WorldWideScience

Sample records for antecesores vivos mas

  1. Effect of a Selective Mas Receptor Agonist in Cerebral Ischemia In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyoung Lee

    Full Text Available Functional modulation of the non-AT1R arm of the renin-angiotensin system, such as via AT2R activation, is known to improve stroke outcome. However, the relevance of the Mas receptor, which along with the AT2R forms the protective arm of the renin-angiotensin system, as a target in stroke is unclear. Here we tested the efficacy of a selective MasR agonist, AVE0991, in in vitro and in vivo models of ischemic stroke. Primary cortical neurons were cultured from E15-17 mouse embryos for 7-9 d, subjected to glucose deprivation for 24 h alone or with test drugs, and percentage cell death was determined using trypan blue exclusion assay. Additionally, adult male mice were subjected to 1 h middle cerebral artery occlusion and were administered either vehicle or AVE0991 (20 mg/kg i.p. at the commencement of 23 h reperfusion. Some animals were also treated with the MasR antagonist, A779 (80 mg/kg i.p. 1 h prior to surgery. Twenty-four h after MCAo, neurological deficits, locomotor activity and motor coordination were assessed in vivo, and infarct and edema volumes estimated from brain sections. Following glucose deprivation, application of AVE0991 (10-8 M to 10-6 M reduced neuronal cell death by ~60% (P<0.05, an effect prevented by the MasR antagonist. By contrast, AVE0991 administration in vivo had no effect on functional or histological outcomes at 24 h following stroke. These findings indicate that the classical MasR agonist, AVE0991, can directly protect neurons from injury following glucose-deprivation. However, this effect does not translate into an improved outcome in vivo when administered systemically following stroke.

  2. E/Z MAS demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed E/Z MAS, a new generation nuclear material accountability application based on the latest technology and designed for facilities required to track nuclear materials with a simple-to-use interface. E/Z MAS is based on years of experience spent developing nuclear material accounting systems. E/Z MAS uses a modern relational database with a web server and enables users on a classified local area network to interact with the database with web browsers. The E/Z MAS Demonstration poster session demonstrates the E/Z MAS functions required by an operational nuclear facility to track material as it enters and leaves a facility and to account for the material as it moves through a process. The generation of internal facility reports and external reports for the Russian Federal system will be demonstrated. Bar-code readers will be used to demonstrate the ability of EZ MAS to automate certain functions, such as physical inventories at facilities

  3. UAV Robust Strategy Control Based on MAS

    OpenAIRE

    Jian Han; Changhong Wang; Guoxing Yi

    2014-01-01

    A novel multiagent system (MAS) has been proposed to integrate individual UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) to form a UAV team which can accomplish complex missions with better efficiency and effect. The MAS based UAV team control is more able to conquer dynamic situations and enhance the performance of any single UAV. In this paper, the MAS proposed and established combines the reacting and thinking abilities to be an initiative and autonomous hybrid system which can solve missions involving coo...

  4. Fluid flow dynamics in MAS systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Dirk; Purea, Armin; Engelke, Frank

    2015-08-01

    The turbine system and the radial bearing of a high performance magic angle spinning (MAS) probe with 1.3mm-rotor diameter has been analyzed for spinning rates up to 67kHz. We focused mainly on the fluid flow properties of the MAS system. Therefore, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and fluid measurements of the turbine and the radial bearings have been performed. CFD simulation and measurement results of the 1.3mm-MAS rotor system show relatively low efficiency (about 25%) compared to standard turbo machines outside the realm of MAS. However, in particular, MAS turbines are mainly optimized for speed and stability instead of efficiency. We have compared MAS systems for rotor diameter of 1.3-7mm converted to dimensionless values with classical turbomachinery systems showing that the operation parameters (rotor diameter, inlet mass flow, spinning rate) are in the favorable range. This dimensionless analysis also supports radial turbines for low speed MAS probes and diagonal turbines for high speed MAS probes. Consequently, a change from Pelton type MAS turbines to diagonal turbines might be worth considering for high speed applications. CFD simulations of the radial bearings have been compared with basic theoretical values proposing considerably smaller frictional loss values. The discrepancies might be due to the simple linear flow profile employed for the theoretical model. Frictional losses generated inside the radial bearings result in undesired heat-up of the rotor. The rotor surface temperature distribution computed by CFD simulations show a large temperature gradient over the rotor. PMID:26073599

  5. Ultra-low temperature MAS-DNP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daniel; Bouleau, Eric; Saint-Bonnet, Pierre; Hediger, Sabine; De Paëpe, Gaël

    2016-03-01

    Since the infancy of NMR spectroscopy, sensitivity and resolution have been the limiting factors of the technique. Regular essential developments on this front have led to the widely applicable, versatile, and powerful spectroscopy that we know today. However, the Holy Grail of ultimate sensitivity and resolution is not yet reached, and technical improvements are still ongoing. Hence, high-field dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) making use of high-frequency, high-power microwave irradiation of electron spins has become very promising in combination with magic angle sample spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR experiments. This is because it leads to a transfer of the much larger polarization of these electron spins under suitable irradiation to surrounding nuclei, greatly increasing NMR sensitivity. Currently, this boom in MAS-DNP is mainly performed at minimum sample temperatures of about 100 K, using cold nitrogen gas to pneumatically spin and cool the sample. This Perspective deals with the desire to improve further the sensitivity and resolution by providing "ultra"-low temperatures for MAS-DNP, using cryogenic helium gas. Different designs on how this technological challenge has been overcome are described. It is shown that stable and fast spinning can be attained for sample temperatures down to 30 K using a large cryostat developed in our laboratory. Using this cryostat to cool a closed-loop of helium gas brings the additional advantage of sample spinning frequencies that can greatly surpass those achievable with nitrogen gas, due to the differing fluidic properties of these two gases. It is shown that using ultra-low temperatures for MAS-DNP results in substantial experimental sensitivity enhancements and according time-savings. Access to this temperature range is demonstrated to be both viable and highly pertinent.

  6. Heteromerization Between the Bradykinin B2 Receptor and the Angiotensin-(1-7) Mas Receptor: Functional Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrato, Bruno D; Carretero, Oscar A; Janic, Brana; Grecco, Hernán E; Gironacci, Mariela M

    2016-10-01

    Bradykinin B2 receptor (B2R) and angiotensin-(1-7) Mas receptor (MasR)-mediated effects are physiologically interconnected. The molecular basis for such cross talk is unknown. It is hypothesized that the cross talk occurs at the receptor level. We investigated B2R-MasR heteromerization and the functional consequences of such interaction. B2R fused to the cyan fluorescent protein and MasR fused to the yellow fluorescent protein were transiently coexpressed in human embryonic kidney293T cells. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer analysis showed that B2R and MasR formed a constitutive heteromer, which was not modified by their agonists. B2R or MasR antagonists decreased fluorescence resonance energy transfer efficiency, suggesting that the antagonist promoted heteromer dissociation. B2R-MasR heteromerization induced an 8-fold increase in the MasR ligand-binding affinity. On agonist stimulation, the heteromer was internalized into early endosomes with a slower sequestration rate from the plasma membrane, compared with single receptors. B2R-MasR heteromerization induced a greater increase in arachidonic acid release and extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation after angiotensin-(1-7) stimulation, and this effect was blocked by the B2R antagonist. Concerning serine/threonine kinase Akt activity, a significant bradykinin-promoted activation was detected in B2R-MasR but not in B2R-expressing cells. Angiotensin-(1-7) and bradykinin elicited antiproliferative effects only in cells expressing B2R-MasR heteromers, but not in cells expressing each receptor alone. Proximity ligation assay confirmed B2R-MasR interaction in human glomerular endothelial cells supporting the interaction between both receptors in vivo. Our findings provide an explanation for the cross talk between bradykinin B2R and angiotensin-(1-7) MasR-mediated effects. B2R-MasR heteromerization induces functional changes in the receptor that may lead to long-lasting protective properties. PMID

  7. A Construction Way of MAS Based on Organization Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Bo; FEI Qi; CHEN Xue-guang

    2002-01-01

    With emphasizing that the integration of autonomy and coordination is the basis for constructing multi-agent systems (MAS), we analyze the organizational characters inherent with MAS and point out that it's a natural and essential way to construct MAS based on organization theory. We consider that the emphasis of the theory is the process of system analyzing. Then we present an analysis frame to expound the process, which includes the process of organization definition, the process of role definition, the process of organizational structure definition and the process of interaction protocol definition. Lastly, we discuss some issues associated with the processes of system design and implementation.

  8. Angiotensin-(1-7 attenuates disuse skeletal muscle atrophy in mice via its receptor, Mas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Gabriela Morales

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Immobilization is a form of disuse characterized by a loss of strength and muscle mass. Among the main features are decreased IGF-1/Akt signalling and increased ubiquitin-proteasome pathway signalling, which induce greater myosin heavy chain degradation. Activation of the classical renin-angiotensin system (RAS causes deleterious effects in skeletal muscle, including muscle wasting. In contrast, angiotensin-(1-7 [Ang-(1-7], a peptide of the non-classical RAS, produces beneficial effects in skeletal muscle. However, the role of Ang-(1-7 in skeletal muscle disuse atrophy and independent of classical RAS activation has not been evaluated. Therefore, we assessed the functions of Ang-(1-7 and the Mas receptor in disuse muscle atrophy in vivo using unilateral cast immobilization of the hind limb in male, 12-week-old wild-type (WT and Mas-knockout (Mas KO mice for 1 and 14 days. Additionally, we evaluated the participation of IGF-1/IGFR-1/Akt signalling and ubiquitin-proteasome pathway expression on the effects of Ang-(1-7 immobilization-induced muscle atrophy. Our results found that Ang-(1-7 prevented decreased muscle strength and reduced myofiber diameter, myosin heavy chain levels, and the induction of atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 expressions, all of which normally occur during immobilization. Analyses indicated that Ang-(1-7 increases IGF-1/IGFR-1/Akt pathway signalling through IGFR-1 and Akt phosphorylation, and the concomitant activation of two downstream targets of Akt, p70S6K and FoxO3. These anti-atrophic effects of Ang-(1-7 were not observed in Mas KO mice, indicating crucial participation of the Mas receptor. This report is the first to propose anti-atrophic effects of Ang-(1-7 via the Mas receptor and the participation of the IGF-1/IGFR-1/Akt/p70S6K/FoxO3 mechanism in disuse skeletal muscle atrophy.

  9. An MAS-Based ETL Approach for Complex Data

    CERN Document Server

    Boussaïd, Omar; Darmont, Jérôme

    2008-01-01

    In a data warehousing process, the phase of data integration is crucial. Many methods for data integration have been published in the literature. However, with the development of the Internet, the availability of various types of data (images, texts, sounds, videos, databases...) has increased, and structuring such data is a difficult task. We name these data, which may be structured or unstructured, "complex data". In this paper, we propose a new approach for complex data integration, based on a Multi-Agent System (MAS), in association to a data warehousing approach. Our objective is to take advantage of the MAS to perform the integration phase for complex data. We indeed consider the different tasks of the data integration process as services offered by agents. To validate this approach, we have actually developed an MAS for complex data integration.

  10. Structural biology applications of solid state MAS DNP NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbey, Ümit; Oschkinat, Hartmut

    2016-08-01

    Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) has long been an aim for increasing sensitivity of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, delivering spectra in shorter experiment times or of smaller sample amounts. In recent years, it has been applied in magic angle spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR to a large range of samples, including biological macromolecules and functional materials. New research directions in structural biology can be envisaged by DNP, facilitating investigations on very large complexes or very heterogeneous samples. Here we present a summary of state of the art DNP MAS NMR spectroscopy and its applications to structural biology, discussing the technical challenges and factors affecting DNP performance.

  11. High-temperature MAS-NMR at high spinning speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhain, Holger; Holzinger, Julian; Mainka, Adrian; Spörhase, Andreas; Venkatachalam, Sabarinathan; Wixforth, Achim; van Wüllen, Leo

    2016-09-01

    A low cost version to enable high temperature MAS NMR experiments at temperatures of up to 700°C and spinning speeds of up to 10kHz is presented. The method relies on inductive heating using a metal coated rotor insert. The metal coating is accomplished via a two step process involving physical vapor deposition and galvanization.

  12. Angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT2R) and receptor Mas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villela, Daniel; Leonhardt, Julia; Patel, Neal;

    2015-01-01

    The angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT2R) and the receptor Mas are components of the protective arms of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), i.e. they both mediate tissue protective and regenerative actions. The spectrum of actions of these two receptors and their signalling mechanisms display striking...

  13. Commercial facility site selection simulating based on MAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yi; Li, Qingquan; Zheng, Guizhou

    2008-10-01

    The location of commercial facility decides the benefit of the operator to a large degree. Existing location methods can express the static relationships between site selection result and location factors, but there still are some limites when express the dynamic and uncertain relationship between them. Hence, a dynamic, stochastic and forecastable location model should be built which can introduce the customer's behavior into the model and combine the macro pattern and micro spatial interaction. So the authors proposes Geosim-LM based on MAS. Geosim-LM has 3 kinds of agents, CustAgent, SiteAgent and GovAgent. They represent the customers, commercial fercilities and government. The land type, land price and traffic are the model environment. Then Geosim-LM is applied in the bank branches site evaluation and selection in Liwan district, Guangzhou. In existing bank branches site evaluation, there are 70% consistent in score grade between result of Geosim-LM after 200 round runing and actual rebust location. It proves the model is reliable and feasible. The conclusions can be get from the paper. MAS have advantages in location choice than existed methods. The result of Geosim-LM running can powerfully proves that building location model based on MAS is feasible.

  14. MAS及其相关概念%MAS and Correlation Conceptions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程显毅; 董红斌

    2000-01-01

    The researching of MAS originates from distributed artificial intelligence ,because new theory framework is provided for solving some problems in complex and distributed environment ,MAS is valued increasingly by computer ,automatic control and management science.

  15. A general protocol for temperature calibration of MAS NMR probes at arbitrary spinning speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xudong; Stark, Ruth E

    2010-01-01

    A protocol using (207)Pb NMR of solid lead nitrate was developed to determine the temperature of magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR probes over a range of nominal set temperatures and spinning speeds. Using BioMAS and FastMAS probes with typical sample spinning rates of 8 and 35 kHz, respectively, empirical equations were devised to predict the respective sample temperatures. These procedures provide a straightforward recipe for temperature calibration of any MAS probe. PMID:21036557

  16. MAS-SCM for Auto Sector-The Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Sindhu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to describe in detail the development status of the innovative Multi -Agent based supply chain management (MAS-SCMAS for auto sector. This study was undertaken in view of the significance of improvement in efficiency of automobile sector and the development of a good multi-agent system framework to achieve that. The factors affecting the efficiency or OEE of the industry and the efficiency properties were identified. It was clearly revealed that the available model do not fulfill the needs in the supply chain management of automobile industry and there is a scope for evolving new model resulting in better efficiency.

  17. Optimization of MAS and MODIS Polar ocean cloud mask

    OpenAIRE

    Memmen, Sean P.

    2000-01-01

    With the reduction of funding for sea ice reconnaissance flights, the National/Naval Ice Center needs to capitalize on the improvements in satellite technology. Imaging sensors such as AVHRR, DMSP/OLS, SSM/I and RADARSAT have been used to detect the presence of sea ice, but with the exception of SSM/I and RADARSAT, clouds are a major obstacle to viewing the surface. With NASA's development of the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS), there i...

  18. Formalization of the Abstract Architecture of MAS Based on FIPA Specification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Liwei(郑丽伟); Yu Xueli; Feng Xiufang

    2003-01-01

    The FIPA specification of MAS (multi-agent system)is accepted by most of the applications of MAS in the world, and has been used in many projects. This paper draws an abstract architecture from the FIPA based MAS, and gives formalization about it.

  19. Milli-Arcsecond (MAS) Imaging of the Solar Corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Joseph M.; Oktem, Figen S.; Kamalabadi, Farzad; O'Neill, John; Novo-Gradac, Anne-Marie; Daw, Adrian N.; Rabin, Douglas M.

    2016-05-01

    Dissipation in the solar corona is believed to occur in extremely thin current sheets of order 1-100 km. Emission from these hot but thin current sheets should be visible in coronal EUV emission lines. However, this spatial scale is far below the resolution of existing imaging instruments, so these dissipation sites have never been observed individually. Conventional optics cannot be manufactured with sufficient surface figure accuracy to obtain the required spatial resolution in the extreme-ultraviolet where these hot plasmas radiate. A photon sieve, a diffractive imaging element similar to a Fresnel zone plate, can be manufactured to provide a few milli-arcsec (MAS) resolution, with much more readily achievable tolerances than with conventional imaging technology. Prototype photon sieve elements have been fabricated and tested in the laboratory. A full-scale ultra-high resolution instrument will require formation flying and computational image deconvolution. Significant progress has been made in overcoming these challenges, and some recent results in these areas are discussed. A simple design for a sounding rocket concept demonstration payload is presented that obtains 80 MAS (0.080 arcsec) imaging with a 100 mm diameter photon sieve to image Fe XIV 334 and Fe XVI 335. These images will show the structure of the corona at a resolution never before obtained, and they will also allow a study of the temperature structure in the dissipation region.

  20. 基于对策论的MAS-BDI主体模型%Modeling MAS-BDI Agent in Game Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴朝晖; 忻栋; 潘云鹤

    2001-01-01

    BDI Agent will choose the intention, which has minimal penalty and maximal income, to achieve its goal. While in multi-Agent system,it is hard for the Agent to find the best intention,not only because of the lack of information,but also the high complexity ot computation. The factors ,which will affect the Agents' decision-making,are the cooperation state of Agents ,the Agents' reasoning process,etc. In this paper,we introduce a new model of MAS-BDI Agent based on game theory,and propose the intention selection strategy for a single BDI Agent, (cooperated)multi-Agent and(uncooperated)multiAgent.

  1. MODIS Airborne simulator (MAS) Final Report for CLASIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Arnold; Steven Platnick

    2010-11-24

    The MAS was flown aboard the NASA ER-2 for the CLASIC field experiment, and for all data collected, provided calibrated and geolocated (Level-1B) radiance data for it’s 50 spectral bands (ranging in wavelength for 0.47 to 14.3 µm). From the Level-1B data, as directed in the Statement of Work, higher order (Level-2) data products were derived. The Level-2 products include: a) cloud optical thickness, b) cloud effective radius, c) cloud top height (temperature), d) cloud fraction, e) cloud phase products. Preliminary Level-1B and Level-2 products were provided during the field experiment (typically within one or two days of data collection). Final version data products were made available in December 2008 following considerable calibration analysis. Data collection, data processing (to Level-2), and discussion of the calibration work are summarized below.

  2. Food Waste Composting Study from Makanan Ringan Mas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, A. A.; Ismail, S. N. M.; Jamaludin, S. N.

    2016-07-01

    The poor management of municipal solid waste in Malaysia has worsened over the years especially on food waste. Food waste represents almost 60% of the total municipal solid waste disposed in the landfill. Composting is one of low cost alternative method to dispose the food waste. This study is conducted to compost the food waste generation in Makanan Ringan Mas, which is a medium scale industry in Parit Kuari Darat due to the lack knowledge and exposure of food waste recycling practice. The aim of this study is to identify the physical and chemical parameters of composting food waste from Makanan Ringan Mas. The physical parameters were tested for temperature and pH value and the chemical parameter are Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium. In this study, backyard composting was conducted with 6 reactors. Tapioca peel was used as fermentation liquid and soil and coconut grated were used as the fermentation bed. Backyard composting was conducted with six reactors. The overall results from the study showed that the temperature of the reactors were within the range which are from 30° to 50°C. The result of this study revealed that all the reactors which contain processed food waste tend to produce pH value within the range of 5 to 6 which can be categorized as slightly acidic. Meanwhile, the reactors which contained raw food waste tend to produce pH value within the range of 7 to 8 which can be categorized as neutral. The highest NPK obtained is from Reactor B that process only raw food waste. The average value of Nitrogen is 48540 mg/L, Phosphorus is 410 mg/L and Potassium is 1550 mg/L. From the comparison with common chemical fertilizer, it shows that NPK value from the composting are much lower than NPK of the common chemical fertilizer. However, comparison with NPK of organic fertilizer shown only slightly difference value in NPK.

  3. [Biologically active substances of cornelian cherry fruits (Cornus mas L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perova, I B; Zhogova, A A; Poliakova, A V; Éller, K I; Ramenskaia, G V; Samylina, I A

    2014-01-01

    10 samples of fresh-frozen cornelian cherry fruits (Cornus mas L.), collected in the Tambov and the Caucasus regions, were investigated for the total amount and composition of the main biologically active substances (BAS): anthocyanins (AC), proanthocyanidins (OPC), dihydroxycinnamic acids (DHCA), iridoids, organic acids, mono- and disaccharides and antiradical activity in the DPPH-test in vitro. Total phenolics content determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method, was 150-400 mg/100 g fresh fruit weight. The OPC content, estimated by Bate-Smith method, varied from 20-25 mg/100 g of unripe cornelian cherries to 80-430 mg/100 g of mature cornelian cherries. Total AC amount evaluated by pH-differential spectrophotometry was minimal in unripe fruits (11,2 mg/100 g), and maximal in mature fruits (92,2 mg/100 g). Profile of individual AC was determined by HPLC with UV/Vis and ESI-TOF-MS detections. 3-galactosides of cyanidin (19,0-80,3%) and pelargonidin (15,1-75,6%) were found as main anthocyanins. An original methodology for iridoid determination based on HPLC with UV and ESI-TOF-MS detection was developed. The main iridoids were identified as loganic acid, loganin, sweroside and cornuside. Total iridoids content was 130-400 mg/100 g, and loganic acid was predominant in all samples (87,6-94,8%). Only minor amount of the DHCA derivatives (cherries was represented by fructose (2,2-3,8%) and glucose (2,5-7,0%). 70% water-ethanol extracts of Cornus mas fruits have showed pronounced antiradical activity in DPPH-test (470,5-932,0 mg TE/100 g). The data on specific minor BAS can be used in the standardization and evaluation of potential biological activity of extracts and dietary supplements based on the cornelian cherry fruits. PMID:25816631

  4. MOS-2: A Two-Dimension Space for Positioning MAS Organizational Models

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas, Hosny; Shaheen, Samir

    2015-01-01

    The increased complexity and dynamism of present and future Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) enforce the need for considering both of their static (design-time) and the dynamic (run-time) aspects. A type of balance between the two aspects can definitely give better results related to system stability and adaptivity. MAS organization is the research area that is concerned with these issues and it is currently a very active and interesting research area. Designing a MAS with an initial organization an...

  5. An HR-MAS MR Metabolomics Study on Breast Tissues Obtained with Core Needle Biopsy

    OpenAIRE

    MuLan Li; Yonghyun Song; Nariya Cho; Jung Min Chang; Hye Ryoung Koo; Ann Yi; Hyeonjin Kim; Sunghyouk Park; Woo Kyung Moon

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Much research has been devoted to the development of new breast cancer diagnostic measures, including those involving high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopic techniques. Previous HR-MAS MR results have been obtained from post-surgery samples, which limits their direct clinical applicability. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we performed HR-MAS MR spectroscopic studies on 31 breast tissue samples (13 cancer and 18 non...

  6. Multi-Robot Remote Interaction with FS-MAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunliang Jiang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The need to reduce bandwidth, improve productivity, autonomy and the scalability in multi‐robot teleoperation has been recognized for a long time. In this article we propose a novel finite state machine mobile agent based on the network interaction service model, namely FS‐MAS. This model consists of three finite state machines, namely the Finite State Mobile Agent (FS‐Agent, which is the basic service module. The Service Content Finite State Machine (Content‐FS, using the XML language to define workflow, to describe service content and service computation process. The Mobile Agent computation model Finite State Machine (MACM‐FS, used to describe the service implementation. Finally, we apply this service model to the multi‐robot system, the initial realization completing complex tasks in the form of multi‐robot scheduling. This demonstrates that the robot has greatly improved intelligence, and provides a wide solution space for critical issues such as task division, rational and efficient use of resource and multi‐robot collaboration.

  7. Mas receptor deficiency exacerbates lipopolysaccharide-induced cerebral and systemic inflammation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Lima, Onésia C; Pinto, Mauro C X; Duchene, Johan; Qadri, Fatimunnisa; Souza, Laura L; Alenina, Natalia; Bader, Michael; Santos, Robson A S; Carvalho-Tavares, Juliana

    2015-12-01

    Beyond the classical actions of the renin-angiotensin system on the regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis, several studies have shown its involvement in acute and chronic inflammation. The G protein-coupled receptor Mas is a functional binding site for the angiotensin-(1-7); however, its role in the immune system has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we evaluated the effect of genetic deletion of Mas receptor in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced systemic and cerebral inflammation in mice. Inflammatory response was triggered in Mas deficient (Mas(-/-)) and C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice (8-12 weeks-old) by intraperitoneal injection of LPS (5 mg/kg). Mas(-/-) mice presented more intense hypothermia compared to WT mice 24 h after LPS injection. Systemically, the bone marrow of Mas(-/-) mice contained a lower number of neutrophils and monocytes 3 h and 24 h after LPS injection, respectively. The plasma levels of inflammatory mediators KC, MCP-1 and IL-10 were higher in Mas(-/-) mice 24 h after LPS injection in comparison to WT. In the brain, Mas(-/-) animals had a significant increase in the number of adherent leukocytes to the brain microvasculature compared to WT mice, as well as, increased number of monocytes and neutrophils recruited to the pia-mater. The elevated number of adherent leukocytes on brain microvasculature in Mas(-/-) mice was associated with increased expression of CD11b - the alpha-subunit of the Mac-1 integrin - in bone marrow neutrophils 3h after LPS injection, and with increased brain levels of chemoattractants KC, MIP-2 and MCP-1, 24 h later. In conclusion, we demonstrated that Mas receptor deficiency results in exacerbated inflammation in LPS-challenged mice, which suggest a potential role for the Mas receptor as a regulator of systemic and brain inflammatory response induced by LPS.

  8. The utility of MAS5 expression summary and detection call algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Claire L

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Used alone, the MAS5.0 algorithm for generating expression summaries has been criticized for high False Positive rates resulting from exaggerated variance at low intensities. Results Here we show, with replicated cell line data, that, when used alongside detection calls, MAS5 can be both selective and sensitive. A set of differentially expressed transcripts were identified that were found to be changing by MAS5, but unchanging by RMA and GCRMA. Subsequent analysis by real time PCR confirmed these changes. In addition, with the Latin square datasets often used to assess expression summary algorithms, filtered MAS5.0 was found to have performance approaching that of its peers. Conclusion When used alongside detection calls, MAS5 is a sensitive and selective algorithm for identifying differentially expressed genes.

  9. A New Algebraic Modelling Approach to Distributed Problem-Solving in MAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    帅典勋; 邓志东

    2002-01-01

    This paper is devoted to a new algebraic modelling approach to distributed problem-solving in multi-agent systems (MAS), which is featured by a unified framework for describing and treating social behaviors, social dynamics and social intelligence. A conceptual architecture of algebraic modelling is presented. The algebraic modelling of typical social behaviors, social situation and social dynamics is discussed in the context of distributed problemsolving in MAS. The comparison and simulation on distributed task allocations and resource assignments in MAS show more advantages of the algebraic approach than other conventional methods.

  10. Cassini's Maneuver Automation Software (MAS) Process: How to Successfully Command 200 Navigation Maneuvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Genevie Velarde; Mohr, David; Kirby, Charles E.

    2008-01-01

    To keep Cassini on its complex trajectory, more than 200 orbit trim maneuvers (OTMs) have been planned from July 2004 to July 2010. With only a few days between many of these OTMs, the operations process of planning and executing the necessary commands had to be automated. The resulting Maneuver Automation Software (MAS) process minimizes the workforce required for, and maximizes the efficiency of, the maneuver design and uplink activities. The MAS process is a well-organized and logically constructed interface between Cassini's Navigation (NAV), Spacecraft Operations (SCO), and Ground Software teams. Upon delivery of an orbit determination (OD) from NAV, the MAS process can generate a maneuver design and all related uplink and verification products within 30 minutes. To date, all 112 OTMs executed by the Cassini spacecraft have been successful. MAS was even used to successfully design and execute a maneuver while the spacecraft was in safe mode.

  11. DYNAMO-MAS: a multi-agent system for ontology evolution from text

    OpenAIRE

    Sellami, Zied; Camps, Valérie; Aussenac-Gilles, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    International audience Manual ontology development and evolution are complex and time-consuming tasks, even when textual documents are used as knowledge sources in addition to human expertise or existing ontologies. Processing natural language in text produces huge amounts of linguistic data that need to be filtered out and structured. To support both of these tasks, we have developed DYNAMO-MAS, an interactive tool based on an adaptive multi-agent system (adaptive MAS or AMAS) that builds...

  12. The protective effect of the Cornus mas fruits (cornelian cherry) on hypertriglyceridemia and atherosclerosis through PPARα activation in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sozański, T; Kucharska, A Z; Szumny, A; Magdalan, J; Bielska, K; Merwid-Ląd, A; Woźniak, A; Dzimira, S; Piórecki, N; Trocha, M

    2014-11-15

    Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) fruits have been used in traditional cuisine and in folk medicine in various countries. This study was conducted to evaluate the constituents and impact of cornelian cherry (C. mas L.) fruits lyophilisate on lipid levels, PPARα protein expression, atheromatous changes in the aorta, oxido-redox state, and proinflammatory cytokines in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. The HPLC-MS method was used for determining active constituents in cornelian cherry. In a subsequent in vivo study the protective effect of the cornelian cherry on diet-induced hyperlipidemia was studied using a rabbit model fed 1% cholesterol. Cornelian cherry (100mg/kg b.w.) or simvastatin (5mg/kg b.w.) were administered orally for 60 days. Two iridoids - loganic acid and cornuside - and five anthocyanins were identified as the main constituents of the cornelian cherry. The administering of the cornelian cherry led to a 44% significant decrease in serum triglyceride levels, as well as prevented development of atheromatous changes in the thoracic aorta. Cornelian cherry significantly increased PPARα protein expression in the liver, indicating that its hypolipidemic effect may stem from enhanced fatty acid catabolism. Simvastatin treatment did not affect PPAR-α expression. Moreover, the cornelian cherry had a significant protective effect on diet-induced oxidative stress in the liver, as well as restored upregulated proinflammatory cytokines serum levels. In conclusion, we have shown loganic acid to be the main iridoid constituent in the European cultivar of the cornelian cherry, and proven that the cornelian cherry could have protective effects on diet-induced hypertriglicerydemia and atherosclerosis through enhanced PPARα protein expression and via regulating oxidative stress and inflammation. PMID:25444446

  13. The development of the ProMAS: a Probabilistic Medication Adherence Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleppe M

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mieke Kleppe,1,2 Joyca Lacroix,2 Jaap Ham,1 Cees Midden1 1Human Technology Interaction, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, the Netherlands; 2Behavior, Cognition and Perception, Philips Research, Eindhoven, the Netherlands Abstract: Current self-report medication adherence measures often provide heavily skewed results with limited variance, suggesting that most participants are highly adherent. This contrasts with findings from objective adherence measures. We argue that one of the main limitations of these self-report measures is the limited range covered by the behaviors assessed. That is, the items do not match the adherence behaviors that people perform, resulting in a ceiling effect. In this paper, we present a new self-reported medication adherence scale based on the Rasch model approach (the ProMAS, which covers a wide range of adherence behaviors. The ProMAS was tested with 370 elderly receiving medication for chronic conditions. The results indicated that the ProMAS provided adherence scores with sufficient fit to the Rasch model. Furthermore, the ProMAS covered a wider range of adherence behaviors compared to the widely used Medication Adherence Report Scale (MARS instrument, resulting in more variance and less skewness in adherence scores. We conclude that the ProMAS is more capable of discriminating between people with different adherence rates than the MARS. Keywords: questionnaire design, probabilistic models, methodology

  14. A software framework for analysing solid-state MAS NMR data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Tim J; Fogh, Rasmus H; Boucher, Wayne; Higman, Victoria A; Eisenmenger, Frank; Bardiaux, Benjamin; van Rossum, Barth-Jan; Oschkinat, Hartmut; Laue, Ernest D

    2011-12-01

    Solid-state magic-angle-spinning (MAS) NMR of proteins has undergone many rapid methodological developments in recent years, enabling detailed studies of protein structure, function and dynamics. Software development, however, has not kept pace with these advances and data analysis is mostly performed using tools developed for solution NMR which do not directly address solid-state specific issues. Here we present additions to the CcpNmr Analysis software package which enable easier identification of spinning side bands, straightforward analysis of double quantum spectra, automatic consideration of non-uniform labelling schemes, as well as extension of other existing features to the needs of solid-state MAS data. To underpin this, we have updated and extended the CCPN data model and experiment descriptions to include transfer types and nomenclature appropriate for solid-state NMR experiments, as well as a set of experiment prototypes covering the experiments commonly employed by solid-sate MAS protein NMR spectroscopists. This work not only improves solid-state MAS NMR data analysis but provides a platform for anyone who uses the CCPN data model for programming, data transfer, or data archival involving solid-state MAS NMR data. PMID:21953355

  15. Neuroprotective Mechanisms of the ACE2-Angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas Axis in Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennion, Douglas M; Haltigan, Emily; Regenhardt, Robert W;

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of beneficial neuroprotective effects of the angiotensin converting enzyme 2-angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas axis [ACE2-Ang-(1-7)-Mas] in ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke has spurred interest in a more complete characterization of its mechanisms of action. Here, we summarize findings that desc...... complete understanding of the mechanisms of action of Ang-(1-7) to elicit neuroprotection will serve as an essential step toward research into potential targeted therapeutics in the clinical setting.......The discovery of beneficial neuroprotective effects of the angiotensin converting enzyme 2-angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas axis [ACE2-Ang-(1-7)-Mas] in ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke has spurred interest in a more complete characterization of its mechanisms of action. Here, we summarize findings...... that describe the protective role of the ACE2-Ang-(1-7)-Mas axis in stroke, along with a focused discussion on the potential mechanisms of neuroprotective effects of Ang-(1-7) in stroke. The latter incorporates evidence describing the actions of Ang-(1-7) to counter the deleterious effects of angiotensin II...

  16. Evidence for a systematic offset of $-$0.25~mas in the Gaia DR1 parallaxes

    CERN Document Server

    Stassun, Keivan G

    2016-01-01

    We test the parallaxes reported in the Gaia first data release using the sample of eclipsing binaries with accurate, empirical distances from Stassun & Torres (2016). We find a clear average offset of $-$0.25$\\pm$0.05 mas in the sense of the Gaia parallaxes being too small (i.e., the distances too long). The documented Gaia systematic uncertainty is 0.3 mas, which the eclipsing binary sample corroborates. The offset does not depend strongly on obvious parameters such as color, brightness, or spatial position. However, with a statistical significance of 99.7%, nearer stars possibly exhibit larger offsets according to $\\Delta\\pi \\approx -0.16 -0.02 \\times \\pi$ mas.

  17. Dibujo y pensamiento en la obra de Rafael Masó

    OpenAIRE

    Marañón González, Rafael Carlos

    2002-01-01

    Rafael Masó, arquitecto noucentista, es además, el artista adecuado para el análisis de una obra totalmente gráfica.Dibujos, escritos, gráficos y bocetos, son los elementos idóneos para que las ideas sobre la expresión gráfica, queden reflejados en esta Tesis Doctoral.Para conocer su obra gráfica, es necesario llegar a lo más profundo de sus pensamientos transmitidos por historiadores y la Familia Masó. Tanto su obra arquitectónica, como sus dibujos, son conocidos por expertos y estudiosos ...

  18. Learning by observing: information spillovers in the execution and valuation of commercial bank M&As

    OpenAIRE

    Gayle DeLong; Robert DeYoung

    2004-01-01

    We hypothesize that banks become better able to manage acquisitions, and investors become better able to value those acquisitions, as these parties ‘learn-by-observing’ information that spills-over from previous bank M&As. We find evidence consistent with these hypotheses for 216 M&As of large, publicly traded U.S. commercial banks between 1987 and 1999. Our theory and our results are predicated on the idea that acquisitions of large and increasingly complex commercial banks were a relatively...

  19. 29Si and 27Al MAS NMR spectra of mullites from different kaolinites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hongping; Guo, Jiugao; Zhu, Jianxi; Yuan, Peng; Hu, Cheng

    2004-04-01

    Mullites synthesized from four kaolinites with different random defect densities have been studied by 27Al and 29Si magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MAS NMR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). All these mullites show the same XRD pattern. However, 29Si and 27Al MAS NMR spectra reveal that the mullites derived from kaolinites with high defect densities, have a sillimanite-type Al/Si ordering scheme and are low in silica, whereas those mullites derived from kaolinites with low defect densities, consist of both sillimanite- and mullite-type Al/Si ordering schemes and are rich in silica. PMID:15084323

  20. Application of a Multi-Agent System (MAS) to Rational Credit Rating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A Multi-Agent System (MAS) is a promising approach to build complex system. This paper introduces the research of the Inner-Enterprise Credit Rating MAS (IECRMAS). To raise the ratingaccuracy, we not only consider the rating-target's information, but also focus on the evaluators' feature information and propose the rational rating-group formation algorithm based on an anti-bias measurement of the group. We also propose the rational rating individual, which consists of the evaluator and the assistant rating agent. A rational group formation protocol is designed to coordinate autonomous agents to perform the rating job.

  1. The Multidimensional Attitudes Scale toward Persons with Disabilities (MAS): Construction and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findler, Liora; Vilchinsky, Noa; Werner, Shirli

    2007-01-01

    This study presents the development of a new instrument, the "Multidimensional Attitudes Scale Toward Persons With Disabilities" (MAS). Based on the multidimensional approach, it posits that attitudes are composed of three dimensions: affect, cognition, and behavior. The scale was distributed to a sample of 132 people along with a self-esteem…

  2. Two-Stage MAS Technique for Analysis of DRA Elements and Arrays on Finite Ground Planes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Vesterdal; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2007-01-01

    A two-stage Method of Auxiliary Sources (MAS) technique is proposed for analysis of dielectric resonator antenna (DRA) elements and arrays on finite ground planes (FGPs). The problem is solved by first analysing the DRA on an infinite ground plane (IGP) and then using this solution to model the FGP...

  3. Advanced instrumentation for DNP-enhanced MAS NMR for higher magnetic fields and lower temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuki, Yoh; Idehara, Toshitaka; Fukazawa, Jun; Fujiwara, Toshimichi

    2016-03-01

    Sensitivity enhancement of MAS NMR using dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is gaining importance at moderate fields (B0 90 K) with potential applications in chemistry and material sciences. However, considering the ever-increasing size and complexity of the systems to be studied, it is crucial to establish DNP under higher field conditions, where the spectral resolution and the basic NMR sensitivity tend to improve. In this perspective, we overview our recent efforts on hardware developments, specifically targeted on improving DNP MAS NMR at high fields. It includes the development of gyrotrons that enable continuous frequency tuning and rapid frequency modulation for our 395 GHz-600 MHz and 460 GHz-700 MHz DNP NMR spectrometers. The latter 700 MHz system involves two gyrotrons and a quasi-optical transmission system that combines two independent sub-millimeter waves into a single dichromic wave. We also describe two cryogenic MAS NMR probe systems operating, respectively, at T ∼100 K and ∼30 K. The latter system utilizes a novel closed-loop helium recirculation mechanism, achieving cryogenic MAS without consuming any cryogen. These instruments altogether should promote high-field DNP toward more efficient, reliable and affordable technology. Some experimental DNP results obtained with these instruments are presented.

  4. Acceptance Test Report for the Modular Automation System (MAS) Manufactured by Honeywell Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document details the performance of the acceptance test of the Honeywell MAS Control System for equipment to be installed in gloveboxes HA-20MB and HA-211 at a later date. Equipment that was anticipated included 6 stabilization furnaces, only three and their associated equipment were installed

  5. Sealed rotors for in situ high temperature high pressure MAS NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jian Zhi; Hu, Mary Y; Zhao, Zhenchao; Xu, Suochang; Vjunov, Aleksei; Shi, Hui; Camaioni, Donald M; Peden, Charles H F; Lercher, Johannes A

    2015-09-11

    Here we present the design of reusable and perfectly sealed all-zirconia MAS rotors. The rotors are used to study AlPO4-5 molecular sieve crystallization under hydrothermal conditions, high temperature high pressure cyclohexanol dehydration reaction, and low temperature metabolomics of intact biological tissue. PMID:26171928

  6. Perencanaan Disain Deep Dig Arm pada Kapal Water Witch Untuk Pengerukan Sampah di Kali Mas Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Bambang Musriyadi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Kali Mas merupaka salah satu Sungai di Surabaya yang bermanfaat bagi hajat hidup penduduk Surabaya,Namun seiring berjalan waktu Kali Mas mengalami pendangkalan dan polusi sampah padat akibat pembuangan sampah sembarangan.Oleh karena itu penting untuk melakuakan pengerukan sendimen dan sampah yang efektif dan tepat agar tidak menggangu fungsi utama dari Kali Mas,maka perlu suatu alat untuk pengerukan,Backhoe dreger merupak alat yang tepat untuk pengerukan, akan tetapi harus disesuaikan lengan penerukannya agar efektif dalam beroperasi.Dalam pembuatan Tugas Akhir ini akan di disain Boom dan Arm dari Backhoe dreger untuk pengerukan di Kali mas di Surabaya.Sesuai dengan Kebutuhan dan aspek pertimbangan ukuran kapal telah ditentukan disain Boom dengan panjang 4.6m dan arm 2.1m dengan kapasitas Bucket 0.56 m3 .Dengan pemilihan matrial   Carbon Stell Sheet (SS 1023 dan ketebalan plat 10  mm,metode yang digunakan untuk analisa pembebanan adalah stress analisis pada Program Solid work,dan sebagai pertimbangan kelayakan

  7. An HR-MAS MR metabolomics study on breast tissues obtained with core needle biopsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MuLan Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Much research has been devoted to the development of new breast cancer diagnostic measures, including those involving high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS magnetic resonance (MR spectroscopic techniques. Previous HR-MAS MR results have been obtained from post-surgery samples, which limits their direct clinical applicability. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we performed HR-MAS MR spectroscopic studies on 31 breast tissue samples (13 cancer and 18 non-cancer obtained by percutaneous core needle biopsy. We showed that cancer and non-cancer samples can be discriminated very well with Orthogonal Projections to Latent Structure-Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA multivariate model on the MR spectra. A subsequent blind test showed 69% sensitivity and 94% specificity in the prediction of the cancer status. A spectral analysis showed that in cancer cells, taurine- and choline-containing compounds are elevated. Our approach, additionally, could predict the progesterone receptor statuses of the cancer patients. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: HR-MAS MR metabolomics on intact breast tissues obtained by core needle biopsy may have a potential to be used as a complement to the current diagnostic and prognostic measures for breast cancers.

  8. A novel BN–MAS system composite ceramics with greatly improved mechanical properties prepared by low temperature hot-pressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Delong; Yang, Zhihua, E-mail: zhyang@hit.edu.cn; Duan, Xiaoming; Liang, Bin; Li, Qian; Jia, Dechang, E-mail: dcjia@hit.edu.cn; Zhou, Yu

    2015-05-01

    A novel composite ceramics with excellent mechanical properties was fabricated by means of low temperature hot-pressing using hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and magnesium aluminum silicate (MAS) as raw materials. The influences of starting MAS content on the microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. The results indicate that the effective enhancement of relative density of composites has been achieved, which shows that MAS is an effective liquid-phase sintering aid during the hot-pressing. MAS also can improve the structural ordering of h-BN flakes. On the other hand, h-BN exhibits significant inhibiting effect on the crystallization of α-Cordierite. Furthermore, h-BN flakes with layered structure can play a role in strengthening the MAS matrix. So h-BN and MAS are considered to be co-enhanced by each other, resulting in better sintering ability and the mechanical properties of composite ceramics are better than that of both h-BN and MAS. Composite ceramics incorporated with 50 wt% MAS exhibits the highest bending strength and fracture toughness of 213±25 MPa and 2.49±0.35 MPa m{sup 1/2}, respectively.

  9. El Proyecto Sismico "LARSE" - Trabajando Hacia un Futuro con Mas Seguridad para Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henyey, Thomas L.; Fuis, Gary S.; Benthien, Mark L.; Burdette, Thomas R.; Christofferson, Shari A.; Clayton, Robert W.; Criley, Edward E.; Davis, Paul M.; Hendley, James W.; Kohler, Monica D.; Lutter, William J.; McRaney, John K.; Murphy, Janice M.; Okaya, David A.; Ryberg, Trond; Simila, Gerald W.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    1999-01-01

    La region de Los Angeles contiene una red de fallas activas, incluyendo muchas fallas por empuje que son profundas y no rompen la superficie de la tierra. Estas fallas ocultas incluyen la falla anteriormente desconocida que fue responsable por la devastacion que ocurrio durante el terremoto de Northridge en enero de 1994, el terremoto mas costoso en la historia de los Estados Unidos. El Experimento Sismico en la Region de Los Angeles (Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment, LARSE), esta localizando los peligros ocultos de los terremotos debajo de la region de Los Angeles para mejorar la construccion de las estructuras que pueden apoyar terremotos que son inevitables en el futuro, y que ayudaran a los cientificos determinar donde occurira el sacudimento mas fuerte y poderoso.

  10. Research on MAS-Based Supply Chain Resilience and Its Self-Organized Criticality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Geng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Building resilient supply chain is an effective way to deal with uncertain risks. First, by analyzing the self-organization of supply chain, the supply chain resilience is described as a macroscopic property that generates from self-organizing behavior of each enterprise on the microlevel. Second, a MAS-based supply chain resilience model is established and its local fitness function, neighborhood structure, and interaction rules that are applicable to supply chain system are designed through viewing the enterprise as an agent. Finally, with the help of a case, we find that there is an agglomeration effect and a SOC characteristic in supply chain and the evolution of supply chain is controlled by parameters of MAS. Managers can control the supply chain within the resilient range and choose a good balance between interest and risk by controlling enterprises’ behavior.

  11. Bibliotēku sistēmas klientu portāls

    OpenAIRE

    Bērziņš, Edgars

    2016-01-01

    „Bibliotēkas sistēmas klientu portāls” ir tīmeklī bāzēts portāls, kurš nodrošina uzņēmuma „Bibliotēkas Informācijas sistēmas ALISE” klientiem ērtu un drošu informācijas iegūšanu un ir viegli administrējams portāls. Projekts ir izstrādāts pēc spējas (agile) izstrādes metodes. Portāla izstrādē ir izmantota tīmekļa lietojumprogrammu sistēma MVC, kura pamatā izmanto ASP.NET tīmekļa vietņu programmēšanas valodu.

  12. PENGEMBANGAN EKOWISATA BERBASIS KERAKYATAN DI BANJAR NYUH KUNING, DESA MAS, UBUD

    OpenAIRE

    AGUNG SRI SULISTYAWATI

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is (1) to identify the potential of Banjar Nyuh Kuning Mas Village, Ubud has to offer as means of attraction in ecotourism which may be accomplished by identifying physical and non physical potential. (2) to develope a community based strategy in ecotourism. The sampling technique used is purposive sampling and accidental sampling. Data collection is accomplished through observatioan, questionaire, focus group discussion and documentation. Data analysis is by quali...

  13. Modelling Lyman α forest cross-correlations with LyMAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochhaas, Cassandra; Weinberg, David H.; Peirani, Sébastien; Dubois, Yohan; Colombi, Stéphane; Blaizot, Jérémy; Font-Ribera, Andreu; Pichon, Christophe; Devriendt, Julien

    2016-10-01

    We use the Lyα Mass Association Scheme (LyMAS) to predict cross-correlations at z = 2.5 between dark matter haloes and transmitted flux in the Lyα forest, and compare to cross-correlations measured for quasars and damped Lyα systems (DLAs) from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) by Font-Ribera et al. We calibrate LyMAS using Horizon-AGN hydrodynamical cosmological simulations of a (100 h- 1 Mpc)3 comoving volume. We apply this calibration to a (1 h- 1 Gpc)3 simulation realized with 20483 dark matter particles. In the 100 h- 1 Mpc box, LyMAS reproduces the halo-flux correlations computed from the full hydrodynamic gas distribution very well. In the 1 h- 1 Gpc box, the amplitude of the large-scale cross-correlation tracks the halo bias bh as expected. We provide empirical fitting functions that describe our numerical results. In the transverse separation bins used for the BOSS analyses, LyMAS cross-correlation predictions follow linear theory accurately down to small scales. Fitting the BOSS measurements requires inclusion of random velocity errors; we find best-fitting rms velocity errors of 399 and 252 {km} {s}^{-1} for quasars and DLAs, respectively. We infer bias-weighted mean halo masses of M_h/10^{12} h^{-1} M_{⊙}=2.19^{+0.16}_{-0.15} and 0.69^{+0.16}_{-0.14} for the host haloes of quasars and DLAs, with ˜0.2 dex systematic uncertainty associated with redshift evolution, intergalactic medium parameters, and selection of data fitting range.

  14. TANGGUNG JAWAB EKSPEDISI MUATAN KAPAL LAUT DALAM PENGIRIMAN BARANG MELALUI LAUT DI PELABUHAN TANJUNG MAS SEMARANG

    OpenAIRE

    PANDEIROTH, NOVRY NOLDY

    2015-01-01

    The title of this thesis is the, the responsibility of the expedition cargo marine through the ocean freight preformance in port Tanjung Mas Semarang. The problems of this study are : How is the responsibility of marine Cargo event of damage goods delivered and how the evidence and the process of compensation. This thesis is a type of empirical legal research,this approach is a focus of research conducted on the behavior of the legal community . Empirical legal research conducted through fiel...

  15. The Neuroprotective Effect of Cornus mas on Brain Tissue of Wistar Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Francik; Jadwiga Kryczyk; Mirosław Krośniak; Mehmet Berköz; Ilona Sanocka; Sławomir Francik

    2014-01-01

    Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas) is a valuable source of phenolic antioxidants. Flavonoid derivatives as nonenzymatic antioxidants are important in the pathophysiology of many diseases including neurological disorders (e.g., Alzheimer’s disease) or heart disease. In this study, we examined the effect of an addition of freeze-dried fruit of cornelian cherry on three types of diets: control diet, fructose diet, and diet enriched in fats (high-fat diet). This effect was studied by determining the f...

  16. Processing of CP MAS kinetics: Towards NMR crystallography for complex solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagys, Laurynas; Klimavicius, Vytautas; Balevicius, Vytautas

    2016-09-01

    Variable temperature and high data point density measurements of 1H-31P cross-polarization kinetics in the powdered ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP) have been carried out in the range of -40 °C to +90 °C upon 7 and 10 kHz MAS. The advanced route of processing CP MAS kinetic data has been developed. It is based on reducing the incoherent far range order spin couplings and extracting the CP oscillatory term with the sequent mathematical treatment. The proper replica has been found, which allowed to reduce the Fourier-Bessel (Hankel) transform calculating the angularly averaged and purely distance-depending spin distribution profile to the routine Fourier transform. The shortest 31P-1H distances determined by CP MAS kinetics get between the values obtained by neutron and X-ray diffraction, whereas those for more remote protons are slightly larger. The changes in P⋯H distances are hardly noticeable, though a certain trend to increase upon the heating can be deduced. The clearly pronounced effect was the increase of the spin-diffusion rate constant upon heating. It allows to state that the communication between interacting spins is the process extremely easy to activate.

  17. Detection of Ethambutol - resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains by MAS-PCR method and comparison with Proportion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Asgharzadeh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose: Ethambutol (EMB is one of the first - line drugs used for anti-tubercular therapy but resistance to this medicine is developed in many parts of the world. EMB resistant strains commonly have embB mutations. Purpose of this research was detection of EMB-resistant Mycobactercium tuberculosis strains isolated from patients by MAS-PCR method and comparison with Proportion procedure.Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty M. tuberculosis strains were isolated from patients with tulerculosis in Tabriz TB research center. Susceptibility testing to EMB was performed by the Proportion method. DNA was isolated from cultivated cells by SDS-proteinase K modified method. Isolated DNA was used as the template for PCR reaction.Results: One hundred and sixteen strains were susceptible to EMB and 4 (3.33% strains were resistant to EMB. All EMB resistant strains were multidrug-resistant. The MAS-PCR method was used to evaluate of mutation in the embB306 codon. Mutation was seen at the embB306 codon in all resistant strains to ethambutol.Conclusion: The results showed that MAS-PCR method can be used as a simple and rapid procedure for detecting EMB-resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains.

  18. MAS/MILS Arc/Info point coverage for the western U.S. (excluding Hawaii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causey, J. Douglas

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has two international and one regional digital database that contains information on mineral properties. This report describes the conversion of selected data from one of the international databases - MAS/MILS (Mineral Availability System/Mineral Industry Location System) - into a spatial data product. The MAS/MILS database, obtained from the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) upon its closure, contains over 221,000 records of mineral properties and processing facilities throughout the world. However, the majority of the records in the database are of sites located in the western U.S. This is due to the extensive mineral activity that has occurred in the West, and the work done by mineral professionals in the Western, Alaska, and Intermountain Field Operations Centers of the USBM. The purpose of this project was to create a spatial coverage of the western U.S. containing mineral resource information. This coverage includes information for the states of Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming. For this report, locations from MAS/MILS were converted to a point coverage using a geographic information system (GIS). All work was done using Arc/Info v. 7.0.4. There are 128,441 points in the coverage.

  19. Modeling Lyman-\\alpha\\ Forest Cross-Correlations with LyMAS

    CERN Document Server

    Lochhaas, Cassandra; Peirani, Sébastien; Dubois, Yohan; Colombi, Stéphane; Blaizot, Jérémy; Font-Ribera, Andreu; Pichon, Christophe; Devriendt, Julien

    2015-01-01

    We use the Ly-$\\alpha$ Mass Association Scheme (LyMAS; Peirani et al. 2014) to predict cross-correlations at z = 2.5 between dark matter halos and transmitted flux in the Ly-$\\alpha$ forest, and we compare these predictions to cross-correlations measured for quasars and damped Ly-$\\alpha$ systems (DLAs) from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) by Font-Ribera et al. (2012, 2013). We calibrate and test LyMAS using Horizon-AGN hydrodynamical cosmological simulations of a $(100\\ h^{-1}\\ \\rm{Mpc})^3$ comoving volume with and without AGN feedback. We apply this calibration to a $(1\\ h^{-1}\\ \\rm{Gpc})^3$ simulation realized with $2048^3$ dark matter particles for our primary predictions. In the $100\\ h^{-1}\\ \\rm{Mpc}$ box, LyMAS reproduces the halo-flux correlations computed from the full hydrodynamic gas distribution essentially perfectly. In the $1\\ h^{-1}\\ \\rm{Gpc}$ box, the amplitude of the cross-correlation tracks the halo bias as expected, and the correlation for a halo sample with a distributio...

  20. Phase cycling schemes for finite-pulse-RFDR MAS solid state NMR experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rongchun; Nishiyama, Yusuke; Sun, Pingchuan; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2015-03-01

    The finite-pulse radio frequency driven dipolar recoupling (fp-RFDR) pulse sequence is used in 2D homonuclear chemical shift correlation experiments under magic angle spinning (MAS). A recent study demonstrated the advantages of using a short phase cycle, XY4, and its super-cycle, XY4(1)4, for the fp-RFDR pulse sequence employed in 2D (1)H/(1)H single-quantum/single-quantum correlation experiments under ultrafast MAS conditions. In this study, we report a comprehensive analysis on the dipolar recoupling efficiencies of XY4, XY4(1)2, XY4(1)3, XY4(1)4, and XY8(1)4 phase cycles under different spinning speeds ranging from 10 to 100 kHz. The theoretical calculations reveal the presence of second-order terms (T(10)T(2,±2), T(1,±1)T(2,±1), etc.) in the recoupled homonuclear dipolar coupling Hamiltonian only when the basic XY4 phase cycle is utilized, making it advantageous for proton-proton magnetization transfer under ultrafast MAS conditions. It is also found that the recoupling efficiency of fp-RFDR is quite dependent on the duty factor (τ180/τR) as well as on the strength of homonuclear dipolar couplings. The rate of longitudinal magnetization transfer increases linearly with the duty factor of fp-RFDR for all the XY-based phase cycles investigated in this study. Examination of the performances of different phase cycles against chemical shift offset and RF field inhomogeneity effects revealed that XY4(1)4 is the most tolerant phase cycle, while the shortest phase cycle XY4 suppressed the RF field inhomogeneity effects most efficiently under slow spinning speeds. Our results suggest that the difference in the fp-RFDR recoupling efficiencies decreases with the increasing MAS speed, while ultrafast (>60 kHz) spinning speed is advantageous as it recouples a large amount of homonuclear dipolar couplings and therefore enable fast magnetization exchange. The effects of higher-order terms and cross terms between various interactions in the effective Hamiltonian of fp

  1. Activation of the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas pathway reduces oxygen-glucose deprivation induced tissue swelling, ROS production, and cell death in mouse brain with angiotensin II overproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Jiaolin; Li, Guangze; Chen, Shuzhen; Chen, Ji; Buck, Joshua; Zhu, Yulan; Xia, Huijing; Lazartigues, Eric; Chen, Yanfang; Olson, James E.

    2014-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that mice which overexpress human renin and angiotensinogen (R+A+) show enhanced cerebral damage in both in vivo and in vitro experimental ischemia models. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) counteracts the effects of angiotensin (Ang-II) by transforming it into Ang-(1-7), thus reducing the ligand for the AT1 receptor and increasing stimulation of the Mas receptor. Triple transgenic mice, SARA, which specifically overexpress ACE2 in neurons of R+A+ mice were use...

  2. The novel 10-item asthma prediction tool: external validation in the German MAS birth cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linus B Grabenhenrich

    Full Text Available A novel non-invasive asthma prediction tool from the Leicester Cohort, UK, forecasts asthma at age 8 years based on 10 predictors assessed in early childhood, including current respiratory symptoms, eczema, and parental history of asthma.We aimed to externally validate the proposed asthma prediction method in a German birth cohort.The MAS-90 study (Multicentre Allergy Study recorded details on allergic diseases prospectively in about yearly follow-up assessments up to age 20 years in a cohort of 1,314 children born 1990. We replicated the scoring method from the Leicester cohort and assessed prediction, performance and discrimination. The primary outcome was defined as the combination of parent-reported wheeze and asthma drugs (both in last 12 months at age 8. Sensitivity analyses assessed model performance for outcomes related to asthma up to age 20 years.For 140 children parents reported current wheeze or cough at age 3 years. Score distribution and frequencies of later asthma resembled the Leicester cohort: 9% vs. 16% (MAS-90 vs. Leicester of children at low risk at 3 years had asthma at 8 years, at medium risk 45% vs. 48%. Performance of the asthma prediction tool in the MAS-90 cohort was similar (Brier score 0.22 vs. 0.23 and discrimination slightly better than in the original cohort (area under the curve, AUC 0.83 vs. 0.78. Prediction and discrimination were robust against changes of inclusion criteria, scoring and outcome definitions. The secondary outcome 'physicians' diagnosed asthma at 20 years' showed the highest discrimination (AUC 0.89.The novel asthma prediction tool from the Leicester cohort, UK, performed well in another population, a German birth cohort, supporting its use and further development as a simple aid to predict asthma risk in clinical settings.

  3. Deuterium and lithium-6 MAS NMR studies of manganese oxide electrode materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Younkee

    Electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD) is used world wide as the cathode materials in both lithium and alkaline primary (non-rechargeable) batteries. We have developed deuterium and lithium MAS NMR techniques to study EMD and related manganese oxides and hydroxides, where diffraction techniques are of limited value due to a highly defective nature of the structures. Deuterons in EMD, manganite, groutite, and deuterium-intercalated pyrolusite and ramsdellite were detected by NMR, for the first time, and their locations and motions in the structures were analyzed by applying variable temperature NMR techniques. Discharge mechanisms of EMD in alkaline (aqueous) electrolytes were studied, in conjunction with step potential electrochemical spectroscopic (SPECS) method, and five distinctive discharge processes were proposed. EMD is usually heat-treated at about 300--400°C to remove water to be used in lithium batteries. Details of the effects of heat-treatment, such as structural and compositional changes as a function of heat-treatment temperature, were studied by a combination of MAS NMR, XRD, and thermogravimetric analysis. Lithium local environments in heat-treated EMD (HEMD) that were discharged in lithium cells, were described in terms of related environments found in model compounds pyrolusite and ramsdellite where specific Li + sites were detected by MAS NMR and the hyperfine shift scale method of Grey et al. Acid-leaching of Li2MnO3 represents an approach for synthesizing new or modified manganese oxide electrode materials for lithium rechargeable batteries. Progressive removal of lithium from specific crystallographic sites, followed by a gradual change of the crystal structure, was monitored by a combination of NMR and XRD techniques.

  4. Design and implementation of a multi-axis precision movement machine based on MAS theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li MA; Linlin CI; Genyan GE

    2009-01-01

    A model construction of a multi-agent system (MAS) and the basic function of the agent are described.The precision control method using the multi-CPU of a programmable logic controller (PLC) is introduced,and a distributed method using multiple CPUs to control different motion machines is given.The test results indicate that in industrial control fields,the combination of using the credible PLC to control the motion machine and multi-CPU task distributing methods can solve multi-axis machine linkage and implication,providing a more credible method for multi-axis motion units.

  5. MAS: Malware Analysis System Based on Hardware-Assisted Virtualization Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taehyoung; Kim, Inhyuk; Min, Changwoo; Eom, Young Ik

    There are many analysis techniques in order to analyze malicious codes. However, recently malicious codes often evade detection using stealthy obfuscation techniques, and attack computing systems. We propose an enhanced dynamic binary instrumentation using hardware-assisted virtualization technology. As a machine-level analyzer, our system can be isolated from almost the whole threats of malware, and provides single step analysis environment. Proposed system also supports rapid system call analysis environment. We implement our malware analysis system (referred as MAS) on the KVM hypervisor with Intel VT-x virtualization support. Our experiments with benchmarks show that the proposed system provides efficient analysis environment with low overhead.

  6. MAS Equipped with Ant Colony Applied into Dynamic Job Shop Scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kai; Zhang, Ren Feng; Yang, Yan Qing

    This paper presents a methodology adopting the new structure of MAS(multi-agent system) equipped with ACO(ant colony optimization) algorithm for a better schedule in dynamic job shop. In consideration of the dynamic events in the job shop arriving indefinitely schedules are generated based on tasks with ant colony algorithm. Meanwhile, the global objective is taken into account for the best solution in the actual manufacturing environment. The methodology is tested on a simulated job shop to determine the impact with the new structure.

  7. Exposure (mAs) optimisation of a multi-detector CT protocol for hepatic lesion detection: are thinner slices better?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work was to determine the exposure-optimised slice thickness for hepatic lesion detection with CT. A phantom containing spheres (diameter 9.5, 4.8 and 2.4mm) with CT density 10 HU below the background (50 HU) was scanned at 125, 100, 75 and 50 mAs. Data were reconstructed at 5-, 3- and 1-mm slice thicknesses. Noise, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), area under the curve (AUC) as calculated using receiver operating characteristic analysis and sensitivity representing lesion detection were calculated and compared. Compared with the 125 mAs/5mm slice thickness setting, significant reductions in AUC were found for 75 mAs (P<0.01) and 50 mAs (P<0.05) at 1- and 3-mm thicknesses, respectively; sensitivity for the 9.5-mm sphere was significantly reduced for 75 (P<0.05) and 50 mAs (P<0.01) at 1-mm thickness; sensitivity for the 4.8-mm sphere was significantly lower for 100, 75 and 50 mAs at all three slice thicknesses (P<0.05). The 2.4-mm sphere was rarely detected. At each slice thickness, noise at 100, 75 and 50 mAs exposures was approximately 10, 30 and 50% higher, respectively, than that at 125 mAs exposure. CNRs decreased in an irregular manner with reductions in exposure and slice thickness. This study demonstrated no advantage to using slices below 5mm thickness, and consequently thinner slices are not necessarily better.

  8. Pengaruh Inovasi Dan Jiwa Kewirausahaan Terhadap Keberhasilan Usaha (Studi Kasus: Pelaku UMKM Kuliner Chinatown Asia Mega Mas Medan)

    OpenAIRE

    Mawaddah, Nadia Inda

    2016-01-01

    This research was conducted to examine the effect of innovation and entrepreneurs Spirit to business success (Case Study: SMEs Of Kuliner Chinatown Asia Mega Mas Medan). The research was conducted on SMEs in the Asia Mega Mas with a total sample of 35 businesses. The sampling method used in this research was saturated sampling by using descriptive analysis method, statistical analysis method whis consist of double linear regression analysis, simultaneous significance test (F-test), partial si...

  9. TICITL: SER Y HACER. PERSONAJES DIVINOS ANTECESORES DE LA ENFERMERÍA PERINATAL MEXICANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danelia Gómez Torres

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La historia influye en la concepción del significado de enfermería, razón para desarrollar esta investigación de corte histórico, cualitativa, siendo su objeto de estudio el devenir histórico de la Ticitl durante la época precolonial. Tiene como objetivo mostrar el nivel jerárquico de la cuidadora de salud de esa época, y las intervenciones realizadas para cuidar la salud. Se realizo un abordaje sistémico para la recolección, organización y evaluación crítica de los datos. El nombramiento del cargo estaba dado de acuerdo con el derecho romano; al designarla era señalada su responsabilidad de origen divino; antes de ejercer su profesión, adquirían una práctica que duraba varios años, convirtiéndolas en seres respetados y estimados en la sociedad, debiendo presentarse ante un consejo anualmente para verificar sus conocimientos. La Ticitl ejercía un verdadero "matriarcado obstétrico", y era tratada con veneración por los valiosos servicios que prestaba durante el embarazo, mediante cuidados, orientaciones y ceremonias religiosas.

  10. Production and characterization of a bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance produced by indigenous soil associated pseudomonas putida mas-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacteriocins have been the subject of extensive research globally due to wide range applications. The aim of this research was to investigate the production of bacteriocin(s) or bacteriocin like inhibitory substance(s) by Pseudomonas putida MAS-1 strain. The bacteriocin produced (Putidacin MAS-1) was found bioactive against clinical Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis strains. Bioactivity was observed by stab and overlay assay and multiwell antagonistic activity assay. Putidacin MAS-1 was sensitive beyond 70 degree C but stable at wide pH range (3 to 8). Bioactivity of putidacin MAS-1 was lost after treatment with trypsin and protease while partially lost after Proteinase K treatment. Treatment with ethanol, methanol, chloroform, acetone Tween 20 and Tween 80 showed partial decrease in bioactivity. SDS had stimulatory effect on putidacin MAS-1 bioactivity. EDTA however, showed no effect on the bacteriocin bioactivity. It was partially purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation. SDS-PAGE showed that Putidacin MAS-1 had 15 kDa molecular weight. (author)

  11. “La iconografía masónica y sus fuentes”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pere Sánchez Ferré

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El corpus iconográfico de la masonería es un elemento esencial en las prácticas rituales y un soporte privilegiado para transmitir sus doctrinas, su saber y su ciencia. Las imágenes y símbolos masónicos trascienden la experiencia estética para adentrarse en el terreno de lo iniciático, es decir, de lo espiritual; por lo tanto, el legado iconográfico que la Orden ha conservado es una representación del mundo sagrado a la que solamente se accede mediante su propio lenguaje: el simbólico, vehículo y fundamento de su sabiduría. Por ende, el objetivo del siguiente trabajo es analizar las fuentes en las que se ha inspirado el imaginario masónico a fin de comprender su significado primero y radical, su naturaleza original y los elementos que lo componen. Se intentará también poner de manifiesto el itinerario experimentado por este universo iconográfico desde el siglo XVIII hasta la actualidad, lo cual revelará la naturaleza de la metamorfosis experimentada por la masonería moderna desde su fundación.

  12. Resource-Efficient Floating-Point Data Compression Using MAS in WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher El Assi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In a wide range of applications, large amounts of f loating-point data are generated by Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs. This data is often transferred bet ween several sensor nodes, in a multi-hop fashion, before reaching its ultimate destination (the base station. It is well known that data communications is the most energy-consuming task in sensor nodes [1]. Thi s can be a great concern when the nodes are constrained in energy. Therefore, the amount of dat a to be transferred between nodes should be reduced to save energy. In this paper, we investigate data com pression for resource-constraint WSNs; we introduce MAS as a novel adaptive lossless floating-point dat a compression algorithm for WSNs. MAS exploits the disproportionality in energy consumption between da ta transmission and processing. Simulation results, obtained from OMNeT++ and Atmel Studio, show that M AS surpasses other tested compression algorithms in terms of compression ratio, compression speed, m emory requirements and most importantly energy savings.

  13. Raman and 31P MAS NMR spectroscopic studies of lead phosphate glasses containing thorium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    (PbO)0.5(P2O5)0.5 glasses in which part of the PbO/ P2O5 was replaced by ThO2 up to 10 mol% have been prepared by conventional melt quench method and characterized by Raman and 31P MAS NMR spectroscopic studies. Raman studies of these samples clearly revealed the existence of PO4 structural units having two non bridging oxygen atoms attached to phosphorus (PO22-). The 31P MAS NMR studies indicated the presence of two types of phosphorus structural units in both PbO -P2O5 and PbO-P2O5-ThO2 glasses, namely Q2 and Q1 (PO4 structural units with 2 and 1 bridging oxygen atoms respectively). Increase in the concentration of ThO2 at the expense of both PbO/P2O5 has been found to result in the increased amount of Q1 structural units of phosphorus, indicating that ThO2 acts as only a network modifier. ThO2 has been found to form the glassy phase with PbO-P2O5 system only up to 10 mol%. (author)

  14. Structural analysis of molybdo-zinc-phosphate glasses: Neutron scattering, FTIR, Raman scattering, MAS NMR studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renuka, C.; Shinde, A. B.; Krishna, P. S. R.; Reddy, C. Narayana

    2016-08-01

    Vitreous samples were prepared in the xMoO3-17ZnO-(83-x) NaPO3 with 35 ≥ x ≥ 55 glass forming system by energy efficient microwave heating method. Structural evolution of the vitreous network was monitored as a function of composition by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman scattering, Magic Angle Spin Nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) and Neutron scattering. Addition of MoO3 to the ZnO-NaPO3 glass leads to a pronounced increase in glass transition temperature (Tg) suggesting a significant increase in network connectivity and strength. In order to analyze FTIR and Raman scattering, a simple structural model is presented to rationalize the experimental observations. A number of structural units are formed due to network modification, and the resulting glass may be characterized by a network polyhedral with different numbers of unshared corners. 31P MAS NMR confirms a clear distinction between structural species having 3, 2, 1, 0 bridging oxygens (BOs). Further, Neutron scattering studies were used to probe the structure of these glasses. The result suggests that all the investigated glasses have structures based on chains of four coordinated phosphate and six coordinated molybdate units, besides, two different lengths of P-O bonds in tetrahedral phosphate units that are assigned to bonds of the P-atom with terminal and bridging oxygen atoms.

  15. Increasing brain angiotensin converting enzyme 2 activity decreases anxiety-like behavior in male mice by activating central Mas receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; de Kloet, Annette D; Pati, Dipanwita; Hiller, Helmut; Smith, Justin A; Pioquinto, David J; Ludin, Jacob A; Oh, S Paul; Katovich, Michael J; Frazier, Charles J; Raizada, Mohan K; Krause, Eric G

    2016-06-01

    Over-activation of the brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been implicated in the etiology of anxiety disorders. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) inhibits RAS activity by converting angiotensin-II, the effector peptide of RAS, to angiotensin-(1-7), which activates the Mas receptor (MasR). Whether increasing brain ACE2 activity reduces anxiety by stimulating central MasR is unknown. To test the hypothesis that increasing brain ACE2 activity reduces anxiety-like behavior via central MasR stimulation, we generated male mice overexpressing ACE2 (ACE2 KI mice) and wild type littermate controls (WT). ACE2 KI mice explored the open arms of the elevated plus maze (EPM) significantly more than WT, suggesting increasing ACE2 activity is anxiolytic. Central delivery of diminazene aceturate, an ACE2 activator, to C57BL/6 mice also reduced anxiety-like behavior in the EPM, but centrally administering ACE2 KI mice A-779, a MasR antagonist, abolished their anxiolytic phenotype, suggesting that ACE2 reduces anxiety-like behavior by activating central MasR. To identify the brain circuits mediating these effects, we measured Fos, a marker of neuronal activation, subsequent to EPM exposure and found that ACE2 KI mice had decreased Fos in the bed nucleus of stria terminalis but had increased Fos in the basolateral amygdala (BLA). Within the BLA, we determined that ∼62% of GABAergic neurons contained MasR mRNA and expression of MasR mRNA was upregulated by ACE2 overexpression, suggesting that ACE2 may influence GABA neurotransmission within the BLA via MasR activation. Indeed, ACE2 overexpression was associated with increased frequency of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (indicative of presynaptic release of GABA) onto BLA pyramidal neurons and central infusion of A-779 eliminated this effect. Collectively, these results suggest that ACE2 may reduce anxiety-like behavior by activating central MasR that facilitate GABA release onto pyramidal neurons within the

  16. Transactivation of ErbB Family of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases Is Inhibited by Angiotensin-(1-7 via Its Mas Receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saghir Akhtar

    Full Text Available Transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR or ErbB family members, namely EGFR and ErbB2, appears important in the development of diabetes-induced vascular dysfunction. Angiotensin-(1-7 [Ang-(1-7] can prevent the development of hyperglycemia-induced vascular complications partly through inhibiting EGFR transactivation. Here, we investigated whether Ang-(1-7 can inhibit transactivation of ErbB2 as well as other ErbB receptors in vivo and in vitro. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were chronically treated with Ang-(1-7 or AG825, a selective ErbB2 inhibitor, for 4 weeks and mechanistic studies performed in the isolated mesenteric vasculature bed as well as in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs. Ang-(1-7 or AG825 treatment inhibited diabetes-induced phosphorylation of ErbB2 receptor at tyrosine residues Y1221/22, Y1248, Y877, as well as downstream signaling via ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, ROCK, eNOS and IkB-α in the mesenteric vascular bed. In VSMCs cultured in high glucose (25 mM, Ang-(1-7 inhibited src-dependent ErbB2 transactivation that was opposed by the selective Mas receptor antagonist, D-Pro7-Ang-(1-7. Ang-(1-7 via Mas receptor also inhibited both Angiotensin II- and noradrenaline/norephinephrine-induced transactivation of ErbB2 and/or EGFR receptors. Further, hyperglycemia-induced transactivation of ErbB3 and ErbB4 receptors could be attenuated by Ang-(1-7 that could be prevented by D-Pro7-Ang-(1-7 in VSMC. These data suggest that Ang-(1-7 via its Mas receptor acts as a pan-ErbB inhibitor and might represent a novel general mechanism by which Ang-(1-7 exerts its beneficial effects in many disease states including diabetes-induced vascular complications.

  17. Lipid bilayer-bound conformation of an integral membrane beta barrel protein by multidimensional MAS NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy, Matthew T. [The Scripps Research Institute, Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology (United States); Su, Yongchao; Silvers, Robert; Andreas, Loren; Clark, Lindsay [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry (United States); Wagner, Gerhard [Harvard Medical School, Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology (United States); Pintacuda, Guido; Emsley, Lyndon [Université de Lyon, Centre de RMN à Très Hauts Champs, Institut des Sciences Analytiques (CNRS, ENS Lyon, UCB Lyon 1) (France); Griffin, Robert G., E-mail: rgg@mit.edu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry (United States)

    2015-04-15

    The human voltage dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC) is a 32 kDa β-barrel integral membrane protein that controls the transport of ions across the outer mitochondrial membrane. Despite the determination of VDAC solution and diffraction structures, a structural basis for the mechanism of its function is not yet fully understood. Biophysical studies suggest VDAC requires a lipid bilayer to achieve full function, motivating the need for atomic resolution structural information of VDAC in a membrane environment. Here we report an essential step toward that goal: extensive assignments of backbone and side chain resonances for VDAC in DMPC lipid bilayers via magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR). VDAC reconstituted into DMPC lipid bilayers spontaneously forms two-dimensional lipid crystals, showing remarkable spectral resolution (0.5–0.3 ppm for {sup 13}C line widths and <0.5 ppm {sup 15}N line widths at 750 MHz). In addition to the benefits of working in a lipid bilayer, several distinct advantages are observed with the lipid crystalline preparation. First, the strong signals and sharp line widths facilitated extensive NMR resonance assignments for an integral membrane β-barrel protein in lipid bilayers by MAS NMR. Second, a large number of residues in loop regions were readily observed and assigned, which can be challenging in detergent-solubilized membrane proteins where loop regions are often not detected due to line broadening from conformational exchange. Third, complete backbone and side chain chemical shift assignments could be obtained for the first 25 residues, which comprise the functionally important N-terminus. The reported assignments allow us to compare predicted torsion angles for VDAC prepared in DMPC 2D lipid crystals, DMPC liposomes, and LDAO-solubilized samples to address the possible effects of the membrane mimetic environment on the conformation of the protein. Concluding, we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the

  18. Lipid bilayer-bound conformation of an integral membrane beta barrel protein by multidimensional MAS NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The human voltage dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC) is a 32 kDa β-barrel integral membrane protein that controls the transport of ions across the outer mitochondrial membrane. Despite the determination of VDAC solution and diffraction structures, a structural basis for the mechanism of its function is not yet fully understood. Biophysical studies suggest VDAC requires a lipid bilayer to achieve full function, motivating the need for atomic resolution structural information of VDAC in a membrane environment. Here we report an essential step toward that goal: extensive assignments of backbone and side chain resonances for VDAC in DMPC lipid bilayers via magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR). VDAC reconstituted into DMPC lipid bilayers spontaneously forms two-dimensional lipid crystals, showing remarkable spectral resolution (0.5–0.3 ppm for 13C line widths and <0.5 ppm 15N line widths at 750 MHz). In addition to the benefits of working in a lipid bilayer, several distinct advantages are observed with the lipid crystalline preparation. First, the strong signals and sharp line widths facilitated extensive NMR resonance assignments for an integral membrane β-barrel protein in lipid bilayers by MAS NMR. Second, a large number of residues in loop regions were readily observed and assigned, which can be challenging in detergent-solubilized membrane proteins where loop regions are often not detected due to line broadening from conformational exchange. Third, complete backbone and side chain chemical shift assignments could be obtained for the first 25 residues, which comprise the functionally important N-terminus. The reported assignments allow us to compare predicted torsion angles for VDAC prepared in DMPC 2D lipid crystals, DMPC liposomes, and LDAO-solubilized samples to address the possible effects of the membrane mimetic environment on the conformation of the protein. Concluding, we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the reported

  19. Role of Mas receptor in renal blood flow response to angiotensin-(1-7 in ovariectomized estradiol treated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadan Saberi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The angiotensin 1-7 (Ang 1-7, is abundantly produced in kidneys and antagonizes the function of angiotensin II through Mas receptor (MasR or other unknown mechanisms. In the current study, the role of MasR and steroid hormone estrogen on renal blood flow response to Ang 1-7 administration was investigated in ovariectomized (OV female rats. OV female Wistar-rats received estradiol (500 μg/kg/week or vehicle for two weeks. In the day of the experiment, the animals were anesthetized, cannulated, and the responses including mean arterial pressure, renal blood flow (RBF, and renal vascular resistance at the constant level of renal perfusion pressure to graded infusion of Ang 1-7 at 0, 100 and 300 ng/kg/min were determined in OV and OV estradiol-treated (OVE rats, treated with vehicle or MasR antagonist; A779. RBF response to Ang 1-7 infusion increased dose-dependently in vehicle (P dose <0.001 and A779-treated (P dose<0.01 animals. However, when MasR was blocked, the RBF response to Ang 1-7 significantly increased in OV animals compared with OVE rats (P<0.05. When estradiol was limited by ovariectomy, A779 increased RBF response to Ang 1-7 administration, while this response was attenuated in OVE animals.

  20. 1H MAS NMR spectra of hy- droxyl species on diatomite surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    High spinning speed 1H magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (1H MAS NMR) was used to detect surface hydroxyl groups of diatomite, which include isolated hydroxyl groups and hydrogen-bonded hydroxyl groups, and water adsorbed on diatomite surface that include pore water and hydrogen-bonded water. The corresponding proton chemical shifts of above species are ca. 2.0, 6.0-7.1, 4.9 and 3.0 respectively. Accompanied by thermal treatment temperature ascending, the pore water and hydrogen-bonded water are desorbed successively. As a result, the relative intensities of the peaks assigned to protons of isolat-ed hydroxyl groups and hydrogen-bonded hydroxyl groups increase gradually and reach their maxima at 1000℃. After 1100℃ calcination, the hydroxyl groups that classified to strongly hydrogen-bonded ones and the isolated hydroxyl groups condense basically. But some weakly hydrogen-bonded hydroxyl groups may still persist in the micropores.

  1. MAINTAINING THE EFFICIENCY OF MAS METHOD IN CEREALS WHILE REDUCING THE COSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odile Moullet

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Marker-assisted selection (MAS is a powerful tool too rarely exploited in practical breeding applications mainly because of its prohibitive costs. A new manual protocol has been developed for DNA extraction and polymerase chain reaction (PCR analyses which could increase the impact of this technology on the creation of new varieties. In this procedure, only the amount of DNA serving as template is extracted directly into PCR tubes. The method is reproducible (100 % and efficient (97.9 %. The overall cost is low in term of starting lab equipment (25000 €, chemicals and consumable materials (0.33 to 0.40 € per samples and labor (1500 sample analyses per person and per week.

  2. Study of Surface Modification Mechanism of Calcined Kaolin by MAS NMR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓杰; 邓飞皇; 张蓓

    2002-01-01

    The 29Si and 27Al in modified and unmodified calcined kaolin were res earched and compared by using MAS NMR. The result shows that the chemical shift of -106×10-6 of 29Si almost keeps unchanged after being modifie d, but 27Al cha nges obviously. The chemical shift of 5.44×10-6 and 65.69×10-6 of 27Al are sep arately shifted to 3.8×10-6-4.4×10-6 and 54.6×10-6-59.9×1 0-6 after being mod ified. And the chemical modification of kaolin is completed by linking with Al o n the surface of it.

  3. The renin-angiotensin system and its vasoactive metabolite angiotensin-(1-7) in the mechanism of the healing of preexisting gastric ulcers. The involvement of Mas receptors, nitric oxide, prostaglandins and proinflammatory cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlik, M W; Kwiecien, S; Ptak-Belowska, A; Pajdo, R; Olszanecki, R; Suski, M; Madej, J; Targosz, A; Konturek, S J; Korbut, R; Brzozowski, T

    2016-02-01

    The inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) or the blockade of angiotensin (Ang) AT-1 receptors affords protection against acute gastric mucosal injury, but whether the major metabolite of renin-angiotensin system (RAS), Ang-(1-7), accelerates the healing process of preexisting gastric ulcers remains unknown. Previous studies documented that Ang-(1-7) acting via its own Mas receptor exerts vascular responses opposing those of Ang II. We studied the effects of the Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor axis on the healing rate of acetic-acid-induced gastric ulcers with or without the blockade of Mas receptors by A 779 and compared it with the effects of activation and blockade of the AT-1 receptor by the treatment with Ang II and losartan, respectively, the inhibition of ACE by lisinopril, the NO/cNOS inhibition by L-NAME and inhibition of prostaglandin/COX system by indomethacin in the presence of Ang-(1-7). Additionally, ex vivo metabolism of Ang I in gastric tissue was assessed by LC/MS method. At day 9 after ulcer induction, the area of these ulcers and the accompanying changes in total gastric blood flow (GBF) were determined as were gastric mucosal blood flow (GMBF) at ulcer margin and gastric oxygen uptake (GVO2). The gastric mucosal expression of mRNAs for constitutive nitric oxide synthase (cNOS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and plasma level of both cytokines were determined by RT-PCR and ELISA. The 9 days treatment with Ang II dose-dependently increased the area of gastric ulcers and this effect was accompanied by a significant fall in the GBF, GVO2 and GMBF at ulcer margin. In contrast, treatment with Ang-(1-7) which produced a significant rise in the luminal content of NO significantly reduced the area of gastric ulcer and significantly increased the GBF, GVO2 and the GMBF at ulcer margin. Similar GMBF changes and significant reduction the area of gastric ulcer was

  4. Sensitivity enhancement using paramagnetic relaxation in MAS solid-state NMR of perdeuterated proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linser, Rasmus; Chevelkov, Veniamin; Diehl, Anne; Reif, Bernd

    2007-12-01

    Previously, Ishii et al., could show that chelated paramagnetic ions can be employed to significantly decrease the recycle delay of a MAS solid-state NMR experiment [N.P. Wickramasinghe, M. Kotecha, A. Samoson, J. Past, Y. Ishii, Sensitivity enhancement in C-13 solid-state NMR of protein microcrystals by use of paramagnetic metal ions for optimizing H-1 T-1 relaxation, J. Magn. Reson. 184 (2007) 350-356]. Application of the method is limited to very robust samples, for which sample stability is not compromised by RF induced heating. In addition, probe integrity might be perturbed in standard MAS PRE experiments due to the use of very short duty cycles. We show that these deleterious effects can be avoided if perdeuterated proteins are employed that have been re-crystallized from D 2O:H 2O = 9:1 containing buffer solutions. The experiments are demonstrated using the SH3 domain of chicken α-spectrin as a model system. The labeling scheme allows to record proton detected 1H, 15N correlation spectra with very high resolution in the absence of heteronuclear dipolar decoupling. Cu-edta as a doping reagent yields a reduction of the recycle delay by up to a factor of 15. In particular, we find that the 1H T1 for the bulk H N magnetization is reduced from 4.4 s to 0.3 s if the Cu-edta concentration is increased from 0 mM to 250 mM. Possible perturbations like chemical shift changes or line broadening due to the paramagnetic chelate complex are minimal. No degradation of our samples was observed in the course of the experiments.

  5. Badania jakości regeneratu ze zużytych mas ze spoiwem organicznym

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dańko

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available W publikacji przedstawiono uzupełniające metody badań oraz aparaturę do oceny jakości regeneratu i tych właściwości masformierskich ze spoiwami utwardzanymi chemicznie, przygotowywanych z regeneratem, które są istotne dla kompleksowej oceny procesurecyklingu osnowy. Nowoczesne systemy oceny mas formierskich wymagają bardziej wnikliwego podejścia do czynników decydującychzarówno o ich przydatności technologicznej jak również o wpływie na otaczające środowisko naturalne. W tym kontekście pełna ocenajakości zregenerowanej osnowy wykracza poza zwyczajowo stosowane metody instrumentalne i wymaga ich uzupełnienia o bardziejzaawansowane aparaturowo metody badawcze. Pozwala to szerzej spojrzeć na ocenę zregenerowanej osnowy, zarówno w aspekcie jejużycia do sporządzania mas formierskich, jako substytutu świeżego piasku, ale także pod kątem ochrony środowiska. Do takichnowoczesnych metod można zaliczyć między innymi analizę ziarnową regeneratu za pomocą dyfrakcji laserowej, a także ocenęgazotwórczości masy formierskiej oraz identyfikację rodzaju emitowanych gazów i zawartości w nich gazów z grupy BTEX, które sąszczególnie niebezpieczne z punktu widzenia BHP.

  6. Paramagnet induced signal quenching in MAS-DNP experiments in frozen homogeneous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corzilius, Björn; Andreas, Loren B.; Smith, Albert A.; Ni, Qing Zhe; Griffin, Robert G.

    2014-03-01

    The effects of nuclear signal quenching induced by the presence of a paramagnetic polarizing agent are documented for conditions used in magic angle spinning (MAS)-dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) experiments on homogeneous solutions. In particular, we present a detailed analysis of three time constants: (1) the longitudinal build-up time constant TB for 1H; (2) the rotating frame relaxation time constant T1ρ for 1H and 13C and (3) T2 of 13C, the transverse relaxation time constant in the laboratory frame. These relaxation times were measured during microwave irradiation at a magnetic field of 5 T (140 GHz) as a function of the concentration of four polarizing agents: TOTAPOL, 4-amino-TEMPO, trityl (OX063), and Gd-DOTA and are compared to those obtained for a sample lacking paramagnetic doping. We also report the EPR relaxation time constants T1S and T2S, the DNP enhancements, ε, and the parameter E, defined below, which measures the sensitivity enhancement for the four polarizing agents as a function of the electron concentration. We observe substantial intensity losses (paramagnetic quenching) with all of the polarizing agents due to broadening mechanisms and cross relaxation during MAS. In particular, the monoradical trityl and biradical TOTAPOL induce ∼40% and 50% loss of signal intensity. In contrast there is little suppression of signal intensity in static samples containing these paramagnetic species. Despite the losses due to quenching, we find that all of the polarizing agents provide substantial gains in signal intensity with DNP, and in particular that the net enhancement is optimal for biradicals that operate with the cross effect. We discuss the possibility that much of this polarization loss can be regained with the development of instrumentation and methods to perform electron decoupling.

  7. Low dose multi-detector CT of the chest (iLEAD Study): Visual ranking of different simulated mAs levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ley-Zaporozhan, Julia [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Ruprecht-Karls-University, Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Radiology (E010), German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: julia.leyzaporozhan@gmail.com; Ley, Sebastian [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Ruprecht-Karls-University, Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Radiology (E010), German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Krummenauer, Frank [Clinical Epidemiology and Health Economy Unit, Carl Gustav Carus University Hospital, Dresden (Germany); Ohno, Yoshiharu [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan); Hatabu, Hiroto [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Ruprecht-Karls-University, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    Purpose: Detailed evaluation of the lung parenchyma might be impaired by use of low dose CT as image noise increases and subsequently image quality decreases. The aim of our study was to determine the accuracy of visual perception of differences in image quality and noise at low dose chest CT. Materials and methods: Forty-four patients suffering from emphysema underwent CT (Aquilion-16, 120 kV, 150 mAs, 1 mm-collimation). Original raw data were used for simulation of 10 different mAs settings from 10 mAs to 100 mAs in 10 mAs increments. Three representative hard copy images (carina, 4 cm above, 5 cm below) were printed for evaluation of lung parenchyma (high-resolution kernel, lung window) and mediastinum (soft-kernel, soft tissue window). Ranking of expected low mAs level was performed for lung and soft tissue separately based on visual perception by three-blinded chest radiologist independently. Results were compared to the real simulated mAs. Results: The accuracy for correct ranking of the original 150 mAs scan was 89% for lung and 86% for soft tissue while it was 99% for the simulated 10 mAs for both windows. In comparison to the lowest mAs a significant error increase was found for the lung at 60-100 mAs (with error increase of 30-47%) for reader-I; 60-100 mAs for (33-64%) for reader-II and 70-100 mAs (38-57%) for reader-III. For the soft tissue: 60-150 mAs (with error increase of 28-63%) for reader-I; 50-100 mAs (35-56%) for reader-II and 50-90 mAs (35-40%) for reader-III. Conclusion: Simulated dose levels below 60 mAs (=42 mAs{sub eff}) were clearly differentiated from higher dose levels by all readers. Therefore, imaging doses could be lowered down to 60 mAs without a diagnostically relevant increase in noise impairing image quali0008.

  8. Chemical profile of beans cultivars (Phaseolus vulgaris) by 1H NMR - high resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS);Perfil quimico de cultivares de feijao (Phaseolus vulgaris) pela tecnica de high resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Luciano Morais; Choze, Rafael; Cavalcante, Pedro Paulo Araujo; Santos, Suzana da Costa; Ferri, Pedro Henrique, E-mail: luciano@quimica.ufg.b [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFScar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    The application of one-dimensional proton high-resolution magic angle spinning ({sup 1}H HR-MAS) NMR combined with a typical advantages of solid and liquid-state NMR techniques was used as input variables for the multivariate statistical analysis. In this paper, different cultivars of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) developed and in development by EMBRAPA - Arroz e Feijao were analyzed by {sup 1}H HR-MAS, which have been demonstrated to be a valuable tool in its differentiation according chemical composition and avoid the manipulation of the samples as used in other techniques. (author)

  9. Dose reduction in dynamic CT stress myocardial perfusion imaging: comparison of 80-kV/370-mAs and 100-kV/300-mAs protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Makiko; Kitagawa, Kakuya; Ito, Tatsuro; Shiraishi, Yasuyuki; Kurobe, Yusuke; Nagata, Motonori; Ishida, Masaki; Sakuma, Hajime [Mie University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Tsu, Mie (Japan)

    2014-03-15

    To determine the effect of reduced 80-kV tube voltage with increased 370-mAs tube current on radiation dose, image quality and estimated myocardial blood flow (MBF) of dynamic CT stress myocardial perfusion imaging (CTP) in patients with a normal body mass index (BMI) compared with a 100-kV and 300-mAs protocol. Thirty patients with a normal BMI (<25 kg/m{sup 2}) with known or suspected coronary artery disease underwent adenosine-stress dual-source dynamic CTP. Patients were randomised to 80-kV/370-mAs (n = 15) or 100-kV/300-mAs (n = 15) imaging. Maximal enhancement and noise of the left ventricular (LV) cavity, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and MBF of the two groups were compared. Imaging with 80-kV/370-mAs instead of 100-kV/300-mAs was associated with 40 % lower radiation dose (mean dose-length product, 359 ± 66 vs 628 ± 112 mGy.cm; P < 0.001) with no significant difference in CNR (34.5 ± 13.4 vs 33.5 ± 10.4; P = 0.81) or MBF in non-ischaemic myocardium (0.95 ± 0.20 vs 0.99 ± 0.25 ml/min/g; P = 0.66). Studies obtained using 80-kV/370-mAs were associated with 30.9 % higher maximal enhancement (804 ± 204 vs 614 ± 115 HU; P < 0.005), and 31.2 % greater noise (22.7 ± 3.5 vs 17.4 ± 2.6; P < 0.001). Dynamic CTP using 80-kV/370-mA instead of 100-kV/300-mAs allowed 40 % dose reduction without compromising image quality or MBF. Tube voltage of 80-kV should be considered for individuals with a normal BMI. (orig.)

  10. Beneficial effects of the activation of the angiotensin-(1-7 MAS receptor in a murine model of adriamycin-induced nephropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Daniela Silveira

    Full Text Available Angiotensin-(1-7 [Ang-(1-7] is a biologically active heptapeptide that may counterbalance the physiological actions of angiotensin II (Ang II within the renin-angiotensin system (RAS. Here, we evaluated whether activation of the Mas receptor with the oral agonist, AVE 0991, would have renoprotective effects in a model of adriamycin (ADR-induced nephropathy. We also evaluated whether the Mas receptor contributed for the protective effects of treatment with AT1 receptor blockers. ADR (10 mg/kg induced significant renal injury and dysfunction that was maximal at day 14 after injection. Treatment with the Mas receptor agonist AVE 0991 improved renal function parameters, reduced urinary protein loss and attenuated histological changes. Renoprotection was associated with reduction in urinary levels of TGF-β. Similar renoprotection was observed after treatment with the AT1 receptor antagonist, Losartan. AT1 and Mas receptor mRNA levels dropped after ADR administration and treatment with losartan reestablished the expression of Mas receptor and increased the expression of ACE2. ADR-induced nephropathy was similar in wild type (Mas(+/+ and Mas knockout (Mas (-/- mice, suggesting there was no endogenous role for Mas receptor activation. However, treatment with Losartan was able to reduce renal injury only in Mas(+/+ , but not in Mas (-/- mice. Therefore, these findings suggest that exogenous activation of the Mas receptor protects from ADR-induced nephropathy and contributes to the beneficial effects of AT1 receptor blockade. Medications which target specifically the ACE2/Ang-(1-7/Mas axis may offer new therapeutic opportunities to treat human nephropathies.

  11. Rapid identification of osmolytes in tropical microalgae and cyanobacteria by (1)H HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zea Obando, Claudia; Linossier, Isabelle; Kervarec, Nelly; Zubia, Mayalen; Turquet, Jean; Faÿ, Fabienne; Rehel, Karine

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we report the chemical characterization of 47 tropical microalgae and cyanobacteria by HR-MAS. The generated data confirm the interest of HR-MAS as a rapid screening technique with the major advantage of its easiness. The sample is used as powder of freeze-dried microalgae without any extraction process before acquisition. The spectral fingerprints of strains are then tested as variables for a chemotaxonomy study to discriminate cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates. The individual factor map generated by PCA analysis succeeds in separating the two groups, essentially thanks to the presence of specific carbohydrates. Furthermore, more resolved signals enable to identify many osmolytes. More precisely the characteristics δ of 2-O-alpha-D-glucosylglycerol (GG) are observed in all 21 h-MAS spectra of tropical cyanobacteria. After specific extraction, complementary analysis by 1D and 2D-NMR spectroscopies validates the identification of this osmolyte. PMID:27130130

  12. Inventario de especies domésticas de un mas de la comarca de La Selva, Catalunya (1803-2013)

    OpenAIRE

    Fàbregas i Comadran, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Se comparan diacrónicamente los censos de las especies domésticas de un mas de la comarca de la Selva (Catalunya) mediante un inventario notarial de 1803, un informante oral de 1960 y los censos oficiales de 2013. Aunque es un mas pobre por estar situado en una finca de tamaño medio, pero de tipología forestal, la mayor variedad y cantidad de ganado censada corresponde a la década de 1960. Congreso Iberoamericano de Historia de la Veterinaria. Madrid, 10è : 2013

  13. RACIONALIZACIJA ČASA MENJAVE ORODIJ ZA BRIZGANJE PLASTIČNIH MAS V PODJETJU ISKRA MEHANIZMI D.D. LIPNICA

    OpenAIRE

    Oblak, Tomaž

    2010-01-01

    Spremembe, ki so stalnica današnjega časa, nastajajo zelo hitro. S tem se tudi okolje, v katerem živimo, nenehno in zelo intenzivno spreminja. Takšemu okolju se morajo hitro in nenehno prilagajati tudi podjetja, če si želijo zagotoviti svoj dolgoročni obstoj. V diplomski nalogi je predstavljeno nekaj osnov o brizganju plastičnih mas in preoblikovanje sistema menjav orodij na strojih za brizganje plastičnih mas s pomočjo uporabe metode SMED. V nalogi so predstavljene prednosti, ki jih met...

  14. The Magellan Adaptive Secondary VisAO Camera: Diffraction- Limited Broadband Visible Imaging and 20mas Fiber Array IFS

    OpenAIRE

    Kopon, Derek; Close, Laird M; Males, Jared R.; Gasho, Victor; Follette, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    The Magellan Adaptive Secondary AO system, scheduled for first light in the fall of 2011, will be able to simultaneously perform diffraction limited AO science in both the mid-IR, using the BLINC/MIRAC4 10\\{mu}m camera, and in the visible using our novel VisAO camera. The VisAO camera will be able to operate as either an imager, using a CCD47 with 8.5 mas pixels, or as an IFS, using a custom fiber array at the focal plane with 20 mas elements in its highest resolution mode. In imaging mode, t...

  15. 1MAS NMR spectra of kao linite/formamide intercalation compound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The high spinning speed 1H magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (1H MAS NMR) technique was employed to distinguish the two groups of surface hydroxyls of kaolinite and investigate the intercalation mechanism of kaolinite/formamide compound. The proton chemical shifts of the inner hydroxyl and inner surface hydroxyl of kaolinte are in the range of δ-1.3-0.9 and δ 2.4-3.0 respectively. After formamide intercalation three proton peaks were detected. The proton peak of the inner surface hydroxyls of the intercalation compound shifts to high-field with δ 2.3-2.7, which is assigned to the formation of the hydrogen bond between the inner surface hydroxyl and formamide carbonyl group. Whereas, the proton peak of the inner hydroxyl shifts to δ-0.3 toward low-field, that is attributed to van der Waal's effect between the inner hydroxyl proton and the amino group proton of the formamide which may be keyed into the ditrigonal hole of the kaolinite. The third peak, additional proton peak, is in the range of δ5.4-5.6, that is ascribed to the hydrogen bond formation between the amino group proton of formimide and SiO4 tetrahedral oxygen of the kaolinite.

  16. MAS-based production scheduling system for manufacturing cell-based workshop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU Hong-yan; CAO Quan-jun; FEI Ren-yuan

    2006-01-01

    The task of production scheduling is to determine the detailed machining path,time,machine tool,etc.,for every work piece,according to the production objective and constraints.It is also an important part of the manufacturing system.In this paper,the manufacturing cell-based workshop is described and its scheduling system structure is established based on MAS (multi-agent system) technology.Through the negotiation and communication of each agent,the machining path is determined and the machining sequence and start time are calculated by GA (genetics algorithm).The communication among agents uses the CORBA (common object request broker architecture) technology of the OMG (Object Management Group).The CORBA-based architecture of the communication is designed and some interfaces for the communication are listed.For the genetics algorithm,chromosome coding,fitness function,parameters selection,and the basic genetics operation including selection,crossover and aberrance,are described.The scheduling system also can deal with some abnormal conditions,such as machine tool failure and urgent tasks.Finally,two scheduling examples are given.

  17. Tendencias clave para el tercer gobierno del MAS, Bolivia 2015-2019

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Albó

    2016-03-01

    Esta presentación tiene como trasfondo el Plan Nacional de Desarrollo y pretende resaltar algunos de los logros del presidente Evo Morales y los desafíos que enfrenta en su tercer gobierno (2015-2019. Comienza revisando información demográfica básica, según el Censo de 2012, para luego centrarse en la economía: los hidrocarburos, la minería, la producción agropecuaria y la ecología. El boom de la quinua, la expansión de la frontera agrícola y la suspensión de la construcción de una carretera que atraviese el TIPNIS son algunos de los temas que se discuten. Internacionalmente, hay motivos de optimismo con relación a la demanda marítima de Bolivia, mientras que, a nivel nacional, el MAS aseguró una victoria parlamentaria en el año 2014. Las reformas menos exitosas son las del órgano judicial. La presentación termina revisando los movimientos sociales que permitieron la formación la de Asamblea Constituyente y el asunto de la autonomía municipal, departamental e indígena.

  18. Study on Nitrogen Forms in Phenolic Polymers Incorporating Protien by 15N CP—MAS NMR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENGLILI; WENQIXIAO; 等

    1996-01-01

    Phenolic polymers synthesized by reactions by reactions of p-benzoquinone with 15N-labelled protein or (15NH4)2SO4 were studied by using 15N CP-MAS NMR technique in combination with chemical approaches.Results showed that more than 80% of nitrogen in quinone-protein polymers was in the form of amide with some present as aromatic and /or aliphatic amine and less than 10% of nitrogen occurred as heterocyclic N.The nitrogen distribution in the non-hydrolyzable residue of the quinone-protein polymers was basically similar to that of soil humic acid reported in literature with the exception that a higher proportion of N as heterocyclic N and aromatic amine and a lower proportion of N as amide and aliphatic amine were found in the former than in the latter,More than 70% of total nitrogen in quinone-(NH4)2OS4 polymer was acid resistant ,of which about 53% occurred as pyrrole,nitrile and imion type N.The possible roles of the reactions of phenols or quinones with proteins in the formation of humic acid.especially the non-hydrolyzable nitrogen in humicacid,are discussed.

  19. Characterization of cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L. genotypes - genetic resources for food production in Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sochor Jiri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine and compare both technological properties and polyphenol content in fruits of eight cornellian cherry (Cornus mas L. cultivars from Czech Republic. The fruits of cultivar ´Vydubeckij´ had the highest dry matter (17.4% and soluble solid (15.8% content among searched cultivars. The highest crude protein and phosphorus values were determined in the fruits of the ´Titus´ cultivar as 10.9 g of crude protein and 435 mg of phosphorus for per kg fresh weight (FW base. The ´Elegantnyj´ and ´Vydubeckij´ cultivars are found to be more suitable for canning industry. The fruits of the ´Vydubeckij´ cultivar contained 10.8 g of pectin and 22.4 g of citric acid per kg fresh weight base, and could be important for technological use because of their excellent gelling ability. ´Devin´,´Vydubeckij´ and ´Titus´ cultivars had the most valuable source of chlorogenic acid (135.6, 110.9 and 115.1 mg per 100 g FW, respectively and quercetin (24.9, 25.2 and 24.2 mg per 100 g FW, respectively. This work should contribute to the popularization of this fruit specie as a valuable source of technological parameters for human nutrition and the canning industry.

  20. Dynamic scheduling model of computing resource based on MAS cooperation mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG WeiJin; ZHANG LianMei; WANG Pu

    2009-01-01

    Allocation of grid resources aims at improving resource utility and grid application performance. Currently, the algorithms proposed for this purpose do not fit well the autonomic, dynamic, distributive and heterogeneous features of the grid environment. According to MAS (multi-agent system) cooperation mechanism and market bidding game rules, a model of allocating allocation of grid resources based on market economy is introduced to reveal the relationship between supply and demand. This model can make good use of the studying and negotiating ability of consumers' agent and takes full consideration of the consumer's behavior, thus rendering the application and allocation of resource of the consumers rational and valid. In the meantime, the utility function of consumer Is given; the existence and the uniqueness of Nash equilibrium point in the resource allocation game and the Nash equilibrium solution are discussed. A dynamic game algorithm of allocating grid resources is designed. Experimental results demonstrate that this algorithm diminishes effectively the unnecessary latency, improves significantly the smoothness of response time, the ratio of throughput and resource utility, thus rendering the supply and demand of the whole grid resource reasonable and the overall grid load balanceable.

  1. Identification of ancient Olea europaea L. and Cornus mas L. seeds by DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gismondi, Angelo; Rolfo, Mario Federico; Leonardi, Donatella; Rickards, Olga; Canini, Antonella

    2012-07-01

    The analysis of ancient DNA (aDNA) provides archaeologists and anthropologists with innovative, scientific and accurate data to study and understand the past. In this work, ancient seeds, found in the "Mora Cavorso" archaeological site (Latium, Central Italy), were analyzed to increase information about Italian Neolithic populations (plant use, agriculture, diet, trades, customs and ecology). We performed morphological and genetic techniques to identify fossil botanical species. In particular, this study also suggests and emphasizes the use of DNA barcode method for ancient plant sample analysis. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations showed seed compact structure and irregular surface but they did not permit a precise nor empirical classification: so, a molecular approach was necessary. DNA was extracted from ancient seeds and then it was used, as template, for PCR amplifications of standardized barcode genes. Although aDNA could be highly degraded by the time, successful PCR products were obtained, sequenced and compared to nucleotide sequence databases. Positive outcomes (supported by morphological comparison with modern seeds, geographical distribution and historical data) indicated that seeds could be identified as belonging to two plant species: Olea europaea L. and Cornus mas L. PMID:22847014

  2. Dual action of neurokinin-1 antagonists on Mas-related GPCRs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimi, Ehsan; Reddy, Vemuri B.; Shade, Kai-Ting C.; Anthony, Robert M.; Pereira, Paula Juliana Seadi; Lerner, Ethan A.

    2016-01-01

    The challenge of translating findings from animal models to the clinic is well known. An example of this challenge is the striking effectiveness of neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R) antagonists in mouse models of inflammation coupled with their equally striking failure in clinical investigations in humans. Here, we provide an explanation for this dichotomy: Mas-related GPCRs (Mrgprs) mediate some aspects of inflammation that had been considered mediated by NK-1R. In support of this explanation, we show that conventional NK-1R antagonists have off-target activity on the mouse receptor MrgprB2 but not on the homologous human receptor MRGPRX2. An unrelated tripeptide NK-1R antagonist has dual activity on MRGPRX2. This tripeptide both suppresses itch in mice and inhibits degranulation from the LAD-2 human mast cell line elicited by basic secretagogue activation of MRGPRX2. Antagonists of Mrgprs may fill the void left by the failure of NK-1R antagonists. PMID:27734033

  3. The Neuroprotective Effect of Cornus mas on Brain Tissue of Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Francik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas is a valuable source of phenolic antioxidants. Flavonoid derivatives as nonenzymatic antioxidants are important in the pathophysiology of many diseases including neurological disorders (e.g., Alzheimer’s disease or heart disease. In this study, we examined the effect of an addition of freeze-dried fruit of cornelian cherry on three types of diets: control diet, fructose diet, and diet enriched in fats (high-fat diet. This effect was studied by determining the following antioxidant parameters in both brain tissue and plasma in rats: catalase, ferric reducing ability of plasma, paraoxonase, protein carbonyl groups, and free thiol groups. Results indicate that both fructose diet and high-fat diet affect the antioxidant capacity of the organism. Furthermore, an addition of cornelian cherry resulted in increased activity of catalase in brain tissue, while in plasma it caused the opposite effect. In turn, with regard to paraoxonase activity in both brain tissue and plasma, it had a stimulating effect. Adding cornelian cherry to the tested diets increased the activity of PON in both tested tissues. Moreover, protective effect of fruits of this plant was observed in the process of oxidation of proteins by decreasing levels of protein carbonyl groups and thiol groups in brain tissue as well as in plasma.

  4. 31P MAS-NMR of human erythrocytes: independence of cell volume from angular velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchel, P W; Bubb, W A; Ramadan, S; Chapman, B E; Philp, D J; Coen, M; Gready, J E; Harvey, P J; McLean, A J; Hook, J

    2004-09-01

    31P magic angle spinning NMR (MAS-NMR) spectra were obtained from suspensions of human red blood cells (RBCs) that contained the cell-volume-sensitive probe molecule, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP). A mathematical representation of the spectral-peak shape, including the separation and width-at-half-height in the 31P NMR spectra, as a function of rotor speed, enabled us to explore the extent to which a change in cell volume would be reflected in the spectra if it occurred. We concluded that a fractional volume change in excess of 3% would have been detected by our experiments. Thus, the experiments indicated that the mean cell volume did not change by this amount even at the highest spinning rate of 7 kHz. The mean cell volume and intracellular 31P line-width were independent of the packing density of the cells and of the initial cell volume. The relationship of these conclusions to other non-NMR studies of pressure effects on cells is noted. PMID:15334588

  5. 27AI MAS-NMR study of inorganic polymer formation at ambient temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sang-Wook AHN; Hee-Soo LEE; Wan-Hee YANG; Jung-Woo LEE; Young-Keun JEONG

    2011-01-01

    Inorganic polymers are a novel class of materials formed by the polymerization of silicon, aluminium and oxygen species to form an amorphous three-dimensional framework structure. The basis of this process is the alkaline solutions to induce a certain amount of Si and Al atoms to dissolve from a feedstock such as aluminosilicate. A study of 27Al MAS-NMR was carried out in an attempt to understand the reaction mechanism of the inorganic polymerization at ambient temperature. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD) were also employed to establish the composition and microstructure of the inorganic polymerization. Specimens were prepared with different Al/Si mole ratios from the starting materials. The higher the Al content. the more sufficient the Al atoms that can combine with SiO4, and the longer the reaction time. the more the bonded Si-O-Al-O polymer structure, and then the higher the Al content, the fewer the octahedral Al with a uniform Si-O-Al-O structure in four directions, because four Al atoms are combined with SiO4, resulting in a uniform Si-O-Al-O structure in four directions. The results show that they have an amorphous microstructure.

  6. Nutritional value of Rosa spp. l. and Cornus mas l. fruits, as affected by storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craita-Maria Rosu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A comparison between two storage methods (freezing and drying of fruits, in terms of ascorbic acid, carotenes, total sugar and protein content in Rosa spp. L. species and Cornus mas L. was performed. In the dried rose hips, the major losses were registered at the level of ascorbic acid content (32.04–50.25 %, followed by carotenes (30.85–52.08 %, total sugar (21.57–34.6 % and protein content (21.33–46.89 %. The freezing method resulted in a better preservation of ascorbic acid (only 19.80–29.21 % decrease and total sugar content (3.41–12.94 % increase. In the preserved cornelian cherry fruits, no statistically significant differences were registered between fruits categories, except carotene content, which was dramatically decreased in dried fruits (88.23 %. For cornelian cherry fruits, both storage methods induced a decrease of ascorbic acid and protein contents (57.60 and 46.32 % and an increase of total sugar level (37.60 %.

  7. PENGEMBANGAN EKOWISATA BERBASIS KERAKYATAN DI BANJAR NYUH KUNING, DESA MAS, UBUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGUNG SRI SULISTYAWATI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is (1 to identify the potential of Banjar Nyuh Kuning Mas Village, Ubud has to offer as means of attraction in ecotourism which may be accomplished by identifying physical and non physical potential. (2 to develope a community based strategy in ecotourism. The sampling technique used is purposive sampling and accidental sampling. Data collection is accomplished through observatioan, questionaire, focus group discussion and documentation. Data analysis is by qualitative descriptive and SWOT. The result of this study is that Banjar Nyuh Kuning has the potential to be developed as an ecotourism on the basis of physical and non physical grounds. The perception of the community and tourists are in agreement to the developement of ecotourism activity which incorporate local community, nature oriented activity and has the potential to increase their income, thus resulting in a destination for leisure and recreation. There are a few results of alternative strategies such as; development strategies of ecotourism products, development strategies of human resources, development strategies of management and strategies in upgrading security. To make Banjar Nyuh Kuning as an attraction for ecotourism activity which is based on nature then the strategy for development has to be efficient and limited. Further study has to be taken for the marketing aspect and managing ecotourism object to further the developent in a comprehensive manner.

  8. [Effect of Astragali Radix in improving early renal damage in metabolic syndrome rats through ACE2/Mas pathway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiong-ying; Liang, Wei; Jiang, Cheng; Li, Ning-yin; Xu, Han; Yang, Mi-na; Lin, Xin; Yu, Heng; Chang, Peng; Yu, Jing

    2015-11-01

    To study the expression of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and angiotensin (Ang) 1-7 specific receptor Mas protain in renal blood vessels of metabolic syndrome ( MS) rats and its anti-oxidative effect. A total of 80 male SD rats were divided into four groups: the normal control group (NC, the same volume of normal saline), the MS group (high fat diet), the MS + Astragali Radix group (MS + HQ, 6 g x kg(-1) x d(-1) in gavage) and the MS + Valsartan group (MS + XST, 30 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1) in gavage). After four weeks of intervention, their general indexes, biochemical indexes and blood pressure were measured; plasma and renal tissue Ang II, malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide demutase (SOD) levels were measured with radioimmunoassay. The protein expressions of Mas receptor, AT1R, ACE and ACE2 were detected by western blot analysis. According to the result, compared with the NC group, the MS group and the MS + HQ group showed significant increases in systolic and diastolic pressures, body weight, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, triglycerides, free fatty acid and Ang II level of MS rats (P protein expressions in renal tissues of the MS group were higher than that in the NC group, but with lower ACE2 and -Mas receptor expressions (all P < 0.05). Compared with the MS group, the MS + HQ group showed significant increase in Mas receptor expression in renal tissues, whereas the MS + XST group showed notable decrease in AT1R (all P < 0.05). In conclusion, Astragali Radix can increase the Mas receptor expressions in renal tissues, decrease ACE expression and change local Ang II, MDA, NO and SOD in kidneys, so as to protect early damages in renal tissues. PMID:27071265

  9. SiC nanowires reinforced MAS joint of SiC coated carbon/carbon composites to LAS glass ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Schematic cross-section images of the samples with SiC nanowires and assembly sequence for the raw materials through the process of the hot-pressing method. Highlights: ► The SiC nanowires were firstly used as porous layer in the middle of the joint. ► The shear strength of the joint with SiC nanowires was largely improved. ► A new mode of fracture was proposed. - Abstract: In order to improve the shear strength of the joints of carbon/carbon (C/C) composites to lithium aluminum silicate (LAS) glass ceramics, SiC coating and magnesium aluminum silicate (MAS) glass ceramics were used as transition layer and middle layer, respectively, and high quality SiC nanowires were applied as the reinforcement materials in MAS. The SiC nanowires reinforced MAS joint of SiC coated C/C composites to LAS glass ceramics was prepared by a three-step technique of pack cementation, CVD and hot-pressing. The microstructures of the as-prepared joints were characterized by SEM and EDS, and the shear strength of the joints was also examined. The shear strength of the SiC–MAS joint increased from 24.0 ± 2.0 MPa to 35.5 ± 5.5 MPa after adding SiC nanowires in MAS. The load decreases in step-style but not perpendicularly after the maximum value, which demonstrates good toughness of the joint with SiC nanowire porous layer.

  10. 玉米秸秆木质素降解过程的CP/MAS13CNMR和SEM表征%CP/MAS13CNMR and SEM Characterization of Corn Stover Lignin Degradation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈琳; 张全; 孟雪松; 凌凤香

    2013-01-01

    利用黄孢原毛平革茵对玉米秸秆木质素进行降解处理,通过CP/MAS 13CNMR和SEM研究降解过程中木质素的结构变化.CP/MAS 13CNMR结果表明:玉米秸秆木质素降解过程中,作为木质素结构单元主要连接方式的β-O-4键基本上没有被降解;木质素单位苯环的甲氧基含量稍有增加;S/G值降低,推断反应过程中紫丁香基优先参与反应.SEM结果表明:降解后的木质素空穴增多且增大、颗粒物质减少,主要是由于酶解木质素中大量碳水化合物的降解(所)致;比木质素更容易降解的纤维素和半纤维素也存在于样品中.CP/MAS13CNMR为木质纤维原料结构的定性和初步定量提供了可能,是传统定量表征手段的有力补充,具有一定的研究意义.%The structure changes of corn stover lignin treated by Phanerochaete chrysosporium were studied by CP/MAS 13CNMR and SEM.CP/MAS 13CNMR Results showed that bond β-O-4 didn't be degraded,the content of-OCH3 increased after degradation,S/G value decreased,and syringyl structure was priority to take part in the reaction.SEM Results showed that the surface holes of corn stover lignin increased both in number and in volume,and the particle matters reduced,mainly due to the degradation caused by carbohydrate,there were cellulose and hemicellulose more easily degraded than lignin in the sample.CP/MAS 13CNMR Provides the possibility of qualitative and quantitative characterization for wood materials structure,which is a strong supplement to the traditional quantitative characterization methods,and has some research significance.

  11. MARKER ASSISTED SELECTION (MAS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF BARLEY AND WHEAT LINES WITH REQUESTED TRAITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hudcovicová

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Molecular markers closely linked to interesting genes enable early, proper and fast detection of plant individuals with desired allele during backcross breeding, what can make plant breeding faster and cheaper. We are focused on molecular breeding of barley and wheat lines for disease resistance and some important quality traits. As acceptors of interesting genes we use especially elite Slovak and Czech cultivars and lines. After five backcross generations with the help of MAS new created lines carrying markers linked to desired genes undergo resistance, agronomic and technological tests. In breeding of winter barley for resistance to BaYMV/BaMMV viruses we use codominant STS and SSR markers linked to rym4 and rym11 resistance genes. Cultivar Romanze has been used as a donor of rym4 gene and landrace Russia57 as gene rym11 donor. In spring barley we are focused on transfer of Yd2 gene from landraces Shannon and Sutter resistant to BYDV by use of dominant ASPCR marker. We are also working on transfer of effective leaf rust resistance genes Lr19, Lr24 derived from Thinopyrum ponticum and gene Lr35 from Aegilops speltoides into hexaploid wheat by use of dominant STS and SCAR markers. Near isogenic lines with these genes are used in gene pyramiding to develop a single line with all three genes. By use of protein markers we develop near isogenic wheat lines for higher sedimentation values, higher dough strength and better breadmaking quality. These are lines with new combination of HMW glutenin subunits (21*, 7+8, 5+10 as well as wheat lines with new unknown HMW-GS and with new HMW-GS pair.

  12. LyMAS: Predicting Large-scale Lyα Forest Statistics from the Dark Matter Density Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peirani, Sébastien; Weinberg, David H.; Colombi, Stéphane; Blaizot, Jérémy; Dubois, Yohan; Pichon, Christophe

    2014-03-01

    We describe Lyα Mass Association Scheme (LyMAS), a method of predicting clustering statistics in the Lyα forest on large scales from moderate-resolution simulations of the dark matter (DM) distribution, with calibration from high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations of smaller volumes. We use the "Horizon-MareNostrum" simulation, a 50 h -1 Mpc comoving volume evolved with the adaptive mesh hydrodynamic code RAMSES, to compute the conditional probability distribution P(Fs |δ s ) of the transmitted flux Fs , smoothed (one-dimensionally, 1D) over the spectral resolution scale, on the DM density contrast δ s , smoothed (three-dimensionally, 3D) over a similar scale. In this study we adopt the spectral resolution of the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) at z = 2.5, and we find optimal results for a DM smoothing length σ = 0.3 h -1 Mpc (comoving). In its simplest form, LyMAS draws randomly from the hydro-calibrated P(Fs |δ s ) to convert DM skewers into Lyα forest pseudo-spectra, which are then used to compute cross-sightline flux statistics. In extended form, LyMAS exactly reproduces both the 1D power spectrum and one-point flux distribution of the hydro simulation spectra. Applied to the MareNostrum DM field, LyMAS accurately predicts the two-point conditional flux distribution and flux correlation function of the full hydro simulation for transverse sightline separations as small as 1 h -1 Mpc, including redshift-space distortion effects. It is substantially more accurate than a deterministic density-flux mapping ("Fluctuating Gunn-Peterson Approximation"), often used for large-volume simulations of the forest. With the MareNostrum calibration, we apply LyMAS to 10243 N-body simulations of a 300 h -1 Mpc and 1.0 h -1 Gpc cube to produce large, publicly available catalogs of mock BOSS spectra that probe a large comoving volume. LyMAS will be a powerful tool for interpreting 3D Lyα forest data, thereby transforming measurements from BOSS and

  13. LyMAS: Predicting large-scale Lyα forest statistics from the dark matter density field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe Lyα Mass Association Scheme (LyMAS), a method of predicting clustering statistics in the Lyα forest on large scales from moderate-resolution simulations of the dark matter (DM) distribution, with calibration from high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations of smaller volumes. We use the 'Horizon-MareNostrum' simulation, a 50 h –1 Mpc comoving volume evolved with the adaptive mesh hydrodynamic code RAMSES, to compute the conditional probability distribution P(Fs |δ s) of the transmitted flux Fs , smoothed (one-dimensionally, 1D) over the spectral resolution scale, on the DM density contrast δ s, smoothed (three-dimensionally, 3D) over a similar scale. In this study we adopt the spectral resolution of the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) at z = 2.5, and we find optimal results for a DM smoothing length σ = 0.3 h –1 Mpc (comoving). In its simplest form, LyMAS draws randomly from the hydro-calibrated P(Fs |δ s) to convert DM skewers into Lyα forest pseudo-spectra, which are then used to compute cross-sightline flux statistics. In extended form, LyMAS exactly reproduces both the 1D power spectrum and one-point flux distribution of the hydro simulation spectra. Applied to the MareNostrum DM field, LyMAS accurately predicts the two-point conditional flux distribution and flux correlation function of the full hydro simulation for transverse sightline separations as small as 1 h –1 Mpc, including redshift-space distortion effects. It is substantially more accurate than a deterministic density-flux mapping (Fluctuating Gunn-Peterson Approximation), often used for large-volume simulations of the forest. With the MareNostrum calibration, we apply LyMAS to 10243 N-body simulations of a 300 h –1 Mpc and 1.0 h –1 Gpc cube to produce large, publicly available catalogs of mock BOSS spectra that probe a large comoving volume. LyMAS will be a powerful tool for interpreting 3D Lyα forest data, thereby transforming

  14. X-ray and MAS NMR characterization of the thermal transformation of Li(Na)-Y zeolite to lithium aluminosilicates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high temperature thermal transformation of Li-exchanged Na-Y zeolite has been investigated by X-ray diffraction and /sup 29/Si MAS NMR studies. At 7000C, the zeolite was transformed into an amorphous phase and upon further heating to 8000C, formation of lithium aluminosilicate with high-quartz structure, in addition to an amorphous phase, was noted. When heated above 9000C, the high-quartz structure was transformed into a β-spodumene related solid solution. X-ray and MAS NMR studies indicate the β-spodumene solid solution formed has the composition close to (Li/sub 0.23/Na/sub 0.06/)A iota /sub 0.29/Si/sub 0.71/O/sub 2/, which is in agreement with chemical analysis

  15. Antioxidant capacity of cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) - comparison between permanganate reducing antioxidant capacity and other antioxidant methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popović, Boris M; Stajner, Dubravka; Slavko, Kevrešan; Sandra, Bijelić

    2012-09-15

    Ethanol extracts (80% in water) of 10 cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) genotypes were studied for antioxidant properties, using methods including DPPH(), ()NO, O(2)(-) and ()OH antiradical powers, FRAP, total phenolic and anthocyanin content (TPC and ACC) and also one relatively new, permanganate method (permanganate reducing antioxidant capacity-PRAC). Lipid peroxidation (LP) was also determined as an indicator of oxidative stress. The data from different procedures were compared and analysed by multivariate techniques (correlation matrix calculation and principal component analysis (PCA)). Significant positive correlations were obtained between TPC, ACC and DPPH(), ()NO, O(2)(-), and ()OH antiradical powers, and also between PRAC and TPC, ACC and FRAP. PCA found two major clusters of cornelian cherry, based on antiradical power, FRAP and PRAC and also on chemical composition. Chemometric evaluation showed close interdependence between PRAC method and FRAP and ACC. There was a huge variation between C. mas genotypes in terms of antioxidant activity. PMID:23107685

  16. Bulk carbohydrate grain filling of barley ß-glucan mutants studied by 1H HR MAS NMR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seefeldt, Helene Fast; Larsen, Flemming Hofmann; Viereck, Nanna;

    2008-01-01

    Temporal and genotypic differences in bulk carbohydrate accumulation in three barley genotypes differing in the content of mixed linkage β-(1→3),(1→4)-D-glucan (β-glucan) and starch were investigated using proton high-resolution, magic angle spinning, nuclear magnetic resonance (1H HR MAS NMR......) during grain filling. For the first time, 1H HR MAS NMR spectra of flour from immature barley seeds are analyzed. Spectral assignments are made using two-dimensional (2D) NMR methods. Both α- and β-glucan biosynthesis were characterized by inspection of the spectra as well as by calibration...... unexpected lack of intensity in the high β-glucan mutant lys5f at seed maturity, resulting in poor calibration to reference β-glucan content. We hypothesize that the lack of β-glucan signal in lys5f indicates partial immobilization of the β-glucan that appears to be either genotypic dependent or water...

  17. Polydisperse methyl β-cyclodextrin–epichlorohydrin polymers: variable contact time 13C CP-MAS solid-state NMR characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Mallard

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The polymerization of partially methylated β-cyclodextrin (CRYSMEB with epichlorohydrin was carried out in the presence of a known amount of toluene as imprinting agent. Three different preparations (D1, D2 and D3 of imprinted polymers were obtained and characterized by solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy under cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CP-MAS conditions. The polymers were prepared by using the same synthetic conditions but with different molar ratios of imprinting agent/monomer, leading to morphologically equivalent materials but with different absorption properties. The main purpose of the work was to find a suitable spectroscopic descriptor accounting for the different imprinting process in three homogeneous polymeric networks. The polymers were characterized by studying the kinetics of the cross-polarization process. This approach is based on variable contact time CP-MAS spectra, referred to as VCP-MAS. The analysis of the VCP-MAS spectra provided two relaxation parameters: TCH (the CP time constant and T1ρ (the proton spin-lattice relaxation time in the rotating frame. The results and the analysis presented in the paper pointed out that TCH is sensitive to the imprinting process, showing variations related to the toluene/cyclodextrin molar ratio used for the preparation of the materials. Conversely, the observed values of T1ρ did not show dramatic variations with the imprinting protocol, but rather confirmed that the three polymers are morphologically similar. Thus the combined use of TCH and T1ρ can be helpful for the characterization and fine tuning of imprinted polymeric matrices.

  18. Characterization of solid polymer dispersions of active pharmaceutical ingredients by 19F MAS NMR and factor analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanova, Martina; Brus, Jiri; Sedenkova, Ivana; Policianova, Olivia; Kobera, Libor

    In this contribution the ability of 19F MAS NMR spectroscopy to probe structural variability of poorly water-soluble drugs formulated as solid dispersions in polymer matrices is discussed. The application potentiality of the proposed approach is demonstrated on a moderately sized active pharmaceutical ingredient (API, Atorvastatin) exhibiting extensive polymorphism. In this respect, a range of model systems with the API incorporated in the matrix of polvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was prepared. The extent of mixing of both components was determined by T1(1H) and T1ρ(1H) relaxation experiments, and it was found that the API forms nanosized domains. Subsequently it was found out that the polymer matrix induces two kinds of changes in 19F MAS NMR spectra. At first, this is a high-frequency shift reaching 2-3 ppm which is independent on molecular structure of the API and which results from the long-range polarization of the electron cloud around 19F nucleus induced by electrostatic fields of the polymer matrix. At second, this is broadening of the signals and formation of shoulders reflecting changes in molecular arrangement of the API. To avoid misleading in the interpretation of the recorded 19F MAS NMR spectra, because both the contributions act simultaneously, we applied chemometric approach based on multivariate analysis. It is demonstrated that factor analysis of the recorded spectra can separate both these spectral contributions, and the subtle structural differences in the molecular arrangement of the API in the nanosized domains can be traced. In this way 19F MAS NMR spectra of both pure APIs and APIs in solid dispersions can be directly compared. The proposed strategy thus provides a powerful tool for the analysis of new formulations of fluorinated pharmaceutical substances in polymer matrices.

  19. Agent及Multi-Agent System的理论和应用%Theories and Application of Agent/MAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东云; 郭素娜

    2006-01-01

    Agent和Multi-Agent System(MAS)是人工智能的主要研究方向之一.回顾了Agent及MAS的发展历史,总结了目前Agent及MAS的研究现状,探讨了Agent及MAS的理论与应用,提出了目前Agent和MAS发展所需要解决的问题.

  20. TRPA1 is required for histamine-independent, Mas-related G protein-coupled receptor-mediated itch

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Sarah R.; Kristin A Gerhold; Bifolck-Fisher, Amber; Liu, Qin; Patel, Kush N.; Dong, Xinzhong; Bautista, Diana M.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Itch, the unpleasant sensation that evokes a desire to scratch, accompanies numerous skin and nervous system disorders. In many cases, pathological itch is insensitive to antihistamine treatment. Recent studies have identified members of the Mas-related GPCR (Mrgpr) family that are activated by mast cell mediators and promote histamine-independent itch. MrgprA3 and MrgprC11 act as receptors for the pruritogens chloroquine and BAM8–22, respectively. However, the signaling pathways and ...

  1. Studi Aplikasi Total Productive Maintenance Untuk Peningkatan Efisiensi Produksi Dengan Metode Overall Equipment Effectiveness Di PT. Rolimex Kimia Nusa Mas

    OpenAIRE

    Mupianda, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    PT. Rolimex Kimia Nusa Mas merupakan sebuah perusahaan yang memproduksi pupuk CIRP (Crismes Island Rock Phosphate) yang juga tidak terlepas dari masalah yang berkaitan dengan efektifitas mesin/peralatan yang diakibatkan oleh six big losses tersebut. Hal ini dapat terlihat dengan frekuensi kerusakan yang terjadi pada mesin/peralatan karena kerusakan tersebut target produksi tidak tercapai. Oleh karena itulah diperlukan langkah-langkah yang efektif dan efisien dalam pemeliharaan mesin/peralatan...

  2. Evaluación ecotoxicológica del FitoMas-H en lombriz de tierra y abejas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Mancebo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aunque constituye una necesidad el aumento de las producciones agrícolas, y actualmente se estimula la disminución del uso de productos químicos, mediante su sustitución por fertilizantes orgánicos y biológicos, es preciso evaluar el impacto de éstos sobre las especies del ecosistema en el cual se liberan. Con el objetivo de realizar la evaluación ecotoxicológica en sistemas terrestres del FitoMas-H, se realizaron los ensayos de toxicidad aguda en lombriz de tierra (Eisenia foetida y de toxicidad aguda por contacto en abejas (Apis mellifera. Se evaluó una concentración de 1000 mg de FitoMas-H /Kg de suelo artificial en el primer caso, mientras en el ensayo con abejas se utilizó una dosis de 100 g de FitoMas - H/animal. El ensayo en lombrices culminó con un 97,5 % de supervivencia en el grupo Tratado, sin diferencias significativas en la mortalidad y la variación de biomasa del grupo Control contra el Tratado. Por otra parte, el estudio por contacto en abejas terminó con una supervivencia del 95.45%, sin diferencias entre la mortalidad del grupo Control contra el Tratado. En ambos casos, se pudo concluir que la exposición al FitoMas-H no produce efectos tóxicos en los invertebrados terrestres utilizados.

  3. The effect of FF-MAS on porcine cumulus-oocyte complex maturation, fertilization and pronucleus formation in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Færge, Inger; Strejcek, Frantisek; Laurincik, Jozef;

    2006-01-01

    /ml epidermal growth factor and 50µM 2-mercaptoethanol with or without 10% porcine follicular fluid (pFF). For the first 22 h, 1 mM db-cAMP and 10 I.E PMSG/hCG was added. The medium was supplemented with 1 µM, 3 µM, 10 µM, 30 µM or 100 µM FF-MAS dissolved in ethanol. After maturation the COCs were denuded...

  4. Characterizing crystal disorder of trospium chloride: a comprehensive,(13) C CP/MAS NMR, DSC, FTIR, and XRPD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanova, Martina; Sturcova, Adriana; Brus, Jiri; Benes, Hynek; Skorepova, Eliska; Kratochvil, Bohumil; Cejka, Jan; Sedenkova, Ivana; Kobera, Libor; Policianova, Olivia; Sturc, Antonin

    2013-04-01

    Analysis of C cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and X-ray powder diffraction data of trospium chloride (TCl) products crystallized from different mixtures of water-ethanol [φ(EtOH) = 0.5-1.0] at various temperatures (0°C, 20°C) and initial concentrations (saturated solution, 30%-50% excess of solvent) revealed extensive structural variability of TCl. Although (13) C CP/MAS NMR spectra indicated broad variety of structural phases arising from molecular disorder, temperature-modulated DSC identified presence of two distinct components in the products. FTIR spectra revealed alterations in the hydrogen bonding network (ionic hydrogen bond formation), whereas the X-ray diffraction reflected unchanged unit cell parameters. These results were explained by a two-component character of TCl products in which a dominant polymorphic form is accompanied by partly separated nanocrystalline domains of a secondary phase that does not provide clear Bragg reflections. These phases slightly differ in the degree of molecular disorder, in the quality of crystal lattice and hydrogen bonding network. It is also demonstrated that, for the quality control of such complex products, (13) C CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy combined with factor analysis (FA) can satisfactorily be used for categorizing the individual samples: FA of (13) C CP/MAS NMR spectra found clear relationships between the extent of molecular disorder and crystallization conditions. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 102:1235-1248, 2013.

  5. 15N Photo-CIDNP MAS NMR To Reveal Functional Heterogeneity in Electron Donor of Different Plant Organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Geertje J.; Roy, Esha; Matysik, Jörg; Alia, A.

    2011-01-01

    In plants and cyanobacteria, two light-driven electron pumps, photosystems I and II (PSI, PSII), facilitate electron transfer from water to carbon dioxide with quantum efficiency close to unity. While similar in structure and function, the reaction centers of PSI and PSII operate at widely different potentials with PSI being the strongest reducing agent known in living nature. Photochemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization (photo-CIDNP) in magic-angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic res...

  6. Polydisperse methyl β-cyclodextrin-epichlorohydrin polymers: variable contact time (13)C CP-MAS solid-state NMR characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallard, Isabelle; Baudelet, Davy; Castiglione, Franca; Ferro, Monica; Panzeri, Walter; Ragg, Enzio; Mele, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The polymerization of partially methylated β-cyclodextrin (CRYSMEB) with epichlorohydrin was carried out in the presence of a known amount of toluene as imprinting agent. Three different preparations (D1, D2 and D3) of imprinted polymers were obtained and characterized by solid-state (13)C NMR spectroscopy under cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CP-MAS) conditions. The polymers were prepared by using the same synthetic conditions but with different molar ratios of imprinting agent/monomer, leading to morphologically equivalent materials but with different absorption properties. The main purpose of the work was to find a suitable spectroscopic descriptor accounting for the different imprinting process in three homogeneous polymeric networks. The polymers were characterized by studying the kinetics of the cross-polarization process. This approach is based on variable contact time CP-MAS spectra, referred to as VCP-MAS. The analysis of the VCP-MAS spectra provided two relaxation parameters: T CH (the CP time constant) and T 1ρ (the proton spin-lattice relaxation time in the rotating frame). The results and the analysis presented in the paper pointed out that T CH is sensitive to the imprinting process, showing variations related to the toluene/cyclodextrin molar ratio used for the preparation of the materials. Conversely, the observed values of T 1ρ did not show dramatic variations with the imprinting protocol, but rather confirmed that the three polymers are morphologically similar. Thus the combined use of T CH and T 1ρ can be helpful for the characterization and fine tuning of imprinted polymeric matrices. PMID:26877800

  7. 1H MAS NMR characterization of hydrogen over silica-supported rhodium catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Hydrogen species in both SiO2 and Rh/SiO2 catalysts pretreated indifferent atmospheres (H2, O2, helium or air) at different temperatures (773 or 973 K) were investigated by means of 1H MAS NMR. In SiO2 and O2-pretreated catalysts, a series of downfield signals at ~7.0, 3.8-4.0, 2.0 and 1.5-1.0 were detected. The first two signals can be attributed to strongly adsorbed and physisorbed water and the others to terminal silanol (SiOH) and SiOH under the screening of oxygen vacancies in SiO2 lattice, respectively. Besides the above signals, both upfield signal at ~-110 and downfield signals at 3.0 and 0.0 were also detected in H2-pretreated catalyst, respectively. The upfield signal at ~-110 originated from the dissociative adsorption of H2 over rhodium and was found to consist of both the contributions of reversible and irreversible hydrogen. There also probably existed another dissociatively adsorbed hydrogen over rhodium, which was known to be b hydrogen and in a unique form of "delocalized hydrogen". It was presumed that the b hydrogen had an upfield shift of ca. -20- -50, though its 1H NMR signals, which, having been masked by the spinning sidebands of Si-OH, failed to be directly detected out. The downfield signal at 3.0 was assigned to spillover hydrogen weakly bound by the bridge oxygen of SiO2. Another downfield signal at 0.0 was assigned to hydrogen held in the oxygen vacancies of SiO2 (Si-H species), suffering from the screening of trapped electrons. Both the spillover hydrogen and the Si-H resulted from the migration of the reversible hydrogen and the b hydrogen from rhodium to SiO2 in the close vicinity. It was proved that the above migration of hydrogen was preferred to occur at higher temperature than at lower temperature.

  8. Promising Cornelian Cherry (Cornus mas L. Genotypes from Natural Population in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Bijelić

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Serbia is a rich in Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L. populations that grow naturally in a variety of locations. At Faculty of Agriculture in Novi Sad, an intensive breeding program on this fruit species started in 2006. The paper reviews morphometric characteristics of 16 Cornelian cherry genotypes collected on the territory of the Vojvodina Province and Mačva region in 2008 and 2009, which were found to be superior in terms of fruit size and quality. On average for the two years, the genotype PPC1 had the highest fruit length (27.79 mm, fruit width (18.97 mm, fruit weight (6.61 g, mesocarp weight (5.86 g and the flesh to stone ratio (88.46%. The genotype Žuti had the longest fruit. The effect of year of growing was statistically significant for all studied traits, except for fruit width and fruit shape index. Fruit weight, economically the most important characteristic, ranged in the interval from 2.25 to 6.61 g, with a large number of genotypes having the fruit weight over 3 g. All of the tested genotypes had satisfactory flesh to stone ratio, from 79.00% (CPC9 to 88.46% (PPC1. The highest variability was detected for mesocarp weight (36.48% and fruit weight (33.19% in 2009, while flesh to stone ratio was the most stable characteristic in both test years (CV = 3.84 and 4.09% in 2008 and 2009, respectively. The genotype SKC had highest contents of soluble matter (32.37%, total sugars (25.38% and reducing sugars (23.67%. Fruits of the genotype KC2 had highest contents of vitamin C (39.22 mg/100 g fruit and total acids (3.60%. Selection Apatinski rani had the highest content of anthocyanins (109.36 mg/100 g fruit. Depending on the genotype, protein content ranged from 1.43 to 2.71%, and tannin content from 0.65% to 1.31%.

  9. Perinatally administered losartan augments renal ACE2 expression but not cardiac or renal Mas receptor in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimas, Jan; Olvedy, Michael; Ochodnicka-Mackovicova, Katarina; Kruzliak, Peter; Cacanyiova, Sona; Kristek, Frantisek; Krenek, Peter; Ochodnicky, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Since the identification of the alternative angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor axis, renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a new complex target for a pharmacological intervention. We investigated the expression of RAS components in the heart and kidney during the development of hypertension and its perinatal treatment with losartan in young spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Expressions of RAS genes were studied by the RT-PCR in the left ventricle and kidney of rats: normotensive Wistar, untreated SHR, SHR treated with losartan since perinatal period until week 9 of age (20 mg/kg/day) and SHR treated with losartan only until week 4 of age and discontinued until week 9. In the hypertrophied left ventricle of SHR, cardiac expressions of Ace and Mas were decreased while those of AT1 receptor (Agtr1a) and Ace2 were unchanged. Continuous losartan administration reduced LV weight (0.43 ± 0.02; P losartan administration lowered blood pressure to control levels (105 ± 3 mmHg; P losartan was unrelated to cardiac or renal expression of Mas. Increased renal Ace2, and its further increase by losartan suggests the influence of locally generated Ang-(1-7) in organ response to the developing hypertension in SHRs.

  10. Wykonywanie odlewów z żeliwa sferoidalnego w formach warstwowych z ekologicznych mas formierskich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rączka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Artykuł zawiera wyniki uzyskane podczas badań wykonywanych w ramach projektu celowego w odlewni Hardtop w Charsznicy.Celem badań było opracowanie technologii wykonania dobrej jakości odlewów z żeliwa sferoidalnego przy jednoczesnym zachowaniuskutecznych technik ochrony środowiska. Przedstawiono badania wykonywania odlewów o masie od 1 do 300 kg z żeliwa sferoidalnegogatunek 400-15, 500-7 z zastosowaniem form dwuwarstwowych, gdzie masę przymodelową i rdzeniową stanowi masa z alkalicznymspoiwem organicznym, a masę wypełniającą – masa ze spoiwem nieorganicznym - geopolimerowym.Zastosowano uproszczoną regenerację masy z możliwością wykorzystania odzyskanego regeneratu do masy wypełniającej.Przeprowadzono dobór metody sferoidyzacji i modyfikacji żeliwa odpowiednich dla warunków odlewni Hardtop. Wykonano serię próbnąodlewów i przeprowadzono badania poprawności konstrukcji układów zalewania i zasilania z zastosowaniem otulin egzotermicznych nanadlewy. Badania potwierdziły słuszność przyjętej koncepcji wykonywania odlewów z żeliwa sferoidalnego w formach warstwowychprzy zachowaniu maksymalnie 15% udziału mas ze spoiwem organicznym.

  11. The Magellan Adaptive Secondary VisAO Camera: Diffraction- Limited Broadband Visible Imaging and 20mas Fiber Array IFS

    CERN Document Server

    Kopon, Derek; Males, Jared R; Gasho, Victor; Follette, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    The Magellan Adaptive Secondary AO system, scheduled for first light in the fall of 2011, will be able to simultaneously perform diffraction limited AO science in both the mid-IR, using the BLINC/MIRAC4 10\\{mu}m camera, and in the visible using our novel VisAO camera. The VisAO camera will be able to operate as either an imager, using a CCD47 with 8.5 mas pixels, or as an IFS, using a custom fiber array at the focal plane with 20 mas elements in its highest resolution mode. In imaging mode, the VisAO camera will have a full suite of filters, coronagraphic focal plane occulting spots, and SDI prism/filters. The imaging mode should provide ~20% mean Strehl diffraction-limited images over the band 0.5-1.0 \\{mu}m. In IFS mode, the VisAO instrument will provide R~1,800 spectra over the band 0.6-1.05 \\{mu}m. Our unprecedented 20 mas spatially resolved visible spectra would be the highest spatial resolution achieved to date, either from the ground or in space. We also present lab results from our recently fabricated...

  12. Promising Cornelian Cherry (Cornus mas L. Genotypes from Natural Population in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Bijelic

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Serbia is a rich in Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L. populations that grow naturally in a variety of locations. At Faculty of Agriculture in Novi Sad, an intensive breeding program on this fruit species started in 2006. The paper reviews morphometric characteristics of 16 Cornelian cherry genotypes collected on the territory of the Vojvodina Province and Mačva region in 2008 and 2009, which were found to be superior in terms of fruit size and quality. On average for the two years, the genotype PPC1 had the highest fruit length (27.79 mm, fruit width (18.97 mm, fruit weight (6.61 g, mesocarp weight (5.86 g and the flesh to stone ratio (88.46%. The genotype Žuti had the longest fruit. The effect of year of growing was statistically significant for all studied traits, except for fruit width and fruit shape index. Fruit weight, economically the most important characteristic, ranged in the interval from 2.25 to 6.61 g, with a large number of genotypes having the fruit weight over 3 g. All of the tested genotypes had satisfactory flesh to stone ratio, from 79.00% (CPC9 to 88.46% (PPC1. The highest variability was detected for mesocarp weight (36.48% and fruit weight (33.19% in 2009, while flesh to stone ratio was

  13. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2/angiotensin-(1-7)/Mas axis activates Akt signaling to ameliorate hepatic steatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xi; Yang, Fangyuan; Shi, Tingting; Yuan, Mingxia; Xin, Zhong; Xie, Rongrong; Li, Sen; Li, Hongbing; Yang, Jin-Kui

    2016-01-01

    The classical axis of renin-angiotensin system (RAS), angiotensin (Ang)-converting enzyme (ACE)/Ang II/AT1, contributes to the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the role of bypass axis of RAS (Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)/Ang-(1-7)/Mas) in hepatic steatosis is still unclear. Here we showed that deletion of ACE2 aggravates liver steatosis, which is correlated with the increased expression of hepatic lipogenic genes and the decreased expression of fatty acid oxidation-related genes in the liver of ACE2 knockout (ACE2(-/y)) mice. Meanwhile, oxidative stress and inflammation were also aggravated in ACE2(-/y) mice. On the contrary, overexpression of ACE2 improved fatty liver in db/db mice, and the mRNA levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes were up-regulated. In vitro, Ang-(1-7)/ACE2 ameliorated hepatic steatosis, oxidative stress and inflammation in free fatty acid (FFA)-induced HepG2 cells, and what's more, Akt inhibitors reduced ACE2-mediated lipid metabolism. Furthermore, ACE2-mediated Akt activation could be attenuated by blockade of ATP/P2 receptor/Calmodulin (CaM) pathway. These results indicated that Ang-(1-7)/ACE2/Mas axis may reduce liver lipid accumulation partly by regulating lipid-metabolizing genes through ATP/P2 receptor/CaM signaling pathway. Our findings support the potential role of ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis in prevention and treatment of hepatic lipid metabolism. PMID:26883384

  14. The Magellan Adaptive Secondary VisAO Camera: diffraction-limited broadband visible imaging and 20mas fiber array IFU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopon, Derek; Close, Laird M.; Males, Jared; Gasho, Victor; Follette, Katherine

    2010-07-01

    The Magellan Adaptive Secondary AO system, scheduled for first light in the fall of 2011, will be able to simultaneously perform diffraction limited AO science in both the mid-IR, using the BLINC/MIRAC4 10μm camera, and in the visible using our novel VisAO camera. The VisAO camera will be able to operate as either an imager, using a CCD47 with 8.5 mas pixels, or as an IFS, using a custom fiber array at the focal plane with 20 mas elements in its highest resolution mode. In imaging mode, the VisAO camera will have a full suite of filters, coronagraphic focal plane occulting spots, and SDI prism/filters. The imaging mode should provide ~20% mean Strehl diffraction-limited images over the band 0.5-1.0 μm. In IFS mode, the VisAO instrument will provide R~1,800 spectra over the band 0.6-1.05 μm. Our unprecedented 20 mas spatially resolved visible spectra would be the highest spatial resolution achieved to date, either from the ground or in space. We also present lab results from our recently fabricated advanced triplet Atmospheric Dispersion Corrector (ADC) and the design of our novel wide-field acquisition and active optics lens. The advanced ADC is designed to perform 58% better than conventional doublet ADCs and is one of the enabling technologies that will allow us to achieve broadband (0.5-1.0μm) diffraction limited imaging and wavefront sensing in the visible.

  15. CaCl2-Accelerated Hydration of Tricalcium Silicate: A STXM Study Combined with 29Si MAS NMR

    OpenAIRE

    Qinfei Li; Yong Ge; Guoqing Geng; Sungchul Bae; Monteiro, Paulo J. M.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of calcium chloride (CaCl2) on tricalcium silicate (C3S) hydration was investigated by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) with Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectra and 29Si MAS NMR. STXM is demonstrated to be a powerful tool for studying the chemical composition of a cement-based hydration system. The Ca L3,2-edge NEXAFS spectra obtained by examining C3S hydration in the presence of CaCl2 showed that this accelerator does not change the coordination...

  16. Benito Juárez: ¿más que un Aprendiz de Masón?

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Moreno, Carlos F.

    2016-01-01

    El estudio historiográfico muestra que es una idea ampliamente aceptada que Benito Juárez fue iniciado en la masonería en el Rito Nacional Mexicano; sin embargo, hay quien afirma que es improbable que Juárez haya recibido más allá del grado de Aprendiz de Masón, a causa de los movimientos bélicos que provocaron sus constantes viajes por la República Mexicana y el extranjero. El objetivo central del presente artículo es analizar algunas hipótesis para buscar dilucidar si Juárez pudo haber reci...

  17. Protective effects of vitamin E and Cornus mas fruit extract on methotrexate-induced cytotoxicity in sperms of adult mice

    OpenAIRE

    Zarei, Leila; Sadrkhanlou, Rajabali; Shahrooz, Rasoul; Malekinejad, Hassan; Eilkhanizadeh, Behroz; Ahmadi, Abbas

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed to assess the protective effects of Cornus mas fruit extract (CMFE) and vitamin E (Vit E) on sperm quality parameters in the methotrexate (MTX)-treated mice. Forty-eight young adult male mice (8-12 weeks) were randomly divided into six groups including control and test groups. The control group received normal saline orally , and the test groups were treated MTX (20 mg kg-1, ip, once weekly), MTX + CMFE (250 mg kg-1), MTX + CMFE (500 mg kg-1), MTX + CMFE (1000 mg kg-1), a...

  18. Improved quantification of alite and belite in anhydrous Portland cements by 29Si MAS NMR: Effects of paramagnetic ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Søren Lundsted; Kocaba, Vanessa; Le Saoût, Gwenn;

    2009-01-01

    The applicability, reliability, and repeatability of 29Si MAS NMR for determination of the quantities of alite (Ca3SiO5) and belite (Ca2SiO4) in anhydrous Portland cement was investigated in detail for 11 commercial Portland cements and the results compared with phase quantifications based...... on powder X-ray diffraction combined with Rietveld analysis and with Taylor-Bogue calculations. The effects from paramagnetic ions (Fe3+) on the spinning sideband intensities, originating from dipolar couplings between 29Si and the spins of the paramagnetic electrons, were considered and analyzed in spectra...

  19. Determination of the structural changes by Raman and 13C CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy on native corn starch with plasticizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plasticizing - antiplasticizing effect of water and glycerol contents on native corn starch samples is investigated by FT-Raman and 13C CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy. The presence of both amorphous and crystalline structural phases was evidenced in pure native corn starch and also in the samples containing plasticizers. Among the crystalline starch structures, the A- and V- types were suggested by CP/MAS NMR spectra

  20. Microscopic structural analysis of fractured silk fibers from Bombyx mori and Samia cynthia ricini using 13C CP/MAS NMR with a 1 mm microcoil MAS NMR probehead

    KAUST Repository

    Yamauchi, Kazuo

    2010-07-01

    Conformational changes have been studied in silk fibers from the domestic silkworm Bombyx mori and a wild silkworm Samia cynthia ricini as a result of fractured by stretching. About 300 samples consisting of only the fractured regions of [1-13C]Ala or [1-13C]Gly labeled silk fibers were collected and observed by 13C CP/MAS NMR spectra. The total amount of these fractured fibers is only about 1 mg and therefore we used a home-built 1 mm microcoil MAS NMR probehead. A very small increase in the fraction of random coil was noted for the alanine regions of both silk fibroins and for the glycine region of B. mori silk fibroin. However, there is no difference in the spectra before and after fractured for the glycine region of S. c. ricini silk fibroin. Thus, the influence of fracture occurs exclusively at the Ala region for S. c. ricini. The relationship between sequence, fracture and structure is discussed. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Structural analysis of alkali cations in mixed alkali silicate glasses by 23Na and 133Cs MAS NMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Minami

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the structural analysis of Na+ and Cs+ in sodium cesium silicate glasses by using 23Na and 133Cs magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR spectroscopy. In the NMR spectra of cesium silicate crystals, the peak position shifted to higher magnetic field for structures with larger Cs+ coordination numbers and to lower magnetic field for smaller Cs+ coordination numbers. The MAS NMR spectra of xNa2O-yCs2O-2SiO2 (x = 0, 0.2, 0.33, 0.5, 0.66, 0.8, 1.0; x + y = 1 glass reveal that the average coordination number of both the alkali cations decreases with increasing Cs+/(Na+ + Cs+ ratio. In addition, the coordination number of Na+ in xNa2O-yCs2O-2SiO2 glass is smaller than that of Cs+. This difference between the average coordination numbers of the alkali cations is considered to be one structural reason of the mixed alkali effect.

  2. 1H HR-MAS NMR Spectroscopy and the Metabolite Determination of Typical Foods in Mediterranean Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Corsaro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available NMR spectroscopy has become an experimental technique widely used in food science. The experimental procedures that allow precise and quantitative analysis on different foods are relatively simple. For a better sensitivity and resolution, NMR spectroscopy is usually applied to liquid sample by means of extraction procedures that can be addressed to the observation of particular compounds. For the study of semisolid systems such as intact tissues, High-Resolution Magic Angle Spinning (HR-MAS has received great attention within the biomedical area and beyond. Metabolic profiling and metabolism changes can be investigated both in animal organs and in foods. In this work we present a proton HR-MAS NMR study on the typical vegetable foods of Mediterranean diet such as the Protected Geographical Indication (PGI cherry tomato of Pachino, the PGI Interdonato lemon of Messina, several Protected Designation of Origin (PDO extra virgin olive oils from Sicily, and the Traditional Italian Food Product (PAT red garlic of Nubia. We were able to identify and quantify the main metabolites within the studied systems that can be used for their characterization and authentication.

  3. Sensitivity Gains, Linearity, and Spectral Reproducibility in Nonuniformly Sampled Multidimensional MAS NMR Spectra of High Dynamic Range.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suiter, Christopher L.; Paramasivam, Sivakumar; Hou, Guangjin; Sun, Shangjin; Rice, David M.; Hoch, Jeffrey C.; Rovnyak, David S.; Polenova, Tatyana E.

    2014-04-22

    Recently, we have demonstrated that considerable inherent sensitivity gains are attained in MAS NMR spectra acquired by nonuniform sampling (NUS) and introduced maximum entropy interpolation (MINT) processing that assures the linearity of transformation between the time and frequency domains. In this report, we examine the utility of the NUS/MINT approach in multidimensional datasets possessing high dynamic range, such as homonuclear 13C–13C correlation spectra. We demonstrate on model compounds and on 1–73-(U-13C,15N)/74–108-(U-15N) E. coli thioredoxin reassembly, that with appropriately constructed 50 % NUS schedules inherent sensitivity gains of 1.7–2.1-fold are readily reached in such datasets. We show that both linearity and line width are retained under these experimental conditions throughout the entire dynamic range of the signals. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the reproducibility of the peak intensities is excellent in the NUS/MINT approach when experiments are repeated multiple times and identical experimental and processing conditions are employed. Finally, we discuss the principles for design and implementation of random exponentially biased NUS sampling schedules for homonuclear 13C–13C MAS correlation experiments that yield high quality artifact-free datasets.

  4. LyMAS: Predicting Large-Scale Lyman-alpha Forest Statistics from the Dark Matter Density Field

    CERN Document Server

    Peirani, Sébastien; Colombi, Stéphane; Blaizot, Jérémy; Dubois, Yohan; Pichon, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    [abridged] We describe LyMAS (Ly-alpha Mass Association Scheme), a method of predicting clustering statistics in the Ly-alpha forest on large scales from moderate resolution simulations of the dark matter distribution, with calibration from high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations of smaller volumes. We use the "Horizon MareNostrum" simulation, a 50 Mpc/h comoving volume evolved with the adaptive mesh hydrodynamic code RAMSES, to compute the conditional probability distribution P(F_s|delta_s) of the transmitted flux F_s, smoothed (1-dimensionally) over the spectral resolution scale, on the dark matter density contrast delta_s, smoothed (3-dimensionally) over a similar scale. In this study we adopt the spectral resolution of the SDSS-III BOSS at z=2.5, and we find optimal results for a dark matter smoothing length sigma=0.3 Mpc/h (comoving). In extended form, LyMAS exactly reproduces both the 1-dimensional power spectrum and 1-point flux distribution of the hydro simulation spectra. Applied to the MareNostrum ...

  5. Recognition of Membrane Sterols by Polyene Antifungals Amphotericin B and Natamycin, A (13)C MAS NMR Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesielski, Filip; Griffin, David C; Loraine, Jessica; Rittig, Michael; Delves-Broughton, Joss; Bonev, Boyan B

    2016-01-01

    The molecular action of polyene macrolides with antifungal activity, amphotericin B and natamycin, involves recognition of sterols in membranes. Physicochemical and functional studies have contributed details to understanding the interactions between amphotericin B and ergosterol and, to a lesser extent, with cholesterol. Fewer molecular details are available on interactions between natamycin with sterols. We use solid state (13)C MAS NMR to characterize the impact of amphotericin B and natamycin on mixed lipid membranes of DOPC/cholesterol or DOPC/ergosterol. In cholesterol-containing membranes, amphotericin B addition resulted in marked increase in both DOPC and cholesterol (13)C MAS NMR linewidth, reflecting membrane insertion and cooperative perturbation of the bilayer. By contrast, natamycin affects little either DOPC or cholesterol linewidth but attenuates cholesterol resonance intensity preferentially for sterol core with lesser impact on the chain. Ergosterol resonances, attenuated by amphotericin B, reveal specific interactions in the sterol core and chain base. Natamycin addition selectively augmented ergosterol resonances from sterol core ring one and, at the same time, from the end of the chain. This puts forward an interaction model similar to the head-to-tail model for amphotericin B/ergosterol pairing but with docking on opposite sterol faces. Low toxicity of natamycin is attributed to selective, non-cooperative sterol engagement compared to cooperative membrane perturbation by amphotericin B. PMID:27379235

  6. Surface Characterization of Some Novel Bonded Phase Packing Materials for HPLC Columns Using MAS-NMR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude Abia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Information on the surface properties of three novel chemically bonded phase packing materials for High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC were obtained using spectra obtained by solid state cross-polarization (CP magic-angle spinning (MAS nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopic experiments for the 29Si, and 13C nuclei. These packing materials were: Cogent bidentate C18 bonded to type-C silica, hybrid packing materials XTerra MS C18, and XBridge Prep. C18. The spectra obtained using cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CP-MAS on the Cogent bidentate C18 bonded to type-C silica show the surface to be densely populated with hydride groups (Si-H, with a relative surface coverage exceeding 80%. The hybrid packing materials XTerra and XBridge gave spectra that reveal the silicon atoms to be bonded to organic moieties embedded in the molecular structure of these materials with over 90% of the alkyl silicon atoms found within the completely condensed silicon environments. The hydrolytic stability of these materials were investigated in acidic aqueous solutions at pHs of 7.0 and 3.0, and it was found that while the samples of XTerra and XBridge were not affected by hydrolysis at this pH range, the sample of Cogent lost a significant proportion of its Si-H groups after five days of treatment in acidic aqueous solution.

  7. Transport Properties of Ibuprofen Encapsulated in Cyclodextrin Nanosponge Hydrogels: A Proton HR-MAS NMR Spectroscopy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Monica; Castiglione, Franca; Punta, Carlo; Melone, Lucio; Panzeri, Walter; Rossi, Barbara; Trotta, Francesco; Mele, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The chemical cross-linking of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) with ethylenediaminetetraacetic dianhydride (EDTA) led to branched polymers referred to as cyclodextrin nanosponges (CDNSEDTA). Two different preparations are described with 1:4 and 1:8 CD-EDTA molar ratios. The corresponding cross-linked polymers were contacted with 0.27 M aqueous solution of ibuprofen sodium salt (IP) leading to homogeneous, colorless, drug loaded hydrogels. The systems were characterized by high resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) NMR spectroscopy. Pulsed field gradient spin echo (PGSE) NMR spectroscopy was used to determine the mean square displacement (MSD) of IP inside the polymeric gel at different observation times td. The data were further processed in order to study the time dependence of MSD: MSD = f(td). The proposed methodology is useful to characterize the different diffusion regimes that, in principle, the solute may experience inside the hydrogel, namely normal or anomalous diffusion. The full protocols including the polymer preparation and purification, the obtainment of drug-loaded hydrogels, the NMR sample preparation, the measurement of MSD by HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy and the final data processing to achieve the time dependence of MSD are here reported and discussed. The presented experiments represent a paradigmatic case and the data are discussed in terms of innovative approach to the characterization of the transport properties of an encapsulated guest within a polymeric host of potential application for drug delivery. PMID:27585291

  8. CaCl2-Accelerated Hydration of Tricalcium Silicate: A STXM Study Combined with 29Si MAS NMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinfei Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of calcium chloride (CaCl2 on tricalcium silicate (C3S hydration was investigated by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM with Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS spectra and 29Si MAS NMR. STXM is demonstrated to be a powerful tool for studying the chemical composition of a cement-based hydration system. The Ca L3,2-edge NEXAFS spectra obtained by examining C3S hydration in the presence of CaCl2 showed that this accelerator does not change the coordination of calcium in the calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H, which is the primary hydration product. O K-edge NEXAFS is also very useful in distinguishing the chemical components in hydrated C3S. Based on the Ca L3,2-edge spectra and chemical component mapping, we concluded that CaCl2 prefers to coexist with unhydrated C3S instead of C-S-H. In Si K-edge NEXAFS analysis, CaCl2 increases the degree of silicate polymerization of C-S-H in agreement with the 29Si CP/MAS NMR results, which show that the presence of CaCl2 in hydrated C3S considerably accelerates the formation of middle groups (Q2 and branch sites (Q3 in the silicate chains of C-S-H gel at 1-day hydration.

  9. Designing MAS-based Modern Information Processing System: Ideas and Discussions%基于MAS设计现代信息处理系统:思路与探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁力力; 胡可云; 陆玉昌; 石纯一

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses the ideas for designing modern information processing system,in which we emphasize the observation about the advantages and disadvantages while designing large-scale open system using MAS theory. After brief review and analysis about the study situations or limitations of present information processing techniques and DAI/MAS,this paper discusses many problems in the combination between MAS and information processing. Finally,a brand new MAS organization structural model and new ideas for devising information processing systems are put forward with the consideration about the limitations of MAS' organization structure and the strong requirements of feasibility and efficiency.

  10. Combined zero-quantum and spin-diffusion mixing for efficient homonuclear correlation spectroscopy under fast MAS: broadband recoupling and detection of long-range correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Xingyu, E-mail: luxingyu@udel.edu; Guo, Changmiao, E-mail: cmguo@udel.edu; Hou, Guangjin, E-mail: hou@udel.edu; Polenova, Tatyana, E-mail: tpolenov@udel.edu [University of Delaware, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Fast magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy is emerging as an essential analytical and structural biology technique. Large resolution and sensitivity enhancements observed under fast MAS conditions enable structural and dynamics analysis of challenging systems, such as large macromolecular assemblies and isotopically dilute samples, using only a fraction of material required for conventional experiments. Homonuclear dipolar-based correlation spectroscopy constitutes a centerpiece in the MAS NMR methodological toolbox, and is used essentially in every biological and organic system for deriving resonance assignments and distance restraints information necessary for structural analysis. Under fast MAS conditions (rotation frequencies above 35–40 kHz), dipolar-based techniques that yield multi-bond correlations and non-trivial distance information are ineffective and suffer from low polarization transfer efficiency. To overcome this limitation, we have developed a family of experiments, CORD–RFDR. These experiments exploit the advantages of both zero-quantum RFDR and spin-diffusion based CORD methods, and exhibit highly efficient and broadband dipolar recoupling across the entire spectrum, for both short-range and long-range correlations. We have verified the performance of the CORD–RFDR sequences experimentally on a U-{sup 13}C,{sup 15}N-MLF tripeptide and by numerical simulations. We demonstrate applications of 2D CORD–RFDR correlation spectroscopy in dynein light chain LC8 and HIV-1 CA tubular assemblies. In the CORD–RFDR spectra of LC8 acquired at the MAS frequency of 40 kHz, many new intra- and inter-residue correlations are detected, which were not observed with conventional dipolar recoupling sequences. At a moderate MAS frequency of 14 kHz, the CORD–RFDR experiment exhibits excellent performance as well, as demonstrated in the HIV-1 CA tubular assemblies. Taken together, the results indicate that CORD–RFDR experiment is beneficial in a

  11. The in vivo biofilm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Alhede, Maria; Alhede, Morten;

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria can grow and proliferate either as single, independent cells or organized in aggregates commonly referred to as biofilms. When bacteria succeed in forming a biofilm within the human host, the infection often becomes very resistant to treatment and can develop into a chronic state. Biofilms...... have been studied for decades using various in vitro models, but it remains debatable whether such in vitro biofilms actually resemble in vivo biofilms in chronic infections. In vivo biofilms share several structural characteristics that differ from most in vitro biofilms. Additionally, the in vivo...... experimental time span and presence of host defenses differ from chronic infections and the chemical microenvironment of both in vivo and in vitro biofilms is seldom taken into account. In this review, we discuss why the current in vitro models of biofilms might be limited for describing infectious biofilms...

  12. SCAM-STMAS: satellite-transition MAS NMR of quadrupolar nuclei with self-compensation for magic-angle misset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, Sharon E.; Wimperis, Stephen

    2003-06-01

    Several methods are available for the acquisition of high-resolution solid-state NMR spectra of quadrupolar nuclei with half-integer spin quantum number. Satellite-transition MAS (STMAS) offers an approach that employs only conventional MAS hardware and can yield substantial signal enhancements over the widely used multiple-quantum MAS (MQMAS) experiment. However, the presence of the first-order quadrupolar interaction in the satellite transitions imposes the requirement of a high degree of accuracy in the setting of the magic angle on the NMR probehead. The first-order quadrupolar interaction is only fully removed if the sample spinning angle, χ, equals cos-1(1/ 3) exactly and rotor synchronization is performed. The required level of accuracy is difficult to achieve experimentally, particularly when the quadrupolar interaction is large. If the magic angle is not set correctly, the first-order splitting is reintroduced and the spectral resolution is severely compromised. Recently, we have demonstrated a novel STMAS method (SCAM-STMAS) that is self-compensated for angle missets of up to ±1° via coherence transfer between the two different satellite transitions ST +( mI=+3/2↔+1/2) and ST -( mI=-1/2↔-3/2) midway through the t1 period. In this work we describe in more detail the implementation of SCAM-STMAS and demonstrate its wider utility through 23Na ( I=3/2), 87Rb ( I=3/2), 27Al ( I=5/2), and 59Co ( I=7/2) NMR. We discuss linewidths in SCAM-STMAS and the limits over which angle-misset compensation is achieved and we demonstrate that SCAM-STMAS is more tolerant of temporary spinning rate fluctuations than STMAS, resulting in less " t1 noise" in the two-dimensional spectrum. In addition, alternative correlation experiments, for example involving the use of double-quantum coherences, that similarly display self-compensation for angle misset are investigated. The use of SCAM-STMAS is also considered in systems where other high-order interactions, such as third

  13. Charakterystyka tworzyw ceramicznych otrzymanych z udziałem zużytych mas odlewniczych ze spoiwem organicznym

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Pytel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Referat zawiera wyniki badań tworzyw ceramicznych otrzymanych z mas plastycznych, w których składnikiem przeznaczonym doschudzania surowca ilastego były zużyte masy odlewnicze. Wprawdzie masy te pochodziły z różnych odlewni, to jednak wspólną ichcechą był rodzaj spoiwa wykorzystywanego do ich przygotowania. Spoiwa te należały do grupy spoiw organicznych, opartych nażywicach furanowych lub fenolowo-formaldehydowych. Ze względu na potencjalną możliwość emisji do atmosfery szkodliwychsubstancji gazowych w postaci wielopierścieniowych węglowodorów aromatycznych (WWA, mogących się uwalniać w warunkachwysokich temperatur charakterystycznych dla procesu wypalania wyrobów ceramicznych, podjęte badania stanowią próbę utylizacjijednego z najbardziej niebezpiecznych rodzajów zużytych mas odlewniczych.Koncepcja badań przewiduje otrzymanie zasadniczo dwóch rodzajów tworzyw ceramicznych. Pierwszy rodzaj stanowi tworzyworeferencyjne otrzymane z masy ceramicznej, w której rolę dodatku schudzającego surowiec ilasty spełnia tradycyjny dodatek w postacipiasku kwarcowego pochodzenia naturalnego. Drugi rodzaj stanowią tworzywa eksperymentalne otrzymywane również z masceramicznych, lecz w tym przypadku dodatkiem schudzającym był materiał krzemionkowy otrzymany w wyniku odpowiedniegoprzetworzenia zużytych mas odlewniczych zawierających pozostałości spoiw organicznych, wprowadzany w ekwiwalentnej ilościw stosunku do piasku kwarcowego. Ocenę przydatności tego rodzaju surowca wtórnego we wspomnianym kierunku utylizacji,przeprowadzono w oparciu o wynik analizy porównawczej obu rodzajów tworzyw, obejmującej swym zakresem ich podstawowe cechyużytkowe oraz wybrane elementy mikrostruktury. Uzyskane wyniki badań świadczą o braku negatywnego oddziaływania na środowiskonaturalne związane z potencjalną możliwością emisji WWA w trakcie produkcji tworzyw ceramicznych z udziałem zużytych masodlewniczych zawieraj

  14. L'installation de methanisation de Mas El Cros. Evaluation de 16 années de fonctionement

    OpenAIRE

    Flotats Ripoll, Xavier

    2000-01-01

    L’installation de méthanisation de l’élevage porcin du ‘’Mas El cros’’ (La Garrotxa, Catalogne, Espagne) a été conçue en 1981, en même temps que l’exploitation. Ceci a permis d’intégrer l’installation, sa conduite et sa maintenance dans la conception générale de l’exploitation. L’installation a été mise end route fin 1983. Le système de chauffage des bâtiments a été mis en route en 1984. En 1994, il a été arrêté pour être remplacé, à cause de problèmes de corrosion. Entre 1984 et décembre...

  15. Hydration properties and phosphorous speciation in native, gelatinized and enzymatically modified potato starch analyzed by solid-state MAS NMR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Flemming Hofmann; Kasprzak, Miroslaw Marek; Lærke, Helle Nygaard;

    2013-01-01

    Hydration of granular, gelatinized and molecularly modified states of potato starch in terms of molecular mobility were analyzed by 13C and 31P solid-state MAS NMR. Gelatinization (GEL) tremendously reduced the immobile fraction compared to native (NA) starch granules. This effect was enhanced....... Comparative analysis of wheat and waxy maize starches demonstrated that starches were similar upon gelatinization independent of botanical origin and that the torsion angles of the glycosidic linkages were averages of the crystalline A and B type structures. In starch suspension phosphorous in immobile...... regions was only observed in NA starch. Moreover phosphorous was observed in a minor pH-insensitive form and as major phosphate in hydrated GEL and BE starches....

  16. “La simbología masónica en el Cementerio de Colón”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Iglesias Cruz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Los monumentos funerarios son parte de la vida de los pueblos. Una puesta en escena, a través de la piedra, de sus sueños, cumplidos o no. Al transitar por el cementerio de Colón de la Ciudad de La Habana, asistimos a la petrificación de parte del “imaginario colectivo” capitalino. En este ensayo centramos nuestra atención en la presencia de la simbología masónica, a partir de algunos monumentos mortuorios presentes en este recinto. Uno de nuestros objetivos fue registrar la presencia de las logias en el Cementerio y constatar las diversas maneras en que su simbología está presente en sus monumentos funerarios.

  17. Residual methyl protonation in perdeuterated proteins for multi-dimensional correlation experiments in MAS solid-state NMR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Vipin; Reif, Bernd

    2008-09-01

    NMR studies involving perdeuterated proteins focus in general on exchangeable amide protons. However, non-exchangeable sites contain as well a small amount of protons as the employed precursors for protein biosynthesis are not completely proton depleted. The degree of methyl group protonation is in the order of 9% for CD 2H using >97% deuterium enriched glucose. We show in this manuscript that this small amount of residual protonation is sufficient to perform 2D and 3D MAS solid-state NMR experiments. In particular, we suggest a HCCH-TOBSY type experiment which we successfully employ to assign the methyl resonances in aliphatic side chains in a perdeuterated sample of the SH3 domain of chicken α-spectrin.

  18. Assignment of amide proton signals by combined evaluation of HN, NN and HNCA MAS-NMR correlation spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossum, Barth-Jan van; Castellani, Federica [Forschungsinstitut fuer Molekulare Pharmakologie (FMP) (Germany); Pauli, Jutta [BAM (Germany); Rehbein, Kristina [Forschungsinstitut fuer Molekulare Pharmakologie (FMP) (Germany); Hollander, J.; Groot, Huub J.M. de [BAM (Germany); Oschkinat, Hartmut [Forschungsinstitut fuer Molekulare Pharmakologie (FMP) (Germany)], E-mail: Oschkinat@fmp-berlin.de

    2003-03-15

    In this paper, we present a strategy for the {sup 1}H{sup N} resonance assignment in solid-state magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR, using the {alpha}-spectrin SH3 domain as an example. A novel 3D triple resonance experiment is presented that yields intraresidue H{sup N}-N-C{sup {alpha}} correlations, which was essential for the proton assignment. For the observable residues, 52 out of the 54 amide proton resonances were assigned from 2D ({sup 1}H-{sup 15}N) and 3D ({sup 1}H-{sup 15}N-{sup 13}C) heteronuclear correlation spectra. It is demonstrated that proton-driven spin diffusion (PDSD) experiments recorded with long mixing times (4 s) are helpful for confirming the assignment of the protein backbone {sup 15}N resonances and as an aid in the amide proton assignment.

  19. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, Angiotensin-(1-7) and Mas: new players of the Renin Angiotensin System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Robson AS; Ferreira, Anderson J; Verano-Braga, Thiago;

    2013-01-01

    Angiotensin(Ang)-(1-7) is now recognized as a biologically active component of renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Ang-(1-7) appears to play a central role in the RAS because it exerts a vast array of actions, many of them opposite to those attributed to the main effector peptide of the RAS, Ang II....../proliferative arm of the RAS consisting of ACE, Ang II and AT1 receptor. In this brief review, we will discuss recent findings related to the biological role of the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas arm in the cardiovascular and renal systems, as well as in metabolism. In addition, we will highlight the potential interactions...

  20. Indication of Erosion At Tea - Plantation - Gunung Mas - Puncak - West Java Using Environmental Isotop of 137Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erosion is a natural phenomena as a result of deforestation. Indication of erosion could be investigated by nuclear method that is used a natural radioisotope of 137Cs in the soil. The present of 137Cs in environment is a result of the nuclear weapon testing in the middle of 1950's. The result of this pre study showed that the total activity of 137Cs in the soil of Tea - Plantation - Gunung Mas - Puncak - West Java is between 150 Bq/m2-1872 Bq/m2. The result showed that the activity of 137Cs could be detected, and the erosion or deposition could be seen at the points of the investigation

  1. Schémas de type Godunov pour la modélisation hydrodynamique et magnétohydrodynamique

    OpenAIRE

    Vides Higueros, Jeaniffer

    2014-01-01

    L’objectif principal de cette thèse concerne l’étude, la conception et la mise en œuvre numérique de schémas volumes finis associés aux solveurs de type Godunov. On s’intéresse à des systèmes hyperboliques de lois de conservation non linéaires, avec une attention particulière sur les équations d’Euler et les équations MHD idéale. Tout d’abord, nous dérivons un solveur de Riemann simple et véritablement multidimensionnelle, pouvant s’appliquer à tout système de lois de conservation. Ce solveur...

  2. The History and the Current Situation on the Research of MAS%MAS研究的历史与现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王媛丽; 殷建平; 赵建民; 毛晓青

    2002-01-01

    @@ 1引言 MAS(Multi Agent System)是人工智能的一个分支领域.有人把Agent翻译成"主体",也有人把它翻译成"智能体".不管如何翻译,总可把它看成是一个有"感觉"会"思考"有"自主行为"的东西,比如机器人.这时,机器人的"感觉"靠摄像机传感器,"思考"靠逻辑推理,"自主行为"靠规划.Agent是一类在特定环境下能感知环境,并能自治地运行以实现一系列目标的计算实体或程序.其特性有:反应性、自治性、面向目标性和针对环境性.

  3. Visibility of lipid resonances in HR-MAS spectra of brain biopsies subject to spinning rate variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precht, C; Diserens, G; Oevermann, A; Vermathen, M; Lang, J; Boesch, C; Vermathen, P

    2015-12-01

    Lipid resonances from mobile lipids can be observed by ¹H NMR spectroscopy in multiple tissues and have also been associated with malignancy. In order to use lipid resonances as a marker for disease, a reference standard from a healthy tissue has to be established taking the influence of variable factors like the spinning rate into account. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effect of spinning rate variation on the HR-MAS pattern of lipid resonances in non-neoplastic brain biopsies from different regions and visualize polar and non-polar lipids by fluorescence microscopy using Nile Red staining. ¹H HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy demonstrated higher lipid peak intensities in normal sheep brain pure white matter biopsies compared to mixed white and gray matter biopsies and pure gray matter biopsies. High spinning rates increased the visibility particularly of the methyl resonances at 1.3 and the methylene resonance at 0.89 ppm in white matter biopsies stronger compared to thalamus and brainstem biopsies, and gray matter biopsies. The absence of lipid droplets and presence of a large number of myelin sheaths observed in white matter by Nile Red fluorescence microscopy suggest that the observed lipid resonances originate from the macromolecular pool of lipid protons of the myelin sheath's plasma membranes. When using lipid contents as a marker for disease, the variable behavior of lipid resonances in different neuroanatomical regions of the brain and at variable spinning rates should be considered. The findings may open up interesting possibilities for investigating lipids in myelin sheaths.

  4. Application of (119)Sn CPMG MAS NMR for Fast Characterization of Sn Sites in Zeolites with Natural (119)Sn Isotope Abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolyagin, Yury G; Yakimov, Alexander V; Tolborg, Søren; Vennestrøm, Peter N R; Ivanova, Irina I

    2016-04-01

    (119)Sn CPMG MAS NMR is demonstrated to be a fast and efficient method for characterization of Sn-sites in Sn-containing zeolites. Tuning of the CPMG echo-train sequence decreases the experimental time by a factor of 5-40 in the case of as-synthesized and hydrated Sn-BEA samples and by 3 orders of magnitude in the case of dehydrated Sn-BEA samples as compared to conventional methods. In the latter case, the reconstruction of the quantitative spectrum without the loss of sensitivity is shown to be possible. The method proposed allows obtaining (119)Sn MAS NMR spectra with improved resolution for Sn-BEA zeolites with natural (119)Sn isotope abundance using conventional MAS NMR equipment. PMID:26978430

  5. Investigation on Acute Biochemical Effects of Ce(NO3)3 on Liver and Kidney Tissues by MAS 1H NMR Spectroscopic-Based Metabonomic Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    High resolution magic angle spinning (MAS)-1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic-based metabonomic approach was applied to the investigation on the acute biochemical effects of Ce(NO3)3. Male Wistar rats were liver and kidney tissues were analyzed using principal component analysis to extract toxicity information. The biochemical effects of Ce(NO3)3 were characterized by the increase of triglycerides and lactate and the decrease of glycogen in rat liver tissue, together with an elevation of the triglyceride level and a depletion of glycerophosphocholine and betaine in kidney tissues. The target lesions of Ce(NO3)3 on liver and kidney were found by MAS NMR-based metabonomic method. This study demonstrates that the combination of MAS 1H NMR and pattern recognition analysis can be an effective method for studies of biochemical effects of rare earths.

  6. Agent通信及多Agent系统(MAS协作机制的研究)%Study of Agent Communication and MAS Cooperation Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许精明

    2006-01-01

    Agent及多Agent系统(Multi-Agent system,MAS)已被视为一种新的软件设计风格.本文在介绍了Agent的概念与BDI模型的基础上,分析了Agent的通信类型、通信规划以及多Agent系统(MAS)的基本模型与体系结构,同时对MAS的协作、协商、协调机制进行了深入研究,提出了远程通信和移动Agent通信概念.

  7. Ex vivo lung perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeb, Jeremie; Cypel, Marcelo

    2016-03-01

    Lung transplantation is an established life-saving therapy for patients with end-stage lung disease. Unfortunately, greater success in lung transplantation is hindered by a shortage of lung donors and the relatively poor early-, mid-, and long-term outcomes associated with severe primary graft dysfunction. Ex vivo lung perfusion has emerged as a modern preservation technique that allows for a more accurate lung assessment and improvement in lung quality. This review outlines the: (i) rationale behind the method; (ii) techniques and protocols; (iii) Toronto ex vivo lung perfusion method; (iv) devices available; and (v) clinical experience worldwide. We also highlight the potential of ex vivo lung perfusion in leading a new era of lung preservation. PMID:26700566

  8. KrasMAS: Implementation of a nuclear material computerized accounting system at the Mining and Chemical Combine through the Russian/US cooperative MPC and A program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorofeev, K.V.; Zhidkov, V.V. [Mining and Chemical Combine, Zheleznogorsk (Russian Federation); Martinez, B.J.; Perry, R.T.; Scott, S.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The Russian/US Mining and Chemical Combine (Gorno-Kimichesky Kombinat, GKhK, also referred to as Krasnoyarsk-26) Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC and A) project was initiated in June 1996. A critical component of the ongoing cooperative MPC and A enhancements at the GKhK is the implementation of a computerized nuclear material control and accountability (MC and A) system. This system must meet the MC and A requirements of the GKhK by integrating the information generated by numerous existing and new MC and A components in place at the GKhK (e.g., scales, bar-code equipment, NDA measurement systems). During the first phase of this effort, the GKhK adapted CoreMAS (developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory) for use in the PuO{sub 2} storage facility. This included formulation of Web-based user interfaces for plant personnel, Russification of the existing user interface, and at the functional level, modification of the CoreMAS stored procedures. The modified system is referred to as KrasMAS and builds upon completed work on CoreMAS. Ongoing efforts include adding GKhK specific report forms and expanding the functionality of the system for implementation at the radiochemical processing and reactor plants of the GKhK. Collaborations with other Russian facilities for appropriate parts of these efforts will be pursued.

  9. Electromagnetic Scattering Analysis of Coated Conductors With Edges Using the Method of Auxiliary Sources (MAS) in Conjunction With the Standard Impedance Boundary Condition (SIBC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anastassiu, H.T.; D.I.Kaklamani, H.T.; Economou, D.P.;

    2002-01-01

    A novel combination of the method of auxiliary sources (MAS) and the standard impedance boundary condition (SIBC) is employed in the analysis of transverse magnetic (TM) plane wave scattering from infinite, coated, perfectly conducting cylinders with square cross sections. The scatterer...

  10. KrasMAS: Implementation of a nuclear material computerized accounting system at the Mining and Chemical Combine through the Russian/US cooperative MPC and A program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Russian/US Mining and Chemical Combine (Gorno-Kimichesky Kombinat, GKhK, also referred to as Krasnoyarsk-26) Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC and A) project was initiated in June 1996. A critical component of the ongoing cooperative MPC and A enhancements at the GKhK is the implementation of a computerized nuclear material control and accountability (MC and A) system. This system must meet the MC and A requirements of the GKhK by integrating the information generated by numerous existing and new MC and A components in place at the GKhK (e.g., scales, bar-code equipment, NDA measurement systems). During the first phase of this effort, the GKhK adapted CoreMAS (developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory) for use in the PuO2 storage facility. This included formulation of Web-based user interfaces for plant personnel, Russification of the existing user interface, and at the functional level, modification of the CoreMAS stored procedures. The modified system is referred to as KrasMAS and builds upon completed work on CoreMAS. Ongoing efforts include adding GKhK specific report forms and expanding the functionality of the system for implementation at the radiochemical processing and reactor plants of the GKhK. Collaborations with other Russian facilities for appropriate parts of these efforts will be pursued

  11. Application of 119Sn CPMG MAS NMR for Fast Characterization of Sn Sites in Zeolites with Natural 119Sn Isotope Abundance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    G. Kolyagin, Yury; V. Yakimo, Alexander; Tolborg, Søren;

    2016-01-01

    119Sn CPMG MAS NMR is demonstrated to be a fast and efficient method for characterization of Sn-sites in Sn-containing zeolites. Tuning of the CPMG echo-train sequence decreases the experimental time by a factor of 5–40 in the case of as-synthesized and hydrated Sn-BEA samples and by 3 orders of ...

  12. Procyanidins in fruit from Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) differ strongly in chainlength from those in Laurel cherry (Prunus lauracerasus) and Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capanoglu, E.; Boyacioglu, D.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus), Laurel cherry (Prunus lauracerasus), and Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas) fruits are widely used in Turkey, both as food and as traditional medicines. The phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacities of these three cherry types were compared. Fruit flesh was evalua

  13. Protein resonance assignment at MAS frequencies approaching 100 kHz: a quantitative comparison of J-coupling and dipolar-coupling-based transfer methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penzel, Susanne; Smith, Albert A.; Agarwal, Vipin; Hunkeler, Andreas [ETH Zürich, Physical Chemistry (Switzerland); Org, Mai-Liis; Samoson, Ago, E-mail: ago.samoson@ttu.ee [Tallinn University of Technology, NMR Instituut, Tartu Teadus, Tehnomeedikum (Estonia); Böckmann, Anja, E-mail: a.bockmann@ibcp.fr [UMR 5086 CNRS/Université de Lyon 1, Institut de Biologie et Chimie des Protéines (France); Ernst, Matthias, E-mail: maer@ethz.ch; Meier, Beat H., E-mail: beme@ethz.ch [ETH Zürich, Physical Chemistry (Switzerland)

    2015-10-15

    We discuss the optimum experimental conditions to obtain assignment spectra for solid proteins at magic-angle spinning (MAS) frequencies around 100 kHz. We present a systematic examination of the MAS dependence of the amide proton T{sub 2}′ times and a site-specific comparison of T{sub 2}′ at 93 kHz versus 60 kHz MAS frequency. A quantitative analysis of transfer efficiencies of building blocks, as they are used for typical 3D experiments, was performed. To do this, we compared dipolar-coupling and J-coupling based transfer steps. The building blocks were then combined into 3D experiments for sequential resonance assignment, where we evaluated signal-to-noise ratio and information content of the different 3D spectra in order to identify the best assignment strategy. Based on this comparison, six experiments were selected to optimally assign the model protein ubiquitin, solely using spectra acquired at 93 kHz MAS. Within 3 days of instrument time, the required spectra were recorded from which the backbone resonances have been assigned to over 96 %.

  14. Size-dependent scanning parameters (kVp and mAs) for photon-counting spectral CT system in pediatric imaging: simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Han; Danielsson, Mats; Xu, Cheng

    2016-06-01

    We are developing a photon-counting spectral CT detector with a small pixel size of 0.4× 0.5 mm2, offering a potential advantage for better visualization of small structures in pediatric patients. The purpose of this study is to determine the patient size dependent scanning parameters (kVp and mAs) for pediatric CT in two imaging cases: adipose imaging and iodinated blood imaging. Cylindrical soft-tissue phantoms of diameters between 10-25 cm were used to mimic patients of different ages from 0 to 15 y. For adipose imaging, a 5 mm diameter adipose sphere was assumed as an imaging target, while in the case of iodinated imaging, an iodinated blood sphere of 1 mm in diameter was assumed. By applying the geometry of a commercial CT scanner (GE Lightspeed VCT), simulations were carried out to calculate the detectability index, {{d}\\prime 2} , with tube potentials varying from 40 to 140 kVp. The optimal kVp for each phantom in each imaging case was determined such that the dose-normalized detectability index, {{d}\\prime 2}/ dose, is maximized. With the assumption that the detectability index in pediatric imaging is required the same as in typical adult imaging, the value of mAs at optimal kVp for each phantom was selected to achieve a reference detectability index that was obtained by scanning an adult phantom (30 cm in diameter) in a typical adult CT procedure (120 kVp and 200 mAs) using a modeled energy-integrating system. For adipose imaging, the optimal kVps are 50, 60, 80, and 120 kVp, respectively, for phantoms of 10, 15, 20, and 25 cm in diameter. The corresponding mAs values required to achieve the reference detectability index are only 9%, 23%, 24%, and 54% of the mAs that is used for adult patients at 120 kVp, for 10, 15, 20, and 25 cm diameter phantoms, respectively. In the case of iodinated imaging, a tube potential of 60 kVp was found optimal for all phantoms investigated, and the mAs values required to achieve the reference detectability

  15. Size-dependent scanning parameters (kVp and mAs) for photon-counting spectral CT system in pediatric imaging: simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Han; Danielsson, Mats; Xu, Cheng

    2016-06-01

    We are developing a photon-counting spectral CT detector with a small pixel size of 0.4× 0.5 mm2, offering a potential advantage for better visualization of small structures in pediatric patients. The purpose of this study is to determine the patient size dependent scanning parameters (kVp and mAs) for pediatric CT in two imaging cases: adipose imaging and iodinated blood imaging. Cylindrical soft-tissue phantoms of diameters between 10–25 cm were used to mimic patients of different ages from 0 to 15 y. For adipose imaging, a 5 mm diameter adipose sphere was assumed as an imaging target, while in the case of iodinated imaging, an iodinated blood sphere of 1 mm in diameter was assumed. By applying the geometry of a commercial CT scanner (GE Lightspeed VCT), simulations were carried out to calculate the detectability index, {{d}\\prime 2} , with tube potentials varying from 40 to 140 kVp. The optimal kVp for each phantom in each imaging case was determined such that the dose-normalized detectability index, {{d}\\prime 2}/ dose, is maximized. With the assumption that the detectability index in pediatric imaging is required the same as in typical adult imaging, the value of mAs at optimal kVp for each phantom was selected to achieve a reference detectability index that was obtained by scanning an adult phantom (30 cm in diameter) in a typical adult CT procedure (120 kVp and 200 mAs) using a modeled energy-integrating system. For adipose imaging, the optimal kVps are 50, 60, 80, and 120 kVp, respectively, for phantoms of 10, 15, 20, and 25 cm in diameter. The corresponding mAs values required to achieve the reference detectability index are only 9%, 23%, 24%, and 54% of the mAs that is used for adult patients at 120 kVp, for 10, 15, 20, and 25 cm diameter phantoms, respectively. In the case of iodinated imaging, a tube potential of 60 kVp was found optimal for all phantoms investigated, and the mAs values required to achieve the reference detectability

  16. Huiles usagées : schémas IFP de raraffinage Ifp Flowsheets for Rerefining Used Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audibert F.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Tout bailleur de licence de procédés de reraffinage des huiles doit rester averti des multiples problèmes concernant ce sujet. Le schéma proposé doit assurer la flexibilité requise du fait des qualités variables de charges et de la législation sur l'environnement. Les schémas complets proposés par l'Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP comprennent un premier flash, une purification physique en profondeur et une étape de raffinage adaptée à la demande locale. Des détails sont donnés sur chaque séquence ainsi que les analyses des produits. Any licensor must be aware of the problems involved in the rerefining of used ails. The proposed flowsheet should ensure the desired flexibility with regard ta feedstockquality variations and environmental - regulation requirements. The complete flowsheets proposed by Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP include a first flash, an in-depth physical purification and a refining step adapted to the local demands. Details are given for each séquence along with product analyses.

  17. Um ano de muitas preocupações, mas também de esperanças

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Litre

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available O ano de 2015 foi farto em notícias ruins, mas se encerra com perspectivas boas. As más notícias confirmam que o mundo parece estar de cabeça para baixo, ao menos em matéria ambiental e de segurança internacional. Pioraram as condições climáticas globais; fanáticos religiosos lançaram ataques terroristas de grandes proporções, como os do dia 13 de novembro em Paris, além da surpreendente constituição de uma base territorial onde reina o terror, no Oriente Médio; uma persistente situação da pobreza extrema e de fome em grande escala em alguns países contrasta com a prosperidade em algumas nações; desastres ambientais e instabilidades políticas regionais e nacionais acontecem em cada continente. No Brasil, o rompimento de uma represa de lama e resíduos tóxicos de uma mineradora, em Mariana, Minas Gerais, provocou o que possivelmente seja a pior catástrofe ambiental já registrada no País.

  18. CP-MAS 207Pb with 19F decoupling NMR spectroscopy: medium range investigation in fluoride materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau, B; Silly, G; Buzaré, J Y

    1999-11-01

    The isotropic chemical shift of 207Pb is used to perform structural investigations of crystalline fluoride compounds (PbF2, Pb2ZnF6, PbGaF5, Pb3Ga2F12 and Pb9Ga2F24) and transition metal fluoride glasses (TMFG) of the PZG family (PbF2-ZnF2-GaF3). Using 207Pb Cross Polarisation Magic Angle Spinning (CP-MAS) NMR with 19F decoupling, it is shown that the isotropic chemical shift of 207Pb varies on a large scale (1000 ppm) and that the main changes of its value are not due to the nearest neighbour fluorines but may be related to the number of next nearest neighbour (nnn) Pb2+ ions. In this way, it is demonstrated that 207Pb chemical shift is an interesting probe to investigate medium range order in either crystalline or glassy fluoride systems. The 207Pb delta(iso) parameter has been linearly correlated to the number of nnn Pb2+ ions. PMID:10670899

  19. Proton-detected scalar coupling based assignment strategies in MAS solid-state NMR spectroscopy applied to perdeuterated proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linser, Rasmus; Fink, Uwe; Reif, Bernd

    2008-07-01

    Assignment of proteins in MAS (magic angle spinning) solid-state NMR relies so far on correlations among heteronuclei. This strategy is based on well dispersed resonances in the 15N dimension. In many complex cases like membrane proteins or amyloid fibrils, an additional frequency dimension is desirable in order to spread the amide resonances. We show here that proton detected HNCO, HNCA, and HNCACB type experiments can successfully be implemented in the solid-state. Coherences are sufficiently long lived to allow pulse schemes of a duration greater than 70 ms before incrementation of the first indirect dimension. The achieved resolution is comparable to the resolution obtained in solution-state NMR experiments. We demonstrate the experiments using a triply labeled sample of the SH3 domain of chicken α-spectrin, which was re-crystallized in H 2O/D 2O using a ratio of 1/9. We employ paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) using EDTA chelated Cu II to enable rapid data acquisition.

  20. Effect of physiographic factors on qualitative and quantitative characteristics of Cornus mas L. natural stands in Arasbaran forests, Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmad Alijanpour

    2013-01-01

    Arasbaran forests are located in East Azerbaijan (northwest Iran).Increasing of socio-economic problems in this area causes destruction of biodiversity and structure of these forests.Using multipurpose trees such as cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L) to encourage villagers to produce forest by-products is a basic approach for preserving these forests.This species grows naturally in Arasbaran forests and the fruit is annually exploited using traditional harvest methods.This study aims to assess the ecological requirements of cornelian cherry and the important factors affecting its distribution.For this purpose,40 circular sampling plots (300 m2) on various slope aspects were demarcated for sampling the occurrence of cornelian cherry in forest stands.DBH and crown cover percentage on north aspects were significantly greater than on other aspects and 4.5% of all trees were cornelian cherry in mature forest stands.North aspects had more seed-origin trees (standards) of cornelian cherry than coppiced trees,while west facing aspects had more coppiced than standard trees.This species had the highest regeneration rate in the sapling stage of 0-2.5 cm DBH.Thus,I recommend cultivation and development of cornelian cherry as a multi-purpose tree in the Arasbaran region on degraded forest lands on north and west aspects.

  1. Etkin liderlik ve takım çalışması = Effective leadership and teamwork

    OpenAIRE

    Gökçe, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Uzun süre önce işletme ve kurumlara giren ve hızla yaygınlaşan takım çalışmaları, çok boyutlu sorunlarda bile çözümün ve başarının anahtarı halini almıştır. Takım çalışmasındaki başarı üst yönetimin bakış açısıyla bağlantılı olmakla birlikte, takım elemanlarının ilişkileri, gönüllü olmaları ve iş birliğine olan yatkınlıklarıyla da alakalıdır. Bu noktada lider faktörü kendini hissettirmektedir. Liderin takım içindeki etkinliği başarıyı sağlayacak faktörlerin başında gelir. Bu çalışmada bir tak...

  2. N Photo-CIDNP MAS NMR To Reveal Functional Heterogeneity in Electron Donor of Different Plant Organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Geertje J; Roy, Esha; Matysik, Jörg; Alia, A

    2012-02-01

    In plants and cyanobacteria, two light-driven electron pumps, photosystems I and II (PSI, PSII), facilitate electron transfer from water to carbon dioxide with quantum efficiency close to unity. While similar in structure and function, the reaction centers of PSI and PSII operate at widely different potentials with PSI being the strongest reducing agent known in living nature. Photochemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization (photo-CIDNP) in magic-angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements provides direct excess to the heart of large photosynthetic complexes (A. Diller, Alia, E. Roy, P. Gast, H.J. van Gorkom, J. Zaanen, H.J.M. de Groot, C. Glaubitz, J. Matysik, Photosynth. Res. 84, 303-308, 2005; Alia, E. Roy, P. Gast, H.J. van Gorkom, H.J.M. de Groot, G. Jeschke, J. Matysik, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 12819-12826, 2004). By combining the dramatic signal increase obtained from the solid-state photo-CIDNP effect with (15)N isotope labeling of PSI, we were able to map the electron spin density in the active cofactors of PSI and study primary charge separation at atomic level. We compare data obtained from two different PSI proteins, one from spinach (Spinacia oleracea) and other from the aquatic plant duckweed (Spirodella oligorrhiza). Results demonstrate a large flexibility of the PSI in terms of its electronic architecture while their electronic ground states are strictly conserved. PMID:22303078

  3. Quality of spelt pasta enriched with eggs and identification of eggs using 13C MAS NMR spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Jelena S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the characteristics of spelt pasta enriched with eggs. Eggs were added to spelt farina in the quantity of 0, 124 or 248 g/kg (equivalent to 0, 3 or 6 eggs, respectively. Post-hoc Tukey’s HSD test at 95% confidence limit showed significant differences between various samples. Relatively low coefficients of variation have been obtained for each applied assay (1.25-12.42%, which confirmed the high accuracy measurements and statistically significant results. Standard score analysis is applied for accessing the contribution of eggs content to spelt pasta quality. Maximum scores regarding quality (0.89 and chemical characteristics (0.70, have been obtained for 6 eggs spelt pasta formulation. It is also shown that the presence of eggs in pasta can be clearly confirmed by 13C MAS NMR spectroscopy. Simultaneous increase in area of peak positioned at 29.5 and 176 ppm is directly associated with the increase in the content of added eggs in the corresponding samples. Pertinent data point at positive contribution of eggs to the spelt pasta and also that NMR spectrum can be used in the egg quantity control. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TRI 46005 i br. TR 31029

  4. Structural investigations of Pu{sup III} phosphate by X-ray diffraction, MAS-NMR and XANES spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popa, Karin [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, D-76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Raison, Philippe E., E-mail: philippe.raison@ec.europa.eu [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, D-76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Martel, Laura [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, D-76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Martin, Philippe M. [CEA, DEN, DEC/SESC, F-13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Prieur, Damien [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, D-76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Solari, Pier L. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, 91190 Saint-Aubin (France); Bouëxière, Daniel; Konings, Rudy J.M.; Somers, Joseph [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, D-76125 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    PuPO{sub 4} was prepared by a solid state reaction method and its crystal structure at room temperature was solved by powder X-ray diffraction combined with Rietveld refinement. High resolution XANES measurements confirm the +III valence state of plutonium, in agreement with valence bond derivation. The presence of the americium (as β{sup −} decay product of plutonium) in the +III oxidation state was determined based on XANES spectroscopy. High resolution solid state {sup 31}P NMR agrees with the XANES results and the presence of a solid-solution. - Graphical abstract: A full structural analysis of PuPO{sub 4} based on Rietveld analysis of room temperature X-ray diffraction data, XANES and MAS NMR measurements was performed. - Highlights: • The crystal structure of PuPO{sub 4} monazite is solved. • In PuPO{sub 4} plutonium is strictly trivalent. • The presence of a minute amount of Am{sup III} is highlighted. • We propose PuPO{sub 4} as a potential reference material for spectroscopic and microscopic studies.

  5. Genome wide association analysis of the 16th QTL- MAS Workshop dataset using the Random Forest machine learning approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Genome wide association studies are now widely used in the livestock sector to estimate the association among single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) distributed across the whole genome and one or more trait. As computational power increases, the use of machine learning techniques to analyze large genome wide datasets becomes possible. Methods The objective of this study was to identify SNPs associated with the three traits simulated in the 16th MAS-QTL workshop dataset using the Random Forest (RF) approach. The approach was applied to single and multiple trait estimated breeding values, and on yield deviations and to compare them with the results of the GRAMMAR-CG method. Results The two QTL mapping methods used, GRAMMAR-CG and RF, were successful in identifying the main QTLs for trait 1 on chromosomes 1 and 4, for trait 2 on chromosomes 1, 4 and 5 and for trait 3 on chromosomes 1, 2 and 3. Conclusions The results of the RF approach were confirmed by the GRAMMAR-CG method and validated by the effective QTL position, even if their approach to unravel cryptic genetic structure is different. Furthermore, both methods showed complementary findings. However, when the variance explained by the QTL is low, they both failed to detect significant associations. PMID:25519518

  6. Experimentelle Schlaganfallforschung in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Prass, Konstantin

    2010-01-01

    The results of animal experimental stroke research could significantly contribute to our understanding of the pathophysiology of the important social disease over the last years. Furthermore they lead to formulations of Treatment recommendations. Since the research in vivo is made in an organic whole it is not restricted to the brain as in cell culture experiments or brain – slice – models but allow a study of the whole organism, its physiology and throughout all potenti...

  7. Ex vivo lung perfusion

    OpenAIRE

    Machuca, Tiago N; Cypel, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    Lung transplantation (LTx) is an established treatment option for eligible patients with end-stage lung disease. Nevertheless, the imbalance between suitable donor lungs available and the increasing number of patients considered for LTx reflects in considerable waitlist mortality. Among potential alternatives to address this issue, ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) has emerged as a modern preservation technique that allows for more accurate lung assessment and also improvement of lung function. I...

  8. Optimum levels of exchangeable protons in perdeuterated proteins for proton detection in MAS solid-state NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbey, Umit; Lange, Sascha; Trent Franks, W.; Linser, Rasmus; Rehbein, Kristina; Diehl, Anne; Rossum, Barth-Jan van; Reif, Bernd; Oschkinat, Hartmut, E-mail: oschkinat@fmp-berlin.d [Leibniz-Forschungsinstitut fuer Molekulare Pharmakologie (FMP) (Germany)

    2010-01-15

    We present a systematic study of the effect of the level of exchangeable protons on the observed amide proton linewidth obtained in perdeuterated proteins. Decreasing the amount of D{sub 2}O employed in the crystallization buffer from 90 to 0%, we observe a fourfold increase in linewidth for both {sup 1}H and {sup 15}N resonances. At the same time, we find a gradual increase in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for {sup 1}H-{sup 15}N correlations in dipolar coupling based experiments for H{sub 2}O concentrations of up to 40%. Beyond 40%, a significant reduction in SNR is observed. Scalar-coupling based {sup 1}H-{sup 15}N correlation experiments yield a nearly constant SNR for samples prepared with {<=}30% H{sub 2}O. Samples in which more H{sub 2}O is employed for crystallization show a significantly reduced NMR intensity. Calculation of the SNR by taking into account the reduction in {sup 1}H T{sub 1} in samples containing more protons (SNR per unit time), yields a maximum SNR for samples crystallized using 30 and 40% H{sub 2}O for scalar and dipolar coupling based experiments, respectively. A sensitivity gain of 3.8 is obtained by increasing the H{sub 2}O concentration from 10 to 40% in the CP based experiment, whereas the linewidth only becomes 1.5 times broader. In general, we find that CP is more favorable compared to INEPT based transfer when the number of possible {sup 1}H,{sup 1}H interactions increases. At low levels of deuteration ({>=}60% H{sub 2}O in the crystallization buffer), resonances from rigid residues are broadened beyond detection. All experiments are carried out at MAS frequency of 24 kHz employing perdeuterated samples of the chicken {alpha}-spectrin SH3 domain.

  9. Development of a homogeneous calcium mobilization assay for high throughput screening of mas-related gene receptor agonists

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui ZHANG; Pang-ke YAN; Cai-hong ZHOU; Jia-yu LIAO; Ming-wei WANG

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To develop homogeneous calcium mobilization assay for high-throughput screening (HTS) of mas-related gene (Mrg) receptor agonists. Methods: CHO-K1 cells stably expressing the full-length MrgD receptor and a calcium-sensitive dye were used to develop an HTS assay based on intracellular calcium influx. This method was applied to large-scale screening of a library containing 8000 synthetic compounds and natural product extracts, cAMP measurements were camed out to verify the bioactivities of the hits found by the calcium mobilization assay. Similar approaches were also employed in the identification of the MrgA1 recep-tor agonists following HTS of 16 000 samples. Results: EC50 values of the positive control compounds (β-alanine for MrgD receptor and dynorphin A for MrgA1 receptor) determined by the calcium mobilization assay were consistent with those reported in the literature, and the Z' factors were 0.65 and 0.50 for MrgD and MrgA1 receptor assay, respectively. About 31 compounds for the MrgD receptor and 48 compounds for the MrgA1 receptor showing ≥20% of the maximal agonist activities found in the controls were initially identified as hits. Secondary screen- ing confirmed that 2 compounds for each receptor possessed specific agonist activities. Intracellular cAMP level measurements indicated that the 2 confirmed hits displayed the functionality of the MrgD receptor agonists. Conclusion: A series of validation studies demonstrated that the homogeneous calcium mobili-zation assay developed was highly efficient, amenable to automation and a robust tool to screen potential MrgD and MrgA1 receptor agonists. Its application may be expanded to other G-protein coupled receptors that mobilize calcium influx upon activation.

  10. Schémas variationnels et gestion du non-standard en contextes français et maltais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bezzina Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Une visée comparative est adoptée dans cette étude traitant de la variation, notamment de la variation stylistique qui se produit en fonction du degré de formalité caractérisant la situation de communication et d’un nombre d’autres critères. La comparaison des situations sociolinguistiques présentes en contextes français et maltais permet de faire ressortir les caractéristiques propres à chaque situation. En français, la variation stylistique passe par le registre; en maltais, l’alternance codique maltais/anglais s’y ajoute pour la réalisation du style. Le français se distingue par une ampleur stylistique exceptionnelle, qui s’explique par diverses raisons culturelles, comme l’idéologie du standard et la portée de la littératie. Les deux cadres s’opposent par leurs processus de standardisation: le français, anciennement élu langue officielle, a naturellement suivi des schémas de progrès différents du maltais, langue officielle depuis bien moins longtemps, à l’héritage écrit qui ne remonte pas très loin dans le passé. Les deux langues partagent pourtant certains objectifs qui sous-tendent leurs efforts de protection. Des hypothèses sont émises quant à l’acceptabilité sociale de la variation aux différents niveaux d’analyse linguistique en maltais, et quant au type de variation proéminent dans cette langue, qui serait la variation sociale. Ces hypothèses sont construites par comparaison avec les arguments parallèles élaborés pour la situation française.

  11. The evaluation of different MAS techniques at low spinning rates in aqueous samples and in the presence of magnetic susceptibility gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi Hu, Jian; Wind, Robert A.

    2002-11-01

    It was recently demonstrated that the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) linewidths for stationary biological samples are dictated mainly by magnetic susceptibility gradients, and that phase-altered spinning sideband (PASS) and phase-corrected magic angle turning (PHORMAT) solid-state NMR techniques employing slow and ultra-slow magic angle spinning (MAS) frequencies can be used to overcome the static susceptibility broadening to yield high-resolution, spinning sideband (SSB)-free 1H NMR spectra [Magn. Reson. Med. 46 (2001) 213; 47 (2002) 829]. An additional concern is that molecular diffusion in the presence of the susceptibility gradients may limit the minimum useful MAS frequency by broadening the lines and reducing SSB suppression at low spinning frequencies. In this article the performance of PASS, PHORMAT, total sideband suppression (TOSS), and standard MAS techniques were evaluated as a function of spinning frequency. To this end, 300 MHz (7.05 T) 1H NMR spectra were acquired via PASS, TOSS, PHORMAT, and standard MAS NMR techniques for a 230-μm-diameter spherical glass bead pack saturated with water. The resulting strong magnetic susceptibility gradients result in a static linewidth of about 3.7 kHz that is larger than observed for a natural biological sample, constituting a worst-case scenario for examination of susceptibility broadening effects. Results: (I) TOSS produces a distorted centerband and fails in suppressing the SSBs at a spinning rate below ˜1 kHz. (II) Standard MAS requires spinning speeds above a few hundred Hz to separate the centerband from the SSBs. (III) PASS produces nearly SSB-free spectra at spinning speeds as low as 30 Hz, and is only limited by T2-induced signal losses. (IV) With PHORMAT, a SSB-free isotropic projection is obtained at any spinning rate, even at an ultra-slow spinning rate as slow as 1 Hz. (V) It is found empirically that the width of the isotropic peak is proportional to F- x, where F is the spinning frequency, and x

  12. Coal structure at reactive sites by sup 1 H- sup 13 C- sup 19 F double cross polarization (DCP)/MAS sup 13 C NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagaman, E.W.; Woody, M.C. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1989-01-01

    The solid state NMR technique, {sup 1}H-{sup 13}C-{sup 31}P double cross polarization (DCP)/MAS {sup 13}C-NMR spectroscopy, uses the direct dipolar interaction between {sup 13}C-{sup 31}P spin pairs in organophosphorus substances to identify the subset of carbons within a spherical volume element of 0.4 nm radius centered on the {sup 31}P atom. In combination with chemical manipulation of coals designed to introduce phosphorus containing functionality into the organic matrix, the NMR experiment becomes a method to examine selectively the carbon bonding network at the reactive sites in the coal. This approach generates a statistical structure description of the coal at the reaction centers in contrast to bulk carbon characterization using conventional {sup 1}H-{sup 13}C CP/MAS {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy. 3 refs.

  13. EDITORIAL: Nanotechnology in vivo Nanotechnology in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-04-01

    -imaging labels [4]. A surface hydroxyl group renders silicon quantum dots soluble in water and the photoluminescence can be made stable with oxygen-passivation. In addition, researchers in Japan have demonstrated how the initially modest yield in the preparation of silicon quantum dots can be improved to tens of milligrams per batch, thus further promoting their application in bio-imaging [5]. In the search for non-toxic quantum dots, researchers at the Amrita Centre for Nanoscience in India have prepared heavy metal-free quantum dot bio-probes based on single phase ZnS [6]. The quantum dots are selectively doped with metals, transition metals and halides to provide tuneable luminescence properties, and they are surface conjugated with folic acid for cancer targeting. The quantum dots were demonstrated to be water-soluble, non-toxic in normal and cancer cell lines, and have bright, tuneable luminescence. So far most of the quantum dots developed for bio-imaging have had excitation and emission wavelengths in the visible spectrum, which is highly absorbed by tissue. This limits imaging with these quantum dots to superficial tissues. This week, researchers in China and the US reported work developing functionalized dots for in vivo tumour vasculature in the infrared part of the spectrum [7]. In addition the quantum dots were functionalised with glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptides, which target the vasculature of almost all types of growing tumours, unlike antibody- or aptamer-mediated targeting strategies that are specific to a particular cancer type. In this issue, researchers in China and the US demonstrate a novel type of contrast agent for ultrasonic tumour imaging [8]. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonic tumour imaging extends the diagnostic and imaging capabilities of traditional techniques. The use of nanoparticles as ultrasound contrast agents exploits the presence of open pores in the range of 380 to 780 nm in tumour blood vessels, which enhance the permeability and retention

  14. Quantification of Choline- and Ethanolamine-Containing Metabolites in Human Prostate Tissues Using 1H HR-MAS Total Correlation Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Swanson, Mark G.; Keshari, Kayvan R.; Tabatabai, Z. Laura; Simko, Jeffry P.; Shinohara, Katsuto; Carroll, Peter R.; Zektzer, Andrew S.; Kurhanewicz, John

    2008-01-01

    A fast and quantitative 2D high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) total correlation spectroscopy (TOCSY) experiment was developed to resolve and quantify the choline- and ethanolamine-containing metabolites in human prostate tissues in ≈1 hr prior to pathologic analysis. At a 40-ms mixing time, magnetization transfer efficiency constants were empirically determined in solution and used to calculate metabolite concentrations in tissue. Phosphocholine (PC) was observed in 11/15 (73%) can...

  15. Mejora de la eficiencia energética en la explotación ganadera "Mas Isern" situada en el término municipal de Vic

    OpenAIRE

    Canga Navarro, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present paper is to describe the energy situation, as well as, analyze and evaluate proposals for improvement of the exploitation of dairy cattle, Mas Isern, located in Vic's municipal area. To comply with this objective was conducted an energy audit as a tool of compilation and analysis of information. The energy audit evaluates mainly the turnover of the electrical rate of power supply, the sizing and the energy efficiency of the lights of the stable, the performance of...

  16. Optimal degree of protonation for {sup 1}H detection of aliphatic sites in randomly deuterated proteins as a function of the MAS frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asami, Sam [Helmholtz-Zentrum Muenchen (HMGU), Deutsches Forschungszentrum fuer Gesundheit und Umwelt (HMGU) (Germany); Szekely, Kathrin; Schanda, Paul; Meier, Beat H. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule Zuerich (ETH Zuerich) (Switzerland); Reif, Bernd, E-mail: reif@tum.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Muenchen (HMGU), Deutsches Forschungszentrum fuer Gesundheit und Umwelt (HMGU) (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    The {sup 1}H dipolar network, which is the major obstacle for applying proton detection in the solid-state, can be reduced by deuteration, employing the RAP (Reduced Adjoining Protonation) labeling scheme, which yields random protonation at non-exchangeable sites. We present here a systematic study on the optimal degree of random sidechain protonation in RAP samples as a function of the MAS (magic angle spinning) frequency. In particular, we compare {sup 1}H sensitivity and linewidth of a microcrystalline protein, the SH3 domain of chicken {alpha}-spectrin, for samples, prepared with 5-25 % H{sub 2}O in the E. coli growth medium, in the MAS frequency range of 20-60 kHz. At an external field of 19.96 T (850 MHz), we find that using a proton concentration between 15 and 25 % in the M9 medium yields the best compromise in terms of sensitivity and resolution, with an achievable average {sup 1}H linewidth on the order of 40-50 Hz. Comparing sensitivities at a MAS frequency of 60 versus 20 kHz, a gain in sensitivity by a factor of 4-4.5 is observed in INEPT-based {sup 1}H detected 1D {sup 1}H,{sup 13}C correlation experiments. In total, we find that spectra recorded with a 1.3 mm rotor at 60 kHz have almost the same sensitivity as spectra recorded with a fully packed 3.2 mm rotor at 20 kHz, even though {approx}20 Multiplication-Sign less material is employed. The improved sensitivity is attributed to {sup 1}H line narrowing due to fast MAS and to the increased efficiency of the 1.3 mm coil.

  17. Application of High-Resolution 1H MAS NMR Spectroscopy to the Analysis of Intact Bones from Mice Exposed to Gamma Radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, QiBin; Hu, Jian Zhi; Rommereim, Donald N.; Murphy, Mark K; Phipps, Richard P.; HUSO, DAVID L.; Dicello, John F

    2009-01-01

    Herein we demonstrate that high-resolution magic angle spinning (MAS) 1H NMR can be used to profile the pathology of bone marrow rapidly and with minimal sample preparation. The spectral resolution obtained allows several metabolites to be analyzed quantitatively. The level of NMR-detectable metabolites in the epiphysis + metaphysis sections of mouse femur were significantly higher than that observed in the diaphysis of the same femur. The major metabolite damage to bone marrow resulting from...

  18. Attenuation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Disruption of a mas-Like Gene or a Chalcone Synthase-Like Gene, Which Causes Deficiency in Dimycocerosyl Phthiocerol Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Sirakova, Tatiana D.; Dubey, Vinod S.; Cynamon, Michael H.; Kolattukudy, Pappachan E.

    2003-01-01

    Tuberculosis is one of the leading preventable causes of death. Emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis makes the discovery of new targets for antimycobacterial drugs critical. The unique mycobacterial cell wall lipids are known to play an important role in pathogenesis, and therefore the genes responsible for their biosynthesis offer potential new targets. To assess the possible role of some of the genes potentially involved in cell wall lipid synthesis, we disrupted a mas-like gene, msl7, ...

  19. Chemometric analysis applied in 1H HR-MAS NMR and FT-IR data for chemotaxonomic distinction of intact lichen samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the potentiality of chemometric analysis applied in 1H HR-MAS NMR and FT-IR data for lichen chemotaxonomic investigations. Lichens present a difficult morphologic differentiation and the chemical analyses are frequently employed for their taxonomic classification, mainly due to the secondary metabolites to be relatively constant for these organisms. The lichen chemotaxonomic classification is usually carried out by color reactions, chromatography, fluorescence and mass spectrometry analysis, where the identification is obtained by one or more techniques. There are some papers which use the carbohydrate content in chemotaxonomy investigation. However, the majority of these techniques involve laborious and time consuming sample pre-treatment. This work focuses on application of 1H high resolution magic angle spinning - nuclear magnetic resonance (HR-MAS NMR) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) associated with chemometric analysis to intact samples. In comparison to other traditional techniques, 1H HR-MAS NMR and FT-IR allied with chemometrics provided a fast and economic method for lichen chemotaxonomy. Both methods were useful for lichen analysis and permitted the satisfactory distinction among families, genera and species, although better results were achieved for FT-IR data

  20. Sensitivity enhancement in natural-abundance solid-state 33S MAS NMR spectroscopy employing adiabatic inversion pulses to the satellite transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Michael Ryan; Brorson, Michael; Bildsøe, Henrik; Skibsted, Jørgen; Jakobsen, Hans J.

    2008-02-01

    The WURST (wideband uniform rate smooth truncation) and hyperbolic secant (HS) pulse elements have each been employed as pairs of inversion pulses to induce population transfer (PT) between the four energy levels in natural abundance solid-state 33S (spin I = 3/2) MAS NMR, thereby leading to a significant gain in intensity for the central transition (CT). The pair of inversion pulses are applied to the satellite transitions for a series of inorganic sulfates, the sulfate ions in the two cementitious materials ettringite and thaumasite, and the two tetrathiometallates (NH 4) 2WS 4 and (NH 4) 2MoS 4. These materials all exhibit 33S quadrupole coupling constants ( CQ) in the range 0.1-1.0 MHz, with precise CQ values being determined from analysis of the PT enhanced 33S MAS NMR spectra. The enhancement factors for the WURST and HS elements are quite similar and are all in the range 1.74-2.25 for the studied samples, in excellent agreement with earlier reports on HS enhancement factors (1.6-2.4) observed for other spin I = 3/2 nuclei with similar CQ values (0.3-1.2 MHz). Thus, a time saving in instrument time by a factor up to five has been achieved in natural abundance 33S MAS NMR, a time saving which is extremely welcome for this important low-γ nucleus.

  1. UJI APLIKASI VAKSIN HYDROVAC UNTUK PENCEGAHAN PENYAKIT MERAH PADA IKAN MAS (Cyprinus carpio DAN GURAME (Osphronemus gouramy DI BALAI BENIH IKAN PANDAK KABUPATEN BANYUMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrawati Indrawati

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Uji aplikasi vaksin ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian vaksin hydrovac terhadap perkembangan kesehatan ikan mas dan gurami, serta mendapatkan informasi tentang cara pengendalian, melalui tindakan pencegahan ikan air tawar yang terserang wabah penyakit Aeromonas hydrophila. Sebanyak 39 ekor ikan mas (Cyprinus carpio dengan bobot rata-rata 1 kg dan panjang rata-rata 30 cm dan108 ekor ikan gurami (Osphronemus gouramy L. dengan bobot rata-rata 250 g dan panjang rata-rata 10 cm yang berasal dari Balai Benih Ikan (BBI Pandak Kabupaten Banyumas, digunakan sebagai ikan uji. Vaksin yang digunakan adalah “vaksin hydrovac” yang diproduksi oleh Laboratorium Patologi Ikan. Balai Riset Perikanan Budidaya Air Tawar, Bogor. Vaksin diaplikasikan dengan cara dicampur pelet dengan dosis 2--3 mL per kilogram bobot badan ikan yang diberikan selama 5--7 hari berturut-turut dan setelah satu bulan kemudian dilakukan vaksinasi ulangan (booster terhadap ikan yang telah divaksin dengan cara yang sama. Hasil uji menunjukkan bahwa ikan baik ikan mas maupun gurame yang divaksin menunjukkan angka sintasan yang cukup tinggi apabila dibandingkan dengan ikan yang tidak divaksin. Mortalitas ikan uji yang tidak divaksin terjadi mulai minggu ke-5 dan ke-6.

  2. Research on the Shipborne Close-in System Based on the MAS Technolohy%基于MAS技术的舰载近防系统的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢道华; 穆兴兴

    2011-01-01

    Combining carrier-based air defense missiles, main artillery, near defense artillery and jamming devices to form a near defense system is proposed based on MAS technology, and the common task is achieved through coordinating in ternal Agents, so as to the MAS near defense system becomes a intelligent, near-defense and carrier-based system that can self improve, gather experience and is shareable. The concepts, principles, work process and key technologies of MAS near defense system are described in detail.%提出将舰载防空导弹、主炮、近防炮与干扰装置组建为一个基于MAS技术的近防系统。通过协调系统内部各Agent共同完成任务,使系统成为能在工作过程中自我完善、经验积累和分享的智能舰载近防系统。阐述了MAS近防系统的概念、原理、工作过程及其主要关键技术。

  3. In vivo dosimetry for IMRT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vial, Philip

    2011-05-01

    In vivo dosimetry has a well established role in the quality assurance of 2D radiotherapy and 3D conformal radiotherapy. The role of in vivo dosimetry for IMRT is not as well established. IMRT introduces a range of technical issues that complicate in vivo dosimetry. The first decade or so of IMRT implementation has largely relied upon pre-treatment phantom based dose verification. During that time, several new devices and techniques for in vivo dosimetry have emerged with the promise of providing the ultimate form of IMRT dose verification. Solid state dosimeters continue to dominate the field of in vivo dosimetry in the IMRT era. In this report we review the literature on in vivo dosimetry for IMRT, with an emphasis on clinical evidence for different detector types. We describe the pros and cons of different detectors and techniques in the IMRT setting and the roles that they are likely to play in the future.

  4. [Establishment of embryogenic cell suspension culture and plant regeneration of edible banana Musa acuminata cv. Mas (AA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yue-Rong; Huang, Xue-Lin; Li, Jia; Huang, Xia; Li, Zhe; Li, Xiao-Ju

    2005-01-01

    Conventional breeding for dual resistance of disease and pest of Musa cultivars remains a difficult endeavor, as the plant is polyploidic and high in sterility. Biotechnological techniques, eg., genetic engineering, in vitro mutation breeding, or protoplast fusion, may overcome the difficulties and improve the germplasm. Establishment of a stable embryogenic cell suspension (ECS) is a prerequisite for any of the biotechnological breeding methods. In this study an embryogenic cell suspension was established from immature male flower of Musa acuminata cv. Mas (AA), a popular commercial variety of banana in the South-East Asian region. After culture for 5-6 months on callus induction media, which consisted of MS salts, different concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 4.1 micromol/L biotin, 5.7 micromol/L indoleacetic acid (IAA), 5.4 micromol/L naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), other vitamins, 87 mmol/L sucrose, and solidified with 7 g/L agarose, meristematic globules and yellow, friable embryogenic cultures were induced from the explants of 1-15th row young floral hands of immature male flowers. Of the four treatments of 2,4-D, 9 micromol/L was the most effective on the callus induction, it transformed 40.96% and 7.45% of the cultivated male floral hands into callus and embryogenic callus respectively. The explants to produce highest frequency of the embryogenic calli were floral hands of 6 to 12th rows, which generated 5.79% of the embryogenic calli. Suspension cultures were initiated from these embryogenic calli in liquid medium supplemented with 4.5 micromol/L 2, 4-D. After sieving selection of the cultures using a stainless steel metallic strainer with pore sizes of 154 microm at 15 day intervals for 3 months, homogeneous and yellow embryogenic cell suspensions, composed of single cells and small cell aggregates, were established. Based upon the growth quantity and growth rate of ECS, it was determined that the appropriate inoculum was 2.0 mL PCV

  5. Effects of female sex hormones on expression of the Ang-(1-7)/Mas-R/nNOS pathways in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuan; Li, Qiaoying; Zhang, Yidan; Wen, Quan; Zhao, Jianjun

    2015-11-01

    Female sex hormones are considered to reduce the risk of ischemic stroke. As a part of the renin-angiotensin system, angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] has recently been reported to play a role in protecting neuronal tissues from ischemic stroke. Thus, we examined the effects of female sex hormones on the levels of Ang-(1-7) and its downstream pathways in the brain. Female rats were ovariectomized and 17β-estradiol (17β-EST), progesterone (PGR), or a combination of 17β-EST plus PGR were administered. Our data demonstrated that lack of female sex hormones significantly decreased the levels of Ang-(1-7) in the cerebral cortex and hippocampal CA1 area. Also, we observed a linear relationship between cortex levels of Ang-(1-7) and plasma brain natriuretic peptide levels (as an indicator for risk of ischemic stroke). We further showed that lack of female sex hormones decreased the expression of Ang-(1-7), Mas-receptor (Mas-R), and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). Overall, our findings show for the first time that Ang-(1-7) and Mas-R/nNOS in the cortex are influenced by circulating 17β-EST and (or) PGR, whereas Ang-(1-7) and its pathways in the hippocampal CA1 area are primarily altered by 17β-EST. This suggests that female sex hormones play a role in regulating the expression of Ang-(1-7) and its pathways during ischemic brain injuries.

  6. Angiotensin II and 1-7 during aging in Metabolic Syndrome rats. Expression of AT1, AT2 and Mas receptors in abdominal white adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Ruíz, M E; Del Valle-Mondragón, L; Castrejón-Tellez, V; Carreón-Torres, E; Díaz-Díaz, E; Guarner-Lans, V

    2014-07-01

    Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) plays an important role in the development of Metabolic Syndrome (MS) and in aging. Angiotensin 1-7 (Ang 1-7) has opposite effects to Ang II. All of the components of RAS are expressed locally in adipose tissue and there is over-activation of adipose RAS in obesity and hypertension. We determined serum and abdominal adipose tissue Ang II and Ang 1-7 in control and MS rats during aging and the expression of AT1, AT2 and Mas in white adipose tissue. MS was induced by sucrose ingestion during 6, 12 and 18 months. During aging, an increase in body weight, abdominal fat and dyslipidemia were found but increases in aging MS rats were higher. Control and MS concentrations of serum Ang II from 6-month old rats were similar. Aging did not modify Ang II seric concentration in control rats but decreased it in MS rats. Ang II levels increased in WAT from both groups of rats. Serum and adipose tissue Ang 1-7 increased during aging in MS rats. Western blot analysis revealed that AT1 expression increased in the control group during aging while AT2 and Mas remained unchanged. In MS rats, AT1 and AT2 expression decreased significantly in aged rats. The high concentration of Ang 1-7 and adiponectin in old MS rats might be associated to an increased expression of PPAR-γ. PPAR-γ was increased in adipose tissue from MS rats. It decreased with aging in control rats and showed no changes during aging in MS rats. Ang 1-7/Mas axis was the predominant pathway in WAT from old MS animals and could represent a potential target for therapeutical strategies in the treatment of MS during aging.

  7. Remote Sensing of Liquid Water and Ice Cloud Optical Thickness and Effective Radius in the Arctic: Application of Airborne Multispectral MAS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Michael D.; Platnick, Steven; Yang, Ping; Arnold, G. Thomas; Gray, Mark A.; Riedi, Jerome C.; Ackerman, Steven A.; Liou, Kuo-Nan

    2003-01-01

    A multispectral scanning spectrometer was used to obtain measurements of the reflection function and brightness temperature of clouds, sea ice, snow, and tundra surfaces at 50 discrete wavelengths between 0.47 and 14.0 microns. These observations were obtained from the NASA ER-2 aircraft as part of the FIRE Arctic Clouds Experiment, conducted over a 1600 x 500 km region of the north slope of Alaska and surrounding Beaufort and Chukchi Seas between 18 May and 6 June 1998. Multispectral images of the reflection function and brightness temperature in 11 distinct bands of the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) were used to derive a confidence in clear sky (or alternatively the probability of cloud), shadow, and heavy aerosol over five different ecosystems. Based on the results of individual tests run as part of the cloud mask, an algorithm was developed to estimate the phase of the clouds (water, ice, or undetermined phase). Finally, the cloud optical thickness and effective radius were derived for both water and ice clouds that were detected during one flight line on 4 June. This analysis shows that the cloud mask developed for operational use on MODIS, and tested using MAS data in Alaska, is quite capable of distinguishing clouds from bright sea ice surfaces during daytime conditions in the high Arctic. Results of individual tests, however, make it difficult to distinguish ice clouds over snow and sea ice surfaces, so additional tests were added to enhance the confidence in the thermodynamic phase of clouds over the Beaufort Sea. The cloud optical thickness and effective radius retrievals used 3 distinct bands of the MAS, with the newly developed 1.62 and 2.13 micron bands being used quite successfully over snow and sea ice surfaces. These results are contrasted with a MODIS-based algorithm that relies on spectral reflectance at 0.87 and 2.13 micron.

  8. Intelligent Optimizing Control of Formation for UUVs Based on MAS%基于MAS的多UUV编队智能优化控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏宏; 康凤举; 顾浩

    2013-01-01

    The multi-agent system (MAS) based strategy and corresponding implementing algorithms for UUVs formation navigation are proposed according to aviation characteristics and practical const raint s of UUVs. The coordinative optimizations among every individual UUV are carried out with flexible and smart ways by interactive communications and information feedback in MAS so as to implement the autonomous formation navigation of UUVs. Furthermore the control law and corresponding algorithms of the UUV controller in the formation process are studied in depth based on the controller in the formation keeping and simulation result s verify the robustness and stability of the formation cont rollers. Finally, the formation intelligent control method was verified by simulated verification and comparative analysis.%针对无人水下航行器(Unmanned Underwater Vehicle,UUV)编队航行的实际背景和限制条件,提出了一种基于多智能体系统(MAS)技术的多UUV编队智能控制方法.利用多Agent之间的交互作用,以灵活便捷的方式进行各UUV之间的协同优化,从而实现多个UUV的自主编队航行.考虑到控制器在编队保持中的重要性,对面向UUV编队航行的控制率和实现算法进行了重点研究,设计了UUV编队控制器,并通过仿真实验验证了该算法的鲁棒性和稳定性,最后对多UUV编队智能控制方法进行了仿真验证和分析.

  9. Pengaruh Penerapan Program Keselamatan Dan Kesehatan Kerja (K3) Terhadap Keamanan Kerja Dan Produktivitas Kerja Karyawan Bagian Produksi PT. Sinar Oleochemichal Internasional (SOCI) Mas Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Lubis, Silviyani

    2011-01-01

    The application of occupational health and safety management (K3) in an industrial environment with high-risk installation and the user of dangerous chemicals very much needed in the process of production. This action is taken to guarantee the safety of the workers in their capacity as the main generator in the process of production when working that they can motivate their fellow workers to work more productively. PT. SOCI MAS Medan as one of the chemist industry, doesn’t has unstabiled flu...

  10. Global Fold of Human Cannabinoid Type 2 Receptor Probed by Solid-State 13C-, 15N-MAS NMR and Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Kimura, Tomohiro; Vukoti, Krishna; Lynch, Diane L.; Hurst, Dow P.; Grossfield, Alan; Pitman, Michael C.; Reggio, Patricia H.; Yeliseev, Alexei A.; Gawrisch, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    The global fold of human cannabinoid type 2 (CB2) receptor in the agonist-bound active state in lipid bilayers was investigated by solid-state 13C- and 15N magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR, in combination with chemical-shift prediction from a structural model of the receptor obtained by microsecond-long molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Uniformly 13C-, and 15N-labeled CB2 receptor was expressed in milligram quantities by bacterial fermentation, purified, and functionally reconstituted into l...

  11. Uso del FitoMas-E® como atenuante del estrés salino (NaCl durante la emergencia y crecimiento inicial de Ocimum basilicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Batista-Sánchez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El uso de bioestimulantes vegetales estimula la emergencia y el crecimiento vegetal debido a que están compuestos por sustancias naturales como carbohidratos, péptidos de bajo peso molecular y aminoácidos, activadores de las funciones fisiológicas de las plantas, por lo que su aplicación permite un mejor aprovechamiento de los nutrientes y representa una opción para enfrentar problemas de estrés abiótico por salinidad. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto del bioestimulante FitoMas-E® derivado de la caña de azúcar como atenuante de la salinidad en la emergencia y el crecimiento de plántulas de variedades de albahaca (Ocimum basilicum L. con respuesta diferencial al estrés por salinidad. Tres variedades de albahaca: Napoletano, Emily y Nufar se sometieron a cuatro concentraciones de NaCl (0, 50, 100 y 150 mM y cuatro dosis de FitoMas-E® (0, 0.5, 1.0 y 1.5 mL L-1 en un diseño completamente al azar con arreglo factorial con cuatro repeticiones. El trabajo se desarrolló en una estructura de malla sombra y las variables que se midieron fueron: porcentaje y tasa de emergencia, longitud de radícula, altura de la plántula, biomasa fresca y seca de radícula y de parte aérea. Los resultados evidenciaron que en condiciones de estrés salino (NaCl de moderado a severo, las variables disminuyeron significativamente. Largo de raíz, altura de planta y biomasa seca de raíz en 150 mM de NaCl fueron las más afectadas. Se observó que cuando se aplicó FitoMas-E® las plantas incrementaron significativamente sus valores en las variables, largo de raíz 32% y altura de planta 41%, lo que revela el efecto estimulante del FitoMas-E®, siendo 0.5 mL L-1 la dosis estimulante para la variedad Napoletano y 1.0 mL L-1 para la variedad Emily, aún y cuando se encontraban en condiciones de estrés salino hasta 100 mM de NaCl. Para la concentración de 150 mM se evidenció una afectación extrema para las variedades Emily y Nufar.

  12. The study of a monocotyledon abscission zone using microscopic, chemical, enzymatic and solid state 13C CP/MAS NMR analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, J; Davies, H A; Heyes, S J; Osborne, D J

    2001-01-01

    We have investigated distinguishing features in cells of the abscission zone of a monocotyledon fruit, the oil palm Elaeis guineensis. The cell walls of the abscission zone and the subtending mesocarp and pedicel have been analysed by light and transmission electron microscopy, by chemical methods and by solid state 13C CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy. Results show that these abscission zone cells have specific characteristics which include high levels of unmethylated pectin in the walls and an inducible (x35) polygalacturonase enzyme expression. Together these findings help to explain the localised precision of cell separation events. PMID:11219806

  13. El modelo de ser vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Maguregui González, Miren Gurutze; Uskola Ibarluzea, Araitz

    2012-01-01

    Duración (en horas): De 41 a 50 horas. Destinatario: Estudiante Se plantea la construcción del modelo de ser vivo en el alumnado del Grado de Educación Primaria. A través de problemas abiertos como ¿en qué se diferencian los seres vivos de los que no lo son?, ¿en qué nos basamos para clasificar los seres vivos? y ¿qué hace tu cuerpo para que el calcio le ayude a crecer? se pretende que el alumnado, por un lado, se haga consciente de sus propias ideas, que afloren las dudas, errores... res...

  14. Reply to Mas et al.: Comment on Gebhardt et al. MAD-MEX: Automatic Wall-to-Wall Land Cover Monitoring for the Mexican REDD-MRV Program Using All Landsat Data. Remote Sens. 2014, 6, 3923–3943

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schmidt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mas, J.F. et al. have submitted a paper [1] for publication, which aims to respond to a paper published by Gebhardt et al. [2]. Mas, J.F. et al. had received a consultancy in 2013 to assess the quality of the early prototype products partly described in Gebhardt et al. in 2014. This consultancy, although a formal non-disclosure agreement had not been demanded, was awarded under the mutual understanding that the data handed over to Mas et al. constitute the early development phase of the program. Therefore, Mas et al. had been asked to give an assessment on the quality of the prototypes to obtain a proof of concept for the proposed workflow of MAD-Mex. It was clear that this assessment would suffer from limited availability of high quality training and validation data available in 2013. Mas et al. finally did not execute the consultancy due to the limited vector processing capacities in their lab. In October 2014, we sent the latest products, version 4.2 of the MAD-Mex products, including the more than 200,000 validation points gathered from independent expert interpreters of all Mexican ecosystems. Mas et al. did not respond to this transfer or to our request to collaborate in the quality control and assessment of MAD-Mex.

  15. In vivo microCT imaging of rodent cerebral vasculature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Youngho; Hasegawa, Bruce H [Center for Molecular and Functional Imaging, Department of Radiology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 (United States); Hashimoto, Tomoki; Nuki, Yoshitsugu [Center for Cerebrovascular Research, Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 (United States)], E-mail: youngho.seo@radiology.ucsf.edu

    2008-04-07

    Computed tomography (CT) remains a critical diagnostic tool for evaluating patients with cerebrovascular disease, and the advent of specialized systems for imaging rodents has extended these techniques to small animal models of these diseases. We therefore have evaluated in vivo methods of imaging rat models of hemorrhagic stroke using a high resolution compact computed tomography ('microCT') system (FLEX(tm) X-O(tm), Gamma Medica-Ideas, Northridge, CA). For all in vivo studies, the head of the anesthetized rat was secured in a custom immobilization device for microCT imaging with 512 projections over 2 min at 60 kVp and 0.530 mA (I{sub tube} x t/rotation = 63.6 mAs). First, imaging without iodinated contrast was performed (a) to differentiate the effect of contrast agent in contrast-enhanced CT and (b) to examine the effectiveness of the immobilization device between two time points of CT acquisitions. Then, contrast-enhanced CT was performed with continuous administration of iopromide (300 mgI ml{sup -1} at 1.2 ml min{sup -1}) to visualize aneurysms and other vascular formations in the carotid and cerebral arteries that may precede subarachnoid hemorrhage. The accuracy of registration between the noncontrast and contrast-enhanced CT images with the immobilization device was compared against the images aligned with normalized mutual information using FMRIB's linear image registration tool (FLIRT). Translations and rotations were examined between the FLIRT-aligned noncontrast CT image and the nonaligned noncontrast CT image. These two data sets demonstrated translational and rotational differences of less than 0.5 voxel ({approx}85 {mu}m) and 0.5 deg., respectively. Noncontrast CT demonstrated a very small volume (0.1 ml) of femoral arterial blood introduced surgically into the rodent brain. Continuous administration of iopromide during the CT acquisition produced consistent vascular contrast in the reconstructed CT images. As a result, carotid

  16. In vivo microCT imaging of rodent cerebral vasculature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomography (CT) remains a critical diagnostic tool for evaluating patients with cerebrovascular disease, and the advent of specialized systems for imaging rodents has extended these techniques to small animal models of these diseases. We therefore have evaluated in vivo methods of imaging rat models of hemorrhagic stroke using a high resolution compact computed tomography ('microCT') system (FLEX(tm) X-O(tm), Gamma Medica-Ideas, Northridge, CA). For all in vivo studies, the head of the anesthetized rat was secured in a custom immobilization device for microCT imaging with 512 projections over 2 min at 60 kVp and 0.530 mA (Itube x t/rotation = 63.6 mAs). First, imaging without iodinated contrast was performed (a) to differentiate the effect of contrast agent in contrast-enhanced CT and (b) to examine the effectiveness of the immobilization device between two time points of CT acquisitions. Then, contrast-enhanced CT was performed with continuous administration of iopromide (300 mgI ml-1 at 1.2 ml min-1) to visualize aneurysms and other vascular formations in the carotid and cerebral arteries that may precede subarachnoid hemorrhage. The accuracy of registration between the noncontrast and contrast-enhanced CT images with the immobilization device was compared against the images aligned with normalized mutual information using FMRIB's linear image registration tool (FLIRT). Translations and rotations were examined between the FLIRT-aligned noncontrast CT image and the nonaligned noncontrast CT image. These two data sets demonstrated translational and rotational differences of less than 0.5 voxel (∼85 μm) and 0.5 deg., respectively. Noncontrast CT demonstrated a very small volume (0.1 ml) of femoral arterial blood introduced surgically into the rodent brain. Continuous administration of iopromide during the CT acquisition produced consistent vascular contrast in the reconstructed CT images. As a result, carotid arteries and major cerebral blood vessels

  17. 1H-MAS-NMR Chemical Shifts in Hydrogen-Bonded Complexes of Chlorophenols (Pentachlorophenol, 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol, 2,6-Dichlorophenol, 3,5-Dichlorophenol, and p-Chlorophenol) and Amine, and H/D Isotope Effects on 1H-MAS-NMR Spectra

    OpenAIRE

    Hisashi Honda

    2013-01-01

    Chemical shifts (CS) of the 1H nucleus in N···H···O type hydrogen bonds (H-bond) were observed in some complexes between chlorophenols [pentachlorophenol (PCP), 2,4,6-tricholorophenol (TCP), 2,6-dichlorophenol (26DCP), 3,5-dichlorophenol (35DCP), and p-chlorophenol (pCP)] and nitrogen-base (N-Base) by solid-state high-resolution 1H-NMR with the magic-angle-spinning (MAS) method. Employing N-Bases with a wide range of pKa values (0.65–10.75), 1H-MAS-NMR CS values of bridging H atoms in H-bonds...

  18. Windows 10 reklāmas kampaņas lokalizācijas analīze Latvijā 2015. gadā

    OpenAIRE

    Strogonova, Sanita

    2016-01-01

    Bakalaura darbā “Windows 10 reklāmas kampaņas lokalizācijas analīze Latvijā 2015. gadā” tiek pētīta Microsoft korporācijas veiktās globālās un lokalizētās integrētā mārketinga komunikācijas zīmola Windows 10 virzīšanai Latvijas tirgū. Darbs sastāv no 3 daļām: teorētiskās daļas, metodoloģijas daļas un empīriskās daļas. Teorijas daļā ir veikts literatūras apskats par komunikācijas modeļu veidiem, integrētā mārketinga teorijām, apskatīta reklāmas kampaņas veidošanas un efektivitātes mērīšanas te...

  19. Os desastres podem até cair dos céus... Mas a culpa não é de Deus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josué Petrônio Quirino de Oliveira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O propósito desta pesquisa é apresentar uma reflexão sobre o descaso em que a politica de enfrentamento aos desastres naturais vem sendo abordada no Brasil nos últimos 100 anos.  Com uma população cada vez mais urbana as cidades passam a ser o centro não só do poder econômico e político, mas também dos mais diversos eventos decorrentes das mudanças climáticas. Uma série de problemas agrava essa urbanização vulnerável e desencadeiam uma crise socioambiental determinada por fatores sociais, políticos, econômicos, tecnológicos, culturais e ecológicos que, de forma integrada, provocam consequências devastadoras. Inundações, deslizamentos, ciclones, incêndios florestais, enxurradas, estiagens, enchentes, secas e terremotos provocam impactos inesperados e pressionam ainda mais este quadro urbano complexo a uma dinâmica preocupante. O desastre não são as principais ameaças, mas a incapacidade de planejamento e enfrentamento na gestão dos desastres demostraram o descaso com a questão foi tratado no país ao longo de décadas.

  20. XRD, FTIR and 13C CP/ MAS NMR Studies of Composite Comprising Poly(vinyl acetate)- silylated Si-MCM-41

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A composite structure based on silylated MCM-41 and Poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) was synthesized via solution intercalation. Poly(vinyl acetate)-silylated Si- MCM-41 composite were characterized by XRD, FTIR spectroscopy and 13C CP/ MAS NMR in order to determine the compatibility between PVAc and the silicate host. XRD study reveals that the framework of silylated Si-MCM-41 was not altered upon incorporation of PVAc. FTIR study showed that characteristic peak assigned to carbonyl group in PVAc was observed around 1741.6 cm-1 for all the composites indicating the presence of PVAc in the silylated Si-MCM-41. 13C CP/ MAS NMR showed the increase of line width of the peak assigned to C=O carbonyl group indicating the increase in randomness of polymer chains in confined space. The shifting of the C=O carbonyl groups is a sign of the change in chemical environment of the carbonyl owing to the interaction of PVAc with the silica matrix of silylated Si-MCM-41. (author)

  1. Task Programming of Antiballistic Missile Sensors Based on MAS%基于多智能体的反导传感器任务规划算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴林锋; 王刚; 刘昌云; 杨少春

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics and functions of the sensor resources under the antiballistic missile condition are firstly discussed, Then a sensor task programming system structure which adapts to the anti-ballistic missile requirement is put forward based on the multi-agent system (MAS) of distribute artificial intelligence, and the main functions of each agent in the structure in detail is analyzed. Finally a programming process is presented and the arithmetic of a sensor Agent in the layer of entity is carried out, which provides an effective method for building a high-efficiency and intelligent antimissile sensor network.%首先探讨了反导作战中各类传感器资源的构成特点和功能划分,然后基于多智能体multy-agent system(MAS)的分布式人工智能技术提出了适应反导作战需求的传感器任务规划体系架构,既而深入分析了体系架构中各类agent的主要功能,最后给出了一个实体层传感器的任务规划流程和算法实例,为构建高效率、智能化的反导作战多传感器任务规划技术提供了一种有效的研究方法.

  2. Reklāmas analīze un produkcijas virzīšana, izmantojot kompānijas L'Oreal Group piemēru

    OpenAIRE

    Platonova, Viktorija

    2016-01-01

    Diplomdarbs veltīts reklāmas jēdziena pētīšanai, kompānijas L'Oreal Group darbības detalizētākai aplūkošanai, kā arī respondentu aptaujas par šī uzņēmuma reklāmu veikšana un tālāka tās analīze. Šis diplomdarbs sastāv no trīs daļām ar apakšdaļām. Pirmajā daļā autore aplūko reklāmas jēdzienu, tās veidus, metodes, efektivitāti un efektivitātes vadīšanas metodes. Otrajā daļā pievērsta uzmanība skaistuma un kosmētikas nozares un detalizētākai kompānijas L'Oreal Group aplūkošanai un aprakstam, konk...

  3. Structure determination of uniformly 13C, 15N labeled protein using qualitative distance restraints from MAS solid-state 13C-NMR observed paramagnetic relaxation enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magic angle spinning (MAS) solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a powerful method for structure determination of insoluble biomolecules. However, structure determination by MAS solid-state NMR remains challenging because it is difficult to obtain a sufficient amount of distance restraints owing to spectral complexity. Collection of distance restraints from paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) is a promising approach to alleviate this barrier. However, the precision of distance restraints provided by PRE is limited in solid-state NMR because of incomplete averaged interactions and intermolecular PREs. In this report, the backbone structure of the B1 domain of streptococcal protein G (GB1) has been successfully determined by combining the CS-Rosetta protocol and qualitative PRE restraints. The derived structure has a Cα RMSD of 1.49 Å relative to the X-ray structure. It is noteworthy that our protocol can determine the correct structure from only three cysteine-EDTA-Mn2+ mutants because this number of PRE sites is insufficient when using a conventional structure calculation method based on restrained molecular dynamics and simulated annealing. This study shows that qualitative PRE restraints can be employed effectively for protein structure determination from a limited conformational sampling space using a protein fragment library

  4. High Field 27Al MAS NMR and TPD studies of active sites in ethanol dehydration using thermally treated transitional aluminas as catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jian Z.; Xu, Suochang; Kwak, Ja Hun; Hu, Mary Y.; Wan, Chuan; Zhao, Zhenchao; Szanyi, Janos; Bao, Xinhe; Han, Xiuwen; Wang, Yong; Peden, Charles HF

    2016-04-04

    High field quantitative 27Al MAS NMR and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) of ethanol are used to study the surface and phase transformation of gamma-Al2O3 during calcination in the temperature range of 500 to 1300 degrees C. Following ethanol adsorption, ethylene is generated during TPD with a desorption temperature > 200 degrees C. With increasing calcination temperature prior to TPD, the amount of ethylene produced decreases monotonically. Significantly, 27Al MAS NMR reveals that the amount of penta-coordinate Al3+ ions (Lewis acid sites) also decreases with increasing calcination temperature. In fact, a strong correlation between the amount of penta-coordinate Al3+ ions and the amount of strongly adsorbed ethanol molecules (i.e., the ones that convert to ethylene during TPD) is obtained. This result indicates that the penta-coordinate aluminum sites are the catalytic active sites on alumina surfaces during ethanol dehydration reaction across the entire course of gamma- to alpha-Al2O3 phase transformations.

  5. Determination of structural topology of a membrane protein in lipid bilayers using polarization optimized experiments (POE) for static and MAS solid state NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mote, Kaustubh R. [University of Minnesota, Department of Chemistry (United States); Gopinath, T. [University of Minnesota, Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics (United States); Veglia, Gianluigi, E-mail: vegli001@umn.edu [University of Minnesota, Department of Chemistry (United States)

    2013-10-15

    The low sensitivity inherent to both the static and magic angle spinning techniques of solid-state NMR (ssNMR) spectroscopy has thus far limited the routine application of multidimensional experiments to determine the structure of membrane proteins in lipid bilayers. Here, we demonstrate the advantage of using a recently developed class of experiments, polarization optimized experiments, for both static and MAS spectroscopy to achieve higher sensitivity and substantial time-savings for 2D and 3D experiments. We used sarcolipin, a single pass membrane protein, reconstituted in oriented bicelles (for oriented ssNMR) and multilamellar vesicles (for MAS ssNMR) as a benchmark. The restraints derived by these experiments are then combined into a hybrid energy function to allow simultaneous determination of structure and topology. The resulting structural ensemble converged to a helical conformation with a backbone RMSD {approx}0.44 A, a tilt angle of 24 Degree-Sign {+-} 1 Degree-Sign , and an azimuthal angle of 55 Degree-Sign {+-} 6 Degree-Sign . This work represents a crucial first step toward obtaining high-resolution structures of large membrane proteins using combined multidimensional oriented solid-state NMR and magic angle spinning solid-state NMR.

  6. 1H-MAS-NMR Chemical Shifts in Hydrogen-Bonded Complexes of Chlorophenols (Pentachlorophenol, 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol, 2,6-Dichlorophenol, 3,5-Dichlorophenol, and p-Chlorophenol and Amine, and H/D Isotope Effects on 1H-MAS-NMR Spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisashi Honda

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical shifts (CS of the 1H nucleus in N···H···O type hydrogen bonds (H-bond were observed in some complexes between chlorophenols [pentachlorophenol (PCP, 2,4,6-tricholorophenol (TCP, 2,6-dichlorophenol (26DCP, 3,5-dichlorophenol (35DCP, and p-chlorophenol (pCP] and nitrogen-base (N-Base by solid-state high-resolution 1H-NMR with the magic-angle-spinning (MAS method. Employing N-Bases with a wide range of pKa values (0.65–10.75, 1H-MAS-NMR CS values of bridging H atoms in H-bonds were obtained as a function of the N-Base’s pKa. The result showed that the CS values were increased with increasing pKa values in a range of DpKa 2: The maximum CS values was recorded in the PCP (pKa = 5.26–4-methylpyridine (6.03, TCP (6.59–imidazole (6.99, 26DCP (7.02–2-amino-4-methylpyridine (7.38, 35DCP (8.04–4-dimethylaminopyridine (9.61, and pCP (9.47–4-dimethylaminopyridine (9.61 complexes. The largest CS value of 18.6 ppm was recorded in TCP–imidazole crystals. In addition, H/D isotope effects on 1H-MAS-NMR spectra were observed in PCP–2-amino-3-methylpyridine. Based on the results of CS simulation using a B3LYP/6-311+G** function, it can be explained that a little changes of the N–H length in H-bond contribute to the H/D isotope shift of the 1H-MAS-NMR peaks.

  7. Ex-vivo lung perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Raemdonck, Dirk; Neyrinck, Arne; Cypel, Marcelo; Keshavjee, Shaf

    2015-06-01

    This review outlines the new and promising technique of ex vivo lung perfusion and its clinical potential to increase the number of transplantable lungs and to improve the early and late outcome after transplantation. The rationale, the experimental background, the technique and protocols, and available devices for ex vivo lung perfusion are discussed. The current clinical experience worldwide and ongoing clinical trials are reviewed. PMID:24629039

  8. Bond failure patterns in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linklater, Rognvald A; Gordon, Peter H

    2003-05-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the presence and pattern of differences in bond failure between tooth types in vivo when bonding orthodontic brackets with the no-mix orthodontic composite adhesive Right-On. In vivo bond failure for a single operator was recorded for 108 consecutive patients undergoing fixed-appliance orthodontic treatment. The bond failure data were analyzed by survival analysis. Time to first failure or censorship was recorded for each bonded attachment. Overall failure in the sample matched previous clinical studies but conflicted with previous ex vivo bond strength data. Mandibular and posterior teeth had significantly higher rates of failure than did maxillary and anterior teeth. The type of attachment used had a significant effect on bond survival. The results of this study confirm that in vivo bond survival is not uniform for all teeth. Comparisons between the findings of this study and those of a previous ex vivo study by the same authors failed to validate ex vivo bond strength testing as clinically relevant.

  9. Characterization, corrosion behavior, cellular response and in vivo bone tissue compatibility of titanium-niobium alloy with low Young's modulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yanjie; Deng, Yi; Zheng, Yunfei; Li, Yongliang; Zhang, Ranran; Lv, Yalin; Zhao, Qiang; Wei, Shicheng

    2016-02-01

    β-Type titanium alloys with a low elastic modulus are a potential strategy to enhance bone remodeling and to mitigate the concern over the risks of osteanabrosis and bone resorption caused by stress shielding, when used to substitute irreversibly impaired hard tissue. Hence, in this study, a Ti-45Nb alloy with low Young's modulus and high strength was developed, and microstructure, mechanical properties, corrosion behaviors, cytocompatibility and in vivo osteo-compatibility of the alloy were systematically investigated for the first time. The results of mechanical tests showed that Young's modulus of the Ti-Nb alloy was reduced to about 64.3GPa (close to human cortical bone) accompanied with higher tensile strength and hardness compared with those of pure Ti. Importantly, the Ti-Nb alloy exhibited superior corrosion resistance to Ti in different solutions including SBF, MAS and FAAS (MAS containing NaF) media. In addition, the Ti-Nb alloy produced no deleterious effect to L929 and MG-63 cells, and cells performed excellent cell attachment onto Ti-Nb surface, indicating a good in vitro cytocompatibility. In vivo evaluations indicated that Ti-Nb had comparable bone tissue compatibility to Ti determined from micro-CT and histological evaluations. The Ti-Nb alloy with an elasticity close to human bone, thus, could be suitable for orthopedic/dental applications.

  10. Characterization, corrosion behavior, cellular response and in vivo bone tissue compatibility of titanium-niobium alloy with low Young's modulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yanjie; Deng, Yi; Zheng, Yunfei; Li, Yongliang; Zhang, Ranran; Lv, Yalin; Zhao, Qiang; Wei, Shicheng

    2016-02-01

    β-Type titanium alloys with a low elastic modulus are a potential strategy to enhance bone remodeling and to mitigate the concern over the risks of osteanabrosis and bone resorption caused by stress shielding, when used to substitute irreversibly impaired hard tissue. Hence, in this study, a Ti-45Nb alloy with low Young's modulus and high strength was developed, and microstructure, mechanical properties, corrosion behaviors, cytocompatibility and in vivo osteo-compatibility of the alloy were systematically investigated for the first time. The results of mechanical tests showed that Young's modulus of the Ti-Nb alloy was reduced to about 64.3GPa (close to human cortical bone) accompanied with higher tensile strength and hardness compared with those of pure Ti. Importantly, the Ti-Nb alloy exhibited superior corrosion resistance to Ti in different solutions including SBF, MAS and FAAS (MAS containing NaF) media. In addition, the Ti-Nb alloy produced no deleterious effect to L929 and MG-63 cells, and cells performed excellent cell attachment onto Ti-Nb surface, indicating a good in vitro cytocompatibility. In vivo evaluations indicated that Ti-Nb had comparable bone tissue compatibility to Ti determined from micro-CT and histological evaluations. The Ti-Nb alloy with an elasticity close to human bone, thus, could be suitable for orthopedic/dental applications. PMID:26652409

  11. In vivo 13C NMR metabolite profiling: potential for understanding and assessing conifer seed quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terskikh, Victor V; Feurtado, J Allan; Borchardt, Shane; Giblin, Michael; Abrams, Suzanne R; Kermode, Allison R

    2005-08-01

    High-resolution 13C MAS NMR spectroscopy was used to profile a range of primary and secondary metabolites in vivo in intact whole seeds of eight different conifer species native to North America, including six of the Pinaceae family and two of the Cupressaceae family. In vivo 13C NMR provided information on the total seed oil content and fatty acid composition of the major storage lipids in a non-destructive manner. In addition, a number of monoterpenes were identified in the 13C NMR spectra of conifer seeds containing oleoresin; these compounds showed marked variability in individual seeds of Pacific silver fir within the same seed lot. In imbibed conifer seeds, the 13C NMR spectra showed the presence of considerable amounts of dissolved sucrose presumed to play a protective role in the desiccation-tolerance of seeds. The free amino acids arginine and asparagine, generated as a result of storage protein mobilization, were detected in vivo during seed germination and early seedling growth. The potential for NMR to profile metabolites in a non-destructive manner in single conifer seeds and seed populations is discussed. It is a powerful tool to evaluate seed quality because of its ability to assess reserve accumulation during seed development or at seed maturity; it can also be used to monitor reserve mobilization, which is critical for seedling emergence. PMID:15996983

  12. Study on Electric Fault Diagnosis Model Based on MAS%基于MAS电务故障诊断模型的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佳奇; 党建武

    2013-01-01

    铁路运输组织模式逐步向集中调度、系统综合集成、智能管理和信息共享及融合的方向转变和延伸,在此趋势下,针对高速铁路信号监测系统功能尚存在缺陷的状况,提出将分布式人工智能技术引入到信号设备故障诊断系统中.利用MAS对复杂系统问题的较强求解能力,建立基于MAS的故障诊断系统,采用面向Agent的知识表示,构造数据采集Agent、诊断Agent、事例分析Agent及管理Agent等核心模块的BDI模型,扩展混合Agent结构,将常规的不具备自学习能力的诊断系统设计成为低耦合高内聚的具有自学习能力的并行MAS诊断系统,使系统具有良好的可靠性、扩展性和鲁棒性,提高故障诊断决策和监测管理水平.%Under the new situation that the railway transportation organization pattern is gradually transforming and extending to the direction of centralized dispatching, comprehensive systems integration, intelligent management and information sharing and integrating, in view of the fact that the functions of signal monitoring systems of high-speed railways still have defects, the distributed artificial intelligence technology was introduced into the fault diagnosis system of signal devices. Utilizing the strong MAS ability to solve complicated system problems, the MAS-based fault diagnosis system was established. By indication of facing the Agent knowledge, the center BDI models were constructed, which consisted of central modules of data acquisition A-gent, diagnosis Agent, event analysis Agent and management Agent. The hybrid Agent structure was extended. The conventional diagnosis system without self-learning ability was designed into the low-coupling high-cohesion diagnosis system with self-learning ability and parallel to the MAS diagnosis system. The proposed system has good reliability, augmentabilily and robustness so that the level of fault diagnosis and monitoring management is raized.

  13. Constant-time 2D and 3D through-bond correlation NMR spectroscopy of solids under 60 kHz MAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Rongchun; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy, E-mail: ramamoor@umich.edu [Biophysics and Department of Chemistry, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1055 (United States)

    2016-01-21

    Establishing connectivity and proximity of nuclei is an important step in elucidating the structure and dynamics of molecules in solids using magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy. Although recent studies have successfully demonstrated the feasibility of proton-detected multidimensional solid-state NMR experiments under ultrafast-MAS frequencies and obtaining high-resolution spectral lines of protons, assignment of proton resonances is a major challenge. In this study, we first re-visit and demonstrate the feasibility of 2D constant-time uniform-sign cross-peak correlation (CTUC-COSY) NMR experiment on rigid solids under ultrafast-MAS conditions, where the sensitivity of the experiment is enhanced by the reduced spin-spin relaxation rate and the use of low radio-frequency power for heteronuclear decoupling during the evolution intervals of the pulse sequence. In addition, we experimentally demonstrate the performance of a proton-detected pulse sequence to obtain a 3D {sup 1}H/{sup 13}C/{sup 1}H chemical shift correlation spectrum by incorporating an additional cross-polarization period in the CTUC-COSY pulse sequence to enable proton chemical shift evolution and proton detection in the incrementable t{sub 1} and t{sub 3} periods, respectively. In addition to through-space and through-bond {sup 13}C/{sup 1}H and {sup 13}C/{sup 13}C chemical shift correlations, the 3D {sup 1}H/{sup 13}C/{sup 1}H experiment also provides a COSY-type {sup 1}H/{sup 1}H chemical shift correlation spectrum, where only the chemical shifts of those protons, which are bonded to two neighboring carbons, are correlated. By extracting 2D F1/F3 slices ({sup 1}H/{sup 1}H chemical shift correlation spectrum) at different {sup 13}C chemical shift frequencies from the 3D {sup 1}H/{sup 13}C/{sup 1}H spectrum, resonances of proton atoms located close to a specific carbon atom can be identified. Overall, the through-bond and through-space homonuclear/heteronuclear proximities determined from the

  14. Crystal structure of silica-ZSM-12 by the combined use of high-resolution solid-state MAS NMR spectroscopy and synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fyfe, C.A.; Kokotailo, G.T. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)); Gies, H.; Marler, B. (Mineralogisches Institut der CAU, Kiel (West Germany)); Cox, D.E. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA))

    1990-05-03

    The crystal structure of the synthetic zeolite silica-ZSM-12, 56 SiO{sub 2}, has been solved by the combined use of high-resolution solid-state MAS NMR spectroscopy and high-resolution synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction ZSM-12 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group C2/c with a{sub 0} = 24.863 {angstrom}, b{sub 0} = 5.012 {angstrom}, c{sub 0} = 24.328 {angstrom}, and {beta} = 107.7{degree}. The zeolite host structure is built from corner-linked SiO{sub 4} tetrahedra to give a three-dimensional 4-connected net. The pores of the structure are one-dimensional channels that do not intersect, with 12-membered ring pore openings of approximately 5.6 {times} 7.7 {angstrom}. The structure of ZSM-12 is frequently twinned with (100) as the twin plane, which indicates a new zeolite structure type.

  15. Resolution and measurement of heteronuclear dipolar couplings of a noncrystalline protein immobilized in a biological supramolecular assembly by proton-detected MAS solid-state NMR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Ho; Yang, Chen; Opella, Stanley J.; Mueller, Leonard J.

    2013-12-01

    Two-dimensional 15N chemical shift/1H chemical shift and three-dimensional 1H-15N dipolar coupling/15N chemical shift/1H chemical shift MAS solid-state NMR correlation spectra of the filamentous bacteriophage Pf1 major coat protein show single-site resolution in noncrystalline, intact-phage preparations. The high sensitivity and resolution result from 1H detection at 600 MHz under 50 kHz magic angle spinning using ∼0.5 mg of perdeuterated and uniformly 15N-labeled protein in which the exchangeable amide sites are partially or completely back-exchanged (reprotonated). Notably, the heteronuclear 1H-15N dipolar coupling frequency dimension is shown to select among 15N resonances, which will be useful in structural studies of larger proteins where the resonances exhibit a high degree of overlap in multidimensional chemical shift correlation spectra.

  16. Systèmes complexes gouvernés par des flux : schémas de volumes finis hybrides et optimisation numérique

    OpenAIRE

    Jaisson, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    Cette thèse concerne la modélisation par des EDP et la résolution numérique de problèmes d'optimisation pour les flux d'information et pour le trafic routier. Nous proposons un nouveau type de schémas hybrides. En premier, nous nous intéressons à l'optimisation des temps de service nécessaires à un serveur informatique pour traiter un ou plusieurs types de requêtes, afin de satisfaire une qualité de service imposée. La modélisation choisie fait intervenir un système de lois de conservation pr...

  17. Solid state NMR of proteins at high MAS frequencies: symmetry-based mixing and simultaneous acquisition of chemical shift correlation spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellstedt, Peter [Fritz Lipmann Institute, Biomolecular NMR spectroscopy, Leibniz Institute for Age Research (Germany); Herbst, Christian [Ubon Ratchathani University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science (Thailand); Haefner, Sabine; Leppert, Joerg; Goerlach, Matthias; Ramachandran, Ramadurai, E-mail: raman@fli-leibniz.de [Fritz Lipmann Institute, Biomolecular NMR spectroscopy, Leibniz Institute for Age Research (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    We have carried out chemical shift correlation experiments with symmetry-based mixing sequences at high MAS frequencies and examined different strategies to simultaneously acquire 3D correlation spectra that are commonly required in the structural studies of proteins. The potential of numerically optimised symmetry-based mixing sequences and the simultaneous recording of chemical shift correlation spectra such as: 3D NCAC and 3D NHH with dual receivers, 3D NC Prime C and 3D C Prime NCA with sequential {sup 13}C acquisitions, 3D NHH and 3D NC Prime H with sequential {sup 1}H acquisitions and 3D CANH and 3D C'NH with broadband {sup 13}C-{sup 15}N mixing are demonstrated using microcrystalline samples of the {beta}1 immunoglobulin binding domain of protein G (GB1) and the chicken {alpha}-spectrin SH3 domain.

  18. El sueño de Venecia o el guiño de los clásicos en la narrativa de Paloma Díaz-Mas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neus Samblancat

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Su artículo propone que la concepción de la obra de Paloma Díaz-Mas, El sueño de Venecia, como palimpsesto literario nos conduce a un análisis intertextual donde cada capítulo de la novela nos remite a un género y a unas voces de época. Los clásicos, como el resto de la producción narrativa de la autora, guiñan el ojo a lo largo de una obra que plantea una reflexión sobre la fragilidad de la razón y de la humana Memoria a la hora de conocer la Historia y de explicar una historia.

  19. Agent Virus of Cooperation (Avicoop: an Intelligent Model of Cooperation and Collaboration Based on the MAS for Data Exchange in Ad hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Tangha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose in this paper a response to the problem of cooperation and collaboration between nodes in a mobile ad hoc network (MANET for intelligent data relays from one source to a destination. In their operation, each routing protocol relies on the support of each node for end-to-end messages routing by completely ignoring the autonomous nature of the node that is to be free to accept, reject, relay or otherwise simply manipulate the protocols principle. This random and unpredictable behavior of the node impacts on the routing effectiveness in the global network. Our approach is based on multi-agent systems (MAS and game theory, especially the iterated version of the Prisoner's Dilemma. The proposed model is validated by a prototype.

  20. 军事MAS中战斗行为协调的计算%Computation of Coordinating Combat Behaviors in the Military MAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏祖勋; 吴洁; 方慧嘉

    2004-01-01

    在军事MAS(multi-agent system多自主体系统)中制订规划/计划时需要对任务和战斗行为相互间存在的依赖关系和时序关系进行分析,计算出可保障MAS中相互进行良好协作的行为序列,避免因可能发生的时序错误、冲突造成协作失败.论述IA(区间代数)网络计算应用于军事MAS中的任务/战斗行为协调时的基本方法和应注意的问题.

  1. Identification of Li-Ion Battery SEI Compounds through (7)Li and (13)C Solid-State MAS NMR Spectroscopy and MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Laura A; Tavassol, Hadi; Esbenshade, Jennifer L; Xing, Wenting; Chiang, Yet-Ming; Gewirth, Andrew A

    2016-01-13

    Solid-state (7)Li and (13)C MAS NMR spectra of cycled graphitic Li-ion anodes demonstrate SEI compound formation upon lithiation that is followed by changes in the SEI upon delithiation. Solid-state (13)C DPMAS NMR shows changes in peaks associated with organic solvent compounds (ethylene carbonate and dimethyl carbonate, EC/DMC) upon electrochemical cycling due to the formation of and subsequent changes in the SEI compounds. Solid-state (13)C NMR spin-lattice (T1) relaxation time measurements of lithiated Li-ion anodes and reference poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) powders, along with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry results, indicate that large-molecular-weight polymers are formed in the SEI layers of the discharged anodes. MALDI-TOF MS and NMR spectroscopy results additionally indicate that delithiated anodes exhibit a larger number of SEI products than is found in lithiated anodes. PMID:26653886

  2. Solid state P-31 MAS NMR spectroscopy and conductivity measurements on NbOPO4 and H3PO4 composite materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risskov Sørensen, Daniel; Nielsen, U. G.; Skou, E. M.

    2014-01-01

    A systematic study of composite powders of niobium oxide phosphate (NbOPO4) and phosphoric acid (H3PO4) has been performed in order to characterize the material's ability to perform as an electrolyte material in medium temperature fuel cells and electrolyzers. Powders of H3PO4 contents between 13.......1 and 74.2 M% were produced and characterized with powder X-ray diffraction, P-31 MAS NMR and impedance spectroscopy. NMR revealed that a significant degree of dehydration and vaporization of H3PO4 takes place above 200 degrees C, and increases with temperature. At 500 degrees C the NbOPO4 and H3PO4 has...

  3. Proton-detected 3D 1H/13C/1H correlation experiment for structural analysis in rigid solids under ultrafast-MAS above 60 kHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rongchun; Nishiyama, Yusuke; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2015-10-01

    A proton-detected 3D 1H/13C/1H chemical shift correlation experiment is proposed for the assignment of chemical shift resonances, identification of 13C-1H connectivities, and proximities of 13C-1H and 1H-1H nuclei under ultrafast magic-angle-spinning (ultrafast-MAS) conditions. Ultrafast-MAS is used to suppress all anisotropic interactions including 1H-1H dipolar couplings, while the finite-pulse radio frequency driven dipolar recoupling (fp-RFDR) pulse sequence is used to recouple dipolar couplings among protons and the insensitive nuclei enhanced by polarization transfer technique is used to transfer magnetization between heteronuclear spins. The 3D experiment eliminates signals from non-carbon-bonded protons and non-proton-bonded carbons to enhance spectral resolution. The 2D (F1/F3) 1H/1H and 2D 13C/1H (F2/F3) chemical shift correlation spectra extracted from the 3D spectrum enable the identification of 1H-1H proximity and 13C-1H connectivity. In addition, the 2D (F1/F2) 1H/13C chemical shift correlation spectrum, incorporated with proton magnetization exchange via the fp-RFDR recoupling of 1H-1H dipolar couplings, enables the measurement of proximities between 13C and even the remote non-carbon-bonded protons. The 3D experiment also gives three-spin proximities of 1H-1H-13C chains. Experimental results obtained from powder samples of L-alanine and L-histidine ṡ H2O ṡ HCl demonstrate the efficiency of the 3D experiment.

  4. Pengaruh Iklim Komunikasi Organisasi Terhadap Efektivitas Komunikasi Interpersonal Dan Kepuasan Kerja (Studi Eksplanatif di Dinas Kebudayaan, Pariwisata, Pemuda dan Olah Raga Kabupaten Gunung Mas Kalimantan Tengah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Wahyunie

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh iklim komunikasi organisasi terhadap efektivitas komunikasi interpersonal dan kepuasan kerja di Dinas Kebudayaan, Pariwisata, Pemuda dan Olah Raga Kabupaten Gunung Mas Kalimantan Tengah. Penelitian dilakukan di kantor Dinas Kebudayaan, Pariwisata, Pemuda dan Olah Raga Kabupaten Gunung Mas Kalimantan Tengah pada bulan September 2014 untuk pengambilan data. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah penelitian kuantitatif, dengan melibatkan 33 responden yang dipilih sesuai populasi yang ada. Alat pengumpul data yang digunakan adalah kuesioner. Analisis data dalam penelitian ini menggunakan uji analisis jalur (Path Analysis,dimana analisis jalur ini menguji apakah terdapat pengaruh langsung atau tidak langsung iklim komunikasi organisasi terhadap kepuasan kerja. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan nilai iklim komunikasi organisasi memperoleh nilai gabungan 3,53. Nilai efektivitas komunikasi interpersonal memperoleh nilai gabungan 3,87. Nilai kepuasan kerja memperoleh nilai gabungan 3,96. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan tingkat kepuasan kerja pegawai di Dinas Kebudayaan, Pariwisata, Pemuda dan Olah Raga berada pada tingkat cukup baik. Iklim komunikasi secara langsung memiliki pengaruh yang positif dan signifikan terhadap efektivitas komunikasi interpersonal dengan taraf signifikansi sebesar 0,026. Iklim komunikasi secara langsung memiliki pengaruh yang positif dan signifikan terhadap kepuasan kerja dengan taraf signifikansi sebesar 0,036. Efektivitas komunikasi interpersonal secara langsung memiliki pengaruh yang positif dan signifikan terhadap kepuasan kerja dengan taraf signifikansi sebesar 0,001. Iklim komunikasi organisasi juga secara tidak langsung memiliki pengaruh terhadap kepuasan kerja dengan melalui efektivitas komunikasi interpersonal sebagai mediasinya dengan taraf signifikansi sebesar 0,171 atau 17,1%. Secara simultan terdapat Pengaruh iklim komunikasi organisasi dan efektivitas komunikasi

  5. In vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy; In vivo magnetisk resonansspektroskopi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakken, Inger Johanne; Skjetne, Tore; Gribbestad, Ingrid S.; Kvistad, Kjell Arne

    2002-07-01

    Magnetic resonance tomography (MR) has become a highly useful tool for diagnostic imaging. The technology is in a process of rapid development with new and better methods emerging for the imaging of anatomic and pathologic aspects. With some additional equipment, the MR instrument may also be used for in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). In vivo MRS provides biochemical information about metabolites in a given tissue volume. This type of biochemical information can be extracted from volumes the size of a sugar lump within a recording period of about five minutes. New technologies also allow extracting such information from several volumes during one recording in which the information is processed as metabolic pictures. The method has found clinical applications in several fields, including the evaluation of brain tumours and epilepsy. The use of in vivo MRS will probably increase in the years ahead, especially, perhaps, for the follow-up of various therapeutic regimens. All suppliers of MR equipment now provide in vivo MRS sets and routines for recording and data analysis have become very user-friendly. (author)

  6. Saules kombinētās siltumenerģētiskās sistēmas darbības algortima un simulācijas modeļa izstrāde

    OpenAIRE

    Rochas, C.; Jaunzems, D

    2006-01-01

    Darbā var iepazīties ar jaunu saules kombinētās siltumenerģētiskās sistēmas prototipu – tā uzbūvi, darbības režīmiem, kā arī kontroles un vadības stratēģijas aprakstu. Paralēli ir izstrādāts jaunā sistēmas prototipa darbības un vadības algoritms, kas izmantots sistēmas simulācijas modeļa izveidē un pārbaudīts simulāciju programmas TRNSYS vidē.

  7. In aqua vivo EPID dosimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendling, M.; McDermott, L.N.; Mans, A.; Olaciregui-Ruiz, I.; Pecharroman-Gallego, R.; Sonke, J.J.; Stroom, J.; Herk, M. van; Mijnheer, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: At the Netherlands Cancer Institute--Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital in vivo dosimetry using an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) has been implemented for almost all high-energy photon treatments of cancer with curative intent. Lung cancer treatments were initially excluded, because t

  8. Comparative HPLC-DAD-ESI(+MS Fingerprint and Quantification of Phenolic and Flavonoid Composition of Aqueous Leaf Extracts of Cornus mas and Crataegus monogyna, in Relation to Their Cardiotonic Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius BADALICA-PETRESCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Our study aimed to compare the phenolic and flavonoid composition of two medicinal plants from the wild flora of Romania, traditionally known to be efficient in preventing cardiotoxicity: Cornus mas and Crataegus monogyna. As most previous studies have focused on fruits, our investigations aimed to fingerprint and quantify the two classes of compounds in aqueous leaf extracts, based on HPLC-DAD-ESI(+MS analysis. The specific HPLC-DAD fingerprint was coupled with UV spectra at 280 and 340 nm to discriminate between three subclasses of compounds: two hydroxycinnamic acids and a flavonoid glycoside. While the C. monogyna extract contained more than 98% vitexin isomers (2’- and 4’-O-rhamnoside, the C. mas extract was very complex, containing a mixture of phenolic derivatives and flavonoid glycosides. The spectral patterns of C. mas, combined with the molecular mass and specific fragmentations allowed the identification of epi-catechin, coumaric and caffeic acids and quercetin derivatives. Based on LC-MS peak area and parallel calibrations with gallic acid and rutin, the mean concentration for flavonoids in C. mas was 13 mg/100 ml, while aprox. 65 mg/100 ml in C. monogyna extracts. Using the Folin method, the total phenol content was 105 mg/100 ml in C. mas and around three times less in the C. monogyna extract, while the antioxidant activity was increased only 1.5-1.7 times in C. mas extract compared to C. monogyna. These findings suggest a higher stability and potential of flavonoids to act as antioxidants in hydrophilic environment.

  9. Local environments and lithium adsorption on the iron oxyhydroxides lepidocrocite (gamma-FeOOH) and goethite (alpha-FeOOH): A 2H-2 and 7Li solid-state MAS NMR study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulla Gro; Grey, Clare P.; Paik, Jonkim

    2008-01-01

    2H and 7LiMAS NMR spectroscopy techniques were applied to study the local surface and bulk environments of iron oxyhydroxide lepiclocrocite (gamma-FeOOH). 2H variable-temperature (VT) MAS NMR experiments were performed, showing the presence of short-range, strong antiferromagnetic correlations......) on the concentrations of Li+ inner- and outer-sphere complexes was then explored, the concentration of the inner sphere complex increasing rapidly above the point of zero charge and with decreasing RH. Possible local environments of the adsorbed Li+ were identified by comparison with other layer-structured iron oxides...

  10. Analisis de la comunidad de malezas en trigo cultivado sobre distintos antecesores Analysis of weed community in wheat crop grown on different precedent crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Requesens

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparou-se a composição e freqüência relativa das espécies e dos índices de diversidade e dominância da comunidade infestante de três áreas de trigo que foram cultivadas com trigo, milho e batata anteriormente. O estudo foi realizado na região de Mar del Plata, Província de Buenos Aires Argentina. Em cada área, realizou-se 40 amostragens de 1m2, dispostos de forma regular no campo, antes da aplicação dos herbicidas. Foram observadas pequenas diferenças entre as três comunidades florísticas levantadas, porém importantes mudanças foram verificadas na freqüência relativa de algumas espécies. Stellaria media foi a espécie mais freqüente, quando a cultura foi procedida de trigo e milho e sendo apenas superada por Solanum tuberosum quando a cultura do trigo teve como antecessor a cultura da batata. Algumas espécies como Chenopodium album, Zea maiz, Solanum tuberosum, Polygonum aviculares, Ammi viznaga, Veronica persica e Taraxacum officinalis incrementaram suas freqüências relativas nas áreas de trigo precedidas de milho e batata. Por outro lado, a freqüência relativa de outras espécies como Apium leptophyllum, Polygonum aviculares e Matricaria chamomilla decresceram nos mesmos locais. As mudanças específicas nas freqüências relativas não afetaram os parâmetros estruturais das comunidades infestantes, os quais mostraram valores similares de alta diversidade específica e baixa dominância.Relative frequency of species, diversity and dominance indexes of the weed community in three wheat crops grown in field of 40 ha where wheat, corn or potato were grown int he previous season, were analyzed. The study was performed in Mar del Plata, Province of Buenos Aires (Argentina. The ocurring species were registred in each of forth 1 m2 samples distributed in a regular arrangement at each field. This was done previous to application of herbicides. Small differences between communities in floristic composition and richness were observed. But, important changes in the relative frequency of some species were observed. Stellaria media was the most frequent specie in wheat -wheat and corn-wheat sequences, and was only exceeded by Solanum tuberosum in potato-wheat sequence. The relative frequency of some species such as Chenopodium album, Zea maíz, Solanum tuberosum, Polygonum aviculare, Ammi viznaga, Veronica persica and Taraxacum officinallis was increased in wheat crop cultivated on corn or potato. On the other hand, the relative frequences of other species such as Apium leptophyllum, Polygonum convolvulus and Matricaria chamomilla decreased in the same sites, The specific changes in the relative frequences did not affect the structural indexes of weed communities, which showed a similar and high diversity index and low dominance.

  11. El algoritmo de la transferencia como antecesor del discurso del amo. // The algorithm of transference as a predecessor of the master`s discourse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Cruz Aponasenko.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This work establishes the counter argument between Lacan’s elaboration discussed in the Proposition of October 9 on the Psychoanalyst of the School, regarding the transference, and the quadripode called “master’s discourse”, delivered in the 1969-1970 seminar. In the “Proposition”, Lacan shows a formula commonly known as “algorithm of transference”, which formalizes the opening to the unconscious through the transference signifier operation and allows the possibility of the analytical work by the installation of the subject-supposed-to-know. We will see how this algorithm precedes the master’s discourse or the discourse of the unconscious. Thus we are going to establish a directionality in the analytical cure by observing the reversal of the master’s discourse that is the discourse of the analyst. // El trabajo establece un contrapunto entre la elaboración de Lacan presentada en la proposición del 9 de octubre sobre el psicoanalista de la escuela, en relación a la transferencia, y el cuadrípodo denominado "discurso del amo", presentado en el seminario del año 1969-1970. En la “proposición” Lacan presenta una fórmula conocida coloquialmente como "algoritmo de la transferencia", que permite formalizar la apertura al inconsciente mediante la operación del significante de la transferencia y producir allí la posibilidad del trabajo analítico vía la instalación del sujeto supuesto saber. Veremos cómo este algoritmo antecede al discurso del amo o discurso del inconsciente. Esto nos permitirá establecer una direccionalidad en la cura analítica observando la inversión del discurso del amo que es el discurso del analista.

  12. MAS based energy management strategies of microgrid%基于Multi-Agent系统的含分布式电源电网能源优化管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文云; 蒋亚坤; 雷炳银; 于峰

    2015-01-01

    在市场运行环境下,为了寻求微电网成本利益和环境效益的最大化,提出基于 Multi-Agent 系统能源优化管理策略。该研究首先构建Multi-Agent系统。此系统包括市场管理Agent (MOA),微电网管理Agent (MMA),公共电网Agent (UGA)和分布式发电Agent (DGA)。根据各微电网管理Agent上报的发电计划,在市场管理Agent中设计电价竞标策略用来确定各微电网的最佳交易电价和中标电量,以确保微电网经济利益最大化。在此基础上,在各微电网管理Agent中设计能量管理策略,并采用改进粒子群算法来确定微电网内部各分布式发电Agents的最佳功率分派,从而最小化微电网的运行成本。最后仿真验证了该方案的有效性。%A Multi-Agent System (MAS) based energy optimization management strategy for microgrid in market operation environment is proposed in order to maximize the cost and environment benefit. Firstly, the MAS is constructed, which consists of one market operator Agent (MOA), several MG Management Agents (MMA), one Utility Grid Agent (UGA), and many DG Agents (DGA). Then the power price bidding strategy is designed in the MOA according to the generation power plan provided by all the MMAs. By the power price bidding strategy, the best trade price and bid-winning power are determined in order to maximize economic benefit. On the basis of this, the energy management strategy is designed in MMAs, by which the optimal power dispatches for all DGAs are obtained by using an improved particle swarm optimization method for minimizing the operating cost. Finally, the validity of proposed method is demonstrated by means of simulation results.

  13. Terahertz pulsed imaging in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickwell-MacPherson, E.

    2011-03-01

    Terahertz (1012 Hz) pulsed imaging is a totally non-destructive and non-ionising imaging modality and thus potential applications in medicine are being investigated. In this paper we present results using our hand-held terahertz probe that has been designed for in vivo use. In particular, we use the terahertz probe to perform reflection geometry in vivo measurements of human skin. The hand-held terahertz probe gives more flexibility than a typical flat-bed imaging system, but it also results in noisier data and requires existing processing methods to be improved. We describe the requirements and limitations of system geometry, data acquisition rate, image resolution and penetration depth and explain how various factors are dependent on each other. We show how some of the physical limitations can be overcome using novel data processing methods.

  14. In vivo imaging of sulfotransferases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrio, Jorge R; Kepe, Vladimir; Small, Gary W; Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar

    2013-02-12

    Radiolabeled tracers for sulfotransferases (SULTs), their synthesis, and their use are provided. Included are substituted phenols, naphthols, coumarins, and flavones radiolabeled with .sup.18F, .sup.123I, .sup.124I, .sup.125I, or .sup.11C. Also provided are in vivo techniques for using these and other tracers as analytical and diagnostic tools to study sulfotransferase distribution and activity, in health and disease, and to evaluate therapeutic interventions.

  15. In vivo fertilization of banana

    OpenAIRE

    Taliane Leila Soares; Everton Hilo de Souza; Maria Angélica Pereira de Carvalho Costa; Sebastião de Oliveira E Silva; Janay Almeida dos Santos Serejo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the in vivo fertilization process of banana cultivars. The diploid hybrid (AA) 091087-01 was the male progenitor. Flower samples were checked for fertilization from the first to the twentieth day after pollination. The size of the diploid ovules increased gradually at the beginning of the seed formation process. On the other hand, in the AAA triploids (Cavendish subgroup), the not fertilized ovules were aborted. In the AAB triploids (Prata subgroup) some ...

  16. Ex vivo lung graft perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briot, Raphaël; Gennai, Stéphane; Maignan, Maxime; Souilamas, Redha; Pison, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    This review proposes an update of the state of the art and the ongoing clinical trials of ex vivo lung perfusion for lung transplantation in patients. Ex vivo lung perfusion techniques (EVLP) can be used to evaluate a lung graft outside of the body. The goal of EVLP is to study the functional status of lung grafts that were first rejected for transplantation because they did not match all criteria for a conventional transplantation. After an EVLP evaluation, some of these lungs may be requalified for a possible transplantation in patients. This article proposes an overview of the developments of EVLP techniques. During EVLP, the perfusion and ventilation of the isolated lung preparation are very progressive in order to avoid oedema due to ischaemia-reperfusion injuries. Lung evaluation is mainly based on gasometric (PaO2/FiO2) and rheological criteria (low pulmonary arterial resistance). Several series of patients transplanted with EVLP evaluated lungs have been recently published with promising results. EVLP preparations also allow a better understanding of the physiopathology and treatments of ischaemia-reperfusion injuries. Organ procurements from "non-heart-beating" donors will probably require a wider application of these ex vivo techniques. The development of semi-automated systems might facilitate the clinical use of EVLP techniques. PMID:26746565

  17. "McDonald's" reklāmas analīze Latvijā un Maltā - starpkultūru atšķirīgā uztvere

    OpenAIRE

    Barkēviča, Santa

    2016-01-01

    Darbā ““McDonald's” reklāmas analīze Latvijā un Maltā – starpkultūru atšķirīgā uztvere” galvenais problēmjautājums, kas jānoskaidro, vai starptautisks uzņēmums var izmantot viena stila reklāmas kampaņu divās dažādās valstīs – Latvijā un Maltā. Galvenais darba mērķis ir noskaidrot, vai starptautisks uzņēmums var veidot vienu reklāmas kampaņu shēmu, un to izmantot dažādās valstīs, kur atrodas tā franšīzes vai filiāles, un kā starpkultūru atšķirība ietekmē reklāmas uztveri. Veicot aptaujas, inte...

  18. Design of Architecture of Logistics Enterprise Innovative Network Based on MAS%基于MAS的物流企业创新网络框架结构设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘少坤

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,through analyzing the necessity and feasibility of the application of MAS in the logistics enterprise innovation network,we introduced the ideology and method of MAS into the design of the architecture of the innovation network of the enterprises,then according to whether there existed core logistics enterprises in the networks,we classified the networks into core-enterprise-led innovative network and symmetric innovation network,established their respective MAS architectures and presented a generic agent structure as well as the means of communication and collaboration between the agents.%通过分析MAS(Multi-agent System)在物流企业创新网络中应用的必要性和可行性,将MAS的思想与方法引入到物流企业创新网络框架设计中来,根据网络内是否存在一个核心物流企业,将物流企业创新网络分为核心物流企业主导型创新网络与对等型创新网络,建立它们各自基于MAS的框架结构,并给出了一种Agent的通用结构以及Agent之间的通信与协作的方式.

  19. Uzņēmuma SIA H&M HENNES&MAURITZ reklāmas satura analīze un pilnveidošanas iespējas.

    OpenAIRE

    Jasinska, Liene

    2016-01-01

    Mūsdienu pasaule ir pilna ar reklāmām. Reklāmas ir redzamas visur – televīzijā, uz ielas, radio, žurnālos, internetā un citur. Blakus viena otrai atrodas pilnīgi vienādas preču kategorijas reklāma vai arī pilnīgi dažādas. Cilvēkam esot šajā reklāmu jūrā ir grūti uztvert visas reklāmas un to piedāvāto informāciju, bet vēl grūtāk ir uzņēmumiem, kuriem šajā reklāmas jūrā ir jāievieto sava reklāma tā, lai cilvēki to pamanītu un uztvertu. Uzņēmuma reklāmas veiksme slēpjas tās veiksmīgā uzbūvē un t...

  20. Mas-related gene (Mrg) C receptors inhibit mechanical allodynia and spinal microglia activation in the early phase of neuropathic pain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongmei; Xue, Yaping; Chen, Yajuan; Ruan, Liqin; Hong, Yanguo

    2016-04-01

    Mas-related gene (Mrg) C receptors are exclusively expressed in the trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia (DRG). However, their functional roles are poorly understood. This study was aimed to determine the effect of MrgC receptors on pain hypersensitivity in the early phase of neuropathic pain and its underlying mechanisms. Intrathecal (i.t.) administration of the selective MrgC receptor agonist bovine adrenal medulla 8-22 (BAM8-22) at 1 or 10nmol attenuated mechanical allodynia one day after L5 spinal nerve ligation (SNL) surgery. I.t. BAM8-22 (10 nmol) inhibited SNL-induced microglia activation in the spinal dorsal horn on day 2 post-SNL. The BAM8-22 treatment also abolished SNL-induced upregulation of neuronal nitric oxide synthesis (nNOS) in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). On the other hand, SNL, but not sham, surgery reduced the expression of MrgC receptor mRNA in the injured L5 DRG without changing thier levels in the adjacent uninjured L4 or L6 DRG on day 2 following the surgery. These results suggest that the activation of MrgC receptors can relieve pain hypersensitivity by the inhibition of nNOS increase in DRG neurons and microglia activation in the spinal dorsal horn in the early time following peripheral nerve injury. This study provides evidence that MrgC receptors could be targeted as a novel therapy for neuropathic pain with limited unwanted effects.

  1. A Multiplex Allele Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (MAS-PCR) for the Detection of Factor V Leiden and Prothrombin G20210A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Morteza; Rad, Isa Abdi

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: In order to determine the frequencies of factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A point mutations in the Iranian population with Azeri Turkish origin. Material and methods: 120 unrelated individuals from general population randomly selected and were examined for factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A mutations using a multiplex allele specific polymerase chain reaction (MAS-PCR) assay Outcomes: The frequency of prothrombin G20210A mutation was 2.08%, which means 5 chromosomes out of 240 chromosomes had prothrombin G20210A mutation. The distribution of prothrombin 20210 GG, GA, AA genotypes and prothrombin 20210A allele were 37(92.5%), 3(7.5%), 0(0%) and 3(3.75%) in males and 78(97.5%), 2(2.5%), 0(0%) and 2(1.25%) in females, respectively. Factor V Leiden was not found in our tested group (zero chromosomes out of 240 chromosomes). Analysis of the observed frequencies in the studied groups indicates that there is no statistically significant difference between females and males, regarding prothrombin G20210A mutation (p value>0.05). Conclusions: This is the first study in its own kind in this population and implies that the frequency of Factor V Leiden G1691A (R506Q, FV-Leiden) allele is extremely low but the prothrombin G20210A mutation is more frequent in the tested group. PMID:21977183

  2. "Largada sozinha, mas tudo bem": paradoxos da experiência de mulheres na hospitalização por abortamento provocado em Salvador, Bahia, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique França Carneiro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho buscou compreender a experiência de mulheres internadas por abortamento provocado em três hospitais públicos de Salvador, Bahia, a partir do percurso e das interações que estabelecem com profissionais e outras usuárias. Foram realizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas com 19 mulheres sobre a experiência nos distintos momentos da internação e a avaliação da atenção recebida. Abortos e partos anteriores, próprios ou de conhecidas suas, conformam expectativas sobre a atenção recebida. A experiência das mulheres foi marcada por sentimentos negativos, pela dor física e emocional, mas, também, pelo alívio com o fim da gravidez e do risco de morte. Sofrimento adicional foi condicionado pela percepção de um "não-cuidado" e atitudes de discriminação pelo aborto, contrariando as atuais normas técnicas. Paradoxalmente, a maioria avaliou positivamente a atenção, embora com críticas. Esforços devem ser feitos para humanizar a assistência ao abortamento, considerando as experiências das mulheres.

  3. Amino-acid selective experiments on uniformly 13C and 15N labeled proteins by MAS NMR: Filtering of lysines and arginines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehle, Stefan; Rehbein, Kristina; Diehl, Anne; van Rossum, Barth-Jan

    2006-12-01

    Amino-acid selective magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR experiments can aid the assignment of ambiguous cross-peaks in crowded spectra of solid proteins. In particular for larger proteins, data analysis can be hindered by severe resonance overlap. In such cases, filtering techniques may provide a good alternative to site-specific spin-labeling to obtain unambiguous assignments that can serve as starting points in the assignment procedure. In this paper we present a simple pulse sequence that allows selective excitation of arginine and lysine residues. To achieve this, we make use of a combination of specific cross-polarization for selective excitation [M. Baldus, A.T. Petkova, J. Herzfeld, R.G. Griffin, Cross polarization in the tilted frame: assignment and spectral simplification in heteronuclear spin systems, Mol. Phys. 95 (1998) 1197-1207.] and spin diffusion for transfer along the amino-acid side-chain. The selectivity of the filter is demonstrated with the excitation of lysine and arginine side-chain resonances in a uniformly 13C and 15N labeled protein preparation of the α-spectrin SH3 domain. It is shown that the filter can be applied as a building block in a 13C- 13C lysine-only correlation experiment.

  4. Roles of MAS-related G protein coupled receptor-X2 (MRGPRX2) on mast cell-mediated host defense, pseudoallergic drug reactions and chronic inflammatory diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Hariharan; Gupta, Kshitij; Ali, Hydar

    2016-01-01

    Mast cells (MCs), which are granulated tissue-resident cells of hematopoietic lineage, contribute to vascular homeostasis, innate/adaptive immunity and wound healing. MCs are, however, best known for their roles in allergic and inflammatory diseases such as anaphylaxis, food allergy, rhinitis, itch, urticaria, atopic dermatitis and asthma. In addition to the high affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI), MCs express numerous G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), which are the largest group of membrane receptor proteins and are the most common targets of drug therapy. Antimicrobial host defense peptides (HDPs), neuropeptides (NPs), major basic protein (MBP), eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) and many FDA approved peptidergic drugs activate human MCs via a novel GPCR known as MAS-related G protein coupled receptor-X2 (MRGPRX2; formerly known as MrgX2). Unique features of MRGPRX2 that distinguish it from other GPCRs include their presence both on plasma membrane and intracellular sites and their selective expression in MCs. In this article, we review the possible roles of MRGPRX2 on host defense, drug-induced anaphylactoid reactions, neurogenic inflammation, pain, itch and chronic inflammatory diseases such as urticaria and asthma. We propose that HDPs that kill microbes directly and activate MCs via MRGPRX2 could serve as novel GPCR targets to modulate host defense against microbial infection. Furthermore, monoclonal antibodies or small molecule inhibitors of MRGPRX2 could be developed for the treatment of MC-dependent allergic and inflammatory disorders. PMID:27448446

  5. An efficient method for solving the MAS stiff system of nonlinearly coupled equations: Application to the pseudoelastic response of shape memory alloys (SMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, A.; Kamel, Z.

    2016-04-01

    A Shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators have great potential in advanced technology applications where space, weight and cost are crucial design factors. They are known for the shape memory effect which is the ability to recover an initial configuration by simple heating after deformation. SMAs also exhibit a behavior called "pseudoelasticity" also known as "superelasticity" which is the shape recovery associated with mechanical loading and unloading at temperatures above specific values. The key characteristic of SMAs is the martensitic phase transformation, brought about by temperature change and/or by application of stress. Martensitic transformation is usually accompanied by significant changes in mechanical, electrical and thermal properties that render them as prime candidates for the development of smart structures and devices. This work is a contribution to the study of the influence of parameters such as operating temperature and the mode of heat transfer (natural or forced convection) on the pseudoelastic response of SMA used as actuators. Based on the mathematical formalism of the Müller, Achenbach and Seelecke model known as the "MAS model", we develop through a new mathematical formalism a new iterative resolution methodology of the coupled equations. The new approach provides very significant results and allows a significant gain in computation time.

  6. Investigation of the Structure and Active Sites of TiO2 Nanorod Supported VOx Catalysts by High-Field and Fast-Spinning 51V MAS NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jian Z.; Xu, Suochang; Li, Weizhen; Hu, Mary Y.; Deng, Xuchu; Dixon, David A.; Vasiliu, Monica; Craciun, Raluca; Wang, Yong; Bao, Xinhe; Peden, Charles HF

    2015-07-02

    Supported VOx/TiO2-Rod catalysts were studied by 51V MAS NMR at high field using a sample spinning rate of 55 kHz. The superior spectral resolution allows for the observation of at least five vanadate species. The assignment of these vanadate species was carried out by quantum mechanical calculations of 51V NMR chemical shifts of model V-surface structures. Methanol oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) was used to establish the correlation between the reaction rate and the various surface V-sites. It is found that monomeric V-species dominated the catalyst at low vanadium loadings with two peaks observed at about -502 and -529 ppm. V-dimers with two bridged oxygen appeare at about -555 ppm. Vanadate dimers and polyvanadates connected by one bridged oxygen atom between two adjacent V atoms resonate at about -630 ppm. A positive correlation is found between the V-dimers related to the -555 ppm peak and the ODH rate while a better correlation is obtained by including monomeric contributions. This result indicates that surface V-dimers related to the -555 ppm peak are the major active sites for ODH reaction despite mono-V species are more catalytic active but their relative ratios are decreased dramatically at high V-loadings. Furthermore, a portion of the V-species is found invisible. In particular, the level of such invisibility increases with decreased level of V-loading, suggesting the existence of paramagnetic V-species at the surface.

  7. Cross talk between angiotensin-(1-7)/Mas axis and sirtuins in adipose tissue and metabolism of high-fat feed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira Andrade, João Marcus; Paraíso, Alanna Fernandes; Garcia, Zélia Menezes; Ferreira, Adaliene Versiani Matos; Sinisterra, Ruben D M; Sousa, Frederico B; Guimarães, André Luiz Sena; de Paula, Alfredo Maurício Batista; Campagnole-Santos, Maria José; dos Santos, Robson Augusto; Santos, Sérgio Henrique Sousa

    2014-05-01

    Angiotensin-(1-7) and resveratrol have been described as new potential therapeutic tools on treating and preventing metabolic disorders. In the present study we aimed to evaluate the effect of an oral formulation of angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] included in HPB-cyclodextrin and resveratrol (RSV), in modulation of sirtuin and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in adipose tissue of mice treated with a high-fat diet (HFD). We observed that HFD+Ang-(1-7) and HFD+RSV groups presented marked decrease in the adipose tissue mass. Furthermore, these animals showed improved insulin-sensitivity and glucose tolerance as well as lower plasma levels of fasting glucose and lipids. The RT-PCR analysis revealed decreased expression of ACE and an increase of ACE2 [Ang-(1-7) marker] in group treated with resveratrol and also an increased expression of SIRT1 in groups that received Ang-(1-7). We showed for the first time that improved metabolic profile is associated with increased expression of GLUT4 and high expression of AMPK/FOXO1/PPAR-γ pathway in adipose-tissue. Finally, adipocyte primary cell-culture incubated with and without sirtuin and Ang-(1-7)/Mas antagonists pointed out for a cross-talking between RAS and sirtuins. We conclude that oral administration of Ang-(1-7) and RSV improved metabolic profile through a cross-modulation between RAS and Sirtuins.

  8. Do Povo e para o povo, mas nâo por ele mesmo: o sistema penal como controle/limitação da democracia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson da Silva Leal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho analisa a problemática envolvendo as manifestações que ocorreram no Brasil ao longo de todo o ano de 2013, mas de forma mais intensa no mês de junho deste ano, e os confrontos com as agencias de controle social que se produziram. Nesta linha, analisa-se na perspectiva permitida a partir da criminologia critica e de uma sociologia politica de matriz marxista, e também retomando a concepção de criminoso elucidada por Alessandro Baratta (1999. O presente trabalho é construído eminentemente com base em referencial teórico e bibliográfico. Tem-se o objetivo de contribuir com uma compreensão adensada da realidade contemporânea e aportar a contribuição da criminologia crítica latino-americana para as funções que desempenha o controle social nestes períodos de turbulência popular e confronto com o projeto de poder burguês-classista. 

  9. Proton-detected 3D (15)N/(1)H/(1)H isotropic/anisotropic/isotropic chemical shift correlation solid-state NMR at 70kHz MAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Manoj Kumar; Yarava, Jayasubba Reddy; Zhang, Rongchun; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy; Nishiyama, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    Chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) tensors offer a wealth of information for structural and dynamics studies of a variety of chemical and biological systems. In particular, CSA of amide protons can provide piercing insights into hydrogen-bonding interactions that vary with the backbone conformation of a protein and dynamics. However, the narrow span of amide proton resonances makes it very difficult to measure (1)H CSAs of proteins even by using the recently proposed 2D (1)H/(1)H anisotropic/isotropic chemical shift (CSA/CS) correlation technique. Such difficulties due to overlapping proton resonances can in general be overcome by utilizing the broad span of isotropic chemical shifts of low-gamma nuclei like (15)N. In this context, we demonstrate a proton-detected 3D (15)N/(1)H/(1)H CS/CSA/CS correlation experiment at fast MAS frequency (70kHz) to measure (1)H CSA values of unresolved amide protons of N-acetyl-(15)N-l-valyl-(15)N-l-leucine (NAVL).

  10. Validation of Coronal and Heliospheric Models for Quasi-Steady Solar Wind: WSA-Enlil, MAS-Enlil, SWMF, and IPS Tomography Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, L.; MacNeice, P. J.; Taktakishvili, A.; Evans, R. M.; Odstrcil, D.; Arge, C. N.; Jackson, B. V.; Yu, H. S.; Riley, P.; Sokolov, I.

    2014-12-01

    Multiple coronal and heliospheric models have been recently upgraded at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC), including the Wang-Sheely-Arge (WSA)-Enlil, MHD-around-a-sphere (MAS)-Enlil, space weather modeling framework (SWMF), and interplanetary scintillation (IPS) tomography models. We run these models for Carrington rotations 2056 - 2062 (April - November 2007), in which the solar wind was in the late declining phase and Ulysses had a fast latitudinal scan at 1.4 - 1.8 AU. We compare the modeling results with the in situ observations: OMNI data for L1, MESSENGER, Venus Express and Ulysses, all together covering 0.3 - 1.8 AU. We assess the capabilities of these models in capturing quasi-steady solar wind features including sector boundaries and the fast-slow stream interaction regions. For this particular period, we derive the strengths, weaknesses, and discrepancies from observations for each model, and discuss the effect of photospheric magnetograms from different observatories, such as GONG and SOLIS magnetograms from National Solar Observatory (NSO) and magnetograms from Mount Wilson Observatory (MWO).

  11. Use of Phenotypic and MAS Selection Based on Bulk Segregant Analysis to Reveal the Genetic Variability Induced by Artificial Hybridization in Apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu E. SESTRAS

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Phenotypic selection in apple seedling populations (F1, derived from semidiallel hybridizations between genitors with different peculiarities (Florina and Liberty, resistant to apple scab attack; Starkrimson and Golden spur, with spur ideotype was completed with Marker Assisted Selection (MAS, based on Bulk Segregant Analysis (BSA technique. Molecular analyses performing by Bulk Segregant Analysis were intended to indentifying markers for scab resistance, powdery mildew resistance and architectural tree structure (ideotype with bulks of five to six plants per groups, and testing the bulks with RAPD polymorphic primers. The polymorphic bands between the bulks were mostly associated to apple scab resistance genes. Concerning powdery mildew resistance and architectural tree structure analysis the results are inconclusive. Although it seems that the primer 54 showed a polymorphic band in a resistant to powdery mildew hybrid, which is missing in the sensitive hybrids, the result is only apparently favourable since this band is present in both parental forms (Starkrimson, tolerant to powdery mildew and Liberty, relative susceptible. Molecular profile of the standard ideotype and spur ideotype, resulted in hybrids originated in standard parental form (Florina and spur parental form (Golden spur, were usually monomorphic. Genetic association among the parental molecular polymorphism for scab resistance and the other two important traits (powdery mildew resistance and ideotype, was not conclusive.

  12. Structural changes of high-amylose rice starch residues following in vitro and in vivo digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Jianmin; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Changquan; Zhou, Xinghua; Dong, Ying; Zhang, Fengmin; Liu, Qiaoquan; Wei, Cunxu

    2012-09-12

    High-amylose cereal starch has a great benefit on human health through its resistant starch content. In this paper, starches were isolated from mature grains of high-amylose transgenic rice line (TRS) and its wild-type rice cultivar Te-qing (TQ) and digested in vitro and in vivo. The structural changes of digestive starch residues were characterized using DSC, XRD, (13)C CP/MAS NMR, and ATR-FTIR. TQ starch was very susceptible to digestion; its residues following in vitro and in vivo digestion showed similar structural characteristics with TQ control starch, which suggested that both amorphous and crystalline structures were simultaneously digested. Both amorphous and the long-range order structures were also simultaneously hydrolyzed in TRS starch, but the short-range order (double helix) structure in the external region of TRS starch granule increased with increasing digestion time. The A-type polymorph of TRS C-type starch was hydrolyzed more rapidly than the B-type polymorph. These results suggested that B-type crystallinity and short-range order structure in the external region of starch granule made TRS starch resistant to digestion. PMID:22917081

  13. Mas Roig Mini-Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salas, Pep; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a microgrid project, named Basic Distributed Nodes (NoBaDis), deployed in a stand-alone farm in Girona, Spain. NoBaDis is based on intensive use of information to maximize the penetration of renewable energy through two main strategies: anticipation and opportunity. The loads....... The power system is composed by low-density energy sources (renewable) and high-density cogeneration engine. These elements can be interconnected in two different configurations to test different scenarios. After 5 years of operation, the results has shown the importance of real-time management system...... to reduce the operational costs of the microgrid. In addition the project has highlighted the importance of distributed generation and control to assure the energy supply in terms of quality and quantity even in extremely weather conditions as it was in March 2010 during a snow storm that generated a black...

  14. High Tech M&As

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toppenberg, Gustav

    2013-01-01

    Technology driven industries have seen fast moving technology changes, higher complexity and reduced product life cycles. These emerging trends present challenges for companies in industries where technology is at the forefront. The extant research deals with ‘low-tech’ industries and majority of......&A teams in this sector. The phenomenon is studied from multiple perspectives: integration team, acquiring group and the company being acquired.......Technology driven industries have seen fast moving technology changes, higher complexity and reduced product life cycles. These emerging trends present challenges for companies in industries where technology is at the forefront. The extant research deals with ‘low-tech’ industries and majority...

  15. Analysis of local conformation of membrane-bound and polycrystalline peptides by two-dimensional slow-spinning rotor-synchronized MAS exchange spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabrys, Charles M.; Yang Jun; Weliky, David P. [Michigan State University, Department of Chemistry (United States)], E-mail: weliky@cem.msu.edu

    2003-05-15

    2D slow-spinning, rotor-synchronized MAS exchange spectroscopy (SSRS-MASE) was applied to study local secondary structure of three structurally different peptides, two of which were membrane-bound. Each peptide was {sup 13}C carbonyl labeled at two adjacent residues in the peptide backbone. In general, this methodology is attractive for membrane-bound peptides because of its lenient spinning, decoupling, and RF homogeneity requirements.For a single set of raw SSRS-MASE data, two linearly independent methods exist for obtaining a 2D spectrum and each spectrum can be fit to obtain conformational constraints. An approach is described for combining the results of these two fits and this method is shown to work for spectra with both resolved and unresolved labeled site resonances. A spectrum is often fit well to a few different conformations which have somewhat different values of the fitting parameter {chi}{sup 2}. A simple statistical theory is developed which relates the {delta}{chi}{sup 2} difference between a local minimum and the global minimum {chi}{sup 2} to the likelihood that the local minimum conformation is the correct structure. Because uncertainty in the simulated data can also contribute to the overall fitting uncertainty, an empirical method is described for incorporating the simulation uncertainty into the {delta}{chi}{sup 2} analysis.These data analysis methods were tested on polycrystalline Ala-Gly-Gly and then applied to the membrane-bound melittin and HIV-1 fusion peptides. Melittin gave a best-fit {alpha} helical structure at Ala-4 while the fusion peptide gave a good-fit {beta} strand structure at Phe-8. The melittin analysis is in agreement with the known overall structure of this peptide.

  16. Martin Luther'in İncil çevirisinin ortak Alman dilinin oluşmasındaki rolü

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acar Sevim

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Türk dünyasının kültürel birliği açısından son derece önemli olan ortak alfabe ve Rusça'nın yerine geçmesini istediğimiz ortak konuşma / anlaşma dilinin oluşmasında neler yapabileceğimiz üzerinde düşünürken başka milletlerin kendi yazı dillerini meydana getirirken geçirdiği aşamaları dikkate almayı gerekli gördük. Biz tarih bilimiyle yakından ilgilenen Türkçüler olarak diğer milletlerin yaşadıkları tecrübelerden ders almanın şart olduğunu düşünüyoruz. Bunun için düşünce ve kültür tarihinde çok önemli bir yer edinmiş ve Goethe, Schiller, Kant, Hegel, Fichte, Schelling gibi dünya çapında edebiyat ve fikir adamları yetiştirmiş olan Alman milletinin kendi yazı ve ortak anlaşma dilini meydana getirmek için neler yaptığını ele alacağız

  17. Assigning large proteins in the solid state: a MAS NMR resonance assignment strategy using selectively and extensively {sup 13}C-labelled proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higman, Victoria A. [Leibniz-Institut fuer Molekulare Pharmakologie (Germany); Flinders, Jeremy [Genentech, Inc., Structural Biology Department (United States); Hiller, Matthias; Jehle, Stefan; Markovic, Stefan; Fiedler, Sebastian; Rossum, Barth-Jan van; Oschkinat, Hartmut [Leibniz-Institut fuer Molekulare Pharmakologie (Germany)], E-mail: oschkinat@fmp-berlin.de

    2009-08-15

    In recent years, solid-state magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MAS NMR) has been growing into an important technique to study the structure of membrane proteins, amyloid fibrils and other protein preparations which do not form crystals or are insoluble. Currently, a key bottleneck is the assignment process due to the absence of the resolving power of proton chemical shifts. Particularly for large proteins (approximately >150 residues) it is difficult to obtain a full set of resonance assignments. In order to address this problem, we present an assignment method based upon samples prepared using [1,3-{sup 13}C]- and [2-{sup 13}C]-glycerol as the sole carbon source in the bacterial growth medium (so-called selectively and extensively labelled protein). Such samples give rise to higher quality spectra than uniformly [{sup 13}C]-labelled protein samples, and have previously been used to obtain long-range restraints for use in structure calculations. Our method exploits the characteristic cross-peak patterns observed for the different amino acid types in {sup 13}C-{sup 13}C correlation and 3D NCACX and NCOCX spectra. An in-depth analysis of the patterns and how they can be used to aid assignment is presented, using spectra of the chicken {alpha}-spectrin SH3 domain (62 residues), {alpha}B-crystallin (175 residues) and outer membrane protein G (OmpG, 281 residues) as examples. Using this procedure, over 90% of the C{alpha}, C{beta}, C' and N resonances in the core domain of {alpha}B-crystallin and around 73% in the flanking domains could be assigned (excluding 24 residues at the extreme termini of the protein)

  18. Reversal of neurochemical alterations in the spinal dorsal horn and dorsal root ganglia by Mas-related gene (Mrg) receptors in a rat model of spinal nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongmei; Xue, Yaping; Yan, Yanhua; Lin, Minjie; Yang, Jiajia; Huang, Jianzhong; Hong, Yanguo

    2016-07-01

    The rodent Mas-related gene (Mrg) receptor subtype C has been demonstrated to inhibit pathological pain. This study investigated the mechanisms underlying the reversal of pain hypersensitivity by the selective MrgC receptor agonist bovine adrenal medulla 8-22 (BAM8-22) in a rat model of L5 spinal nerve ligation (SNL). Intrathecal (i.t.) administration of BAM8-22 (0.1-10nmol) attenuated mechanical allodynia in a dose-dependent manner on day 10 after SNL. The antiallodynia effect of BAM8-22 was abolished by MrgC receptor antibody, but not by naloxone. I.t. BAM8-22 (10nmol) inhibited SNL-induced upregulation of neuronal nitric oxide synthesis (nNOS) and phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (p-CREB) in the spinal dorsal horn. The BAM8-22 treatment reversed the SNL-induced astrocyte activation, increase of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) expression and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) in the spinal cord. BAM8-22 also reversed the upregulation of fractalkine and IL-1β in small- and medium-sized dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Furthermore, the BAM8-22 exposure suppressed the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced increase of nNOS and IL-1β in the DRG explant cultures and the BAM8-22-induced suppression disappeared in the presence of MrgC receptor antibody. The present study provides evidence that activation of MrgC receptors inhibits nerve injury-induced increase of pronociceptive molecules in DRG neurons, suppressing astrocyte activation, the upregulation of excitatory mediators and phosphorylation of transcription factors in the spinal dorsal horn. As MrgC receptors are unequally expressed in the dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia, this study suggests that targeting MrgC receptors could be a new therapy for neuropathic pain with limited unwanted effects. PMID:27018398

  19. Analysis of local conformation of membrane-bound and polycrystalline peptides by two-dimensional slow-spinning rotor-synchronized MAS exchange spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2D slow-spinning, rotor-synchronized MAS exchange spectroscopy (SSRS-MASE) was applied to study local secondary structure of three structurally different peptides, two of which were membrane-bound. Each peptide was 13C carbonyl labeled at two adjacent residues in the peptide backbone. In general, this methodology is attractive for membrane-bound peptides because of its lenient spinning, decoupling, and RF homogeneity requirements.For a single set of raw SSRS-MASE data, two linearly independent methods exist for obtaining a 2D spectrum and each spectrum can be fit to obtain conformational constraints. An approach is described for combining the results of these two fits and this method is shown to work for spectra with both resolved and unresolved labeled site resonances. A spectrum is often fit well to a few different conformations which have somewhat different values of the fitting parameter χ2. A simple statistical theory is developed which relates the Δχ2 difference between a local minimum and the global minimum χ2 to the likelihood that the local minimum conformation is the correct structure. Because uncertainty in the simulated data can also contribute to the overall fitting uncertainty, an empirical method is described for incorporating the simulation uncertainty into the Δχ2 analysis.These data analysis methods were tested on polycrystalline Ala-Gly-Gly and then applied to the membrane-bound melittin and HIV-1 fusion peptides. Melittin gave a best-fit α helical structure at Ala-4 while the fusion peptide gave a good-fit β strand structure at Phe-8. The melittin analysis is in agreement with the known overall structure of this peptide

  20. Fishing Pluripotency Mechanisms In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana V. Sánchez-Sánchez, Esther Camp, José L. Mullor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To understand the molecular mechanisms that regulate the biology of embryonic stem cells (ESCs it is necessary to study how they behave in vivo in their natural environment. It is particularly important to study the roles and interactions of the different proteins involved in pluripotency and to use this knowledge for therapeutic purposes. The recent description of key pluripotency factors like Oct4 and Nanog in non-mammalian species has introduced other animal models, such as chicken, Xenopus, zebrafish and medaka, to the study of pluripotency in vivo. These animal models complement the mouse model and have provided new insights into the evolution of Oct4 and Nanog and their different functions during embryonic development. Furthermore, other pluripotency factors previously identified in teleost fish such as Klf4, STAT3, Sox2, telomerase and Tcf3 can now be studied in the context of a functional pluripotency network. The many experimental advantages of fish will fuel rapid analysis of the roles of pluripotency factors in fish embryonic development and the identification of new molecules and mechanisms governing pluripotency.

  1. Porcine Ex Vivo intestinal segment model

    OpenAIRE

    Ripken, D.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the use of the porcine ex vivo intestinal segment model. This includes the advantages and disadvantages of the segment model and a detailed description of the isolation and culture as well as the applications of the porcine ex vivo intestinal segment model in practice. Compared to the Ussing chamber (Chap. 24) the porcine ex vivo small intestinal segment model is a relatively simple to use intestinal tissue model. The main difference being that the tissue segment is not...

  2. Carbon nanotubes for in vivo cancer nanotechnology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The latest progress of using carbon nanotubes(CNTs) for in vivo cancer nanotechnology is reviewed.CNTs can be functionalized by either covalent or non-covalent chemistry to produce functional bioconjugates for many in vivo applications.In vivo behaviors and toxicology studies of CNTs are summarized,suggesting no significant toxicity of well functionalized CNTs to the treated mice.Owing to their unique chemical and physical properties,CNTs,especially single-walled carbon nanotubes(SWNTs),have been widely used for various modalities of in vivo cancer treatment and imaging.Future development of CNT-based nanomedicine may bring novel opportunities to cancer diagnosis and therapy.

  3. In vivo fertilization of banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taliane Leila Soares

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the in vivo fertilization process of banana cultivars. The diploid hybrid (AA 091087-01 was the male progenitor. Flower samples were checked for fertilization from the first to the twentieth day after pollination. The size of the diploid ovules increased gradually at the beginning of the seed formation process. On the other hand, in the AAA triploids (Cavendish subgroup, the not fertilized ovules were aborted. In the AAB triploids (Prata subgroup some ovules were fertilized. The flowers of Grand Naine, Nanicão and 'Pacovan' cultivars presented necrosis in the distal part of the ovary on the first day after pollination. Necrosis can hinder pollen tube growth towards the ovule, which might be related to the low seed yield in 'Pacovan' cultivars and to the absence of seeds in the Cavendish subgroup cultivars.

  4. Out-and-back {sup 13}C-{sup 13}C scalar transfers in protein resonance assignment by proton-detected solid-state NMR under ultra-fast MAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbet-Massin, Emeline; Pell, Andrew J. [University of Lyon, CNRS/ENS Lyon/UCB Lyon 1, Centre de RMN a Tres Hauts Champs (France); Jaudzems, Kristaps [Latvian Institute of Organic Synthesis (Latvia); Franks, W. Trent; Retel, Joren S. [Leibniz-Institut fuer Molekulare Pharmakologie (Germany); Kotelovica, Svetlana; Akopjana, Inara; Tars, Kaspars [Biomedical Research and Study Center (Latvia); Emsley, Lyndon [University of Lyon, CNRS/ENS Lyon/UCB Lyon 1, Centre de RMN a Tres Hauts Champs (France); Oschkinat, Hartmut [Leibniz-Institut fuer Molekulare Pharmakologie (Germany); Lesage, Anne; Pintacuda, Guido, E-mail: guido.pintacuda@ens-lyon.fr [University of Lyon, CNRS/ENS Lyon/UCB Lyon 1, Centre de RMN a Tres Hauts Champs (France)

    2013-08-15

    We present here {sup 1}H-detected triple-resonance H/N/C experiments that incorporate CO-CA and CA-CB out-and-back scalar-transfer blocks optimized for robust resonance assignment in biosolids under ultra-fast magic-angle spinning (MAS). The first experiment, (H)(CO)CA(CO)NH, yields {sup 1}H-detected inter-residue correlations, in which we record the chemical shifts of the CA spins in the first indirect dimension while during the scalar-transfer delays the coherences are present only on the longer-lived CO spins. The second experiment, (H)(CA)CB(CA)NH, correlates the side-chain CB chemical shifts with the NH of the same residue. These high sensitivity experiments are demonstrated on both fully-protonated and 100 %-H{sup N} back-protonated perdeuterated microcrystalline samples of Acinetobacter phage 205 (AP205) capsids at 60 kHz MAS.

  5. Proton-detected 3D 14N/14N/1H isotropic shift correlation experiment mediated through 1H-1H RFDR mixing on a natural abundant sample under ultrafast MAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Manoj Kumar; Nishiyama, Yusuke

    2015-09-01

    In this contribution, we have demonstrated a proton detection-based approach on a natural abundant powdered L-Histidine HCl-H2O sample at ultrafast magic angle spinning (MAS) to accomplish 14N/14N correlation from a 3D 14N/14N/1H isotropic shift correlation experiment mediated through 1H finite-pulse radio frequency-driven recoupling (fp-RFDR). Herein the heteronuclear magnetization transfer between 14N and 1H has been achieved by HMQC experiment, whereas 14N/14N correlation is attained through enhanced 1H-1H spin diffusion process due to 1H-1H dipolar recoupling during the RFDR mixing. While the use of ultrafast MAS (90 kHz) provides sensitivity enhancement through increased 1H transverse relaxation time (T2), the use of micro-coil probe which can withstand strong 14N radio frequency (RF) fields further improves the sensitivity per unit sample volume.

  6. 基于MAS的动态协作任务求解模型与算法%Dynamic collaboration tasks based on MAS model and algorithm for solving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋伟进; 蒋星军; 姚丽娜

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic grid resources scheduling which aims at improving resource utilization and grid application performance is a key concern in grid. Currently, much research can be found about grid scheduling and some algorithms on it were proposed. However, since grid resources are autonomic, distributed and their status change over time, those scheduling algorithms did not fit for the cases well. With MAS(Multi Agent System) coordinated technology and market bidding game rules, a grid resource allocation model based on market economy was introduced, which could show the relation between supply and demand. The model could make full use of the computing and negotiating power of the consumer and could fully consider the consumer behavior. It made the resource application and assignment of the consumer reach the higher rationality and effectiveness. In the meantime the utility function of the consumer was given; the entity and the uniqueness of Nash equilibrium in the resource allocation game and the Nash equilibrium solution were discussed. A grid resource allocation algorithm was designed based on the distilled resource allocation model. Experimental results demonstrate that this approach diminishes latency, contributes to the overall grid load balancing, and significantly improves resource utilization and the response time of tasks, which enables the allocation of the whole grid resource to be more reasonable.%为提高动态网格资源的利用率,提出了基于多智能体系统博弈协作的任务动态分配和协作求解模型,建立了网格资源调度模型和任务求解算法,证明了资源分配博弈中Nash均衡点的存在性、唯一性和Nash均衡解.该方法能够利用用户智能体的学习和行为能力,使得用户的资源申请和任务调度具有较高的合理性和有效性.进行了供求关系中竞价博弈的模型试验.实验结果表明,资源调度算法不但可以有效减少延迟,而且在响应时间的平滑性、吞吐率

  7. I: Low Frequency NMR and NQR Using a dc SQUID. II: Variable-temperature 13C CP/MAS of Organometallics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegeweid, M.A.

    1995-11-29

    NMR and NQR at low frequencies are difficult prospects due to small nuclear spin polarization. Furthermore, the sensitivity'of the inductive pickup circuitry of standard spectrometers is reduced as the frequency is lowered. I have used a cw-SQUID (Superconducting QUantum Interference Device) spectrometer, which has no such frequency dependence, to study the local atomic environment of {sup 14}N via the quadrupolar interaction. Because {sup 14}N has spin I = 1 and a 0-6 MHz frequency range, it is not possible to obtain well-resolved spectra in high magnetic fields. I have used a technique to observe {sup 14}N NQR resonances via their effect on neighboring protons mediated by the heteronuclear dipolar interaction to study peptides and narcotics. The sensitivity of the SQUID is not enough to measure low-frequency surface (or other low spin density) systems. The application of spin-polarized xenon has been previously used to enhance polarization in conventional NMR experiments. Because xenon only polarizes spins with which it is in contact, it is surface selective. While differences in chemical shifts between surface and bulk spins are not large, it is expected that the differences in quadrupole coupling constant should be very large due to the drastic change of the electric field gradient surrounding spins at the surface. With this in mind, I have taken preliminary steps to measure SQUID detected polarization transfer from Xe to another spin species at 4.2 K and in small magnetic fields (<50 G). In this regime, the spin-lattice relaxation of xenon is dependent on the applied magnetic field. The results of our efforts to characterize the relaxation of xenon are presented. The final section describes the solid-state variable-temperature (VT) one- and two-dimensional {sup 13}C cross polarization (CP)/magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR of Hf({eta}{sup 5}-C{sub 5}H{sub 5}){sub 2}({eta}{sup 1}-C{sub 5}H{sub 5}){sub 2}, Zr({eta}{sup 5}-C{sub 5}H{sub 5}){sub 3}({eta}{sup 1

  8. Islamiskās finanses kā alternatīva tradicionālās finanšu sistēmas ētikas un morāles nepilnībām.

    OpenAIRE

    Souissi, Intissar

    2016-01-01

    Starptautiskā finanšu sistēma šobrīd saskaras ar pārmērīgu parādu un globālo finanšu inženieriju. Islāma banku sistēmaatšķiras no parastās sistēmas, jo tā izturēja 2008. Gada lielo krīzi. Tas radīja lielu ieinteresētību ekspertos un pētniekos, jo tie vēlējās saprast, kas radīja tādu imunitāti islāma bankai. Arī šajā darbā tika pētīts un analizēts vai Islāma banka varētubūt potenciālais risinājums krīzei un patreizējās sistēmas reāla alternatīva. Darbā pēc globālās monetārās sistēmas apskata...

  9. The effect of radiofrequency ablation on different organs: Ex vivo and in vivo comparative studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yoo Na [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Rhim, Hyunchul, E-mail: rhimhc@skku.edu [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Dongil; Kim, Young-sun; Lee, Min Woo; Chang, Ilsoo; Lee, Won Jae; Lim, Hyo K. [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    Objective: The purposes of this study are to evaluate the ex vivo and in vivo efficacy of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) on different porcine tissues by the ablation of three different sites simultaneously. Materials and methods: A multichannel RFA system, enables three separate tumors to be ablated simultaneously, was used. RFA procedures were applied to normal porcine liver, kidney, and muscle together ex vivo (n = 12) and in vivo (n = 17). Pre-impedances, defined as baseline systemic impedances of tissues before beginning RFA, and the areas of ablation zones were measured and compared. Results: The areas of ablation zones among three organs had a significant difference in decreasing order as follows: liver, muscle, and kidney in the ex vivo study (p = 0.001); muscle, liver, and kidney in the in vivo study (p < 0.0001). The areas of ablation zones between ex vivo and in vivo had a significant difference in the liver and muscle (each p < 0.05). There was no significant correlation between the areas of ablation zones and pre-impedances in both studies. Conclusions: Renal RFA produced the smallest ablation zone in both in vivo and ex vivo studies. Muscular RFA demonstrated the largest ablation zone in the in vivo study, and hepatic RFA showed the largest ablation zone in the ex vivo study. This variability in the tissues should be considered for performing an optimized RFA for each organ site.

  10. Study on Effects of Acidic Extraction on Yield and Structure of Tobacco Pectin by CP/MAS 13C NMR Spectroscopy%CP/MAS 13C NMR技术分析酸提取对烟草果胶产率和结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李东亮; 谭兰兰; 高芸; 朱晓兰; 戴亚

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the fine structure of tobacco pectin and the key factors in extraction, the effects of extraction conditions (including pH, temperature and extraction time) on the yield, purity and structure of pectin were studied by cross-polarization/magic angle spinning 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (CP/MAS 13C NMR) spectroscopy. The results showed that: 1) The highest pectin yield (10.87%) achieved after extracting for 1.5 hours at pH 1.5 and 85 ℃; while polygalacturonic acid(PGA)reached its highest purity (78.4%) after extracting for 1.5 hours at pH 2.0 and 95 ℃. 2) The extraction conditions influenced the structure of pectin to a certain extent, the degrees of methylation (DM) and acetylation (DA) of pectin increased as pH value increased from 1.5 to 2.5, while decreased with the rise of temperature and the prolongation of extraction time significantly.%为研究烟草果胶的精细结构和掌握果胶提取的关键因素,采用交叉极化/魔角旋转固态核磁光谱技术(CP/MAS 13C NMR)考察了酸提取条件(pH、温度和提取时间)对烟草果胶产率、纯度(质量分数)及结构的影响。结果表明:①在pH 1.5和85℃条件下提取1.5 h时,烟草果胶得率最高,为10.87%,但在pH 2.0和95℃条件下提取1.5 h时,聚半乳糖醛酸(PGA)的纯度最高,为78.4%。②提取条件对烟草果胶的结构也有一定的影响,pH=1.5~2.5时,果胶的甲酯度(DM)和乙酰度(DA)均随pH升高而增大,随温度升高而降低,随提取时间延长而显著下降。

  11. Rapid genetic analysis in the diagnosis of primary Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy by using multiplex allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (MAS-PCR) with whole blood%MAS-PCR法快速诊断分析Leber's遗传性视神经病变原发性致病突变位点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阳菊华; 童绎; 朱益华; 林宇岚; 陈贻锴; 林建银

    2006-01-01

    目的 探索一种简易、快速、高效的临床基因诊断分析原发性Leber's遗传性视神经病变(Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy,LHON)位点的新方法.方法 根据已知的LHON患者线粒体DNA上的3个原发性LHON致病突变位点(G11778A、T14484C和G3460A),设计3条突变位点特异性聚合酶链反应(polymerase chain reaction,PCR)引物,直接以全血样为模板的等位基因特异性多重PCR(multiplex allelespecific polymerase chain reaction,MAS-PCR)分析3个原发性LHON致病突变位点.以此方法检测24例确诊的LHON患者,其中18例为线粒体DNA G11778A突变,4例为T14484C突变,2例为G3460A突变;同时,以20份正常血样标本作阴性对照.结果 优化的MAS-PCR条件为94℃/3 min,94℃/30 s、59.8℃/30 s、72℃/30 s,30个循环,72℃/3 min;以此方法检测了44份血样标本,其结果与预期结果一致,表明利用该方法筛查3个原发性LHON致病突变位点是可行的.同时,混和血液样本模拟实验结果显示,该方法可检测含多个原发性LHON致病突变位点的血液样本,且整个分析过程只需约2 h.结论 该方法直接以全血样作为PCR的模板,不需从血样中纯化DNA;单管一次性行PCR,可同时筛查3个原发性LHON致病突变位点.因此,该方法具有快速、高效、费用低、特异性好以及只需微量血液样本等优点.

  12. Porcine Ex Vivo intestinal segment model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ripken, D.; Hendriks, H. F J

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the use of the porcine ex vivo intestinal segment model. This includes the advantages and disadvantages of the segment model and a detailed description of the isolation and culture as well as the applications of the porcine ex vivo intestinal segment model in practice. Compare

  13. Porcine Ex Vivo intestinal segment model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ripken, D.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the use of the porcine ex vivo intestinal segment model. This includes the advantages and disadvantages of the segment model and a detailed description of the isolation and culture as well as the applications of the porcine ex vivo intestinal segment model in practice. Comp

  14. Absolute calibration in vivo measurement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is currently investigating a new method for obtaining absolute calibration factors for radiation measurement systems used to measure internally deposited radionuclides in vivo. Absolute calibration of in vivo measurement systems will eliminate the need to generate a series of human surrogate structures (i.e., phantoms) for calibrating in vivo measurement systems. The absolute calibration of in vivo measurement systems utilizes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to define physiological structure, size, and composition. The MRI image provides a digitized representation of the physiological structure, which allows for any mathematical distribution of radionuclides within the body. Using Monte Carlo transport codes, the emission spectrum from the body is predicted. The in vivo measurement equipment is calibrated using the Monte Carlo code and adjusting for the intrinsic properties of the detection system. The calibration factors are verified using measurements of existing phantoms and previously obtained measurements of human volunteers. 8 refs

  15. Anéis aromáticos condensados e relação E4/E6: estudo de ácidos húmicos de gleissolos por RMN de 13C no estado sólido utilizando a técnica CP/MAS desacoplamento defasado Condensed aromatic rings and E4/E6 ratio: humic acids in gleysoils studied by NMR CP/MAS13C, and dipolar dephasing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio da Costa Saab

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, seven samples of humic acids extracted from gleysoils were investigated. These studies, using NMR CP/MAS 13C techniques, did not show significant correlation between the E4/E6 ratio and the degree of aromaticity. However, dipolar dephasing (DD measurements of condensed aromatic or substituted carbons showed a negative correlation of 0.94. Also, there was a good correlation between the amount of semiquinone free radicals measured by the EPR technique and condensed aromatic rings measured by NMR CP/MAS 13C with the DD technique. The content of semiquinone free radicals was quantified by EPR spectroscopy and was correlated with the humification (degree of aromaticity of the humic substances. The results indicated that the E4/E6 ratio identifies the degree of aromatic rings condensation. It was also found that the degree of aromaticity, measured by NMR, as frequently presented in the literature (by conventional CP/MAS, underestimates aromatic rings in condensed structures.

  16. BN interphase in composite materials with nicalon Si-C-O fibers and with vitro ceramic matrix of MAS type; L`interphase BN dans les materiaux composites a fibres Si-C-O nicalon et a matrice vitroceramique de type MAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricca, N.

    1994-03-14

    BN has been suggested as an interphase in silica-based glass-ceramic matrix composites with a view to use these materials in oxidizing atmospheres at medium or high temperatures. The matrix had a boron-doped MAS (MgO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}) composition and was prepared from an hydrosol precursor. Pseudo-ID composites were prepared according to a sol impregnations/calcination/hot-pressing route. Chemical and microstructural characterizations of the fiber/matrix interfacial area were conducted by mean of TEM/EELS and AES analyses. The efficiency of BN as a coupling interphase for this particular composite system was successfully demonstrated through tensile tests performed on either as-processed or aged specimens (100 hours at 1000 deg C in air or under argon). In addition, composites maintained in air at 600 deg C, 800 deg C and 900 deg C while simultaneously loaded did not fail after 150 hours or more. Thus, a BN interphase appeared to be compatible with an oxidizing environment (i.e. the oxide matrix and/or air from 600 to 1000 deg C) and should therefore successfully replace the usual carbon interphase at least for use at medium temperatures. (author)

  17. Coffee induces autophagy in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrocola, Federico; Malik, Shoaib Ahmad; Mariño, Guillermo; Vacchelli, Erika; Senovilla, Laura; Chaba, Kariman; Niso-Santano, Mireia; Maiuri, Maria Chiara; Madeo, Frank; Kroemer, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies and clinical trials revealed that chronic consumption coffee is associated with the inhibition of several metabolic diseases as well as reduction in overall and cause-specific mortality. We show that both natural and decaffeinated brands of coffee similarly rapidly trigger autophagy in mice. One to 4 h after coffee consumption, we observed an increase in autophagic flux in all investigated organs (liver, muscle, heart) in vivo, as indicated by the increased lipidation of LC3B and the reduction of the abundance of the autophagic substrate sequestosome 1 (p62/SQSTM1). These changes were accompanied by the inhibition of the enzymatic activity of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), leading to the reduced phosphorylation of p70(S6K), as well as by the global deacetylation of cellular proteins detectable by immunoblot. Immunohistochemical analyses of transgenic mice expressing a GFP-LC3B fusion protein confirmed the coffee-induced relocation of LC3B to autophagosomes, as well as general protein deacetylation. Altogether, these results indicate that coffee triggers 2 phenomena that are also induced by nutrient depletion, namely a reduction of protein acetylation coupled to an increase in autophagy. We speculate that polyphenols contained in coffee promote health by stimulating autophagy.

  18. Coffee induces autophagy in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrocola, Federico; Malik, Shoaib Ahmad; Mariño, Guillermo; Vacchelli, Erika; Senovilla, Laura; Chaba, Kariman; Niso-Santano, Mireia; Maiuri, Maria Chiara; Madeo, Frank; Kroemer, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies and clinical trials revealed that chronic consumption coffee is associated with the inhibition of several metabolic diseases as well as reduction in overall and cause-specific mortality. We show that both natural and decaffeinated brands of coffee similarly rapidly trigger autophagy in mice. One to 4 h after coffee consumption, we observed an increase in autophagic flux in all investigated organs (liver, muscle, heart) in vivo, as indicated by the increased lipidation of LC3B and the reduction of the abundance of the autophagic substrate sequestosome 1 (p62/SQSTM1). These changes were accompanied by the inhibition of the enzymatic activity of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), leading to the reduced phosphorylation of p70S6K, as well as by the global deacetylation of cellular proteins detectable by immunoblot. Immunohistochemical analyses of transgenic mice expressing a GFP–LC3B fusion protein confirmed the coffee-induced relocation of LC3B to autophagosomes, as well as general protein deacetylation. Altogether, these results indicate that coffee triggers 2 phenomena that are also induced by nutrient depletion, namely a reduction of protein acetylation coupled to an increase in autophagy. We speculate that polyphenols contained in coffee promote health by stimulating autophagy. PMID:24769862

  19. O SUS é universal, mas vivemos de cotas The Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS is universal, but quotas are the norm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Maria da Fonseca Viegas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available No contexto do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS, as ações e serviços de saúde constituem um direito social que deve ser assegurado pelo Estado e gerido sob responsabilidade das três esferas autônomas de governo. Isto é, a universalidade do direito à saúde sem distinções, restrições e a qualquer custo. O artigo ressalta a construção da integralidade em saúde em um Sistema hierarquizado com princípios doutrinários de universalidade, equidade e atenção integral. Estudo de casos múltiplos holísticos de abordagem qualitativa fundamentado nos pressupostos da Sociologia Compreensiva do Cotidiano, originado de uma tese de doutorado. Objetivou compreender a construção das práticas de integralidade em saúde no trabalho cotidiano das equipes Saúde da Família e de gestores de municípios do Vale do Jequitinhonha, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Os sujeitos do estudo foram profissionais de equipes Saúde da Família, equipes de apoio e gestores em um total de 48 participantes. Buscando-se desvendar a construção da integralidade, os resultados apresentam que "o SUS é universal, mas vivemos de cotas". Nesse sentido, a regulação é fundamental para ordenar, orientar, definir, otimizar a utilização dos recursos disponíveis para a atenção à saúde e, ainda, garantir o acesso da população a ações e serviços em tempo oportuno e de forma equânime.In the context of the Unified Health System (SUS, health actions and services constitute a social right to be guaranteed by the State and managed under the responsibility of three autonomous spheres of government. This is a holistic multiple case study with a qualitative approach based on the assumptions of Comprehensive Everyday Sociology, which originated from a PhD thesis. It sought to understand the construction of comprehensive health practices in the daily work of family health teams and managers of the cities in Vale do Jequitinhonha - Minas Gerais, Brazil. The individuals studied were

  20. Dual-energy CT for the characterization of urinary calculi: In vitro and in vivo evaluation of a low-dose scanning protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C. [University of Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Patschan, O.; Nagele, U.; Stenzl, A. [University of Tuebingen, Department of Urology, Tuebingen (Germany); Ketelsen, D.; Tsiflikas, I.; Reimann, A.; Brodoefel, H.; Claussen, C.; Kopp, A.; Heuschmid, M.; Schlemmer, H.P. [University of Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Buchgeister, M. [University of Tuebingen, Medical Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    The efficiency and radiation dose of a low-dose dual-energy (DE) CT protocol for the evaluation of urinary calculus disease were evaluated. A low-dose dual-source DE-CT renal calculi protocol (140 kV, 46 mAs; 80 kV, 210 mAs) was derived from the single-energy (SE) CT protocol used in our institution for the detection of renal calculi (120 kV, 75 mAs). An Alderson-Rando phantom was equipped with thermoluminescence dosimeters and examined by CT with both protocols. The effective doses were calculated. Fifty-one patients with suspected or known urinary calculus disease underwent DE-CT. DE analysis was performed if calculi were detected using a dedicated software tool. Results were compared to chemical analysis after invasive calculus extraction. An effective dose of 3.43 mSv (male) and 5.30 mSv (female) was measured in the phantom for the DE protocol (vs. 3.17/4.57 mSv for the SE protocol). Urinary calculi were found in 34 patients; in 28 patients, calculi were removed and analyzed (23 patients with calcified calculi, three with uric acid calculi, one with 2,8-dihyxdroxyadenine-calculi, one patient with a mixed struvite calculus). DE analysis was able to distinguish between calcified and non-calcified calculi in all cases. In conclusion, dual-energy urinary calculus analysis is effective also with a low-dose protocol. The protocol tested in this study reliably identified calcified urinary calculi in vivo. (orig.)

  1. La esencia de los seres vivos

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Garbisu; Ibone Amézaga; Isabel Albizu; Itziar Alkorta

    2003-01-01

    La Biología es la ciencia que trata de los seres vivos. De esta definición se deriva que la persona que profesa la Biología, como parte de unos mínimos principios deontológicos profesionales, tiene la obligación de entender qué es un ser vivo. La comprensión del "ser", esencia o naturaleza, de los seres vivos es un tema de enorme complejidad. No obstante, para el lego en la materia esta cuestión puede parecer trivial, pues todos creemos que no tiene mayor dificultad reconocer un ser ...

  2. Bone in vivo: Surface mapping technique

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Yifang; Lin, Zhiyu; Lv, Changsheng

    2010-01-01

    Bone surface mapping technique is proposed on the bases of two kinds of uniqueness of bone in vivo, (i) magnitude of the principal moments of inertia, (ii) the direction cosines of principal axes of inertia relative to inertia reference frame. We choose the principal axes of inertia as the bone coordinate system axes. The geographical marks such as the prime meridian of the bone in vivo are defined and methods such as tomographic reconstruction and boundary development are employed so that the surface of bone in vivo can be mapped. Experimental results show that the surface mapping technique can both reflect the shape and help study the surface changes of bone in vivo. The prospect of such research into the surface shape and changing laws of organ, tissue or cell will be promising.

  3. Grueneisen relaxation photoacoustic microscopy in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Shi, Junhui; Hai, Pengfei; Zhou, Yong; Wang, Lihong V.

    2016-06-01

    Grueneisen relaxation photoacoustic microscopy (GR-PAM) can achieve optically defined axial resolution, but it has been limited to ex vivo demonstrations so far. Here, we present the first in vivo image of a mouse brain acquired with GR-PAM. To induce the GR effect, an intensity-modulated continuous-wave laser was employed to heat absorbing objects. In phantom experiments, an axial resolution of 12.5 μm was achieved, which is sixfold better than the value achieved by conventional optical-resolution PAM. This axial-resolution improvement was further demonstrated by imaging a mouse brain in vivo, where significantly narrower axial profiles of blood vessels were observed. The in vivo demonstration of GR-PAM shows the potential of this modality for label-free and high-resolution anatomical and functional imaging of biological tissues.

  4. "Faz isso, faz aquilo, mas eu tô caindo...": compreendendo a Doença de Chron "Haz eso, haz aquello, mas yo estoy cayendo...": comprendiendo la enfermedad de Chron "Do this, do that, but I'm falling down...": understanding Chron's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Castelli

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Buscando compreender o significado e o impacto da doença de Chron na vida de seu portador, desenvolvemos este estudo, de natureza qualitativa, optando pela História Oral de Vida como referencial metodológico, tendo como base filosófica a corrente monista, advinda de Hipócrates, em que a prática médica tem por objeto a pessoa doente em sua totalidade, levando em conta seu temperamento e a sua história. A terapêutica deve restabelecer a harmonia da pessoa com seu ambiente e consigo mesma , trata-se de uma medicina integradora e dinâmica, que corresponde aos primórdios da medicina psicossomática. O estudo da doença de Chron, por meio da compreensão psicossomática, permitiu que analisássemos os sintomas, não como corpos estranhos a serem erradicados, mas como mensageiros de um apelo a ser compreendido. Por intermédio deles, pode ser resgatada a história de um indivíduo que, se conscientemente vivida e analisada, permite o desenvolvimento até níveis mais evoluídos de entendimento.Buscando comprender el significado y el impacto de la Enfermedad de Chron en la vida de su portador, desarrollamos este estudio, de naturaleza cualitativa, optando por la Historia Oral de Vida como referencial metodológico, y teniendo como base filosófica la corriente monista, advenida de Hipócrates, donde la práctica médica tiene por objeto a la persona enferma en su totalidad, teniendo en cuenta su temperamento y su historia. La terapéutica debe restablecer la armonía de la persona con su ambiente y consigo misma y se trata de una medicina integradora y dinámica, que corresponde a los inicios de la medicina psicosomática. El Estudio de la enfermedad de Chron, por medio de la comprensión psicosomática, permitió que analizásemos los síntomas, no como cuerpos extraños a ser erradicados, mas como mensajeros de un apelo a ser comprendido. Por intermedio de ellos, puede ser rescatada la historia de un individuo que, si conscientemente vivida

  5. Lymphotoxin prevention of diethylnitrosamine carcinogenesis in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of intervention measures to control cancer would be facilitated by being able to monitor in vivo carcinogenesis by in vitro quantitation of early indices of neoplastic transformation to assess the in vivo effectiveness of preventive-therapeutic measures. Pregnant Syrian golden hamsters were used in an in vivo-in vitro transplacental model of carcinogenesis to determine the extent that in vivo administration of immunologic hormone preparations along with chemical carcinogen would prevent morphologic transformation assessed in vitro. Pregnant hamsters at 10-11 days of gestation were given injections ip of 3 mg diethylnitrosamine (DENA)/100 g body weight and were killed 2 days later when fetal cells were seeded for colony formation. The frequency of morphologically transformed colonies was assessed after 7 days of growth. Cloning efficiency and mean transformation frequency after DENA exposure were 3.6% and 1 X 10(-4) per cell seeded, respectively. The ip injection of an immunologic hormone preparation reduced the transformation frequency by 46%. The hormone preparation, containing 10,000 U of lymphotoxin but no detectable interferon, was the ultrafiltered lymphokines (greater than 10,000 mol wt) from phytohemagglutinin-stimulated hamster peritoneal leukocytes. The effect of lymphotoxin on cocarcinogenic exposure of fetal cells to DENA in vivo followed by X-irradiation in vitro was also determined. Cells exposed to 250 rad in vitro had a cloning efficiency of 0.5% and a transformation frequency of 0.4 X 10(-4) per cell seeded. After DENA injection and X-irradiation, the transformation frequency increased to 1 X 10(-4) and was inhibited 64% by lymphotoxin in vivo. Thus immunologic hormones (e.g., lymphotoxin) can prevent carcinogenesis in vivo. Furthermore, in vitro quantitation of transformation is a rapid means for evaluating therapeutic and autochthonous effector mechanisms for their ability to prevent or otherwise modulate carcinogenesis in vivo

  6. Technologies of directed protein evolution in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Blagodatski, Artem; Katanaev, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Directed evolution of proteins for improved or modified functionality is an important branch of modern biotechnology. It has traditionally been performed using various in vitro methods, but more recently, methods of in vivo artificial evolution come into play. In this review, we discuss and compare prokaryotic and eukaryotic-based systems of directed protein evolution in vivo, highlighting their benefits and current limitations and focusing on the biotechnological potential of vertebrate immu...

  7. Muscle-Driven In Vivo Nanogenerator

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Zhou

    2010-05-05

    (Figure Presented) A nanogenerator based on a single piezoelectric fine wire producing an alternating current (AC) is successfully used for the harvesting of biomechanical energy under in vivo conditions. We demonstrate the implanting and working of such a nanogenerator in a live rat where it harvests energy generated by its breathing or heart beating. This study shows the potential of applying these nanogenerators for driving in vivo nanodevices. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KCaA, Weinheim.

  8. Why Optogenetics Needs in Vivo Neurochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrot, Sandrine; Denoroy, Luc; Renaud, Bernard; Benetollo, Claire

    2015-07-15

    In neuroscience, the consequences of optogenetic manipulation are often studied using in vivo electrophysiology and by observing behavioral changes induced by light stimulation in genetically targeted rodents. In contrast, reports on the in vivo neurochemical effects of optogenetic stimulation are scarce despite the improving quality of analytical techniques available to monitor biochemical compounds involved in neurotransmission. This intriguing lack of neurochemical information suggests the existence of unknown or misunderstood factors hampering the expected rise of a novel specialty putatively be termed "neurochemical optogenetics".

  9. Tailoring vessel morphology in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Daniel Joseph

    Tissue engineering is a rapidly growing field which seeks to provide alternatives to organ transplantation in order to address the increasing need for transplantable tissues. One huge hurdle in this effort is the provision of thick tissues; this hurdle exists because currently there is no way to provide prevascularized or rapidly vascularizable scaffolds. To design thick, vascularized tissues, scaffolds are needed that can induce vessels which are similar to the microvasculature found in normal tissues. Angiogenic biomaterials are being developed to provide useful scaffolds to address this problem. In this thesis angiogenic and cell signaling and adhesion factors were incorporated into a biomimetic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel system. The composition of these hydrogels was precisely tuned to induce the formation of differing vessel morphology. To sensitively measure induced microvascular morphology and to compare it to native microvessels in several tissues, this thesis developed an image-based tool for quantification of scale invariant and classical measures of vessel morphology. The tool displayed great utility in the comparison of native vessels and remodeling vessels in normal tissues. To utilize this tool to tune the vessel response in vivo, Flk1::myr-mCherry fluorescently labeled mice were implanted with Platelet Derived Growth Factor-BB (PDGF-BB) and basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF-2) containing PEG-based hydrogels in a modified mouse corneal angiogenesis assay. Resulting vessels were imaged with confocal microscopy, analyzed with the image based tool created in this thesis to compare morphological differences between treatment groups, and used to create a linear relationship between space filling parameters and dose of growth factor release. Morphological parameters of native mouse tissue vessels were then compared to the linear fit to calculate the dose of growth factors needed to induce vessels similar in morphology to native vessels

  10. Phosphole complexes of Gold(I) halides: Comparison of solution and solid-state structures by a combination of solution and CP/MAS 31P NMR spectroscopy and x-ray crystallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of complexes of 1-phenyldibenzophosphole (DBP), 1-phenyl-3,4,-dimethylphosphole (DMPP), and triphenylphosphine of the type LnAuX (n = 1, L = DBP, DMPP, Ph3P, X = Cl, Br, I; n = 3, L = DBP, X = Cl, Br, I; n = 3, L = Ph3P, X = Cl; n = 4, L = DBP, DMPP, X = PF6) have been prepared and characterized. The structures of (DBP)AuCl (1), (DBP)3AuCl (2), and (DMPP)AuCl (3) have been determined from three-dimensional x-ray data collected by counter methods. Crystal structure of the complexes is reported. The CP/MAS 31P(1H) NMR spectrum of complex 1 shows two resonances in a 1:1 intensity ratio, and the CP/MAS 31P(1H) NMR spectrum of complex 3 shows three resonances in a 1:1:1 intensity ratio for reasons that are not yet understood. Though the three phospholes are crystallographically inequivalent (d(AuP) = 2.359 (1), 2.382 (1), and 2.374 (2) angstrom) the molecule has effective Cs symmetry as evidenced by the observation of two 31P resonances in a 2:1 intensity ratio in its CP/MAS 31P(1H) NMR spectrum. Variable-temperature 31P(1H) NMR spectra obtained on solutions of LAuCl + L in various ratios were analyzed to determine the nature of the species present in solution and to gain information regarding their relative stabilities as a function of the nature of the phosphine. 79 refs., 8 figs., 9 tabs

  11. Efficient and facile Ar-Si bond cleavage by montmorillonite KSF: synthetic and mechanistic aspects of solvent-free protodesilylation studied by solution and solid-state MAS NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafrani, Yossi; Gershonov, Eytan; Columbus, Ishay

    2007-08-31

    A facile and efficient method for the cleavage of the Ar-Si bond of various aryl trimethyl silanes is described. When adsorbed on montmorillonite KSF (mont KSF), these arylsilanes readily undergo a solvent-free protodesilylation to the corresponding arenes at room temperature in excellent yields. This approach seems to be superior to the traditional mild methods (i.e., desilylation by TFA, TBAF, CsF), in terms of reaction yield, rate, and environmentally benign conditions. Some mechanistic studies using both solution and solid-state magic-angle spinning (SS MAS) (1)H NMR are also presented. PMID:17676903

  12. Study on MAS-based Military-local Joint POL Emergency Support System%基于MAS的军地油料应急联合保障体系结构的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关宇

    2011-01-01

    就如何利用现代化信息系统构建军地油料应急联合保障体系和如何构建基于MAS的油料分布式组织及其信息化油料应急联合保障网络平台进行了探讨.%The paper discusses how to use modern information system to construct a military-local joint POL emergency support system and how to establish the distributed POL organization based on MAS and its network platform.

  13. Ex Vivo and In Vivo Regulation of Lipocalin-2, a Novel Adipokine, by Insulin

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Bee K.; Adya, Raghu; Shan, Xiaoye; Syed, Farhatullah; Lewandowski, Krzysztof C.; O'Hare, John P.; Randeva, Harpal S

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Lipocalin-2, a novel adipokine, has been shown to be elevated in obese, insulin-resistant, and diabetic subjects. We therefore sought to study the ex vivo and in vivo effects of insulin on lipocalin-2 levels in humans. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—We investigated the in vivo effects of insulin (hyperinsulinemia) on circulating lipocalin-2 levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay via a prolonged insulin-glucose infusion. The ex vivo effect of insulin on adipose tissue lipocalin-2 p...

  14. Alterations in creatine metabolism observed in experimental autoimmune myocarditis using ex vivo proton magic angle spinning MRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muench, Frédéric; Retel, Joren; Jeuthe, Sarah; O h-Ici, Darach; van Rossum, Barth; Wassilew, Katharina; Schmerler, Patrick; Kuehne, Titus; Berger, Felix; Oschkinat, Hartmut; Messroghli, Daniel R

    2015-12-01

    Experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) in rodents is an accepted model of myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Altered metabolism is thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of DCM and heart failure (HF). Study of the metabolism may provide new diagnostic information and insights into the mechanisms of myocarditis and HF. Proton MRS ((1)H-MRS) has not yet been used to study the changes occurring in myocarditis and subsequent HF. We aimed to explore the changes in creatine metabolism using this model and compare them with the findings in healthy animals. Myocardial function of male young Lewis rats with EAM was quantified by performing left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) analysis in short-axis cine images throughout the whole heart. Inflammatory cellular infiltrate was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Myocardial tissue was analyzed using ex vivo proton magic angle spinning MRS ((1)H-MAS-MRS). Myocarditis was confirmed histologically by the presence of an inflammatory cellular infiltrate and CD68 positive staining. A significant increase in the metabolic ratio of Tau/tCr (taurine/total creatine) obtained by (1)H-MAS-MRS was observed in myocarditis compared with healthy controls (21 d acute EAM, 4.38 (±0.23); 21 d control, 2.84 (±0.08); 35 d chronic EAM, 4.47 (±0.83); 35 d control, 2.59 (±0.38); P < 0.001). LVEF was reduced in diseased animals (EAM, 55.2% (±11.3%); control, 72.6% (±3.8%); P < 0.01) and correlated with Tau/tCr ratio (R = 0.937, P < 0.001). Metabolic alterations occur acutely with the development of myocarditis. Myocardial Tau/tCr ratio as detected by (1)H-MRS correlates with LVEF and is able to differentiate between healthy myocardium and myocardium from rats with EAM.

  15. Microwave assisted saponification (MAS) followed by on-line liquid chromatography (LC)-gas chromatography (GC) for high-throughput and high-sensitivity determination of mineral oil in different cereal-based foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moret, Sabrina; Scolaro, Marianna; Barp, Laura; Purcaro, Giorgia; Conte, Lanfranco S

    2016-04-01

    A high throughput, high-sensitivity procedure, involving simultaneous microwave-assisted extraction (MAS) and unsaponifiable extraction, followed by on-line liquid chromatography (LC)-gas chromatography (GC), has been optimised for rapid and efficient extraction and analytical determination of mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) and mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH) in cereal-based products of different composition. MAS has the advantage of eliminating fat before LC-GC analysis, allowing an increase in the amount of sample extract injected, and hence in sensitivity. The proposed method gave practically quantitative recoveries and good repeatability. Among the different cereal-based products analysed (dry semolina and egg pasta, bread, biscuits, and cakes), egg pasta packed in direct contact with recycled paperboard had on average the highest total MOSH level (15.9 mg kg(-1)), followed by cakes (10.4 mg kg(-1)) and bread (7.5 mg kg(-1)). About 50% of the pasta and bread samples and 20% of the biscuits and cake samples had detectable MOAH amounts. The highest concentrations were found in an egg pasta in direct contact with recycled paperboard (3.6 mg kg(-1)) and in a milk bread (3.6 mg kg(-1)).

  16. Evaluation of the Effects of Cornus mas L. Fruit Extract on Glycemic Control and Insulin Level in Type 2 Diabetic Adult Patients: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Rasool; Gorji, Abdollah; Asgary, Sedigheh; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Siavash, Mansour

    2015-01-01

    Background. The plant Cornus mas L. (cornelian cherry) is traditionally used as an antidiabetic supplement; however, there is no related clinical trial. In this study, we evaluated the effects of the fruit extract of this plant on biomarkers of glycemic control in adult patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods. Sixty patients with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to two groups to receive either the extract or placebo capsules (2 capsules twice daily) for 6 weeks. Each drug capsule contained 150 mg of anthocyanins. Fasting plasma levels of glucose, insulin, HgbA1C, and triglyceride as well as 2-hour postprandial glucose level (2Hpp) were measured before and after the intervention and finally the mean values were compared between groups. Results. After 6 weeks of intervention, significant increase in insulin level (1.13 ± 1.90 versus -0.643 ± 1.82, P < 0.05) as well as decrease in HgbA1C (-0.24 ± 0.429 versus 0.023 ± 0.225, P < 0.05) and TG (-23.66 ± 55.40 versus 2.83 ± 15.71, P < 0.05) levels was observed in drug group compared to placebo. Conclusion. Daily consumption of the fruit extract of Cornus mas L. improves glycemic control by increasing insulin level and reduces TG serum level in type 2 diabetic adult patients. PMID:26508984

  17. Structure determination of uniformly {sup 13}C, {sup 15}N labeled protein using qualitative distance restraints from MAS solid-state {sup 13}C-NMR observed paramagnetic relaxation enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamaki, Hajime [Hokkaido University, Graduate School of Life Science (Japan); Egawa, Ayako [Osaka University, Institute for Protein Research (Japan); Kido, Kouki [Hokkaido University, Graduate School of Life Science (Japan); Kameda, Tomoshi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Biotechnology Research Institute for Drug Discovery (Japan); Kamiya, Masakatsu; Kikukawa, Takashi; Aizawa, Tomoyasu [Hokkaido University, Faculty of Advanced Life Science (Japan); Fujiwara, Toshimichi [Osaka University, Institute for Protein Research (Japan); Demura, Makoto, E-mail: demura@sci.hokudai.ac.jp [Hokkaido University, Faculty of Advanced Life Science (Japan)

    2016-01-15

    Magic angle spinning (MAS) solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a powerful method for structure determination of insoluble biomolecules. However, structure determination by MAS solid-state NMR remains challenging because it is difficult to obtain a sufficient amount of distance restraints owing to spectral complexity. Collection of distance restraints from paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) is a promising approach to alleviate this barrier. However, the precision of distance restraints provided by PRE is limited in solid-state NMR because of incomplete averaged interactions and intermolecular PREs. In this report, the backbone structure of the B1 domain of streptococcal protein G (GB1) has been successfully determined by combining the CS-Rosetta protocol and qualitative PRE restraints. The derived structure has a Cα RMSD of 1.49 Å relative to the X-ray structure. It is noteworthy that our protocol can determine the correct structure from only three cysteine-EDTA-Mn{sup 2+} mutants because this number of PRE sites is insufficient when using a conventional structure calculation method based on restrained molecular dynamics and simulated annealing. This study shows that qualitative PRE restraints can be employed effectively for protein structure determination from a limited conformational sampling space using a protein fragment library.

  18. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of ACE2/Ang1-7/Mas in ALI/ARDS%ACE2/Ang1-7/Mas在ALI/ARDS中作用机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙佳; 朱彪

    2016-01-01

    Renin-angiotensin system(RAS)plays important roles in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury(ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome(ARDS).About 60% of ARDS patients are shown to develop pulmonary fibrosis with increased mortality rate.Recent researches have demonstrated potent inhibitory of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)/angiotensin 1-7 (Ang1-7)/Mas axis on ALI/ARDS.This review summarizes the beneficial action of ACE2/Ang1-7/Mas on ALI/ARDS and research progress on relative signaling pathway.%肾素-血管紧张素系统在 ALI/ARDS的病理过程中有重要作用。大约60% ARDS患者进展成肺纤维化且其病死率明显增加。目前研究显示 ACE/AngⅡ/AT1 R 与 ALI/ARDS 发病机制有关,而ACE2/Ang1-7/Mas起负向调节作用———ACE2和Ang1-7对ALI/ARDS有保护作用。因此,本文就 ACE2/Ang1-7/Mas在 ALI/ARDS中的保护作用和相关信号传导通路等方面最新研究进展作一阐述。

  19. Microwave assisted saponification (MAS) followed by on-line liquid chromatography (LC)-gas chromatography (GC) for high-throughput and high-sensitivity determination of mineral oil in different cereal-based foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moret, Sabrina; Scolaro, Marianna; Barp, Laura; Purcaro, Giorgia; Conte, Lanfranco S

    2016-04-01

    A high throughput, high-sensitivity procedure, involving simultaneous microwave-assisted extraction (MAS) and unsaponifiable extraction, followed by on-line liquid chromatography (LC)-gas chromatography (GC), has been optimised for rapid and efficient extraction and analytical determination of mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) and mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH) in cereal-based products of different composition. MAS has the advantage of eliminating fat before LC-GC analysis, allowing an increase in the amount of sample extract injected, and hence in sensitivity. The proposed method gave practically quantitative recoveries and good repeatability. Among the different cereal-based products analysed (dry semolina and egg pasta, bread, biscuits, and cakes), egg pasta packed in direct contact with recycled paperboard had on average the highest total MOSH level (15.9 mg kg(-1)), followed by cakes (10.4 mg kg(-1)) and bread (7.5 mg kg(-1)). About 50% of the pasta and bread samples and 20% of the biscuits and cake samples had detectable MOAH amounts. The highest concentrations were found in an egg pasta in direct contact with recycled paperboard (3.6 mg kg(-1)) and in a milk bread (3.6 mg kg(-1)). PMID:26593464

  20. In vivo studies of opiate receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frost, J.J.; Dannals, R.F.; Duelfer, T.; Burns, H.D.; Ravert, H.T.; Langstroem, B.; Balasubramanian, V.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    To study opiate receptors noninvasively in vivo using positron emission tomography, techniques for preferentially labeling opiate receptors in vivo can be used. The rate at which receptor-bound ligand clears from the brain in vivo can be predicted by measuring the equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) at 37 degrees C in the presence of 100 mM sodium chloride and 100 microM guanyl-5'-imidodiphosphate, the drug distribution coefficient, and the molecular weight. A suitable ligand for labeling opiate receptors in vivo is diprenorphine, which binds to mu, delta, and kappa receptors with approximately equal affinity in vitro. However, in vivo diprenorphine may bind predominantly to one opiate receptor subtype, possibly the mu receptor. To predict the affinity for binding to the opiate receptor, a Hansch correlation was determined between the 50% inhibitory concentration for a series of halogen-substituted fentanyl analogs and electronic, lipophilic, and steric parameters. Radiochemical methods for the synthesis of carbon-11-labeled diprenorphine and lofentanil are presented.

  1. In-vivo optical investigation of psoriasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapsokalyvas, Dimitrios; Cicchi, Riccardo; Bruscino, Nicola; Alfieri, Domenico; Massi, Daniela; Lotti, Torello; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2011-03-01

    Psoriasis is an autoimmune disease of the skin characterized by hyperkeratosis, hyperproliferation of the epidermis, inflammatory cell accumulation and increased dilatation of dermal papillary blood vessels. Cases of psoriasis were investigated in vivo with optical means in order to evaluate the potential of in vivo optical biopsy. A Polarization Multispectral Dermoscope was employed for the macroscopic observation. Features such as the 'dotted' blood vessels pattern was observed with high contrast. The average size of dot vessels in Psoriasis was measured to be 974 μm2 which is much higher compared to healthy skin. High resolution image sections of the epidermis and the dermis were produced with a custom made Multiphoton Microscope. Imaging extended from the surface of the lesion down to the papillary dermis, at a depth of 200 μm. In the epidermis, a characteristic morphology of the stratum corneum found only in Psoriasis was revealed. Additionally, the cytoplasmic area of the cells in the stratum spinosum layer was found to be smaller than normal. In the dermis the morphological features were more pronounced, where the elongated dermal papillae dominated the papillary layer. Their length exceeds 100μm, which is a far greater value compared to that of healthy skin. These in vivo observations are consistent with the ex vivo histopathological observations, supporting both the applicability and potentiality of multispectral dermoscopy and multiphoton microscopy in the field of in vivo optical investigation and biopsy of skin.

  2. CT Fluoroscopy-Guided Lung Biopsy with Novel Steerable Biopsy Canula: Ex-Vivo Evaluation in Ventilated Porcine Lung Explants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose was to evaluate ex-vivo a prototype of a novel biopsy canula under CT fluoroscopy-guidance in ventilated porcine lung explants in respiratory motion simulations. Using an established chest phantom for porcine lung explants, n = 24 artificial lesions consisting of a fat-wax-Lipiodol mixture (approx. 70HU) were placed adjacent to sensible structures such as aorta, pericardium, diaphragm, bronchus and pulmonary artery. A piston pump connected to a reservoir beneath a flexible silicone reconstruction of a diaphragm simulated respiratory motion by rhythmic inflation and deflation of 1.5 L water. As biopsy device an 18-gauge prototype biopsy canula with a lancet-like, helically bended cutting edge was used. The artificial lesions were punctured under CT fluoroscopy-guidance (SOMATOM Sensation 64, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany; 30mAs/120 kV/5 mm slice thickness) implementing a dedicated protocol for CT fluoroscopy-guided lung biopsy. The mean-diameter of the artificial lesions was 8.3 ± 2.6 mm, and the mean-distance of the phantom wall to the lesions was 54.1 ± 13.5 mm. The mean-displacement of the lesions by respiratory motion was 14.1 ± 4.0 mm. The mean-duration of CT fluoroscopy was 9.6 ± 5.1 s. On a 4-point scale (1 = central; 2 = peripheral; 3 = marginal; 4 = off target), the mean-targeted precision was 1.9 ± 0.9. No misplacement of the biopsy canula affecting adjacent structures could be detected. The novel steerable biopsy canula proved to be efficient in the ex-vivo set-up. The chest phantom enabling respiratory motion and the steerable biopsy canula offer a feasible ex-vivo system for evaluating and training CT fluoroscopy-guided lung biopsy adapted to respiratory motion.

  3. In Vivo Depletion of T Lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laky, Karen; Kruisbeek, Ada M

    2016-01-01

    In vivo depletion of T lymphocytes is a means of studying the role of specific T cell populations during defined phases of in vivo immune responses. In this unit, a protocol is provided for injecting monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) into wild-type adult mice. Depletion of the appropriate subset of cells is verified by flow cytometry analysis of lymph node and spleen cell suspensions in pilot experiments. Once conditions have been established, depleted mice can be used to study the impact of T cell subsets on a variety of in vivo immune responses. The depleted condition may be maintained by repeated injections of the monoclonal antibody, or reversed by normal thymopoiesis following discontinuation of antibody administration. PMID:27038463

  4. In vivo cell tracking with bioluminescence imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Eun; Kalimuthu, Senthilkumar; Ahn, Byeong-Cheol

    2015-03-01

    Molecular imaging is a fast growing biomedical research that allows the visual representation, characterization and quantification of biological processes at the cellular and subcellular levels within intact living organisms. In vivo tracking of cells is an indispensable technology for development and optimization of cell therapy for replacement or renewal of damaged or diseased tissue using transplanted cells, often autologous cells. With outstanding advantages of bioluminescence imaging, the imaging approach is most commonly applied for in vivo monitoring of transplanted stem cells or immune cells in order to assess viability of administered cells with therapeutic efficacy in preclinical small animal models. In this review, a general overview of bioluminescence is provided and recent updates of in vivo cell tracking using the bioluminescence signal are discussed.

  5. In vivo cell tracking with bioluminescence imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Eun; Kalimuthu, Senthilkumar; Ahn, Byeong Cheol [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine and Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    Molecular imaging is a fast growing biomedical research that allows the visual representation, characterization and quantification of biological processes at the cellular and subcellular levels within intact living organisms. In vivo tracking of cells is an indispensable technology for development and optimization of cell therapy for replacement or renewal of damaged or diseased tissue using transplanted cells, often autologous cells. With outstanding advantages of bioluminescence imaging, the imaging approach is most commonly applied for in vivo monitoring of transplanted stem cells or immune cells in order to assess viability of administered cells with therapeutic efficacy in preclinical small animal models. In this review, a general overview of bioluminescence is provided and recent updates of in vivo cell tracking using the bioluminescence signal are discussed.

  6. In vivo cell tracking with bioluminescence imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular imaging is a fast growing biomedical research that allows the visual representation, characterization and quantification of biological processes at the cellular and subcellular levels within intact living organisms. In vivo tracking of cells is an indispensable technology for development and optimization of cell therapy for replacement or renewal of damaged or diseased tissue using transplanted cells, often autologous cells. With outstanding advantages of bioluminescence imaging, the imaging approach is most commonly applied for in vivo monitoring of transplanted stem cells or immune cells in order to assess viability of administered cells with therapeutic efficacy in preclinical small animal models. In this review, a general overview of bioluminescence is provided and recent updates of in vivo cell tracking using the bioluminescence signal are discussed

  7. In Vivo Production of Entomopathogenic Nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Morales-Ramos, Juan A; Rojas, M Guadalupe

    2016-01-01

    In nature, entomopathogenic nematodes in the genera Heterorhabditis and Steinernema are obligate parasites of insects. The nematodes are used widely as biopesticides for suppression of insect pests. More than a dozen entomopathogenic nematode species have been commercialized for use in biological control. Most nematodes intended for commercial application are produced in artificial media via solid or liquid fermentation. However, for laboratory research and small greenhouse or field trials, in vivo production of entomopathogenic nematodes is the common method of propagation. Additionally, small companies continue to produce nematodes using in vivo methods for application in niche markets. Advances in mechanization and alternative production routes (e.g., production geared toward application of nematodes in infected host cadavers) can improve efficiency and economy of scale. The objective of this chapter is to describe basic and advanced procedures for in vivo production of entomopathogenic nematodes. PMID:27565497

  8. El silicio en los organismos vivos

    OpenAIRE

    César Aguirre; Tztzqui Chávez; Pedro García; Juan Carlos Raya

    2007-01-01

    En los últimos años ha aumentado el interés por estudiar el papel del silicio (Si) en los organismos vivos en general. Dada su abundancia sobre la corteza terrestre y la suposición de que su concentración era aún mayor en el tiempo en que la vida hizo su aparición en la Tierra, es de esperarse que este elemento tenga algún papel en los organismos vivos. Esto se ha comprobado en algunos organismos unicelulares como las diatomeas, organismos marinos multicelulares como las esponjas, y en alguna...

  9. In vivo virtual intraoperative surgical photoacoustic microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seunghoon, E-mail: hsh860504@gmail.com; Kim, Sehui, E-mail: sehui0916@nate.com; Kim, Jeehyun, E-mail: jeehk@knu.ac.kr, E-mail: chulhong@postech.edu [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Changho, E-mail: ch31037@postech.edu; Jeon, Mansik, E-mail: msjeon@postech.edu [Department of Creative IT Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chulhong, E-mail: jeehk@knu.ac.kr, E-mail: chulhong@postech.edu [Department of Creative IT Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomedical Engineering, The State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14221 (United States)

    2013-11-11

    We developed a virtual intraoperative surgical photoacoustic microscopy system by combining with a commercial surgical microscope and photoacoustic microscope (PAM). By sharing the common optical path in the microscope and PAM system, we could acquire the PAM and microscope images simultaneously. Moreover, by employing a beam projector to back-project 2D PAM images onto the microscope view plane as augmented reality, the conventional microscopic and 2D cross-sectional PAM images are concurrently mapped on the plane via an ocular lens of the microscope in real-time. Further, we guided needle insertion into phantom ex vivo and mice skins in vivo.

  10. In Vivo Models to Study Chemokine Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, F A; Boff, D; Teixeira, M M

    2016-01-01

    Chemokines are essential mediators of leukocyte movement in vivo. In vitro assays of leukocyte migration cannot mimic the complex interactions with other cell types and matrix needed for cells to extravasate and migrate into tissues. Therefore, in vivo strategies to study the effects and potential relevance of chemokines for the migration of particular leukocyte subsets are necessary. Here, we describe methods to study the effects and endogenous role of chemokine in mice. Advantages and pitfalls of particular models are discussed and we focus on description in model's joint and pleural cavity inflammation and the effects and relevance of CXCR2 and CCR2 ligands on cell migration.

  11. In vivo and ex vivo proton MR spectroscopy of primary and secondary melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourne, Roger M.; Stanwell, Peter; Stretch, Jonathan R.; Scolyer, Richard A.; Thompson, John F.; Mountford, Carolyn E.; Lean, Cynthia L

    2005-03-01

    In vivo magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy at 1.5T was performed on a large polypoid cutaneous melanoma, and two enlarged lymph nodes containing metastatic melanoma, from three patients. Spectra were acquired in vivo from voxels wholly within the primary tumour or secondary lymph node and were thus uncontaminated by signals from adjacent tissue. Tissue biopsies taken after resection of primary tumours and secondary lymph nodes were examined by 8.5T magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and the results compared with the in vivo spectra, and with spectra from normal skin and a benign skin lesion. There was good agreement between the dominant features of 1.5T spectra acquired in vivo and 8.5T spectra acquired from resected tissue. However, less intense resonances observed at 8.5T in malignant biopsy tissue were not consistently observed at 1.5T in vivo. In vivo spectra from primary and metastatic melanoma showed high levels of choline metabolites. An intense lactate resonance was also present in the in vivo spectrum of primary melanoma. All 8.5T spectra of biopsies from primary and secondary melanoma showed high levels of choline metabolites and lactate, and additional resonances consistent with elevated levels of taurine, alanine, lysine, and glutamate/glutamine relative to normal and benign tissue. Elevated levels of choline, lactate, taurine, and amino acids appear to be clinically useful markers for identifying the pathology of primary and metastatic melanoma.

  12. Depleted uranium disturbs immune parameters in zebrafish, Danio rerio: an ex vivo/in vivo experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnaire, Béatrice; Bado-Nilles, Anne; Sanchez, Wilfried

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of depleted uranium (DU), the byproduct of nuclear enrichment of uranium, on several parameters related to defence system in the zebrafish, Danio rerio, using flow cytometry. Several immune cellular parameters were followed on kidney leucocytes: cell proportion, cell mortality, phagocytosis activity and associated oxidative burst and lysosomal membrane integrity (LMI). Effects of DU were tested ex vivo after 17 h of contact between DU and freshly isolated leucocytes from 0 to 500 µg DU/L. Moreover, adult zebrafish were exposed in vivo during 3 days at 20 and 250 µg DU/L. Oxidative burst results showed that DU increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) basal level and therefore reduced ROS stimulation index in both ex vivo and in vivo experiments. ROS PMA-stimulated level was also increased at 250 µg DU/L in vivo only. Furthermore, a decrease of LMI was detected after in vivo experiments. Cell mortality was also decreased at 20 µg DU/L in ex vivo experiment. However, phagocytosis activity was not modified in both ex vivo and in vivo experiments. A reduction of immune-related parameters was demonstrated in zebrafish exposed to DU. DU could therefore decrease the ability of fish to stimulate its own immune system which could, in turn, enhance the susceptibility of fish to infection. These results encourage the development and the use of innate immune analysis by flow cytometry in order to understand the effects of DU and more generally radionuclides on fish immune system and response to infectious diseases. PMID:24723161

  13. HONGOS MICORRÍZICOS ARBUSCULARES, Azotobacter chroococcum, Bacillus megatherium Y FitoMas-E: UNA ALTERNATIVA EFICAZ PARA LA REDUCCIÓN DEL CONSUMO DE FERTILIZANTES MINERALES EN Psidium guajava, L. var. Enana Roja cubana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leudiyanes Ramos Hernández

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo experimental se desarrolló en la Unidad Básica de Producción Cooperativa (UBPC «Batalla de Jobito» ubicada en el municipio «El Salvador», provincia Guantánamo en el período comprendido entre los años 2007-2009. El objetivo de la investigación fue definir una alternativa de manejo nutricional basada en el empleo de hongos micorrízicos arbusculares (HMA, Azotobacter chroococcum , Bacillus megatherium y el fitoestimulante FitoMas-E, como vía factible para la reducción de la fertilización mineral en el cultivo de la guayaba Enana Roja cubana, sin afectaciones a los rendimientos. Para el montaje del experimento se combinaron 10 g.planta -1 de micorriza (especie: Glomus intraradices ; 2 L.ha -1 de AZOMEG [producto comercial compuesto por Azotobacter chroococcum (2x10 11 ufc x mL -1 y Bacillus megatherium (3.2x10 11 ufc x mL -1 ] y 1 L.ha -1 de FitoMas-E con la reducción gradual de la fertilización mineral de N y P; utilizando el 100, 75, 50 y 25 % respectivamente. Como variable respuesta se midieron la altura de las plantas, los pares de hojas, el número de brindillas, el número de flores y frutos, el diámetro polar y ecuatorial y peso promedio de los frutos; también se calcularon la pérdida de peso postcosecha y el rendimiento. Los resultados experimentales demostraron que la combinación del 75 % de la fertilización mineral con los biofertilizantes y el FitoMas-E fue superior al resto de los tratamientos en estudio para las variables evaluadas, así como posibilitó la reducción del 25 % de la fertilización mineral y obtener una mejor respuesta económica.

  14. Ebola Virus Persistence in Semen Ex Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Robert J; Judson, Seth; Miazgowicz, Kerri; Bushmaker, Trent; Munster, Vincent J

    2016-02-01

    On March 20, 2015, a case of Ebola virus disease was identified in Liberia that most likely was transmitted through sexual contact. We assessed the efficiency of detecting Ebola virus in semen samples by molecular diagnostics and the stability of Ebola virus in ex vivo semen under simulated tropical conditions.

  15. Ebola Virus Persistence in Semen Ex Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Robert J.; Judson, Seth; Miazgowicz, Kerri; Bushmaker, Trent; Munster, Vincent J.

    2016-01-01

    On March 20, 2015, a case of Ebola virus disease was identified in Liberia that most likely was transmitted through sexual contact. We assessed the efficiency of detecting Ebola virus in semen samples by molecular diagnostics and the stability of Ebola virus in ex vivo semen under simulated tropical conditions.

  16. In vivo imaging of oligonucleotidic aptamers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavitian, B.; Boisgard, R. [Inserm U803, Laboratoire d' Imagerie Moleculaire Experimentale, Service hospitalier Frederic joliot, Intitut d' Imagerie Biomedicale, CEA, Orsay (France); Duconge, F.; Dolle, F. [Groupe de Radiochimie, Laboratoire d' Imagerie Moleculaire Experimentale, Service hospitalier Frederic joliot, Intitut d' Imagerie Biomedicale, CEA, Orsay (France)

    2009-07-01

    In this chapter we present the methods developed in our laboratory for in vivo imaging of oligonucleotidic aptamers. These methods relate to (i) the labelling of aptamers with fluorine-18, a positron emitter (ii) Positron Emission Tomography imaging of laboratory animals with [({sup 18})F]aptamers and (iii) labelling with fluorescent dyes and optical imaging of aptamers in mice. (authors)

  17. In vivo X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements on five occupationally exposed persons have shown that it is possible to use X-ray fluorescence analysis for in vivo measurements of lead in the skeleton. The technique for calibrating in vivo X-ray fluorescence measurements of lead in bone tissue has been studied in detail and a two-component phantom simulating the bone and the soft tissue parts of the finger constructed. The technique has been used for in vivo measurements on 22 occupationally exposed persons. The minimum detectable concentration of lead in fingerbones was found to be around 20 μg x g-1. The lead concentrations in their skeletons and blood were compared: the correlation was poor. The variations in lead concentrations in the skeleton have been studied in occupationally exposed persons and in samples from archaeological skeletons. The sensitivity and the minimum detectable concentration of cadmium in the kidney cortex in in vivo measurements has been studied by measurements on kidney models. The minimum detectable concentration was 20 μg x g-1 at a skin-kidney distance of 30 mm and 40 μg x g-1 at 40 mm. Five persons occupationally exposed were studied. (Author)

  18. In vivo gluten challenge in coeliac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HJ Ellis

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In vivo gluten challenge has been used since the early 1950s to study the role of cereal fractions in celiac disease. While early studies relied on crude indicators of celiac toxicity, the advent of jejunal biopsy and sophisticated immunohistochemical techniques has allowed accurate studies to be performed. Studies to determine the nature of the cereal component that is toxic to patients with celiac disease have concentrated on wheat because of its nutritional importance. A number of in vitro studies indicated the presence of one or more celiac-activating epitopes with the N-terminus of the A-gliadin molecule. In vivo challenge with three synthetic peptides subsequently indicated the toxicity of a peptide corresponding to amino acids 31 to 49 of A-gliadin. In vivo gluten challenge is the gold standard for the assessment of celiac toxicity; however, jejunal biopsy is a relatively invasive procedure, thus, other methods have been investigated. Direct infusion of the rectum with gluten has been shown to result in an increase in mucosal intraepithelial lymphocytes, occurring only in celiac patients. This method has been used to study the celiac toxicity of gliadin subfractions. The in vitro technique of small intestinal biopsy organ culture is also a useful tool and appears to give the same results as in vivo challenge. The importance of tiny amounts of gliadin in the diet, such as that which occurs in wheat starch, has been studied by in vivo challenge; this technique has clarified the position of oats in the gluten-free diet. Several studies suggest that this cereal may be included in the diet of most adult celiac patients. Studies of the transport of gliadin across the enterocyte following ingestion or challenge suggest that gliadin may be metabolized by a different pathway in celiac disease. This could result in an abnormal presentation to the immune system, triggering a pathogenic rather than a tolerogenic response.

  19. In vitro and in vivo Development of Cloned Ovine Embryos using in vitro and in vivo Matured Oocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, P; Nagashima, H; Sun, F-J;

    1995-01-01

    Cloning of sheep embryos by nucleus transplantation can be achieved by using in vivo matured (oviductal) oocytes and in vivo culture. However, these steps involve cumbersome procedures. Therefore, the effects of in vivo vs. the equivalent in vitro procedures on the pre-implantation development...... of cloned embryos were compared using: l. In vivo oocytes and in vivo culture; 2. In vivo oocytes and in vitro culture; and 3. In vitro oocytes and in vitro culture. Selected embryos were transferred to recipients. Donor embryos and oviductal oocytes were collected from superovulated Merino ewes. In vivo......, and those developed beyond the eight cell stage were transferred to recipient ewes. More in vitro than in vivo matured oocytes fused (66 vs. 43 p cloned embryos derived from in vitro and in vivo matured oocytes...

  20. Influence of water dilution on percutaneous absorption of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone in vivo and ex vivo in rats and ex vivo in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquet, Fabrice; Payan, Jean-Paul; Beydon, Dominique; Wathier, Ludivine; Ferrari, Elisabeth; Grandclaude, Marie-Christine

    2015-11-01

    N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (NVP) is mainly used as a monomer in the production of polyvinylpyrrolidone or copolymers. Percutaneous absorption is an important source of exposure in the work environment. However, few studies have investigated this route of absorption. In this study, percutaneous absorption of neat or aqueous NVP solutions was measured in vivo and ex vivo in rats, and ex vivo in humans. Penetration and absorption fluxes were very similar following in vivo exposure to neat NVP (0.54 and 0.43 mg/cm(2)/h, respectively). Exposing rats to a 50% aqueous solution of NVP increased both fluxes threefold (to 1.48 and 1.55 mg/cm(2)/h, respectively). Ex vivo, the absorption flux increased with solutions from 10 to 25% of NVP, reached a plateau (between 25 and 50% in rat, 25 and 75% in human) and then decreased with neat NVP. In vivo and ex vivo absorption fluxes measured using rat skin were similar, supporting the hypothesis that the ex vivo measurements were a good representation of what was observed in vivo. Thus, for humans, the ex vivo measurements are likely the same as would be determined in vivo. PMID:25160662

  1. Sirds asinsvadu sistēmas bojājumi atkarībā no slimības aktivitātes pakāpes pacientiem ar sistēmisko sarkano vilkēdi

    OpenAIRE

    Grebņeva, Viktorija

    2016-01-01

    KOPSAVILKUMS Sistēmiskā sarkanā vilkēde (SSV) ir hroniska autoimūna saistaudu sistēmas slimība , kas saistīta ar daudzu iekšējo orgānu bojājumiem, ko izraisa autoimūnais process. Manā pētījumā bija atlasīti 52 ambulatorie pacienti. Sieviešu dzimuma izplatība bija lielāka nekā vīriešu dzimuma kontroles grupā, kas nozīmē, ka sievietem ir lielāka nosliece saslimšanai ar sistēmisko sarkano vilkēdi , kā arī palielinātu aterosklerozes risku. Pētījumā izmantoju SLEDAI ( Systemic lupus erythe...

  2. Parameters of dynamic balance in the frontal and sagittal plane and their correlations with poor postures in children aged 10–12 from the Masłów district in Świętokrzyskie province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Szczepanowska-Wołowiec

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Even postural asymmetry may provoke static and balance disorders. Aim of the research: To define the level of dynamic balance among children aged 10–12 and find the correlations between poor postures. Material and methods: This study was conducted among 176 children from Masłów district in Świętokrzyskie province. The Libra platform was used to examine the dynamic balance. Results: Dynamic balance parameters from the sagittal and frontal plane show statistically significant differences between the control group and study groups. Conclusions: The analysis of dynamic balance parameters from the sagittal and frontal plane confirms that the lowest values occur in the control group, higher in children with foot defect, and the highest in children with scoliotic posture.

  3. Interface Induced Growth and Transformation of Polymer-Conjugated Proto-Crystalline Phases in Aluminosilicate Hybrids: A Multiple-Quantum (23)Na-(23)Na MAS NMR Correlation Spectroscopy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brus, Jiri; Kobera, Libor; Urbanova, Martina; Doušová, Barbora; Lhotka, Miloslav; Koloušek, David; Kotek, Jiří; Čuba, Pavel; Czernek, Jiri; Dědeček, Jiří

    2016-03-22

    Nanostructured materials typically offer enhanced physicochemical properties because of their large interfacial area. In this contribution, we present a comprehensive structural characterization of aluminosilicate hybrids with polymer-conjugated nanosized zeolites specifically grown at the organic-inorganic interface. The inorganic amorphous Al-O-Si framework is formed by alkali-activated low-temperature transformation of metakaoline, whereas simultaneous copolymerization of organic comonomers creates a secondary epoxide network covalently bound to the aluminosilicate matrix. This secondary epoxide phase not only enhances the mechanical integrity of the resulting hybrids but also introduces additional binding sites accessible for compensating negative charge on the aluminosilicate framework. This way, the polymer network initiates growth and subsequent transformation of protocrystalline short-range ordered zeolite domains that are located at the organic-inorganic interface. By applying an experimental approach based on 2D (23)Na-(23)Na double-quantum (DQ) MAS NMR spectroscopy, we discovered multiple sodium binding sites in these protocrystalline domains, in which immobilized Na(+) ions form pairs or small clusters. It is further demonstrated that these sites, the local geometry of which allows for the pairing of sodium ions, are preferentially occupied by Pb(2+) ions during the ion exchange. The proposed synthesis protocol thus allows for the preparation of a novel type of geopolymer hybrids with polymer-conjugated zeolite phases suitable for capturing and storage of metal cations. The demonstrated (23)Na-(23)Na DQ MAS NMR combined with DFT calculations represents a suitable approach for understanding the role of Na(+) ions in aluminositicate solids and related inorganic-organic hybrids, particularly their specific arrangement and clustering at interfacial areas.

  4. Revisión bibliográfica. LA SELECCIÓN ASISTIDA POR MARCADORES (MAS, «Marker-Assisted Selection» EN EL MEJORAMIENTO GENÉTICO DEL TOMATE (Solanum lycopersicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Álvarez Gil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La mejora convencional de plantas se basa en laselección por el fenotipo de los individuos de interés poralguna característica distintiva, entre los individuos de progeniessegregantes resultado de la hibridación. La obtención de nuevoscultivares por esta vía se toma no menos de ocho a 10 años y,en ocasiones, no se garantiza la obtención de ese cultivarmejorado. Los mejoradores, por consiguiente, están muyinteresados en que surjan nuevas tecnologías que ayuden aser más eficiente este proceso. La selección asistida pormarcadores (del inglés Marker-Assisted Selection, MAS ofrecenumerosas ventajas, con un enfoque nuevo que permite hacermucho más eficiente las estrategias de selección en losprogramas de mejora de los cultivos. Los marcadoresmoleculares se han convertido en poderosas herramientas parahacer posible la determinación de las características genéticasde las plantas y seleccionar por el genotipo, en lugar de por elfenotipo. En el presente trabajo se hace una breve referencia alos avances significativos que se han obtenido mediante laaplicación de la selección asistida por marcadores molecularesen el tomate, en la última década. Finalmente, se discuten lasrazones que hacen inevitable la adopción de MAS en el futuro,aunque su generalización dependerá de los recursos disponibles,y pudiera tardarse en los países en vías de desarrollo.

  5. Proton-detected 3D {sup 1}H/{sup 13}C/{sup 1}H correlation experiment for structural analysis in rigid solids under ultrafast-MAS above 60 kHz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Rongchun; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy, E-mail: ramamoor@umich.edu [Biophysics and Department of Chemistry, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1055 (United States); Nishiyama, Yusuke [JEOL RESONANCE Inc., Musashino, Akishima, Tokyo 196-8558 (Japan); RIKEN CLST-JEOL Collaboration Center, RIKEN, Yokohama, Kanagawa 230-0045 (Japan)

    2015-10-28

    A proton-detected 3D {sup 1}H/{sup 13}C/{sup 1}H chemical shift correlation experiment is proposed for the assignment of chemical shift resonances, identification of {sup 13}C-{sup 1}H connectivities, and proximities of {sup 13}C-{sup 1}H and {sup 1}H-{sup 1}H nuclei under ultrafast magic-angle-spinning (ultrafast-MAS) conditions. Ultrafast-MAS is used to suppress all anisotropic interactions including {sup 1}H-{sup 1}H dipolar couplings, while the finite-pulse radio frequency driven dipolar recoupling (fp-RFDR) pulse sequence is used to recouple dipolar couplings among protons and the insensitive nuclei enhanced by polarization transfer technique is used to transfer magnetization between heteronuclear spins. The 3D experiment eliminates signals from non-carbon-bonded protons and non-proton-bonded carbons to enhance spectral resolution. The 2D (F1/F3) {sup 1}H/{sup 1}H and 2D {sup 13}C/{sup 1}H (F2/F3) chemical shift correlation spectra extracted from the 3D spectrum enable the identification of {sup 1}H-{sup 1}H proximity and {sup 13}C-{sup 1}H connectivity. In addition, the 2D (F1/F2) {sup 1}H/{sup 13}C chemical shift correlation spectrum, incorporated with proton magnetization exchange via the fp-RFDR recoupling of {sup 1}H-{sup 1}H dipolar couplings, enables the measurement of proximities between {sup 13}C and even the remote non-carbon-bonded protons. The 3D experiment also gives three-spin proximities of {sup 1}H-{sup 1}H-{sup 13}C chains. Experimental results obtained from powder samples of L-alanine and L-histidine ⋅ H{sub 2}O ⋅ HCl demonstrate the efficiency of the 3D experiment.

  6. Assessment of proarrhythmic activity of chloroquine in in vivo and ex vivo rabbit models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailaja B Khobragade

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the prolongation of ventricular repolarization and proarrhythmic activity of antimalarial drug chloroquine in two rabbit proarrhythmia models viz., in vivo α1 adrenoceptor-stimulated anesthetized rabbit and ex vivo isolated Langendorff rabbit heart using clofilium as standard proarrhythmic agent. Materials and Methods: In the in vivo model, three groups of rabbits, anesthetized by pentobarbitone sodium and α-chloralose, sensitized with α1 agonist methoxamine followed by either continuous infusion of saline (control or clofilium (3 mg/kg or chloroquine (21 mg/kg for 30 min. In ex vivo model, rabbit hearts were perfused with clofilium (10 μM or chloroquine (300 μM continuously after priming along with methoxamine, acetylcholine chloride and propranolol hydrochloride. Results: In these models, prolongation of repolarization during α1 -adrenoceptor stimulation produced early after depolarization (EAD and Torsade de pointes (TdP. Saline infusion did not induce any abnormality in the animals. Clofilium caused expected changes in the electrocardiogram in both the models including TdP (50.0% in in vivo and 66.67% in ex vivo. Chloroquine caused decrease in heart rate and increase in the corrected QT (QTc interval in both the models. Further, apart from different stages of arrhythmia, TdP was evident in 33.33% in ex vivo model, whereas no TdP was observed in in vivo model. Conclusions: The results indicated that proarrhythmic potential of chloroquine and clofilium was well evaluated in both the models; moreover, both the models can be used to assess the proarrhythmic potential of the new drug candidates.

  7. Digital Radiography for Determination of Primary Tooth Length: In Vivo and Ex Vivo Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria D. Basso

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Methods for determining the root canal length of the primary tooth should yield accurate and reproducible results. In vitro studies show some limitations, which do not allow their findings to be directly transferred to a clinical situation. Aim. To compare the accuracy of radiographic tooth length obtained from in vivo digital radiograph with that obtained from ex vivo digital radiograph. Method. Direct digital radiographs of 20 upper primary incisors were performed in teeth (2/3 radicular resorption that were radiographed by an intraoral sensor, according to the long-cone technique. Teeth were extracted, measured, and mounted in a resin block, and then radiographic template was used to standardise the sensor-target distance (30 cm. The apparent tooth length (APTL was obtained from the computer screen by means of an electronic ruler accompanying the digital radiography software (CDR 2.0, whereas the actual tooth length (ACTL was obtained by means of a digital calliper following extraction. Data were compared to the ACTL by variance analysis and Pearson’s correlation test. Results. The values for APTL obtained from in vivo radiography were slightly underestimated, whereas those values obtained from ex vivo were slightly overestimated. No significance was observed (P≤0.48 between APTL and ACTL. Conclusion. The length of primary teeth estimated by in vivo and ex vivo comparisons using digital radiography was found to be similar to the actual tooth length.

  8. Quantification of carbon nanomaterials in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haifang; Yang, Sheng-Tao; Cao, Aoneng; Liu, Yuanfang

    2013-03-19

    A diverse array of carbon nanomaterials (NMs), including fullerene, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphene, nanodiamonds, and carbon nanoparticles, have been discovered and widely applied in a variety of industries. Carbon NMs have been detected in the environment and have a strong possibility of entering the human body. The safety of carbon NMs has thus become a serious concern in academia and society. To achieve strict biosafety assessments, researchers need to fully understand the effects and fates of NMs in the human body, including information about absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADME/T). To acquire the ADME data, researchers must quantify NMs, but carbon NMs are very difficult to quantify in vivo. The carbon background in a typical biological system is high, particularly compared with the much lower concentration of carbon NMs. Moreover, carbon NMs lack a specific detection signal. Therefore, isotopic labeling, with its high sensitivity and specificity, is the first choice to quantify carbon NMs in vivo. Previously, researchers have used many isotopes, including ¹³C, ¹⁴C, ¹²⁵I, ¹³¹I, ³H, ⁶⁴Cu, ¹¹¹In, ⁸⁶Y, 99mTc, and ⁶⁷Ga, to label carbon NMs. We used these isotopic labeling methods to study the ADME of carbon NMs via different exposure pathways in animal models. Except for the metabolism of carbon NMs, which has seldom been investigated, significant amounts of data have been reported on the in vivo absorption, distribution, excretion, and toxicity of carbon NMs, which have revealed characteristic behaviors of carbon NMs, such as reticuloendothelial system (RES) capture. However, the complexity of the biological systems and diverse preparation and functionalization of the same carbon NMs have led to inconsistent results across different studies. Therefore, the data obtained so far have not provided a compatible and systematic profile of biosafety. Further efforts are needed to address these problems. In

  9. Correlation of In Vivo and Ex Vivo ADC and T2 of In Situ and Invasive Murine Mammary Cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobing Fan

    Full Text Available Ex vivo MRI may aid in the evaluation of surgical specimens, and provide valuable information regarding the micro-anatomy of mammary/breast cancer. The use of ex vivo MRI to study mouse mammary cancer would be enhanced if there is a strong correlation between parameters derived from in vivo and ex vivo scans. Here, we report the correlation between apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC and T2 values measured in vivo and ex vivo in mouse mammary glands with in situ cancers (mammary intraepithelial neoplasia (MIN and invasive cancers (those which spread outside the ducts into surrounding tissue. MRI experiments were performed on the Polyoma middle T oncoprotein breast cancer mouse model (n = 15 in a 9.4T scanner. For in vivo experiments, T2-weighted (T2W images were acquired to identify abnormal regions, then ADC and T2 values were measured for nine selected slices. For ex vivo experiments, a midline incision was made along the spine, and then skin, glands, and tumors were gently peeled from the body. Tissue was fixed in formalin, placed around a mouse-sized sponge, and sutured together mimicking the geometry of the gland when attached to the mouse. The same pulse sequences used for in vivo experiments were repeated for ex vivo scans at room temperature. Regions of interest were manually traced on T2W images defining features that could be identified on in vivo and ex vivo images. The results demonstrate a strong positive correlations between in vivo and ex vivo invasive cancers for ADC (r = 0.89, p <0.0001 and T2 (r = 0.89, p <0.0001 values; and weak to moderate positive correlations between in vivo and ex vivo in situ cancers for ADC (r = 0.61, p <0.0001 and T2 (r = 0.79, p <0.0001 values. The average ex vivo ADC value was about 54% of the in vivo value; and the average ex vivo T2 was similar to the in vivo value for cancers. Although motion, fixation, and temperature differences affect ADC and T2, these results show a reliable relationship

  10. Viabilidade de pólen in vivo e in vitro em genótipos de açaizeiro In vivo and in vitro pollen viability of açaí palm genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Socorro Padilha de Oliveira

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se a viabilidade de pólen in vivo e in vitro em 20 genótipos de açaizeiro, da coleção de germoplasma da Embrapa Amazônia Oriental. Os grãos de pólen in vivo foram retirados de botão floral (BF e de flor recém-aberta (FA e os in vitro de ampolas armazenadas em freezer (-10ºC, com período de armazenamento (PA de um (PA1, três (PA3, seis (PA6 e doze (PA12 meses. Utilizou-se a solução de Baker, sendo foi retirada uma amostra para cada estádio. Calculou-se a taxa de viabilidade pela contagem de, aproximadamente, 500 grãos de pólen. Pólen in vivo, na maioria dos genótipos exibiram alta viabilidade com médias de 84,8% para botões e 93,2% para flores recém-abertas, sendo as melhores taxas registradas nos genótipos 3 e 19. Para pólen in vitro, os genótipos apresentaram redução na viabilidade com o aumento do período de armazenamento (PA1: 79,6%, PA3: 77,4%, PA6: 74,1% e PA12: 61,3% mas o armazenamento não foi prejudicial, pois grande parte dos genótipos alcançaram valores acima de 50%, destacando-se os genótipos 3 e 9 com as maiores percentagens. Portanto, pode-se considerar que, nos genótipos testados, pólen in vivo têm alta viabilidade e os in vitro devem ser usados em polinizações controladas sem prejuízos na fecundação, em até doze meses de conservação.The rate of in vivo and in vitro pollen viability, in 20 açai palm (Euterpe oleracea Mart. genotypes, belonging to the germplasm collection of Embrapa Eastern Amazon, was determined. The in vivo pollen grains were extracted from floral buds (FB and recently opened flowers (ROF. The in vitro pollen grains were obtained from flasks stored in the freezer under -10ºC,with storage period (SP of one (SP1, three (SP3, six (SP6 and twelve (SP12 months of storage. The pollen viability was accessed utilizing the Baker's procedure. The viability rate was achieved by counting up to 500 grains per slide. Most of the genotypes showed high viability for in vivo

  11. Ex vivo lung perfusion and reconditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Jonathan C; Cypel, Marcelo; Massad, Ehab; Keshavjee, Shaf

    2011-01-01

    Normothermic ex vivo lung perfusion can act as a platform for the evaluation and repair of donor lungs. An acellular hyperosmolar solution is perfused anterograde through the donor lungs at 40% of the estimated cardiac output. Following oxygenation of the perfusate by the lung, it passes through a hollow fiber oxygenator supplied with a hypoxic gas mixture to remove oxygen and to maintain physiological carbon dioxide levels. Flow through a heat exchanger to maintain normothermia and a leukocyte filter to remove demarginated leukocytes completes the circuit. Lung function can be measured by the difference in PO2 between the perfusate postlung and postmembrane and by physiological parameters. Utilization of this method of ex vivo donor lung evaluation should reduce concerns of primary graft dysfunction and increase utilization rates of donor lungs. PMID:24412979

  12. In Vivo Imaging of Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texier, Isabelle; Josser, Véronique

    Noninvasive whole-body near-infrared fluorescence imaging is now acknowledged as a powerful method for the molecular mapping of biological events in live small animals such as mouse models. With outstanding optical properties such as high fluorescence quantum yields and low photobleaching rates, quantum dots (QDs) are labels of choice in the near-infrared domain. The main applications described in the literature for in vivo imaging of mice after injection of QDs encompass imaging of lymph nodes and tumors and cell tracking. Standard methods for the preparation, the purification, and the in vivo fluorescence whole-body imaging of QDs in the live mouse are described. Nanoparticles coated by PEG chains of different sizes and terminal groups are prepared using 705-nm-emitting commercial QDs. Their biodistribution after intravenous or intradermal injections in tumor-bearing mice is reported here.

  13. Microrheological characteristics of reticulocyte in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢利德; 孙大公; 姚伟娟; 文宗曜

    2002-01-01

    Using the method of phenylhydrazine-induced anemia in rabbits, a mass of new reticulocytes, which synchronously grow, were got in vivo. The measurements of deformation index, orientation index, electrophoresis mobility etc. were performed for more than 72 h in the process of reticulocytes turning into red blood cells in vivo. There were obvious changes in the micro- rheological characteristics of reticulocytes in the course of turning into erythrocytes. The present study is significant in clinic for studying erythrocytes' microrheological characteristics when there are a lot of reticulocytes in blood, and also important in basic theorem for studying reticulocytes microrheological characteristics. It makes up a deficiency in the study on microrheological characteristics of reticulocytes turning into new RBCs from reticulocytes during reticulocytes life span.

  14. In vivo bioreactors for mandibular reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatara, A M; Wong, M E; Mikos, A G

    2014-12-01

    Large mandibular defects are difficult to reconstruct with good functional and aesthetic outcomes because of the complex geometry of craniofacial bone. While the current gold standard is free tissue flap transfer, this treatment is limited in fidelity by the shape of the harvested tissue and can result in significant donor site morbidity. To address these problems, in vivo bioreactors have been explored as an approach to generate autologous prefabricated tissue flaps. These bioreactors are implanted in an ectopic site in the body, where ossified tissue grows into the bioreactor in predefined geometries and local vessels are recruited to vascularize the developing construct. The prefabricated flap can then be harvested with vessels and transferred to a mandibular defect for optimal reconstruction. The objective of this review article is to introduce the concept of the in vivo bioreactor, describe important preclinical models in the field, summarize the human cases that have been reported through this strategy, and offer future directions for this exciting approach.

  15. In Vivo Radiobioassay and Research Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioassay monitoring for intakes of radioactive material is an essential part of the internal dosimetry program for radiation workers at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site. This monitoring program includes direct measurements of radionuclides in the body by detecting photons that exit the body and analyses of radionuclides in excreta samples. The specialized equipment and instrumentation required to make the direct measurements of these materials in the body are located at the In Vivo Radiobioassay and Research Facility (IVRRF). The IVRRF was originally built in 1960 and was designed expressly for the in vivo measurement of radioactive material in Hanford workers. Most routine in vivo measurements are performed annually and special measurements are performed as needed. The primary source terms at the Hanford Site include fission and activation products (primarily 137Cs and 90Sr), uranium, uranium progeny, and transuranic radionuclides. The facility currently houses five shielded counting systems, men's and women's change rooms and an instrument maintenance and repair shop. Four systems include high purity germanium detectors and one system utilizes large sodium iodide detectors. These systems are used to perform an average of 7,000 measurements annually. This includes approximately 5000 whole body measurements analyzed for fission and activation products and 2000 lung measurements analyzed for americium, uranium, and plutonium. Various other types of measurements are performed periodically to estimate activity in wounds, the thyroid, the liver, and the skeleton. The staff maintains the capability to detect and quantify activity in essentially any tissue or organ. The in vivo monitoring program that utilizes the facility is accredited by the Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program for direct radiobioassay.

  16. Multiphoton spectroscopy of human skin in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breunig, Hans G.; Weinigel, Martin; König, Karsten

    2012-03-01

    In vivo multiphoton-intensity images and emission spectra of human skin are reported. Optical sections from different depths of the epidermis and dermis have been measured with near-infrared laser-pulse excitation. While the intensity images reveal information on the morphology, the spectra show emission characteristics of main endogenous skin fluorophores like keratin, NAD(P)H, melanin, elastin and collagen as well as of second harmonic generation induced by the excitation-light interaction with the dermal collagen network.

  17. Evaluation of vaginal antifungal formulations in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRipley, R. J.; Erhard, P. J.; Schwind, R. A.; Whitney, R. R.

    1979-01-01

    Relatively simple and rapid procedures have been developed for evaluating the local efficacy of vaginal antifungal agents in vivo in a vaginal candidiasis model in ovariectomized rats. The results of this investigation indicate that the model and methods described are quite suitable for screening potential antifungal substances and for assessing the chemotherapeutic effectiveness of new antifungal agents and formulations before carrying out clinical studies. PMID:392480

  18. In vivo endothelial gene regulation in diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Shohet Ralph V; Maresh J Gregory

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background An authentic survey of the transcript-level response of the diabetic endothelium in vivo is key to understanding diabetic cardiovascular complications such as accelerated atherosclerosis and endothelial dysfunction. Methods We used streptozotocin to induce a model of type I diabetes in transgenic mice that express green fluorescent protein under the control of an endothelial-specific promoter (Tie2-GFP) allowing rapid isolation of aortic endothelium. Three weeks after trea...

  19. In Vivo Imaging of RNA Interference

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Hao; Zhang, Yin; Cai, Weibo

    2010-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi), an effective technique for regulating/silencing specific genes, can be applied to treat various diseases. Multiple clinical trials using RNAi are ongoing and molecular imaging can serve as a powerful tool in RNAi-based therapies. This brief review will highlight the current progress on in vivo imaging of RNAi delivery and silencing effects. Incorporation of suitable molecular imaging techniques into future RNAi-based clinical trials will provide more pieces of the puz...

  20. In Vivo Dedifferentiation of Adult Adipose Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yunjun Liao; Zhaowei Zeng; Feng Lu; Ziqing Dong; Qiang Chang; Jianhua Gao

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Adipocytes can dedifferentiate into fibroblast-like cells in vitro and thereby acquire proliferation and multipotent capacities to participate in the repair of various organs and tissues. Whether dedifferentiation occurs under physiological or pathological conditions in vivo is unknown. Methods A tissue expander was placed under the inguinal fat pads of rats and gradually expanded by injection of water. Samples were collected at various time points, and morphological, histologica...

  1. In vivo models for male reproductive toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyl, Rochelle W

    2002-05-01

    In Vivo Models for Male Reproductive Toxicology (Rochelle W. Tyl, Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina). Assessment of male reproductive function requires a specific set of evaluations of the various steps in successful mating from sperm production to copulation to fertilization to production of a viable litter. This unit outlines the measurements that are standard for determining the effects of treatment with toxicant on the reproductive capacity of male mice and rats.

  2. High-resolution MRI: in vivo histology?

    OpenAIRE

    Bridge, Holly; Clare, Stuart

    2005-01-01

    For centuries scientists have been fascinated with the question of how the brain works. Investigators have looked at both where different functions are localized and how the anatomical microstructure varies across the brain surface. Here we discuss how advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have allowed in vivo visualization of the fine structure of the brain that was previously only visible in post-mortem brains. We present data showing the correspondence between definitions of the pri...

  3. 40 CFR 79.64 - In vivo micronucleus assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Testing Requirements for Registration § 79.64 In vivo... information on this test guideline, the following references should be consulted. (1) 40 CFR 798.5395, In Vivo... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In vivo micronucleus assay....

  4. Luminescent probes for optical in vivo imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texier, Isabelle; Josserand, Veronique; Garanger, Elisabeth; Razkin, Jesus; Jin, Zhaohui; Dumy, Pascal; Favrot, Marie; Boturyn, Didier; Coll, Jean-Luc

    2005-04-01

    Going along with instrumental development for small animal fluorescence in vivo imaging, we are developing molecular fluorescent probes, especially for tumor targeting. Several criteria have to be taken into account for the optimization of the luminescent label. It should be adapted to the in vivo imaging optical conditions : red-shifted absorption and emission, limited overlap between absorption and emission for a good signal filtering, optimized luminescence quantum yield, limited photo-bleaching. Moreover, the whole probe should fulfill the biological requirements for in vivo labeling : adapted blood-time circulation, biological conditions compatibility, low toxicity. We here demonstrate the ability of the imaging fluorescence set-up developed in LETI to image the bio-distribution of molecular probes on short times after injection. Targeting with Cy5 labeled holo-transferrin of subcutaneous TS/Apc (angiogenic murine breast carcinoma model) or IGROV1 (human ovarian cancer) tumors was achieved. Differences in the kinetics of the protein uptake by the tumors were evidenced. IGROV1 internal metastatic nodes implanted in the peritoneal cavity could be detected in nude mice. However, targeted metastatic nodes in lung cancer could only be imaged after dissection of the mouse. These results validate our fluorescence imaging set-up and the use of Cy5 as a luminescent label. New fluorescent probes based on this dye and a molecular delivery template (the RAFT molecule) can thus be envisioned.

  5. Cells in Dengue Virus Infection In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sansanee Noisakran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue has been recognized as one of the most important vector-borne emerging infectious diseases globally. Though dengue normally causes a self-limiting infection, some patients may develop a life-threatening illness, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF/dengue shock syndrome (DSS. The reason why DHF/DSS occurs in certain individuals is unclear. Studies in the endemic regions suggest that the preexisting antibodies are a risk factor for DHF/DSS. Viremia and thrombocytopenia are the key clinical features of dengue virus infection in patients. The amounts of virus circulating in patients are highly correlated with severe dengue disease, DHF/DSS. Also, the disturbance, mainly a transient depression, of hematological cells is a critical clinical finding in acute dengue patients. However, the cells responsible for the dengue viremia are unresolved in spite of the intensive efforts been made. Dengue virus appears to replicate and proliferate in many adapted cell lines, but these in vitro properties are extremely difficult to be reproduced in primary cells or in vivo. This paper summarizes reports on the permissive cells in vitro and in vivo and suggests a hematological cell lineage for dengue virus infection in vivo, with the hope that a new focus will shed light on further understanding of the complexities of dengue disease.

  6. In vivo models of multiple myeloma (MM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Eric; Chen, Haiming; Berenson, James R

    2014-06-01

    The development of the plasma cell tumor (PCT) model was the first widely accepted in vivo model of multiple myeloma (MM). Potter and colleagues used this chemically induced PCT model to study the pathophysiology of malignant plasma cells and also used it to screen anti-MM agents. Two decades later the C57BL/KaLwRij mouse strain was found to spontaneously develop MM. Testing of pamidronate using this endogenously arising MM model revealed significant reductions in MM-associated bone disease, which was subsequently confirmed in human trials in MM patients. Transgenic models have also been developed in which the MM is localized in the bone marrow causing lytic bone lesions. Experiments in a transgenic model showed that a new oral proteasome inhibitor was effective at reducing MM burden. A clinical trial later confirmed this observation and validated the model. The xenograft model has been used to grow human MM in immunocompromised mice. The xenograft models of MM have been very useful in optimizing drug schedules and doses, which have helped in the treatments given to MM patients. However, in vivo models have been criticized for having a low clinical predictive power of new chemical entities (NCEs). Despite this, the knowledge gained from in vivo models of MM has without a doubt benefited MM patients.

  7. Eficacia y tolerabilidad de esteroides epidurales vs. Dosis bajas de esteroides mas metamizol mas D-propoxifeno administrados por vía paravertebral en pacientes con síndrome post-laminectomía Efficacy and tolerability of epidural steroids vs low doses of steroids plus metamizol plus propoxyphene administered paravertebrally for postaminectomy syndrome patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Aldrete

    2006-10-01

    de pacientes con radiculopatia post-laminectomia lumbar, al ser tratados con MTP y BPV peridural y un grupo semejante que recibio la mitad de la dosis de MTP, mas BPV, DPN y PPX, en los espacios paravertebral L4-L5 y L5-S1. Los efectos secundarios y la morbilidad predominaron en el grupo tratado con inyecciones peridurales. Inyectando fuera del canal vertebral dosis reducidas de un opiáceo y de un antiinflamatorio, permitió usar solo la mitad de la dosis total de MTP. Ya que se obtiene una mejoría semejante, al evitar los efectos indeseables de los esteroides, así como las posibles complicaciones típicas de inyecciones epidurales, hacen de esta modalidad terapéutica una alternativa definitiva.As the clinical applications of the central antinociceptive action of the non-steroidal antiinflammatory agents have been recognized, their combination with mild doses of opiods has been explored in order to be able to reduce or eliminate the repetitious usage of steroids. A group of 152 adult patients with recurrent radiculopathy after the first laminectomy, at either L4-L5 or L5-S1 levels, in whom periradicular fibrosis and scarring had been shown at MRI exam, was separated at random into two subgroups. Subgroup A included 69 patients that were treated with four epidural injections of 80mg of methylprednisolone (MTP in 3ml of 0.25% bupivacaine (BPV. Changes in pain level, physical activity and the type of medications used were followed using the Pain Progress Score that evaluates five parameters graded from 0 to 2, before initiating treatment and again before each of the three subsequent injections, given at three week intervals. Subgroup B included 73 patients treated by paravertebral injections of 40mg of MTP, 50mg of dipyrone (DPN, 12.5mg of propoxyphene (PPX and 1ml of 0.5% BPV at the L4-L5 and L5-S1 spaces, bilateral. All patients improved clinically without observing statistically significant differences between the two groups; however, there was a significant

  8. Visualization of multidrug resistance in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrikse, N.H. [PET Center, University Hospital, Groningen (Netherlands)]|[Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology, University Hospital, Groningen (Netherlands); Franssen, E.J.F. [PET Center, University Hospital, Groningen (Netherlands)]|[Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Groningen (Netherlands); Graaf, W.T.A. van der; Vries, E.G.E. de [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology, University Hospital, Groningen (Netherlands); Vaalburg, W. [PET Center, University Hospital, Groningen (Netherlands)

    1999-03-01

    Various mechanisms are involved in multidrug resistance (MDR) for chemotherapeutic drugs, such as the drug efflux pumps, P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP). In this review the mechanisms involved in MDR are described and results are reviewed with particular attention to the in vivo imaging of Pgp and MRP. Various detection assays provide information about the presence of drug efflux pumps at the mRNA and protein levels. However, these methods do not yield information about the dynamic function of Pgp and MRP in vivo. For the study of Pgp- and MRP-mediated transport, single-photon emission tomography (SPET) and positron emission tomography (PET) are available. Technetium-99m sestamibi is a substrate for Pgp and MRP, and has been used in clinical studies for tumour imaging, and to visualize blockade of Pgp-mediated transport after modulation of the Pgp pump. Other {sup 99m}Tc radiopharmaceuticals, such as {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin and several {sup 99}Tc-Q complexes, are also substrates for Pgp, but to date only results from in vitro and animal studies are available for these compounds. Several agents, including [{sup 11}C]colchicine, [{sup 11}C]verapamil and [{sup 11}C]daunorubicin, have been evaluated for the quantification of Pgp-mediated transport with PET in vivo. The results suggest that radiolabelled colchicine, verapamil and daunorubicin are feasible substrates with which to image Pgp function in tumours. Uptake of [{sup 11}C]colchicine and [{sup 11}C]verapamil is relatively high in the chest area, reducing the value of both tracers for monitoring Pgp-mediated drug transport in tumours located in this region. In addition, it has to be borne in mind that only comparison of Pgp-mediated transport of radioalabelled substrates in the absence and in the presence of Pgp blockade gives quantitative information on Pgp-mediated pharmacokinetics. Leukotrienes are specific substrates for MRP. Therefore, N-[{sup 11}C]acetyl-leukotriene E

  9. 基于智能多代理的能量协调控制在直流微网中的应用%Energy coordination control based on intelligent MAS for DC microgrid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晶; 李瑞环; 束洪春

    2013-01-01

    提出一种基于智能多代理技术的能量协调控制方法,用于直流微网的能量管理与电压控制.对直流微网的架构进行设计,实现对光伏电池、燃料电池及蓄电池的数学建模.设计了一个2层的智能多代理系统,对直流微网的并网、解列,以及光伏电池、燃料电池、负荷及蓄电池的能量管理进行协调控制.从微源和负荷各种状态中提取了8个特征量及13种不同动作作为神经网络的输入和输出参数,训练并实现了控制中心Agent的决策器.通过MATLAB/Simulink仿真对光照变化、并网时负荷增加后断网及孤岛时负荷增加后并网这3种算例进行分析,验证了该智能多代理能量协调控制策略的可行性.%An energy coordination control based on intelligent MAS(Multi Agent System) is proposed for the energy management and voltage control of DC microgrid.The framework of DC microgrid is designed and the mathematic models are established for PV,fuel cell and battery.A two-layer MAS is designed for the coordination control:the grid-connection and islanding of DC microgrid and the energy management of PV cells,fuel cells,loads and battery.8 characteristic variables and 13 operations are extracted from various conditions of micro-sources and loads as,respectively,the input and output parameters of a neural network,which is then trained to obtain the decision maker of central Agent.The proposed strategy of energy coordination control is verified by simulation with MATLAB/Simulink for three operating conditions:variable light intensity,islanding after load increase and grid-connection after load increase.

  10. In vivo dosimetry during tangential breast treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heukelom, S.; Lanson, J.H.; Tienhoven, G. van; Mijnheer, B.J. (Nederlands Kanker Inst. ' Antoni van Leeuwenhoekhuis' , Amsterdam (Netherlands))

    1991-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) dose distribution as calculated in clinical practice for tangential breast treatment was verified through in vivo dosimetry. Clinical practice at Netherlands Cancer Institute implies use of 8MV X-ray beams, 2-D treatment planning system, collimator rotation and a limited set of patient data for dose calculations. By positioning diodes at the central beam axes as well as in the periphery of the breast the magnitude of dose values at the isocentre and in points situated in high-dose regions behind the lung could be assessed. The position of diodes was verified by means of an on-line portal imaging device. Reproducibility of these in vivo dose measurements was better than 2% (1SD). This study shows that on the average dose delivery at the isocentre is 2% less at the points behind the lung, 5.7% higher with respect to the calculated dose values. Detailed analysis of these in vivo dosimetry results, based on dose measurements performed with a breast shaped phantom, yielded the magnitudes of errors in predicted dose due to several limitations in dose calculation algorithms and dose calculation procedure. These limitations are each introducing an error of several percent but are compensating each other for the dose calculation at the isocentre. It is concluded that dose distribution in patient for this treatment technique and dose calculation procedure can be predicted with a 2-D treatment planning system in an acceptable way. A more accurate prediction of dose distribution can be performed but requires an estimation of the lack of scatter due to missing tissue, the change in the dose distribution due to oblique incident beams and incorporation of the actual output of the treatment machine in the assessment of the number of monitor units. (author). 28 refs.; 3 figs.; 4 tabs.

  11. In vivo bioresponses to silk proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Amy E; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G; Kaplan, David L

    2015-12-01

    Silks are appealing materials for numerous biomedical applications involving drug delivery, tissue engineering, or implantable devices, because of their tunable mechanical properties and wide range of physical structures. In addition to the functionalities needed for specific clinical applications, a key factor necessary for clinical success for any implanted material is appropriate interactions with the body in vivo. This review summarizes our current understanding of the in vivo biological responses to silks, including degradation, the immune and inflammatory response, and tissue remodeling with particular attention to vascularization. While we focus in this review on silkworm silk fibroin protein due to the large quantity of in vivo data thanks to its widespread use in medical materials and consumer products, spider silk information is also included if available. Silk proteins are degraded in the body on a time course that is dependent on the method of silk fabrication and can range from hours to years. Silk protein typically induces a mild inflammatory response that decreases within a few weeks of implantation. The response involves recruitment and activation of macrophages and may include activation of a mild foreign body response with the formation of multinuclear giant cells, depending on the material format and location of implantation. The number of immune cells present decreases with time and granulation tissue, if formed, is replaced by endogenous, not fibrous, tissue. Importantly, silk materials have not been demonstrated to induce mineralization, except when used in calcified tissues. Due to its ability to be degraded, silk can be remodeled in the body allowing for vascularization and tissue ingrowth with eventual complete replacement by native tissue. The degree of remodeling, tissue ingrowth, or other specific cell behaviors can be modulated with addition of growth or other signaling factors. Silk can also be combined with numerous other materials

  12. In Vivo Evaluation of Hydroxyapatite Foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sepulveda

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Porous hydroxyapatite manufactured by foaming of aqueous ceramic suspensions and setting via gelcasting of organic monomers was tested for in vivo biocompatibility in rabbit tibia for a period of 8 weeks. The foams provide tortous frameworks and large interconnected pores that support cell attachment and organisation into 3D arrays to form new tissue. The HA foam implants were progressively filled with mature new bone tissue and osteoid after the implanted period, confirming the high osteoconductive potential and high biocompatibility of HA and the suitability of foam network in providing good osteointegration. No immune or inflammatory reactions were detected.

  13. In vivo MR tractography using diffusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffusion in structured tissue, such as white matter or muscle, is anisotropic. MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures anisotropy per pixel and provides the directional information relevant for MR tractography or fiber tracking in vivo. MR tractography is non-invasive, relatively fast, and can be repeated multiple times without destructing important tissue. Moreover, the combination with other MR images is relatively simple. In this paper, the basic principles of tractography are presented. Different tracking methods with varying degrees of complexity are introduced and their potential strengths and weaknesses are discussed. Clinical applications and different strategies for evaluating the fidelity of tracking results are reviewed

  14. In vivo MR tractography using diffusion imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bammer, Roland; Acar, Burak; Moseley, Michael E

    2003-03-01

    Diffusion in structured tissue, such as white matter or muscle, is anisotropic. MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures anisotropy per pixel and provides the directional information relevant for MR tractography or fiber tracking in vivo. MR tractography is non-invasive, relatively fast, and can be repeated multiple times without destructing important tissue. Moreover, the combination with other MR images is relatively simple. In this paper, the basic principles of tractography are presented. Different tracking methods with varying degrees of complexity are introduced and their potential strengths and weaknesses are discussed. Clinical applications and different strategies for evaluating the fidelity of tracking results are reviewed. PMID:12595107

  15. In vivo MR tractography using diffusion imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bammer, Roland E-mail: roland@s-word.stanford.edu; Acar, Burak; Moseley, Michael E

    2003-03-01

    Diffusion in structured tissue, such as white matter or muscle, is anisotropic. MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures anisotropy per pixel and provides the directional information relevant for MR tractography or fiber tracking in vivo. MR tractography is non-invasive, relatively fast, and can be repeated multiple times without destructing important tissue. Moreover, the combination with other MR images is relatively simple. In this paper, the basic principles of tractography are presented. Different tracking methods with varying degrees of complexity are introduced and their potential strengths and weaknesses are discussed. Clinical applications and different strategies for evaluating the fidelity of tracking results are reviewed.

  16. In vivo toxicity study of Lantana camara

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Badakhshan Mahdi Pour; Sreenivasan Sasidharan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the toxicity of methanol extract of various parts (Root, Stem, Leaf, Flower and Fruit) of Lantana camara(L. Camara) in Artemia salina. Methods: The methanol extracts of L. camara were tested for in vivo brine shrimp lethality assay. Results: All the tested extract exhibited very low toxicity on brine shrimp larva. The results showed that the root extract was the most toxic part of L. camara and may have potential as anticancer agent. Conclusions:Methanolic extract of L. camara is relatively safe on short-term exposure.

  17. In Vivo Nanodetoxication for Acute Uranium Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Guzmán

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Accidental exposure to uranium is a matter of concern, as U(VI is nephrotoxic in both human and animal models, and its toxicity is associated to chemical toxicity instead of radioactivity. We synthesized different PAMAM G4 and G5 derivatives in order to prove their interaction with uranium and their effect on the viability of red blood cells in vitro. Furthermore, we prove the effectiveness of the selected dendrimers in an animal model of acute uranium intoxication. The dendrimer PAMAM G4-Lys-Fmoc-Cbz demonstrated the ability to chelate the uranyl ion in vivo, improving the biochemical and histopathologic features caused by acute intoxication with uranium.

  18. In vivo Dynamic Studies of Brain Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Xuechun; JIANG Yufeng; ZHANG Riqing

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) can noninvasively monitor intracellular concentrations and kinetic properties of numerous inorganic and organic compounds. A 31P NMR surface coil was used in vivo to dynamically measure phosphocreatine (PCr), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and intracellular inorganic phosphate (Pi) levels in mouse brain during ischemia-reperfusion to study the damage of cerebral tissues caused by ischemia and effects of herbs on cerebral energy metabolism during ischemia-reperfusion. The study provides dynamic brain energy metabolism data during different periods. The data show that some herbs more rapidly increase the PCr level during the recovery phase than in the control group.

  19. In Vivo Models of Muscle Angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egginton, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis is an important determinant of tissue function, from delivery of oxygen and other substrates to removal of waste products, in health and disease (e.g., adaptive or pathological remodelling). The phenotype and functional responses of endothelial cells are conditioned by systemic humoral signals and local environmental factors, including the haemodynamic forces that act upon them. Here we describe some interventions that have been helpful in unraveling the integrative nature of the complex in vivo response, and quantitative assessment of angiogenesis in muscle.

  20. Comparison of the thermal gain of the more commonly roofing systems used in Mexico`s social dwellings; Comparacion de la ganancia termica de los sistemas de techumbre mas comunmente utilizados en la vivienda social en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Alfredo [Division de Estudios de Posgrado de la Facultad de Arquitectura UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Morillon, David [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    Under the frame of discussion of the Mexican Official Standard 008 (Integral Energy Efficiency in non-residential Buildings), and with the purpose of assessing its feasibility and possible extension to residential buildings, this paper, whose objective is to evaluate the roofing systems (opaque) more commonly utilized on the social dwellings in Mexico, is presented. To perform this evaluation the heat gains by conduction through the roofing in different cities were obtained. Later on these heat gains were compared against the energy consumption that would produce its removal in each one of the cases. Finally, thermal resistance values (R) that allow, in significant form diminishing such gains, are presented, producing in consequence, a thermally efficient building. [Espanol] Dentro del marco de discusion de la Norma Oficial Mexicana 008 (Eficiencia energetica integral en edificios no residenciales), y con el fin de evaluar su factibilidad y posible extension hacia las edificaciones residenciales, se presenta este trabajo que tiene como objetivo la evaluacion de los sistemas de techumbre (opacos) mas comunmente utilizados dentro de la vivienda social en Mexico. Para realizar esta evaluacion se obtuvieron las ganancias por conduccion a traves del techo para distintas ciudades. Posteriormente, se compararon dichas ganancias contra el consumo de energia que produciria la remocion de las mismas en cada uno de los casos. Finalmente, se proponen valores de Resistencia Termica (R) que permitan disminuir de manera importante dichas ganancias teniendo, en consecuencia, una edificacion energeticamente eficiente.

  1. Pomiar wytrzymałości na zginanie jako metoda oceny jakości spoiwa na przykładzie mas ze szkłem wodnym

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stachowicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available W pracy podjęto próbę określenia możliwości zastosowania parametru wytrzymałości na zginanie utwardzonych mas jako kryteriumoceny jakości użytego do ich sporządzenia spoiwa. W tym celu zaprezentowano wyniki badań wpływu wybranych czterech metodutwardzania spoiwa uwodnionego krzemianu sodu. Wybrane ekologiczne, nieorganiczne spoiwo stosowane jest do wytwarzania zarównoform, jak i rdzeni odlewniczych. Oceny skuteczności metod utwardzania spoiwa dokonano odnosząc otrzymane wartości wytrzymałościna zginanie do ilości użytego do sporządzenia masy formierskiej szkła wodnego. W badaniach zastosowano pięć gatunków uwodnionegokrzemianu sodu i wybrane cztery metody jego utwardzania. Stwierdzono, że możliwym jest wykorzystywanie opracowanej oceny jakości spoiw, w szczególności stosowanych do wykonywania rdzeni odlewniczych według zaproponowanego trzyklasowego podziału.

  2. Cirrus cloud optical and microphysical property retrievals from eMAS during SEAC4RS using bi-spectral reflectance measurements within the 1.88 µm water vapor absorption band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Kerry; Platnick, Steven; Arnold, G. Thomas; Holz, Robert E.; Veglio, Paolo; Yorks, John; Wang, Chenxi

    2016-04-01

    Previous bi-spectral imager retrievals of cloud optical thickness (COT) and effective particle radius (CER) based on the Nakajima and King (1990) approach, such as those of the operational MODIS cloud optical property retrieval product (MOD06), have typically paired a non-absorbing visible or near-infrared wavelength, sensitive to COT, with an absorbing shortwave or mid-wave infrared wavelength sensitive to CER. However, in practice it is only necessary to select two spectral channels that exhibit a strong contrast in cloud particle absorption. Here it is shown, using eMAS observations obtained during NASA's SEAC4RS field campaign, that selecting two absorbing wavelength channels within the broader 1.88 µm water vapor absorption band, namely the 1.83 and 1.93 µm channels that have sufficient differences in ice crystal single scattering albedo, can yield COT and CER retrievals for thin to moderately thick single-layer cirrus that are reasonably consistent with other solar and IR imager-based and lidar-based retrievals. A distinct advantage of this channel selection for cirrus cloud retrievals is that the below-cloud water vapor absorption minimizes the surface contribution to measured cloudy top-of-atmosphere reflectance, in particular compared to the solar window channels used in heritage retrievals such as MOD06. This reduces retrieval uncertainty resulting from errors in the surface reflectance assumption and reduces the frequency of retrieval failures for thin cirrus clouds.

  3. The Advances and Perspective Utilization of Meiosis Activating Sterols in Assisted Reproduction%促减数分裂甾醇(MAS)在附助生殖生物学中的作用及应用前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏国良; 吕忠显

    2000-01-01

    促减数分裂甾醇(Meiosis-activating Sterols, MAS)是近年来新发现的能够促进哺乳动物生殖细胞减数分裂恢复的物质.其中,来自人卵泡液的FF-MAS和来自牛睾丸组织T-MAS能诱导体外培养的小鼠卵母细胞减数分裂的恢复,可能在促性腺激素调控配子的成熟过程中扮演重要的生理性角色.本文结合我们的研究结果,就MAS在性腺的合成及分布、与卵母细胞减数分裂恢复及精子形成的关系以及MAS在附助生殖生物学中可能扮演的角色综述如下.

  4. Intertīkla protokola balss telefonijas infrastruktūras testu automatizācija nepārtrauktas integrācijas sistēmas ietvaros

    OpenAIRE

    Tkačenko, Valērijs

    2016-01-01

    Kvalifikācijas darbā “Intertīkla protokola balss telefonijas infrastruktūras testu automatizācija nepārtrauktas integrācijas sistēmas ietvaros” tika izstrādāti testēšanas rīki, kas ļauj lietotājam simulēt servisu noturības testus un ērti tos integrēt tādās nepārtrauktās integrācijas platformās kā Jenkins. Testēšanas rīku kopums ir izstrādāts pēc spējās programmatūras izstrādes metodes - Scrum ar JavaScript, HTML5, CSS un Python valodu palīdzību un ir pieejama lietošanas instrukcija angļu val...

  5. Nutritional abrogation of photoimmunosuppression: in vivo investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkington, Suzanne M; Gibbs, Neil K; Friedmann, Peter S; Rhodes, Lesley E

    2014-01-01

    Skin cancer is a major public health concern, and the primary aetiological factor in the majority of skin cancers is ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure. UVR not only induces potentially mutagenic DNA damage but also suppresses cell-mediated immunity (CMI), allowing cancerous cells to escape destruction and progress to tumours. A considerable proportion of an individual's annual sun exposure is obtained outside the vacation period when topical and physical measures for photoprotection are irregularly used. Certain nutrients could provide an adjunctive protective role, and evidence is accruing from experimental studies to support their use in abrogation of photoimmunosuppression. Moreover, developments in clinical research methods to evaluate impact of solar-simulated radiation on cutaneous CMI allow the immune protective potential of nutritional agents to be examined in humans in vivo. This article summarises the mediation of CMI and its suppression by UVR, evaluates the methodology for quantitative assessment in vivo, reviews the human studies reported on nutritional abrogation of photoimmunosuppression including recent randomized controlled trials and discusses the mechanisms of photoprotection by the nutrients. This includes, in addition to antioxidants, novel studies of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and nicotinamide.

  6. In vivo identification of periodontal progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roguljic, H; Matthews, B G; Yang, W; Cvija, H; Mina, M; Kalajzic, I

    2013-08-01

    The periodontal ligament contains progenitor cells; however, their identity and differentiation potential in vivo remain poorly characterized. Previous results have suggested that periodontal tissue progenitors reside in perivascular areas. Therefore, we utilized a lineage-tracing approach to identify and track periodontal progenitor cells from the perivascular region in vivo. We used an alpha-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) promoter-driven and tamoxifen-inducible Cre system (αSMACreERT2) that, in combination with a reporter mouse line (Ai9), permanently labels a cell population, termed 'SMA9'. To trace the differentiation of SMA9-labeled cells into osteoblasts/cementoblasts, we utilized a Col2.3GFP transgene, while expression of Scleraxis-GFP was used to follow differentiation into periodontal ligament fibroblasts during normal tissue formation and remodeling following injury. In uninjured three-week-old SMA9 mice, tamoxifen labeled a small population of cells in the periodontal ligament that expanded over time, particularly in the apical region of the root. By 17 days and 7 weeks after labeling, some SMA9-labeled cells expressed markers indicating differentiation into mature lineages, including cementocytes. Following injury, SMA9 cells expanded, and differentiated into cementoblasts, osteoblasts, and periodontal ligament fibroblasts. SMA9-labeled cells represent a source of progenitors that can give rise to mature osteoblasts, cementoblasts, and fibroblasts within the periodontium. PMID:23735585

  7. In vivo tractography of fetal association fibers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Mitter

    Full Text Available Association fibers connect different cortical areas within the same hemisphere and constitute an essential anatomical substrate for a diverse range of higher cognitive functions. So far a comprehensive description of the prenatal in vivo morphology of these functionally important pathways is lacking. In the present study, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and tractography were used to visualize major association fiber tracts and the fornix in utero in preselected non-motion degraded DTI datasets of 24 living unsedated fetuses between 20 and 34 gestational weeks (GW. The uncinate fasciculus and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus were depicted as early as 20 GW, while in vivo 3D visualization of the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, cingulum and fornix was successful in older fetuses during the third trimester. Provided optimal scanning conditions, in utero DTI and tractography have the potential to provide a more accurate anatomical definition of developing neuronal networks in the human fetal brain. Knowledge about the normal prenatal 3D association tract morphology may serve as reference for their assessment in common developmental diseases.

  8. Dendritic Cells in vivo and in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Wan; Marcel Dupasquier

    2005-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are crucial cells of the immune system, and bridged the essential connection between innate and adaptive immunity. They reside in the periphery as sentinels where they take up antigens. Upon activation,they migrate to lymphoid organs and present there the processed antigens to T cells, thereby activating them and eliciting a potent immune response. Dendritic cells are bone marrow-derived cells, still big controversies exist about their in vivo development. In vitro, DC can be generated from multiple precursor cells, among them lymphoid and myeloid committed progenitors. Although it remains unknown how DC are generated in vivo,studying the functions of in vitro generated DC results in fundamental knowledge of the DC biology with promising applications for future medicine. Therefore, in this review, we present current protocols for the generation of DC from precursors in vitro. We will do this for the mouse system, where most research occurs and for the human system, where research concentrates on implementing DC biology in disease treatments.

  9. Responsive corneosurfametry following in vivo skin preconditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhoda, E; Goffin, V; Pierard, G E

    2003-12-01

    Skin is subjected to many environmental threats, some of which altering the structure and function of the stratum corneum. Among them, surfactants are recognized factors that may influence irritant contact dermatitis. The present study was conducted to compare the variations in skin capacitance and corneosurfametry (CSM) reactivity before and after skin exposure to repeated subclinical injuries by 2 hand dishwashing liquids. A forearm immersion test was performed on 30 healthy volunteers. 2 daily soak sessions were performed for 5 days. At inclusion and the day following the last soak session, skin capacitance was measured and cyanoacrylate skin-surface strippings were harvested. The latter specimens were used for the ex vivo microwave CSM. Both types of assessments clearly differentiated the 2 hand dishwashing liquids. The forearm immersion test allowed the discriminant sensitivity of CSM to increase. Intact skin capacitance did not predict CSM data. By contrast, a significant correlation was found between the post-test conductance and the corresponding CSM data. In conclusion, a forearm immersion test under realistic conditions can discriminate the irritation potential between surfactant-based products by measuring skin conductance and performing CSM. In vivo skin preconditioning by surfactants increases CSM sensitivity to the same surfactants.

  10. In vivo photoacoustic imaging of mouse embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Jan; Norris, Francesca; Cleary, Jon; Zhang, Edward; Treeby, Bradley; Cox, Ben; Johnson, Peter; Scambler, Pete; Lythgoe, Mark; Beard, Paul

    2012-06-01

    The ability to noninvasively image embryonic vascular anatomy in mouse models is an important requirement for characterizing the development of the normal cardiovascular system and malformations in the heart and vascular supply. Photoacoustic imaging, which can provide high resolution non invasive images of the vasculature based upon optical absorption by endogenous hemoglobin, is well suited to this application. In this study, photoacoustic images of mouse embryos were obtained ex vivo and in vivo. The images show intricate details of the embryonic vascular system to depths of up to 10 mm, which allowed whole embryos to be imaged in situ. To achieve this, an all-optical photoacoustic scanner and a novel time reversal image reconstruction algorithm, which provide deep tissue imaging capability while maintaining high spatial resolution and contrast were employed. This technology may find application as an imaging tool for preclinical embryo studies in developmental biology as well as more generally in preclinical and clinical medicine for studying pathologies characterized by changes in the vasculature.

  11. Nutritional abrogation of photoimmunosuppression: in vivo investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkington, Suzanne M; Gibbs, Neil K; Friedmann, Peter S; Rhodes, Lesley E

    2014-01-01

    Skin cancer is a major public health concern, and the primary aetiological factor in the majority of skin cancers is ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure. UVR not only induces potentially mutagenic DNA damage but also suppresses cell-mediated immunity (CMI), allowing cancerous cells to escape destruction and progress to tumours. A considerable proportion of an individual's annual sun exposure is obtained outside the vacation period when topical and physical measures for photoprotection are irregularly used. Certain nutrients could provide an adjunctive protective role, and evidence is accruing from experimental studies to support their use in abrogation of photoimmunosuppression. Moreover, developments in clinical research methods to evaluate impact of solar-simulated radiation on cutaneous CMI allow the immune protective potential of nutritional agents to be examined in humans in vivo. This article summarises the mediation of CMI and its suppression by UVR, evaluates the methodology for quantitative assessment in vivo, reviews the human studies reported on nutritional abrogation of photoimmunosuppression including recent randomized controlled trials and discusses the mechanisms of photoprotection by the nutrients. This includes, in addition to antioxidants, novel studies of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and nicotinamide. PMID:24283330

  12. In vivo endothelial gene regulation in diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohet Ralph V

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An authentic survey of the transcript-level response of the diabetic endothelium in vivo is key to understanding diabetic cardiovascular complications such as accelerated atherosclerosis and endothelial dysfunction. Methods We used streptozotocin to induce a model of type I diabetes in transgenic mice that express green fluorescent protein under the control of an endothelial-specific promoter (Tie2-GFP allowing rapid isolation of aortic endothelium. Three weeks after treatment, endothelial cells were isolated from animals with blood glucose > 350 mg/dl. Aortae from the root to the renal bifurcation were rapidly processed by mincing and proteolytic digestion followed by fluorescent activated cell sorting to yield endothelial cell populations of >95% purity. RNA was isolated from >50,000 endothelial cells and subjected to oligo dT amplification prior to transcriptional analysis on microarrays displaying long oligonucleotides representing 32,000 murine transcripts. Five regulated transcripts were selected for analysis by real-time PCR. Results Within replicate microarray experiments, 19 transcripts were apparently dysregulated by at least 70% within diabetic mice. Up-regulation of glycam1, slc36a2, ces3, adipsin and adiponectin was confirmed by real-time PCR. Conclusion By comprehensively examining cellular gene responses in vivo in a whole animal model of type I diabetes, we have identified novel regulation of key endothelial transcripts that likely contribute to the metabolic and pro-inflammatory responses that accompany diabetes.

  13. Does simvastatin stimulate bone formation in vivo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chorev Michael

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Statins, potent compounds that inhibit cholesterol synthesis in the liver have been reported to induce bone formation, both in tissue culture and in rats and mice. To re-examine potential anabolic effects of statins on bone formation, we compared the activity of simvastatin (SVS to the known anabolic effects of PTH in an established model of ovariectomized (OVX Swiss-Webster mice. Methods Mice were ovariectomized at 12 weeks of age (T0, remained untreated for 5 weeks to allow development of osteopenia (T5, followed by treatment for 8 weeks (T13. Whole, trabecular and cortical femoral bone was analyzed by micro-computed tomography (micro CT. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS was used to detect the presence of SVS and its active metabolite, simvastatin β-hydroxy acid (SVS-OH in the mouse serum. Results Trabecular BV/TV at T13 was 4.2 fold higher in animals treated with PTH (80 micro-g/kg/day compared to the OVX-vehicle treated group (p in vivo study. Conclusions While PTH demonstrated the expected anabolic effect on bone, SVS failed to stimulate bone formation, despite our verification by LC/MS of the active SVS-OH metabolite in mouse serum. While statins have clear effects on bone formation in vitro, the formulation of existing 'liver-targeted' statins requires further refinement for efficacy in vivo.

  14. Dendritic Cells in vivo and in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuiWan; MarcelDupasquier

    2005-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are crucial cells of the immune system, and bridged the essential connection between innate and adaptive immunity. They reside in the periphery as sentinels where they take up antigens. Upon activation, they migrate to lymphoid organs and present there the processed antigens to T cells, thereby activating them and eliciting a potent immune response. Dendritic cells are bone marrow-derived cells, still big controversies exist about their in vivo development. In vitro, DC can be generated from multiple precursor cells, among them lymphoid and myeloid committed progenitors. Although it remains unknown how DC are generated in vivo, studying the functions of in vitro generated DC results in fundamental knowledge of the DC biology with promising applications for future medicine. Therefore, in this review, we present current protocols for the generation of DC from precursors in vitro. We will do this for the mouse system, where most research occurs and for the human system, where research concentrates on implementing DC biology in disease treatments. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2005;2(1):28-35.

  15. In vivo NMR spectroscopy of ripening avocado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripening of avocado fruit is associated with a dramatic increase in respiration. Previous studies have indicated that the increase in respiration is brought about by activation of the glycolytic reaction catalyzing the conversion of fructose-6-phosphate to fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. The authors reinvestigated the proposed role of glycolytic regulation in the respiratory increase using in vivo 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy using an external surface coil and analysis of phosphofructokinase (PFK), phosphofructophosphotransferase (PFP), and fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (fru 2,6-P2) levels in ripening avocado fruit. In vivo 31P NMR spectroscopy revealed large increases in ATP levels accompanying the increase in respiration. Both glycolytic enzymes, PFK and PFP, were present in avocado fruit, with the latter activity being highly stimulated by fru 2,6-P2. Fructose 2,6-bisphosphate levels increased approximately 90% at the onset of ripening, indicating that the respiratory increase in ripening avocado may be regulated by the activation of PFP brought about by an increase in fru 2,6-P2

  16. Preparation and evaluation of SEDDS of simvastatin by in vivo, in vitro and ex vivo technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Fahim Tamzeedul; Kalam, Azad; Anwar, Rafi; Miah, Muhammad Masum; Rahman, Md Shamim; Islam, S M Ashraful

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to formulate a Self Emulsifying Drug Delivery System (SEDDS) of simvastatin, a poorly soluble drug and to evaluate by in vivo, in vitro and ex vivo techniques. Oils and surfactants were screened out depending upon their solubilizing capacity. Among all of the solvents, Capryol 90 showed good solubilizing capacity. It dissolved 105 mg/ml of simvastatin. Tween-80 also showed good solubilizing capacity which was 117 mg/ml. The two excipients were used to prepare simvastatin SEDDS. Formulations were initially checked for the color, clarity and sedimentation. The SEDDS formulations were transparent and clear. Formulation F2 containing 7:3 (m/m) mixture of Capryol 90/Tween-80 produced smallest micro-emulsion with particles size of 0.074 µm and drug release was higher than other formulation (102% within 20 min). Ex vivo study of the SEDDS formulation was evaluated using guinea pig intestinal sac. Drug diffused from F2 formulation was significantly higher than pure drug (p < 0.001). In vivo study of SEDDS was performed in albino mice using plasma cholesterol level as a pharmacodynamic marker parameter. The test formulation (F2) appeared remarkable reduction in plasma cholesterol level, after oral administration which showed that SEDDS may be an effective technique for the oral administration of simvastatin. PMID:25138349

  17. In vivo and ex vivo evaluation of cosmetic properties of seedcakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratz-Łyko, Anna; Arct, Jacek; Pytkowska, Katarzyna; Majewski, Sławomir

    2015-04-01

    The seedcakes are a potential source of natural bioactive substances: antioxidants, protein, and carbohydrates. Thus, they may scavenge free radicals and have an effect on the stratum corneum hydration and epidermal barrier function. The aim of the study was to evaluate the in vivo and ex vivo properties of emulsions with the seedcake extracts using the pH meter, corneometer, tewameter, methyl nicotinate model of micro-inflammation in human skin, and tape stripping of the stratum corneum. The in vivo and ex vivo studies showed that the emulsions with Oenothera biennis, Borago officinalis, and Nigella sativa seedcake extracts have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity. The 6-week topical application of the emulsions with the B. officinalis and N. sativa seedcakes significantly reduced skin irritation and influenced the improvement of the skin hydration and epidermal barrier function compared with placebo. The seedcakes due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities have potential application in anti-aging, moisturizing, mitigating, and protective cosmetics. PMID:25415370

  18. Queremos Ficar no Meio Rural, Mas Como?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosária Cal Bastos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Promoting reflection on the performance of municipal managers is the objective of this teaching case study. It is intended to create a real situation for students to examine, understand and evaluate the complexity of political interests in decision-making processes in a small rural municipality in Minas Gerais, Brazil. This case provides opportunities for undergraduate and graduate students to familiarize themselves with the concepts related to municipal government. The case uses fictitious information for a better understanding of the situation experienced in the city. Data was obtained through bibliographic and documentary research, covering discussions about public policy and the role of the city manager, using Policy Cycle theory as reference.

  19. Are M&As Suffocating Chinese Business?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A series of recent foreign capital mergers and acquisitions (M&A) of Chinese businesses has raised concern about China’s economic security. Will these actions damage China’s national interests and is it necessary for China to set a bottom line in this fi

  20. EAD sim, mas com qual biblioteca?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Puntel Mostafa

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Discute a importância da biblioteca virtual para o ensino a distância de qualquer curso; para tal o bibliotecário deve ser elemento indispensável na equipe de EAD uma vez que ele conhece as fontes e as formas de organização da informação, o que lhe possibilita atuar inclusive como tutor. Recomenda-se a intervenção do bibliotecário já na fase de planejamento do curso de tal forma que a biblioteca resultante seja um produto/processo tão importante quanto os demais componentes curriculares e customizada ao curso em questão. Destaca a gestão da informação nos sites educacionais, essa outra modalidade de EAD na formação continuada de professores.

  1. Zastosowanie cieploprzewodzqcych mas klejowych w odlewnictwie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Mirski

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Klcjc oparte na Swicy rnetaksylowej zaliczane sq do materirhbw nicprzewodqcych. Przcz nnpclnicnic klcju 2-sklndnikowcgo AgonictF330 obcq f~i7~wq postaci proszko~vychn apclniaczy mctaIo~vychm otna uzyskd wtnSciwoSci cic~lopr;/cwod~~mcacs klcjo~ycli.M ntcriatyte mogq by6 rvy koszystanc do rcgencracji powicrzchnio~vych wad odiewniczych do naprawy takich uszkodzcn jak pckni~cia, odpryskii wykruszcnia w odlewan ych clcmentach maszyn. Cieptoprtewodqcc masy kIcjorvc sq wykorzys~ywancd o hudowy prototypow~ychform odlcwniczych np, do poliuretanbw, stop6w niskotopliwych i w tcchnoIogiach rapid prototyping. Pominry przcwodnofci cicplncj lnnsklejqcych wykonano przy utyciu aparatu Pocnsgena, w tcmpcratunch: 30. 100 i 150 'C. Wstqpnc pon~iary wsp6lczynnikn przcicodnokicicplncj dla utwardzonych ktcjow wykazaly wartoit 1 = 0,2 W1m.K.W celu uzyskmin wlakiwoSci cicplopnc~vod~~cymcahs klcjoych (12 0.6W1rn.K I] tcprotmdmno do nich naptnincze w postaci proszk6w Vc i AI. Zachowujqc jcszczc wtaSci~voCcik lcjqcc micsmniny kl ju z ~iapclniacczamimetaloyni[ udalo sic wprowadzit 58% obi, proszk6w. Dzicki tcmu dla masy klcjowcj z nnpclniaczcn~n Iulninioivym udalo sic uqsknf itarioSCvs$lcqnnika pi-zcvdnoSci cicplncj 1, = 1,15 W/tn.K, w tempmturrr: otoczcnia 30 "C.

  2. Sarmiento: su perfil masónico

    OpenAIRE

    Arrondo, César Aníbal

    2001-01-01

    El presente trabajo tiene por objeto sacar a la luz un aspecto por demás interesante de la personalidad de Domingo Faustino Sarmiento, como lo fue su pertenencia a la Francmasonería. En tal sentido me resulta de interés realizar una breve reflexión sobre los principios y postulados que dieron origen a la existencia de esta “Institución filosófica” desde los tiempos.

  3. Using THOMAS for Service Oriented Open MAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, V.; Rebollo, M.; Argente, E.; Botti, V.; Carrascosa, C.; Giret, A.

    Recent technological advances in open systems have imposed new needs on multi-agent systems. Nowadays, open systems require open autonomous scenarios in which heterogeneous entities (agents or services) interact to fulfill the system goals. This impose the need for open architectures and computational models for large-scale open multi-agent systems based on service-oriented approaches. THOMAS is a new architecture specifically addressed for the design of virtual organizations for open systems. In this paper we present a case study that exemplifies the usage of THOMAS for implementing a management system of a travel agency.

  4. Evaluation of the In Vivo and Ex Vivo Binding of Novel BC1 Cannabinoid Receptor Radiotracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, A.; Gatley, J.; Gifford, A.

    2002-01-01

    The primary active ingredient of marijuana, 9-tetrahydrocannabinol, exerts its psychoactive effects by binding to cannabinoid CB1 receptors. These receptors are found throughout the brain with high concentrations in the hippocampus and cerebellum. The current study was conducted to evaluate the binding of a newly developed putative cannabinoid antagonist, AM630, and a classical cannabinoid 8-tetrahydrocannabinol as potential PET and/or SPECT imaging agents for brain CB1 receptors. For both of these ligands in vivo and ex vivo studies in mice were conducted. AM630 showed good overall brain uptake (as measure by %IA/g) and a moderately rapid clearance from the brain with a half-clearance time of approximately 30 minutes. However, AM630 did not show selective binding to CB1 cannabinoid receptors. Ex vivo autoradiography supported the lack of selective binding seen in the in vivo study. Similar to AM630, 8-tetrahydrocanibol also failed to show selective binding to CB1 receptor rich brain areas. The 8-tetrahydrocanibol showed moderate overall brain uptake and relatively slow brain clearance as compared to AM630. Further studies were done with AM2233, a cannabinoid ligand with a similar structure as AM630. These studies were done to develop an ex vivo binding assay to quantify the displacement of [131I]AM2233 binding by other ligands in Swiss-Webster and CB1 receptor knockout mice. By developing this assay we hoped to determine the identity of an unknown binding site for AM2233 present in the hippocampus of CB1 knockout mice. Using an approach based on incubation of brain slices prepared from mice given intravenous [131I]AM2233 in either the presence or absence of AM2233 (unlabelled) it was possible to demonstrate a significant AM2233-displacable binding in the Swiss-Webster mice. Future studies will determine if this assay is appropriate for identifying the unknown binding site for AM2233 in the CB1 knockout mice.

  5. Uso de células-tronco cultivadas ex vivo na reconstrução da superfície ocular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Reinaldo da Silva Ricardo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Lesões na superfície ocular podem atingir as células-tronco do limbo e causar deficiência límbica. A deficiência límbica é caracterizada pela conjuntivalização, que pode ser definida como a invasão do epitélio conjuntival sobre a córnea. Este processo é acompanhado por graus variáveis de alterações corneanas, como neovascularização, inflamação, erosões recorrentes, defeitos epiteliais persistentes, destruição da membrana basal do epitélio e cicatrização estromal. Frequentemente, estas alterações estão associadas à diminuição da acuidade visual, fotofobia e desconforto ocular. O melhor tratamento para essa afecção não é conhecido e possibilidades variam em casos uni ou bilaterais. Entre os tratamentos disponíveis, o transplante de limbo autólogo ou alógeno é um dos mais utilizados. Para melhorar os resultados dos transplantes alógenos, alguns pesquisadores utilizam o transplante de epitélio da córnea cultivado em laboratório pela expansão ex vivo de células-tronco epiteliais límbicas. Mas devido à limitada disponibilidade de tecido autólogo do limbo e o risco de complicações associadas à imunossupressão em transplante de tecido alógeno, pesquisas de outras opções de células-tronco cultivadas ex vivo têm sido descritas em fase experimental e clínica. Essa revisão descreve os novos tipos de células-tronco cultivadas ex vivo, seus resultados atuais e potencialidades futuras.

  6. Radio-marking and in vivo imagery of oligonucleotides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research thesis is part of activities aimed at the development of new molecules like oligonucleotides. Its first objective was the development and validation of a marking method with fluorine-18 of oligonucleotides for their in-vivo pharmacological assessment with positron emission tomography (PET). Further investigations addressed the use of iodine-125 for oligonucleotide marking purpose. This radio-marking, and in vivo and ex vivo imagery techniques are described, and their potential is highlighted for the pharmacological assessment of different oligonucleotides

  7. In Vivo Monitoring Program Manual, PNL-MA-574

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, Timothy P.

    2010-07-01

    An overview of the administration for the In Vivo Monitoring Program (IVMP) for Hanford. This includes organizational structure and program responsibilities; coordination of in vivo measurements; scheduling measurements; performing measurements; reporting results; and quality assurance. Overall responsibility for the management of the IVMP rests with the Program Manager (PM). The PM is responsible for providing the required in vivo counting services for Hanford Site contractor employees in accordance with Department of Energy (DOE) requirements and the specific statements of work.

  8. Computer-assisted ex vivo, normothermic small bowel perfusion

    OpenAIRE

    Stangl, M.J.; Krapp, J.; Theodorou, D; Eder, M.; Hammer, C; Land, W.; Schildberg, Friedrich Wilhelm

    2000-01-01

    Background: In the present study, a technique for computer-assisted, normothermic, oxygenated, ex vivo, recirculating small bowel perfusion was established as a tool to investigate organ pretreatment protocols and ischemia/reperfusion phenomena. A prerequisite for the desired setup was an organ chamber for ex vivo perfusion and the use of syngeneic whole blood as perfusate. Methods: The entire small bowel was harvested from Lewis rats and perfused in an organ chamber ex vivo for at least 2 h....

  9. In Vivo Metal Ion Imaging Using Fluorescent Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Bittner, Genevieve C; Hirayama, Tasuku

    2016-01-01

    In vivo imaging in living animals provides the ability to monitor alterations of signaling molecules, ions, and other biological components during various life stages and in disease. The data gained from in vivo imaging can be used for biological discovery or to determine elements of disease progression and can inform the development and translation of therapeutics. Herein, we present theories behind small-molecule, fluorescent, metal ion sensors as well as the methods for their successful application to in vivo metal ion imaging, including ex vivo validation. PMID:27283424

  10. In Vivo Metal Ion Imaging Using Fluorescent Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Bittner, Genevieve C; Hirayama, Tasuku

    2016-01-01

    In vivo imaging in living animals provides the ability to monitor alterations of signaling molecules, ions, and other biological components during various life stages and in disease. The data gained from in vivo imaging can be used for biological discovery or to determine elements of disease progression and can inform the development and translation of therapeutics. Herein, we present theories behind small-molecule, fluorescent, metal ion sensors as well as the methods for their successful application to in vivo metal ion imaging, including ex vivo validation.

  11. Nucleosome dynamics during chromatin remodeling in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Srinivas; Henikoff, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Precise positioning of nucleosomes around regulatory sites is achieved by the action of chromatin remodelers, which use the energy of ATP to slide, evict or change the composition of nucleosomes. Chromatin remodelers act to bind nucleosomes, disrupt histone-DNA interactions and translocate the DNA around the histone core to reposition nucleosomes. Hence, remodeling is expected to involve nucleosomal intermediates with a structural organization that is distinct from intact nucleosomes. We describe the identification of a partially unwrapped nucleosome structure using methods that map histone-DNA contacts genome-wide. This alternative nucleosome structure is likely formed as an intermediate or by-product during nucleosome remodeling by the RSC complex. Identification of the loss of histone-DNA contacts during chromatin remodeling by RSC in vivo has implications for the regulation of transcriptional initiation. PMID:26933790

  12. Codon-specific missense errors in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouadloun, F; Donner, D; Kurland, C G

    1983-01-01

    We have developed a simple method for measuring the missense substitution of amino acids at specified positions in proteins synthesized in vivo. We find that the frequency of cysteine substitution for the single arginine in Escherichia coli ribosomal protein L7/L12 is close to 10(-3) for wild-type bacteria, decreases to 4 x 10(-4) in streptomycin-resistant bacteria containing mutant S12 (rpsL), and is virtually unchanged in Ram bacteria containing mutant S4 (rpsD). We have also found that the frequency of the cysteine substitution for the single tryptophan in E. coli ribosomal protein S6 is 3-4 x 10(-3) for wild-type bacteria, decreases to 6 x 10(-4) in streptomycin-resistant bacteria and is elevated to nearly 10(-2) in Ram bacteria.

  13. In vivo dosimetry during pelvic treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heukelom, S.; Lanson, J.H.; Mijnheer, B.J. (Nederlands Kanker Inst. ' Antoni van Leeuwenhoekhuis' , Amsterdam (Netherlands))

    1992-10-01

    High precision in vivo entrance and exit dose measurements have been performed with p-type diodes on patients during 8 MV X-ray irradiation of the pelvis, to investigate the accuracy of dose calculations in this region. Based on phantom measurements the accuracy of the p-type diode measuring system itself, i.e. the agreement with ionization chamber dose measurement, was shown to be better than 0.7% while the reproducibility in the dose determination was 1.1%, 1.5% and 1.6% (1 S.D.) at the entrance point, isocentre and exit point, respectively, for the wedged lateral fields. (author). 23 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Ex vivo culture of human fetal gonads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, A; Nielsen, J.E.; Perlman, S;

    2015-01-01

    '-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation assay. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: A novel ex vivo 'hanging-drop' culture model for human fetal gonads was successfully established. Continued proliferation of cells without signs of increased apoptosis was observed after 2 weeks of culture. In cultured fetal ovaries......STUDY QUESTION: What are the effects of experimentally manipulating meiosis signalling by addition of retinoic acid (RA) in cultured human fetal gonads? SUMMARY ANSWER: RA-treatment accelerated meiotic entry in cultured fetal ovary samples, while addition of RA resulted in a dysgenetic gonadal...... phenotype in fetal testis cultures. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: One of the first manifestations of sex differentiation is the initiation of meiosis in fetal ovaries. In contrast, meiotic entry is actively prevented in the fetal testis at this developmental time-point. It has previously been shown that RA...

  15. Radon and its daughters in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some aspects of the behavior of radon and its short-lived daughters in vivo are described and a relationship between the radon exhalation rate and time after a meal is demonstrated. A major but short-lived postprandial increase in the exhalation rate of radon produced from skeletally-deposited radium was observed and a similar effect in exhalation rate of environmental radon by persons containing no radium was noted. Persons living in houses with elevated concentrations of radon may contain sufficient activity for its detection by external gamma-ray counting. Some of the activity observed is due to inhaled daughter-products in the chest, and some to daughter-products associated with and produced by the decay of radon throughout the body. 3 references, 8 figures. (MF)

  16. In Vivo Cytogenetic Studies on Aspartame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Entissar S. AlSuhaibani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspartame (a-Laspartyl-L-phenylalanine 1-methylester is a dipeptide low-calorie artificial sweetener that is widely used as a nonnutritive sweetener in foods and drinks. The safety of aspartame and its metabolic breakdown products (phenylalanine, aspartic acid and methanol was investigated in vivo using chromosomal aberration (CA test and sister chromatid exchange (SCE test in the bone marrow cells of mice. Swiss Albino male mice were exposed to aspartame (3.5, 35, 350 mg/kg body weight. Bone marrow cells isolated from femora were analyzed for chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges. Treatment with aspartame induced dose dependently chromosome aberrations at all concentrations while it did not induce sister chromatid exchanges. On the other hand, aspartame did not decrease the mitotic index (MI. However, statistical analysis of the results show that aspartame is not significantly genotoxic at low concentration.

  17. In vivo measurement of protein functional changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aili Wang, Zhicheng Zhang, Qinyi Zhao

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Conformational changes in proteins are fundamental to all biological functions. In protein science, the concept of protein flexibility is widely used to describe protein dynamics and thermodynamic properties that control protein conformational changes. In this study, we show that urea, which has strong sedative potency, can be administered to fish at high concentrations, and that protein functional changes related to anesthesia induction can be measured in vivo. Ctenopharyngodon idellus (the grass carp has two different types of N-methyl d-aspartate (NMDA receptors, urea-insensitive and urea-sensitive, which are responsible for the heat endurance of fish. The urea-sensitive NMDA receptor showed high protein flexibility, the gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA receptor showed less flexibility, and the protein that is responsible for ethanol anesthesia showed the lowest flexibility. The results suggest that an increase in protein flexibility underlies the fundamental biophysical mechanisms of volatile general anesthetics.

  18. NMR studies of cerebral metabolism in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nature and extent of the potential synergism between PET and NMR methods is not yet well appreciated in the biomedical community. The long-range interest of medical neurobiology will be well served by efforts of PET and NMR scientists to follow each others' work so that opportunities for productive interchange can be efficiently exploited. Appreciation of the synergism by the rest of the biomedical community will follow naturally. PET is said by the people doing it to be still in its infancy, for they are more concerned with advancing their discipline than with admiring its already impressive achievements. On the scale of the same developmental metaphor, many NMR methods for studying the living human brain are still in utero. The best way to provide the reader a sense of the current status and future course of NMR research in medical neurobiology is by discussion of published in vivo studies. Such a discussion, adapted from another article is what follows

  19. An excitatory GABA loop operating in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe eAstorga

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available While it has been proposed that the conventional inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA can be excitatory in the mammalian brain, much remains to be learned concerning the circumstances and the cellular mechanisms governing potential excitatory GABA action. Using a combination of optogenetics and two-photon calcium imaging in vivo, we find that activation of chloride-permeable GABAA receptors in parallel fibers of the cerebellar molecular layer of adult mice causes parallel fiber excitation. Stimulation of parallel fibers at submaximal stimulus intensities leads to GABA release from molecular layer interneurons, thus creating a positive feedback loop that enhances excitation near the center of an activated parallel fiber bundle. Our results imply that elevated chloride concentration can occur in specific intracellular compartments of mature mammalian neurons and suggest an excitatory role for GABAA receptors in the cerebellar cortex of adult mice.

  20. Dimerization of visual pigments in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Cao, Li-Hui; Kumar, Sandeep; Enemchukwu, Nduka O; Zhang, Ning; Lambert, Alyssia; Zhao, Xuchen; Jones, Alex; Wang, Shixian; Dennis, Emily M; Fnu, Amrita; Ham, Sam; Rainier, Jon; Yau, King-Wai; Fu, Yingbin

    2016-08-01

    It is a deeply engrained notion that the visual pigment rhodopsin signals light as a monomer, even though many G protein-coupled receptors are now known to exist and function as dimers. Nonetheless, recent studies (albeit all in vitro) have suggested that rhodopsin and its chromophore-free apoprotein, R-opsin, may indeed exist as a homodimer in rod disk membranes. Given the overwhelmingly strong historical context, the crucial remaining question, therefore, is whether pigment dimerization truly exists naturally and what function this dimerization may serve. We addressed this question in vivo with a unique mouse line (S-opsin(+)Lrat(-/-)) expressing, transgenically, short-wavelength-sensitive cone opsin (S-opsin) in rods and also lacking chromophore to exploit the fact that cone opsins, but not R-opsin, require chromophore for proper folding and trafficking to the photoreceptor's outer segment. In R-opsin's absence, S-opsin in these transgenic rods without chromophore was mislocalized; in R-opsin's presence, however, S-opsin trafficked normally to the rod outer segment and produced functional S-pigment upon subsequent chromophore restoration. Introducing a competing R-opsin transmembrane helix H1 or helix H8 peptide, but not helix H4 or helix H5 peptide, into these transgenic rods caused mislocalization of R-opsin and S-opsin to the perinuclear endoplasmic reticulum. Importantly, a similar peptide-competition effect was observed even in WT rods. Our work provides convincing evidence for visual pigment dimerization in vivo under physiological conditions and for its role in pigment maturation and targeting. Our work raises new questions regarding a potential mechanistic role of dimerization in rhodopsin signaling. PMID:27462111

  1. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra—and inter-observer variability. (fast track communication)

  2. In vivo dedifferentiation of adult adipose cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjun Liao

    Full Text Available Adipocytes can dedifferentiate into fibroblast-like cells in vitro and thereby acquire proliferation and multipotent capacities to participate in the repair of various organs and tissues. Whether dedifferentiation occurs under physiological or pathological conditions in vivo is unknown.A tissue expander was placed under the inguinal fat pads of rats and gradually expanded by injection of water. Samples were collected at various time points, and morphological, histological, cytological, ultrastructural, and gene expression analyses were conducted. In a separate experiment, purified green fluorescent protein+ adipocytes were transplanted into C57 mice and collected at various time points. The transplanted adipocytes were assessed by bioluminescence imaging and whole-mount staining.The expanded fat pad was obviously thinner than the untreated fat pad on the opposite side. It was also tougher in texture and with more blood vessels attached. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy indicated there were fewer monolocular adipocytes in the expanded fat pad and the morphology of these cells was altered, most notably their lipid content was discarded. Immunohistochemistry showed that the expanded fat pad contained an increased number of proliferative cells, which may have been derived from adipocytes. Following removal of the tissue expander, many small adipocytes were observed. Bioluminescence imaging suggested that some adipocytes survived when transplanted into an ischemic-hypoxic environment. Whole-mount staining revealed that surviving adipocytes underwent a process similar to adipocyte dedifferentiation in vitro. Monolocular adipocytes became multilocular adipocytes and then fibroblast-like cells.Mature adipocytes may be able to dedifferentiate in vivo, and this may be an adipose tissue self-repair mechanism. The capacity of adipocytes to dedifferentiate into stem cell-like cells may also have a more general role in the

  3. Fe/ZSM-5 prepared by sublimination of FeCl{sub 3}: The structure of the Fe species as determined by IR, {sup 27}Al MAS NMR, and EXAFS spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marturano, P.; Drozdova, L.; Kogelbauer, A.; Prins, R.

    2000-05-15

    The state of the iron in two different Fe/ZSM-5 samples prepared by sublimation of FeCl{sub 3} was investigated by EXAFS, IR, {sup 27}Al MAS NMR, XRD, and nitrogen adsorption measurements. In one Fe/ZSM-54 (Fe/Al = 1) sample, EXAFS revealed for the first time the presence of diferric (hydr)oxo-bridged binuclear clusters, whose structures differ from those postulated in the literature, resembling that of the methane monooxygenase enzyme. IR showed that binuclear Fe complexes are located at the ion-exchange positions of the zeolite, compensating one or two lattice charges. The remainder of the charge-compensating one or two lattice charges. The remainder of the charge-compensating sites are Broensted hydroxyls. On both zeolites, the NMR detection of the framework Al atoms (54 ppm) is strongly perturbed by the paramagnetic effects induced by the Fe ions. The intensity of this peak parallels that of the Broensted hydroxyls in the IR spectra, thus reflecting the presence of Fe species at ion-exchange positions. In a second Fe/ZSM-5 (Fe/Al = 0.8) sample, the iron was present predominantly in the form of large hematite particles (EXAFS, XRD), although a minor fraction of binuclear species might be present as well. The formation of different species seems to be related to different hydrolysis processes occurring on the two zeolites upon washing of the preparation after the sublimation of FeCl{sub 3}. It is also suggested that the final state of the Fe depends on the presence of extraframework Al species as well as the crystallite size of the zeolite used.

  4. Research on a Grid Resource Allocation Algorithm Based on MAS Non-Cooperative Bidding Game%基于MAS市场机制的动态计算资源调度模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋伟进; 王璞

    2007-01-01

    针对动态计算网格资源调度问题,结合多Agent系统(multi agent syste,MAS)协同技术和市场竞价博弈机制,对计算网格资源分配技术进行了深入研究,提出了能够反映供求关系的基于市场经济的网格资源调度模型,该模型一方面能够充分利用消费者Agent的协商能力,另一方面能够充分考虑消费者的行为,使得消费者的资源申请和分配具有较高的合理性和有效性.同时,设计了消费者的效用函数,论证了资源分配博弈中Nash均衡点的存在性和惟一性以及Nash均衡解.基于所提资源调度模型,设计了一种网格资源调度算法.仿真实验表明,资源调度算法能够为消费者的资源数量提供参考,规范消费者竞价,从而使得整个资源的分配趋于合理.

  5. Multistage Inventory Control System in Retail-chain Based on MAS%MAS在连锁零售企业多级库存控制中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵川; 薛红

    2013-01-01

    Efficient logistics management is the precondition of fast development of retail-chain.In an increasingly complex economy environment,the sever problems such as high inventories,high cost of distribution,goodsstopping,disorderly delivery and distribution lag must be solved in retail-chain.An optimization model of inventory in store and distribution center in the periodic replenishment cases is presented.It solves the problem of multi-stage inventory optimization in retail-chain.A multistage inventory control system based on Multi-AgentSystem(MAS) is also established.It solves the widespread problems of distribution disorder and distribution lag in retail-chain multistage inventory.%高效的物流管理模式是连锁零售企业快速发展的基础和保障.在日益复杂的市场经济环境下,连锁零售企业必须解决库存量高,配送成本高,断货,配送无序,配送滞后等问题.针对这些问题,提出了一种在非等周期补货情况下,门店和配送中心库存水平的优化模型,解决了连锁零售业多级库存优化问题;建立了基于Multi-Agent-System的多级库存智能管理系统,解决了在连锁零售企业多级库存中普遍存在的配送无序、配送滞后等问题.

  6. Analysis of mercerization process based on the intensity change of deconvoluted resonances of {sup 13}C CP/MAS NMR: Cellulose mercerized under cooling and non-cooling conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, Kento [Mitsubishi Rayon Co., Ltd. Otake Research Laboratories (Japan); Nakano, Takato, E-mail: tnakano@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Biomaterials Design, Division of Forest and Biomaterials Science, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University (Japan)

    2015-08-01

    The area intensity change of C1, C4, and C6 in spectrum obtained by {sup 13}C CP/MAS NMR and the mutual relationship between their changes were examined for cellulose samples treated with various concentrations of aqueous NaOH solutions under non-cooling and cooling conditions. The area intensity of C1-up and C6-down changed cooperatively with that of C4-down which corresponds to the crystallinity of samples: “-up” and “-down” are the up- and down- field component in a splitting peak of NMR spectrum, respectively. The intensity change of C1-up starts to decrease with decreasing in that of C4-down after that of C6-down is almost complete. These changes were more clearly observed for samples treated under cooling condition. It can be suggested that their characteristic change relates closely to the change in conformation of cellulose chains by induced decrystallization and the subsequent crystallization of cellulose II, and presumed that their changes at microscopic level relate to the macroscopic morphological changes such as contraction along the length of cellulose chains and recovery along the length. - Highlight: • Samples were mercerized at various NaOH concentrations under non-cooling and cooling. • The intensity change of C1 starts immediately after that of C6 is complete. • The creation of cell-II starts when decrystallization proceeds to a certain state. • This change relates closely to the change in conformation of cellulose chains. • The above change is more clearly found for samples treated under cooling.

  7. Avaliação e recondicionamento pulmonar ex vivo Ex vivo lung evaluation and reconditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Manuel Pêgo-Fernandes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apenas 15% dos pulmões doados são aproveitados para transplante. Um novo método de Perfusão Pulmonar Ex Vivo (PPEV foi desenvolvido e pode ser usado para avaliação e recondicionamento de pulmões "marginais" e rejeitados para o transplante. Esse trabalho relata nossa experiência com a avaliação funcional da PPEV. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados pulmões de 12 doadores considerados inapropriados para transplante pulmonar. Após a captação, os pulmões são perfundidos ex vivo com Steen Solution, uma solução de composição eletrolítica extracelular com alta pressão coloidosmótica. Um oxigenador de membrana ligado ao circuito recebe uma mistura gasosa (nitrogênio e dióxido de carbono e "desoxigena" o perfusato, mantendo uma concentração de gases semelhante a do sangue venoso. Os pulmões são gradualmente aquecidos, perfundidos e ventilados. A avaliação dos órgãos é feita por gasometrias e medidas como a resistência vascular pulmonar (RVP e complacência pulmonar (CP. RESULTADOS: A PaO2 (FiO2 100% passou de um valor médio de 193,3 mmHg no doador para 495,3 mmHg durante a PPEV. Após uma hora de PPEV, a RVP média era de 737,3 dinas/seg/ cm5 e a CP era de 42,2 ml/cmH2O. CONCLUSÕES: O modelo de avaliação pulmonar ex vivo pode melhorar a capacidade de oxigenação de pulmões "marginais" inicialmente rejeitados para transplante. Isso denota um grande potencial do método para aumentar a disponibilidade de pulmões para transplante e, possivelmente, reduzir o tempo de espera nas filas.OBJECTIVE: Only about 15% of the potential candidates for lung donation are considered suitable for transplantation. A new method for ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP has been developed and can be used for evaluation and reconditioning of "marginal" and unacceptable lungs. This is a report of functional evaluation experience with ex vivo perfusion of twelve donor lungs deemed unacceptable in São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: After harvesting, the

  8. Circulating Tumor Cell Detection and Capture by Photoacoustic Flow Cytometry in Vivo and ex Vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galanzha, Ekaterina I. [Phillips Classic Laser and Nanomedicine Laboratories, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4301 West Markham Street, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Zharov, Vladimir P., E-mail: zharovvladimirp@uams.edu [Phillips Classic Laser and Nanomedicine Laboratories, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4301 West Markham Street, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Arkansas Nanomedicine Center, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4301 West Markham Street, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States)

    2013-12-10

    Despite progress in detecting circulating tumor cells (CTCs), existing assays still have low sensitivity (1–10 CTC/mL) due to the small volume of blood samples (5–10 mL). Consequently, they can miss up to 10{sup 3}–10{sup 4} CTCs, resulting in the development of barely treatable metastasis. Here we analyze a new concept of in vivo CTC detection with enhanced sensitivity (up to 10{sup 2}–10{sup 3} times) by the examination of the entire blood volume in vivo (5 L in adults). We focus on in vivo photoacoustic (PA) flow cytometry (PAFC) of CTCs using label-free or targeted detection, photoswitchable nanoparticles with ultrasharp PA resonances, magnetic trapping with fiber-magnetic-PA probes, optical clearance, real-time spectral identification, nonlinear signal amplification, and the integration with PAFC in vitro. We demonstrate PAFC’s capability to detect rare leukemia, squamous carcinoma, melanoma, and bulk and stem breast CTCs and its clusters in preclinical animal models in blood, lymph, bone, and cerebrospinal fluid, as well as the release of CTCs from primary tumors triggered by palpation, biopsy or surgery, increasing the risk of metastasis. CTC lifetime as a balance between intravasation and extravasation rates was in the range of 0.5–4 h depending on a CTC metastatic potential. We introduced theranostics of CTCs as an integration of nanobubble-enhanced PA diagnosis, photothermal therapy, and feedback through CTC counting. In vivo data were verified with in vitro PAFC demonstrating a higher sensitivity (1 CTC/40 mL) and throughput (up to 10 mL/min) than conventional assays. Further developments include detection of circulating cancer-associated microparticles, and super-resolution PAFC beyond the diffraction and spectral limits.

  9. Circulating Tumor Cell Detection and Capture by Photoacoustic Flow Cytometry in Vivo and ex Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina I. Galanzha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite progress in detecting circulating tumor cells (CTCs, existing assays still have low sensitivity (1–10 CTC/mL due to the small volume of blood samples (5–10 mL. Consequently, they can miss up to 103–104 CTCs, resulting in the development of barely treatable metastasis. Here we analyze a new concept of in vivo CTC detection with enhanced sensitivity (up to 102–103 times by the examination of the entire blood volume in vivo (5 L in adults. We focus on in vivo photoacoustic (PA flow cytometry (PAFC of CTCs using label-free or targeted detection, photoswitchable nanoparticles with ultrasharp PA resonances, magnetic trapping with fiber-magnetic-PA probes, optical clearance, real-time spectral identification, nonlinear signal amplification, and the integration with PAFC in vitro. We demonstrate PAFC’s capability to detect rare leukemia, squamous carcinoma, melanoma, and bulk and stem breast CTCs and its clusters in preclinical animal models in blood, lymph, bone, and cerebrospinal fluid, as well as the release of CTCs from primary tumors triggered by palpation, biopsy or surgery, increasing the risk of metastasis. CTC lifetime as a balance between intravasation and extravasation rates was in the range of 0.5–4 h depending on a CTC metastatic potential. We introduced theranostics of CTCs as an integration of nanobubble-enhanced PA diagnosis, photothermal therapy, and feedback through CTC counting. In vivo data were verified with in vitro PAFC demonstrating a higher sensitivity (1 CTC/40 mL and throughput (up to 10 mL/min than conventional assays. Further developments include detection of circulating cancer-associated microparticles, and super-rsesolution PAFC beyond the diffraction and spectral limits.

  10. Ex Vivo and In Vivo Lentivirus-Mediated Transduction of Airway Epithelial Progenitor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leoni, Giulia; Wasowicz, Marguerite Y; Chan, Mario; Meng, Cuixiang; Farley, Raymond; Brody, Steven L; Inoue, Makoto; Hasegawa, Mamoru; Alton, Eric W F W; Griesenbach, Uta

    2015-01-01

    A key challenge in pulmonary gene therapy for cystic fibrosis is to provide long-term correction of the genetic defect. This may be achievable by targeting airway epithelial stem/progenitor cells with an integrating vector. Here, we evaluated the ability of a lentiviral vector, derived from the simian immunodeficiency virus and pseudotyped with F and HN envelope proteins from Sendai virus, to transduce progenitor basal cells of the mouse nasal airways. We first transduced basal cell-enriched cultures ex vivo and confirmed efficient transduction of cytokeratin-5 positive cells. We next asked whether progenitor cells could be transduced in vivo. We evaluated the transduction efficiency in mice pretreated by intranasal administration of polidocanol to expose the progenitor cell layer. Compared to control mice, polidocanol treated mice demonstrated a significant increase in the number of transduced basal cells at 3 and 14 days post vector administration. At 14 days, the epithelium of treated mice contained clusters (4 to 8 adjacent cells) of well differentiated ciliated, as well as basal cells suggesting a clonal expansion. These results indicate that our lentiviral vector can transduce progenitor basal cells in vivo, although transduction required denudation of the surface epithelium prior to vector administration. PMID:26471068

  11. In vivo prevention of transplant arteriosclerosis by ex vivo-expanded human regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadig, Satish N; Wieckiewicz, Joanna; Wu, Douglas C; Warnecke, Gregor; Zhang, Wei; Luo, Shiqiao; Schiopu, Alexandru; Taggart, David P; Wood, Kathryn J

    2010-07-01

    Transplant arteriosclerosis is the hallmark of chronic allograft dysfunction (CAD) affecting transplanted organs in the long term. These fibroproliferative lesions lead to neointimal thickening of arteries in all transplanted allografts. Luminal narrowing then leads to graft ischemia and organ demise. To date, there are no known tolerance induction strategies that prevent transplant arteriosclerosis. Therefore, we designed this study to test the hypothesis that human regulatory T cells (T(reg) cells) expanded ex vivo can prevent transplant arteriosclerosis. Here we show the comparative capacity of T(reg) cells, sorted via two separate strategies, to prevent transplant arteriosclerosis in a clinically relevant chimeric humanized mouse system. We found that the in vivo development of transplant arteriosclerosis in human arteries was prevented by treatment of ex vivo-expanded human T(reg) cells. Additionally, we show that T(reg) cells sorted on the basis of low expression of CD127 provide a more potent therapy to conventional T(reg) cells. Our results demonstrate that human T(reg) cells can inhibit transplant arteriosclerosis by impairing effector function and graft infiltration. We anticipate our findings to serve as a foundation for the clinical development of therapeutics targeting transplant arteriosclerosis in both allograft transplantation and other immune-mediated causes of vasculopathy.

  12. In vivo predictive dissolution: transport analysis of the CO2 , bicarbonate in vivo buffer system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieg, Brian J; Taghavi, Seyed Mohammad; Amidon, Gordon L; Amidon, Gregory E

    2014-11-01

    Development of an oral in vivo predictive dissolution medium for acid drugs with a pKa in the physiological range (e.g., Biopharmaceutics Classification System Class IIa) requires transport analysis of the complex in vivo CO2 /bicarbonate buffering system. In this report, we analyze this buffer system using hydrodynamically defined rotating disk dissolution. Transport analysis of drug flux was predicted using the film model approach of Mooney et al based on equilibrium assumptions as well as accounting for the slow hydration reaction, CO2 + H2 O → H2 CO3 . The accuracy of the models was compared with experimentally determined results using the rotating disk dissolution of ibuprofen, indomethacin, and ketoprofen. The equilibrium and slow hydration reaction rate models predict significantly different dissolution rates. The experimental results are more accurately predicted by accounting for the slow hydration reaction under a variety of pH and hydrodynamic conditions. Although the complex bicarbonate buffering system requires further consideration given its dynamic nature in vivo, a simplifying irreversible reaction (IRR) transport analysis accurately predicts in vitro rotating disk dissolution rates of several carboxylic acid drugs. This IRR transport model provides further insight into bicarbonate buffer and can be useful in developing more physiologically relevant buffer systems for dissolution testing.

  13. Going Mobile: AMPA Receptors Move Synapse to Synapse In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Rongo, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Plasticity models invoke the synaptic delivery of AMPARs, yet we know little about how receptors move in vivo. In this issue of Neuron, Hoerndli et al. show that lateral diffusion and kinesin-mediated transport move AMPARs between synapses in vivo.

  14. Measuring protein breakdown rate in individual proteins in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars; Kjaer, Michael

    2010-01-01

    To outline different approaches of how protein breakdown can be quantified and to present a new approach to determine the fractional breakdown rate of individual slow turnover proteins in vivo.......To outline different approaches of how protein breakdown can be quantified and to present a new approach to determine the fractional breakdown rate of individual slow turnover proteins in vivo....

  15. In vivo monitoring of angiogenesis within Matrigel chambers using MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, David Alberg; Ley, Carsten Dan; Simonsen, Helle Juhl;

    Angiogenesis is a critical process in tumour de- velopment and presents an important target for the development of a range of anti-cancer agents1,2. To assess the in vivo efficacy of these ‘angiotherapeutics’, a sim ple and reproducible in vivo model would be of significant value. Here we show...

  16. In vivo monitoring of angiogenesis within Matrigel chambers using MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, David; Ley, Carsten Dan; Søgaard, Lise Vejby;

    2006-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a critical process in tumour development and presents an important target for the development of a range of anti-cancer agents . To assess the in vivo efficacy of these ‘angiotherapeutics', a simple and reproducible in vivo model would be of significant value. Here we show...

  17. Towards an in vivo wireless mobile robot for surgical assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawks, Jeff A; Rentschler, Mark E; Redden, Lee; Infanger, Roger; Dumpert, Jason; Farritor, Shane; Oleynikov, Dmitry; Platt, Stephen R

    2008-01-01

    The use of miniature in vivo robots that fit entirely inside the peritoneal cavity represents a novel approach to laparoscopic surgery. Previous work has demonstrated that mobile and fixed-base in vivo robots can be used to improve visualization of the surgical field and perform surgical tasks such as collecting biopsy tissue samples. All of these robots used tethers to provide for power and data transmission. This paper describes recent work focused on developing a modular wireless mobile platform that could be used for in vivo robotic sensing and manipulation applications. One vision for these types of self-contained in vivo robotic devices is that they could be easily carried and deployed by non-medical personnel at the site of an injury. Such wireless in vivo robots are much more transportable and lower cost than current robotic surgical assistants, and could ultimately allow a surgeon to become a remote first responder irrespective of the location of the patient. PMID:18391277

  18. Multifunctional in vivo imaging of pancreatic islets during diabetes development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ge; Wu, Binlin; Ward, Meliza G; Chong, Angie C N; Mukherjee, Sushmita; Chen, Shuibing; Hao, Mingming

    2016-07-15

    Pancreatic islet dysfunction leading to insufficient glucose-stimulated insulin secretion triggers the clinical onset of diabetes. How islet dysfunction develops is not well understood at the cellular level, partly owing to the lack of approaches to study single islets longitudinally in vivo Here, we present a noninvasive, high-resolution system to quantitatively image real-time glucose metabolism from single islets in vivo, currently not available with any other method. In addition, this multifunctional system simultaneously reports islet function, proliferation, vasculature and macrophage infiltration in vivo from the same set of images. Applying our method to a longitudinal high-fat diet study revealed changes in islet function as well as alternations in islet microenvironment. More importantly, this label-free system enabled us to image real-time glucose metabolism directly from single human islets in vivo for the first time, opening the door to noninvasive longitudinal in vivo studies of healthy and diabetic human islets. PMID:27270669

  19. Viral Vectors for in Vivo Gene Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thévenot, E.; Dufour, N.; Déglon, N.

    The transfer of DNA into the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell (gene transfer) is a central theme of modern biology. The transfer is said to be somatic when it refers to non-germline organs of a developed individual, and germline when it concerns gametes or the fertilised egg of an animal, with the aim of transmitting the relevant genetic modification to its descendents [1]. The efficient introduction of genetic material into a somatic or germline cell and the control of its expression over time have led to major advances in understanding how genes work in vivo, i.e., in living organisms (functional genomics), but also to the development of innovative therapeutic methods (gene therapy). The efficiency of gene transfer is conditioned by the vehicle used, called the vector. Desirable features for a vector are as follows: Easy to produce high titer stocks of the vector in a reproducible way. Absence of toxicity related to transduction (transfer of genetic material into the target cell, and its expression there) and no immune reaction of the organism against the vector and/or therapeutic protein. Stability in the expression of the relevant gene over time, and the possibility of regulation, e.g., to control expression of the therapeutic protein on the physiological level, or to end expression at the end of treatment. Transduction of quiescent cells should be as efficient as transduction of dividing cells. Vectors currently used fall into two categories: non-viral and viral vectors. In non-viral vectors, the DNA is complexed with polymers, lipids, or cationic detergents (described in Chap. 3). These vectors have a low risk of toxicity and immune reaction. However, they are less efficient in vivo than viral vectors when it comes to the number of cells transduced and long-term transgene expression. (Naked DNA transfer or electroporation is rather inefficient in the organism. This type of gene transfer will not be discussed here, and the interested reader is referred to the

  20. Synovial tissue hypoxia and inflammation in vivo.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ng, C T

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Hypoxia is a microenvironmental feature in the inflamed joint, which promotes survival advantage for cells. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of partial oxygen pressure in the synovial tissue (tPO(2)) in patients with inflammatory arthritis with macroscopic\\/microscopic inflammation and local levels of proinflammatory mediators. METHODS: Patients with inflammatory arthritis underwent full clinical assessment and video arthroscopy to quantify macroscopic synovitis and measure synovial tPO(2) under direct visualisation. Cell specific markers (CD3 (T cells), CD68 (macrophages), Ki67 (cell proliferation) and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling (cell apoptosis)) were quantified by immunohistology. In vitro migration was assessed in primary and normal synoviocytes (synovial fibroblast cells (SFCs)) using a wound repair scratch assay. Levels of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), interleukin 1beta (IL1beta), interferon gamma (IFNgamma), IL6, macrophage inflammatory protein 3alpha (MIP3alpha) and IL8 were quantified, in matched serum and synovial fluid, by multiplex cytokine assay and ELISA. RESULTS: The tPO(2) was 22.5 (range 3.2-54.1) mm Hg and correlated inversely with macroscopic synovitis (r=-0.421, p=0.02), sublining CD3 cells (-0.611, p<0.01) and sublining CD68 cells (r=-0.615, p<0.001). No relationship with cell proliferation or apoptosis was found. Primary and normal SFCs exposed to 1% and 3% oxygen (reflecting the median tPO(2) in vivo) induced cell migration. This was coupled with significantly higher levels of synovial fluid tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), IL1beta, IFNgamma and MIP3alpha in patients with tPO(2) <20 mm Hg (all p values <0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to show a direct in vivo correlation between synovial tPO(2), inflammation and cell migration, thus it is proposed that hypoxia is a possible primary driver of inflammatory processes in the arthritic joint.

  1. Persistence of DNA studied in different ex vivo and in vivo rat models simulating the human gut situation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilcks, Andrea; van Hoek, A.H.A.M.; Joosten, R.G.;

    2004-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the possibility of DNA sequences from genetically modified plants to persist in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. PCR analysis and transformation assays were used to study DNA persistence and integrity in various ex vivo and in vivo systems using gnotobiotic rats. DNA...

  2. High-wavenumber FT-Raman spectroscopy for in vivo and ex vivo measurements of breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Flores, A. F.; Raniero, L.; Canevari, R. A.;

    2011-01-01

    The identification of normal and cancer breast tissue of rats was investigated using high-frequency (HF) FT-Raman spectroscopy with a near-infrared excitation source on in vivo and ex vivo measurements. Significant differences in the Raman intensities of prominent Raman bands of lipids and protei...

  3. Wireless Monitoring of Liver Hemodynamics In Vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akl, Tony [Texas A& M University; Wilson, Mark A. [University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh PA; Ericson, Milton Nance [ORNL; Farquhar, Ethan [ORNL; Cote, Gerard L. [Texas A& M University

    2014-01-01

    Liver transplants have their highest technical failure rate in the first two weeks following surgery. Currently, there are limited devices for continuous, real-time monitoring of the graft. In this work, a three wavelengths system is presented that combines near-infrared spectroscopy and photoplethysmography with a processing method that can uniquely measure and separate the venous and arterial oxygen contributions. This strategy allows for the quantification of tissue oxygen consumption used to study hepatic metabolic activity and to relate it to tissue stress. The sensor is battery operated and communicates wirelessly with a data acquisition computer which provides the possibility of implantation provided sufficient miniaturization. In two in vivo porcine studies, the sensor tracked perfusion changes in hepatic tissue during vascular occlusions with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.135 mL/min/g of tissue. We show the possibility of using the pulsatile wave to measure the arterial oxygen saturation similar to pulse oximetry. The signal is also used to extract the venous oxygen saturation from the direct current (DC) levels. Arterial and venous oxygen saturation changes were measured with an RMSE of 2.19% and 1.39% respectively when no vascular occlusions were induced. This error increased to 2.82% and 3.83% when vascular occlusions were induced during hypoxia. These errors are similar to the resolution of a commercial oximetry catheter used as a reference. This work is the first realization of a wireless optical sensor for continuous monitoring of hepatic hemodynamics.

  4. Translational In Vivo Models for Cardiovascular Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliegner, Daniela; Gerdes, Christoph; Meding, Jörg; Stasch, Johannes-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are still the first leading cause of death and morbidity in developed countries. Experimental cardiology research and preclinical drug development in cardiology call for appropriate and especially clinically relevant in vitro and in vivo studies. The use of animal models has contributed to expand our knowledge and our understanding of the underlying mechanisms and accordingly provided new approaches focused on the improvement of diagnostic and treatment strategies of various cardiac pathologies.Numerous animal models in different species as well as in small and large animals have been developed to address cardiovascular complications, including heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, and thrombotic diseases. However, a perfect model of heart failure or other indications that reproduces every aspect of the natural disease does not exist. The complexity and heterogeneity of cardiac diseases plus the influence of genetic and environmental factors limit to mirror a particular disease with a single experimental model.Thus, drug development in the field of cardiology is not only very challenging but also inspiring; therefore animal models should be selected that reflect as best as possible the disease being investigated. Given the wide range of animal models, reflecting critical features of the human pathophysiology available nowadays increases the likelihood of the translation to the patients. Furthermore, this knowledge and the increase of the predictive value of preclinical models help us to find more efficient and reliable solutions as well as better and innovative treatment strategies for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26552402

  5. Thermoacoustic in vivo determination of blood oxygenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiser, William L., Jr.; Kruger, Robert A.; Reinecke, Daniel R.; Kruger, Gabe A.; Miller, Kathy D.

    2004-07-01

    We have utilized a prototype Thermoacoustic Computed Tomography Small Animal Imaging System to acquire images of athymic mice with bilateral tumors implanted in the cranial mammary fat pads. The breast tumor cell lines used in the study, which are MCF7, and MCF7 transfected with Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), exhibit distinctly contrasting levels of vascularization. Three dimensional images of the mice, acquired using pulses of NIR stimulating light, demonstrate the ability of the system to generate high resolution images of the vascular system up to one inch deep in tissue, and at the same time, differentiate tissue types based on the infrared absorption properties of the tissue; a property related in part to blood content and oxygenation levels. We have processed images acquired at different stimulating wavelengths to generate images representative of the distribution of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin throughout the tumors. The images demonstrate the in vivo capabilities of the imaging system and map system structure as well as the total, oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin components of the blood.

  6. Statistical survey of in vivo RI examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vivo RI examinations conducted at the authors' institute during a period Apr. 1972 - Mar. 1978 were statistically surveyed. The total number of cases was 6730. The number of cases increased annually. The frequency of scintigraphy was high in the order: the liver, brain, tumor, thyroid, biliary tract and kidney. The liver represented more than 1/3 of the entire examinations; and of the functional studies, renogram was most frequent for both sexes. According to the year, the liver showed a marked increase in the frequency of scintigraphy, the brain a marked decrease and the thyroid a decreasing tendency. Renogram showed a marked increase. As for RI, sup(99m)Tc predominated in scintigraphy, showing a remarkable increase annually, whereas 131I showed a gradually decreasing trend, but was most frequent in the functional study. Infants aged 5 years or younger accounted for only 2.5% of the total cases, and unlike adults, the brain, kidney and liver were studied frequently in that order. (Chiba, N.)

  7. In Vivo Gait Analysis During Bone Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Macías, J; Reina-Romo, E; Morgaz, J; Domínguez, J

    2015-09-01

    The load bearing characteristics of the intervened limb over time in vivo are important to know in distraction osteogenesis and bone healing for the characterization of the bone maturation process. Gait analyses were performed for a group of sheep in which bone transport was carried out. The ground reaction force was measured by means of a force platform, and the gait parameters (i.e., the peak, the mean vertical ground reaction force and the impulse) were calculated during the stance phase for each limb. The results showed that these gait parameters decreased in the intervened limb and interestingly increased in the other limbs due to the implantation of the fixator. Additionally, during the process, the gait parameters exponentially approached the values for healthy animals. Corresponding radiographies showed an increasing level of ossification in the callus. This study shows, as a preliminary approach to be confirmed with more experiments, that gait analysis could be used as an alternative method to control distraction osteogenesis or bone healing. For example, these analyses could determine the appropriate time to remove the fixator. Furthermore, gait analysis has advantages over other methods because it provides quantitative data and does not require instrumented fixators. PMID:25650097

  8. In Vivo Gait Analysis During Bone Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Macías, J; Reina-Romo, E; Morgaz, J; Domínguez, J

    2015-09-01

    The load bearing characteristics of the intervened limb over time in vivo are important to know in distraction osteogenesis and bone healing for the characterization of the bone maturation process. Gait analyses were performed for a group of sheep in which bone transport was carried out. The ground reaction force was measured by means of a force platform, and the gait parameters (i.e., the peak, the mean vertical ground reaction force and the impulse) were calculated during the stance phase for each limb. The results showed that these gait parameters decreased in the intervened limb and interestingly increased in the other limbs due to the implantation of the fixator. Additionally, during the process, the gait parameters exponentially approached the values for healthy animals. Corresponding radiographies showed an increasing level of ossification in the callus. This study shows, as a preliminary approach to be confirmed with more experiments, that gait analysis could be used as an alternative method to control distraction osteogenesis or bone healing. For example, these analyses could determine the appropriate time to remove the fixator. Furthermore, gait analysis has advantages over other methods because it provides quantitative data and does not require instrumented fixators.

  9. Translational In Vivo Models for Cardiovascular Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliegner, Daniela; Gerdes, Christoph; Meding, Jörg; Stasch, Johannes-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are still the first leading cause of death and morbidity in developed countries. Experimental cardiology research and preclinical drug development in cardiology call for appropriate and especially clinically relevant in vitro and in vivo studies. The use of animal models has contributed to expand our knowledge and our understanding of the underlying mechanisms and accordingly provided new approaches focused on the improvement of diagnostic and treatment strategies of various cardiac pathologies.Numerous animal models in different species as well as in small and large animals have been developed to address cardiovascular complications, including heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, and thrombotic diseases. However, a perfect model of heart failure or other indications that reproduces every aspect of the natural disease does not exist. The complexity and heterogeneity of cardiac diseases plus the influence of genetic and environmental factors limit to mirror a particular disease with a single experimental model.Thus, drug development in the field of cardiology is not only very challenging but also inspiring; therefore animal models should be selected that reflect as best as possible the disease being investigated. Given the wide range of animal models, reflecting critical features of the human pathophysiology available nowadays increases the likelihood of the translation to the patients. Furthermore, this knowledge and the increase of the predictive value of preclinical models help us to find more efficient and reliable solutions as well as better and innovative treatment strategies for cardiovascular diseases.

  10. Predictive In Vivo Models for Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Diana; Rolff, Jana; Hoffmann, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Experimental oncology research and preclinical drug development both substantially require specific, clinically relevant in vitro and in vivo tumor models. The increasing knowledge about the heterogeneity of cancer requested a substantial restructuring of the test systems for the different stages of development. To be able to cope with the complexity of the disease, larger panels of patient-derived tumor models have to be implemented and extensively characterized. Together with individual genetically engineered tumor models and supported by core functions for expression profiling and data analysis, an integrated discovery process has been generated for predictive and personalized drug development.Improved “humanized” mouse models should help to overcome current limitations given by xenogeneic barrier between humans and mice. Establishment of a functional human immune system and a corresponding human microenvironment in laboratory animals will strongly support further research.Drug discovery, systems biology, and translational research are moving closer together to address all the new hallmarks of cancer, increase the success rate of drug development, and increase the predictive value of preclinical models.

  11. Accurate in vivo dielectric properties of liver from 500 MHz to 40 GHz and their correlation to ex vivo measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, L; Wismayer, P Schembri; Mangion, L Zammit; Sammut, C V

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we report on the characterization of the dielectric properties of in vivo rat liver at 36.4°C from 500 MHz up to 40 GHz with less than 5% uncertainty. The measured data were fitted to a Cole-Cole model and dielectric parameters are presented together with their respective 95% confidence interval. The root mean square error is 0.42. Moreover, ex vivo measurements were conducted in situ at 1, 2, 4 and 6 min after animal death and are compared to in vivo measurements. The results show that immediate changes in [Formula: see text]and [Formula: see text] are within experimental uncertainty, and therefore changes between in vivo and published ex vivo dielectric properties can be attributed to tissue hydration.

  12. Anunciaram a morte, mas está bem viva, obrigado! Teol. da Libertação 40 anos depois/Anunciaron su muerte, ¡pero está bien viva! Teol. de la Lib. 40 años: balance y persp. (Death was announced, but it is alive. Thanks! Liberation Theology 40 years later.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Barros

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available KOINONIA/ASETTMINGA/MUTIRÃO DE REVISTAS DE TEOLOGIA LATINO-AMERICANASAnunciaram a morte, mas está bem viva, obrigado! Teologia da Libertação 40 anos depois/Anunciaron su muerte, ¡pero está bien viva!Teología de la Liberación 40 años: balance y perspectivas (Death was announced, but it is alive. Thanks! Liberation Theology 40 years later.

  13. Research on the Application of MAS Technology in the Construction of Digital Library of Hospital%MAS技术在医院数字图书馆建设中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶蓉; 罗静

    2015-01-01

    随着互联网、移动通讯技术的飞速发展,各类手机及智能互联网终端越来越普及,如何帮助医务人员通过各类移动终端登录数字图书馆,从而享受更加完善的医学信息检索服务成为现代化医院数字图书馆亟待解决的问题。结合目前医院数字图书馆的整体情况,研究如何应用MAS技术通过互联网、移动通讯网络,采用短彩信、PUSHMAIL、WAP以及智能终端APP等形式实现医院数字图书馆向手机、平板电脑等各终端的延伸,让医务人员在任何时间、任何地点都可以享受医学信息检索服务。旨在研究提升医院数字图书馆信息化水平及服务能力,同时也希望这种通过整合移动通讯网、互联网相关新技术的思路能对医院提升信息化建设有所帮助。%With the rapidly developing of Internet and mobile communication technology, mobile phones and smart internet terminals are more and more popular now. How to help medical personnel log in digital library and enjoy more perfect medical information retrieval service through all kinds of mobile terminals are becoming an urgent problem of modern hospital digital libraries. In consideration of the overall hospital digital library situation in China, the author studied the extension from hospital digital library to mobile phone, tablet PC and other mobile terminals. By use of the application of MAS technology, the medical personnel can use medical information service anytime and anywhere through Short MMS, PUSHMAIL WAP and other intelligent terminal applications. This scheme aims to promote hospital digital library informationization level and service ability. And at the same time, to help hospitals improve informationization construction through the idea of integration of mobile network and Internet related new technologies.

  14. Adiposidade corporal, mas não resistência insulínica, associa-se ao polimorfismo -675 4G/5G no gene PAI-1 em uma amostra de crianças mexicanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulises de la Cruz-Mosso

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Elaboramos este estudo para avaliar se o polimorfismo -675 4G/5G no gene inibidor 1 do ativador do plasminogênio se associa à obesidade e à resistência insulínica em crianças mexicanas. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo transversal em 174 crianças, 89 delas com peso normal e 85 obesas, variando sua idade de 6 a 13 anos. Todas as crianças eram do estado de Guerrero e foram recrutadas de três escolas primárias na cidade de Chilpancingo, México. Os níveis de insulina foram determinados por prova imunoenzimática. Foi usado o modelo de avaliação da homeostase para determinar resistência insulínica. O polimorfismo -675 4G/5G no gene PAI-1 foi analisado pelo método reação de polimerase em cadeia-polimorfismo no comprimento dos fragmentos de restrição. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de resistência insulínica no grupo obeso foi mais alta (49,41% do que no grupo com peso normal (16,85%. O polimorfismo 4G/5G do PAI-1 foi encontrado em equilíbrio de Hardy Weinberg. O genótipo 4G/5G contribuiu para um aumento significativo da relação cintura-quadril (β = 0,02, p = 0,006, da circunferência da cintura (β = 4,42, p = 0,009 e da espessura da prega subescapular (β = 1,79, p = 0,04, mas não se relacionou com a resistência insulínica. CONCLUSÃO: O genótipo -675 4G/5G do gene PAI-1 se associou a aumento da adiposidade corporal em crianças mexicanas.

  15. 113Cd Shielding Tensors of Monomeric Cadmium Compounds Containing Nitrogen Donor Atoms. 3. CP/MAS Studies on Five-Coordinate Cadmium Complexes Having N(3)X(2) (X = H, N, O, and S) Donor Atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, Andrew S.; Mason, Scott S.; Myers, Sheila M.; Reger, Daniel L.; Ellis, Paul D.

    1996-11-20

    The principal elements of the (113)Cd shielding tensor for a set of five- coordinate compounds having mixed donor atoms coordinating to the cadmium were determined via CP/MAS NMR experiments. The first complex, [HB(3,5-Me(2)pz)(3)]CdBH(4) (where pz = pyrazolyl), has a CdN(3)H(2) inner coordination sphere. The isotropic chemical shift in the solid state is 355.1 ppm, and its chemical shift anisotropy (CSA, Deltasigma) is -596 ppm with an asymmetry parameter (eta) of 0.64. The second complex, [HB(3,5-Me(2)pz)(3)]Cd[H(2)B(pz)(2)], has five nitrogen donor atoms bonded to the cadmium. This N(5) or N(3)N(2) compound was the only material of this study to manifest dipolar splitting of the cadmium resonance from the quadrupolar (14)N. The isotropic chemical shift, CSA, and the value of eta for this material were therefore determined at higher field where the dipolar splitting was less than the linewidth, yielding values of 226.6 ppm, -247 ppm, and 0.32, respectively. A second N(5) material, [HB(3-Phpz)(3)]Cd[H(2)B(3,5-Me(2)pz)(2)], was also investigated and has an isotropic shift of 190.2 ppm, a CSA of 254 ppm, and an eta of 0.86. Also studied was [HB(3-Phpz)(3)]Cd[(Bu(t)CO)(2)CH], which has an CdN(3)O(2) inner core. The isotropic chemical shift of this complex is 173.6 ppm, and the values of Deltasigma and eta were determined to be -258 ppm and 0.38, respectively. The final compound, [HB(3,5-Me(2)pz)(3)]Cd[S(2)CNEt(2)], with N(3)S(2) donor atoms, has an isotropic shift of 275.8 ppm, an eta of 0.51, and a CSA of +375 ppm. Utilizing previous assignments, the most shielded tensor element was determined to be oriented normal to the plane of the tridentate ligand. The shielding tensor information is used to speculate on the coordination geometry of the CdN(3)O(2) inner core complex. PMID:11666894

  16. Comparison of sequential drug release in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararaj, Sharath C; Al-Sabbagh, Mohanad; Rabek, Cheryl L; Dziubla, Thomas D; Thomas, Mark V; Puleo, David A

    2016-10-01

    Development of drug-delivery devices typically involves characterizing in vitro release performance with the inherent assumption that this will closely approximate in vivo performance. Yet, as delivery devices become more complex, for instance with a sequential drug release pattern, it is important to confirm that in vivo properties correlate with the expected "programming" achieved in vitro. In this work, a systematic comparison between in vitro and in vivo biomaterial erosion and sequential release was performed for a multilayered association polymer system comprising cellulose acetate phthalate and Pluronic F-127. After assessing the materials during incubation in phosphate-buffered saline, devices were implanted supracalvarially in rats. Devices with two different doses and with different erosion rates were harvested at increasing times post-implantation, and the in vivo thickness loss, mass loss, and the drug release profiles were compared with their in vitro counterparts. The sequential release of four different drugs observed in vitro was successfully translated to in vivo conditions. Results suggest, however, that the total erosion time of the devices was longer and that release rates of the four drugs were different, with drugs initially released more quickly and then more slowly in vivo. Many comparative studies of in vitro and in vivo drug release from biodegradable polymers involved a single drug, whereas this research demonstrated that sequential release of four drugs can be maintained following implantation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 1302-1310, 2016.

  17. LANTCET: laser nanotechnology for screening and treating tumors ex vivo and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapotko, Dmitri O.; Lukianova-Hleb, Ekaterina Y.; Zhdanok, Sergei A.; Hafner, Jason H.; Rostro, Betty C.; Scully, Peter; Konopleva, Marina; Andreeff, Michael; Li, Chun; Hanna, Ehab Y.; Myers, Jeffrey N.; Oraevsky, Alexander A.

    2007-06-01

    LANTCET (laser-activated nano-thermolysis as cell elimination technology) was developed for selective detection and destruction of individual tumor cells through generation of photothermal bubbles around clusters of light absorbing gold nanoparticles (nanorods and nanoshells) that are selectively formed in target tumor cells. We have applied bare nanoparticles and their conjugates with cell-specific vectors such as monoclonal antibodies CD33 (specific for Acute Myeloid Leukemia) and C225 (specific for carcinoma cells that express epidermal growth factor -EGF). Clusters were formed by using vector-receptor interactions with further clusterization of nanoparticles due to endocytosis. Formation of clusters was verified directly with optical resonance scattering microscopy and microspectroscopy. LANTCET method was tested in vitro for living cell samples with: (1) model myeloid K562 cells (CD33 positive), (2) primary human bone marrow CD33-positive blast cells from patients with the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia, (3) monolayers of living EGF-positive carcinoma cells (Hep-2C), (4) human lymphocytes and red blood cells as normal cells. The LANTCET method was also tested in vivo using rats with experimental polymorphic sarcoma. Photothermal bubbles were generated and detected in vitro with a photothermal microscope equipped with a tunable Ti-Sa pulsed laser. We have found that cluster formation caused an almost 100-fold decrease in the bubble generation threshold of laser pulse fluence in tumor cells compared to the bubble generation threshold for normal cells. The animal tumor that was treated with a single laser pulse showed a necrotic area of diameter close to the pump laser beam diameter and a depth of 1-2 mm. Cell level selectivity of tumor damage with single laser pulse was demonstrated. Combining lightscattering imaging with bubble imaging, we introduced a new image-guided mode of the LANTCET operation for screening and treatment of tumors ex vivo and in vivo.

  18. In vivo NMR spectroscopy of the liver. Spectroscopie RMN du foie in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jehenson, P.; Cuenod, C.A.; Syrota, A. (CEA, 91 - Orsay (FR). Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot)

    1989-01-01

    The application of in vivo MR spectroscopy to the study of the liver is currently an expanding field of research. Owing to technical difficulties, the results obtained thus far were mainly those of animal observations. Several nuclei have been considered: hydrogen, phosphorus, carbon or fluorine. This non-traumatic method allows following and quantifying the various metabolic pathways, especially during hepatic diseases. The major metabolic pathways, i.e. neoglycogenesis, glycogenolysis, Krebs' cycle, etc., are studied, as well as their alterations during diseases such as ischemia, diabetes or alcoholism. The development of this promising technique requires the cooperation of various clinical and fundamental disciplines.

  19. Plasma and cavitation dynamics during pulsed laser microsurgery in vivo

    CERN Document Server

    Hutson, M Shane

    2007-01-01

    We compare the plasma and cavitation dynamics underlying pulsed laser microsurgery in water and in fruit fly embryos (in vivo) - specifically for nanosecond pulses at 355 and 532 nm. We find two key differences. First, the plasma-formation thresholds are lower in vivo - especially at 355 nm - due to the presence of endogenous chromophores that serve as additional sources for plasma seed electrons. Second, the biological matrix constrains the growth of laser-induced cavitation bubbles. Both effects reduce the disrupted region in vivo when compared to extrapolations from measurements in water.

  20. Ex vivo lung perfusion in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Gustavo Abdalla

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the use of ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP clinically to prepare donor lungs for transplantation. Methods: A prospective study involving EVLP for the reconditioning of extended-criteria donor lungs, the criteria for which include aspects such as a PaO2/FiO2 ratio < 300 mmHg. Between February of 2013 and February of 2014, the lungs of five donors were submitted to EVLP for up to 4 h each. During EVLP, respiratory mechanics were continuously evaluated. Once every hour during the procedure, samples of the perfusate were collected and the function of the lungs was evaluated. Results: The mean PaO2 of the recovered lungs was 262.9 ± 119.7 mmHg at baseline, compared with 357.0 ± 108.5 mmHg after 3 h of EVLP. The mean oxygenation capacity of the lungs improved slightly over the first 3 h of EVLP-246.1 ± 35.1, 257.9 ± 48.9, and 288.8 ± 120.5 mmHg after 1, 2, and 3 h, respectively-without significant differences among the time points (p = 0.508. The mean static compliance was 63.0 ± 18.7 mmHg, 75.6 ± 25.4 mmHg, and 70.4 ± 28.0 mmHg after 1, 2, and 3 h, respectively, with a significant improvement from hour 1 to hour 2 (p = 0.029 but not from hour 2 to hour 3 (p = 0.059. Pulmonary vascular resistance remained stable during EVLP, with no differences among time points (p = 0.284. Conclusions: Although the lungs evaluated remained under physiological conditions, the EVLP protocol did not effectively improve lung function, thus precluding transplantation.

  1. Wireless monitoring of liver hemodynamics in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony J Akl

    Full Text Available Liver transplants have their highest technical failure rate in the first two weeks following surgery. Currently, there are limited devices for continuous, real-time monitoring of the graft. In this work, a three wavelengths system is presented that combines near-infrared spectroscopy and photoplethysmography with a processing method that can uniquely measure and separate the venous and arterial oxygen contributions. This strategy allows for the quantification of tissue oxygen consumption used to study hepatic metabolic activity and to relate it to tissue stress. The sensor is battery operated and communicates wirelessly with a data acquisition computer which provides the possibility of implantation provided sufficient miniaturization. In two in vivo porcine studies, the sensor tracked perfusion changes in hepatic tissue during vascular occlusions with a root mean square error (RMSE of 0.135 mL/min/g of tissue. We show the possibility of using the pulsatile wave to measure the arterial oxygen saturation similar to pulse oximetry. The signal is also used to extract the venous oxygen saturation from the direct current (DC levels. Arterial and venous oxygen saturation changes were measured with an RMSE of 2.19% and 1.39% respectively when no vascular occlusions were induced. This error increased to 2.82% and 3.83% when vascular occlusions were induced during hypoxia. These errors are similar to the resolution of a commercial oximetry catheter used as a reference. This work is the first realization of a wireless optical sensor for continuous monitoring of hepatic hemodynamics.

  2. Wireless monitoring of liver hemodynamics in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akl, Tony J; Wilson, Mark A; Ericson, M Nance; Farquhar, Ethan; Coté, Gerard L

    2014-01-01

    Liver transplants have their highest technical failure rate in the first two weeks following surgery. Currently, there are limited devices for continuous, real-time monitoring of the graft. In this work, a three wavelengths system is presented that combines near-infrared spectroscopy and photoplethysmography with a processing method that can uniquely measure and separate the venous and arterial oxygen contributions. This strategy allows for the quantification of tissue oxygen consumption used to study hepatic metabolic activity and to relate it to tissue stress. The sensor is battery operated and communicates wirelessly with a data acquisition computer which provides the possibility of implantation provided sufficient miniaturization. In two in vivo porcine studies, the sensor tracked perfusion changes in hepatic tissue during vascular occlusions with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.135 mL/min/g of tissue. We show the possibility of using the pulsatile wave to measure the arterial oxygen saturation similar to pulse oximetry. The signal is also used to extract the venous oxygen saturation from the direct current (DC) levels. Arterial and venous oxygen saturation changes were measured with an RMSE of 2.19% and 1.39% respectively when no vascular occlusions were induced. This error increased to 2.82% and 3.83% when vascular occlusions were induced during hypoxia. These errors are similar to the resolution of a commercial oximetry catheter used as a reference. This work is the first realization of a wireless optical sensor for continuous monitoring of hepatic hemodynamics. PMID:25019160

  3. Characterization of Bacillus anthracis persistence in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A Jenkins

    Full Text Available Pulmonary exposure to Bacillus anthracis spores initiates inhalational anthrax, a life-threatening infection. It is known that dormant spores can be recovered from the lungs of infected animals months after the initial spore exposure. Consequently, a 60-day course antibiotic treatment is recommended for exposed individuals. However, there has been little information regarding details or mechanisms of spore persistence in vivo. In this study, we investigated spore persistence in a mouse model. The results indicated that weeks after intranasal inoculation with B. anthracis spores, substantial amounts of spores could be recovered from the mouse lung. Moreover, spores of B. anthracis were significantly better at persisting in the lung than spores of a non-pathogenic Bacillus subtilis strain. The majority of B. anthracis spores in the lung were tightly associated with the lung tissue, as they could not be readily removed by lavage. Immunofluorescence staining of lung sections showed that spores associated with the alveolar and airway epithelium. Confocal analysis indicated that some of the spores were inside epithelial cells. This was further confirmed by differential immunofluorescence staining of lung cells harvested from the infected lungs, suggesting that association with lung epithelial cells may provide an advantage to spore persistence in the lung. There was no or very mild inflammation in the infected lungs. Furthermore, spores were present in the lung tissue as single spores rather than in clusters. We also showed that the anthrax toxins did not play a role in persistence. Together, the results suggest that B. anthracis spores have special properties that promote their persistence in the lung, and that there may be multiple mechanisms contributing to spore persistence.

  4. Measurements of 202Tl in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper measurements in vivo of the 440-keV γ-ray emitted by 202Tl (physical half-life 12.2 days) are reported. This isotope is a contaminant commonly present at a level of about 1% in cyclotron-produced 201Tl (physical half-life 3.0 days), which is injected as thallous chloride for nuclear cardiology studies. The observed effective half-life of thallium-202 falls within the range reported by other workers in a study of 201Tl retention by four patients over a period of two weeks. The important aspect of our data is that no additional component in the retention curve was observed for a period five times longer. The distribution of 202Tl in the body was determined by making profile scans with a slit-collimated detector. In general, 202Tl was observed in skeletal muscle and the viscera. No changes in the distribution were noted between scans made on days 3 and 21 post-injection. The excretion rate of 201Tl and the ratio of 202Tl to 201Tl were determined by analyzing 24-hour urine and fecal samples for γ-ray activity with a Ge(Li) detector in a standardized geometry. On day 15 post-injection, the urinary excretion was 1.5% of the body content, while the fecal excretion was 3.9%. The total, 5.4%, was in excellent agreement with the excretion rate of 5.6%/day predicted by the whole-body retention curve obtained for 202Tl.However, previous workers had assumed that fecal excretion is negligible. Our findings refute this assumption and imply that the radiation dose from 201Th received by the intestinal tract may be underestimated, and the dose to the bladder over-estimated, even though the whole-body dose may not be affected

  5. In-vivo andex-vivo inhibition of intestinal glucose uptake:A scope for antihyperglycemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S Viviyan Therasa; T Thirumalai; N Tamilselvan; E David

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study hypoglycemic effect ofPhyllanthus amarus (P. amarus) leaf extract and its glucose uptake inhibition effect in rat small intestineex-vivo andin vivo models.Methods:Hypoglycemic studies were carried out in glucose loaded and streptozotocin(STZ) induced diabeticalbino rats.Blood glucose levels were estimated atI,III andIV hour time intervals after administration of aqueous leaf extract ofP. amarus.The study on the effect of plant extract on intestinal glucose absorption in rat was carried out using everted gut sacs.Results:The blood glucose levels were significantly depleted in the animals administered with aqueous leaf extract ofP. amarus(250 mg/kg body weight).Incubation of the rat everted intestinal sacs with the aqueous leaf extract ofP. amarus resulted in the inhibition of glucose transport across the intestinal membrane.Conclusions:The kinetic studies on the glucose transport inhibition across the intestinal membrane by the plant extract was a non competitive type of inhibition of the intestinal glucose transporter protein(GLUT2 andSGLT1) revealing the probable mechanism of hypoglycaemic effect of the aqueous leaf extract ofP. amarus.

  6. In vivo, Ex Vivo, and In Vitro Approaches to Study Intermediate Filaments in the Eye Lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrin, Miguel; Young, Laura; Wu, Weiju; Girkin, John M; Quinlan, Roy A

    2016-01-01

    The role of the eye lens is to focus light into the retina. To perform this unique function, the ocular lens must be transparent. Previous studies have demonstrated the expression of vimentin, BFSP1, and BFSP2 in the eye lens. These intermediate filament (IF) proteins are essential to the optical properties of the lens. They are also important to its biomechanical properties, to the shape of the lens fiber cells, and to the organization and function of the plasma membrane. The eye lens is an iconic model in developmental studies, as a result different vertebrate models, including zebrafish, have been developed to study lens formation. In the present chapter, we have summarized the new approaches and the more breakthrough models (e.g., iPSc) that can be used to study the function of IFs in the ocular lens. We have presented three different groups of models. The first group includes in vitro models, where IFs can be studied and manipulated in lens cell cultures. The second includes ex vivo models. These replicate better the complex lens cell differentiation processes and the role(s) played by IFs. The third class is the in vivo models, and here, we have focused on Zebrafish and new imaging approaches using selective plane illumination microscopy. Finally, we present protocols on how to use these lens models to study IFs.

  7. Towards a PBMC “virogram assay” for precision medicine: concordance between ex vivo and in vivo viral infection transcriptomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardeux, Vincent; Bosco, Anthony; Li, Jianrong; Halonen, Marilyn J.; Jackson, Daniel; Martinez, Fernando D.; Lussier, Yves A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding individual patient host-response to viruses is key to designing optimal personalized therapy. Unsurprisingly, in vivo human experimentation to understand individualized dynamic response of the transcriptome to viruses are rarely studied because of the obviously limitations stemming from ethical considerations of the clinical risk. Objective In this rhinovirus study, we first hypothesized that ex vivo human cells response to virus can serve as proxy for otherwise controversial in vivo human experimentation. We further hypothesized that the N-of-1-pathways framework, previously validated in cancer, can be effective in understanding the more subtle individual transcriptomic response to viral infection. Method N-of-1-pathways computes a significance score for a given list of gene sets at the patient level, using merely the ‘omics profiles of two paired samples as input. We extracted the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of four human subjects, aliquoted in two paired samples, one subjected to ex vivo rhinovirus infection. Their dysregulated genes and pathways were then compared to those of 9 human subjects prior and after intranasal inoculation in vivo with rhinovirus. Additionally, we developed the Similarity Venn Diagram, a novel visualization method that goes beyond conventional overlap to show the similarity between two sets of qualitative measures. Results We evaluated the individual N-of-1-pathways results using two established cohort-based methods: GSEA and enrichment of differentially expressed genes. Similarity Venn Diagrams and individual patient ROC curves illustrate and quantify that the in vivo dysregulation is recapitulated ex vivo both at the gene and pathway level (p-values≤0.004). Conclusion We established the first evidence that an interpretable dynamic transcriptome metric, conducted as an ex vivo assays for a single subject, has the potential to predict individualized response to infectious disease without the

  8. The Expanding Toolbox of In Vivo Bioluminescent Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tingting; Close, Dan; Handagama, Winode; Marr, Enolia; Sayler, Gary; Ripp, Steven

    2016-01-01

    In vivo bioluminescent imaging (BLI) permits the visualization of engineered bioluminescence from living cells and tissues to provide a unique perspective toward the understanding of biological processes as they occur within the framework of an authentic in vivo environment. The toolbox of in vivo BLI includes an inventory of luciferase compounds capable of generating bioluminescent light signals along with sophisticated and powerful instrumentation designed to detect and quantify these light signals non-invasively as they emit from the living subject. The information acquired reveals the dynamics of a wide range of biological functions that play key roles in the physiological and pathological control of disease and its therapeutic management. This mini review provides an overview of the tools and applications central to the evolution of in vivo BLI as a core technology in the preclinical imaging disciplines. PMID:27446798

  9. In vivo spectral micro-imaging of tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demos, Stavros G; Urayama, Shiro; Lin, Bevin; Saroufeem, Ramez; Ghobrial, Moussa

    2012-11-27

    In vivo endoscopic methods an apparatuses for implementation of fluorescence and autofluorescence microscopy, with and without the use of exogenous agents, effectively (with resolution sufficient to image nuclei) visualize and categorize various abnormal tissue forms.

  10. Photoacoustic molecular imaging for in vivo liver iron quantitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccarinelli, Federica; Carmona, Fernando; Regoni, Maria; Arosio, Paolo

    2016-05-01

    A recent study showed that ferritin is a suitable endogenous contrast agent for photoacoustic molecular imaging in cultured mammalian cells. We have therefore tested whether this imaging technique can be used for in vivo quantification of iron in mouse livers. To verify this hypothesis, we used multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) to image albino CD1 mice before and after experimental iron loading. Postmortem assays showed that the iron treatment caused a 15-fold increase in liver iron and a 40-fold increase in liver ferritin levels, while in vivo longitudinal analysis using MSOT revealed just a 1.6-fold increase in the ferritin/iron photoacoustic signal in the same animals. We conclude that MSOT can monitor changes in ferritin/iron levels in vivo, but its sensitivity is much lower than that of ex vivo iron assays.

  11. The Expanding Toolbox of In Vivo Bioluminescent Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tingting; Close, Dan; Handagama, Winode; Marr, Enolia; Sayler, Gary; Ripp, Steven

    2016-01-01

    In vivo bioluminescent imaging (BLI) permits the visualization of engineered bioluminescence from living cells and tissues to provide a unique perspective toward the understanding of biological processes as they occur within the framework of an authentic in vivo environment. The toolbox of in vivo BLI includes an inventory of luciferase compounds capable of generating bioluminescent light signals along with sophisticated and powerful instrumentation designed to detect and quantify these light signals non-invasively as they emit from the living subject. The information acquired reveals the dynamics of a wide range of biological functions that play key roles in the physiological and pathological control of disease and its therapeutic management. This mini review provides an overview of the tools and applications central to the evolution of in vivo BLI as a core technology in the preclinical imaging disciplines. PMID:27446798

  12. Microsensors for in vivo Measurement of Glutamate in Brain Tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Si; van der Zeyden, Miranda; Oldenziel, Weite H.; Cremers, Thomas I. F. H.; Westerink, Ben H. C.

    2008-01-01

    Several immobilized enzyme-based electrochemical biosensors for glutamate detection have been developed over the last decade. In this review, we compare first and second generation sensors. Structures, working mechanisms, interference prevention, in vitro detection characteristics and in vivo perfor

  13. Metallomics insights for in vivo studies of metal based nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Feng, Weiyue; Zhao, Yuliang; Chai, Zhifang

    2013-06-01

    With the rapid development of engineered nanomaterials (NMs) and wide biomedical applications for new types of multifunctional NMs, an understanding of the behavior patterns of NMs in vivo and clarification of their potential health impact as a result of their novel physicochemical properties is essential for ensuring safety in biomedical applications of nanotechnology. NMs have heterogeneous characteristics in that they combine the bulk properties of solids with the mobility of molecules, and present phase transformation, dissolution, oxidation/reduction as well as nano-bio interface reactions in biological milieu, which affect their in vivo behaviors and biological effects. The accurate study of identification, quantification, transformation state of NMs and their biological effects in vivo remains a challenge. This review aims to provide a "metallomics" (an integrated metal-assisted function bioscience) insight into the in vivo behavior and biological effects of NMs, particularly for metal-based nanomaterials (MNMs) and is based mainly on our own research and other previous works.

  14. Insights on TRP Channels from In Vivo Studies in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minke, Baruch; Parnas, Moshe

    2007-01-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels mediate responses in a large variety of signaling mechanisms. Most studies on mammalian TRP channels rely on heterologous expression, but their relevance to in vivo tissues is not entirely clear. In contrast, Drosophila TRP and TRP-like (TRPL) channels allow direct analyses of in vivo function. In Drosophila photoreceptors, activation of TRP and TRPL is mediated via the phosphoinositide cascade, with both Ca2+ and diacylglycerol (DAG) essential for generating the light response. In tissue culture cells, TRPL channels are constitutively active, and lipid second messengers greatly facilitate this activity. Inhibition of phospholipase C (PLC) completely blocks lipid activation of TRPL, suggesting that lipid activation is mediated via PLC. In vivo studies in mutant Drosophila also reveal an acute requirement for lipid-producing enzyme, which may regulate PLC activity. Thus, PLC and its downstream second messengers, Ca2+ and DAG, constitute critical mediators of TRP/TRPL gating in vivo. PMID:16460287

  15. Hyperspectral in vivo two-photon microscopy of intrinsic contrast

    OpenAIRE

    Radosevich, Andrew J.; Bouchard, Matthew B.; Burgess, Sean A.; Chen, Brenda R.; Hillman, Elizabeth M. C.

    2008-01-01

    In vivo two-photon imaging of intrinsic contrast can provide valuable information about structural tissue elements such as collagen and elastin and fluorescent metabolites such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. Yet low signal and overlapping emission spectra can make it difficult to identify and delineate these species in vivo. We present a novel approach that combines excitation scanning with spectrally resolved emission two-photon microscopy, allowing distinct structures to be delineate...

  16. Biodegradable Xylitol-Based Elastomers: In Vivo Behavior and Biocompatibility

    OpenAIRE

    Bruggeman, Joost; Bettinger, Christopher; Langer, Robert

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBiodegradable elastomers based on polycondensation reactions of xylitol with sebacic acid, referred to as poly(xylitol sebacate) (PXS) elastomers have recently been developed. We describe the in vivo behavior of PXS elastomers. Four PXS elastomers were synthesized, characterized, and compared with poly(L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA). PXS elastomers displayed a high level of structural integrity and form stability during degradation. The in vivo half-life ranged from approximate...

  17. Microsensors for in vivo Measurement of Glutamate in Brain Tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda van der Zeyden; Oldenziel, Weite H.; Cremers, Thomas I.F.H.; Westerink, Ben H.C.; Si Qin

    2008-01-01

    Several immobilized enzyme-based electrochemical biosensors for glutamate detection have been developed over the last decade. In this review, we compare first and second generation sensors. Structures, working mechanisms, interference prevention, in vitro detection characteristics and in vivo performance are summarized here for those sensors that have successfully detected brain glutamate in vivo. In brief, first generation sensors have a simpler structure and are faster in glutamate detectio...

  18. Modulating Hippocampal Plasticity with In Vivo Brain Stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Joyce G Rohan; Carhuatanta, Kim A.; McInturf, Shawn M.; Miklasevich, Molly K.; Jankord, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Investigations into the use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in relieving symptoms of neurological disorders and enhancing cognitive or motor performance have exhibited promising results. However, the mechanisms by which tDCS effects brain function remain under scrutiny. We have demonstrated that in vivo tDCS in rats produced a lasting effect on hippocampal synaptic plasticity, as measured using extracellular recordings. Ex vivo preparations of hippocampal slices from rats th...

  19. In vivo protein synthesis determinations in human immune cells

    OpenAIRE

    Januszkiewicz, Anna

    2005-01-01

    Intact immune responses are essential for defeating severe infections in individual patients. Insufficient function of the immune system contributes to a poor prognosis in these patients, in particular the ICU patients. Nevertheless, the immune system function is not easily monitored and evaluated. The ongoing metabolic activity of immune competent cells is reflected by their in vivo protein synthesis rate. The aim of this thesis was to apply in vivo protein synthesis measur...

  20. In Vivo Bioluminescence Imaging of the Murine Pathogen Citrobacter rodentium

    OpenAIRE

    Wiles, Siouxsie; Pickard, Karen M.; Peng, Katian; MacDonald, Thomas T.; Frankel, Gad

    2006-01-01

    Citrobacter rodentium is a natural mouse pathogen related to enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. We have previously utilized bioluminescence imaging (BLI) to determine the in vivo colonization dynamics of C. rodentium. However, due to the oxygen requirement of the bioluminescence system and the colonic localization of C. rodentium, in vivo localization studies were performed using harvested organs. Here, we report the detection of bioluminescent C. rodentium and commensal...

  1. Systemic inflammation regulates microglial responses to tissue damage in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Gyoneva, Stefka; Davalos, Dimitrios; Biswas, Dipankar; Swanger, Sharon A.; Garnier-Amblard, Ethel; Loth, Francis; Akassoglou, Katerina; Traynelis, Stephen F

    2014-01-01

    Microglia, the resident immune cells of the central nervous system, exist in either a “resting” state associated with physiological tissue surveillance or an “activated” state in neuroinflammation. We recently showed that ATP is the primary chemoattractor to tissue damage in vivo and elicits opposite effects on the motility of activated microglia in vitro through activation of adenosine A2A receptors. However, whether systemic inflammation affects microglial responses to tissue damage in vivo...

  2. Defining human mesenchymal stem cell efficacy in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfield, Tracey L; Nolan Koloze, Mary T; Lennon, Donald P; Caplan, Arnold I

    2010-01-01

    Allogeneic human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) can suppress graft versus host disease (GvHD) and have profound anti-inflammatory and regenerative capacity in stroke, infarct, spinal cord injury, meniscus regeneration, tendinitis, acute renal failure, and heart disease in human and animal models of disease. There is significant clinical hMSC variability in efficacy and the ultimate response in vivo. The challenge in hMSC based therapy is defining the efficacy of hMSC in vivo. Models which may provide insight into hMSC bioactivity in vivo would provide a means to distinguish hMSCs for clinical utility. hMSC function has been described as both regenerative and trophic through the production of bioactive factors. The regenerative component involves the multi-potentiality of hMSC progenitor differentiation. The secreted factors generated by the hMSCs are milieu and injury specific providing unique niches for responses in vivo. These bioactive factors are anti-scarring, angiogenic, anti-apoptotic as well as regenerative. Further, from an immunological standpoint, hMSC's can avoid host immune response, providing xenographic applications. To study the in vivo immuno-regulatory effectiveness of hMSCs, we used the ovalbumin challenge model of acute asthma. This is a quick 3 week in vivo pulmonary inflammation model with readily accessible ways of measuring effectiveness of hMSCs. Our data show that there is a direct correlation between the traditional ceramic cube score to hMSCs attenuation of cellular recruitment due to ovalbumin challenge. The results from these studies verify the in vivo immuno-modulator effectiveness of hMSCs and support the potential use of the ovalbumin model as an in vivo model of hMSC potency and efficacy. Our data also support future directions toward exploring hMSCs as an alternative therapeutic for the treatment of airway inflammation associated with asthma. PMID:20974000

  3. Portable optical fiber probe for in vivo brain temperature measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musolino, Stefan; Schartner, Erik P; Tsiminis, Georgios; Salem, Abdallah; Monro, Tanya M; Hutchinson, Mark R

    2016-08-01

    This work reports on the development of an optical fiber based probe for in vivo measurements of brain temperature. By utilizing a thin layer of rare-earth doped tellurite glass on the tip of a conventional silica optical fiber a robust probe, suitable for long-term in vivo measurements of temperature can be fabricated. This probe can be interrogated using a portable optical measurement setup, allowing for measurements to be performed outside of standard optical laboratories.

  4. Regional distribution of SGLT activity in rat brain in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Amy S.; Hirayama, Bruce A.; Timbol, Gerald; Liu, Jie; Diez-Sampedro, Ana; Kepe, Vladimir; Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Huang, Sung-Cheng; Wright, Ernest M.; Barrio, Jorge R.

    2012-01-01

    Na+-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) mRNAs have been detected in many organs of the body, but, apart from kidney and intestine, transporter expression, localization, and functional activity, as well as physiological significance, remain elusive. Using a SGLT-specific molecular imaging probe, α-methyl-4-deoxy-4-[18F]fluoro-d-glucopyranoside (Me-4-FDG) with ex vivo autoradiography and immunohistochemistry, we mapped in vivo the regional distribution of functional SGLTs in rat brain. Since Me-4-FDG ...

  5. Defining human mesenchymal stem cell efficacy in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennon Donald P

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Allogeneic human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs can suppress graft versus host disease (GvHD and have profound anti-inflammatory and regenerative capacity in stroke, infarct, spinal cord injury, meniscus regeneration, tendinitis, acute renal failure, and heart disease in human and animal models of disease. There is significant clinical hMSC variability in efficacy and the ultimate response in vivo. The challenge in hMSC based therapy is defining the efficacy of hMSC in vivo. Models which may provide insight into hMSC bioactivity in vivo would provide a means to distinguish hMSCs for clinical utility. hMSC function has been described as both regenerative and trophic through the production of bioactive factors. The regenerative component involves the multi-potentiality of hMSC progenitor differentiation. The secreted factors generated by the hMSCs are milieu and injury specific providing unique niches for responses in vivo. These bioactive factors are anti-scarring, angiogenic, anti-apoptotic as well as regenerative. Further, from an immunological standpoint, hMSC's can avoid host immune response, providing xenographic applications. To study the in vivo immuno-regulatory effectiveness of hMSCs, we used the ovalbumin challenge model of acute asthma. This is a quick 3 week in vivo pulmonary inflammation model with readily accessible ways of measuring effectiveness of hMSCs. Our data show that there is a direct correlation between the traditional ceramic cube score to hMSCs attenuation of cellular recruitment due to ovalbumin challenge. The results from these studies verify the in vivo immuno-modulator effectiveness of hMSCs and support the potential use of the ovalbumin model as an in vivo model of hMSC potency and efficacy. Our data also support future directions toward exploring hMSCs as an alternative therapeutic for the treatment of airway inflammation associated with asthma.

  6. Repeated swim stress alters brain benzodiazepine receptors measured in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weizman, R.; Weizman, A.; Kook, K.A.; Vocci, F.; Deutsch, S.I.; Paul, S.M.

    1989-06-01

    The effects of repeated swim stress on brain benzodiazepine receptors were examined in the mouse using both an in vivo and in vitro binding method. Specific in vivo binding of (/sup 3/H)Ro15-1788 to benzodiazepine receptors was decreased in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and striatum after repeated swim stress (7 consecutive days of daily swim stress) when compared to nonstressed mice. In vivo benzodiazepine receptor binding was unaltered after repeated swim stress in the cerebellum and pons medulla. The stress-induced reduction in in vivo benzodiazepine receptor binding did not appear to be due to altered cerebral blood flow or to an alteration in benzodiazepine metabolism or biodistribution because there was no difference in (14C)iodoantipyrine distribution or whole brain concentrations of clonazepam after repeated swim stress. Saturation binding experiments revealed a change in both apparent maximal binding capacity and affinity after repeated swim stress. Moreover, a reduction in clonazepam's anticonvulsant potency was also observed after repeated swim stress (an increase in the ED50 dose for protection against pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures), although there was no difference in pentylenetetrazol-induced seizure threshold between the two groups. In contrast to the results obtained in vivo, no change in benzodiazepine receptor binding kinetics was observed using the in vitro binding method. These data suggest that environmental stress can alter the binding parameters of the benzodiazepine receptor and that the in vivo and in vitro binding methods can yield substantially different results.

  7. Repeated swim stress alters brain benzodiazepine receptors measured in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of repeated swim stress on brain benzodiazepine receptors were examined in the mouse using both an in vivo and in vitro binding method. Specific in vivo binding of [3H]Ro15-1788 to benzodiazepine receptors was decreased in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and striatum after repeated swim stress (7 consecutive days of daily swim stress) when compared to nonstressed mice. In vivo benzodiazepine receptor binding was unaltered after repeated swim stress in the cerebellum and pons medulla. The stress-induced reduction in in vivo benzodiazepine receptor binding did not appear to be due to altered cerebral blood flow or to an alteration in benzodiazepine metabolism or biodistribution because there was no difference in [14C]iodoantipyrine distribution or whole brain concentrations of clonazepam after repeated swim stress. Saturation binding experiments revealed a change in both apparent maximal binding capacity and affinity after repeated swim stress. Moreover, a reduction in clonazepam's anticonvulsant potency was also observed after repeated swim stress [an increase in the ED50 dose for protection against pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures], although there was no difference in pentylenetetrazol-induced seizure threshold between the two groups. In contrast to the results obtained in vivo, no change in benzodiazepine receptor binding kinetics was observed using the in vitro binding method. These data suggest that environmental stress can alter the binding parameters of the benzodiazepine receptor and that the in vivo and in vitro binding methods can yield substantially different results

  8. Reading attitude scale: The reliability and validity studyOkuma tutum ölçeği: Geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışması

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan Çakıroğlu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the adaptation, reliability and validity of a “reading attitude scale” that was developed by McKenna and Kear (1990 to determine the reading attitudes of students.  The study was conducted with 318 students attending to 5th,6th,7th, and 8th grades in Trabzon. The scale includes 20 items and two factors called as leisure time reading and academic reading. The analyses were conducted in SPSS 20.0 and AMOS v.22. The final Turkish version of the scale included 20 items and two factors as it was in the original scale. The internal consistency reliability of the scale was 0.84 and 0.78 according to test-retest analysis. This is the first study that examines the reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the scale by using advanced statistics to determine the psychometric characteristics of the measure. Based on the study findings, the Reading Attitude Survey is a practical, feasible, and an understandable measurement tool.ÖzetBu çalışmanın amacı, öğrencilerin okumaya yönelik tutumlarını belirlemek amacıyla Mckenna ve Kear (1990 tarafından geliştirilmiş olan “Okumaya Yönelik Tutum Ölçeği”nin (OTÖ uyarlama, geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışmasını yapmaktır. Araştırmanın çalışma grubunu Trabzon ilinde eğitim görmekte olan ve 5.6.,7., ve 8. sınıfa devam eden toplam 318 öğrenci oluşturmuştur. Veriler SPSS 20.0 ve AMOS versiyon 22 paket programlarıyla yapılmıştır. Ölçek orijinaline uygun madde sayısında ve faktör yapısında oluşmuştur. DFA uyum indeksi ve madde faktör dağılımları istatistiksel olarak beklentilere uygun açığa çıkmıştır.   Ölçeğin güvenirlik katsayısı iç tutarlılık yöntemi ile 0.84 test-tekrar test yöntemiyle 0.78 olarak hesaplanmıştır. İlk kez bu kapsamda ileri veri analizleri ile incelemesi gerçekleştirilen aracın psikometrik özelliklerinin kullanılmaya elverişli geçerli ve güvenilir oldu

  9. Breeding of Trans-Bt Gene Rice Varieties with Pest Resistance by Means of Marker-Assisted Selection (MAS)%利用分子标记辅助选择培育转 Bt基因抗虫水稻

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琳; 魏志刚; 裴婷婷; 胡颂平; 余霞; 张静; 罗利军; 叶水峰; 刘国兰

    2014-01-01

    In order to breed trans-Bt gene rice materials with pest resistance,three Bt genes,cry1Ac/Ab, cry1C* and cry2A*,from the donor parents developed by Huazhong Agricultural University were introgressed into Xiushui123,Xiangqing,Hanhui No.3 and Huhan1B,namely Minghui63( Cry1C*) ,Minghui63( Cry2A*) and Minghui63 ( Cry1Ab/Ac) respectively using the method of traditional hybrid;then the new type lines of trans-Bt gene rice were by obtained means of maker-assisted selection ( MAS) ,screening of basta test in the field and test paper strip detection.In addition trans-gene rice lines of good pest resistance and fine agricultural traits were scteened by using the assays of insect-resistance in the field under normal field management but without spraying pesticide in the whole bearing stage of these trans-gene lines providing the materials for fur-ther anti-pest breeding.The homozygous lines with cry1C* and cry2A were obtained in the different back-grounds ( Xiushui123,Xiangqing and Huhan1B) respectively by the detection of PCR and test paper strip.At the same time,Bt lines showed excellent resistance to rice leaf roller in the field under the condition of its natu-ral occurrence.%为培育转Bt基因抗虫水稻品种材料,以传统杂交的方法将3个Bt明恢63中的Bt基因cry1C*、cry2A*和cry1Ac/Ab,转育到水稻品种秀水123、湘晴、旱恢3号和沪旱1B中;以回交二代自交三代(BC2F3)水稻叶片为材料,利用分子标记辅助选择、田间除草剂筛选和试纸条检测方法,以获得新型转Bt基因株系。并在全生育期实行除不喷施农药外的正常田间管理的转基因植株的田间抗虫鉴定方法筛选出抗虫性良好、农艺性状优良的株系,为后续抗虫育种提供材料。 BC2 F3代PCR检测及试纸条检测的结果显示分别获得cry1C*和cry2A*基因的沪旱1B、秀水123和湘晴的纯合株系。同时,在田间自然诱发虫害条件下,转基因株系对稻纵卷叶螟虫表现出强抗性。

  10. PASSIVE CAVITATION DETECTION DURING PULSED HIFU EXPOSURES OF EX VIVO TISSUES AND IN VIVO MOUSE PANCREATIC TUMORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong; Chen, Hong; Khokhlova, Tatiana; Wang, Yak-Nam; Kreider, Wayne; He, Xuemei; Hwang, Joo Ha

    2014-01-01

    Pulsed high-intensity focused ultrasound (pHIFU) has been demonstrated to enhance vascular permeability, disrupt tumor barriers and enhance drug penetration into tumor tissue through acoustic cavitation. Monitoring of cavitation activity during pHIFU treatments and knowing the ultrasound pressure levels sufficient to reliably induce cavitation in a given tissue are therefore very important. Here, three metrics of cavitation activity induced by pHIFU and evaluated by confocal passive cavitation detection were introduced: cavitation probability, cavitation persistence and the level of the broadband acoustic emissions. These metrics were used to characterize cavitation activity in several ex vivo tissue types (bovine tongue and liver and porcine adipose tissue and kidney) and gel phantoms (polyacrylamide and agarose) at varying peak-rarefactional focal pressures (1–12 MPa) during the following pHIFU protocol: frequency 1.1 MHz, pulse duration 1 ms, pulse repetition frequency 1 Hz. To evaluate the relevance of the measurements in ex vivo tissue, cavitation metrics were also investigated and compared in the ex vivo and in vivo murine pancreatic tumors that develop spontaneously in transgenic KPC mice and closely recapitulate human disease in their morphology. The cavitation threshold, defined at 50 % cavitation probability, was found to vary broadly among the investigated tissues (within 2.5–10 MPa), depending mostly on the water-lipid ratio that characterizes the tissue composition. Cavitation persistence and the intensity of broadband emissions depended both on tissue structure and lipid concentration. Both the cavitation threshold and broadband noise emission level were similar between ex vivo and in vivo pancreatic tumor tissue. The largest difference between in vivo and ex vivo settings was found in the pattern of cavitation occurrence throughout pHIFU exposure: it was sporadic in vivo, but ex vivo it decreased rapidly and stopped over the first few pulses

  11. SEDDS of gliclazide: Preparation and characterization by in-vitro, ex-vivo and in-vivo techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Nipun, Tanzina Sharmin; Ashraful Islam, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    In the study, self emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) of gliclazide, a poorly soluble drug, was developed and evaluated by in-vitro, ex-vivo and in-vivo techniques. Oil and surfactant were screened out according to their solubilizing capacity. Among the tested components Transcutol HP and Tween-80 showed good solubilizing capacity. These two components were used in different ratios to prepare gliclazide SEDDS. The SEDDS formulations were transparent and clear. Droplet size of the emulsi...

  12. Free radicals induced by sunlight in different spectral regions - in vivo versus ex vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohan, Silke B; Müller, Robert; Albrecht, Stephanie; Mink, Kathrin; Tscherch, Kathrin; Ismaeel, Fakher; Lademann, Jürgen; Rohn, Sascha; Meinke, Martina C

    2016-05-01

    Sunlight represents an exogenous factor stimulating formation of free radicals which can induce cell damage. To assess the effect of the different spectral solar regions on the development of free radicals in skin, in vivo electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) investigations with human volunteers and ex vivo studies on excised human and porcine skin were carried out. For all skin probes, the ultraviolet (UV) spectral region stimulates the most intensive radical formation, followed by the visible (VIS) and the near infrared (NIR) regions. A comparison between the different skin models shows that for UV light, the fastest and highest production of free radicals could be detected in vivo, followed by excised porcine and human skin. The same distribution pattern was found for the VIS/NIR spectral regions, whereby the differences in radical formation between in vivo and ex vivo were less pronounced. An analysis of lipid composition in vivo before and after exposure to UV light clearly showed modifications in several skin lipid components; a decrease of ceramide subclass [AP2] and an increase of ceramide subclass [NP2], sodium cholesterol sulphate and squalene (SQ) were detectable. In contrast, VIS/NIR irradiation led to an increase of ceramides [AP2] and SCS, and a decrease of SQ. These results, which are largely comparable for the different skin models investigated in vivo and ex vivo, indicate that radiation exposure in different spectral regions strongly influences radical production in skin and also results in changes in skin lipid composition, which is essential for barrier function. PMID:26910569

  13. Free radicals induced by sunlight in different spectral regions - in vivo versus ex vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohan, Silke B; Müller, Robert; Albrecht, Stephanie; Mink, Kathrin; Tscherch, Kathrin; Ismaeel, Fakher; Lademann, Jürgen; Rohn, Sascha; Meinke, Martina C

    2016-05-01

    Sunlight represents an exogenous factor stimulating formation of free radicals which can induce cell damage. To assess the effect of the different spectral solar regions on the development of free radicals in skin, in vivo electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) investigations with human volunteers and ex vivo studies on excised human and porcine skin were carried out. For all skin probes, the ultraviolet (UV) spectral region stimulates the most intensive radical formation, followed by the visible (VIS) and the near infrared (NIR) regions. A comparison between the different skin models shows that for UV light, the fastest and highest production of free radicals could be detected in vivo, followed by excised porcine and human skin. The same distribution pattern was found for the VIS/NIR spectral regions, whereby the differences in radical formation between in vivo and ex vivo were less pronounced. An analysis of lipid composition in vivo before and after exposure to UV light clearly showed modifications in several skin lipid components; a decrease of ceramide subclass [AP2] and an increase of ceramide subclass [NP2], sodium cholesterol sulphate and squalene (SQ) were detectable. In contrast, VIS/NIR irradiation led to an increase of ceramides [AP2] and SCS, and a decrease of SQ. These results, which are largely comparable for the different skin models investigated in vivo and ex vivo, indicate that radiation exposure in different spectral regions strongly influences radical production in skin and also results in changes in skin lipid composition, which is essential for barrier function.

  14. Ex vivo vs. in vivo antibacterial activity of two antiseptics on oral biofilm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISABEL ePRADA-LÓPEZ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the immediate antibacterial effect of two application methods (passive immersion and active mouthwash of two antiseptic solutions on the in situ oral biofilm.Material and Methods: A randomized observer-masked crossover study was conducted. Fifteen healthy volunteers wore a specific intraoral device for 48 hours to form a biofilm in three glass disks. One of these disks was used as a baseline; another one was immersed in a solution of 0.2% Chlorhexidine (0.2% CHX, remaining the third in the device, placed in the oral cavity, during the 0.2% CHX mouthwash application. After a two-week washout period, the protocol was repeated using a solution of Essential Oils (EO. Samples were analysed for bacterial viability with the confocal laser scanning microscope after previous staining with LIVE/DEAD® BacLight™.Results: The EO showed a better antibacterial effect compared to the 0.2% CHX after the mouthwash application (% of bacterial viability= 1.16 ± 1.00% vs. 5.08 ± 5.79%, respectively, and was more effective in all layers (p<0.05. In the immersion, both antiseptics were significantly less effective (% of bacterial viability= 26.93 ± 13.11%, EO vs. 15.17 ± 6.14%, 0.2% CHX; in the case of EO immersion, there were no significant changes in the bacterial viability of the deepest layer in comparison with the baseline. Conclusions: The method of application conditioned the antibacterial activity of the 0.2% CHX and EO solutions on the in situ oral biofilm. The in vivo active mouthwash was more effective than the ex vivo passive immersion in both antiseptic solutions. There was more penetration of the antiseptic inside the biofilm with an active mouthwash, especially with the EO.

  15. In Vivo Tracking of Murine Adipose Tissue-Derived Multipotent Adult Stem Cells and Ex Vivo Cross-Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Garrovo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells are characterized by the ability to renew themselves and to differentiate into specialized cell types, while stem cell therapy is believed to treat a number of different human diseases through either cell regeneration or paracrine effects. Herein, an in vivo and ex vivo near infrared time domain (NIR TD optical imaging study was undertaken to evaluate the migratory ability of murine adipose tissue-derived multipotent adult stem cells [mAT-MASC] after intramuscular injection in mice. In vivo NIR TD optical imaging data analysis showed a migration of DiD-labelled mAT-MASC in the leg opposite the injection site, which was confirmed by a fibered confocal microendoscopy system. Ex vivo NIR TD optical imaging results showed a systemic distribution of labelled cells. Considering a potential microenvironmental contamination, a cross-validation study by multimodality approaches was followed: mAT-MASC were isolated from male mice expressing constitutively eGFP, which was detectable using techniques of immunofluorescence and qPCR. Y-chromosome positive cells, injected into wild-type female recipients, were detected by FISH. Cross-validation confirmed the data obtained by in vivo/ex vivo TD optical imaging analysis. In summary, our data demonstrates the usefulness of NIR TD optical imaging in tracking delivered cells, giving insights into the migratory properties of the injected cells.

  16. Computer-aided detection of artificial pulmonary nodules using an ex vivo lung phantom: Influence of exposure parameters and iterative reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • CAD on chest MDCT is robust over a wide range of exposure settings, and may be applied on low-dose MDCT. • Iterative reconstruction (IR) is not detrimental for CAD sensitivity. • IR may not be used for further dose reduction with CAD on low-dose MDCT. • IR may be applicable with CAD for management of low-dose MDCT for lung cancer screening. - Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the influence of exposure parameters and raw-data based iterative reconstruction (IR) on the performance of computer-aided detection (CAD) of pulmonary nodules on chest multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). Material and methods: Seven porcine lung explants were inflated in a dedicated ex vivo phantom shell and prepared with n = 162 artificial nodules of a clinically relevant volume and maximum diameter (46–1063 μl, and 6.2–21.5 mm). n = 118 nodules were solid and n = 44 part-solid. MDCT was performed with different combinations of 120 and 80 kV with 120, 60, 30 and 12 mA*s, and reconstructed with both filtered back projection (FBP) and IR. Subsequently, 16 datasets per lung were subjected to dedicated CAD software. The rate of true positive, false negative and false positive CAD marks was measured for each reconstruction. Results: The rate of true positive findings ranged between 88.9–91.4% for FBP and 88.3–90.1% for IR (n.s.) with most exposure settings, but was significantly lower with the combination of 80 kV and 12 mA*s (80.9% and 81.5%, respectively, p < 0.05). False positive findings ranged between 2.3 - 8.1 annotations per lung. For nodule volumes <200 μl the rate of true positives was significantly lower than for >300 μl (p < 0.05). Similarly, it was significantly lower for diameters <12 mm compared to ≥12 mm (p < 0.05). The rate of true positives for solid and part-solid nodules was similar. Conclusions: Nodule CAD on chest MDCT is robust over a wide range of exposure settings. Noise reduction by IR is not detrimental for CAD, and may be used to

  17. Methods of in-vivo mouse lung micro-CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recheis, Wolfgang A.; Nixon, Earl; Thiesse, Jacqueline; McLennan, Geoffrey; Ross, Alan; Hoffman, Eric

    2005-04-01

    Micro-CT will have a profound influence on the accumulation of anatomical and physiological phenotypic changes in natural and transgenetic mouse models. Longitudinal studies will be greatly facilitated, allowing for a more complete and accurate description of events if in-vivo studies are accomplished. The purpose of the ongoing project is to establish a feasible and reproducible setup for in-vivo mouse lung micro-computed tomography (μCT). We seek to use in-vivo respiratory-gated μCT to follow mouse models of lung disease with subsequent recovery of the mouse. Methodologies for optimizing scanning parameters and gating for the in-vivo mouse lung are presented. A Scireq flexiVent ventilated the gas-anesthetized mice at 60 breaths/minute, 30 cm H20 PEEP, 30 ml/kg tidal volume and provided a respiratory signal to gate a Skyscan 1076 μCT. Physiologic monitoring allowed the control of vital functions and quality of anesthesia, e.g. via ECG monitoring. In contrary to longer exposure times with ex-vivo scans, scan times for in-vivo were reduced using 35μm pixel size, 158ms exposure time and 18μm pixel size, 316ms exposure time to reduce motion artifacts. Gating via spontaneous breathing was also tested. Optimal contrast resolution was achieved at 50kVp, 200μA, applying an aluminum filter (0.5mm). There were minimal non-cardiac related motion artifacts. Both 35μm and 1μm voxel size images were suitable for evaluation of the airway lumen and parenchymal density. Total scan times were 30 and 65 minutes respectively. The mice recovered following scanning protocols. In-vivo lung scanning with recovery of the mouse delivered reasonable image quality for longitudinal studies, e.g. mouse asthma models. After examining 10 mice, we conclude μCT is a feasible tool evaluating mouse models of lung pathology in longitudinal studies with increasing anatomic detail available for evaluation as one moves from in-vivo to ex-vivo studies. Further developments include automated

  18. Reproduction of in vivo motion using a parallel robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Ryan A; Rosvold, Joshua M; Darcy, Shon P; Corr, David T; Shrive, Nigel G; Tapper, Janet E; Ronsky, Janet L; Beveridge, Jillian E; Marchuk, Linda L; Frank, Cyril B

    2007-10-01

    Although alterations in knee joint loading resulting from injury have been shown to influence the development of osteoarthritis, actual in vivo loading conditions of the joint remain unknown. A method for determining in vivo ligament loads by reproducing joint specific in vivo kinematics using a robotic testing apparatus is described. The in vivo kinematics of the ovine stifle joint during walking were measured with 3D optical motion analysis using markers rigidly affixed to the tibia and femur. An additional independent single degree of freedom measuring device was also used to record a measure of motion. Following sacrifice, the joint was mounted in a robotic/universal force sensor test apparatus and referenced using a coordinate measuring machine. A parallel robot configuration was chosen over the conventional serial manipulator because of its greater accuracy and stiffness. Median normal gait kinematics were applied to the joint and the resulting accuracy compared. The mean error in reproduction as determined by the motion analysis system varied between 0.06 mm and 0.67 mm and 0.07 deg and 0.74 deg for the two individual tests. The mean error measured by the independent device was found to be 0.07 mm and 0.83 mm for the two experiments, respectively. This study demonstrates the ability of this system to reproduce in vivo kinematics of the ovine stifle joint in vitro. The importance of system stiffness is discussed to ensure accurate reproduction of joint motion. PMID:17887900

  19. Systemic inflammation regulates microglial responses to tissue damage in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyoneva, Stefka; Davalos, Dimitrios; Biswas, Dipankar; Swanger, Sharon A.; Garnier-Amblard, Ethel; Loth, Francis; Akassoglou, Katerina; Traynelis, Stephen F.

    2015-01-01

    Microglia, the resident immune cells of the central nervous system, exist in either a “resting” state associated with physiological tissue surveillance or an “activated” state in neuroinflammation. We recently showed that ATP is the primary chemoattractor to tissue damage in vivo and elicits opposite effects on the motility of activated microglia in vitro through activation of adenosine A2A receptors. However, whether systemic inflammation affects microglial responses to tissue damage in vivo remains largely unknown. Using in vivo two-photon imaging of mice, we show that injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at levels that can produce both clear neuroinflammation and some features of sepsis significantly reduced the rate of microglial response to laser-induced ablation injury in vivo. Under pro-inflammatory conditions, microglial processes initially retracted from the ablation site, but subsequently moved toward and engulfed the damaged area. Analyzing the process dynamics in 3D cultures of primary microglia indicated that only A2A, but not A1 or A3 receptors, mediate process retraction in LPS-activated microglia. The A2A receptor antagonists caffeine and preladenant reduced adenosine-mediated process retraction in activated microglia in vitro. Finally, administration of preladenant before induction of laser ablation in vivo accelerated the microglial response to injury following systemic inflammation. The regulation of rapid microglial responses to sites of injury by A2A receptors could have implications for their ability to respond to the neuronal death occurring under conditions of neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:24807189

  20. In vivo gene delivery with L-tyrosine polyphosphate nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditto, Andrew J; Reho, John J; Shah, Kush N; Smolen, Justin A; Holda, James H; Ramirez, Rolando J; Yun, Yang H

    2013-05-01

    The concept of gene therapy is promising; however, the perceived risks and side effects associated with this technology have severely dampened the researchers' enthusiasm. Thus, the development of a nonviral gene vector without immunological effects and with high transfection efficiency is necessary. Currently, most nonviral vectors have failed to achieve the in vivo transfection efficiencies of viral vectors due to their toxicity, rapid clearance, and/or inappropriate release rates. Although our previous studies have successfully demonstrated the controlled-release of plasmid DNA (pDNA) polyplexes encapsulated into nanoparticles formulated with l-tyrosine polyphosphate (LTP-pDNA nanoparticles), the in vivo transfection capabilities and immunogenicity of this delivery system have yet to be examined. Thus, we evaluate LTP-pDNA nanoparticles in an in vivo setting via injection into rodent uterine tissue. Our results demonstrate through X-gal staining and immunohistochemistry of uterine tissue that transfection has successfully occurred after a nine-day incubation. In contrast, the results for the control nanoparticles show results similar to those of shams. Furthermore, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) from the injected tissues confirms the transfection in vivo. To examine the immunogenicity, the l-tyrosine polyphosphate (LTP) nanoparticles have been evaluated in a mouse model. No significant differences in the activation of the innate immune system are observed. These data provide the first report for the potential use of controlled-release nanoparticles formulated from an amino acid based polymer as an in vivo nonviral vector for gene therapy.