociólogos, demógrafos, politólogos, economistas, físicos, bioquímicos, ecólogos y muchos otros científicos. También el ciudadano de la calle vive y entiende su presente como producto del pasado e indicio de lo que habrá de depararle el porvenir. No es más que el reflejo de hasta qué punto carece de sentido fijar fronteras impenetrables en el ámbito temporal.Son todavía pocos, sin embargo, los historiadores que han osado acercarse al presente con esta perspectiva. Algunos más lo han hecho buscando el anclaje con el pasado más próximo, quizá como forma de asegurar una continuidad con lo que hasta hace poco, y aun actualmente, se ha considerado propio de este oficio: el estudio del pasado. La Historia del Tiempo Presente ha ido tomando cuerpo así como un campo específico de la Historia centrado en el análisis del pretérito inmediato, un tiempo que subsiste en la memoria de las generaciones vivas y que, por influencia de éstas, es considerado propio (presente por el conjunto de la sociedad[1]. Ciertamente en este terreno los avances teóricos no son desdeñables, y superan con creces a las realizaciones prácticas, aunque quizá éste no sea el principal obstáculo que se

  4. Fear and overprotection in Australian residential aged-care facilities: The inadvertent impact of regulation on quality continence care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostaszkiewicz, Joan; O'Connell, Beverly; Dunning, Trisha

    2016-06-01

    Most residents in residential aged-care facilities are incontinent. This study explored how continence care was provided in residential aged-care facilities, and describes a subset of data about staffs' beliefs and experiences of the quality framework and the funding model on residents' continence care. Using grounded theory methodology, 18 residential aged-care staff members were interviewed and 88 hours of field observations conducted in two facilities. Data were analysed using a combination of inductive and deductive analytic procedures. Staffs' beliefs and experiences about the requirements of the quality framework and the funding model fostered a climate of fear and risk adversity that had multiple unintended effects on residents' continence care, incentivising dependence on continence management, and equating effective continence care with effective pad use. There is a need to rethink the quality of continence care and its measurement in Australian residential aged-care facilities. © 2015 AJA Inc.

  5. Posterior and anterior fixation of the urethra during robotic prostatectomy improves early continence rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koliakos, Nikolaos; Mottrie, Alexandre; Buffi, Nicolo; De Naeyer, Geert; Willemsen, Pieter; Fonteyne, Etienne

    2010-02-01

    To investigate whether posterior and anterior fixation of the vesicourethral anastomosis during robotic radical prostatectomy (RRP) helps to establish continence earlier. Forty-seven consecutive patients undergoing RRP were randomized into two groups. The first group received a typical Van Velthoven vesicourethral anastomosis and the second group a modified anastomosis with posterior and anterior fixation. In this group the posterior fibrous tissues of the sphincter were sutured to the residual Denonvilliers' fascia. The anastomosis with two running sutures started at the 6 o'clock position on the bladder neck and continued upwards. Two-step stitching was done on the upper half of the anastomosis to ensure good stabilization of the bladder: a small portion of urethral stump followed by a deep haemostatic stitch on the plexus. Continence, as measured by patient self-reporting of the number of pads used per 24 h, was assessed 7 weeks after catheter removal, by telephone interview. The use of no pads or one pad was defined as "continent", two pads as "moderate incontinence" and more than two pads as "severe incontinence". At catheter removal, more patients in the fixation group were continent than in the Van Velthoven group [9/23 (39%) vs 3/24 (12.5%), p = 0.036]. At 7 weeks, continence was even better in the fixation group [15/23 (65%) vs 8/24 (33%), p = 0. 029]. The mean pad usage was less in the fixation group (1.43 vs 2.25, p = 0.032). The posterior and anterior fixation of the vesicourethral anastomosis during RRP results in an intact sphincteric mechanism, because no stretch is applied to the urethra, resulting in earlier continence.

  6. Preoperative predictive model of recovery of urinary continence after radical prostatectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Kazuhito; Kent, Matthew T.; Vickers, Andrew J.; von Bodman, Christian; Bernstein, Melanie; Touijer, Karim A.; Coleman, Jonathan; Laudone, Vincent; Scardino, Peter T.; Eastham, James A.; Akin, Oguz; Sandhu, Jaspreet S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective ● To build a predictive model of urinary continence recovery following radical prostatectomy that incorporates magnetic resonance imaging parameters and clinical data. Patients and Methods ● We conducted a retrospective review of data from 2,849 patients who underwent pelvic staging magnetic resonance imaging prior to radical prostatectomy from November 2001 to June 2010. ● We used logistic regression to evaluate the association between each MRI variable and continence at 6 or 12 months, adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), and American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score and then used multivariable logistic regression to create our model. ● A nomogram was constructed using the multivariable logistic regression models. Results ● In total, 68% (n=1,742/2,559) and 82% (n=2,205/2,689) regained function at 6 and 12 months, respectively. ● In the base model, age, BMI, and ASA score were significant predictors of continence at 6 or 12 months on univariate analysis (p <0.005). ● Among the preoperative magnetic resonance imaging measurements, membranous urethral length, which showed great significance, was incorporated into the base model to create the full model. ● For continence recovery at 6 months, the addition of membranous urethral length increased the AUC to 0.664 for the validation set, an increase of 0.064 over the base model. For continence recovery at 12 months, the AUC was 0.674, an increase of 0.085 over the base model. Conclusions ● Using our model, the likelihood of continence recovery increases with membranous urethral length and decreases with age, body mass index, and ASA score. ● This model could be used for patient counseling and for the identification of patients at high risk for urinary incontinence in whom to study changes in operative technique that improve urinary function after radical prostatectomy. PMID:25682782

  7. A complex dissected chronic occlusion: targeted balloon dilatation of false lumen to access true lumen, combined localized subintimal tracking and reentry, parallel wire, contralateral injection and a useful antegrade lumen re-entry technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W. Tam

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic total occlusion (CTO angioplasty is one of the most challenging procedures remaining for the interventional operator. Recanalizing CTOs can improve exercise capacity, symptoms, left ventricular function and possibly reduce mortality. Multiple strategies such as escalating wire, parallel wire, seesaw, contralateral injection, subintimal tracking and re-entry (STAR, retrograde wire techniques (controlled antegrade retrograde subintimal tracking, CART, reverse CART, confluent balloon, rendezvous in coronary, and other techniques have all been described. Selection of the most appropriate approach is based on assessment of vessel course, length of occluded segment, presence of bridging collaterals, presence of bifurcating side branches at the occlusion site, and other variables. Today, with significant operator expertise and the use of available techniques, the literature reports a 50-95% success rate for recanalizing CTOs.

  8. The research of modern He discharge in volcanic and tectonically active areas of China's continent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shangguan, Z.G.

    1999-01-01

    The realising features of modern helium in volcanic and tectonically active areas of China's continent are here discussed, presenting that the current escaped He in volcanic areas are mainly the mantle-derived He. The 3 He/ 4 He ratios of crustal gases in Eastern China are relatively higher than those gases in Middle-Western China. The author considers difficult to interpret this phenomenon by means of the differences of tectonic activity in those areas: it may be related to the variation of crustal thickness of China's continent from East to West

  9. CONTIN XPCS: Software for Inverse Transform Analysis of X-Ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Ross N; Narayanan, Suresh; Zhang, Fan; Kuzmenko, Ivan; Ilavsky, Jan

    2018-02-01

    X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) both reveal dynamics using coherent scattering, but X-rays permit investigating of dynamics in a much more diverse array of materials. Heterogeneous dynamics occur in many such materials, and we showed how classic tools employed in analysis of heterogeneous DLS dynamics extend to XPCS, revealing additional information that conventional Kohlrausch exponential fitting obscures. This work presents the software implementation of inverse transform analysis of XPCS data called CONTIN XPCS, an extension of traditional CONTIN that accommodates dynamics encountered in equilibrium XPCS measurements.

  10. Regulatory Changes and Productivity of the Banking Sector in the Indian Sub-Continent

    OpenAIRE

    Shabbar Jaffry; Yaseen Ghulam; Sean Pascoe; Joe Cox

    2005-01-01

    This study seeks to measure changes in technical efficiency levels within the banking sectors of the Indian sub-continent: specifically India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, over the period 1993–2002. This study is done in the context of a number of sweeping deregulations across the sub-continent in the early 1990s, and the possible effect these may have had upon efficiency levels. A Malmquist Index of TFP change over the time-period in question is employed, along with a Tobit regression, in order...

  11. A study on the birth and globalization of sports originated from each continent

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Byung Jin; Kim, Tae Young

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to see how continent specific sports rose to its modern-day status through globalization. This research focuses on the historical background of how England?s football, America?s national pastime, baseball, Japan?s Judo, and Korea?s Taekwondo developed into sports in addition to the reasoning behind its globalization. Promoted by England and the rest of the European continent, Soccer is considered to be one of the world?s most popular sports and has served its f...

  12. Impact of posterior rhabdosphincter reconstruction during robot-assisted radical prostatectomy: retrospective analysis of time to continence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Jason R; Shikanov, Sergey; Zorn, Kevin C; Shalhav, Arieh L; Zagaja, Gregory P

    2009-12-01

    Posterior rhabdosphincter (PR) reconstruction during robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) was introduced in an attempt to improve postoperative continence. In the present study, we evaluate time to achieve continence in patients who are undergoing RARP with and without PR reconstruction. A prospective RARP database was searched for most recent cases that were accomplished with PR reconstruction (group 1, n = 69) or with standard technique (group 2, n = 63). We performed the analysis applying two definitions of continence: 0 pads per day or 0-1 security pad per day. Patients were evaluated by telephone interview. Statistical analysis was carried out using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. With PR reconstruction, continence was improved when defined as 0-1 security pad per day (median time of 90 vs 150 days; P = 0.01). This difference did not achieve statistical significance when continence was defined as 0 pads per day (P = 0.12). A statistically significant improvement in continence rate and time to achieve continence is seen in patients who are undergoing PR reconstruction during RARP, with continence defined as 0-1 security/safety pad per day. A larger, prospective and randomized study is needed to better understand the impact of this technique on postoperative continence.

  13. Feldspar basalts in lunar soil and the nature of the lunar continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, A. M.; Ridley, W. I.; Harmon, R. S.; Warner, J.; Brett, R.; Jakes, P.; Brown, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    It is found that 25% on the Apollo-14 glasses have the same composition as the glasses in two samples taken from the Luna-16 column. The compositions are equivalent to feldspar basalt and anorthosite gabbro, and are similar to the feldspar basalts identified from Surveyor-7 analysis for lunar continents.

  14. Papers presented to the Conference on Heat and Detachment in Crustal Extension on Continents and Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Several topics relative to heat and detachment in crustal extension on continents and planets are discussed. Rifting on Venus, heat flow and continental breakup, magnetism, the mountains and tectonic processes of Io, and the ductile extension of planetary lithospheres are among the topics covered.

  15. The African nuclear-weapon-free zone and sustainable development on the continent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selassie, T.W.

    1996-01-01

    This article looks at the concept of safeguards and nuclear non-proliferation in the context of the Treaty, and discusses the relevance and potential of nuclear science and technology for contributing to the solution of the continent's numerous and urgent problems

  16. Examination of 2015 Human Development Index in Terms of Education: Comparison of the Continents and Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nartgün, Senay Sezgin; Sezen-Gültekin, Gözde; Limon, Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to compare Turkey to the first three countries from each continent in terms of educational indicators in 2015 Human Development Report. In line with this aim, it is a case study utilizing document review method. Analysis of the data has been carried out on a single document which is United Nations Development Report (2015). To…

  17. Normalized difference vegetation index for the South American continent used as a climatic variability indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, W.T.; Massambani, O.; Festa, M.

    1992-01-01

    The NOAA AVHRR GAC data set was used to produce Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) maps for the South American Continent covering the period from August 1, 1981 to June 30, 1987. A 15-day maximum value composite procedure was used to partially eliminate the cloud contamination and atmospheric attenuation. Monthly evolution of NDVI for a dry and a wet year within the period studied was used to estimate the area covered by NDVI value less than 0.223, This value was used as an indicator of the drought area and the delineation of the Low rainfall areas in the continent. It was observed a well defined regional dependence of the drought area variability for the Northeast, Southwest and Northwest continent and also for the Amazon region. It is shown a relative estimation of the area coverage with NDVI less than 0.223 for the years 1982/83 and 1984/85. The dynamics of the drought area evolution in the continent is discussed. It is also presented a diagnosis of regional variability of the continental distribution of drought area from 1981 to 1987 for the months of May and September. This information is also used to discuss its relationship with the EL-Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the South American Precipitation patterns during this period. It is suggested that the use of NDVI image to identify the dynamics of the drought induced by low rainfall may provide us valuable information to study the large scale climatic variation

  18. Long Aftershock Sequences within Continents and Implications for Earthquake Hazard Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, S. A.; Liu, M.

    2014-12-01

    Recent seismicity in the Tangshan region in North China has prompted concern about a repetition of the 1976 M7.8 earthquake that destroyed the city, killing more than 242,000 people. However, the decay of seismicity there implies that the recent earthquakes are probably aftershocks of the 1976 event. This 37-year sequence is an example of the phenomenon that aftershock sequences within continents are often significantly longer than the typical 10 years at plate boundaries. The long sequence of aftershocks in continents is consistent with a simple friction-based model predicting that the length of aftershock sequences varies inversely with the rate at which faults are loaded. Hence the slowly-deforming continents tend to have aftershock sequences significantly longer than at rapidly-loaded plate boundaries. This effect has two consequences for hazard assessment. First, within the heavily populated continents that are typically within plate interiors, assessments of earthquake hazards rely significantly on the assumption that the locations of small earthquakes shown by the short historical record reflect continuing deformation that will cause future large earthquakes. This assumption would lead to overestimation of the hazard in presently active areas and underestimation elsewhere, if some of these small events are aftershocks. Second, successful attempts to remove aftershocks from catalogs used for hazard assessment would underestimate the hazard, because much of the hazard is due to the aftershocks, and the declustering algorithms implicitly assume short aftershock sequences and thus do not remove long-duration ones.

  19. High resolution magnetic resonance imaging of urethral anatomy in continent nulliparous pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preyer, Oliver; Brugger, Peter C.; Laml, Thomas; Hanzal, Engelbert; Prayer, Daniela; Umek, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: To quantify the distribution of morphologic appearances of urethral anatomy and measure variables of urethral sphincter anatomy in continent, nulliparous, pregnant women by high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and methods: We studied fifteen women during their first pregnancy. We defined and quantified bladder neck and urethral morphology on axial and sagittal MR images from healthy, continent women. Results: The mean (±standard deviation) total transverse urethral diameter, anterior–posterior diameter, unilateral striated sphincter muscle thickness, and striated sphincter length were 15 ± 2 mm (range: 12–19 mm), 15 ± 2 mm (range: 11–20 mm), 2 ± 1 mm (range: 1–4 mm), and 13 ± 3 mm (range: 9–18 mm) respectively. The mean (±standard deviation) total urethral length on sagittal scans was 22 ± 3 mm (range: 17.6–26.4 mm). Discussion: Advances in MR technique combined with anatomical and histological findings will provide an insight to understand how changes in urethral anatomy might affect the continence mechanisms in pregnant and non-pregnant, continent or incontinent individuals.

  20. Runes around the North Sea and on the Continent AD 150-700; texts & contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looijenga, Jantina Helena

    1997-01-01

    Het onderzoek naar de oudste runeninscripties van het Europese continent, Engeland en Denemarken voerde onderzoekster van Liverpool aan de Ierse Zee naar Constanza aan de Zwarte Zee; van Zürich naar Bergen; van Parijs naar Stockholm. In dit enorme gebied kende men reeds bij het begin van de vroege

  1. Obesity and stress urinary incontinence in women: compromised continence mechanism or excess bladder pressure during cough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Carolyn W; Kolenic, Giselle E; Trowbridge, Elisa R; Berger, Mitchell B; Lewicky-Gaupp, Christina; Margulies, Rebecca U; Morgan, Daniel M; Fenner, Dee E; DeLancey, John O

    2017-09-01

    We compared two hypotheses as to why obesity is associated with stress urinary incontinence (SUI): (1) obesity increases demand on the continence system (e.g. higher cough pressure) and (2) obesity compromises urethral function and urethrovaginal support. A secondary analysis was performed using data from a case-control study of SUI in women. Measurements of urethrovaginal support (POP-Q point Aa, urethral axis), urethral function (maximal urethral closure pressure, MUCP), and measures of continence system demand (intravesical pressures at rest and during maximal cough) were analyzed. Cases and controls were divided into three body mass index (BMI) groups: normal (18.5-24.9 kg/m 2 ); overweight (25.0-29.9 kg/m 2 ); and obese (≥30 kg/m 2 ). Logistic regression models where created to investigate variables related to SUI for each BMI group. Structural equation modeling was used to test the direct and indirect relationships among BMI, SUI, maximal cough pressure, MUCP, and POP-Q point Aa. The study included 108 continent controls and 103 women with SUI. MUCP was the factor most strongly associated with SUI in all BMI groups. Maximal cough pressure was significantly associated with SUI in obese women (OR 3.191, 95% CI 1.326, 7.683; p continence mechanism.

  2. Measurement of Dynamic Urethral Pressures with a High Resolution Manometry System in Continent and Incontinent Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Anna C; Tan-Kim, Jasmine; Nager, Charles W.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Female stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is caused by urethral dysfunction during dynamic conditions, but current technology has limitations in measuring urethral pressures under dynamic conditions. An 8-French high resolution manometry catheter (HRM) currently in clinical use in gastroenterology may accurately measure urethral pressures under dynamic conditions because it has a 25ms response rate and circumferential pressure sensors along the length of the catheter (ManoScan® ESO, Given Imaging). We evaluated the concordance, repeatability, and tolerability of this catheter. Methods We measured resting, cough, and strain maximum urethral closure pressures (MUCPs) using HRM and measured resting MUCPs with water perfusion side-hole catheter urethral pressure profilometry (UPP) in 37 continent and 28 stress incontinent subjects. Maneuvers were repeated after moving the HRM catheter along the urethral length to evaluate whether results depend on catheter positioning. Visual analog pain scores evaluated the comfort of HRM compared to UPP. Results The correlation coefficient for resting MUCPs measured by HRM vs. UPP was high (r = 0.79, prest, cough, and strain with HRM: r= 0.92, 0.89, and 0.89. Mean MUCPs (rest, cough, strain) were higher in continent than incontinent subjects (all p continent subjects during cough and strain maneuvers compared to rest. Conclusions This preliminary study shows that HRM is concordant with standard technology, repeatable, and well tolerated in the urethra. Incontinent women have more impairment of their urethral closure pressures during cough and strain than continent women. PMID:25185595

  3. Self-reported urinary continence outcomes for repeat midurethral synthetic sling placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A. Eandi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate our experience with tension-free transvaginal tape (TVT placement for the management of stress urinary incontinence (SUI in women who had previously undergone a failed midurethral synthetic sling (MUS procedure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten women underwent retropubic TVT insertion for continued or recurrent SUI following a prior MUS procedure. No attempt was made to remove the previously placed sling at the time of surgery. A retrospective chart review was performed to obtain perioperative and follow-up patient information. Post-operatively, each patient completed a mailed incontinence questionnaire to assess self-reported urinary continence outcomes. RESULTS: All 10 women were available for follow-up at a mean period of 16 months (range 6 to 33. Four of the 10 patients achieved complete continence, and another three patients reported significantly improved continence and quality of life. Three women stated that their continence did not improve. CONCLUSIONS: TVT placement may be a viable option for the management of women with persistent or recurrent SUI following an initial MUS procedure.

  4. Rotational inertia of continents: A proposed link between polar wandering and plate tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, M.F.

    1972-01-01

    A mechanism is proposed whereby displacement between continents and the earth's pole of rotation (polar wandering) gives rise to latitudinal transport of continental plates (continental drift) because of their relatively greater rotational inertia. When extended to short-term polar wobble, the hypothesis predicts an energy change nearly equivalent to the seismic energy rate.

  5. Is continence status associated with quality of life in young children with spina bifida?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Kurt A; Smith, Kathryn; Adams, Elizabeth; Mizokawa, Stacey; Neville-Jan, Ann

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between child- and parent-reported quality of life (QOL) and bowel and bladder continence among young children with spina bifida (SB). 104 children ages 5-12 years and one of their parents/guardians completed the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory - Generic Form (PedsQL; parent and child) and the Quality of Life in Spina Bifida Questionnaire (QOLSBQ, parent only). Data on continence, child age, and condition-specific variables were obtained by chart review. Parent and child QOL scores (on all measures of QOL) were positively correlated; parents rated child QOL lower than children's self report. QOL scores did not differ based on continence status. Total PedsQL scores were associated with age and mobility based on child report and with mobility based on parent report. QOL may not be affected by continence status among young children with SB, though demographic (i.e., age) and condition-specific (i.e., functional mobility status) variables appear relevant. Additional research is needed to further evaluate condition-specific variables, other protective variables, and possible measurement issues that influence QOL in young children with SB.

  6. Analysis of the Environmental Management System based on ISO 14001 on the American continent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Fábio de Oliveira; Salgado, Eduardo G; Beijo, Luiz A

    2017-09-01

    The American continent is in broad economic and industrial development. Consequently, a more detailed discussion of the impacts generated by such development is needed. Moreover, there is an increase in the number of ISO 14001 certificates issued to this continent. Given the above, no studies were found that bridge the gap to identify the influence of different factors on ISO 14001 in the Americas. Thus, this article has as its main aim to check which economic, environmental and cultural factors have influence on ISO 14001 Certification in the American Continent. The data were collected in the ISO Survey, World Bank, United Nations Development Programme and International Energy Agency. Among the countries of that continent, thirteen were analyzed and only two did not show the economic factors as the influence factor in the multiple regression models fitted with Brazil and the United State. In these models, all presented environmental factors as influencing factors. Only in Brazil the index HDI presented as cultural factor in multiple regression model fitted. The economic factors: Gross Domestic Product and exports of goods and services and environmental: Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) and fossil fuel consumption were the most influential in ISO 14001 certification. Venezuela, Uruguay, Colombia and the United States were countries that had factors dependent on each other, featuring the environmental marketing. Briefly, this study brings up several implications: to the academy, with the proposal of new concepts and guidance on the factors that assist in ISO 14001 certification in the American Continent. Additionally, taking into account the industry, the factors serve as efficiency parameters for the implementation of ISO 14001 standard, and for the Government to improve through factors that do not fit in multiple regression models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Maritime Continent seasonal climate biases in AMIP experiments of the CMIP5 multimodel ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Ying Ying; Turner, Andrew G.; Johnson, Stephanie J.; Holloway, Christopher E.

    2018-02-01

    The fidelity of 28 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) models in simulating mean climate over the Maritime Continent in the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) experiment is evaluated in this study. The performance of AMIP models varies greatly in reproducing seasonal mean climate and the seasonal cycle. The multi-model mean has better skill at reproducing the observed mean climate than the individual models. The spatial pattern of 850 hPa wind is better simulated than the precipitation in all four seasons. We found that model horizontal resolution is not a good indicator of model performance. Instead, a model's local Maritime Continent biases are somewhat related to its biases in the local Hadley circulation and global monsoon. The comparison with coupled models in CMIP5 shows that AMIP models generally performed better than coupled models in the simulation of the global monsoon and local Hadley circulation but less well at simulating the Maritime Continent annual cycle of precipitation. To characterize model systematic biases in the AMIP runs, we performed cluster analysis on Maritime Continent annual cycle precipitation. Our analysis resulted in two distinct clusters. Cluster I models are able to capture both the winter monsoon and summer monsoon shift, but they overestimate the precipitation; especially during the JJA and SON seasons. Cluster II models simulate weaker seasonal migration than observed, and the maximum rainfall position stays closer to the equator throughout the year. The tropics-wide properties of these clusters suggest a connection between the skill of simulating global properties of the monsoon circulation and the skill of simulating the regional scale of Maritime Continent precipitation.

  8. Is there any difference in pelvic floor muscles performance between continent and incontinent women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burti, Juliana Schulze; Hacad, Claudia R; Zambon, João Paulo; Polessi, Emily Assis; Almeida, Fernando G

    2015-08-01

    To compare pelvic floor muscles (PFMs) performance in women with and without stress urinary incontinence (SUI) during endurance test. It is a prospective case-control clinical trial. After determining PFM maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) by electromyography (EMG), women underwent endurance test, which consisted of consecutively PFM 1-sec fast contractions reaching MVC amplitude followed by 1-sec rest. Training time guided by Borg perceived exertion scale was noted. Heart rate (HR) behavior and EMG variables were assessed before and after training making a physiological analysis in both groups. A total of 56 women, mean age 52.19 years old, were evaluated (26 continent and 30 incontinent women). The time that SUI and continent women took to reach fatigue (Borg 10) was 9.1 ± 4.7 and 14.19 ± 8.32 min, respectively (P = 0.006). Confirming that all women performed similar effort during the test, analysis of variance with repeated measures showed that during the endurance test both groups presented similar increase in HR, showing detectable and significant increase from resting time to Borg 10 (P continent and SUI women, with a decrease from the baseline resting amplitude (P = 0.003 for SUI women and P = 0.006 for continent women). Women with SUI showed worse performance during an endurance test than continent women. It suggests that women have different capacity to perform PFM training. An initial evaluation based on PFM performance would help to define the best individualized PFM training. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Oceans and continents: Similarities and differences in the mechanisms of heat loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sclater, J.G.; Parsons, B.; Jaupart, C.

    1981-01-01

    The principal objective of this paper is to present a simple and self-consistent review of the basic physical processes controlling heat loss from the earth. To accomplish this objective, we give a short summary of the oceanic and continental data and compare and contrast the respective mechanisms of heat loss . In the oceans we concentrate on the effect of hydrothermal circulation, and on the continents we consider in some detail a model relating surface heat flow to varying depth scales for the distribution of potassium, thorium, and uranium. From this comparison we conclude that the range in possible geotherms at depths below 100 to 150 km under continents and oceans overlaps and the thermal structure beneath an old stable continent is indistinguishable from that beneath an ocean were it at equilibrium. Oceans and continents are part of the same thermal system. Both have an upper rigid mechanical layer where heat loss is by conduction and a lower thermal boundary layer where convection is dominant. The simple conductive definition of the plate thickness is an oversimplification. The observed distribution of area versus age in the ocean allows us to investigate the dominant mechanism of heat loss which is plate creation. This distribution and an understanding of the heat flow through oceans and continents can be used to calculate the heat loss of the earth. This heat loss is 10 13 cal/s (4.2 x 10 13 W) of which more than 60% results from the creation of oceanic plate. The relation between area and age of the oceans is coupled to the ridge and subducting slab forces that contribute to the driving mechanism for plate motions. These forces are self-regulating and maintain the rate of plate generation required to achieve a balance between heat loss and heat generation

  10. Seminal vesicle sparing laparoscopic radical prostatectomy using a low-energy source: Better continence and potency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrenik J Shah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Ongoing with the newer developments in laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP, we report our experience in a consecutive series of 42 patients with a mean 18-month follow-up. We also studied the use of a low-energy source, especially in the region of the prostatic apex and the neurovascular bundle and evaluated its outcome on continence and potency. Materials and Methods: Between November 2003 and December 2008, 50 patients aged 50-80 yrs underwent LRP with vesicourethral anastomosis and of these, 42 patients who had a minimum follow-up of 3 months were selected for the study. Of these, the initial 16 patients were operated by the routine method and the 26 patients operated in the later part of our experience were operated upon using a minimal energy source. Results: The mean follow-up was 18 months (range 3-60. Continence was evaluated at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Eleven of the 16 patients in Group I were continent as compared with 21 of 26 patients in Group II. The difference in continence rates was mainly due to less use of electrocautery and harmonic scalpel at the bladder neck. Of the eight patients who were potent pre-operatively in Group I, four remained potent 3 months after LRP. In Group II, 20 of the 26 patients were potent pre-operatively and 16 remained potent 3 months after LRP. Conclusions: Use of a low-energy source at the bladder neck and neurovascular bundle, sparing of seminal vesicle, and leaving behind a long, healthy stump of the urethra during apical dissection, is associated with better continence and potency without compromising oncological outcome.

  11. Improving and ensuring best practice continence management in residential aged care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckenberg, Gayle

    2008-06-01

    Background  Continence Management within residential aged care is an every day component of care that requires assessment, implementation of strategies, resource allocation and evaluation. At times the management of incontinence of aged residents can be challenging and unsuccessful. The project chosen through the Clinical Fellowship program was Continence Management with the aim of raising awareness of best practice to assist in improving and providing person-centred resident care. Aims/objectives •  Review the literature on best practice management of incontinence •  Evaluate current practice in continence management for elderly residents within residential aged care services •  Improve adherence to best practice strategies of care for incontinence •  Raise awareness within the nursing home of the best practice management of incontinence •  Promote appropriate and effective use of resources for continence management •  Deliver individualised person-centred care to residents. •  Ensure best practice in continence management Methods  The Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) Practical Application of Clinical Evidence System clinical audit tool was utilised to measure current practice against best practice. The results identify gaps that require improvement. The Getting Research into Practice process then allowed analysis of the level of compliance with each of the audit criteria, which would identify any barriers in implementing a selected course of action and aim to improve compliance. The project team was consulted with additional stakeholder consultation to form an action plan and implement strategies to improve practice. Results  Although 100% compliance with all audit criteria in audit 1 and 2 was not achieved, there was improvement in the criteria concerning the documented fluid intake for residents. Further strategies have been identified and implemented and this continues to be a 'work in progress'. Staff now have an acute awareness

  12. Lower GI Series (Barium Enema)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... uses x-rays and a chalky liquid called barium to view your large intestine . The barium will make your large intestine more visible on ... single-contrast lower GI series, which uses only barium a double-contrast or air-contrast lower GI ...

  13. Indiana pouch continent urinary reservoir in patients with previous pelvic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannel, R.S.; Braly, P.S.; Buller, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    Little information exists on the use of continent urinary reservoirs in patients with previous pelvic irradiation. We report the use of the Indiana pouch urinary reservoir in ten women with a history of pelvic irradiation for cervical cancer, of whom eight underwent a total pelvic exenteration for recurrent pelvic tumor and two had diversion for radiation-induced vesicovaginal fistula. All ten women achieved daytime continence, with a median time between catheterizations of 4.5 hours and a median pouch capacity of 500 mL. There was no evidence of leakage from the reservoir or significant ureteral reflux or obstruction on postoperative radiographic evaluation. No patient has required reoperation or had significant postoperative complications with the technique described

  14. Variation of atmospheric 210Pb concentration in the inland area of Chinese continent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Taeko; Sato, Jun.

    1995-01-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of 210 Pb and their variations over Urumqi, Lanzhou and Baotou, cities located in inland area of Chinese continent, were observed for a period of 1 year in 1992. The monthly average concentrations ranged from 0.27 to 4.57 mBq/m 3 . The concentrations over these cities in winter were several times higher than that observed at Tsukuba Science City, Japan, and the range of variation was also larger. The variations in concentration over the 3 localities were similar to each other, showing the same seasonal variation pattern: low concentration appeared in summer and high in winter. This variation pattern was different from that observed at Tsukuba Science City. The variations in concentration over Chinese continent, where precipitation is much lower than that in Japan, correlated quite well with the variation in precipitation. (author)

  15. Checking of seismic and tsunami hazard for coastal NPP of Chinese continent after Fukushima nuclear accident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang Xiangdong; Zhou Bengang; Zhao Lianda

    2013-01-01

    A checking on seismic and tsunami hazard for coastal nuclear power plant (NPP) of Chinese continent has been made after Japanese Fukushima nuclear accident caused by earthquake tsunami.The results of the checking are introduced briefly in this paper,including the evaluations of seismic and tsunami hazard in NPP siting period,checking results on seismic and tsunami hazard.Because Chinese coastal area belongs to the continental shelf and far from the boundary of plate collision,the tsunami hazard is not significant for coastal area of Chinese continent.However,the effect from tsunami still can' t be excluded absolutely since calculated result of Manila trench tsunami source although the tsunami wave is lower than water level from storm surge.The research about earthquake tsunami will continue in future.The tsunami warning system and emergency program of NPP will be established based on principle of defense in depth in China.

  16. Reduction in oxidative stress levels in the colonic mucosa without fecal stream after the application of enemas containing aqueous Ilex paraguariensis extract Redução dos níveis de estresse oxidativo na mucosa cólica sem trânsito intestinal após aplicação de enemas contendo extrato aquoso de Ilex paraguariensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Lorenzetti da Cunha

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the antioxidant effects of enemas containing aqueous extract of Ilex paraguariensis, comparing segments with and without fecal stream and correlating the segments with the duration of intervention. METHODS: Twenty-six Wistar rats were subjected to a diversion of the fecal stream in the left colon by a proximal colostomy and distal mucosal fistula. The rats were distributed randomly into two experimental groups of 13 animals each based on the time of sacrifice after surgical procedure (two or four weeks. Each group was then divided into two experimental subgroups that received either second daily enemas containing 0.9% saline solution or aqueous extract of Ilex paraguariensis at 0.2g/100g. Colitis was diagnosed by histopathological analysis and the detection of oxidative tissue damage by measuring the levels of malondialdehyde. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the tissue levels of malondialdehyde between colon segments with and without fecal stream in each experimental group, and the Kruskal-Wallis test was used to verify the variance between the levels of oxidative stress according the duration of the irrigation; both tests determined significance at 5% (pOBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos antioxidantes de clisteres contendo extrato aquoso de Ilex paraguariensis comparando segmentos com e sem trânsito fecal e correlacionando com o tempo de intervenção. MÉTODOS: Vinte e seis ratos Wistar machos foram submetidos à derivação do trânsito no cólon esquerdo pela confecção de colostomia proximal e fístula mucosa distal. Foram divididos de forma randomizada em dois grupos experimentais de 13 animais, de acordo com o sacrifício ser realizado após duas ou quatro semanas do procedimento cirúrgico. Cada grupo foi dividido em dois subgrupos experimentais segundo a aplicação diária ter sido realizada com enemas diários contendo solução fisiológica a 0,9% ou extrato aquoso de Ilex paraguariensis na concentra

  17. Responses of Mean and Extreme Precipitation to Deforestation in the Maritime Continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. C.; Lo, M. H.; Yu, J. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Anthropogenic land use and land cover change, including tropical deforestation, could have substantial effects on local surface energy and water budgets, and thus on the atmospheric stability which may result in changes in precipitation. Maritime Continent has undergone severe deforestation in recent decades but has received less attention than Amazon or Congo rainforests. Therefore, this study is to decipher the precipitation response to deforestation in the Maritime Continent. We conduct deforestation experiments using Community Earth System Model (CESM) and through converting the tropical rainforest into grassland. The results show that deforestation in Maritime Continent leads to an increase in both mean temperature and mean precipitation. Moisture budget analysis indicates that the increase in precipitation is associated with the vertically integrated vertical moisture advection, especially the dynamic component (changes in convection). In addition, through moist static energy (MSE) budget analysis, we find the atmosphere among deforested areas become unstable owing to the combined effects of positive specific humidity anomalies at around 850 hPa and anomalous warming extended from the surface to 750 hPa. This instability will induce anomalous ascending motion, which could enhance the low-level moisture convergence, providing water vapor from the surrounding warm ocean. To further evaluate the precipitation response to deforestation, we examine the precipitation changes under La Niña events and global warming scenario using CESM Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) simulations and Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 simulations. We find that the precipitation increase caused by deforestation in Maritime Continent is comparable in magnitude to that generated by either natural variability or global warming forcing. Besides the changes in mean precipitation, preliminary results show the extreme precipitation also increases. We will further

  18. Globalization in Urology: A Bibliographical Analysis of Cross-Continent Publication between 2002 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Jens; Juengel, Eva; Bartsch, Georg; Filmann, Natalie; Ackermann, Hanns; Nelson, Karen; Haferkamp, Axel; Engl, Tobias; Blaheta, Roman A

    2015-01-01

    Asian scientists have now increasingly begun to contribute to globalization; yet it is not clear whether publishing in the field of urology is paralleled by elevated cross-continental scientific publishing. An exemplary bibliometric analysis of urologic journals from 3 different continents was conducted between 2002 and 2012. Based on the ISI Web of Knowledge Journal Citation Reports, 2 urologic journals with similar impact factors (IFs) in 2013 were selected from Europe ('British Journal of Urology International', 'World Journal of Urology'), Asia ('International Journal of Urology', 'Asian Journal of Andrology') and North America ('Urologic Oncology-Seminars and Original Investigations', 'Urology'). The home continent of the journal, the workplace continental affiliation of the last author, article type (clinical, experimental or review) as well as the IF were documented. Most authors published their manuscripts in journals from the same continent in which they worked. However, a significant increase in cross-continental publishing was apparent from 2002 to 2012. Asians publishing in North America increased from 17% in 2002 to 35% in 2012. Europeans also increased the number of articles they published in North American journals, while publications from North American authors were shifted towards both European and Asian journals. Experimental and clinical articles showed significant increases in cross-continental publishing, while review publishing showed no significant change. The average IF for authors from all 3 continents increased from 2002 to 2012 (p < 0.001). The largest increase in the IF was found for Asian authors (0.11 per year). Cross-continental publication significantly increased during the period from 2002 to 2012. The impact that the Asian authors have experienced was found to be gradually impacting the North American and European colleagues. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Isotopic evidence of boron in precipitation originating from coal burning in Asian continent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, Masahiro; Natsumi, Masahiro; Tani, Yukinori

    2010-01-01

    The boron concentration and isotopic composition (δ 11 B) of precipitation collected from December 2002 to March 2006 at three sites on the Japan Sea coast were measured. Those sites have been considerably affected by the long-range transport of air pollutants from the Asian continent during winter and spring when the airflows from the Asian continent are predominant. The boron concentration in the precipitation increased primarily during winter whereas the δ 11 B decreased during winter or spring. It is assumed that this decrease in δ 11 B is not associated with a Rayleigh distillation process, because the previous δD values of the precipitation collected at a site on the Japan Sea coast did not decrease in the same manner. A weak correlation (r 2 =0.13-0.24, P 11 B and the nonsea-salt sulfate (nss-SO 4 2- )/B ratio at each site, suggesting that boron in the precipitation originate primarily from two sources. The first source, which is characterized by high δ 11 B and nss-SO 4 2- /B=0, is seawater. At the northern site, the enrichment factor for boron in the precipitation relative to seawater approached unity during winter. This implies that much of the boron in the precipitation is derived from unfractionated sea salts rather than gaseous boron evaporated from seawater. The second source is characterized by low δ 11 B and high nss-SO 4 2- /B ratio. Most of the nss-SO 4 2- in the precipitation originates from anthropogenic combustion activities in the Asian continent based on the previous model calculations. Coal accounts for a major portion of the total primary energy supply in China. Moreover, coal enriches boron and represents generally negative δ 11 B values. Hence, we propose that the emission of boron from coal burning is the most likely second source. Thus, boron isotopes may be useful as tracers of coal-burning plumes from the Asian continent. (author)

  20. Runes around the North Sea and on the Continent AD 150-700; texts & contexts

    OpenAIRE

    Looijenga, Jantina Helena

    1997-01-01

    Het onderzoek naar de oudste runeninscripties van het Europese continent, Engeland en Denemarken voerde onderzoekster van Liverpool aan de Ierse Zee naar Constanza aan de Zwarte Zee; van Zürich naar Bergen; van Parijs naar Stockholm. In dit enorme gebied kende men reeds bij het begin van de vroege middeleeuwen het runenschrift (rond 500 AD). Ergens in dit gebied moet een kern gelegen hebben, waar het begon - vermoedelijk in de eerste eeuw AD. Het localiseren van dat oorsprongsgebied begon me ...

  1. Hybrid metaheuristic optimization algorithm for strategic planning of {4D} aircraft trajectories at the continent scale

    OpenAIRE

    Chaimatanan , Supatcha; Delahaye , Daniel; Mongeau , Marcel

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Global air-traffic demand is continuously increasing. To handle such a tremendous traffic volume while maintaining at least the same level of safety, a more efficient strategic trajectory planning is necessary. In this work, we present a strategic trajectory planning methodology which aims to minimize interaction between aircraft at the European-continent scale. In addition, we propose a preliminary study that takes into account uncertainties of aircraft positions in t...

  2. On the determination of the carbon balance of continents (Vladimir Ivanovich Vernadsky Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolman, Albertus J. Han

    2013-04-01

    The carbon balance of regions, the size of continents, can be determined, albeit with significant uncertainty, by combining several bottom up and top down methods. The bottom up methods use eddy covariance techniques, biometric inventory measurements and modeling, while the top down methods use atmospheric observations and inverse models. There has been considerable progress in the last few years in determining these balances through more or less standard protocols, as highlighted for instance by studies of the REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes (RECAPP) project of the Global Carbon Project. Important areas where uncertainty creeps in are the scaling of point measurements in the bottom up methods, the sparseness of the observation network and the role of model and other errors in the inversion methods. Typically these balances hold for periods of several years. They therefore do not resolve the impact of anomalies in weather and climate directly. The role of management in these balances also differs for different continents. For instance in Europe management plays a strong role in the carbon balance, whereas for the Russian continent this is less important. Management in the European carbon balance may potentially override climatically driven variability. In contrast, for Russia, the importance of the role of forest is paramount, but there the vulnerability of the Arctic regions and permafrost is a key uncertainty for future behaviour. I hope to show the importance of these different aspects of the terrestrial carbon balance by comparing the two continents, and also discuss the significant uncertainty we still face in determining the carbon budgets of large areas. I will argue that we need to get a clearer picture of the role of management in these budgets, but also of the time variability of the budgets to be able to determine the impact of anomalous weather and the vulnerability in a future climate.

  3. [2000-year history of the ear syringe and its relationship to the enema. Images from the history of otorhinolaryngology, represented by instruments from the collection of the Ingolstadt Medical History Museum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, H

    1999-08-01

    SYRINGES WITH A PISTON AND THEIR USE AS "CLYSTER ORICULARIUS" IN THE ANCIENT ROME: Syringes with a piston were already known in ancient times and have been mentioned as a device for spraying rose water (Philon of Byzantium, about 230 BC), and for fighting fires (Heron of Alexandria about 110 AD). Celsus mentions it several times in his grand opus "De Medicina" (1st century AD) in the treatment of purulent discharge from the ear and for removing foreign bodies from the external ear canal. He always calls it "clyster oricularius", i.e. ear syringe, even when he describes its use in applications other than otological, such as in urology. Later the ear syringe fell from favor for a very long time and was reinvented only at the beginning of the 19th century. IRRIGATION OF THE BOWELS, FROM THE BAG SYRINGE TO THE PISTON SYRINGE: Irrigations of the bowels, clysters, were performed from ancient times to the 18th century with a baglike syringe using the bladder of animals as a pouch. Syringes with a piston were used by barbers and surgeons only for cleansing wounds or irrigating natural cavities of the body. Irrigation of the external ear canal had completely fallen from favor. In France in the 18th century large syringes with a piston made of tin oder brass came into use for enemas and replaced the old baglike devices. THE REINVENTION OF THE EAR SYRINGE AFTER THE PROTOTYPE OF THE ENEMA SYRINGE: Itard, an otologist in France in 1821, was the first to describe irrigating the ear with a syringe to remove hard wax. He recommended using an enema syringe ("seringue à lavement") for the procedure. Soon after his publication special ear syringes of appropriate size were developed and described by Beck in Freiburg, Germany, in 1827; by Fabrizi in Modena, Italy, 1839; and Schmalz in Dresden, Germany, 1846, who also introduced the kidney-shaped bowel for catching the water. Apart from that, small baglike syringes made of rubber were devised especially for use by the patient himself

  4. Longitudinal Study of Intestinal Symptoms and Fecal Continence in Patients With Conformal Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geinitz, Hans; Thamm, Reinhard; Keller, Monika; Astner, Sabrina T.; Heinrich, Christine; Scholz, Christian; Pehl, Christian; Kerndl, Simone; Prause, Nina; Busch, Raymonde; Molls, Michael; Zimmermann, Frank B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively assess the intestinal symptoms and fecal continence in patients who had undergone conformal radiotherapy (CRT) for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 78 men who had undergone definitive CRT for prostate cancer were evaluated. The patients were assessed before, during (treatment Weeks 4 and 6), and 2, 12, and 24 months after CRT completion. The intestinal symptoms and fecal continence were evaluated with comprehensive standardized questionnaires. Results: The intestinal symptoms were mostly intermittent, with only a small minority of patients affected daily. Defecation pain, fecal urge, and rectal mucous discharge increased significantly during therapy. Defecation pain and rectal mucous discharge had returned to baseline levels within 8 weeks and 1 year after CRT, respectively. However, fecal urge remained significantly elevated for ≤1 year and then returned toward the pretreatment values. The prevalence of rectal bleeding was significantly elevated 2 years after CRT. Fecal continence deteriorated during CRT and remained impaired at 1 year after treatment. Incontinence was mostly minor, occurring less than once per week and predominantly affecting incontinence for gas. Conclusion: Intestinal symptoms and fecal incontinence increased during prostate CRT. Except for rectal bleeding, the intestinal symptoms, including fecal incontinence, returned to baseline levels within 1-2 years after CRT. Thus, the rate of long-term late radiation-related intestinal toxicity was low.

  5. Pattern recognition receptor-mediated cytokine response in infants across 4 continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolen, Kinga K; Ruck, Candice E; Fortuno, Edgardo S; Ho, Kevin; Dimitriu, Pedro; Mohn, William W; Speert, David P; Cooper, Philip J; Esser, Monika; Goetghebuer, Tessa; Marchant, Arnaud; Kollmann, Tobias R

    2014-03-01

    Susceptibility to infection as well as response to vaccination varies among populations. To date, the underlying mechanisms responsible for these clinical observations have not been fully delineated. Because innate immunity instructs adaptive immunity, we hypothesized that differences between populations in innate immune responses may represent a mechanistic link to variation in susceptibility to infection or response to vaccination. Determine whether differences in innate immune responses exist among infants from different continents of the world. We determined the innate cytokine response following pattern recognition receptor (PRR) stimulation of whole blood from 2-year-old infants across 4 continents (Africa, North America, South America, and Europe). We found that despite the many possible genetic and environmental exposure differences in infants across 4 continents, innate cytokine responses were similar for infants from North America, South America, and Europe. However, cells from South African infants secreted significantly lower levels of cytokines than did cells from infants from the 3 other sites, and did so following stimulation of extracellular and endosomal but not cytosolic PRRs. Substantial differences in innate cytokine responses to PRR stimulation exist among different populations of infants that could not have been predicted. Delineating the underlying mechanism(s) for these differences will not only aid in improving vaccine-mediated protection but possibly also provide clues for the susceptibility to infection in different regions of the world. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Contrasting introduction scenarios among continents in the worldwide invasion of the banana fungal pathogen Mycosphaerella fijiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, S; Ravigne, V; Zapater, M-F; Abadie, C; Carlier, J

    2012-03-01

    Reconstructing and characterizing introduction routes is a key step towards understanding the ecological and evolutionary factors underlying successful invasions and disease emergence. Here, we aimed to decipher scenarios of introduction and stochastic demographic events associated with the global spread of an emerging disease of bananas caused by the destructive fungal pathogen Mycosphaerella fijiensis. We analysed the worldwide population structure of this fungus using 21 microsatellites and 8 sequence-based markers on 735 individuals from 37 countries. Our analyses designated South-East Asia as the source of the global invasion and supported the location of the centre of origin of M. fijiensis within this area. We confirmed the occurrence of bottlenecks upon introduction into other continents followed by widespread founder events within continents. Furthermore, this study suggested contrasting introduction scenarios of the pathogen between the African and American continents. While potential signatures of admixture resulting from multiple introductions were detected in America, all the African samples examined seem to descend from a single successful founder event. In combination with historical information, our study reveals an original and unprecedented global scenario of invasion for this recently emerging disease caused by a wind-dispersed pathogen. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Striking Seasonality in the Secular Warming of the Northern Continents: Structure and Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, S.; Thomas, N. P.

    2017-12-01

    The linear trend in twentieth-century surface air temperature (SAT)—a key secular warming signal— exhibits striking seasonal variations over Northern Hemisphere continents; SAT trends are pronounced in winter and spring but notably weaker in summer and fall. The SAT trends in historical twentieth-century climate simulations informing the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change's Fifth Assessment show varied (and often unrealistic) strength and structure, and markedly weaker seasonal variation. The large intra-ensemble spread of winter SAT trends in some historical simulations was surprising, especially in the context of century-long linear trends, with implications for the detection of the secular warming signal. The striking seasonality of observed secular warming over northern continents warrants an explanation and the representation of related processes in climate models. Here, the seasonality of SAT trends over North America is shown to result from land surface-hydroclimate interactions and, to an extent, also from the secular change in low-level atmospheric circulation and related thermal advection. It is argued that the winter dormancy and summer vigor of the hydrologic cycle over middle- to high-latitude continents permit different responses to the additional incident radiative energy from increasing greenhouse gas concentrations. The seasonal cycle of climate, despite its monotony, provides an expanded phase space for the exposition of the dynamical and thermodynamical processes generating secular warming, and an exceptional cost-effective opportunity for benchmarking climate projection models.

  8. Sn-wave velocity structure of the uppermost mantle beneath the Australian continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhi; Kennett, Brian L. N.; Sun, Weijia

    2018-06-01

    We have extracted a data set of more than 5000 Sn traveltimes for source-station pairs within continental Australia, with 3-D source relocation using Pn arrivals to improve data consistency. We conduct tomographic inversion for S-wave-speed structure down to 100 km using the Fast Marching Tomography (FMTOMO) method for the whole Australian continent. We obtain a 3-D model with potential resolution of 3.0° × 3.0°. The new S-wave-speed model provides strong constraints on structure in a zone that was previously poorly characterized. The S velocities in the uppermost mantle are rather fast, with patterns of variation generally corresponding to those for Pn. We find strong heterogeneities of Swave speed in the uppermost mantle across the entire continent of Australia with a close relation to crustal geological features. For instance, the cratons in the western Australia usually have high S velocities (>4.70 km s-1), while the volcanic regions on the eastern margin of Australia are characterized by low S velocities (<4.40 km s-1). Exploiting an equivalent Pn inversion, we also determine the Vp/Vs ratios across the whole continent. We find that most of the uppermost mantle has Vp/Vs between 1.65 and 1.85, but with patches in central Australia and in the east with much higher Vp/Vs ratios. Distinctive local anomalies on the eastern margin may indicate the positions of remnants of mantle plumes.

  9. A study on the birth and globalization of sports originated from each continent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung Jin; Kim, Tae Young

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this research is to see how continent specific sports rose to its modern-day status through globalization. This research focuses on the historical background of how England's football, America's national pastime, baseball, Japan's Judo, and Korea's Taekwondo developed into sports in addition to the reasoning behind its globalization. Promoted by England and the rest of the European continent, Soccer is considered to be one of the world's most popular sports and has served its function as a form of cultural imperialism. It has also advanced alongside commerce, missionary work and other types of cultural clashes. In America, baseball was used to integrate its multicultural society and developed so that the team captain leads the rest of his team. The sports of Oriental countries were reborn through modernization that was influenced by the modern rationality, education etc. of its Western counterparts. Judo and Taekwondo were introduced globally through the Olympic Games. As mentioned above the birth of sporting events has a close connection to a nation's cultural background and globalization has taken different forms depending on which continent it originated from.

  10. A study on the birth and globalization of sports originated from each continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung Jin; Kim, Tae Young

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to see how continent specific sports rose to its modern-day status through globalization. This research focuses on the historical background of how England’s football, America’s national pastime, baseball, Japan’s Judo, and Korea’s Taekwondo developed into sports in addition to the reasoning behind its globalization. Promoted by England and the rest of the European continent, Soccer is considered to be one of the world’s most popular sports and has served its function as a form of cultural imperialism. It has also advanced alongside commerce, missionary work and other types of cultural clashes. In America, baseball was used to integrate its multicultural society and developed so that the team captain leads the rest of his team. The sports of Oriental countries were reborn through modernization that was influenced by the modern rationality, education etc. of its Western counterparts. Judo and Taekwondo were introduced globally through the Olympic Games. As mentioned above the birth of sporting events has a close connection to a nation’s cultural background and globalization has taken different forms depending on which continent it originated from. PMID:26933653

  11. Integrated Mid-Continent Carbon Capture, Sequestration & Enhanced Oil Recovery Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian McPherson

    2010-08-31

    A consortium of research partners led by the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration and industry partners, including CAP CO2 LLC, Blue Source LLC, Coffeyville Resources, Nitrogen Fertilizers LLC, Ash Grove Cement Company, Kansas Ethanol LLC, Headwaters Clean Carbon Services, Black & Veatch, and Schlumberger Carbon Services, conducted a feasibility study of a large-scale CCS commercialization project that included large-scale CO{sub 2} sources. The overall objective of this project, entitled the 'Integrated Mid-Continent Carbon Capture, Sequestration and Enhanced Oil Recovery Project' was to design an integrated system of US mid-continent industrial CO{sub 2} sources with CO{sub 2} capture, and geologic sequestration in deep saline formations and in oil field reservoirs with concomitant EOR. Findings of this project suggest that deep saline sequestration in the mid-continent region is not feasible without major financial incentives, such as tax credits or otherwise, that do not exist at this time. However, results of the analysis suggest that enhanced oil recovery with carbon sequestration is indeed feasible and practical for specific types of geologic settings in the Midwestern U.S.

  12. Parallel Evolution of Copy-Number Variation across Continents in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrider, Daniel R.; Hahn, Matthew W.; Begun, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Genetic differentiation across populations that is maintained in the presence of gene flow is a hallmark of spatially varying selection. In Drosophila melanogaster, the latitudinal clines across the eastern coasts of Australia and North America appear to be examples of this type of selection, with recent studies showing that a substantial portion of the D. melanogaster genome exhibits allele frequency differentiation with respect to latitude on both continents. As of yet there has been no genome-wide examination of differentiated copy-number variants (CNVs) in these geographic regions, despite their potential importance for phenotypic variation in Drosophila and other taxa. Here, we present an analysis of geographic variation in CNVs in D. melanogaster. We also present the first genomic analysis of geographic variation for copy-number variation in the sister species, D. simulans, in order to investigate patterns of parallel evolution in these close relatives. In D. melanogaster we find hundreds of CNVs, many of which show parallel patterns of geographic variation on both continents, lending support to the idea that they are influenced by spatially varying selection. These findings support the idea that polymorphic CNVs contribute to local adaptation in D. melanogaster. In contrast, we find very few CNVs in D. simulans that are geographically differentiated in parallel on both continents, consistent with earlier work suggesting that clinal patterns are weaker in this species. PMID:26809315

  13. [Physics of materials and female stress urinary continence: New concepts: I) Elasticity under bladder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerquin, B

    2015-09-01

    Improving the understanding of the adaptation to stress of urinary continence. A transversal analysis between physics of materials and the female anatomy. Laws of physics of the materials and of their viscoelastic behavior are applied to the anatomy of the anterior vaginal wall. The anterior vaginal wall may be divided into two segments of different viscoelastic behavior, the vertical segment below the urethra and the horizontal segment below the bladder. If the urethra gets crushed on the first segment according to the hammock theory, the crushing of the bladder on the second segment is, on the other hand, damped by its important elasticity. The importance of this elasticity evokes an unknown function: damping under the bladder that moderates and delays the increase of intravesical pressure. This damping function below the bladder is increased in the cystocele, which is therefore a continence factor; on the other hand, it is impaired in obesity, which is therefore a factor of SUI. It is necessary to include in the theory of stress continence, the notion of a damping function below the bladder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Minimal preparation computed tomography instead of barium enema/colonoscopy for suspected colon cancer in frail elderly patients: an outcome analysis study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kealey, S.M.; Dodd, J.D.; MacEneaney, P.M.; Gibney, R.G.; Malone, D.E. E-mail: d.malone@st-vincents.ie

    2004-01-01

    .18 [0.43], negative predictive value 0.97 [0.96], positive likelihood ratio result 1.6 [5.63], negative likelihood ratio result 0.27 [0.29], kappa 0.31 [0.43]. Tumour prevalence was 12%. A graph of conditional probabilities was generated and analysed. A variety of unsuspected pathology was also found in this series of patients. CONCLUSIONS: MPCT should be double-reported, at least initially. 'Possible' lesions should be ignored. Analysis of the graph of conditional probability applied to a group of frail, elderly patients with a high mortality from all causes (33% in our study) suggests: (1) if MPCT suggests definite or probable carcinoma, regardless of the pre-test probability, the post-test probability is high enough to warrant further action, (2) frail, elderly patients with a low pre-test probability for CRC and a negative MPCT should not have further investigation, (3) frail, elderly patients with a higher pre-test probability of CRC (such as those presenting with rectal bleeding) and a negative MPCT should have either double contrast barium enema (DCBE) or colonoscopy as further investigations or be followed clinically for 3-6 months. MPCT was acceptable to patients and clinicians and may reveal significant extra-colonic pathology.

  15. Left behind and left out: The impact of the school environment on young people with continence problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whale, Katie; Cramer, Helen; Joinson, Carol

    2018-05-01

    To explore the impact of the secondary school environment on young people with continence problems. In-depth qualitative semi-structured interviews. We interviewed 20 young people aged 11-19 years (11 female and nine male) with continence problems (daytime wetting, bedwetting, and/or soiling). Interviews were conducted by Skype (n = 11) and telephone (n = 9). Transcripts were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. We generated five main themes: (1) Boundaries of disclosure: friends and teachers; (2) Social consequences of avoidance and deceit; (3) Strict and oblivious gatekeepers; (4) Intimate actions in public spaces; and (5) Interrupted learning. Disclosure of continence problems at school to both friends and teachers was rare, due to the perceived stigma and fears of bullying and social isolation. The lack of disclosure to teachers and other school staff, such as pastoral care staff, creates challenges in how best to support these young people. Young people with continence problems require unrestricted access to private and adequate toilet facilities during the school day. There is a need for inclusive toilet access policies and improved toilet standards in schools. Addressing the challenges faced by young people with continence problems at school could help to remove the barriers to successful self-management of their symptoms. It is particularly concerning that young people with continence problems are at higher risk of academic underachievement. Increased support at school is needed to enable young people with continence problems to achieve their academic potential. Statement of Contribution What is already known on this subject? Continence problems are among the most common paediatric health problems Self-management of continence problems requires a structured schedule of fluid intake and bladder emptying Inadequate toilet facilities and restricted access make it difficult for young people to manage their incontinence What does this study add

  16. Seismotectonic features of the African plate: the possible dislocation of a continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meghraoui, Mustapha

    2014-05-01

    The African continent is made of seismically active structures with active deformation in between main substratum shields considered as stable continental interiors. Seismically active regions are primarily located along rift zones, thrust and fold mountain belts, transform faults and volcanic fields. The active tectonic structures generated large and destructive earthquakes in the past with significant damage and economic losses in Africa. Although some regions of the continent show a low-level of seismic activity, several large earthquakes (with M > 7) have occurred in the past. The presence of major active faults that generate destructive earthquakes is among the most important geological and geophysical hazards for the continent. National and International scientific projects dealing with the seismic hazards assessment are increasing in seismically active regions in Africa. The UNESCO-SIDA/IGCP (Project 601 http://eost.u-strasbg.fr/~igcp601/) support the preparation and implementation of the "Seismotectonic Map of Africa". Therefore, new seismotectonic data with the regional analysis of earthquake hazards became necessary as a basis for a mitigation of the earthquake damage. A database in historical and instrumental seismicity, active tectonics, stress tensor distribution, earthquake geology and paleoseismology, active deformation, earthquake geodesy (GPS) and gravity, crustal structure studies, magnetic and structural segmentation, volcanic fields, collision tectonics and rifting processes is prepared to constrain the geodynamic evolution of the continent. Taking into account the geological, tectonic and geophysical characteristics, we define six seismotectonic provinces that characterize the crustal deformation. With the previously identified Somalia tectonic block, the seismotectonic and geophysical framework of the continent reveal the existence of the Cameroon volcanic line, the South African tectonic block with transform faulting and Cape folding system

  17. Evolution of the Adria-Europe plate boundary in the northern Dinarides: From continent-continent collision to back-arc extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustaszewski, Kamil; Kounov, Alexandre; Schmid, Stefan M.; Schaltegger, Urs; Krenn, Erwin; Frank, Wolfgang; Fügenschuh, Bernhard

    2010-12-01

    The Sava Zone of the northern Dinarides is part of the Cenozoic Adria-Europe plate boundary. Here Late Cretaceous subduction of remnants of Meliata-Vardar oceanic lithosphere led to the formation of a suture, across which upper plate European-derived units of Tisza-Dacia were juxtaposed with Adria-derived units of the Dinarides. Late Cretaceous siliciclastic sediments, deposited on the Adriatic plate, were incorporated into an accretionary wedge that evolved during the initial stages of continent-continent collision. Structurally deeper parts of the exposed accretionary wedge underwent amphibolite-grade metamorphism. Grt-Pl-Ms-Bt thermobarometry and multiphase equilibria indicate temperatures between 550°C and 630°C and pressures between 5 and 7 kbar for this event. Peak metamorphic conditions were reached at around 65 Ma. Relatively slow cooling from peak metamorphic conditions throughout most of the Paleogene was possibly induced by hanging wall erosion in conjunction with southwest directed propagation of thrusting in the Dinarides. Accelerated cooling took place in Miocene times, when the Sava Zone underwent substantial extension that led to the exhumation of the metamorphosed units along a low-angle detachment. Footwall exhumation started under greenschist facies conditions and was associated with top-to-the-north tectonic transport, indicating exhumation from below European plate units. Extension postdates the emplacement of a 27 Ma old granitoid that underwent solid-state deformation under greenschist facies conditions. The 40Ar/39Ar sericite and zircon and apatite fission track ages from the footwall allow bracketing this extensional unroofing between 25 and 14 Ma. This extension is hence linked to Miocene rift-related subsidence in the Pannonian basin, which represents a back-arc basin formed due to subduction rollback in the Carpathians.

  18. Double breasting of bladder neck and posterior urethra for continence in isolated peno-pubic epispadias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Amilal; Upadhayay, Ravi; Bhat, Mahakshit; Kumar, Rajiv; Kumar, Vinay

    2015-05-01

    The objectives of surgical repair of epispadias include the achievement of urinary continence, cosmetically acceptable genitalia with correction of curvature and normal genital function. To achieve all the aforementioned objectives, patients usually undergo two- or multiple-stage surgeries. Traditionally, the patients undergo epispadias repair in the first stage through modified Cantwell-Ransley or Mitchell-Bagli procedure. Subsequently, in the second stage, bladder neck repair is performed to achieve continence, the most common procedure being modified Young-Dees-Leadbetter. There is no reported single-stage technique of epispadias repair achieving both cosmesis and continence in isolated incontinent epispadias. The objectives of the study were to assess continence and cosmesis with partial penile disassemble and double breasting of bladder neck and posterior urethra in isolated peno-pubic epispadias. A retrospective analysis of surgical outcome of seven cases of primary isolated incontinent peno-pubic epispadias repair from July 2008 to July 2012 was carried out. Patients' age varied from 10 months to 16 years. Penile de-gloving is done with mobilization of urethral plate from ventrum to dorsum, distally till mid-glans and proximally up to pubic symphysis with preservation of blood supply at both ends. Partial mobilization of corporal bodies from its attachment and division of peno-pubic ligament are done to lengthen the penis. A mucosal strip of 5-7 mm is excised to denude the mucosa for double breasting. Tubularization of urethral plate with double breasting from the region of bladder neck to posterior urethra is done to increase the outlet resistance and then tubularization of distal urethral plate. Approximation of mobilized pelvic floor muscles is done to complete sphincteroplasty. Spongioplasty along the entire length and corporoplasty with medial rotation of corporeal bodies is done. Glanuloplasty with meatoplasty is done to bring the meatus ventrally and

  19. Radical antegrade modular pancreatosplenectomy for adenocarcinomaof the body of the pancreas in a patient with portal annular pancreas, aberrant hepatic artery, and absence of the celiac trunk: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hao; Wu, Pengfei; Chen, Jianmin; Lu, Zipeng; Chen, Lei; Wei, Jishu; Guo, Feng; Cai, Baobao; Yin, Jie; Xu, Dong; Jiang, Kuirong; Miao, Yi

    2017-12-01

    Portal annular pancreas is a rare anatomic variation, where the uncinated process of the pancreas connects with the dorsal pancreas and the pancreas tissue encases the portal vein (PV), superior mesenteric vein (SMV) or splenic vein (SV). Malignancies are quite uncommon in the patients, who have an annular pancreas especially portal annular pancreas. Ectopic common hepatic artery and absence of the celiac trunk (CT) are the other infrequent abnormalities. A 74-year-old man suffered from upper abdominal and back pain. Contrast enhanced computed tomography indicated a low-density mass in the body of the pancreas. Pathological report showed adenocarcinoma of the body of pancreas after radical antegrade modular pancreatosplenectomy (RAMPS). In the operation, we found the superior vein and portal vein was surrounded by the pancreatic tissue. The left gastric artery and splenic artery originated respectively from abdominal aorta, and celiac trunk was not viewed. In addition, the common hepatic artery was a branch from the superior mesenteric artery. In general, this is a novel clinical case of pancreatic carcinoma happening in the portal annular pancreas which was accompanied with aberrant hepatic artery and absence of the celiac trunk at the same time. Confronted with the pancreatic neoplasms, the possibility of coexistent annular pancreas and arterial variations should be considered.

  20. About the Mid-Continent Ecology Division (MED) of EPA's National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Mid-Continent Ecology Division (MED) conducts innovative research and predictive modeling to document and forecast the effects of pollutants on the integrity of watersheds and freshwater ecosystems.

  1. Monitoring of internet forums to evaluate reactions to the introduction of reformulated OxyContin to deter abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, Emily C; Coplan, Paul M; Black, Ryan A; Weber, Sarah E; Chilcoat, Howard D; Butler, Stephen F

    2014-05-02

    Reformulating opioid analgesics to deter abuse is one approach toward improving their benefit-risk balance. To assess sentiment and attempts to defeat these products among difficult-to-reach populations of prescription drug abusers, evaluation of posts on Internet forums regarding reformulated products may be useful. A reformulated version of OxyContin (extended-release oxycodone) with physicochemical properties to deter abuse presented an opportunity to evaluate posts about the reformulation in online discussions. The objective of this study was to use messages on Internet forums to evaluate reactions to the introduction of reformulated OxyContin and to identify methods aimed to defeat the abuse-deterrent properties of the product. Posts collected from 7 forums between January 1, 2008 and September 30, 2013 were evaluated before and after the introduction of reformulated OxyContin on August 9, 2010. A quantitative evaluation of discussion levels across the study period and a qualitative coding of post content for OxyContin and 2 comparators for the 26 month period before and after OxyContin reformulation were conducted. Product endorsement was estimated for each product before and after reformulation as the ratio of endorsing-to-discouraging posts (ERo). Post-to-preintroduction period changes in ERos (ie, ratio of ERos) for each product were also calculated. Additionally, post content related to recipes for defeating reformulated OxyContin were evaluated from August 9, 2010 through September 2013. Over the study period, 45,936 posts related to OxyContin, 18,685 to Vicodin (hydrocodone), and 23,863 to Dilaudid (hydromorphone) were identified. The proportion of OxyContin-related posts fluctuated between 6.35 and 8.25 posts per 1000 posts before the reformulation, increased to 10.76 in Q3 2010 when reformulated OxyContin was introduced, and decreased from 9.14 in Q4 2010 to 3.46 in Q3 2013 in the period following the reformulation. The sentiment profile for OxyContin

  2. Codon usage and expression level of human mitochondrial 13 protein coding genes across six continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Supriyo; Uddin, Arif; Mazumder, Tarikul Huda; Choudhury, Monisha Nath; Malakar, Arup Kumar; Paul, Prosenjit; Halder, Binata; Deka, Himangshu; Mazumder, Gulshana Akthar; Barbhuiya, Riazul Ahmed; Barbhuiya, Masuk Ahmed; Devi, Warepam Jesmi

    2017-12-02

    The study of codon usage coupled with phylogenetic analysis is an important tool to understand the genetic and evolutionary relationship of a gene. The 13 protein coding genes of human mitochondria are involved in electron transport chain for the generation of energy currency (ATP). However, no work has yet been reported on the codon usage of the mitochondrial protein coding genes across six continents. To understand the patterns of codon usage in mitochondrial genes across six different continents, we used bioinformatic analyses to analyze the protein coding genes. The codon usage bias was low as revealed from high ENC value. Correlation between codon usage and GC3 suggested that all the codons ending with G/C were positively correlated with GC3 but vice versa for A/T ending codons with the exception of ND4L and ND5 genes. Neutrality plot revealed that for the genes ATP6, COI, COIII, CYB, ND4 and ND4L, natural selection might have played a major role while mutation pressure might have played a dominant role in the codon usage bias of ATP8, COII, ND1, ND2, ND3, ND5 and ND6 genes. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that evolutionary relationships in each of 13 protein coding genes of human mitochondria were different across six continents and further suggested that geographical distance was an important factor for the origin and evolution of 13 protein coding genes of human mitochondria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society. All rights reserved.

  3. Parallel Evolution of Copy-Number Variation across Continents in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrider, Daniel R; Hahn, Matthew W; Begun, David J

    2016-05-01

    Genetic differentiation across populations that is maintained in the presence of gene flow is a hallmark of spatially varying selection. In Drosophila melanogaster, the latitudinal clines across the eastern coasts of Australia and North America appear to be examples of this type of selection, with recent studies showing that a substantial portion of the D. melanogaster genome exhibits allele frequency differentiation with respect to latitude on both continents. As of yet there has been no genome-wide examination of differentiated copy-number variants (CNVs) in these geographic regions, despite their potential importance for phenotypic variation in Drosophila and other taxa. Here, we present an analysis of geographic variation in CNVs in D. melanogaster. We also present the first genomic analysis of geographic variation for copy-number variation in the sister species, D. simulans, in order to investigate patterns of parallel evolution in these close relatives. In D. melanogaster we find hundreds of CNVs, many of which show parallel patterns of geographic variation on both continents, lending support to the idea that they are influenced by spatially varying selection. These findings support the idea that polymorphic CNVs contribute to local adaptation in D. melanogaster In contrast, we find very few CNVs in D. simulans that are geographically differentiated in parallel on both continents, consistent with earlier work suggesting that clinal patterns are weaker in this species. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Tracing Males From Different Continents by Genotyping JC Polyomavirus in DNA From Semen Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotondo, John Charles; Candian, Tommaso; Selvatici, Rita; Mazzoni, Elisa; Bonaccorsi, Gloria; Greco, Pantaleo; Tognon, Mauro; Martini, Fernanda

    2017-05-01

    The human JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) is an ubiquitous viral agent infecting approximately 60% of humans. Recently, JCPyV sequences have been detected in semen samples. The aim of this investigation was to test whether semen JCPyV genotyping can be employed to trace the origin continent of males. Semen DNA samples (n = 170) from males of different Continents were investigated by PCR for the polymorphic JCPyV viral capsid protein 1 (VP1) sequences, followed by DNA sequencing. JCPyV sequences were detected with an overall prevalence of 27.6% (47/170). DNA sequencing revealed that European males carried JCPyV types 1A (71.4%), 4 (11.4%), 2B (2.9%), 2D1 (2.9%), and 3A (2.9%). Asians JCPyV type 2D1 (66.7%) and Africans JCPyV types 3A (33.3%) and 1A (33.3%). In 10.6% of males, two different JCPyV genotypes were detected, suggesting that the second JCPyV genotype was acquired in the destination country. This study indicates that the majority of semen samples found to be JCPyV-positive, were infected with the JCPyV genotype found in the geographic area of male origin. Therefore, semen JCPyV genotyping could be employed to trace the origin continent of males. Our findings could be applied to forensic investigations, in case of for instance sexual crimes. Indeed, JCPyV genotyping should enable investigators to make additional detailed profiling of the offender. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 982-985, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Regional climate projection of the Maritime Continent using the MIT Regional Climate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    IM, E. S.; Eltahir, E. A. B.

    2014-12-01

    Given that warming of the climate system is unequivocal (IPCC AR5), accurate assessment of future climate is essential to understand the impact of climate change due to global warming. Modelling the climate change of the Maritime Continent is particularly challenge, showing a high degree of uncertainty. Compared to other regions, model agreement of future projections in response to anthropogenic emission forcings is much less. Furthermore, the spatial and temporal behaviors of climate projections seem to vary significantly due to a complex geographical condition and a wide range of scale interactions. For the fine-scale climate information (27 km) suitable for representing the complexity of climate change over the Maritime Continent, dynamical downscaling is performed using the MIT regional climate model (MRCM) during two thirty-year period for reference (1970-1999) and future (2070-2099) climate. Initial and boundary conditions are provided by Community Earth System Model (CESM) simulations under the emission scenarios projected by MIT Integrated Global System Model (IGSM). Changes in mean climate as well as the frequency and intensity of extreme climate events are investigated at various temporal and spatial scales. Our analysis is primarily centered on the different behavior of changes in convective and large-scale precipitation over land vs. ocean during dry vs. wet season. In addition, we attempt to find the added value to downscaled results over the Maritime Continent through the comparison between MRCM and CESM projection. Acknowledgements.This research was supported by the National Research Foundation Singapore through the Singapore MIT Alliance for Research and Technology's Center for Environmental Sensing and Modeling interdisciplinary research program.

  6. Future climate change enhances rainfall seasonality in a regional model of western Maritime Continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Suchul; Im, Eun-Soon; Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.

    2018-03-01

    In this study, future changes in rainfall due to global climate change are investigated over the western Maritime Continent based on dynamically downscaled climate projections using the MIT Regional Climate Model (MRCM) with 12 km horizontal resolution. A total of nine 30-year regional climate projections driven by multi-GCMs projections (CCSM4, MPI-ESM-MR and ACCESS1.0) under multi-scenarios of greenhouse gases emissions (Historical: 1976-2005, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5: 2071-2100) from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP5) are analyzed. Focusing on dynamically downscaled rainfall fields, the associated systematic biases originating from GCM and MRCM are removed based on observations using Parametric Quantile Mapping method in order to enhance the reliability of future projections. The MRCM simulations with bias correction capture the spatial patterns of seasonal rainfall as well as the frequency distribution of daily rainfall. Based on projected rainfall changes under both RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios, the ensemble of MRCM simulations project a significant decrease in rainfall over the western Maritime Continent during the inter-monsoon periods while the change in rainfall is not relevant during wet season. The main mechanism behind the simulated decrease in rainfall is rooted in asymmetries of the projected changes in seasonal dynamics of the meridional circulation along different latitudes. The sinking motion, which is marginally positioned in the reference simulation, is enhanced and expanded under global climate change, particularly in RCP8.5 scenario during boreal fall season. The projected enhancement of rainfall seasonality over the western Maritime Continent suggests increased risk of water stress for natural ecosystems as well as man-made water resources reservoirs.

  7. Urinary continence following repair of intermediate and high urogenital sinus in CAH. Experience with 55 cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Marcela Bailez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim :Evaluate postoperative urinary continence in patients withcongenital adrenal hyperplasia(CAHwith intermediate (ITand high urogenital sinus (UGS who underwent a UGS mobilization maneuver .Methods: We called IT to those that although needing an aggressive dissection to get to the vagina, still have enough urethra proximal to the vaginal confluence. Very low variants are excluded from this analysis. Dissection always started in the posterior wall of the UGS with an aggressive separation from the anterior rectal wall. If the wide portion of the vagina was reached dissection stopped and the UGS opened ventrally widening to the introitus. Nineteen patients were treated using this maneuver (Group1. When more dissection was required the anterior wall of the UGS was dissected and carefully freed from the low retropubic space. Then the UGS was opened either ventrally or dorsally. Thirty three patients required this approach (Group 2 .Combined procedures were used in 3 patients with high UGS (Group 3. Results : Mean age at the time of the repair and length of the UGS were 12.2 years (4 months to 18 years and 3.75 cm (3 -8 cmfor G 1; 8 years (5 months to 17 years and 6.34 cm ( 4-12 cm in G2 and 8,3 years (2 -14 y and 11.5cm (11-12cm in G3. All patients had been regularly followed. Mean age at last follow up of 14.3y, 17y and 9.9y for groups 1, 2 and 3 respectively. All patients continue to void normally and are continent. All patients have 2 separate visible orifices in the vulva. Only 3 are sexually active.Conclusion: UGS mobilization for vaginoplasty in girls with CAH does not compromise voiding function or urinary continence,

  8. Clinical Evaluation of a Prototype Underwear Designed to Detect Urine Leakage From Continence Pads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Adele; Edwards, Julia; Worthington, Joanna; Cotterill, Nikki; Weir, Iain; Drake, Marcus J; van den Heuvel, Eleanor

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of prototype underwear designed to detect urine leakage from continence pads, their acceptability to users, and their effect on health-related quality of life and psychosocial factors. Prototype product evaluation. Participants were 81 women with an average age of 67 years (range, 32-98 years) recruited between October 2010 and February 2012 from outpatient clinics, general practice surgeries, community continence services, and through charities and networks. The TACT3 project developed and manufactured a prototype undergarment designed to alert the wearer to a pad leak before it reaches outer clothing or furniture. The study was conducted in 2 stages: a pilot/feasibility study to assess general performance and a larger study to measure performance, acceptability to users, health-related quality of life, and psychosocial impact. Participants were asked to wear the prototype underwear for a period of 2 weeks, keeping a daily diary of leakage events for the first 7 days. They also completed validated instruments measuring lower urinary tract symptoms, health-related quality of life, and psychosocial impact. On average, 86% of the time participants were alerted to pad leakage events. More than 90% thought the prototype underwear was "good" or "OK" and that it would or could give them more confidence. Mean scores for the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Urinary Incontinence Short Form indicated no change in the level of symptoms reported before or after the intervention, and no significant changes in health-related quality of life status occurred, except improvement in for travel restrictions. Evaluation via the Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Devices Scale also indicated a positive impact. The prototype underwear evaluated in this study was effective and acceptable for 5 out of every 10 wearers. Findings also suggest that the prototype underwear is suitable for women of all ages, dress sizes, and continence

  9. Bowel Management and Quality of Life in Children With Spina Bifida in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun Kyoung; Im, Young Jae; Han, Sang Won

    Bowel management is a concern in patients with spina bifida. We evaluated the status of bowel management in children with spina bifida (SB) and the effects on quality of life (QoL) of children and their caregivers. Data were collected from 173 children with SB between January and June 2011, whose bowel management status and QoL were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. Of the 173 children, 38 (22.0%) reported normal defecation, 73 (42.2%) reported constipation only, and 62 (35.8%) reported fecal incontinence with/without constipation. For defecation, 59 children (34.1%) used digital stimulation or manual extraction, 28 (16.2%) used suppositories or enemas, 35 (20.3%) used laxatives, 4 (2.3%) used an antegrade continence enema, and 3 (1.7%) used transanal irrigation. There were significant differences in QoL, depending on defecation symptoms. Children with fecal incontinence and their caregivers had difficulties in travel and socialization (p children with SB and their caregivers. Therefore, more attention should be paid to bowel problems and help should be provided to children and their caregivers to improve QoL.

  10. Strain-specific and pooled genome sequences for populations of Drosophila melanogaster from three continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Casey M; Haddrill, Penelope R

    2015-01-01

    To contribute to our general understanding of the evolutionary forces that shape variation in genome sequences in nature, we have sequenced genomes from 50 isofemale lines and six pooled samples from populations of Drosophila melanogaster on three continents. Analysis of raw and reference-mapped reads indicates the quality of these genomic sequence data is very high. Comparison of the predicted and experimentally-determined Wolbachia infection status of these samples suggests that strain or sample swaps are unlikely to have occurred in the generation of these data. Genome sequences are freely available in the European Nucleotide Archive under accession ERP009059. Isofemale lines can be obtained from the Drosophila Species Stock Center.

  11. Comparison of the functional profile of elderly women with urinary continence and incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Regiane Winter

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Urinary incontinence (UI, more prevalent in women and influencing their functional decline, increases with age. Current longitudinal study with two data collection in 2005-2006 and 2011 compares the functional profile of urinary continence and incontinence in elderly women. Sixty-eight women were divided into females with urinary continence (CG; n = 62 and females with urinary incontinence (IG; n = 6. Dependent variables measured were obesity and body adiposity indexes and functional fitness. Data were given in means with standard deviation (± and analyzed by the independent t-test (p < 0.05. There were six cases of UI. In the first evaluation group differences occurred for waist circumference (CG: 85.3±9.7 cm; IG: 91.2 ± 12.4cm; t=-2.267; p < 0.05 and cardiorespiratory fitness (CG: 517.9 ± 67.3 m; IG: 463.0±85.9 m; t = 2.571; p < 0.05. CG had a better functional profile, excepting flexibility and lower limbs strength, in the second evaluation. Women with UI had higher waist circumference and lower cardiorespiratory fitness. This may be due to the relationship between the variables and greater abdominal compression and functional decline. Results show that future public health strategies should focus on these factors to decrease the risk of people developing UI and to improve physical-functional and psycho-social benefits to elderly women.

  12. Phylogeography of the Microcoleus vaginatus (Cyanobacteria from three continents--a spatial and temporal characterization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Dvořák

    Full Text Available It has long been assumed that cyanobacteria have, as with other free-living microorganisms, a ubiquitous occurrence. Neither the geographical dispersal barriers nor allopatric speciation has been taken into account. We endeavoured to examine the spatial and temporal patterns of global distribution within populations of the cyanobacterium Microcoleus vaginatus, originated from three continents, and to evaluate the role of dispersal barriers in the evolution of free-living cyanobacteria. Complex phylogeographical approach was applied to assess the dispersal and evolutionary patterns in the cyanobacterium Microcoleus vaginatus (Oscillatoriales. We compared the 16S rRNA and 16S-23S ITS sequences of strains which had originated from three continents (North America, Europe, and Asia. The spatial distribution was investigated using a phylogenetic tree, network, as well as principal coordinate analysis (PCoA. A temporal characterization was inferred using molecular clocks, calibrated from fossil DNA. Data analysis revealed broad genetic diversity within M. vaginatus. Based on the phylogenetic tree, network, and PCoA analysis, the strains isolated in Europe were spatially separated from those which originated from Asia and North America. A chronogram showed a temporal limitation of dispersal barriers on the continental scale. Dispersal barriers and allopatric speciation had an important role in the evolution of M. vaginatus. However, these dispersal barriers did not have a permanent character; therefore, the genetic flow among populations on a continental scale was only temporarily present. Furthermore, M. vaginatus is a recently evolved species, which has been going through substantial evolutionary changes.

  13. Convergence across a continent: adaptive diversification in a recent radiation of Australian lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Mozes P K; Horner, Paul; Moritz, Craig

    2016-06-15

    Recent radiations are important to evolutionary biologists, because they provide an opportunity to study the mechanisms that link micro- and macroevolution. The role of ecological speciation during adaptive radiation has been intensively studied, but radiations can arise from a diversity of evolutionary processes; in particular, on large continental landmasses where allopatric speciation might frequently precede ecological differentiation. It is therefore important to establish a phylogenetic and ecological framework for recent continental-scale radiations that are species-rich and ecologically diverse. Here, we use a genomic (approx. 1 200 loci, exon capture) approach to fit branch lengths on a summary-coalescent species tree and generate a time-calibrated phylogeny for a recent and ecologically diverse radiation of Australian scincid lizards; the genus Cryptoblepharus We then combine the phylogeny with a comprehensive phenotypic dataset for over 800 individuals across the 26 species, and use comparative methods to test whether habitat specialization can explain current patterns of phenotypic variation in ecologically relevant traits. We find significant differences in morphology between species that occur in distinct environments and convergence in ecomorphology with repeated habitat shifts across the continent. These results suggest that isolated analogous habitats have provided parallel ecological opportunity and have repeatedly promoted adaptive diversification. By contrast, speciation processes within the same habitat have resulted in distinct lineages with relatively limited morphological variation. Overall, our study illustrates how alternative diversification processes might have jointly stimulated species proliferation across the continent and generated a remarkably diverse group of Australian lizards. © 2016 The Author(s).

  14. The Influence of a Substellar Continent on the Climate of a Tidally Locked Exoplanet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Neil T.; Lambert, F. Hugo; Boutle, Ian A.; Mayne, Nathan J.; Manners, James; Acreman, David M.

    2018-02-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that continental carbon-silicate weathering is important to the continued habitability of a terrestrial planet. Despite this, few studies have considered the influence of land on the climate of a tidally locked planet. In this work we use the Met Office Unified Model, coupled to a land-surface model, to investigate the climate effects of a continent located at the substellar point. We choose to use the orbital and planetary parameters of Proxima Centauri B as a template, to allow comparison with the work of others. A region of the surface where T s > 273.15 K is always retained, and previous conclusions on the habitability of Proxima Centauri B remain intact. We find that substellar land causes global cooling and increases day–night temperature contrasts by limiting heat redistribution. Furthermore, we find that substellar land is able to introduce a regime change in the atmospheric circulation. Specifically, when a continent offset to the east of the substellar point is introduced, we observe the formation of two mid-latitude counterrotating jets, and a substantially weakened equatorial superrotating jet.

  15. Does structural complexity determine the morphology of assemblages? An experimental test on three continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Heloise; Parr, Catherine L

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how species will respond to global change depends on our ability to distinguish generalities from idiosyncrasies. For diverse, but poorly known taxa, such as insects, species traits may provide a short-cut to predicting species turnover. We tested whether ant traits respond consistently to habitat complexity across geographically independent ant assemblages, using an experimental approach and baits. We repeated our study in six paired simple and complex habitats on three continents with distinct ant faunas. We also compared traits amongst ants with different foraging strategies. We hypothesised that ants would be larger, broader, have longer legs and more dorsally positioned eyes in simpler habitats. In agreement with predictions, ants had longer femurs and dorsally positioned eyes in simple habitats. This pattern was most pronounced for ants that discovered resources. Body size and pronotum width responded as predicted for experimental treatments, but were inconsistent across continents. Monopolising ants were smaller, with shorter femurs than those that occupied or discovered resources. Consistent responses for several traits suggest that many, but not all, aspects of morphology respond predictably to habitat complexity, and that foraging strategy is linked with morphology. Some traits thus have the potential to be used to predict the direction of species turnover, changes in foraging strategy and, potentially, evolution in response to changes in habitat structure.

  16. Comparing determinants of alien bird impacts across two continents: implications for risk assessment and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Thomas; Kumschick, Sabrina; Dyer, Ellie; Blackburn, Tim

    2014-07-01

    Invasive alien species can have serious adverse impacts on both the environment and the economy. Being able to predict the impacts of an alien species could assist in preventing or reducing these impacts. This study aimed to establish whether there are any life history traits consistently correlated with the impacts of alien birds across two continents, Europe and Australia, as a first step toward identifying life history traits that may have the potential to be adopted as predictors of alien bird impacts. A recently established impact scoring system was used in combination with a literature review to allocate impact scores to alien bird species with self-sustaining populations in Australia. These scores were then tested for correlation with a series of life history traits. The results were compared to data from a previous study in Europe, undertaken using the same methodology, in order to establish whether there are any life history traits consistently correlated with impact across both continents. Habitat generalism was the only life history trait found to be consistently correlated with impact in both Europe and Australia. This trait shows promise as a potential predictor of alien bird impacts. The results support the findings of previous studies in this field, and could be used to inform decisions regarding the prevention and management of future invasions.

  17. Polychlorinated terphenyl patterns and levels in selected marine mammals and a river fish from different continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfelder, Natalie; Vetter, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated terphenyls (PCTs) are a class of persistent organic pollutants which have been used from the 1920s to the 1980s for similar purposes as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Comparably little data was available on the PCT distribution in the environment mainly due to analytical difficulties in their determination. By means of a calculation algorithm recently developed we now studied the PCT pattern in individual marine mammal samples and one fish sample from different continents. Altogether, 97 PCTs were detected in eight samples and twelve to 66 tetra- to nonachloroterphenyl (tetra- to nonaCT) congeners were detected in individual samples. PCTs were present in all marine mammal samples which originated from four continents, but the PCT pattern was varied. TetraCTs were dominant in the sample from Africa, Australia, Spitsbergen (European Arctic) and in a sample from the Baltic Sea, heptaCTs in samples from the North Sea and octaCTs in a sample from Iceland. The abundance of sumPCTs relative to PCB 153, estimated from the GC/ECNI-MS response corrected for the degree of chlorination, ranged from 0.9 to 8.8%, corresponding with ~0.22-2.2% of the total PCB content. The highest PCT level detected was 980 mg/kg lipid in a harbour seal from the North Sea, Germany. The results from this study indicated that samples from certain areas, e.g. the North Sea may still be polluted with PCTs. © 2013.

  18. American Exceptionalism: Population Trends and Flight Initiation Distances in Birds from Three Continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Anders Pape; Samia, Diogo S. M.; Weston, Mike A.; Guay, Patrick-Jean; Blumstein, Daniel T.

    2014-01-01

    Background All organisms may be affected by humans' increasing impact on Earth, but there are many potential drivers of population trends and the relative importance of each remains largely unknown. The causes of spatial patterns in population trends and their relationship with animal responses to human proximity are even less known. Methodology/Principal Finding We investigated the relationship between population trends of 193 species of bird in North America, Australia and Europe and flight initiation distance (FID); the distance at which birds take flight when approached by a human. While there is an expected negative relationship between population trend and FID in Australia and Europe, we found the inverse relationship for North American birds; thus FID cannot be used as a universal predictor of vulnerability of birds. However, the analysis of the joint explanatory ability of multiple drivers (farmland breeding habitat, pole-most breeding latitude, migratory habit, FID) effects on population status replicated previously reported strong effects of farmland breeding habitat (an effect apparently driven mostly by European birds), as well as strong effects of FID, body size, migratory habit and continent. Farmland birds are generally declining. Conclusions/Significance Flight initiation distance is related to population trends in a way that differs among continents opening new research possibilities concerning the causes of geographic differences in patterns of anti-predator behavior. PMID:25226165

  19. Does structural complexity determine the morphology of assemblages? An experimental test on three continents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloise Gibb

    Full Text Available Understanding how species will respond to global change depends on our ability to distinguish generalities from idiosyncrasies. For diverse, but poorly known taxa, such as insects, species traits may provide a short-cut to predicting species turnover. We tested whether ant traits respond consistently to habitat complexity across geographically independent ant assemblages, using an experimental approach and baits. We repeated our study in six paired simple and complex habitats on three continents with distinct ant faunas. We also compared traits amongst ants with different foraging strategies. We hypothesised that ants would be larger, broader, have longer legs and more dorsally positioned eyes in simpler habitats. In agreement with predictions, ants had longer femurs and dorsally positioned eyes in simple habitats. This pattern was most pronounced for ants that discovered resources. Body size and pronotum width responded as predicted for experimental treatments, but were inconsistent across continents. Monopolising ants were smaller, with shorter femurs than those that occupied or discovered resources. Consistent responses for several traits suggest that many, but not all, aspects of morphology respond predictably to habitat complexity, and that foraging strategy is linked with morphology. Some traits thus have the potential to be used to predict the direction of species turnover, changes in foraging strategy and, potentially, evolution in response to changes in habitat structure.

  20. Carbon cycle, chemical erosion of continents and transfers to the oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiotte Suchet, P.

    1995-01-01

    This study tries to define the processes that control the CO 2 consumption due to the chemical erosion of continents, to appreciate the spatial-temporal fluxes of consumed CO 2 , and to estimate the transfers of dissolved mineral carbon from the continents to the oceans. Complementary approaches using different scales of time and space are necessary to study all these processes. Chemical alteration of minerals from continental rocks is due to the carbonic acid indirectly produced by atmospheric CO 2 via the photosynthesis and the degradation of organic matter in soils. The transfer of dissolved CO 2 towards the oceans is done by the drainage waters of the river basins. Continental erosion develops at the interfaces of the biosphere, atmosphere and ocean reservoirs and is controlled by numerous geological, hydro-climatical, biological and anthropic factors. Seasonal variations of CO 2 consumption has been studied for the Garonne (France), Congo and Ubangui basins to determine the mechanisms that control this consumption. A predictive model has been developed to simulate the consumed CO 2 fluxes on continental surfaces for which the spatial distribution of lithology and drainage is known. This model has been validated using available data from the Garonne (France), Congo and Amazone basins. (J.S.). 272 refs., 78 figs., 41 tabs., 1 annexe

  1. Characteristics of the oceanic MCC, continental MCC, and coastal MCC over the Indonesian maritime continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trismidianto

    2018-05-01

    This study explains the comparison of mesoscale convective complexes (MCC) characteristics in the oceans, land and in the coast over Indonesian maritime continent (IMC). MCCs were identified and tracked during 15-years (2001-2015) over IMC by infrared satellite imagery using an algorithm that combines criteria of cloud coverage, eccentricity, and cloud lifetime. Infrared satellite imagery was obtained from Himawari generation satellite data. This study showed most of the continental MCC found near the mountains and the high elevation areas. The frequency of MCC occurrences was larger over the land than over the ocean. The oceanic MCCs, which lasted for more than 12 hours, were longer-lived than the continental MCCs. The MCCs with small size most frequently occurred in the continent, in contrast, the MCC with the medium and large size were most concentrated over the ocean. Generally, the continental and coastal MCC initiation occurs in the late afternoon and reach maximum size around midnight before decaying the next morning. In contrast, the oceanic MCC dominantly develops in midnight, and reach maximum size in the morning and then MCC decayed and dissipated from noon until afternoon. The evolution of MCC development in the ocean, land, and in the coast has almost the same stages and ways.

  2. Spatiotemporal variability of snow depth across the Eurasian continent from 1966 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xinyue; Zhang, Tingjun; Kang, Shichang; Wang, Kang; Zheng, Lei; Hu, Yuantao; Wang, Huijuan

    2018-01-01

    Snow depth is one of the key physical parameters for understanding land surface energy balance, soil thermal regime, water cycle, and assessing water resources from local community to regional industrial water supply. Previous studies by using in situ data are mostly site specific; data from satellite remote sensing may cover a large area or global scale, but uncertainties remain large. The primary objective of this study is to investigate spatial variability and temporal change in snow depth across the Eurasian continent. Data used include long-term (1966-2012) ground-based measurements from 1814 stations. Spatially, long-term (1971-2000) mean annual snow depths of >20 cm were recorded in northeastern European Russia, the Yenisei River basin, Kamchatka Peninsula, and Sakhalin. Annual mean and maximum snow depth increased by 0.2 and 0.6 cm decade-1 from 1966 through 2012. Seasonally, monthly mean snow depth decreased in autumn and increased in winter and spring over the study period. Regionally, snow depth significantly increased in areas north of 50° N. Compared with air temperature, snowfall had greater influence on snow depth during November through March across the former Soviet Union. This study provides a baseline for snow depth climatology and changes across the Eurasian continent, which would significantly help to better understanding climate system and climate changes on regional, hemispheric, or even global scales.

  3. Internal Delorme's Procedure for Treating ODS Associated With Impaired Anal Continence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weicheng; Sturiale, Alessandro; Fabiani, Bernardina; Giani, Iacopo; Menconi, Claudia; Naldini, Gabriele

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the medium-term outcomes of internal Delorme's procedure for treating obstructed defecation syndrome (ODS) patients with impaired anal continence. In a retrospective study, 41 ODS patients who underwent internal Delorme's procedure between 2011 and 2015 were divided into 3 subgroups according to their associated symptoms of impaired continence, as urgency, passive fecal incontinence and both, before study. Then the patients' preoperative statuses, perioperative complications, and postoperative outcomes were investigated and collected from standardized questionnaires, including Altomare ODS score, Fecal Incontinence Severity Index (FISI), Patient Assessment of Constipation-Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAC-QoL), and Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale (FIQLS). All results with a 2-tailed P ODS score, FISI, PAC-QoL, and FIQLS in all patients when comparing scores from before the operation with those at the final follow-up. Similar results were also observed in both the urgency subgroup and passive fecal incontinence subgroup, but there were no statistically significant improvements ( P > .05) in Altomare ODS score, FISI, PAC-QoL, or FIQLS in the urgency and passive fecal incontinence subgroups. Anorectal manometry showed the mean value of anal resting pressure increased 20%. Additionally, no major complications occurred. Internal Delorme's procedure is effective without major morbidity for treating ODS associated with urgency or passive fecal incontinence, but it may be less effective for treating ODS associated with both urgency and passive fecal incontinence.

  4. Continent-wide survey reveals massive decline in African savannah elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Michael J; Schlossberg, Scott; Griffin, Curtice R; Bouché, Philippe J C; Djene, Sintayehu W; Elkan, Paul W; Ferreira, Sam; Grossman, Falk; Kohi, Edward Mtarima; Landen, Kelly; Omondi, Patrick; Peltier, Alexis; Selier, S A Jeanetta; Sutcliffe, Robert

    2016-01-01

    African elephants (Loxodonta africana) are imperiled by poaching and habitat loss. Despite global attention to the plight of elephants, their population sizes and trends are uncertain or unknown over much of Africa. To conserve this iconic species, conservationists need timely, accurate data on elephant populations. Here, we report the results of the Great Elephant Census (GEC), the first continent-wide, standardized survey of African savannah elephants. We also provide the first quantitative model of elephant population trends across Africa. We estimated a population of 352,271 savannah elephants on study sites in 18 countries, representing approximately 93% of all savannah elephants in those countries. Elephant populations in survey areas with historical data decreased by an estimated 144,000 from 2007 to 2014, and populations are currently shrinking by 8% per year continent-wide, primarily due to poaching. Though 84% of elephants occurred in protected areas, many protected areas had carcass ratios that indicated high levels of elephant mortality. Results of the GEC show the necessity of action to end the African elephants' downward trajectory by preventing poaching and protecting habitat.

  5. Continent-wide survey reveals massive decline in African savannah elephants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Chase

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available African elephants (Loxodonta africana are imperiled by poaching and habitat loss. Despite global attention to the plight of elephants, their population sizes and trends are uncertain or unknown over much of Africa. To conserve this iconic species, conservationists need timely, accurate data on elephant populations. Here, we report the results of the Great Elephant Census (GEC, the first continent-wide, standardized survey of African savannah elephants. We also provide the first quantitative model of elephant population trends across Africa. We estimated a population of 352,271 savannah elephants on study sites in 18 countries, representing approximately 93% of all savannah elephants in those countries. Elephant populations in survey areas with historical data decreased by an estimated 144,000 from 2007 to 2014, and populations are currently shrinking by 8% per year continent-wide, primarily due to poaching. Though 84% of elephants occurred in protected areas, many protected areas had carcass ratios that indicated high levels of elephant mortality. Results of the GEC show the necessity of action to end the African elephants’ downward trajectory by preventing poaching and protecting habitat.

  6. Wound, Ostomy, and Continence Nursing: Scope and Standards of Practice, 2nd Edition: An Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-25

    Wound, ostomy, and continence (WOC) nursing was recognized as a nursing specialty by the American Nurses Association in February 2010, and the Society published the original scope and standards of WOC nursing practice in May 2010. The Wound, Ostomy, and Continence Nursing: Scope and Standards of Practice, 2nd Edition is the definitive resource promoting excellence in professional practice, quality care, and improved patient outcomes in WOC specialty practice. It can be used to articulate the value of WOC nurses to administrators, legislators, payers, patients, and others. The second edition also provides an overview of the scope of WOC nursing practice including a description of the specialty, the history and evolution of WOC nursing, characteristics of WOC nursing practice, and description of the trispecialty. The document describes various WOC nurse roles, populations served, practice settings, care coordination, and collaboration. Educational preparation, levels of practice within WOC specialty nursing, certification, mandate for continuous professional development, ethics, current trends, future considerations and challenges, and standards of WOC nursing practice and professional performance with competencies for each standard are provided. The purpose of this Executive Summary is to describe the process for developing the scope and standards document, provide an overview of the scope of WOC nursing practice, and list the standards of practice and professional performance along with the competencies for each level of WOC nurse provider. The original document is available from the WOCN Society's online book store (www.wocn.org).

  7. The further development of the active urine collection device: a novel continence management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinnion, E; Jowitt, F; Clarke-O'Neill, S; Cottenden, A M; Fader, M; Sutherland, I

    2003-01-01

    Continence difficulties affect the lives of a substantial minority of the population. Women are far more likely than men to be affected by urinary incontinence but the range of management options for them is limited. There has been considerable interest in developing an external urine collection system for women but without success to date. This paper describes the development and preliminary clinical testing of an active urine collection device (AUCD), which could provide a solution for sufferers. The device uses stored vacuum, protected by a high bubble point filter, to remove urine as quickly as it is produced. This allows a small battery-operated pump to provide the required vacuum, enabling the device to be portable. Two different types of non-invasive patient/device interface were developed, and tested by volunteers: urinal and small pad. The slimline urinal was popular with users although liquid noise was a problem. The pad interface was successful on occasions but further work is necessary to produce a reliable pad. This study has successfully demonstrated that a prototype AUCD liquid handling system can remove urine at clinically relevant flowrates. While further development is required, volunteer tests have shown that the AUCD could be a useful advance in continence management.

  8. Evolutionary conservatism and convergence both lead to striking similarity in ecology, morphology and performance across continents in frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Daniel S; Irschick, Duncan J; Wiens, John J

    2013-12-22

    Many clades contain ecologically and phenotypically similar species across continents, yet the processes generating this similarity are largely unstudied, leaving fundamental questions unanswered. Is similarity in morphology and performance across assemblages caused by evolutionary convergence or by biogeographic dispersal of evolutionarily conserved ecotypes? Does convergence to new ecological conditions erase evidence of past adaptation? Here, we analyse ecology, morphology and performance in frog assemblages from three continents (Asia, Australia and South America), assessing the importance of dispersal and convergent evolution in explaining similarity across regions. We find three striking results. First, species using the same microhabitat type are highly similar in morphology and performance across both clades and continents. Second, some species on different continents owe their similarity to dispersal and evolutionary conservatism (rather than evolutionary convergence), even over vast temporal and spatial scales. Third, in one case, an ecologically specialized ancestor radiated into diverse ecotypes that have converged with those on other continents, largely erasing traces of past adaptation to their ancestral ecology. Overall, our study highlights the roles of both evolutionary conservatism and convergence in explaining similarity in species traits over large spatial and temporal scales and demonstrates a statistical framework for addressing these questions in other systems.

  9. One billion year-old Mid-continent Rift leaves virtually no clues in the mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollmann, T. A.; Frederiksen, A. W.; van der Lee, S.; Wolin, E.; Revenaugh, J.; Wiens, D.; Darbyshire, F. A.; Aleqabi, G. I.; Wysession, M. E.; Stein, S.; Jurdy, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    We measured the relative arrival times of more than forty-six thousand teleseismic P waves recorded by seismic stations of Earthscope's Superior Province Rifting Earthscope Experiment (SPREE) and combined them with a similar amount of such measurements from other seismic stations in the larger region. SPREE recorded seismic waves for two and a half years around the prominent, one billion year-old Mid-continent Rift structure. The curvilinear Mid-continent Rift (MR) is distinguished by voluminous one billion year-old lava flows, which produce a prominent gravity high along the MR. As for other seismic waves, these lava flows along with their underplated counterpart, slightly slow down the measured teleseismic P waves, on average, compared to P waves that did not traverse structures beneath the Mid-continent Rift. However, the variance in the P wave arrival times in these two groups is nearly ten times higher than their average difference. In a seismic-tomographic inversion, we mapped all measured arrival times into structures deep beneath the crust, in the Earth's mantle. Beneath the crust we generally find relatively high P velocities, indicating relatively cool and undeformable mantle structures. However, the uppermost mantle beneath the MR shows several patches of slightly decreased P velocities. These patches are coincident with where the gravity anomalies peak, in Iowa and along the northern Minnesota/Wisconsin border. We will report on the likelihood that these anomalies are indeed a remaining mantle-lithospheric signature of the MR or whether these patches indirectly reflect the presence of the lava flows and their underplated counterparts at the crust-mantle interface. Other structures of interest and of varying depth extent in our tomographic image locate at 1) the intersection of the Superior Craton with the Penokean Province and the Marshfield Terrane west of the MR in southern Minnesota, 2) the intersection of the Penokean, Yavapai, and Mazatzal Terranes

  10. Rainfall over the African continent from the 19th through the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Sharon E.; Funk, Chris; Fink, Andreas H.

    2018-06-01

    Most of the African continent is semi-arid and hence prone to extreme variations in rainfall from year to year. The extreme droughts that have plagued the Sahel and eastern Africa are particularly well known. This article uses a markedly expanded and updated rainfall data set to examine rainfall variability in 13 sectors that cover most of the continent. Annual rainfall is presented for each sector; the March-to-May and October-November seasons are also examined for equatorial sectors. In each case, the article includes the longest and most comprehensive precipitation gauge series ever published. All time series cover at least a century and most cover roughly one and one-half centuries or more. Although towards the end of the 20th century there was a widespread trend towards more arid conditions, few significant trends are evident over the entire period of record. The largest were downward trends in the Sahel and western sectors of North Africa. In those regions, an abrupt reduction in rainfall occurred around 1968, but a synchronous change occurred many other parts of Africa. A recovery did occur in the Sahel, but to varying degrees across the east-west expanse of the region. Noteworthy is that the west-to-east rainfall gradient across the region appears to have weakened in recent decades. For the continent as a whole, another change began in the 1980s decade, with more arid conditions persisting at the continental scale until early in the twenty-first century. No other such period of dry conditions occurred within the roughly one and one-half centuries evaluated here. A notable change also occurred at the seasonal level. During the period 1980 to 1998 rainfall during March-to-May was well below the long-term mean throughout most of the area from 20° N to 35° S. At the same time rainfall was above the long-term mean in most of eastern sectors within this latitude span, indicating a change in the seasonality of rainfall of a large part of Africa.

  11. Percutaneous endoscopic colostomy of the left colon: a new technique for management of intractable constipation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, David J; Haddad, Munther; Geoghegan, Niamh; Clarke, Simon; Fell, John M

    2004-07-01

    The antegrade colonic enema is accepted as effective for management of intractable constipation in children when conventional bowel management has failed. This study describes experience with a new, minimally invasive technique, the distal antegrade colonic enema, which involves percutaneous endoscopic colostomy of the left colon. Fifteen children with refractory constipation and soiling who had radiographic evidence of megarectum and/or distal colonic delay were selected for the procedure. The junction of the descending and the sigmoid colon was identified colonoscopically, and the percutaneous endoscopic colostomy tube, through which antegrade distal colonic enema are administered, was inserted. Fourteen children underwent distal percutaneous endoscopic colostomy insertion. The median time required for the procedure was 30 minutes (20-50 minutes). Excluding one child (technical difficulties with percutaneous endoscopic colostomy placement), median post-procedural hospital stay was 4 days (2-27 days). Thirteen children were no longer soiling, and improvement in quality of life was reported at 2 months' follow-up. At 6 months' follow-up, 90% of children were clean during intervals between enemas. All children evaluated at 12 months' follow-up remained clean. Median duration of follow-up was 12.5 months (2-51 months). The distal percutaneous endoscopic colostomy is a simple alternative to established methods for delivery of antegrade enemas. It is less invasive and on reversal leaves only minor scarring.

  12. The Influence of Preoperative Bladder Outlet Obstruction on Continence and Satisfaction in Patients with Stress Urinary Incontinence after Midurethral Sling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Jin Kim

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose We studied the influence of preoperative bladder outlet obstruction (BOO on postoperative continence rates and patient satisfaction after the midurethral sling procedure. Methods A total of 159 women who underwent the midurethral sling procedure were evaluated. Using the Blaivas-Groutz nomogram, we assigned the patients were assigned to Group I (n=37, no obstruction, Group II (n=89, mild obstruction, or Group III (n=33, moderate to severe obstruction. Continence rates, patient satisfaction, urinary sensation scale and uroflowmetry were evaluated postoperatively. Results There were no significant differences in continence rates, satisfaction, or postoperative maximal flow rate between the 3 groups. Postoperative urgency was improved after surgery in Groups I and II (P<0.05 but not in Group III. Conclusions BOO does not seem to be a risk factor for failure after the midurethral sling procedure. However, BOO may be considered as a potential factor for persistent storage symptoms after the midurethral sling.

  13. Hirschsprung's disease: problems with transition-zone pull-through.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, S I; Squire, B R; Stringer, M D; Batcup, G; Crabbe, D C

    2000-12-01

    -point extramucosal biopsy specimens are taken. Recognition of the subtle histologic features of the transition zone requires an experienced pathologist. The functional consequences of a TZPT are severe, with symptoms of constipation, diarrhea, and incontinence. The results of revisional pull-through were disappointing. Serious consideration should be given to alternative procedures such as the antegrade continence enema operation.

  14. The changing role of mammal life histories in Late Quaternary extinction vulnerability on continents and islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, S Kathleen; Miller, Joshua H; Fraser, Danielle; Smith, Felisa A; Boyer, Alison; Lindsey, Emily; Mychajliw, Alexis M

    2016-06-01

    Understanding extinction drivers in a human-dominated world is necessary to preserve biodiversity. We provide an overview of Quaternary extinctions and compare mammalian extinction events on continents and islands after human arrival in system-specific prehistoric and historic contexts. We highlight the role of body size and life-history traits in these extinctions. We find a significant size-bias except for extinctions on small islands in historic times. Using phylogenetic regression and classification trees, we find that while life-history traits are poor predictors of historic extinctions, those associated with difficulty in responding quickly to perturbations, such as small litter size, are good predictors of prehistoric extinctions. Our results are consistent with the idea that prehistoric and historic extinctions form a single continuing event with the same likely primary driver, humans, but the diversity of impacts and affected faunas is much greater in historic extinctions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  15. Crustal volumes of the continents and of oceanic and continental submarine plateaus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, G.; Sandwell, D.

    1989-01-01

    Using global topographic data and the assumption of Airy isostasy, it is estimated that the crustal volume of the continents is 7182 X 10 to the 6th cu km. The crustal volumes of the oceanic and continental submarine plateaus are calculated at 369 X 10 to the 6th cu km and 242 X 10 to the 6th cu km, respectively. The total continental crustal volume is found to be 7581 X 10 to the 6th cu km, 3.2 percent of which is comprised of continental submarine plateaus on the seafloor. An upper bound on the contintental crust addition rate by the accretion of oceanic plateaus is set at 3.7 cu km/yr. Subduction of continental submarine plateaus with the oceanic lithosphere on a 100 Myr time scale yields an upper bound to the continental crustal subtraction rate of 2.4 cu km/yr.

  16. CLUSTER ANALYSIS OF TOTAL ASSETS PROVIDED BY BANKS FROM FOUR CONTINENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRELA CĂTĂLINA TÜRKEȘ

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper analysed the total assets in 2016 achieved by the strongest 96 banks from 4 continents: Europe, America, Asia and Africa. It aims to evaluate the level of total assets provided by banks in 2016 and continental banking markets degree of differentiation to determine the overall conditions of the banks. Methodologies used in this study are based on cluster and descriptives analysis. Data set was built based on informations reported by banks on total assets. The results indicate that most of total banking assets are found in Asia and the fewest in Africa. At the end of 2016, the top 16 global banks owned total assets of $ 30.19 trillion according to the data set contains cluster 1 and the centroid was (2.25, 2.11, 3.06, 0.01.

  17. Consistent response of bird populations to climate change on two continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Philip A; Mason, Lucy R; Green, Rhys E; Gregory, Richard D; Sauer, John R; Alison, Jamie; Aunins, Ainars; Brotons, Lluís; Butchart, Stuart H M; Campedelli, Tommaso; Chodkiewicz, Tomasz; Chylarecki, Przemysław; Crowe, Olivia; Elts, Jaanus; Escandell, Virginia; Foppen, Ruud P B; Heldbjerg, Henning; Herrando, Sergi; Husby, Magne; Jiguet, Frédéric; Lehikoinen, Aleksi; Lindström, Åke; Noble, David G; Paquet, Jean-Yves; Reif, Jiri; Sattler, Thomas; Szép, Tibor; Teufelbauer, Norbert; Trautmann, Sven; van Strien, Arco J; van Turnhout, Chris A M; Vorisek, Petr; Willis, Stephen G

    2016-04-01

    Global climate change is a major threat to biodiversity. Large-scale analyses have generally focused on the impacts of climate change on the geographic ranges of species and on phenology, the timing of ecological phenomena. We used long-term monitoring of the abundance of breeding birds across Europe and the United States to produce, for both regions, composite population indices for two groups of species: those for which climate suitability has been either improving or declining since 1980. The ratio of these composite indices, the climate impact indicator (CII), reflects the divergent fates of species favored or disadvantaged by climate change. The trend in CII is positive and similar in the two regions. On both continents, interspecific and spatial variation in population abundance trends are well predicted by climate suitability trends. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. Integration of health and environment through health impact assessment: cases from three continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negev, Maya; Levine, Hagai; Davidovitch, Nadav; Bhatia, Rajiv; Mindell, Jennifer

    2012-04-01

    Despite the strong linkage between environment and health, institutions responsible for these fields operate in largely fragmented ways with limited interaction. As illustrated in the recent engagement between health and urban planning institutions, inter-institutional cooperation could support more effective and politically acceptable solutions for both local and global problems. Analysis of three case-studies, from three different continents, shows that HIA might serve to promote synergies among health and environmental disciplines in different local contexts, and could lead to institutional and procedural changes that promote health. Case examples provided supportive evidence for these effects, despite differences in approaches to HIA and governance levels. Obstacles to the use of HIA for inter-institutional integration also differed between countries. Lessons learned could support cooperation in other common interests of health and environment disciplines such as research, training and preparedness, and mitigation of public health emergencies related to the environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The uranium geology and tectonic correlation between the African and Latin American continents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toens, P.D.; Le Roux, J.P.; Van Biljon, W.J.

    1980-10-01

    Subsequent to a meeting of the International Atomic Agency's Advisory Group on Uranium Geology in Latin America held in Lima, Peru in December 1978, it was decided that a project involving the correlation of uranium geology on either side of the Atlantic was called for. The representatives of the countries concerned were asked to meet in Vienna in July 1980 and present interim reports on progress made in their respective countries on this project. This paper represents an interim report by the South African Working Group. The aspects dealt with cover the matching of the two continents, the nature and distribution of the Gondwana and earlier sequences, as well as the nature and distribution of uraniferous alkaline complexes and granites [af

  20. The peopling of the African continent and the diaspora into the new world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Michael C; Hirbo, Jibril B; Townsend, Jeffrey P; Tishkoff, Sarah A

    2014-12-01

    Africa is the birthplace of anatomically modern humans, and is the geographic origin of human migration across the globe within the last 100,000 years. The history of African populations has consisted of a number of demographic events that have influenced patterns of genetic and phenotypic variation across the continent. With the increasing amount of genomic data and corresponding developments in computational methods, researchers are able to explore long-standing evolutionary questions, expanding our understanding of human history within and outside of Africa. This review will summarize some of the recent findings regarding African demographic history, including the African Diaspora, and will briefly explore their implications for disease susceptibility in populations of African descent.

  1. Seismic site evaluation practice and seismic design guide for NPP in Continent of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuxian, Hu [State Seismological Bureau, Beijing, BJ (China). Inst. of Geophysics

    1997-03-01

    Energy resources, seismicity, NPP and related regulations of the Continent of China are briefly introduced in the beginning and two codes related to the seismic design of NPP, one on siting and another on design, are discussed in some detail. The one on siting is an official code of the State Seismological Bureau, which specifies the seismic safety evaluation requirements of various kinds of structures, from the most critic and important structures such as NPP to ordinary buildings, and including also engineering works in big cities. The one on seismic design of NPP is a draft subjected to publication now, which will be an official national code. The first one is somewhat unique but the second one is quite similar to those in the world. (author)

  2. Seismic site evaluation practice and seismic design guide for NPP in Continent of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yuxian

    1997-01-01

    Energy resources, seismicity, NPP and related regulations of the Continent of China are briefly introduced in the beginning and two codes related to the seismic design of NPP, one on siting and another on design, are discussed in some detail. The one on siting is an official code of the State Seismological Bureau, which specifies the seismic safety evaluation requirements of various kinds of structures, from the most critic and important structures such as NPP to ordinary buildings, and including also engineering works in big cities. The one on seismic design of NPP is a draft subjected to publication now, which will be an official national code. The first one is somewhat unique but the second one is quite similar to those in the world. (author)

  3. Structure and frame conditions for power exchange agreements with the Continent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedswang, R.

    1996-01-01

    The conference paper relates to the obtained agreements between Norway and the Continent on the exchange of electric power. The paper discusses the structure and frame conditions for the ELSAM, PreussenElektra, SEP and EuroStrom agreements. ELSAM covers the agreement with Denmark which started on 27 July 1995. The PreussenElektra agreement includes the exchange of power with the German PreussenElektra AG which starts on 1 October 1998. SEP covers the agreement with the Netherlands which is planned to start on 1 October 2001, and the EuroStrom agreement with the German EST EuroStrom Trading GmbH in Hamburg which is planned to start on 1 January 2003. 8 figs

  4. Warming increases plant biomass and reduces diversity across continents, latitudes, and species migration scenarios in experimental wetland communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Andrew H; Jensen, Kai; Schönfeldt, Marisa

    2014-03-01

    Atmospheric warming may influence plant productivity and diversity and induce poleward migration of species, altering communities across latitudes. Complicating the picture is that communities from different continents deviate in evolutionary histories, which may modify responses to warming and migration. We used experimental wetland plant communities grown from seed banks as model systems to determine whether effects of warming on biomass production and species richness are consistent across continents, latitudes, and migration scenarios. We collected soil samples from each of three tidal freshwater marshes in estuaries at three latitudes (north, middle, south) on the Atlantic coasts of Europe and North America. In one experiment, we exposed soil seed bank communities from each latitude and continent to ambient and elevated (+2.8 °C) temperatures in the greenhouse. In a second experiment, soil samples were mixed either within each estuary (limited migration) or among estuaries from different latitudes in each continent (complete migration). Seed bank communities of these migration scenarios were also exposed to ambient and elevated temperatures and contrasted with a no-migration treatment. In the first experiment, warming overall increased biomass (+16%) and decreased species richness (-14%) across latitudes in Europe and North America. Species richness and evenness of south-latitude communities were less affected by warming than those of middle and north latitudes. In the second experiment, warming also stimulated biomass and lowered species richness. In addition, complete migration led to increased species richness (+60% in North America, + 100% in Europe), but this higher diversity did not translate into increased biomass. Species responded idiosyncratically to warming, but Lythrum salicaria and Bidens sp. increased significantly in response to warming in both continents. These results reveal for the first time consistent impacts of warming on biomass and

  5. The impact of bladder neck sparing on urinary continence during laparoscopic radical prostatectomy; Results from a high volume centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Serdar Gozen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effects of bladder neck reconstruction techniques on early continence after laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP. Materials and methods: This non-randomized retrospective study analyzed prospectively collected data concerning LRP. In total, 3107 patients underwent LRP between March 1999 and December 2016. Exclusion criteria were preoperative urinary incontinence, previous history of external beam radiotherapy, co-morbities which may affect urinary continence such as diabetes mellitus and/or neurogenic disorders, irregular followup, and follow-up shorter than 24 months. All patients were divided into one of three groups, posterior reconstruction being performed in Group 1 (n = 112, anterior reconstruction in Group 2 (n = 762, and bladder neck sparing (BNS in Group 3 (n = 987. Demographic and pre-, peri-, and postoperative data were collected. Multivariate analyses were performed to determine factors affecting early continence after LRP. Results: 1861 patients were enrolled in the study. The mean follow-up period was 48.12 ± 29.8 months, and subjects’ mean age was 63.6 ± 6.2 years. There was no significant difference among the groups in terms of demographic or preoperative data. Postoperative data, including oncological outcomes, were similar among the groups. The level of early continence was higher in Group 3 than in the other groups (p < 0.001. Multivariate analyses identified BNS and age as parameters significantly affecting early continence levels after LRP (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively. Bladder neck reconstruction provided less earlier continence than BNS.

  6. Suicidal behaviour across the African continent: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, Becky; Burrows, Stephanie; Hjelmeland, Heidi; Gunnell, David

    2014-06-14

    Suicide is a major cause of premature mortality worldwide, but data on its epidemiology in Africa, the world's second most populous continent, are limited. We systematically reviewed published literature on suicidal behaviour in African countries. We searched PubMed, Web of Knowledge, PsycINFO, African Index Medicus, Eastern Mediterranean Index Medicus and African Journals OnLine and carried out citation searches of key articles. We crudely estimated the incidence of suicide and suicide attempts in Africa based on country-specific data and compared these with published estimates. We also describe common features of suicide and suicide attempts across the studies, including information related to age, sex, methods used and risk factors. Regional or national suicide incidence data were available for less than one third (16/53) of African countries containing approximately 60% of Africa's population; suicide attempt data were available for men are typically at least three times higher than in women. The most frequently used methods of suicide are hanging and pesticide poisoning. Reported risk factors are similar for suicide and suicide attempts and include interpersonal difficulties, mental and physical health problems, socioeconomic problems and drug and alcohol use/abuse. Qualitative studies are needed to identify additional culturally relevant risk factors and to understand how risk factors may be connected to suicidal behaviour in different socio-cultural contexts. Our estimate is somewhat lower than GBD, but still clearly indicates suicidal behaviour is an important public health problem in Africa. More regional studies, in both urban and rural areas, are needed to more accurately estimate the burden of suicidal behaviour across the continent. Qualitative studies are required in addition to quantitative studies.

  7. Hierarchical Genetic Analysis of German Cockroach (Blattella germanica) Populations from within Buildings to across Continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargo, Edward L.; Crissman, Jonathan R.; Booth, Warren; Santangelo, Richard G.; Mukha, Dmitry V.; Schal, Coby

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the population structure of species that disperse primarily by human transport is essential to predicting and controlling human-mediated spread of invasive species. The German cockroach (Blattella germanica) is a widespread urban invader that can actively disperse within buildings but is spread solely by human-mediated dispersal over longer distances; however, its population structure is poorly understood. Using microsatellite markers we investigated population structure at several spatial scales, from populations within single apartment buildings to populations from several cities across the U.S. and Eurasia. Both traditional measures of genetic differentiation and Bayesian clustering methods revealed increasing levels of genetic differentiation at greater geographic scales. Our results are consistent with active dispersal of cockroaches largely limited to movement within a building. Their low levels of genetic differentiation, yet limited active spread between buildings, suggests a greater likelihood of human-mediated dispersal at more local scales (within a city) than at larger spatial scales (within and between continents). About half the populations from across the U.S. clustered together with other U.S. populations, and isolation by distance was evident across the U.S. Levels of genetic differentiation among Eurasian cities were greater than those in the U.S. and greater than those between the U.S. and Eurasia, but no clear pattern of structure at the continent level was detected. MtDNA sequence variation was low and failed to reveal any geographical structure. The weak genetic structure detected here is likely due to a combination of historical admixture among populations and periodic population bottlenecks and founder events, but more extensive studies are needed to determine whether signatures of global movement may be present in this species. PMID:25020136

  8. Drought consistently alters the composition of soil fungal and bacterial communities in grasslands from two continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Hueso, Raúl; Collins, Scott L; Delgado-Baquerizo, Manuel; Hamonts, Kelly; Pockman, William T; Sinsabaugh, Robert L; Smith, Melinda D; Knapp, Alan K; Power, Sally A

    2018-03-05

    The effects of short-term drought on soil microbial communities remain largely unexplored, particularly at large scales and under field conditions. We used seven experimental sites from two continents (North America and Australia) to evaluate the impacts of imposed extreme drought on the abundance, community composition, richness, and function of soil bacterial and fungal communities. The sites encompassed different grassland ecosystems spanning a wide range of climatic and soil properties. Drought significantly altered the community composition of soil bacteria and, to a lesser extent, fungi in grasslands from two continents. The magnitude of the fungal community change was directly proportional to the precipitation gradient. This greater fungal sensitivity to drought at more mesic sites contrasts with the generally observed pattern of greater drought sensitivity of plant communities in more arid grasslands, suggesting that plant and microbial communities may respond differently along precipitation gradients. Actinobateria, and Chloroflexi, bacterial phyla typically dominant in dry environments, increased their relative abundance in response to drought, whereas Glomeromycetes, a fungal class regarded as widely symbiotic, decreased in relative abundance. The response of Chlamydiae and Tenericutes, two phyla of mostly pathogenic species, decreased and increased along the precipitation gradient, respectively. Soil enzyme activity consistently increased under drought, a response that was attributed to drought-induced changes in microbial community structure rather than to changes in abundance and diversity. Our results provide evidence that drought has a widespread effect on the assembly of microbial communities, one of the major drivers of soil function in terrestrial ecosystems. Such responses may have important implications for the provision of key ecosystem services, including nutrient cycling, and may result in the weakening of plant-microbial interactions and a

  9. Um continente entortado (América Latina The lopsided continent (Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Hoffman

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Em todo o mundo, a América Latina é a região que apresenta a mais desequilibrada distribuição de recursos. O artigo define um conjunto comum de elementos que caracterizam as estruturas sociais do continente, sugere algumas linhas de análise e teorização e defende a integração dos estudos regionais nas discussões mais amplas a respeito da estratificação. Na primeira parte, examina-se a situação do continente como um todo, com uma breve discussão sobre a relação entre pobreza e desigualdade, e sobre o problema da disponibilidade de dados. Em seguida, analisa-se classe, gênero e raça. A conclusão identifica três fatores críticos que explicam a desigualdade latino-americana: sua posição no interior do sistema econômico global, o colonialismo interno que mantém as categorias raciais e o subdesenvolvimento das estruturas estataisLatin America has the most unbalanced distribution of resources of all regions in the world. This review defines a set of common elements characterizing social structures on this continent, suggests some approaches for analysis and theorizing, and supports the integration of regional studies into broader discussions of stratification. An overview of the situation on the continent as a whole, including a short discussion of the relationship between poverty and inequality, allows to address some concerns with data availability. We then devote a section each to class, gender, and race, and conclude by identifying three critical factors that explain Latin American inequality: its position within a global economic system, internal colonialism with maintenance of racial categories, and the underdevelopment of state structures.

  10. Continent-wide risk assessment for the establishment of nonindigenous species in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chown, Steven L.; Huiskes, Ad H. L.; Gremmen, Niek J. M.; Lee, Jennifer E.; Terauds, Aleks; Crosbie, Kim; Frenot, Yves; Hughes, Kevin A.; Imura, Satoshi; Kiefer, Kate; Lebouvier, Marc; Raymond, Ben; Tsujimoto, Megumu; Ware, Chris; Van de Vijver, Bart; Bergstrom, Dana Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Invasive alien species are among the primary causes of biodiversity change globally, with the risks thereof broadly understood for most regions of the world. They are similarly thought to be among the most significant conservation threats to Antarctica, especially as climate change proceeds in the region. However, no comprehensive, continent-wide evaluation of the risks to Antarctica posed by such species has been undertaken. Here we do so by sampling, identifying, and mapping the vascular plant propagules carried by all categories of visitors to Antarctica during the International Polar Year's first season (2007–2008) and assessing propagule establishment likelihood based on their identity and origins and on spatial variation in Antarctica's climate. For an evaluation of the situation in 2100, we use modeled climates based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Special Report on Emissions Scenarios Scenario A1B [Nakićenović N, Swart R, eds (2000) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios: A Special Report of Working Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK)]. Visitors carrying seeds average 9.5 seeds per person, although as vectors, scientists carry greater propagule loads than tourists. Annual tourist numbers (∼33,054) are higher than those of scientists (∼7,085), thus tempering these differences in propagule load. Alien species establishment is currently most likely for the Western Antarctic Peninsula. Recent founder populations of several alien species in this area corroborate these findings. With climate change, risks will grow in the Antarctic Peninsula, Ross Sea, and East Antarctic coastal regions. Our evidence-based assessment demonstrates which parts of Antarctica are at growing risk from alien species that may become invasive and provides the means to mitigate this threat now and into the future as the continent's climate changes. PMID:22393003

  11. Strike-slip faults offshore southern Taiwan: implications for the oblique arc-continent collision processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuh, Shi-Chie; Liu, Char-Shine; Lundberg, Neil; Reed, Donald L.

    1997-06-01

    Taiwan is the site of present-day oblique arc-continent collision between the Luzon arc of the Philippine Sea plate and the Chinese continental margin. The major structural pattern revealed from marine geophysical studies in the area offshore southern Taiwan is that of a doubly-vergent orogenic belt, bounded by significant zones of thrusting on the west and east of the submarine accretionary wedge. Due to the oblique collision process, strike-slip faults could play an important role in this convergent domain. Topographic lineaments revealed from new digital bathymetry data and seismic reflection profiles confirm the existence of three sets of strike-slip faults in the collision-subduction zone offshore southern Taiwan: the N-S-trending left-lateral strike-slip faults within the Luzon volcanic arc, the NE-SW-trending right-lateral strike-slip faults across the accretionary wedge, and the NNE-SSW-trending left-lateral strike-slip faults lie in the frontal portion of the accretionary wedge. These strike-slip faults overprint pre-existing folds and thrusts and may convert into oblique thrusts or thrusts as the forearc blocks accrete to the mountain belt. A bookshelf rotation model is used to explain the observed geometrical relationships of these strike-slip fault systems. Based on this model, the counter-clockwise rotation of the forearc blocks in the area offshore southern Taiwan could have caused extrusion of the accretionary wedge material into the forearc basin. The originally continuous forearc basin is thus deformed into several closed and separate proto-collisional basins such as the Southern Longitudinal Trough and Taitung Trough. A tectonic evolution model which emphasizes on the development of various structures at different stages of the oblique arc-continent collision for the Taiwan mountain belt is proposed.

  12. Seismic investigation of an ocean-continent transition zone in the northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J.; Qiu, X.; Xu, H.; Zhan, W.; Sun, Z.

    2011-12-01

    Rifted continental margins and basins are mainly formed by the lithospheric extension. Thined lithosphere of passive continental margins results in decompression melt of magma and created oceanic crust and thined ocean-continent transition (OCT) zone. Two refraction profiles used ocean bottom seismometers deployed in the broad continental shelf and three multi-channel seismic reflection lines in the northern South China Sea, acquired by the ship "Shiyan 2" of the South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences in 2010, are processed and interpreted in this study. Seismic reflection lines cut through the Dongsha rise, Zhu-1 and Zhu-2 depression within a Tertiary basin, Pear River Mouth basin (called as Zhujiangkou basin). These tectonic features are clear imaged in the seismic reflection records. Numerous normal faults, cutted through the basement and related to the stretch of the northern South China Sea margin, are imaged and interpreted. Reflection characteristics of the ocean-continent transition (OCT) zone are summaried and outlined. The COT zone is mainly divided into the northern syn-rift subsidence zone, central volcano or buried volcano uplift zone and tilt faulted block near the South Chia Sea basin. Compared to the previous seismic reflection data and refraction velocity models, the segmentation range of the OCT zone is outlined, from width of about 225 km in the northeastern South China Sea , of 160 km in the central to of 110 km in the north-central South China Sea. Based on the epicenter distribution of sporadic and large than 6 magnitude earthquakes, it suggests the OCT zone in the northern South China Sea at present is still an active seismic zone.

  13. Anisotropic tomography of the Indian continent and the geodynamic role of its keel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagner, J. P.; Maurya, S.; Sibrant, A.; Davaille, A.; Stutzmann, E.; Kumar, R.; Jean, B.

    2017-12-01

    The Indian moved at an exceptional high rate (18-20cm/year) after the birth of La Réunion hotspot, ≈65Ma ago and the Deccan volcanic province before the collision with the Asian continent. Other older plumes Marion, Kerguelen located in the Indian ocean are also associated with very fast plate motion. We present a high-resolution 3D anisotropic model of the Indian plate region down to 300 km depth, obtained by inverting a new massive database of surface-wave observations. The Rayleigh and Love wave dispersion measurements along 14,000 paths are made in a broad frequency range (16-250s). Our estimates of the depth to the Lithosphere-Asthenosphere Boundary (LAB) derived from seismic velocity Vsv variations at depth reveal large variations (120-250 km) beneath the different cratonic blocks. A low velocity layer associated with the Mid-lithospheric discontinuity is present when the root of the lithosphere is deep. This extensive anisotropic tomographic investigation of the Indian continent displays an almost north-south keel, 600km long and 300km wide, down to 250km depth. The keel is characterized by fast velocities, smaller than average radial and azimuthal anisotropies. The distribution of azimuthal anisotropy defines the flow lines around the keel, and, at the LAB, coincides with the APM direction of the Indian plate. The fast axis azimuths at 250 km depth are also in accordance with the results from SK(K)S splitting. Such a keel could probably perturb plume-induced flow in the asthenosphere. To determine the influence of such a keel on the interaction of India with several mantle plumes (Marion, Crozet, Kerguelen, La Réunion), we used laboratory experiments. Some preliminary results will be presented on the comparison between the laboratory flowlines and the direction of seismic anisotropy.

  14. Geodynamic evolution of the Sabzevar zone, northern central Iranian micro-continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omrani, Hadi; Moazzen, Mohssen; Oberhänsli, Roland

    2018-02-01

    The Northern Central Iranian Micro-continent (CIM) represents Neotethys-related oceanic crust remnants, emplaced due to convergence between CIM and Eurasia plates during Eocene. Mafic and ultramafic units are exposed along the northern part of the CIM in the Sabzevar area. The geology and field relation of Sabzevar ophiolite indicate northward subduction of the Sabzevar basin. The average whole rock chemistry of mafic (gabbros) and ultramafic samples (lherzolite, harzburgite and dunite) is characterized by a range of MgO of 11.16-31.88, CaO 5.22-11.53 and Al2O3 2.77-14.57, respectively. Low LREE/HREE ratio of ultramafic samples is accompanied by enrichment of large ion lithophile elements (LILE) such as Sr, Pb and K. Mafic samples show two distinct groups with low and high LREE/HREE ratios. The spider diagram of mafic samples indicates enrichment in Sr, Pb and K and depletion in REE. Petrological and geochemical evidence and field relations show that the mafic rocks formed in a supra-subduction zone setting. Petrological studies reveal the role of fractional crystallization and assimilation effect by released fluids during subduction related generation of the Sabzevar mafic rocks. We suggest that the studied mafic rocks likely represent the basement of an initial island arc, which was generated in a supra-subduction zone setting within the Neotethys branch of the Sabzevar Ocean at the north of CIM. Copper, gold and chromite mineralizations are studied in relation to island arc setting and supra-subduction environment. Similarities in lithology, ophiolite age and mineralization between Sabzevar ophiolite and Bardaskan-Torbat Heydariyeh ophiolites testify for their separation due to rotation (or faulting) of the Central Iranian Micro-continent.

  15. MODELING OF MOVING DEFORMABLE CONTINENTS BY ACTIVE TRACERS: CLOSING AND OPENING OF OCEANS, RECIRCULATION OF OCEANIC CRUST

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    A. V. Bobrov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of the ‘mantle – moving deformable continents’ system has been studied by numerical experiments. The continents move self-consistently with the mantle flows of thermo-compositional convection. Our model (two-dimensional mantle convection, non-Newtonian rheology, the presence of deformable continents demonstrates the main features of global geodynamics: convergence and divergence of continents; appearance and disappearance of subduction zones; backrolling of subduction zones; restructuring of mantle flows; stretching, breakup and divergence of continents; opening and closing of oceans; oceanic crust recirculation in the mantle, and overriding of hot mantle plumes by continents. In our study, the continental crust is modeled by active markers which transfer additional viscosity and buoyancy, while the continental lithosphere is marked only by increased viscosity with neutral buoyancy. The oceanic crust, in its turn, is modeled by active markers that have only an additional buoyancy. The principal result of our modeling is a consistency between the numerical calculations and the bimodal dynamics of the real Earth: the oceanic crust, despite its positive buoyancy near the surface, submerges in subduction zones and sinks deep into the mantle. (Some part of the oceanic crust remains attached to the continental margins for a long time. In contrast to the oceanic crust, the continental crust does not sink in subduction zones. The continental lithosphere, despite its neutral buoyancy, also remains on the surface due to its viscosity and coupling with the continental crust. It should be noted that when a continent overrides a subduction zone, the subduction zone disappears, and the flows in the mantle are locally reorganized. The effect of basalt-eclogite transition in the oceanic crust on the mantle flow pattern and on the motion of continents has been studied. Our numerical experiments show that the inclusion of this effect in the

  16. Spatial and temporal variability of stable isotope composition of precipitation over the south american continent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available VARIABILITE SPATIALE ET TEMPORELLE DE LA COMPOSITION EN ISOTOPES STABLES DE LA PRECIPITATION SUR LE CONTINENT SUDAMERICAIN. L’Agence Internationale de l’Energie Atomique, en coopération avec l’Organisation Météorologique Mondiale, exploite un réseau mondial de stations pour la prise d’échantillons mensuels de précipitation. Actuellement, à peu près 60 stations fournissent des informations sur la composition isotopique de la précipitation sur le continent sudaméricain. Ces dernières années plusieurs réseaux d’échantillonnage d’un caractère national (Argentine, Brésil, Chili, Equateur, Pérou ont été initiés. Les données apportées par ces réseaux contribuent au réseau mondial de l’AIEA/OMM. Ces travaux se concentrent sur l’étude de la variabilité spatiale et temporelle de la composition isotopique stable de la précipitation sur le continent. Dans cette étude, est examinée en détail la relation entre la composition isotopique de la précipitation dans la région et quelques paramètres climatiques, tels que la quantité de précipitation et la température de l’air. VARIABILIDAD ESPACIAL Y TEMPORAL DE LA COMPOSICIÓN DE ISÓTOPOS ESTABLES DE LA PRECIPITACIÓN EN EL CONTINENTE SUDAMERICANO. El Organismo Internacional de Energía Atómica (OIEA, en colaboración con la Organización Meteorológica Mundial (OMM, está llevando a cabo un estudio a escala global de la composición isotópica de la precipitación a partir de muestras mensuales de lluvia recogidas en estaciones meteorológicas. En la actualidad alrededor de 60 estaciones proporcionan información sobre la composición isotópica de la precipitación en el continente sudamericano. Durante los últimos años se han establecido en la región varias redes de control con carácter nacional (Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Ecuador, Perú. Los datos aportados por estas redes representan una valiosa contribución a la red mundial del OIEA/OMM. Este trabajo se

  17. Taking the pulse of a continent: Expanding site-based research infrastructure for regional- to continental-scale ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many of the most dramatic and surprising effects of global change on ecological systems will occur across large spatial extents, from regions to continents. Multiple ecosystem types will be impacted across a range of interacting spatial and temporal scales. The ability of ecologists to understand an...

  18. Emergence of silicic continents as the lower crust peels off on a hot plate-tectonic Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Priyadarshi; Gerya, Taras; Chakraborty, Sumit

    2017-09-01

    The rock record and geochemical evidence indicate that continental recycling has been occurring since the early history of the Earth. The stabilization of felsic continents in place of Earth's early mafic crust about 3.0 to 2.0 billion years ago, perhaps due to the initiation of plate tectonics, implies widespread destruction of mafic crust during this time interval. However, the physical mechanisms of such intense recycling on a hotter, (late) Archaean and presumably plate-tectonic Earth remain largely unknown. Here we use thermomechanical modelling to show that extensive recycling via lower crustal peeling-off (delamination but not eclogitic dripping) during continent-continent convergence was near ubiquitous during the late Archaean to early Proterozoic. We propose that such destruction of the early mafic crust, together with felsic magmatism, may have caused both the emergence of silicic continents and their subsequent isostatic rise, possibly above the sea level. Such changes in the continental character have been proposed to influence the Great Oxidation Event and, therefore, peeling-off plate tectonics could be the geodynamic trigger for this event. A transition to the slab break-off controlled syn-orogenic recycling occurred as the Earth aged and cooled, leading to reduced recycling and enhanced preservation of the continental crust of present-day composition.

  19. International Continence Society Good Urodynamic Practices and Terms 2016 : Urodynamics, uroflowmetry, cystometry, and pressure-flow study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosier, Peter F W M; Schaefer, Werner; Lose, Gunnar; Goldman, Howard B.; Guralnick, Michael; Eustice, Sharon; Dickinson, Tamara; Hashim, Hashim

    AIMS: The working group initiated by the ICS Standardisation Steering Committee has updated the International Continence Society Standard "Good Urodynamic Practice" published in 2002. METHODS: On the basis of the manuscript: "ICS standard to develop evidence-based standards," a new ICS Standard was

  20. International children's continence society's recommendations for therapeutic intervention in congenital neuropathic bladder and bowel dysfunction in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rawashdeh, Y. F.; Austin, P.; Siggaard, C.; Bauer, S. B.; Franco, I.; de Jong, T. P.; Jorgensen, T. M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We present a consensus view of members of the International Children's Continence Society on the therapeutic intervention in congenital neuropatic bladder and bowel dysfunction in children. Material and Methods Discussions were held by a group of pediatric urologists and gastroenterologists

  1. Globalization and Multilingualism: Case Studies of Indigenous Culture-Based Education from the Indian Sub-Continent and Their Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Navin Kumar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents some of the major program initiatives honoring Indigenous knowledge, culture, heritage, arts, and skills through curricular reforms and culturally appropriate educational practices on the Indian sub-continent. It presents case studies of Indigenous culture-based education, with reference to mother tongue and multicultural…

  2. Measurement of dynamic urethral pressures with a high-resolution manometry system in continent and incontinent women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Anna C; Tan-Kim, Jasmine; Nager, Charles W

    2015-01-01

    Female stress urinary incontinence is caused by urethral dysfunction during dynamic conditions, but current technology has limitations in measuring urethral pressures under these conditions. An 8-French high-resolution manometry (HRM) catheter currently in clinical use in gastroenterology may accurately measure urethral pressures under dynamic conditions because it has a 25-millisecond response rate and circumferential pressure sensors along the length of the catheter (ManoScan ESO; Given Imaging, Yoqneam, Israel). We evaluated the concordance, repeatability, and tolerability of this catheter. We measured resting, cough, and strain maximum urethral closure pressures (MUCPs) using HRM and measured resting MUCPs with water-perfusion side-hole catheter urethral pressure profilometry (UPP) in 37 continent and 28 stress-incontinent subjects. Maneuvers were repeated after moving the HRM catheter along the urethral length to evaluate whether results depend on catheter positioning. Visual analog pain scores evaluated the comfort of HRM compared to UPP. The correlation coefficient for resting MUCPs measured by HRM versus UPP was high (r = 0.79, P rest, cough, and strain with HRM: r = 0.92, 0.89, and 0.89. Mean MUCPs (rest, cough, and strain) were higher in continent than in incontinent subjects (all P continent subjects during cough and strain maneuvers compared to rest. This preliminary study shows that HRM is concordant with standard technology, repeatable, and well tolerated in the urethra. Incontinent women have more impairment of their urethral closure pressures during cough and strain than continent women.

  3. Arc-continent collision of the Coastal Range in Taiwan: Geochronological constraints from U-Pb ages of zircons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Wei; Zhang, Xun-Hua; Huang, Long

    2018-04-01

    The oblique arc-continent collision between the Luzon arc and the southeastern margin of the Eurasian continent caused the uplift of Taiwan. The Coastal Range in eastern Taiwan is the northern section of the Luzon arc in the collision zone and thus records important information about the arc-continent collision. In this paper, we determine and analyze the U-Pb ages of magmatic zircons from the volcanic arc and clastic zircons from the fore-arc basin in the Coastal Range. For the volcanic arc in the Coastal Range, the eruption ages range from 16.8-5 Ma. Given that the initial subduction of the South China Sea oceanic crust (17 Ma) occurred before the Luzon arc formed, we conclude that the volcanic activity of the Coastal Range began at 16.8 ± 1.3 Ma; it was most active from 14 to 8 Ma and continued until approximately 5 Ma. The U-Pb chronology also indicates that the initial stage of arc-continent collision of the Coastal Range started at approximately 5 Ma, when the northern section of the Luzon arc moved away from the magmatic chamber because of the kinematics of the Philippine Sea Plate.

  4. Intermediate crust (IC); its construction at continent edges, distinctive epeirogenic behaviour and identification as sedimentary basins within continents: new light on pre-oceanic plate motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmaston, Miles F.

    2014-05-01

    Introduction. The plate tectonics paradigm currently posits that the Earth has only two kinds of crust - continental and oceanic - and that the former may be stretched to form sedimentary basins or the latter may be modified by arc or collision until it looks continental. But global analysis of the dynamics of actual plate motions for the past 150 Ma indicates [1 - 3] that continental tectospheres must be immensely thicker and rheologically stiffer than previously thought; almost certainly too thick to be stretched with the forces available. In the extreme case of cratons, these tectospheric keels evidently extend to 600 km or more [2, 3]. This thick-plate behaviour is attributable, not to cooling but to a petrological 'stiffening' effect, associated with a loss of water-weakening of the mineral crystals, which also applies to the hitherto supposedly mobile LVZ below MORs [4, 5]. The corresponding thick-plate version of the mid-ocean ridge (MOR) process [6 - 8], replacing the divergent mantle flow model, has a deep, narrow wall-accreting axial crack which not only provides the seismic anisotropy beneath the flanks but also brings two outstanding additional benefits:- (i) why, at medium to fast spreading rates, MOR axes become straight and orthogonally segmented [6], (ii) not being driven by body forces, it can achieve the sudden jumps of axis, spreading-rate and direction widely present in the ocean-floor record. Furthermore, as we will illustrate, the crack walls push themselves apart at depth by a thermodynamic mechanism, so the plates are not being pulled apart. So the presence of this process at a continental edge would not imply the application of extensional force to the margin. Intermediate Crust (IC). In seeking to resolve the paradox that superficially extensional structures are often seen at margins we will first consider how this MOR process would be affected by the heavy concurrent sedimentation to be expected when splitting a mature continent. I reason

  5. Les Cinq Continents, a antologia de Goll: apelo (poético cosmopolita

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    Maria Aparecida Barbosa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata de alguns trabalhos poéticos de Ivan Goll, publicados em alemão, francês e inglês, nos quais o diapasão cosmopolita e o apelo a uma poesia supranacional representaram um grito marginal de resistência frente às tendências totalizantes e às categorias nacionais da primeira metade do século XX. Busca-se compreender se o grito encontra respaldo nas reflexões atuais, pensando-o como um antecedente questionador de taxonomias de gênero literário e de forma artística, um transgender. Assinala que o modernista brasileiro Mário de Andrade não somente acompanhou a querela entre Goll e Breton sobre a herança do conceito Surréalisme legado por Apollinaire, como também se correspondeu e trocou livros com o poeta alsaciano, tendo recebido com entusiasmo a antologia Les Cinq continents. Ao final, este artigo apresenta a tradução de dois poemas afinados com a noção cosmopolita: "O Negro do Teatro de Variedades" e "A Canção de João Sem-Terra, O Duplo".Esta comunicación trata sobre algunos trabajos poéticos de Ivan Goll, publicados en alemán, francés e inglés, en los cuales el tono cosmopolita y el llamamiento a una poesía supranacional representaron un grito marginal de resistencia frente a las tendencias totalizantes y a las categorías nacionales de la primera mitad del siglo XX. El artículo busca comprender si el grito reverbera y encuentra respaldo en las reflexiones actuales, pensándolo como un antecedente cuestionador de taxonomías de género totalitario y, de forma artística, como un "transgender". El texto también incide en la relación establecida con el escritor modernista brasileño Mário de Andrade, que no sólo acompañó la querella entre Goll y Breton sobre la herencia del concepto "Surréalisme" legado por Apollinaire, sino que mantuvo contacto epistolar e intercambio de libros con el poeta alsaciano, y recibió con entusiasmo la antología Les Cinq continents. Finalmente, este art

  6. The urethral closure function in continent and stress urinary incontinent women assessed by urethral pressure reflectometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saaby, Marie-Louise

    2014-02-01

    Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) occurs when the bladder pressure exceeds the urethral pressure in connection with physical effort or exertion or when sneezing or coughing and depends both on the strength of the urethral closure function and the abdominal pressure to which it is subjected. The urethral closure function in continent women and the dysfunction causing SUI are not known in details. The currently accepted view is based on the concept of a sphincteric unit and a support system. Our incomplete knowledge relates to the complexity of the closure apparatus and to inadequate assessment methods which so far have not provided robust urodynamic diagnostic tools, severity measures, or parameters to assess outcome after intervention. Urethral Pressure Reflectometry (UPR) is a novel method that measures the urethral pressure and cross-sectional area (by use of sound waves) simultaneously. The technique involves insertion of only a small, light and flexible polyurethane bag in the urethra and therefore avoids the common artifacts encountered with conventional methods. The UPR parameters can be obtained at a specific site of the urethra, e.g. the high pressure zone, and during various circumstances, i.e. resting and squeezing. During the study period, we advanced the UPR technique to enable faster measurement (within 7 seconds by the continuous technique) which allowed assessment during increased intra-abdominal pressure induced by physical straining. We investigated the urethral closure function in continent and SUI women during resting and straining by the "fast" UPR technique. Thereby new promising urethral parameters were provided that allowed characterization of the closure function based on the permanent closure forces (primarily generated by the sphincteric unit, measured by the Po-rest) and the adjunctive closure forces (primarily generated by the support system, measured by the abdominal to urethral pressure impact ratio (APIR)). The new parameters enabled

  7. High-resolution mapping of biomass burning emissions in tropical regions across three continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yusheng; Matsunaga, Tsuneo; Saito, Makoto

    2015-04-01

    Biomass burning emissions from open vegetation fires (forest fires, savanna fires, agricultural waste burning), human waste and biofuel combustion contain large amounts of trace gases (e.g., CO2, CH4, and N2O) and aerosols (BC and OC), which significantly impact ecosystem productivity, global atmospheric chemistry, and climate . With the help of recently released satellite products, biomass density based on satellite and ground-based observation data, and spatial variable combustion factors, this study developed a new high-resolution emissions inventory for biomass burning in tropical regions across three continents in 2010. Emissions of trace gases and aerosols from open vegetation burning are estimated from burned areas, fuel loads, combustion factors, and emission factors. Burned areas were derived from MODIS MCD64A1 burned area product, fuel loads were mapped from biomass density data sets for herbaceous and tree-covered land based on satellite and ground-based observation data. To account for spatial heterogeneity in combustion factors, global fractional tree cover (MOD44B) and vegetation cover maps (MCD12Q1) were introduced to estimate the combustion factors in different regions by using their relationship with tree cover under less than 40%, between 40-60% and above 60% conditions. For emission factors, the average values for each fuel type from field measurements are used. In addition to biomass burning from open vegetation fires, the emissions from human waste (residential and dump) burning and biofuel burning in 2010 were also estimated for 76 countries in tropical regions across the three continents and then allocated into each pixel with 1 km grid based on the population density (Gridded Population of the World v3). Our total estimates for the tropical regions across the three continents in 2010 were 17744.5 Tg CO2, 730.3 Tg CO, 32.0 Tg CH4, 31.6 Tg NOx, 119.2 Tg NMOC, 6.3 Tg SO2, 9.8 NH3 Tg, 81.8 Tg PM2.5, 48.0 Tg OC, and 5.7 Tg BC, respectively. Open

  8. Geographical distribution of Toxoplasma gondii genotypes in Asia: A link with neighboring continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaichan, P; Mercier, A; Galal, L; Mahittikorn, A; Ariey, F; Morand, S; Boumédiène, F; Udonsom, R; Hamidovic, A; M