WorldWideScience

Sample records for ante value-based price

  1. Value-based pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Netseva-Porcheva Tatyana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the paper is to present the value-based pricing. Therefore, the comparison between two approaches of pricing is made - cost-based pricing and value-based pricing. The 'Price sensitively meter' is presented. The other topic of the paper is the perceived value - meaning of the perceived value, the components of perceived value, the determination of perceived value and the increasing of perceived value. In addition, the best company strategies in matrix 'value-cost' are outlined. .

  2. Value-based differential pricing: efficient prices for drugs in a global context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzon, Patricia; Towse, Adrian; Mestre-Ferrandiz, Jorge

    2015-03-01

    This paper analyzes pharmaceutical pricing between and within countries to achieve second-best static and dynamic efficiency. We distinguish countries with and without universal insurance, because insurance undermines patients' price sensitivity, potentially leading to prices above second-best efficient levels. In countries with universal insurance, if each payer unilaterally sets an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) threshold based on its citizens' willingness-to-pay for health; manufacturers price to that ICER threshold; and payers limit reimbursement to patients for whom a drug is cost-effective at that price and ICER, then the resulting price levels and use within each country and price differentials across countries are roughly consistent with second-best static and dynamic efficiency. These value-based prices are expected to differ cross-nationally with per capita income and be broadly consistent with Ramsey optimal prices. Countries without comprehensive insurance avoid its distorting effects on prices but also lack financial protection and affordability for the poor. Improving pricing efficiency in these self-pay countries includes improving regulation and consumer information about product quality and enabling firms to price discriminate within and between countries.

  3. The Questionable Economic Case for Value-Based Drug Pricing in Market Health Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Mark V

    2017-02-01

    This article investigates the economic theory and interpretation of the concept of "value-based pricing" for new breakthrough drugs with no close substitutes in a context (such as the United States) in which a drug firm with market power sells its product to various buyers. The interpretation is different from that in a country that evaluates medicines for a single public health insurance plan or a set of heavily regulated plans. It is shown that there will not ordinarily be a single value-based price but rather a schedule of prices with different volumes of buyers at each price. Hence, it is incorrect to term a particular price the value-based price, or to argue that the profit-maximizing monopoly price is too high relative to some hypothesized value-based price. When effectiveness of treatment or value of health is heterogeneous, the profit-maximizing price can be higher than that associated with assumed values of quality-adjusted life-years. If the firm sets a price higher than the value-based price for a set of potential buyers, the optimal strategy of the buyers is to decline to purchase that drug. The profit-maximizing price will come closer to a unique value-based price if demand is less heterogeneous. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Value-Based Insurance Design: More Health at Any Price

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendrick, A Mark; Martin, Jenifer J; Weiss, Alison E

    2012-01-01

    When everyone is required to pay the same out-of-pocket amount for health care services regardless of clinical indication, there is evidence of underuse of high-value services and overuse of interventions of no or marginal clinical benefit. Unlike most current health plan designs, value-based insurance design (V-BID) acknowledges heterogeneity of clinical interventions and patient characteristics. It encourages the use of services with strong evidence of clinical benefit and likewise discourages the use of low-value services. Implementing this concept into the national policy debate required a strategy that included conceptual framework development, program implementation, rigorous evaluation, media outreach, and an advocacy plan. Upon completion of this strategy involving several colleagues from multiple disciplines, Congress included language specifically authorizing V-BID in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. A wide-ranging approach, planned as early as possible, can lead to the successful translation of health services research to policy. PMID:22150718

  5. The application of pharmacoeconomic modelling to estimate a value-based price for new cancer drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dranitsaris, George; Truter, Ilse; Lubbe, Martie S; Cottrell, Wayne; Spirovski, Biljana; Edwards, Jonathan

    2012-04-01

    Value-based pricing has recently been discussed by international bodies as a means to estimate a drug price that is linked to the benefits it offers patients and society. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended using three times a country's per capita gross domestic product (GDP) as the threshold for economic value. Using the WHO criteria, pharmacoeconomic modelling was used to illustrate the application of value-based price towards bevacizumab, a relatively new drug that provides a 1.4-month survival benefit to patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). A decision model was developed to simulate outcomes in mCRC patients receiving chemotherapy ± bevacizumab. Clinical data were obtained from randomized trials and costs from Canadian cancer centres. Utility estimates were determined by interviewing 24 oncology nurses and pharmacists. A price per dose of bevacizumab was then estimated using a target threshold of $CAD117,000 per quality adjusted life year gained, which is three times the Canadian per capita GDP. For a 1.4-month survival benefit, a price of $CAD830 per dose would be considered cost-effective from the Canadian public health care perspective. If the drug were able to improve patient quality of life or survival from 1.4 to 3 months, the drug price could increase to $CAD1560 and $CAD2180 and still be considered cost-effective. The use of the WHO criteria for estimating a value-based price is feasible, but a balance between what patients/governments can afford to pay and the commercial viability of the product in the reference country would be required. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. The development of a value based pricing index for new drugs in metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dranitsaris, George; Truter, Ilse; Lubbe, Martie S

    2011-06-01

    Worldwide, prices for cancer drugs have been under downward pressure where several governments have mandated price cuts of branded products. A better alternative to government mandated price cuts would be to estimate a final price based on drug performance, cost effectiveness and a country's ability to pay. We developed a global pricing index for new cancer drugs in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) that encompasses all of these attributes. A pharmacoeconomic model was developed to simulate mCRC patients receiving chemotherapy plus a 'new drug' that improves survival by 1.4, 3 and 6months, respectively. Cost and utility data were obtained from cancer centres and oncology nurses (n=112) in Canada, Spain, India, South Africa and Malaysia. Multivariable analysis was then used to develop the pricing index, which considers survival benefit, per capita GDP and income dispersion (as measured by the Gini coefficient) as predictor variables. Higher survival benefits were associated with elevated drug prices, especially in higher income countries such as Canada. For Argentina with a per capita GDP of $15,000 and a Gini coefficient of 51, the index estimated that for a drug which provides a 4month survival benefit in mCRC, the value based price would be $US 630 per dose. In contrast, the same drug in a wealthier country like Norway (per capita GDP=$50,000) could command a price of $US 2,775 per dose. The application of this index to estimate a price based on cost effectiveness and the wealth of a nation would be important for opening dialogue between the key stakeholders and a better alternative to government mandated price cuts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Using pharmacoeconomic modelling to determine value-based pricing for new pharmaceuticals in malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dranitsaris, George; Truter, Ilse; Lubbe, Martie S; Sriramanakoppa, Nitin N; Mendonca, Vivian M; Mahagaonkar, Sangameshwar B

    2011-10-01

    Decision analysis (DA) is commonly used to perform economic evaluations of new pharmaceuticals. Using multiples of Malaysia's per capita 2010 gross domestic product (GDP) as the threshold for economic value as suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO), DA was used to estimate a price per dose for bevacizumab, a drug that provides a 1.4-month survival benefit in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). A decision model was developed to simulate progression-free and overall survival in mCRC patients receiving chemotherapy with and without bevacizumab. Costs for chemotherapy and management of side effects were obtained from public and private hospitals in Malaysia. Utility estimates, measured as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), were determined by interviewing 24 oncology nurses using the time trade-off technique. The price per dose was then estimated using a target threshold of US$44 400 per QALY gained, which is 3 times the Malaysian per capita GDP. A cost-effective price for bevacizumab could not be determined because the survival benefit provided was insufficient According to the WHO criteria, if the drug was able to improve survival from 1.4 to 3 or 6 months, the price per dose would be $567 and $1258, respectively. The use of decision modelling for estimating drug pricing is a powerful technique to ensure value for money. Such information is of value to drug manufacturers and formulary committees because it facilitates negotiations for value-based pricing in a given jurisdiction.

  8. Value-Based Pricing and Reimbursement in Personalised Healthcare: Introduction to the Basic Health Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis P. Garrison

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ‘Value-based’ outcomes, pricing, and reimbursement are widely discussed as health sector reforms these days. In this paper, we discuss their meaning and relationship in the context of personalized healthcare, defined as receipt of care conditional on the results of a biomarker-based diagnostic test. We address the question: “What kinds of pricing and reimbursement models should be applied in personalized healthcare?” The simple answer is that competing innovators and technology adopters should have incentives that promote long-term dynamic efficiency. We argue that—to meet this social objective of optimal innovation in personalized healthcare—payers, as agents of their plan participants, should aim to send clear signals to their suppliers about what they value. We begin by revisiting the concept of value from an economic perspective, and argue that a broader concept of value is needed in the context of personalized healthcare. We discuss the market for personalized healthcare and the interplay between price and reimbursement. We close by emphasizing the potential barrier posed by inflexible or cost-based reimbursement systems, especially for biomarker-based predictive tests, and how these personalized technologies have global public goods characteristics that require global value-based differential pricing to achieve dynamic efficiency in terms of the optimal rate of innovation and adoption.

  9. Value-based pricing: A success factor in the competitive struggle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Netseva-Porcheva Tatyana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, the view that the main purpose of market oriented organizations is not to satisfy the consumer, but to create values has dominated. Exactly the values, their creation, retention and increase, are the main sources of competitive advantage of the company. The purpose of the present report is to present the price formation, based on product value, as a source of competitive advantage. In connection with the so-defined objective, the value and the product price for the customer are derived as key factors for success of the company in the competitive struggle; the role of the value of the product in the marketing and pricing is revealed; and theory clarifies the two basic approaches for determining the price of the product on the basis of value - customer value modeling (CVM and economic value modeling (EVM, their nature, scope of application, advantages and disadvantages.

  10. Application of the Price-Volume Approach in Cases of Innovative Drugs Where Value-Based Pricing is Inadequate: Description of Real Experiences in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messori, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Several cases of expensive drugs designed for large patient populations (e.g. sofosbuvir) have raised a complex question in terms of drug pricing. Even assuming value-based pricing, the treatment with these drugs of all eligible patients would have an immense budgetary impact, which is unsustainable also for the richest countries. This raises the need to reduce the prices of these agents in comparison with those suggested by the value-based approach and to devise new pricing methods that can achieve this goal. The present study discusses in detail the following two methods: (i) The approach based on setting nation-wide budget thresholds for individual innovative agents in which a fixed proportion of the historical pharmaceutical expenditure represents the maximum budget attributable to an innovative treatment; (ii) The approach based on nation-wide price-volume agreements in which drug prices are progressively reduced as more patients receive the treatment. The first approach has been developed in the USA by the Institute for Clinical and Economic Review and has been applied to PCSK9 inhibitors (alirocumab and evolocumab). The second approach has been designed for the Italian market and has found a systematic application to manage the price of ranibizumab, sofosbuvir, and PCSK9 inhibitors. While, in the past, price-volume agreements have been applied only on an empirical basis (i.e. in the absence of any quantitative theoretical rule), more recently some explicit mathematical models have been described. The performance of these models is now being evaluated on the basis of the real-world experiences conducted in some European countries, especially Italy.

  11. Beyond cost-effectiveness, analysis. Value-based pricing and result-oriented financing as a pathway to sustainability for the national health system in Spain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alvaro Hidalgo-Vega

    2017-01-01

    Beyond cost-effectiveness, analysis. Value-based pricing and result-oriented financing as a pathway to sustainability for the national health system in SpainThe editorial addresses the current use of economic evaluation...

  12. Beyond cost-effectiveness, analysis. Value-based pricing and result-oriented financing as a pathway to sustainability for the national health system in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Hidalgo-Vega

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Beyond cost-effectiveness, analysis. Value-based pricing and result-oriented financing as a pathway to sustainability for the national health system in SpainThe editorial addresses the current use of economic evaluation in the assessment and potential funding and reimbursement of health technologies. Cost-effectiveness ratio and the acceptability thresholds are analyzed, pointing out the limitations that the current approach has for capturing the value of new technologies. A potential shift from National Health Systems to value-based prices is discussed, with a focus on health economics outcomes where multi-criteria analyses can be a complementary tool to traditional cost-effectiveness approaches.

  13. Application of the ant colony search algorithm to reactive power pricing in an open electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketabi, Abbas; Alibabaee, Ahmad [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran); Feuillet, R. [Laboratoire d' Electrotechnique de Grenoble, INPG/ENSIEG, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres, Cedex (France)

    2010-07-15

    Reactive power management is essential to transfer real energy and support power system security. Developing an accurate and feasible method for reactive power pricing is important in the electricity market. In conventional optimal power flow models the production cost of reactive power was ignored. In this paper, the production cost of reactive power and investment cost of capacitor banks were included into the objective function of the OPF problem. Then, using ant colony search algorithm, the optimal problem was solved. Marginal price theory was used for calculation of the cost of active and reactive power at each bus in competitive electric markets. Application of the proposed method on IEEE 14-bus system confirms its validity and effectiveness. Results from several case studies show clearly the effects of various factors on reactive power price. (author)

  14. Beyond cost-effectiveness, analysis. Value-based pricing and result-oriented financing as a pathway to sustainability for the national health system in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Hidalgo-Vega

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The editorial addresses the current use of economic evaluation in the assessment and potential funding and reimbursement of health technologies. Cost-effectiveness ratio and the acceptability thresholds are analyzed, pointing out the limitations that the current approach has for capturing the value of new technologies. A potential shift from National Health Systems to value-based prices is discussed, with a focus on health economics outcomes where multi-criteria analyses can be a complementary tool to traditional cost-effectiveness approaches.

  15. ANT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Duim, René; Ren, Carina Bregnholm; Jóhannesson, Gunnar Thór

    2017-01-01

    Ten years ago actor-network theory (ANT) entered this journal. To illustrate how the relational ontology and sensibilities of ANT lend themselves to particular kinds of research, we first interrogate the main controversies as a way to open up and discuss the main premises of ANT. These debates...... concern the status and agency of objects and non-humans, ANT’s denial of the explanatory power of social structures, and the political implications of ANT. Second we present ANT’s relevance for tourism studies and discuss what ANT ‘does’ in practice. After summarizing a decade of relations between ANT...... and tourism, we conclude by tracing three future trajectories of how we have ‘moved away with’ ANT into new areas of discovery....

  16. Societal views on NICE, cancer drugs fund and value-based pricing criteria for prioritising medicines: a cross-sectional survey of 4118 adults in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linley, Warren G; Hughes, Dyfrig A

    2013-08-01

    The criteria used by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) for accepting higher incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for some medicines over others, and the recent introduction of the Cancer Drugs Fund (CDF) in England, are assumed to reflect societal preferences for National Health Service resource allocation. Robust empirical evidence to this effect is lacking. To explore societal preferences for these and other criteria, including those proposed for rewarding new medicines under the future value-based pricing (VBP) system, we conducted a choice-based experiment in 4118 UK adults via web-based surveys. Preferences were determined by asking respondents to allocate fixed funds between different patient and disease types reflecting nine specific prioritisation criteria. Respondents supported the criteria proposed under the VBP system (for severe diseases, address unmet needs, are innovative--provided they offered substantial health benefits, and have wider societal benefits) but did not support the end-of-life premium or the prioritisation of children or disadvantaged populations as specified by NICE, nor the special funding status for treatments of rare diseases, nor the CDF. Policies introduced on the basis of perceived--and not actual--societal values may lead to inappropriate resource allocation decisions with the potential for significant population health and economic consequences. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Reducing uncertainty in value-based pricing using evidence development agreements: the case of continuous intraduodenal infusion of levodopa/carbidopa (Duodopa®) in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Michael; Persson, Ulf; Zoellner, York; Gradl, Birgit

    2010-01-01

    Value-based pricing (VBP), whereby prices are set according to the perceived benefits offered to the consumer at a time when costs and benefits are characterized by considerable uncertainty and are then reviewed ex post, is a much discussed topic in pharmaceutical reimbursement. It is usually combined with coverage with evidence development (CED), a tool in which manufacturers are granted temporary reimbursement but are required to collect and submit additional health economic data at review. Many countries, including the UK, are signalling shifts in this direction. Several countries, including Sweden, have already adopted this approach and offer good insight into the benefits and pitfalls in actual practice. To describe VBP reimbursement decision making using CED in actual practice in Sweden. Decision making by The Dental and Pharmaceutical Benefits Agency (TLV) in Sweden was reviewed using a case study of continuous intraduodenal infusion of levodopa/carbidopa (Duodopa®) in the treatment of advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) with severe motor fluctuations. The manufacturer of Duodopa® applied for reimbursement in late 2003. While the proper economic data were not included in the submission, TLV granted reimbursement until early 2005 to provide time for the manufacturer to submit a formal economic evaluation. The re-submission with economic data was considered inadequate to judge cost effectiveness, so TLV granted an additional extension of reimbursement until August 2007, at which time conclusive data were expected. The manufacturer initiated a 3-year, prospective health economic study and a formal economic model. Data from a pre-planned interim analysis of the data were loaded into the model and the cost-effectiveness ratio was the basis of the next re-submission. TLV concluded that the data were suitable for making a definite decision and that the drug was not cost effective, deciding to discontinue reimbursement for any new patients (current patients were

  18. Optimal Portfolio Selection in Ex Ante Stock Price Bubble and Furthermore Bubble Burst Scenario from Dhaka Stock Exchange with Relevance to Sharpe’s Single Index Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Bin Kamal

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at constructing an optimal portfolio by applying Sharpe’s single index model of capital asset pricing in different scenarios, one is ex ante stock price bubble scenario and stock price bubble and bubble burst is second scenario. Here we considered beginning of year 2010 as rise of stock price bubble in Dhaka Stock Exchange. Hence period from 2005 -2009 is considered as ex ante stock price bubble period. Using DSI (All share price index in Dhaka Stock Exchange as market index and considering daily indices for the March 2005 to December 2009 period, the proposed method formulates a unique cut off point (cut off rate of return and selects stocks having excess of their expected return over risk-free rate of return surpassing this cut-off point. Here, risk free rate considered to be 8.5% per annum (Treasury bill rate in 2009. Percentage of an investment in each of the selected stocks is then decided on the basis of respective weights assigned to each stock depending on respective ‘β’ value, stock movement variance representing unsystematic risk, return on stock and risk free return vis-à-vis the cut off rate of return. Interestingly, most of the stocks selected turned out to be bank stocks. Again we went for single index model applied to same stocks those made to the optimum portfolio in ex ante stock price bubble scenario considering data for the period of January 2010 to June 2012. We found that all stocks failed to make the pass Single Index Model criteria i.e. excess return over beta must be higher than the risk free rate. Here for the period of 2010 to 2012, the risk free rate considered to be 11.5 % per annum (Treasury bill rate during 2012.

  19. Evaluation on Power Customer Value Based on Ants Colony Clustering Algorithm Optimized by Genetic Algorithm%基于遗传改进蚁群聚类算法的电力客户价值评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李泓泽; 郭森; 王宝

    2012-01-01

    It is an important procedure for service resource allocation of power supply enterprises to evaluate power consumer value. Based on the analysis on ant colony clustering algorithm (ACCA) and in allusion to the blindness in the setup of parametric combination of ACCA, its low convergence speed and easily falling into local convergence, a new method to evaluate power customer value, in which ACCA is improved by genetic algorithm (GA), is proposed. In the proposed method, the parameters of ACCA are optimized by GA, and then the clustering evaluation of power customer value is performed. Results of case study show that the clustering performance of the proposed method is evidently enhanced and the convergence is speeded up and local convergence can be avoided, in addition, the subjective factor during the evaluation is decreased. The proposed method is applied to evaluate ten industrial customers of a certain urban power supply company, and the evaluation results show that the proposed method is accurate, efficient and practicable. The features of various types of power customers are summarized and some suggestions on optimal allocation of service resources of power supply enterprises are put forward.%对电力客户价值进行评价是供电企业优化服务资源配置的重要步骤.分析了蚁群聚类算法,并针对蚁群聚类算法进行评价时参数组合设置盲目性、收敛速度慢、容易陷入局部收敛的缺点,提出了运用遗传算法改进蚁群聚类算法评价电力客户价值的新方法.该新方法利用遗传算法对蚁群聚类算法的参数进行优化,进而再对电力客户价值进行聚类评价.通过实例验证表明,该新方法聚类性能有较大的提升,能够提升收敛速度和避免陷入局部收敛,并且减少了聚类评价时的主观因素,其具有准确、高效、实用等优点.最后,运用该新方法对某市供电公司的10个工业客户进行了评价,总结了不同类别电力客户的特

  20. Divorce comes at a price. An ex ante welfare analysis of ownership unbundling of the distribution and commercial companies in the Dutch energy sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Nooij, Michiel; Baarsma, Barbara [SEO Economic Research, Roetersstraat 29, 1018 WB, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-12-15

    Vertical unbundling in the electricity sector is a hot political topic in the European Union. The European Commission has decided that the ownership unbundling of transmission networks from other stages in the value chain is the most effective way to ensure fair network access and infrastructure investment. While this European unbundling debate has not ended yet and most countries still do not have an independent transmission system operator (TSO), the Dutch government has already taken one step further. In 2008, it decided that distribution companies should be completely separated from commercial activities that are part of the same holding (generation, trade and supply). This governmental decision has been fiercely debated. Although the goal is to improve competition as well as security of supply, these benefits are uncertain. Nevertheless, it is certain that ownership unbundling comes at a cost. In this paper we present an ex ante cost-benefit analysis of the Dutch unbundling act. We conclude that it is unlikely that this act is welfare enhancing: divorce comes at a price. (author)

  1. Divorce comes at a price: An ex ante welfare analysis of ownership unbundling of the distribution and commercial companies in the Dutch energy sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nooij, Michiel de, E-mail: m.denooij@seo.n [SEO Economic Research, Roetersstraat 29, 1018 WB, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Baarsma, Barbara [SEO Economic Research, Roetersstraat 29, 1018 WB, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-12-15

    Vertical unbundling in the electricity sector is a hot political topic in the European Union. The European Commission has decided that the ownership unbundling of transmission networks from other stages in the value chain is the most effective way to ensure fair network access and infrastructure investment. While this European unbundling debate has not ended yet and most countries still do not have an independent transmission system operator (TSO), the Dutch government has already taken one step further. In 2008, it decided that distribution companies should be completely separated from commercial activities that are part of the same holding (generation, trade and supply). This governmental decision has been fiercely debated. Although the goal is to improve competition as well as security of supply, these benefits are uncertain. Nevertheless, it is certain that ownership unbundling comes at a cost. In this paper we present an ex ante cost-benefit analysis of the Dutch unbundling act. We conclude that it is unlikely that this act is welfare enhancing: divorce comes at a price.

  2. Honey Ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, John R.

    1984-01-01

    Provides background information on honey ants. These ants are found in dry or desert regions of North America, Africa, and Australia. Also provides a list of activities using local species of ants. (JN)

  3. Hospital Value-Based Purchasing

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Hospital Value-Based Purchasing (VBP) is part of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) long-standing effort to link Medicares payment system to a...

  4. Surviving in the age of price transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Christopher J; Mazoh, Margery; Brown, James P; Moore, Sarah; Skalka, Christi

    2008-10-01

    *Healthcare organizations can develop a value-based pricing strategy that benefits both patients and the organization. *The value-based pricing strategy of the Cleveland Clinic is based on five key components of value-relationship to cost, payment considerations, quality, market tolerance, and consistency. *Seven interrelated work streams can be used to align pricing inputs around the five components of value-based pricing.

  5. Pricing for Higher Education Institutions: A Value-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Amizawati Mohd; Auzair, Sofiah Md; Maelah, Ruhanita; Ahmad, Azlina

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose the concept of higher education institutions (HEIs) offering educational services based on value for money. The value is determined based on customers' (i.e. students) expectations of the service and the costs in comparison to the competitors. Understanding the value and creating customer value are…

  6. PRICE AND PRICING STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Titus SUCIU

    2013-01-01

    In individual companies, price is one significant factor in achieving marketing success. In many purchase situations, price can be of great importance to customers. Marketers must establish pricing strategies that are compatible with the rest of the marketing mix. Management should decide whether to charge the same price to all similar buyers of identical quantities of a product (a one-price strategy) or to set different prices (a flexible price strategy). Many organizations, especially retai...

  7. PRICE AND PRICING STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Titus SUCIU

    2013-01-01

    In individual companies, price is one significant factor in achieving marketing success. In many purchase situations, price can be of great importance to customers. Marketers must establish pricing strategies that are compatible with the rest of the marketing mix. Management should decide whether to charge the same price to all similar buyers of identical quantities of a product (a one-price strategy) or to set different prices (a flexible price strategy). Many organizations, especially retai...

  8. Prices and Price Setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P. Faber (Riemer)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis studies price data and tries to unravel the underlying economic processes of why firms have chosen these prices. It focuses on three aspects of price setting. First, it studies whether the existence of a suggested price has a coordinating effect on the prices of firms. Second

  9. Value-Based Inventory Management

    OpenAIRE

    Michalski, Grzegorz

    2008-01-01

    The basic financial purpose of a firm is to maximize its value. An inventory management system should also contribute to realization of this basic aim. Many current asset management models currently found in financial management literature were constructed with the assumption of book profit maximization as basic aim. However these models could lack what relates to another aim, i.e., maximization of enterprise value. This article presents a modified value-based inventory management model.

  10. Target Price Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander G. Kerl

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the accuracy of forecasted target prices within analysts’ reports. We compute a measure for target price forecast accuracy that evaluates the ability of analysts to exactly forecast the ex-ante (unknown 12-month stock price. Furthermore, we determine factors that explain this accuracy. Target price accuracy is negatively related to analyst-specific optimism and stock-specific risk (measured by volatility and price-to-book ratio. However, target price accuracy is positively related to the level of detail of each report, company size and the reputation of the investment bank. The potential conflicts of interests between an analyst and a covered company do not bias forecast accuracy.

  11. Endogenous average cost based access pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Fjell, Kenneth; Foros, Øystein; Pal, Debashis

    2006-01-01

    We consider an industry where a downstream competitor requires access to an upstream facility controlled by a vertically integrated and regulated incumbent. The literature on access pricing assumes the access price to be exogenously fixed ex-ante. We analyze an endogenous average cost based access pricing rule, where both firms realize the interdependence among their quantities and the regulated access price. Endogenous access pricing neutralizes the artificial cost advantag...

  12. Beyond ANT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Till

    2017-01-01

    Actor-Network-Theory (ANT) offers an ‘infra-language’ of the social that allows one to trace social relations very dynamically, while at the same time dissolving human agency, thus providing a flat and de-centred way into sociology. However, ANT struggles with its theoretical design that may lead......, it offers an ‘infra-language’ of reflexive relations while maintaining ANT’s de-centred approach. This would enable us to conceptualize actor-networks as non-homogeneous, dynamic and connecting different societal rationales while maintaining the main strengths of ANT....

  13. Struggling Ants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Some of China’s college graduates are barely scraping by The village of Tangjialing, 20 km north of down town Beijing, was thrust into the public consciousness in November. Publishers that month released a book titled Ants

  14. Value-based procurement: Canada's healthcare imperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prada, Gabriela

    2016-07-01

    Value-based healthcare models are being adopted globally to maximize value for patients. Given that procurement is at the heart of purchasing value, value-based procurement goes hand in hand with value-based healthcare. Shifting procurement's traditional focus on short-term cost savings to a more holistic objective that includes health system performance and patient outcomes, giving preference to longer-term cost efficiencies, and working with suppliers to identify opportunities to develop more innovative products and services, is proving successful in leading jurisdictions. This article presents an overview of value within healthcare systems and how healthcare value-based procurement is being implemented across various jurisdictions.

  15. Oecophylla smaragdina food conversion efficiency: prospects for ant farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offenberg, Hans Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Oecophylla ants are sold at high prices on several commercial markets as a human delicacy, as pet food or as traditional medicine. Currently markets are supplied by ants collected from the wild; however, an increasing interest in ant farming exists as all harvest is easily sold and as ant farming...... can be combined with the use of the ants in biological control programmes in tropical plantations where pest insects are converted into ant biomass. To assess the cost-benefits of ant farming based on artificial feeding, food consumption and food conversion efficiency (ECI) of Oecophylla smaragdina...... (Fabricius) was tested under laboratory conditions. Of the two types of food offered, the ants ingested 76% pure sucrose and 24% insect prey (dry weights) leading to ECI’s of 29% and 39% including brood only or brood plus imago gain, respectively. Based on Thai sugar and protein food costs and ant brood...

  16. Oecophylla smaragdina food conversion efficiency: prospects for ant farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offenberg, Hans Joachim

    2011-01-01

    (Fabricius) was tested under laboratory conditions. Of the two types of food offered, the ants ingested 76% pure sucrose and 24% insect prey (dry weights) leading to ECI’s of 29% and 39% including brood only or brood plus imago gain, respectively. Based on Thai sugar and protein food costs and ant brood......Oecophylla ants are sold at high prices on several commercial markets as a human delicacy, as pet food or as traditional medicine. Currently markets are supplied by ants collected from the wild; however, an increasing interest in ant farming exists as all harvest is easily sold and as ant farming...... can be combined with the use of the ants in biological control programmes in tropical plantations where pest insects are converted into ant biomass. To assess the cost-benefits of ant farming based on artificial feeding, food consumption and food conversion efficiency (ECI) of Oecophylla smaragdina...

  17. Ant Farm

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Publié à l’occasion de l’exposition d’Ant Farm au Frac Centre du 12 au 23 décembre 2007, ce très beau catalogue, qui fait état des dix ans de création du collectif californien, propose un nombre important de documents iconographiques, de notices et de textes concernant leurs différents projets. Fondé en 1968 par Doug Michels et Chip Lord, rejoints par la suite par Curtis Schreier, Hudson Marquez, Douglas Hurr et d’autres encore, le collectif Ant Farm a marqué les esprits par quelques œuvres s...

  18. ON THE HIDDEN REVENUE EFFECTS OF WOOL PRICE STABILISATION IN AUSTRALIA: INITIAL RESULTS

    OpenAIRE

    1980-01-01

    A preliminary analysis of demand in eight major OECD wool-consuming countries is used to provide up-to-date estimates of price elasticities of demand for wool. Those elasticities are employed to calculate ex ante market prices, assuming no wool price stabilisation in Australia. The computed ex ante prices are used in a dynamic simulation to estimate demand and, hence, revenue from wool sales to the eight countries in the absence of reserve price operations in Australia. Based on the preferred...

  19. Maximal Cartel Pricing and Leniency Programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houba, H.E.D.; Motchenkova, E.; Wen, Q.

    2008-01-01

    For a general class of oligopoly models with price competition, we analyze the impact of ex-ante leniency programs in antitrust regulation on the endogenous maximal-sustainable cartel price. This impact depends upon industry characteristics including its cartel culture. Our analysis disentangles the

  20. The Ants Have It!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Belinda

    2001-01-01

    Uses the GEMS guide, "Ants at Home Underground", to explore the life of ants and teach about them in a classroom setting. The activity applies students' knowledge of ants and students learn about ant colonies, what ants eat, and how they live. (SAH)

  1. The Ants Have It!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Belinda

    2001-01-01

    Uses the GEMS guide, "Ants at Home Underground", to explore the life of ants and teach about them in a classroom setting. The activity applies students' knowledge of ants and students learn about ant colonies, what ants eat, and how they live. (SAH)

  2. Fire Ant Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatments ▸ Library ▸ Allergy Library ▸ Fire ant allergy Share | Fire Ant Allergy This article has been reviewed by Thanai Pongdee, MD, FAAAAI Fire ants are a stinging insect typically found in ...

  3. Fire Ant Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Fire Ant Bites Share | Fire ants are aggressive, venomous insects that have pinching ... across the United States, even into Puerto Rico. Fire ant stings usually occur on the feet or ...

  4. Value-Based Argumentation for Justifying Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgemeestre, Brigitte; Hulstijn, Joris; Tan, Yao-Hua

    Compliance is often achieved 'by design' through a coherent system of controls consisting of information systems and procedures . This system-based control requires a new approach to auditing in which companies must demonstrate to the regulator that they are 'in control'. They must determine the relevance of a regulation for their business, justify which set of control measures they have taken to comply with it, and demonstrate that the control measures are operationally effective. In this paper we show how value-based argumentation theory can be applied to the compliance domain. Corporate values motivate the selection of control measures (actions) which aim to fulfill control objectives, i.e. adopted norms (goals). In particular, we show how to formalize the dialogue in which companies justify their compliance decisions to regulators using value-based argumentation. The approach is illustrated by a case study of the safety and security measures adopted in the context of EU customs regulation.

  5. Technology enables value-based nursing care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Roy L

    2012-01-01

    Although America spends more per capita on health care than any other nation in the world, care is neither consistent nor effective. The rising prominence of value-based care initiatives gives nurse executives an opportunity to lead clinical practice into a new evidence-fueled decision-making era. Technology holds the key to making emerging better practices and the latest clinical breakthroughs available at the point of care.

  6. Price Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, Mark

    2008-01-01

    This paper surveys recent economic research on price discrimination, both in monopoly and oligopoly markets. Topics include static and dynamic forms of price discrimination, and both final and input markets are considered. Potential antitrust aspects of price discrimination are highlighted throughout the paper. The paper argues that the informational requirements to make accurate policy are very great, and with most forms of price discrimination a laissez-faire policy may be the best availabl...

  7. Transfer Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2014-01-01

    Against a background of rather mixed evidence about transfer pricing practices in multinational enterprises (MNEs) and varying attitudes on the part of tax authorities, this paper explores how multiple aims in transfer pricing can be pursued across four different transfer pricing regimes. A MNE h...

  8. Operation Valuation: Teaching Pricing Concepts in an Experiential Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Adam J.; Treen, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Although marketing education has seen a dramatic shift toward hands-on, experiential learning in recent years, the teaching of pricing has fallen behind complementary elements of the marketing mix in pedagogical execution. Although the teaching of pricing has shifted focus from economic-based models to value-based pricing in theory, available…

  9. Operation Valuation: Teaching Pricing Concepts in an Experiential Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Adam J.; Treen, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Although marketing education has seen a dramatic shift toward hands-on, experiential learning in recent years, the teaching of pricing has fallen behind complementary elements of the marketing mix in pedagogical execution. Although the teaching of pricing has shifted focus from economic-based models to value-based pricing in theory, available…

  10. The HackensackUMC Value-Based Care Model: Building Essentials for Value-Based Purchasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Claudia; Aroh, Dianne; Colella, Joan; Quadri, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act, 2010, and the subsequent shift from a quantity-focus to a value-centric reimbursement model led our organization to create the HackensackUMC Value-Based Care Model to improve our process capability and performance to meet and sustain the triple aims of value-based purchasing: higher quality, lower cost, and consumer perception. This article describes the basics of our model and illustrates how we used it to reduce the costs of our patient sitter program.

  11. Value-based insurance design: embracing value over cost alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendrick, A Mark; Chernew, Michael E; Levi, Gary W

    2009-12-01

    The US healthcare system is in crisis, with documented gaps in quality, safety, access, and affordability. Many believe the solution to unsustainable cost increases is increased patient cost-sharing. From an overall cost perspective, reduced consumption of certain essential services may yield short-term savings but lead to worse health and markedly higher costs down the road--in complications, hospitalizations, and increased utilization. Value-based insurance design (VBID) can help plug the inherent shortfalls in "across-the-board" patient cost-sharing. Instead of focusing on cost or quality alone, VBID focuses on value, aligning the financial and nonfinancial incentives of the various stakeholders and complementing other current initiatives to improve quality and subdue costs, such as high-deductible consumer-directed health plans, pay-for-performance programs, and disease management. Mounting evidence, both peer-reviewed and empirical, indicates not only that VBID can be implemented, but also leads to desired changes in behavior. For all its documented successes and recognized promise, VBID is in its infancy and is not a panacea for the current healthcare crisis. However, the available research and documented experiences indicate that as an overall approach, and in its fully evolved and widely adopted form, VBID will promote a healthier population and therefore support cost-containment efforts by producing better health at any price point.

  12. Transfer Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Carsten; Rossing, Christian Plesner

    trade internally as the units have to decide what prices should be paid for such inter-unit transfers. One important challenge is to uncover the consequences that different transfer prices have on the willingness in the organizational units to coordinate activities and trade internally. At the same time...

  13. Pricing Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenopir, Carol

    1998-01-01

    Presents results of a recent survey of over 100 public and academic libraries about pricing options from online companies. Most options fall into three categories: pay-as-you-go, fixed-rate, and user-based. Results are discussed separately for public and academic libraries and for consortial discounts. Trends in pricing options preferred by…

  14. Determinants of Price Stabilization in IPOs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Gledson de Carvalho

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the most common mechanism for price stabilization in IPOs, the underwriter distributes stocks in excess of what was contracted (overallotment and eventually covers this short naked position by purchasing stocks in the secondary market (Aftermarket short covering , ASC. This mechanism can be used to avoid price drop or price volatility. This article provides a description of such activity in Brazil. We investigate the determinants of price stabilization in three aspects: amount overallotted, occurrence of ASC and its intensity. Our results indicate that price stabilization is an important activity in Brazilian IPOs and quite similar to that occurring in the US. The three different aspects of price stabilization have different determinants. The amount overallotted depends only on the ex-ante demand conditions. ASC occurs mostly on IPOs characterized by high risk, low ex-ante demand and carried by reputable underwriters. The intensity of the ASC increases with the riskiness and decreases with the ex-ante demand. None of the existing models fully explain these results.

  15. THE VALUE-BASED NATIONALISM OF PEGIDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malte Thran

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the fall of 2014, the new German grassroots political protest movement “Pegida” emerged. The movement’s targets of criticism include the pronounced ‘failures’ of German asylum and immigration policy, refugees, and a so-called “Islamization.” This contribution is an analysis of Pegida's programmatic publications. Pegida claims to promote national values and already has a positive image of Germany in particular and the nation state in general. Germany is seen as an agency of ‘humanity’ that fulfils a selfless moral mission in granting asylum to refugees. For Pegida, the consequences of this policy include ‘foreign infiltration,’ as well as so-called “Muslim parallel societies,” which are seen as dangerous imports of competing moralities. To save the ‘good order’ that said “patriotic Europeans” imagine as their home, the integration of foreign ‘national identities’ is seen as both necessary and hard to achieve. Therefore, Pegida demands the optimization of state force and its use to establish a requirement of integration and enforce the sanctioning of criminal immigrants and “asylum betrayers.” According to this logic, the preservation of home through a “zero tolerance policy” is a self-purpose, ensuring to prevent negative social consequences like poverty and unemployment. The result of this analysis proposes an explanation approach to the xenophobic logic of Pegida's value-based nationalism.

  16. DEVELOPING AN INTERCULTURAL VALUE-BASED DIALOGUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziano Telleschi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Peaceful co-existence and inclusion do not depend solely on the availability of goods and welfare systems, but primarily on shared cultural values. In order to build shared values, we propose a new concept, the worthy, as the pull-factor of the value. A value-based dialogue begins from making each ones’ worthies ‘speak to each other’ so each actor can enter into Alter’s point of view to gain, afterward, a sharing of values. Beginning from the worthy, we outline the path of an innovative integrative model: safeguard some features of the ‘diversity’ (multiculturalism and to build some ‘resemblances’ (interculturality. By this resemblances/differences trade-off both migrants, ethnic groups and autochthonous absorb something of Alter’s believes and values, and at the same time gain awareness about complementarity and interdependency with Alter, the core of an otherness mind and the requirement to manage conflicts. By this way, each actor embraces a wider and wider network of Alter (linking bonds without losing his own identity and belonging. Finally, this paper suggests operative ways involving, as game-changers of a ‘feasible’ society, school and social services from one side, and local, political entities and the civil society, from the other side (deliberative democracy.

  17. Value-based distribution feeder automation planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teng, Jen-Hao [Department of Electrical Engineering, I-Shou University, No. 1, Section 1, Syuecheng Road, Dashu Township, Kaohsiung 840, Taiwan (Taiwan); Lu, Chan-Nan [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (Taiwan)

    2006-03-15

    In a competitive electric energy market, service quality and reliability are two of the essential issues of the business. Distribution automation has been chosen by many utilities around the world as one of the most reliable measures for reducing outage time in their distribution networks. Considering network reliability data and the customer interruption costs, a value-based planning method is proposed in this paper to find the optimal numbers and locations of switches in feeder automation systems. The proposed method takes reliability costs, maintenance and investment costs into account to obtain a feeder automation plan that has a maximum benefit and a proper system reliability requirement. Three stages are involved in the search for optimal solution. Using minimum feeder data and assume equally distributed feeder loads, stage 1 gives initial estimates of reliability indices and costs, and benefit/cost ratios of different feeder automation options. To gain the maximum benefits from feeder automation with reasonable costs, results of stage 1 are used to select feeders with highest priorities for automations. Stage 2 determines the optimum locations of switches that minimize feeder outage costs, and in stage 3, the best locations for tie switches in the automated network are determined. Numerical processing procedure is described and the solution efficiency and results are compared with those obtained from a genetic algorithm. (author)

  18. Commentary on “Industrial Pricing: Theory and Mangerial Practice”

    OpenAIRE

    George E. Cressman , Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Noble and Gruca (1999, this issue) provide useful insights into the pricing practices managers employ. Their findings indicate managerial pricing practices are heavily dominated by internal, cost-based approaches. Particularly relevant is the absence of value-based pricing practices. Noble and Gruca's findings indicate that the emerging market orientation work has not connected to pricing practice. This work poses a significant challenge for marketing theoreticians and educators: How can mana...

  19. Price increase

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Please take note that after five years of stable prices at Restaurant No 1 a price increase will come into force on 1st January 2006. This increase has been agreed after discussions between the CSR (Comité de Surveillance des Restaurants) and the catering company Novae and will reflect the inflation rate of the last few years. In addition, a new children's menu will be introduced, as well as 'Max Havelaar' fair-trade coffee at a price of 1.70 CHF.

  20. Price increase

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Please take note that after five years of stable prices at Restaurant No 1 a price increase will come into force on 1st January 2006. This increase has been agreed after discussions between the CSR (Comité de Surveillance des Restaurants) and the catering company Novae and will reflect the inflation rate of the last few years. In addition, a new children's menu will be introduced as well as 'Max Havelaar' fair-trade coffee at a price of 1.70 CHF.

  1. Fair pricing, and pricing paradoxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Swart

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The St Petersburg Paradox revolves round the determination of a fair price for playing the St Petersburg Game. According to the original formulation, the price for the game is infinite, and, therefore, paradoxical. Although the St Petersburg Paradox can be seen as concerning merely a game, Paul Samuelson (1977 calls it a “fascinating chapter in the history of ideas”, a chapter that gave rise to a considerable number of papers over more than 200 years involving fields such as probability theory and economics. In a paper in this journal, Vivian (2013 undertook a numerical investigation of the St Petersburg Game. In this paper, the central issue of the paradox is identified as that of fair (risk-neutral pricing, which is fundamental in economics and finance and involves important concepts such as no arbitrage, discounting, and risk-neutral measures. The model for the St Petersburg Game as set out in this paper is new and analytical and resolves the so-called pricing paradox by applying a discounting procedure. In this framework, it is shown that there is in fact no infinite price paradox, and simple formulas for obtaining a finite price for the game are also provided.

  2. JSTOR: The Development of a Cost-Driven, Value-Based Pricing Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Kevin M.

    JSTOR (Journal STORage project) began as a project of The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation designed to help libraries address growing persistent space problems. JSTOR was established as an independent not-for-profit organization with its own Board of Trustees in August 1995. This paper summarizes how JSTOR's economic model was developed, lessons…

  3. Cost Implications of Value-Based Pricing for Companion Diagnostic Tests in Precision Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaric, Gregory S

    2016-07-01

    Many interpretations of personalized medicine, also referred to as precision medicine, include discussions of companion diagnostic tests that allow drugs to be targeted to those individuals who are most likely to benefit or that allow treatment to be designed in a way such that individuals who are unlikely to benefit do not receive treatment. Many authors have commented on the clinical and competitive implications of companion diagnostics, but there has been relatively little formal analysis of the cost implications of companion diagnostics, although cost reduction is often cited as a significant benefit of precision medicine. We investigate the potential impact on costs of precision medicine implemented through the use of companion diagnostics. We develop a framework in which the costs of companion diagnostic tests are determined by considerations of profit maximization and cost effectiveness. We analyze four scenarios that are defined by the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of the new drug in the absence of a companion diagnostic test. We find that, in most scenarios, precision medicine strategies based on companion diagnostics should be expected to lead to increases in costs in the short term and that costs would fall only in a limited number of situations.

  4. A Case Study of Pharmaceutical Pricing in China: Setting the Price for Off-Patent Originators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shanlian; Zhang, Yabing; He, Jiangjiang; Du, Lixia; Xu, Mingfei; Xie, Chunyan; Peng, Ying; Wang, Linan

    2015-08-01

    This article aims to define a value-based approach to pricing and reimbursement for off-patent originators using a multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach centered on a systematic analysis of current pricing and reimbursement policies in China. A drug price policy review was combined with a quantitative analysis of China's drug purchasing database. Policy preferences were identified through a MCDA performed by interviewing well-known academic experts and industry stakeholders. The study findings indicate that the current Chinese price policy includes cost-based pricing and the establishment of maximum retail prices and premiums for off-patent originators, whereas reference pricing may be adopted in the future. The literature review revealed significant differences in the dissolution profiles between originators and generics; therefore, dissolution profiles need to be improved. Market data analysis showed that the overall price ratio of generics and off-patent originators was around 0.54-0.59 in 2002-2011, with a 40% price difference, on average. Ten differentiating value attributes were identified and MCDA was applied to test the impact of three pricing policy scenarios. With the condition of implementing quality consistency regulations and controls, a reduction in the price gap between high-quality off-patent products (including originator and generics) seemed to be the preferred policy. Patents of many drugs will expire within the next 10 years; thus, pricing will be an issue of importance for off-patent originators and generic alternatives.

  5. PRICING OF MULTIPLE DEFAULTABLE BOND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JianZhihong; LiChulin

    2002-01-01

    In this paper a generalized defaultable bond pricing formula is derived by assuming that there exists a defaultable forward rate term structure and that firms in the economy interact when default occurs. Generally,The risk-neutral default intensity χQ is not equal to the empirical or actual default intensity λ,. This paper proves that multiple default intensities are invari-ant under equivalent martingale transformation,given a well-diversified portfolio corresponding to the defaultable bond. Thus one can directly apply default intensities and fractional losses empirically estimated to the evaluation of defaultable bonds or contingent claims.

  6. The Earnings/Price Risk Factor in Capital Asset Pricing Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Falcão Noda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article integrates the ideas from two major lines of research on cost of equity and asset pricing: multi-factor models and ex ante accounting models. The earnings/price ratio is used as a proxy for the ex ante cost of equity, in order to explain realized returns of Brazilian companies within the period from 1995 to 2013. The initial finding was that stocks with high (low earnings/price ratios have higher (lower risk-adjusted realized returns, already controlled by the capital asset pricing model's beta. The results show that selecting stocks based on high earnings/price ratios has led to significantly higher risk-adjusted returns in the Brazilian market, with average abnormal returns close to 1.3% per month. We design asset pricing models including an earnings/price risk factor, i.e. high earnings minus low earnings, based on the Fama and French three-factor model. We conclude that such a risk factor is significant to explain returns on portfolios, even when controlled by size and market/book ratios. Models including the high earnings minus low earnings risk factor were better to explain stock returns in Brazil when compared to the capital asset pricing model and to the Fama and French three-factor model, having the lowest number of significant intercepts. These findings may be due to the impact of historically high inflation rates, which reduce the information content of book values, thus making the models based on earnings/price ratios better than those based on market/book ratios. Such results are different from those obtained in more developed markets and the superiority of the earnings/price ratio for asset pricing may also exist in other emerging markets.

  7. Riding with the ants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte, A. P. M.; Attili-Angelis, D.; Baron, N. C.; Groenewald, Johannes Z.; Crous, Pedro W.; Pagnocca, F. C.

    Isolates of Teratosphaeriaceae have frequently been found in the integument of attine ants, proving to be common and diverse in this microenvironment. The LSU phylogeny of the ant-isolated strains studied revealed that they cluster in two main lineages. The first was associated with the genus

  8. Riding with the ants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte, A.P.M.; Attili-Angelis, D.; Baron, N.C.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.; Pagnocca, F.C.

    2017-01-01

    Isolates of Teratosphaeriaceae have frequently been found in the integument of attine ants, proving to be common and diverse in this microenvironment. The LSU phylogeny of the ant-isolated strains studied revealed that they cluster in two main lineages. The first was associated with the genus Xenope

  9. Riding with the ants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte, A. P. M.; Attili-Angelis, D.; Baron, N. C.; Groenewald, Johannes Z.; Crous, Pedro W.; Pagnocca, F. C.

    2016-01-01

    Isolates of Teratosphaeriaceae have frequently been found in the integument of attine ants, proving to be common and diverse in this microenvironment. The LSU phylogeny of the ant-isolated strains studied revealed that they cluster in two main lineages. The first was associated with the genus Xenope

  10. Pricing strategies and levels and their impact on corporate profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deonir De Toni

    Full Text Available Abstract Price policy definition is one of the most important decisions in management as it affects corporate profitability and market competitiveness. Despite the importance that prices take in organizations, it appears that this element has not received proper attention by many academics and marketers since it represents, according to estimates, less than 2% of the papers on leading journals in the field. Thus, the aim of this study was to propose and test a theoretical model showing the impacts of pricing policy on corporate profitability. To this end, 150 companies in the metal-mechanic sector situated in the Northeast of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil were studied, integrating customer value-based pricing strategies, competition-based pricing strategies and cost-based pricing strategies with price levels (high and low and performance with respect to profitability. The results indicate that the profitability of the surveyed companies is positively affected by value-based pricing strategy and high price levels while it is negatively affected by low price levels. Such findings indicate that pricing policies influence the profitability of organizations and therefore, a more strategic look at the pricing process may constitute one aspect that cannot be overlooked by managers.

  11. How Medicare could get better prices on prescription drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outterson, Kevin; Kesselheim, Aaron S

    2009-01-01

    Congress may reform drug pricing policies under Medicare Part D as part of a larger health reform effort. Currently, the "noninterference" provision prevents the government from negotiating drug prices on behalf of Medicare Part D prescription drug plans. Commonly considered reform proposals borrow ideas from Medicaid, either through returning dual eligibles to Medicaid drug pricing or by imposing mandatory rebates across the Part D population. We examine a menu of other options, including value-based pricing; expansion of generic and therapeutically equivalent substitution; increased formulary diversity; importation; and limited antitrust waivers. These latter options may reduce federal spending without direct government price negotiations.

  12. The first mesozoic ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, E O; Carpenter, F M; Brown, W L

    1967-09-01

    Two worker ants preserved in amber of Upper Cretaceous age have been found in New Jersey. They are the first undisputed remains of social insects of Mesozoic age, extending the existence of social life in insects back to approximately 100 million years. They are also the earliest known fossils that can be assigned with certainty to aculeate Hymenoptera. The species, Sphecomyrma freyi, is considered to represent a new subfamily (Sphecomyrminae), more primitive than any previously known ant group. It forms a near-perfect link between certain nonsocial tiphiid wasps and the most primitive myrmecioid ants.

  13. Field techniques for sampling ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ants occur in most environments and ecologists ask a diverse array of questions involving ants. Thus, a key consideration in ant studies is to match the environment and question (and associated environmental variables) to the ant sampling technique. Since each technique has distinct limitations, usi...

  14. Sick ants become unsociable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, N; Lefèvre, T; Jensen, A B; d'Ettorre, P

    2012-02-01

    Parasites represent a severe threat to social insects, which form high-density colonies of related individuals, and selection should favour host traits that reduce infection risk. Here, using a carpenter ant (Camponotus aethiops) and a generalist insect pathogenic fungus (Metarhizium brunneum), we show that infected ants radically change their behaviour over time to reduce the risk of colony infection. Infected individuals (i) performed less social interactions than their uninfected counterparts, (ii) did not interact with brood anymore and (iii) spent most of their time outside the nest from day 3 post-infection until death. Furthermore, infected ants displayed an increased aggressiveness towards non-nestmates. Finally, infected ants did not alter their cuticular chemical profile, suggesting that infected individuals do not signal their physiological status to nestmates. Our results provide evidence for the evolution of unsociability following pathogen infection in a social animal and suggest an important role of inclusive fitness in driving such evolution.

  15. Medicare FFS Physician Feedback Program Value-Based Payment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Physician Feedback - Value-Based Modifier Program provides comparative performance information to physicians as one part of Medicares efforts to improve the...

  16. Value-Based Communication Preservation for Mobile Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Value-Based Communication Preservation for Mobile Robots Matthew Powers and Tucker Balch Borg Lab College of Computing Georgia Institute of...SUBTITLE Value-Based Communication Preservation for Mobile Robots 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...for Mobile Robots 3 to reach nodes in the network and the identities of other nodes in the network. The algorithm explained below relies on this type

  17. Record dynamics in ants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas O Richardson

    Full Text Available The success of social animals (including ourselves can be attributed to efficiencies that arise from a division of labour. Many animal societies have a communal nest which certain individuals must leave to perform external tasks, for example foraging or patrolling. Staying at home to care for young or leaving to find food is one of the most fundamental divisions of labour. It is also often a choice between safety and danger. Here we explore the regulation of departures from ant nests. We consider the extreme situation in which no one returns and show experimentally that exiting decisions seem to be governed by fluctuating record signals and ant-ant interactions. A record signal is a new 'high water mark' in the history of a system. An ant exiting the nest only when the record signal reaches a level it has never perceived before could be a very effective mechanism to postpone, until the last possible moment, a potentially fatal decision. We also show that record dynamics may be involved in first exits by individually tagged ants even when their nest mates are allowed to re-enter the nest. So record dynamics may play a role in allocating individuals to tasks, both in emergencies and in everyday life. The dynamics of several complex but purely physical systems are also based on record signals but this is the first time they have been experimentally shown in a biological system.

  18. The Weird Vegetable Price

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Chinese Government faces the task of stabilizing vegetable prices to avoid steep increases and dips Fluctuations of vegetable prices in China have recently caused near panic in the domestic market.Purchase prices for farm produce are decreasing dramatically

  19. Utilization of Anting-Anting (Acalypha indica) Leaves as Antibacterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batubara, Irmanida; Wahyuni, Wulan Tri; Firdaus, Imam

    2016-01-01

    Anting-anting (Acalypha indica) plants is a species of plant having catkin type of inflorescence. This research aims to utilize anting-anting as antibacterial toward Streptococcus mutans and degradation of biofilm on teeth. Anting-anting leaves were extracted by maceration technique using methanol, chloroform, and n-hexane. Antibacterial and biofilm degradation assays were performed using microdilution technique with 96 well. n-Hexane extracts of anting-anting leaves gave the best antibacterial potency with minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration value of 500 μg/mL and exhibited good biofilm degradation activity. Fraction of F3 obtained from fractionation of n-hexane's extract with column chromatography was a potential for degradation of biofilm with IC50 value of 56.82 μg/mL. Alkaloid was suggested as antibacterial and degradation of biofilm in the active fraction.

  20. 7 CFR 1000.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing... advanced pricing factors. Class prices per hundredweight of milk containing 3.5 percent butterfat, component prices, and advanced pricing factors shall be as follows. The prices and pricing factors...

  1. Drug Pricing Reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Mendez, Susan J.; Rønde, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Reference price systems for prescription drugs have found widespread use as cost containment tools. Under such regulatory regimes, patients co-pay a fraction of the difference between pharmacy retail price of the drug and a reference price. Reference prices are either externally (based on drug...... prices in other countries) or internally (based on domestic drug prices) determined. In a recent study, we analysed the effects of a change from external to internal reference pricing in Denmark in 2005, finding that the reform led to substantial reductions in prices, producer revenues, and expenditures...

  2. Pricing and Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huck, Steffen; Ruchala, Gabriele K.; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    We experimentally examine the effects of flexible and fixed prices in markets for experience goods in which demand is driven by trust. With flexible prices, we observe low prices and high quality in competitive (oligopolistic) markets, and high prices coupled with low quality in non-competitive...... (monopolistic) markets. We then introduce a regulated intermediate price above the oligopoly price and below the monopoly price. The effect in monopolies is more or less in line with standard intuition. As price falls volume increases and so does quality, such that overall efficiency is raised by 50%. However...

  3. Values-based training for mental health nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamza, Claire; Smith, Paul

    A pilot programme successfully engaged large numbers of people in discussing and challenging the competing values that underpin mental health nursing practice. This was followed by a recommendation that using a values-based approach to mental health nursing improved interpersonal relationships between staff and patients and carers. This article reports the responses of mental health nurses at two health boards (NHS Fife and NHS Forth Valley) to a values-based training programme using the 10 Essential Shared Capabilities, developed by the Scottish Government and NHS Education for Scotland.

  4. Differentiation, Outcomes, Transparency, and Value-based Insurance Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Stuart H

    2015-07-01

    Practitioners in the surgical and procedural specialties must prepare to differentiate themselves and the performance of their care delivery teams through the use of substantive, objective metrics along with the provision of service guarantees. As purchasers of surgical and procedural services move toward outcomes-focused value-based insurance design (VBID) and purchasing, practitioners must move well beyond branding and process measure-focused "Value Based Purchasing" initiatives and be prepared to compete with transparency- not just regionally, but nationally-based upon objectively established outcomes metrics.

  5. Ethics education for health professionals: a values based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbold, Rosemary; Lees, Amanda

    2013-11-01

    It is now widely accepted that ethics is an essential part of educating health professionals. Despite a clear mandate to educators, there are differing approaches, in particular, how and where ethics is positioned in training programmes, underpinning philosophies and optimal modes of assessment. This paper explores varying practices and argues for a values based approach to ethics education. It then explores the possibility of using a web-based technology, the Values Exchange, to facilitate a values based approach. It uses the findings of a small scale study to signal the potential of the Values Exchange for engaging, meaningful and applied ethics education.

  6. ACCOUNTING ASPECTS OF PRICING AND TRANSFER PRICING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TÜNDE VERES

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The pricing methods in practice need really complex view of the business situation and depend on the strategy and market position of a company. The structure of a price seems simple: cost plus margin. Both categories are special area in the management accounting. Information about the product costs, the allocation methodologies in cost accounting, the analyzing of revenue and different level of the margin needs information from accounting system. This paper analyzes the pricing methods from management accounting aspects to show out the role of the accounting system in the short term and long term pricing and transfer pricing decisions.

  7. Implementing Value-Based Payment Reform: A Conceptual Framework and Case Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Douglas A; Vaughn, Matthew; Grembowski, David; Marcus-Smith, Miriam

    2016-08-01

    This article develops a conceptual framework for implementation of value-based payment (VBP) reform and then draws on that framework to systematically examine six distinct multi-stakeholder coalition VBP initiatives in three different regions of the United States. The VBP initiatives deploy the following payment models: reference pricing, "shadow" primary care capitation, bundled payment, pay for performance, shared savings within accountable care organizations, and global payment. The conceptual framework synthesizes prior models of VBP implementation. It describes how context, project objectives, payment and care delivery strategies, and the barriers and facilitators to translating strategy into implementation affect VBP implementation and value for patients. We next apply the framework to six case examples of implementation, and conclude by discussing the implications of the case examples and the conceptual framework for future practice and research.

  8. Ant Colony Optimization for Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ast, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The very basis of this thesis is the collective behavior of ants in colonies. Ants are an excellent example of how rather simple behavior on a local level can lead to complex behavior on a global level that is beneficial for the individuals. The key in the self-organization of ants is communication

  9. Ant Colony Optimization for Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ast, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The very basis of this thesis is the collective behavior of ants in colonies. Ants are an excellent example of how rather simple behavior on a local level can lead to complex behavior on a global level that is beneficial for the individuals. The key in the self-organization of ants is communication

  10. Sick ants become unsociable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bos, Nicky Peter Maria; Lefevre, T.; Jensen, A.B.

    2012-01-01

    Parasites represent a severe threat to social insects, which form high-density colonies of related individuals, and selection should favour host traits that reduce infection risk. Here, using a carpenter ant (Camponotus aethiops) and a generalist insect pathogenic fungus (Metarhizium brunneum), w...

  11. ANT i arbejdslivsforskningen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    for Tidsskrift for Arbejdsliv at stille skarpt på, hvorledes teknologi kan forstås og udforskes, og her står nyere teoridannelser som STS (Science- and Technology Studies) og ANT (Actor-Network Theory) centralt. Dette temanummer af tidsskriftet har derfor disse teorier og deres anvendelse i studier af arbejdsliv...

  12. Tiny, Powerful, Awesome Ants!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Kathleen

    2007-01-01

    Peering through a thematic science lens--elementary students embarked on a one-week study of ants during a month-long summer school program. This integrated unit addressed reading and writing skills while developing the science-process skills of observation, inferring, and communicating in a motivating and authentic way. Pre- and post-assessments…

  13. What Is the Value of Value-Based Purchasing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanenbaum, Sandra J

    2016-10-01

    Value-based purchasing (VBP) is a widely favored strategy for improving the US health care system. The meaning of value that predominates in VBP schemes is (1) conformance to selected process and/or outcome metrics, and sometimes (2) such conformance at the lowest possible cost. In other words, VBP schemes choose some number of "quality indicators" and financially incent providers to meet them (and not others). Process measures are usually based on clinical science that cannot determine the effects of a process on individual patients or patients with comorbidities, and do not necessarily measure effects that patients value; additionally, there is no provision for different patients valuing different things. Proximate outcome measures may or may not predict distal ones, and the more distal the outcome, the less reliably it can be attributed to health care. Outcome measures may be quite rudimentary, such as mortality rates, or highly contestable: survival or function after prostate surgery? When cost is an element of value-based purchasing, it is the cost to the value-based payer and not to other payers or patients' families. The greatest value of value-based purchasing may not be to patients or even payers, but to policy makers seeking a morally justifiable alternative to politically contested regulatory policies.

  14. Value concepts and value based collaboration in building projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker

    2005-01-01

    of design strategies are identified. The concept and methods of value based management and collaboration is discussed in this context. The paper is mainly theoretical and based on work during a MBA study in 2002-04 as well as many years of experience as building client and facilities manager....

  15. Principals' Leadership Behaviour: Values-Based, Contingent or Both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwas, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Concepts of values-based leadership posit that school principals' professional practice must be informed by values to ensure coherently purposeful activities. Contingency models stress the contextual dependency of professional practice and the need to match activities to local opportunities and constraints. The purpose of this paper is to…

  16. Value-based design and management of hospital buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Voordt, T.J.M.; Van der Zwart, J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper it to explore the concept of adding value by real estate and related performance indicators, and the way it is or could be applied in value-based design and management of buildings. The concept is being illustrated with research findings on hospital buildings, based on a

  17. Value-Based Delivery of Education: MOOCs as Messengers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilfoil, David M.; Focht, Jeffrey W.

    2015-01-01

    Value-based delivery of healthcare has been discussed in the literature for almost a decade. The concept focuses on the patient and defines value as the improvement of patient outcomes divided by healthcare costs. Further refinements, called the Triple Aim model, focus on improving patient outcomes, reducing treatment costs, and improving patient…

  18. The Yellow Brick Road: a values based curriculum model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Christopher

    2012-05-01

    Within the United Kingdom, the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) requires that nurses and midwives are of 'good character' at the point of registration. This paper sets out how good character has been conceptualised within one U.K. higher education institution and presents a model of "values based enquiry" which aims to develop the 'character' of students. The paper presents three qualities ("the heart", "the nerve" and "the brain") which represent 'good character' and which are believed to underpin values based Nursing or Midwifery practice. The development of these qualities is argued to be reliant upon helping students to develop intrinsic professional values of care and compassion. The role of these character qualities in nursing practice and education is outlined, as are the ways in which they have led to the development of a model for values based enquiry. This model represents a vision of the nature of professional education which may be shared by staff and students, whilst offering a model for learning and teaching based upon recognised educational principles. An argument is advanced that the adoption of a values based enquiry model may develop and nurture the habits of mind which are necessary for the development of 'good character'. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Exporter Price Premia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte; Sørensen, Allan

    -cut prediction on the sign of the exporter price premium. However, the model unambiguously predicts a negative exporter price premium in terms of quality-adjusted prices, i.e. prices per unit of quality. This prediction is broadly borne out in the Danish data: while the magnitude of the premium varies across...

  20. Pricing and Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huck, Steffen; Ruchala, Gabriele K.; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    We experimentally examine the effects of flexible and fixed prices in markets for experience goods in which demand is driven by trust. With flexible prices, we observe low prices and high quality in competitive (oligopolistic) markets, and high prices coupled with low quality in non...

  1. The Dynamics of Foraging Ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, G. William

    2009-03-01

    We experimentally study the foraging of small black ants, Formicinae lasius flavus, in order to describe their foraging behavior mathematically. Individual ants are allowed to forage on a two-dimensional surface in the absence of any food sources. The position of the ant as a function of time is determined using a high-resolution digital camera. Analysis of the average square displacements of many ants suggests that the foraging strategy is a non-reversing random walk. Moreover, the ants do not retrace their steps to return home but instead continue the random walk until it brings them back near their starting point.

  2. Strategic Transfer Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Alles; Srikant Datar

    1998-01-01

    Most research into cost systems has focused on their motivational implications. This paper takes a different approach, by developing a model where two oligopolistic firms strategically select their cost-based transfer prices. Duopoly models frequently assume that firms game on their choice of prices. Product prices, however, are ultimately based on the firms' transfer prices that communicate manufacturing costs to marketing departments. It is for this reason that transfer prices will have a s...

  3. The Pricing of Payments

    OpenAIRE

    Krueger, Malte

    2009-01-01

    The pricing of payments has received increasing attention of regulators. In many cases, regulators are concerned that consumers do not face cost based prices. They argue that without cost based prices consumers will make inefficient choices. In this paper, it is argued that both, economics of scale and the particular laws governing pricing in two-sided markets provide a case against cost based pricing.

  4. "Ant-egg" cataract revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Kåre; Enghild, Jan J; Ivarsen, Anders;

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Hereditary congenital cataract varies immensely concerning location and form of the lens opacities. A specific and very rare phenotype is called "ant-egg" cataract first described in 1900. "Ant-eggs" have previously been examined using light microscopy, backscattered electron imaging and X......-ray scans and electron microscopy. The purpose of this study was to further characterize "ant-egg" cataract using modern technology and display the history of the "ant-eggs" after cataract extraction. METHODS: "Ant-eggs" were examined using Heidelberg SPECTRALIS Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT......-egg" structures in "ant-egg" cataract. Eighteen of these proteins are not natively found in the human lens. Moreover, "ant-eggs" do not vary over time, after cataract extraction, regarding size and location....

  5. Pricing schemes for new drugs: a welfare analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levaggi, Rosella

    2014-02-01

    Drug price regulation is acquiring increasing significance in the investment choices of the pharmaceutical sector. The overall objective is to determine an optimal trade-off between the incentives for innovation, consumer protection, and value for money. However, price regulation is itself a source of distortion. In this study, we examine the welfare properties of listing through a bargaining process and value-based pricing schemes. The latter are superior instruments to uncertain listing processes for maximising total welfare, but the distribution of the benefits between consumers and the industry depends on rate of rebate chosen by the regulator. However, through an appropriate choice, it is always possible to define a value-based pricing scheme with risk sharing, which both consumers and the industry prefer to an uncertain bargaining process.

  6. Value-based metrics and Internet-based enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Krishan M.

    2001-10-01

    Within the last few years, a host of value-based metrics like EVA, MVA, TBR, CFORI, and TSR have evolved. This paper attempts to analyze the validity and applicability of EVA and Balanced Scorecard for Internet based organizations. Despite the collapse of the dot-com model, the firms engaged in e- commerce continue to struggle to find new ways to account for customer-base, technology, employees, knowledge, etc, as part of the value of the firm. While some metrics, like the Balance Scorecard are geared towards internal use, others like EVA are for external use. Value-based metrics are used for performing internal audits as well as comparing firms against one another; and can also be effectively utilized by individuals outside the firm looking to determine if the firm is creating value for its stakeholders.

  7. ACCOUNTING ASPECTS OF PRICING AND TRANSFER PRICING

    OpenAIRE

    TÜNDE VERES

    2011-01-01

    The pricing methods in practice need really complex view of the business situation and depend on the strategy and market position of a company. The structure of a price seems simple: cost plus margin. Both categories are special area in the management accounting. Information about the product costs, the allocation methodologies in cost accounting, the analyzing of revenue and different level of the margin needs information from accounting system. This paper analyzes the pricing methods from m...

  8. Accounting Aspects of Pricing and Transfer Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    TÜNDE VERES

    2011-01-01

    The pricing methods in practice need really complex view of the business situation and depend on the strategy and market position of a company. The structure of a price seems simple: cost plus margin. Both categories are special area in the management accounting. Information about the product costs, the allocation methodologies in cost accounting, the analyzing of revenue and different level of the margin needs information from accounting system. This paper analyzes the pricing methods from m...

  9. Price strategy and pricing strategy: terms and content identification

    OpenAIRE

    Panasenko Tetyana

    2015-01-01

    The article is devoted to the terminology and content identification of seemingly identical concepts "price strategy" and "pricing strategy". The article contains evidence that the price strategy determines the direction, principles and procedure of implementing the company price policy and pricing strategy creates a set of rules and practical methods of price formation in accordance with the pricing strategy of the company.

  10. Employers' use of value-based purchasing strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Meredith B; Landon, Bruce E; Normand, Sharon-Lise T; Frank, Richard G; Ahmad, Thaniyyah S; Epstein, Arnold M

    2007-11-21

    Value-based purchasing by employers has often been portrayed as the lynchpin to quality improvement in a market-based health care system. Although a small group of the largest national employers has been actively engaged in promoting quality measurement, reporting, and pay for performance, it is unknown whether these ideas have significantly permeated employer-sponsored health benefit purchasing. To provide systematic descriptions and analyses of value-based purchasing and related efforts to improve quality of care by health care purchasers. We conducted telephone interviews with executives at 609 of the largest employers across 41 US markets between July 2005 and March 2006. The 41 randomly selected markets have at least 100,000 persons enrolled in health maintenance organizations, include approximately 91% of individuals enrolled in health maintenance organizations nationally, and represent roughly 78% of the US metropolitan population. Using the Dun & Bradstreet database of US employers, we identified the 26 largest firms in each market. Firms ranged in size from 60 to 250,000 employees. The degree to which value-based purchasing and related strategies are reported being used by employers. Percentages were weighted by number of employees. Of 1041 companies contacted, 609 employer representatives completed the survey (response rate, 64%). A large percentage of surveyed executives reported that they examine health plan quality data (269 respondents; 65% [95% confidence interval {CI}, 57%-74%]; Prewards (49 respondents; 17% [95% CI, 7%-27%]; P=.008) or to influence employees (71 respondents; 23% [95% CI, 13%-33%]). Physician quality information is even less commonly examined (71 respondents; 16% [95% CI, 9%-23%]) or used by employers to reward performance (8 respondents; 2% [95% CI, 0%-3%]) or influence employee choice of providers (34 respondents; 8% [95% CI, 3%-12%]). Surveyed employers as a whole do not appear to be individually implementing incentives and

  11. An Algorithm for Making Value-Based Strategic Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor P. Palamarchuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The latest tendency has been featuring an increase in the number of Russian companies that follow the principles of Value-Based Management(VBM, which is essentially a synergetic combination of corporate finance and strategic management. Strategic decisions are the principal driving force of a company‟s value growth. Thus, the situation calls for an understanding and adequate evaluation of correlation between changes in a company‟s value and strategic decisions. A key to such understanding lies in accurate definition and differentiation of such notions as “a company‟s fair value” and “a company‟s investment value”. The paper contains an analysis of these fundamental definitions for appraisal of a business, which further serves as a basis for making strategic value-based decisions. The suggested algorithm to control a company‟s value substantiates the following:  Logic and procedure for preparation and implementation of strategic decisions;  Differentiation and interrelation between strategic and operational decisions in a company‟s value-based management;  Expediency and conditions for use of two intrinsically- different approaches to strategic decision-making (namely, the creative approach and the trade-off approach;  Approaches to financial assessment and modeling of strategic decisions.

  12. Building a values-based culture in nurse education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetley, Josie; Dobson, Fiona; Jack, Kirsten; Pearson, Beryl; Walker, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    Nurse education has found itself challenged to select and educate nurses who on completion of? of their programme? have: excellent technical skills, an ability to critically analyse care and work compassionately in ways that support the values of care that are important to service users. Recent reports of care suggest that nursing still needs to develop the values base of its student selection and education processes. Against this backdrop, this paper presents two examples from pre registration nurse education that illustrate how a values based approach is used as part of the selection process in one university and used to inform the development of a reflective poetry initiative in another university. Having presented the two examples the authors debate some of the wider benefits and challenges linked to these ways of working. For example, the importance of connecting nurses' personal beliefs, attitudes and assumptions to service user values in recruitment are discussed. The use of poetry as a way of thinking about practice that moves beyond traditional models of reflection in nursing are also considered. However, the authors recognise that if developments in nurse education are to have a real impact on nursing practice and patient care, there is the need for values based initiatives to be more directly connected to the delivery of healthcare.

  13. Ante la ley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kafka Franz

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Ante las puertas de la ley hay un guardian. Un campesino se llega hasta ese guardian y le pide que le permita entra en la ley, pero el guardian le dice que por ahora no se lo puede permitir. El hombre reflexiona y entonces pregunta si podria entrar despues. Es posible -dice el guardian-; pero no ahora. La puerta de entrada a la ley esta abierta como siempre.

  14. TRANSFER PRICING FOR COORDINATION AND PROFIT ALLOCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Thomas Martini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines coordination and profit allocation in a profit-center organization using a single transfer price. The model includes compensations, taxes, and minority interests of two divisions deciding on capacity and sales. The analysis covers arm’s length transfer prices which are either administered by central management or negotiated by the divisions. Administered transfer prices refer to past transactions and therefore maximize firm-wide profit net of divisional compensations, taxes, and minority profit shares only for given decentralized decisions. From an ex-ante perspective, it is shown that adverse effects on coordination may result in inefficient divisional profits of which all stakeholders suffer. We motivate a positive effect of advance pricing agreements, intra-firm guidelines, and restrictive treatments of changes in the firm’s accounting policy. By contrast, negotiations ignore compensations, taxes, and minority shares but yield efficient divisional profits. Negotiations seem compelling as they perfectly reflect the arm’s length principle. Moreover, common practices such as arbitration or one-step pricing schemes allow the firm to engage in manipulation at the expense of other stakeholders.

  15. Price-Transparency and Cost Accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hilsenrath PhD

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Health care reform is directed toward improving access and quality while containing costs. An essential part of this is improvement of pricing models to more accurately reflect the costs of providing care. Transparent prices that reflect costs are necessary to signal information to consumers and producers. This information is central in a consumer-driven marketplace. The rapid increase in high deductible insurance and other forms of cost sharing incentivizes the search for price information. The organizational ability to measure costs across a cycle of care is an integral component of creating value, and will play a greater role as reimbursements transition to episode-based care, value-based purchasing, and accountable care organization models. This article discusses use of activity-based costing (ABC to better measure the cost of health care. It describes examples of ABC in health care organizations and discusses impediments to adoption in the United States including cultural and institutional barriers.

  16. Distributed nestmate recognition in ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esponda, Fernando; Gordon, Deborah M

    2015-05-07

    We propose a distributed model of nestmate recognition, analogous to the one used by the vertebrate immune system, in which colony response results from the diverse reactions of many ants. The model describes how individual behaviour produces colony response to non-nestmates. No single ant knows the odour identity of the colony. Instead, colony identity is defined collectively by all the ants in the colony. Each ant responds to the odour of other ants by reference to its own unique decision boundary, which is a result of its experience of encounters with other ants. Each ant thus recognizes a particular set of chemical profiles as being those of non-nestmates. This model predicts, as experimental results have shown, that the outcome of behavioural assays is likely to be variable, that it depends on the number of ants tested, that response to non-nestmates changes over time and that it changes in response to the experience of individual ants. A distributed system allows a colony to identify non-nestmates without requiring that all individuals have the same complete information and helps to facilitate the tracking of changes in cuticular hydrocarbon profiles, because only a subset of ants must respond to provide an adequate response.

  17. The economic viability of value-based food chain for dairy farms in mountain regions: an econometric analysis approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Prišenk

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The attention of this paper is drawn to analyze the economic potential of involvement of farmers into the small-medium sized value-based food chain (VBFC. The survey represents a solid dana basis from which econometric modelling approach was further developed. Empirical results reveal the positive economic viability on a general level; this means more stable purchase price of raw milk for dairy farms, which are the part of value-based food chain. Results point at inelastic demand for milk and milk related products. Furthermore, there are some accompanying and underlying indirect social benefits, such as production of high-quality food products, more stable and constant demand for raw milk, steady payments and better social situation. The last one is especially important for the farms operating in less-favored mountain areas where the survey was actually conducted.

  18. "Ant-egg" cataract revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemmensen, Kåre; Enghild, Jan J; Ivarsen, Anders; Riise, Ruth; Vorum, Henrik; Heegaard, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Hereditary congenital cataract varies immensely concerning location and form of the lens opacities. A specific and very rare phenotype is called "ant-egg" cataract first described in 1900. "Ant-eggs" have previously been examined using light microscopy, backscattered electron imaging and X-ray scans and electron microscopy. The purpose of this study was to further characterize "ant-egg" cataract using modern technology and display the history of the "ant-eggs" after cataract extraction. "Ant-eggs" were examined using Heidelberg SPECTRALIS Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT)(Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany). Ten "ant-eggs" were extracted; four of these as well as control tissue were analyzed by mass spectrometry (AB Sciex). Proteins were identified and their approximate abundances were determined. Immunohistochemical staining was carried out on the remaining "ant-eggs" for cytokeratin and S100. In anterior OCT-images, the "ant-egg" structures are localized on the iris. Comparative pictures showed that they stayed in the same location for more than 45 years. Mass spectrometry of "ant-eggs" yielded a proteome of 56 different proteins. Eighteen of the 56 "ant-egg" proteins (32 %) were neither present in our controls nor in a known fetal lens proteome. Among these were cytokeratin and Matrix-Gla protein. Immunohistochemical reactions were positive for cytokeratin and S100. This study demonstrates the previously unknown protein composition of the "ant-egg" structures in "ant-egg" cataract. Eighteen of these proteins are not natively found in the human lens. Moreover, "ant-eggs" do not vary over time, after cataract extraction, regarding size and location.

  19. StakeMeter: value-based stakeholder identification and quantification framework for value-based software systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babar, Muhammad Imran; Ghazali, Masitah; Jawawi, Dayang N A; Bin Zaheer, Kashif

    2015-01-01

    Value-based requirements engineering plays a vital role in the development of value-based software (VBS). Stakeholders are the key players in the requirements engineering process, and the selection of critical stakeholders for the VBS systems is highly desirable. Based on the stakeholder requirements, the innovative or value-based idea is realized. The quality of the VBS system is associated with the concrete set of valuable requirements, and the valuable requirements can only be obtained if all the relevant valuable stakeholders participate in the requirements elicitation phase. The existing value-based approaches focus on the design of the VBS systems. However, the focus on the valuable stakeholders and requirements is inadequate. The current stakeholder identification and quantification (SIQ) approaches are neither state-of-the-art nor systematic for the VBS systems. The existing approaches are time-consuming, complex and inconsistent which makes the initiation process difficult. Moreover, the main motivation of this research is that the existing SIQ approaches do not provide the low level implementation details for SIQ initiation and stakeholder metrics for quantification. Hence, keeping in view the existing SIQ problems, this research contributes in the form of a new SIQ framework called 'StakeMeter'. The StakeMeter framework is verified and validated through case studies. The proposed framework provides low-level implementation guidelines, attributes, metrics, quantification criteria and application procedure as compared to the other methods. The proposed framework solves the issues of stakeholder quantification or prioritization, higher time consumption, complexity, and process initiation. The framework helps in the selection of highly critical stakeholders for the VBS systems with less judgmental error.

  20. StakeMeter: value-based stakeholder identification and quantification framework for value-based software systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Imran Babar

    Full Text Available Value-based requirements engineering plays a vital role in the development of value-based software (VBS. Stakeholders are the key players in the requirements engineering process, and the selection of critical stakeholders for the VBS systems is highly desirable. Based on the stakeholder requirements, the innovative or value-based idea is realized. The quality of the VBS system is associated with the concrete set of valuable requirements, and the valuable requirements can only be obtained if all the relevant valuable stakeholders participate in the requirements elicitation phase. The existing value-based approaches focus on the design of the VBS systems. However, the focus on the valuable stakeholders and requirements is inadequate. The current stakeholder identification and quantification (SIQ approaches are neither state-of-the-art nor systematic for the VBS systems. The existing approaches are time-consuming, complex and inconsistent which makes the initiation process difficult. Moreover, the main motivation of this research is that the existing SIQ approaches do not provide the low level implementation details for SIQ initiation and stakeholder metrics for quantification. Hence, keeping in view the existing SIQ problems, this research contributes in the form of a new SIQ framework called 'StakeMeter'. The StakeMeter framework is verified and validated through case studies. The proposed framework provides low-level implementation guidelines, attributes, metrics, quantification criteria and application procedure as compared to the other methods. The proposed framework solves the issues of stakeholder quantification or prioritization, higher time consumption, complexity, and process initiation. The framework helps in the selection of highly critical stakeholders for the VBS systems with less judgmental error.

  1. StakeMeter: Value-Based Stakeholder Identification and Quantification Framework for Value-Based Software Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babar, Muhammad Imran; Ghazali, Masitah; Jawawi, Dayang N. A.; Zaheer, Kashif Bin

    2015-01-01

    Value-based requirements engineering plays a vital role in the development of value-based software (VBS). Stakeholders are the key players in the requirements engineering process, and the selection of critical stakeholders for the VBS systems is highly desirable. Based on the stakeholder requirements, the innovative or value-based idea is realized. The quality of the VBS system is associated with the concrete set of valuable requirements, and the valuable requirements can only be obtained if all the relevant valuable stakeholders participate in the requirements elicitation phase. The existing value-based approaches focus on the design of the VBS systems. However, the focus on the valuable stakeholders and requirements is inadequate. The current stakeholder identification and quantification (SIQ) approaches are neither state-of-the-art nor systematic for the VBS systems. The existing approaches are time-consuming, complex and inconsistent which makes the initiation process difficult. Moreover, the main motivation of this research is that the existing SIQ approaches do not provide the low level implementation details for SIQ initiation and stakeholder metrics for quantification. Hence, keeping in view the existing SIQ problems, this research contributes in the form of a new SIQ framework called ‘StakeMeter’. The StakeMeter framework is verified and validated through case studies. The proposed framework provides low-level implementation guidelines, attributes, metrics, quantification criteria and application procedure as compared to the other methods. The proposed framework solves the issues of stakeholder quantification or prioritization, higher time consumption, complexity, and process initiation. The framework helps in the selection of highly critical stakeholders for the VBS systems with less judgmental error. PMID:25799490

  2. Defining and Computing a Valued Based Cyber-Security Measure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aissa, Anis Ben [University of Tunis, Belvedere, Tunisia; Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Sheldon, Frederick T [ORNL; Mili, Ali [New Jersey Insitute of Technology

    2012-01-01

    In earlier work, we presented a value based measure of cybersecurity that quantifies the security of a system in concrete terms, specifically, in terms of how much each system stakeholder stands to lose (in dollars per hour of operation) as a result of security threats and system vulnerabilities; our metric varies according to the stakes that each stakeholder has in meeting each security requirement. In this paper, we discuss the specification and design of a system that collects, updates, and maintains all the information that pertains to estimating our cybersecurity measure, and offers stakeholders quantitative means to make security-related decisions.

  3. Fundamentals of Value Based Management in practice of Quality management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Szczepańska

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the practical aspects of using the theory of value management in quality management. Presents the essence of value based management (VBM as a background of reflection on its links with quality management. Coherence of the concept in practice, been reviewed in the author’s own studies. The discovery of absence of sufficient procedural structure of the metrics of an economic – financial, to measure the value of the quality management system, points to a gap between the theoretical and practical considerations in managing the value of the company quality management system.  

  4. Defining and Computing a Value Based Cyber-Security Measure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aissa, Anis Ben [University of Tunis, Belvedere, Tunisia; Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Sheldon, Frederick T [ORNL; Mili, Ali [New Jersey Insitute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    In past work, we presented a value based measure of cybersecurity that quantifies the security of a system in concrete terms, specifically, in terms of how much each system stakeholder stands to lose (in dollars per hour of operation) as a result of security threats and system vulnerabilities\\; our metric varies according to the stakes that each stakeholder has in meeting each security requirement. In this paper we discuss the specification and design of a system that collects, updates and maintains all the information that pertains to estimating our cybersecurity measure, and offers stakeholders quantitative means to make security-related decisions.

  5. Measuring outcomes and efficiency in medicare value-based purchasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Christopher P; Higgins, Aparna R; Ritter, Grant A

    2009-01-01

    The Medicare program may soon adopt value-based purchasing (VBP), in which hospitals could receive incentives that are conditional on meeting specified performance objectives. The authors advocate for a market-oriented framework and direct measures of system-level value that are focused on better outcomes and lower total cost of care. They present a multidimensional framework for measuring outcomes of care and a method to adjust incentive payments based on efficiency. Incremental reforms based on VBP could provoke transformational changes in total patient care by linking payments to value related to the whole patient experience, recognizing shared accountability among providers.

  6. Explicit representation of confidence informs future value-based decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folke, Tomas; Jacobsen, Catrine; Fleming, Stephen M.

    2016-01-01

    Humans can reflect on decisions and report variable levels of confidence. But why maintain an explicit representation of confidence for choices that have already been made and therefore cannot be undone? Here we show that an explicit representation of confidence is harnessed for subsequent changes...... of mind. Specifically, when confidence is low, participants are more likely to change their minds when the same choice is presented again, an effect that is most pronounced in participants with greater fidelity in their confidence reports. Furthermore, we show that choices reported with high confidence...... of confidence has a positive impact on the quality of future value-based decisions....

  7. Airline Price Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Stacey, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Price discrimination enjoys a long history in the airline industry. Borenstein (1989) discusses price discrimination through frequent flyer programs from 1985 as related to the Piedmont-US Air merger, price discrimination strategies have grown in size and scope since then. From Saturday stay over requirements to varying costs based on time of purchase, the airline industry is uniquely situated to enjoy the fruits of price discrimination.

  8. Price control and macromarketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kancir Rade

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Price control at macro level is part of integral macro marketing strategic control system, or more precisely, part of social marketing mix control. Price impact is direct, if it is regarded in the context of needs satisfaction, and indirect, within the context of resource allocation. These two patterns of price impact define control mechanism structuring. Price control in sense of its direct impact at process of need satisfaction should comprise qualitative and quantitative level of needs satisfaction at a given price level and its structure, informational dimension of price and different disputable forms of corporate pricing policies. Control of price allocation function is based at objectives of macro marketing system management in the area of resource allocation and the role of price as allocator in contemporary market economies. Control process is founded, on one hand, at theoretical models of correlation between price and demand in different market structures, and on the other hand, at complex limits that price as allocator has, and which make whole control process even more complex because of reduction of the degree of determinism in functioning of contemporary economic systems. Control of price allocation function must be continuous and dynamic process if it is to provide for convergence with environmental changes and if it is to provide for placing control systems at micro marketing levels in the function of socially valid objectives.

  9. Regulation of Pharmaceutical Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Mendez, Susan J.; Rønde, Thomas

    the joint eects of this reform on prices and quantities. Prices decreased more than 26 percent due to the reform, which reduced patient and government expenditures by 3.0 percent and 5.6 percent, respectively, and producer revenues by 5.0 percent. The prices of expensive products decreased more than...

  10. Valuation Struggles over Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Trine

    2016-01-01

    public goods into play, all the while prompting a translation of these values into a single price. Following the struggles over the pricing of wind power in the early 2000s, the study illustrates that rather than a pollution of the market sphere by that of politics, a politics of pricing can be observed...

  11. Dutch house price fundamentals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haffner, M.E.A.; de Vries, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses house price developments in the Netherlands, specifically focussing on the question whether current house prices in the Dutch owner-occupied market are likely to decrease. We analyse three aspects of the question based on a literature review: (1) whether there is a house price b

  12. Dutch house price fundamentals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haffner, M.E.A.; de Vries, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses house price developments in the Netherlands, specifically focussing on the question whether current house prices in the Dutch owner-occupied market are likely to decrease. We analyse three aspects of the question based on a literature review: (1) whether there is a house price

  13. Deal with price raise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The price raise in natural resources is inevitable. At present, building ceramic industry is facing the pressure brought by price raise in raw material. Marketing directors still hesitate whether the price of ceramic tiles should be raised. The crisis brought by social environment made the employees care-laden.

  14. Episodic memories predict adaptive value-based decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Vishnu P; FeldmanHall, Oriel; Hunter, Lindsay E; Phelps, Elizabeth A; Davachi, Lila

    2016-05-01

    Prior research illustrates that memory can guide value-based decision-making. For example, previous work has implicated both working memory and procedural memory (i.e., reinforcement learning) in guiding choice. However, other types of memories, such as episodic memory, may also influence decision-making. Here we test the role for episodic memory-specifically item versus associative memory-in supporting value-based choice. Participants completed a task where they first learned the value associated with trial unique lotteries. After a short delay, they completed a decision-making task where they could choose to reengage with previously encountered lotteries, or new never before seen lotteries. Finally, participants completed a surprise memory test for the lotteries and their associated values. Results indicate that participants chose to reengage more often with lotteries that resulted in high versus low rewards. Critically, participants not only formed detailed, associative memories for the reward values coupled with individual lotteries, but also exhibited adaptive decision-making only when they had intact associative memory. We further found that the relationship between adaptive choice and associative memory generalized to more complex, ecologically valid choice behavior, such as social decision-making. However, individuals more strongly encode experiences of social violations-such as being treated unfairly, suggesting a bias for how individuals form associative memories within social contexts. Together, these findings provide an important integration of episodic memory and decision-making literatures to better understand key mechanisms supporting adaptive behavior.

  15. Current State of Value-Based Purchasing Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, Tingyin T; Ryan, Andrew M; Wasfy, Jason H; Borden, William B

    2016-05-31

    The US healthcare system is rapidly moving toward rewarding value. Recent legislation, such as the Affordable Care Act and the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act, solidified the role of value-based payment in Medicare. Many private insurers are following Medicare's lead. Much of the policy attention has been on programs such as accountable care organizations and bundled payments; yet, value-based purchasing (VBP) or pay-for-performance, defined as providers being paid fee-for-service with payment adjustments up or down based on value metrics, remains a core element of value payment in Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act and will likely remain so for the foreseeable future. This review article summarizes the current state of VBP programs and provides analysis of the strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities for the future. Multiple inpatient and outpatient VBP programs have been implemented and evaluated; the impact of those programs has been marginal. Opportunities to enhance the performance of VBP programs include improving the quality measurement science, strengthening both the size and design of incentives, reducing health disparities, establishing broad outcome measurement, choosing appropriate comparison targets, and determining the optimal role of VBP relative to alternative payment models. VBP programs will play a significant role in healthcare delivery for years to come, and they serve as an opportunity for providers to build the infrastructure needed for value-oriented care.

  16. Internet resource pricing models

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Ke; He, Huan

    2013-01-01

    This brief guides the reader through three basic Internet resource pricing models using an Internet cost analysis. Addressing the evolution of service types, it presents several corresponding mechanisms which can ensure pricing implementation and resource allocation. The authors discuss utility optimization of network pricing methods in economics and underline two classes of pricing methods including system optimization and entities' strategic optimization. The brief closes with two examples of the newly proposed pricing strategy helping to solve the profit distribution problem brought by P2P

  17. Dutch house price fundamentals

    OpenAIRE

    Haffner, M.E.A.; De Vries, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses house price developments in the Netherlands, specifically focussing on the question whether current house prices in the Dutch owner-occupied market are likely to decrease. We analyse three aspects of the question based on a literature review: (1) whether there is a house price bubble ready to burst; (2) whether house prices will decline in response to the credit crisis that started in 2007; and (3) whether it is likely that house prices will decrease as a result of reform...

  18. Analyzing nutritional impacts of price and income related shocks in Malawi: Simulating household entitlements to food

    OpenAIRE

    Harttgen, Kenneth; Klasen, Stephan; Rischke, Ramona

    2015-01-01

    The 2007/2008 food price crisis and the following global economic recession has (temporarily) increased the number of people to suffer from hunger. While the impacts can be measured with precision only ex post, for policy makers it is critical to get a sense of likely impacts ex ante in order to plan approaches to mitigate these impacts. In this paper we adopt a very simple micro-based simulation approach to analyze how changes in prices of specific food groups, such as maize prices or prices...

  19. Analyzing Nutritional Impacts of Price and Income Related Shocks in Malawi and Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth Harttgen; Stephan Klasen

    2012-01-01

    The recent food price crisis and the following global economic recession have led to large increase in the number of people to suffer from hunger. While the impacts can be measured with precision ex post, for policy-makers it is critical to get a sense of likely impacts ex ante to plan approaches to mitigate these impacts. In this paper we adopt a very simple simulation approach to analyze how changes in prices of specific food groups such as maize prices or prices for staple food as well as ...

  20. Calculating proper transfer prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorkey, F.C. (Meliora Research Associates, Rochester, NY (United States)); Jarrell, G.A. (Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States))

    1991-01-01

    This article deals with developing a proper transfer pricing method. Decentralization is as American as baseball. While managers laud the widespread benefits of both decentralization and baseball, they often greet the term transfer price policy with a yawn. Since transfer prices are as critical to the success of decentralized firms as good pitchers are to baseball teams, this is quite a mistake on the part of our managers. A transfer price is the price charged to one division for a product or service that another division produced or provided. In many, perhaps most, decentralized organizations, the transfer pricing policies actually used are grossly inefficient and sacrifice the potential advantages of decentralization. Experience shows that far too many companies have transfer pricing policies that cost them significantly in foregone growth and profits.

  1. Temperature: Human Regulating, Ants Conforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clopton, Joe R.

    2007-01-01

    Biological processes speed up as temperature rises. Procedures for demonstrating this with ants traveling on trails, and data gathered by students on the Argentine ant ("Linepithema humile") are presented. The concepts of temperature regulation and conformity are detailed with a focus on the processes rather than on terms that label the organisms.

  2. The metapleural gland of ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yek, Sze Huei; Mueller, Ulrich G

    2011-11-01

    The metapleural gland (MG) is a complex glandular structure unique to ants, suggesting a critical role in their origin and ecological success. We synthesize the current understanding of the adaptive function, morphology, evolutionary history, and chemical properties of the MG. Two functions of the MG, sanitation and chemical defence, have received the strongest empirical support; two additional possible functions, recognition odour and territorial marking, are less well supported. The design of the MG is unusual for insects; glandular secretions are stored in a rigid, non-compressible invagination of the integument and the secretion is thought to ooze out passively through the non-closable opening of the MG or is groomed off by the legs and applied to target surfaces. MG loss has occurred repeatedly among the ants, particularly in the subfamilies Formicinae and Myrmicinae, and the MG is more commonly absent in males than in workers. MG chemistry has been characterized mostly in derived ant lineages with unique biologies (e.g. leafcutter ants, fire ants), currently precluding any inferences about MG chemistry at the origin of the ants. A synthetic approach integrating functional morphology, phylogenetic transitions and chemical ecology of the MGs of both the derived and the unstudied early-branching (basal) ant lineages is needed to elucidate the evolutionary origin and diversification of the MG of ants.

  3. Temperature: Human Regulating, Ants Conforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clopton, Joe R.

    2007-01-01

    Biological processes speed up as temperature rises. Procedures for demonstrating this with ants traveling on trails, and data gathered by students on the Argentine ant ("Linepithema humile") are presented. The concepts of temperature regulation and conformity are detailed with a focus on the processes rather than on terms that label the organisms.

  4. Price learning during grocery shopping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birger Boutrup

    of what consumers learn about prices during grocery shopping. Three measures of price knowledge corresponding to different levels of price information processing were applied. Results indicate that price learning does take place and that episodic price knowledge after store exit is far more widespread...... than expected. Consequently, a new view of how consumer price knowledge evolves during grocery shopping is presented....

  5. Defining and Computing a Valued Based Cyber Security Measure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aissa, Anis Ben [University of Tunis, Belvedere, Tunisia; Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Sheldon, Frederick T [ORNL; Mili, Ali [New Jersey Insitute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    In earlier works (Ben-Aissa et al. 2010; Abercrombie et al. 2008; Sheldon et al. 2009), we presented a value based measure of cybersecurity that quantifies the security of a system in concrete terms, specifically, in terms of how much each system stakeholder stands to lose (in dollars per hour of operation) as a result of security threats and system vulnerabilities; our metric varies according to the stakes that each stakeholder has in meeting each security requirement. In this paper, we discuss the specification and design of a system that collects, updates, and maintains all the information that pertains to estimating our cybersecurity measure, and offers stakeholders quantitative means to make security-related decisions.

  6. Sleep-dependent consolidation of value-based learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Bengi; Daniels, Dasha; Spencer, Rebecca M C

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that sleep selectively enhances memories with future relevance. Given that sleep's benefits can vary by item within a learning context, the present study investigated whether the amount of sleep-dependent consolidation may vary across items based on the value of the to-be-learned material. For this purpose, we used a value-based learning paradigm in which participants studied words paired with point values. There were two groups; participants either studied the words in the evening and were tested after a 12 hr interval containing a full night of sleep, or studied the words in the morning and were tested after 12 hr of continuous daytime wake. Free recall (F(1,36) = 19.35, pvalue for sleep and wake groups (p = .74). Thus, while encoding may vary with the value of the to-be-learned item, sleep-dependent consolidation does not.

  7. The Risks and Rewards of Value-Based Reimbursement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Robert J; Maryland, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    As healthcare systems across the country shift to value-based care, they face an enormous challenge. Not only must they reimagine how they identify, engage, and manage the care of patients, they also need to determine new ways of engaging and aligning physicians and other caregivers in creating better-coordinated care across the continuum. This article explores how healthcare systems making the transition from volume to value can maximize their reward while managing their risk. As the largest not-for-profit healthcare system in the United States and the largest Catholic healthcare system in the world, Ascension is committed to making its own transition, marked by broad-based innovation. We call this goal the Quadruple Aim: improving health outcomes, patient experiences, and provider experiences while lowering the overall cost of care. Healthcare systems and providers have many value-based models to choose from, including pay for performance (P4P), shared savings, bundled payments, shared risk, global capitation, and provider-sponsored health plans. Analysis of these options should include an evaluation of market readiness (i.e., the ability of a health system to align with the needs of employers or commercial insurers in a given market). Healthcare systems also must be prepared to invest in resources that facilitate effective transitions and continuity of care--for example, care management. In addition, they need to recognize that as they focus on wellness, inpatient volumes will decline, requiring cost-structure adjustments and added ancillary services to compensate for this decline. Some healthcare systems are even exploring the possibility of becoming their own payer, taking on more risk and responsibility for the health of patients and populations.

  8. Use of Bayesian Estimates to determine the Volatility Parameter Input in the Black-Scholes and Binomial Option Pricing Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Wing Ho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The valuation of options and many other derivative instruments requires an estimation of exante or forward looking volatility. This paper adopts a Bayesian approach to estimate stock price volatility. We find evidence that overall Bayesian volatility estimates more closely approximate the implied volatility of stocks derived from traded call and put options prices compared to historical volatility estimates sourced from IVolatility.com (“IVolatility”. Our evidence suggests use of the Bayesian approach to estimate volatility can provide a more accurate measure of ex-ante stock price volatility and will be useful in the pricing of derivative securities where the implied stock price volatility cannot be observed.

  9. Transition from monopoly pricing to competitive pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perera, L. [Eastern Energy Ltd., Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    1995-12-31

    The Victorian Government has embarked on a program to restructure the State electricity supply industry, that will be the precursor to reform throughout the whole of Australia. The Government is depending on competition to drive efficiency improvements to both generation and distribution businesses. Retail pricing will be the key determinant to a future assessment of the success or failure of these reforms. The paper examines electricity pricing before and after the restructuring from the viewpoint of a practitioner at the cutting edge of the reform process. Economic rationale is put forward why the Value Proposition will replace the Cost Recovery basis previously used in electricity pricing. It is concluded that limitations of interstate links will temper intestate competition unless innovative solution can be found. The current method of setting market prices based on a `Pool System` is only efficient if the generators bid their marginal price on a regular basis. In essence the pool replaces the `merit order` previously used to load generators and is basically a scheduling mechanism. Serious consideration needs to be given to the question whether this mechanism should be also setting the price of electricity. (author). 5 tabs.

  10. Invasive ants of Bermuda revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James K. Wetterer

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available For 60+ years, two of the world’s most widespread and destructive invasive ant species, the African big-headed ant (Pheidole megacephala from tropical Africa and the Argentine ant (Linepithema humile from subtropical South America, have been engaged in an epic battle on the islands of Bermuda. Both species are completely intolerant of the other and are also well-known for killing off native invertebrates, particularly other ants. Here I surveyed sites across Bermuda in 2016, including resurveys of the locations previously surveyed in 1963, 1966, 1973, 1986, and 2002, to provide an update on this conflict. The status of all other ant species present in the islands, including previous records from literature, is also provided. In addition, I surveyed ants nesting in red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle trees to evaluate whether this arboreal habitat may serve as a refuge for previously overlooked ant species. In 2016, L. humile occurred at most surveyed sites in Bermuda, including all ten resurveyed sites. Pheidole megacephala was present at only two resurveyed sites, a lower proportion of sites than any of the five earlier surveys. Still, P. megacephala occupied substantial areas, particularly in and around Hamilton, the capital of Bermuda. This survey increased the number of ant species with verified records from Bermuda to 25, including four exotic species recorded for the first time: Cardiocondyla minutior, Pheidole navigans, Strumigenys emmae, and Strumigenys membranifera. I found five ant species nesting in mangroves: L. humile plus four Old World exotics, C. minutior, Cardiocondyla obscurior, Monomorium floricola, and Plagiolepis alluaudi. It appears that L. humile may be better suited to the subtropical climate of Bermuda than P. megacephala, except perhaps in warmer and sunnier habitats, such as plantings along urban streets and in open parks, where P. megacephala may hold the advantage. The dataset on the new ant records from 2016 is

  11. Disinvestment and Value-Based Purchasing Strategies for Pharmaceuticals: An International Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Bonny; Sermet, Catherine; Clement, Fiona; Crausaz, Steffan; Godman, Brian; Garner, Sarah; Choudhury, Moni; Pearson, Sallie-Anne; Viney, Rosalie; Lopert, Ruth; Elshaug, Adam G

    2015-09-01

    Pharmaceutical expenditure has increased rapidly across many Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries over the past three decades. This growth is an increasing concern for governments and other third-party payers seeking to provide equitable and comprehensive healthcare within sustainable budgets. In order to create headroom for increasing utilisation, and to fund new high-cost therapies, there is an active push to 'disinvest' from low-value drugs. The aim of this article is to review how reimbursement policy decision makers have sought to partially or completely disinvest from drugs in a range of OECD countries (UK, France, Canada, Australia and New Zealand) where they are publicly funded or subsidised. We employed a systematic literature search strategy and the incorporation of grey literature known to the authorship team. We canvass key policy instruments from each country to outline key approaches to the identification of candidate drugs for disinvestment assessment (passive approaches vs. more active approaches); methods of disinvestment and value-based purchasing (de-listing, restricting treatment, price or reimbursement rate reductions, encouraging generic prescribing); lessons learnt from the various approaches; the potential role of coverage with evidence development; and the need for careful stakeholder management. Dedicated sections are provided with detailed coverage of policy approaches (with drug examples) from each country. Historically, countries have relied on 'passive disinvestment'; however, due to (1) the availability of new cost-effectiveness evidence, or (2) 'leakage' in drug utilisation, or (3) market failure in terms of price competition, there is an increasing focus towards 'active disinvestment'. Isolating low-value drugs that would create headroom for innovative new products to enter the market is also motivating disinvestment efforts by multiple parties, including industry. Historically, disinvestment has

  12. Price strategy and pricing strategy: terms and content identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panasenko Tetyana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the terminology and content identification of seemingly identical concepts "price strategy" and "pricing strategy". The article contains evidence that the price strategy determines the direction, principles and procedure of implementing the company price policy and pricing strategy creates a set of rules and practical methods of price formation in accordance with the pricing strategy of the company.

  13. Hospitales seguros ante desastres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Vladimir Bambaren Alatrista

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Entre 1982 a 2005 se registraron daños en 1 143 establecimientos de salud en el Perú, generalmente debido a sismos, lluvias e inundaciones. Los daños en los servicios de salud producen la interrupción de la atención de la población y de los programas de salud, así como generan un gran gasto para la rehabilitación y reconstrucción. Por ello, se requiere proteger a los establecimientos de salud y desarrollar una política de hospitales seguros ante desastres que incluya medidas para prevenir o reducción de la vulnerabilidad estructural, no estructural y funcional en los nuevos establecimientos y en los existentes.(Rev Med Hered 2007;18:149-154.

  14. Value-based assessment of robotic pancreas and liver surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patti, James C; Ore, Ana Sofia; Barrows, Courtney; Velanovich, Vic; Moser, A James

    2017-08-01

    Current healthcare economic evaluations are based only on the perspective of a single stakeholder to the healthcare delivery process. A true value-based decision incorporates all of the outcomes that could be impacted by a single episode of surgical care. We define the value proposition for robotic surgery using a stakeholder model incorporating the interests of all groups participating in the provision of healthcare services: patients, surgeons, hospitals and payers. One of the developing and expanding fields that could benefit the most from a complete value-based analysis is robotic hepatopancreaticobiliary (HPB) surgery. While initial robot purchasing costs are high, the benefits over laparoscopic surgery are considerable. Performing a literature search we found a total of 18 economic evaluations for robotic HPB surgery. We found a lack of evaluations that were carried out from a perspective that incorporates all of the impacts of a single episode of surgical care and that included a comprehensive hospital cost assessment. For distal pancreatectomies, the two most thorough examinations came to conflicting results regarding total cost savings compared to laparoscopic approaches. The most thorough pancreaticoduodenectomy evaluation found non-significant savings for total hospital costs. Robotic hepatectomies showed no cost savings over laparoscopic and only modest savings over open techniques. Lastly, robotic cholecystectomies were found to be more expensive than the gold-standard laparoscopic approach. Existing cost accounting data associated with robotic HPB surgery is incomplete and unlikely to reflect the state of this field in the future. Current data combines the learning curves for new surgical procedures being undertaken by HPB surgeons with costs derived from a market dominated by a single supplier of robotic instruments. As a result, the value proposition for stakeholders in this process cannot be defined. In order to solve this problem, future studies

  15. Optimal Asset Pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Turner

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe an R package for determining the optimal price of an asset which is perishable in a certain sense, given the intensity of customer arrivals and a time-varying price sensitivity function which speci?es the probability that a customer will purchase an asset o?ered at a given price at a given time. The package deals with the case of customers arriving in groups, with a probability distribution for the group size being speci?ed. The methodology and software allow for both discrete and continuous pricing. The class of possible models for price sensitivity functions is very wide, and includes piecewise linear models. A mechanism for constructing piecewise linear price sensitivity functions is provided.

  16. FORMIDABEL: The Belgian Ants Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosens, Dimitri; Vankerkhoven, François; Ignace, David; Wegnez, Philippe; Noé, Nicolas; Heughebaert, André; Bortels, Jeannine; Dekoninck, Wouter

    2013-01-01

    FORMIDABEL is a database of Belgian Ants containing more than 27.000 occurrence records. These records originate from collections, field sampling and literature. The database gives information on 76 native and 9 introduced ant species found in Belgium. The collection records originated mainly from the ants collection in Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences (RBINS), the 'Gaspar' Ants collection in Gembloux and the zoological collection of the University of Liège (ULG). The oldest occurrences date back from May 1866, the most recent refer to August 2012. FORMIDABEL is a work in progress and the database is updated twice a year. THE LATEST VERSION OF THE DATASET IS PUBLICLY AND FREELY ACCESSIBLE THROUGH THIS URL: http://ipt.biodiversity.be/resource.do?r=formidabel. The dataset is also retrievable via the GBIF data portal through this link: http://data.gbif.org/datasets/resource/14697 A dedicated geo-portal, developed by the Belgian Biodiversity Platform is accessible at: http://www.formicidae-atlas.be FORMIDABEL is a joint cooperation of the Flemish ants working group "Polyergus" (http://formicidae.be) and the Wallonian ants working group "FourmisWalBru" (http://fourmiswalbru.be). The original database was created in 2002 in the context of the preliminary red data book of Flemish Ants (Dekoninck et al. 2003). Later, in 2005, data from the Southern part of Belgium; Wallonia and Brussels were added. In 2012 this dataset was again updated for the creation of the first Belgian Ants Atlas (Figure 1) (Dekoninck et al. 2012). The main purpose of this atlas was to generate maps for all outdoor-living ant species in Belgium using an overlay of the standard Belgian ecoregions. By using this overlay for most species, we can discern a clear and often restricted distribution pattern in Belgium, mainly based on vegetation and soil types.

  17. Customizing Prices in Online Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Reinartz, Werner

    2002-01-01

    Dynamic pricing is the dynamic adjustment of prices to consumers depending on the value these customers attribute to a good. Underlying the concept of dynamic pricing is what marketers call price customization. Price customization is the charging of different prices to end consumers based on a discriminatory variable. Internet technology will serve as a great enabling tool for making dynamic pricing accessible to many industries.

  18. Value-based health care for inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Deen, Welmoed K; Esrailian, Eric; Hommes, Daniel W

    2015-05-01

    Increasing healthcare costs worldwide put the current healthcare systems under pressure. Although many efforts have aimed to contain costs in medicine, only a few have achieved substantial changes. Inflammatory bowel diseases rank among the most costly of chronic diseases, and physicians nowadays are increasingly engaged in health economics discussions. Value-based health care [VBHC] has gained a lot of attention recently, and is thought to be the way forward to contain costs while maintaining quality. The key concept behind VBHC is to improve achieved outcomes per encountered costs, and evaluate performance accordingly. Four main components need to be in place for the system to be effective: [1] accurate measurement of health outcomes and costs; [2] reporting of these outcomes and benchmarking against other providers; [3] identification of areas in need of improvement based on these data and adjusting the care delivery processes accordingly; and [4] rewarding high-performing participants. In this article we will explore the key components of VBHC, we will review available evidence focussing on inflammatory bowel diseases, and we will present our own experience as a guide for other providers.

  19. Runtime analysis of the 1-ANT ant colony optimizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doerr, Benjamin; Neumann, Frank; Sudholt, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    The runtime analysis of randomized search heuristics is a growing field where, in the last two decades, many rigorous results have been obtained. First runtime analyses of ant colony optimization (ACO) have been conducted only recently. In these studies simple ACO algorithms such as the 1-ANT...... are investigated. The influence of the evaporation factor in the pheromone update mechanism and the robustness of this parameter w.r.t. the runtime behavior have been determined for the example function OneMax.This work puts forward the rigorous runtime analysis of the 1-ANT on the example functions Leading......Ones and BinVal. With respect to Evolutionary Algorithms (EAs), such analyses were essential to develop methods for the analysis on more complicated problems. The proof techniques required for the 1-ANT, unfortunately, differ significantly from those for EAs, which means that a new reservoir of methods has...

  20. Stackelberg Network Pricing Games

    CERN Document Server

    Briest, Patrick; Krysta, Piotr

    2008-01-01

    We study a multi-player one-round game termed Stackelberg Network Pricing Game, in which a leader can set prices for a subset of $m$ priceable edges in a graph. The other edges have a fixed cost. Based on the leader's decision one or more followers optimize a polynomial-time solvable combinatorial minimization problem and choose a minimum cost solution satisfying their requirements based on the fixed costs and the leader's prices. The leader receives as revenue the total amount of prices paid by the followers for priceable edges in their solutions, and the problem is to find revenue maximizing prices. Our model extends several known pricing problems, including single-minded and unit-demand pricing, as well as Stackelberg pricing for certain follower problems like shortest path or minimum spanning tree. Our first main result is a tight analysis of a single-price algorithm for the single follower game, which provides a $(1+\\epsilon) \\log m$-approximation for any $\\epsilon >0$. This can be extended to provide a ...

  1. Relating price strategies and price-setting practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Lans, van der I.A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose - This article addresses the relationship between price strategies and price-setting practices. The first derive from a normative tradition in the pricing literature and the latter from a descriptive tradition. Price strategies are visible in the market, whereas price-setting practices are h

  2. Pest repelling properties of ant pheromones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offenberg, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Ants control pests via predation and physical deterrence; however, ant communication is based on chemical cues which may serve as warning signals to potential prey and other intruders. The presence of ant pheromones may, thus, be sufficient to repel pests from ant territories. This mini...

  3. Modeling UK Natural Gas Prices when Gas Prices Periodically Decouple from the Oil Price

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    When natural gas prices are subject to periodic decoupling from oil prices, for instance due to peak-load pricing, conventional linear models of price dynamics such as the Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) can lead to erroneous inferences about cointegration relationships, price adjustments and relative values. We propose the use of regime-switching models to address these issues. Our regime switching model uses price data to infer whether pricing is oil-driven (integrated) or gas-specific...

  4. Pest repellent properties of ant pheromones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offenberg, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Many ant species are efficient control agents against a wide range of pest insects in many crops. They control pest insects via predation; however, ant communication is based on chemical cues which may be eavesdropped by potential prey and serve as chemical warning signals. Thus, the presence...... of ant pheromones may be sufficient to repel pest insects from ant territories. The study of ant semiochemicals is in its infancy, yet, evidence for their potential use in pest management is starting to build up. Pheromones from four of five tested ant species have been shown to deter herbivorous insect...... prey and competing ant species are also deterred by ant deposits, whereas ant symbionts may be attracted to them. Based on these promising initial findings, it seems advisable to further elucidate the signaling properties of ant pheromones and to test and develop their use in future pest management....

  5. Emerging Lessons From Regional and State Innovation in Value-Based Payment Reform: Balancing Collaboration and Disruptive Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Douglas A; Grembowski, David; Hernandez, Susan E; Lau, Bernard; Marcus-Smith, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Policy Points: Public and private purchasersmust create a "burning bridge" of countervailing pressure that signals "no turning back" to fee-for-service in order to sustain the momentum for value-based payment. Multi-stakeholder coalitions must establish a defined set of quality, outcomes, and cost performance measures and the interoperable information systems to support data collection and reporting of value-based payment schemes. Anti-trust vigilance is necessary to find the "sweet spot" of competition and cooperation among health plans and health care providers. Provider and health plan transparency of price and quality, supported by all-payer claims data, are critical in driving value-based payment innovation and cost constraint. Context In recent decades, practitioners and policymakers have turned to value-based payment initiatives to help contain spending on health care and to improve the quality of care. The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation funded 7 grantees across the country to design and implement value-based, multistakeholder payment reform projects in 6 states and 3 regions of the United States. Methods As the external evaluator of these projects, we reviewed documents, conducted Internet searches, interviewed key stakeholders, cross-validated factual and narrative interpretation, and performed qualitative analyses to derive cross-site themes and implications for policy and practice. Findings The nature of payment reform and its momentum closely reflects the environmental context of each project. Federal legislation such as the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and federal and state support for the development of the patient-centered medical home and accountable care organizations encourage value-based payment innovation, as do local market conditions for payers and providers that combine a history of collaboration with independent innovation and experimentation by individual organizations. Multistakeholder coalitions offer a useful facilitating

  6. Price learning during grocery shopping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birger Boutrup

    Many attempts have been made to measure consumers' price knowledge for groceries. However, the results have varied considerably and conflict with results of reference price research. This is the first study to examine price knowledge before, during, and after store visit, thus enabling a study...... of what consumers learn about prices during grocery shopping. Three measures of price knowledge corresponding to different levels of price information processing were applied. Results indicate that price learning does take place and that episodic price knowledge after store exit is far more widespread...... than expected. Consequently, a new view of how consumer price knowledge evolves during grocery shopping is presented....

  7. Association between value-based purchasing score and hospital characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borah Bijan J

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medicare hospital Value-based purchasing (VBP program that links Medicare payments to quality of care will become effective from 2013. It is unclear whether specific hospital characteristics are associated with a hospital’s VBP score, and consequently incentive payments. The objective of the study was to assess the association of hospital characteristics with (i the mean VBP score, and (ii specific percentiles of the VBP score distribution. The secondary objective was to quantify the associations of hospital characteristics with the VBP score components: clinical process of care (CPC score and patient satisfaction score. Methods Observational analysis that used data from three sources: Medicare Hospital Compare Database, American Hospital Association 2010 Annual Survey and Medicare Impact File. The final study sample included 2,491 U.S. acute care hospitals eligible for the VBP program. The association of hospital characteristics with the mean VBP score and specific VBP score percentiles were assessed by ordinary least square (OLS regression and quantile regression (QR, respectively. Results VBP score had substantial variations, with mean score of 30 and 60 in the first and fourth quartiles of the VBP score distribution. For-profit status (vs. non-profit, smaller bed size (vs. 100–199 beds, East South Central region (vs. New England region and the report of specific CPC measures (discharge instructions, timely provision of antibiotics and beta blockers, and serum glucose controls in cardiac surgery patients were positively associated with mean VBP scores (p Conclusions Although hospitals serving the poor and the elderly are more likely to score lower under the VBP program, the correlation appears small. Profit status, geographic regions, number and type of CPC measures reported explain the most variation among scores.

  8. ANT, tourism and situated globality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jóhannesson, Gunnar Thór; Ren, Carina Bregnholm; van der Duim, René

    2015-01-01

    are used to define as the separate spheres of nature and culture. This paper explores and relates the central tenets of ANT in tourism with regard to the concept of the Anthropocene. It presents the ANT approach as a flat and object-oriented ontology and methodology and explores its potentials to carve out......In recent years Actor-network theory (ANT) has increasingly been felt in the field of tourism studies (Van der Duim, Ren, & Jóhannesson, 2012). An important implication of the meeting between ANT and tourism studies is the notion of tourism being described as a heterogeneous assemblage of what we...... viable descriptions of the collective condition of humans and more-than-humans in the Anthropocene. Also and moving past a merely descriptive approach, it discusses it as a useful tool to engage with the situated globalities which come into being through the socio-spatial coupling of tourism...

  9. Price Discrimination in Academic Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Patrick; Merz, Thomas E.

    1985-01-01

    Analysis of price discrimination (charging different prices to different customers for same product) for 89 academic journals in 6 disciplines reveals: incidence of price discrimination rose between 1974 and 1984, increase in mean institutional (library) subscription price exceeded increase in mean individual subscription price. Journal list…

  10. Ants Orase kultuurisõnum

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    26. jaanuaril toimub Tallinna Ülikooli Akadeemilises Raamatukogus seminar silmapaistvast Eesti teadlasest ja tõlkijast Ants Orasest. Esinevad kirjandusteadlased Tallinna Ülikoolist, Tartu Ülikoolist ja Eesti Kirjandusmuuseumist. Avaettekandeks on sõna Oklahoma Ülikooli professoril Vincent B. Leitchil, kes oli Ants Orase viimaseks juhendatavaks doktorandiks. Seminari korraldavad Tallinna Ülikool ja Eesti Kirjandusmuuseum. Vt ka Postimees, 26, jaan., lk. 18

  11. Oil prices and the stock prices of alternative energy companies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriques, Irene; Sadorsky, Perry [Schulich School of Business, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2008-05-15

    Energy security issues coupled with increased concern over the natural environment are driving factors behind oil price movements. While it is widely accepted that rising oil prices are good for the financial performance of alternative energy companies, there has been relatively little statistical work done to measure just how sensitive the financial performance of alternative energy companies are to changes in oil prices. In this paper, a four variable vector autoregression model is developed and estimated in order to investigate the empirical relationship between alternative energy stock prices, technology stock prices, oil prices, and interest rates. Our results show technology stock prices and oil prices each individually Granger cause the stock prices of alternative energy companies. Simulation results show that a shock to technology stock prices has a larger impact on alternative energy stock prices than does a shock to oil prices. These results should be of use to investors, managers and policy makers. (author)

  12. House Prices and Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedsted Nielsen, Mads

    This paper is the first to consider a large scale natural experiment to estimate the effect of taxes on house prices. We find that a 1 percentage-point increase in income tax rates lead to a drop in house prices of at most 2.2%. This corresponds to a tax capitalization for the average household o...

  13. Manufacturer's Suggested Retail Prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenkranz, S.

    2003-01-01

    Based on arguments of the `reference- dependent' theory of consumer choice we assume that a retailer's discount of a manufacturer's suggested retail price changes consumers' demand. We can show that the producer benefits from suggesting a retail price. If consumers are additionally sufficiently `los

  14. Poverty and price transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleby, Christian

    A key parameter determining the welfare impact from a world market shock is the transmission elasticity which measures the average domestic response to an international price change. Many studies have estimated price transmission elasticities for a large number of countries but the variation in t...

  15. Natural Gas Price Rises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ As was projected in the third-quarter monetary policy implementation report published by the People's Bank of China on November 15th, 2006, the residents' consumption price index in China would reach 1.5% in 2006. Prices of consumer commodities such as water, power and natural gas would rise and the pressure of inflation would persist in the future.

  16. Cotton Pricing Discussion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Cotton prices have received a lot of attention recently.Cotton Incorporated especically designed this Special Edition of Supply Chain Insights to frame the discussion concerning prices throughout the cotton supply chain in terms of the cyclical events that contributed to recent volatility and how a return to long-term averages over time can be expected.

  17. Essays on asset pricing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nazliben, Kamil

    2015-01-01

    The dissertation consists of three chapters that represent separate papers in the area of asset pricing. The first chapter studies investors optimal asset allocation problem in which mean reversion in stock prices is captured by explicitly modeling transitory and permanent shocks. The second chapter

  18. Price Formation by Bargaining and Posted Prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kultti, K.K.

    1997-01-01

    We study markets with two types of agents. Sellers have an indivisible good for sale, and their reservation value is zero. Buyers are randomly matched with sellers, and they value the good at unity. Sellers may be matched with any positive number of buyers, and they may choose to determine the price

  19. Hospital resources are associated with value-based surgical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehn, Richard S; Hanseman, Dennis J; Go, Derek; Wima, Koffi; Chang, Alex; Ertel, Audrey E; Shah, Shimul A; Abbott, Daniel E

    2016-07-01

    We have previously shown that inferior outcomes at safety-net hospitals are largely dependent on hospital factors. We hypothesized that hospitals providing "high value" care (low cost and better outcomes) would have advantages in human and financial resources. The University HealthSystems Consortium Clinical Database and the American Hospital Association Annual Survey were used to examine hospitals performing eight complex surgical procedures from 2009 to 2013. Hospitals in the lowest quartiles of both mortality rate and cost were characterized as high value (n = 45), whereas those in the highest quartiles of both cost and mortality were low value (n = 45). Hospital size, staffing, and financial characteristics were compared between these two groups. On average, high-value hospitals had lower proportions of Medicaid patient days (17% versus 30%; P < 0.01), higher proportions of outpatient surgery (63% versus 53%; P < 0.01), and spent more on capital expenditures per bed ($155,710 versus $62,434; P < 0.05). Also, high-value hospitals employed more hospitalists (0.08 versus 0.04 per bed; P < 0.01), had more privileged physicians (2.04 versus 1.25 per bed; P < 0.01), and had more full-time equivalent personnel (8.48 versus 6.79 per bed; all P < 0.05). As a result, these hospitals appeared to be more efficient; high-value hospitals had more total admissions per bed (46 versus 38; P < 0.01), fewer days per admission (5.20 versus 5.77; P < 0.01), and more inpatient surgeries per bed (15.7 versus 12.6; all P < 0.05). Hospitals that invest in more human resources and demonstrate increased throughput perform complex surgery at higher "value" (i.e., lower costs and mortality). Value-based purchasing initiatives that link hospital reimbursement to unadjusted surgical outcomes may exacerbate, rather than improve, disparities in surgical care that currently exist. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Identifying potential evolutionary relationships within a facultative lycaenid-ant system: Ant association,oviposition, and butterfly-ant conflict

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NEIL COLLIER

    2007-01-01

    Facultative associations are commonly encountered between ants and lycaenids,although the nature and patterns of associations are typically unclear. This study investigated a facultative symbiosis involving the lycaenid Theclinesthes albocincta (Lycaenidae), its host plant Adriana quadripartita and Australian native ants. Ants in the genera Ochetellus and Iridomyrmex were most frequently found in association with T. albocincta larvae,although Iridomyrmex ants were found in much lower abundance than were ants in Ochetellus. The abundances of Ochetellus and Iridomyrmex were highly correlated with larval abundance, but not egg abundance. Observations and experiments recorded oviposition on male inflorescences on more than 95% of occasions, but oviposition was not greater on inflorescences with ants present. Behavioral assays showed that Iridomyrmex ants were aggressive towards female butterflies on significantly more occasions than were Ochetellus ants. These findings indicate potential evolutionary relationships between T. albocincta and two genera of ants that were abundant within the habitat.

  1. ALTERNATE PRICING STRATEGIES IN CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Mochtar

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research findings on pricing strategies both in general and in construction are reviewed and explored. First%2C pricing strategy in general%2C mostly in the manufacturing industry%2C is reviewed. It includes the concepts of pricing strategy%2C predatory pricing%2C price wars%2C and price policy development. Second%2C pricing strategy in construction is explored. It includes various pricing models for bid price determination%2C such as the Friedman-Gates models%2C expected utility models%2C risk-pricing model%2C and the crew-day%2C multiple regression%2C and fuzzy-set pricing models. In conclusion%2C pricing strategies in construction are still predominantly based on a cost-based approach. More recent models try to close the gap between the models and the real life conditions of a bidder%5C%27s decision-making process. It appears that there are more problems in cost-based pricing as opposed to market-based pricing. Consequently%2C it is highly recommended that%2C alternative pricing approach such as that are closer to the proposed market-based pricing model need to be explored and developed for use in the construction industry. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Pricing+strategy%2C+cost-based+pricing%2C+market-based+pricing.

  2. 7 CFR 1030.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1030.50 Section 1030.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... prices, and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.50....

  3. Using Ants as bioindicators: Multiscale Issues in Ant Community Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Andersen

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecological patterns and processes are characteristically scale dependent, and research findings often cannot be translated easily from one scale to another. Conservation biology is challenged by a lack of congruence between the spatial scales of ecological research (typically involving small plots and land management (typically involving whole landscapes. Here, I discuss spatial scaling issues as they relate to an understanding of ant communities and, consequently, their use as bioindicators in land management. Our perceptions of fundamental patterns and processes in ant communities depend on scale: taxa that are behaviorally dominant at one scale are not necessarily so at others, functional groups recognized at one scale are often inappropriate for others, and the role of competition in community structure depends on the scale of analysis. Patterns of species richness and composition, and the ability of total richness to be estimated by surrogates, are all also scale dependent. Ant community ecology has a tradition of detailed studies in small plots, but the use of ants as bioindicators requires a predictive understanding of community structure and dynamics at a range of spatial scales. Such an appreciation of ant communities and their most effective use as bioindicators is best served by studies integrating results from plot-scale research with the broad-scale paradigms of biogeography, systematics, and evolutionary biology.

  4. A Framework for Price Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Kimberly D. Zieschang

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the primary framework associating the four principal price indices in the system of economic statistics—the Producer Price Index (PPI), the Consumer Price Index (CPI), and the Export and Import Price Indices (XPI and MPI)—with the macroeconomic value aggregates they decompose into price and volume components. The paper begins by defining the basic algebra of price indices. It then discusses the definition of the value aggregates comprising the goods and services component...

  5. Asset Pricing - A Brief Review

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Minqiang

    2010-01-01

    I first introduce the early-stage and modern classical asset pricing and portfolio theories. These include: the capital asset pricing model (CAPM), the arbitrage pricing theory (APT), the consumption capital asset pricing model (CCAPM), the intertemporal capital asset pricing model (ICAPM), and some other important modern concepts and techniques. Finally, I discuss the most recent development during the last decade and the outlook in the field of asset pricing.

  6. Monoculture of leafcutter ant gardens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich G Mueller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leafcutter ants depend on the cultivation of symbiotic Attamyces fungi for food, which are thought to be grown by the ants in single-strain, clonal monoculture throughout the hundreds to thousands of gardens within a leafcutter nest. Monoculture eliminates cultivar-cultivar competition that would select for competitive fungal traits that are detrimental to the ants, whereas polyculture of several fungi could increase nutritional diversity and disease resistance of genetically variable gardens. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using three experimental approaches, we assessed cultivar diversity within nests of Atta leafcutter ants, which are most likely among all fungus-growing ants to cultivate distinct cultivar genotypes per nest because of the nests' enormous sizes (up to 5000 gardens and extended lifespans (10-20 years. In Atta texana and in A. cephalotes, we resampled nests over a 5-year period to test for persistence of resident cultivar genotypes within each nest, and we tested for genetic differences between fungi from different nest sectors accessed through excavation. In A. texana, we also determined the number of Attamyces cells carried as a starter inoculum by a dispersing queens (minimally several thousand Attamyces cells, and we tested for genetic differences between Attamyces carried by sister queens dispersing from the same nest. Except for mutational variation arising during clonal Attamyces propagation, DNA fingerprinting revealed no evidence for fungal polyculture and no genotype turnover during the 5-year surveys. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Atta leafcutter ants can achieve stable, fungal monoculture over many years. Mutational variation emerging within an Attamyces monoculture could provide genetic diversity for symbiont choice (gardening biases of the ants favoring specific mutational variants, an analog of artificial selection.

  7. Tourism Equilibrium Price Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mohebi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: A review of the tourism history shows that tourism as an industry was virtually unknown in Malaysia until the late 1960s. Since then, it has developed and grown into a major industry, making an important contribution to the country's economy. By allocating substantial funds to the promotion of tourism and the provision of the necessary infrastructure, the government has played an important role in the impressive progress of the Malaysian tourism industry. One of the important factors which can attract tourists to Malaysia is the tourism price. Has the price of tourism decreased? To answer this question, it is necessary to obtain the equilibrium prices as well as the yearly trend for Malaysia during the sample period as it will be useful for analysis of the infrastructure situation of the tourism industry in this country. The purpose of the study is to identify equilibrium tourism price trends in Malaysian tourism market. Approach: We use hotel room as representative of tourism market. Quarterly data from 1995-2009 are used and a dynamic model of simultaneous equation is employed. Results: Based on the result during the period of 1995 until 2000, the growth rate of the equilibrium price was greater than consumer price index and producer price index. Conclusion: In the Malaysian tourism market, new infrastructure during this period had not been developed to keep pace with tourist arrivals.

  8. Pricing of new vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bruce Y; McGlone, Sarah M

    2010-08-01

    New vaccine pricing is a complicated process that could have substantial long-standing scientific, medical, and public health ramifications. Pricing can have a considerable impact on new vaccine adoption and, thereby, either culminate or thwart years of research and development and public health efforts. Typically, pricing strategy consists of the following ten components: 1. Conduct a target population analysis; 2. Map potential competitors and alternatives; 3. Construct a vaccine target product profile (TPP) and compare it to projected or actual TPPs of competing vaccines; 4. Quantify the incremental value of the new vaccine's characteristics; 5. Determine vaccine positioning in the marketplace; 6. Estimate the vaccine price-demand curve; 7. Calculate vaccine costs (including those of manufacturing, distribution, and research and development); 8. Account for various legal, regulatory, third party payer, and competitor factors; 9. Consider the overall product portfolio; 10. Set pricing objectives; 11. Select pricing and pricing structure. While the biomedical literature contains some studies that have addressed these components, there is still considerable room for more extensive evaluation of this important area.

  9. Approximate option pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalasani, P.; Saias, I. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Jha, S. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1996-04-08

    As increasingly large volumes of sophisticated options (called derivative securities) are traded in world financial markets, determining a fair price for these options has become an important and difficult computational problem. Many valuation codes use the binomial pricing model, in which the stock price is driven by a random walk. In this model, the value of an n-period option on a stock is the expected time-discounted value of the future cash flow on an n-period stock price path. Path-dependent options are particularly difficult to value since the future cash flow depends on the entire stock price path rather than on just the final stock price. Currently such options are approximately priced by Monte carlo methods with error bounds that hold only with high probability and which are reduced by increasing the number of simulation runs. In this paper the authors show that pricing an arbitrary path-dependent option is {number_sign}-P hard. They show that certain types f path-dependent options can be valued exactly in polynomial time. Asian options are path-dependent options that are particularly hard to price, and for these they design deterministic polynomial-time approximate algorithms. They show that the value of a perpetual American put option (which can be computed in constant time) is in many cases a good approximation to the value of an otherwise identical n-period American put option. In contrast to Monte Carlo methods, the algorithms have guaranteed error bounds that are polynormally small (and in some cases exponentially small) in the maturity n. For the error analysis they derive large-deviation results for random walks that may be of independent interest.

  10. Six Sigma pricing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodhi, ManMohan S; Sodhi, Navdeep S

    2005-05-01

    Many companies are now good at managing costs and wringing out manufacturing efficiencies. The TQM movement and the disciplines of Six Sigma have seen to that. But the discipline so often brought to the cost side of the business equation is found far less commonly on the revenue side. The authors describe how a global manufacturer of industrial equipment, which they call Acme Incorporated, recently applied Six Sigma to one major revenue related activity--the price-setting process. It seemed to Acme's executives that pricing closely resembled many manufacturing processes. So, with the help of a Six Sigma black belt from manufacturing, a manager from Acme's pricing division recruited a team to carry out the five Six Sigma steps: Define what constitutes a defect. At Acme, a defect was an item sold at an unauthorized price. Gather data and prepare it for analysis. That involved mapping out the existing pricing-agreement process. Analyze the data. The team identified the ways in which people failed to carry out or assert effective control at each stage. Recommend modifications to the existing process. The team sought to decrease the number of unapproved prices without creating an onerous approval apparatus. Create controls. This step enabled Acme to sustain and extend the improvements in its pricing procedures. As a result of the changes, Acme earned dollar 6 million in additional revenue on one product line alone in the six months following implementation--money that went straight to the bottom line. At the same time, the company removed much of the organizational friction that had long bedeviled its pricing process. Other companies can benefit from Acme's experience as they look for ways to exercise price control without alienating customers.

  11. Cost-effectiveness and pricing of antibacterial drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoef, Talitha I; Morris, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Growing resistance to antibacterial agents has increased the need for the development of new drugs to treat bacterial infections. Given increasing pressure on limited health budgets, it is important to study the cost-effectiveness of these drugs, as well as their safety and efficacy, to find out whether or not they provide value for money and should be reimbursed. In this article, we systematically reviewed 38 cost-effectiveness analyses of new antibacterial agents. Most studies showed the new antibacterial drugs were cost-effective compared to older generation drugs. Drug pricing is a complicated process, involving different stakeholders, and has a large influence on cost-effectiveness. Value-based pricing is a method to determine the price of a drug at which it can be cost-effective. It is currently unclear what the influence of value-based pricing will be on the prices of new antibacterial agents, but an important factor will be the definition of 'value', which as well as the impact of the drug on patient health might also include other factors such as wider social impact and the health impact of disease. © 2015 The Authors. Chemical Biology & Drug Design Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Poverty and price transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleby, Christian

    A key parameter determining the welfare impact from a world market shock is the transmission elasticity which measures the average domestic response to an international price change. Many studies have estimated price transmission elasticities for a large number of countries but the variation in t...... growth but the relationship is less significant. The finding that food prices in middle-income countries increased the most during the food crises is a cause for concern in light of the fact that the majority of the world's poor today live in middle-income countries....

  13. Pemilihan Model Asset Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Pasaribu, Rowland Bismark Fernando

    2010-01-01

    The Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) has dominated finance theory for over thirty years; it suggests that the market beta alone is sufficient to explain stock returns. However evidence shows that the cross-section of stock returns cannot be described solely by the one-factor CAPM. Therefore, the idea is to add other factors in order to complete the beta in explaining the price movements in the stock exchange. The Arbitrage Pricing Theory (APT) has been proposed as the first multifactor succ...

  14. Macroevolutionary assembly of ant/plant symbioses: Pseudomyrmex ants and their ant-housing plants in the Neotropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomicki, Guillaume; Ward, Philip S; Renner, Susanne S

    2015-11-22

    Symbioses include some of the clearest cases of coevolution, but their origin, loss or reassembly with different partners can rarely be inferred. Here we use ant/plant symbioses involving three plant clades to investigate the evolution of symbioses. We generated phylogenies for the big-eyed arboreal ants (Pseudomyrmecinae), including 72% of their 286 species, as well as for five of their plant host groups, in each case sampling more than 61% of the species. We show that the ant-housing Vachellia (Mimosoideae) clade and its ants co-diversified for the past 5 Ma, with some species additionally colonized by younger plant-nesting ant species, some parasitic. An apparent co-radiation of ants and Tachigali (Caesalpinioideae) was followed by waves of colonization by the same ant clade, and subsequent occupation by a younger ant group. Wide crown and stem age differences between the ant-housing genus Triplaris (Polygonaceae) and its obligate ant inhabitants, and stochastic trait mapping, indicate that its domatium evolved earlier than the ants now occupying it, suggesting previous symbioses that dissolved. Parasitic ant species evolved from generalists, not from mutualists, and are younger than the mutualistic systems they parasitize. Our study illuminates the macroevolutionary assembly of ant/plant symbioses, which has been highly dynamic, even in very specialized systems. © 2015 The Author(s).

  15. Edgeworth Price Cycles, Cost-based Pricing and Sticky Pricing in Retail Gasoline Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Noel, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines dynamic pricing behavior in retail gasoline markets for 19 Canadian cities over 574 weeks. I find three distinct retail pricing patterns: 1. cost-based pricing, 2. sticky pricing, and 3. steep, asymmetric retail price cycles that, while seldom documented empirically, resemble those of Maskin & Tirole[1988]. Using a Markov switching regression, I estimate the prevalence of patterns and the structural characteristics of the cycles. Retail price cycles prevail in over 40% of ...

  16. Price Recall, Bertrand Paradox and Price Dispersion With Elastic Demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the consequence of an imprecise recall of the price by the consumers in the Bertrand price competition model for a homogeneous good. It is shown that firms can exploit this weakness and charge prices above the competitive price. This markup increases for rougher recall of the pric

  17. Market News Price Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Real-time price data collected by the Boston Market News Reporter. The NOAA Fisheries' "Fishery Market News" began operations in New York City on February 14, 1938....

  18. AKRO: Standard Prices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard prices are generated for cost recovery programs in the Individual Fishing Quota (IFQ) halibut and sablefish, BSAI Rationalized crab, and Central Gulf of...

  19. Pricing and Fee Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Richard B.

    1986-01-01

    Defines key terms and discusses things to consider when setting fees for a continuing education program. These include (1) the organization's philosophy and mission, (2) certain key variables, (3) pricing strategy options, and (4) the test of reasonableness. (CH)

  20. Regulation of Pharmaceutical Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Méndez, Susan J.; Rønde, Thomas;

    drugs, generics, and parallel imports with health care expenditures and producer revenues decreasing and co-payments increasing most for branded drugs. The reform also induced consumers to substitute from branded drugs – for which they have strong preferences – to generics and parallel imports......Reference prices constitute a main determinant of patient health care reimbursement in many countries. We study the effects of a change from an "external" (based on a basket of prices in other countries) to an "internal" (based on comparable domestic products) reference price system. We find...... that while our estimated consumer compensating variation is small, the reform led to substantial reductions in list and reference prices as well as co-payments, and to sizeable decreases in overall producer revenues, health care expenditures, and co-payments. These effects differ markedly between branded...

  1. Regulation of Pharmaceutical Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Méndez, Susan J.; Rønde, Thomas;

    2014-01-01

    drugs, generics, and parallel imports with health care expenditures and producer revenues decreasing and co-payments increasing most for branded drugs. The reform also induced consumers to substitute from branded drugs – for which they have strong preferences – to generics and parallel imports......Reference prices constitute a main determinant of patient health care reimbursement in many countries. We study the effects of a change from an "external" (based on a basket of prices in other countries) to an "internal" (based on comparable domestic products) reference price system. We find...... that while our estimated consumer compensating variation is small, the reform led to substantial reductions in list and reference prices as well as co-payments, and to sizeable decreases in overall producer revenues, health care expenditures, and co-payments. These effects differ markedly between branded...

  2. The metapleural gland of ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yek, Sze Huei; Mueller, Ulrich G

    2011-01-01

    The metapleural gland (MG) is a complex glandular structure unique to ants, suggesting a critical role in their origin and ecological success. We synthesize the current understanding of the adaptive function, morphology, evolutionary history, and chemical properties of the MG. Two functions...... of the MG, sanitation and chemical defence, have received the strongest empirical support; two additional possible functions, recognition odour and territorial marking, are less well supported. The design of the MG is unusual for insects; glandular secretions are stored in a rigid, non...... morphology, phylogenetic transitions and chemical ecology of the MGs of both the derived and the unstudied early-branching (basal) ant lineages is needed to elucidate the evolutionary origin and diversification of the MG of ants....

  3. Ants medicate to fight disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Nick; Sundström, Liselotte; Fuchs, Siiri; Freitak, Dalial

    2015-11-01

    Parasites are ubiquitous, and the ability to defend against these is of paramount importance. One way to fight diseases is self-medication, which occurs when an organism consumes biologically active compounds to clear, inhibit, or alleviate disease symptoms. Here, we show for the first time that ants selectively consume harmful substances (reactive oxygen species, ROS) upon exposure to a fungal pathogen, yet avoid these in the absence of infection. This increased intake of ROS, while harmful to healthy ants, leads to higher survival of exposed ants. The fact that ingestion of this substance carries a fitness cost in the absence of pathogens rules out compensatory diet choice as the mechanism, and provides evidence that social insects medicate themselves against fungal infection, using a substance that carries a fitness cost to uninfected individuals.

  4. DEMAND AND PRICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VĂDUVA MARIA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Studying the consumer’s behavior by the ordinal approach of utility with the help of indifference curves allows us to deduce the two “movement laws of demand” in this chapter: the demand for a “normal” good is decreasing function of its price and an increasing function of income. We will use the elasticity concept to measure the intensity of the relation that is established between the demand, on the one hand, and prices or income, on the other hand: elasticity – price, direct and crossed, and elasticity – income. We can classify the goods in many categories, depending on the values that this elasticity takes. The demand elasticity can be determined depending on price and income. It reflects the proportion in which the demand for different products changes with the modification of the consumers’ income, the other factors remaining constant. The elasticity compared to the income is a demonstration of legality from the consumer’s sphere, which determines a certain hierarchy of the needs of each population category in a certain level of income. The movement of prices orients both the options and decisions of producers, namely the most useful productions and the most efficient investments, as well as the consumers’ options and decisions on the most advantageous buying of goods and services that they need. The prices appear as a “signal system” coordinating and making coherence the economic agents’ decisions – producers, consumers and population.

  5. Are Fuel Price Hikes Justifiable?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China saw its third fuel price hike this year when the National Development and Reform Commission, China’s top price regulator, hiked gasoline and diesel retail prices up by 9 percent, effective on June 30. It is the second rally in a month after the country initiated a new fuel pricing scheme in May.

  6. Relative Prices and Inflation Stabilisation

    OpenAIRE

    Aoki, Kosuke

    2015-01-01

    When price adjustment is sluggish, inflation is costly in terms of welfare because it distorts various kinds of relative prices. Stabilising aggregate price inflation does not necessarily minimise these costs, but stabilising a well-designed core inflation minimises the cost of relative price fluctuations and thus the cost of inflation.

  7. Equilibrium adjustment of disequilibrium prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herings, P.J.J.; van der Laan, G.; Talman, A.J.J.; Venniker, R.

    1994-01-01

    We consider an exchange economy in which price rigidities are present. In the short run the non-numeraire commodities have a exible price level with respect to the numeraire commodity but their relative prices are mutually fixed. In the long run prices are assumed to be completely exible. For a give

  8. A cellular automata model for ant trails

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sibel Gokce; Ozhan Kayacan

    2013-05-01

    In this study, the unidirectional ant traffic flow with U-turn in an ant trail was investigated using one-dimensional cellular automata model. It is known that ants communicate with each other by dropping a chemical, called pheromone, on the substrate. Apart from the studies in the literature, it was considered in the model that (i) ant colony consists of two kinds of ants, goodand poor-smelling ants, (ii) ants might make U-turn for some special reasons. For some values of densities of good- and poor-smelling ants, the flux and mean velocity of the colony were studied as a function of density and evaporation rate of pheromone.

  9. Higher fuel and food prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Benfica, Rui; Maximiano, Nelson

    2008-01-01

    Rising world prices for fuel and food represent a negative terms-of-trade shock for Mozambique. The impacts of these price rises are analyzed using various approaches. Detailed price data show that the world price increases are being transmitted to domestic prices. Short-run net benefit ratio...... of Mozambique indicates that the fuel price shock dominates rising food prices from both macroeconomic and poverty perspectives. Again, negative impacts are larger in urban areas. The importance of agricultural production response in general and export response in particular is highlighted. Policy analysis...

  10. Ant opsins: sequences from the Saharan silver ant and the carpenter ant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, M P; Grisshammer, R; Hargrave, P A; Smith, W C

    1996-03-01

    cDNA clones encoding opsins from compound eyes of carpenter ant, Camponotus abdominalis, and Saharan silver ant, Cataglyphis bombycina, were isolated from cDNA libraries. The opsin cDNAs from each species code for deduced proteins with 378 amino acids which are 92% identical. Of the 30 amino acid differences between the two proteins, 13 are non-conservative. Eight of these non-conservative substitutions are within the membrane spanning domain. The presence of a potential Schiff-base counterion in helix III in both species suggests that these opsins are the protein moiety of the visible range pigments. When compared to all known opsins, these opsins are most similar to the opsin from preying mantis (76% identity at the amino acid level). Phyletic comparisons group the two ant opsins with the other arthropod long wavelength opsins.

  11. Pricing structures in US coal supply contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacker, Kanishka

    The subject of my dissertation is the study of coal procurement by electric utilities in the US over 2 decades, from 1979 to 2000. Energy markets are typically characterized by severe contracting problems. Buyers and sellers therefore employ various instruments, such as contract length or complex pricing arrangements, to restrict these problems. Relationship specific investment, wherein buyers make investments specific to their suppliers, has been advanced as a prominent explanation for contractual length. Investment decisions are however endogenous in length or pricing, making causal identification of the role of investment specificity difficult. In my first chapter, I attempt a resolution. I use the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment as an exogenous shifter of the extent of relationship specific investment. A key feature of the Amendment's design helps me define a difference-in-difference model arguably free of the endogeneity issues discussed above. I find that the plants forced into switching - Phase I plants located in the US Midwest - are more likely to choose fixed price contracts than those that were not. Further they also write contracts of shorter terms, with the reduction being approximately 30%. Considerably little is known about the performance implications of contractual choices. These form the basis for Chapter 2. Here I find prices to be lower, by between 5% to 20% of the total transaction price, but the probability of renegotiation higher, under fixed price contracts than under escalator or cost-plus contracts. Contract choices appear consistent with a trade-off between establishing incentives ex-ante and lowering negotiation costs ex-post, with relationship specific investments in particular making such a trade-off compelling. Chapter 3 considers the regulatory environment these utilities were subject to. Both incentive based regulation as well as the restructuring of electricity generation are smaller in comparison to relationship specific investment

  12. High Drug Prices Hurt Everyone

    OpenAIRE

    Halpenny, Genevieve M.

    2016-01-01

    Turing Pharmaceuticals raised the price of Daraprim 5,500%, illustrating how the absence of competition in the sale of low-volume, low-price drugs can lead to price gouging. For patented medicines, society allows supracompetitive pricing to incentivize innovation. However, Gilead���s decision to sell Sovaldi for $84,000 per course of treatment raised the question whether society must accept any price set by the patent holder. Unfortunately, these incidents illustrate a br...

  13. Fuel Price Effects on Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    31 B. Measuring the Response to Changes in Fuel Prices across Budget Years: Long- term Price Elasticity ...Changes in Fuel Prices across Budget Years: Long-term Price Elasticity In order to determine the responsiveness of inter-year OPTEMPO to inter-year... elasticity of OPTEMPO (our readiness measure) with respect to price . 0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 33 1. Army Analysis In order to avoid overlooking

  14. Pest repellent properties of ant pheromones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offenberg, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    ant species (iii) Azteca instabilis and (iv) Camponotus textor reduce herbivory by flea beetles (Margaridisa sp.), whereas (v) deposits from Solenopsis geminata, did not lead to reduced herbivory. Further evidence for the impact of ant pheromones comes from studies showing that non-herbivorous ant...

  15. Ant colony optimization in continuous problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Ling; LIU Kang; LI Kaishi

    2007-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the basic ant colony optimization and optimum problem in a continuous space,an ant colony optimization (ACO) for continuous problem is constructed and discussed. The algorithm is efficient and beneficial to the study of the ant colony optimization in a continuous space.

  16. Using Ants to Investigate the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagevik, Rita A.

    2005-01-01

    The best place for students to begin to understand complex environmental relationships is in their own back yards. Doing investigations of ants allows students to establish a baseline survey of ant fauna, test the importance of ants in nutrient cycling and soil structure maintenance, and increase their understanding of the environment and their…

  17. 7 CFR 1001.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1001.50 Section 1001.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued..., and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.50....

  18. 7 CFR 1032.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1032.50 Section 1032.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued..., and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.50....

  19. 7 CFR 1033.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1033.50 Section 1033.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued..., and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.50....

  20. 7 CFR 1006.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1006.50 Section 1006.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued..., and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.50....

  1. 7 CFR 1005.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1005.50 Section 1005.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued..., and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.50....

  2. 7 CFR 1007.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1007.50 Section 1007.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued..., and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.50....

  3. Male parentage in army ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronauer, Daniel J C; Schöning, Caspar; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2006-01-01

    of active research in insect sociobiology. Here we present microsatellite data for 176 males from eight colonies of the African army ant Dorylus (Anomma) molestus. Comparison with worker genotypes and inferred queen genotypes from the same colonies show that workers do not or at best very rarely reproduce...

  4. Optimal cue integration in ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wystrach, Antoine; Mangan, Michael; Webb, Barbara

    2015-10-07

    In situations with redundant or competing sensory information, humans have been shown to perform cue integration, weighting different cues according to their certainty in a quantifiably optimal manner. Ants have been shown to merge the directional information available from their path integration (PI) and visual memory, but as yet it is not clear that they do so in a way that reflects the relative certainty of the cues. In this study, we manipulate the variance of the PI home vector by allowing ants (Cataglyphis velox) to run different distances and testing their directional choice when the PI vector direction is put in competition with visual memory. Ants show progressively stronger weighting of their PI direction as PI length increases. The weighting is quantitatively predicted by modelling the expected directional variance of home vectors of different lengths and assuming optimal cue integration. However, a subsequent experiment suggests ants may not actually compute an internal estimate of the PI certainty, but are using the PI home vector length as a proxy. © 2015 The Author(s).

  5. Price smarter on the Net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, W; Marn, M; Zawada, C

    2001-02-01

    Companies generally have set prices on the Internet in two ways. Many start-ups have offered untenably low prices in a rush to capture first-mover advantage. Many incumbents have simply charged the same prices on-line as they do off-line. Either way, companies are missing a big opportunity. The fundamental value of the Internet lies not in lowering prices or making them consistent but in optimizing them. After all, if it's easy for customers to compare prices on the Internet, it's also easy for companies to track customers' behavior and adjust prices accordingly. The Net lets companies optimize prices in three ways. First, it lets them set and announce prices with greater precision. Different prices can be tested easily, and customers' responses can be collected instantly. Companies can set the most profitable prices, and they can tap into previously hidden customer demand. Second, because it's so easy to change prices on the Internet, companies can adjust prices in response to even small fluctuations in market conditions, customer demand, or competitors' behavior. Third, companies can use the clickstream data and purchase histories that it collects through the Internet to segment customers quickly. Then it can offer segment-specific prices or promotions immediately. By taking full advantage of the unique possibilities afforded by the Internet to set prices with precision, adapt to changing circumstances quickly, and segment customers accurately, companies can get their pricing right. It's one of the ultimate drivers of e-business success.

  6. The antipredatory behaviours of Neotropical ants towards army ant raids (Hymenoptera : Formicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Dejean, A.; Corbara, B.; Roux, Olivier; Orivel, J.

    2014-01-01

    Group hunting, nomadism, wingless queens and colony fission characterize army ants, allowing them to have become the main tropical arthropod predators, mostly of other social insects. We studied the reactions of different ant species to the New World army ants Eciton burchellii (WESTWOOD, 1842) and E. hamatum (FABRICUS, 1782) (Ecitoninae). We compiled our results with those already known in a synthetic appendix. A wide range of ant species react to the approach of army ant raids by evacuating...

  7. Logistics: Price Rises Incurred by High Oil Price

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lai Zhihui

    2011-01-01

    @@ "When the oil price grows by 100%, the logistic indus-try will see a price growth of 40%, while the logistics in-dustry a price rise of 35%, which means every price increase of 5% in the oil price will bring along that of 2% in this industry." said Liu Zongsheng, General Manager of Itochu Logistics Co., Ltd., on the seminar "Focusing on the eco-nomic consequences of raising oil price, interest rate and deposit reserve ratio", which was held recently.

  8. Stochastic Speculative Price

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, Paul A.

    1971-01-01

    Because a commodity like wheat can be carried forward from one period to the next, speculative arbitrage serves to link its prices at different points of time. Since, however, the size of the harvest depends on complicated probability processes impossible to forecast with certainty, the minimal model for understanding market behavior must involve stochastic processes. The present study, on the basis of the axiom that it is the expected rather than the known-for-certain prices which enter into all arbitrage relations and carryover decisions, determines the behavior of price as the solution to a stochastic-dynamic-programming problem. The resulting stationary time series possesses an ergodic state and normative properties like those often observed for real-world bourses. PMID:16591903

  9. Evolutional Ant Colony Method Using PSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morii, Nobuto; Aiyoshi, Eitarou

    The ant colony method is one of heuristic methods capable of solving the traveling salesman problem (TSP), in which a good tour is generated by the artificial ant's probabilistic behavior. However, the generated tour length depends on the parameter describing the ant's behavior, and the best parameters corresponding to the problem to be solved is unknown. In this technical note, the evolutional strategy is presented to find the best parameter of the ant colony by using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) in the parameter space. Numerical simulations for benchmarks demonstrate effectiveness of the evolutional ant colony method.

  10. Microsatellite primers for fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Palle; Gertsch, P J; Boomsma, JJ

    2002-01-01

    developed primers and earlier published primers that were developed for fungus-growing ants. A total of 20 variable microsatellite loci, developed for six different species of fungus-growing ants, are now available for studying the population genetics and colony kin-structure of these ants.......We isolated five polymorphic microsatellite loci from a library of two thousand recombinant clones of two fungus-growing ant species, Cyphomyrmex longiscapus and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki. Amplification and heterozygosity were tested in five species of higher attine ants using both the newly...

  11. Microsatellite Primers for Fungus-Growing Ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen Fredsted, Palle; Gertsch, Pia J.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan (Koos)

    2002-01-01

    developed primers and earlier published primers that were developed for fungus-growing ants. A total of 20 variable microsatellite loci, developed for six different species of fungus-growing ants, are now available for studying the population genetics and colony kin-structure of these ants.......We isolated five polymorphic microsatellite loci from a library of two thousand recombinant clones of two fungus-growing ant species, Cyphomyrmex longiscapus and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki. Amplification and heterozygosity were tested in five species of higher attine ants using both the newly...

  12. Microsatellite Primers for Fungus-Growing Ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen Fredsted, Palle; Gertsch, Pia J.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan (Koos)

    2002-01-01

    We isolated five polymorphic microsatellite loci from a library of two thousand recombinant clones of two fungus-growing ant species, Cyphomyrmex longiscapus and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki. Amplification and heterozygosity were tested in five species of higher attine ants using both the newly...... developed primers and earlier published primers that were developed for fungus-growing ants. A total of 20 variable microsatellite loci, developed for six different species of fungus-growing ants, are now available for studying the population genetics and colony kin-structure of these ants....

  13. Microsatellite primers for fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Palle; Gertsch, P J; Boomsma, JJ

    2002-01-01

    We isolated five polymorphic microsatellite loci from a library of two thousand recombinant clones of two fungus-growing ant species, Cyphomyrmex longiscapus and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki. Amplification and heterozygosity were tested in five species of higher attine ants using both the newly...... developed primers and earlier published primers that were developed for fungus-growing ants. A total of 20 variable microsatellite loci, developed for six different species of fungus-growing ants, are now available for studying the population genetics and colony kin-structure of these ants....

  14. Poverty and environmental impacts of electricity price reforms in Montenegro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Patricia [Department of Economics, University of Copenhagen, Studiestraede 6, DK-1455 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Klytchnikova, Irina [The World Bank, Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Department (ECSPE) (United States); Radevic, Dragana [Center for Entrepreneurship and Economic Development (ME)

    2009-03-15

    The creation of the Energy Community of South Eastern Europe in 2005 committed countries in South Eastern Europe to liberalize their energy markets in accordance to EU regulations. The Government of Montenegro is thus in the process of reforming its energy sector, which includes an electricity tariff reform. This paper analyzes the environmental and social impacts of an increase in residential electricity tariffs contemplated - which is expected to range anywhere from 40 to over 100% increase. As this analysis shows, such a significant price rise will impose a heavy burden on the poor households and it may adversely affect the environment. In an ex ante investigation of the welfare impact of this price increase on households in Montenegro, we show that the anticipated price increase will result in a very significant increase in households' energy expenditures. A simulation of alternative policy measures analyzes the impact of different tariff levels and structures, focusing on the poor and vulnerable households. Higher electricity prices could also significantly increase the proportion of households using fuelwood for space heating. Thus the level of fuelwood consumption should be carefully monitored under the electricity tariff reforms and the Government of Montenegro should combine the tariff reforms with a carefully evaluated set of policy measures to mitigate the effect of the electricity price increase on the poor. (author)

  15. Surviving the Price Hikes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JESSY ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    @@ Viessmann Werke, a German-based global manufacturer of heating technology products, settled down in an industrial development zone in Beijing suburb in 2001. In recent years, however, they have witnessed a price increase for land use in their development zone and nearby areas. "There will be more infrastructure construction in this area and a new exhibition center is said to be built here," says Dr. Andreas Tank, executive manager of Viessmann Werke. "We see the demand for land is increasing and newcomers must pay higher prices for land use than we paid. "Viessmann has fixed its expenditure on land use fees by signing a long-term contract with the development zone.

  16. Wireless network pricing

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Jianwei

    2013-01-01

    Today's wireless communications and networking practices are tightly coupled with economic considerations, to the extent that it is almost impossible to make a sound technology choice without understanding the corresponding economic implications. This book aims at providing a foundational introduction on how microeconomics, and pricing theory in particular, can help us to understand and build better wireless networks. The book can be used as lecture notes for a course in the field of network economics, or a reference book for wireless engineers and applied economists to understand how pricing

  17. Pricing Volatility Referenced Assets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan De Genaro Dario

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Volatility swaps are contingent claims on future realized volatility. Variance swaps are similar instruments on future realized variance, the square of future realized volatility. Unlike a plain vanilla option, whose volatility exposure is contaminated by its asset price dependence, volatility and variance swaps provide a pure exposure to volatility alone. This article discusses the risk-neutral valuation of volatility and variance swaps based on the framework outlined in the Heston (1993 stochastic volatility model. Additionally, the Heston (1993 model is calibrated for foreign currency options traded at BMF and its parameters are used to price swaps on volatility and variance of the BRL / USD exchange rate.

  18. IS THE PRICE RIGHT? PRICING FOR LONG TERM PROFITABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Erika NYÁRÁDI

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The way how we choose our pricing strategy has a significant impact on company’s success. Nowadays companies more and more adopt a new way of thinking in pricing, namely pricing for a long term period in order to bring higher profitability, to build an efficient pricing strategy. Marketers have only recently begun to focus seriously on effective pricing. These companies are the so called progressive companies. They have begun doing more than just worrying about pricing. To increase profitability many are abandoning traditional reactive pricing procedures in favor of proactive pricing, making explicit corporate decisions to change their focus to growth in top-line sales to growth in profitability. The long-term implications of price strategies are still under-researched, and managers should be aware of shifts in customer reactions that may result from frequent adoption of certain strategies. The company pricing strategy should be seen in relation to developments in the company variables, internal ones (capital strength, competencies, organizational conditions, efficiency of the work force etc. as well as external ones (customers, competitors, the technological development etc., adopting strategic pricing. In this paper I will present the most effective pricing strategies leading to long term profitability, and also suggest practical conditions for pricing strategies to maximize profit in the long run.

  19. ANTESEDEN DAN KONSEKUENSI DARI PRICE SATISFACTION

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Dharma; Asep Hermawan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the antecedents and consequents of price satisfaction. It argues that price satisfaction is composed of several dimensions (price transparency, pricequality ratio, relative price, price confidence, price reliability, and price fairness) and that companies should consider these dimensions when monitoring customer price satisfaction. Based on a theoretical discussion of the price dimensions, a questionnaire is developed that measures customer satisfact...

  20. Introduced fire ants can exclude native ants from critical mutualist-provided resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Shawn M; Barnum, Thomas R; Holway, David A; Suarez, Andrew V; Eubanks, Micky D

    2013-05-01

    Animals frequently experience resource imbalances in nature. For ants, one resource that may be particularly valuable for both introduced and native species is high-carbohydrate honeydew from hemipteran mutualists. We conducted field and laboratory experiments: (1) to test if red imported fire ants (Solenopsis invicta) competed with native ants for access to mutualisms with aphids, and (2) to quantify the effects of aphid honeydew presence or absence on colony growth of native ants. We focused on native dolichoderine ants (Formicidae, Dolichoderinae) because they are abundant ants that have omnivorous diets that frequently include mutualist-provided carbohydrates. At two sites in the southeastern US, native dolichoderine ants were far less frequent, and fire ants more frequent, at carbohydrate baits than would be expected based on their frequency in pitfall traps. A field experiment confirmed that a native ant species, Dorymyrmex bureni, was only found tending aphids when populations of S. invicta were suppressed. In the laboratory, colonies of native dolichoderine ants with access to both honeydew and insect prey had twice as many workers and over twice as much brood compared to colonies fed only ad libitum insect prey. Our results provide the first experimental evidence that introduced ants compete for access to mutualist-provided carbohydrates with native ants and that these carbohydrates represent critical resources for both introduced and native ants. These results challenge traditional paradigms of arthropod and ant nutrition and contribute to growing evidence of the importance of nutrition in mediating ecological interactions.

  1. Do Flexible Durable Goods Prices Undermine Sticky Price Models?

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Barsky; Christopher L. House; Miles Kimball

    2003-01-01

    Multi-sector sticky price models have surprising implications when durable goods have flexible prices. While in actual data the production of virtually all durables exhibits strong negative responses to monetary contractions, in dynamic general equilibrium models a monetary contraction causes the output of flexibly priced durables to expand. Indeed, in the polar case in which only nondurables have sticky prices, the negative comovement of durable and nondurable production exactly offsets and ...

  2. On Storekeepers' Pricing Behavior.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Bode (Ben); J. Koerts (Johan); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractThis research note deals with a quantitative analysis of differences in percentage gross margin between individual stores in the retail trade. A number of hypotheses on pricing behavior of storekeepers are tested using Dutch survey data from nine different types of retail stores. We defi

  3. Housing price forecastability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork, Lasse; Møller, Stig Vinther

    2012-01-01

    We examine US housing price forecastability using a common factor approach based on a large panel of 122 economic time series. We …nd that a simple three-factor model generates an explanatory power of about 50% in one-quarter ahead in-sample forecasting regressions. The predictive power of the mo...

  4. Transfer Pricing Principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dennis Ramsdahl

    Konferencebidraget indeholder en kritisk analyse af transfer pricing reglerne på henholdsvis moms og indkomstskatterettens område med henblik på en diskussion af, det er hensigtsmæssigt med en harmonisering af reglerne på tværs af de to retsområder...

  5. Pricing Decisions: A Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Simon

    1989-01-01

    Describes a game that illustrates the effects of pricing on profit. Students compete against each other in an imaginary industry and become familiar with decision-making processes. Depicts the gameboard, how to make it, and how to use it. (GG)

  6. On Storekeepers' Pricing Behavior.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Bode (Ben); J. Koerts (Johan); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractThis research note deals with a quantitative analysis of differences in percentage gross margin between individual stores in the retail trade. A number of hypotheses on pricing behavior of storekeepers are tested using Dutch survey data from nine different types of retail stores. We

  7. MARCH 2005 PRICES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Continuous cold RE market has been a headache for producers. Markup of raw materials, energy and transportation expense is a disaster in succession. Entering March, there is a trend of warm-up in the market, and some RE products have got higher prices than last year. Details are listed below.

  8. Road pricing with complications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Van Dender, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    , and a highly stylised model of congestion is used. The simple analysis also ignores that real pricing schemes are only rough approximations to ideal systems and that inefficiencies in related markets potentially affect the case for congestion charges. The canonical model tends to understate the marginal...

  9. Sentiment and art prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penasse, J.N.G.; Renneboog, L.D.R.; Spaenjers, C.

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesize the existence of a slow-moving fad component in art prices. Using unique panel survey data on art market participants’ confidence levels in the outlook for a set of artists, we find that sentiment indeed predicts short-term returns.

  10. Price of Terbia Soaring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Recently, price of terbia soars to RMB $2600/ nearly changing by day. It is estimated that it will climt RMB$3000/Kg or so. Rising of terbia is mainly driven following factors: 1. Reduced Raw Materials High terbium contained Longnan ore in Ganzhou completely stopped leaching, which will result in the sh

  11. 2050: A Pricing Odyssey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faruqui, Ahmad

    2006-10-15

    The author uses the Rip Van Winkle approach favored by marketers to gaze, clear-eyed, into the future - say, the year 2050 - to visualize alternative demand-response possibilities. Dare we go California Dreamin' of a distant utopia - or is it inevitable that pricing myopia will keep us from attaining the fulfillment of many of our career goals? (author)

  12. Transfer Pricing Principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dennis Ramsdahl

    Konferencebidraget indeholder en kritisk analyse af transfer pricing reglerne på henholdsvis moms og indkomstskatterettens område med henblik på en diskussion af, det er hensigtsmæssigt med en harmonisering af reglerne på tværs af de to retsområder...

  13. Team swimming in ant spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearcy, Morgan; Delescaille, Noémie; Lybaert, Pascale; Aron, Serge

    2014-06-01

    In species where females mate promiscuously, competition between ejaculates from different males to fertilize the ova is an important selective force shaping many aspects of male reproductive traits, such as sperm number, sperm length and sperm-sperm interactions. In eusocial Hymenoptera (bees, wasps and ants), males die shortly after mating and their reproductive success is ultimately limited by the amount of sperm stored in the queen's spermatheca. Multiple mating by queens is expected to impose intense selective pressure on males to optimize the transfer of sperm to the storage organ. Here, we report a remarkable case of cooperation between spermatozoa in the desert ant Cataglyphis savignyi. Males ejaculate bundles of 50-100 spermatozoa. Sperm bundles swim on average 51% faster than solitary sperm cells. Team swimming is expected to increase the amount of sperm stored in the queen spermatheca and, ultimately, enhance male posthumous fitness.

  14. Model of Values-Based Management Process in Schools: A Mixed Design Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Soner

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the school administrators' values-based management behaviours according to the teachers' perceptions and opinions and, accordingly, to build a model of values-based management process in schools. The study was conducted using explanatory design which is inclusive of both quantitative and qualitative methods.…

  15. Higher fuel and food prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Benfica, Rui; Maximiano, Nelson;

    2008-01-01

    Rising world prices for fuel and food represent a negative terms-of-trade shock for Mozambique. The impacts of these price rises are analyzed using various approaches. Detailed price data show that the world price increases are being transmitted to domestic prices. Short-run net benefit ratio...... analysis indicates that urban households and households in the southern region are more vulnerable to food price increases. Rural households, particularly in the North and Center, often benefit from being in a net seller position. Longer-term analysis using a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model...... of Mozambique indicates that the fuel price shock dominates rising food prices from both macroeconomic and poverty perspectives. Again, negative impacts are larger in urban areas. The importance of agricultural production response in general and export response in particular is highlighted. Policy analysis...

  16. Oil Prices Take a Hike

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The National Development and Reform Commission(NDRC),China’s top economic planner,announced at the end of October that the benchmark prices of gasoline,diesel oil and aviation kerosene would be raised by 500 yuan per ton. Recently,international oil prices have been rising continuously.Crude oil futures prices traded in New York surged to$93 per barrel on October 29. However,in China,oil prices are set by the government and not by the market. The recent hike on the price of oil in China is a measure implemented,to narrow the gap between soaring global crude oil prices and domestic fuel prices.NDRC officials answered questions posed by Xinhua News Agency about recent oil price hikes.The questions and answers follow:

  17. Price knowledge during grocery shopping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birger Boutrup; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-01-01

    Past research on consumer price knowledge has varied considerably partly due to differences in how and when price knowledge is measured.This paper applies a multi-point, multi-measure approach to reconcile differences in past price knowledge research by examining systematicrelationships between...... accessible at the store exit. These findings enable the authors to reconcile diverging results from past research,showing how consumer price knowledge evolves and suggesting that the vast majority of consumers learn about prices, whether consciously orunconsciously, during grocery shopping. Thus, when...... applying a multi-point, multi-measure approach, consumers appear to know more aboutprices than suggested by past research. Determinants of price knowledge are also examined and the results indicate that price knowledge buildsup not only because of active search but also due to accidental exposure to prices...

  18. An Integrated Assessment of Companies Based on Value based Measures in Fuzzy Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Reza Seyed Javadin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In today’s world economy, firms focused on the maximization of shareholder value need to ensure that all activities yield positive net present values. Value based financial performance measures have been developed in an attempt to guide management actions towards achieving this objective. In this study, a hybrid approach is proposed for value based financial performance evaluation of automotive parts manufacturer companies of Tehran stock exchange (TSE. For this purpose, in this study based on eight value based measures an integrated fuzzy multi criteria decision making approach is presented for value based financial performance evaluation of companies. In current approach Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP is applied to determine the weights of the criteria. Then the companies are ranked by Fuzzy Complex Proportional Assessment (Fuzzy COPRAS, simultaneously. The results represented the importance of each value based measures in financial evaluation of fourteen Iranian companies and ranking companies by applying the proposed approach.

  19. Ecosystem services delivered by weaver ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offenberg, Joachim

    Weaver ants (Oecopgylla spp.) are increasingly being utilized as efficient biocontrol agents in a number of tropical tree crops, as they prey on pest insects and increase yields. However, recent studies and a review of the literature reveal that a number of other services may derive from the pres......Weaver ants (Oecopgylla spp.) are increasingly being utilized as efficient biocontrol agents in a number of tropical tree crops, as they prey on pest insects and increase yields. However, recent studies and a review of the literature reveal that a number of other services may derive from...... the presence of these ants. First of all, the chemical footprint left by the high density of ants in managed host trees may results in additional benefits. (i) Ant deposits may lead to improved fruit quality, e.g. increased sugar content, (ii) ant deposits may deter important pests (chemical deterrence) from...... crops, and lastly, (iii) ant waste products deposited ias anal spots contain urea that may be taken up by plant leaves and in this way fertilize ant-plants. On top of chemical services, weaver ants have been shown to reduce plant disease incidence via competitive exclusion of other ant species because...

  20. Model Penentuan Harga ( Price ) Dinamis

    OpenAIRE

    Laili, Erna

    2012-01-01

    Information about the demand curve is not available enough practically, those sellers face some constrains to get the optimal revenue. The seller’s revenue is influenced by the dynamic pricing caused by price sensitivity and the uncertainty available marketing share. The thesis aims to create mathematical model for determining the dynamic pricing by learning both properties determination model and dynamic pricing factors. The results of the research shows that for two parameter...

  1. Electric Cars and Oil Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Azar, Jose

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the joint dynamics of oil prices and interest in electric cars, measured as the volume of Google searches for related phrases. Not surprisingly, I find that oil price shocks predict increases in Google searches for electric cars. Much more surprisingly, I also find that an increase in Google searches predicts declines in oil prices. The high level of public interest in electric cars between April and August of 2008 can explain approximately half of the decline in oil prices...

  2. Developing a consumer pricing strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Arthur; Tiedemann, Frank

    2013-05-01

    Healthcare providers can learn a variety of pricing lessons from the retail market: For providers, wholesale pricing--"the price to play"--alone is not enough. Once a hospital or health system chooses a market position, the provider creates an expectation that must be met-consistently. Consumer loyalty is fluid, and the price of care or service is not always the motivator for choosing one organization over another; intangibles such as location and level of customer service also drive purchasing decisions.

  3. Brand the Pricing: Critical Critique

    OpenAIRE

    Alam Kazmi, Syed Hasnain

    2015-01-01

    Brand pricing decision models and established theories in the marketing and econometrics focus typically on assuming the symmetric competing businesses. The empirical generalities are key for strategic marketplace planning. The significance of pricing to customer store and brand choices are always regarded as a widely known truth among marketing scholars and explains consumer’s role responding to their psychological representations of price rather than price itself. Scholars have ...

  4. Performance Targets and External Market Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Allan; Friis, Ivar; Vámosi, Tamás S.

    In this paper we explore the processes of ‘bringing the market inside the firm’ to set performance targets and benchmark production workers productivity. We analyze attempts to use external suppliers’ bids in target setting in a Danish manufacturing company. The case study illustrates how...... the implementation of external market information in target setting – well known in transfer pricing, relative performance evaluation, beyond budgeting, target costing, piece rates systems and value based management – relate to challenging motivation and information problem. The analysis and discussion of those...... problems, in particular those related to accounting for the internal performance (that are going to be compared with the external target), calculating the ‘inside’ costs and defining controllability, contributes to the management accounting as well as the piece-rate literature....

  5. Price Regulations in a Multi-unit Uniform Price Auction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Anette

    not exceed the price cap whereas a selective bid cap for only the larger firms, does not guarantee this outcome. A sufficiently high bid floor always destroys pure strategy equilibria with equilibrium prices above the marginal costs, no matter whether the floor applies to all or only to relatively small......Inspired by recent regulations in the New York ICAP market we examine the effect of different price regulations on a multi-unit uniform price auction. We investigate a bid cap and a bid foor. Given suffciently high total capacities general bid caps always ensure that the market price does...

  6. Price Regulations in a Multi-unit Uniform Price Auction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Anette

    Inspired by recent regulations in the New York ICAP market we examine the effect of different price regulations on a multi-unit uniform price auction. We investigate a bid cap and a bid foor. Given suffciently high total capacities general bid caps always ensure that the market price does...... not exceed the price cap whereas a selective bid cap for only the larger firms, does not guarantee this outcome. A sufficiently high bid floor always destroys pure strategy equilibria with equilibrium prices above the marginal costs, no matter whether the floor applies to all or only to relatively small...

  7. Thinking strategically about electricity pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toulson, D. (Barakat and Chamberlin, Inc., Oakland, CA (United States))

    1992-12-01

    This report describes an approach by which utilities can view pricing from a strategic, market-oriented perspective. It begins by reviewing pricing practices found in private industry and develops a framework for utility rate design that incorporates both customer value and cost of service. A market intelligence system for gathering data relevant to pricing decisions is also briefly outlined.

  8. The Pricing of Economics Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laband, David; Hudson, John

    2003-01-01

    Examines the pricing and other characteristics of books. Notes substantial increases in book prices between 2000 and 1985 data. Suggests a major factor is the increasing importance of foreign presses that sell books at higher prices. Indicates that discount on paperbacks appear to have been relatively stable in the two years studied. (JEH)

  9. Price Discrimination: A Classroom Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiló, Paula; Sard, Maria; Tugores, Maria

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a classroom experiment aimed at familiarizing students with different types of price discrimination (first-, second-, and third-degree price discrimination). During the experiment, the students were asked to decide what tariffs to set as monopolists for each of the price discrimination scenarios under…

  10. RESTAURANT NO. 2: PRICE INCREASES

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    'DSR', the concession holder of Restaurant no. 2 (bldg. 504 - Meyrin site), has submitted to the Restaurant Supervisory Committee a request to increase certain prices. After close examination, the Committee has established that the proposed increases are compatible with the relevant price indexing mechanisms and other contractual conditions. The new prices will apply as from Monday, June 30, 2003.

  11. RESTAURANT NO. 3: PRICE INCREASES

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    'AVENANCE', the concession holder of Restaurant no. 3 (bldg. 866 - Prévessin site), has submitted to the Restaurant Supervisory Committee a request to increase its prices. After close examination, the Committee has established that the proposed increases are compatible with the relevant price indexing mechanisms and other contractual conditions. The new prices will apply as from Monday, June 2, 2003.

  12. China’s Pricing Prowess

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China adheres to a more flexible oil pricing mechanismBy ordering a hefty 9-percent price increase in gasoline and diesel, China is lending credibility to its pledges of a more market-oriented pricing system. The decision, announced by the National Development and Reform Commission

  13. Higher prices in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    Price increases in the Jamaica CSM program went into effect on August 31, 1981. The program began in 1975. While the need for higher prices has been under discussion for the past 3 years, this is the 1st time the requisite approval from the Jamaica Price Commission has been obtained. The Jamaica National Family Planning Board (JNFPB) reports that the Panther 3-pack (condom) is up US$0.15 to US$0.30. Each Perle package (oral contraceptive) was increased by US$0.20. Single cycle Perle now sells for US$0.50, and 3-pack Perle sells for US$1.10. The 6-year price stagnation experienced by the CSM program resulted in a decreasing operational budget as program costs continued to rise. Marketing costs alone during this period escalated by 100-300%. For example, Panther pop-up display cartons cost the project US 16U each in 1975. By 1979 the same product cost US 49U. Newspaper advertisements have increased from the 1975 cost of US$68.00 to nearly $200.00 per placement. The overall inflation rate in Jamaica during the last 5 years has averaged more than 20% annually. In the face of these rising costs, outlet expansion for Perle has been prevented, wholesaler margins have been unavailable, and new retailer training has been discontinued. It is projected that the new prices will result in an annual increased revenues of US$80,000 which will be used to reinstate these essential marketing activities. The JNFPB is also planning to introduce a Panther 12-pack and Panther strips to the CSM product line. According to Marketing Manager Aston Evans, "We believe the public is now ready for this type of packaging" which is scheduled to be available soon. Panther is presently only available in a 3-pack, but annual sales have been steady. The new 12-pack will be stocked on supermarket shelves to provide higher product visibility and wider distribution. The selling price has been set as US$1.20 and is expected to yield a 25% increase in sales during the 1st year. A complete sales promotion

  14. Patients' views on price shopping and price transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semigran, Hannah L; Gourevitch, Rebecca; Sinaiko, Anna D; Cowling, David; Mehrotra, Ateev

    2017-06-01

    Driven by the growth of high deductibles and price transparency initiatives, patients are being encouraged to search for prices before seeking care, yet few do so. To understand why this is the case, we interviewed individuals who were offered access to a widely used price transparency website through their employer. Qualitative interviews. We interviewed individuals enrolled in a preferred provider organization product through their health plan about their experience using the price transparency tool (if they had done so), their past medical experiences, and their opinions on shopping for care. All interviews were transcribed and manually coded using a thematic coding guide. In general, respondents expressed frustration with healthcare costs and had a positive opinion of the idea of price shopping in theory, but 2 sets of barriers limited their ability to do so in reality. The first was the salience of searching for price information. For example, respondents recognized that due to their health plan benefits design, they would not save money by switching to a lower-cost provider. Second, other factors were more important than price for respondents when choosing a provider, including quality and loyalty to current providers. We found a disconnect between respondents' enthusiasm for price shopping and their reported use of a price transparency tool to shop for care. However, many did find the tool useful for other purposes, including checking their claims history. Addressing the barriers to price shopping identified by respondents can help inform ongoing and future price transparency initiatives.

  15. The distribution and diversity of insular ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roura-Pascual, Núria; Sanders, Nate; Hui, Cang

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To examine the relationship between island characteristics (area, distance to the nearest continent, climate and human population size) and ant species richness, as well as the factors underlying global geographical clustering of native and exotic ant composition on islands. Location: One...... hundred and two islands from 20 island groups around the world. Methods: We used spatial linear models that consider the spatial structure of islands to examine patterns of ant species richness. We also performed modularity analyses to identify clusters of islands hosting a similar suite of species...... and constructed conditional inference trees to assess the characteristics of islands that explain the formation of these island-ant groups. Results: Island area was the best predictor of ant species richness. However, distance to the nearest continent was an important predictor of native ant species richness...

  16. Ecosystem services delivered by weaver ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offenberg, Joachim

    Weaver ants (Oecopgylla spp.) are increasingly being utilized as efficient biocontrol agents in a number of tropical tree crops, as they prey on pest insects and increase yields. However, recent studies and a review of the literature reveal that a number of other services may derive from the pres......Weaver ants (Oecopgylla spp.) are increasingly being utilized as efficient biocontrol agents in a number of tropical tree crops, as they prey on pest insects and increase yields. However, recent studies and a review of the literature reveal that a number of other services may derive from...... crops, and lastly, (iii) ant waste products deposited ias anal spots contain urea that may be taken up by plant leaves and in this way fertilize ant-plants. On top of chemical services, weaver ants have been shown to reduce plant disease incidence via competitive exclusion of other ant species because...

  17. Bio-inspired Ant Algorithms: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangita Roy

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Ant Algorithms are techniques for optimizing which were coined in the early 1990’s by M. Dorigo. The techniques were inspired by the foraging behavior of real ants in the nature. The focus of ant algorithms is to find approximate optimized problem solutions using artificial ants and their indirect decentralized communications using synthetic pheromones. In this paper, at first ant algorithms are described in details, then transforms to computational optimization techniques: the ACO metaheuristics and developed ACO algorithms. A comparative study of ant algorithms also carried out, followed by past and present trends in AAs applications. Future prospect in AAs also covered in this paper. Finally a comparison between AAs with well-established machine learning techniques were focused, so that combining with machine learning techniques hybrid, robust, novel algorithms could be produces for outstanding result in future.

  18. Ants as tools in sustainable agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offenberg, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    1. With an expanding human population placing increasing pressure on the environment, agriculture needs sustainable production that can match conventional methods. Integrated pest management (IPM) is more sustainable, but not necessarily as efficient as conventional non-sustainable measures. 2....... Being predatory and organized as superorganisms, ants possess traits making them suitable agents in IPM. Recent works on weaver ants Oecophylla spp. showcase ants as highly efficient pest controllers. A synthesis shows that weaver ants can reduce pest numbers and their damage and increase yields...... in multiple crops. Their efficiency is comparable to chemical pesticides or higher, while at lower costs. They provide a rare example of documented efficient conservation biological control. 3. Weaver ants share beneficial traits with almost 13 000 other ant species and are unlikely to be unique...

  19. Foliar uptake of nitrogen from ant fecal droplets: an overlooked service to ant plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinkalski, Christian Alexander Stidsen; Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn; Damgaard, Christian Frølund

    2017-01-01

    facultative relationships, where ants forage on plants. 2. In a laboratory setupexperiment, weaver ants (Oecophylla smaragdina) were confined to the canopies of coffee (Coffea arabica) seedlings, excluding any ant-to-plant transfer of nutrients via the soil strata. When ants were fed 15N-labelled glycine......-recognised but probably more fluctuating benefit from herbivore protection. Given the worldwide abundance of plant canopies foraged by ants, this nutrient pathway may be of high ecological significance.......1. Nutrient supplies to plants from ants are well known from specialised myrmecophytic symbioses and from plants growing in soil close to ant nests. However, above ground nutrient pathways may play a hitherto largely unrecognised role also in less specialised ant-plant interactions – the numerous...

  20. Energy Price Reform in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Market-based reform of energy prices is the most effective approach to enhancing energy efficiency. The policies of energy conservation and enhancing energy efficiency in the 1 lth Five-year Plan period (2006-2010) work directly to set up a series of reform measures related to energy pricing by market mechanism. Energy price reform will deeply influence China's industrial interest pattern, and its development in the next five years and even 10 or 20 years.This paper analyzes the significance, timing, present status and problems related to energy price reform, and discusses the goal, principle and measures of coal, electricity, oil and gas price reform separately.

  1. Industrial Pricing: Theory and Managerial Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Peter M. Noble; Gruca, Thomas S.

    1999-01-01

    We organize the existing theoretical pricing research into a new two-level framework for industrial goods pricing. The first level consists of four pricing situations: New Product, Competitive, Product Line, and Cost-based. The second level consists of the pricing strategies appropriate for a given situation. For example, within the new product pricing situation, there are three alternative pricing strategies: Skim, Penetration, and Experience Curve pricing. There are a total of ten pricing s...

  2. Albania Residential Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Koprencka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The real estate market is complex and influenced by too many factors. Real Estate market in Albania has experienced a boom after the 1990. We have inherited from the communist system a very poor market of housing. The number of dwellings in 1990 in Albania was 219 dwellings per 1000 inhabitants and the useful floor space was 5 m² per person, but in Bulgaria number of dwellings per 1,000 people varies 465 and in Romania average useful floor space per person was 37 sq. The data used in this study are derived from the database of the World Bank, the Institute of Statistics, reports of Bank of Albania also from information provided individually on the ground and different sources. In this study is analyzed the relationship that exists between economic growth, remittances and the price of dwellings in Albania. The dependent variable is the average price of housing in major cities of Albania. Independent variables in the model are GDP per capita and the remittances. The Econometric model is a Linear Regress equation and the period are the years from 1998 to 2013. The model used is the statistical program EViews 6.0. Unfortunately the information let the desired, so we do not have an official detailed information on prices of Albanian real estate market. In Albania few researchers have been studying real estate market in Albania.

  3. Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm for Continuous Domains Based on Position Distribution Model of Ant Colony Foraging

    OpenAIRE

    Liqiang Liu; Yuntao Dai; Jinyu Gao

    2014-01-01

    Ant colony optimization algorithm for continuous domains is a major research direction for ant colony optimization algorithm. In this paper, we propose a distribution model of ant colony foraging, through analysis of the relationship between the position distribution and food source in the process of ant colony foraging. We design a continuous domain optimization algorithm based on the model and give the form of solution for the algorithm, the distribution model of pheromone, the update rules...

  4. Microorganisms transported by ants induce changes in floral nectar composition of an ant-pollinated plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vega, Clara; Herrera, Carlos M

    2013-04-01

    Interactions between plants and ants abound in nature and have significant consequences for ecosystem functioning. Recently, it has been suggested that nectar-foraging ants transport microorganisms to flowers; more specifically, they transport yeasts, which can potentially consume sugars and alter nectar composition. Therefore, ants could indirectly change nectar sugar profile, an important floral feature involved in the plant-pollinator mutualism. But this novel role for ants has never been tested. We here investigate the effects of nectarivorous ants and their associated yeasts on the floral nectar sugar composition of an ant-pollinated plant. Differences in the nectar sugar composition of ant-excluded and ant-visited flowers were examined in 278 samples by using high-performance liquid-chromatography. The importance of the genetic identity and density of ant-transported basidiomycetous and ascomycetous yeasts on the variation of nectar traits was also evaluated. Ant visitation had significant effects on nectar sugar composition. The nectar of ant-visited flowers contained significantly more fructose, more glucose, and less sucrose than the nectar of ant-excluded flowers, but these effects were context dependent. Nectar changes were correlated with the density of yeast cells in nectar. The magnitude of the effects of ant-transported ascomycetes was much higher than that of basiodiomycetes. Ants and their associated yeasts induce changes in nectar sugar traits, reducing the chemical control of the plant over this important floral trait. The potential relevance of this new role for ants as indirect nectar modifiers is a rich topic for future research into the ecology of ant-flower interactions.

  5. Fungal Adaptations to Mutualistic Life with Ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kooij, Pepijn Wilhelmus

    that forage on crude substrates such as insect frass and dry plant material, to large colonies of the leaf-cutting ants with several thousands to several million workers that provide live plant material to their fungus gardens. Leaf-cutting ants are the dominant herbivores of the Neo-tropics, and have a major...... on specific enzyme groups and Acromyrmex having an overall high enzyme activity. Finally, I show that the fungal symbiont of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex echinatior produces large amounts of biodegrading enzymes in special structures called gongylidia. The ants eat these structures, but enzymes pass...

  6. GRID SCHEDULING USING ENHANCED ANT COLONY ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mathiyalagan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Grid computing is a high performance computing used to solve larger scale computational demands. Task scheduling is a major issue in grid computing systems. Scheduling of tasks is the NP hard problem. The heuristic approach provides optimal solution for NP hard problems .The ant colony algorithm provides optimal solution. The existing ant colony algorithm takes more time to schedule the tasks. In this paper ant colony algorithm improved by enhancing pheromone updating rule such that it schedules the tasks efficiently and better resource utilization. The simulation results prove that proposed method reduces the execution time of tasks compared to existing ant colony algorithm.

  7. From Ant Trails to Pedestrian Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Schadschneider

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model for the simulation of pedestrian dynamics inspired by the behaviour of ants in ant trails. Ants communicate by producing a pheromone that can be smelled by other ants. In this model, pedestrians produce a virtual pheromone that influences the motion of others. In this way all interactions are strictly local, and so even large crowds can be simulated very efficiently. Nevertheless, the model is able to reproduce the collective effects observed empirically, eg the formation of lanes in counterflow. As an application, we reproduce a surprising result found in experiments of evacuation from an aircraft.

  8. Ilmub suurmeister Evald Okase monograafia / Ants Juske

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juske, Ants, 1956-

    2009-01-01

    22. aprillil Kumu Kunstimuuseumis esitletavast monograafiast "Evald Okas", mille on kirjutanud Ants Juske, kujundanud Tiit Jürna. Evald Okasest, tema loomingust, elust Jaroslavlis ja rindekunstnikuna

  9. Enhanced ants system and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    NP-hard combinational optimization problem is not solved very well until now. One enhanced ants system based on ants system is advanced after analysis of the deficiencies of existing ants systems. Some improvements are made in state transfer rule and local modification rule. Furthermore, the enhanced ants system can solve NP-hard combinational optimization problem with restraints and condition path. The successful application of TSP problem and transportation net problem indicates that the proposed system has stronger function and higher efficiency than the original system.

  10. Drug Pricing Evolution in Hepatitis C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Vernaz

    Full Text Available We aimed to determine the association between the stepwise increase in the sustained viral response (SVR and Swiss and United States (US market prices of drug regimens for treatment-naive, genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection in the last 25 years. We identified the following five steps in the development of HCV treatment regimens: 1 interferon (IFN-α monotherapy in the early '90s, 2 IFN-α in combination with ribavirin (RBV, 3 pegylated (peg IFN-α in combination with RBV, 4 the first direct acting antivirals (DAAs (telaprevir and boceprevir in combination with pegIFN-α and RBV, and 5 newer DAA-based regimens, such as sofosbuvir (which is or is not combined with ledipasvir and fixed-dose combination of ritonavir-boosted paritaprevir and ombitasvir in combination with dasabuvir.We performed a linear regression and mean cost analysis to test for an association between SVRs and HCV regimen prices. We conducted a sensitivity analysis using US prices at the time of US drug licensing. We selected randomized clinical trials of drugs approved for use in Switzerland from 1997 to July 2015 including treatment-naïve patients with HCV genotype 1 infection.We identified a statistically significant positive relationship between the proportion of patients achieving SVRs and the costs of HCV regimens in Switzerland (with a bivariate ordinary least square regression yielding an R2 measure of 0.96 and the US (R2 = 0.95. The incremental cost per additional percentage of SVR was 597.14 USD in Switzerland and 1,063.81 USD in the US.The pricing of drugs for HCV regimens follows a value-based model, which has a stable ratio of costs per achieved SVR over 25 years. Health care systems are struggling with the high resource use of these new agents despite their obvious long-term advantages for the overall health of the population. Therefore, the pharmaceutical industry, health care payers and other stakeholders are challenged with finding new drug

  11. Price setting in turbulent times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsson, Tjörvi; Pétursdóttir, Ásgerdur; Vignisdóttir, Karen Á.

    . A second contribution to the literature is our analysis of the nexus between price setting and exchange rate movements, a topic that has attracted surprisingly limited attention in this survey-based literature. A novel aspect of our approach is to base our analysis on a categorisation of firms...... in the domestic market by their direct exposure to exchange rate movements captured by imported input costs as a share of total p duction costs. More exposed firms are found to be more likely to use state-dependent pricing, to adjust their prices in response to exchange rate changes, and to rely on increasing...... prices rather than decreasing costs to restore profit margins after an exchange rate depreciation. They also review their prices more often but nevertheless, surprisingly, have the same price change frequency as the median firm. On the other hand, price review frequency declines and time...

  12. Trading Network Predicts Stock Price

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Qian; Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi

    2014-01-01

    Stock price prediction is an important and challenging problem for studying financial markets. Existing studies are mainly based on the time series of stock price or the operation performance of listed company. In this paper, we propose to predict stock price based on investors' trading behavior. For each stock, we characterize the daily trading relationship among its investors using a trading network. We then classify the nodes of trading network into three roles according to their connectivity pattern. Strong Granger causality is found between stock price and trading relationship indices, i.e., the fraction of trading relationship among nodes with different roles. We further predict stock price by incorporating these trading relationship indices into a neural network based on time series of stock price. Experimental results on 51 stocks in two Chinese Stock Exchanges demonstrate the accuracy of stock price prediction is significantly improved by the inclusion of trading relationship indices.

  13. Trading network predicts stock price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Qian; Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi

    2014-01-16

    Stock price prediction is an important and challenging problem for studying financial markets. Existing studies are mainly based on the time series of stock price or the operation performance of listed company. In this paper, we propose to predict stock price based on investors' trading behavior. For each stock, we characterize the daily trading relationship among its investors using a trading network. We then classify the nodes of trading network into three roles according to their connectivity pattern. Strong Granger causality is found between stock price and trading relationship indices, i.e., the fraction of trading relationship among nodes with different roles. We further predict stock price by incorporating these trading relationship indices into a neural network based on time series of stock price. Experimental results on 51 stocks in two Chinese Stock Exchanges demonstrate the accuracy of stock price prediction is significantly improved by the inclusion of trading relationship indices.

  14. Conflict resolution in an ant-plant interaction: Acacia constricta traits reduce ant costs to reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklen, E Fleur; Wagner, Diane

    2006-05-01

    Many plant species attract ants onto their foliage with food rewards or nesting space. However, ants can interfere with plant reproduction when they visit flowers. This study tests whether Acacia constricta separates visiting ant species temporally or spatially from newly opened inflorescences and pollinators. The diurnal activity patterns of ants and A. constricta pollinators peaked at different times of day, and the activity of pollinators followed the daily dehiscence of A. constricta inflorescences. In addition to being largely temporally separated, ants rarely visited open inflorescences. A floral ant repellent contributes to the spatial separation of ants and inflorescences. In a field experiment, ants of four species were given equal access to inflorescences in different developmental stages. On average, the frequency with which ants made initial, antennal contact with the floral stages did not differ, but ants significantly avoided secondary contact with newly opened inflorescences relative to buds and old inflorescences, and old inflorescences relative to buds. Ants also avoided contact with pollen alone, indicating that pollen is at least one source of the repellent. The results suggest A. constricta has effectively resolved the potential conflict between visiting ants and plant reproduction.

  15. Plants in Your Ants: Using Ant Mounds to Test Basic Ecological Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettler, Jennifer A.; Collier, Alexander; Leidersdorf, Bil; Sanou, Missa Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Urban students often have limited access to field sites for ecological studies. Ubiquitous ants and their mounds can be used to study and test ecology-based questions. We describe how soil collected from ant mounds can be used to investigate how biotic factors (ants) can affect abiotic factors in the soil that can, in turn, influence plant growth.

  16. Plants in Your Ants: Using Ant Mounds to Test Basic Ecological Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettler, Jennifer A.; Collier, Alexander; Leidersdorf, Bil; Sanou, Missa Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Urban students often have limited access to field sites for ecological studies. Ubiquitous ants and their mounds can be used to study and test ecology-based questions. We describe how soil collected from ant mounds can be used to investigate how biotic factors (ants) can affect abiotic factors in the soil that can, in turn, influence plant growth.

  17. Values-Based Supply Chains as a Strategy for Supporting Small and Mid-Scale Producers in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail Feenstra

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Consumers are increasingly interested in the “values” associated with the food they eat and are often willing to pay more for food for which there is a “story” that links farm to fork. The “values” associated with these foods may be that they are locally produced, by small or mid-scale farms, or use production practices that enhance the environment. Wholesale channels that provide marketing options for small and mid-scale producers and support these values are referred to as “values-based supply chains” (VBSCs. Goals of VBSCs are to: (1 provide greater economic stability for producers and others along the supply chain; and (2 provide high quality, regional food to consumers. After a brief overview of VBSCs, we then describe three cases—a specialty food manufacturer, a natural food cooperative and a regional “food hub”—representing different entry points along the food supply chain. We analyze them regarding the common benefits of VBSCs: transparency, fair prices to farmers and ease of purchasing from small and mid-scale producers. We conclude with common themes that emerge for VBSCs of the future and what it will take to strengthen them within regional food systems.

  18. Value-based insurance design: quality improvement but no cost savings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Joy L; Maciejewski, Matthew; Raju, Shveta; Shrank, William H; Choudhry, Niteesh K

    2013-01-01

    Value-based insurance design (VBID) is an approach that attempts to improve the quality of care by selectively encouraging or discouraging the use of specific health care services, based on their potential benefit to patients' health...

  19. The evolution of genome size in ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spagna Joseph C

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the economic and ecological importance of ants, genomic tools for this family (Formicidae remain woefully scarce. Knowledge of genome size, for example, is a useful and necessary prerequisite for the development of many genomic resources, yet it has been reported for only one ant species (Solenopsis invicta, and the two published estimates for this species differ by 146.7 Mb (0.15 pg. Results Here, we report the genome size for 40 species of ants distributed across 10 of the 20 currently recognized subfamilies, thus making Formicidae the 4th most surveyed insect family and elevating the Hymenoptera to the 5th most surveyed insect order. Our analysis spans much of the ant phylogeny, from the less derived Amblyoponinae and Ponerinae to the more derived Myrmicinae, Formicinae and Dolichoderinae. We include a number of interesting and important taxa, including the invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile, Neotropical army ants (genera Eciton and Labidus, trapjaw ants (Odontomachus, fungus-growing ants (Apterostigma, Atta and Sericomyrmex, harvester ants (Messor, Pheidole and Pogonomyrmex, carpenter ants (Camponotus, a fire ant (Solenopsis, and a bulldog ant (Myrmecia. Our results show that ants possess small genomes relative to most other insects, yet genome size varies three-fold across this insect family. Moreover, our data suggest that two whole-genome duplications may have occurred in the ancestors of the modern Ectatomma and Apterostigma. Although some previous studies of other taxa have revealed a relationship between genome size and body size, our phylogenetically-controlled analysis of this correlation did not reveal a significant relationship. Conclusion This is the first analysis of genome size in ants (Formicidae and the first across multiple species of social insects. We show that genome size is a variable trait that can evolve gradually over long time spans, as well as rapidly, through processes that may

  20. The Living Values-Based Contextual Learning to Develop the Students' Character

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokom Komalasari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: University has an important role in the process of young generation character education. The character education should be integrated through the living values-based contextual learning model in order to be easier internalized and implemented. This study aimed at describing: (1 the living values-based contextual learning model conceptually in lecturing; (2 the implementation of the living values-based contextual learning model in lecturing and (3 the effect of the living values-based contextual learning model on students’ character improvement. Approach: This study used Research and Development design. The technique of data collection used observation, documentation, Focus Group Discussion and questionnaire. The analysis of qualitative data used data collection, data reduction, data presentation and conclusion stages. Meanwhile, quantitative data analysis used correlation and regression analysis. The subjects of study were 98 students of Civic Education Study Program, Indonesia University of Education of academic year 2011/2012. Results: The finding showed that: (1 the living values-based contextual learning model conceptually in lecturing was the integration of living values into material, method, media, learning source and lecturing evaluation conceptually; (2 the living values-based contextual learning model was implemented through value learning variation in contextual learning (problem-based learning, cooperative learning, project-based learning, service learning and work-based learning; (3 the implementation of the living values-based contextual learning model had an effect by 26% on the students’ character development Conclusion: The living values-based contextual learning is an alternative of character education integration model in university learning process. This model can be applied in lecturing to develop the students’ characters including religious, honest, tolerant, well-mannered, discipline, hard working

  1. Distinct and Overlapping Brain Areas Engaged during Value-Based, Mathematical, and Emotional Decision Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Chun-Wei; Goh, Joshua O. S.

    2016-01-01

    When comparing between the values of different choices, human beings can rely on either more cognitive processes, such as using mathematical computation, or more affective processes, such as using emotion. However, the neural correlates of how these two types of processes operate during value-based decision-making remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the extent to which neural regions engaged during value-based decision-making overlap with those engaged during mathematical and emoti...

  2. Option Pricing when the Regime-Switching Risk is Priced

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tak Kuen Siu; Hailiang Yang

    2009-01-01

    We study the pricing of an option when the price dynamic of the underlying risky asset is governed by a Markov-modulated geometric Brownian motion. We suppose that the drift and volatility of the underlying risky asset are modulated by an observable continuous-time, finite-state Markov chain. We develop a twostage pricing model which can price both the diffusion risk and the regime-switching risk based on the Esscher transform and the minimization of the maximum entropy between an equivalent martingale measure and the real-world probability measure over different states. Numerical experiments are conducted and their results reveal that the impact of pricing regime-switching risk on the option prices is significant.

  3. STOCHASTIC DYNAMICS OF PRICES IN A MODEL OF FINANCIAL MARKET WITH DIFFERENT TYPES OF NOISE TRADERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebedeva T. S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the calculations of price dynamics are made in the model of a financial market consisting of fundamentalist and noise traders. Numerical calculations are carried out in accordance with the full Walrasian dynamic price adjustment rule. To describe fluctuations in the number of optimistic and pessimistic noise traders, a seminal stochastic Kirman’s ant model (reducible to a Markov chain is used, as well as its modification with different scaling properties of the parameter controlling the strength of herding behavior of noise agents

  4. Spectacular Batesian mimicry in ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Fuminori; Hashim, Rosli; Huei, Yek Sze; Kaufmann, Eva; Akino, Toshiharu; Billen, Johan

    2004-10-01

    The mechanism by which palatable species take advantage of their similarity in appearance to those that are unpalatable, in order to avoid predation, is called Batesian mimicry. Several arthropods are thought to be Batesian mimics of social insects; however, social insects that are Batesian mimics among themselves are rare. In Malaysia we found a possible Batesian mimic in an arboreal ant species, Camponotus sp., which was exclusively observed on foraging trails of the myrmicine ant Crematogaster inflata. The bright yellow and black colouring pattern, as well as the walking behaviour, were very similar in both species. We observed general interactions between the two species, and tested their palatability and the significance of the remarkably similar visual colour patterns for predator avoidance. Prey offered to C. inflata was also eaten by Camponotus workers in spite of their being attacked by C. inflata, indicating that Camponotus sp. is a commensal of C. inflata. An experiment with chicks as potential predators suggests that Camponotus sp. is palatable whereas C. inflata is unpalatable. After tasting C. inflata, the chicks no longer attacked Camponotus sp., indicating that Camponotus sp. is a Batesian mimic of Crematogaster inflata.

  5. Antthrushes, antpittas, and gnateaters (Aves, Formicariidae) as army ant followers

    OpenAIRE

    Edwin O. Willis

    1984-01-01

    Antthrushes (Formicarius, Chamaeza) sometimes walk around swarms of army ants and capture ground prey, but do not follow ants regularly. Among antpittas, only fast-leaping Pittasoma michleri and P. rufopileatum regularly follow ants. Gnateaters (Conopophaga) follow ants little. All these ground-foraging genera are poorly adapted for rapid flying, and failure to follow ants is perhaps due to inability to evade predators or out fly competitors near groups of birds attracted by ants.

  6. Pricing Strategy versus Heterogeneous Shopping Behavior under Market Price Dispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Álvarez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the ubiquitous problem of a seller competing in a market of a product with dispersed prices and having limited information about both his competitors’ prices and the shopping behavior of his potential customers. Given the distribution of market prices, the distribution of consumers’ shopping behavior, and the seller’s cost as inputs, we find the computational solution for the pricing strategy that maximizes his expected profits. We analyze the seller’s solution with respect to different exogenous perturbations of parametric and functional inputs. For that purpose, we produce synthetic price data using the family of Generalized Error Distributions that includes normal and quasiuniform distributions as particular cases, and we also generate consumers’ shopping data from different behavioral assumptions. Our analysis shows that, beyond price mean and dispersion, the shape of the price distribution plays a significant role in the seller’s pricing solution. We focus on the seller’s response to an increasing diversity in consumers’ shopping behavior. We show that increasing heterogeneity in the shopping distribution typically lowers seller’s prices and expected profits.

  7. Strategic pricing: hitting the mark with pricing strategies. Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porn, L; Manning, M

    1988-01-01

    Efforts by government and business to reduce healthcare expenditures by fostering competition and reducing utilization have combined to redefine the basic economic structure of the healthcare delivery system. Increased competition among providers has prompted an increased awareness of strategic pricing as a means of achieving institutional goals and objectives. In this article, the first in a three-part series on strategic pricing, the authors examine some of the key theoretical considerations related to pricing strategies for healthcare providers. Future articles will examine practical applications as they relate to package pricing, discounting, per diem systems, and capitation arrangements.

  8. Effects of coal prices on merchandise prices in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Zhihua; Zhou Meihua; Liu Yan

    2011-01-01

    Coal is the principal form of energy used in China.Hence,coal price variations are expected to have some influence on merchandise prices.Monthly data from January,2002,to October,2010,were used to construct a varying-parameter state space model,and an error correction model,to estimate the influence of coal prices on Chinese merchandise prices.The time lag and the dynamic relationship were determined from the data.A long term equilibrium relationship between coal price and the PPI,and the CPI,can be observed.The long term influence of coal price fluctuations on the PPI is 0.263%.The corresponding value for the CPI is 0.157%.The PPI shows an influence from coal price change in the first period of observation:by eight periods the influence is obvious,after which it diminishes.The effect of coal price change on the CPI is rather weak and has no long term memory.Analysis of variance shows a similar situation.The elasticity coefficient of coal prices on the CPI,or the PPI,fluctuates over the 2002-2004 period.From 2002 to 2007 the influence elasticity on the CPI declined and subsequently levelled off after 2009.

  9. Fire Evacuation using Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kanika Singhal; Shashank Sahu

    2016-01-01

    ... planning.The objective of the algorithm is to minimizes the entire rescue time of all evacuees.The ant colony optimization algorithm is used to solve the complications of shortest route planning. Presented paper gives a comparative overview of various emergency scenarios using ant colony optimization algorithm.

  10. Extrafloral nectar fuels ant life in deserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda-Rickert, Adriana; Diez, Patricia; Marazzi, Brigitte

    2014-11-07

    Interactions mediated by extrafloral nectary (EFN)-bearing plants that reward ants with a sweet liquid secretion are well documented in temperate and tropical habitats. However, their distribution and abundance in deserts are poorly known. In this study, we test the predictions that biotic interactions between EFN plants and ants are abundant and common also in arid communities and that EFNs are only functional when new vegetative and reproductive structures are developing. In a seasonal desert of northwestern Argentina, we surveyed the richness and phenology of EFN plants and their associated ants and examined the patterns in ant-plant interaction networks. We found that 25 ant species and 11 EFN-bearing plant species were linked together through 96 pairs of associations. Plants bearing EFNs were abundant, representing ca. 19 % of the species encountered in transects and 24 % of the plant cover. Most ant species sampled (ca. 77 %) fed on EF nectar. Interactions showed a marked seasonal pattern: EFN secretion was directly related to plant phenology and correlated with the time of highest ant ground activity. Our results reveal that EFN-mediated interactions are ecologically relevant components of deserts, and that EFN-bearing plants are crucial for the survival of desert ant communities. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  11. The Biochemical Toxin Arsenal from Ant Venoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touchard, Axel; Aili, Samira R; Fox, Eduardo Gonçalves Paterson; Escoubas, Pierre; Orivel, Jérôme; Nicholson, Graham M; Dejean, Alain

    2016-01-20

    Ants (Formicidae) represent a taxonomically diverse group of hymenopterans with over 13,000 extant species, the majority of which inject or spray secretions from a venom gland. The evolutionary success of ants is mostly due to their unique eusociality that has permitted them to develop complex collaborative strategies, partly involving their venom secretions, to defend their nest against predators, microbial pathogens, ant competitors, and to hunt prey. Activities of ant venom include paralytic, cytolytic, haemolytic, allergenic, pro-inflammatory, insecticidal, antimicrobial, and pain-producing pharmacologic activities, while non-toxic functions include roles in chemical communication involving trail and sex pheromones, deterrents, and aggregators. While these diverse activities in ant venoms have until now been largely understudied due to the small venom yield from ants, modern analytical and venomic techniques are beginning to reveal the diversity of toxin structure and function. As such, ant venoms are distinct from other venomous animals, not only rich in linear, dimeric and disulfide-bonded peptides and bioactive proteins, but also other volatile and non-volatile compounds such as alkaloids and hydrocarbons. The present review details the unique structures and pharmacologies of known ant venom proteinaceous and alkaloidal toxins and their potential as a source of novel bioinsecticides and therapeutic agents.

  12. Dynamical Equilibrium of Interacting Ant Societies

    CERN Document Server

    Leok, B T M

    1996-01-01

    The sustainable biodiversity associated with a specific ecological niche as a function of land area is analysed computationally by considering the interaction of ant societies over a collection of islands. A power law relationship between sustainable species and land area is observed. We will further consider the effect a perturbative inflow of ants has upon the model.

  13. Neuropeptidomics of the carpenter ant Camponotus floridanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Franziska; Vanselow, Jens T; Schlosser, Andreas; Kahnt, Jörg; Rössler, Wolfgang; Wegener, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Ants show a rich behavioral repertoire and a highly complex organization, which have been attracting behavioral and sociobiological researchers for a long time. The neuronal underpinnings of ant behavior and social organization are, however, much less understood. Neuropeptides are key signals that orchestrate animal behavior and physiology, and it is thus feasible to assume that they play an important role also for the social constitution of ants. Despite the availability of different ant genomes and in silico prediction of ant neuropeptides, a comprehensive biochemical survey of the neuropeptidergic communication possibilities of ants is missing. We therefore combined different mass spectrometric methods to characterize the neuropeptidome of the adult carpenter ant Camponotus floridanus. We also characterized the local neuropeptide complement in different parts of the nervous and neuroendocrine system, including the antennal and optic lobes. Our analysis identifies 39 neuropeptides encoded by different prepropeptide genes, and in silico predicts new prepropeptide genes encoding CAPA peptides, CNMamide as well as homologues of the honey bee IDLSRFYGHFNT- and ITGQGNRIF-containing peptides. Our data provides basic information about the identity and localization of neuropeptides that is required to anatomically and functionally address the role and significance of neuropeptides in ant behavior and physiology.

  14. Ants, rodents and seed predation in Proteaceae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ants may reduce seed predation by rapidly transporting and burying seeds in their .... the size and shape of inverted waste paper baskets or b) by securing a lid 5 ... Mimetes experiment was dry for only 3 h before rain set in. Ant activity ceased ...

  15. The Biochemical Toxin Arsenal from Ant Venoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Touchard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ants (Formicidae represent a taxonomically diverse group of hymenopterans with over 13,000 extant species, the majority of which inject or spray secretions from a venom gland. The evolutionary success of ants is mostly due to their unique eusociality that has permitted them to develop complex collaborative strategies, partly involving their venom secretions, to defend their nest against predators, microbial pathogens, ant competitors, and to hunt prey. Activities of ant venom include paralytic, cytolytic, haemolytic, allergenic, pro-inflammatory, insecticidal, antimicrobial, and pain-producing pharmacologic activities, while non-toxic functions include roles in chemical communication involving trail and sex pheromones, deterrents, and aggregators. While these diverse activities in ant venoms have until now been largely understudied due to the small venom yield from ants, modern analytical and venomic techniques are beginning to reveal the diversity of toxin structure and function. As such, ant venoms are distinct from other venomous animals, not only rich in linear, dimeric and disulfide-bonded peptides and bioactive proteins, but also other volatile and non-volatile compounds such as alkaloids and hydrocarbons. The present review details the unique structures and pharmacologies of known ant venom proteinaceous and alkaloidal toxins and their potential as a source of novel bioinsecticides and therapeutic agents.

  16. Open Problem: Analyzing Ant Robot Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Efficient and inefficient ant coverage methods. Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence, 31, 41–76. The proofs can be found in the technical...Wagner, I., & Bruckstein, A. (2001). Special issue on ant robotics. Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence, 31. Wagner, I., Lindenbaum, M

  17. Essays on Derivatives Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokholm, Thomas

    The field of quantitative finance has been criticized in the mainstream media lately and been accused of being one of the causes of the financial crisis. Convenient as this explanation may be, my belief is that a part of the solution to the crisis is to use more (and not less) sophisticated....... With the existence of a liquid market for derivatives with variance as underlying, such as VIX options, VIX futures and a well-developed over-the-counter market for options on variance swaps, it is important to consider models that are able to fit these markets while consistently pricing vanilla options...

  18. Prices and species diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, Johannes

    of biodiversity and the appropriate incorporation in stochastic fron-tier models to achieve more realistic measures of production efficiency. We use the empirical example of tobacco production drawing from as well as affecting species diversity in the surrounding forests. We apply a shadow profit distance....... Based on a biologically defined species diver-sity index we incorporate biodiversity either as a desirable output or biodiversity loss as a detrimental input. Beside quantitative shadow price measures the main contribu-tion of the work is the evidence that parametric scores of environmental efficiency...

  19. Prices and species diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, Johannes

    . Based on a biologically defined species diver-sity index we incorporate biodiversity either as a desirable output or biodiversity loss as a detrimental input. Beside quantitative shadow price measures the main contribu-tion of the work is the evidence that parametric scores of environmental efficiency...... of biodiversity and the appropriate incorporation in stochastic fron-tier models to achieve more realistic measures of production efficiency. We use the empirical example of tobacco production drawing from as well as affecting species diversity in the surrounding forests. We apply a shadow profit distance...

  20. Endogenous price leadership

    OpenAIRE

    van Damme, E.E.C.; Hurkens, S.

    1998-01-01

    We consider a linear price setting duopoly game with di®erentiated products and determine endogenously which of the players will lead and which will follow. While the follower role is most attractive for each firm, we show that waiting is more risky for the low cost firm so that, consequently, risk dominance considerations, as in Harsanyi and Selten (1988), allow the conclusion that only the high cost firm will choose to wait. Hence, the low cost firm will emerge as the end...

  1. Prices versus Quantities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Gårn; Jensen, Frank

    Weitzman (2002) studies the regulation of a fishery characterised by constant marginal harvest costs and shows that price regulation performs better than quantity regulation when the regulator is uncertain about the biological reproduction function (ecological uncertainty). Here, we initially...... uncertainty. We find that the gain from eliminating compliance uncertainty may be up to 5% of gross profit while the gain from eliminating ecological uncertainty is minimal. Under landing fee regulation, the entire gain from eliminating both types of uncertainty is captured, even if the regulator’s stock...

  2. Priced Timed Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrmann, Gerd; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Rasmussen, Jacob Illum

    2004-01-01

    This contribution reports on the considerable effort made recently towards extending and applying well-established timed automata technology to optimal scheduling and planning problems. The effort of the authors in this direction has to a large extent been carried out as part of the European proj...... projects VHS [22] and AMETIST [17] and are available in the recently released UPPAAL CORA [12], a variant of the real-time verification tool UPPAAL [20,5] specialized for cost-optimal reachability for the extended model of priced timed automata....

  3. Ant aggression and evolutionary stability in plant-ant and plant-pollinator mutualistic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oña, L; Lachmann, M

    2011-03-01

    Mutualistic partners derive a benefit from their interaction, but this benefit can come at a cost. This is the case for plant-ant and plant-pollinator mutualistic associations. In exchange for protection from herbivores provided by the resident ants, plants supply various kinds of resources or nests to the ants. Most ant-myrmecophyte mutualisms are horizontally transmitted, and therefore, partners share an interest in growth but not in reproduction. This lack of alignment in fitness interests between plants and ants drives a conflict between them: ants can attack pollinators that cross-fertilize the host plants. Using a mathematical model, we define a threshold in ant aggressiveness determining pollinator survival or elimination on the host plant. In our model we observed that, all else being equal, facultative interactions result in pollinator extinction for lower levels of ant aggressiveness than obligatory interactions. We propose that the capacity to discriminate pollinators from herbivores should not often evolve in ants, and when it does it will be when the plants exhibit limited dispersal in an environment that is not seed saturated so that each seed produced can effectively generate a new offspring or if ants acquire an extra benefit from pollination (e.g. if ants eat fruit). We suggest specific mutualism examples where these hypotheses can be tested empirically. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2010 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  4. AntStar: Enhancing Optimization Problems by Integrating an Ant System and A⁎ Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Faisal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, nature-inspired techniques have become valuable to many intelligent systems in different fields of technology and science. Among these techniques, Ant Systems (AS have become a valuable technique for intelligent systems in different fields. AS is a computational system inspired by the foraging behavior of ants and intended to solve practical optimization problems. In this paper, we introduce the AntStar algorithm, which is swarm intelligence based. AntStar enhances the optimization and performance of an AS by integrating the AS and A⁎ algorithm. Applying the AntStar algorithm to the single-source shortest-path problem has been done to ensure the efficiency of the proposed AntStar algorithm. The experimental result of the proposed algorithm illustrated the robustness and accuracy of the AntStar algorithm.

  5. Persistence of pollination mutualisms in the presence of ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanshi; Wang, Shikun

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers plant-pollinator-ant systems in which the plant-pollinator interaction is mutualistic but ants have both positive and negative effects on plants. The ants also interfere with pollinators by preventing them from accessing plants. While a Beddington-DeAngelis (BD) formula can describe the plant-pollinator interaction, the formula is extended in this paper to characterize the pollination mutualism under the ant interference. Then, a plant-pollinator-ant system with the extended BD functional response is discussed, and global dynamics of the model demonstrate the mechanisms by which pollination mutualism can persist in the presence of ants. When the ant interference is strong, it can result in extinction of pollinators. Moreover, if the ants depend on pollination mutualism for survival, the strong interference could drive pollinators into extinction, which consequently lead to extinction of the ants themselves. When the ant interference is weak, a cooperation between plant-ant and plant-pollinator mutualisms could occur, which promotes survival of both ants and pollinators, especially in the case that ants (respectively, pollinators) cannot survive in the absence of pollinators (respectively, ants). Even when the level of ant interference remains invariant, varying ants' negative effect on plants can result in survival/extinction of both ants and pollinators. Therefore, our results provide an explanation for the persistence of pollination mutualism when there exist ants.

  6. Modified chaotic ant swarm to function optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yu-ying; WEN Qiao-yan; LI Li-xiang

    2009-01-01

    The chaotic ant swarm algorithm (CAS) is an optimization algorithm based on swarm intelligence theory, and it is inspired by the chaotic and self-organizing behavior of the ants in nature. Based on the analysis of the properties of the CAS, this article proposes a variation on the CAS called the modified chaotic ant swarm (MCAS), which employs two novel strategies to significantly improve the performance of the original algorithm. This is achieved by restricting the variables to search ranges and making the global best ant to learn from different ants' best information in the end. The simulation of the MCAS on five benchmark functions shows that the MCAS improves the precision of the solution.

  7. Microclimatic conditions of Lasius flavus ant mounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Véle, Adam; Holuša, Jaroslav

    2017-05-01

    Like other organisms, ants require suitable microclimatic conditions for their development. Thus, ant species inhabiting colder climates build nest mounds that rise above the soil surface, presumably to obtain heating from solar radiation. Although some ant species construct mounds of organic materials, which generate substantial heat due to microbial metabolism, Lasius flavus mounds consists mostly of soil, not organic material. The use of artificial shading in the current study demonstrated that L. flavus depends on direct solar radiation to regulate the temperature in its mound-like nests. Temperatures were much lower in shaded mounds than in unshaded mounds and were likely low enough in shaded mounds to reduce ant development and reproduction. In areas where L. flavus and similar ants are undesirable, they might be managed by shading.

  8. Uncovering the complexity of ant foraging trails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaczkes, Tomer J; Grüter, Christoph; Jones, Sam M; Ratnieks, Francis L W

    2012-01-01

    The common garden ant Lasius niger use both trail pheromones and memory of past visits to navigate to and from food sources. In a recent paper we demonstrated a synergistic effect between route memory and trail pheromones: the presence of trail pheromones results in experienced ants walking straighter and faster. We also found that experienced ants leaving a pheromone trail deposit less pheromone. Here we focus on another finding of the experiment: the presence of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs), which are used as home range markers by ants, also affects pheromone deposition behavior. When walking on a trail on which CHCs are present but trail pheromones are not, experienced foragers deposit less pheromone on the outward journey than on the return journey. The regulatory mechanisms ants use during foraging and recruitment behavior is subtle and complex, affected by multiple interacting factors such as route memory, travel direction and the presence trail pheromone and home-range markings.

  9. Spatiotemporal chemotactic model for ant foraging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Subramanian; Laurent, Thomas; Kumar, Manish; Bertozzi, Andrea L.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we present a generic theoretical chemotactic model that accounts for certain emergent behaviors observed in ant foraging. The model does not have many of the constraints and limitations of existing models for ants colony dynamics and takes into account the distinctly different behaviors exhibited in nature by ant foragers in search of food and food ferrying ants. Numerical simulations based on the model show trail formation in foraging ant colonies to be an emergent phenomenon and, in particular, replicate behavior observed in experiments involving the species P. megacephala. The results have broader implications for the study of randomness in chemotactic models. Potential applications include the developments of novel algorithms for stochastic search in engineered complex systems such as robotic swarms.

  10. Microclimatic conditions of Lasius flavus ant mounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Véle, Adam; Holuša, Jaroslav

    2016-11-01

    Like other organisms, ants require suitable microclimatic conditions for their development. Thus, ant species inhabiting colder climates build nest mounds that rise above the soil surface, presumably to obtain heating from solar radiation. Although some ant species construct mounds of organic materials, which generate substantial heat due to microbial metabolism, Lasius flavus mounds consists mostly of soil, not organic material. The use of artificial shading in the current study demonstrated that L. flavus depends on direct solar radiation to regulate the temperature in its mound-like nests. Temperatures were much lower in shaded mounds than in unshaded mounds and were likely low enough in shaded mounds to reduce ant development and reproduction. In areas where L. flavus and similar ants are undesirable, they might be managed by shading.

  11. Fungal Adaptations to Mutualistic Life with Ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kooij, Pepijn Wilhelmus

    . However, in rare occasions fungal symbionts might come into contact with symbionts from other colonies. I showed that in both leaf-cutting ant genera incompatibility reactions between fungal strains can avoid intermixing of different strains, and that these reactions strengthen when genetic distance...... successful. To understand the evolutionary development of domestication of the fungus over the phylogeny of the Attine ants, I compared the average number of nuclei per cell for the fungal symbionts, for each of the different groups of fungus-growing ants. I found that the fungal symbionts of the paleo...... is increased. This pattern, however, becomes distorted when fungal symbionts are contested across ant genera. The most important mechanism in the succession of this mutualism of leaf-cutting ants is the controlled degradation of plant material. I show that in the area of Gamboa, Panama, the two leaf...

  12. Optimal Load Dispatch Using Ant Lion Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menakshi Mahendru Nischal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents Ant lion optimization (ALO technique to solve optimal load dispatch problem. Ant lion optimization (ALO is a novel nature inspired algorithm. The ALO algorithm mimics the hunting mechanism of ant lions in nature. Five main steps of hunting prey such as the random walk of ants, building traps, entrapment of ants in traps, catching preys, and re-building traps are implemented. Optimal load dispatch (OLD is a method of determining the most efficient, low-cost and reliable operation of a power system by dispatching available electricity generation resources to supply load on the system. The primary objective of OLD is to minimize total cost of generation while honoring operational constraints of available generation resources. The proposed technique is implemented on 3, 6 & 20 unit test system for solving the OLD. Numerical results shows that the proposed method has good convergence property and better in quality of solution than other algorithms reported in recent literature.

  13. A Multiperiod Equilibrium Pricing Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minsuk Kwak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an equilibrium pricing model in a dynamic multiperiod stochastic framework with uncertain income. There are one tradable risky asset (stock/commodity, one nontradable underlying (temperature, and also a contingent claim (weather derivative written on the tradable risky asset and the nontradable underlying in the market. The price of the contingent claim is priced in equilibrium by optimal strategies of representative agent and market clearing condition. The risk preferences are of exponential type with a stochastic coefficient of risk aversion. Both subgame perfect strategy and naive strategy are considered and the corresponding equilibrium prices are derived. From the numerical result we examine how the equilibrium prices vary in response to changes in model parameters and highlight the importance of our equilibrium pricing principle.

  14. Price and consumption of tobacco

    OpenAIRE

    Virendra Singh; Bharat Bhushan Sharma; Puneet Saxena; Hardayal Meena; Daya Krishan Mangal

    2012-01-01

    Background: It is thought that price increase in tobacco products leads to reduced consumption. Though many studies have substantiated this concept, it has not been well studied in India. Recently, price of tobacco products was increased due to ban on plastic sachets of chewing tobacco and increased tax in Rajasthan. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of price rise on overall consumption of tobacco in Jaipur city, Rajasthan. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in Jai...

  15. Cost minimization and asset pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Robert G. Chambers; John Quiggin

    2005-01-01

    A cost-based approach to asset-pricing equilibrium relationships is developed. A cost function induces a stochastic discount factor (pricing kernel) that is a function of random output, prices, and capital stockt. By eliminating opportunities for arbitrage between financial markets and the production technology, firms minimize the current cost of future consumption. The first-order conditions for this cost minimization problem generate the stochastic discount factor. The cost-based approach i...

  16. Essays in Empirical Asset Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rzeznik, Aleksandra

    This thesis consists of three essays investigating financial and real estate markets and identifying a relationship between them. A 2008 financial crises provides a perfect example of sizeable interactions between US housing market and equity prices, where a negative shock to house prices trigger...... a word-wide recession. Therefore, understanding forces driving investors behaviour and preferences, which in turn affect asset prices in both equity and housing market are of great interest....

  17. RESTAURANT NO. 3 : PRICE INCREASES

    CERN Multimedia

    Restaurant Supervisory Committee

    2002-01-01

    'AVENANCE', the concession holder of Restaurant no. 3 (bldg. 866 - Prévessin site), has submitted to the Restaurant Supervisory Committee a request to increase its prices. After close examination, the Committee has established that the proposed increases are compatible with the relevant price indexing mechanisms and other contractual conditions. The new prices will apply as from Monday, June 3, 2002. Restaurant Supervisory Committee, tel. 77551

  18. Testing Monotonicity of Pricing Kernels

    OpenAIRE

    Timofeev, Roman

    2007-01-01

    In this master thesis a mechanism to test mononicity of empirical pricing kernels (EPK) is presented. By testing monotonicity of pricing kernel we can determine whether utility function is concave or not. Strictly decreasing pricing kernel corresponds to concave utility function while non-decreasing EPK means that utility function contains some non-concave regions. Risk averse behavior is usually described by concave utility function and considered to be a cornerstone of classical behavioral ...

  19. Essays in Empirical Asset Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rzeznik, Aleksandra

    This thesis consists of three essays investigating financial and real estate markets and identifying a relationship between them. A 2008 financial crises provides a perfect example of sizeable interactions between US housing market and equity prices, where a negative shock to house prices triggered...... a word-wide recession. Therefore, understanding forces driving investors behaviour and preferences, which in turn affect asset prices in both equity and housing market are of great interest....

  20. Corn prices and alcohol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wangsness, W.

    1979-09-01

    Corn has attracted the most attention as a feedstock for alcohol production. The economics are computed on the basis of fixed costs for labor, taxes, depreciation, heat, and enzymes. Changes in feedstock prices are shown to determine whether corn is used for energy or protein as cattle feed. Comparisons of gasoline refined from imported oil and gasohol are made for a range of prices per bushel and oil prices per barrel. (DCK)

  1. [The ants: a strategy of population concentration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, A A

    2011-01-01

    Ants are provided with a balanced system of reactions either to the original paucity of socia or to their secondary depopulation. This system can be defined as a strategy of population concentration. Both a successful reproduction of workers and queen fertilization are necessary conditions for ant communities' survival and development. Thus, the anthills must be large enough to ensure optimal conditions for reproduction. It is the strategy of population concentration that is directed to an accelerated attainment (or rehabilitation) by a socium of a state of stable development by way of concentrating the existent ant staff in an accessible number of viable nests. This strategy is realized throughout the life of ant communities by way of (a) fusing the starting family cells left by founder females, (b) fusing small anthills during artificial ant migrations, (c) uniting smaller socia or their joining other anthills, (d) reintegrating the secondary anthills (fragmentants) after an exogenous fragmentation of formicaries. Pooling and the attraction of deficient demographic resources from outside form the most efficient and quickest ways of reaching or restoring the threshold density levels. By realizing this strategy, the ants solve their paramount problems of anthill or settlement conservation at any particular time, as well as of providing some prospects for ant existence in the future. These problems are so vital for ant socia that they appear to hold priority over such other characteristics of utmost importance as genetic kinship or even species identity. The priority of social basics over genetic ones is unequivocally supported through mixed formicaries. A necessary condition for the realization of the strategy of population concentration is tolerance of highly developed social systems to the diversity of forms and to deviations from the norm. The use of one and the same mechanism at all stages of the life both of an individual socium and large ant settlements is

  2. From tariffs to prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baena, D. Eduardo Martin [Endesa, Principe de Vergara 187, Madrid (Spain)

    1998-07-01

    It looks like that all over the World things are changing. Many countries, Spain among them, where electricity regulations were usual, are changing their regulatory mainframe. Since January 1, 1998, electricity production is a deregulated activity in Spain. There has to be open market competition. Prices that are very important for the time coming, have to cover the production cost plus some profits in order to maintain the company profitability. This cultural change applies to all our production facilities, including nuclear power plants. Taking into account this new situation and the nuclear competitiveness, it is important for all of us to understand this issue. As it is well known, nuclear energy is capital intensive, that means it has to compete as base load units due to their low operating costs and their large capital ones. For that reason it is important to reduce as much as possible the operating and maintenance cost as well as the fuel one, which will allow nuclear plants to compete in marginal costs with others units. Nuclear energy, in Spain, is not going to fix the pool price but it has to recover some depreciation through it, the remaining being recovered by the recognition of an important part of the stranded cost. (author)

  3. Pricing hazardous substance emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staring, Knut; Vennemo, Haakon

    1997-12-31

    This report discusses pricing of emissions to air of several harmful substances. It combines ranking indices for environmentally harmful substances with economic valuation data to yield price estimates. The ranking methods are discussed and a relative index established. Given the relative ranking of the substances, they all become valued by assigning a value to one of them, the `anchor` substance, for which lead is selected. Valuations are provided for 19 hazardous substances that are often subject to environmental regulations. They include dioxins, TBT, etc. The study concludes with a discussion of other categories of substances as well as uncertainties and possible refinements. When the valuations are related to CO, NOx, SOx and PM 10, the index system undervalues these pollutants as compared to other studies. The scope is limited to the outdoor environment and does not include global warming and eutrophication. The indices are based on toxicity and so do not apply to CO{sub 2} or other substances that are biologically harmless. The index values are not necessarily valid for all countries and should be considered as preliminary. 18 refs., 6 tabs.

  4. TOURISM MARKET: PRICING ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Kiseleva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the actual topic of our time - the development of tourism services. The development of tourism is the leading technology trend dynamics maroon economic caused social restructuring of modern society. Macroeconomic Financial Statistics conrms the minimum amplitude of cyclical uctuations in the service sector, which turns it into countercyclical tool. In the Russian Federation the economic problem of a state policy in the sphere of tourist services is defined - to having turned tourism in competitive, innovative, countercyclical, and highly protable sector of national business. In article pricing factors are dened and are dened key of them, responsible for the cost of a tourist product. This work answers such questions of travel company as: denition of optimum group, formation of a transport tariff, structure of a tourist product on the main and accompanying services and their range, ways of sale. A practical advice by calculation of expenses is given. Correlation and regression and cluster analyses acted as research tools when performing work. In article the conclusion is drawn that the main methods of marketing management of pricing in the market of tourist services are: transition to the unified technology of granting a service on the basis of ISO; intensication and integration of the sphere of production and services

  5. Reciprocity, World Prices and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    We examine in detail the circumstances under which reciprocity, as defined in Bagwell and Staiger (1999), leads to fixed world prices. We show that a change of tariffs satisfying reciprocity does not necessarily imply constant world prices in a world of many goods and countries. While...... it is possible to find tariff reforms that are consistent with both reciprocity and constant world prices, these reforms do not follow from the reciprocity condition, but rather from the requirement of unchanged world prices. We propose an alternative reciprocity rule that is guaranteed to raise the welfare...

  6. Transmission pricing: paradigms and methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirmohammadi, Dariush [Pacific Gas and Electric Co., San Francisco, CA (United States); Vieira Filho, Xisto; Gorenstin, Boris [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pereira, Mario V.P. [Power System Research, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    In this paper we describe the principles of several paradigms and methodologies for pricing transmission services. The paper outlines some of the main characteristics of these paradigms and methodologies such as where they may be used for best results. Due to their popularity, power flow based MW-mile and short run marginal cost pricing methodologies will be covered in some detail. We conclude the paper with examples of the application of these two pricing methodologies for pricing transmission services in Brazil. (author) 25 refs., 2 tabs.

  7. Price setting in turbulent times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsson, Tjörvi; Pétursdóttir, Ásgerdur; Vignisdóttir, Karen Á.

    -dependent pricing increases as domestic labour costs rise relative to total production costs. The results provide important insight into inflation dynamics due to an interaction between high and asymmetric exchange rate pass-through and price indexation. This interaction causes an exchange rate depreciation...... in the domestic market by their direct exposure to exchange rate movements captured by imported input costs as a share of total p duction costs. More exposed firms are found to be more likely to use state-dependent pricing, to adjust their prices in response to exchange rate changes, and to rely on increasing...

  8. Price transparency for medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Mark V; Burns, Lawton R

    2008-01-01

    Hospital buyers of medical devices contract with manufacturers with market power that sell differentiated products. The medical staff strongly influences hospitals' choice of devices. Sellers have sought to limit disclosure of transaction prices. Policy-makers have proposed legislation mandating disclosure, in the interest of greater transparency. We discuss why a manufacturer might charge different prices to different hospitals, the role that secrecy plays, and the consequences of secrecy versus disclosure. We argue that hospital-physician relationships are key to understanding what manufacturers gain from price discrimination. Price disclosure can catalyze a restructuring of those relationships, which, in turn, can improve hospital bargaining.

  9. Artificial Shortages and Strategic Pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Gangopadhyay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: We consider a monopolist who manipulates the market by artificially creating shortages that result in an increase in current price that, in turn, boosts demand for the product in subsequent periods. The approach is to develop an intertemporal model of pricing strategy for a monopolist. Approach: The postulated pricing strategy creates an incentive for producers to reduce current supply and raise current prices and sacrifice current profits in order to increase future profits. The main problem is to explain the precise mathematical conditions under which the pricing strategy will be chosen by a monopolist. Results: We derive the optimal pricing strategy to argue that the monopolist has an incentive to adopt simple market manipulation that calls forth a close examination of issues concerning deregulation. Conclusion: The paper examines two possible strategies for a typical monopolist-strategic pricing vis-a-vis a myopic pricing. The intuition is that the monopolist can manipulate the market by artificially creating shortages that result in an increase in current price that, in turn, boosts demand for the product in subsequent periods.

  10. Prices of RE Products Soaring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Prices of light rare earth products in Baotou rose on the full scale in July. Price of lanthana reached RMB 12,000 - 13,000/t, that of ceria RMB 12,000/t, praseodymia RMB 70,000 - 72,000/t, Pr-Nd oxides RMB 52,000/t, neodymia RMB 65,000/t. Despite the high price of Pr-Nd oxides and neodymia, no goods are available at hand. Price rising is attributed to enforcement of environmental protection policy and heightening project suspending of Baogang tailings dam. RE separation enterprises along Yellow River have ...

  11. Price Strategies in Banking Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana Cetina

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available All organizations must settle a price for the services they offer. The price for services is an important element of the marketing mix, being an important income source for the organization. The settlement of a correct price, both for the market and the competition, is a significant element for the sector of financial - banking services. Another important factor to take into consideration is the fact that the banks do not settle only the prices for individual services, but also coordinate their prices for service packages. As the competition in the financial - banking services has intensified, the settlement of correct prices has become an essential element for the marketing strategy. Nevertheless it is important to remind that the price is not a central element. There are other significant grounds, the price being only one of the elements of the marketing mix. Although in Romania many customers may be sensitive in present to the price, as the competition will increase, the quality of the services will become more important to the customers, and the demand will be complex.

  12. Modeling HIV/AIDS drug price determinants in Brazil: is generic competition a myth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiners, Constance; Sagaon-Teyssier, Luis; Hasenclever, Lia; Moatti, Jean-Paul

    2011-01-01

    Brazil became the first developing country to guarantee free and universal access to HIV/AIDS treatment, with antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) being delivered to nearly 190,000 patients. The analysis of ARV price evolution and market dynamics in Brazil can help anticipate issues soon to afflict other developing countries, as the 2010 revision of the World Health Organization guidelines shifts demand towards more expensive treatments, and, at the same time, current evolution of international legislation and trade agreements on intellectual property rights may reduce availability of generic drugs for HIV care. Our analyses are based on effective prices paid for ARV procurement in Brazil between 1996 and 2009. Data panel structure was exploited to gather ex-ante and ex-post information and address various sources of statistical bias. In-difference estimation offered in-depth information on ARV market characteristics which significantly influence prices. Although overall ARV prices follow a declining trend, changing characteristics in the generic segment help explain recent increase in generic ARV prices. Our results show that generic suppliers are more likely to respond to factors influencing demand size and market competition, while originator suppliers tend to set prices strategically to offset compulsory licensing threats and generic competition. In order to guarantee the long term sustainability of access to antiretroviral treatment, our findings highlight the importance of preserving and stimulating generic market dynamics to sustain developing countries' bargaining power in price negotiations undertaken with originator companies.

  13. Modeling HIV/AIDS drug price determinants in Brazil: is generic competition a myth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constance Meiners

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Brazil became the first developing country to guarantee free and universal access to HIV/AIDS treatment, with antiretroviral drugs (ARVs being delivered to nearly 190,000 patients. The analysis of ARV price evolution and market dynamics in Brazil can help anticipate issues soon to afflict other developing countries, as the 2010 revision of the World Health Organization guidelines shifts demand towards more expensive treatments, and, at the same time, current evolution of international legislation and trade agreements on intellectual property rights may reduce availability of generic drugs for HIV care. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Our analyses are based on effective prices paid for ARV procurement in Brazil between 1996 and 2009. Data panel structure was exploited to gather ex-ante and ex-post information and address various sources of statistical bias. In-difference estimation offered in-depth information on ARV market characteristics which significantly influence prices. Although overall ARV prices follow a declining trend, changing characteristics in the generic segment help explain recent increase in generic ARV prices. Our results show that generic suppliers are more likely to respond to factors influencing demand size and market competition, while originator suppliers tend to set prices strategically to offset compulsory licensing threats and generic competition. SIGNIFICANCE: In order to guarantee the long term sustainability of access to antiretroviral treatment, our findings highlight the importance of preserving and stimulating generic market dynamics to sustain developing countries' bargaining power in price negotiations undertaken with originator companies.

  14. Experimental Demonstration of Higher Precision Weak-Value-Based Metrology Using Power Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Tao; Tang, Jian-Shun; Hu, Gang; Wang, Jian; Yu, Shang; Zhou, Zong-Quan; Cheng, Ze-Di; Xu, Jin-Shi; Fang, Sen-Zhi; Wu, Qing-Lin; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2016-12-01

    The weak-value-based metrology is very promising and has attracted a lot of attention in recent years because of its remarkable ability in signal amplification. However, it is suggested that the upper limit of the precision of this metrology cannot exceed that of classical metrology because of the low sample size caused by the probe loss during postselection. Nevertheless, a recent proposal shows that this probe loss can be reduced by the power-recycling technique, and thus enhance the precision of weak-value-based metrology. Here we experimentally realize the power-recycled interferometric weak-value-based beam-deflection measurement and obtain the amplitude of the detected signal and white noise by discrete Fourier transform. Our results show that the detected signal can be strengthened by power recycling, and the power-recycled weak-value-based signal-to-noise ratio can surpass the upper limit of the classical scheme, corresponding to the shot-noise limit. This work sheds light on higher precision metrology and explores the real advantage of the weak-value-based metrology over classical metrology.

  15. Modeling the Effect of Oil Price on Global Fertilizer Prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P-Y. Chen (Ping-Yu); C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); C-C. Chen (Chi-Chung); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe main purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effect of crude oil price on global fertilizer prices in both the mean and volatility. The endogenous structural breakpoint unit root test, the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model, and alternative volatility models, including the

  16. Consumer food choices: the role of price and pricing strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhuis, Ingrid H M; Waterlander, Wilma E; de Mul, Anika

    2011-12-01

    To study differences in the role of price and value in food choice between low-income and higher-income consumers and to study the perception of consumers about pricing strategies that are of relevance during grocery shopping. A cross-sectional study was conducted using structured, written questionnaires. Food choice motives as well as price perceptions and opinion on pricing strategies were measured. The study was carried out in point-of-purchase settings, i.e. supermarkets, fast-food restaurants and sports canteens. Adults (n 159) visiting a point-of-purchase setting were included. Price is an important factor in food choice, especially for low-income consumers. Low-income consumers were significantly more conscious of value and price than higher-income consumers. The most attractive strategies, according to the consumers, were discounting healthy food more often and applying a lower VAT (Value Added Tax) rate on healthy food. Low-income consumers differ in their preferences for pricing strategies. Since price is more important for low-income consumers we recommend mainly focusing on their preferences and needs.

  17. Individual Recognition in Ant Queens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Ettorre, Patrizia; Heinze, Jürgen

    2005-01-01

    recognize each other's unique facial color patterns [3] . Individual recognition is advantageous when dominance hierarchies control the partitioning of work and reproduction 2 and 4 . Here, we show that unrelated founding queens of the ant Pachycondyla villosa use chemical cues to recognize each other......Personal relationships are the cornerstone of vertebrate societies, but insect societies are either too large for individual recognition, or their members were assumed to lack the necessary cognitive abilities 1 and 2 . This paradigm has been challenged by the recent discovery that paper wasps...... perception, was prevented and in tests with anaesthetized queens. The cuticular chemical profiles of queens were neither associated with dominance nor fertility and, therefore, do not represent status badges 5 and 6 , and nestmate queens did not share a common odor. Personal recognition facilitates...

  18. Some enzymic activities of two Australian ant venoms: a jumper ant Myrmecia pilosula and a bulldog ant Myrmecia pyriformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuszek, M A; Hodgson, W C; King, R G; Sutherland, S K

    1994-12-01

    Venoms from two related Australian ants, a jumper ant (Myrmecia pilosula) and a bulldog ant (Myrmecia pyriformis), were quantitatively analysed for the following enzymic activities: phospholipase A2, phospholipase B, phospholipase C, hyaluronidase, esterase, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase and phosphodiesterase. Both venoms contained phospholipase A2, phospholipase B, hyaluronidase, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase activities. Myrmecia pyriformis venom had significantly greater phospholipase B, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase activities than Myrmecia pilosula venom. No detectable quantities of phospholipase C, esterase or phosphodiesterase activities were found in either venom.

  19. Ant-lepidopteran associations along African forest edges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejean, Alain; Azémar, Frédéric; Libert, Michel; Compin, Arthur; Hérault, Bruno; Orivel, Jérôme; Bouyer, Thierry; Corbara, Bruno

    2017-02-01

    Working along forest edges, we aimed to determine how some caterpillars can co-exist with territorially dominant arboreal ants (TDAAs) in tropical Africa. We recorded caterpillars from 22 lepidopteran species living in the presence of five TDAA species. Among the defoliator and/or nectarivorous caterpillars that live on tree foliage, the Pyralidae and Nymphalidae use their silk to protect themselves from ant attacks. The Notodontidae and lycaenid Polyommatinae and Theclinae live in direct contact with ants; the Theclinae even reward ants with abundant secretions from their Newcomer gland. Lichen feeders (lycaenid; Poritiinae), protected by long bristles, also live among ants. Some lycaenid Miletinae caterpillars feed on ant-attended membracids, including in the shelters where the ants attend them; Lachnocnema caterpillars use their forelegs to obtain trophallaxis from their host ants. Caterpillars from other species live inside weaver ant nests. Those of the genus Euliphyra (Miletinae) feed on ant prey and brood and can obtain trophallaxis, while those from an Eberidae species only prey on host ant eggs. Eublemma albifascia (Erebidae) caterpillars use their thoracic legs to obtain trophallaxis and trophic eggs from ants. Through transfer bioassays of last instars, we noted that herbivorous caterpillars living in contact with ants were always accepted by alien conspecific ants; this is likely due to an intrinsic appeasing odor. Yet, caterpillars living in ant shelters or ant nests probably acquire cues from their host colonies because they were considered aliens and killed. We conclude that co-evolution with ants occurred similarly in the Heterocera and Rhopalocera.

  20. Harnessing ant defence at fruits reduces bruchid seed predation in a symbiotic ant-plant mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Elizabeth G

    2014-06-22

    In horizontally transmitted mutualisms, mutualists disperse separately and reassemble in each generation with partners genetically unrelated to those in the previous generation. Because of this, there should be no selection on either partner to enhance the other's reproductive output directly. In symbiotic ant-plant mutualisms, myrmecophytic plants host defensive ant colonies, and ants defend the plants from herbivores. Plants and ants disperse separately, and, although ant defence can indirectly increase plant reproduction by reducing folivory, it is unclear whether ants can also directly increase plant reproduction by defending seeds. The neotropical tree Cordia alliodora hosts colonies of Azteca pittieri ants. The trees produce domatia where ants nest at stem nodes and also at the node between the peduncle and the rachides of the infloresence. Unlike the stem domatia, these reproductive domatia senesce after the tree fruits each year. In this study, I show that the tree's resident ant colony moves into these ephemeral reproductive domatia, where they tend honeydew-producing scale insects and patrol the nearby developing fruits. The presence of ants significantly reduced pre-dispersal seed predation by Amblycerus bruchid beetles, thereby directly increasing plant reproductive output.

  1. Pricing effects on food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Simone A

    2003-03-01

    Individual dietary choices are primarily influenced by such considerations as taste, cost, convenience and nutritional value of foods. The current obesity epidemic has been linked to excessive consumption of added sugars and fat, as well as to sedentary lifestyles. Fat and sugar provide dietary energy at very low cost. Food pricing and marketing practices are therefore an essential component of the eating environment. Recent studies have applied economic theories to changing dietary behavior. Price reduction strategies promote the choice of targeted foods by lowering their cost relative to alternative food choices. Two community-based intervention studies used price reductions to promote the increased purchase of targeted foods. The first study examined lower prices and point-of-purchase promotion on sales of lower fat vending machine snacks in 12 work sites and 12 secondary schools. Price reductions of 10%, 25% and 50% on lower fat snacks resulted in an increase in sales of 9%, 39% and 93%, respectively, compared with usual price conditions. The second study examined the impact of a 50% price reduction on fresh fruit and baby carrots in two secondary school cafeterias. Compared with usual price conditions, price reductions resulted in a four-fold increase in fresh fruit sales and a two-fold increase in baby carrot sales. Both studies demonstrate that price reductions are an effective strategy to increase the purchase of more healthful foods in community-based settings such as work sites and schools. Results were generalizable across various food types and populations. Reducing prices on healthful foods is a public health strategy that should be implemented through policy initiatives and industry collaborations.

  2. Considerations regarding price in oligopolistic structured markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciobanu, R.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Economists report price rigidity in markets with oligopolistic structures, while explaining the phenomenon. If an oligopolistic firm raises prices, other prices will remain stable in oligopolistic firms, so we will see a significant decrease in sales volume in the firm which increased prices. To avoid this situation an oligopolistic company will not initiate price increases. If oligopolistic firms lower prices, other oligopolistic firms will reduce prices promptly and the result will be that of lower volume of sales - will sell the same physical volume of goods but at a lower price. To avoid this situation, the company will not initiate oligopolistic price decreases.

  3. Differential Recruitment of Camponotus femoratus (Fabricius) Ants in Response to Ant Garden Herbivory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, R E; Dáttilo, W; Izzo, T J

    2014-12-01

    Although several studies have shown that ants can recognize chemical cues from their host plants in ant-plant systems, it is poorly demonstrated in ant gardens (AGs). In this interaction, ant species constantly interact with various epiphyte species. Therefore, it is possible to expect a convergence of chemical signals released by plants that could be acting to ensure that ants are able to recognize and defend epiphyte species frequently associated with AGs. In this study, it was hypothesized that ants recognize and differentiate among chemical stimuli released by AG epiphytes and non-AG epiphytes. We experimentally simulated leaf herbivore damage on three epiphyte species restricted to AGs and a locally abundant understory herb, Piper hispidum, in order to quantify the number of recruited Camponotus femoratus (Fabricius) defenders. When exposed to the AG epiphytes Peperomia macrostachya and Codonanthe uleana leaves, it was observed that the recruitment of C. femoratus workers was, on average, respectively 556% and 246% higher than control. However, the number of ants recruited by the AG epiphyte Markea longiflora or by the non-AG plant did not differ from paper pieces. This indicated that ants could discern between chemicals released by different plants, suggesting that ants can select better plants. These results can be explained by evolutionary process acting on both ants' capability in discerning plants' chemical compounds (innate attraction) or by ants' learning based on the epiphyte frequency in AGs (individual experience). To disentangle an innate behavior, a product of classical coevolutionary process, from an ant's learned behavior, is a complicated but important subject to understand in the evolution of ant-plant mutualisms.

  4. How to be an ant on figs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Anthony; Harrison, Rhett D.; Schatz, Bertrand

    2014-05-01

    Mutualistic interactions are open to exploitation by one or other of the partners and a diversity of other organisms, and hence are best understood as being embedded in a complex network of biotic interactions. Figs participate in an obligate mutualism in that figs are dependent on agaonid fig wasps for pollination and the wasps are dependent on fig ovules for brood sites. Ants are common insect predators and abundant in tropical forests. Ants have been recorded on approximately 11% of fig species, including all six subgenera, and often affect the fig-fig pollinator interaction through their predation of either pollinating and parasitic wasps. On monoecious figs, ants are often associated with hemipterans, whereas in dioecious figs ants predominantly prey on fig wasps. A few fig species are true myrmecophytes, with domatia or food rewards for ants, and in at least one species this is linked to predation of parasitic fig wasps. Ants also play a role in dispersal of fig seeds and may be particularly important for hemi-epiphytic species, which require high quality establishment microsites in the canopy. The intersection between the fig-fig pollinator and ant-plant systems promises to provide fertile ground for understanding mutualistic interactions within the context of complex interaction networks.

  5. Collective search by ants in microgravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie M. Countryman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The problem of collective search is a tradeoff between searching thoroughly and covering as much area as possible. This tradeoff depends on the density of searchers. Solutions to the problem of collective search are currently of much interest in robotics and in the study of distributed algorithms, for example to design ways that without central control robots can use local information to perform search and rescue operations. Ant colonies operate without central control. Because they can perceive only local, mostly chemical and tactile cues, they must search collectively to find resources and to monitor the colony's environment. Examining how ants in diverse environments solve the problem of collective search can elucidate how evolution has led to diverse forms of collective behavior. An experiment on the International Space Station in January 2014 examined how ants (Tetramorium caespitum perform collective search in microgravity. In the ISS experiment, the ants explored a small arena in which a barrier was lowered to increase the area and thus lower ant density. In microgravity, relative to ground controls, ants explored the area less thoroughly and took more convoluted paths. It appears that the difficulty of holding on to the surface interfered with the ants’ ability to search collectively. Ants frequently lost contact with the surface, but showed a remarkable ability to regain contact with the surface.

  6. Value-based insurance plus disease management increased medication use and produced savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Teresa B; Mahoney, John; Ranghell, Karlene; Cherney, Becky J; McElwee, Newell

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of implementing a value-based insurance design program for patients with diabetes in two groups within a single firm. One group participated in disease management; the other did not. We matched members of the two groups to similar enrollees within the company that did not offer the value-based program. We found that participation in both value-based insurance design and disease management resulted in sustained improvement over time. Use of diabetes medications increased 6.5 percent over three years. Adherence to diabetes medical guidelines also increased, producing a return on investment of $1.33 saved for every dollar spent during a three-year follow-up period.

  7. Linkages between Value based Performance Measurements and risk return trade off: theory and evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saban Celik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we attempt to investigate the linkages between value-based performance measurements and risk-return trade off in a way to explain cross sectional asset returns. On the side of value based performance measurements, three groups of variables are used as a sorting factor: traditional measures which consist of accounting based and market based; recently popularized measures such as Economic Value Added and Market Value Added and theoretically sound measures such as foreign investor allocation and firm systematic risk indicators. The goals of the study are (i to show how value based measurements techniques relate to risk return trade off and (ii how these measures affect the cross sectional asset returns in manufacturing industry. Empirical results indicate that foreign investor allocation as a sorting factor produces much more meaningful risk return positive linear relation for cross sectional asset returns than traditional and recently popularized measures.

  8. A Value-Based Business Approach to Product Line Software Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman K. Agrawalla

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The present conceptual paper is an attempt to provide a Value-Based Business Approach (VBBA to product line software engineering. It argues that Product line software engineering should be seen as a system and considered as a means towards the end of appropriating more and more value for the business firm; contingent upon the fact that it provides value to customer and customer's customers operating its value creating system with agility, speed, economy and innovation; getting governed by the positive sum value creation outlook and guided by value- based management. With our value-based business triad, the product line engineering process can hope to achieve simultaneously value, variety and volume, product differentiation and cost leadership enabling the business firm to land on the virtuous value spiral.

  9. Is College Pricing Power Pro-Cyclical?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altringer, Levi; Summers, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    We define pricing power as a college's ability to increase its net tuition revenue by raising its sticker-price for tuition. The greater is the positive effect of sticker-price increases on net tuition revenue, the greater is the pricing power. We gauge variation in the pricing power of private, non-profit baccalaureate colleges by estimating this…

  10. Pheromone disruption of Argentine ant trail integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, D.M.; Peck, R.W.; Manning, L.M.; Stringer, L.D.; Cappadonna, J.; El-Sayed, A. M.

    2008-01-01

    Disruption of Argentine ant trail following and reduced ability to forage (measured by bait location success) was achieved after presentation of an oversupply of trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal. Experiments tested single pheromone point sources and dispersion of a formulation in small field plots. Ant walking behavior was recorded and digitized by using video tracking, before and after presentation of trail pheromone. Ants showed changes in three parameters within seconds of treatment: (1) Ants on trails normally showed a unimodal frequency distribution of walking track angles, but this pattern disappeared after presentation of the trail pheromone; (2) ants showed initial high trail integrity on a range of untreated substrates from painted walls to wooden or concrete floors, but this was significantly reduced following presentation of a point source of pheromone; (3) the number of ants in the pheromone-treated area increased over time, as recruitment apparently exceeded departures. To test trail disruption in small outdoor plots, the trail pheromone was formulated with carnuba wax-coated quartz laboratory sand (1 g quartz sand/0.2 g wax/1 mg pheromone). The pheromone formulation, with a half-life of 30 h, was applied by rotary spreader at four rates (0, 2.5, 7.5, and 25 mg pheromone/m2) to 1- and 4-m2 plots in Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii. Ant counts at bait cards in treated plots were significantly reduced compared to controls on the day of treatment, and there was a significant reduction in ant foraging for 2 days. These results show that trail pheromone disruption of Argentine ants is possible, but a much more durable formulation is needed before nest-level impacts can be expected. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  11. Airport Pricing Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pels, Eric; Verhoef, Erik T.

    2003-01-01

    Conventional economic wisdom suggests that congestion pricing would be an appropriate response to cope with the growing congestion levels currently experienced at many airports. Several characteristics of aviation markets, however, may make naive congestion prices equal to the value of marginal travel delays a non-optimal response. This paper has developed a model of airport pricing that captures a number of these features. The model in particular reflects that airlines typically have market power and are engaged in oligopolistic competition at different sub-markets; that part of external travel delays that aircraft impose are internal to an operator and hence should not be accounted for in congestion tolls. We presented an analytical treatment for a simple bi-nodal symmetric network, which through the use of 'hyper-networks' would be readily applicable to dynamic problems (in discrete time) such as peak - off-peak differences, and some numerical exercises for the same symmetric network, which was only designed to illustrate the possible comparative static impacts of tolling, in addition to marginal equilibrium conditions as could be derived for the general model specification. Some main conclusions are that second-best optimal tolls are typically lower than what would be suggested by congestion costs alone and may even be negative, and that the toll as derived by Brueckner (2002) may not lead to an increase in total welfare. While Brueckner (2002) has made clear that congestion tolls on airports may be smaller than expected when congestion costs among aircraft are internal for a firm, our analysis adds to this that a further downward adjustment may be in order due to market power. The presence of market power (which causes prices to exceed marginal costs) may cause the pure congestion toll to be suboptimal, because the resulting decrease in demand is too high (the pure congestion tall does not take into account the decrease in consumer surplus). The various

  12. Using value-based total cost of ownership (TCO) measures to inform subsystem trade-offs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radziwill, Nicole M.; DuPlain, Ronald F.

    2010-07-01

    Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) is a metric from management accounting that helps expose both the direct and indirect costs of a business decision. However, TCO can sometimes be too simplistic for "make vs. buy" decisions (or even choosing between competing design alternatives) when value and extensibility are more critical than total cost. A three-dimensional value-based TCO, which was developed to clarify product decisions for an observatory prior to Final Design Review (FDR), will be presented in this session. This value-based approach incorporates priority of requirements, satisfiability of requirements, and cost, and can be easily applied in any environment.

  13. The Nominal Share Price Puzzle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    William C. Weld; Roni Michaely; Richard H. Thaler; Shlomo Benartzi

    2009-01-01

    ... investigate in this paper is whether vestigial norms and customs affect corporate decision making. Consider the following fact: The average nominal price for a share of stock on the New York Stock exchange has remained roughly constant (about $35) since the Great Depression. The mechanism that has allowed share prices to remain remarkably con...

  14. Asset prices and monetary policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Issing, Otmar

    2009-01-01

    ... the opposite. For central banks the relation between monetary policy and asset prices has gained new interest and the dominant view has come under critique. The Consensus View There is a broad consensus around the world that central banks should maintain price stability--keeping inflation low and stable. This objective is reflected in the mandate given to the ce...

  15. Price Discrimination: Lessons for Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynes, E. Scott

    1990-01-01

    Explains price and product discrimination, showing how intelligent consumers can achieve increased purchasing power of their income and discusses how consumer educators can explain this discrimination. Evaluates the pros and cons of price/product discrimination from the social viewpoint. (Author/JOW)

  16. Price satisfaction and producer loyalty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutonyi, Sarah; Beukel, Karin; Gyau, Amos

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate which dimensions of price satisfaction influence producers’ trust in buyers and assess the mediating role of such trust in the relationship between price satisfaction and producer loyalty in fresh fruit supply chains. Design/methodology/approach......Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate which dimensions of price satisfaction influence producers’ trust in buyers and assess the mediating role of such trust in the relationship between price satisfaction and producer loyalty in fresh fruit supply chains. Design...... reliability, and relative price are dimensions of price satisfaction that affect producers’ trust in the buyer. Moreover, trust between the producer and the buyer is found to be a strong mediator between price satisfaction and producer loyalty. The findings support recent studies about trust and its mediating...... between the multi-dimensional nature of price satisfaction and producer loyalty with trust as a mediating variable in the business-to-business (B2B) context. Although B2B relationships have been shown to be of great importance for smallholders in enhancing business performance with their buyers, little...

  17. Carbon pricing in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, Corjan; Vollebergh, Herman R.J.; Werf, van der Edwin

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies various options to support allowance prices in the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS), such as adjusting the cap, an auction reserve price, and fixed and variable carbon taxes in addition to the EU ETS. We use a dynamic computable general equilibrium model that explicitly allows

  18. Option price and market instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaquie, Belal E.; Yu, Miao

    2017-04-01

    An option pricing formula, for which the price of an option depends on both the value of the underlying security as well as the velocity of the security, has been proposed in Baaquie and Yang (2014). The FX (foreign exchange) options price was empirically studied in Baaquie et al., (2014), and it was found that the model in general provides an excellent fit for all strike prices with a fixed model parameters-unlike the Black-Scholes option price Hull and White (1987) that requires the empirically determined implied volatility surface to fit the option data. The option price proposed in Baaquie and Cao Yang (2014) did not fit the data during the crisis of 2007-2008. We make a hypothesis that the failure of the option price to fit data is an indication of the market's large deviation from its near equilibrium behavior due to the market's instability. Furthermore, our indicator of market's instability is shown to be more accurate than the option's observed volatility. The market prices of the FX option for various currencies are studied in the light of our hypothesis.

  19. Organic Chemicals Remain High Prices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Phenol In early April 2007, China's phenol price remained bullish, and with the restart of phenol/acetone units in Sinopec Beijing Yanhua Petrochemical being ahead of schedule, there were few trading actions in the market, and the price of phenol dropped considerably afterwards.

  20. Price as indicator for quality?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Hansen, Jørgen Drud

    This paper examines the relation between price differences and quality differences in an oligopoly model with intra-industry trade, where goods are horizontally as well as vertically differentiated. The analysis demonstrates that the ratio of prices is not linked to the ratio of qualities in any ...

  1. Energies prices; Prix des energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-08-15

    This document offers a synthesis of the tariffs and the energies prices in august 2005 in Paris, compared with the years 2003 and 2004. This sectoral presentation (transports, houses, industry) provides thus statistics on the prices of fuels, heating, propane, coal, wood fuels, electric power and gas. (A.L.B.)

  2. The true Price of Chocolate?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingram, V.J.; Chocoloney, T.

    2015-01-01

    Chocolate prices generally do not incorporate many of the environmental and social externalities, costs which are incurred as the main ingredients such as cocoa and sugar move from farms, to factories to consumers. Nor do prices reflect the benefits of non-conventional production and alternative mod

  3. Carbon pricing in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, Corjan; Vollebergh, Herman R.J.; Werf, van der Edwin

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies various options to support allowance prices in the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS), such as adjusting the cap, an auction reserve price, and fixed and variable carbon taxes in addition to the EU ETS. We use a dynamic computable general equilibrium model that explicitly allows

  4. Strammere retningslinjer om transfer pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Christian Plesner

    2015-01-01

    Transfer pricing vedrører prisfastsættelsen på transaktioner, der foregår mellem koncernforbundne selskaber og er fortsat et tema, der nyder stort fokus hos både multinationale koncerner og skattemyndigheder. For den multinationale koncern er transfer pricing i høj grad en aktivitet, der består i...

  5. Pricing Films, Filmstrips and Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Connie C.

    1984-01-01

    Examines pricing practices of major producers of educational materials: Weston Woods, Listening Library, Random House Educational Media, Live Oak Media, S&S Communications Group, Phoenix/BFA, Benchmark, and Churchill Films. Royalties, production and manufacturing costs, list prices, recoveries to producers, and marketing are noted. (EJS)

  6. Ant colonies for the travelling salesman problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorigo, M; Gambardella, L M

    1997-01-01

    We describe an artificial ant colony capable of solving the travelling salesman problem (TSP). Ants of the artificial colony are able to generate successively shorter feasible tours by using information accumulated in the form of a pheromone trail deposited on the edges of the TSP graph. Computer simulations demonstrate that the artificial ant colony is capable of generating good solutions to both symmetric and asymmetric instances of the TSP. The method is an example, like simulated annealing, neural networks and evolutionary computation, of the successful use of a natural metaphor to design an optimization algorithm.

  7. How Can Pricing and Reimbursement Policies Improve Affordable Access to Medicines? Lessons Learned from European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Sabine; Paris, Valérie; Ferrario, Alessandra; Wirtz, Veronika J; de Joncheere, Kees; Schneider, Peter; Pedersen, Hanne Bak; Dedet, Guillaume; Babar, Zaheer-Ud-Din

    2017-01-06

    This article discusses pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement policies in European countries with regard to their ability to ensure affordable access to medicines. A frequently applied pricing policy is external price referencing. While it provides some benchmark for policy-makers and has been shown to be able to generate savings, it may also contribute to delay in product launch in countries where medicine prices are low. Value-based pricing has been proposed as a policy that promotes access while rewarding useful innovation; however, implementing it has proven quite challenging. For high-priced medicines, managed-entry agreements are increasingly used. These agreements allow policy-makers to manage uncertainty and obtain lower prices. They can also facilitate earlier market access in case of limited evidence about added therapeutic value of the medicine. However, these agreements raise transparency concerns due to the confidentiality clause. Tendering as used in the hospital and offpatent outpatient sectors has been proven to reduce medicine prices but it requires a robust framework and appropriate design with clear strategic goals in order to prevent shortages. These pricing and reimbursement policies are supplemented by the widespread use of Health Technology Assessment to inform decision-making, and by strategies to improve the uptake of generics, and also biosimilars. While European countries have been implementing a set of policy options, there is a lack of thorough impact assessments of several pricing and reimbursement policies on affordable access. Increased cooperation between authorities, experience sharing and improving transparency on price information, including the disclosure of confidential discounts, are opportunities to address current challenges.

  8. Pricing and price strategies on the example of real business project

    OpenAIRE

    Eichlerová, Jana

    2011-01-01

    The thesis aims to define processes and strategies in pricing as the one of the marketing mix tools, to appraise the customer segmentation as inseparable tool for finding profitable price and to prove its meaning and applicability at the real business project. First chapter is dealing with the definition of price and micro-economical perspective on price and price determination. It observes, what influences the price and price perception. It represents the price as a component of marketing to...

  9. Ethical aspect price decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grubor Aleksandar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Price decision making in a marketing program framework creatings is a complicated and delicated part of marketing management, especially to keep in sight culminating of mass external factors. In a market economies price policy as a marketing mix instrument rarely is regulated by the law, which opening the ethical aspect questions of price decision making process. The ethics in the price decision making means consideration of the inner law of the individual (marketing managers and/or consumers, whose irreverence does not entail any juridical sanctions, rather its application is sanctioned by the self - awareness. The acception and stability of the ethical aspect price decision making are determined by the characteristic of selected marketing environment.

  10. Introduction to the role of model of value-based medicine in the development of private hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-ping CHEN

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Value-based medicine is the tendency of modern medicine.This paper elaborated the properties of value-based medicine,analyzed the role of model of value-based medicine in modern medicine,and put forward ideas and related measures with the model of value-based medicine to promote the development of private hospitals, which provided some reference for development of private hospitals. 

  11. Faster-is-slower effect in escaping ants revisited: Ants do not behave like humans

    CERN Document Server

    Parisi, Daniel R; Josens, Roxana

    2014-01-01

    In this work we studied the trajectories, velocities and densities of ants when egressing under controlled levels of stress produced by a chemical repellent at different concentrations. We found that, unlike other animals escaping under life-and-death conditions and pedestrian simulations, ants do not produce a higher density zone near the exit door. Instead, ants are uniformly distributed over the available space allowing for efficient evacuations. Consequently, the faster-is-slower effect observed in ants (Soria et al., 2012) is clearly of a different nature to that predicted by de social force model. In the case of ants, the minimum evacuation time is correlated with the lower probability of taking backward steps. Thus, as biological model ants have important differences that make their use inadvisable for the design of human facilities.

  12. The Impact of a Values-Based Supply Chain (VBSC on Farm-Level Viability, Sustainability and Resilience: Case Study Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Hooks

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The ‘Agriculture of the Middle’ (AotM development paradigm emphasises that in order to survive, family farms must transition from a supply chain approach to a values-based supply chain (VBSC approach, involving amendments to both product type and actor dynamics within the chain. This paper presents a qualitative case study of a beef co-operative integrated to a VBSC. We use an analytical framework of viability, sustainability and resilience to analyse impacts at farm-level. Our analysis highlights a number of positive effects on farm-level viability, sustainability and resilience. These benefits stemmed largely from improvements to market orientation, price stability, and members’ capacities in responding to problems. However, the autonomy of the co-operative was challenged by VBSC chain members, which impacted negatively on the stability of the co-operative.

  13. Stealthy invaders: the biology of Cardiocondyla tramp ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinze, J.; Cremer, Sylvia; Eckl, N.

    2006-01-01

    Many invasive ant species, such as the Argentine ant or the red imported fire ant, have huge colonies with thousands of mass-foraging workers, which quickly monopolise resources and therefore represent a considerable threat to the native ant fauna. Cardiocondyla obscurior and several other species...

  14. 9 CFR 354.121 - Ante-mortem inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ante-mortem inspection. 354.121 Section 354.121 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Procedures; Ante-Mortem Inspections § 354.121 Ante-mortem inspection. An ante-mortem inspection of...

  15. World oil prices, precious metal prices and macroeconomy in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soytas, Ugur; Sari, Ramazan [Middle East Technical University, Department of Business Administration, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Hammoudeh, Shawkat [Drexel University, LeBow College of Business, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Hacihasanoglu, Erk [Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey, 06100 Ankara (Turkey)

    2009-12-15

    We examine the long- and short-run transmissions of information between the world oil price, Turkish interest rate, Turkish lira-US dollar exchange rate, and domestic spot gold and silver price. We find that the world oil price has no predictive power of the precious metal prices, the interest rate or the exchange rate market in Turkey. The results also show that the Turkish spot precious metals, exchange rate and bond markets do not also provide information that would help improve the forecasts of world oil prices in the long run. The findings suggest that domestic gold is also considered a safe haven in Turkey during devaluation of the Turkish lira, as it is globally. It is interesting to note that there does not seem to be any significant influence of developments in the world oil markets on Turkish markets in the short run either. However, transitory positive initial impacts of innovations in oil prices on gold and silver markets are observed. The short-run price transmissions between the world oil market and the Turkish precious metal markets have implications for policy makers in emerging markets and both local and global investors in the precious metals market and the oil market. (author)

  16. Pharmaceutical pricing policy in Greece: towards a different path.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriakos Souliotis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Affordable, accessible and innovation-promoting pharmaceutical care is essential to the operation of a sustainable health system. External reference pricing (ERP, a common pharmaceutical policy in Europe, suffers today from indigenous weaknesses that may cause market distortions and barriers to care, burdening mostly the weak economies, and hence, raising ethical and political worrying. Objectives and Methods: A non-randomized experiment was conducted, in order to examine the influence of flexible and adaptable to health systems’ affordability ERP structures. Outcomes were assessed by measuring deviations from Greek prices’ level ex ante, as well as effects on pharmaceutical markets affiliated to the European ERP system. Results and Conclusions: Pharmaceutical pricing models that fit prices to income and affordability are better in all aspects, as they produce fairer results, while resulting in low external costs for the European ERP network as a whole. Small sets of reference countries are preferred to large baskets, as they produce similar results, while presenting better qualities by increasing the flexibility of the reimbursement system and the transparency of the market.

  17. 19 CFR 351.414 - Comparison of normal value with export price (constructed export price).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.414 Comparison of normal value with export price (constructed... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Comparison of normal value with export price... value and, in an investigation, prices used as the basis for export price or constructed export price as...

  18. Faster-is-slower effect in escaping ants revisited: Ants do not behave like humans

    OpenAIRE

    Parisi, Daniel R.; Soria, Sabrina A; Josens, Roxana

    2014-01-01

    In this work we studied the trajectories, velocities and densities of ants when egressing under controlled levels of stress produced by a chemical repellent at different concentrations. We found that, unlike other animals escaping under life-and-death conditions and pedestrian simulations, ants do not produce a higher density zone near the exit door. Instead, ants are uniformly distributed over the available space allowing for efficient evacuations. Consequently, the faster-is-slower effect o...

  19. Multitasking in a plant-ant interaction: how does Acacia myrtifolia manage both ants and pollinators?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Bauer, Angélica E; Martínez, Gerardo Cerón; Murphy, Daniel J; Burd, Martin

    2015-06-01

    Plant associations with protective ants are widespread among angiosperms, but carry the risk that ants will deter pollinators as well as herbivores. Such conflict, and adaptations to ameliorate or prevent the conflict, have been documented in African and neotropical acacias. Ant-acacia associations occur in Australia, but little is known of their ecology. Moreover, recent phylogenetic evidence indicates that Australian acacias are only distantly related to African and American acacias, providing an intercontinental natural experiment in the management of ant-pollinator conflict. We examined four populations of Acacia myrtifolia over a 400-km environmental gradient in southeastern Australia using ant and pollinator exclusion as well as direct observation of ants and pollinators to assess the potential for ant-pollinator conflict to affect seed set. Native bees were the only group of floral visitors whose visitation rates were a significant predictor of fruiting success, although beetles and wasps may play an important role as "insurance" pollinators. We found no increase in pollinator visitation or fruiting success following ant exclusion, even with large sample sizes and effective exclusion. Because ants are facultative visitors to A. myrtifolia plants, their presence may be insufficient to interfere greatly with floral visitors. It is also likely that the morphological location of extrafloral nectaries tends to draw ants away from reproductive parts, although we commonly observed ants on inflorescences, so the spatial separation is not strict. A. myrtifolia appears to maintain a generalized mutualism over a wide geographic range without the need for elaborate adaptations to resolve ant-pollinator conflict.

  20. Deterministic ants in labirynth -- information gained by map sharing

    CERN Document Server

    Malinowski, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    A few of ant robots are dropped to a labirynth, formed by a square lattice with a small number of nodes removed. Ants move according to a deterministic algorithm designed to explore all corridors. Each ant remembers the shape of corridors which she has visited. Once two ants met, they share the information acquired. We evaluate how the time of getting a complete information by an ant depends on the number of ants, and how the length known by an ant depends on time. Numerical results are presented in the form of scaling relations.

  1. Agricultural commodity prices and oil prices: mutual causation

    OpenAIRE

    McFarlane, Ian

    2016-01-01

    The world market price of many commodities including US corn (maize) peaked sharply in 2008. The US Energy Policy Act (2005) led to a rapid rise in demand for corn ethanol as a partial substitute for gasoline in the USA. In this paper we report analysis of weekly prices of corn, wheat, sugar and crude oil, together with monthly series derived from those and other weekly prices, for two consecutive seven year periods: 1999-2005 and 2006-2012. We find strong evidence of cointegration between pr...

  2. 上海市资源水价确定方案研究%The Research of Pricing Scheme of Water Resources of Shanghai City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王为人; 屠梅曾; 韩昌来

    2005-01-01

    Water resource value is the important institution of the sustainable utilization of water resource. And water resource price institution is the difficult thing. Water resource is a very complex system and using fuzzy mathematics can evaluate these interactive parts. Then the water resource price can be gained from the model. In here, Shanghai is taken as the case studying and we make out the fuzzy evaluation matrix of water resource value based on those statistic data. Then we calculate the Shanghai water resource price 0.57yuan per cubic kilometers. It says the Shanghai water price should be raised but it must be lower than 0.54yuan per cubic kilometers.

  3. The Need for a Value-Based Reference Policy: John Rawls at the Reference Desk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wendell G.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the need for a value-based reference policy and suggests one based on John Rawls' system in "A Theory of Justice" that provides equitable service to all members of an academic community while permitting the librarian to uphold the ideal of freedom of access to information. (11 references) (LRW)

  4. Education in Crisis: A Value-Based Model of Education Provides Some Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Yassin

    2004-01-01

    Modern education is in a state of global crisis partially because of the absence of a value-based design of its strategic functions. Education affects the whole spectrum of human values, namely, creative, experiential, aesthetic, material, instrumental, ethical, social, and spiritual values. A student whose educational experience involves this…

  5. The Need for a Value-Based Reference Policy: John Rawls at the Reference Desk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wendell G.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the need for a value-based reference policy and suggests one based on John Rawls' system in "A Theory of Justice" that provides equitable service to all members of an academic community while permitting the librarian to uphold the ideal of freedom of access to information. (11 references) (LRW)

  6. Values-Based Education in Schools in the 2000s: The Australian Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichsenring, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This thesis explores the teaching of values in Australian schools through a framework established by the Australian Federal government during the 2000s. This paper focuses on: the approaches employed by the Australian Federal government in the implementation of Values Education; and the application of cases of values-based education utilized by…

  7. Primary motor cortex contributes to the implementation of implicit value-based rules during motor decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derosiere, Gerard; Zénon, Alexandre; Alamia, Andrea; Duque, Julie

    2017-02-01

    In the present study, we investigated the functional contribution of the human primary motor cortex (M1) to motor decisions. Continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) was used to alter M1 activity while participants performed a decision-making task in which the reward associated with the subjects' responses (right hand finger movements) depended on explicit and implicit value-based rules. Subjects performed the task over two consecutive days and cTBS occurred in the middle of Day 2, once the subjects were just about to implement implicit rules, in addition to the explicit instructions, to choose their responses, as evident in the control group (cTBS over the right somatosensory cortex). Interestingly, cTBS over the left M1 prevented subjects from implementing the implicit value-based rule while its implementation was enhanced in the group receiving cTBS over the right M1. Hence, cTBS had opposite effects depending on whether it was applied on the contralateral or ipsilateral M1. The use of the explicit value-based rule was unaffected by cTBS in the three groups of subject. Overall, the present study provides evidence for a functional contribution of M1 to the implementation of freshly acquired implicit rules, possibly through its involvement in a cortico-subcortical network controlling value-based motor decisions.

  8. Values-Based Education for Sustainability Marketers: Two Approaches for Enhancing Student Social Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markley Rountree, Melissa; Koernig, Stephen K.

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable development has been a hot button issue for decades, and yet business schools continue to struggle with accessible, meaningful and effective strategies to incorporate the topic into their curricula. To extend the teaching toolbox of educators, we describe two complementary marketing courses that use values-based learning to incorporate…

  9. Values-Based Education for Sustainability Marketers: Two Approaches for Enhancing Student Social Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markley Rountree, Melissa; Koernig, Stephen K.

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable development has been a hot button issue for decades, and yet business schools continue to struggle with accessible, meaningful and effective strategies to incorporate the topic into their curricula. To extend the teaching toolbox of educators, we describe two complementary marketing courses that use values-based learning to incorporate…

  10. An Unexpected Means of Embedding Ethics in Organizations: Preliminary Findings from Values-Based Evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Burford

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethical principles constitute a crucial area of debate and discussion in the global conversation around transitions to sustainability, and of particular relevance to the contribution of businesses and other organizations. Scholars in business ethics have recently identified several challenges in this area, such as problems of measurement, rigor, and meaningfulness to practitioners; corporate social responsibility; and institutionalization of ethics in businesses. In this paper, the impacts of a pragmatic values-based evaluation approach originally developed in another field—education for sustainable development—are shown to strongly contribute to many of these challenges. Impacts found across eight organizations include (i deep values conceptualization; (ii increased esteem (iii building capacity for assessment of values-based achievements; (iv values mainstreaming; and (v effective external values communications. It seems that the in-situ development and use of values-based indicators helped to conceptualize locally shared values that underpin decisions, thus embedding the application of (local ethics. Although this study is exploratory, it is clear that the values-based approach shows promise for meeting key challenges in business ethics and wider sustainability, and for new directions for future cross-disciplinary research.

  11. Value-based Q(s,S) policy for joint replenishments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren Glud; Thorstenson, Anders

    replenishment order is issued, if the expected cost of ordering immediately according to the (s, S) policy is less than the expected cost of deferring the order until the next demand or until the level Q is reached. We use simulation to evaluate our policy. Applying the value-based Q(s, S) policy to a standard...

  12. #DDOD Use Case: Make VBM (Value-Based Payment Modifier) reporting for all groups publicly available

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — SUMMARY DDOD use case request to make Value-Based Payment Modifier (VBM) reporting more transparent for everyone. WHAT IS A USE CASE? A “Use Case” is a request that...

  13. Fire disturbance disrupts an acacia ant-plant mutualism in favor of a subordinate ant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensenig, Ryan L; Kimuyu, Duncan K; Ruiz Guajardo, Juan C; Veblen, Kari E; Riginos, Corinna; Young, Truman P

    2017-05-01

    Although disturbance theory has been recognized as a useful framework in examining the stability of ant-plant mutualisms, very few studies have examined the effects of fire disturbance on these mutualisms. In myrmecophyte-dominated savannas, fire and herbivory are key drivers that could influence ant-plant mutualisms by causing complete colony mortality and/or decreasing colony size, which potentially could alter dominance hierarchies if subordinate species are more fire resilient. We used a large-scale, replicated fire experiment to examine long-term effects of fire on acacia-ant community composition. To determine if fire shifted ant occupancy from a competitive dominant to a subordinate ant species, we surveyed the acacia-ant community in 6-7 yr old burn sites and examined how the spatial scale of these burns influenced ant community responses. We then used two short-term fire experiments to explore possible mechanisms for the shifts in community patterns observed. Because survival of ant colonies is largely dependent on their ability to detect and escape an approaching fire, we first tested the evacuation response of all four ant species when exposed to smoke (fire signal). Then to better understand how fire and its interaction with large mammal herbivory affect the density of ants per tree, we quantified ant worker density in small prescribed burns within herbivore exclusion plots. We found clear evidence suggesting that fire disturbance favored the subordinate ant Crematogaster nigriceps more than the dominant and strong mutualist ant C. mimosae, whereby C. nigriceps (1) was the only species to occupy a greater proportion of trees in 6-7 yr old burn sites compared to unburned sites, (2) had higher burn/unburn tree ratios with increasing burn size, and (3) evacuated significantly faster than C. mimosae in the presence of smoke. Fire and herbivory had opposite effects on ant density per meter of branch for both C. nigriceps and C. mimosae, with fire

  14. Mutualism exploitation: predatory drosophilid larvae sugar-trap ants and jeopardize facultative ant-plant mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Mayra C; Sendoya, Sebastian F; Oliveira, Paulo S

    2016-07-01

    An open question in the evolutionary ecology of ant-plant facultative mutualism is how other members of the associated community can affect the interaction to a point where reciprocal benefits are disrupted. While visiting Qualea grandiflora shrubs to collect sugary rewards at extrafloral nectaries, tropical savanna ants deter herbivores and reduce leaf damage. Here we show that larvae of the fly Rhinoleucophenga myrmecophaga, which develop on extrafloral nectaries, lure potentially mutualistic, nectar-feeding ants and prey on them. Foraging ants spend less time on fly-infested foliage. Field experiments showed that predation (or the threat of predation) on ants by fly larvae produces cascading effects through three trophic levels, resulting in fewer protective ants on leaves, increased numbers of chewing herbivores, and greater leaf damage. These results reveal an undocumented mode of mutualism exploitation by an opportunistic predator at a plant-provided food source, jeopardizing ant-derived protection services to the plant. Our study documents a rather unusual case of predation of adult ants by a dipteran species and demonstrates a top-down trophic cascade within a generalized ant-plant mutualism. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  15. KohonAnts: A Self-Organizing Ant Algorithm for Clustering and Pattern Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandes, C; Merelo, J J; Ramos, V; Laredo, J L J

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a new ant-based method that takes advantage of the cooperative self-organization of Ant Colony Systems to create a naturally inspired clustering and pattern recognition method. The approach considers each data item as an ant, which moves inside a grid changing the cells it goes through, in a fashion similar to Kohonen's Self-Organizing Maps. The resulting algorithm is conceptually more simple, takes less free parameters than other ant-based clustering algorithms, and, after some parameter tuning, yields very good results on some benchmark problems.

  16. Fungal enzymes in the attine ant symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; Schiøtt, Morten; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    the more basal attine genera use substrates such as flowers, plant debris, small twigs, insect feces and insect carcasses. This diverse array of fungal substrates across the attine lineage implies that the symbiotic fungus needs different enzymes to break down the plant material that the ants provide...... or different efficiencies of enzyme function. Fungal enzymes that degrade plant cell walls may have functionally co-evolved with the ants in this scenario. We explore this hypothesis with direct measurements of enzyme activity in fungus gardens in 12 species across 8 genera spanning the entire phylogeny...... and diversity of life-styles within the attine clade. We find significant differences in enzyme activity between different genera and life-styles of the ants. How these findings relate to attine ant coevolution and crop optimization are discussed....

  17. Discrimination Behavior in the Supercolonial Pharaoh Ant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontieri, Luigi

    an increasing need to understand which factors promote the ecological dominance of these species, and particularly how the discrimination of both conspecifics and heterospecifics (including parasites) might influence structure and ecological success of invasive populations. In this PhD thesis I investigated...... the discrimination behavior of the invasive pharaoh ant (Monomorium pharaonis) as a model for other invasive and supercolonial ant species. The pharaoh ant is one of the few ant species that can be reared in the laboratory for many generations. Furthermore, the possibility to do controlled crosses of colonies...... provides the unique opportunity to establish colonies of different genetic composition. These traits make this species a suitable study subject to set up behavioral experiments that aim to investigate which factors, and to which extent, might influence the inter- and intraspecific discrimination abilities...

  18. Rose Atoll - Eradication of Invasive Ants

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — There are at least 9 species of ants introduced to Rose Atoll, including species that tend to scale insects that are devastating the Pisonia grandis trees on the 15...

  19. Discrimination Behavior in the Supercolonial Pharaoh Ant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontieri, Luigi

    an increasing need to understand which factors promote the ecological dominance of these species, and particularly how the discrimination of both conspecifics and heterospecifics (including parasites) might influence structure and ecological success of invasive populations. In this PhD thesis I investigated...... the discrimination behavior of the invasive pharaoh ant (Monomorium pharaonis) as a model for other invasive and supercolonial ant species. The pharaoh ant is one of the few ant species that can be reared in the laboratory for many generations. Furthermore, the possibility to do controlled crosses of colonies...... provides the unique opportunity to establish colonies of different genetic composition. These traits make this species a suitable study subject to set up behavioral experiments that aim to investigate which factors, and to which extent, might influence the inter- and intraspecific discrimination abilities...

  20. Pricing General Insurance in a Competitive Market

    OpenAIRE

    Burcã Ana-Maria; Bãtrînca Ghiorghe

    2012-01-01

    In insurance industry, the lack of a proper pricing policy will generate suboptimal results. The price has to be competitive and actuarially adequate in order to reflect the dimension of risk. In a competitive market, the pricing policy of insurance companies acquires the capacities of a dynamic process. In this pricing war, the insurance company must analyze each component of pricing. Insurance companies use various statistical methods to set prices, taking in consideration the interaction b...

  1. How Do Companies Use the Price Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵亚男; 赵翠玲

    2011-01-01

    @@ 1 .Introduction With the development of the globalization, companies face many challenges.Pricing strategy is a part of their marketing efforts.Price is the only element in the marketing mix that produces revenues; all other elements re present cost.So pricing and price competition is the number-one problem facing many marketing executives.To select an initial price, companies should using pricing

  2. Commodity Price Volatility: Causes, Effects and Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Mugera, Harriet Kasidi

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural commodities experienced substantial increases in prices over the most recent decade with major surges in both 2007-08 and again in 2010-11. These price movements coincided with sharp rises in energy prices, in particular crude oil. Sharp increases in agricultural prices were not uncommon, but it is the short period between the recent two price surges that has drawn concerns and raised questions. What were the causes of the increase in world agricultural prices and what are the pr...

  3. Water Demand Under Alternative Price Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Sheila Olmstead; W. Michael Hanemann; Robert N. Stavins

    2007-01-01

    We estimate the price elasticity of water demand with household-level data, structurally modeling the piecewise-linear budget constraints imposed by increasing-block pricing. We develop a mathematical expression for the unconditional price elasticity of demand under increasing-block prices and compare conditional and unconditional elasticities analytically and empirically. We test the hypothesis that price elasticity may depend on price structure, beyond technical differences in elasticity co...

  4. Water Demand Under Alternative Price Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Sheila Olmstead; W. Michael Hanemann; Robert N. Stavins

    2007-01-01

    We estimate the price elasticity of water demand with household-level data, structurally modeling the piecewise-linear budget constraints imposed by increasing-block pricing. We develop a mathematical expression for the unconditional price elasticity of demand under increasing-block prices and compare conditional and unconditional elasticities analytically and empirically. We test the hypothesis that price elasticity may depend on price structure, beyond technical differences in elasticity co...

  5. International Menu Costs and Price Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Raphael Schoenle

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, I analyze how the pricing behavior of firms systematically differs across domes- tic and export markets in terms of frequency, timing and size of price changes. First, I contrast domestic and export pricing decisions for the same products showing that (i) domestic producer prices change approximately twice as often as export producer prices, (ii) the probability of syn- chronized price adjustment across markets is 21% for upwards adjustments and 14% for downwards adjustments, (...

  6. Relative effects of disturbance on red imported fire ants and native ant species in a longleaf pine ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stuble, Katharine L.; Kirkman, L. Katherine; Carroll, C. Ronald

    2011-01-01

    , the abundance of native ants increased to levels comparable to those in control plots after 1 year. Our findings suggest that factors other than large reductions in ant abundance and species density (number of species per unit area) may affect the establishment of fire ants and that the response of native ants...

  7. Using pleometrosis (multiple queens) and pupae transplantation to boost weaver ant (Oecophylla smaragdina) colony growth in ant nurseries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offenberg, Hans Joachim; Nielsen, Mogens Gissel; Peng, Renkang

    2011-01-01

    Weaver ants (Oecophylla spp.) are increasingly being used for biocontrol and are targeted for future production of insect protein in ant farms. An efficient production of live ant colonies may facilitate the utilization of these ants but the production of mature colonies is hampered by the long t...

  8. An Improved Heuristic Ant-Clustering Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunfei Chen; Yushu Liu; Jihai Zhao

    2004-01-01

    An improved heuristic ant-clustering algorithm(HAC)is presented in this paper. A device of 'memory bank' is proposed,which can bring forth heuristic knowledge guiding ant to move in the bi-dimension grid space.The device experiments on real data sets and synthetic data sets.The results demonstrate that HAC has superiority in misclassification error rate and runtime over the classical algorithm.

  9. Problems and prospects of the application of the enterprise value-based management concept in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.I. Davydov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to identify the problems and prospects of the application of the enterprises value-based management concept in Ukrainian economic conditions on the basis of the analysis of the target function of value management, indicators and enterprise valuation models. The results of the analysis. It is considered the concept of value-based management of enterprises from the standpoint of its application in Ukraine. The role of market value and market capitalization of enterprises in the formation of target function of value management is defined. There are analyzed possibilities of implementation of value management approach based on maximization of market capitalization of enterprises through determination of the level of its indicative character and controllability in Ukrainian economic conditions. There are given reasons for the use of the target criterion of maximization of the fundamental stakeholder enterprises value in value-based management. There are studied the indicators and models of enterprises value assessment. There are also determined the peculiarities of contemporary models of assessment of enterprise value. There are revealed the problems of the use of the models for the assessment of enterprise value in value-based management under economic conditions of Ukraine. There are given proposals to improve the indicators and models of assessment of enterprise value in Ukrainian environment. Conclusions and directions of further researches. Practical significance of this article lies in justification of the necessity to identify the indicator of the fundamental stakeholder enterprise value for the purpose of value-based management by way of improving the enterprise value assessment models. Prospects for further studies deal with the development of the model to assess the fundamental stakeholder value of enterprises and on its basis to build an effective system of value management at the micro

  10. Antimicrobial price variation: Conundrum of medical profession!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rataboli P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacoeconomics plays a pivotal role in clinical practice. High medicine prices can adversely affect a patient′s finances and compliance. The Indian pharmaceutical industry has become a cornucopia of medicines with wide variation in prices for the same medicine marketed under different brand names. Price list of available antimicrobial brands was procured from a commercial drug directory. Average price of widely prescribed oral antimicrobials was found and price variation between different brands was calculated. The variation in medicine prices was found to be from 95% lower to more than 350% higher than the average price. Implications of price variation in clinical practice are discussed and remedial measures suggested.

  11. Ants (Formicidae): models for social complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Chris R; Dolezal, Adam; Eliyahu, Dorit; Holbrook, C Tate; Gadau, Jürgen

    2009-07-01

    The family Formicidae (ants) is composed of more than 12,000 described species that vary greatly in size, morphology, behavior, life history, ecology, and social organization. Ants occur in most terrestrial habitats and are the dominant animals in many of them. They have been used as models to address fundamental questions in ecology, evolution, behavior, and development. The literature on ants is extensive, and the natural history of many species is known in detail. Phylogenetic relationships for the family, as well as within many subfamilies, are known, enabling comparative studies. Their ease of sampling and ecological variation makes them attractive for studying populations and questions relating to communities. Their sociality and variation in social organization have contributed greatly to an understanding of complex systems, division of labor, and chemical communication. Ants occur in colonies composed of tens to millions of individuals that vary greatly in morphology, physiology, and behavior; this variation has been used to address proximate and ultimate mechanisms generating phenotypic plasticity. Relatedness asymmetries within colonies have been fundamental to the formulation and empirical testing of kin and group selection theories. Genomic resources have been developed for some species, and a whole-genome sequence for several species is likely to follow in the near future; comparative genomics in ants should provide new insights into the evolution of complexity and sociogenomics. Future studies using ants should help establish a more comprehensive understanding of social life, from molecules to colonies.

  12. Visual scene perception in navigating wood ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, David D; Graham, Paul; Collett, Thomas S

    2013-04-22

    Ants, like honeybees, can set their travel direction along foraging routes using just the surrounding visual panorama. This ability gives us a way to explore how visual scenes are perceived. By training wood ants to follow a path in an artificial scene and then examining their path within transformed scenes, we identify several perceptual operations that contribute to the ants' choice of direction. The first is a novel extension to the known ability of insects to compute the "center of mass" of large shapes: ants learn a desired heading toward a point on a distant shape as the proportion of the shape that lies to the left and right of the aiming point--the 'fractional position of mass' (FPM). The second operation, the extraction of local visual features like oriented edges, is familiar from studies of shape perception. Ants may use such features for guidance by keeping them in desired retinal locations. Third, ants exhibit segmentation. They compute the learned FPM over the whole of a simple scene, but over a segmented region of a complex scene. We suggest how the three operations may combine to provide efficient directional guidance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Toxic industrial deposit remediation by ant activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilkova, Veronika; Frouz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Toxic industrial deposits are often contaminated by heavy metals and the substrates have low pH values. In such systems, soil development is thus slowed down by high toxicity and acidic conditions which are unfavourable to soil fauna. Ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) are considered tolerant to heavy metal pollution and are known to increase organic matter content and microbial activity in their nests. Here, we focused on soil remediation caused by three ant species (Formica sanguinea, Lasius niger, and Tetramorium sp.) in an ore-washery sedimentation basin near Chvaletice (Czech Republic). Soil samples were taken from the centre of ant nests and from the nest surroundings (>3 m from nests). Samples were then analyzed for microbial activity and biomass and contents of organic matter and nutrients. As a result, ant species that most influenced soil properties was F. sanguinea as there were higher microbial activity and total nitrogen and ammonia contents in ant nests than in the surrounding soil. We expected such a result because F. sanguinea builds conspicuous large nests and is a carnivorous species that brings substantial amounts of nitrogen in insect prey to their nests. Effects of the other two ant species might be lower because of smaller nests and different feeding habits as they rely mainly on honeydew from aphids or on plant seeds that do not contain much nutrients.

  14. Congestion and communication in confined ant traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravish, Nick; Gold, Gregory; Zangwill, Andrew; Goodisman, Michael A. D.; Goldman, Daniel I.

    2014-03-01

    Many social animals move and communicate within confined spaces. In subterranean fire ants Solenopsis invicta, mobility within crowded nest tunnels is important for resource and information transport. Within confined tunnels, communication and traffic flow are at odds: trafficking ants communicate through tactile interactions while stopped, yet ants that stop to communicate impose physical obstacles on the traffic. We monitor the bi-directional flow of fire ant workers in laboratory tunnels of varied diameter D. The persistence time of communicating ant aggregations, τ, increases approximately linearly with the number of participating ants, n. The sensitivity of traffic flow increases as D decreases and diverges at a minimum diameter, Dc. A cellular automata model incorporating minimal traffic features--excluded volume and communication duration--reproduces features of the experiment. From the model we identify a competition between information transfer and the need to maintain jam-free traffic flow. We show that by balancing information transfer and traffic flow demands, an optimum group strategy exists which maximizes information throughput. We acknowledge funding from NSF PoLS #0957659 and #PHY-1205878.

  15. Fire ants perpetually rebuild sinking towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phonekeo, Sulisay; Mlot, Nathan; Monaenkova, Daria; Hu, David L.; Tovey, Craig

    2017-07-01

    In the aftermath of a flood, fire ants, Solenopsis invicta, cluster into temporary encampments. The encampments can contain hundreds of thousands of ants and reach over 30 ants high. How do ants build such tall structures without being crushed? In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we investigate the shape and rate of construction of ant towers around a central support. The towers are bell shaped, consistent with towers of constant strength such as the Eiffel tower, where each element bears an equal load. However, unlike the Eiffel tower, the ant tower is built through a process of trial and error, whereby failed portions avalanche until the final shape emerges. High-speed and novel X-ray videography reveal that the tower constantly sinks and is rebuilt, reminiscent of large multicellular systems such as human skin. We combine the behavioural rules that produce rafts on water with measurements of adhesion and attachment strength to model the rate of growth of the tower. The model correctly predicts that the growth rate decreases as the support diameter increases. This work may inspire the design of synthetic swarms capable of building in vertical layers.

  16. Entangled active matter: From cells to ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, D. L.; Phonekeo, S.; Altshuler, E.; Brochard-Wyart, F.

    2016-07-01

    Both cells and ants belong to the broad field of active matter, a novel class of non-equilibrium materials composed of many interacting units that individually consume energy and collectively generate motion or mechanical stresses. However cells and ants differ from fish and birds in that they can support static loads. This is because cells and ants can be entangled, so that individual units are bound by transient links. Entanglement gives cells and ants a set of remarkable properties usually not found together, such as the ability to flow like a fluid, spring back like an elastic solid, and self-heal. In this review, we present the biology, mechanics and dynamics of both entangled cells and ants. We apply concepts from soft matter physics and wetting to characterize these systems as well as to point out their differences, which arise from their differences in size. We hope that our viewpoints will spur further investigations into cells and ants as active materials, and inspire the fabrication of synthetic active matter.

  17. Bacterial associates of arboreal ants and their putative functions in an obligate ant-plant mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilmus, Sascha; Heil, Martin

    2009-07-01

    Bacterial communities are highly diverse and have great ecological importance. In the present study, we used an in silico analysis of terminal restriction fragments (tRF) to characterize the bacterial community of the plant ant Pseudomyrmex ferrugineus. This species is an obligate inhabitant of Acacia myrmecophytes and feeds exclusively on plant-derived food sources. Ants are the dominant insect group in tropical rain forests. Associations of ants with microbes, which contribute particularly to the ants' nitrogen nutrition, could allow these insects to live on mostly or entirely plant-based diets and could thus contribute to the explanation of the high abundances that are reached by tropical ants. We found tRF patterns representing at least 30 prokaryotic taxa, of which the Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria, and Spirochaetes comprised 93%. Because most bacterial taxa were found in all ant-derived samples studied and because the bacteria detected on the ants' host plant revealed little overlap with this community, we regard our results as reliably representing the bacterial community that is associated with P. ferrugineus. Genera with a likely function as ant symbionts were Burkholderia, Pantoea, Weissella, and several members of the Enterobacteriaceae. The presence of these and various other groups was confirmed via independent PCR and cultivation approaches. Many of the bacteria that we detected belong to purportedly N-fixing taxa. Bacteria may represent important further partners in ant-plant mutualisms, and their influences on ant nutrition can contribute to the extraordinary abundance and evolutionary success of tropical arboreal ants.

  18. Pricing hospital care: Global budgets and marginal pricing strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Jason M

    2015-08-01

    The Canadian province of British Columbia (BC) is adding financial incentives to increase the volume of surgeries provided by hospitals using a marginal pricing approach. The objective of this study is to calculate marginal costs of surgeries based on assumptions regarding hospitals' availability of labor and equipment. This study is based on observational clinical, administrative and financial data generated by hospitals. Hospital inpatient and outpatient discharge summaries from the province are linked with detailed activity-based costing information, stratified by assigned case mix categorizations. To reflect a range of operating constraints governing hospitals' ability to increase their volume of surgeries, a number of scenarios are proposed. Under these scenarios, estimated marginal costs are calculated and compared to prices being offered as incentives to hospitals. Existing data can be used to support alternative strategies for pricing hospital care. Prices for inpatient surgeries do not generate positive margins under a range of operating scenarios. Hip and knee surgeries generate surpluses for hospitals even under the most costly labor conditions and are expected to generate additional volume. In health systems that wish to fine-tune financial incentives, setting prices that create incentives for additional volume should reflect knowledge of hospitals' underlying cost structures. Possible implications of mis-pricing include no response to the incentives or uneven increases in supply. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Two ideas to increase innovation and reduce pharmaceutical costs and prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayadev, Arjun; Stiglitz, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry is undergoing a period of uncertainty. Profits are being squeezed by increasing costs and competitive pressures, and new drug production is slowing down. This Perspective reviews two policies that could assist in realigning incentives toward genuine innovation while also keeping drug spending growth under check. Value-based pricing can incentivize genuinely new discoveries and align research and development with social welfare. Public funding of clinical trials likewise can reduce both pharmaceutical costs and prices and direct research effort in a manner that is more socially productive than the current state of affairs.

  20. Dynamic Price Dispersion of Storable Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Cixiu

    2015-01-01

    In this paper I provide an analytical model for the rationale behind supermarket pricing patterns characterized by long-term high prices and temporary price reductions. Based on the understanding that temporary price reductions serve the role of price discrimination between consumers with different...... search costs and willingness to wait, I construct a dynamic model of oligopoly retailers selling a homogeneous storable good. The model takes into account consumer heterogeneity with respect to search cost, inventory cost, and store loyalty. I demonstrate that the high-price-low-price pattern is rational...... for storable goods. In a Markov-perfect equilibrium, agents’ actions depend on consumer inventory, and purchase decisions are characterized by a critical price. The equilibrium price series consists of one-time price reductions and several consecutive periods in which all retailers offer the regular price...

  1. Dynamic Price Dispersion of Storable Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Cixiu

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I provide an analytical model for the rationale behind supermarket pricing patterns characterized by long-term high prices and temporary price reductions. The model is based on the understanding that temporary price reductions serve the role of price discrimination between consumers...... with different search costs and willingness to wait. I demonstrate that the high-price-low-price pattern is rational for storable goods. In a Markov-perfect equilibrium, agents’ actions depend on consumer inventory, and purchase decisions are characterized by a critical price. The equilibrium price series...... consists of one-time price reductions and several consecutive periods in which all retailers offer the regular price. The model predicts that competition is the hardest when consumer inventories are zero, and that at high inventory levels the probability of holding a sale is low....

  2. Price determinants of the wholesale electricity market in France; Preisdeterminanten des Stromgrosshandels in Frankreich. Eine modellgestuetzte Analyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondziella, Hendrik; Mueller, Bjoern; Bruckner, Thomas [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Infrastruktur und Ressourcenmanagement

    2011-12-15

    This article provides a model-based analysis of the French spot market for electricity. Therefore a cost optimizing dispatch model is applied in order to derive a broader understanding of the liberalized electricity market in France considering empirical spot market prices in 2009. At first analysis of market structure and power plant mix is done in accordance with the european framework. The state of supply side competition is suggested as well. Due to the high portion of nuclear energy in the French energy mix the technical availability forecast of the plants plays a crucial role during the price formation on the wholesale market. As a result prices determined by the model are highly correlated with the French spot market. The results suggest a functioning pricing mechanism although deviations occur by ex-ante uncertain demand or unscheduled non-usability of generating units. (orig.)

  3. Supply Chain Shipment Pricing Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — This data set provides supply chain health commodity shipment and pricing data. Specifically, the data set identifies Antiretroviral (ARV) and HIV lab shipments to...

  4. Poverty, Policy and Price Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleby, Christian

    This thesis consists of four self-contained chapters in which different aspects of the relationship between international commodity markets and domestic food markets are explored. What motivates the analysis is the recent surge in international commodity prices and the controversy over the poverty...... domestic goods. Households prefer the traded good which they substitute towards as their incomes increase, thus exposing themselves to world market price swings. Price transmission from international to domestic markets therefore increases with per capita income but also with income inequality. Model...... using a Bayesian simulation methodology. Three main findings emerge from the analysis. Firstly, it seems that domestic rather than global or regional shocks are the main drivers of domestic food prices in all regions. Secondly, global factors have gained importance since 2005. Food inflation...

  5. European attitudes to water pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anne Kejser

    2016-01-01

    Efficient use of the water resource requires internalization of all costs in the price of water, including environmental and resource costs. However, water resource management tends to be highly political and increasing water prices are a sensitive and complicated policy matter. Hence......, there is a need for increased understanding of the implementation process and the attitudes towards implementation among the general public. This paper explores the spatial heterogeneity in the public attitude towards internalizing environmental and resource costs in the price of water across the EU regions....... Within an extensive spatial dataset constructed for the purpose, we estimate the effect of individual information levels and affordability concerns on the attitude towards environmental water pricing. Information about water problems is found to have a significant and positive effect on attitudes...

  6. Dynamic pricing of a resource

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Dawsari, Monther Abdullah

    2013-06-04

    A method of dynamic pricing of a resource is presented. For example, the method includes determining a set of anticipated demands for one or more users to acquire the resource according to uncertainty of the one or more users in preferring one or more certain time periods of a plurality of time periods for acquiring the resource. Prices for the resource differ between at least two of the plurality of time periods. Each anticipated demand of the set is associated with a different one of the plurality of time periods. The method further includes setting prices for the resource during each of the plurality of time periods according to the determined set of anticipated demands. The determining of the set of anticipated demands and/or the setting of prices are implemented as instruction code executed on a processor device.

  7. Prices of Resins Changed Differently

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Polyethylene In early August 2007, due to the low operating rate in downstream plants, the demand was slack, and the offer price of LLDPE (linear low density polyethylene) decrease with few trading actions.

  8. Solution to the problem of ant being stuck by ant colony routing algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jing; TONG Wei-ming

    2009-01-01

    Many ant colony routing (ACR) algorithms have been presented in recent years, but few have studied the problem that ants will get stuck with probability in any terminal host when they are searching paths to route packets around a network. The problem has to be faced when designing and implementing the ACR algorithm. This article analyzes in detail the differences between the ACR and the ant colony optimization (ACO). Besides, particular restrictions on the ACR are pointed out and the three causes of ant being-stuck problem are obtained. Furthermore, this article proposes a new ant searching mechanism through dual path-checking and online routing loop removing by every intermediate node an ant visited and the destination host respectively, to solve the problem of ant being stuck and routing loop simultaneously. The result of numerical simulation is abstracted from one real network. Compared with existing two typical ACR algorithms, it shows that the proposed algorithm can settle the problem of ant being stuck and achieve more effective searching outcome for optimization path.

  9. Applied Ecology and Control of Imported Fire Ants and Argentine Ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, and Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), are invasive species that are major pests in urban, natural, and agricultural habitats. The goal of this dissertation was to study aspects the chemical sensitivity, behavior, and ecology of each specie...

  10. Petroleum price; Prix du petrole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurice, J

    2001-07-01

    The oil market is the most volatile of all markets, with the exception of the Nasdaq. It is also the biggest commodity market in the world. Therefore one cannot avoid forecasting oil prices, nor can one expect to avoid the forecasting errors that have been made in the past. In his report, Joel Maurice draws a distinction between the short term and the medium-long term in analysing the outlook for oil prices. (author)

  11. Coordinated Oil Price Readjustment Plan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In March this year, the National Development and Reform Commission issued an oil price readjustment plan, including the establishment of a subsidy system for disadvantaged sections of the community and public service sectors, a price linkage mechanism for related industries, and a fiscal adjustment mechanism for oil enterprises. The recipients of the subsidies mainly include farmers, fishermen and fishing firms, state-owned forestry enterprises and urban public transportation firms.

  12. Price as indicator for quality?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Hansen, Jørgen Drud

    This paper examines the relation between price differences and quality differences in an oligopoly model with intra-industry trade, where goods are horizontally as well as vertically differentiated. The analysis demonstrates that the ratio of prices is not linked to the ratio of qualities in any...... simple way. The paper therefore questions the procedure of using unit value differences between exported and imported goods as criteria for disentangling intra-industry trade in a vertical and a horizontal part....

  13. Agricultural Water Pricing: United States

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    In summary, irrigation costs and prices are rising in most regions of the United States, due to a combination of increasing scarcity, changes in public preferences regarding water allocation among competing uses, increasing budget scrutiny in the national and state legislatures, rising energy prices, and increasing awareness of climate change and the potential implications for rainfall and the availability of surface water resources. These issues likely will continue encouraging public offici...

  14. Taxonomic and functional ecology of montane ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Rhys Bishop

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Why is biological diversity distributed in the way that it is? This question has been central to ecology and biogeography for centuries and is of great importance for pure and applied reasons. I use a functional trait view of ecology to complement standard sampling protocols to better understand the distribution and structure of ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae diversity across mountains. I use a long-term dataset of ant diversity and abundance, combined with a recently collected morphological trait dataset to examine how the alpha and beta diversity of ants responds to changes in temperature along an extensive elevational gradient in southern Africa. In addition, I link morphological thermoregulatory traits to each other and to the environment with a new database of ant elevational abundances from across the globe. Finally, I analyse how physiological thermal tolerances vary and constrain foraging patterns in montane ants. I find that temperature is a strong driver of both alpha and beta diversity patterns. In addition, morphological traits such as colour and body size are found to have a significant relationship to ambient temperatures. This relationship also implies that the relative abundances of different ant species change depending on their thermoregulatory traits (colour and body size and the surrounding thermal environment. Furthermore, the critical thermal minimum (CTmin of the ant species investigated and the lowest environmental temperatures are found to be key in constraining foraging activity patterns. The data presented here strengthen and link existing ideas about how thermoregulation can influence ecological communities and also suggests important ways in which diversity patterns may change in the future.

  15. Ecology of a fig ant-plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Rhett D.

    2014-05-01

    Mutualistic interactions are embedded in networks of interactions that affect the benefits accruing to the mutualistic partners. Figs and their pollinating wasps are engaged in an obligate mutualism in which the fig is dependent on the fig pollinator for pollination services and the pollinator is dependent on fig ovules for brood sites. This mutualism is exploited by non-pollinating fig wasps that utilise the same ovules, but do not provide a pollination service. Most non-pollinating wasps oviposit from outside the inflorescence (syconium), where they are vulnerable to ant predation. Ficus schwarzii is exposed to high densities of non-pollinating wasps, but Philidris sp. ants patrolling the syconia prevent them from ovipositing. Philidris rarely catch wasps, but the fig encourages the patrolling by providing a reward through extra-floral nectaries on the surface of syconia. Moreover, the reward is apparently only produced during the phase when parasitoids are ovipositing. An ant-exclusion experiment demonstrated that, in the absence of ants, syconia were heavily attacked and many aborted as a consequence. Philidris was normally rare on the figs during the receptive phase or at the time of day when wasp offspring are emerging, so predation on pollinators was limited. However, Myrmicaria sp. ants, which only occurred on three trees, preyed substantially on pollinating as well as non-pollinating wasps. F. schwarzii occurs in small clusters of trees and has an exceptionally rapid crop turnover. These factors appear to promote high densities of non-pollinating wasps and, as a consequence, may have led to both a high incidence of ants on trees and increased selective pressure on fig traits that increase the payoffs of the fig-ant interaction for the fig. The fig receives no direct benefit from the reward it provides, but protects pollinating wasps that will disperse its pollen.

  16. The use of weaver ants (Oecophylla spp.) in tropical agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offenberg, Hans Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Canopy dwelling weaver ants are widely distributed throughout the Old World Tropics where they build up high densities on their host trees. If managed properly the high number of ants will control a range of pest insects and benefit crop production. Simultaneously the ant larvae production, fuelled...... by the consumed pest insects, can be harvested and utilised for nutrition as they are tasty and high in proteins, vitamins and minerals. Thus, plantations may function as ant farms and in addition to plant production also hosts the production of edible animal protein. In this setup harmful pest insects are turned...... farming as a way forward to solve an increasing future demand for protein. Weaver ant farming may build on natural food collected by the ants or alternatively be boosted by feeding the ant colonies actively with protein and sugar. In both cases, when ant biocontrol is combined with ant farming...

  17. The descent of ant: field-measured performance of gliding ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk, Yonatan; Yanoviak, Stephen P; Koehl, M A R; Dudley, Robert

    2015-05-01

    Gliding ants avoid predatory attacks and potentially mortal consequences of dislodgement from rainforest canopy substrates by directing their aerial descent towards nearby tree trunks. The ecologically relevant measure of performance for gliding ants is the ratio of net horizontal to vertical distance traveled over the course of a gliding trajectory, or glide index. To study variation in glide index, we measured three-dimensional trajectories of Cephalotes atratus ants gliding in natural rainforest habitats. We determined that righting phase duration, glide angle, and path directness all significantly influence variation in glide index. Unsuccessful landing attempts result in the ant bouncing off its target and being forced to make a second landing attempt. Our results indicate that ants are not passive gliders and that they exert active control over the aerodynamic forces they experience during their descent, despite their apparent lack of specialized control surfaces. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Ant colony optimization algorithm for continuous domains based on position distribution model of ant colony foraging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liqiang; Dai, Yuntao; Gao, Jinyu

    2014-01-01

    Ant colony optimization algorithm for continuous domains is a major research direction for ant colony optimization algorithm. In this paper, we propose a distribution model of ant colony foraging, through analysis of the relationship between the position distribution and food source in the process of ant colony foraging. We design a continuous domain optimization algorithm based on the model and give the form of solution for the algorithm, the distribution model of pheromone, the update rules of ant colony position, and the processing method of constraint condition. Algorithm performance against a set of test trials was unconstrained optimization test functions and a set of optimization test functions, and test results of other algorithms are compared and analyzed to verify the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  19. Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm for Continuous Domains Based on Position Distribution Model of Ant Colony Foraging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqiang Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ant colony optimization algorithm for continuous domains is a major research direction for ant colony optimization algorithm. In this paper, we propose a distribution model of ant colony foraging, through analysis of the relationship between the position distribution and food source in the process of ant colony foraging. We design a continuous domain optimization algorithm based on the model and give the form of solution for the algorithm, the distribution model of pheromone, the update rules of ant colony position, and the processing method of constraint condition. Algorithm performance against a set of test trials was unconstrained optimization test functions and a set of optimization test functions, and test results of other algorithms are compared and analyzed to verify the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  20. Ants as shell collectors: notes on land snail shells found around ant nests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barna Páll-Gergely

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the shell collecting activities of harvester ants (Messor spp. in semi-arid grasslands and shrubs in Turkey. We found eleven species of snails in the area, two of them were not collected by ants. Eight – mainly small sized – snail species were found on ant nests in a habitat characterized by shrubs, three in rocky grassland and four in a grassland habitat. Some shells (e.g. Chondrus zebrula tantalus, Multidentula ovularis might be taken into the nests, and we hypothesise that some of these snail species are consumed by ants (Monacha spp.. From a fauna inventory perspective, shell collecting activities of harvester ant may help malacologists to find snail species which are normally hidden for a specialist (e.g. Oxychilus hydatinus, Cecilioides spp. due to their special habits.

  1. The Scientific and Methodological Principles of Modeling Consumer Behavior in the Value-Based Enterprise Management

    OpenAIRE

    Stadnyk Valentyna V; Zamazii Oksana V.

    2015-01-01

    The need to improve the conceptual framework for managing the activity of domestic industrial enterprises in view of perspectives of their entering the EU markets has been actualized. The problems of practical implementation in Ukraine of the concept of Value Based Management, which is an effective tool for managing capitalization of enterprises in the corporate sector, have been identified. It was emphasized that because of the high instability of the economic activity envi...

  2. Value-based insurance design yields near- and long-term improvements in medication adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Megan

    2013-03-01

    Key findings. (1) Value-based insurance design (VBID) improves medication adherence by 1 to 3 percent in the first year after implementation; (2) Improvements in adherence were sustained and amplified in the second year post-implementation, ranging from 2 to 5 percent; (3) Adherence improvements varied ac­cording to VBID participants' baseline adherence, with greatest improve­ments evident in those with poorer baseline adherence

  3. Rolling capital: managing investments in a value-based care world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasuta, Lynette

    2016-06-01

    The importance of capital planning is increasing as the healthcare industry moves toward value-based care. Replacing unwieldy and inflexible traditional capital planning processes with a rolling capital planning approach can result in: Greater standardization, facilitating better strategic planning across the whole system. Reduced labor intensity in the planning and budgeting process. Reduced costs through being able to plan better for replacement purchases and take advantage of group purchasing and bundling opportunities. Increased transparency in the decision-making process.

  4. Physician-owned Surgical Hospitals Outperform Other Hospitals in the Medicare Value-based Purchasing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Adriana G; Tracci, Margaret C; Stukenborg, George J; Turrentine, Florence E; Kozower, Benjamin D; Jones, R Scott

    2016-01-01

    Background The Hospital Value-Based Purchasing Program measures value of care provided by participating Medicare hospitals while creating financial incentives for quality improvement and fostering increased transparency. Limited information is available comparing hospital performance across healthcare business models. Study Design 2015 hospital Value-Based Purchasing Program results were used to examine hospital performance by business model. General linear modeling assessed differences in mean total performance score, hospital case mix index, and differences after adjustment for differences in hospital case mix index. Results Of 3089 hospitals with Total Performance Scores (TPS), categories of representative healthcare business models included 104 Physician-owned Surgical Hospitals (POSH), 111 University HealthSystem Consortium (UHC), 14 US News & World Report Honor Roll (USNWR) Hospitals, 33 Kaiser Permanente, and 124 Pioneer Accountable Care Organization affiliated hospitals. Estimated mean TPS for POSH (64.4, 95% CI 61.83, 66.38) and Kaiser (60.79, 95% CI 56.56, 65.03) were significantly higher compared to all remaining hospitals while UHC members (36.8, 95% CI 34.51, 39.17) performed below the mean (p UHC members (mean =1.99, p<0.0001) while Kaiser Permanente hospitals had lower case mix value (mean =1.54, p<0.0001). Re-estimation of TPS did not change the original results after adjustment for differences in hospital case mix index. Conclusions The Hospital Value-Based Purchasing Program revealed superior hospital performance associated with business model. Closer inspection of high-value hospitals may guide value improvement and policy-making decisions for all Medicare Value-Based Purchasing Program Hospitals. PMID:27502368

  5. The distribution of weaver ant pheromones on host trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offenberg, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    The visible anal spots deposited by Oecophylla smaragdina ants have been suggested to deter ant prey, affect interspecific competition and facilitate mutualists and parasites in tracking down Oecophylla ants. I measured the density of anal spots on host trees with and without ants and tested for ...... to leaves. Also there was a positive correlation between spot density and the likelihood of being detected by ants. Anal spots may thus function as reliable cues to interacting species and be an important factor in shaping the community around Oecophylla colonies.......The visible anal spots deposited by Oecophylla smaragdina ants have been suggested to deter ant prey, affect interspecific competition and facilitate mutualists and parasites in tracking down Oecophylla ants. I measured the density of anal spots on host trees with and without ants and tested...... for correlations between spot density, ant activity and the likelihood of being detected by an ant. Spots were only found on trees with ants. On ant-trees, spots were distributed throughout the trees but with higher densities in areas with high ant activity and pheromone densities were higher on twigs compared...

  6. Impacts of residual insecticide barriers on perimeter-invading ants, with particular reference to the odorous house ant, Tapinoma sessile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Michael E; Ratliff, Catina R; Bennett, Gary W

    2004-04-01

    Three liquid insecticide formulations were evaluated as barrier treatments against perimeter-invading ants at a multifamily housing complex in West Lafayette, IN. Several ant species were present at the study site, including (in order of abundance) pavement ant, Tetramorium caespitum (L.); honey ant, Prenolepis imparis (Say); odorous house ant, Tapinoma sessile (Say); thief ant, Solenopsis molesta (Say); acrobat ant, Crematogaster ashmeadi (Mayr); crazy ant, Paratrechina longicornis (Latrielle), field ants, Formica spp.; and carpenter ant Camponotus pennsylvanicus (DeGeer). Studies began in May 2001 and concluded 8 wk later in July. Individual replicate treatments were placed 0.61 in (2 feet) up and 0.92 m (3 feet) out from the ends of 46.1 by 10.1-m (151 by 33-foot) apartment buildings. Ant sampling was performed with 10 placements of moist cat food for 1 h within treatment zones, followed by capture and removal of recruited ants for later counting. All treatments led to substantial reductions in ant numbers relative to untreated controls. The most effective treatment was fipronil, where 2% of before-treatment ant numbers were present at 8 wk after treatment. Both imidacloprid and cyfluthrin barrier treatments had efficacy comparative with fipronil, but to 4 and 2 wk, respectively. Odorous house ants were not sampled before treatment. Comparisons of ant species composition between treatments and controls revealed an increase in odorous house ant frequencies at 1-8 wk after treatment in treated locations only. These results demonstrate efficacy for both nonrepellent and repellent liquid insecticides as perimeter treatments for pest ants. In addition, our findings with odorous house ant highlight an apparent invasive-like characteristic of this species that may contribute to its dramatic increase in structural infestation rates in many areas of the United States.

  7. Accelerating the Development and Validation of New Value-Based Diagnostics by Leveraging Biobanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Daniel; Riegman, Peter H J; Cronin, Maureen; Negrouk, Anastassia; Moch, Holger; Balling, Rudi; Penault-Llorca, Frederiques; Zatloukal, Kurt; Horgan, Denis

    The challenges faced in developing value-based diagnostics has resulted in few of these tests reaching the clinic, leaving many treatment modalities without matching diagnostics to select patients for particular therapies. Many patients receive therapies from which they are unlikely to benefit, resulting in worse outcomes and wasted health care resources. The paucity of value-based diagnostics is a result of the scientific challenges in developing predictive markers, specifically: (1) complex biology, (2) a limited research infrastructure supporting diagnostic development, and (3) the lack of incentives for diagnostic developers to invest the necessary resources. Better access to biospecimens can address some of these challenges. Methodologies developed to evaluate biomarkers from biospecimens archived from patients enrolled in randomized clinical trials offer the greatest opportunity to develop and validate high-value molecular diagnostics. An alternative opportunity is to access high-quality biospecimens collected from large public and private longitudinal observational cohorts such as the UK Biobank, the US Million Veteran Program, the UK 100,000 Genomes Project, or the French E3N cohort. Value-based diagnostics can be developed to work in a range of samples including blood, serum, plasma, urine, and tumour tissue, and better access to these high-quality biospecimens with clinical data can facilitate biomarker research.

  8. The Ten Essential Shared Capabilities: reflections on education in values based practice: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGonagle, Ian; Jackson, Christine S; Kane, Roslyn

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents the findings of a study exploring the impact of a values-based training initiative on the practice of mental health workers. This work is set within the context of increasing attention on the values of nurses and other health care workers as a response to national reports on care failure and negative media attention. To examine written response feedback from participants on a national training programme for values-based practice (VBP) in order to examine any intention to change practice. A national evaluation using quantitative and qualitative methodologies was conducted to gather data on reflections and self-report impact of the Ten Essential Shared Capabilities' training programme. The training was delivered in a range of hospital, community and third sector training programmes across eight regions in England. The participants were predominantly nurses but all sectors in the mental health community including service users as co-facilitators and participants were represented. This study presents the qualitative findings from a cross-sectional survey. Using NVIVO 10 software, data were analysed using the framework method of qualitative analysis. Four principal themes emerged from the data'Thinking differently''Changes to practice''Creating an effective learning environment and skills for practice development' and 'Increasing self-awareness'. The quality and safety drive in the NHS has an emphasis on delivery of evidence based practice. It was concluded that an active focus on values based practice merits equal attention and status. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Value-Based Purchasing: The Effect of Hospital Ownership and Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatfield, J Seth

    2016-01-01

    This research tests the effect of hospital ownership and size on value-based purchasing scores. Representative samples were randomly selected of short-term acute-care hospitals from across the nation and grouped into 3 categories of both ownership and size. The ownership categories are as follows: (1) for-profit, (2) nonprofit, and (3) government. The size categories are as follows: (1) small, 99 beds or fewer; (2) medium, 100 to 249 beds; (3) large, 250 beds or more. Value-based purchasing scores for the 12 process-of-care (PC) measures and the 8 patient experience-of-care (Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and System [HCAHPS]) measures were calculated and combined into their single total performance score (TPS). The results reveal that for-profit controlled hospitals outperform both nonprofit and government-controlled hospitals in PC measures, HCAHPS measures, and value-based purchasing TPSs. The results also reveal that small hospitals (≤99 beds) outperform both medium hospitals (100-249 beds) and large hospitals (≥250 beds) in PC measures, HCAHPS measures, and TPS. Results are discussed.

  10. Tariff liberalisation, price transmission and rural welfare in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jing; Yu, Wusheng; Wang, Junying

    2016-01-01

    China's tariff liberalisation as part of its WTO accession application and eventual agreement has been thoroughly analysed in the literature. However, much of this literature is based on forward-looking ex-ante analyses and few studies provide empirical evidence on its actual impact. We fill...... in this gap by evaluating empirically the welfare effects of China's actual tariff liberalisation on Chinese farmers during the 1997–2010 period. By estimating the domestic market price effects of China's tariff liberalisation and the associated wage earning effects, we find that on average Chinese farmers...... of these positive average welfare effects. Moreover, welfare gains from tariff liberalisation are shown to be distributed unevenly across Chinese provinces and income levels, with farmers located in coastal provinces and at higher income levels gaining more than their counterparts in remote provinces and at lower...

  11. Price Discrimination and Resale: A Classroom Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basuchoudhary, Atin; Metcalf, Christopher; Pommerenke, Kai; Reiley, David; Rojas, Christian; Rostek, Marzena; Stodder, James

    2008-01-01

    The authors present a classroom experiment designed to illustrate key concepts of third-degree price discrimination. By participating as buyers and sellers, students actively learn (1) how group pricing differs from uniform pricing, (2) how resale between buyers limits a seller's ability to price discriminate, and (3) how preventing price…

  12. Academic Library Responses to Journal Price Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Jean Walstrom; Talaga, James

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the nature and extent of discriminatory pricing by journal publishers, and reports on a survey of academic libraries that was conducted to assess the effectiveness of strategies used by libraries to mitigate the effects of high journal prices and price discrimination, i.e., higher prices for both institutions and foreign subscribers.…

  13. Sticky continuous processes have consistent price systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bender, Christian; Pakkanen, Mikko; Sayit, Hasanjan

    Under proportional transaction costs, a price process is said to have a consistent price system, if there is a semimartingale with an equivalent martingale measure that evolves within the bid-ask spread. We show that a continuous, multi-asset price process has a consistent price system, under arb...

  14. 48 CFR 215.402 - Pricing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pricing policy. 215.402... OF DEFENSE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 215.402 Pricing policy. Follow the procedures at PGI 215.402 when conducting cost or price analysis,...

  15. 48 CFR 15.402 - Pricing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pricing policy. 15.402... AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 15.402 Pricing policy. Contracting... certified cost or pricing data when required by 15.403-4, along with data other than certified cost...

  16. 10 CFR 218.12 - Pricing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pricing. 218.12 Section 218.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL STANDBY MANDATORY INTERNATIONAL OIL ALLOCATION Supply Orders § 218.12 Pricing. The price for oil subject to a supply order issued pursuant to this subpart shall be based on the price...

  17. 48 CFR 1615.402 - Pricing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Pricing policy. 1615.402... Contract Pricing 1615.402 Pricing policy. Pricing of FEHB contracts is governed by 5 U.S.C. 8902(i), 5 U.S... for which the FEHB Program premiums for the contract term will be less than the threshold at FAR 15...

  18. Fossil evidence for the early ant evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrichot, Vincent; Lacau, Sébastien; Néraudeau, Didier; Nel, André

    2008-02-01

    Ants are one of the most studied insects in the world; and the literature devoted to their origin and evolution, systematics, ecology, or interactions with plants, fungi and other organisms is prolific. However, no consensus yet exists on the age estimate of the first Formicidae or on the origin of their eusociality. We review the fossil and biogeographical record of all known Cretaceous ants. We discuss the possible origin of the Formicidae with emphasis on the most primitive subfamily Sphecomyrminae according to its distribution and the Early Cretaceous palaeogeography. And we review the evidence of true castes and eusociality of the early ants regarding their morphological features and their manner of preservation in amber. The mid-Cretaceous amber forest from south-western France where some of the oldest known ants lived, corresponded to a moist tropical forest close to the shore with a dominance of gymnosperm trees but where angiosperms (flowering plants) were already diversified. This palaeoenvironmental reconstruction supports an initial radiation of ants in forest ground litter coincident with the rise of angiosperms, as recently proposed as an ecological explanation for their origin and successful evolution.

  19. Lycaenid Caterpillar Secretions Manipulate Attendant Ant Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojo, Masaru K; Pierce, Naomi E; Tsuji, Kazuki

    2015-08-31

    Mutualistic interactions typically involve the exchange of different commodities between species. Nutritious secretions are produced by a number of insects and plants in exchange for services such as defense. These rewards are valuable metabolically and can be used to reinforce the behavior of symbiotic partners that can learn and remember them effectively. We show here novel effects of insect exocrine secretions produced by caterpillars in modulating the behavior of attendant ants in the food-for-defense interaction between lycaenid butterflies and ants. Reward secretions from the dorsal nectary organ (DNO) of Narathura japonica caterpillars function to reduce the locomotory activities of their attendant ants, Pristomyrmex punctatus workers. Moreover, workers that feed from caterpillar secretions are significantly more likely to show aggressive responses to eversion of the tentacle organs of the caterpillars. Analysis of the neurogenic amines in the brains of workers that consumed caterpillar secretions showed a significant decrease in levels of dopamine compared with controls. Experimental treatments in which reserpine, a known inhibitor of dopamine in Drosophila, was fed to workers similarly reduced their locomotory activity. We conclude that DNO secretions of lycaenid caterpillars can manipulate attendant ant behavior by altering dopaminergic regulation and increasing partner fidelity. Unless manipulated ants also receive a net nutritional benefit from DNO secretions, this suggests that similar reward-for-defense interactions that have been traditionally considered to be mutualisms may in fact be parasitic in nature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fuzzy Rules for Ant Based Clustering Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Hamdi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a new intelligent technique for semisupervised data clustering problem that combines the Ant System (AS algorithm with the fuzzy c-means (FCM clustering algorithm. Our proposed approach, called F-ASClass algorithm, is a distributed algorithm inspired by foraging behavior observed in ant colonyT. The ability of ants to find the shortest path forms the basis of our proposed approach. In the first step, several colonies of cooperating entities, called artificial ants, are used to find shortest paths in a complete graph that we called graph-data. The number of colonies used in F-ASClass is equal to the number of clusters in dataset. Hence, the partition matrix of dataset founded by artificial ants is given in the second step, to the fuzzy c-means technique in order to assign unclassified objects generated in the first step. The proposed approach is tested on artificial and real datasets, and its performance is compared with those of K-means, K-medoid, and FCM algorithms. Experimental section shows that F-ASClass performs better according to the error rate classification, accuracy, and separation index.

  1. Two tier pricing system recommendation and summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1974-06-01

    In both the U.S. and the world today the most critical price system problem is the spectacular crude price set by the OPEC monopoly. In the U.S. this $10.00 plus price currently sets the price of 60% of our crude petroleum input. Therefore, the most powerful method available to reduce U.S. crude input price inflation is to reduce the OPEC monopoly price by at least $2 or 20%. At this price, it would supposedly approximate the long run cost of such energy. The situation is reviewed and recommendations and a summary are provided.

  2. Dynamic pricing models for electronic business

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Y Narahari; C V L Raju; K Ravikumar; Sourabh Shah

    2005-04-01

    Dynamic pricing is the dynamic adjustment of prices to consumers depending upon the value these customers attribute to a product or service. Today’s digital economy is ready for dynamic pricing; however recent research has shown that the prices will have to be adjusted in fairly sophisticated ways, based on sound mathematical models, to derive the benefits of dynamic pricing. This article attempts to survey different models that have been used in dynamic pricing. We first motivate dynamic pricing and present underlying concepts, with several examples, and explain conditions under which dynamic pricing is likely to succeed. We then bring out the role of models in computing dynamic prices. The models surveyed include inventory-based models, data-driven models, auctions, and machine learning. We present a detailed example of an e-business market to show the use of reinforcement learning in dynamic pricing.

  3. Analysis on the Comparison of Vegetable Price

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na; LI; Jianmin; SHI

    2013-01-01

    In 2010,the garlic,bean and ginger became more expensive than ever,which made some people’s life harder.In response to such phenomena,the retail price and wholesale price at the producers’ end,the retail price and wholesale price at distributors’ end,and consumption related data(disposable income,consumption expenditure,fresh vegetables amount from 2004 to 2011 were compared and analyzed in this paper.Results showed that the average price(selling price,wholesale price and retail price) of five kinds of vegetables generally rose.There was certain differences in the price change range.Since 2004,especially in 2009 the vegetable prices had been so high that it had influenced the life of low income families in China.

  4. An electricity price model with consideration to load and gas price effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄民翔; 陶小虎; 韩祯祥

    2003-01-01

    Some characteristics of the electricity load and prices are studied, and the relationship between electricity prices and gas (fuel) prices is analyzed in this paper. Because electricity prices are strongly dependent on load and gas prices, the authors constructed a model for electricity prices based on the effects of these two factors; and used the Geometric Mean Reversion Brownian Motion (GMRBM) model to describe the electricity load process, and a Geometric Brownian Motion(GBM) model to describe the gas prices; deduced the price stochastic process model based on the above load model and gas price model. This paper also presents methods for parameters estimation, and proposes some methods to solve the model.

  5. Global Phosphorus Fertilizer Market and National Policies: A Case Study Revisiting the 2008 Price Peak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabarov, Nikolay; Obersteiner, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The commodity market super-cycle and food price crisis have been associated with rampant food insecurity and the Arab spring. A multitude of factors were identified as culprits for excessive volatility on the commodity markets. However, as it regards fertilizers, a clear attribution of market drivers explaining the emergence of extreme price events is still missing. In this paper, we provide a quantitative assessment of the price spike of the global phosphorus fertilizer market in 2008 focusing on diammonium phosphate (DAP). We find that fertilizer market policies in India, the largest global importer of phosphorus fertilizers and phosphate rock, turned out to be a major contributor to the global price spike. India doubled its import of P-fertilizer in 2008 at a time when prices doubled. The analysis of a wide set of factors pertinent to the 2008 price spike in phosphorus fertilizer market leads us to the discovery of a price spike magnification and triggering mechanisms. We find that the price spike was magnified on the one hand by protective trade measures of fertilizer suppliers leading to a 19% drop in global phosphate fertilizer export. On the other hand, the Indian fertilizer subsidy scheme led to farmers not adjusting their demand for fertilizer. The triggering mechanism appeared to be the Indian production outage of P-fertilizer resulting in the additional import demand for DAP in size of about 20% of annual global supply. The main conclusion is that these three factors have jointly caused the spike, underscoring the need for ex ante improvements in fertilizer market regulation on both national and international levels.

  6. Measuring Price Changes: A Study of the Price Indexes. Fourth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, William H.; Cullison, William E.

    This three-part monograph examines the major price indexes used to measure the intensity of inflation. The first part discusses the recent behavior of prices as measured by the Consumer Price Index (commodities, goods, and services), the Producer Price Index (wholesale prices of crude materials, intermediate materials, supplies, components, and…

  7. Price and consumption of tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virendra Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is thought that price increase in tobacco products leads to reduced consumption. Though many studies have substantiated this concept, it has not been well studied in India. Recently, price of tobacco products was increased due to ban on plastic sachets of chewing tobacco and increased tax in Rajasthan. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of price rise on overall consumption of tobacco in Jaipur city, Rajasthan. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in Jaipur city. Two-staged stratified sampling was used. In the first phase of study, cost and consumption of various tobacco products in the months of February and April were enquired from 25 retail tobacco shops. In the second phase, tobacco consumption was enquired from 20 consecutive consumers purchasing any tobacco product from all the above retail tobacco shops. The data were statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics and paired "t" test. Results: The comparison of prices of tobacco products between February and April revealed that the price of cigarette, bidi, and chewing tobacco has increased by 19%, 21%, and 68%, respectively. Average decrease in sales of cigarettes, bidi, and chewing tobacco at shops included in the study were 14%, 23%, and 38%, respectively. The consumers purchasing tobacco also reported decreased consumption. Chewing tobacco showed the maximum reduction (21%. Consumption of cigarette and bidi has also reduced by 15% and 13%, respectively. Conclusion: It may be concluded that reduction in consumption is associated with increased price of tobacco products. Reduced consumption is comparative to the magnitude of price increase.

  8. Detection of mitochondrial COII DNA sequences in ant guts as a method for assessing termite predation by ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayle, Tom M; Scholtz, Olivia; Dumbrell, Alex J; Russell, Stephen; Segar, Simon T; Eggleton, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Termites and ants contribute more to animal biomass in tropical rain forests than any other single group and perform vital ecosystem functions. Although ants prey on termites, at the community level the linkage between these groups is poorly understood. Thus, assessing the distribution and specificity of ant termitophagy is of considerable interest. We describe an approach for quantifying ant-termite food webs by sequencing termite DNA (cytochrome c oxidase subunit II, COII) from ant guts and apply this to a soil-dwelling ant community from tropical rain forest in Gabon. We extracted DNA from 215 ants from 15 species. Of these, 17.2 % of individuals had termite DNA in their guts, with BLAST analysis confirming the identity of 34.1 % of these termites to family level or better. Although ant species varied in detection of termite DNA, ranging from 63 % (5/7; Camponotus sp. 1) to 0 % (0/7; Ponera sp. 1), there was no evidence (with small sample sizes) for heterogeneity in termite consumption across ant taxa, and no evidence for species-specific ant-termite predation. In all three ant species with identifiable termite DNA in multiple individuals, multiple termite species were represented. Furthermore, the two termite species that were detected on multiple occasions in ant guts were in both cases found in multiple ant species, suggesting that ant-termite food webs are not strongly compartmentalised. However, two ant species were found to consume only Anoplotermes-group termites, indicating possible predatory specialisation at a higher taxonomic level. Using a laboratory feeding test, we were able to detect termite COII sequences in ant guts up to 2 h after feeding, indicating that our method only detects recent feeding events. Our data provide tentative support for the hypothesis that unspecialised termite predation by ants is widespread and highlight the use of molecular approaches for future studies of ant-termite food webs.

  9. Detection of mitochondrial COII DNA sequences in ant guts as a method for assessing termite predation by ants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom M Fayle

    Full Text Available Termites and ants contribute more to animal biomass in tropical rain forests than any other single group and perform vital ecosystem functions. Although ants prey on termites, at the community level the linkage between these groups is poorly understood. Thus, assessing the distribution and specificity of ant termitophagy is of considerable interest. We describe an approach for quantifying ant-termite food webs by sequencing termite DNA (cytochrome c oxidase subunit II, COII from ant guts and apply this to a soil-dwelling ant community from tropical rain forest in Gabon. We extracted DNA from 215 ants from 15 species. Of these, 17.2 % of individuals had termite DNA in their guts, with BLAST analysis confirming the identity of 34.1 % of these termites to family level or better. Although ant species varied in detection of termite DNA, ranging from 63 % (5/7; Camponotus sp. 1 to 0 % (0/7; Ponera sp. 1, there was no evidence (with small sample sizes for heterogeneity in termite consumption across ant taxa, and no evidence for species-specific ant-termite predation. In all three ant species with identifiable termite DNA in multiple individuals, multiple termite species were represented. Furthermore, the two termite species that were detected on multiple occasions in ant guts were in both cases found in multiple ant species, suggesting that ant-termite food webs are not strongly compartmentalised. However, two ant species were found to consume only Anoplotermes-group termites, indicating possible predatory specialisation at a higher taxonomic level. Using a laboratory feeding test, we were able to detect termite COII sequences in ant guts up to 2 h after feeding, indicating that our method only detects recent feeding events. Our data provide tentative support for the hypothesis that unspecialised termite predation by ants is widespread and highlight the use of molecular approaches for future studies of ant-termite food webs.

  10. Export channel pricing management for integrated solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Roine, Henna; Sainio, Liisa-Maija; Saarenketo, Sami

    2012-01-01

    This article studies systems integrators' export channel pricing management for integrated solutions. We find support from our empirical case study for the notion that a systems integrator's export channel pricing strategy is multidimensional and dependent on international pricing environment and partner characteristics and that export partnerships have unique implications on a systems integrator's pricing process. The results show that giving up pricing control in export channel context may ...

  11. Oil price shocks and stock market activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadorsky, P. [Schulich School of Business, York University, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1999-10-01

    Results from a vector autoregression show that oil prices and oil price volatility both play important roles in affecting real stock returns. There is evidence that oil price dynamics have changed. After 1986, oil price movements explain a larger fraction of the forecast error variance in real stock returns than do interest rates. There is also evidence that oil price volatility shocks have asymmetric effects on the economy. 29 refs.

  12. Illustrations of Price Discrimination in Baseball

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel, Rascher; Andrew, Schwarz

    2010-01-01

    Price discrimination of this nature, focused on differing degrees of quality, bundled goods, volume discounts, and other forms of second-degree price discrimination, is commonplace in MLB. Indeed, it is safe to say that every single MLB ticket is sold under some form of price discrimination. As teams grow increasingly sophisticated in their pricing strategies, price discrimination is becoming more precise, more wide-spread, and more profitable, while at the same time providing for more oppo...

  13. Sticky Price Models and Durable Goods

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Barsky; Christopher L. House; Miles Kimball

    2005-01-01

    This paper shows that there are striking implications that stem from including durable goods in otherwise conventional sticky price models. The behavior of these models depends heavily on whether durable goods are present and whether these goods have sticky prices. If long-lived durables have sticky prices, then even small durables sectors can cause the model to behave as though most prices were sticky. Conversely, if durable goods prices are flexible then the model exhibits unwelcome behavio...

  14. Marketing aspects of consumer price perception

    OpenAIRE

    Tsiligiannis, Georgios

    2009-01-01

    This thesis focuses on two theoretical approaches from the marketing literature: first, the degree to which consumers tend to associate a higher product price with a higher quality (price-perceived quality relationship) and second, the assumption that odd prices (prices set just below the nearest round figure) generate higher than expected demand at that level. The thesis concludes that there seems to exist an overall positive weak correlation between product price and perceived quality, whic...

  15. A Reconsideration of Full-Cost Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Nubbemeyer, Elmar

    2010-01-01

    The wide use of full-cost pricing techniques remains an explanandum in both economics and management accounting theory. This work surveys and develops possible theoretical explanations of this industrial pricing behaviour and analyses some of its implications. By recognition of the widespread use of imperfect cost-plus pricing heuristics, observable pricing behaviour, as well as empirical market-level phenomena, can be explained. Furthermore, methodological aspects of marginalist price the...

  16. Export channel pricing management for integrated solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Roine, Henna; Sainio, Liisa-Maija; Saarenketo, Sami

    2012-01-01

    This article studies systems integrators' export channel pricing management for integrated solutions. We find support from our empirical case study for the notion that a systems integrator's export channel pricing strategy is multidimensional and dependent on international pricing environment and partner characteristics and that export partnerships have unique implications on a systems integrator's pricing process. The results show that giving up pricing control in export channel context may ...

  17. Price Impact and Survival of Irrational Traders

    OpenAIRE

    Leonid Kogan; Stephan Ross; Jiang Wang; Mark Westerfield

    2004-01-01

    Milton Friedman argued that irrational traders will consistently lose money, won’t survive and, therefore, cannot influence long run equilibrium asset prices. Since his work, survival and price impact have been assumed to be the same. In this paper, we demonstrate that survival and price impact are two independent concepts. The price impact of irrational traders does not rely on their long-run survival and they can have a significant impact on asset prices even when their wealth becomes negli...

  18. Hedonic Price Indices for Ground Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    portion of price change that is unexplainable by other means. In previous work with aircraft, Harmon et al. (2014) found that cost progress curves...same time, we noticed that year-over-year price growth for most vehicle systems seemed higher than could be accounted for by simple inflation...quality growth terms attribute some of the observed price growth to that, leaving less unexplained price growth to be accounted for by the price index

  19. Price Sensitivity of Demand for Prescription Drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skipper, Lars; Simonsen, Marianne; Skipper, Niels

    This paper investigates price sensitivity of demand for prescription drugs using drug purchase records for at 20% random sample of the Danish population. We identify price responsiveness by exploiting exogenous variation in prices caused by kinked reimbursement schemes and implement a regression ...... education and income are, however, more responsive to the price. Also, essential drugs that prevent deterioration in health and prolong life have lower associated average price sensitivity....

  20. Impact of European pharmaceutical price regulation on generic price competition: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Junoy, Jaume

    2010-01-01

    Although economic theory indicates that it should not be necessary to intervene in the generic drug market through price regulation, most EU countries intervene in this market, both by regulating the maximum sale price of generics (price cap) and by setting the maximum reimbursement rate, especially by means of reference pricing systems. We analyse current knowledge of the impact of direct price-cap regulation of generic drugs and the implementation of systems regulating the reimbursement rate, particularly through reference pricing and similar tools, on dynamic price competition between generic competitors in Europe. A literature search was carried out in the EconLit and PubMed databases, and on Google Scholar. The search included papers published in English or Spanish between January 2000 and July 2009. Inclusion criteria included that studies had to present empirical results of a quantitative nature for EU countries of the impact of price capping and/or regulation of the reimbursement rate (reference pricing or similar systems) on price dynamics, corresponding to pharmacy sales, in the generic drug market. The available evidence indicates that price-cap regulation leads to a levelling off of generic prices at a higher level than would occur in the absence of this regulation. Reference pricing systems cause an obvious and almost compulsory reduction in the consumer price of all pharmaceuticals subject to this system, to a varying degree in different countries and periods, the reduction being greater for originator-branded drugs than for generics. In several countries with a reference pricing system, it was observed that generics with a consumer price lower than the reference price do not undergo price reductions until the reference price is reduced, even when there are other lower-priced generics on the market (absence of price competition below the reference price). Beyond the price reduction forced by the price-cap and/or reference pricing regulation itself