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Sample records for antarctica chamisso hariot

  1. Botaanikud Chamisso ja Eschscholtz Californias / Tiiu Speek

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Speek, Tiiu, 1958-

    2012-01-01

    Loodusteadlaste A. von Chamisso ja J. Fr. Eschscholtzi osalemisest O. von Kotzebue ekspeditsioonidel (1815-1818 ning 1823-1826); reisidel kogutud ja kirjeldatud USA lääneosa ja California taimeliikidest ning neist koostatud herbaariumite saatusest

  2. Binary Arithmetic From Hariot (CA, 1600 A.D.) to the Computer Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Anton

    This history of binary arithmetic begins with details of Thomas Hariot's contribution and includes specific references to Hariot's manuscripts kept at the British Museum. A binary code developed by Sir Francis Bacon is discussed. Briefly mentioned are contributions to binary arithmetic made by Leibniz, Fontenelle, Gauss, Euler, Benzout, Barlow,…

  3. Adelbert von Chamisso e o narcisismo primário Adelbert von Chamisso and the primary narcissism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Parmentier

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Adelbert von Chamisso foi um escritor e poeta de língua alemã, nascido em família aristocrática francesa emigrada para a Alemanha em 1792. Este artigo, examinando o conto "L'étrange histoire de Peter Schlemihl", primeiro trabalho publicado por Chamisso, aponta os aspectos autobiográficos dessa obra que antecipa a vida de seu autor até na exatidão das minúcias. O artigo mostra como a sublimação artística permitiu que o escritor encontrasse para si mesmo um caminho pelo trabalho científico e pela criação literária, e indica que essa espécie de "aceitação intelectual" do recalcado poderia ser vista como equivalente a um resultado de tratamento psicanalítico.Chamisso was a German writer and poet born in an aristocratic French family emigrated to Germany in 1792. This paper, inquiring into Chamisso's tale "L'étrange histoire de Peter Schlemihl", his first issued writing, points to its autobiographical features that anticipate the life of its author even in its precise details. This paper shows how artistic sublimation allowed the writer to succeed in finding for himself a path towards scientific work and literary creation, and emphasizes that this kind of "intellectual acceptation" of the repressed could be seen as equivalent to the result of a psychoanalysis treatment.

  4. Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    ANYONEwhohasbeentoAntarctica,asIhave,willviewplanetearthfromanewangle.Whenyoutravel10,000kilometers,walkoutontothevastpolarcontinentandbreatheinitscrystallineair,aheightenedsenseoflivingonaglobe,ofbelongingtoalargeruniverse,willtakerootinyourmind.AnU...

  5. Un nuovo sguardo dalla (e sulla letteratura tedesca contemporanea: l'Adelbert-von-Chamisso-Preis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Pellegrino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Adelbert-von-Chamisso-Preis is a literary prize awarded by the Robert Bosch Stiftung to non-German authors who write in German and chose this language as their form of expression. Since the first prizes were awarded in 1985, 65 writers from more that twenty different countries have won the award. It was Harald Weinrich who convinced the Bosch Stiftung of the value of establishing the Adelbert-von-Chamisso-Preis. In the 1980s, the prize was awarded to what was still called ‘Gastarbeiterliteratur’ and the stress was laid on the writers’ condition of foreigners in Germany rather than on the quality of their literary work, whereas today it has become a substantial part of contemporary German literature and it is sometimes called ‘Chamisso-Literatur’. However, it may be argued that the use of this term, even though it isn't as unsatisfactory as ‘Gastarbeiterliteratur’ or ‘Migrantenliteratur’, still implies that this kind of literature isn't ‘genuine’ German literature. Maybe non-German authors don't need their work to be defined by a special term and some of them don't want a special literary prize either. The question about the ‘Chamisso-Literatur’ is still under discussion. Nevertheless the Adelbert-von-Chamisso-Preis has undoubtedly contributed to spread German literature by non-German authors and to improve its reception.

  6. Current knowledge on biotechnological interesting seaweeds from the Magellan Region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Mansilla

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a compilation of data from investigations made with marine benthic algae from the Magellan Region that have biotechnological utilization in human consumption or medicine or as a source of phycolloids or food supplements or animal feed. The most important Rhodophyta species are: Ahnfeltia plicata (Hudson E.M. Fries for agarose production, Gigartina skottsbergii Setchell & N.L.Gardner for carrageenan production, and Callophyllis variegata (Bory de Saint-Vincent Kützing for human consumption. The most important Heterokontophyta species are: Macrocystis pyrifera (L. C. Agardh, and Durvillaea antarctica (Chamisso Hariot for human consumption, alginate production, and as biofertilizer for agricultural crops. M. pyrifera is also used as a food supplement for salmon, chickens, quails, sheep and bovines and for biofuel production.

  7. Hello Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China has made 25 expeditions to the Antarctic over a quarter century Exactly 17,501.949 km-that’s the distance from Beijing to Changcheng (lit-erally meaning the Great Wall) Station,the first little piece of China on the continent of Antarctica. Twenty-five years ago, when the country was conceiving its first journey to the South Pole, that distance meant nothing

  8. Mineral resources of Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compiled and edited by Wright, Nancy A.; Williams, Paul L.

    1974-01-01

    Although the existence of mineral deposits in Antarctica is highly probable, the chances of finding them are quite small. Minerals have been found there in great variety but only as occurrences. Manganese nodules, water (as ice), geothermal energy, coal, petroleum, and natural gas are potential resources that could perhaps be exploited in the future. On the basis of known mineral occurrences in Antarctica and relationships between geologic provinces of Antarctica and those of neighboring Gondwana continents, the best discovery probability for a base-metal deposit in any part of Antarctica is in the Andean orogen; it is estimated to be 0.075 (75 chances in 1,000).

  9. Bringing Antarctica Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constible, Juanita; Williams, Lauren; Faure, Jaime; Lee, Richard E., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    When one thinks of the amazing creatures of Antarctica, an insect probably does not come to mind. But this unlikely animal, and a scientific expedition to Antarctica, was the foundation for a learning event that created a community of learners spanning kindergarten through sixth grade and extended beyond the classroom. Miami University's Antarctic…

  10. Antarctica - Ross Ice Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    This color picture of Antarctica is one part of a mosaic of pictures covering the entire polar continent taken during the hours following Galileo's historic first encounter with its home planet. The view shows the Ross Ice Shelf to the right and its border with the sea. An occasional mountain can be seen poking through the ice near the McMurdo Station. It is late spring in Antarctica, so the sun never sets on the frigid, icy continent. This picture was taken about 6:20 p.m. PST on December 8, 1990. From top to bottom, the frame looks across about half of Antarctica.

  11. Living and Working in Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Noel

    This source book, designed for 11- to 14-year-old students, seeks to describe what life is like in Antarctica. In spite of extreme weather conditions, people go to Antarctica to work every summer. Some of them stay there during the winter as well. This book seeks to supply answers to such questions as: How do people get to Antarctica? Why do they…

  12. Antarctica: Discovery & Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascoigne, Toss; Collett, Peter

    An examination of Antarctica, from the first sightings to the heroic explorations of the late 18th and early 19th centuries to modern-day research, is presented in this book. Twelve chapters are as follows: (1) The search begins; (2) Whalers and sealers: bites and nibbles; (3) The new continent: first sight; (4) Wintering: the first party; (5)…

  13. Astronomy in Antarctica

    CERN Document Server

    Burton, Michael G

    2010-01-01

    Antarctica provides a unique environment for astronomy. The cold, dry and stable air found above the high plateau, as well as the pure ice below, offers new opportunities across the photon & particle spectrum. The summits of the plateau provide the best seeing conditions, the darkest skies and the most transparent atmosphere of any earth-based observing site. Astronomical activities are now underway at four plateau sites: the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, Concordia Station at Dome C, Kunlun Station at Dome A and Fuji Station at Dome F, in addition to long duration ballooning from the coastal station of McMurdo. Astronomy conducted includes optical, IR, THz & sub-mm, measurements of the CMBR, solar, as well as high energy astrophysics involving measurement of cosmic rays, gamma rays and neutrinos. Antarctica is also the richest source of meteorites on our planet. An extensive range of site testing measurements have been made over the high plateau. We summarise the facets of Antarctica that are dri...

  14. Informal STEM Education in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chell, K.

    2010-12-01

    Tourism in Antarctica has increased dramatically with tens of thousands of tourists visiting the White Continent each year. Tourism cruises to Antarctica offer a unique educational experience for lay people through informal science-technology-engineering-mathematics (STEM) education. Passengers attend numerous scientific lectures that cover topics such as the geology of Antarctica, plate tectonics, glaciology, and climate change. Furthermore, tourists experience the geology and glaciology first hand during shore excursions. Currently, the grand challenges facing our global society are closely connected to the Earth sciences. Issues such as energy, climate change, water security, and natural hazards, are consistently on the legislative docket of policymakers around the world. However, the majority of the world’s population is uninformed about the role Earth sciences play in their everyday lives. Tourism in Antarctica provides opportunities for informal STEM learning and, as a result, tourists leave with a better understanding and greater appreciation for both Antarctica and Earth sciences.

  15. Hovercraft experience in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Harvey C.

    The Model 1500 TD air-cushion vehicle (ACV) has been modified for the extreme conditions encountered in Antarctic operations; these operations began in the 1988-1989 austral summer. Performance evaluations covering 300 hours of engine operations have been obtained which demonstrate the basic soundness of this ACV's design and construction, and its applicability to Antarctic operations, where it was able to reduce travel time and fuel consumption in excess of 40 percent. In addition, passenger comfort was increased manyfold over wheeled and tracked vehicles for comparable missions. The ACV is judged capable of solving many of the transportation problems experienced in Antarctica.

  16. Antarctica Day: An International Celebration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, A.; Hambrook Berkman, J.; Berkman, P. A.

    2013-12-01

    For more than half a century, the 1959 Antarctic Treaty continues to shine as a rare beacon of international cooperation. To celebrate this milestone of peace in our civilization with hope and inspiration for future generations, Antarctica Day is celebrated each year on December 1st , the anniversary of the Antarctic Treaty signing. As an annual event - initiated by the Foundation for the Good Governance of International Spaces (www.internationalspaces.org/) in collaboration with the Association of Polar Early Carer Scientists (www.apecs.is) - Antarctica Day encourages participation from around the world. The Antarctic Treaty set aside 10% of the earth, 'forever to be used exclusively for peaceful purposes in the interest of mankind.' It was the first nuclear arms agreement and the first institution to govern all human activities in an international region beyond sovereign jurisdictions. In this spirit, Antarctica Day aims to: - Demonstrate how diverse nations can work together peacefully, using science as a global language of cooperation for decision making beyond national boundaries, - Provide strategies for students learning about Antarctica through art, science and history at all school levels, - Increase collaboration and communication between classrooms, communities, researchers and government officials around the world, and - Provide a focus for polar educators to build on each year. Through close collaboration with a number of partners. Antarctica Day activities have included: a Polar Film Festival convened by The Explorers Club; live sessions connecting classrooms with scientists in Antarctica thanks to PolarTREC and ARCUS; an international activity that involved children from 13 countries who created over 600 flags which exemplify Antarctica Day (these were actually flown in Antarctica with signed certificates then returned to the classes); a map where Antarctica Day participants all over the world could share what they were doing; an Antarctic bird count

  17. Glaciers of Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Richard S.; Ferrigno, Jane G.

    1988-01-01

    Of all the world?s continents Antarctica is the coldest, the highest, and the least known. It is one and a half times the size of the United States, and on it lies 91 percent (30,109,800 km3) of the estimated volume of all the ice on Earth. Because so little is known about Antarctic glaciers compared with what is known about glaciers in populated countries, satellite imagery represents a great leap forward in the provision of basic data. From the coast of Antarctica to about 81?south latitude, there are 2,514 Landsat nominal scene centers (the fixed geographic position of the intersection of orbital paths and latitudinal rows). If there were cloud-free images for all these geographic centers, only about 520 Landsat images would be needed to provide complete coverage. Because of cloud cover, however, only about 70 percent of the Landsat imaging area, or 55 percent of the continent, is covered by good quality Landsat images. To date, only about 20 percent of Antarctica has been mapped at scales of 1:250,000 or larger, but these maps do include about half of the coastline. The area of Antarctica that could be planimetrically mapped at a scale of 1:250,000 would be tripled if the available Landsat images were used in image map production. This chapter contains brief descriptions and interpretations of features seen in 62 carefully selected Landsat images or image mosaics. Images were chosen on the basis of quality and interest; for this reason they are far from evenly spaced around the continent. Space limitations allow less than 15 percent of the Landsat imaging area of Antarctica to be shown in the illustrations reproduced in this chapter. Unfortunately, a wealth of glaciological and other features of compelling interest is present in the many hundreds of images that could not be included. To help show some important features beyond the limit of Landsat coverage, and as an aid to the interpretation of certain features seen in the images, 38 oblique aerial photographs

  18. Antarctica: The Next Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Peter D.

    Laurence M. Gould, in charge of United States efforts during the International Geophysical Year (IGY, 1957-1958) and a longterm spokesman for Antarctic science, once remarked that it was the cooperative efforts during the IGY in Antarctica, “coldest of all the continents, that witnessed the first thawing of the cold war.”The Antarctic Treaty, which governs all activities on the continent, was an outgrowth of the IGY. The Treaty—the model international agreement for peaceful cooperation—was signed in 1959 and became effective in 1961. As it nears its historic 30-year anniversary, it has been the subject of a blitz of recent publications, partly because of a general misapprehension that the Treaty might “expire” then and partly the result of controversial negotiations on the recently (June 1988) adopted Convention on the Regulation of Antarctic Mineral Resource Activities (CRAMRA).

  19. Cosmology from Antarctica

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Robert W

    2008-01-01

    Observation of the CMB is central to observational cosmology, and the Antarctic Plateau is an exceptionally good site for this work. The first attempt at CMB observations from the Plateau was an expedition to the South Pole in December 1986 by the Radio Physics Research group at Bell Laboratories. Sky noise and opacity were measured. The results were sufficiently encouraging that in the Austral summer of 1988-1989, three CMB groups participated in the "Cucumber" campaign, where a temporary site dedicated to CMB anisotropy measurements was set up 2 km from South Pole Station. Winter-time observations became possible with the establishment in 1990 of the Center for Astrophysical Research in Antarctica (CARA), a National Science Foundation Science and Technology Center. CARA developed year-round observing facilities in the "Dark Sector", a section of Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station dedicated to astronomical observations. CARA scientists fielded several astronomical instruments: AST/RO, SPIREX, White Dish, Pyth...

  20. Landscape evolution of Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, S.S.R.; Sugden, D.E.

    2007-01-01

    The relative roles of fluvial versus glacial processes in shaping the landscape of Antarctica have been debated since the expeditions of Robert Scott and Ernest Shackleton in the early years of the 20th century. Here we build a synthesis of Antarctic landscape evolution based on the geomorphology of passive continental margins and former northern mid-latitude Pleistocene ice sheets. What makes Antarctica so interesting is that the terrestrial landscape retains elements of a record of change that extends back to the Oligocene. Thus there is the potential to link conditions on land with those in the oceans and atmosphere as the world switched from a greenhouse to a glacial world and the Antarctic ice sheet evolved to its present state. In common with other continental fragments of Gondwana there is a fluvial signature to the landscape in the form of the coastal erosion surfaces and escarpments, incised river valleys, and a continent-wide network of river basins. A selective superimposed glacial signature reflects the presence or absence of ice at the pressure melting point. Earliest continental-scale ice sheets formed around 34 Ma, growing from local ice caps centered on mountain massifs, and featured phases of ice-sheet expansion and contraction. These ice masses were most likely cold-based over uplands and warm-based across lowlands and near their margins. For 20 million years ice sheets fluctuated on Croll-Milankovitch frequencies. At ~14 Ma the ice sheet expanded to its maximum and deepened a preexisting radial array of troughs selectively through the coastal mountains and eroded the continental

  1. Earth - Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    This color picture of Antarctica is one part of a mosaic of pictures covering the entire Antarctic continent taken during the hours following Galileo's historic first encounter with its home planet. The view shows the Ross Ice Shelf. An occasional mountain can be seen poking through the ice. It is late spring in Antarctica, so the sun never sets on the frigid, icy continent. This picture was taken on December 8, 1990.

  2. Solar Eclipses Observed from Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Aspects of the solar corona are still best observed during totality of solar eclipses, and other high-resolution observations of coronal active regions can be observed with radio telescopes by differentiation of occultation observations, as we did with the Jansky Very Large Array for the annular solar eclipse of 2012 May 20 in the US. Totality crossing Antarctica included the eclipse of 2003 November 23, and will next occur on 2021 December 4; annularity crossing Antarctica included the eclip...

  3. My IGY in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Dr Charles Bentley is the A.P. Crary Professor Emeritus of Geophysics, Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Wisconsin-Madison. Dr. Bentley joined the Arctic Institute of North America in 1956 to participate in International Geophysical Year (IGY)-related activities in the Antarctic. He wintered over consecutively in 1957 and 1958 at Byrd Station, a station in the interior of West Antarctica that housed 24 men each winter - 12 Navy support people and 12 civilian scientists/technicians. During the austral summers, he also participated in over-snow traverses, first as co-leader, then leader (the other coleader went home after the first year). These traverses consisted of six men and three vehicles, and lasted several months. These traverses covered more than 1609 kilometers (1000 miles) of largely unmapped and unphotographed terrain. During these traverses, connections to Byrd Station were by radio (daily, when the transmission conditions were good enough) and roughly every 2 weeks by resupply flight.

  4. Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2007-01-01

    Description Fact sheet introduces the Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica (LIMA) with images from a section of the mosaic over McMurdo Station, descriptions of the four versions of LIMA, where to access and download LIMA, and a brief explanation of the Antarctic Web portal.

  5. Surface winds over West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromwich, David

    1993-01-01

    Five winter months (April-August 1988) of thermal infrared satellite images were examined to investigate the occurrence of dark (warm) signatures across the Ross Ice Shelf in the Antarctic continent. These features are inferred to be generated by katabatic winds that descend from southern Marie Byrd Land and then blow horizontally across the ice shelf. Significant mass is added to this airstream by katabatic winds blowing from the major glaciers that flow through the Transantarctic Mountains from East Antarctica. These negatively buoyant katabatic winds can reach the northwestern edge of the shelf - a horizontal propagation distance of up to 1,000 km - 14 percent of the time. Where the airstream crosses from the ice shelf to the ice-covered Ross Sea, a prominent coastal polynya is formed. Because the downslope buoyancy force is near zero over the Ross Ice Shelf, the northwestward propagation of the katabatic air mass requires pressure gradient support. The study shows that the extended horizontal propagation of this atmospheric density current occurred in conjunction with the passage of synoptic cyclones over the southern Amundsen Sea. These cyclones can strengthen the pressure gradient in the interior of West Antarctica and make the pressure field favorable for northwestward movement of the katabatic winds from West Antarctica across the ice shelf in a geostrophic direction. The glacier winds from East Antarctica are further accelerated by the synoptic pressure gradient, usually undergo abrupt adjustment beyond the exit to the glacier valley, and merge into the mountain-parallel katabatic air mass.

  6. Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This pair of MISR images of the Pine Island Glacier in western Antarctica was acquired on December 12, 2000 during Terra orbit 5246. At left is a conventional, true-color image from the downward-looking (nadir) camera. The false-color image at right is a composite of red band data taken by the MISR forward 60-degree, nadir, and aftward 60-degree cameras, displayed in red, green, and blue colors, respectively. Color variations in the left (true-color) image highlight spectral differences. In the multi-angle composite, on the other hand, color variations act as a proxy for differences in the angular reflectance properties of the scene. In this representation, clouds show up as light purple. Blue to orange gradations on the surface indicate a transition in ice texture from smooth to rough. For example, the bright orange 'carrot-like' features are rough crevasses on the glacier's tongue. In the conventional nadir view, the blue ice labeled 'rough crevasses' and 'smooth blue ice' exhibit similar coloration, but the multi-angle composite reveals their different textures, with the smoother ice appearing dark purple instead of orange. This could be an indicator of different mechanisms by which this ice is exposed. The multi-angle view also reveals subtle roughness variations on the frozen sea ice between the glacier and the open water in Pine Island Bay.To the left of the 'icebergs' label are chunks of floating ice. Additionally, smaller icebergs embedded in the frozen sea ice are visible below and to the right of the label. These small icebergs are associated with dark streaks. Analysis of the illumination geometry suggests that these streaks are surface features, not shadows. Wind-driven motion and thinning of the sea ice in the vicinity of the icebergs is one possible explanation.Recently, Robert Bindschadler, a glaciologist at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center discovered in Landsat 7 imagery a newly-formed crack traversing the Pine Island Glacier. This crack is

  7. [Medicine at a polar station in Antarctica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brat, Kristián; Zvěřina, Ondřej

    2015-12-01

    The paper describes specific aspects of work of a scientific expedition doctor and the stay and life at a polar research station in Antarctica. Apart from the outline of everyday problems, the first named author also learns about the history of medical practitioners working in Antarctica, writes about the results of the biomedical research activities conducted in the period of 2011-2014 and briefly describes the daily routine at a scientific polar station in Antarctica.

  8. Potential methane reservoirs beneath Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadham, J L; Arndt, S; Tulaczyk, S; Stibal, M; Tranter, M; Telling, J; Lis, G P; Lawson, E; Ridgwell, A; Dubnick, A; Sharp, M J; Anesio, A M; Butler, C E H

    2012-08-30

    Once thought to be devoid of life, the ice-covered parts of Antarctica are now known to be a reservoir of metabolically active microbial cells and organic carbon. The potential for methanogenic archaea to support the degradation of organic carbon to methane beneath the ice, however, has not yet been evaluated. Large sedimentary basins containing marine sequences up to 14 kilometres thick and an estimated 21,000 petagrams (1 Pg equals 10(15) g) of organic carbon are buried beneath the Antarctic Ice Sheet. No data exist for rates of methanogenesis in sub-Antarctic marine sediments. Here we present experimental data from other subglacial environments that demonstrate the potential for overridden organic matter beneath glacial systems to produce methane. We also numerically simulate the accumulation of methane in Antarctic sedimentary basins using an established one-dimensional hydrate model and show that pressure/temperature conditions favour methane hydrate formation down to sediment depths of about 300 metres in West Antarctica and 700 metres in East Antarctica. Our results demonstrate the potential for methane hydrate accumulation in Antarctic sedimentary basins, where the total inventory depends on rates of organic carbon degradation and conditions at the ice-sheet bed. We calculate that the sub-Antarctic hydrate inventory could be of the same order of magnitude as that of recent estimates made for Arctic permafrost. Our findings suggest that the Antarctic Ice Sheet may be a neglected but important component of the global methane budget, with the potential to act as a positive feedback on climate warming during ice-sheet wastage.

  9. A novel adenovirus in Chinstrap penguins (Pygoscelis antarctica) in Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sook-Young; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Park, Yon Mi; Shin, Ok Sarah; Kim, Hankyeom; Choi, Han-Gu; Song, Jin-Won

    2014-05-07

    Adenoviruses (family Adenoviridae) infect various organ systems and cause diseases in a wide range of host species. In this study, we examined multiple tissues from Chinstrap penguins (Pygoscelis antarctica), collected in Antarctica during 2009 and 2010, for the presence of novel adenoviruses by PCR. Analysis of a 855-bp region of the hexon gene of a newly identified adenovirus, designated Chinstrap penguin adenovirus 1 (CSPAdV-1), showed nucleotide (amino acid) sequence identity of 71.8% (65.5%) with South Polar skua 1 (SPSAdV-1), 71% (70%) with raptor adenovirus 1 (RAdV-1), 71.4% (67.6%) with turkey adenovirus 3 (TAdV-3) and 61% (61.6%) with frog adenovirus 1 (FrAdV-1). Based on the genetic and phylogenetic analyses, CSPAdV-1 was classified as a member of the genus, Siadenovirus. Virus isolation attempts from kidney homogenates in the MDTC-RP19 (ATCC® CRL-8135™) cell line were unsuccessful. In conclusion, this study provides the first evidence of new adenovirus species in Antarctic penguins.

  10. A Novel Adenovirus in Chinstrap Penguins (Pygoscelis antarctica in Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sook-Young Lee

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Adenoviruses (family Adenoviridae infect various organ systems and cause diseases in a wide range of host species. In this study, we examined multiple tissues from Chinstrap penguins (Pygoscelis antarctica, collected in Antarctica during 2009 and 2010, for the presence of novel adenoviruses by PCR. Analysis of a 855-bp region of the hexon gene of a newly identified adenovirus, designated Chinstrap penguin adenovirus 1 (CSPAdV-1, showed nucleotide (amino acid sequence identity of 71.8% (65.5% with South Polar skua 1 (SPSAdV-1, 71% (70% with raptor adenovirus 1 (RAdV-1, 71.4% (67.6% with turkey adenovirus 3 (TAdV-3 and 61% (61.6% with frog adenovirus 1 (FrAdV-1. Based on the genetic and phylogenetic analyses, CSPAdV-1 was classified as a member of the genus, Siadenovirus. Virus isolation attempts from kidney homogenates in the MDTC-RP19 (ATCC® CRL-8135™ cell line were unsuccessful. In conclusion, this study provides the first evidence of new adenovirus species in Antarctic penguins.

  11. Chamisso wilderness study area, Chamisso National Wildlife Refuge, Kotzebue Sound, Alaska, wilderness study report: Draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Objectives, history, location, physical characteristics, resources, socio-economic consideration, development and management, summary and conclusions, photographs,...

  12. The wilderness record, Chamisso wilderness proposal, Chamisso National Wildlife Refuge, Second Judicial District, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Wilderness study report; Federal Register notice; materials sent to news media; public hearing package, mailing list, handout materials, attendance list, and...

  13. Recent accumulation rate at Dome A, Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU ShuGui; LI YuanSheng; XIAO CunDe; REN JiaWen

    2007-01-01

    Based on the horizon of β activity and the density profiles, recent accumulation rate at Dome A, Antarctica is calculated to be 0.023 m water equivalent per year. This value is comparative to the accumulation rates deduced from the other inland sites of Antarctica. Clear-sky precipitation (or diamond dust) dominates the total precipitation at Dome A region. We speculate Dome A as a potential site to discover the oldest ice in Antarctica due to its tremendous ice thickness (>3000 m), extremely low accumulation rate, and low ice velocity.

  14. Iron Meteorites and Upwelling in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourlay, B. S.; Behr, E.; Mardon, A.; Behr, E.

    2016-09-01

    In Antarctica, a meteorite stranding zone, stone meteorites are more common than iron. Dr. Evatt's team suggests that the heat conductivity of iron may be opposing the upwelling effects so iron meteorites sink under the ice unlike the stone ones.

  15. Geoethical approach to mineral activities in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talalay, Pavel

    2013-04-01

    Antarctica is the outermost from civilization space continent. From 14.0 million km2 of surface area about 98% of Antarctica is covered by ice that averages at least 1.6 km in thickness. Geologically, the continent is the least explored in the world, and it is almost absolutely unknown what mineral resources Antarctica has as they are buried in rock that is covered by a thick ice sheet. It is thought to have large and valuable mineral deposits under the ice. This is because of what has been found in samples taken from the small areas of rock that are exposed, and also from what has been found in South Africa and South America. Up until 180 million years ago, Antarctica was a part of the Gondwanaland super continent, attached to South America, the Southern part of Africa, India and Australia, these continents then drifted apart until they reached their current positions. This leads to a possibility that Antarctica may also share some of the mineral wealth of these continents. Right now on the ice-free areas of Antarctica iron ore, chromium, copper, gold, nickel, platinum, coal and hydrocarbons have been found. The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty, also known as the Madrid Protocol, was signed in 1991 by the signatories to the Antarctic Treaty and became law in January 1998. The Protocol provides for comprehensive protection of the Antarctic environment and associated ecosystems and includes a ban on all commercial mining for at least fifty years (this is up for review in 2041). Current climate change and melting ice in Polar Regions is opening up new opportunities to exploit mineral and oil resources. Even Antarctica's weather, ice and distance from any industrialized areas mean that mineral extraction would be extremely expensive and also extremely dangerous, the depletion of mineral recourses on the Earth can reverse banning of mining in Antarctica in future. There is no question that any resource exploitation in Antarctica will cause

  16. Potential seaways across West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, David G.; Barnes, David K. A.; Fretwell, Peter T.; Bingham, Robert G.

    2011-10-01

    The West Antarctic ice sheet (WAIS) has long been considered vulnerable to rapid retreat and today parts are rapidly losing ice. Projection of future change in WAIS is, however, hampered by our poor understanding of past changes, especially during interglacial periods that could be analogs for the future, but which undoubtedly provide an opportunity for testing predictive models. We consider how ice-loss would open seaways across WAIS; these would likely alter Southern Ocean circulation and climate, and would broadly define the de-glacial state, but they may also have left evidence of their existence in the coastal seas they once connected. We show the most likely routes for such seaways, and that a direct seaway between Weddell and Ross seas, which did not pass through the Amundsen Sea sector, is unlikely. Continued ice-loss at present rates would open seaways between Amundsen and Weddell seas (A-W), and Amundsen and Bellingshausen seas (A-B), in around one thousand years. This timescale indicates potential future vulnerability, but also suggests seaways may have opened in recent interglacial periods. We attempt to test this hypothesis using contemporary bryozoan species assemblages around Antarctica, concluding that anomalously high similarity in assemblages in the Weddell and Amundsen seas supports recent migration through A-W. Other authors have suggested opening of seaways last occurred during Marine Isotope Stage 7a (209 ka BP), but we conclude that opening could have occurred in MIS 5e (100 ka BP) when Antarctica was warmer than present and likely contributed to global sea levels higher than today.

  17. Antarctica : A Southern Hemisphere Windpower Station?

    CERN Document Server

    Bolonkin, A A; Bolonkin, Alexander A.; Cathcart, Richard B.

    2007-01-01

    The International Polar Year commences in 2007. We offer a macroproject plan to generate a large amount of electricity on the continent of Antarctica by using sail-like wind dams incorporating air turbines. Electricity can be used to make exploration and exploitation efforts on Antarctica easier. We offer the technical specifications for the Fabric Aerial Dam and indicate some of the geographical facts underpinning our macro-engineering proposal.

  18. The separation of Ceylon from Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreider, Al. A.; Schreider, A. A.; Boiko, A. N.; Kashintsev, G. L.; Evsenko, E. I.

    2011-08-01

    The geometry of the junction between Ceylon and Antarctica during the Gondwanaland breakup is still under discussion. Analysis of the available geological-geophysical materials has allowed the peculiarities of Ceylon separation from Antarctica to be characterized, the new paleogeodynamical reconstruction to be elaborated, and a prognosis of the tectonic structure and mineral resources in the areas of Antarctic coast that were adjacent to Ceylon to be made.

  19. Space analogue studies in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugg, D.; Shepanek, M.

    1999-01-01

    Medical research has been carried out on the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions (ANARE) for 50 years. As an extension of this program collaborative Australian/United States research on immunology, microbiology, psychology and remote medicine has produced important data and insight on how humans adapt to the stress of extreme isolation, confinement and the harsh environment of Antarctica. An outstanding analogue for the isolation and confinement of space missions (especially planetary outposts), ANARE has been used as an international research platform by Australia and the United States since 1993. Collaborative research has demonstrated a lowered responsiveness of the immune system under the isolation and confinement of Antarctic winter-over; a reduction of almost 50% in T cell proliferation to mitogen phytohaemogglutinin, as well as changes in latent herpesvirus states and the expansion of the polyclonal latent Epstein-Barr virus infected B cell populations. Although no clinically significant disease has been found to result from these immune changes, research is currently assessing the effects of psychological factors on the immune system. This and associated research performed to date and its relevance to both organisations is discussed, and comment made on possible extensions to the program in both medical and other fields.

  20. The Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica (LIMA): A Cutting-Edge Way for Students and Teachers to Learn about Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Brian; Bindschadler, Robert

    2009-01-01

    By studying Antarctica via satellite and through ground-truthing research, we can learn where the ice is melting and why. The Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica (LIMA), a new and cutting-edge way for scientists, researchers, educators, students, and the public to look at Antarctica, supports this research and allows for unprecedented views of our…

  1. Acting Antarctica: science on stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciceri, Piera; Tizzoni, Paola; Pierro, Luigia

    2016-04-01

    Key-words: Polar science, Earth science, Theatre, Hands on activities The legendary Antarctic Expedition of sir E. Shackleton and his crew of 27 aboard the Endurance (1914/16) trapped in the Antarctic ice has become the starting point to learn about Polar Science and Climate Change. While the students were involved into this incredible adventure by the astonishing images of the Australian photographer Frank Hurley (who joined the crew), they discovered the world in which this story happened. Students were then involved in hands-on activities and role plays and have become the writers of the play "Uomini a scienza ai confini del mondo". They act the story of Shackelton's expedition and they tell at the same time to the audience about ice pack, ice cores and their role in understanding the past of the climate, physical and geographical characteristic of polar regions, thermal phenomena related to adaptations of polar animals, solar radiation at different latitude, day/night duration. The theater was the place to "stage" some scientific experiments and to explain the current research carried out in polar regions and their importance in climate change studies and to stress some similarities between Antarctica and space. The project was carried out from teachers of science, letters and geography and was born in collaboration with the "Piccolo Teatro di Milano" and the association "Science Under 18" with the support of a professional actor and director and was played for other schools at "EXPO 2015" in Milano (Italy). In our opinion drama activities improve reading comprehension, and both verbal and non-verbal communication skills. To be able to write and to act, students need a deep understanding of contents. Arts, including theatre, are a good key to involve emotionally students. To have an audience different from their own teachers and classmates offers a real task and the opportunity to play and let grow real skills.

  2. Antarctica: Is It More Than Just Ice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Cheryl; Gutierrez, Melida

    2009-01-01

    The authors introduced polar science in a fourth-grade classroom by means of 3 hands-on activities that addressed (1) the melting of glaciers and ice, (2) the differences between the North and the South Pole, and (3) the geography and landforms of Antarctica. An assessment 4 months after the original activity showed that students remembered the…

  3. First airborne transient em survey in antarctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auken, Esben; Mikucki, J. J.; Sørensen, Kurt Ingvard K.I.

    2012-01-01

    A first airborne transient electromagnetic survey was flown in Antarctica in December 2011 with the SkyTEM system. This transient airborne EM system has been optimized in Denmark for almost ten years and was specially designed for ground water mapping. The SkyTEM tool is ideal for mapping...

  4. Read--and Walk--to Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harr, Natalie; Doneyko, Kathleen; Lee, Richard E., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The students at Crestwood Primary School proved that they have what it takes to exercise their bodies and their minds. In an effort to support their teacher's scientific expedition to Antarctica, students from kindergarten to second grade pledged to read books and do physical activity that equated to the 12,900 km (8,000-mile) journey to the…

  5. Sterile soil from Antarctica: organic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, N H; Bauman, A J; Cameron, R E; Geiger, P J; Hubbard, J S; Shulman, G P; Simmonds, P G; Westberg, K

    1969-05-30

    Soils from the dry-valley region of Antarctica can be sterile by the usual microbiological criteria and yet contain significant amounts of organic carbon. Examination of one such soil shows that the organic material is finely divided anthracite coal. These findings have significant implications for the biological exploration of Mars.

  6. Limnology of Priyadarshani Lake, Schirmacher Oasis, Antarctica

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.; Parulekar, A.H.

    in Schinnacher Oasis (Antarctica), was surveyed during the austral summers of 1984-85 and 1986-87 in limnological and benthic studies. Benthic microfaWla included seven taxonomic groups, dominated numerically by protozoa, rotifera, nematoda, turbellaria... insulation during the harsh winter (Goldman and others 1972). Seven microfaunal groupswer~recorded, in which ten genera and four species were identified. Most ofthese are exclusively benthic animals ofboth peripheral and littoral zones. Protozoa (ciliata...

  7. Managing Human Activities in Antarctica : Should Wilderness Protection Count?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastmeijer, C.J.

    2005-01-01

    Antarctica is often described as one of the world's last wildernesses. In harmony with this general perception, the wilderness values of Antarctica received legal status with the adoption of the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty. Article 3(1) of the Protocol obliges each C

  8. Antarctica: measuring glacier velocity from satellite images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchitta, B K; Ferguson, H M

    1986-11-28

    Many Landsat images of Antarctica show distinctive flow and crevasse features in the floating part of ice streams and outlet glaciers immediately below their grounding zones. Some of the features, which move with the glacier or ice stream, remain visible over many years and thus allow time-lapse measurements of ice velocities. Measurements taken from Landsat images of features on Byrd Glacier agree well with detailed ground and aerial observations. The satellite-image technique thus offers a rapid and cost-effective method of obtaining average velocities, to a first order of accuracy, of many ice streams and outlet glaciers near their termini.

  9. Autonomous Observations in Antarctica with AMICA

    CERN Document Server

    Di Rico, Gianluca; Dolci, Mauro; Straniero, Oscar; Valentini, Angelo; Valentini, Gaetano; Di Cianno, Amico; Giuliani, Croce; Magrin, Demetrio; Bonoli, Carlotta; Bortoletto, Favio; D'Alessandro, Maurizio; Corcione, Leonardo; Riva, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    The Antarctic Multiband Infrared Camera (AMICA) is a double channel camera operating in the 2-28 micron infrared domain (KLMNQ bands) that will allow to characterize and exploit the exceptional advantages for Astronomy, expected from Dome C in Antarctica. The development of the camera control system is at its final stage. After the investigation of appropriate solutions against the critical environment, a reliable instrumentation has been developed. It is currently being integrated and tested to ensure the correct execution of automatic operations. Once it will be mounted on the International Robotic Antarctic Infrared Telescope (IRAIT), AMICA and its equipment will contribute to the accomplishment of a fully autonomous observatory.

  10. The Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindschadler, R.; Vornberger, P.; Fleming, A.; Fox, A.; Mullins, J.; Binnie, D.; Paulsen, S.J.; Granneman, B.; Gorodetzky, D.

    2008-01-01

    The Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica (LIMA) is the first true-color, high-spatial-resolution image of the seventh continent. It is constructed from nearly 1100 individually selected Landsat-7 ETM+ scenes. Each image was orthorectified and adjusted for geometric, sensor and illumination variations to a standardized, almost seamless surface reflectance product. Mosaicing to avoid clouds produced a high quality, nearly cloud-free benchmark data set of Antarctica for the International Polar Year from images collected primarily during 1999-2003. Multiple color composites and enhancements were generated to illustrate additional characteristics of the multispectral data including: the true appearance of the surface; discrimination between snow and bare ice; reflectance variations within bright snow; recovered reflectance values in regions of sensor saturation; and subtle topographic variations associated with ice flow. LIMA is viewable and individual scenes or user defined portions of the mosaic are downloadable at http://lima.usgs.gov. Educational materials associated with LIMA are available at http://lima.nasa.gov.

  11. Deglacial temperature history of West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuffey, Kurt M.; Clow, Gary D.; Steig, Eric J.; Buizert, Christo; Fudge, T. J.; Koutnik, Michelle; Waddington, Edwin D.; Alley, Richard B.; Severinghaus, Jeffrey P.

    2016-12-01

    The most recent glacial to interglacial transition constitutes a remarkable natural experiment for learning how Earth’s climate responds to various forcings, including a rise in atmospheric CO2. This transition has left a direct thermal remnant in the polar ice sheets, where the exceptional purity and continual accumulation of ice permit analyses not possible in other settings. For Antarctica, the deglacial warming has previously been constrained only by the water isotopic composition in ice cores, without an absolute thermometric assessment of the isotopes’ sensitivity to temperature. To overcome this limitation, we measured temperatures in a deep borehole and analyzed them together with ice-core data to reconstruct the surface temperature history of West Antarctica. The deglacial warming was 11.3±1.8∘11.3±1.8∘C, approximately two to three times the global average, in agreement with theoretical expectations for Antarctic amplification of planetary temperature changes. Consistent with evidence from glacier retreat in Southern Hemisphere mountain ranges, the Antarctic warming was mostly completed by 15 kyBP, several millennia earlier than in the Northern Hemisphere. These results constrain the role of variable oceanic heat transport between hemispheres during deglaciation and quantitatively bound the direct influence of global climate forcings on Antarctic temperature. Although climate models perform well on average in this context, some recent syntheses of deglacial climate history have underestimated Antarctic warming and the models with lowest sensitivity can be discounted.

  12. Molecular variation of antarctic grass Deschampsia antarctica Desv. from King George Island (Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna J. Chwedorzewska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Deschampsia antarctica Desv. plants collected on King George Islands (Antarctica at two localities that differ in topographic and nutrition conditions exhibited morphological variation that differentiated plants of both locations. The molecular variation characteristic to individuals of both sites was tested using AFLP approach in order to verify whether morphological variation characteristic to the plants resulted from environmental factors or possibly from differences at the DNA level. Four primer pair combinations were used to generate 339 AFLP fragments, 132 of which were polymorphic and allowed evaluation of genetic relationships among D. antarctica individuals. Chi-square test revealed that only 12 signals were discriminative for the plants from both locations. Cluster analysis conducted on these AFLP fragments demonstrated that plants from the location rich in biogenes were more polymorphic than those from poor one. Our data suggest that the phenotypic variation specific to plants of both locations seem to be the result of adaptation to the environmental conditions like soil and moisture rather than reflect genetic differences.

  13. Antarctica and the strategic plan for biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chown, Steven L.; Brooks, Cassandra M.; Terauds, Aleks; Le Bohec, Céline; van Klaveren-Impagliazzo, Céline; Whittington, Jason D.; Butchart, Stuart H. M.; Coetzee, Bernard W. T.; Collen, Ben; Convey, Peter; Gaston, Kevin J.; Gilbert, Neil; Gill, Mike; Höft, Robert; Johnston, Sam; Kennicutt, Mahlon C.; Kriesell, Hannah J.; Le Maho, Yvon; Lynch, Heather J.; Palomares, Maria; Puig-Marcó, Roser; Stoett, Peter; McGeoch, Melodie A.

    2017-01-01

    The Strategic Plan for Biodiversity, adopted under the auspices of the Convention on Biological Diversity, provides the basis for taking effective action to curb biodiversity loss across the planet by 2020—an urgent imperative. Yet, Antarctica and the Southern Ocean, which encompass 10% of the planet’s surface, are excluded from assessments of progress against the Strategic Plan. The situation is a lost opportunity for biodiversity conservation globally. We provide such an assessment. Our evidence suggests, surprisingly, that for a region so remote and apparently pristine as the Antarctic, the biodiversity outlook is similar to that for the rest of the planet. Promisingly, however, much scope for remedial action exists. PMID:28350825

  14. Occurrence and Diversity of Marine Yeasts in Antarctica Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xue; HUA Mingxia; SONG Chunli; CHI Zhenming

    2012-01-01

    A total of 28 yeast strains were obtained from the sea sediment of Antarctica.According to the results of routine identification and molecular characterization,the strains belonged to species of Yarrowia lipolytica,Debaryomyces hansenii,Rhodotorula slooffiae,Rhodotorula mucilaginosa,Sporidiobolus salmonicolor,Aureobasidium pullulans,Mrakia frigida and Guehomyces pullulans,respectively.The Antarctica yeasts have wide potential applications in biotechnology,for some of them can produce β-galactosidase and killer toxins.

  15. Caloplaca coeruleofrigida sp. nova, a species from continental Antarctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søchting, Ulrik; Seppelt, R.

    2003-01-01

    Caloplaca coeruleofrigida Søchting & Seppelt is described from Southern Victoria Land, continental Antarctica. It is characterized by vertically elongated papillae and a pale orange pigmentation on shaded parts, and black thallus and apothecia on exposed parts of the thallus......Caloplaca coeruleofrigida Søchting & Seppelt is described from Southern Victoria Land, continental Antarctica. It is characterized by vertically elongated papillae and a pale orange pigmentation on shaded parts, and black thallus and apothecia on exposed parts of the thallus...

  16. Comparative account of benthic community at two different locations in the continental Antarctica

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.; Dhargalkar, V.K.

    Data on faunal communities, abundance and biomass were collected from seven stations in the Queen Maud Land shelf, Lazarev Sea, East Antarctica and three stations in Atca Ice Port, Weddell Sea, West Antarctica. The sampling depth ranged from 70...

  17. Ozone profiles above Palmer Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Arnold L.; Brothers, George

    1988-01-01

    NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center/Wallops Flight Facility conducted a series of 52 balloon-borne measurements of vertical ozone profiles over the National Science Foundation (NSF) research facility at Palmer Station, Antarctica (64 deg 46 S, 64 deg 3 W) between August 9 and October 24, 1987. High resolution measurements were made from ground level to an average of 10 mb. While much variation was seen in the profile amounts of ozone, it is clear that a progressive depletion of ozone occurred during the measurement period, with maximum depletion taking place in the 17 to 19 km altitude region. Ozone partial pressures dropped by about 95 percent in this region. Shown here are plotted time dependences of ozone amounts observed at 17 km and at arbitrarily selected altitudes below (13 km) and above (24 km) the region of maximum depletion. Ozone partial pressure at 17 km is about 150nb in early August, and has decreased to less than 10nb in the minimums in October. The loss rate is of the order of 1.5 percent/day. In summary, a progressive depletion in stratospheric ozone over Palmer Station was observed from August to October, 1987. Maximum depletion occurred in the 17 to 19 km range, and amounted to 95 percent. Total ozone overburden decreased by up to 50 percent during the same period.

  18. Phytoplankton Bloom Phenology near Palmer Station Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, L.; Doney, S. C.; Kavanaugh, M.; Ducklow, H. W.; Schofield, O.; Glover, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) phytoplankton bloom phenology is coupled to growing season water column stratification precipitated by seasonal warming and the melting of winter sea-ice. Previous studies document declining bloom magnitude over decadal timescales in conjunction with decreasing sea-ice extent and duration in the Northern WAP, but less work has been to done explain the observed inter-annual variability in this region. Here we use a high-resolution in situ time series collected by the Palmer Station Antarctica Long Term Ecological Research program and satellite ocean color imagery to investigate the underlying mechanisms controlling phytoplankton bloom timing and magnitude near Palmer Station. We pair chlorophyll and CTD measurements collected twice per week during the austral summer, 1992—2003, with satellite ocean color and ice fractional cover data to examine bloom development and within-season trends in mixed layer depth. Initial results suggest a possible shift over time with spring/summer blooms occurring earlier in the growing season reflecting earlier sea-ice free conditions. Net phytoplankton accumulation rates are also computed and compared against growth estimates. Our results can be used to develop and validate models of coastal Antarctic primary production that better represent inter-annual primary production variability.

  19. Physical properties of aerosols at Maitri, Antarctica

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C G Deshpande; A K Kamra

    2004-03-01

    Measurements of the submicron aerosol size distribution made at the Indian Antarctic station, Maitri (70° 45′S, 11° 44′E) from January 10th to February 24th, 1997, are reported. Total aerosol concentrations normally range from 800 to 1200 particles cm-3 which are typical values for the coastal stations at Antarctica in summer. Aerosol size distributions are generally trimodal and open- ended with a peak between 75 and 133nm and two minima at 42 and 420 nm. Size distributions remain almost similar for several hours or even days in absence of any meteorological disturbance. Total aerosol concentration increases by approximately an order of magnitude whenever a low pressure system passes over the station. Based on the evolution of aerosol size-distributions during such aerosol enhancement periods, three types of cases have been identified. The nucleation mode in all three cases has been suggested to result from the photochemical conversion of the DMS emissions transported either by the marine air or by the air from the ice-melt regions around Maitri. Subsidence of midtropospheric air during the weakening of radiative inversion is suggested as a possible source of the nucleation mode particles in the third case. Growth of the nucleation mode particles by condensation, coagulation and/or by cloud processes has been suggested to be responsible for other modes in size distributions.

  20. Social, occupational and cultural adaptation in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Michel; Bishop, Sheryl; Weiss, Karine; Gaudino, Marvin

    2016-07-01

    Life in isolated and confined environments (ICEs, e.g., polar stations, submarine or space missions), is subject to important constraints which can generate psychosociological impaired outcomes. This study investigated psychological, social, occupational and cultural variables which are among the most important determinants in adaptation to a one-year wintering in Antarctica with 13 international participants. Our findings confirm and give further insight into the role of social (Cohesiveness, Social Support) and occupational (Implementation / Preparedness, Counterproductive Activity, Decision Latitude and Psychological Job Demands) dimensions of adaptation to ICE environments. Relationships between various social and occupational dimensions studies reflected detrimental effects ranging from decrements in cohesiveness, social support and work performance which differed across professional status and multicultural factors. These psychosocial issues have important implications for pre-mission selection and training, monitoring and support of crews during the mission and post-mission readaptation. Operational recommendations are suggested to improve adaptation, success and well-being for long-term ICE missions, e.g., to Mars and beyond.

  1. Skin Dose Assessment Methodology for Military Personnel at McMurdo Station, Antarctica (1962-1979)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Military Personnel at McMurdo Station, Antarctica (1962-1979) Approved for public release: distribution is unlimited. June 2014 Prepared by...From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Skin Dose Assessment Methodology for Military Personnel at McMurdo Station, Antarctica (1962-1979) 5a. CONTRACT... Antarctica (1962-1979) Table of Contents List of Tables

  2. 45 CFR 674.4 - Restrictions on collection of meteorites in Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Antarctica. 674.4 Section 674.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ANTARCTIC METEORITES § 674.4 Restrictions on collection of meteorites in Antarctica. No person may collect meteorites in Antarctica for other than scientific research purposes....

  3. Ongoing deformation of Antarctica following recent Great Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Matt; Santamaría-Gómez, Alvaro

    2016-04-01

    The secular motion of Antarctica is thought to be almost everywhere governed by horizontal rigid plate rotation plus three-dimensional deformations due to past and present changes in ice-ocean loading, known as glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). We use geodetic data to investigate deformation following the 1998 magnitude ~8.1 Antarctic intra-plate Earthquake, and show sustained three-dimensional deformation along East Antarctica's coastline, 600 km from the rupture location. Using a model of viscoelastic deformation we are able to match observed northward velocity changes, and either east or height, but not all three directions simultaneously, apparently partly due to lateral variations in mantle rheology. Our modeling predicts much of Antarctica may still be deforming, with further deformation possible from the 2004 Macquarie Ridge Earthquake. This previously unconsidered mode of Antarctic deformation affects geodetic estimates of plate motion and GIA; its viscous nature raises the prospect of further present-day deformation due to earlier Great Earthquakes.

  4. Permafrost and periglacial research in Antarctica: New results and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmin, Mauro; Vieira, Gonçalo

    2014-11-01

    In the last two years the research within the Antarctic Permafrost, Periglacial Environments and Soils (ANTPAS) Expert Group of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) and Working Group of the International Permafrost Association (IPA) provided new results on the dynamics of periglacial environments both in Maritime and Continental Antarctica. In continental Antarctica despite the absence of air warming, in the last 15 years an active layer thickening and acceleration of permafrost degradation erosional phenomena were reported, these being mainly related to the increase of solar radiation. On the other hand, in Maritime Antarctica, with a dramatic air warming, permafrost degradation has been observed, but the role of snow cover on the ground energy balance and consequently on permafrost and active layer has been underlined. Moreover, many contributions on the knowledge on the characteristics of the Antarctic soils were carried out in several areas along a wide latitudinal range.

  5. Provenance of dust to Antarctica: A lead isotopic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gili, Stefania; Gaiero, Diego M.; Goldstein, Steven L.; Chemale, Farid, Jr.; Koester, Edinei; Jweda, Jason; Vallelonga, Paul; Kaplan, Michael R.

    2016-03-01

    Antarctic ice preserves an ~800 kyr record of dust activity in the Southern Hemisphere. Major efforts have been dedicated to elucidate the origin of this material in order to gain greater insight into the atmospheric dust cycle. On the basis of Pb isotopes in Antarctic dust samples and potential sources, this contribution demonstrates for the first time that Patagonia is the main contributor of dust to Antarctica during interglacial periods as well as glacials, although the potential importance of Tierra del Fuego remains unclear because of its geochemical similarities to Patagonia. An important new finding is that the Puna-Altiplano sector of the continent is a second important dust source to eastern Antarctica during both glacials and interglacials, being more prominent during interglacials. The data indicate South America is the primary dust source to Antarctica during both glacials and interglacials.

  6. Where does CO2 in Antarctica cool the atmosphere ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmithüsen, Holger; Notholt, Justus; König-Langlo, Gert; Lemke, Peter; Jung, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    In a recent study we have shown that for the high altitude plateau in Antarctica CO2 causes a surplus in infrared emission to space compared to what is emitted from the surface. This corresponds to a negative greenhouse effect, and is due to the fact that for this region the surface is typically colder than the atmosphere above, opposite to the rest of the world. As a consequence, for this region an increase in CO2 leads to an increase in the energy loss to space, leading to an increase in the negative greenhouse effect. We now studied in more detail the radiative effect of CO2 and compared the results with available measurements from Antarctica. H. Schmithüsen, J. Notholt, G. Köngig-Langlo, T, Jung. How increasing CO2 leads to an increased negative greenhouse effect in Antarctica. Geophysical Research Letters, in press, 2015. doi: 10.1002/2015GL066749.

  7. Electric field measurements from Halley, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoll, Keri; Harrison, R. Giles

    2016-04-01

    Antarctica is a unique location for the study of atmospheric electricity. Not only is it one of the most pollutant free places on Earth, but its proximity to the south magnetic pole means that it is an ideal location to study the effects of solar variability on the atmospheric electric field. This is due to the reduced shielding effect of the geomagnetic field at the poles which leads to a greater flux of incoming Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) as well as an increased probability of energetic particle precipitation from SEPs and relativistic electrons. To investigate such effects, two electric field mills of different design were installed at the British Antarctic Survey Halley base in February 2015 (75. 58 degrees south, 26.66 degrees west). Halley is situated on the Brunt Ice Shelf in the south east of the Weddell Sea and has snow cover all year round. Preliminary analysis has focused on selection of fair weather criteria using wind speed and visibility measurements which are vital to assess the effects of falling snow, blowing snow and freezing fog on the electric field measurements. When the effects of such adverse weather conditions are removed clear evidence of the characteristic Carnegie Curve diurnal cycle exists in the Halley electric field measurements (with a mean value of 50V/m and showing a 40% peak to peak variation in comparison to the 34% variation in the Carnegie data). Since the Carnegie Curve represents the variation in thunderstorm activity across the Earth, its presence in the Halley data confirms the presence of the global atmospheric electric circuit signal at Halley. The work presented here will discuss the details of the Halley electric field dataset, including the variability in the fair weather measurements, with a particular focus on magnetic field fluctuations.

  8. Mean thermospheric winds observed from Halley, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. I. Crickmore

    Full Text Available Thermospheric winds on a total of 237 nights have been studied for the effects due to geomagnetic activity, solar flux, and season. The observations have been made from 1988 to 1992 by a Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI operating at Halley (75.5°S, 26.6°W, Antarctica. This is the first statistical study of thermospheric winds near the southern auroral zone. The main factor affecting the wind velocities is the geomagnetic activity. Increases in activity cause an increase in the maximum equatorward wind, and cause the zonal wind in the evening to become more westward. Smaller changes in the mean wind occur with variations in season and solar flux. The small variation with solar flux is more akin to the situation found at mid-latitudes than at high latitudes. Since the geomagnetic latitude of Halley is only 61°, it suggests that the variability of the wind with solar flux may depend more on geomagnetic than geographic latitude. These observations are in good agreement with the empirical Horizontal Wind Model (HWM90. However, comparisons with predictions of the Vector Spherical Harmonic Model (VSH show that for low geomagnetic activity the predicted phases of the two components of the wind closely resemble the observations but the modelled amplitudes are too small by a factor of two. At high geomagnetic activity the major differences are that modelled zonal velocity is too westward in the evening and too eastward after 04 UT. The modelled ion densities at the F-region peak are a factor of up to 9 too large, whilst the predicted mean value and diurnal variation of the altitude of the peak are significantly lower than those observed. It is suggested that these differences result from the ion loss rate being too low, and an inaccurate model of the magnetic field.

  9. Radiocarbon analyses along the EDML ice core in Antarctica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Wal, R.S.W.; Meijer, H.A.J.; van Rooij, M.; van der Veen, C.

    2007-01-01

    Samples, 17 in total, from the EDML core drilled at Kohnen station Antarctica are analysed for 14CO and 14CO2 with a dry-extraction technique in combination with accelerator mass spectrometry. Results of the in situ produced 14CO fraction show a very low concentration of in situ produced 14CO. Despi

  10. Radiocarbon analyses along the EDML ice core in Antarctica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Wal, R. S. W.; Meijer, H. A. J.; De Rooij, M.; Van der Veen, C.

    2007-01-01

    Samples, 17 in total, from the EDML core drilled at Kohnen station Antarctica are analysed for (CO)-C-14 and (CO2)-C-14 with a dry-extraction technique in combination with accelerator mass spectrometry. Results of the in situ produced (CO)-C-14 fraction show a very low concentration of in situ produ

  11. Ross Ice Shelf and the Queen Maude Mounains, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Part of the Ross Ice Shelf and the Queen Maude Mounains of Antarctica (55.5N, 178.0W) are in the background of this scene, oriented toward the south. Low stratocumulus clouds are predominant throughout most of the scene.

  12. Origin(s) of Antarctica's Wilkes subglacial basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weihaupt, J.G.; Van der Hoeven, F.G.; Lorius, C.; Chambers, F.B.

    2013-01-01

    The Wilkes Subglacial Basin (WSB), the largest subglacial basin in East Antarctica, is a topographic depression of continental proportions that lies beneath the East Antarctic continental ice sheet. Discovered by the US Victoria Land Traverse 1959–60, the origin of the WSB and the influence of palae

  13. Ecobiological studies of the freshwater lakes at Schirmacher Oasis, Antarctica

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.; Dhargalkar, V.K.; Matondkar, S.G.P.

    . These values were comparable to other freshwater lakes in Antarctica. SiO sub(3) concentration showed large fluctuations between lakes. Urea, ammonia, total nitrogen (TN) and dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) attained maximum values of 1.39, 1.79, 16 and 0...

  14. An evolutionary insight into Newcastle disease viruses isolated in Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soñora, Martin; Moreno, Pilar; Echeverría, Natalia; Fischer, Sabrina; Comas, Victoria; Fajardo, Alvaro; Cristina, Juan

    2015-08-01

    The disease caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a severe threat to the poultry industry worldwide. Recently, NDV has been isolated in the Antarctic region. Detailed studies on the mode of evolution of NDV strains isolated worldwide are relevant for our understanding of the evolutionary history of NDV. For this reason, we have performed Bayesian coalescent analysis of NDV strains isolated in Antarctica to study evolutionary rates, population dynamics, and patterns of evolution. Analysis of F protein cleavage-site sequences of NDV isolates from Antarctica suggested that these strains are lentogenic. Strains isolated in Antarctica and genotype I reference strain Ulster/67 diverged from ancestors that existed around 1958. The time of the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) was established to be around 1883 for all class II viruses. A mean rate of evolution of 1.78 × 10(-3) substitutions per site per year (s/s/y) was obtained for the F gene sequences of NDV strains examined in this study. A Bayesian skyline plot indicated a decline in NDV population size in the last 25 years. The results are discussed in terms of the possible role of Antarctica in emerging or re-emerging viruses and the evolution of NDV populations worldwide.

  15. Surface and snowdrift sublimation at Princess Elisabeth station, East Antarctica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiery, W.; Gorodetskaya, I.V.; Bintanja, R.; van Lipzig, N.P.M.; van den Broeke, M.R.; Reijmer, C.H.; Kuipers Munneke, P.

    2012-01-01

    In the near-coastal regions of Antarctica, a significant fraction of the snow precipitating onto the surface is removed again through sublimation – either directly from the surface or from drifting snow particles. Meteorological observations from an Automatic Weather Station (AWS) near the Belgian r

  16. Antarctica: Arena for South American Cooperation or Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, Jack

    A number of converging circumstances suggest that Antarctica may be a major object of geopolitical attention in South America in the decade to come. The Malvinas/Falklands crisis focused geopolitical attention on the South Atlantic and the chain of Southern (Austral) Islands which link the southern tip of South America to the Antarctic Peninsula.…

  17. Triassic leech cocoon from Antarctica contains fossil bell animal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bomfleur, Benjamin; Kerp, Hans; Taylor, Thomas N.

    2012-01-01

    , exceptional fossil deposits that preserve soft-bodied organisms provide a rare glimpse of the true biodiversity during past periods of Earth history. We here present an extraordinary find of a fossil ciliate that is encased inside the wall layer of a more than 200 Ma leech cocoon from Antarctica...

  18. P-band radar ice sounding in Antarctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Jørgen; Kusk, Anders; Kristensen, Steen Savstrup

    2012-01-01

    In February 2011, the Polarimetric Airborne Radar Ice Sounder (POLARIS) was flown in Antarctica in order to assess the feasibility of a potential space-based radar ice sounding mission. The campaign has demonstrated that the basal return is detectable in areas with up to 3 km thick cold ice...

  19. A comparison of coincident GRACE and ICESat data over Antarctica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunter, B.; Urban, T.; Riva, R.E.M.; Helsen, M.M.; Harpold, R.; Poole, S.; Nagel, P.; Schutz, B.; Tapley, B.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we present a comparison of coincident GRACE and ICESat data over Antarctica. The analysis focused on the secular changes over a 4-year period spanning from 2003 to 2007, using the recently reprocessed and publicly available data sets for both missions. The results show that the two in

  20. Transcriptome of the Antarctic brooding gastropod mollusc Margarella antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Melody S; Thorne, Michael A S

    2015-12-01

    454 RNA-Seq transcriptome data were generated from foot tissue of the Antarctic brooding gastropod mollusc Margarella antarctica. A total of 6195 contigs were assembled de novo, providing a useful resource for researchers with an interest in Antarctic marine species, phylogenetics and mollusc biology, especially shell production.

  1. Abrupt climate warming in East Antarctica during the early Holocene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremer, H.; Heiri, O.; Wagner, B.; Wagner-Cremer, F.

    2007-01-01

    We report a centennial-scale warming event between 8600 and 8400 cal BP from Amery Oasis, East Antarctica, that is documented by the geochemical record in a lacustrine sediment sequence. The organic carbon content, the C/S ratio, and the sedimentation rate in this core have distinctly elevated value

  2. Limnology of freshwater lakes of Schirmacher Oasis, East Antarctica

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Ten freshwater lakes in the Schirmacher Oasis, Antarctica, with water temperature varying from 1.0 to 7.9 degrees; dissolved oxygen from 10.4 to 13.8 mg l/1 and pH from 7.6 to 8.8, were studied biologically during January-February of 1985 and 1987...

  3. Mass Casualty Incident Response and Aeromedical Evacuation in Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mills, Christopher N

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Antarctica is one of the most remote regions on Earth. Mass casualty incident (MCI responses in Antarctica are prone to complications from multiple environmental and operational challenges. This review of the current status of MCI risks and response strategies for Antarctica focuses on aeromedical evacuation, a critical component of many possible MCI scenarios. Extreme cold and weather, a lack of medical resources and a multitude of disparate international bases all exert unique demands on MCI response planning. Increasing cruise ship traffic is also escalating the risk of MCI occurrence. To be successful, MCI response must be well coordinated and undertaken by trained rescuers, especially in the setting of Antarctica. Helicopter rescue or aeromedical evacuation of victims to off-continent facilities may be necessary. Currently, military forces have the greatest capacity for mass air evacuation. Specific risks that are likely to occur include structure collapses, vehicle incapacitations, vehicle crashes and fires. All of these events pose concomitant risks of hypothermia among both victims and rescuers. Antarctica’s unique environment requires flexible yet robust MCI response planning among the many entities in operation on the continent. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(1:37-42.

  4. Microbial Energetics Beneath the Taylor Glacier, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikucki, J. A.; Turchyn, A. V.; Farquhar, J.; Priscu, J. C.; Schrag, D. P.; Pearson, A.

    2007-12-01

    Subglacial microbiology is controlled by glacier hydrology, bedrock lithology, and the preglacial ecosystem. These factors can all affect metabolic function by influencing electron acceptor and donor availability in the subglacial setting leaving biogeochemical signatures that can be used to determine ecosystem processes. Blood Falls, an iron-rich, episodic subglacial outflow from the Taylor Glacier in the McMurdo Dry Valleys Antarctica provides an example of how microbial community structure and function can provide insight into subglacial hydrology. This subglacial outflow contains cryoconcentrated, Pliocene-age seawater salts that pooled in the upper Taylor Valley and was subsequently covered by the advance of the Taylor Glacier. Biogeochemical measurements, culture-based techniques, and genomic analysis were used to characterize microbes and chemistry associated with the subglacial outflow. The isotopic composition of important geochemical substrates (i.e., δ34Ssulfate, Δ33Ssulfate, δ18Osulfate, δ18Owater, Δ14SDIC) were also measured to provide more detail on subglacial microbial energetics. Typically, subglacial systems, when driven to anoxia by the hydrolysis of organic matter, will follow a continuum of redox chemistries utilizing electron acceptors with decreasing reduction potential (e.g., Fe (III), sulfate, CO2). Our data provide no evidence for sulfate reduction below the Taylor Glacier despite high dissolved organic carbon (450 μM C) and measurable metabolic activity. We contend that, in the case of the Taylor Glacier, the in situ bioenergetic reduction potential has been 'short-circuited' at Fe(III)-reduction and excludes sulfate reduction and methanogenesis. Given the length of time that this marine system has been isolated from phototrophic production (~2 Mya) the ability to degrade and consume increasingly recalcitrant organic carbon is likely an important component to the observed redox chemistry. Our work indicates that glacier hydrology

  5. Seismic Constraints on the Mantle Viscosity Structure beneath Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, Douglas; Heeszel, David; Aster, Richard; Nyblade, Andrew; Wilson, Terry

    2015-04-01

    Lateral variations in upper mantle viscosity structure can have first order effects on glacial isostatic adjustment. These variations are expected to be particularly large for the Antarctic continent because of the stark geological contrast between ancient cratonic and recent tectonically active terrains in East and West Antarctica, respectively. A large misfit between observed and predicted GPS rates for West Antarctica probably results in part from the use of a laterally uniform viscosity structure. Although not linked by a simple relationship, mantle seismic velocities can provide important constraints on mantle viscosity structure, as they are both largely controlled by temperature and water content. Recent higher resolution seismic models for the Antarctic mantle, derived from data acquired by new seismic stations deployed in the AGAP/GAMSEIS and ANET/POLENET projects, offer the opportunity to use the seismic velocity structure to place new constraints on the viscosity of the Antarctic upper mantle. We use an Antarctic shear wave velocity model derived from array analysis of Rayleigh wave phase velocities [Heeszel et al, in prep] and examine a variety of methodologies for relating seismic, thermal and rheological parameters to compute a suite of viscosity models for the Antarctic mantle. A wide variety of viscosity structures can be derived using various assumptions, but they share several robust common elements. There is a viscosity contrast of at least two orders of magnitude between East and West Antarctica at depths of 80-250 km, reflecting the boundary between cold cratonic lithosphere in East Antarctica and warm upper mantle in West Antarctica. The region beneath the Ellsworth-Whitmore Mtns and extending to the Pensacola Mtns. shows intermediate viscosity between the extremes of East and West Antarctica. There are also significant variations between different parts of West Antarctica, with the lowest viscosity occurring beneath the Marie Byrd Land (MBL

  6. Expressed sequence tag analysis of Antarctic hairgrass Deschampsia antarctica from King George Island, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyoungseok; Cho, Hyun Hee; Kim, Il-Chan; Yim, Joung Han; Lee, Hong Kum; Lee, Yoo Kyung

    2008-04-30

    Deschampsia antarctica is the only monocot that thrives in the tough conditions of the Antarctic region. It is an invaluable resource for the identification of genes associated with tolerance to various environmental pressures. In order to identify genes that are differentially regulated between greenhouse-grown and Antarctic field-grown plants, we initiated a detailed gene expression analysis. Antarctic plants were collected and greenhouse plants served as controls. Two different cDNA libraries were constructed with these plants. A total of 2,112 cDNA clones was sequenced and grouped into 1,199 unigene clusters consisting of 243 consensus and 956 singleton sequences. Using similarity searches against several public databases, we constructed a functional classification of the ESTs into categories such as genes related to responses to stimuli, as well as photosynthesis and metabolism. Real-time PCR analysis of various stress responsive genes revealed different patterns of regulation in the different environments, suggesting that these genes are involved in responses to specific environmental factors.

  7. Design and Implementation of a Consolidated Airfield at McMurdo, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Consolidated Airfield at McMurdo, Antarctica Co ld R eg io ns R es ea rc h an d En gi ne er in g La bo ra to ry Robert Haehnel, Margaret A. Knuth...ERDC/CRREL TR-14-22 September 2014 Design and Implementation of a Consolidated Airfield at McMurdo, Antarctica Robert Haehnel, Margaret A. Knuth...McMurdo, Antarctica ..................................................................................................... 77 Appendix F: Draft Consolidated

  8. The establishment of GPS network in Grove Mountains, East Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The Grove Mountains are located in Princess Elizabeth Land, East Antarctica, extending from 72° to 73°S latitude and 73° to 76°E longitude, covering approximately 8000 km2 areas. During the 2002/2003 austral summer season, the 19th CHINARE (Chinese National Antarctic Research Expedition) carried out the third expedition in Grove Mountains, East Antarctica. The Geodetic network was established, which can provide ground control for the satellite image map for the multi-discipline expedition in the Grove Mountains where seven permanent GPS benchmarks were set up supported by the helicopter and snow vehicles. All GPS sites besides Z001 were observed at least for one hour using the dual frequencies Trimble 4000ssi GPS receivers. The data were processed by the comprehensive GPS analysis package-GAMIT/GLOBK and the precision is good enough to satisfy with the acquirement of satellite mapping in this area.

  9. Synchronous climate changes in Antarctica and the North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steig, E.J.; Brook, E.J.; White, J.W.C.; Sucher, C.M.; Bender, M.L.; Lehman, S.J.; Morse, D.L.; Waddington, E.D.; Clow, G.D.

    1998-01-01

    Central Greenland ice cores provide evidence of abrupt changes in climate over the past 100,000 years. Many of these changes have also been identified in sedimentary and geochemical signatures in deep-sea sediment cores from the North Atlantic, confirming the link between millennial-scale climate variability and ocean thermohaline circulation. It is shown here that two of the most prominent North Atlantic events - the rapid warming that makes the end of the last glacial period and the Bolling/Allerod-Younger Dryas oscillation - are also recorded in an ice core from Taylor Dome, in the western Ross Sea sector of Antarctica. This result contrasts with evidence from ice cores in other regions of Antarctica, which show an asynchronous response between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres.

  10. First time-series optical photometry from Antarctica

    CERN Document Server

    Strassmeier, K G; Granzer, T; Tosti, G; DiVarano, I; Savanov, I; Bagaglia, M; Castellini, S; Mancini, A; Nucciarelli, G; Straniero, O; Distefano, E; Messina, S; Cutispoto, G

    2008-01-01

    Beating the Earth's day-night cycle is mandatory for long and continuous time-series photometry and had been achieved with either large ground-based networks of observatories at different geographic longitudes or when conducted from space. A third possibility is offered by a polar location with astronomically-qualified site characteristics. Aims. In this paper, we present the first scientific stellar time-series optical photometry from Dome C in Antarctica and analyze approximately 13,000 CCD frames taken in July 2007. We conclude that high-precision CCD photometry with exceptional time coverage and cadence can be obtained at Dome C in Antarctica and be successfully used for time-series astrophysics.

  11. The conquest of Antarctica; A la conquista de la Antartida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tristan, R. M.

    2015-07-01

    The information obtained in the more than 15 projects designed for the XXVIII campaign to Antarctica, and in the they involved a total of 80 researchers, will serve to learn more about terrestrial magnetism, changes occurring in the climate, the behavior of the volcanoes, the evolution of the glaciers, the rate of thaw, the weather variations, characteristics of the lichens, the progress of pollution... Even know the past that remains frozen under the ice to predict what might happen in the future. (Author)

  12. Direct gravimetric determination of aerosol mass concentration in central antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annibaldi, Anna; Truzzi, Cristina; Illuminati, Silvia; Scarponi, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    In Antarctica, experimental difficulties due to extreme conditions have meant that aerosol mass has rarely been measured directly by gravimetry, and only in coastal areas where concentrations were in the range of 1-7 μg m(-3). The present work reports on a careful differential weighing methodology carried out for the first time on the plateau of central Antarctica (Dome C, East Antarctica). To solve problems of accurate aerosol mass measurements, a climatic room was used for conditioning and weighing filters. Measurements were carried out in long stages of several hours of readings with automatic recording of temperature/humidity and mass. This experimental scheme allowed us to sample from all the measurements (up to 2000) carried out before and after exposure, those which were recorded under the most stable humidity conditions and, even more importantly, as close to each other as possible. The automatic reading of the mass allowed us in any case to obtain hundreds of measurements from which to calculate average values with uncertainties sufficiently low to meet the requirements of the differential weighing procedure (±0.2 mg in filter weighing, between ±7% and ±16% both in aerosol mass and concentration measurements). The results show that the average summer aerosol mass concentration (aerodynamic size ≤10 μm) in central Antarctica is about 0.1 μg m(-3), i.e., about 1/10 of that of coastal Antarctic areas. The concentration increases by about 4-5 times at a site very close to the station.

  13. Transiting planet candidates with ASTEP 400 at Dome C, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mékarnia, D.; Guillot, T.; Rivet, J.-P.; Schmider, F.-X.; Abe, L.; Gonçalves, I.; Agabi, A.; Crouzet, N.; Fruth, T.; Barbieri, M.; Bayliss, D. D. R.; Zhou, G.; Aristidi, E.; Szulagyi, J.; Daban, J.-B.; Fanteï-Caujolle, Y.; Gouvret, C.; Erikson, A.; Rauer, H.; Bouchy, F.; Gerakis, J.; Bouchez, G.

    2016-11-01

    ASTEP 400, the main instrument of the ASTEP (Antarctica Search for Transiting ExoPlanets) programme, is a 40 cm telescope, designed to withstand the harsh conditions in Antarctica, achieving a photometric accuracy of a fraction of millimagnitude on hourly time-scales for planet-hosting southern bright (R ˜ 12 mag) stars. We review the performances of this instrument, describe its operating conditions, and present results from the analysis of observations obtained during its first three years (2010-2012) of operation, before its repatriation in 2014. During this time, we observed a total of 22 stellar fields (1° × 1° field of view). Each field, in which we measured stars up to magnitude R = 18 mag, was observed continuously during ˜7 to ˜30 d. More than 200 000 frames were recorded and 310 000 stars processed, using an implementation of the optimal image subtraction photometry algorithm. We found 43 planetary transit candidates. 20 of these candidates were observed using spectroscopic follow-ups including four targets classified as good planet candidates. Our results demonstrate that accurate near-continuous photometric observations are achievable from the Concordia station at Dome C in Antarctica, even if we were not able to reach the nominal photometric precision of the instrument. We conducted a correlation analysis between the rms noise and a large number of external parameters and found that source of the ˜1 mmag correlated noise is not obvious and does not depend on a single parameter. However, our analysis provided some hints and guidance to increase the photometric accuracy of the instrument. These improvements should equip any future telescope operating in Antarctica.

  14. Victoria Land, Ross Sea, and Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    On December 19, 2001, MODIS acquired data that produced this image of Antarctica's Victoria Land, Ross Ice Shelf, and the Ross Sea. The coastline that runs up and down along the left side of the image denotes where Victoria Land (left) meets the Ross Ice Shelf (right). The Ross Ice Shelf is the world's largest floating body of ice, approximately the same size as France. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  15. VLF wave injection experiments from Siple Station, Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    R.A., Helliwell

    1987-01-01

    The background of VLF wave-particle experiments from Siple Station, Antarctica, including wave-induced precipitation is briefly reviewed. Single frequency ducted signals that exceed a certain 'threshold' intensity are observed at the conjugate point (Roberval, Quebec) to be amplified 30-50dB, with temporal growth rates of 30-200dB/s. Following saturation, variable frequency emissions are triggered. When a second signal is added to the first, with a frequency spacing Df

  16. Ice crystal precipitation at Dome C site (East Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santachiara, G.; Belosi, F.; Prodi, F.

    2016-01-01

    For the first time, falling ice crystals were collected on glass slides covered with a thin layer of 2% formvar in chloroform at the Dome Concordia site (Dome C), Antarctica. Samplings were performed in the framework of the 27th Italian Antarctica expedition of the Italian National Program for Research in Antarctica in the period 21 February-6 August 2012. Events of clear-sky precipitations and precipitations from clouds were considered and the replicas obtained were examined under Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Several shapes of ice crystals were identified, including "diamond dust" (plates, pyramids, hollow and solid columns), and crystal aggregates varying in complexity. Single events often contained both small (10 μm to 50 μm) and large (hundreds of microns) crystals, suggesting that crystals can form simultaneously near the ground (height of a few hundred metres) and at higher layers (height of thousands of metres). Images of sampled crystal replicas showed that single bullets are not produced separately, but by the disintegration of combinations of bullets. Rimed ice crystals were absent in the Dome C samples, i.e. the only mode of crystal growth was water vapour diffusion. On considering the aerosol in the sampled crystals, we reached the conclusion that inertial impaction, interception and Brownian motion were insufficient to explain the scavenged aerosol. We therefore presume that phoretic forces play a role in scavenging during the crystal growth process.

  17. Antarctica's protected areas are inadequate, unrepresentative, and at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Justine D; Terauds, Aleks; Riddle, Martin J; Possingham, Hugh P; Chown, Steven L

    2014-06-01

    Antarctica is widely regarded as one of the planet's last true wildernesses, insulated from threat by its remoteness and declaration as a natural reserve dedicated to peace and science. However, rapidly growing human activity is accelerating threats to biodiversity. We determined how well the existing protected-area system represents terrestrial biodiversity and assessed the risk to protected areas from biological invasions, the region's most significant conservation threat. We found that Antarctica is one of the planet's least protected regions, with only 1.5% of its ice-free area formally designated as specially protected areas. Five of the distinct ice-free ecoregions have no specially designated areas for the protection of biodiversity. Every one of the 55 designated areas that protect Antarctica's biodiversity lies closer to sites of high human activity than expected by chance, and seven lie in high-risk areas for biological invasions. By any measure, including Aichi Target 11 under the Convention on Biological Diversity, Antarctic biodiversity is poorly protected by reserves, and those reserves are threatened.

  18. Antarctica's protected areas are inadequate, unrepresentative, and at risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine D Shaw

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Antarctica is widely regarded as one of the planet's last true wildernesses, insulated from threat by its remoteness and declaration as a natural reserve dedicated to peace and science. However, rapidly growing human activity is accelerating threats to biodiversity. We determined how well the existing protected-area system represents terrestrial biodiversity and assessed the risk to protected areas from biological invasions, the region's most significant conservation threat. We found that Antarctica is one of the planet's least protected regions, with only 1.5% of its ice-free area formally designated as specially protected areas. Five of the distinct ice-free ecoregions have no specially designated areas for the protection of biodiversity. Every one of the 55 designated areas that protect Antarctica's biodiversity lies closer to sites of high human activity than expected by chance, and seven lie in high-risk areas for biological invasions. By any measure, including Aichi Target 11 under the Convention on Biological Diversity, Antarctic biodiversity is poorly protected by reserves, and those reserves are threatened.

  19. Relative sea-level rise around East Antarctica during Oligocene glaciation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stocchi, P.; Escutia, C.; Houben, A.J.P.; Vermeersen, B.L.A.; Bijl, P.K.; Brinkhuis, H.; Deconto, R.M.; Galeotti, S.; Passchier, S.; Pollard, D.

    2013-01-01

    During the middle and late Eocene (∼ 48-34 Myr ago), the Earth's climate cooled and an ice sheet built up on Antarctica. The stepwise expansion of ice on Antarctica induced crustal deformation and gravitational perturbations around the continent. Close to the ice sheet, sea level rose despite an ove

  20. Relative sea-level rise around East Antarctica during Oligocene glaciation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stocchi, P.; Escutia, C.; Houben, A.J.P.; Vermeersen, B.L.A.; Bijl, P.K.; Brinkhuis, H.; DeConto , R.M.; Galeotti, S.; Passchier, S.; Pollard, D.; IODP Expedition 318 Scientists; Houben, A.J.P.

    2013-01-01

    During the middle and late Eocene (similar to 48-34 Myr ago), the Earth's climate cooled(1,2) and an ice sheet built up on Antarctica. The stepwise expansion of ice on Antarctica(3,4) induced crustal deformation and gravitational perturbations around the continent. Close to the ice sheet, sea level

  1. Antibacterial, antifungal and antiprotozoal activities of fungal communities present in different substrates from Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antarctica is a pristine and extreme environment that represents a unique opportunity for taxonomic, ecological and biotechnological studies of the microorganisms. In the present work, the fungal communities of rhizosphere soil of Deschampsia antarctica, soil, ornithogenic soil, marine and lake sedi...

  2. Antarctica: The Continuing Experiment. Foreign Policy Association Headline Series, No. 273.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigg, Philip W.

    One of a series of booklets on world issues examines the sharpened differences between those nations that have declared sovereignty over parts of Antarctica and those that have not; between those nations that have arbitrarily assumed responsibility for the administration of Antarctica and the smaller, more numerous nations that believe their…

  3. Influence of persistent wind scour on the surface mass balance of Antarctica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, I.; Bell, R.E.; Lenaerts, J.T.M.; Broeke, M.R. van den

    2013-01-01

    Accurate quantification of surface snow accumulation over Antarctica is a key constraint for estimates of the Antarctic mass balance, as well as climatic interpretations of ice-core records1,2. Over Antarctica, near-surface winds accelerate down relatively steep surface slopes, eroding and sublimati

  4. Influence of Persistent Wind Scour on the Surface Mass Balance of Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Indrani; Bell, Robin E.; Scambos, Ted A.; Wolovick, Michael; Creyts, Timothy T.; Studinger, Michael; Fearson, Nicholas; Nicolas, Julien P.; Lenaerts, Jan T. M.; vandenBroeke, Michiel R.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate quantification of surface snow accumulation over Antarctica is a key constraint for estimates of the Antarctic mass balance, as well as climatic interpretations of ice-core records. Over Antarctica, near-surface winds accelerate down relatively steep surface slopes, eroding and sublimating the snow. This wind scour results in numerous localized regions (Antarctica. The scour zones are persistent because they are controlled by bedrock topography. On the basis of our Dome A observations, we develop an empirical model to predict wind-scour zones across the Antarctic continent and find that these zones are predominantly located in East Antarctica. We estimate that approx. 2.7-6.6% of the surface area of Antarctica has persistent negative net accumulation due to wind scour, which suggests that, across the continent, the snow mass input is overestimated by 11-36.5 Gt /yr in present surface-mass-balance calculations.

  5. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Activities in the Exploration of Antarctica: Introduction to Antarctica (Including USGS Field Personnel: 1946-59)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tony K. Meunier Edited by Williams, Richard S.; Ferrigno, Jane G.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Antarctica is the planet's fifth largest continent [13.2 million km2 (5.1 million mi2)]; it contains the Earth's largest (of two) remaining ice sheets; it is considered to be one of the most important scientific laboratories on Earth. This report is the introduction to a series that covers 60 years of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientific activity in Antarctica. It will concentrate primarily on three major topics:

  6. Seasonal features of black carbon measured at Syowa Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, K.; Osada, K.; Yabuki, M.; Shiobara, M.; Yamanouchi, T.

    2015-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) is one of important aerosol constituents because the strong light absorption ability. Low concentrations of aerosols and BC let BC make insignificant contribution to aerosol radiative forcing in the Antarctica at the moment. Because of less or negligible source strength of BC in the Antarctic circle, BC can be used as a tracer of transport from the mid-latitudes. This study aims to understand seasonal feature, transport pathway, and origins of black carbon in the Antarctic coats. Black carbon measurement has been made using 7-wavelength aethalometer at Syowa Station, Antarctica since February, 2005. Mass BC concentrations were estimated from light attenuation by Weingartner's correction procedure (Weingartner et al., 2003) in this study. Detection limit was 0.2 - 0.4 ng/m3 in our measurement conditions (2-hour resolution and flow rate of ca. 10LPM). BC concentrations ranged from near detection limit to 55.7 ng/m3 at Syowa Station, Antarctica during the measurements. No trend has been observed since February, 2005. High BC concentrations were coincident with poleward flow from the mid-latitudes under the storm conditions by cyclone approach, whereas low BC concentrations were found in transport from coastal regions and the Antarctic continent. Considering that outflow from South America and Southern Africa affect remarkably air quality in the Southern Ocean of Atlantic and Indian Ocean sectors, BC at Syowa Station might be originated from biomass burning and human activity on South America and Southern Africa. Seasonal features of BC at Syowa Station shows maximum in September - October and lower in December - April. Spring maximum in September - October was obtained at the other Antarctic stations (Neumayer, Halley, South pole, and Ferraz). Although second maximum was found in January at the other stations, the maximum was not observed at Syowa Station.

  7. Reconstruction of the East Africa and Antarctica continental margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Luan C.; Hall, Stuart A.; Bird, Dale E.; Ball, Philip J.

    2016-06-01

    The Early Jurassic separation of Antarctica from Africa plays an important role in our understanding of the dispersal of Gondwana and Pangea. Previous reconstruction models contain overlaps and gaps in the restored margins that reflect difficulties in accurately delineating the continent-ocean-boundary (COB) and determining the amount and distribution of extended continental crust. This study focuses on the evolution of the African margin adjacent to the Mozambique Basin and the conjugate Antarctic margin near the Riiser-Larsen Sea. Satellite-derived gravity data have been used to trace the orientations and landward limits of fracture zones. A 3-D gravity inversion has produced a crustal thickness model that reliably quantifies the extent and amount of stretched crust. Crustal thicknesses together with fracture zone terminations reveal COBs that are significantly closer to the African and Antarctic coasts than previously recognized. Correlation of fracture zone azimuths and identified COBs suggests Antarctica began drifting away from Africa at approximately 171 Ma in a roughly SSE direction. An areal-balancing method has been used to restore the crust to a uniform prerift thickness so as to perform a nonrigid reconstruction for both nonvolcanic and volcanic margins. Both margins reveal a trend of increasing extension from east to west. Our results suggest Africa underwent extension of 60-120 km, while Antarctic crust was stretched by 105-180 km. Various models tested to determine the direction of extension during rifting suggest that Antarctica moved away from Africa in a WNW-ESE direction during the period between 184 and 171 Ma prior to the onset of seafloor spreading.

  8. An assessment of forward and inverse GIA solutions for Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamber, Jonathan L.; Martin, Alba; King, Matt; Zammit-Mangion, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    GIA has, until recently, been estimated using forward models that attempt to determine how the solid Earth responds to changes in ice-ocean loading through time. These models require knowledge of spatially-varying Earth rheology, including mantle viscosity, and ice load history, both of which have large uncertainties for Antarctica. Recent advances in GIA models include consideration of three-dimensional variations in Earth rheology and power-law rheologies. Such GIA models predict remarkably different patterns of uplift over Antarctica when compared to those using one-dimensional Earth models, such as a shift in the uplift maximum from the Ross to the Wedell Sea (van der Wal et al., 2015). However, large uncertainties still remain in the ice loading history models (A. et al 2014 and van der Wal et al., 2015) and substantial regional differences are found between Antarctic reconstructions. An alternative approach is to use observations of crustal motion from GPS, combined with mass trends from GRACE to invert for GIA. However, this is an undetermined problem which requires assumptions on the density profile of the ice column for which numerical models have been commonly used (Gunter el al., 2014). Here we present a novel solution to the inverse problem using state-of-the-art methods in statistical modelling of spatio-temporal processes. Specifically, we combine observational data, including satellite radar and laser altimetry, GRACE, GPS and InSAR, with prior information on the spatial and temporal smoothness of the underlying process to solve, simultaneously, for ice mass trends and GIA. This is achieved via a spatio-temporal Bayesian hierarchical model and the resulting solution is only dependent on length and smoothness properties obtained from numerical models, but is otherwise entirely data-driven. We compare the most recent forward and inverse GIA solutions for Antarctica with a set of 68 observed vertical velocities over the period 2009 -- 2014 from the GPS

  9. Advanced systems data for mapping Emperor Penguin habitats in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Richard D.; Kooyman, Gerald L.

    2004-01-01

    Commercial orbital sensor systems combined with other resource data from the U.S. Geological Survey National Civil Applications Program (NCAP) may offer an effective way of mapping Emperor penguin habitats and their response to regional climate change in Antarctica. This project examined these resources to determine their applicability for mapping Emperor penguin habitats to support the National Science Foundation. This work is especially significant to investigate satellite-based imaging as an alternative to intrusive in-the-field enumeration of Emperor penguins and the potential of applying these procedures to support The National Map (TNP).

  10. GIS-ILA:THE GIS FOR ITALIAN LOGISTICS IN ANTARCTICA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A geographic information system (GIS) is a hardware/software tool which is very effective in collecting,storing,searching,handling,and visualizing geographic data together with their descriptive attributes.Such a tool is very helpful to approach a wide range of situations,including many logistic problems.ENEA,as the agency having the task of implementing the Italian Antarctic Program (PNRA),has decided to use a GIS,in order to increase the efficiency in managing the huge amount of data collected in the course of Italian activity in Antarctica,which counts fifteen expeditions up to now.

  11. Detection of evolutionarily distinct avian influenza a viruses in antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, Aeron C; Vijaykrishna, Dhanasekaran; Butler, Jeffrey; Baas, Chantal; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Silva-de-la-Fuente, M Carolina; Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo; Olsen, Bjorn; Kelso, Anne; Barr, Ian G; González-Acuña, Daniel

    2014-05-06

    ABSTRACT Distinct lineages of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are harbored by spatially segregated birds, yet significant surveillance gaps exist around the globe. Virtually nothing is known from the Antarctic. Using virus culture, molecular analysis, full genome sequencing, and serology of samples from Adélie penguins in Antarctica, we confirmed infection by H11N2 subtype AIVs. Their genetic segments were distinct from all known contemporary influenza viruses, including South American AIVs, suggesting spatial separation from other lineages. Only in the matrix and polymerase acidic gene phylogenies did the Antarctic sequences form a sister relationship to South American AIVs, whereas distant phylogenetic relationships were evident in all other gene segments. Interestingly, their neuraminidase genes formed a distant relationship to all avian and human influenza lineages, and the polymerase basic 1 and polymerase acidic formed a sister relationship to the equine H3N8 influenza virus lineage that emerged during 1963 and whose avian origins were previously unknown. We also estimated that each gene segment had diverged for 49 to 80 years from its most closely related sequences, highlighting a significant gap in our AIV knowledge in the region. We also show that the receptor binding properties of the H11N2 viruses are predominantly avian and that they were unable to replicate efficiently in experimentally inoculated ferrets, suggesting their continuous evolution in avian hosts. These findings add substantially to our understanding of both the ecology and the intra- and intercontinental movement of Antarctic AIVs and highlight the potential risk of an incursion of highly pathogenic AIVs into this fragile environment. IMPORTANCE Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are typically maintained and spread by migratory birds, resulting in the existence of distinctly different viruses around the world. However, AIVs have not previously been detected in Antarctica. In this study, we

  12. Summer weather characteristics on the Grove Mountain of East Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The summer weather characteristics of the Grove Mountain, East Antarctica, are presented based on the data obtained by Chinese National Antarctic Expedition (CHINARE) in January 1999. The result shows that the pattern of daily variation of temperature and the prevailing wind direction in Grove is similar to that of Zhongshan Station. However, the daily range of temperature and strong wind frequency are much higher than those of Zhongshan Station. The change of wind direction is close to the weather system that impacted the Grove Mountain. The warm and wet air from northern parts often causes the precipitation. The clear weather appears when controlled by eastern winds in January.

  13. Wind power in Antarctica - a feasibility study for Wasa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindquist, Anna [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Div. for Electricity and Lightning Research

    2004-07-01

    The Swedish Polar Research Secretariat maintains two research stations in Antarctica, Wasa and Svea. They are both small, summer-only stations that are manned a few months at a time during the regular expeditions to the continent. Recently, Swedish scientists asked for the possibility to make around-the-year measurements with automatic equipment at the two stations. Since Wasa and Svea are only manned occasionally, this request implies the need for a new power supply system. The demands imposed on this new, separate system are hard. The continent is the coldest, windiest and driest on earth and the power supply system must be designed to withstand the harsh conditions. Since there is no personnel present during the Antarctic winter, the system also has to be autonomous and very reliable. The environment in Antarctica is sensitive and protected by strict regulations that all members of the Antarctic Treaty are obliged to follow. More and more nations are revising their power supply systems in order to find substitutions for the conventional diesel generators, and wind power has been installed at several stations and has worked well in many cases. This master thesis project is a feasibility study aimed at investigating whether wind power is a convenient solution in a separate power supply system at Wasa. During the project, wind data from weather stations in Antarctica have been used to map the wind resources at the two research stations. Although more accurate wind measurements would be needed for a complete evaluation of the wind resources, it can be seen that the prerequisites for wind power are good at Wasa. The wind is very directional, the wind speeds are moderate and the temperatures not too low. A wind turbine modified for the climate in Antarctica should function well at Wasa, in combination with a battery bank with NiCd batteries. Two turbines that fulfil most of the demands imposed on them and that seem to perform well in the conditions at Wasa were found

  14. Meteorites from Grove Mountains, Antarctica:An overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王道德; 林杨挺

    2003-01-01

    Thirty-two meteorites were collected in Grove Mountains area, Antarctica,by the 15th and 16th Chinese Antarctic Research Expeditions (CHINARE). Petrography and mineral chemistry of these meteorites are reviewed, among which there are one Martian lherzolite, one eucrite, one ungrouped iron meteorite, and six unequilibrated and twenty-three equilibrated ordinary chondrites. An equilibrated ordinary chondrite GRV 98004 (H5) has an unusually low cosmic-ray exposure age. Meteorite concentrating processes in Grove Mountains area are discussed. In addition, future studies on Grove Mountains (GRV) meteorites are proposed.

  15. Accelerated sea-level rise from West Antarctica.

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, R; Rignot, E.; Casassa, G; Kanagaratnam, P; Acuña, C; Akins, T; Brecher, H; E Frederick; Gogineni, P.; Krabill, W.; Manizade, S.; Ramamoorthy, H; Rivera, A.; Russell, R.; Sonntag, J

    2004-01-01

    Recent aircraft and satellite laser altimeter surveys of the Amundsen Sea sector of West Antarctica show that local glaciers are discharging about 250 cubic kilometers of ice per year to the ocean, almost 60% more than is accumulated within their catchment basins. This discharge is sufficient to raise sea level by more than 0.2 millimeters per year. Glacier thinning rates near the coast during 2002-2003 are much larger than those observed during the 1990s. Most of these glaciers flow into flo...

  16. Psychrotrophic ~Iydrolytic Bacteria from Antarctica &,Other I. Low Temperature Habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V. Ramana

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Samples of water, soil,llake sediments and blue-green algal mats from Antarctica were'processed for enumeration, isolation and screening of psychrotrophic hydrolytic bacteria. Amylolytic bacteria were preponderant (75 per cent in the blue-green algal htat samples. Protease, lipase, an1ylase and urerse producing/bacteria were also isolated from the samples. ,Biochemical characteristics indicated that the isolates ;mainly comprised Pseudomonas and Bacillus species. Proteases and lipases of antarctic bacterial strains preferably hydrolysed denatured protein substrate and water soluble monomeric synthetic lipid substrates, respectively.

  17. Surface and snowdrift sublimation at Princess Elisabeth station, East Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Thiery

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the near-coastal regions of Antarctica, a significant fraction of the snow precipitating onto the surface is removed again through sublimation – either directly from the surface or from drifting snow particles. Meteorological observations from an Automatic Weather Station (AWS near the Belgian research station Princess Elisabeth in Dronning Maud Land, East-Antarctica, are used to study surface and snowdrift sublimation and to assess their impacts on both the surface mass balance and the surface energy balance. Comparison to three other AWSs in Dronning Maud Land shows that sublimation has a significant influence on the surface mass balance at katabatic locations by removing 10–23 % of their total precipitation, but at the same time reveals anomalously low surface and snowdrift sublimation rates at Princess Elisabeth (18 mm w.e. yr–1 compared to 42 mm w.e. yr–1 at Svea Cross and 52 mm w.e. yr–1 at Wasa/Aboa. This anomaly is attributed to local topography, which shields the station from strong katabatic influence, and therefore on the one hand allows for a strong surface inversion to persist throughout most of the year and on the other hand causes a lower probability of occurrence of intermediately strong winds. These wind speed classes turn out to contribute most to the total snowdrift sublimation mass flux, given their ability to lift a high number of particles while still allowing for considerable undersaturation.

  18. Deep Drilling with the ANDRILL Program in Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Pyne

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available ANDRILL (ANtarctic geological DRILLing is a new international, multi-disciplinary drilling program that targets geological records that lie hidden beneath the icy blanket of Antarctica. The primary objective is to investigate Antarctica’s role in global environmental change over the past sixty-fi ve million years, at various scales of age resolution, and thereby enhance our understanding of Antarctica’s potential response to future global changes. Efforts to understand the infl uence of Antarctica on global climate change require a fundamental knowledge of how the Antarctic cryosphere (ice sheets, ice shelves, and sea ice has evolved, not only in recent times but also during earlier geological periods when global temperature and atmospheric CO2 levels were similar to what might be reached by the end of this century. ANDRILL’s integrated science approach willuse stratigraphic drilling, coring, and multi-proxy core analysis combined with geophysical surveys and numerical modeling to study the Cenozoic history of Antarctic climate and ice sheets, the evolution of polar biota, Antarctic tectonism, and Antarctica’s role in the evolution of Earth’s ocean–climate system.

  19. Ocean mixing beneath Pine Island Glacier ice shelf, West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Satoshi; Jenkins, Adrian; Dutrieux, Pierre; Forryan, Alexander; Naveira Garabato, Alberto C.; Firing, Yvonne

    2016-12-01

    Ice shelves around Antarctica are vulnerable to an increase in ocean-driven melting, with the melt rate depending on ocean temperature and the strength of flow inside the ice-shelf cavities. We present measurements of velocity, temperature, salinity, turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate, and thermal variance dissipation rate beneath Pine Island Glacier ice shelf, West Antarctica. These measurements were obtained by CTD, ADCP, and turbulence sensors mounted on an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV). The highest turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate is found near the grounding line. The thermal variance dissipation rate increases closer to the ice-shelf base, with a maximum value found ˜0.5 m away from the ice. The measurements of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate near the ice are used to estimate basal melting of the ice shelf. The dissipation-rate-based melt rate estimates is sensitive to the stability correction parameter in the linear approximation of universal function of the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory for stratified boundary layers. We argue that our estimates of basal melting from dissipation rates are within a range of previous estimates of basal melting.

  20. Properties of soils in Grove Mountains, East Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Xiaoli(李潇丽); LIU; Xiaohan(刘小汉); JU; Yitai(琚宜太); HUANG; Feixin(黄费新)

    2003-01-01

    Three cold desert soil sites were first found in the southern Mount Harding, GroveMountains, East Antarctica. The soils are characteristics of the widespread occurrence of surfacedesert pavement, abundant water-soluble salts, strongly stained upper portion of soil profile,slightly acid and negligible organic matter content. A 1:5 soil-water extracts analysis indicates thatthe dominant cations are Mg2+ and Na+, followed by Ca2+ and K+, and the main anion is SO42-, thenCl- and NO-3. The accumulation of water-soluble salts indicates ion transportation in the frigid andarid Antarctica environment. The distribution of the salts is related to the maximum content ofmoisture and clay mineral. Clay fraction migration occurs in the soils, which is different from that ofother cold desert soils. The upper horizons of some profiles are generally stained, namely rubifica-tion, primarily because of the weathering of iron-bearing minerals. The reddish hues of cold desertsoils have been attributed to relatively high concentrations of dithionite-extractable Fe (Fed). Theweathering features of soils suggest that the soil age of this area is 0.5-3.5 Ma. No remnants ofglaciations were found on the soil sites of Mount Harding, which suggests that the Antarctic glaci-ations have not reached the soil sites since at least 0.5 Ma, even during the Last Glacial Maxi-mum.

  1. The larval alimentary canal of the Antarctic insect, Belgica antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, James B; Miller, Lou Ann; Bee, Charles Mark; Lee, Richard E; Denlinger, David L

    2009-09-01

    On the Antarctica continent the wingless midge, Belgica antarctica (Diptera, Chironomidae) occurs further south than any other insect. The digestive tract of the larval stage of Belgica that inhabits this extreme environment and feeds in detritus of penguin rookeries has been described for the first time. Ingested food passes through a foregut lumen and into a stomodeal valve representing an intussusception of the foregut into the midgut. A sharp discontinuity in microvillar length occurs at an interface separating relatively long microvilli of the stomodeal midgut region, the site where peritrophic membrane originates, from the midgut epithelium lying posterior to this stomodeal region. Although shapes of cells along the length of this non-stomodeal midgut epithelium are similar, the lengths of their microvilli increase over two orders of magnitude from anterior midgut to posterior midgut. Infoldings of the basal membranes also account for a greatly expanded interface between midgut cells and the hemocoel. The epithelial cells of the hindgut seem to be specialized for exchange of water with their environment, with the anterior two-thirds of the hindgut showing highly convoluted luminal membranes and the posterior third having a highly convoluted basal surface. The lumen of the middle third of the hindgut has a dense population of resident bacteria. Regenerative cells are scattered throughout the larval midgut epithelium. These presumably represent stem cells for the adult midgut, while a ring of cells, marked by a discontinuity in nuclear size at the midgut-hindgut interface, presumably represents stem cells for the adult hindgut.

  2. Transit Search from Antarctica and Chile - Comparison and Combination

    CERN Document Server

    Fruth, T; Csizmadia, Sz; Dreyer, C; Eigmüller, P; Erikson, A; Kabath, P; Pasternacki, T; Rauer, H; Titz-Weider, R; Abe, L; Agabi, A; Gonçalves, I; Guillot, T; Mékarnia, D; Rivet, J -P; Crouzet, N; Chini, R; Lemke, R; Murphy, M

    2014-01-01

    Observing sites at the East-Antarctic plateau are considered to provide exceptional conditions for astronomy. The aim of this work is to assess its potential for detecting transiting extrasolar planets through a comparison and combination of photometric data from Antarctica with time series from a midlatitude site. During 2010, the two small aperture telescopes ASTEP 400 (Dome C) and BEST II (Chile) together performed an observing campaign of two target fields and the transiting planet WASP-18b. For the latter, a bright star, Dome C appears to yield an advantageous signal-to-noise ratio. For field surveys, both Dome C and Chile appear to be of comparable photometric quality. However, within two weeks, observations at Dome C yield a transit detection efficiency that typically requires a whole observing season in Chile. For the first time, data from Antarctica and Chile have been combined to extent the observational duty cycle. This approach is both feasible in practice and favorable for transit search, as it i...

  3. Chemical composition of fresh snowfalls at Palmer Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFelice, T. P.

    A first time investigation was performed to establish a chemical baseline for snowfall at Palmer Station Antarctica (64°46'S, 64°05'W) since there was no such record. A chemical baseline for snow could be use to validate climate change studies based on ice core analyses. The snow samples contained (from high to low mass concentration) total organic carbon, chloride, inorganic carbon, sodium, sulfate, magnesium, calcium, potassium, fluoride, ammonium, and nitrate, excluding hydrogen and hydroxide. The pH of these samples ranged between 4.0-6.2. The relatively low nitrate and relatively high sulfate concentrations found in our samples are consistent with the results of other studies for this region of Antarctica. The ions and pH do not appear to favor a particular wind direction during this period. The total deposition of sulfate and flouride via snowfall between 10 January and 10 February is conservatively estimated to be 4.78 and 1.3 kg km -2, respectively.

  4. Measurements of spectral snow albedo at Neumayer, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Wuttke

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Spectral albedo in high resolution, from 290 to 1050 nm, has been measured at Neumayer, Antarctica, (70°39' S, 8°15' W during the austral summer 2003/2004. At 500 nm, the spectral albedo nearly reaches unity, with slightly lower values below and above 500 nm. Above 600 nm, the spectral albedo decreases to values between 0.45 and 0.75 at 1000 nm. For one cloudless case an albedo up to 1.01 at 500 nm could be determined. This can be explained by the larger directional component of the snow reflectivity for direct incidence, combined with a slightly mislevelled sensor and the snow surface not being perfectly horizontal. A possible explanation for an observed decline in albedo is an increase in snow grain size. The theoretically predicted increase in albedo with increasing solar zenith angle (SZA could not be observed. This is explained by the small range of SZA during albedo measurements, combined with the effect of changing snow conditions outweighing the effect of changing SZA. The measured spectral albedo serves as input for radiative transfer models, describing radiation conditions in Antarctica.

  5. Chemical composition of the sediment from Lake 20 (Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria ROSSI

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Lake 20 (19,000 m2 is located on the coast of the Ross Sea, in the North-Central part of Victoria Land, and its surface is ice-free between the end of December and early February. Within the framework of the Italian National Research Programme in Antarctica, a study was made of the chemical composition of sediments from the lake, with the intention of using this information to contribute to a better understanding of the processes involved in the long range transport of pollutants and their role in global changes. A sediment core from Lake 20 (Antarctica, 18 cm long, was collected in 1994, sliced into 2 cm sections and analysed using X Ray fluorescence spectrometry for 17 elements (Si, Al, Ca, K, Fe, Mg, Ti, S, P, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Mn, Cr, Na, Cl, by CHN Elemental Analyser for C and N, by Flameless Atomic Absorption Spectrometry for As, and by Cold Vapour Atomic Absorption Spectrometry for Hg. The chemical composition of the sediments is consistent with the known geochemical characteristics of the drainage basin. While the chemical analyses reveal that sedimentation in Lake 20 has changed through time, the variations along the core are most probably related to the climatic evolution of the area, to the consequent changes in weathering processes, and possibly to an increase in the primary productivity of the lake, rather than to anthropogenic influences on the biogeochemical cycles of the elements.

  6. A transcriptome resource for the Antarctic pteropod Limacina helicina antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kevin M; Hofmann, Gretchen E

    2016-08-01

    The pteropod Limacina helicina antarctica is a dominant member of the zooplankton assemblage in the Antarctic marine ecosystem, and is part of a relatively simple food web in nearshore marine Antarctic waters. As a shelled pteropod, Limacina has been suggested as a candidate sentinel organism for the impacts of ocean acidification, due to the potential for shell dissolution in undersaturated waters. In this study, our goal was to develop a transcriptomic resource for Limacina that would support mechanistic studies to explore the physiological response of Limacina to abiotic stressors such as ocean acidification and ocean warming. To this end, RNA sequencing libraries were prepared from Limacina that had been exposed to a range of pH levels and an elevated temperature to maximize the diversity of expressed genes. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was conducted on an Illumina NextSeq500 which produced 339,000,000 150bp paired-end reads. The de novo transcriptome was produced using Trinity and annotation of the assembled transcriptome resulted in the identification of 81,229 transcripts in 137 KEGG pathways. This RNA-seq effort resulted in a transcriptome for the Antarctic pteropod, Limacina helicina antarctica, that is a major resource for an international marine science research community studying these pelagic molluscs in a global change context.

  7. Reactive chlorine chemistry in the boundary layer of coastal Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielcke, Johannes; Poehler, Denis; Friess, Udo; Hay, Tim; Eger, Philipp; Kreher, Karin; Platt, Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    A unique feature of the polar troposphere is the strong impact of halogen photochemistry, in which reactive halogen species are responsible for ozone depletion as well as the oxidation of elemental mercury and dimethyl sulphide. The source, however, as well as release and recycling mechanisms of these halogen species - for some species even abundances - are far from being completely known, especially of chlorine and iodine compounds. Here we present active long-path differential optical absorption spectroscopy (LP-DOAS) measurements conducted during austral spring 2012 at Ross Island, Antarctica, observing several species (BrO, O3, NO2, IO, ClO, OBrO, OClO, OIO, I2, CHOCHO, HCHO, HONO). For the first time, ClO was detected and quantified in the marine boundary layer of coastal Antarctica, with typical mixing ratios around 20 pptv and maxima around 50 pptv. Meteorological controls on the mixing ratio of ClO as well as the interplay with other halogen compounds will be discussed, such as the lack of observed OClO (< 1 pptv). The results seem to reflect previously in chamber studies observed dependences on ozone levels and solar irradiance.

  8. Genome and transcriptome analysis of the basidiomycetous yeast Pseudozyma antarctica producing extracellular glycolipids, mannosylerythritol lipids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomotake Morita

    Full Text Available Pseudozyma antarctica is a non-pathogenic phyllosphere yeast known as an excellent producer of mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs, multi-functional extracellular glycolipids, from vegetable oils. To clarify the genetic characteristics of P. antarctica, we analyzed the 18 Mb genome of P. antarctica T-34. On the basis of KOG analysis, the number of genes (219 genes categorized into lipid transport and metabolism classification in P. antarctica was one and a half times larger than that of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (140 genes. The gene encoding an ATP/citrate lyase (ACL related to acetyl-CoA synthesis conserved in oleaginous strains was found in P. antarctica genome: the single ACL gene possesses the four domains identical to that of the human gene, whereas the other oleaginous ascomycetous species have the two genes covering the four domains. P. antarctica genome exhibited a remarkable degree of synteny to U. maydis genome, however, the comparison of the gene expression profiles under the culture on the two carbon sources, glucose and soybean oil, by the DNA microarray method revealed that transcriptomes between the two species were significantly different. In P. antarctica, expression of the gene sets relating fatty acid metabolism were markedly up-regulated under the oily conditions compared with glucose. Additionally, MEL biosynthesis cluster of P. antarctica was highly expressed regardless of the carbon source as compared to U. maydis. These results strongly indicate that P. antarctica has an oleaginous nature which is relevant to its non-pathogenic and MEL-overproducing characteristics. The analysis and dataset contribute to stimulate the development of improved strains with customized properties for high yield production of functional bio-based materials.

  9. Seasonal variability in the input of lead, barium and indium to Law Dome, Antarctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burn-Nunes...[], L.J.; Vallelonga, Paul Travis; Loss, R.D.

    2011-01-01

    Lead (Pb) isotopic compositions and concentrations, and barium (Ba) and indium (In) concentrations have been determined at monthly resolution in five Law Dome (coastal Eastern Antarctica) ice core sections dated from similar to 1757 AD to similar to 1898 AD. 'Natural' background Pb concentrations...... more impurity laden air from the Southern Hemisphere continental regions to Eastern Antarctica and Law Dome. As this Pb is isotopically identical to that emitted from south-eastern Australia (Broken Hill, Port Pine) this implies a relatively direct air trajectory pathway from southern Australia to Law...... Dome (Eastern Antarctica). (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved...

  10. Vertical Temperature Simulation of Pegasus Runway, McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Runway, McMurdo Station, Antarctica Co ld R eg io ns R es ea rc h an d En gi ne er in g La bo ra to ry Steven F. Daly, Robert Haehnel...Vertical Temperature Simulation of Pegasus Runway, McMurdo Station, Antarctica Steven F. Daly, Robert Haehnel, and Christopher Hiemstra Cold Regions...Engineering Support, Continuation” ERDC/CRREL TR-15-2 ii Abstract Pegasus Runway, located 13 km south of McMurdo Station, Antarctica , on the

  11. Evaluation of a New SnowPaver at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Station, Antarctica Co ld R eg io ns R es ea rc h an d En gi ne er in g La bo ra to ry Sally A. Shoop, Russ Alger, Joel Kunnari, and...Evaluation of a New SnowPaver at McMurdo Station, Antarctica Sally A. Shoop Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) U.S. Army Engineer...Center (KRC) and the National Science Foundation (NSF) to assess the feasibility of using a new SnowPaver to build snow roads in Antarctica . KRC built

  12. Vehicle Impact Testing of Snow Roads at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    McMurdo Station, Antarctica Co ld R eg io ns R es ea rc h an d En gi ne er in g La bo ra to ry Sally A. Shoop, Margaret A. Knuth, Wendy L...Vehicle Impact Testing of Snow Roads at McMurdo Station, Antarctica Sally A. Shoop, Margaret A. Knuth, and Monica Preston Cold Regions Research and...kilograms ERDC/CRREL TR-14-9 xii ERDC/CRREL TR-14-9 1 1 Introduction 1.1 Issue McMurdo Station, Antarctica , has approximately 20 miles (32 km

  13. Dioszegia antarctica sp. nov. and Dioszegia cryoxerica sp. nov., psychrophilic basidiomycetous yeasts from polar desert soils in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Russell J.; Connell, L.; Redman, R.; Barrett, A.; Iszard, M.; Fonseca, A.

    2010-01-01

    During a survey of the culturable soil fungal population in samples collected in Taylor Valley, South Victoria Land, Antarctica, 13 basidiomycetous yeast strains with orange-coloured colonies were isolated. Phylogenetic analyses of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and partial LSU rRNA gene sequences showed that the strains belong to the Dioszegia clade of the Tremellales (Tremellomycetes, Agaricomycotina), but did not correspond to any of the hitherto recognized species. Two novel species, Dioszegia antarctica sp. nov. (type strain ANT-03-116T =CBS 10920T =PYCC 5970T) and Dioszegia cryoxerica sp. nov. (type strain ANT-03-071T =CBS 10919T =PYCC 5967T), are described to accommodate ten and three of these strains, respectively. Analysis of ITS sequences demonstrated intrastrain sequence heterogeneity in D. cryoxerica. The latter species is also notable for producing true hyphae with clamp connections and haustoria. However, no sexual structures were observed. The two novel species can be considered obligate psychrophiles, since they failed to grow above 20 °C and grew best between 10 and 15 °C.

  14. New Views of East Antarctica- from Columbia to Gondwana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraccioli, F.; Forsberg, R.; Aitken, A.; Young, D. A.; Blankenship, D. D.; Bell, R. E.; Finn, C.; Martos, Y. M.; Armadillo, E.; Jacobs, J.; Ebbing, J.; Eagles, G.; Jokat, W.; Jordan, T. A.; Ruppel, A.; Läufer, A.; Dalziel, I. W. D.

    2015-12-01

    East Antarctica is a keystone in the Gondwana, Rodinia and the Columbia supercontinents. Recent aerogeophysical research, augmented by satellite magnetic, gravity and seismological data is unveiling the crustal architecture of the continent. This is helping comprehend the impact of supercontinental processes such as subduction, accretion, rifting and intraplate tectonics on its evolution. A mosaic of Precambrian basement provinces is apparent in interior East Antarctica (Ferraccioli et al., 2011, Nature). A major suture separates the Archean-Neoproterozoic Ruker Province from an inferred Grenvillian-age orogenic Gamburtsev Province with remarkably thick crust (up to 60 km thick) and thick lithosphere (over 200 km thick). The age of the suturing and its linkages with supercontinental assembly is debated with both Rodinia and Gondwana candidates being proposed. Further east, magnetic highs delineate a Paleo to Mesoproterozoic Nimrod-South Pole igneous province (Goodge and Finn, 2010 JGR) that flanks a composite Mawson Continent- including the Gawler Craton of South Australia (Aitken et al., 2014 GRL). An over 1,900 km long magnetic and gravity lineament is imaged along the western flank of the Wilkes Subglacial Basin and is interpreted here as a major Paleoproterozoic suture zone linked to the collision of Laurentia and East Antarctica within Columbia. The proposed suture played a pivotal role helping localise Neoproterozoic Rodinia rifted margin evolution and forming a backstop for the Ross-Delamerian cycle of Gondwana amalgamation. Aeromagnetic and gravity imaging help determine the extent of a Keweenawan-age (ca 1.1 Ga) large igneous province in the Coats Land Block -isotopically tied with the Mid-Continent Rift System of Laurentia (Loewy et al., 2011 Geology). Imprints of Grenvillian magmatic arc accretion link together the Namaqua-Natal and Maud belts in South Africa and Dronning Maud Land within Rodinia. The aeromagnetically distinct Southeast Dronning Maud

  15. Anaerobic Psychrophiles from Lake Zub and Lake Untersee, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Alisa; Pikuta, Elena V.; Guisler, Melissa; Stahl, Sarah; Hoover, Richard B.

    2009-01-01

    The study of samples from Antarctica 2008 and 2009 expeditions organized and successfully conducted by Richard Hoover led to the isolation of diverse anaerobic strains with psychrotolerant and psychrophilic physiology. Due to the fact that Lake Untersee has never been subject to microbiological study, this work with the samples has significant and pioneering impact to the knowledge about the biology of this unique ecosystem. Also, the astrobiological significance for the study of these ecosystems is based on new findings of ice covered water systems on other bodies of our solar system. Anaerobic psychrotolerant strain LZ-22 was isolated from a frozen sample of green moss with soils around the rhizosphere collected near Lake Zub in Antarctica. Morphology of strain LZ-22 was observed to be motile, rod shaped and spore-forming cells with sizes 1 x 5-10 micron. This new isolate is a mesophile with the maximum temperature of growth at 40C. Strain LZ-22 is able to live on media without NaCl and in media with up to 7% (w/v) NaCl. It is catalase negative and grows only on sugars with the best growth rate being on lactose. The strain is a neutrophile and grows between pH 5 and 9.0 with the optimum at 7.8. Another two strains UL7-96mG and LU-96m7P were isolated from deep water samples of Lake Untersee. Proteolytic strain LU-96m7P had a truly psychrophilic nature and refused to grow at room temperature. Sugarlytic strain UL7-96mG was found to be psychrotolerant, but its rate of growth at 3C was very high compared with other mesophiles. Two homoacetogenic psychrophilic strains A7AC-96m and AC-DS7 were isolated and purified from samples of Lake Untersee; both of them are able to grow chemolithotrophically on H2+CO2. In the presence of lactate, these strains are able to grow only at 0-18C, and growth at 22C was observed only with yeast extract stimulation. In this paper, physiological and morphological characteristics of novel psychrophilic and psychrotolerant isolates from

  16. Anaerobic psychrophiles from Lake Zub and Lake Untersee, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Alisa; Pikuta, Elena V.; Guisler, Melissa; Stahl, Sarah; Hoover, Richard B.

    2009-08-01

    The study of samples from Antarctica 2008 and 2009 expeditions organized and successfully conducted by Richard Hoover led to the isolation of diverse anaerobic strains with psychrotolerant and psychrophilic physiology. Due to the fact that Lake Untersee has never been subject to microbiological study, this work with the samples has significant and pioneering impact to the knowledge about the biology of this unique ecosystem. Also, the astrobiological significance for the study of these ecosystems is based on new findings of ice covered water systems on other bodies of our solar system. Anaerobic psychrotolerant strain LZ-22 was isolated from a frozen sample of green moss with soils around the rhizosphere collected near Lake Zub in Antarctica. Morphology of strain LZ-22 was observed to be motile, rod shaped and spore-forming cells with sizes 1 x 5-10 μm. This new isolate is a mesophile with the maximum temperature of growth at 40°C. Strain LZ-22 is able to live on media without NaCl and in media with up to 7 % (w/v) NaCl. It is catalase negative and grows only on sugars with the best growth rate being on lactose. The strain is a neutrophile and grows between pH 5 and 9.0 with the optimum at 7.8. Another two strains UL7-96mG and LU-96m7P were isolated from deep water samples of Lake Untersee. Proteolytic strain LU-96m7P had a truly psychrophilic nature and refused to grow at room temperature. Sugarlytic strain UL7-96mG was found to be psychrotolerant, but its rate of growth at 3°C was very high compared with other mesophiles. Two homoacetogenic psychrophilic strains A7AC-96m and AC-DS7 were isolated and purified from samples of Lake Untersee; both of them are able to grow chemolithotrophically on H2+CO2. In the presence of lactate, these strains are able to grow only at 0-18 °C, and growth at 22 °C was observed only with yeast extract stimulation. In this paper, physiological and morphological characteristics of novel psychrophilic and psychrotolerant isolates

  17. Crustal structure across the Filchner Ronne Shelf, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herter, U.; Jokat, W.

    2012-04-01

    Crustal structure across the Filchner Ronne Shelf, Antarctica U. Herter, W. Jokat One large gap in understanding the tectonic evolution of Antarctica beside the few rock outcrops on the continent is the missing information on crustal thickness along its margins but also in its interior. E.g., the few marine deep seismic lines are located mainly along the Antarctic Peninsula/Pacific margin, but for most of the East Antarctic margins such information is not available. In this contribution we concentrate on one of the most remote areas in Antarctica, the Filchner Ronne Shelf (FRS). The area is underlain by approximately 12 km of sediments, but its crustal fabric is questionable. Thus, some existing deep seismic sounding data were modeled and reinterpreted. Especially, data gathered in 1995 have been analyzed, and a more detailed 2D P-wave velocity model has been calculated. For the profiles in total 12 RefTek stations each with nine geophone chains were placed on the ice shelf and 3175 airgun shots along a 480 km transect were fired by two 32 l BOLT-Airguns each 60 s. Signals were recorded up to distances of 180 km. Due to the ice coverage it was not possible to acquire the data without gaps or along straight lines, which caused some difficulties in the modeling process. Furthermore, in the new model all data from older experiments of the AWI and Soviet Antarctic expeditions acquired with dynamite sources were incorporated. The model shows a sedimentary basin with a thickness up to 12 km and a large velocity inversion in a deeper sediment unit. The crustal thickness varies from 40 km beneath the Antarctic Peninsula, and 14 km of basement in the center part of the profile. Towards Berkner Island the crust thickens again, but the top of the basement is still 11 km deep. The lower crustal velocities range between 6.8 and 7.2 km/s. We interpret the crustal structure as clear evidence for the presence of a failed rift. The initial stretching of the continental crust

  18. Environmental and climate changes in Antarctica in the Geological Past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. L. Leitchenkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Cretaceous time, Antarctica was characterized by subtropical and tropical climate. The Early Eocene was warmest in the Antarctic history but this Climatic Optimum terminated with a long-term cooling trend that culminated in continental-scale glaciation of Antarctica at about 34 Ma ago. There is indirect evidence that small ice caps developed within central Antarctica in the Late Eocene (42−34 Ma. From the Early Oligocene to the Middle Miocene (34−13 Ma ice sheet was wet-based and fluctuated considerably in volume, but about 14 m.y. ago it became dry-based and more stable.  Seismic data collected on the East Antarctic margin give valuable information on dynamics of the past ice sheets. These data shows that the sedimentary cover of the western Wilkes Land margin includes a giant (c. 200 000 km2 deep-water fan which formed between c. 43 and 34 Ma ago. The average rate of sedimentation in the central part of fan was 230–250 m/m.y. Active input of terrigenous sediments into deep-water denotes high-energy fluvial system within the Wilkes Land. Emergence of this fluvial system evidences earliest glaciation in the Antarctic interior which fed full-flowing rivers. The thickness of strata deposited during post-Early Oligocene glaciations on the Antarctic margin generally reflects the averaged energy of depositional environments. The thickest sediments (up to 2.0 km, i.e. almost twice more than in other parts of East Antarctic margin and inferred highest energy are seen in the central Cooperation Sea, on the central Wilkes Land margin and in the D'Urville Sea. The areas with the thickest post-Early Oligocene strata correlate with places where present-day ice discharge is highest, such as via the Lambert, Totten and Mertz/Ninnis Glaciers. The correlation points to high ice (and sediment flux in the same areas since the Early Oligocene.

  19. Antarctica, supercontinents and the palaeogeography of the Cambrian 'explosion'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalziel, Ian

    2014-05-01

    Laurentia is bordered by latest Precambrian-Cambrian rifted margins and must therefore have been located within a Precambrian supercontinent. Geochronologic and geochemical evidence indicates that it was attached to parts of the East Antarctic craton within the Rodinian supercontinent in the late Mesoproterozoic. The Mawson craton of Antarctica rifted from the proto-Pacific margin of Laurentia during the Neooproterozoic, colliding with the present 'southern cone' of Laurentia at ~600 Ma along the Shackleton Range suture zone as Gondwana and Laurentia amalgamated to form the ephemeral Pannotia supercontinental assembly at the end of the Precambrian. The abrupt appearance of almost all animal phyla in the fossil record is often colloquially referred to as the Cambrian 'explosion' of life on Earth. It is also named 'Darwin's dilemma,' as he appreciated that this seemingly mysterious event posed a major problem for his theory of evolution by natural selection. It coincided with a time of major marine transgression over all the continents. Although the metazoan 'explosion' is now seen as more protracted than formerly recognized, it is still regarded one of the most critical events in the history of the biosphere. One of the most striking aspects of the earliest Cambrian fossils is geographic differentiation. In particular, the first benthic trilobite faunas on Laurentia, ancestral North America, and the newly amalgamated southern supercontinent of Gondwana are distinctly different. This has led to the suggestion of an unknown vicariant event intervening between an ancestral trilobite clade and higher members that are represented in the fossil record, possibly one related to the breakup of a supercontinent. Igneous rocks along the Panthalassic margin of Gondwana, including South America, southernmost Africa and the Ellsworth-Whitmore crustal block of Antarctica, and along the proto-Appalachian margin of Laurentia indicate that final separation of Laurentia from

  20. Mineral dust variability in central West Antarctica associated with ozone depletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cataldo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Here we show that mineral dust retrieved from an ice core in the central West Antarctic sector, spanning the last five decades, provides evidence that northerly air mass incursions into Antarctica, tracked by dust microparticles, have slightly declined. This result contrasts with dust in ice core records reported in West/coastal Antarctica, which show significant increases to the present day. We attribute that difference, in part, to changes in the regional climate regime triggered by the ozone depletion and its consequences for the polar vortex intensity. The vortex maintains the Antarctic central region relatively isolated from mid-latitude air mass incursions with implications to the intensification of the Westerlies and to a persistent positive phase of the Southern Annular Mode. We also show that variability of the diameter of insoluble microparticles in central West Antarctica can be modeled by linear/quadratic functions of both cyclone depth (energy and wind intensity around Antarctica.

  1. Antarctic Single Frames = Frame Level Records of Antarctica Photos: 1946 - 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs of Antarctica from the United States Antarctic Resource Center (USARC) and the British Antarctic Survey (BAS) are maintained in this collection....

  2. Formation, topography and reactivity of Candida antarctica lipase B immobilized on silicon surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miletic, Nemanja; Fahriansyah, [No Value; Nguyen, Le-Thu T.; Loos, Katja; Miletić, Nemanja

    2010-01-01

    Candida antarctica lipase B (CaLB) was immobilized on silicon wafers previously modified with aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and activated with glutaraldehyde (GLA). The various steps of immobilization were characterized using transmission FTIR, AFM, contact angle measurements and XPS. Furthermo

  3. Ecobiological assessment of a freshwater lake at Schirmacher Oasis, East Antarctica, with reference to human activities

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.; Dhargalkar, V.K.

    The scale and magnitude of probable impact of human activities over a decade (1983-1994) on the freshwater lake Priyadarshini, at Schirmacher Oasis, East Antarctica, was assessed through an ecological study conducted over an annual cycle during...

  4. Antarctic Flight Line Maps = Map-Line Indexes of Antarctica Aerial Photos: Pre 1950

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Antarctic Fight Line Maps collection is comprised of 1:250,000 scale topographic maps over Antarctica with original hand-drawn flight lines for aerial...

  5. Greenland and Antarctica Ice Sheet Mass Changes and Effects on Global Sea Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, René; Sørensen, Louise Sandberg; Simonsen, Sebastian Bjerregaard

    2017-01-01

    Thirteen years of GRACE data provide an excellent picture of the current mass changes of Greenland and Antarctica, with mass loss in the GRACE period 2002–2015 amounting to 265 ± 25 GT/year for Greenland (including peripheral ice caps), and 95 ± 50 GT/year for Antarctica, corresponding to 0.......72 and 0.26 mm/year average global sea level change. A significant acceleration in mass loss rate is found, especially for Antarctica, while Greenland mass loss, after a corresponding acceleration period, and a record mass loss in the summer of 2012, has seen a slight decrease in short-term mass loss trend....... The yearly mass balance estimates, based on point mass inversion methods, have relatively large errors, both due to uncertainties in the glacial isostatic adjustment processes, especially for Antarctica, leakage from unmodelled ocean mass changes, and (for Greenland) difficulties in separating mass signals...

  6. Cloning and molecular genetics analyses of Deschampsia antarctica Desv. chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.P. Savchuk

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA sequences of Deschampsia antarctica were studied. We had made comparison analysis with completely sequenced genomes of other temperateness plants to find homology.

  7. Seasonal variations in carbon budget in water column off Princess Astrid coast, Antarctica

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Verlecar, X.N.

    Phytoplankton, zooplankton and particulate matter were studied round the year at a fixed station off Lazarev, Princess Astrid Coast, Antarctica, to assess the impact of prolonged winter on carbon flux. Summer-Winter phytoplankton total counts did...

  8. Don Juan Basin, Wright Valley, Antarctica: Model for Surface Processes on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, P.; Bishop, J. L.; Gibson, E. K.; Patel, S.; Koeberl, C.

    2014-09-01

    Mineral, chemical, and soluble salt composition of drill core samples from Don Juan Basin, Wright Valley, Antarctica, indicate that the formation of the most saline terrestrial pond may include groundwater discharge and near surface flow processes.

  9. From sea to land: assessment of the bio-transport of phosphorus by penguins in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xianyan; Sun, Liguang; Blais, Jules M.; Wang, Yuhong; Huang, Tao; Huang, Wen; Xie, Zhouqing

    2014-01-01

    In Antarctica, the marine ecosystem is dynamically interrelated with the terrestrial ecosystem. An example of the link between these two ecosystems is the biogeochemical cycle of phosphorus. Biovectors, such as penguins, transport phosphorus from sea to land, play a key role in this cycle. In this paper, we selected three colonies of penguins, the most important seabirds in Antarctica, and computed the annual quantity of phosphorus transferred from sea to land by these birds. Our results show that adult penguins from colonies at Ardley Island, the Vestfold Hills, and Ross Island could transfer phosphorus in the form of guano at up to 12 349, 167 036, and 97 841 kg/a, respectively, over their breeding period. These quantities are equivalent to an annual input of 3.96×109-1.63×1010 kg of seawater to the land of Antarctica. Finally, we discuss the impact of phosphorus on the ice-free areas of the Antarctica.

  10. Nitrate records of a shallow ice core from East Antarctica: Atmospheric processes, preservation and climatic implications

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Laluraj, C.M.; Thamban, M.; Naik, S.S.; Redkar, B.L.; Chaturvedi, A.; Ravindra, R.

    and its comparison with 10Be record from a core collected from South Pole suggest that a reduction in solar activity influenced the NO sub(3) sup(-) accumulation in Antarctica through enhanced production of odd nitrogen species...

  11. Aerobiology over Antarctica – a new initiative for atmospheric ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Anthony Pearce

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The role of aerial dispersal in shaping patterns of biodiversity remains poorly understood, mainly due to a lack of coordinated efforts in gathering data at appropriate temporal and spatial scales. It has been long known that the rate of dispersal to an ecosystem can significantly influence ecosystem dynamics, and that aerial transport has been identified as an important source of biological input to remote locations. With the considerable effort devoted in recent decades to understanding atmospheric circulation in the south polar region, a unique opportunity has emerged to investigate the atmospheric ecology of Antarctica, from local to continental scales. This concept note identifies key questions in Antarctic microbial biogeography and the need for standardized sampling and analysis protocols to address such questions. A consortium of polar aerobiologists is established to bring together researchers with a common interest in the airborne dispersion of microbes and other propagules in the Antarctic, with opportunities for comparative studies in the Arctic.

  12. Extraction of intracellular protein from Glaciozyma antarctica for proteomics analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizura, S. Nor; Farahayu, K.; Faizal, A. B. Mohd; Asmahani, A. A. S.; Amir, R.; Nazalan, N.; Diba, A. B. Farah; Muhammad, M. Nor; Munir, A. M. Abdul

    2013-11-01

    Two preparation methods of crude extracts of psychrophilic yeast Glaciozyma antarctica were compared in order to obtain a good recovery of intracellular proteins. Extraction with mechanical procedures using sonication was found to be more effective for obtaining good yield compare to alkaline treatment method. The procedure is simple, rapid, and produce better yield. A total of 52 proteins were identified by combining both extraction methods. Most of the proteins identified in this study involves in the metabolic process including glycolysis pathway, pentose phosphate pathway, pyruyate decarboxylation and also urea cyle. Several chaperons were identified including probable cpr1-cyclophilin (peptidylprolyl isomerase), macrolide-binding protein fkbp12 and heat shock proteins which were postulate to accelerate proper protein folding. Characteristic of the fundamental cellular processes inferred from the expressed-proteome highlight the evolutionary and functional complexity existing in this domain of life.

  13. Surface and snowdrift sublimation at Princess Elisabeth station, East Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Thiery

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the near-coastal regions of Antarctica, a significant fraction of the snow precipitating onto the surface is removed again through sublimation – either directly from the surface or from drifting snow particles. Meteorological observations from an Automatic Weather Station (AWS near the Belgian research station Princess Elisabeth in Dronning Maud Land, East-Antarctica, are used to study surface and snowdrift sublimation and to assess their impacts on both the surface mass balance and the surface energy balance during 2009 and 2010. Comparison to three other AWSs in Dronning Maud Land with 11 to 13 yr of observations shows that sublimation has a significant influence on the surface mass balance at katabatic locations by removing 10–23% of their total precipitation, but at the same time reveals anomalously low surface and snowdrift sublimation rates at Princess Elisabeth (17 mm w.e. yr−1 compared to 42 mm w.e. yr−1 at Svea Cross and 52 mm w.e. yr−1 at Wasa/Aboa. This anomaly is attributed to local topography, which shields the station from strong katabatic influence, and, therefore, on the one hand allows for a strong surface inversion to persist throughout most of the year and on the other hand causes a lower probability of occurrence of intermediately strong winds. This wind speed class turns out to contribute most to the total snowdrift sublimation mass flux, given its ability to lift a high number of particles while still allowing for considerable undersaturation.

  14. Electrical structure beneath Schirmacher Oasis, East Antarctica: a magnetotelluric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Murthy

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Maitri Station (70.76°S; 11.73°E is located in Schirmacher Oasis, a coastal nunatak in north-central Dronning Maud Land covering an area of 35 km2. Here, we report results from the first magnetotelluric experiments and delineate the deep electrical conductivity structure under Schirmacher Oasis using the data acquired during the 24th Indian Antarctic Scientific Expedition. The magnetotelluric method has the advantage of shallow to deeper level coverage as the data acquisition covers a wide frequency band of 10−3–103 Hz, permitting different penetration depths depending on the frequency and conductivity of the layer under investigation. The modelling results indicate the presence of a highly resistive (8000–10 000 ohm m upper crust, which shows a lateral variation in thickness from 20 km (below site 6 in the east to 10 km (between sites 1 and 2 in the west. It is underlain by a less resistive (500–600 ohm m lower crust. The highly resistive upper crustal structure supports the existing notion that western Dronning Maud Land is a stable, cratonic platform. Results of free-air gravity, seismic, geomagnetic and surface wave dispersion investigations in East Antarctica also indicate a cratonic-type crust. The results of our study allow us to identify a westward thinning of the upper crust with a marked boundary between sites 1 and 2. We also find evidence for the continuity of the Mozambique mobile belt in East Antarctica on the western side of Schirmacher Oasis.

  15. Uncovering the footprint of former ice streams off Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    COHIMAR/SEDANO Scientific Party

    Antarctic ice sheets and ice caps have been expanding and contracting following global climatic cycles. The last time the Antarctic ice cover peaked, at least in Western Antarctica, was ca. 21 ky ago during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The strong warming (nearly 2.8°C) over the past 50 years, and the yearly recent collapse of limited portions (hundreds to a few thousands of square miles per event) of ice shelves around the Antarctic Peninsula have brought to the headlines the debate about the potential collapse of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) in the near future under the influence of global warming.Such a catastrophe would substantially contribute to global sea level rise (a resulting 5 m increase is expected); alter water mass conditions, circulation, and productivity around Antarctica and in the world ocean; and modify the Earth's climate.The economic,social, and ecological impacts of these changes would depend greatly on the rate at which they might take place [Bindschadler, 1998” . A detailed knowledge of the past extent of ice sheets and the timing of their advances and retreats thus becomes essential to quantify the rates of change and to properly assess the future stability of the WAIS and nearby ice caps. The stability of ice sheets is largely dependent on ice drainage, which mostly occurs via ice streaming along glacial troughs. Ice streams are thus a key element to solve the puzzle linking ice sheet stability, sea level rise, and climate change at a global scale.

  16. Hydrological Controls on Ecosystem Dynamics in Lake Fryxell, Antarctica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Herbei

    Full Text Available The McMurdo Dry Valleys constitute the largest ice free area of Antarctica. The area is a polar desert with an annual precipitation of ∼ 3 cm water equivalent, but contains several lakes fed by glacial melt water streams that flow from four to twelve weeks of the year. Over the past ∼20 years, data have been collected on the lakes located in Taylor Valley, Antarctica as part of the McMurdo Dry Valley Long-Term Ecological Research program (MCM-LTER. This work aims to understand the impact of climate variations on the biological processes in all the ecosystem types within Taylor Valley, including the lakes. These lakes are stratified, closed-basin systems and are perennially covered with ice. Each lake contains a variety of planktonic and benthic algae that require nutrients for photosynthesis and growth. The work presented here focuses on Lake Fryxell, one of the three main lakes of Taylor Valley; it is fed by thirteen melt-water streams. We use a functional regression approach to link the physical, chemical, and biological processes within the stream-lake system to evaluate the input of water and nutrients on the biological processes in the lakes. The technique has been shown previously to provide important insights into these Antarctic lacustrine systems where data acquisition is not temporally coherent. We use data on primary production (PPR and chlorophyll-A (CHLfrom Lake Fryxell as well as discharge observations from two streams flowing into the lake. Our findings show an association between both PPR, CHL and stream input.

  17. Microzooplankton herbivory and community structure in the Amundsen Sea, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eun Jin; Jiang, Yong; Lee, SangHoon

    2016-01-01

    We examined microzooplankton abundance, community structure, and grazing impact on phytoplankton in the Amundsen Sea, Western Antarctica, during the early austral summer from December 2010 to January 2011. Our study area was divided into three regions based on topography, hydrographic properties, and trophic conditions: (1) the Oceanic Zone (OZ), with free sea ice and low phytoplankton biomass dominated by diatoms; (2) the Sea Ice Zone (SIZ), covered by heavy sea ice with colder water, lower salinity, and dominated by diatoms; and (3) the Amundsen Sea Polynya (ASP), with high phytoplankton biomass dominated by Phaeocystis antarctica. Microzooplankton biomass and communities associated with phytoplankton biomass and composition varied among regions. Heterotrophic dinoflagellates (HDF) were the most significant grazers in the ASP and OZ, whereas ciliates co-dominated with HDF in the SIZ. Microzooplankton grazing impact is significant in our study area, particularly in the ASP, and consumed 55.4-107.6% of phytoplankton production (average 77.3%), with grazing impact increasing with prey and grazer biomass. This result implies that a significant proportion of the phytoplankton production is not removed by sinking or other grazers but grazed by microzooplankton. Compared with diatom-based systems, Phaeocystis-based production would be largely remineralized and/or channeled through the microbial food web through microzooplankton grazing. In these waters the major herbivorous fate of phytoplankton is likely mediated by the microzooplankton population. Our study confirms the importance of herbivorous protists in the planktonic ecosystems of high latitudes. In conclusion, microzooplankton herbivory may be a driving force controlling phytoplankton growth in early summer in the Amundsen Sea, particularly in the ASP.

  18. The environmental impact of sewage and wastewater outfalls in Antarctica: An example from Davis station, East Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Jonathan S; Corbett, Patricia A; Dunshea, Glenn; Johnstone, Glenn; King, Catherine; Mondon, Julie A; Power, Michelle L; Samuel, Angelingifta; Snape, Ian; Riddle, Martin

    2016-11-15

    We present a comprehensive scientific assessment of the environmental impacts of an Antarctic wastewater ocean outfall, at Davis station in East Antarctica. We assessed the effectiveness of current wastewater treatment and disposal requirements under the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty. Macerated wastewater has been discharged from an outfall at Davis since the failure of the secondary treatment plant in 2005. Water, sediment and wildlife were tested for presence of human enteric bacteria and antibiotic resistance mechanisms. Epibiotic and sediment macrofaunal communities were tested for differences between sites near the outfall and controls. Local fish were examined for evidence of histopathological abnormalities. Sediments, fish and gastropods were tested for uptake of sewage as measured by stable isotopes of N and C. Escherichia coli carrying antibiotic resistance determinants were found in water, sediments and wildlife (the filter feeding bivalve Laternula eliptica). Fish (Trematomus bernacchii) within close proximity to the outfall had significantly more severe and greater occurrences of histopathological abnormalities than at controls, consistent with exposure to sewage. There was significant enrichment of (15)N in T. bernacchii and the predatory gastropod Neobuccinum eatoni around the outfall, providing evidence of uptake of sewage. There were significant differences between epibiotic and sediment macrofaunal communities at control and outfall sites (Antarctic coastal locations, such as Davis, are unlikely to be conducive to initial dilution and rapid dispersal of wastewater as required under the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty. Current minimum requirements for wastewater treatment and disposal in Antarctica are insufficient to ameliorate these risks and are likely to lead to accumulation of contaminants and introduction of non-native microbes and associated genetic elements. This new understanding

  19. Digital filter technology and its application to geomagnetic pulsations in Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Digital filter technology is an important method in study of geomagnetic pulsations in Antarctica. The signals received by pulsation magnetometer on the ground include various types of magnetic pulsations. Some types of pulsations or some frequency hands of pulsations can be extracted from the signals by means of digital filter technology because types of pulsations are defined according to their frequency range. In this paper usual digital filter technology is provided for study of magnetic pulsations in Antarctica and some examples are introduced.

  20. Antarctica Meta-Analysis: Psychosocial Factors Related to Long Duration Isolation and Confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveton, Lauren; Shea, Camille; Slack, Kelley J.; Keeton, Kathryn E.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.

    2009-01-01

    This meta-analysis is examining the psychological effects of wintering-over in Antarctica. As an isolated, confined, and extreme (ICE) environment, Antarctica provides invaluable opportunities to experience stressors more common to spaceflight than to the average person s everyday life. Increased prevalence of psychological symptoms, syndromes, and psychiatric disorders, as well as positive effects, are expected to be associated with various demographic and environmental factors. Implications for spaceflight are discussed. Findings from statistical review of the Antarctic articles will be shared.

  1. Tufted Hairgrass (Deschampsia caespitosa) Exhibits a Lower Photosynthetic Plasticity than Antarctic Hairgrass (D. Antarctica)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gra(z)yna Bystrzejewska-Piotrowska; Pawel L. Urban

    2009-01-01

    The aim of our work was to assess photosynthetic plasticity of two hairgrass species with different ecological origins (a temperate zone species, Deschampsia caespitosa (L.) Beauv. and an Antarctic species, D. antarctica) and to consider how the anticipated climate change may affect vitality of these plants. Measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence showed that the photosystem Ⅱ (PSII) quantum efficiency of D. caespitosa decreased during 4 d of incubation at 4℃ but it remained stable in D. antarctica. The fluorescence half-rise times were almost always lower in D. caespitosa than in D. antarctica,irrespective of the incubation temperature. These results indicate that the photosynthetic apparatus of D. caespitosa has poorer performance in these conditions. D. caespitosa reached the maximum photosynthesis rate at a higher temperature than D. antarctica although the values obtained at 8℃ were similar in both species. The photosynthetic water-use efficiency (photosynthesis-to-transpiration ratio, P/E) emerges as an important factor demonstrating presence of mechanisms which facilitate functioning of a plant in non-optimal conditions. Comparison of the P/E values, which were higher in D. antarctica than in D. caespitosa at low and medium temperatures, confirms a high degree of adjustability of the photosynthetic apparatus in D. antarctica and unveils the lack of such a feature in D. caespitosa.

  2. Tufted hairgrass (Deschampsia caespitosa) exhibits a lower photosynthetic plasticity than Antarctic hairgrass (D. antarctica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bystrzejewska-Piotrowska, Grazyna; Urban, Pawel L

    2009-06-01

    The aim of our work was to assess photosynthetic plasticity of two hairgrass species with different ecological origins (a temperate zone species, Deschampsia caespitosa (L.) Beauv. and an Antarctic species, D. antarctica) and to consider how the anticipated climate change may affect vitality of these plants. Measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence showed that the photosystem II (PSII) quantum efficiency of D. caespitosa decreased during 4 d of incubation at 4 degrees C but it remained stable in D. antarctica. The fluorescence half-rise times were almost always lower in D. caespitosa than in D. antarctica, irrespective of the incubation temperature. These results indicate that the photosynthetic apparatus of D. caespitosa has poorer performance in these conditions. D. caespitosa reached the maximum photosynthesis rate at a higher temperature than D. antarctica although the values obtained at 8 degrees C were similar in both species. The photosynthetic water-use efficiency (photosynthesis-to-transpiration ratio, P/E) emerges as an important factor demonstrating presence of mechanisms which facilitate functioning of a plant in non-optimal conditions. Comparison of the P/E values, which were higher in D. antarctica than in D. caespitosa at low and medium temperatures, confirms a high degree of adjustability of the photosynthetic apparatus in D. antarctica and unveils the lack of such a feature in D. caespitosa.

  3. Colonization and demographic structure of Deschampsia antarctica and Colobanthus quitensis along an altitudinal gradient on Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Vera

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The colonization capacity and demographic structure of populations of Deschampsia antarctica and Colobanthus quitensis were studied in different microhabitats between 10 and 147 m a.s.l. on Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, near the Spanish Antarctic base Juan Carlos I, in February 2002. At the highest site (147 m a.s.l., mean temperatures were about 1°C lower than at sea level. Both species are less common in inland areas and at the highest altitudes only occur at restricted sites that are frequently snow-free in the early austral summer. The diameters of the largest plants (C. quitensis cushions 7–8 cm; D. antarctica tufts 10–11 cm in the populations growing at the highest altitudes (110 and 147 m a.s.l. suggest that these populations were established about 24–28 years ago. The largest diameter plants (Deschampsia 20 cm; Colobanthus 18 cm were found at the lowest altitudes on deep soil. The presence of numerous seedlings and young individuals on the periphery of populations established several years ago or at recently colonized sites suggests an active process of expansion. There were more emerged seedlings of C. quitensis than of D. antarctica, but the density of established individuals was higher for D. antarctica, suggesting these species have different demographic strategies.

  4. Mass balance of the Lambert Glacier basin, East Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Since it is the largest glacier system in Antarctica, the Lambert Glacier basin plays an important role in the mass balance of the overall Antarctic ice sheet. The observed data and shallow core studies from the inland traverse investigations in recent years show that there are noticeable differences in the distribution and variability of the snow accumulation rate between east and west sides. On the east side, the accumulation is higher on the average and has increased in the past decades, while on the west side it is contrary. The ice movement measurement and the ice flux calculation indicate that the ice velocity and the flux are larger in east than in west, meaning that the major part of mass supply for the glacier is from the east side. The mass budget estimate with the latest data gives that the integrated accumulation over the upstream area of the investigation traverse route is larger than the outflow ice flux by 13%, suggesting that the glacier basin is in a positive mass balance state and the ice thickness will increase if the present climate is keeping.

  5. Summer fast ice evolution off Zhongshan Station, Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Ruibo; Li Zhijun; Zhang Zhanhai; Cheng Yanfeng; Dou Yinke

    2008-01-01

    Based on the field data acquired in the program of fast ice observationoff Zhongshan Station,Prydz Bay,East Antarctica during the austral summer 2005/2006,physical properties evolution of fast ice during the ice ablation seasonis analyzed in detail.Results show that the annual maximum ice thickness in 2005 occurred in later November,and then ice started to melt,and the ablation duration was 62 days; sea water under the ice became warmer synchronously; corresponding to the warming sea ice temperature,a "relative cold mid layer" appeared in sea ice; the fast ice marginal line recoiled back to the shore observably,and the recoil distance was 20.9 km from 18 December 2005 through 14 January 2006.In addition,based on the data of sea ice thickness survey along the investigation course of MV Xuelong on December 18 of 2005,the ice thickness distribution paten in the marginal ice zone have been described: sea ice thickness increased,but the diversity of floe ice thickness decreased from open water to fast icezone distinctly.

  6. A preliminary study of airborne microbial biodiversity over Peninsular Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, K A; McCartney, H A; Lachlan-Cope, T A; Pearce, D A

    2004-07-01

    This study used PCR-based molecular biological identification techniques to examine the biodiversity of air sampled over Rothera Point (Antarctic Peninsula). 16S rDNA fragments of 132 clones were sequenced and identified to reveal a range of microorganisms, including cyanobacteria, actinomycetes, diatom plastids and other uncultivated bacterial groups. Matches for microorganisms that would be considered evidence of human contamination were not found. The closest matches for many of the sequences were from Antarctic clones already in the databases or from other cold environments. Whilst the majority of the sequences are likely to be of local origin, back trajectory calculations showed that the sampled air may have travelled over the Antarctic Peninsula immediately prior to reaching the sample site. As a result, a proportion of the detected biota may be of non-local origin. Conventional identification methods based on propagule morphology or culture are often inadequate due to poor preservation of characteristic features or loss of viability during airbome transfer. The application of molecular biological techniques in describing airbome microbial biodiversity represents a major step forward in the study of airborne biota over Antarctica and in the distribution of microorganisms and propagules in the natural environment.

  7. Meteorological data for the astronomical site at Dome A, Antarctica

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Yi; Ashley, Michael C B; Bonner, Collin S; Hu, Keliang; Liu, Qiang; Li, Yuansheng; Ma, Bin; Wang, Lifan; Wen, Haikun

    2014-01-01

    We present an analysis of the meteorological data collected at Dome A, Antarctica by the Kunlun Automated Weather Station, including temperatures and wind speeds at eight elevations above the snow surface between 0m and 14.5m. The average temperatures at 2m and 14.5m are $-54^{\\circ}$C and $-46^{\\circ}$C, respectively. We find that a strong temperature inversion existed at all heights for more than 70% of the time, and the temperature inversion typically lasts longer than 25 hours, indicating an extremely stable atmosphere. The temperature gradient is larger at lower elevations than higher elevations. The average wind speed was 1.5m/s at 4m elevation. We find that the temperature inversion is stronger when the wind speed is lower and the temperature gradient decreases sharply at a specific wind speed for each elevation. The strong temperature inversion and low wind speed results in a shallow and stable boundary layer with weak atmospheric turbulence above it, suggesting that Dome A should be an excellent site...

  8. Connected subglacial lake drainage beneath Thwaites Glacier, West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Benjamin E.; Gourmelen, Noel; Huth, Alexander; Joughin, Ian

    2017-02-01

    We present conventional and swath altimetry data from CryoSat-2, revealing a system of subglacial lakes that drained between June 2013 and January 2014 under the central part of Thwaites Glacier, West Antarctica (TWG). Much of the drainage happened in less than 6 months, with an apparent connection between three lakes spanning more than 130 km. Hydro-potential analysis of the glacier bed shows a large number of small closed basins that should trap water produced by subglacial melt, although the observed large-scale motion of water suggests that water can sometimes locally move against the apparent potential gradient, at least during lake-drainage events. This shows that there are important limitations in the ability of hydro-potential maps to predict subglacial water flow. An interpretation based on a map of the melt rate suggests that lake drainages of this type should take place every 20-80 years, depending on the connectivity of the water flow at the bed. Although we observed an acceleration in the downstream part of TWG immediately before the start of the lake drainage, there is no clear connection between the drainage and any speed change of the glacier.

  9. Diversity of soil yeasts isolated from South Victoria Land, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, L.; Redman, R.; Craig, S.; Scorzetti, G.; Iszard, M.; Rodriguez, R.

    2008-01-01

    Unicellular fungi, commonly referred to as yeasts, were found to be components of the culturable soil fungal population in Taylor Valley, Mt. Discovery, Wright Valley, and two mountain peaks of South Victoria Land, Antarctica. Samples were taken from sites spanning a diversity of soil habitats that were not directly associated with vertebrate activity. A large proportion of yeasts isolated in this study were basidiomycetous species (89%), of which 43% may represent undescribed species, demonstrating that culturable yeasts remain incompletely described in these polar desert soils. Cryptococcus species represented the most often isolated genus (33%) followed by Leucosporidium (22%). Principle component analysis and multiple linear regression using stepwise selection was used to model the relation between abiotic variables (principle component 1 and principle component 2 scores) and yeast biodiversity (the number of species present at a given site). These analyses identified soil pH and electrical conductivity as significant predictors of yeast biodiversity. Species-specific PCR primers were designed to rapidly discriminate among the Dioszegia and Leucosporidium species collected in this study. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  10. Thermalizing a telescope in Antarctica: Analysis of ASTEP observations

    CERN Document Server

    Guillot, Tristan; Agabi, Abdelkrim; Rivet, Jean-Pierre; Daban, Jean-Baptiste; Mekarnia, Djamel; Aristidi, Eric; Schmider, Francois-Xavier; Crouzet, Nicolas; Gonçalves, Ivan; Gouvret, Carole; Ottogalli, Sébastien; Faradji, Hélène; Blanc, Pierre-Eric; Bondoux, Eric; Valbousquet, Franck

    2015-01-01

    The installation and operation of a telescope in Antarctica represent particular challenges, in particular the requirement to operate at extremely cold temperatures, to cope with rapid temperature fluctuations and to prevent frosting. Heating of electronic subsystems is a necessity, but solutions must be found to avoid the turbulence induced by temperature fluctua- tions on the optical paths. ASTEP 400 is a 40 cm Newton telescope installed at the Concordia station, Dome C since 2010 for photometric observations of fields of stars and their exoplanets. While the telescope is designed to spread star light on several pixels to maximize photometric stability, we show that it is nonetheless sensitive to the extreme variations of the seeing at the ground level (between about 0.1 and 5 arcsec) and to temperature fluctuations between --30 degrees C and --80 degrees C. We analyze both day-time and night-time observations and obtain the magnitude of the seeing caused by the mirrors, dome and camera. The most important ...

  11. Site testing for submillimetre astronomy at Dome C, Antarctica

    CERN Document Server

    Tremblin, P; Schneider, N; Durand, G Al; Ashley, M C B; Lawrence, J S; Luong-Van, D M; Storey, J W V; Durand, G An; Reinert, Y; Veyssiere, C; Walter, C; Ade, P; Calisse, P G; Challita, Z; Fossat, E; Sabbatini, L; Pellegrini, A; Ricaud, P; Urban, J

    2011-01-01

    Over the past few years a major effort has been put into the exploration of potential sites for the deployment of submillimetre astronomical facilities. Amongst the most important sites are Dome C and Dome A on the Antarctic Plateau, and the Chajnantor area in Chile. In this context, we report on measurements of the sky opacity at 200 um over a period of three years at the French-Italian station, Concordia, at Dome C, Antarctica. We also present some solutions to the challenges of operating in the harsh polar environ- ment. Dome C offers exceptional conditions in terms of absolute atmospheric transmission and stability for submillimetre astron- omy. Over the austral winter the PWV exhibits long periods during which it is stable and at a very low level (0.1 to 0.3 mm). Higher values (0.2 to 0.8 mm) of PWV are observed during the short summer period. Based on observations over three years, a transmission of around 50% at 350 um is achieved for 75% of the time. The 200-um window opens with a typical transmission...

  12. Surface ozone characterization at Larsemann Hills and Maitri, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Kaushar; Trivedi, D K; Sahu, S K

    2017-04-15

    Data are analyzed in terms of daily average ozone, its diurnal variation and its relation with meteorological parameters like dry bulb temperature (T), wet bulb temperature (Tw), atmospheric pressure and wind speed based on measurement of these parameters at two Indian Antarctic stations (Larsemann Hills, and Maitri) during 28th Indian Scientific Expedition of Antarctica (ISEA) organized during Antarctic summer of the year 2008-09. The work has been carried out to investigate summer time ozone level and its day-to-day and diurnal variability at these coastal locations and to highlight possible mechanism of ozone production and destruction. The result of the analysis indicates that daily average ozone concentration at Larsemann Hills varied from ~13 and ~20ppb with overall average value of ~16ppb and at Maitri, it varied from ~16 and ~21ppb with overall average value of ~18ppb. Photochemistry is found to partially contribute occasionally to the surface layer ozone at both the stations. Lower concentration of ozone at Maitri during beginning of the observational days may be due to destruction of ozone through activated halogens, whereas higher ozone on latter days may be due to photochemistry and advective transport from east to south-east areas. Ozone concentration during blizzard episodes at both the stations is reduced due to slow photochemical production of ozone, its photochemical removal and removal through deposition of ozone molecules on precipitation particles. Diurnal variation of ozone at Larsemann Hills and Maitri has been found to be absent.

  13. GIS representation of coal-bearing areas in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Matthew D.

    2016-03-11

    Understanding the distribution of coal-bearing geologic units in Antarctica provides information that can be used in sedimentary, geomorphological, paleontological, and climatological studies. This report is a digital compilation of information on Antarctica’s coal-bearing geologic units found in the literature. It is intended to be used in small-scale spatial geographic information system (GIS) investigations and as a visual aid in the discussion of Antarctica’s coal resources or in other coal-based geologic investigations. Instead of using spatially insignificant point markers to represent large coal-bearing areas, this dataset uses polygons to represent actual coal-bearing lithologic units. Specific locations of coal deposits confirmed from the literature are provided in the attribution for the coal-bearing unit polygons. Coal-sample-location data were used to confirm some reported coal-bearing geology. The age and extent of the coal deposits indicated in the literature were checked against geologic maps ranging from local scale at 1:50,000 to Antarctic continental scale at 1:5,000,000; if satisfactory, the map boundaries were used to generate the polygons for the coal-bearing localities.

  14. The New Very Broadband Seismic Station TROLL, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvaerna, Tormod; Schweitzer, Johannes; Pirli, Myrto; Roth, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Troll is the name of the Norwegian permanent research station in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. The research base is located inside the continent, at an elevation of about 1300 m and at a distance of about 230 km from the shelf ice border. In the first week of February 2012, a new very broadband seismic station was installed at TROLL. Contrary to many other seismic stations inside the Antarctic continent, the new seismic sensor could be installed on bedrock (migmatite), on a hill at about 300 m distance from the main buildings of the Troll research base. A bedrock installation has the advantage that seismic signals are not disturbed by multiples due to the thick Antarctic ice sheet. The equipment consists of a Streckeisen STS-2.5 broadband sensor and a Quanterra Q330HR 26 bit digitizer. All data are transferred in real time via a satellite link to NORSAR for analysis and further distribution. During the first year, the new seismic station and corresponding data transmission has been running very stably. Initial analysis of the station's event detection capability shows that the performance is comparable to, and sometimes better than, the best performing three-component stations of the International Monitoring System (IMS). We will present examples of diurnal and seasonal variations in the background noise level of the station, the observed global, regional and local seismicity, and the very exciting monitoring capabilities of icebergs drifting along the coast of Dronning Maud Land.

  15. Detection of integron integrase genes on King George Island, Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vernica Antelo; Hctor Romero; Silvia Batista

    2015-01-01

    The presence and diversity of class 1 integrase gene (intI) sequences were evaluated by PCR using previously designed primers. Two clone libraries were constructed from DNA in sediment and microbial mat samples collected on Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, Antarctica.The libraries constructed from samples collected at Halfthree Point (HP) and Norma Cove (NC) contained 62 and 36 partial intI sequences, respectively. These sequences clustered into 10 different groups with <95% amino acid identity. Alignment of the deduced amino acid sequences with those from recognized integron-encoded integrases demonstrated the presence of highly conserved motifs characteristic of intI integrases. The HP library contained 42 nucleotide sequences identical to the class 1 intI gene found in a collection of trimethoprim-resistant (Tmpr) Antarctic Enterobacter sp. isolates, previously collected in the same area. These integrons, located on plasmids, had a genetic organization similar to that of pKOX105 from Klebsiella oxytoca. The 20 remaining HP and NC library sequences were similar to integrase sequences previously determined in a metagenomic analysis of environmental samples. We have demonstrated the presence of integron integrase genes in Antarctic sediment samples. About half these genes were very similar to the class 1 integrons found in human-associated microbiota, suggesting that they originated from human-dominated ecosystems. The remaining integrase genes were probably associated with endemic bacteria.

  16. Ambient noise correlation on the Amery Ice Shelf, East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Zhongwen; Tsai, Victor C.; Jackson, Jennifer M.; Helmberger, Don

    2014-03-01

    The structure of ice shelves is important for modelling the dynamics of ice flux from the continents to the oceans. While other, more traditional techniques provide many constraints, passive imaging with seismic noise is a complementary tool for studying and monitoring ice shelves. As a proof of concept, here we study noise cross-correlations and autocorrelations on the Amery Ice Shelf, East Antarctica. We find that the noise field on the ice shelf is dominated by energy trapped in a low-velocity waveguide caused by the water layer below the ice. Within this interpretation, we explain spectral ratios of the noise cross-correlations as P-wave resonances in the water layer, and obtain an independent estimate of the water-column thickness, consistent with other measurements. For stations with noise dominated by elastic waves, noise autocorrelations also provide similar results. High-frequency noise correlations also require a 50-m firn layer near the surface with P-wave velocity as low as 1 km s-1. Our study may also provide insight for future planetary missions that involve seismic exploration of icy satellites such as Titan and Europa.

  17. Radiocarbon analyses along the EDML ice core in Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wal, R.S.W. van de; Veen, C. van der [Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands). Inst. for Marine and Atmospheric research; Meijer, H.A.J.; De Rooij, M. [Univ. of Groningen (Netherlands). Center for Isotope Research

    2007-02-15

    Samples, 17 in total, from the EDML core drilled at Kohnen station Antarctica are analysed for {sup 14}CO and {sup 14}CO{sub 2} with a dry-extraction technique in combination with accelerator mass spectrometry. Results of the in situ produced {sup 14}CO fraction show a very low concentration of in situ produced {sup 14}CO. Despite these low levels in carbon monoxide, a significant in situ production is observed in the carbon dioxide fraction. For the first time we found background values for the ice samples which are equal to line blanks. The data set is used to test a model for the production of {sup 14}C in the ice matrix, in combination with a degassing as {sup 14}CO{sub 2} and possibly as {sup 14}CO into the air bubbles. Application of the model, for which no independent validation is yet possible, offers the opportunity to use radiocarbon analysis as dating technique for the air bubbles in the ice. Assigning an arbitrary error of 25% to the calculation of the in situ production leads to age estimates, after correction for the in situ production, which are in agreement with age estimates based on a volcanic layer match of EDML to the Dome C timescale in combination with a correction for firn diffusion.

  18. Biomimetic affinity purification of Candida antarctica lipase B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hongyan; Zhang, Tian; Xue, Hongwei; Tang, Kexuan; Li, Rongxiu

    2011-12-15

    Candida antarctica lipase B (CalB) is one of the most widely used biocatalysts in organic synthesis. The traditional method for purification of CalB is a multi-step, high cost and low recovery procedure. Biomimetic affinity purification had high efficiency purification. We selected 298 ligand columns from a 700-member library of synthetic ligands to screen Pichia pastoris protein extract. Of the 298, three columns (named as A9-14, A9-10, and A11-33) had one-step purification effect, and A9-14 of these affinity ligands, had both high purification and recovery. The one-step recovery of CalB reached 73% and the purification reached 91% upon purification. The active groups of A9-14 were cyclohexylamine and propenylamine. Furthermore, both A9-14 and A9-10 had the same R1 active group of cyclohexylamine which might act the main binding role for CalB. The synthetic ligand A9-14 had a binding capacity of 0.4 mg/mL and had no negative effects on its hydrolytic activity. Unlike a natural affinity ligand, this synthetic ligand is highly stable to resist 1M NaOH, and thus has great potential for industrial scale production of CalB.

  19. Triassic leech cocoon from Antarctica contains fossil bell animal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomfleur, Benjamin; Kerp, Hans; Taylor, Thomas N.; Moestrup, Øjvind; Taylor, Edith L.

    2012-12-01

    Our understanding of the evolution of life on Earth is limited by the imperfection of the fossil record. One reason for this imperfect record is that organisms without hard parts, such as bones, shells, and wood, have a very low potential to enter the fossil record. Occasionally, however, exceptional fossil deposits that preserve soft-bodied organisms provide a rare glimpse of the true biodiversity during past periods of Earth history. We here present an extraordinary find of a fossil ciliate that is encased inside the wall layer of a more than 200 Ma leech cocoon from Antarctica. The microfossil consists of a helically contractile stalk that attaches to a main body with a peristomial feeding apparatus and a large C-shaped macronucleus. It agrees in every aspect with the living bell animals, such as Vorticella. Vorticellids and similar peritrichs are vital constituents of aquatic ecosystems worldwide, but so far have lacked any fossil record. This discovery offers a glimpse of ancient soft-bodied protozoan biotas, and also highlights the potential of clitellate cocoons as microscopic "conservation traps" comparable to amber.

  20. Hexabromocyclododecane flame retardant in Antarctica: Research stations as sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Da; Hale, Robert C; La Guardia, Mark J; Luellen, Drew; Kim, Stacy; Geisz, Heidi N

    2015-11-01

    Historical persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are banned from Antarctica under international treaty; but contemporary-use POPs can enter as additives within polymer and textile products. Over their useful lives these products may release additives in-situ. Indeed, we observed 226 and 109 ng/g dry weight (dw) of the total concentrations of α-, β- and γ-hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in indoor dust from McMurdo Station (U.S.) and Scott Station (New Zealand), respectively. Sewage sludge collected from wastewater treatment facilities at these stations exhibited ∑HBCD of 45 and 69 ng/g dw, respectively. Contaminants originally within the bases may exit to the local outdoor environment via wastewaters. Near McMurdo, maximum ∑HBCD levels in surficial marine sediments and aquatic biota (invertebrates and fish) were 2350 ng/g (total organic carbon basis) and 554 ng/g lipid weight, respectively. Levels declined with distance from McMurdo. Our results illustrate that Antarctic research stations serve as local HBCD sources to the pristine Antarctic environment.

  1. Eocene paleosols of King George Island, Maritime Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinola, Diogo; Portes, Raquel; Schaefer, Carlos; Kühn, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Red layers between lava flows on King George Island, Maritime Antarctica, were formed during the Eocene, which was one of the warmest periods on Earth in the Cenozoic. Our hypothesis is that these red layers are paleosols formed in periods of little or no volcanic activity. Therefore, our main objective was to identify the main pedogenic properties and features to distinguish these from diagenetic features formed after the lava emplacement. Additionally, we compared our results with volcanic soils formed under different climates to find the best present analogue. The macromorphological features indicate a pedogenic origin, because of the occurrence of well-defined horizons based on colour and structure. Micromorphological analyses showed that most important pedogenic features are the presence of biological channels, plant residues, anisotropic b-fabric, neoformed and illuvial clay and distinct soil microstructure. Although the paleosols are not strongly weathered, the geochemical data also support the pedogenic origin despite of diagenetic features as the partial induration of the profiles and zeolites filling nearly all voids in the horizons in contact with the overlying lava flow, indicating circulation of hydrothermal fluids. The macromorphological and micromorphological features of these paleosols are similar to the soils formed under seasonal climates. Thus, these paleosol features do not correspond to the other proxies (e.g. sediment, plant fossils), which indicate a wet, non-seasonal climate, as in Valdivian Forest, Chile, during the Eocene in King George Island

  2. U.S. and Russia sign agreements to cooperate in Antarctica and Beringia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-09-01

    U.S. secretary of state Hillary Rodham Clinton and Russian foreign minister Sergey Lavrov signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) for Cooperation in Antarctica and issued a Joint Statement on Pursuing a Transboundary Area of Shared Beringian Heritage, which is related to a segment of the Bering Strait, at an 8 September ceremony in Vladivostok, Russia. The Antarctica MOU strengthens cooperation and improves coordination of bilateral policies, science, logistics, search and rescue, training, and public outreach in Antarctica. “We are formally deepening our scientific cooperation in Antarctica, a continent with vast opportunities for research,” Clinton said. “Scientists from both our countries will work together to explore Antarctica's terrain, study the effects of climate change, and cooperate on a range of issues to better understand and protect our shared environment.” She added that U.S. and Russian officials and scientists will work together to enforce the 1959 Antarctic Treaty, including inspecting foreign facilities and looking for violations of the treaty and environmental commitments.

  3. Photosynthesis in extreme environments: responses to different light regimes in the Antarctic alga Koliella antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rocca, Nicoletta; Sciuto, Katia; Meneghesso, Andrea; Moro, Isabella; Rascio, Nicoletta; Morosinotto, Tomas

    2015-04-01

    Antarctic algae play a fundamental role in polar ecosystem thanks to their ability to grow in an extreme environment characterized by low temperatures and variable illumination. Here, for prolonged periods, irradiation is extremely low and algae must be able to harvest light as efficiently as possible. On the other side, at low temperatures even dim irradiances can saturate photosynthesis and drive to the formation of reactive oxygen species. Colonization of this extreme environment necessarily required the optimization of photosynthesis regulation mechanisms by algal organisms. In order to investigate these adaptations we analyzed the time course of physiological and morphological responses to different irradiances in Koliella antarctica, a green microalga isolated from Ross Sea (Antarctica). Koliella antarctica not only modulates cell morphology and composition of its photosynthetic apparatus on a long-term acclimation, but also shows the ability of a very fast response to light fluctuations. Koliella antarctica controls the activity of two xanthophyll cycles. The first, involving lutein epoxide and lutein, may be important for the growth under very low irradiances. The second, involving conversion of violaxanthin to antheraxanthin and zeaxanthin, is relevant to induce a fast and particularly strong non-photochemical quenching, when the alga is exposed to higher light intensities. Globally K. antarctica thus shows the ability to activate a palette of responses of the photosynthetic apparatus optimized for survival in its natural extreme environment.

  4. Ice recrystallization inhibition proteins (IRIPs) and freeze tolerance in the cryophilic Antarctic hair grass Deschampsia antarctica E. Desv.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Ulrik P; Polotnianka, Renatam M; Sivakumaran, Kailayapillai A; Chew, Orinda; Mackin, Leanne; Kuiper, Micheal J; Talbot, Jonathan P; Nugent, Gregory D; Mautord, Julie; Schrauf, Gustavo E; Spangenberg, German C

    2009-04-01

    Antarctic hair grass (Deschampsia antarctica E. Desv.), the only grass indigenous to Antarctica, has well-developed freezing tolerance, strongly induced by cold acclimation. Here, we show that in response to low temperatures, D. antarctica expresses potent recrystallization inhibition (RI) activity that, inhibits the growth of small ice crystals into potentially damaging large ones, is proteinaceous and localized to the apoplasm. A gene family from D. antarctica encoding putative homologs of an ice recrystallization inhibition protein (IRIP) has been isolated and characterized. IRIPs are apoplastically targeted proteins with two potential ice-binding motifs: 1-9 leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) and c. 16 'IRIP' repeats. IRIP genes appear to be confined to the grass subfamily Pooideae and their products, exhibit sequence similarity to phytosulphokine receptors and are predicted to adopt conformations with two ice-binding surfaces. D. antarctica IRIP (DaIRIP) transcript levels are greatly enhanced in leaf tissue following cold acclimation. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana expressing a DaIRIP has novel RI activity, and purified DaIRIP, when added back to extracts of leaves from non-acclimated D. antarctica, can reconstitute the activity found in acclimated plants. We propose that IRIP-mediated RI activity may contribute to the cryotolerance of D. antarctica, and thus to its unique ability to have colonized Antarctica.

  5. Analysis of mercury and other heavy metals accumulated in lichen Usnea antarctica from James Ross Island, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvěřina, Ondřej; Láska, Kamil; Cervenka, Rostislav; Kuta, Jan; Coufalík, Pavel; Komárek, Josef

    2014-12-01

    The study was designed to investigate the content and distribution of selected heavy metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Fe, Pb and Zn) in samples of fruticose macrolichen Usnea antarctica from James Ross Island. A special emphasis was devoted to mercury and its species (elemental mercury and methylmercury). It was found that mercury contents were relatively high (up to 2.73 mg kg(-1) dry weight) compared to other parts of the Antarctic Peninsula region, while the concentrations of most other elements were within reported ranges. Mercury contents in lichens originating from the interior were higher than those from the coast, which is probably the result of local microclimate conditions. Similar trends were observed for Hg(0) and MeHg(+), whose contents were up to 0.14 and 0.098 mg kg(-1) dry weight, respectively. While mercury did not show a significant correlation with any other element, the mutual correlation of some litophile elements probably refers to the influence on thalli of resuspended weathered material. The influence of habitat and environmental conditions could play an essential role in the bioaccumulation of contaminants rather than just the simple presence of sources. Thus, the study of the thalli of this species can bring a new perspective on the interpretation of contaminant accumulation in lichens of the polar region.

  6. Glimpses of East Antarctica: Aeromagnetic and satellite magnetic view from the central Transantarctic Mountains of East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Carol A.; Goodge, John W.

    2010-01-01

    Aeromagnetic and satellite magnetic data provide glimpses of the crustal architecture within the Ross Sea sector of the enigmatic, ice-covered East Antarctic shield critical for understanding both global tectonic and climate history. In the central Transantarctic Mountains (CTAM), exposures of Precambrian basement, coupled with new high-resolution magnetic data, other recent aeromagnetic transects, and satellite magnetic and seismic tomography data, show that the shield in this region comprises an Archean craton modified both by Proterozoic magmatism and early Paleozoic orogenic basement reactivation. CTAM basement structures linked to the Ross Orogeny are imaged 50–100 km farther west than previously mapped, bounded by inboard upper crustal Proterozoic granites of the Nimrod igneous province. Magnetic contrasts between craton and rift margin sediments define the Neoproterozoic rift margin, likely reactivated during Ross orogenesis and Jurassic extension. Interpretation of satellite magnetic and aeromagnetic patterns suggests that the Neoproterozoic rift margin of East Antarctica is offset by transfer zones to form a stepwise series of salients tracing from the CTAM northward through the western margin of the Wilkes Subglacial Basin to the coast at Terre Adélie. Thinned Precambrian crust inferred to lie east of the rift margin cannot be imaged magnetically because of modification by Neoproterozoic and younger tectonic events.

  7. Melting empires? Climate change and politics in Antarctica since the International Geophysical Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howkins, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between climate change and politics in Antarctica since the International Geophysical Year of 1957-8, paying particular attention to the work of the British Antarctic Survey. Research conducted in Antarctica has played an important role in the understanding of climate change on a global scale. In turn, fears about the consequences of global climate change have radically changed perceptions of Antarctica and profoundly shaped scientific research agendas: a continent that until fifty years ago was perceived largely as an inhospitable wilderness has come to be seen as a dangerously vulnerable environment. This radical shift in perception contrasts with a fundamental continuity in the political power structures of the continent. This article argues that the severity of the threat of climate change has reinforced the privileged political position of the "insider" nations within the Antarctic Treaty System.

  8. Ecological Biogeography of the Terrestrial Nematodes of Victoria Land, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byron Adams

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The terrestrial ecosystems of Victoria Land, Antarctica are characteristically simple in terms of biological diversity and ecological functioning. Nematodes are the most commonly encountered and abundant metazoans of Victoria Land soils, yet little is known of their diversity and distribution. Herein we present a summary of the geographic distribution, habitats and ecology of the terrestrial nematodes of Victoria Land from published and unpublished sources. All Victoria Land nematodes are endemic to Antarctica, and many are common and widely distributed at landscape scales. However, at smaller spatial scales, populations can have patchy distributions, with the presence or absence of each species strongly influenced by specific habitat requirements. As the frequency of nematode introductions to Antarctica increases, and soil habitats are altered in response to climate change, our current understanding of the environmental parameters associated with the biogeography of Antarctic nematofauna will be crucial to monitoring and possibly mitigating changes to these unique soil ecosystems.

  9. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Antarctic amphipod Gondogeneia antarctica (Crustacea, amphipod).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seung Chul; Cho, Jin; Lee, Jong Kyu; Ahn, Do Hwan; Lee, Hyoungseok; Park, Hyun

    2012-02-01

    The complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the Antarctic amphipod Gondogeneia antarctica was determined to be 18,424 bp in length, and to contain 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, and large (rrnL) and small (rrnS) rRNA genes. Its total A+T content is 70.1%. The G. antarctica mitogenome is the largest known among those of crustaceans, due to the existence of two relatively large intergenic non-coding sequences. The PCG arrangement of G. antarctica is identical to that of the ancestral pancrustacean ground pattern, although the tRNA arrangement differs somewhat. The complete mitogenome sequences of 68 species of pancrustacea have been added to the NCBI database, only 4 of which represent complete mitogenome sequences from amphipods. This is the first report of a mitogenome sequence of an Antarctic amphipod, and provides insights into the evolution of crustacean mitochondrial genomes, particularly in amphipods.

  10. Transcriptome of the Antarctic amphipod Gondogeneia antarctica and its response to pollutant exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seunghyun; Kim, Sanghee; Park, Hyun

    2015-12-01

    Gondogeneia antarctica is widely distributed off the western Antarctic Peninsula and is a key species in the Antarctic food web. In this study, we performed Illumina sequencing to produce a total of 4,599,079,601 (4.6Gb) nucleotides and a comprehensive transcript dataset for G. antarctica. Over 46 million total reads were assembled into 20,749 contigs, and 12,461 annotated genes were predicted by Blastx. The RNA-seq results after exposure to three pollutants showed that 658, 169 and 367 genes that were potential biomarkers of responses to pollutants for this species were specifically upregulated after exposure to PCBs (Polychlorinated biphenyls), PFOS (Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid) and PFOA (Perfluorooctanoic acid), respectively. These data represent the first transcriptome resource for the Antarctic amphipod G. antarctica and provide a useful resource for studying Antarctic marine species.

  11. Cloning and expression of phosphoglycerate mutase from the psychrophilic yeast, Glaciozyma antarctica PI12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, Nardiah Rizwana; Bakar, Farah Diba Abu; Murad, Abdul Munir Abdul; Mahadi, Nor Muhammad

    2015-09-01

    The conversion of 3-phosphoglycerate to 2-phosphoglycerate during glycolysis and gluconeogenesis is catalyzed by phosphoglycerate mutase (PGM). Better understanding of metabolic reactions performed by this enzyme has been studied extensively in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Here, we report a phosphoglycerate mutase from the psychrophilic yeast, Glaciozyma antarctica. cDNA encoding for PGM from G. antarctica PI12, a psychrophilic yeast isolated from sea ice at Casey Station, Antarctica was amplified. The gene was then cloned into a cloning vector and sequenced, which verified its identity as the gene putatively encoding for PGM. The recombinant protein was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) as inclusion bodies and this was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot.

  12. Electrophoretic and zymographic techniques for production monitoring of two lipase forms from Candida antarctica DSM 70725

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević Aleksandra S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Yeast Candida antarctica produces two lipase forms, which are widely used as catalysts in variety of organic reactions, many of which are applied on a large scale. In this work, production of two forms of lipase from C. antarctica DSM 70725 (CAL A and CAL B was monitored during seven days of cultivation in the optimal medium using different electrophoretic and zymographic techniques. According to electrophoresis after silver staining, C. antarctica lipase A (molecular mass 45 kDa was produced starting from the second day of cultivation. C. antarctica lipase B (CAL B was also produced starting from the second day, but protein was present in the fermentation broth predominantly as dimer (molecular weight 66 kDa, while presence of monomeric form of CAL B (molecular weight of 33 kDa was observed starting from the fourth day of cultivation. Both types of zymograms (based on hydrolysis and synthesis reactions were used for detection of lipase activity in the fermentation broth. C. antarctica lipase A showed activity only in hydrolytic zymogram, when α-naphtyl butyrate was used as substrate. In the same zymogram, with α-naphtyl acetate as substrate no CAL A activity was detected. Similarly, CAL A showed no activity in synthesis based zymograms towards oleic acid and octanol as substrates, indicating that CAL A is not active towards very short or long-chain substrates. As opposite of CAL A, both monomeric and dimeric form of CAL B were detected in the all zymograms, suggesting that CAL B is active towards wide range of substrates, regardless to the chain length. Thus, zymogram based on hydrolysis of α-naphtyl butyrate represents a simple method for monitoring the production of two forms of lipase from C. antarctica, that greatly differ in their characteristics.

  13. Tasmania in Nuna: Witness to a ~1.4 Ga East Antarctica-Laurentia Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpin, J. A.; Mulder, J. A.; Daczko, N. R.

    2015-12-01

    Most recent reconstructions of the supercontinent Nuna juxtapose the North Australian craton, Mawson continent (South Australia-East Antarctica), and Laurentia between 1.6 Ga and 1.3 Ga, but differ in their relative positioning. Tasmania (SE Australia) has not been considered in previous Nuna reconstructions. Prior to late Neoproterozoic rifting, this crustal fragment was likely part of the eastern margin of East Antarctica. The significance of Tasmania's position within Nuna has recently been highlighted with the discovery that the majority of a >10-km-thick marine shelfal package exposed in northwest Tasmania (Rocky Cape Group) was deposited between 1.45 and 1.30 Ga. The detrital zircon signatures of these strata are distinct from other Mesoproterozoic basins in Australia, and instead closely resemble time-equivalent upper parts of the Belt-Purcell Basin of Laurentia, suggesting correlations within Nuna. We investigate the provenance of the Rocky Cape Group quartzites by comparing new detrital zircon U-Pb-Hf isotopic data to an extensive compilation of zircon data from Australia, East Antarctica, and Laurentia. Our analysis demonstrates that the Rocky Cape Group is unlikely to have been sourced from any geological terrane exposed in present-day Australia. Instead, zircon isotopic signatures from basement terranes in Laurentia and East Antarctica show striking similarities to the Rocky Cape Group detrital signature. Paleocurrent data indicate a northwest-southeast-trending paleoshoreline
and suggest that the majority of sediment was sourced from Paleoproterozoic crust in SW Laurentia, which was to the southeast (present-day coordinates) of Tasmania. These new data support a SWEAT-like (southwest United States-East Antarctica) configuration for Nuna. We suggest that rifting propagated southward from ca. 1.4 Ga, leaving a thinned continental connection between East Antarctica and southwest Laurentia onto which the lower-middle RCG was deposited prior to 1.3 Ga.

  14. Gas discharges in fumarolic ice caves of Erebus volcano, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, T. P.; Curtis, A. G.; Kyle, P. R.; Sano, Y.

    2013-12-01

    reactions. We are confident that the atmospheric component is not the result of sampling procedure but intrinsic to the ice cave system. In addition to carbon dioxide, magmatic gases emitted from Erebus lava lake contain significant amounts of SO2, HCl, HF, CO and H2 [1,2]. The acid magmatic gases (SO2, HCl, HF) and a significant amount of the CO2 are likely absorbed by the subsurface ice/water system. The atmospheric components (Ar, nitrogen, oxygen) likely enter the system at shallow levels. The relative abundances of these components reflect degassing fractionation of these volatiles from liquid water at low temperatures, suggesting the presence of liquid water in the subsurface. [1] Oppenheimer, C., Kyle, P.R., 2008. Probing the magma plumbing of Erebus volcano, Antarctica, by open-path FTIR spectroscopy of gas emissions. J. Vol. Geoth. Res. 177, 743-754. [2] Moussallam, Y., Oppenheimer, C., et al., 2012. Hydrogen emission from Erebus volcano, Antarctica. Bull. Volcan 74, 2109-2120.

  15. The absolute gravity measurement by FG5 gravimeter at Great Wall Station, Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Gravity measurement is of great importance to the height datum in Antarctica.The absolute gravity measurement was carried out at Great Wall Station, Antarctica, using FG5 absolute gravity instrument.The gravity data was processed with corrections of earth tide, ocean tide, polar motion and the atmospher, and the RMS is within +3 x 10 -s ms-2.The vertical and horizontal gravity gradients were measured using 2 LaCoaste & Romberg (LCR) gravimeters.The absolute gravity measurement provides the fundamental data for the validation and calibration of the satellite gravity projects such as CHAMP, GRACE and GOCE, and for the high accuracy geoid model.

  16. A two thousand year annual record of snow accumulation rates for Law Dome, East Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Roberts

    2014-11-01

    AD 663–704, AD 933–975 and AD 1429–1468 were below average. The calculated snow accumulation rates show good correlation with atmospheric reanalysis estimates, and significant spatial correlation over a wide expanse of East Antarctica, demonstrating that the Law Dome record captures larger scale variability across a large region of East Antarctica well beyond the immediate vicinity of the Law Dome summit. Spectral analysis reveals periodicities in the snow accumulation record which may be related to ENSO and Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation frequencies.

  17. Development of a new generation gravity map of Antarctica. ADGRAV Antarctic Digital Gravity Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, R.E.; Small, C.; Arko, R.A. [Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (United States). Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory

    1999-04-01

    The United States National Science Foundation (NSF) has agreed to support the development of a new generation gravity map of Antarctica (ADGRAW-Antarctic Digital Gravity Synthesis), funding the development of a web based access tool. The goal of this project is the creation of an on-line Antarctic gravity database which will facilitate access to improved high resolution satellite gravity models, in conjunction with shipboard, airborne, and land based gravity measurements for the continental regions. This database will complement parallel projects underway to develop new continental bedrock (BEDMAP) and magnetic (ADMAP) maps of Antarctica.

  18. Development of a new generation gravity map of Antarctica: ADGRAV Antarctic Digital Gravity Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Arko

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF has agreed to support the development of a new generation gravity map of Antarctica (ADGRAV - Antarctic Digital Gravity Synthesis, funding the development of a web based access tool. The goal of this project is the creation of an on-line Antarctic gravity database which will facilitate access to improved high resolution satellite gravity models, in conjunction with shipboard, airborne, and land based gravity measurements for the continental regions. This database will complement parallel projects underway to develop new continental bedrock (BEDMAP and magnetic (ADMAP maps of Antarctica.

  19. GPS-based regional ionospheric models and their suitability in Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN Jiachun; WANG Zemin; NING Xinguo

    2014-01-01

    There are a number of ionospheric models available for research and application, such as the polynomial model, generalized trigonometric series function model, low degree spherical harmonic function model, adjusted spherical harmonic function model, and spherical cap harmonic function analysis. Using observations from more than 40 continuously operating stations across Antarctica in 2010, ifve models are compared with regard to their precision and applicability to polar regions. The results show that all the models perform well in Antarctica with 0.1 TECU of residual mean value and 2 TECU of root mean square error.

  20. Ultrahigh temperature deformation microstructures in felsic granulites of the Napier Complex, Antarctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Majbritt Deichgræber; Piazolo, Sandra; Harley, Simon L

    2006-01-01

    Detailed electron microscope and microstructural analysis of two ultrahigh temperature felsic granulites from Tonagh Island, Napier Complex, Antarctica show deformation microstructures produced at ∼1000 °C at 8-10 kbar. High temperature orthopyroxene (Al ∼7 wt.% and ∼11 wt.%), exhibits crystallog......Detailed electron microscope and microstructural analysis of two ultrahigh temperature felsic granulites from Tonagh Island, Napier Complex, Antarctica show deformation microstructures produced at ∼1000 °C at 8-10 kbar. High temperature orthopyroxene (Al ∼7 wt.% and ∼11 wt.%), exhibits...

  1. Determination of element composition of three lichens and their distribution in King George Island, Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Cross-section slices of Usnea antarctica Du Rietz, Usnea aurantiaco-atra (Jacq.) Bory. and Cladonia sp. at upper, middle and basal positions were prepared, respectively. The element composition and relative content were determined by SEM and EDS at the surface, intermediate and inner layers in each slice, respectively. The result indicated that the composition of element is mostly same in these lichens. The relative content of Al, Si, K and Ca elements is high, and P is close at each position. The result is of benefit to study the structure and physiological characteristics of lichens, and to analyze geological environment in Antarctica.

  2. Microbial Community Structure of Subglacial Lake Whillans, West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achberger, Amanda M.; Christner, Brent C.; Michaud, Alexander B.; Priscu, John C.; Skidmore, Mark L.; Vick-Majors, Trista J.; Adkins, W.

    2016-01-01

    Subglacial Lake Whillans (SLW) is located beneath ∼800 m of ice on the Whillans Ice Stream in West Antarctica and was sampled in January of 2013, providing the first opportunity to directly examine water and sediments from an Antarctic subglacial lake. To minimize the introduction of surface contaminants to SLW during its exploration, an access borehole was created using a microbiologically clean hot water drill designed to reduce the number and viability of microorganisms in the drilling water. Analysis of 16S rRNA genes (rDNA) amplified from samples of the drilling and borehole water allowed an evaluation of the efficacy of this approach and enabled a confident assessment of the SLW ecosystem inhabitants. Based on an analysis of 16S rDNA and rRNA (i.e., reverse-transcribed rRNA molecules) data, the SLW community was found to be bacterially dominated and compositionally distinct from the assemblages identified in the drill system. The abundance of bacteria (e.g., Candidatus Nitrotoga, Sideroxydans, Thiobacillus, and Albidiferax) and archaea (Candidatus Nitrosoarchaeum) related to chemolithoautotrophs was consistent with the oxidation of reduced iron, sulfur, and nitrogen compounds having important roles as pathways for primary production in this permanently dark ecosystem. Further, the prevalence of Methylobacter in surficial lake sediments combined with the detection of methanogenic taxa in the deepest sediment horizons analyzed (34–36 cm) supported the hypothesis that methane cycling occurs beneath the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. Large ratios of rRNA to rDNA were observed for several operational taxonomic units abundant in the water column and sediments (e.g., Albidiferax, Methylobacter, Candidatus Nitrotoga, Sideroxydans, and Smithella), suggesting a potentially active role for these taxa in the SLW ecosystem. Our findings are consistent with chemosynthetic microorganisms serving as the ecological foundation in this dark subsurface environment, providing new

  3. Snowpack Chemistry of Reactive Gases at Station Concordia, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmig, Detlev; Mass, Alex; Hueber, Jacques; Fain, Xavier; Dommergue, Aurelien; Barbero, Albane; Savarino, Joel

    2013-04-01

    During December 2012 a new experiment for the study of snow photochemical processes and surface gas exchange was installed at Dome Concordia, Antarctica. The experiment consists of two sampling manifolds ('snow tower') which facilitate the withdrawal of interstitial firn air from four depths in the snowpack and from above the surface. One of these snow towers can be shaded for investigation of the dependency of snow chemistry on solar radiation. A nearby 12 m meteorological tower facilitates above surface turbulence and trace gas gradient measurements. Temperature profiles and UV and IR light penetration are monitored in the snowpack. Air samples are directed through sampling lines to a nearby underground laboratory that houses the experiment control system and gas monitors. The system is fully automated, sampling gases from the array of inlet ports sequentially, and is intended to be operated continuously for a full annual cycle. The computerized control system can be accessed remotely for data retrieval and quality control and for configuring experimental details. Continuous gas measurements include ozone, nitrogen oxides, methane, carbon monoxide, and gaseous elemental mercury. Whole air samples were sampled on four occasions for volatile organic compound analysis. The objective of this research is the study of the year-round snowpack gas chemistry and its dependency on snowpack and above surface physical and environmental conditions. A particular emphasis will be the investigation of the effects of increased UV radiation during the occurrence of the stratospheric ozone hole. We will present the conceptual design of the experiment and data examples from the first three months of the experiment.

  4. Kordia antarctica sp. nov., isolated from Antarctic seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Kiwoon; Choi, Ahyoung; Kang, Ilnam; Lee, Kiyoung; Cho, Jang-Cheon

    2013-10-01

    A Gram-staining-negative, chemoheterotrophic, yellow-pigmented, non-motile, flexirubin-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacterium, designated strain IMCC3317(T), was isolated from a coastal seawater sample from the Antarctic Penninsula. Optimal growth of strain IMCC3317(T) was observed at 20 °C, pH 8.0 and in the presence of 2-3 % NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain IMCC3317(T) belonged to the genus Kordia and was closely related to Kordia algicida OT-1(T) (96.7 % sequence similarity) and Kordia periserrulae IMCC1412(T) (96.1 % sequence similarity). The major fatty acids were 10-methyl C16 : 0 and/or iso-C16 : 1ω9c, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, iso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 35.1 mol%. The strain contained menaquinone-6 (MK-6) as the respiratory quinone. The polar lipids detected in the strain were phosphatidylethanolamine and unknown aminophospholipids, aminolipids and polar lipids. On the basis of phylogenetic distinction and differential phenotypic characteristics, it is suggested that strain IMCC3317(T) ( = KCTC 32292(T) = NBRC 109401(T)) be assigned to the genus Kordia as the type strain of a novel species, for which the name Kordia antarctica sp. nov. is proposed.

  5. Monitoring of nitrogen dioxide, ozone and halogens radicals in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortoli, Daniele; Ravegnani, Fabrizio; Costa, Maria J.; Genco, Silvia; Kulkarni, Pavan K.; Mendes, Rui; Domingues, Ana Filipa; Anton, Manuel; Giovanelli, Giorgio; Silva, Ana Maria

    2013-10-01

    Monitoring of atmospheric compounds at high latitudes is a key factor for a better understanding of the processes driving the chemical cycles of ozone and related chemical species. In this frame, the GASCOD (Gas Analizer Spectrometer Correlating Optical Differences) equipment is installed at the Mario Zucchelli Station (MZS - 74.69S, 164.12E) since December 1995, carrying out observations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3). The recent advances in sensor technologies and processor capabilities, suggested the setup of a new equipment, based on the same optical layout of the 'old' GASCOD , with enhanced performances and improved capabilities for the measurements of solar radiation in the UV-visible spectral range (300-700nm). The efforts accomplished, allowed for the increase of the investigated tracers. Actually, mainly due to the enlargement of the covered spectral range and to the adoption of a CCD sensor, in addition to the NO2 and O3 compounds, others species can be monitored with the new instrumental setup such as bromine, chlorine and iodine oxides (BrO, OClO and IO). The innovative equipment called GASCODNG (GASCOD New Generation) was installed at MZS during the 2012/2013 Italian Antarctic expedition, in the framework of the research projects SAMOA (Automatic Station Monitoring Antarctic Ozonosphere) and MATAGRO (Monitoring Atmospheric Tracers in Antarctica with Ground Based Observations) funded by the Italian and Portuguese Antarctic programs respectively. In this paper a brief description of the new equipment is provided, highlighting the main improvements with regard to the 'old' one. Furthermore the full dataset (1996 - 2012) of NO2 total columns, obtained with the GASCOD installed at MZS, is compared with the data obtained with satellite borne equipments (GOME, SCIAMACHY, OMI and GOME2) and the main statistical parameters are analyzed and discussed in detail.

  6. Supercooled water in austral summer in Prydz Bay,Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Jiuxin; CHENG Yaoyao; JIAO Yutian; HOU Jiaqiang

    2011-01-01

    Supercooled water with temperatures below freezing point, was identified from hydrographic data obtained by Chinese and Australian expeditions to Prydz Bay, Antarctica, during the austral summer. The study shows that most supercooled waters occurred at depths of 63-271 m in the region north of the Amery Ice Shelf (AIS) front. The maximum supercooling was 0.16℃ below the in-situ freezing point. In temperature and salinity ranges of-2.14 - -1.96℃ and 34.39--34.46, respectively,the water was colder and fresher than peripheral shelf water. The supercooled water had less variability in the vertical profiles compared to shelf water. Based on analysis of their thermohaline features and spatial distribution, as well as the circulation pattern in Prydz Bay, we conclude that these supercooled waters originated from a cavity beneath the AIS and resulted from upwelling just outside of the AIS front. Water emerging from the ice shelf cools to an extremely low temperature (about -2.0℃) by additional cooling from the ice shelf, and becomes buoyant with the addition of melt water from the ice shelf base. When this water flows out of the ice shelf front, its upper boundary is removed, and thus it rises abruptly. Once the temperature of this water reaches below the freezing point, supercooling takes place. In summer, the seasonal pycnocline at ~100 m water depth acts as a barrier to upwelling and supercooling. The upwelling of ice shelf outflow water illuminates a unique mid-depth convection of the polar ocean.

  7. Hydroacoustic habitat mapping in Potter Cove (King George Island, Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, H. Christian; Wölfl, Anne-Cathrin; Kuhn, Gerhard; Jerosch, Kerstin; Scharf, Frauke; Abele, Doris

    2016-04-01

    Climate change increasingly affects the coastal areas off Antarctica. Strongest environmental response occurs in the transition zones that mediate between the polar and subpolar latitudes. Potter Cove, a minor fjord at the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula is significantly affected by rising temperatures and retreating ice sheets. Large amounts of turbid meltwaters affect both, the seafloor and the water column and cause stress for many biota. There is an increasing demand to monitor the ongoing change and to work out means for comparison with similar coastal ecosystems under pressure. Marine habitat maps provide information on the seafloor characteristics that allow to describe and evaluate the status of the recent coastal ecosystem and to predict its future development. We used a RoxAnn acoustic ground discrimination system, a sidescan sonar, grab samples (grain size and TOC) and underwater video footage to gain habitat information. Supervised and unsupervised classification routines (including fuzzy k-means clustering and LDA) were employed to calculate models ranging from two classes (soft bottom habitat, stone habitat) to 7 classes (including classes of rocks with and without macroalgae as well as classes of gravels, sands and silts). Including organic carbon in the database allowed to identify a carbon-depleted class proximal to the glacier front. Potter Cove reveals features that are related to the climate-controlled environmental change: very rough seafloor topography in a small basin close to the fjord head which was cleared by the retreating tidewater glacier through the past two decades. The increasing distance to the glacier down-fjord causes existing habitats to smooth and mature and new habitats to form. This process will change the terrestrial and marine face of Potter Cove until the ongoing climatic change stops or even reverses. It becomes apparent that the final interpretation of the results benefits significantly from the different

  8. Environmental controls of marine productivity hot spots around Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigo, Kevin R.; van Dijken, Gert L.; Strong, Aaron L.

    2015-08-01

    Antarctic coastal polynyas are biologically rich ecosystems that support large populations of mammals and birds and are globally significant sinks of atmospheric carbon dioxide. To support local phytoplankton blooms, these highly productive ecosystems require a large input of iron (Fe), the sources of which are poorly known. Here we assess the relative importance of six different environmental factors in controlling the amount of phytoplankton biomass and rates of net primary production (NPP) in 46 coastal polynyas around Antarctica. Data presented here suggest that melting ice shelves are a primary supplier of Fe to coastal polynyas, with basal melt rates explaining 59% of the between-polynya variance in mean chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentration. In a multiple regression analysis, which explained 78% of the variance in chlorophyll a (Chl a) between polynyas, basal melt rate explained twice as much of the variance as the next most important variable. Fe upwelled from sediments, which is partly controlled by continental shelf width, was also important in some polynyas. Of secondary importance to phytoplankton abundance and NPP were sea surface temperature and polynya size. Surprisingly, differences in light availability and the length of the open water season explained little or none of the variance in either Chl a or NPP between polynyas. If the productivity of coastal polynyas is indeed sensitive to the release of Fe from melting ice shelves, future changes in ice shelf melt rates could dramatically influence Antarctic coastal ecosystems and the ability of continental shelf waters to sequester atmospheric carbon dioxide. This article was corrected on 26 AUG 2015. See the end of the full text for details.

  9. Microbial Community Structure of Subglacial Lake Whillans, West Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda M Achberger

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Subglacial Lake Whillans (SLW, located beneath ~800 m of ice on the Whillans Ice Stream in West Antarctica was sampled in January of 2013, providing the first opportunity to directly examine water and sediments from an Antarctic subglacial lake. To minimize the introduction of surface contaminants to SLW during its exploration, an access borehole was created using a microbiologically clean hot water drill designed to reduce the number and viability of microorganisms in the drilling water. Analysis of 16S rRNA genes (rDNA amplified from samples of the drilling and borehole water allowed an evaluation of the efficacy of this approach and enabled a confident assessment of the SLW ecosystem inhabitants. Based on an analysis of 16S rDNA and rRNA (i.e., reverse-transcribed rRNA molecules data, the SLW community was found to be bacterially dominated and compositionally distinct from the assemblages identified in the drill system. The abundance of bacteria (e.g., Candidatus Nitrotoga, Sideroxydans, Thiobacillus, and Albidiferax and archaea (Candidatus Nitrosoarcheaum related to chemolithoautotrophs was consistent with the oxidation of reduced iron, sulfur, and nitrogen compounds having important roles as pathways for primary production in this permanently dark ecosystem. Further, the prevalence of Methylobacter in surficial lake sediments combined with the detection of methanogenic taxa in the deepest sediment horizons analyzed (34-36 cm provided evidence for methane cycling beneath the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. Large ratios of rRNA to rDNA were observed for several OTUs abundant in the water column and sediments (e.g., Albidiferax, Methylobacter, Candidatus Nitrotoga, Sideroxydans, and Smithella, suggesting a potentially active role for these taxa in the SLW ecosystem. Our findings are consistent with chemosynthetic microorganisms serving as the ecological foundation in this dark subsurface environment, providing new organic matter that sustains a

  10. Photosynthetic responses in Phaeocystis antarctica towards varying light and iron conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwe, M.A.; Stefels, J.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of iron limitation on photoacclimation to a dynamic light regime were studied in Phaeocystis antarctica. Batch cultures were grown under a sinusoidal light regime, mimicking vertical mixing, under both iron-sufficient and -limiting conditions. Iron-replete cells responded to changes in l

  11. Perspective: Strategic challenges of tourism development and governance in Antarctica: taking stock and moving forward

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, M.A.J.; Liggett, D.; Amelung, B.

    2012-01-01

    Antarctic tourism has grown rapidly in volume and diversified into an ever wider range of activities, transport modes and destinations. Antarctica is a global commons, which limits the range of options for regulating tourism development. This configuration has raised concerns and debates among acade

  12. Evidence for gondwanan origins for sassafras (lauraceae)? : late cretaceous fossil wood of antarctica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poole, I.J.; Richter, Hans G.; Francis, Jane E.

    2000-01-01

    Sassafrasoxylon gottwaldii sp. nov. is a new taxon for fossil wood with a suite of features diagnostic of Sassafras Nees & Eberm. of the Lauraceae. The fossil wood described is from Late Cretaceous (Santonian- Maastrichtian) sediments of the northern Antarctica Peninsula region. This new species of

  13. Evaluation of DNA dosimetry to assess ozone-mediated variability of biologically harmful radiation in Antarctica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    George, AL; Peat, HJ; Buma, AGJ

    2002-01-01

    In this study we investigated the use of a DNA dosimeter to accurately measure changes in ultraviolet B radiation (UVBR; 280-315 nm) under Antarctic ozone hole conditions. Naked DNA solution in quartz tubes was exposed to ambient solar radiation at Rothera Research Station, Antarctica, between Octob

  14. Microclimate impacts of passive warming methods in Antarctica: implications for climate change studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst, S.; Huiskes, A.H.L.; Convey, P.; Sinclair, B.J.; Lebouvier, M.; van de Vijver, B.; Wall, D.H.

    2011-01-01

    Passive chambers are used to examine the impacts of summer warming in Antarctica but, so far, impacts occurring outside the growing season, or related to extreme temperatures, have not been reported, despite their potentially large biological significance. In this review, we synthesise and discuss t

  15. Continent-wide risk assessment for the establishment of nonindigenous species in Antarctica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chown, S.L.; Huiskes, A.H.L.; Gremmen, N.J.M.; Lee, J.E.; Terauds, A.; Crosbie, K.; Frenot, Y.; Hughes, K.A.; Imura, S.; Kiefer, K.; Lebouvier, M.; Raymond, B.; Tsujimoto, M.; Ware, C.; van de Vijver, B.; Bergstrom, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    Invasive alien species are among the primary causes of biodiversity change globally, with the risks thereof broadly understood for most regions of the world. They are similarly thought to be among the most significant conservation threats to Antarctica, especially as climate change proceeds in the r

  16. Biocatalytic synthesis of polyesters from sugar-based building blocks using immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habeych Narvaez, D.I.; Juhl, P.B.; Pleiss, J.; Vanegas, D.M.; Eggink, G.; Boeriu, C.G.

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis of linear ester oligomers (LEOs) and cyclic ester oligomers (CEOs) from non-activated succinic acid (A) in combination with di-anhydro hexitols (B, DAH) in a toluene based medium using immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B (CAL B), was studied. The conversion is highest for isomannid

  17. Tracking human footprints in Antarctica through passive sampling of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in inland lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yao; Meng, Xiang-Zhou; Wu, Chen-Chou; Bao, Lian-Jun; Wang, Feng; Wu, Feng-Chang; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2016-06-01

    Freely dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were monitored in seven inland lakes of Antarctica by a polyethylene (PE)-based passive sampling technique, with the objective of tracking human footprints. The measured concentrations of PAHs were in the range of 14-360 ng L(-1) with the highest values concentrated around the Russian Progress II Station, indicating the significance of human activities to the loading of PAHs in Antarctica. The concentrations of PAHs in the inland lakes were in the upper part of the PAHs levels in aquatic environments from remote and background regions across the globe. The composition profiles of PAHs indicated that PAHs in the inland lakes were derived mainly from local oil spills, which was corroborated by a large number of fuel spillage reports from ship and plane crash incidents in Antarctica during recent years. Clearly, local human activities, rather than long-range transport, are the dominant sources of PAH contamination to the inland lakes. Finally, the present study demonstrates the efficacy of PE-based passive samplers for investigating PAHs in the aquatic environment of Antarctica under complex field conditions.

  18. Improved acylation of phytosterols catalyzed by Candida antarctica lipase A with superior catalytic activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panpipat, Worawan; Xu, Xuebing; Guo, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    This work reported a novel approach to synthesize phytosterol (ˇ-sitosterol as a model) fatty acid esters by employing Candida antarctica lipase A (CAL A) which shows a superior catalytic activity to other lipases. A series of ˇ-sitosteryl fatty acid esters (C2–C18) have been successfully prepared...

  19. Suppression of water as a nucleophile in Candida antarctica lipase B catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Marianne Wittrup; Zielinska, Dorota F; Martinelle, Mats

    2010-01-01

    A water tunnel in Candida antarctica lipase B that provides the active site with substrate water is hypothesized. A small, focused library created in order to prevent water from entering the active site through the tunnel was screened for increased transacylation over hydrolysis activity. A single...

  20. Scatter of mass changes estimates at basin scale for Greenland and Antarctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barletta, Valentina Roberta; Sørensen, Louise Sandberg; Forsberg, René

    2013-01-01

    different data sets rather than the two different methods applied. Besides the well-known GIA trend uncertainty, we find that the geocenter motion and the recent de-aliasing corrections significantly impact the trends, with contributions of +13.2 Gt yr−1 and −20 Gt yr−1, respectively, for Antarctica, which...

  1. Timing of millennial-scale climate change in Antarctica and Greenland during the last glacial period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blunier, T; Brook, E J

    2001-01-01

    in Antarctica preceded the onset of Greenland warmings by 1500 to 3000 years. In general, Antarctic temperatures increased gradually while Greenland temperatures were decreasing or constant, and the termination of Antarctic warming was apparently coincident with the onset of rapid warming in Greenland...

  2. Activity and Spatial Distribution of Candida antarctica Lipase B Immobilized on Macroporous Organic Polymeric Adsorbents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Veller Friis; Andric, Pavle; Munk Nielsen, Per

    2014-01-01

    A systematic study of the influence of carrier particle size (500 − 850 μ m) and enzyme load (26 200 − 66 100 lipase activity units (LU)/g dry carrier) on the content and activity of Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) immobilized by adsorption onto macroporous poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMM...

  3. Mapping of the DOME-C area in Antarctica by an airborne L-band radiometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels; Kristensen, Steen Savstrup; Søbjærg, Sten Schmidl

    2014-01-01

    A 350 × 350 km area near the Concordia station on the high plateau of Dome C in Antarctica has been mapped by an airborne L-band radiometer system. The area was expected to display a rather uniform brightness temperature close to the yearly mean temperature — well suited for calibration checks...

  4. Kinetic model of biodiesel production using immobilized lipase Candida antarctica lipase B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedosov, Sergey; Brask, Jesper; Pedersen, Anders K.

    2013-01-01

    We have designed a kinetic model of biodiesel production using Novozym 435 (Nz435) with immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) as a catalyst. The scheme assumed reversibility of all reaction steps and imitated phase effects by introducing various molecular species of water and methanol...

  5. Diversity and bioprospection of fungal community present in oligotrophic soil of continental Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    The diversity of fungal communities from different substrates in Antarctica were studied and their capability to produce bioactive compounds. A one hundred and one fungal isolates were identified by molecular analysis in 35 different fungal taxa from 20 genera. Pseudogymnoascus sp. 3, Pseudogymnoasc...

  6. It Happened in Antarctica. A Collection of Observations Requiring Scientific Explanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaxley, Murray

    There are many reasons for studying Antarctica. It is the key element in the world's climate. Some of the secrets of the earth's past are locked beneath its icecap. It has a fascinating physical environment and a unique and fragile ecosystem. It is a frontier of scientific research and technological development. Its history is an important and…

  7. Bedmap2: improved ice bed, surface and thickness datasets for Antarctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fretwell, P.; Pritchard, H. D.; Vaughan, D

    2013-01-01

    the original Bedmap compilation (Bedmap1) in 2001. In particular, the Bedmap2 ice thickness grid is made from 25 million measurements, over two orders of magnitude more than were used in Bedmap1. In most parts of Antarctica the subglacial landscape is visible in much greater detail than was previously...

  8. Glycerol acyl-transfer kinetics of a circular permutated Candida antarctica Lipase B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triacylglycerols containing a high abundance of unusual fatty acids, such as y-linolenic acid, or novel arylaliphatic acids, such as ferulic acid, are useful in pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical applications. Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) is quite often used for non-aqueous synthesis, although ...

  9. Isolation and characterization of Campylobacter spp. from Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) at Deception Island, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Peña, F J; Pérez-Boto, D; Jiménez, C; San Miguel, E; Echeita, A; Rengifo-Herrera, C; García-Párraga, D; Ortega-Mora, L M; Pedraza-Díaz, S

    2010-09-01

    The presence of Campylobacter spp. was investigated in 41 Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) and 9 Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) at Deception Island, Antarctica. Infections were encountered in six Antarctic fur seals. The isolates, the first reported from marine mammals in the Antarctic region, were identified as Campylobacter insulaenigrae and Campylobacter lari.

  10. Does temperature structure phytoplankton community composition in the Ross Sea, Antarctica?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Ross Sea polynya experiences one of the largest phytoplankton blooms in the Southern Ocean. Energy flow potential within the Ross Sea food web is primarily set by diatoms and prymnesiophytes, the latter dominated by Phaeocystis antarctica. We investigated physical, chemical,...

  11. Molecular organic geochemical peculiarities of lacustrine core sediments in Fildes Peninsula, King George Island,Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The peculiarities of lipids in lacustrine core sediments from Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, Antarctica, are reported. The origin of high-molecular-weight n-alkanes, alkenes,fatty acids, alcohols is supposed to be related to the abundant moss occurring in the sediments.Abundant iso-and anteiso-fatty acids that occur in the sediments indicate a relatively strong bacterial activity in non-ice-cover zone than in other regions in Antarctica. The C18:2 unsaturated fatty acids mainly originate from autochthonous algae in the sediment pool, and the C18:2/C18:0ratios in the profile are controlled more by paleotemperatures than source assemblies. Long-chain alkenones were identified in freshwater lacustrine sediment in Antarctica for the first time, of which Prymnesiophyceae is assumed to be the source organism. High relative abundance of C37:4honologue in long-chain alkenone well correlates to the severely cold climate in Antarctica.

  12. Microbial ecology of terrestrial Antarctica: Are microbial systems at risk from human activities?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, G.J.

    1996-08-01

    Many of the ecological systems found in continental Antarctica are comprised entirely of microbial species. Concerns have arisen that these microbial systems might be at risk either directly through the actions of humans or indirectly through increased competition from introduced species. Although protection of native biota is covered by the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty, strict measures for preventing the introduction on non-native species or for protecting microbial habitats may be impractical. This report summarizes the research conducted to date on microbial ecosystems in continental Antarctica and discusses the need for protecting these ecosystems. The focus is on communities inhabiting soil and rock surfaces in non-coastal areas of continental Antarctica. Although current polices regarding waste management and other operations in Antarctic research stations serve to reduce the introduction on non- native microbial species, importation cannot be eliminated entirely. Increased awareness of microbial habitats by field personnel and protection of certain unique habitats from physical destruction by humans may be necessary. At present, small-scale impacts from human activities are occurring in certain areas both in terms of introduced species and destruction of habitat. On a large scale, however, it is questionable whether the introduction of non-native microbial species to terrestrial Antarctica merits concern.

  13. Tourism in Antarctica : Increasing Diversity and the Legal Criteria for Authorisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastmeijer, C.J.

    2003-01-01

    Both the intensity and the diversity of tourist activities in Antarctica are increasing. Activities conducted in the Antarctic today include ski-expeditions, mountain climbing, marathons, long-distance swimming and scuba diving. In this article the question is discussed whether the Protocol on Envir

  14. Moving wilderness back to the stage : Increasing tourism and non-governmental activities in Antarctica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumann, Antje

    2015-01-01

    Wilderness protection in Antarctica is already a policy target emphasized in the Netherlands policy framework for the Polar Regions, and it will be even more concretized in the new policy setting. Against this background, a PhD-project on the relevance of wilderness concept for managing tourist and

  15. Late Quaternary environmental and climate history of Rauer Group, East Antarctica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, S.; Wagner, B.; Cremer, H.; Leng, M.J.; Melles, M.

    2010-01-01

    The Rauer Group is an archipelago in Prydz Bay, East Antarctica. The ice-free islands and the surrounding shallow marine areas provide valuable archives for the reconstruction of the late Pleistocene and Holocene environmental and climatic history of the region. Two sediment records from two marine

  16. Coastal-change and glaciological map of the Saunders Coast area, Antarctica: 1972-97

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrigno, J.G.; Williams, R.S.; Foley, K.M.

    2005-01-01

    Satellite images from 1972 to 1997 have been used to prepare a map showing glaciological features of the Saunders Coast area, Antarctica. Analysis of the imagery shows a trend toward ice-front retreat that may be a result of changing environmental conditions.

  17. Modeling drifting snow in Antarctica with a regional climate model: 2. Results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenaerts, J.T.M.; van den Broeke, M.R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a model study of the impact of drifting snow on the lower atmosphere, surface snow characteristics, and surface mass balance of Antarctica. We use the regional atmospheric climate model RACMO2.1/ANT with a high horizontal resolution (27 km), equipped with a drifting snow routine

  18. High-resolution climate modelling of Antarctica and the Antarctic Peninsula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wessem, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis we have used a high-resolution regional atmospheric climate model (RACMO2.3) to simulate the present-day climate (1979-2014) of Antarctica and the Antarctic Peninsula. We have evaluated the model results with several observations, such as in situ surface energy balance (SEB) observati

  19. Oxygen isotope variability in snow from western Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica and its relation to temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helsen, MM; Van de Wal, RSW; Van den Broeke, MR; Van As, D; Meijer, HAJ; Reijmer, CH

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents delta(18)O records from snow pits from four locations in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica that contain at least four annual cycles. The aim of the study was to analyse in detail these records as well as the prevailing temperatures during accumulation in order to infer to what exten

  20. Reconstruction of exposure histories of meteorites from Antarctica and the Sahara

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neupert, U.; Neumann, S.; Leya, I.; Michel, R. [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Zentraleinrichtung fuer Strahlenschutz (ZfS); Kubik, P.W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Bonani, G.; Hajdas, I.; Suter, M. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    {sup 10}Be, {sup 14}C, and {sup 26}Al were analyzed in H-, L-, and LL-chondrites from the Acfer region in the Algerian Sahara and from the Allan Hills/Antarctica. Exposure histories and terrestrial ages could be determined. (author) 3 figs., 2 refs.

  1. They're M-e-e-elting!: An Investigation of Glacial Retreat in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugg, Samuel R., IV; Constible, Juanita; Kaput, Marianne; Lee, Richard E., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe the mechanics of They're M-e-e-elting!, an activity wherein middle school students can simulate glacial retreat in Antarctica. They're M-e-e-elting! allows students to melt glaciers, change the water level and salinity of the Southern Ocean, and examine alterations to the Antarctic food web--all without…

  2. A new surface accumulation map for western Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, from interpolation of point measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rotschky, G.; Oerter, H.; Holmlund, P.; Winther, J.G.; Mulvaney, R.; van den Broeke, M.R.

    2007-01-01

    As a result of intensive field activities carried out by several nations over the past 15 years, a set of accumulation measurements for western Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, was collected, based on firn-core drilling and snow-pit sampling. This new information was supplemented by earlier data take

  3. Assessing the importance of human activities for the establishment of the invasive Poa annua in Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. Molina-Montenegro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Because of its harsh environmental conditions and remoteness, Antarctica is often considered to be at low risk of plant invasion. However, an increasing number of reports have shown the presence and spread of non-native plants in Antarctica; it is therefore important to study which factors control the invasion process in this ecosystem. Here, we assessed the role of different human activities on the presence and abundance of the invasive Poa annua. In addition, we performed a reciprocal transplant experiment in the field, and a manipulative experiment of germination with P. annua and the natives Colobanthus quitensis and Deschampsia antarctica, in order to unravel the effects of physical soil disturbance on the establishment and survival of P. annua. We found a positive correlation between abundance of P. annua and level of soil disturbance, and that survival of P. annua was 33% higher in sites with disturbed soil than non-disturbed. Finally, we found that disturbance conditions increased germination for P. annua, whereas for native species germination in experimentally disturbed soil was either unchanged or reduced compared to undisturbed soil. Our results indicate that human activities that modify abiotic soil characteristics could play an important role in the abundance of this invasive species. If the current patterns of human activities are maintained in Antarctica, the establishment success and spread of P. annua could increase, negatively affecting native flora.

  4. Evidence for plant viruses in the region of Argentina Islands, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polischuk, Valery; Budzanivska, Irena; Shevchenko, Tetyana; Oliynik, Svitlana

    2007-02-01

    This work focused on the assessment of plant virus occurrence among primitive and higher plants in the Antarctic region. Sampling occurred during two seasons (2004/5 and 2005/6) at the Ukrainian Antarctic Station 'Academician Vernadskiy' positioned on Argentina Islands. Collected plant samples of four moss genera (Polytrichum, Plagiatecium, Sanionia and Barbilophozia) and one higher monocot plant species, Deschampsia antarctica, were further subjected to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to test for the presence of common plant viruses. Surprisingly, samples of Barbilophozia and Polytrichum mosses were found to contain antigens of viruses from the genus Tobamovirus, Tobacco mosaic virus and Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus, which normally parasitize angiosperms. By contrast, samples of the monocot Deschampsia antarctica were positive for viruses typically infecting dicots: Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus, Cucumber mosaic virus and Tomato spotted wilt virus. Serological data for Deschampsia antarctica were supported in part by transmission electron microscopy observations and bioassay results. The results demonstrate comparatively high diversity of plant viruses detected in Antarctica; the results also raise questions of virus specificity and host susceptibility, as the detected viruses normally infect dicotyledonous plants. However, the means of plant virus emergence in the region remain elusive and are discussed.

  5. Onset of deglacial warming in West Antarctica driven by local orbital forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    WAIS Divide Project Members,; Steig, Eric J.; Markle, Bradley R.; Schoenemann, Spruce W.; Ding, Qinghua; Taylor, Kendrick C.; McConnell, Joseph R.; Brook, Edward J.; Sowers, Todd; White, James W. C.; Alley, Richard B.; Chen, Hai; Clow, Gary D.; Cole-Dai, Jihong; Conway, Howard; Fitzpatrick, Joan J.; Hargreaves, Geoffrey; ,

    2013-01-01

    The cause of warming in the Southern Hemisphere during the most recent deglaciation remains a matter of debate. Hypotheses for a Northern Hemisphere trigger, through oceanic redistributions of heat, are based in part on the abrupt onset of warming seen in East Antarctic ice cores and dated to 18,000 years ago, which is several thousand years after high-latitude Northern Hemisphere summer insolation intensity began increasing from its minimum, approximately 24,000 years ago. An alternative explanation is that local solar insolation changes cause the Southern Hemisphere to warm independently. Here we present results from a new, annually resolved ice-core record from West Antarctica that reconciles these two views. The records show that 18,000 years ago snow accumulation in West Antarctica began increasing, coincident with increasing carbon dioxide concentrations, warming in East Antarctica and cooling in the Northern Hemisphere associated with an abrupt decrease in Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. However, significant warming in West Antarctica began at least 2,000 years earlier. Circum-Antarctic sea-ice decline, driven by increasing local insolation, is the likely cause of this warming. The marine-influenced West Antarctic records suggest a more active role for the Southern Ocean in the onset of deglaciation than is inferred from ice cores in the East Antarctic interior, which are largely isolated from sea-ice changes.

  6. Biodiversity and community structure of freeliving marine nematodes from the Larsemann Ice Shelf, East Antarctica

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.; Singh, R.

    be their part of survival strategy in the harsh Antarctic environment. Keywords: East Antarctica, Larsemann Ice Shelf, nematodes, Paralinhomoeus sp., Sabatieria sp., subtidal meiofauna. Introduction STUDIES on Antarctic benthos have largely described... Sphaerolaimus sp. + + + Diplopeltis sp. + – – Sabatieria sp. + + + Cervonema sp. + – – Chromadorella sp. + – + Southerniella sp. + – – Metalinhomoeus sp. + + + Tricoma sp. + – – Unidentified sp. + + + Synonchium sp. + + – Terschellingia sp...

  7. Atomistic Model for the Polyamide Formation from beta-Lactam Catalyzed by Candida antarctica Lipase B

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baum, Iris; Elsaesser, Brigitta; Schwab, Leendert W.; Loos, Katja; Fels, Gregor; Elsässer, Brigitta

    2011-01-01

    Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) is an established biocatalyst for a variety of transesterification, amidation, and polymerization. reactions. In contrast to polyesters, poly amides are not yet generally accessible via enzymatic polymerization. In this regard, an enzyme-catalyzed ring-opening poly

  8. Airborne L-band radiometer mapping of the dome-C area in Antarctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels; Kristensen, Steen Savstrup; Søbjærg, Sten Schmidl

    2015-01-01

    A 350 km × 350 km area near the Concordia station on the high plateau of Dome-C in Antarctica has been mapped by an airborne L-band radiometer system. The area was expected to display a rather uniform brightness temperature (TB) close to the yearly mean temperature-well suited for calibration...

  9. Ice Surface Elevation Changes in East Antarctica from Satellite Altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwally, H. Jay; Brenner, Anita C.; DiMarzio, John

    1998-01-01

    Estimates of the overall mass balance and seasonal and inter-annual variations in the surface mass balance are obtainable from time-series of ice surface elevations measured by satellite altimetry. Beginning in 2001, NASA's ICESat laser altimeter and lidar mission will significantly improve the range accuracy, the orbit accuracy, and the spatial coverage for measurement of ice sheet elevations (to 86 S) , as compared to previous radar altimeters designed for ocean measurements The radar altimeters on Seasat and Geosat provided ice sheet measurements to 72 S, and on ERS-1 and ERS-2 to 81 S. Although radar altimetry has significant limitations in coverage (due to loss of tracking) and accuracy over sloping surfaces, information on ice-sheet surface-elevation changes has been derived for parts of Antarctica. Recently, the accuracy of the ice measurements by Seasat (3 months of 1978) and Geosat (1985 to 1989) have been improved by new calculations of the satellite orbit heights and other altimeter corrections. Residual orbit errors and inter-satellite biases are evaluated by crossover analysis and by global adjustments to an ocean surface derived from altimeter data. The standard deviation of the orbit error is less than 9 cm, and the long-term trend in the error appears to be less than 1 cm/yr. Orbit errors can be further reduced by adjustment to the ocean surface, but false signals of several cm/yr may be also introduced by the adjustments. These false signals are caused mainly by residual errors in the altimeter corrections over the ocean, and secondary by real changes in the ocean surface elevation. Maps of ice sheet elevation changes north of 72 S are derived from Seasat-Geosat crossovers and from 4.5 years of Geosat crossovers. A notable ice thinning rate of about 50 cm/yr is found at elevations below 2200 meters between 70 and 72 S to the East of the Amery ice shelf, in both the Seasat-Geosat and Geosat-Geosat time intervals Above 2200 meters, to the ridge

  10. Chemodenitrification in the cryoecosystem of Lake Vida, Victoria Valley, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrom, N E; Gandhi, H; Trubl, G; Murray, A E

    2016-11-01

    Lake Vida, in the Victoria Valley of East Antarctica, is frozen, yet harbors liquid brine (~20% salt, >6 times seawater) intercalated in the ice below 16 m. The brine has been isolated from the surface for several thousand years. The brine conditions (permanently dark, -13.4 °C, lack of O2 , and pH of 6.2) and geochemistry are highly unusual. For example, nitrous oxide (N2 O) is present at a concentration among the highest reported for an aquatic environment. Only a minor (17) O anomaly was observed in N2 O, indicating that this gas was predominantly formed in the lake. In contrast, the (17) O anomaly in nitrate (NO3-) in Lake Vida brine indicates that approximately half or more of the NO3- present is derived from atmospheric deposition. Lake Vida brine was incubated in the presence of (15) N-enriched substrates for 40 days. We did not detect microbial nitrification, dissimilatory reduction of NO3- to ammonium (NH4+), anaerobic ammonium oxidation, or denitrification of N2 O under the conditions tested. In the presence of (15) N-enriched nitrite (NO2-), both N2 and N2 O exhibited substantial (15) N enrichments; however, isotopic enrichment declined with time, which is unexpected. Additions of (15) N-NO2- alone and in the presence of HgCl2 and ZnCl2 to aged brine at -13 °C resulted in linear increases in the δ(15) N of N2 O with time. As HgCl2 and ZnCl2 are effective biocides, we interpret N2 O production in the aged brine to be the result of chemodenitrification. With this understanding, we interpret our results from the field incubations as the result of chemodenitrification stimulated by the addition of (15) N-enriched NO2- and ZnCl2 and determined rates of N2 O and N2 production of 4.11-41.18 and 0.55-1.75 nmol L(-1)  day(-1) , respectively. If these rates are representative of natural production, the current concentration of N2 O in Lake Vida could have been reached between 6 and 465 years. Thus, chemodenitrification alone is sufficient to explain the

  11. Climate Controlled Sedimentation in Maxwell Bay, King George Island, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, H.; Kuhn, G.; Wittenberg, N.; Woelfl, A.; Betzler, C.

    2012-12-01

    Climatic change in Antarctica is strongest over the Antarctic Peninsula where in places the annual mean temperatures increased by 0.5 K per decade through the past 60 years. The impact of this warming trend is clearly visible in the form of retreating glaciers and melting ice sheets, loss of sea ice and strong meltwater discharge into the coastal zone. While it is generally accepted that the rapidity of the present climate change bears a significant anthropogenic aspect, it is not clear whether the effects caused by the warming trend are exceptional and unprecedented or whether the reaction of the environment is similar to that of earlier climate phases such as the Medieval Warm Period (MWP) about 1,000 years ago. One of the major goals of the joint international research project IMCOAST is to investigate the strength of the recent warming trend and its impact on the marine environment of the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP). The study we present here reveals the Upper Holocene climatic history based on high-resolution sediment cores from Maxwell Bay (King George Island, WAP) and information on the actual processes triggered or altered by the recent warming trend based on sedimentologic and hydroacoustic investigations in Potter Cove, a tributary fjord to Maxwell Bay. Long sediment cores from Maxwell Bay reveal grain-size changes that can be linked to cold and warm phases such as the Little Ice Age (LIA) and the MWP. Generally, warm phases are finer grained than cold phases as a result of longer and stronger melting processes during the warm phases. It is suggested that meltwater plumes carry fine-grained sediment out of the surrounding fjords into Maxwell Bay where it settles in suitable areas to produce sediments that have a modal value around 16 μm. This mode is largely absent in sediments deposited during e.g. the LIA. However, post LIA sediments are depleted in the 16 μm-mode sediment suggesting slightly different conditions during the last century. One reason

  12. PROSPECTS FOR LIFE IN THE SUBGLACIAL LAKE VOSTOK, EAST ANTARCTICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Bulat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to estimate the genuine microbial content of ice samples from refrozen water (accretion ice from the subglacialLakeVostok(Antarctica buried beneath the 4-km thick East Antarctic ice sheet as well as surface snow nearby Vostok station. The lake ice samples were extracted by heavy deep ice drilling from3764 mbelow the surface reaching the depth3769.3 mby February 2011 (lake entering. High pressure, an ultra low carbon and chemical content, isolation, complete darkness and the probable excess of oxygen in water for millions of years characterize this extreme environment. A decontamination protocol was first applied to samples selected for the absence of cracks to remove the outer part contaminated by handling and drilling fluid. Preliminary indications showed the accretion ice samples to be almost gas free with the very low impurity content. Flow cytometry showed the very low unevenly distributed biomass in both accretion (0–19 cells per ml and glacier (0–24 cells per ml ice and surface snow (0–0.02 cells per ml as well while repeated microscopic observations were unsuccessful meaning that the whole Central East Antarctic ice sheet seems to be microbial cell-free.We used strategies of Ancient DNA research that include establishing contaminant databases and criteria to validate the amplification results. To date, positive results that passed the artifacts and contaminant databases have been obtained for a few bacterial phylotypes only in accretion ice samples featured by some bedrock sediments. Amongst them are the chemolithoautotrophic thermophile Hydrogenophilus thermoluteolus of beta-Proteobacteria, the actinobacterium rather related (95% to Ilumatobacter luminis and one unclassified phylotype distantly related (92% to soil-inhabiting uncultured bacteria. Combined with geochemical and geophysical considerations, our results suggest the presence of a deep biosphere, possibly thriving within some active faults of the bedrock

  13. Dust deposition in Antarctica in glacial and interglacial climate conditions: a modelling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sudarchikova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The mineral dust cycle responds to climate variations and plays an important role in the climate system by affecting the radiative balance of the atmosphere and modifying biogeochemistry. Polar ice cores provide a unique information about deposition of aeolian dust particles transported over long distance. These cores are a paleoclimate proxy archive of climate variability thousands of years ago. The current study is a first attempt to simulate past interglacial dust cycles with a global aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM. The results are used to explain the dust deposition changes in Antarctica in terms of quantitative contribution of different processes, such as emission, atmospheric transport and precipitation, which will help to interpret paleodata from Antarctic ice cores. The investigated periods include four interglacial time-slices such as the pre-industrial control (CTRL, mid-Holocene (6000 yr BP, last glacial inception (115 000 yr BP and Eemian (126 000 yr BP. One glacial time interval, which is Last Glacial Maximum (LGM (21 000 yr BP was simulated as well as to be a reference test for the model. Results suggest an increase of mineral dust deposition globally, and in Antarctica, in the past interglacial periods relative to the pre-industrial CTRL simulation. Approximately two thirds of the increase in the mid-Holocene and Eemian is attributed to enhanced Southern Hemisphere dust emissions. Slightly strengthened transport efficiency causes the remaining one third of the increase in dust deposition. The moderate change of dust deposition in Antarctica in the last glacial inception period is caused by the slightly stronger poleward atmospheric transport efficiency compared to the pre-industrial. Maximum dust deposition in Antarctica was simulated for the glacial period. LGM dust deposition in Antarctica is substantially increased due to 2.6 times higher Southern Hemisphere dust emissions, two times stronger atmospheric transport towards

  14. Modelling of mineral dust for interglacial and glacial climate conditions with a focus on Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sudarchikova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The mineral dust cycle responds to climate variations and plays an important role in the climate system by affecting the radiative balance of the atmosphere and modifying biogeochemistry. Polar ice cores provide unique information about deposition of aeolian dust particles transported over long distances. These cores are a palaeoclimate proxy archive of climate variability thousands of years ago. The current study is a first attempt to simulate past interglacial dust cycles with a global aerosol–climate model ECHAM5-HAM. The results are used to explain the dust deposition changes in Antarctica in terms of quantitative contribution of different processes, such as emission, atmospheric transport and precipitation, which will help to interpret palaeodata from Antarctic ice cores. The investigated periods include four interglacial time slices: the pre-industrial control (CTRL, mid-Holocene (6000 yr BP; hereafter referred to as "6 kyr", last glacial inception (115 000 yr BP; hereafter "115 kyr" and Eemian (126 000 yr BP; hereafter "126 kyr". One glacial time interval, the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM (21 000 yr BP; hereafter "21 kyr", was simulated as well to be a reference test for the model. Results suggest an increase in mineral dust deposition globally, and in Antarctica, in the past interglacial periods relative to the pre-industrial CTRL simulation. Approximately two-thirds of the increase in the mid-Holocene and Eemian is attributed to enhanced Southern Hemisphere dust emissions. Slightly strengthened transport efficiency causes the remaining one-third of the increase in dust deposition. The moderate change in dust deposition in Antarctica in the last glacial inception period is caused by the slightly stronger poleward atmospheric transport efficiency compared to the pre-industrial. Maximum dust deposition in Antarctica was simulated for the glacial period. LGM dust deposition in Antarctica is substantially increased due to 2.6 times higher

  15. Continent-wide risk assessment for the establishment of nonindigenous species in Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chown, Steven L; Huiskes, Ad H L; Gremmen, Niek J M; Lee, Jennifer E; Terauds, Aleks; Crosbie, Kim; Frenot, Yves; Hughes, Kevin A; Imura, Satoshi; Kiefer, Kate; Lebouvier, Marc; Raymond, Ben; Tsujimoto, Megumu; Ware, Chris; Van de Vijver, Bart; Bergstrom, Dana Michelle

    2012-03-27

    Invasive alien species are among the primary causes of biodiversity change globally, with the risks thereof broadly understood for most regions of the world. They are similarly thought to be among the most significant conservation threats to Antarctica, especially as climate change proceeds in the region. However, no comprehensive, continent-wide evaluation of the risks to Antarctica posed by such species has been undertaken. Here we do so by sampling, identifying, and mapping the vascular plant propagules carried by all categories of visitors to Antarctica during the International Polar Year's first season (2007-2008) and assessing propagule establishment likelihood based on their identity and origins and on spatial variation in Antarctica's climate. For an evaluation of the situation in 2100, we use modeled climates based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Special Report on Emissions Scenarios Scenario A1B [Nakićenović N, Swart R, eds (2000) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios: A Special Report of Working Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK)]. Visitors carrying seeds average 9.5 seeds per person, although as vectors, scientists carry greater propagule loads than tourists. Annual tourist numbers (∼33,054) are higher than those of scientists (∼7,085), thus tempering these differences in propagule load. Alien species establishment is currently most likely for the Western Antarctic Peninsula. Recent founder populations of several alien species in this area corroborate these findings. With climate change, risks will grow in the Antarctic Peninsula, Ross Sea, and East Antarctic coastal regions. Our evidence-based assessment demonstrates which parts of Antarctica are at growing risk from alien species that may become invasive and provides the means to mitigate this threat now and into the future as the continent's climate changes.

  16. An Evaluation of Antarctica as a Calibration Target for Passive Microwave Satellite Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Passive microwave remote sensing at L-band (1.4 GHz) is sensitive to soil moisture and sea surface salinity, both important climate variables. Science studies involving these variables can now take advantage of new satellite L-band observations. The first mission with regular global passive microwave observations at L-band is the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS), launched November, 2009. A second mission, NASA's Aquarius, was launched June, 201l. A third mission, NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) is scheduled to launch in 2014. Together, these three missions may provide a decade-long data record -- provided that they are intercalibrated. The intercalibration is best performed at the radiance (brightness temperature) level, and Antarctica is proving to be a key calibration target. However, Antarctica has thus far not been fully characterized as a potential target. This paper will present evaluations of Antarctica as a microwave calibration target for the above satellite missions. Preliminary analyses have identified likely target areas, such as the vicinity of Dome-C and larger areas within East Antarctica. Physical sources of temporal and spatial variability of polar firn are key to assessing calibration uncertainty. These sources include spatial variability of accumulation rate, compaction, surface characteristics (dunes, micro-topography), wind patterns, and vertical profiles of density and temperature. Using primarily SMOS data, variability is being empirically characterized and attempts are being made to attribute observed variability to physical sources. One expected outcome of these studies is the potential discovery of techniques for remotely sensing--over all of Antarctica--parameters such as surface temperature.

  17. Lichensphere: a protected natural microhabitat of the non-lichenised fungal communities living in extreme environments of Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Iara F; Soares, Marco Aurélio; Rosa, Carlos A; Rosa, Luiz H

    2015-11-01

    We surveyed the diversity, distribution and ecology of non-lichenised fungal communities associated with the Antarctic lichens Usnea antarctica and Usnea aurantiaco-atra across Antarctica. The phylogenetic study of the 438 fungi isolates identified 74 taxa from 21 genera of Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Zygomycota. The most abundant taxa were Pseudogymnoascus sp., Thelebolus sp., Antarctomyces psychrotrophicus and Cryptococcus victoriae, which are considered endemic and/or highly adapted to Antarctica. Thirty-five fungi may represent new and/or endemic species. The fungal communities displayed high diversity, richness and dominance indices; however, the similarity among the communities was variable. After discovering rich and diverse fungal communities composed of symbionts, decomposers, parasites and endemic and cold-adapted cosmopolitan taxa, we introduced the term "lichensphere". We hypothesised that the lichensphere may represent a protected natural microhabitat with favourable conditions able to help non-lichenised fungi and other Antarctic life forms survive and disperse in the extreme environments of Antarctica.

  18. Late Holocene Deglaciation of Marie Byrd Land, West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, J. O.; Balco, G.; Sugden, D. E.; Caffee, M.; Siddoway, C.; Sass, L.; Cowdery, S.

    2001-12-01

    The deglaciation history of West Antarctica provides a long-term record of West Antarctic ice sheet dynamics on timescales that are difficult to address observationally or by modeling. By dating moraine deposits stranded on mountain flanks as the ice sheet thinned, we are reconstructing the deglaciation history of a 70 km transect along the Boyd Glacier, in the Ford Ranges, Marie Byrd Land. Fresh erratics and abraded bedrock extend to summit level on most nunataks, indicating that these were overrun by ice during the last glaciation. Conversely, high summits near the coast are more intensely weathered than lower-lying peaks, and one erratic from this weathered zone gives a cosmogenic Be-10 exposure age of 103 ka, suggesting (though it does not prove) that these peaks stood above the surface of the glacial maximum ice sheet. If so, the age of an erratic immediately below the weathering boundary, 10.4 +/- 0.7 ka, dates the glacial maximum in the Ford Ranges. All other erratics, from glaciated surfaces at lower elevation, give younger exposure ages. Summit erratics from Mt Blades, Mt Passel and an unnamed nunatak in the eastern Fosdick Mtns indicate that these peaks emerged from the ice sheet at 6.8 +/- 0.5 ka, 3.6 +/- 0.3 ka, and 4.7 +/- 0.4 ka, respectively. Subsequent downwasting rates, inferred from the decrease in exposure ages with elevation on these mountains, were between 5 and 10 cm per year. The youngest age obtained so far, 590 +/- 70 years, comes from an erratic on the lower slopes of Mt Rea, 100-150 m above the Arthur and Boyd Glaciers. From these results we can draw the following conclusions about West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) deglaciation in the Ford Ranges: (i) Most thinning of the WAIS took place in the late Holocene. (ii) Therefore, recession post-dated climatic warming, which Antarctic ice cores indicate commenced at 20 ka, by 10-15 kyr. (iii) Recession post-dated all but the final stages of global eustatic sea level rise. The ice sheet grounding

  19. Facilitating Participant Success: Teachers Experiencing Antarctica and the Arctic Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipp, S. S.; Bruccoli, A.; Porter, M.; Meese, D.

    2003-12-01

    Through the NSF-funded Teachers Experiencing Antarctica and the Arctic (TEA) Program K-12 science teachers participate as members of polar field projects. Objectives of the program include: immersing the science teacher in the experience of research; 2) leveraging the research experience of the teacher to better inform teaching practices; and 3) sharing the experience with the broader educational and general community. The polar field experience is an exciting opportunity accompanied by a daunting number of responsibilities. In addition to preparing for field research, TEA teachers bring their experience to colleagues, classrooms, and communities. Before going into the field, they give presentations, help plan how students can connect to the polar regions, and share the expedition with the public. In the field, the TEA teacher is a team member and educational liaison, responding to questions by e-mail, and posting e-journals describing the research experience. Upon return, the TEA again shares the experience broadly with the community. In addition, they work closely with 3 colleagues for 140 hours to bring the experience of research into classrooms. Formative evaluation of the TEA Program underscores the need to support teachers in accomplishing their responsibilities; this support is necessary to achieve program objectives. TEA teachers are responsible for sharing the science content of their research. While many broadcast the excitement of the experience, they may not have the scientific background to convey the content. This is due, in part, to many teachers having to be generalists in their classrooms. Shifting into the role of specialist can be challenging. In the year of preparation before the field experience, TEA teachers attend orientation, meet with their research teams for several days, and are encouraged to learn more about their science topic. Understanding builds through the field experience. It may take two or more years after the field work for the

  20. Holocene Glacial Retreat at Walgreen Coast, West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindow, J.; Johnson, J.; Castex, M.; Wittmann, H.; Smith, J.; Lisker, F.; Gohl, K.; Spiegel, C.

    2012-12-01

    The Walgreen Coast of West Antarctica represents one of the most rapidly changing sectors of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS). With the fastest ice streams in the whole Antarctic, the WAIS is characterised by rapid thinning and grounding line retreat. Airborne and satellite-based short-term observations show a doubling of the negative net mass balance between 1996-2006 (Rignot et al., 2008). Furthermore, because the WAIS is largely grounded below sea level, continued inland thinning and grounding line retreat could result in rapid ice sheet collapse, which would raise global sea level by between 3-5 m. However, due to remoteness and challenging accessibility, onshore data is limited to a few isolated nunataks making it difficult to assess the long-term evolution of the glacial dynamics along Walgreen Coast. To address this we present new data from two key areas of the Walgreen Coast; the Kohler Range and the Pine Island Bay. Our 10Be surface exposure ages from erratic boulders in the Kohler Range are the first and reveal that this area became ice-free between 8.3 and 12.3 ka. This implies a long-term thinning rate of 3.3 cm/yr and agrees with similar data published from glaciers eastward. Our ages are also consistent with recent deglaciation models which suggest strong thinning after 15 ka and off-shore sediments shows a concurrent lateral ice-shelf front retreat. Our results suggest an ice-cover at least 300 m thicker in the Kohler Range during the early Holocene and that subsequent average thinning occurred on rates one order of magnitude slower than recent satellite measurements show. This implies that the recent trend in ice-sheet thinning results from a recent dynamic changes rather than a response to long-term thinning. To further constrain the lateral deglaciation history along the eastern Walgreen Coast, namely the Pine Island Glacier, we collected additional samples from a chain of islands, located flow-parallel and downstream of the ice-shelf front. We

  1. Antarctica during the mid-Pliocene Warm Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, A. M.; Hill, D. J.; Haywood, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    independent signals. (1) We analyse ocean currents and potential iceberg trajectories to compare our results with recent provenance measurements from ice-rafted debris (IRD). Provenance analysis from ODP Site 1165 in Prydz Bay, East Antarctica suggests that major iceberg release events occurred along the East Antarctic coast during the warmer periods of the Pliocene. (2) Following the assertion that seasonal sea ice distribution is highly sensitive to orbital forcing and ice sheet geometry, we assess the impact of the ice sheet boundary conditions in the climate model on the maximum extent of summer and winter Antarctic sea ice. We find that it is difficult to ascertain which boundary conditions within the climate model are the most suitable for modelling the mid-Pliocene Warm Period. Moreover, the uncertainty surrounding the modelling and the interpretation of proxy-data permits multiple solutions of the EAIS even for the same time interval. We suggest that future work might benefit from the use of EMICs (Earth System Models of Intermediate Complexity) as this would enable the climate and ice sheets to be modelled synchronously, although such an effort will remain limited by the poorly constrained temporal variability of climate forcings, such as atmospheric carbon dioxide.

  2. Downslope flow across the Ross Sea shelf break (Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamasco, A.; Budillon, G.; Carniel, S.; Defendi, V.; Meloni, R.; Paschini, E.; Sclavo, M.; Spezie, G.

    2003-12-01

    crucial role in the formation of oceanic deep water responsible for ocean/continental shelf exchange of organic carbon, suspended material and dissolved gases around Antarctica. In this context, this work presents the analysis of the 1997, 2001 and 2003 high-resolution surveys carried out in the western Ross Sea near Cape Adare, where the HSSW flows down the continental slope. The second study area was investigated during the 1998 survey of the Italian National Programme for Antarctic Research of the CLIMA Project, in order to follow the ISW overflow path at the shelf break in the central Ross Sea. A 3D primitive equation model was also implemented as a first step in the construction of a high-resolution process study model to explore the dynamical constraints involved in the downslope motion.

  3. Heterotrophic bacteria in soils of Larsemann Oasis of East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churilin, Nikita; Soina, Vera

    2015-04-01

    The study of diversity and functional state of microorganisms in subsurface rocks layers, their participation in the biochemical weathering and formation of organic horizons of soils is important for understanding ecology and microorganisms in Antarctic soils. The study of cultured forms of microorganisms and their potential viability is still relevant to characterize the physiological state, biological activity and resilience of microorganisms involved in the initial soil formation. Improvement of isolation techniques of viable bacteria from the extreme habitats has a particular importance for rising the efficiency of environmental monitoring. The aim of the study was to investigate the viable heterotrophic bacteria involved in the formation of soils from wet valleys Larsemann Oasis, which is one of the warmest ice-free space of East Antarctica. Soil samples were taken from the intermountain humid valleys, where silt-gravelly substrates formed moss, algae, lichen cover. We used nutrient solutions (trypticase soy, R2A and glucose-peptone) to isolate cultured bacteria and study their morphological types in the light microscope. The total number of microorganisms was determined by fluorescent microscopy with acridine orange. SEM was used for morphological studies of bacterial communities in situ. To activate the growth processes we added into nutrient solutions various regulatory metabolites that have dose-dependence and operate at the community level. Physiological and functional conditions were determined by the duration of the lag phase and specific growth rate of bacterial communities in nutrient solutions containing various organic substrates. Soils form under protection of «stone pavement» and organisms leave the surface, so the forming organo-mineral horizon occurs inside of rock, thus the microprofile can form on both sides of the organic horizons. UV radiation, lack of moisture and strong wind are main limiting factors for microorganisms' growth in

  4. Investigation of dust bands from blue ice fields in the Lewis Cliff (Beardmore) area, Antarctica: A progress report

    OpenAIRE

    Koeberl, Christian; Yanai,Keizo; Cassidy, William A.; Schutt,John W.

    1988-01-01

    Blue ice fields in Antarctica are well known for their high areal meteorite concentrations. The exact type of accumulation model and the age of the ice is still not well known. Dust bands on blue ice fields may help to clarify some of these problems. Dust, which has been isolated from dust band samples from blue ice areas in the Lewis Cliff/Walcott Neve area (Beardmore region), Antarctica, was studied to determine petrographic characteristics and chemical compositions. One sample has an avera...

  5. Upper-Bound Radiation Dose Assessment for Military Personnel at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, between 1962 and 1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Antarctica due to the Antarctic Treaty (Foster and Jones, 1982). During DF 77, radiological surveys were completed for the remaining buildings and... Antarctic Treaty , no radioactive waste could be disposed of in Antarctica (Foster and Jones, 1982). All radioactive waste had to be transported to the...available, the doses varied based on the Navy occupational ratings of the individuals wearing the film badges ( Antarctic Support Force (ASF), 1962-1979

  6. Distribution and Diversity of Soil Microfauna from East Antarctica: Assessing the Link between Biotic and Abiotic Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Velasco-Castrillón; Schultz, Mark B.; Federica Colombo; Gibson, John A. E.; Davies, Kerrie A.; Austin, Andrew D.; Stevens, Mark I.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial life in Antarctica has been described as some of the simplest on the planet, and mainly confined to soil microfaunal communities. Studies have suggested that the lack of diversity is due to extreme environmental conditions and thought to be driven by abiotic factors. In this study we investigated soil microfauna composition, abundance, and distribution in East Antarctica, and assessed correlations with soil geochemistry and environmental variables. We examined 109 soil samples fro...

  7. Annually-resolved temperature reconstructions of the past 2000 years from Dome-Fuji, East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motizuki, Yuko; Takahashi, Kazuya; Nakai, Yoichi; Motoyama, Hideaki

    2016-04-01

    We present annually-resolved temperature and SST reconstructions of the past 2000 years based on water (oxygen and deuterium) isotope measurement on a shallow ice core drilled in 2010 at Dome Fuji station, East Antarctica. These time series records will be an essential contribution to the PAGES 2k project from sparse data area in Antarctica. Dome Fuji station is located on a summit of Dronning Maud Land at an altitude of 3810 m a.s.l. (above sea level) (77o19'01'' S, 39o42'12'' E) in East Antarctica. The 10 m depth mean snow temperature at Dome Fuji is -57.3oC1). The inland area around Dome Fuji has been recognized to be especially unique: The snow and ice there contain much stratospheric information. The direct evidence for this comes from tritium contents originated from the nuclear bomb tests in the 1960s; the tritium fallout at the Dome Fuji site is outstandingly high among 16 snow pit samples widely collected over Antarctica2). To date the concerned Dome Fuji ice core, we applied volcanic signature matching to transfer the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) Divide ice core chronology constructed by annual layer counting as used in the study by Sigl et al. (2014)3). In our presentation, we confine ourselves to discuss the oscillation periodicity that we observed in the oxygen isotope record in our data: The periods of approximately 10, 20, and 200 years were found. We will present the time series analyses for this in detail, and will discuss the origin of this periodicity. References: 1) Kameda, T., Motoyama, H., Fujita, S., and Takahashi, S.: "Past temporal and spatial variability of surface mass balance at Dome Fuji", East Antarctica, by the stake method from 1995 to 2006, J. Glaciol., 54, 107-116, 2008. 2) Fourre, E., Jean-Baptiste, P., Dapoigny, A., Baumier, D., Petit, J.-R., and Jouzel, J.: "Past and recent tritium levels in Arctic and Antarctic polar caps", Earth Planet. Sc. Lett., 245, 56-64, 2006. 3) Sigl, M., J. McConnell, M. Toohey, M. Curran, S. Das, R

  8. Chlorinated biphenyls and pesticides in migrating and resident seabirds from East and West Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsolini, Simonetta; Borghesi, Nicoletta; Ademollo, Nicoletta; Focardi, Silvano

    2011-11-01

    The unhatched eggs of the following seabirds were analyzed to quantify PCBs, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), α-, β-, γ-, δ-hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), o,p' and p,p' isomers of DDT, DDD and DDE: resident Adèlie (Pygoscelis adèliae, ADPE) and Emperor (Aptenodytes forsteri, EMPE) penguins, migrating snow petrel (Pagodroma nivea, SNPT) and South Polar skua (Catharacta maccormicki, SPSK) from the Ross Sea (East Antarctica); and migrating Brown skua (Catharacta antartica, BRSK) and resident ADPE from the Brainsfield Strait (West Antarctica). The general aims were to evaluate the contaminant accumulation in eggs of migrating and resident species in the two study areas, and to compare levels in penguins and skuas nesting in East and West Antarctica. PCB congener and HCH and DDT isomer profiles were also assessed. Comparisons were evaluated using seven PCB congeners (IUPAC nos. 28, 52, 101, 118+149, 138, 153, and 180), p,p'-DDE, ΣDDTs, and ΣHCHs. Higher contaminant concentrations were detected in migrating seabirds (South polar skua and brown skua)>sub-Antarctic species (snow petrel)>Antarctic species (penguins) from both the sampling sites, suggesting contamination events at lower latitudes for those birds migrating northward. HCHs showed the lowest concentrations in all species (from 0.03±0.03 ng/g wet wt in SPSK to 1.81±1.23 ng/g wet wt in ADPE from West Antarctica), and PCBs were the most abundant contaminants (from 4.34±2.15 ng/g wet wt. in EMPE to 53.41±19.61 ng/g wet wt. in brown skua). Among pesticides, it is relevant the detection of p,p'-DDT in Adèlie penguin from West Antarctica and in both species of skua; the detection of this pesticide can confirm its actual use in certain malaria-endemic countries from where it is transferred through the long range transport to the polar regions. Contaminants did not show any significant temporal trend during a ten year time span, from 1994/95 to 2004/05, in organisms collected in East Antarctica and they did not

  9. A comparison of basal reflectivity and ice velocity in East Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. W. Jacobel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Ground-based radio echo sounding data acquired along the 1700 km US-ITASE traverse have been used to determine ice attenuation and relative basal reflectivity across the major catchments funneling ice from East Antarctica to the Ross Ice Shelf. We find that basal reflectivity varies locally by up to 40 dB which we interpret as due to changes in the phase state at the bed. Some, though not all, areas of high local reflectivity are observed to have flat-lying bed reflections indicative of sub-glacial lakes. We compare basal reflectivity to ice balance velocity and find a general association of higher flow speeds with high radar reflection strength. This set of observations from two independent remotely sensed geophysical data sets extends the range of field observations to the interior of East Antarctica and confirms the importance of basal lubrication on modulating the ice dynamics of the largest ice sheet on the planet.

  10. A positive test of East Antarctica-Laurentia juxtaposition within the Rodinia supercontinent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodge, J W; Vervoort, J D; Fanning, C M; Brecke, D M; Farmer, G L; Williams, I S; Myrow, P M; DePaolo, D J

    2008-07-11

    The positions of Laurentia and other landmasses in the Precambrian supercontinent of Rodinia are controversial. Although geological and isotopic data support an East Antarctic fit with western Laurentia, alternative reconstructions favor the juxtaposition of Australia, Siberia, or South China. New geologic, age, and isotopic data provide a positive test of the juxtaposition with East Antarctica: Neodymium isotopes of Neoproterozoic rift-margin strata are similar; hafnium isotopes of approximately 1.4-billion-year-old Antarctic-margin detrital zircons match those in Laurentian granites of similar age; and a glacial clast of A-type granite has a uraniun-lead zircon age of approximately 1440 million years, an epsilon-hafnium initial value of +7, and an epsilon-neodymium initial value of +4. These tracers indicate the presence of granites in East Antarctica having the same age, geochemical properties, and isotopic signatures as the distinctive granites in Laurentia.

  11. Mineral dust variability in central West Antarctica associated with ozone depletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cataldo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We present here data of mineral dust variability retrieved from an ice core of the central West Antarctic, spanning the last five decades. Main evidence provided by the geochemical analysis is that northerly air mass incursions to the coring site, tracked by insoluble dust microparticles, have declined over the past 50 yr. This result contrasts with dust records from ice cores reported to the coastal West Antarctic that show increases since mid-20th century. We attribute this difference to regional climatic changes due to the ozone depletion and its implications to westerly winds. We found that the diameters of insoluble microparticles in the central West Antarctica ice core are significantly correlated with cyclone depth (energy and wind intensity around Antarctica.

  12. Two Distinct Secondary Carbonate Species in OC Meteorites from Antarctica are Possible Analogs for Mars Carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M. E.; Niles, P. B.; Locke, D. R.; Chapman, P.

    2016-01-01

    Meteorites falling in Antarctica are captured in ice and stored until the glacial flow transports them to the surface where they can be collected. Prior to collection, they are altered during interactions between the rock, the cryosphere, and the hydrosphere. The purpose of this study is to characterize the stable isotope values of terrestrial, secondary carbonate minerals from Ordinary Chondrite (OC) meteorites collected in Antarctica. This facilitates better understanding of terrestrial weathering in martian meteorites as well as mechanisms for weathering in cold, arid environments as an analog to Mars. OC samples were selected for analysis based upon size and collection proximity to known martian meteorites. They were also selected based on petrologic type (3+) such that they were likely to be carbonate-free before falling to Earth.

  13. Gastrointestinal parasite fauna of Emperor Penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri) at the Atka Bay, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinertz, S; Christmann, S; Silva, L M R; Hirzmann, J; Hermosilla, C; Taubert, A

    2014-11-01

    In general, the knowledge on parasites infecting Antarctic birds is scarce. The present study intends to extend the knowledge on gastrointestinal parasites of Emperor Penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri) at the Atka Bay, Antarctica. Fecal samples of 50 individual Emperor Penguins were collected at the Atka Bay and analyzed using the sodium-acetate-formaldehyde (SAF) method for the identification of intestinal helminth eggs and/or protozoan parasite stages. In addition, coproantigen ELISAs were performed to detect Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections. Overall, 13 out of 50 penguins proved parasitized (26%). The following stages of gastrointestinal parasites were identified: One Capillaria sp. egg, Tetrabothrius spp. eggs, Diphyllobothrium spp. eggs, and proglottids of the cestode Parorchites zederi. The recorded Capillaria infection represents a new host record for Emperor Penguins. All coproantigen ELISAs for the detection of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. were negative. This paper provides current data on parasites of the Emperor Penguin, a protected endemic species of the Antarctica.

  14. Shifting baselines in Antarctic ecosystems; ecophysiological response to warming in Lissarca miliaris at Signy Island, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Adam J; Thatje, Sven; Linse, Katrin

    2012-01-01

    The Antarctic Peninsula has experienced a rapid increase in atmospheric temperature over the last 50 years. Whether or not marine organisms thriving in this cold stenothermal environment are able to cope with warming is of concern. Here, we present changes to the growth and shell characteristics of the ecologically important, small and short lived brooding bivalve Lissarca miliaris from Signy Island, Antarctica. Using material collected from the 1970's to the present day, we show an increase in growth rate and adult shell deterioration accompanied by a decrease in offspring size, associated with an increase in annual average temperatures. Critical changes to the bivalve's ecology seen today evidence the problem of a shift in baseline since the onset of warming recorded in Antarctica. These small bivalves are demonstrating ecophysiological responses to subtle warming that, provided warming continues, could soon surpass a physiological tipping point, adding to warming associated threats such as increased predatory pressure and ocean acidification.

  15. Reasons for medical consultation among members of the Indian Scientific Expeditions to Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijeet Bhatia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to analyze the disease burden in a healthy, pre-screened population subjected to prolonged residence in the hostile environment of Antarctica. This retrospective epidemiological study was conducted utilizing data from medical consultation room on board the Indian Antarctic expedition vessels and at Indian Antarctic station, Maitri from seven Indian Scientific Expeditions to Antarctica (ISEA. The study group (n=327 consisted of 325 men and two women. The total number of medical room consultations was 1989. Maximum consultations were for injuries (27.25%; 14.68% were musculoskeletal and 10.31% were bruises and lacerations. Disturbances of gastrointestinal tract (19.66% were the second most common disorders. Psychological disturbances accounted for 2.66% consultations. Cold injuries constituted 2.01% consultations and photophthalmia accounted for 1.06% consultations.

  16. Observation of mesospheric gravity waves at Comandante Ferraz Antarctica Station (62° S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. B. Souza

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available An airglow all-sky imager was operated at Comandante Ferraz Antarctica Station (62.1° S, 58.4° W, between April and October of 2007. Mesospheric gravity waves were observed using the OH airglow layer during 43 nights with good weather conditions. The waves presented horizontal wavelengths between 10 and 60 km and observed periods mainly distributed between 5 and 20 min. The observed phase speeds range between 5 m/s and 115 m/s; the majority of the wave velocities were between 10 and 60 m/s. The waves showed a preferential propagation direction towards the southwest in winter (May to July, while during spring (August to October there was an anisotropy with a preferential propagation direction towards the northwest. Unusual mesospheric fronts were also observed. The most probable wave source could be associated to orographic forcing, cold fronts or strong cyclonic activity in the Antarctica Peninsula.

  17. Gastrointestinal helminths of Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae from Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Inés Diaz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge about parasitic organisms in Antarctica is scarce and fragmentary. The study reported here adds to the knowledge of gastrointestinal parasites of the Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae (Sphenisciformes, from 25 de Mayo/King George Island (South Shetlands, Bahia Esperanza (Hope Bay and Avian Island (Antarctica. Thirty-five freshly dead specimens (20 chicks and 15 adults were collected from December 2007 to December 2014 and examined for internal macroparasites. Three adult parasite species were found: one Cestoda, Parorchites zederi, and two Nematoda, Stegophorus macronectes and Tetrameres sp. Immature Tetrabothrius sp. were found in hosts from Avian Island. Helminth communities are known to be related to host feeding behaviours. Low parasite richness observed in Adélie penguins could be related to the stenophagic and pelagic diet of this host species, which feeds almost exclusively on krill.

  18. A comparison of basal reflectivity and ice velocity in East Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. W. Jacobel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Ground-based radio echo sounding data acquired along the 1700 km US-ITASE traverse have been used to determine ice attenuation and relative basal reflectivity across the major catchments funneling ice from East Antarctica to the Ross Ice Shelf. We find that basal reflectivity varies locally by up to 40 dB which we interpret as due to changes in the phase state at the bed. Some, though not all, areas of high local reflectivity are observed to have flat-lying bed reflections indicative of sub-glacial lakes. We compare basal reflectivity to ice balance velocity and find a general association of higher flow speeds with high radar reflection strength. This set of observations from two independent remotely sensed geophysical data sets extends the range of field observations to the interior of East Antarctica and confirms the importance of basal lubrication on modulating the ice dynamics of the largest ice sheet on the planet.

  19. Application of a Regional Model to Astronomical Site Testing in Western Antarctica

    CERN Document Server

    Falvey, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The quality of ground based astronomical observations are significantly affected by telluric conditions, and the search for best sites has led to the construction of observatories at remote locations, including recent initiatives on the high plateaus of E Antarctica where the calm, dry and cloud free conditions during winter are recognized as amongst the best. Site selection is an important phase of any observatory development project, and candidate sites must be tested with specialized equipment, a process both time consuming and costly. A potential screening of site locations before embarking on field testing is through the use of climate models. Here, we describe the application of the Polar version of the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model to the preliminary site suitability assessment of an unstudied region in W Antarctica. Numerical simulations with WRF were carried out for the winter of 2011 at 3 km and 1 km spatial resolution over a region centered on the Ellsworth mountain range. Comparison wi...

  20. IPY: Engaging Antarctica: Bringing Antarctic Geoscience to the Public Through a NOVA Documentary and an Innovative Flexible Exhibit for Informal Science Education Venues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rack, F.; Diamond, J.; Levy, R.; Berg, M.; Dahlman, L.; Jackson, J.

    2006-12-01

    IPY: Engaging Antarctica is an informal science education project designed to increase the general public's understanding of scientific research conducted in Antarctica. The project focuses specifically on the multi- national, NSF-funded Antarctic Drilling Project (ANDRILL). The ANDRILL project is the newest geological drilling program in an ongoing effort to recover stratigraphic records from Antarctica. ANDRILL's primary objectives are to investigate Antarctica's role in global environmental change over the past 65 million years and to better understand its future response to global changes. Additionally, through ANDRILL's Research Immersion for Science Educators program (ARISE), 12 science educators from four countries will work on science research teams in Antarctica and produce educational materials that feature Antarctic geoscience. The Engaging Antarctica project will produce both a NOVA television documentary and an innovative informal learning exhibit. The documentary, Antarctica's Icy Secrets, will provide a geological perspective on how Antarctica continues to play a major role in affecting global climate by altering ocean currents and sea levels. The learning exhibit, one that blends standards- and inquiry-based learning with the latest information technologies, is coined the Flexhibit. The Engaging Antarctica Flexhibit will provide a digital package of high resolution images for banners as well as learning activities and ideas for exhibit stations that can be implemented by youth groups. Flexhibit images will feature ANDRILL scientists at work, and audio files, available as podcasts, will tell scientists' stories in their own words, speaking directly to the public about the joys and challenges of Antarctic geological research.

  1. PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in krill, birds and water from Antarctica

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sengupta, R.; Sarkar, A.; Kureishy, T.W.

    in the distribution of atmospheric pollutants over Sweden (Larsson and Okla, 1989). The most striking observation is that the concentration levels of various chlorinated hydrocarbons detected were lowest in the polynya water (Table 2), suggesting their removal from...) AMact-The concentration levels of various congeners of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides were determined in krill, bird (emperor penguin) feathers and polynya water from different places around Dakshin Gangotri, Antarctica. t-HCH (a + y isomers...

  2. Characteristics of macrobenthic assemblage from sub-littoral sediment off the Lazarev Sea, East Antarctica

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.

    locked environment. [Key words: Macrobenthos; species diversity; standing stock; Ice shelf; Polynia; Lazarev Sea; East Antarctica] Introduction Antarctic benthic fauna contain endemic species surviving in a harsh environment characterized by extremely low... with fast ice from - April to November, every year. The ice usually thaws, and is cleared from the area in - January each year to provide a free water mass that extends for several kilometers. The new sea-ice generally refonns in March!April, however...

  3. A review of scientific research trends within ASPA No. 126 Byers Peninsula, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Byers Peninsula, Livingston Island, was one of the first sites in Antarctica designated for environmental conservation and scientific protection. Research on Byers Peninsula has been predominantly international, with 88 indexed publications (93% of them published during last 20 years) from 209 authors affiliated to 110 institutions from 22 nations, all of which are signatories to the Antarctic Treaty. Palaeontological research represented 20% of the published articles. The variety of freshwat...

  4. Ultrastructural observations on five pioneer soil algae from ice denuded areas (King George Island, West Antarctica)

    OpenAIRE

    MASSALSKI, ANDRZEJ; Mrozinska ,Teresa; Olech, Maria

    2001-01-01

    Morphological observations were made using transmission electron microscopy on five species of green soil algae, including Chlorosarcinopsis cf. gelatinosa Chantanachat & Bold, Muriella decolor visher, Tetracystis aeria Brown & Bold, Tetracystis pampae Brown & bold, and Stichococcus bacillaris Nageli. With an exception of the latter species, they are all new records in Antarctica. These species were the important pioneers in the colonization process of the areas recently denuded of ice. Colle...

  5. Constraints on rates of natural attenuation and in situ bioremediation of petroleum spills in Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snape, I. [Australian Antarctic Div., Kingston, Tasmania (Australia); Ferguson, S. [Australian Antarctic Div., Kingston, Tasmania (Australia)]|[Tasmania Univ., Hobart, Tasmania (Australia); Revill, A. [CSIRO Marine Research, Hobart, Tasmania (Australia)

    2003-07-01

    Decades of polar exploration in Antarctica have resulting in land and shoreline pollution. The most environmentally damaging problem is associated with petroleum spills. Approximately 10 to 20 spills of 200 to 1000 litres are reported each year. Approximately 10 per cent are greater than 10,000 litres. This study examined if natural degradation is a remediation option for Antarctica. The origin, distribution and fate of terrestrial petroleum contaminants at Casey Station, East Antarctica was studied. The measured chemical parameters in the soil were extrapolated back to experimental evaporation data. The study showed that a 15 year old spill of Special Antarctic Blend diesel had degraded by up to 60 per cent, mostly through evaporation. Some biodegradation had also occurred. Soil at the spill site showed petroleum concentration of 20,000 mg of fuel per kg of soil, even after 15 years. Petroleum runoff still discharges each year into the nearby marine environment. It was concluded that natural attenuation is not a viable remediation option for Antarctica because the rate of natural breakdown is too slow and the rate of off-site migration is fast. Field trials have shown that faster degradation rates can be achieved using an in situ remediation method based on the controlled release of nutrients, with and without water addition and aeration. The landfarming experiments used indigenous microbial communities and the natural Antarctic summer freeze-thaw cycle. Each treatment promoted evaporation, but the greatest improvement was due to high rates of hydrocarbon degradation. The study showed that even old recalcitrant spills in the Antarctic can be remediated on site. 7 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  6. Erosion-driven uplift in the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains of East Antarctica.

    OpenAIRE

    Paxman, G. J. G.; Watts, A. B.; Ferraccioli, F.; Jordan, T.A.; R. E. Bell; Jamieson, S.S.R.; Finn, C A

    1999-01-01

    The relative roles of climate and tectonics in mountain building have been widely debated. Central to this debate is the process of flexural uplift in response to valley incision. Here we quantify this process in the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains, a paradoxical tectonic feature in cratonic East Antarctica. Previous studies indicate that rifting and strike-slip tectonics may have provided a key trigger for the initial uplift of the Gamburtsevs, but the contribution of more recent valley inci...

  7. HUMAN IMPACT ON TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS IN WEST ANTARCTICA (17th Symposium on Polar Biology)

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    Examples of synanthropization of flora in the South Shetland Islands (West Antarctica) are presented. Investigations on man's impact were carried out between 1986 and 1993. Human impact on plant cover takes place in two parallel processes: some species (plantae hemerophobae) decrease their geographical range, as a result of direct and indirect habitat destruction; while others extend their area of occurrence (plantae hemerophilae) due to man's activity. The latter process is a consequence of ...

  8. Eocene relatives of cod icefishes (Perciformes: Notothenioidei) from Seymour Island, Antarctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bieńkowska-Wasiluk, Małgorzata; Bonde, Niels Christensøn; Møller, Peter Rask

    2013-01-01

    Fragmentary skull bones and vertebra from the Upper Eocene La Meseta Formation on Seymour (Marambio) Island, Antarctic Peninsula have been described as gadiform fishes, informally named “Mesetaichthys”. Here we describe jaws as Mesetaichthys jerzmanskae n. g. and n. sp., and refer this taxon to t...... of notothenioids in connection with the deterioration of the climate in Antarctica during the Late Eocene-Oligocene is discussed....

  9. Preliminary report on metamict cerianite from Nesoya, Lutzow-Holmbunkta, East Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto,Yukio/Sakamoto,Arata

    1982-01-01

    Mineralogical studies of a blackish mineral with strong radioactivity from microcline pegmatites of Nesoya, Lutzow-Holmbukta, East Antarctica, were performed. This mineral has been completely or almost completely transformed into a metamict state. However, in a heat treatment (1000℃, 7 hours), the powder pattern is identical with cerianite, and the unit cell dimension calculated from the powder X-ray diffraction data is α_0=5.451A. According to the qualitative analysis by an electron probe X-...

  10. Perspective: Strategic challenges of tourism development and governance in Antarctica: taking stock and moving forward

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Antarctic tourism has grown rapidly in volume and diversified into an ever wider range of activities, transport modes and destinations. Antarctica is a global commons, which limits the range of options for regulating tourism development. This configuration has raised concerns and debates among academics, policy makers and interest groups about the challenges for regulation and management in the long term. Based on a literature review of recently published research and policy papers, this arti...

  11. Comparison of NO2 vertical profiles from satellite and ground based measurements over Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    Kulkarni, Pavan; Bortoli, Daniele; Costa, Maria João; Silva, Ana Maria; Ravegnani, Fabrizio; Giovanelli, Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    The Intercomparison of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) vertical profiles, derived from the satellite based HALogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) measurements and from the ground based UV-VIS spectrometer GASCOD (Gas Analyzer Spectrometer Correlating Optical Differences) observations at the Mario Zucchelli Station (MZS), in Antarctica, are done for the first time. It is shown here that both datasets are in good agreement showing the same features in terms of magnitude, profile structure, a...

  12. Cloning and constitutive expression of Deschampsia antarctica Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase in Pichia pastoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gidekel Manuel

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deschampsia antarctica shows tolerance to extreme environmental factors such as low temperature, high light intensity and an increasing UV radiation as result of the Antarctic ozone layer thinning. It is very likely that the survival of this species is due to the expression of genes that enable it to tolerate high levels of oxidative stress. On that account, we planned to clone the D. antarctica Cu/ZnSOD gene into Pichia pastoris and to characterize the heterologous protein. Findings The Copper/Zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/ZnSOD gene, SOD gene, was isolated from a D. antarctica by cDNA library screening. This SOD gene was cloned in the expression vector pGAPZαA and successfully integrated into the genome of the yeast P. pastoris SMD1168H. A constitutive expression system for the expression of the recombinant SOD protein was used. The recombinant protein was secreted into the YPD culture medium as a glycosylated protein with a 32 mg/l expression yield. The purified recombinant protein possesses a specific activity of 440 U/mg. Conclusion D. antarctica Cu/ZnSOD recombinant protein was expressed in a constitutive system, and purified in a single step by means of an affinity column. The recombinant SOD was secreted to the culture medium as a glycoprotein, corresponding to approximately 13% of the total secreted protein. The recombinant protein Cu/ZnSOD maintains 60% of its activity after incubation at 40°C for 30 minutes and it is stable (80% of activity between -20°C and 20°C. The recombinant SOD described in this study can be used in various biotechnological applications.

  13. Broadband seismic deployments in East Antarctica: IPY contribution to monitoring the Earth’s interiors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Kanao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available “Deployment of broadband seismic stations on the Antarctica continent” is an ambitious project to improve the spatial resolution of seismic data across the Antarctic Plate and surrounding regions. Several international collaborative programs for the purpose of geomonitoring were conducted in Antarctica during the International Polar Year (IPY 2007-2008. The Antarctica’s GAmburtsev Province (AGAP; IPY #147, the GAmburtsev Mountain SEISmic experiment (GAMSEIS, a part of AGAP, and the Polar Earth Observing Network (POLENET; IPY #185 were major contributions in establishing a geophysical network in Antarctica. The AGAP/GAMSEIS project was an internationally coordinated deployment of more than 30 broadband seismographs over the crest of the Gambursev Mountains (Dome-A, Dome-C and Dome-F area. The investigations provide detailed information on crustal thickness and mantle structure; provide key constraints on the origin of the Gamburtsev Mountains; and more broadly on the structure and evolution of the East Antarctic craton and subglacial environment. From GAMSEIS and POLENET data obtained, local and regional seismic signals associated with ice movements, oceanic loading, and local meteorological variations were recorded together with a significant number of teleseismic events. In this chapter, in addition to the Earth’s interiors, we will demonstrate some of the remarkable seismic signals detected during IPY that illustrate the capabilities of broadband seismometers to study the sub-glacial environment, particularly at the margins of Antarctica. Additionally, the AGAP and POLENET stations have an important role in the Federation of Digital Seismographic Network (FDSN in southern high latitude.

  14. ICESat's performance and the application in Dome A area in Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarized the on-orbit measurement performance of GLAS, and analyzed the precision of its data products. By comparing the high-accuracy ICESat measurements with the GPS ground surveys during 21st CHINARE inner ice sheets expedition, it is analyzed and validated that the suggested Dome A area and the measured peak point of Antarctica inner ice sheets defined during 21st CHINARE are both correct.

  15. A stratification model of surface snow at Dome Fuji Station, Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    A stratification model of surface snow on the ice sheet, which includes snow density evolution, is proposed. Using the temperature profile in the surface snow layer obtained at Dome Fuji Station, Antarctica, snow density evolution under various accumulation conditions was simulated. It is demonstrated that water vapor diffusion is very important for the snow density evolution, and temperature and accumulation at the snow surface are the most important factors that determine the future snow de...

  16. A stratification model of surface snow at Dome Fuji Station, Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    A stratification model of surface snow on the ice sheet, which includes snow density evolution, is proposed. Using the temperature profile in the surface snow layer obtained at Dome Fuji Station, Antarctica, snow density evolution under various accumulation conditions was simulated.It is demonstrated that water vapor diffusion is very important for the snow density evolution, and temperature and accumulation at the snow surface are the most important factors that determine the future snow den...

  17. Highly Heterogeneous Soil Bacterial Communities around Terra Nova Bay of Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    Mincheol Kim; Ahnna Cho; Hyoun Soo Lim; Soon Gyu Hong; Ji Hee Kim; Joohan Lee; Taejin Choi; Tae Seok Ahn; Ok-Sun Kim

    2015-01-01

    Given the diminished role of biotic interactions in soils of continental Antarctica, abiotic factors are believed to play a dominant role in structuring of microbial communities. However, many ice-free regions remain unexplored, and it is unclear which environmental gradients are primarily responsible for the variations among bacterial communities. In this study, we investigated the soil bacterial community around Terra Nova Bay of Victoria Land by pyrosequencing and determined which environm...

  18. Evidence for warmer event from quartz grains in the soil of Grove Mountains, East Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Xin; Li Xiaoli; Liu Xiaohan; Zhang Ru-fan

    2005-01-01

    The cold desert soil has been discovered at first time in southern ridgeof Mount Harding, Grove Mountains of interior East Antarctica Ice Sheet. Based on the micro structural observation, dominant characteristics of quartz grains include: distinct surface stria and fractures, and clean features of frost action at both of crystal margins and micro crannies of quartz grains. These features show a pedogenesis environment of few water, short transportation and frost action, revealing a warmer climatic event existed in this region.

  19. On the use of Cloud Profiling Radar to detect solid precipitation over Antarctica at different scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Lisa; Kulie, Mark S.; Casella, Daniele; D'Adderio, Leo Pio; Dietrich, Stefano; L'Ecuyer, Tristan S.; Panegrossi, Giulia; Porcù, Federico; Sanò, Paolo; Wood, Norman B.

    2016-04-01

    Precipitation is a key geophysical parameter in understanding the Antarctic climate. However, the particular environmental conditions of the Continent make it difficult to measure directly solid precipitation rate and accumulation from either ground based instruments or passive space-borne sensors. A significant improvement in the study of solid precipitation over Antarctica is possible by using active space-borne instruments: the Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR), a nadir-pointing 94 GHz radar, on board the low earth orbit CloudSat satellite. Five years (2006-2011) of CPR data and products over Antarctica are analyzed to investigate the characteristics of solid precipitation. The aim of this work is twofold: 1) to compare a global snowfall rate retrieval algorithm (Kulie and Bennartz, 2009) with the official CloudSat product (2C-SNOW-PROFILE) over the Antarctic environment, evaluating the sensitivity of the estimated snow fields to: ground clutter, choice of reflectivity-snowfall rate relationship (Z-S), presence of melting snow/liquid precipitation; 2) to provide snow fall rates and accumulation at different scales over Antarctica, evaluating the impact of background physiography and seasonal cycle on the precipitation distribution. Further comparisons are also performed with ERA-Interim snowfall fields and point-like snow stack height measurements by acoustic depth gauges. Results show that the difference between the Kulie and Bennartz (2009) algorithm and the 2C-SNOW-PROFILE product is mainly due to the choice of the Z-S relationship. Furthermore, despite the CPR limited temporal and spatial sampling capabilities, CPR is able to evidence precipitation characteristics difficult to study from conventional ground-based instruments, at spatial and temporal scales of interest for the study of the hydrological cycle over Antarctica. This is of particular relevance given that the CPR follow-on mission on EarthCare will ensure a long-term coverage.

  20. Unmanned aircraft system measurements of the atmospheric boundary layer over Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Knuth

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In September 2009, a series of long-range unmanned aircraft system (UAS flights collected basic atmospheric data over the Terra Nova Bay polynya in Antarctica. Air temperature, wind, pressure, relative humidity, radiation, skin temperature, GPS, and operational aircraft data were collected and quality controlled for scientific use. The data have been submitted to the United States Antarctic Program Data Coordination Center (USAP-DCC for free access (doi:10.1594/USAP/0739464.

  1. Photosynthesis–irradiance responses in the Ross Sea, Antarctica: a meta-analysis

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    W. O. Smith Jr.

    2014-12-01

    PsB and α values. No significant difference was detected between stations dominated by diatoms and those dominated by the haptophyte Phaeocystis antarctica. The meta-analysis generally confirms the photosynthetic rates predicted from global analyses that are based solely on temperature and irradiance availability, but suggests that for more accurate predictions of the productivity of polar systems a more detailed model that includes temporal effects of photosynthetic parameters will be required.

  2. Environmental effects of the US Antarctic Program`s use of balloons in Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCold, L.N.; Eddlemon, G.K.; Blasing, T.J.

    1995-06-01

    The USAP uses balloons in Antarctica to conduct scientific research, to facilitate safe air transport, and to provide data for global weather predictions. However, there is the possibility that balloons or their payloads may adversely affect Antarctic fauna or flora. The purpose of this study is to provide background information upon which the USAP may draw when complying with its responsibilities under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, the Antarctic Treaty, and the Madrid Protocol.

  3. Application of a Terrestrial LIDAR System for Elevation Mapping in Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica

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    Hyoungsig Cho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A terrestrial Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR system has high productivity and accuracy for topographic mapping, but the harsh conditions of Antarctica make LIDAR operation difficult. Low temperatures cause malfunctioning of the LIDAR system, and unpredictable strong winds can deteriorate data quality by irregularly shaking co-registration targets. For stable and efficient LIDAR operation in Antarctica, this study proposes and demonstrates the following practical solutions: (1 a lagging cover with a heating pack to maintain the temperature of the terrestrial LIDAR system; (2 co-registration using square planar targets and two-step point-merging methods based on extracted feature points and the Iterative Closest Point (ICP algorithm; and (3 a georeferencing module consisting of an artificial target and a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS receiver. The solutions were used to produce a topographic map for construction of the Jang Bogo Research Station in Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica. Co-registration and georeferencing precision reached 5 and 45 mm, respectively, and the accuracy of the Digital Elevation Model (DEM generated from the LIDAR scanning data was ±27.7 cm.

  4. Diamictite from Nimrod Glacier area, Antarctica: Possible Proterozoic glaciation on the seventh continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stump, Edmund; Miller, Julia M. G.; Korsch, Russell J.; Edgerton, David G.

    1988-03-01

    Late Proterozoic glacial deposits have been found on all continents except Antarctica. Here we describe four units of Late Proterozoic diamictite, with a total thickness of about 10m, from Panorama Point, Nimrod Glacier area, Antarctica, which have characteristics compatible with glaciogenic origin. The diamictite occurs within the Goldie Formation, a sequence of marine turbidites, and is associated with a unit of mafic pillow lavas. The diamictite is commonly structureless and in places laminated. Coarse clasts occur as scattered pebbles and cobbles and as pebbly pods and beds. No striated or faceted clasts were found. A few pebbles may pierce the laminae, but a drop-stone origin is uncertain. Deformation and metamorphism have obscured subtleties of original sedimentary structure. Outsize clasts in laminated sandy siltstone (now schistose) suggest a glaciogenic origin for these diamictites, but deposition by mass-flow processes cannot be ruled out. The discovery in Antarctica of possible Late Proterozoic glaciogenic deposits extends their geographic distribution to all of the major continental masses.

  5. Geochemical markers of soil anthropogenic contaminants in polar scientific stations nearby (Antarctica, King George Island).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prus, Wojciech; Fabiańska, Monika J; Łabno, Radosław

    2015-06-15

    The organic contamination of Antarctic soils and terrestrial sediments from nearby of five polar scientific stations on King George Island (Antarctica) was investigated. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was applied to find composition of dichloromethane extracts of soil and terrestrial sediments. The presence of geochemical markers, such as n-alkanes, steranes, pentacyclic triterpenoids, and alkyl PAHs, their distribution types, and values of their ratios indicates the predominating source of organic fossil fuels and products of their refining rather than from the natural Antarctic environment. Fossil fuel-originated compounds well survived in conditions of Antarctic climate over long times thus enabling to characterize geochemical features of source fossil fuel identified as petroleum expelled from kerogen II of algal/bacterial origins deposited in sub-oxic conditions and being in the middle of catagenesis. Both microbial activity and water leaching play an important role in degradation of terrestrial oil spills in the Antarctica climate, and petroleum alteration occurs lowly over long periods of time. Synthetic anthropogenic compounds found in terrestrial Antarctica sediments included diisopropylnaphthalenes, products of their sulfonates degradation in paper combustion, and organophosporus compounds used as retardants and plasticizers.

  6. Monitoring atmospheric nitrous oxide background concentrations at Zhongshan Station, east Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Wenjuan; Bian, Lingen; Wang, Can; Zhu, Renbin; Zheng, Xiangdong; Ding, Minghu

    2016-09-01

    At present, continuous observation data for atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O) concentrations are still lacking, especially in east Antarctica. In this paper, nitrous oxide background concentrations were measured at Zhongshan Station (69°22'25″S, 76°22'14″E), east Antarctica during the period of 2008-2012, and their interannual and seasonal characteristics were analyzed and discussed. The mean N2O concentration was 321.9nL/L with the range of 320.5-324.8nL/L during the five years, and it has been increasing at a rate of 0.29% year(-1). Atmospheric N2O concentrations showed a strong seasonal fluctuation during these five years. The concentrations appeared to follow a downtrend from spring to autumn, and then increased in winter. Generally the highest concentrations occurred in spring. This trend was very similar to that observed at other global observation sites. The overall N2O concentration at the selected global sites showed an increasing annual trend, and the mean N2O concentration in the Northern Hemisphere was slightly higher than that in the Southern Hemisphere. Our result could be representative of atmospheric N2O background levels at the global scale. This study provided valuable data for atmospheric N2O concentrations in east Antarctica, which is important to study on the relationships between N2O emissions and climate change.

  7. Microbial production and characterization of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate by Neptunomonas antarctica

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    Xiao-Jie Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Considering the industrial interest of biodegradable polymer poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB, the marine bacteria Neptunomonas antarctica was studied for its ability to accumulate PHB. The extracted polymer was confirmed to be PHB by nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. In shake flask cultures using natural seawater as medium components, PHB was produced up to 2.12 g/L with a yield of 0.18 g PHB/g fructose. In the presence of artificial seawater, the PHB titer and yield reached 2.13 g/L and 0.13 g PHB/g fructose, respectively. The accumulated polymer gradually decreased when fructose was exhausted, indicating that intracellular PHB was degraded by N. antarctica. The weight-average and number-average molecular weights of PHB produced within natural seawater were 2.4 × 105 g/mol and 1.7 × 105 g/mol, respectively. Our results highlight the potential of N. antarctica for PHB production with seawater as a nutrient source.

  8. The impact of human activities on wilderness and aesthetic values in Antarctica

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    Rupert Summerson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been little progress in implementing protection of wilderness and aesthetic values in Antarctica since the coming into force of the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty in 1998. This can in part be attributed to a lack of research defining these values and showing how they may be assessed. In 2009, a survey comprising 90 images of Antarctic landscapes was established on the Internet to canvass as wide a cross-section of people with an interest in Antarctica as possible on their perceptions of wilderness and their aesthetic preference. At the time of writing, over 337 respondents from 23 nationalities have taken part in the survey. Responses were analysed to determine the effect of human presence, both transient and as infrastructure, on perceptions of wilderness and aesthetic values. The analysis was in three parts: (1 all images combined; (2 images grouped by landscape type, derived from the Environmental Domains of Antarctica regionalization; and (3 16 pairs of digitally manipulated images of which respondents were shown either an original image or one in which human presence had been either digitally removed or added. Responses to images grouped by landscape type show that coastal and ice-free areas are less valued both aesthetically and as wilderness than mountainous and ice-covered terrains. Signs of human presence were found to make images significantly less likely to be considered as wilderness and also reduced their aesthetic rating. This demonstrates that human impacts on these values are measureable.

  9. Medical memorials in Antarctica: a gazetteer of medical place-names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Peter; Pearn, John

    2012-11-01

    In Antarctica an astonishing more than 300 'medical' place-names record the lives of surgeons and physicians who have served as leaders, clinicians and scientists in the field of polar medicine and other doctors memorialized for their service to medicine. These enduring medical memorials are to be found in the names of glaciers, mountains, capes and islands of the vast frozen Southern Continent. This Antarctic Medical Gazetteer features, inter alii, doctor-expedition leaders, including Jean-Baptiste Charcot (1867-1936) of France and Desmond Lugg (b. 1938) of Australia. The Medical Gazetteer lists 43 geographical features on Brabant Island that were named after famous doctors. This Gazetteer also includes a collection of medical place-names on the Loubet Coast honouring Dr John Cardell (1896-1966) and nine other pioneers who worked on the prevention of snow blindness and four islands of the Lyall Islands Group, including Surgeon Island, named after United States Antarctic Medical Officers. Eleven geographic features (mountains, islands, nunataks, lakes and more) are named after Australian doctors who have served with the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions based at Davis Station. Biographic memorials in Antarctica comprise a collective witness of esteem, honouring in particular those doctors who have served in Antarctica where death and injury remains a constant threat.

  10. A robust bioassay to assess the toxicity of metals to the Antarctic marine microalga Phaeocystis antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gissi, Francesca; Adams, Merrin S; King, Catherine K; Jolley, Dianne F

    2015-07-01

    Despite evidence of contamination in Antarctic coastal marine environments, no water-quality guidelines have been established for the region because of a paucity of biological effects data for local Antarctic species. Currently, there is limited information on the sensitivity of Antarctic microalgae to metal contamination, which is exacerbated by the lack of standard toxicity testing protocols for local marine species. In the present study, a routine and robust toxicity test protocol was developed using the Antarctic marine microalga Phaeocystis antarctica, and its sensitivity was investigated following 10-d exposures to dissolved copper, cadmium, lead, zinc, and nickel. In comparisons of 10% inhibition of population growth rate (IC10) values, P. antarctica was most sensitive to copper (3.3 μg/L), followed by cadmium (135 μg/L), lead (260 μg/L), and zinc (450 μg/L). Although an IC10 value for nickel could not be accurately estimated, the no-observed-effect concentration value for nickel was 1070 μg/L. Exposure to copper and cadmium caused changes in internal cell granularity and increased chlorophyll a fluorescence. Lead, zinc, and nickel had no effect on any of the cellular parameters measured. The present study provides valuable metal-ecotoxicity data for an Antarctic marine microalga, with P. antarctica representing one of the most sensitive microalgal species to dissolved copper ever reported when compared with temperate and tropical species.

  11. Assessing the effectiveness of specially protected areas for conservation of Antarctica's botanical diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Kevin A; Ireland, Louise C; Convey, Peter; Fleming, Andrew H

    2016-02-01

    Vegetation is sparsely distributed over Antarctica's ice-free ground, and distinct plant communities are present in each of the continent's 15 recently identified Antarctic Conservation Biogeographic Regions (ACBRs). With rapidly increasing human activity in Antarctica, terrestrial plant communities are at risk of damage or destruction by trampling, overland transport, and infrastructure construction and from the impacts of anthropogenically introduced species, as well as uncontrollable pressures such as fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella) activity and climate change. Under the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty, the conservation of plant communities can be enacted and facilitated through the designation of Antarctic Specially Protected Areas (ASPAs). We examined the distribution within the 15 ACBRs of the 33 ASPAs whose explicit purpose includes protecting macroscopic terrestrial flora. We completed the first survey using normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) satellite remote sensing to provide baseline data on the extent of vegetation cover in all ASPAs designated for plant protection in Antarctica. Large omissions in the protection of Antarctic botanical diversity were found. There was no protection of plant communities in 6 ACBRs, and in another 6, Antarctic continent; over half was within a single protected area. Over 96% of the protected vegetation was contained in 2 ACBRs, which together contributed only 7.8% of the continent's ice-free ground. We conclude that Antarctic botanical diversity is clearly inadequately protected and call for systematic designation of ASPAs protecting plant communities by the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties, the members of the governing body of the continent.

  12. An updated and quality controlled surface mass balance dataset for Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Favier

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We present an updated and quality controlled surface mass balance (SMB database for the Antarctic ice sheet. We retrieved a total of 5284 SMB data documented with important meta-data, to which a filter was applied to discard data with limited spatial and temporal representativeness, too small measurement accuracy, or lack of quality control. A total of 3438 reliable data was obtained, which is about four times more than by applying the same data filtering process to previously available databases. New important data with high spatial resolution are now available over long traverses, and at low elevation in some areas. However, the quality control led to a considerable reduction in the spatial density of data in several regions, particularly over West Antarctica. Over interior plateaus, where the SMB is low, the spatial density of measurements remained high. This quality controlled dataset was compared to results from ERA-Interim reanalysis to assess model representativeness over Antarctica, and also to identify large areas where data gaps impede model validation. Except for very few areas (e.g. Adelie Land, the elevation range between 200 m and 1000 m a.s.l. is not correctly sampled in the field, and measurements do not allow a thorough validation of models in regions with complex topography, where the highest scattering of SMB values is reported. Clearly, increasing the spatial density of field measurements at low elevations, in the Antarctic Peninsula and in West Antarctica remains a scientific priority.

  13. Implications of Sea Ice on Southern Ocean Microseisms Detected by a Seismic Array in West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Martin J.; Wiens, Douglas A.; Winberry, J. Paul; Anandakrishnan, Sridhar; Euler, Garrett G.

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARYThe proximity of Southern Ocean storms coupled with seasonal variation in sea ice make Antarctica ideal for the study of microseism sources. We explore frequency-dependent beamforming results using a short-duration, 60 km aperture, broadband seismic array located on the Whillans Ice Stream, West Antarctica. Locations of single-frequency microseism (13-16 s period) generation are in regions where the continental shelf is ice-free, consistent with previous studies, and show Rayleigh wave sources remaining at consistent back azimuths throughout the duration of the array. Beamforming analysis of daily noise correlations shows that long-period double-frequency microseisms (9-11 s) consist predominantly of Rayleigh waves excited by storms in the Southern Ocean. Modelling of source locations based on wave-wave interaction provides a good fit to our data at these periods. We show that short-period double-frequency microseisms (5-7 s) in Antarctica consist of crustal phase Lg and body waves. Lg arrivals propagate through regions of continental crust and our data show that the Lg energy is generated when storm systems interact with the sea ice-free continental shelf during austral summers. Ultra-short-period (0.3-2 s) microseismic body waves back project to regions that correlate with oceanic storm systems in both the Southern and Northern Hemispheres.

  14. Plant and bird presence strongly influences the microbial communities in soils of Admiralty Bay, Maritime Antarctica.

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    Lia C R S Teixeira

    Full Text Available Understanding the environmental factors that shape microbial communities is crucial, especially in extreme environments, like Antarctica. Two main forces were reported to influence Antarctic soil microbes: birds and plants. Both birds and plants are currently undergoing relatively large changes in their distribution and abundance due to global warming. However, we need to clearly understand the relationship between plants, birds and soil microorganisms. We therefore collected rhizosphere and bulk soils from six different sampling sites subjected to different levels of bird influence and colonized by Colobanthus quitensis and Deschampsia antarctica in Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Maritime Antarctic. Microarray and qPCR assays targeting 16S rRNA genes of specific taxa were used to assess microbial community structure, composition and abundance and analyzed with a range of soil physico-chemical parameters. The results indicated significant rhizosphere effects in four out of the six sites, including areas with different levels of bird influence. Acidobacteria were significantly more abundant in soils with little bird influence (low nitrogen and in bulk soil. In contrast, Actinobacteria were significantly more abundant in the rhizosphere of both plant species. At two of the sampling sites under strong bird influence (penguin colonies, Firmicutes were significantly more abundant in D. antarctica rhizosphere but not in C. quitensis rhizosphere. The Firmicutes were also positively and significantly correlated to the nitrogen concentrations in the soil. We conclude that the microbial communities in Antarctic soils are driven both by bird and plants, and that the effect is taxa-specific.

  15. The role of the protected area concept in protecting the world’s largest natural reserve: Antarctica

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    Kees Bastmeijer

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Should the entire Antarctic continent and the surrounding islands be recognised as a ‘protected area’ or as a continent where certain areas, just like anywhere else, may be designated as protected areas? To find an answer to this question, this paper first discusses the most important agreements and declarations on environmental protection in Antarctica. Next, these instruments are compared with the components of IUCN’s ‘protected area’ definition (2008. In the light of this overall protection of Antarctica, the instrument of designating areas as Antarctic Specially Protected Areas (ASPAs is discussed on the basis of a quick scan of 42 management plans for existing ASPAs. It is concluded that Antarctica could indeed be considered as a protected area and that the ASPA instrument is so shaped to provide specific areas with ‘extra protection’ by regulating human activities in those areas with a high level of detail. However, the continuous increase in human activities in Antarctica raises concerns with respect to the scope and completeness of the existing legal instruments. These concerns regarding the overall protection of Antarctica could become an argument for applying the ASPA instrument in respect of larger areas to ensure the comprehensive protection of at least certain parts of Antarctica. This would make the ASPA system more comparable with protected area systems in other parts of the world; however, strengthening the overall protection of Antarctica – parallel to the further development of the ‘specially’ protected area system - would be more consistent with Antarctica’s protected status as has developed since the Antarctic Treaty was signed 50 years ago.

  16. An Evaluation of Antarctica as a Calibration Target for Passive Microwave Satellite Missions with Climate Data Record Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, E. J.

    2011-12-01

    surface salinity, both important climate variables. Science studies involving these variables can now take advantage of new satellite L-band observations. The first mission with regular global passive microwave observations at L-band is the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS), launched November, 2009. A second mission, NASA's Aquarius, was launched June, 2011. A third mission, NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) is scheduled to launch in 2014. Together, these three missions may provide a decade-long data record-provided that they are intercalibrated. The intercalibration is best performed at the radiance (brightness temperature) level, and Antarctica is proving to be a key calibration target. However, Antarctica has thus far not been fully characterized as a potential target. This paper will present evaluations of Antarctica as a microwave calibration target for the above satellite missions. Preliminary analyses have identified likely target areas, such as the vicinity of Dome-C and larger areas within East Antarctica. Physical sources of temporal and spatial variability of polar firn are key to assessing calibration uncertainty. These sources include spatial variability of accumulation rate, compaction, surface characteristics (dunes, micro-topography), wind patterns, and vertical profiles of density and temperature. Using primarily SMOS data, variability is being empirically characterized and attempts are being made to attribute observed variability to physical sources. One expected outcome of these studies is the potential discovery of techniques for remotely sensing--over all of Antarctica-parameters such as surface temperature.

  17. MODE OF ATTACHMENT AND PATHOLOGY CAUSED BY PARORCHITES ZEDERI IN THREE SPECIES OF PENGUINS: PYGOSCELIS PAPUA, PYGOSCELIS ADELIAE, AND PYGOSCELIS ANTARCTICA IN ANTARCTICA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, María A; Ortiz, Juana M; Seva, Juan; Vidal, Virginia; Valera, Francisco; Benzal, Jesús; Cuervo, José J; de la Cruz, Carlos; Belliure, Josabel; Martínez, Ana M; Díaz, Julia I; Motas, Miguel; Jerez, Silvia; D'Amico, Verónica L; Barbosa, Andrés

    2016-07-01

    We identified and compared gross and microscopic lesions associated with the cestode, Parorchites zederi, in the digestive tracts of three species of penguins (Spheniscidae): the Chinstrap ( Pygoscelis antarctica ), Gentoo ( Pygoscelis papua ), and Adélie penguins ( Pygoscelis adeliae ). The gastrointestinal tracts of 79 recently dead individuals (71 chicks and eight adults) were collected in locations throughout the Antarctic Peninsula during summer field trips in 2006-09. Parorchites zederi was found in the small intestine of 37 animals (47%), and 23 (62%) of these had parasite-associated lesions. The cestodes were either free in the intestinal lumen, clustered within mucosal ulcers, or deeply embedded in the intestinal wall. Histopathologic changes were most severe in adult Gentoo Penguins and included transmural fibrogranulomatous enteritis, hemorrhage, and edema. This report of pathology associated with P. zederi in the digestive tracts of penguins can serve as reference to monitor health in Antarctic birds associated with environmental changes.

  18. Six winters of photometry from Dome C, Antarctica: challenges, improvements, and results from the ASTEP experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouzet, N.; Mékarnia, D.; Guillot, T.; Abe, L.; Agabi, A.; Rivet, J.-P.; Gonçalves, I.; Schmider, F.-X.; Daban, J.-B.; Fanteï-Caujolle, Y.; Gouvret, C.; Bayliss, D. D. R.; Zhou, G.; Aristidi, E.; Fruth, T.; Erikson, A.; Rauer, H.; Szulágyi, J.; Bondoux, E.; Challita, Z.; Pouzenc, C.; Fressin, F.; Valbousquet, F.; Barbieri, M.; Blazit, A.; Bonhomme, S.; Bouchy, F.; Gerakis, J.; Bouchez, G.

    2016-08-01

    ASTEP (Antarctica Search for Transiting ExoPlanets) is a pilot project that aims at searching and characterizing transiting exoplanets from Dome C in Antarctica and to qualify this site for photometry in the visible. Two instruments were installed at Dome C and ran for six winters in total. The analysis of the collected data is nearly complete. We present the operation of the instruments, and the technical challenges, limitations, and possible solutions in light of the data quality. The instruments performed continuous observations during the winters. Human interventions are required mainly for regular inspection and ice dust removal. A defrosting system is efficient at preventing and removing ice on the mirrors. The PSF FWHM is 4.5 arcsec on average which is 2.5 times larger than the specification, and is highly variable; the causes are the poor ground-level seeing, the turbulent plumes generated by the heating system, and to a lower extent the imperfect optical alignment and focusing, and some astigmatism. We propose solutions for each of these aspects that would largely increase the PSF stability. The astrometric and guiding precisions are satisfactory and would deserve only minor improvements. Major issues are encountered with the camera shutter which did not close properly after two winters; we minimized this issue by heating the shutter and by developing specific image calibration algorithms. Finally, we summarize the site testing and science results obtained with ASTEP. Overall, the ASTEP experiment will serve as a basis to design and operate future optical and near-infrared telescopes in Antarctica.

  19. The diversity, extracellular enzymatic activities and photoprotective compounds of yeasts isolated in Antarctica

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    Aline B. M Vaz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of yeasts collected from different sites in Antarctica (Admiralty Bay, King George Island and Port Foster Bay and Deception Island and their ability to produce extracellular enzymes and mycosporines were studied. Samples were collected during the austral summer season, between November 2006 and January 2007, from the rhizosphere of Deschampsia antarctica, ornithogenic (penguin guano soil, soil, marine and lake sediments, marine water and freshwater from lakes. A total of 89 isolates belonging to the following genera were recovered: Bensingtonia, Candida, Cryptococcus, Debaryomyces, Dioszegia, Exophiala, Filobasidium, Issatchenkia (Pichia, Kodamaea, Leucosporidium, Leucosporidiella, Metschnikowia, Nadsonia, Pichia, Rhodotorula, and Sporidiobolus, and the yeast-like fungi Aureobasidium, Leuconeurospora and Microglossum. Cryptococcus victoriae was the most frequently identified species. Several species isolated in our study have been previously reported to be Antarctic psychophilic yeasts, including Cr. antarcticus, Cr. victoriae, Dioszegia hungarica and Leucosporidium scottii. The cosmopolitan yeast species A. pullulans, C. zeylanoides, D. hansenii, I. orientalis, K. ohmeri, P. guilliermondii, Rh. mucilaginosa, and S. salmonicolor were also isolated. Five possible new species were identified. Sixty percent of the yeasts had at least one detectable extracellular enzymatic activity. Cryptococcus antarcticus, D. aurantiaca, D. crocea, D. hungarica, Dioszegia sp., E. xenobiotica, Rh. glaciales, Rh. laryngis, Microglossum sp. 1 and Microglossum sp. 2 produced mycosporines. Of the yeast isolates, 41.7% produced pigments and/or mycosporines and could be considered adapted to survive in Antarctica. Most of the yeasts had extracellular enzymatic activities at 4ºC and 20ºC, indicating that they could be metabolically active in the sampled substrates.

  20. A network of autonomous surface ozone monitors in Antarctica: technical description and first results

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    S. J.-B. Bauguitte

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A suite of 10 autonomous ozone monitoring units, each powered using renewable energy, was developed and built to study surface ozone in Antarctica during the International Polar Year (2007–2009. The monitoring systems were deployed in a network around the Weddell Sea sector of coastal Antarctica with a transect up onto the Antarctic Plateau. The aim was to measure for a full year, thus gaining a much-improved broader view of boundary layer ozone seasonality at different locations as well as of factors affecting the budget of surface ozone in Antarctica. Ozone mixing ratios were measured based on UV photometry using a modified version of the commercial 2B Technologies Inc. Model 202 instrument. All but one of the autonomous units measured successfully within its predefined duty cycle throughout the year, with some differences in performance dependent on power availability and ambient temperature. Mean data recovery after removal of outliers was on average 70% (range 44–83% and precision varied between 1.5 and 8 ppbv, thus was sufficiently good to resolve year-round the main ozone features of scientific interest. We conclude that, with adequate power, and noting a minor communication problem, our units would be able to operate successfully at ambient temperatures down to −60 °C. Systems such as the one described in this paper, or derivatives of it, could therefore be deployed either as local or regional networks elsewhere in the Arctic or Antarctic. Here we present technical information and first results from the experiment.

  1. The 1994 EUROMET collection of micrometeorites at Cap-Prudhomme, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurette, M.; Immel, G.; Engrand, C.; Kurat, G.; Pillinger, C. T.

    1994-07-01

    Advance funding from IFRTP (Institut Francais pour la Recherche et pour la Technique Polaire) for micrometeorite collection at Cap-Prudhomme has allowed construction of a new micrometeorite 'factory,' conceived to greatly reduce contamination of the ultraclean ice by our activities. The potential problems include fly ash, rust grains, fuel spills 'sticking to the shoes,' and trace elements from the plasticizers used in plastic tubing. In the new factory, intended to produce and then cycle 10-15 tons of melt ice water per day, all parts exposed to water were replaced by either stainless steel or teflon. After examination with a microscope and their transfer into teflon and or glass vials, all samples were frozen the day of their collection. The factory operated from December 15, 1993, through February 6, 1994. Problems included injuries as well as very bad weather conditions, characterized by both the heaviest snow falls observed and unexpected gusts from a blizzard. Also, several new components of the factory did not function properly under the extreme conditions of Antarctica. Our major objective was to obtain the 'cleanest' and 'purest' 25-50 microns micrometeorites ever collected in Antarctica, for comparison with stratospheric Interplanetary Dust Particles (IDPs). We could not fulfill this premise, but we recovered the best 100-400-micron-size fraction of 'giant' micrometeorites ever collected on Earth. Our 26 daily collections are listed,refering to an 'index of quality.' Aliquots of these daily collections will be distributed to major institutions in Austria, England, the U.S.A., and Japan, to be preserved for future generations. The Antarctica ice sheet is truly a gigantic, ultraclean, and inexhaustible micrometeorite collector, but it is very tricky to recover 'ultraclean' micrometeorites from it.

  2. Global thermal niche models of two European grasses show high invasion risks in Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertierra, Luis R; Aragón, Pedro; Shaw, Justine D; Bergstrom, Dana M; Terauds, Aleks; Olalla-Tárraga, Miguel Ángel

    2016-12-14

    The two non-native grasses that have established long-term populations in Antarctica (Poa pratensis and Poa annua) were studied from a global multidimensional thermal niche perspective to address the biological invasion risk to Antarctica. These two species exhibit contrasting introduction histories and reproductive strategies and represent two referential case studies of biological invasion processes. We used a multistep process with a range of species distribution modelling techniques (ecological niche factor analysis, multidimensional envelopes, distance/entropy algorithms) together with a suite of thermoclimatic variables, to characterize the potential ranges of these species. Their native bioclimatic thermal envelopes in Eurasia, together with the different naturalized populations across continents, were compared next. The potential niche of P. pratensis was wider at the cold extremes; however, P. annua life history attributes enable it to be a more successful colonizer. We observe that particularly cold summers are a key aspect of the unique Antarctic environment. In consequence, ruderals such as P. annua can quickly expand under such harsh conditions, whereas the more stress-tolerant P. pratensis endures and persist through steady growth. Compiled data on human pressure at the Antarctic Peninsula allowed us to provide site-specific biosecurity risk indicators. We conclude that several areas across the region are vulnerable to invasions from these and other similar species. This can only be visualized in species distribution models (SDMs) when accounting for founder populations that reveal nonanalogous conditions. Results reinforce the need for strict management practices to minimize introductions. Furthermore, our novel set of temperature-based bioclimatic GIS layers for ice-free terrestrial Antarctica provide a mechanism for regional and global species distribution models to be built for other potentially invasive species.

  3. Soil-landform-plant communities relationships of a periglacial landscape at Potter Peninsula, Maritime Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poelking, E. L.; Schaefer, C. E. R.; Fernandes Filho, E. I.; de Andrade, A. M.; Spielmann, A. A.

    2014-08-01

    Integrated studies on the interplay between soils, periglacial geomorphology and plant communities are crucial for the understanding of climate change effects on terrestrial ecosystems of Maritime Antarctica, one of the most sensitive areas to global warming. Knowledge on physical environmental factors that influence plant communities can greatly benefit studies on monitoring climate change in Maritime Antarctica, where new ice-free areas are being constantly exposed, allowing plant growth and organic carbon inputs. The relationship between topography, plant communities and soils was investigated in Potter Peninsula, King George Island, Maritime Antarctica. We mapped the occurrence and distribution of plant communities and identified soil-landform-vegetation relationships. The vegetation map was obtained by classification of a Quickbird image, coupled with detailed landform and characterization of 18 soil profiles. The sub-formations were identified and classified, and we also determined the total elemental composition of lichens, mosses and grasses. Plant communities at Potter Peninsula occupy 23% of the ice-free area, at different landscape positions, showing decreasing diversity and biomass from the coastal zone to inland areas where sub-desert conditions prevail. There is a clear dependency between landform and vegetated soils. Soils with greater moisture or poorly drained, and acid to neutral pH, are favourable for mosses subformations. Saline, organic-matter rich ornithogenic soils of former penguin rookeries have greater biomass and diversity, with mixed associations of mosses and grasses, while stable felseenmeers and flat rocky cryoplanation surfaces are the preferred sites for Usnea and Himantormia lugubris lichens, at the highest surface. Lichens subformations cover the largest vegetated area, showing varying associations with mosses.

  4. Soil-landform-plant-community relationships of a periglacial landscape on Potter Peninsula, maritime Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poelking, E. L.; Schaefer, C. E. R.; Fernandes Filho, E. I.; de Andrade, A. M.; Spielmann, A. A.

    2015-05-01

    Integrated studies on the interplay between soils, periglacial geomorphology and plant communities are crucial for the understanding of climate change effects on terrestrial ecosystems of maritime Antarctica, one of the most sensitive areas to global warming. Knowledge on physical environmental factors that influence plant communities can greatly benefit studies on the monitoring of climate change in maritime Antarctica, where new ice-free areas are being constantly exposed, allowing plant growth and organic carbon inputs. The relationship between topography, plant communities and soils was investigated on Potter Peninsula, King George Island, maritime Antarctica. We mapped the occurrence and distribution of plant communities and identified soil-landform-vegetation relationships. The vegetation map was obtained by classification of a QuickBird image, coupled with detailed landform and characterization of 18 soil profiles. The sub-formations were identified and classified, and we also determined the total elemental composition of lichens, mosses and grasses. Plant communities on Potter Peninsula occupy 23% of the ice-free area, at different landscape positions, showing decreasing diversity and biomass from the coastal zone to inland areas where sub-desert conditions prevail. There is a clear dependency between landform and vegetated soils. Soils that have greater moisture or are poorly drained, and with acid to neutral pH, are favourable for moss sub-formations. Saline, organic-matter-rich ornithogenic soils of former penguin rookeries have greater biomass and diversity, with mixed associations of mosses and grasses, while stable felsenmeers and flat rocky cryoplanation surfaces are the preferred sites for Usnea and Himantormia lugubris lichens at the highest surface. Lichens sub-formations cover the largest vegetated area, showing varying associations with mosses.

  5. Complex Wind-Induced Variations of Surface Snow Accumulation Rates over East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, I.; Scambos, T. A.; Koenig, L.; van den Broeke, M.; Lenaerts, J.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate quantification of surface snow-accumulation over Antarctica is important for mass balance estimates and climate studies based on ice core records. Using airborne radar, lidar and thresholds of surface slope, modeled surface mass balance (SMB) and wind fields, we have predicted continent-wide distribution of wind-scour zones over Antarctica. These zones are located over relatively steep ice surfaces formed by ice flow over bedrock topography. Near-surface winds accelerate over these steeper slopes and erode and sublimate the snow. This results in numerous localized regions (typically ≤ 200 km2) with reduced or negative surface accumulation. Although small zones of re-deposition occur at the base of the steeper slope areas, the redeposited mass is small relative to the ablation loss. Total losses from wind-scour and wind-glaze areas amounts to tens of gigatons annually. Near the coast, winds often blow significant amounts of surface snow from these zones into the ocean. Large uncertainties remain in SMB estimates over East Antarctica as climate models do not adequately represent the small-scale physical processes that lead to mass loss or redistribution over the wind-scour zones. In this study, we also use Operation IceBridge's snow radar data to provide evidence for a gradual ablation of ~16-18 m of firn (~200 years of accumulation) from wind-scour zones over the upper Recovery Ice Stream catchment. The maximum ablation rates observed in this region are ~ -54 kg m-2 a-1 (-54 mm water equivalent a-1). Our airborne radio echo-sounding analysis show snow redeposition downslope of the wind-scour zones is <10% of the cumulative mass loss. Our study shows that the local mass loss is dominated by sublimation to water vapor rather than wind-transport of snow.

  6. Soil–landform–plant communities relationships of a periglacial landscape at Potter Peninsula, Maritime Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Poelking

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Integrated studies on the interplay between soils, periglacial geomorphology and plant communities are crucial for the understanding of climate change effects on terrestrial ecosystems of Maritime Antarctica, one of the most sensitive areas to global warming. Knowledge on physical environmental factors that influence plant communities can greatly benefit studies on monitoring climate change in Maritime Antarctica, where new ice-free areas are being constantly exposed, allowing plant growth and organic carbon inputs. The relationship between topography, plant communities and soils was investigated in Potter Peninsula, King George Island, Maritime Antarctica. We mapped the occurrence and distribution of plant communities and identified soil–landform–vegetation relationships. The vegetation map was obtained by classification of a Quickbird image, coupled with detailed landform and characterization of 18 soil profiles. The sub-formations were identified and classified, and we also determined the total elemental composition of lichens, mosses and grasses. Plant communities at Potter Peninsula occupy 23% of the ice-free area, at different landscape positions, showing decreasing diversity and biomass from the coastal zone to inland areas where sub-desert conditions prevail. There is a clear dependency between landform and vegetated soils. Soils with greater moisture or poorly drained, and acid to neutral pH, are favourable for mosses subformations. Saline, organic-matter rich ornithogenic soils of former penguin rookeries have greater biomass and diversity, with mixed associations of mosses and grasses, while stable felseenmeers and flat rocky cryoplanation surfaces are the preferred sites for Usnea and Himantormia lugubris lichens, at the highest surface. Lichens subformations cover the largest vegetated area, showing varying associations with mosses.

  7. Direct xylan conversion into glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids, by Pseudozyma antarctica PYCC 5048(T).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Nuno Torres; Marques, Susana; Fonseca, César; Ferreira, Frederico Castelo

    2015-04-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MEL) are glycolipid biosurfactants, produced by Pseudozyma spp., with increasing commercial interest. While MEL can be produced from d-glucose and d-xylose, the direct conversion of the respective lignocellulosic polysaccharides, cellulose and xylan, was not reported yet. The ability of Pseudozyma antarctica PYCC 5048(T) and Pseudozyma aphidis PYCC 5535(T) to use cellulose (Avicel(®)) and xylan (beechwood) as carbon and energy source has been assessed along with their capacity of producing cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes, toward a consolidated bioprocess (CBP) for MEL production. The yeasts assessed were neither able to grow in medium containing Avicel(®) nor produce cellulolytic enzymes under the conditions tested. On contrary, both yeasts were able to efficiently grow in xylan, but MEL production was only detected in P. antarctica PYCC 5048(T) cultures. MEL titers reached 1.3g/l after 10 days in batch cultures with 40g/l xylan, and 2.0g/l in fed-batch cultures with xylan feeding (additional 40g/l) at day 4. High levels of xylanase activities were detected in xylan cultures, reaching 47-62U/ml (31-32U/mg) at 50°C, and still exhibiting more than 10U/ml under physiological temperature (28°C). Total β-xylosidase activities, displayed mainly as wall-bounded and extracellular activity, accounted for 0.154 and 0.176U/ml in P. antarctica PYCC 5048(T) and P. aphidis PYCC 5535(T) cultures, respectively. The present results demonstrate the potential of Pseudozyma spp. for using directly a fraction of lignocellulosic biomass, xylan, and combining in the same bioprocess the production of xylanolytic enzymes with MEL production.

  8. Radiometric 81Kr dating identifies 120,000-year-old ice at Taylor Glacier, Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    Buizert, Christo; Baggenstos, Daniel; Jiang, Wei; Purtschert, Roland; Petrenko, Vasilii V.; Lu, Zheng-Tian; Müller, Peter; Kuhl, Tanner; Lee, James,; Severinghaus, Jeffrey P.; Brook, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    We present the first successful 81Kr-Kr radiometric dating of ancient polar ice. Krypton was extracted from the air bubbles in four ~350 kg polar ice samples from Taylor Glacier in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, and dated using Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA). The 81Kr radiometric ages agree with independent age estimates obtained from stratigraphic dating techniques with a mean absolute age offset of 6 +/- 2.5 ka. Our experimental methods and sampling strategy are validated by 1) 85Kr ...

  9. Enzymatic production of fructose fatty acid ester using lipases from C. antarctica and porcine pancreatic

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to produce fructose fatty acid ester by enzymatic esterification of a fatty acid (oleic acid or linoleic acid) with fructose, using lipases (CALB) from Candida antarctica type B and porcine pancreas. The esterification reaction was conducted at 150 rpm and 40 °C during 72 hours. Equimolar (0.5 mmol) amounts of fructose and fatty acid were mixed with 0.6 ml of ethanol and sodium sulfate anhydrous (0.1 g) was added for the adsorption of the water generate...

  10. Preliminary evidence for 17 coastal terraces on Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU Zhuding; YIN Xuebin; SUN Liguang; WANG Yuhong

    2015-01-01

    This study confirms the presence of 17 coastal terraces on Fildes Peninsula, Antarctica based on field observations and grain size analysis. The terraces formed by isostatic uplift during climate warming and glacier melting, and each level corresponds to a relatively stable period of climate. The grain size characteristics indicate an overlapping sedimentary origin for the sediments on the coastal terraces. The consistency of regional sea level rise, climate change, and glacial area suggest the presence of similar coastal terraces on King George Island since 18.0 ka.

  11. Nanobioconjugates of Candida antarctica lipase B and single-walled carbon nanotubes in biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencze, László Csaba; Bartha-Vári, Judith H; Katona, Gabriel; Toşa, Monica Ioana; Paizs, Csaba; Irimie, Florin-Dan

    2016-01-01

    Carboxylated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTCOOH) were used as support for covalent immobilization of Candida antarctica lipase B (CaL-B) using linkers with different lengths. The obtained nanostructured biocatalysts with low diffusional limitation were tested in batch mode in the ethanolysis of the sunflower oil. SWCNTCOOH-CaL-B proved to be a highly efficient and stable biocatalyst in acetonitrile (83.4% conversion after 4h at 35°C, retaining >90% of original activity after 10 cycles).

  12. The 137Cs activity and its geographical significance in terrestrial ecosystem of Great Wall Station, Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The radioactive isotope——137 Cs is one of the important tracers for studying the physical processes and the human impacts on the environment. Based on the investigation results of the terrestrial ecosystem of Great Wall Station, Antarctica, it was shown that there are some artificial radioactive elements——137Cs in Antarctic terrestrial ecosystem. The sequence of 137Cs specific activities is as follows: crustaceous lichen>fruticose lichen>surface-moss>surface soil, and the crustaceous lichen is one of the most sensitive ways in monitoring the impact of the long-term diffusion of 137Cs on the environment.

  13. Technical procedures for aeromagnetic surveys in Antarctica during the Italian expeditions (1988-1992

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Damaske

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available For most of Antarctica, the geophysical data now available are those of aeromagnetic surveys performed there from 1950 to 1960. Until 1984, the inaccurate positioning and insufficient monitoring of geomagnetic time variations allowed the investigation of the geomagnetic residual field only along profiles. The Ganovex IV aeromagnetic survey, performed by BGR-USGS over the Ross Sea and the Northern Victoria Land, and the geophysical investigations of BAS on the Southern Antarctic peninsula and the Ronne ice shelf region corresponds to the recent advancement of these techniques in Antarctica. The first experiments of aeromagnetic measurements, during the Italian expeditions in Antarctica were made during the 1988-1989 field season. Some geomagnetic helicopter borne profiles were accomplished with a Proton Precession Magnetometer (PPM in the Terra Nova Bay-Gerlache Inlet area. In the 1989-1990 ItaliAntartide expedition some profiles were flown over the suture between the Wilson and Bower terranes, in Northern Victoria Land. During the 1991-1992 expedition, in cooperation with researchers of BGR (Bundesanstalt fur Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe of Hannover, the GITARA I (German ITalian Aeromagnetic Rescarch Antarctica program, as part of the LIRA (Litospheric Investigation in the Ross Sea Area project, was carried out. The investigated area lies between the latitudes 74°18' S and 75°18' S and the longitudes 160°30' E and 164°30'E and it corresponds to a portion of the North Victoria Land, located between the Eisenhower Range and the, DrygaIski Ice Tongue. The survey was made with a Cesium vapour magnetometer. The positioning system was of the “Range-Range” type, it consisted of three transmitters (beacons, installed inside the investigated area and located with GPS measurements. The line spacing was 4.4 km, with tie lines every 22 km. The survey covered an area of 6500 km2 . Four PPM base stations for the determination of the time variation

  14. DISCOVERY OF LATE CRETACEOUS PALYNOFLORA FROM FILDES PENINSULA, KING GEORGE ISLAND, ANTARCTICA AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1990-01-01

    This paper makes an analysis and study on altogether 8 palyniferous samples from the volcano-sedimentary rock series in the Half Three Point area of the Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, Antarctica, the rock series being grey tuffaceous siltstone in lithological characters, about 5m in thickness. Only after making a number of analyses, could we find the relatively abundant sporopollen fossils from 4 samples (Nos. GWP 4—7). But the fossils are poorly preserved, and most of them can hardly be identifi...

  15. Re-Evaluation of Geomagnetic Field Observation Data at Syowa Station, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Takahashi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition has conducted geomagnetic observations at Syowa Station, Antarctica, since 1966. Geomagnetic variation data measured with a fluxgate magnetometer are not absolute but are relative to a baseline and show drift. To enhance the importance of the geomagnetic data at Syowa Station, therefore, it is necessary to correct the continuous variation data by using absolute baseline values acquired by a magnetic theodolite and proton magnetometer. However, the database of baseline values contains outliers. We detected outliers in the database and then converted the geomagnetic variation data to absolute values by using the reliable baseline values.

  16. Southwestern Tropical Atlantic coral growth response to atmospheric circulation changes induced by ozone depletion in Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Evangelista

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Climate changes induced by stratospheric ozone depletion over Antarctica have been recognized as an important consequence of the recently observed Southern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation. Here we present evidences that the Brazilian coast (Southwestern Atlantic may have been impacted from both winds and sea surface temperature changes derived from this process. Skeleton analysis of massive coral species living in shallow waters off Brazil are very sensitive to air–sea interactions, and seem to record this impact. Growth rates of Brazilian corals show a trend reversal that fits the ozone depletion evolution, confirming that ozone impacts are far reaching and potentially affect coastal ecosystems in tropical environments.

  17. PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF HYDROGRAPHY UNDER FAST ICE IN LUTZOW-HOLM BAY, ANTARCTICA IN 1990

    OpenAIRE

    タキザワ, タカトシ; ウシオ, シュウキ; カワムラ, トシユキ; オオシマ; オノ, ノブオ; カワグチ, サダオ; Takatoshi, TAKIZAWA; Shuki, USHIO; Toshiyuki, Kawamura; Kay I., OHSHIMA; Nobuo, Ono; Sadao, Kawaguchi

    1992-01-01

    Seasonal variations in water structure under fast ice in Lutzow-Holm Bay, Antarctica, were observed from April to December, 1990. Two warm and oxygen-poor waters were observed. One is warmer water with temperatures higher than 0℃, salinities of more than 34.6 and oxygen less than 6 ml/l, and is found in the bottom layer deeper than 700m in the Shirase Submarine Valley. The other is found in the upper layer with temperatures of -1.4∿ -1.5℃, salinities of around 34.2 and oxygen of 6.3-6.9ml...

  18. Understanding the Role of Wind in Reducing the Surface Mass Balance Estimates over East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, I.; Scambos, T. A.; Koenig, L.; Creyts, T. T.; Bell, R. E.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Lenaerts, J.; Paden, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate quantification of surface snow-accumulation over Antarctica is important for mass balance estimates and climate studies based on ice core records. An improved estimate of surface mass balance must include the significant role near-surface wind plays in the sublimation and redistribution of snow across Antarctica. We have developed an empirical model based on airborne radar and lidar observations, and modeled surface mass balance and wind fields to produce a continent-wide prediction of wind-scour zones over Antarctica. These zones have zero to negative surface mass balance, are located over locally steep ice sheet areas (>0.002) and controlled by bedrock topography. The near-surface winds accelerate over these zones, eroding and sublimating the surface snow. This scouring results in numerous localized regions (≤ 200 km2) with reduced surface accumulation. Each year, tens of gigatons of snow on the Antarctic ice sheet are ablated by persistent near-surface katabatic winds over these wind-scour zones. Large uncertainties remain in the surface mass balance estimates over East Antarctica as climate models do not adequately represent the small-scale physical processes that lead to mass loss through sublimation or redistribution over the wind-scour zones. In this study, we integrate Operation IceBridge's snow radar over the Recovery Ice Stream with a series of ice core dielectric and depth-density profiles for improved surface mass balance estimates that reflect the mass loss over the wind-scour zones. Accurate surface mass balance estimates from snow radars require spatially variable depth-density profiles. Using an ensemble of firn cores, MODIS-derived surface snow grain size, modeled accumulation rates and surface temperatures from RACMO2, we assemble spatially variable depth-density profiles and use our mapping of snow density variations to estimate layer mass and net accumulation rates from snow radar layer data. Our study improves the quantification of

  19. A Catalog of Eclipsing Binaries and Variable Stars Observed with ASTEP 400 from Dome C, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapellier, E.; Mékarnia, D.; Abe, L.; Guillot, T.; Agabi, K.; Rivet, J.-P.; Schmider, F.-X.; Crouzet, N.; Aristidi, E.

    2016-10-01

    We used the large photometric database of the ASTEP program, whose primary goal was to detect exoplanets in the southern hemisphere from Antarctica, to search for eclipsing binaries (EcBs) and variable stars. 673 EcBs and 1166 variable stars were detected, including 31 previously known stars. The resulting online catalogs give the identification, the classification, the period, and the depth or semi-amplitude of each star. Data and light curves for each object are available at http://astep-vo.oca.eu.

  20. Unmanned aircraft system measurements of the atmospheric boundary layer over Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Knuth

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In September 2009, a series of long-range unmanned aircraft system (UAS flights collected basic atmospheric data over the Terra Nova Bay polynya in Antarctica. Air temperature, wind, pressure, relative humidity, radiation, skin temperature, GPS, and operational aircraft data were collected and quality controlled for scientific use. The data has been submitted to the United States Antarctic Program Data Coordination Center (USAP-DCC for free access (doi:10.1594/USAP/0739464.

  1. Prospect of China's Auroral Fine-structure Imaging System (CAFIS) at Zhongshan station in Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shun-lin; HAN De-sheng; HU Hong-qiao; HUANG De-hong; ZHANG Bei-chen; YANG Hui-gen

    2008-01-01

    A new auroral imaging system is reported which is planned to be deployed at Zhongshan Station in Antarctica in the end of 2009. The system will focus on study of optical auroras in small scales and be called China' s Auroral Fine-structure Imaging System (CAFIS). The project of CAFIS is carried out by support of 'the tenth five-year plan for capacity building' of China. CAFIS will be a powerful groundbased platform for aurora observational experiments. Composing and advantages of CAFIS are introduced in this brief report. Some potential study topics involved CAFIS are also considered.

  2. Isolation and characterization of cellulolytic bacteria from the Stain house Lake, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Itamar S; Zucchi, Tiago D; Silva, Rafael E; Vilela, Elke S D; Sáber, Mirian Lobo; Rosa, Luiz H; Pellizari, Vivian H

    2014-07-01

    The main aim was to evaluate the occurrence of cellulolytic bacteria from the Stain house Lake, located at Admiralty Bay, Antarctica. Thick cotton string served as a cellulose bait for the isolation of bacteria. A total of 52 bacterial isolates were recovered and tested for their cellulase activity, and two of them, isolates CMAA 1184 and CMAA 1185, showed significant cellulolytic activity on carboxymethylcellulose agar plates. Phylogenetic analysis placed the isolates into the Bacillus 16S ribosomal RNA gene subclade. Both isolates produced a cold-active cellulase which may play a crucial role in this extreme environment.

  3. GRACE leakage error correction with regularization technique: Case studies in Greenland and Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Dapeng; Yan, Haoming; Feng, Wei; Peng, Peng

    2017-01-01

    Filtering is a necessary step in the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data processing, but leads to signal leakage and attenuation obviously, and adversely affects the quality of global and regional mass change estimates. We propose to use the Tikhonov regularization technique with the L-curve method to solve a correction equation which can reduce the leakage error caused by filter involved in GRACE data processing. We first demonstrate that the leakage error caused by the Gaussian filter can be well corrected by our regularization technique with simulation studies in Greenland and Antarctica. Furthermore, our regularization technique can restore the spatial distribution of original mass changes. For example, after applying the regularization method to GRAEC data (2003-2012), we find that GRACE mass changes tend to move from interior to coastal area in Greenland, which are consistent with recent other studies. After being corrected for glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) effect, our results show that the ice mass loss rates were 274 ± 30 and 107 ± 34 Gt/yr in Greenland and Antarctica from 2003 to 2012, respectively. And a 10 ± 4 Gt/yr increase rate in Greenland interior is also detected.

  4. One-to-one coupling of glacial climate variability in Greenland and Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epica Community Members; Barbante, C.; Barnola, J.-M.; Becagli, S.; Beer, J.; Bigler, M.; Boutron, C.; Blunier, T.; Castellano, E.; Cattani, O.; Chappellaz, J.; Dahl-Jensen, D.; Debret, M.; Delmonte, B.; Dick, D.; Falourd, S.; Faria, S.; Federer, U.; Fischer, H.; Freitag, J.; Frenzel, A.; Fritzsche, D.; Fundel, F.; Gabrielli, P.; Gaspari, V.; Gersonde, R.; Graf, W.; Grigoriev, D.; Hamann, I.; Hansson, M.; Hoffmann, G.; Hutterli, M. A.; Huybrechts, P.; Isaksson, E.; Johnsen, S.; Jouzel, J.; Kaczmarska, M.; Karlin, T.; Kaufmann, P.; Kipfstuhl, S.; Kohno, M.; Lambert, F.; Lambrecht, Anja; Lambrecht, Astrid; Landais, A.; Lawer, G.; Leuenberger, M.; Littot, G.; Loulergue, L.; Lüthi, D.; Maggi, V.; Marino, F.; Masson-Delmotte, V.; Meyer, H.; Miller, H.; Mulvaney, R.; Narcisi, B.; Oerlemans, J.; Oerter, H.; Parrenin, F.; Petit, J.-R.; Raisbeck, G.; Raynaud, D.; Röthlisberger, R.; Ruth, U.; Rybak, O.; Severi, M.; Schmitt, J.; Schwander, J.; Siegenthaler, U.; Siggaard-Andersen, M.-L.; Spahni, R.; Steffensen, J. P.; Stenni, B.; Stocker, T. F.; Tison, J.-L.; Traversi, R.; Udisti, R.; Valero-Delgado, F.; van den Broeke, M. R.; van de Wal, R. S. W.; Wagenbach, D.; Wegner, A.; Weiler, K.; Wilhelms, F.; Winther, J.-G.; Wolff, E.

    2006-11-01

    Precise knowledge of the phase relationship between climate changes in the two hemispheres is a key for understanding the Earth's climate dynamics. For the last glacial period, ice core studies have revealed strong coupling of the largest millennial-scale warm events in Antarctica with the longest Dansgaard-Oeschger events in Greenland through the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. It has been unclear, however, whether the shorter Dansgaard-Oeschger events have counterparts in the shorter and less prominent Antarctic temperature variations, and whether these events are linked by the same mechanism. Here we present a glacial climate record derived from an ice core from Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, which represents South Atlantic climate at a resolution comparable with the Greenland ice core records. After methane synchronization with an ice core from North Greenland, the oxygen isotope record from the Dronning Maud Land ice core shows a one-to-one coupling between all Antarctic warm events and Greenland Dansgaard-Oeschger events by the bipolar seesaw6. The amplitude of the Antarctic warm events is found to be linearly dependent on the duration of the concurrent stadial in the North, suggesting that they all result from a similar reduction in the meridional overturning circulation.

  5. Diversity and bioprospecting of fungal communities associated with endemic and cold-adapted macroalgae in Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, Valéria M; Furbino, Laura E; Santiago, Iara F; Pellizzari, Franciane M; Yokoya, Nair S; Pupo, Diclá; Alves, Tânia M A; Junior, Policarpo A S; Romanha, Alvaro J; Zani, Carlos L; Cantrell, Charles L; Rosa, Carlos A; Rosa, Luiz H

    2013-07-01

    We surveyed the distribution and diversity of fungi associated with eight macroalgae from Antarctica and their capability to produce bioactive compounds. The collections yielded 148 fungal isolates, which were identified using molecular methods as belonging to 21 genera and 50 taxa. The most frequent taxa were Geomyces species (sp.), Penicillium sp. and Metschnikowia australis. Seven fungal isolates associated with the endemic Antarctic macroalgae Monostroma hariotii (Chlorophyte) displayed high internal transcribed spacer sequences similarities with the psychrophilic pathogenic fungus Geomyces destructans. Thirty-three fungal singletons (66%) were identified, representing rare components of the fungal communities. The fungal communities displayed high diversity, richness and dominance indices; however, rarefaction curves indicated that not all of the fungal diversity present was recovered. Penicillium sp. UFMGCB 6034 and Penicillium sp. UFMGCB 6120, recovered from the endemic species Palmaria decipiens (Rhodophyte) and M. hariotii, respectively, yielded extracts with high and selective antifungal and/or trypanocidal activities, in which a preliminary spectral analysis using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy indicated the presence of highly functionalised aromatic compounds. These results suggest that the endemic and cold-adapted macroalgae of Antarctica shelter a rich, diversity and complex fungal communities consisting of a few dominant indigenous or mesophilic cold-adapted species, and a large number of rare and/or endemic taxa, which may provide an interesting model of algal-fungal interactions under extreme conditions as well as a potential source of bioactive compounds.

  6. Classification of 24 New Ordinary Chondrites from the Grove Mountains, Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Ren; MIAO Bingkui; WANG Guiqing; DAI Deqiu; LIN Yangting; OUYANG Ziyuan; LI Chunlai

    2004-01-01

    Petrography and mineral chemistry of 24 ordinary chondrites from the Grove Mountains, Antarctica, have been studied in order to identify their chemical-petrographic types. These samples were selected from a total of 4448 Grove Mountains (GRV) meteorites collected during the 19th Chinese Antarctic Research Expedition so as to make an estimation of the large GRV meteorite collection. The chemical-petrographic types of these meteorites are presented below: 1 H3, 2 H4,4 H5, 2 H6, 1 L4, 7 L5, 5 L6, 1 LL4 and 1 LL6. The new data weaken the previous report that unequilibrated ordinary chondrites are unusually abundant in the Grove Mountains region. However, this work confirms significant differences in distribution patterns of chemical-petrographic types between the Grove Mountains and other regions in Antarctica. Many of these meteorites show significant terrestrial weathering, probably due to a high abundance ratio of meteorites found in moraines to those on blue ice. Nine meteorites experienced severe shock metamorphism, as evidenced by undulose extinction and intense fracturing of silicates and presence of shock-induced melt veins and pockets. These heavily shocked meteorites provided us with natural samples for the study of high-pressure polymorphs of minerals.

  7. Decreasing trend of tempera-ture in Princess Elizabeth Land, Antarctica in the past 150 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A 50-m firn core drilled in Princess Elizabeth Land, Antarctica, during the 1996/1997 Chinese First Antarctic Inland Expedition, has been measured for δ 18O and major ions. Based on the high quality of the seasonal variations of major ions, the firn core was dated with errors within ±3 years. The features of the temperature change in the past 150 years in the investigated region have first been studied based on the oxygen isotope in the upper 32.93 m of the firn core. Results show that the temperature decreased nearly by 2℃ in Princess Elizabeth Land in the past 150 years. On the background of the global, especially the Southern Hemispheric warming in the past 150 years, a temperature decline of 2℃ in Princess Elizabeth Land likely reflects the impacts of the unique Southern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation, the Antarctic Circumpolar Wave (ACW) and the special terrain (such as the large drainage basins) on the coastal regions of Antarctica.

  8. Subglacial Lake Whillans, West Antarctica; Solute Dynamics and Fluxes to the Ross Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, M. L.; Michaud, A. B.; Achberger, A.; Barbante, C.; Christner, B. C.; Mikucki, J.; Mitchell, A. C.; Priscu, J. C.; Purcell, A. M.; van Gelder, W.; Vick-Majors, T.

    2014-12-01

    Subglacial Lake Whillans is located beneath the Whillans Ice Stream in West Antarctica. The lake is situated beneath 800 m of ice and ~ 70 km upstream of the grounding line where Whillans Ice Stream terminates into the Ross Sea. Subglacial Lake Whillans is a shallow lake and a component of a complex subglacial hydrological system that may resemble a large wetland along the Siple Coast of West Antarctica. Subglacial Lake Whillans drains and refills on a sub-decadal time scale discharging water towards the Ross Sea. Water and sediment samples were recovered from the lake, using clean access drilling technologies, in January, 2013. Isotopic analysis of the lake waters indicates basal meltwater from the ice sheet as the dominant water source. Geochemical analysis of the lake water reveals it is freshwater with mineral weathering as a significant solute source, with a minor contribution from sea water likely from relict marine sediments. Subglacial hydrothermal activity upstream may also contribute solutes. Nutrients N and P are present at micromolar concentrations. Sediment porewaters from shallow cores (~ 40 cm depth) of the subglacial lake sediments indicate increasing solute concentration with depth, with up to ~ five times greater solute concentrations than in the lake water. The waters and sediment contain metabolically active organisms which are likely involved in elemental cycling within the lake system. Here we will discuss solute sources to the lake, solute dynamics within the lake waters and sediment, and the fluxes of solute and nutrients to the Ross Sea and their implications for these marine ecosystems.

  9. Concordia, Antarctica, seismic experiment for the International Polar Year (CASE-IPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Maggi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The CASE-IPY project, part of the larger POLENET initiative of geophysical observations for the International Polar Year, was built on our extensive experience of running seismological stations in Antarctica, both on rock sites (Dumont d’Urville station, and directly on the ice plateau (Concordia station. For CASE-IPY, we deployed 8 temporary seismic stations on the Antarctic plateau: 3 situated near Concordia itself (starting 2008, and the other 5 regularly spaced between Concordia and Vostok (2010-2012, following the maximum in ice topography. The technical problems we have encountered in our field deployments were essentially due to a combination of extreme environmental conditions and isolation of deployment sites. The 3 stations near Concordia were used as test sites to experiment different solutions, and to converge on a design for the 5 main stations. Results from the nearest stations, which transmit data regularly to Concordia, are very promising. The data recorded by our stations will be distributed widely in the scientific community. We expect them to be exploited essentially for structural studies involving Antarctica itself (its ice-cap, crust and lithosphere via receiver functions, noise correlation, and surface-wave tomography, but also for studies of the Earth’s core.

  10. Climatic signals from 76 shallow firn cores in Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Altnau

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The spatial and temporal distribution of surface mass balance (SMB and δ18O were investigated in the first comprehensive study of a set of 76 firn cores retrieved by various expeditions during the past three decades in Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica. The large number of cores was used to calculate stacked records of SMB and δ18O, which considerably increased the signal-to-noise ratio compared to earlier studies and facilitated the detection of climatic signals. Considerable differences between cores from the interior plateau and the coastal cores were found. The δ18O of both the plateau and the ice shelf cores exhibit a slight positive trend over the second half of the 20th century. In the corresponding period, the SMB has a negative trend in the ice shelf cores, but increases on the plateau. Comparison with meteorological data from Neumayer Station revealed that for the ice shelf regions atmospheric dynamic effects are more important than thermodynamics, while on the plateau, the temporal variations of SMB and δ18O occur mostly in parallel, thus can be explained by thermodynamic effects. The Southern Annular Mode (SAM exhibits a positive trend since the mid-1960s, which is assumed to lead to a cooling of East Antarctica. This is not confirmed by the firn core data in our data set. Changes in the atmospheric circulation that result in a changed seasonal distribution of precipitation/accumulation could partly explain the observed features in the ice shelf cores.

  11. Cosmogenic 21Ne concentrations and exposure ages of summit bedrocks in the Grove Mountains,Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Various sources of 21Ne and 22Ne exist in surface rocks:cosmogenic,in situ nucleogenic from internal U and Th,trapped crustal nucleogenic and trapped atmospheric.This paper reports the first measurement,in China,of cosmogenic 21Ne and 22Ne in surface bedrocks.We developed a unique sample pre-treatment procedure that effectively removed inclusions inside quartz grains,and thus maximally reduced nucleogenic contributions of 21Ne and 22Ne.Step-heating experiments show that concen-trations of cosmogenic 21Ne and 22Ne in summit bedrock samples R9202 and R9203 from Grove Mountains,Antarctica,are(3.83±0.87)×108 and(5.22±0.51)×108 atoms/g,respectively.The corresponding minimum exposure ages are 2.2±0.5 and 3.0±0.3 Ma.This indicates that the ice sheet in East Antarctica was uncovered the crest of Mount Harding,a typical nunatak in Grove Mountains,since at least mid-Pliocene.

  12. Spatial distribution and source apportionment of PAHs in marine surface sediments of Prydz Bay, East Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Rui; Chen, Ling; Lu, Zhibo; Wang, Juan; Yang, Haizhen; Zhang, Jie; Cai, Minghong

    2016-12-01

    This paper reports the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in marine sediments sampled from Prydz Bay, East Antarctica. Total PAH concentrations ranged from 12.95 to 30.93 ng/g, with a mean of 17.99 ± 5.57 ng/g. Two- and three-ring PAHs were the most abundant compounds found at the majority of the sampling stations of Prydz Bay. Long-range atmospheric transportation was found to play an important role in determining the spatial distribution of PAHs in the sediments sampled here. However, transport by ocean currents and release from melting glaciers were also found to influence PAH distributions in the sediments of East Antarctica. The vertical migration of PAHs in sediments showed a decreasing trend with depth, with higher concentrations in the relatively shallow-water regions (1000 m) of the Amery Basin and associated Canyons, respectively. A Pearson correlation analysis between PAH concentrations and sediment parameters demonstrated that PAHs has poor correlations with grain size, but has positive correlation with total organic carbon, indicated complex processing during transfer to remote environments. The results of qualitative and quantitative analyses indicate that the PAHs sampled here were derived mainly from a mixture of biomass combustion, traffic emissions, and petrogenic sources.

  13. Spatial pattern in Antarctica: what can we learn from Antarctic bacterial isolates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Chun Wie; Goh, Yuh Shan; Convey, Peter; Pearce, David; Tan, Irene Kit Ping

    2013-09-01

    A range of small- to moderate-scale studies of patterns in bacterial biodiversity have been conducted in Antarctica over the last two decades, most suggesting strong correlations between the described bacterial communities and elements of local environmental heterogeneity. However, very few of these studies have advanced interpretations in terms of spatially associated patterns, despite increasing evidence of patterns in bacterial biogeography globally. This is likely to be a consequence of restricted sampling coverage, with most studies to date focusing only on a few localities within a specific Antarctic region. Clearly, there is now a need for synthesis over a much larger spatial to consolidate the available data. In this study, we collated Antarctic bacterial culture identities based on the 16S rRNA gene information available in the literature and the GenBank database (n > 2,000 sequences). In contrast to some recent evidence for a distinct Antarctic microbiome, our phylogenetic comparisons show that a majority (~75 %) of Antarctic bacterial isolates were highly similar (≥99 % sequence similarity) to those retrieved from tropical and temperate regions, suggesting widespread distribution of eurythermal mesophiles in Antarctic environments. However, across different Antarctic regions, the dominant bacterial genera exhibit some spatially distinct diversity patterns analogous to those recently proposed for Antarctic terrestrial macroorganisms. Taken together, our results highlight the threat of cross-regional homogenisation in Antarctic biodiversity, and the imperative to include microbiota within the framework of biosecurity measures for Antarctica.

  14. Oleaginous yeasts from Antarctica: Screening and preliminary approach on lipid accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viñarta, Silvana C; Angelicola, M Virginia; Barros, J Maximiliano; Fernández, Pablo M; Mac Cormak, Walter; Aybar, Manuel J; de Figueroa, Lucía I C

    2016-12-01

    The capability of 17 Rhodotorula spp. isolated from Antarctica to accumulate intracellular lipids in nitrogen-limited medium was investigated. As results, 10 isolates were selected by Nile red staining, while 12 isolates were selected as oleaginous by analysis of total lipid content (20.4-73%, w/w of dry biomass). The higher lipid production and accumulation was exhibited for six strains belonging to three species of Rhodotorula (Rhodotorula glutinis, Rhodotorula glacialis, and Rhodotorula laryngis). This is the first report where R. laryngis have been identified within oleaginous specie. Lipid accumulation was evaluated comparatively in two nitrogen-limited glucose-based media (MI and MII). MI (low C/N ratio) was more suitable for biomass and lipid production while in MII (high C/N ratio) total lipid content was improved. R. glutinis R4, R. glacialis R15, and R. glutinis R48 showed high lipid concentrations (4.65-6.93 g L(-1) ) and they were able to accumulate large amounts of lipids per gram of biomass (47-77%, w/w). A similar profile in fatty acids composition and content of neutral lipids to vegetable oils was observed, indicating that lipids produced by oleaginous Antarctic yeasts can be considered an alternative feedstock for biodiesel production. Antarctica represents an important source of oleaginous yeasts with adaptive capabilities to accumulate considerable amounts of lipids with biotechnological interest at 15 °C and 25 °C.

  15. Coastal-change and glaciological map of the Amery Ice Shelf area, Antarctica: 1961–2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Kevin M.; Ferrigno, Jane G.; Swithinbank, Charles; Williams, Richard S.; Orndorff, Audrey L.

    2013-01-01

    Reduction in the area and volume of Earth’s two polar ice sheets is intricately linked to changes in global climate and to the resulting rise in sea level. Measurement of changes in area and mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet was given a very high priority in recommendations by the Polar Research Board of the National Research Council. On the basis of these recommendations, the U.S. Geological Survey used its archive of satellite images to document changes in the cryospheric coastline of Antarctica and analyze the glaciological features of the coastal regions. Amery Ice Shelf, lying between 67.5° and 75° East longitude and 68.5° and 73.2° South latitude, is the largest ice shelf in East Antarctica. The latest measurements of the area of the ice shelf range between 62,620 and 71,260 square kilometers. The ice shelf is fed primarily by Lambert, Mellor, and Fisher Glaciers; its thickness ranges from 3,000 meters in the center of the grounding line to less than 300 meters at the ice front. Lambert Glacier is considered to be the largest glacier in the world, and its drainage basin is more than 1 million square kilometers in area. It is possible to see some coastal change on the outlet glaciers along the coast, but most of the noticeable change occurs on the Amery Ice Shelf front.

  16. The secondary eclipses of WASP-19b as seen by the ASTEP 400 telescope from Antarctica

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, L; Agabi, A; Alapini, A; Guillot, T; Mékarnia, D; Rivet, J -P; Schmider, F -X; Crouzet, N; Fortney, J; Pont, F; Barbieri, M; Daban, J -B; Fanteï-Caujolle, Y; Gouvret, C; Bresson, Y; Roussel, A; Bonhomme, S; Robini, A; Dugué, M; Bondoux, E; Péron, S; Petit, P -Y; Szulágyi, J; Fruth, T; Erikson, A; Rauer, H; Fressin, F; Valbousquet, F; Blanc, P -E; van Suu, A Le; Aigrain, S

    2013-01-01

    The ASTEP (Antarctica Search for Transiting ExoPlanets) program was originally aimed at probing the quality of the Dome C, Antarctica for the discovery and characterization of exoplanets by photometry. In the first year of operation of the 40 cm ASTEP 400 telescope (austral winter 2010), we targeted the known transiting planet WASP-19b in order to try to detect its secondary transits in the visible. This is made possible by the excellent sub-millimagnitude precision of the binned data. The WASP-19 system was observed during 24 nights in May 2010. The photometric variability level due to starspots is about 1.8% (peak-to-peak), in line with the SuperWASP data from 2007 (1.4%) and larger than in 2008 (0.07%). We find a rotation period of WASP-19 of 10.7 +/- 0.5 days, in agreement with the SuperWASP determination of 10.5 +/- 0.2 days. Theoretical models show that this can only be explained if tidal dissipation in the star is weak, i.e. the tidal dissipation factor Q'star > 3.10^7. Separately, we find evidence for...

  17. Immune System Dysregulation and Latent Herpesvirus Reactivation During Winterover at Concordia Station, Dome C, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, B. E.; Feuerecker, M.; Salam, A. P.; Rybka, A.; Stowe, R. P.; Morrels, M.; Meta, S. K.; Quiriarte, H.; Quintens, Roel; Thieme, U.; Kaufmann, I.; Baatout, D. S.; Pierson, D. L.; Sams, C. F.; Chouker, A.

    2011-01-01

    Immune system dysregulation occurs during spaceflight and consists of altered peripheral leukocyte distribution, reductions in immunocyte function and altered cytokine production profiles. Causes may include stress, confinement, isolation, and disrupted circadian rhythms. All of these factors may be replicated to some degree in terrestrial environments. NASA is currently evaluating the potential for a ground-based analog for immune dysregulation, which would have utility for mechanistic investigations and countermeasures evaluation. For ground-based space physiology research, the choice of terrestrial analog must carefully match the system of interest. Antarctica winter-over, consisting of prolonged durations in an extreme/dangerous environment, station-based habitation, isolation and disrupted circadian rhythms, is potentially a good ground-analog for spaceflight-associated immune dysregulation. Of all Antarctica bases, the French-Italian Concordia Station, may be the most appropriate to replicate spaceflight/exploration conditions. Concordia is an interior base located in harsh environmental conditions, and has been constructed to house small, international crews in a station-environment similar to what should be experienced by deep space astronauts. The ESA-NASA CHOICE study assessed innate and adaptive immunity, viral reactivation and stress factors during Concordia winterover deployment. The study was conducted over two winterover missions in 2009 and 2010. Final study data from NASA participation in these missions will be presented.

  18. FRESHWATER ALGAE COMMUNITY OF A MELTWATER RUNNEL,REEVE HILL, CASEY STATION, ANTARCTICA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Faradina Merican; Wan Maznah W O; Wan Asmadi W A; Mashhor Mansor

    2007-01-01

    The Antarctic runnel can be highly variable in space and time; however, this environment has provided an interesting habitat for terrestrial algal colonization. The runnel of Reeve Hill, Casey Station (66°16.855′S, 110°31.045′E), Antarctica, which occurs intermittently only during the brief austral summer showed high colonization by microalgae dominated mainly by Cyanobacteria mats and diatoms. 9 freshwater microalgae species which includes Oscillatoria fracta, Oscillatoria sp., Navicula muticopsis, Pinnularia borealis, Nitzschia sp., Prasiola crispa, Chlorococcum sp., Syenechococcus aeruginosus and Syenechococcus maior were recorded during the study. The algal community in the runnel to be observed closely resembles that in the larger running water ecosystems in the continent. However, intrusion of seawater, direct exposure to sunlight and influence of sea current in the lower part changes the species community. The lower runnel showed total dominance consists mainly of the marine planktonic Bacillariophycea. Other species detected includes Flagilaria kerguelensis, Flagilaria linearis, Eucampia antarctica, Thalassiosira tumida, Pseudonitzschia lineola, Pseudonitzschia turgiduloides, Achnanthes brevipes and Odontella litigiosa. Lower algal species diversity observed in this study suggests that the number of species obtained is related to the area of environment from which the samples were derived. The local assemblages simply contain species that is favored by the environmental conditions.

  19. Advances in seismic monitoring at Deception Island volcano (Antarctica since the International Polar Year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Carmona

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Deception Island is an active volcano located in the south Shetland Islands, Antarctica. It constitutes a natural laboratory to test geophysical instruments in extreme conditions, since they have to endure not only the Antarctic climate but also the volcanic environment. Deception is one of the most visited places in Antarctica, both by scientists and tourists, which emphasize the importance of volcano monitoring. Seismic monitoring has been going on since 1986 during austral summer surveys. The recorded data include volcano-tectonic earthquakes, long-period events and volcanic tremor, among others. The level of seismicity ranges from quiet periods to seismic crises (e.g. 1992-1993, 1999. Our group has been involved in volcano monitoring at Deception Island since 1994. Based on this experience, in recent years we have made the most of the opportunities of the International Polar Year 2007-2008 to introduce advances in seismic monitoring along four lines: (1 the improvement of the seismic network installed for seismic monitoring during the summer surveys; (2 the development and improvement of seismic arrays for the detection and characterization of seismo-volcanic signals; (3 the design of automated event recognition tools, to simplify the process of data interpretation; and (4 the deployment of permanent seismic stations. These advances help us to obtain more data of better quality, and therefore to improve our interpretation of the seismo-volcanic activity at Deception Island, which is a crucial step in terms of hazards assessment.

  20. Natural and anthropogenic sources of chemical elements in sediment profiles from the Admiralty Bay, Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, A.P.; Figueira, R.C.L.; Silva, C.R.A.; Franca, E.J.; Mahiques, M.M.; Bicego, M.C.; Montone, R.C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IO/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico; Martins, C.C. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Pontal do Sul, PR (Brazil). Centro de Estudos do Mar; Scapin, M.A.; Scapin, V.O.; Figueiredo, A.M.G.; Ticianelli, R.B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Full text: The Antarctic Continent and its surrounding Southern Ocean are the least known regions of the world, mainly due to the most unfavorable climatic conditions, in which sampling for environmental studies are quite difficult to be carried out. Admiralty Bay on the King George Island (Antarctica) hosts three research stations, Arctowski, Ferraz and Macchu Picchu, which are operate by Poland, Brazil and Peru, respectively. Therefore, human activities in this region require the use of fossil fuel as an energy source, which is also considered the main source of pollutants in the area. This work investigated the natural and anthropogenic inputs of chemical elements in sediment samples collected close to Ferraz Station, during the 25{sup th} Brazilian Antarctica Expedition in the 2006/2007 austral summer. Total concentrations of As, Zn and Sc were determined in sediment profiles by using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The analytical technique employed to determine the major elements such as Fe, Al, Ca, Mn and Ti was X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy. For estimating the sedimentation rate, High Resolution Gamma Ray Spectrometry was applied to determine {sup 137}Cs, after 30 days, to achieve secular equilibrium. According to the enrichment factor and the geochronology analysis, the most relevant enrichment was observed for As in the sediment samples, suggesting the increasing of its content due to the Brazilian activities in the Admiralty Bay. Despite some evidences of anthropogenic contribution, the study indicated low level of environmental risk for this region. (author)

  1. An assessment of variations in mercury deposition to Antarctica over the past 34,000 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹雪斌; 孙立广; 谢周清

    2003-01-01

    We performed a comparison analysis of the variations in Mercury (Hg)concentrations and the precipitation proxies (e. g. , 18 O values and 10 Be concentrations) in the Dome C ice core. The results showed that there were significant correlations between Hg and δ 18 O values, 10 Be concentrations, indicating that the accumulation rate in Dome C is one of the key factors controlling the variations of Hg concentrations in the past 34,000 years, and implying that Hg concentrations in ice core can be used as another reliable proxy of precipitation rate in Antarctica. Based upon the high-resolution δ 18 O values, we estimated the variations in mercury deposition flux to Antarctica over the past 34,000 years. The highest mercury deposition flux is about 3.80 pg cm -2 yr-1 during the Last Glacial Maxium (LGM) as high as 3.5 times of the mercury deposition flux (about 1.08 pg em-2 yr -1 ) in Holocene due to the fluctuations in natural mercury emissions such as the oceanic biological emissions.

  2. Testing reanalysis datasets in Antarctica: Trends, persistence properties and trend significance

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yang; Havlin, Shlomo

    2015-01-01

    The reanalysis datasets provide very important sources for investigating the climate dynamics and climate changes in Antarctica. In this paper, three major reanalysis data are compared with Antarctic station data over the last 35 years: the National Centers for Environmental Prediction and the National Center for Atmospheric Research reanalysis (NCEP1), NCEP-DOE Reanalysis 2 (NCEP2), and the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Interim Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim). In our assessment, we compare the linear trends, the fluctuations around the trends, the persistence properties and the significance level of warming trends in the reanalysis data with the observational ones. We find that NCEP1 and NCEP2 show spurious warming trends in all parts of Antarctica except the Peninsula, while ERA-Interim is quite reliable except at Amundsen-Scott. To investigate the persistence of the data sets, we consider the lag-1 autocorrelation $C(1)$ and the Hurst exponent. While $C(1)$ varies quite erratically in differ...

  3. Borehole temperatures reveal a changed energy budget at Mill Island, East Antarctica, over recent decades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Roberts

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A borehole temperature record from the Mill Island (East Antarctica icecap reveals a large surface warming signal manifested as a 0.75 K temperature difference over the approximate 100 m depth in the zone of zero annual amplitude below the seasonally varying zone. The temperature profile shows a break in gradient around 49 m depth, which we model with inverse numerical simulations, indicating that surface warming started around the austral summer of 1980/81 AD ±5 yr. This warming of approximately 0.37 K per decade is consistent with trends seen in both instrumental and other reconstructions for Antarctica and, therefore, suggests that regional- rather than local-scale processes are largely responsible. Alteration of the surface energy budget arising from changes in radiation balances due to local cloud, the amount of liquid deposition and local air temperatures associated with altered air/sea exchanges also potentially plays a role at this location due to the proximity of the Shackleton Ice Shelf and sea-ice zone.

  4. Stable Isotope Analyses of Ancient Penguin Tissues Support the Krill Surplus Hypothesis in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emslie, S. D.; Polito, M. J.; Patterson, W. P.

    2010-12-01

    The krill surplus hypothesis in Antarctica is based on the premise that historic depletion of krill-eating whales and seals in the 18-20th centuries provided a surplus of krill in the southern ocean that benefited penguins. Previous study of δ13C and δ15N stable isotopes in ancient and modern tissues of Adélie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) from dozens of active and abandoned colonies in Antarctica have provided the first test in support of this hypothesis (Emslie and Patterson 2007). Specifically, there is a significant decrease in both δ13C and δ15N isotope values in modern versus ancient Adélie Penguin tissues from an apparent dietary shift from fish to krill associated with the timing of the purported krill surplus. Here, we present new data on similar analyses of Gentoo Penguin (P. papua) tissues from active and abandoned colonies at two locations in the Antarctic Peninsula to determine if this species recorded a similar shift in its diet in association with the krill surplus. Our results demonstrate a significant decrease (1.5-2.0 ‰) in δ13C in modern versus fossil eggshells (two-tailed t-test of modern versus fossil mean values, t = 1.98, p Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104: 11666-11669. A pair of Adélie Penguins with their well-fed chick.

  5. Nitrogen form influences the response of Deschampsia antarctica to dark septate root endophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upson, Rebecca; Read, David J; Newsham, Kevin K

    2009-11-01

    Fungi with dematiaceous septate hyphae, termed dark septate endophytes (DSE), are common in plant roots, particularly in cold-stressed habitats, but their effects on their host plants remain obscure. Here, we report a study that assessed the effects of six DSE on the growth and nutrient balance of Deschampsia antarctica when plants were supplied with the same amount of nitrogen in organic (casein hydrolysate) or inorganic (ammonium sulphate) form under controlled conditions. After 60 days, the DSE, that had each been isolated from D. antarctica and which analyses of internal transcribed spacer and large subunit regions indicated were similar to members of the Helotiales (Oculimacula yallundae, Mollisia and Tapesia spp.) and unassigned anamorphic ascomycetes, typically had no effect on, or reduced by 33-71%, shoot and root dry weights relative to uninoculated controls when plants had been supplied with nitrogen in inorganic form. In contrast, the DSE usually enhanced shoot and root dry weights by 51-247% when plants had been supplied with organic nitrogen. In the presence of inorganic nitrogen, only sporadic effects of DSE were recorded on shoot and root nitrogen or phosphorus concentrations, whereas in the presence of organic nitrogen, three to six of the DSE isolates increased shoot and root nitrogen and phosphorus contents. Most of the isolates decreased the phosphorus concentrations of shoots and roots when plants had been supplied with nitrogen in organic form. Our data suggest that DSE are able to mineralise peptides and amino acids in the rhizosphere, making nitrogen more freely available to roots.

  6. Deposition of organochlorine pesticides into the surface snow of East Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jung-Ho; Son, Min-Hee; Hur, Soon Do; Hong, Sungmin; Motoyama, Hideaki; Fukui, Kotaro; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2012-09-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured in surface snow collected on a ~1400-km inland traverse beginning from the coastal regions of East Antarctica during the Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE) of 2007/2008. Of the 22 OCPs, α-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), γ-HCH, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were frequently detected in the snow with concentration ranges of 17.5-83.2, 33-137, and ND-182 pg L(-1), respectively. The most abundant pesticide was γ-HCH, with a mean concentration of 69.9 pg L(-1), followed by α-HCH, with an average concentration of 44.5 pg L(-1). The spatial variability of α-HCH and γ-HCH was narrow, and the concentrations of α-HCH and γ-HCH increased slightly with increasing altitude along the traverse route. Dome Fuji, the highest altitude sampling point, had the highest γ-HCH concentrations in the snow. Backward air trajectory analysis showed that the air masses at the sampling sites came mainly from the Indian and Atlantic Oceans and over the Antarctic continent, indicating that the OCPs were subjected to long-range atmospheric transport and were deposited in the surface snow. Our data suggest that the snow of Antarctica contains low levels of OCPs.

  7. Diversity and bioprospection of fungal community present in oligotrophic soil of continental Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, Valéria M; Gonçalves, Vívian N; Santiago, Iara F; Figueredo, Hebert M; Vitoreli, Gislaine A; Schaefer, Carlos E G R; Barbosa, Emerson C; Oliveira, Jaquelline G; Alves, Tânia M A; Zani, Carlos L; Junior, Policarpo A S; Murta, Silvane M F; Romanha, Alvaro J; Kroon, Erna Geessien; Cantrell, Charles L; Wedge, David E; Duke, Stephen O; Ali, Abbas; Rosa, Carlos A; Rosa, Luiz H

    2015-05-01

    We surveyed the diversity and capability of producing bioactive compounds from a cultivable fungal community isolated from oligotrophic soil of continental Antarctica. A total of 115 fungal isolates were obtained and identified in 11 taxa of Aspergillus, Debaryomyces, Cladosporium, Pseudogymnoascus, Penicillium and Hypocreales. The fungal community showed low diversity and richness, and high dominance indices. The extracts of Aspergillus sydowii, Penicillium allii-sativi, Penicillium brevicompactum, Penicillium chrysogenum and Penicillium rubens possess antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, antitumoral, herbicidal and antiprotozoal activities. Bioactive extracts were examined using (1)H NMR spectroscopy and detected the presence of secondary metabolites with chemical shifts. Our results show that the fungi present in cold-oligotrophic soil from Antarctica included few dominant species, which may have important implications for understanding eukaryotic survival in cold-arid oligotrophic soils. We hypothesize that detailed further investigations may provide a greater understanding of the evolution of Antarctic fungi and their relationships with other organisms described in that region. Additionally, different wild pristine bioactive fungal isolates found in continental Antarctic soil may represent a unique source to discover prototype molecules for use in drug and biopesticide discovery studies.

  8. Aliterella atlantica gen. nov., sp. nov., and Aliterella antarctica sp. nov., novel members of coccoid Cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigonato, Janaina; Gama, Watson Arantes; Alvarenga, Danillo Oliveira; Branco, Luis Henrique Zanini; Brandini, Frederico Pereira; Genuário, Diego Bonaldo; Fiore, Marli Fatima

    2016-09-01

    Two Cyanobacteria isolated from South Atlantic Ocean continental shelf deep water and from a marine green algae inhabiting the Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Antarctica were investigated based on morphological and ultrastructural traits, phylogeny of 16S rRNA gene sequences, secondary structure of the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer regions and phylogenomic analyses. The majority of these evaluations demonstrated that both strains differ from the genera of cyanobacteria with validly published names and, therefore, supported the description of the novel genus as Aliterella gen. nov. The identity and phylogeny of 16S rRNA gene sequences, together with the secondary structure of D1D1' and BoxB intergenic regions, further supported the two strains representing distinct species: Aliterella atlantica gen. nov., sp. nov. (type SP469036, strain CENA595T) and Aliterella antarctica sp. nov. (type SP469035, strain CENA408T). The phylogenomic analysis of A. atlantica sp. nov. CENA595T, based on 21 protein sequences, revealed that this genus belongs to the cyanobacterial order Chroococcidiopsidales. The isolation and cultivation of two geographically distant unicellular members of a novel cyanobacterial genus and the sequenced genome of the type strain bring new insights into the current classification of the coccoid group, and into the reconstruction of their evolutionary history.

  9. Energy efficiency and renewable energy under extreme conditions: Case studies from Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tin, Tina [Antarctic and Southern Ocean Coalition, BP 80358, 45163 Olivet, CEDEX 3 (France); Sovacool, Benjamin K. [National University of Singapore (Singapore); Blake, David [British Antarctic Survey (United Kingdom); Magill, Peter [Australian Antarctic Division (Australia); El Naggar, Saad [Alfred Wegener Institute (Germany); Lidstrom, Sven [Swedish Polar Research Secretariat (Sweden); Ishizawa, Kenji [National Institute of Polar Research (Japan); Berte, Johan [International Polar Foundation (Belgium)

    2010-08-15

    This article showcases a range of small and large scale energy efficiency and renewable energy deployments at Antarctic research stations and field camps. Due to the cold and harsh environment, significant amounts of fuel are needed to support humans working and living in Antarctica. The purchase, transportation and storage of large amounts of fossil fuel entail significant economic costs and environmental risks and have motivated developments in energy efficiency and renewable energy deployment. Over the past three decades, improved building design, behavioral change, cogeneration, solar collectors, solar panels and wind turbines have been found to be effective in Antarctica, demonstrating that harsh environmental conditions and technological barriers do not have to limit the deployment of energy efficiency and renewable energy. The ambition to run entire stations or field camps on 100% renewable energy is increasingly common and feasible. While the power requirements of Antarctic research stations are small compared to urban installations on other continents, these case studies clearly demonstrate that if energy efficiency and renewable energy can be deployed widely on the coldest, darkest and most remote continent of the world, their deployment should be more widespread and encouraged on other continents. (author)

  10. Improved secretion of Candida antarctica lipase B with its native signal peptide in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadhana, Ashok Kumar Prasanna; Samuel, Premsingh; Berin, Ronald M; Krishna, Jayachandran; Kamatchi, Kavitha; Meenakshisundaram, Sankaranarayanan

    2013-03-05

    Secretion efficiency of the 85-amino acid Sacchromyces cerevisiae alpha signal peptide and the 25-amino acid Candida antarctica lipase B signal (nsB) peptide were compared. Three reporter proteins used for the study are C. antarctica lipase A (CalA), lipase B (CalB) and hGMCSF. The copy number of recombinant α-CalB and nsB-CalB clones was determined by qPCR and clones with equivalent gene copies were used for comparative analysis. About threefold increased CalB production corresponding to an activity of 480 U ml(-1) was obtained with its native signal peptide, whereas with the alpha signal peptide the maximum activity was 160 U ml(-1). Also, CalB was secreted as a mature protein with native N-terminus when fused to its own signal peptide, while unprocessed CalB with N-terminal extension was detected with the alpha signal peptide. Real time PCR analysis of CalB strains indicated that the difference in protein expression was not at the transcriptional level. The nsB signal sequence was also effective in secreting CalA enzyme and its secretion efficiency was on par with the alpha signal sequence. Further, hGMCSF fused inframe with the nsB signal peptide was also efficiently secreted into the medium. These results indicate that the nsB signal peptide can be a better alternative to alpha signal peptide for heterologous protein expression in Pichia pastoris.

  11. Tectonic elements of the continental margin of East Antarctica, 38-164ºE

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, P.E.; Stagg, H.M.J.

    2007-01-01

    The East Antarctic continental margin from 38–164ºE is divided into western and eastern provinces that developed during the separation of India from Australia–Antarctica (Early Cretaceous) and Australia from Antarctica (Late Cretaceous). In the overlap between these provinces the geology is complex and bears the imprint of both extension/spreading episodes, with an overprinting of volcanism. The main rift-bounding faults appear to approximately coincide with the outer edge of the continental shelf. Inboard of these faults, the sedimentary cover thins above shallowing basement towards the coast where crystalline basement generally crops out. The continental slope and the landward flanks of the ocean basins, are blanketed by up to 9–10 km of mainly post-rift sediments in margin-parallel basins, except in the Bruce Rise area. Beneath this blanket, extensive rift basins are identified off Enderby and Wilkes Land/Terre Adélie; however, their extent and detailed structures are difficult to determine.

  12. Occurrence of organochlorine pesticides in the environmental matrices from King George Island, west Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qinghua; Chen, Zhaojing; Li, Yingming; Wang, Pu; Zhu, Chaofei; Gao, Guanjun; Xiao, Ke; Sun, Huizhong; Zheng, Shucheng; Liang, Yong; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-11-01

    Antarctica is considered as a final sink of many persistent organic pollutants (POPs). This work aims to investigate the levels, distributions and potential sources of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) with HRGC/HRMS technique. Twenty-three OCPs were measured in various environmental matrices from King George Island, west Antarctica. The total concentrations (Σ23OCPs) were at quite low levels, ranging 93.6-1260 pg g(-1) dry weight (dw) in soil and sediment, 223-1053 pg g(-1) dw in moss and 373-812 pg g(-1) dw in lichen. Hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites (especially p,p'-DDE) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were the main contaminants in all samples. Lower α-HCH/γ-HCH and higher p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT ratios compared with the technical products indicated long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT) of recent lindane and aged technical DDT. Significant dependence of many OCPs concentrations on total organic carbon (TOC) was observed. Apart from LRAT, local biotic activities could also contribute and influence the spatial distribution of the contaminants.

  13. PILOT—a Pathfinder for an International Large Optical Telescope in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, M. C. B.; Burton, M. G.; Lawrence, J. S.; Storey, J. W. V.

    2006-08-01

    PILOT is a proposed 2.4 metre optical/IR telescope, designed to take advantage of the extraordinarily good observing conditions on the high plateau of Antarctica. The superb seeing and low infrared backgrounds will allow PILOT to outperform telescopes of 2-3 times the diameter at a mid-latitude site. PILOT is large enough to undertake important science, while small enough to act as a low-cost low-risk technology demonstrator for the next generation of large optical/IR telescopes in Antarctica. Future facilities could include the proposed 8.4 metre off-axis LAPCAT telescope, that would be competitive with ELTs in its ability to directly image extra-solar planets. PILOT is envisaged as an international collaboration. It is hoped that Australia will fund the telescope, with instruments, logistics and other aspects of the project contributed by international partners. A detailed science case for PILOT has been published, and a number of design studies for the telescope have been completed or are under way.

  14. The magnetic orientation of the Antarctic amphipod Gondogeneia antarctica is cancelled by very weak radiofrequency fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomanova, K; Vacha, M

    2016-06-01

    Studies on weak man-made radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields affecting animal magnetoreception aim for a better understanding of the reception mechanism and also point to a new phenomenon having possible consequences in ecology and environmental protection. RF impacts on magnetic compasses have recently been demonstrated in migratory birds and other vertebrates. We set out to investigate the effect of RF on the magnetic orientation of the Antarctic krill species Gondogeneia antarctica, a small marine crustacean widespread along the Antarctic littoral line. Here, we show that upon release, G. antarctica (held under laboratory conditions) escaped in the magnetically seaward direction along the magnetic sea-land axis (y-axis) of the home beach. However, the animals were disoriented after being exposed to RF. Orientation was lost not only in an RF field with a magnetic flux density of 20 nT, as expected according to the literature, but even under the 2 nT originally intended as a control. Our results extend recent findings of the extraordinary sensitivity of animal magnetoreception to weak RF fields in marine invertebrates.

  15. Tectonic and erosion-driven uplift in the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains of East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraccioli, Fausto; Jordan, Tom; Watts, Tony; Bell, Robin; Jamieson, Stewart; Finn, Carol; Damaske, Detlef

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the mechanisms leading to intraplate mountain building remains a significant challenge in Earth Sciences compared to ranges formed along plate margins. The most enigmatic intraplate mountain range on Earth is the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains (GSM) located in the middle of the Precambrian East Antarctic Craton. During the International Polar Year, the AGAP project acquired 120,000 line km of new airborne geophysical data (Bell et al., 2011, Science) and seismological observations (Hansen et al., 2010, EPSL) across central East Antarctica. Models derived from these datasets provide new geophysical perspectives on crustal architecture and possible uplift mechanisms for the enigmatic GSM (Ferraccioli et al., 2011, Nature). The geophysical data define a 2,500-km-long Paleozoic to Mesozoic rift system in East Antarctica surrounding the GSM. A thick high-density lower crustal root is partially preserved beneath the range and has been interpreted as formed during the Proterozoic assembly of East Antarctica. Rifting could have triggered phase/density changes at deep crustal levels, perhaps restoring some of the latent root buoyancy, as well as causing rift-flank uplift. Permian rifting is well-established in the adjacent Lambert Rift, and was followed by Cretaceous strike-slip faulting and transtension associated with Gondwana break-up; this phase may have provided a more recent tectonic trigger for the initial uplift of the modern GSM. The Cretaceous rift-flank uplift model for the Gamburtsevs is appealing because it relates the initiation of intraplate mountain-building to large-scale geodynamic processes that led to the separation of Greater India from East Antarctica. It is also consistent with several geological and geophysical interpretations within the Lambert Rift. However, recent detrital thermochrology results from Oligocene-Quaternary sediments in Prydz Bay (Tochlin et al., 2012, G3) argue against the requirement for major Cretaceous rift

  16. Atmospheric Change in Antarctica since the 1957--1958 International Geophysical Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Julien Pierre

    The Antarctic Ice Sheet holds a volume of ice and snow equivalent to 55 meters of sea level. The melting of only a relatively small fraction of this volume could have dramatic consequences for populations around the world. With this in mind, the research presented here focuses on two atmospheric variables that are key controls of the state of the ice sheet: its surface mass balance (or net snowfall) and its near-surface air temperature. The analysis aims to understand how these two parameters have changed (if at all) since the 1957-1958 International Geophysical Year (IGY), the start of the instrumental era in Antarctica. Particular attention is given to the part of the continent known as West Antarctica, the most vulnerable to atmospheric and oceanic warming, and the one where rapid glacial change is currently taking place. The research is divided into three parts. The first part uses a set of seven global reanalyses to investigate the changes in Antarctic surface mass balance and Southern Ocean precipitation since 1979 (start of the reanalyses). This investigation is also intended to shed light on the reliability of these reanalyses, which often contained artifacts caused by changes in the observing system, particularly in high southern latitudes. Spurious changes in precipitation are found to various degrees in all data sets but with varying characteristics and origins. According to the two reanalyses deemed most reliable, neither Antarctic surface mass balance nor Southern Ocean precipitation have changed significantly over the past three decades. The second part consists of a multifaceted investigation of the near-surface temperature record from Byrd Station, in central West Antarctica. As the only meteorological record in this region to extend back to the IGY, it is a critical data set, but also one with a complicated history and substantial data gaps. A comprehensive revision of the record is undertaken and a novel approach is used to estimate the missing

  17. Opening a new window on the southern stars for less money: PAIX the first Antarctica polar mission photometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadid, Merieme; Vernin, Jean; Abe, Lyu; Agabi, Karim; Jumper, George; Preston, George W.; Sneden, Chris; Liu, Liyong; Yao, Yongqiang; Wang, H.-S.; Aristidi, Éric; Rivet, J.-P.; Carbillet, Marcel; Giordano, Ch.; Bondoux, E.; Moggio, L.; Trinquet, H.

    2016-08-01

    In this invited paper, we implement a new way to study the stellar oscillations, pulsations and their evolutionary properties with long uninterrupted and continuous precision observations over 150 days from the ground, and without the regular interruptions imposed by the earth rotation. PAIX-First Robotic Antarctica Polar Mission- gives a new insight to cope with unresolved stellar enigma and stellar oscillation challenges and offers a great opportunity to benefit from an access to the best astronomical site on Earth -DomeC-. The project is made of low cost commercial components, and achieves astrophysical measurement time-series of stellar physics fields, challenging photometry from space that shows large gaps in terms of flexibility during the observing runs, the choice of targets, the repair of failures and the inexorable high costs. PAIX has yet more advantages than space missions in observing in UBV RI bands and then collecting unprecedented simultaneous multicolor light curves of several targets. We give a brief history of the Astronomy in Antarctica and describe the first polar robotized mission PAIX and the outcome of stellar physics from the heart of Antarctica during several polar nights. We briefly discuss our first results and perspectives on the pulsating stars and its evolution from Antarctica, especially the connection between temporal hydrodynamic phenomena and cyclic modulations. Finally, we highlight the impact of PAIX on the stellar physics study and the remaining challenges to successfully accomplish the Universe explorations under extreme conditions.

  18. Modelling the isotopic composition of snow using backward trajectories : a particular precipitation event in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helsen, MM; Van de Wal, RSW; Van den Broeke, MR; Kerstel, ERT; Masson-Delmotte, [No Value; Meijer, HAJ; Reijmer, CH; Scheele, MP; Jacka, J

    2004-01-01

    We consider a specific accumulation event that occurred in January 2002 in western Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. Snow samples were obtained a few days after accumulation. We combine meteorological analyses and isotopic modelling to describe the isotopic composition of moisture during transport. Ba

  19. Marine magnetic anomalies as a link between the granulite belts of east coast of India and enderby land of Antarctica

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murthy, K.S.R.; Rao, M.M.M.; Venkateswarlu, K.; Subrahmanyam, A.S.; Lakshminarayana, S.; Rao, T.C.S.

    anomalies and the granulite facies on the east coast of India and their correlation with the granulite belt of Enderby Land of Antarctica supports the view that the entire region comprised of a single and stable block of granulite rocks prior...

  20. The application of the wilderness concept in Antarctica and Svalbard : A comparison of the respective regulatory systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumann, Antje

    2016-01-01

    The wilderness values of Antarctica receive explicit legal protection under the Environmental Protocol to the Antarctic Treaty. However, different opinions exist, on the one hand, as regards the precise meaning of the wilderness concept at the international and national level and, on the other hand,

  1. Leishmanicidal and antitumoral activities of endophytic fungi associated with the Antarctic angiosperms Deschampsia antarctica Desv. and Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth) Bartl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Iara F; Alves, Tânia M A; Rabello, Ana; Sales Junior, Policarpo A; Romanha, Alvaro J; Zani, Carlos L; Rosa, Carlos A; Rosa, Luiz H

    2012-01-01

    A total of 564 isolates of endophytic fungi were recovered from the plants Deschampsia antarctica and Colobanthus quitensis collected from Antarctica. The isolates were screened against parasites Leishmania amazonensis and Trypanosoma cruzi and against the human tumour cell lines. Of the 313 fungal isolates obtained from D. antarctica and 251 from C. quitensis, 25 displayed biological activity. Nineteen extracts displayed leishmanicidal activity, and six inhibited the growth of at least one tumour cell line. These fungi belong to 19 taxa of the genera Alternaria, Antarctomyces, Cadophora, Davidiella, Helgardia, Herpotrichia, Microdochium, Oculimacula, Phaeosphaeria and one unidentified fungus. Extracts of 12 fungal isolates inhibited the proliferation of L. amazonesis at a low IC(50) of between 0.2 and 12.5 μg ml(-1). The fungus Phaeosphaeria herpotrichoides displayed only leishmanicidal activity with an IC(50) of 0.2 μg ml(-1), which is equivalent to the inhibitory value of amphotericin B. The extract of Microdochium phragmitis displayed specific cytotoxic activity against the UACC-62 cell line with an IC(50) value of 12.5 μg ml(-1). Our results indicate that the unique angiosperms living in Antarctica shelter an interesting bioactive fungal community that is able to produce antiprotozoal and antitumoral molecules. These molecules may be used to develop new leishmanicidal and anticancer drugs.

  2. Multichannel surface clutter suppression: East Antarctica P-band SAR ice sounding in the presence of grating lobes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekaert, David; Gebert, Nicolas; Lin, Chung-Chi

    2014-01-01

    with the European Space Agency's P-band POLarimetric Airborne Radar Ice Sounder (POLARIS). The 4 m long antenna of POLARIS enables simultaneous reception of up to four across-track channels. It was operated in 2011 over Antarctica at a high flight altitude of 3200 m. Different coherent weighting techniques...

  3. Upward continuation of Dome-C airborne gravity and comparison with GOCE gradients at orbit altitude in east Antarctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yildiz, Hasan; Forsberg, René; Tscherning, Carl Christian

    2016-01-01

    An airborne gravity campaign was carried out at the Dome-C survey area in East Antarctica between the 17th and 22nd of January 2013, in order to provide data for an experiment to validate GOCE satellite gravity gradients. After typical filtering for airborne gravity data, the cross-over error...

  4. Surface Clutter Suppression Techniques Applied to P-band Multi-Channel SAR Ice Sounder Data from East Antarctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Chung-Chi; Bekaert, David; Gebert, Nicolas

    ., Lausanne, developed and built the radiator-elements of the enhanced POLARIS. Several datasets were acquired in the multi-channel configuration during the Feb. 2011 campaign over East Antarctica. The POLARIS instrument will be briefly introduced, followed by an overview of the sounding campaign. Finally...

  5. Updated cloud physics in a regional atmospheric climate model improves the modelled surface energy balance of Antarctica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wessem, J.M.; Reijmer, C.H.; Lenaerts, J.T.M.; van de Berg, W.J.; van den Broeke, M.R.; van Meijgaard, E.

    2014-01-01

    In this study the effects of changes in the physics package of the regional atmospheric climate model RACMO2 on the modelled surface energy balance, nearsurface temperature and wind speed of Antarctica are presented. The physics package update primarily consists of an improved turbulent and radiativ

  6. Final Gondwana breakup: The Paleogene South American native ungulates and the demise of the South America-Antarctica land connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reguero, Marcelo A.; Gelfo, Javier N.; López, Guillermo M.; Bond, Mariano; Abello, Alejandra; Santillana, Sergio N.; Marenssi, Sergio A.

    2014-12-01

    The biogeographic hypothesis more accepted today is that Antarctica (West Antarctica) and southern South America (Magellan region, Patagonia) were connected by a long and narrow causeway (Weddellian Isthmus) between the Antarctic Peninsula and South America since the Late Cretaceous (Campanian) until the Early Paleogene allowing terrestrial vertebrates to colonize new frontiers using this land bridge. Stratigraphically calibrated phylogenies including large, terrestrial native ungulates Litopterna and Astrapotheria taxa reveal long ghost lineages that extended into the Late Paleocene and provide evidence for the minimum times at which these "native ungulates" were present both on Antarctica and South America. Based on these results we estimate that the Weddellian Isthmus was functional as a land bridge until the Late Paleocene. Our data place the disconnection between Antarctica and South America in the Late Paleocene, indicating that the terrestrial faunistic isolation (Simpson's "splendid isolation") in South America begun at the end of the Paleocene (~ 56 to 57 m.y.). This faunistic isolation is documented to have occurred at least 25 Ma before the existence of deep-water circulation conditions in Drake Passage (~ 30 m.y.) based on the onset of seafloor spreading in the west Scotia Sea region. We hypothesize that in the early stages of extension (Late Paleocene, ~ 55 m.y.) a wide and relatively shallow epicontinental sea developed between the Antarctic Peninsula and South America drowning the Weddellian Isthmus and preventing the faunal interchange for obligate cursorial terrestrial forms.

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of Cryobacterium arcticum Strain PAMC 27867, Isolated from a Sedimentary Rock Sample in Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaejin; Cho, Ahnna; Yang, Jae Young; Woo, Jusun; Lee, Hong Kum; Hong, Soon Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Cryobacterium arcticum PAMC 27867, a psychrotolerant, Gram-positive bacterium, was isolated from a sedimentary rock sample collected at Eureka Spurs in northern Victoria Land, Antarctica. Here, we report the genome sequence of C. arcticum PAMC 27867. PMID:27587812

  8. Redescription of Oswaldella antarctica (Jäderholm, 1904) (Cnidaria Hydrozoa) with notes on related species (Notes on Antarctic hydroids, I)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peña Cantero, A.L.; Vervoort, W.

    1995-01-01

    Jäderholm's type of Schizotricha antarctica, collected by the Swedish Antarctic Expedition 1901-1903, is redescribed from a syntype in the collections of the Swedish National Museum, Stockholm. The type lot of that species proved to be composite, the material best resembling Jäderholm's (1904, 1905)

  9. Inferences from stable water isotopes on the Holocene evolution of Scharffenbergbotnen blue-ice area, East Antarctica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinisalo, Anna; Grinsted, Aslak; Moore, John C.; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Martma, Tonu; Van De Wal, Roderik S. W.

    2007-01-01

    We show that it is possible to extract a high-resolution (annual) paleoclimate record from the surface of a blue-ice area (BIA). The variability of the surface stable-isotope values suggests that almost all the surface ice in Scharffenbergbotnen BIA, East Antarctica, is of Holocene age. The isotopic

  10. Formas de abertura dos frutos de Syagrus romanzoffiana (Chamisso glassman efetuadas por Sciurus ingrami Thomas (Rodentia, Sciuridae Opening forms of palm nuts Syagrus romanzoffiana (Chamisso Glassman made by Sciurus ingrami Thomas (Rodentia, Sciuridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Bordignon

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work was identifyed the diferents opening forms of the palm nuts Syagrus romanzoffiana by brazilian squirrel Sciurus ingrami in four diferents points of Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil. Was caracterized tive basic forms of opening, in acording with the number of incisions and opening aspects. The form with lower number of incisions (two was also the greather frequently in the four points sampled (66,25%; N = 5194 well as registred the lower opening time (7,2 ± 1,7 min in relationship with other forms (9,2 ± 2,3 min. To explicate the diferences in the frequences of forms discovered, is proposed "apprenticeship's hypothesis" which the young squirrels of the population, along the opening nuts apprenticeship, to passing of the forms with larger number of incisions to forms with lower number of incisions, ending in the form of more frequence, which is maintained by adult squirrels.

  11. An Evaluation of Antarctica as a Calibration Target for Passive Microwave Satellite Missions with Climate Data Record Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Passive microwave remote sensing at L-band (1.4 GHz) is sensitive to soil moisture and sea surface salinity, both important climate variables. Science studies involving these variables can now take advantage of new satellite L-band observations. The first mission with regular global passive microwave observations at L-band is the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS), launched November, 2009. A second mission, NASA's Aquarius, was launched June, 201 I. A third mission, NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) is scheduled to launch in 2014. Together, these three missions may provide a decade-long data record-provided that they are intercalibrated. The intercalibration is best performed at the radiance (brightness temperature) level, and Antarctica is proving to be a key calibration target. However, Antarctica has thus far not been fully characterized as a potential target. This paper will present evaluations of Antarctica as a microwave calibration target for the above satellite missions. Preliminary analyses have identified likely target areas, such as the vicinity of Dome-C and larger areas within East Antarctica. Physical sources of temporal and spatial variability of polar firn are key to assessing calibration uncertainty. These sources include spatial variability of accumulation rate, compaction, surface characteristics (dunes, micro-topography), wind patterns, and vertical profiles of density and temperature. Using primarily SMOS data, variability is being empirically characterized and attempts are being made to attribute observed variability to physical sources. One expected outcome of these studies is the potential discovery of techniques for remotely sensing--over all of Antarctica-parameters such as surface temperature.

  12. High Resolution Spatial Mapping of Human Footprint across Antarctica and Its Implications for the Strategic Conservation of Avifauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertierra, Luis R; Hughes, Kevin A; Vega, Greta C; Olalla-Tárraga, Miguel Á

    2017-01-01

    Human footprint models allow visualization of human spatial pressure across the globe. Up until now, Antarctica has been omitted from global footprint models, due possibly to the lack of a permanent human population and poor accessibility to necessary datasets. Yet Antarctic ecosystems face increasing cumulative impacts from the expanding tourism industry and national Antarctic operator activities, the management of which could be improved with footprint assessment tools. Moreover, Antarctic ecosystem dynamics could be modelled to incorporate human drivers. Here we present the first model of estimated human footprint across predominantly ice-free areas of Antarctica. To facilitate integration into global models, the Antarctic model was created using methodologies applied elsewhere with land use, density and accessibility features incorporated. Results showed that human pressure is clustered predominantly in the Antarctic Peninsula, southern Victoria Land and several areas of East Antarctica. To demonstrate the practical application of the footprint model, it was used to investigate the potential threat to Antarctica's avifauna by local human activities. Relative footprint values were recorded for all 204 of Antarctica's Important Bird Areas (IBAs) identified by BirdLife International and the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR). Results indicated that formal protection of avifauna under the Antarctic Treaty System has been unsystematic and is lacking for penguin and flying bird species in some of the IBAs most vulnerable to human activity and impact. More generally, it is hoped that use of this human footprint model may help Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting policy makers in their decision making concerning avifauna protection and other issues including cumulative impacts, environmental monitoring, non-native species and terrestrial area protection.

  13. The influence of ultraviolet-B radiation on growth, hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids of Deschampsia antarctica during Springtime ozone depletion in Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhland, Christopher T; Xiong, Fusheng S; Clark, W Dennis; Day, Thomas A

    2005-01-01

    We examined the influence of solar ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B; 280-320 nm) on the growth, biomass production and phenylpropanoid concentrations of Deschampsia antarctica during the springtime ozone depletion season at Palmer Station, along the Antarctic Peninsula. Treatments involved placing filters on frames over potted plants that reduced levels of biologically effective UV-B either by 83% (reduced UV-B) or by 12% (near-ambient UV-B) over the 63 day experiment (7 November 1998-8 January 1999) when ozone depletion averaged 17%. Plants growing under near-ambient UV-B had 41% and 40% lower relative growth rates and net assimilation rates, respectively, than those under reduced UV-B. The former plants produced 50% less total biomass as a result of having 47% less aboveground biomass. The reduction in aboveground biomass was a result of a 29% lower leaf elongation rate resulting in shorter leaves and 59% less total leaf area in plants grown under reduced UV-B. p-Coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids were the major hydroxycinnamic acids, and luteolin derivatives were the major flavonoids in both insoluble and soluble leaf extracts. Concentrations of insoluble p-coumaric and caffeic acid and soluble ferulic acids were 38%, 48% and 60% higher, respectively, under near-ambient UV-B than under reduced UV-B. There were no UV-B effects on concentrations of insoluble or soluble flavonoids.

  14. A missing source of aerosols in Antarctica - beyond long-range transport, phytoplankton, and photochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Michael R.; Kalnajs, Lars E.; Avery, Anita; Goetz, J. Douglas; Davis, Sean M.; DeCarlo, Peter F.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the sources and evolution of aerosols is crucial for constraining the impacts that aerosols have on a global scale. An unanswered question in atmospheric science is the source and evolution of the Antarctic aerosol population. Previous work over the continent has primarily utilized low temporal resolution aerosol filters to answer questions about the chemical composition of Antarctic aerosols. Bulk aerosol sampling has been useful in identifying seasonal cycles in the aerosol populations, especially in populations that have been attributed to Southern Ocean phytoplankton emissions. However, real-time, high-resolution chemical composition data are necessary to identify the mechanisms and exact timing of changes in the Antarctic aerosol. The recent 2ODIAC (2-Season Ozone Depletion and Interaction with Aerosols Campaign) field campaign saw the first ever deployment of a real-time, high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS - soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer - or AMS) to the continent. Data obtained from the AMS, and a suite of other aerosol, gas-phase, and meteorological instruments, are presented here. In particular, this paper focuses on the aerosol population over coastal Antarctica and the evolution of that population in austral spring. Results indicate that there exists a sulfate mode in Antarctica that is externally mixed with a mass mode vacuum aerodynamic diameter of 250 nm. Springtime increases in sulfate aerosol are observed and attributed to biogenic sources, in agreement with previous research identifying phytoplankton activity as the source of the aerosol. Furthermore, the total Antarctic aerosol population is shown to undergo three distinct phases during the winter to summer transition. The first phase is dominated by highly aged sulfate particles comprising the majority of the aerosol mass at low wind speed. The second phase, previously unidentified, is the generation of a sub-250 nm aerosol population of unknown composition

  15. Coastal-change and glaciological map of the Ross Island area, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrigno, Jane G.; Foley, Kevin M.; Swithinbank, Charles; Williams, Richard S.

    2010-01-01

    Reduction in the area and volume of Earth?s two polar ice sheets is intricately linked to changes in global climate and to the resulting rise in sea level. Measurement of changes in area and mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet was given a very high priority in recommendations by the Polar Research Board of the National Research Council. On the basis of these recommendations, the U.S. Geological Survey used its archive of satellite images to document changes in the cryospheric coastline of Antarctica and analyze the glaciological features of the coastal regions. The Ross Island area map is bounded by long 141? E. and 175? E. and by lat 76? S. and 81? S. The map covers the part of southern Victoria Land that includes the northwestern Ross Ice Shelf, the McMurdo Ice Shelf, part of the polar plateau and Transantarctic Mountains, the McMurdo Dry Valleys, northernmost Shackleton Coast, Hillary Coast, the southern part of Scott Coast, and Ross Island. Little noticeable change has occurred in the ice fronts on the map, so the focus is on glaciological features. In the western part of the map area, the polar plateau of East Antarctica, once thought to be a featureless region, has subtle wavelike surface forms (megadunes) and flow traces of glaciers that originate far inland and extend to the coast or into the Ross Ice Shelf. There are numerous outlet glaciers. Glaciers drain into the McMurdo Dry Valleys, through the Transantarctic Mountains into the Ross Sea, or into the Ross Ice Shelf. Byrd Glacier is the largest. West of the Transantarctic Mountains are areas of blue ice, readily identifiable on Landsat images, that have been determined to be prime areas for finding meteorites. Three subglacial lakes have been identified in the map area. Because McMurdo Station, the main U.S. scientific research station in Antarctica, is located on Ross Island in the map area, many of these and other features in the area have been studied extensively. The paper version of this map is

  16. Cloud and precipitation properties from ground-based remote sensing instruments in East Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Gorodetskaya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A new comprehensive cloud-precipitation-meteorological observatory has been established at Princess Elisabeth base, located in the escarpment zone of Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica. The observatory consists of a set of ground-based remote sensing instruments (ceilometer, infrared pyrometer and vertically profiling precipitation radar combined with automatic weather station measurements of near-surface meteorology, radiative fluxes, and snow accumulation. In this paper, the observatory is presented and the potential for studying the evolution of clouds and precipitating systems is illustrated by case studies. It is shown that the synergetic use of the set of instruments allows for distinguishing ice, mixed-phase and precipitating clouds, including some information on their vertical extent. In addition, wind-driven blowing snow events can be distinguished from deeper precipitating systems. Cloud properties largely affect the surface radiative fluxes, with liquid-containing clouds dominating the radiative impact. A statistical analysis of all measurements (in total 14 months mainly occurring in summer/autumn indicates that these liquid-containing clouds occur during as much as 20% of the cloudy periods. The cloud occurrence shows a strong bimodal distribution with clear sky conditions 51% of the time and complete overcast conditions 35% of the time. Snowfall occurred 17% of the cloudy periods with a predominance of light precipitation and only rare events with snowfall > 1 mm h−1 water equivalent (w.e.. Three of such intensive snowfall events occurred during 2011 contributing to anomalously large annual snow accumulation. This is the first deployment of a precipitation radar in Antarctica allowing to assess the contribution of the snowfall to the local surface mass balance. It is shown that on the one hand large accumulation events (>10 mm w.e. day−1 during the measurement period of 26 months were always associated with snowfall, but that

  17. Climatic variability in Princess Elizabeth Land (East Antarctica) over the last 350 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekaykin, Alexey A.; Vladimirova, Diana O.; Lipenkov, Vladimir Y.; Masson-Delmotte, Valérie

    2017-01-01

    We use isotopic composition (δD) data from six sites in Princess Elizabeth Land (PEL) in order to reconstruct air temperature variability in this sector of East Antarctica over the last 350 years. First, we use the present-day instrumental mean annual surface air temperature data to demonstrate that the studied region (between Russia's Progress, Vostok and Mirny research stations) is characterized by uniform temperature variability. We thus construct a stacked record of the temperature anomaly for the whole sector for the period of 1958-2015. A comparison of this series with the Southern Hemisphere climatic indices shows that the short-term inter-annual temperature variability is primarily governed by the Antarctic Oscillation (AAO) and Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) modes of atmospheric variability. However, the low-frequency temperature variability (with period > 27 years) is mainly related to the anomalies of the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) mode. We then construct a stacked record of δD for the PEL for the period of 1654-2009 from individual normalized and filtered isotopic records obtained at six different sites (PEL2016 stacked record). We use a linear regression of this record and the stacked PEL temperature record (with an apparent slope of 9 ± 5.4 ‰ °C-1) to convert PEL2016 into a temperature scale. Analysis of PEL2016 shows a 1 ± 0.6 °C warming in this region over the last 3 centuries, with a particularly cold period from the mid-18th to the mid-19th century. A peak of cooling occurred in the 1840s - a feature previously observed in other Antarctic records. We reveal that PEL2016 correlates with a low-frequency component of IOD and suggest that the IOD mode influences the Antarctic climate by modulating the activity of cyclones that bring heat and moisture to Antarctica. We also compare PEL2016 with other Antarctic stacked isotopic records. This work is a contribution to the PAGES (Past Global Changes) and IPICS (International Partnerships in

  18. Albedo Variations and Surface Energy Balance in Different Snow-Ice Media in Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.D. Mishra

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study is aimed at investigating the radiation budget in different snow-ice media (shelf ice,continental ice and natural snow at three different elevated sites in the general area of Prince Astrid Coast of EastAntarctica. Measurements of the dependence of albedo in different snow and ice media on solar elevation angle,cloud cover, liquid water content, grain size, etc. can be interpreted in terms of single and multiple scatteringradiative transfer theory. Detailed albedo measurements were carried out during summer and winter in differentsnow and ice media in 1997-98 at different selected sites at Antarctica. The average albedo values were found to behigh (90 per cent in snow medium, moderate (83 per cent in shelf ice and very low (50 per cent in continentalice medium. The albedo was found to be a function of cloud amount, increasing with the amount and thickness. Inwhite-out condition during blizzards, high albedo (average 83 per cent was found as compared to clear sky day(76 per cent and after blizzard (average 78 per cent. It showed dependence on the type and age of snow also. Newsnowfall over old snow displayed higher values (90 per cent than older snow (70 per cent and decreased with theageof snow from 13- 16 per cent. Naturalmelt-water in snowpack increases from 1- 10 per cent, resulting in albedodecay from 7-10 per cent. As the minimum solar elevation angle in Antarctica goes to 3O, strong qualitativeanalyses have been ma e of the dependenceof albedo on the solar elevation angle. Albedo values showed diurnalhysteresis and m in values were found to be higher than evening values at the same angle of elevation. Thedependence was 4 sligh or solar elevations during day time when 0 % 12-IS0, but became larger with low angleswhen 8 = 3-12'. Solar insolations were also calculated for different months in order to calculate short waveradiation absorbed by snow and ice media. Insolations in different months at different selected sites lie

  19. Molecular cloning and characterization of alpha - galactosidase gene from Glaciozyma antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moheer, Reyad Qaed Al; Bakar, Farah Diba Abu; Murad, Abdul Munir Abdul

    2015-09-01

    Psychrophilic enzymes are proteins produced by psychrophilic organisms which recently are the limelight for industrial applications. A gene encoding α-galactosidase from a psychrophilic yeast, Glaciozyma antarctica PI12 which belongs to glycoside hydrolase family 27, was isolated and analyzed using several bioinformatic tools. The cDNA of the gene with the size of 1,404-bp encodes a protein with 467 amino acid residues. Predicted molecular weight of protein was 48.59 kDa and hence we name the gene encoding α-galactosidase as GAL48. We found that the predicted protein sequences possessed signal peptide sequence and are highly conserved among other fungal α-galactosidase.

  20. Dual enzymatic dynamic kinetic resolution by Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus secondary alcohol dehydrogenase and Candida antarctica lipase B

    KAUST Repository

    Karume, Ibrahim

    2016-10-04

    The immobilization of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (TeSADH) using sol–gel method enables its use to racemize enantiopure alcohols in organic media. Here, we report the racemization of enantiopure phenyl-ring-containing secondary alcohols using xerogel-immobilized W110A TeSADH in hexane rather than the aqueous medium required by the enzyme. We further showed that this racemization approach in organic solvent was compatible with Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB)-catalyzed kinetic resolution. This compatibility, therefore, allowed a dual enzymatic dynamic kinetic resolution of racemic alcohols using CALB-catalyzed kinetic resolution and W110A TeSADH-catalyzed racemization of phenyl-ring-containing alcohols.

  1. Recent {sup 137}Cs deposition in sediments of Admiralty Bay, Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, Christian J., E-mail: zinosanders@yahoo.co [Departamento de Geoquimica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, 24020-007, Niteroi-RJ (Brazil); Santos, Isaac R. [Centre for Coastal Biogeochemistry, School of Environmental Science and Management, Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW 2480 (Australia); Patchineelam, Sambasiva R. [Departamento de Geoquimica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, 24020-007, Niteroi-RJ (Brazil); Schaefer, Carlos [Departamento de Solos, Universidade Federal de Vicosa, 36570-000, Vicosa-MG (Brazil); Silva-Filho, Emmanoel V. [Departamento de Geoquimica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, 24020-007, Niteroi-RJ (Brazil)

    2010-05-15

    Cesium-137, radium-226 and lead-210 profiles of a 25 cm sediment core give an indication of recent changes in land-ocean interactions at a polar coastal environment (Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Antarctica). The linear sedimentation accumulation rate at the study site calculated from the unsupported {sup 210}Pb profile was 6.7 mm/year from 1965 to 2005. A 3.5-fold increase in {sup 137}Cs concentrations was observed in the top layer of this sediment core. This sharp increase seems to indicate a recent redistribution of fallout radionuclides previously deposited on soil, vegetation and snow. These results imply enhanced land-ocean interactions at this site likely as a result of climate change. Because our results are based on a single core, additional investigations are needed to confirm our observations.

  2. Holocene environmental change according to lake core in Fildes Peninsula of King George Island, Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小梅; 袁宝印; 赵俊琳

    2002-01-01

    Lake core sampled from Xihu in Fildes Peninsula of King Gorge Island, Antarctica could reveal the environmental change of the district. The lake core(GA7) , 9.28 meters long ,was sectioned at an interval of 2 cm. Through measuring the organic carbon, magnetic susceptibility, granularity and organic carbon isotope of GA7, by use of 14C age it was estimated that there were four periods of high temperature in Fildes Peninsula: 4800-4400 aB.P., 3600-3350 aB.P.,2100-1800 aB.P. and 900 aB.P. - present. Meanwhile, results showed that there was a strikingly positive correlation between the content of organic carbon and that of organic carbon isotope(δC13org) which could be the substitute indicators of environmental temperature.

  3. [Diversity and viability of prokaryotes in primitive soils of the larsemann oasis (East Antarctica)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudinova, A G; Lysak, L V; Lapygina, E V; Soina, V S; Mergelov, N S

    2015-01-01

    The diversity and viability of prokaryotic communities in the primitive organomineral soils of East Antarctica have been studied; it has been shown that the total number of bacteria is smaller than and the viability of bacteria is similar to that in soils of the temperate zone. The prokaryotic communities are characterized by the occurrence of a major part of cells in filterable forms, which is higher than the analogous parameter for the temperate soils. The method of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that the distribution of the main taxons is similar to that in the temperate soils: the portion of the domain Archaea is smaller than that of the domain Bacteria; the total content of Gram-negative bacteria (the phyla Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Planctomycetes) is higher than that of Gram-positive bacteria (Actinobacteria). Within the phylum Proteobacteria, a significant variation of three proteobacterial classes has been noted along the profiles of the soils studied.

  4. Petrology and mineral chemistry of new ureilites found in Grove Mountains, Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bingkui Miao; Yangting Lin; Guiqin Wang; Daode Wang; Ziyuan Ouyang

    2008-01-01

    Petrography and mineral chemistry of two new ureilites, GRV 021512 and 022931, from the Grove Mountains, Antarctica, are reported in this paper. GRV 021512 exhibits a typical ureilite texture, and consists of 48.3% olivine, 9.4% pigeonite and 38.1% carbonaceous interstitial material and/or reduction product. GRV 022931 has a cataclastic porphyritic texture, and consists of 19.1% olivine and 14.1% pigeonite embedded in 66.3% carbonaceous interstitial material and/or reduction product. The coarse-grained olivine and pigeonite in both meteorites have homogeneous cores, and they are FeO-rich within the range of the ferroan subgroup (subgroup I) of olivine-pigeonite ureilites. All olivine grains of the meteorites show reduction zones along boundaries and cracks. Abundant diamond coexists with graphite as graphite-rich patches and veins in the carbonaceous interstitial material. Petrogenesis of both meteorites and the origin of diamond are discussed.

  5. A potential hidden layer of meteorites below the ice surface of Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evatt, G W; Coughlan, M J; Joy, K H; Smedley, A R D; Connolly, P J; Abrahams, I D

    2016-02-16

    Antarctica contains some of the most productive regions on Earth for collecting meteorites. These small areas of glacial ice are known as meteorite stranding zones, where upward-flowing ice combines with high ablation rates to concentrate large numbers of englacially transported meteorites onto their surface. However, meteorite collection data shows that iron and stony-iron meteorites are significantly under-represented from these regions as compared with all other sites on Earth. Here we explain how this discrepancy may be due to englacial solar warming, whereby meteorites a few tens of centimetres below the ice surface can be warmed up enough to cause melting of their surrounding ice and sink downwards. We show that meteorites with a high-enough thermal conductivity (for example, iron meteorites) can sink at a rate sufficient to offset the total annual upward ice transport, which may therefore permanently trap them below the ice surface and explain their absence from collection data.

  6. A New Martian Meteorite from Antarctica:Grove Mountains (GRV) 020090

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIAO Bingkui; OUYANG Ziyuan; WANG Daode; JU Yitai; WANG Guiqin; LIN Yangting

    2004-01-01

    Reported in this paper are the petrology and mineral chemistry of GRV 020090, the second Martian meteorite collected from the Grove Mountains, Antarctica. This meteorite, with a mass of 7.54 g, is completely covered by a black and glazy fusion crust. It has two distinct textural regions. The interstitial region is composed of euhedral grains of olivine,pigeonite, and anhedral interstitial maskelynite, with minor chromite, augite, phosphates and troilite. The poikilitic region consists of three clasts of pyroxenes, each of which has a pigeonite core and an augite rim. A few grains of subhedral to rounded olivine and euhedral chromite are enclosed in the pyroxene oikocrysts. GRV 020090 is classified as a new member of lherzolitic shergottites based on the modal composition and mineral chemistry. This work will shed light on the composition of Martian crust and magmatism on the Mars.

  7. Non-quantitative knowledge about global warming: a trip to Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Polli

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the developed world’s climate-controlled interiors and easy access to all kinds of fresh produce at any time of year, our lives are still dependent upon the weather and climate. With global warming, our dependence is becoming even more apparent. I am an artist working with new technologies and last year I had the opportunity to go to Antarctica for two months on a US National Science Foundation-sponsored residency where I worked alongside scientists studying the global implications of Antarctic weather and climate change. The Antarctic is unlike any other place on earth. There, I wanted to find a way to more closely engage with the issue of global climate change.

  8. Coastal-Change and Glaciological Map of the Larsen Ice Shelf Area, Antarctica, 1940-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrigno, Jane G.; Cook, Alison J.; Mathie, Amy M.; Williams, Richard S.; Swithinbank, Charles; Foley, Kevin M.; Fox, Adrian J.; Thomson, Janet W.; Sievers, Jorn

    2008-01-01

    Changes in the area and volume of polar ice sheets are intricately linked to changes in global climate, and the resulting changes in sea level could severely impact the densely populated coastal regions on Earth. Antarctica is Earth's largest reservoir of glacial ice. Melting of the West Antarctic part alone of the Antarctic ice sheet would cause a sea-level rise of approximately 6 meters (m), and the potential sea-level rise after melting of the entire Antarctic ice sheet is estimated to be 65 m (Lythe and others, 2001) to 73 m (Williams and Hall, 1993). The mass balance (the net volumetric gain or loss) of the Antarctic ice sheet is highly complex, responding differently to different climatic and other conditions in each region (Vaughan, 2005). In a review paper, Rignot and Thomas (2002) concluded that the West Antarctic ice sheet is probably becoming thinner overall; although it is known to be thickening in the west, it is thinning in the north. The mass balance of the East Antarctic ice sheet is thought by Davis and others (2005) to be positive on the basis of the change in satellite-altimetry measurements made between 1992 and 2003. Measurement of changes in area and mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet was given a very high priority in recommendations by the Polar Research Board of the National Research Council (1986), in subsequent recommendations by the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) (1989, 1993), and by the National Science Foundation's (1990) Division of Polar Programs. On the basis of these recommendations, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) decided that the archive of early 1970s Landsat 1, 2, and 3 Multispectral Scanner (MSS) images of Antarctica and the subsequent repeat coverage made possible with Landsat and other satellite images provided an excellent means of documenting changes in the cryospheric coastline of Antarctica (Ferrigno and Gould, 1987). The availability of this information provided the impetus for carrying out a

  9. Coastal-Change and Glaciological Map of the Palmer Land Area, Antarctica: 1947-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrigno, Jane G.; Cook, Alison J.; Mathie, Amy M.; Williams, Richard S.; Swithinbank, Charles; Foley, Kevin M.; Fox, Adrian J.; Thomson, Janet W.; Sievers, Jorn

    2009-01-01

    Reduction in the area and volume of the two polar ice sheets is intricately linked to changes in global climate, and the resulting rise in sea level could severely impact the densely populated coastal regions on Earth. Antarctica is Earth's largest reservoir of glacial ice. Melting of the West Antarctic part alone of the Antarctic ice sheet would cause a sea-level rise of approximately 6 meters (m), and the potential sea-level rise after melting of the entire Antarctic ice sheet is estimated to be 65 m (Lythe and others, 2001) to 73 m (Williams and Hall, 1993). The mass balance (the net volumetric gain or loss) of the Antarctic ice sheet is highly complex, responding differently to different climatic and other conditions in each region (Vaughan, 2005). In a review paper, Rignot and Thomas (2002) concluded that the West Antarctic ice sheet is probably becoming thinner overall; although it is known to be thickening in the west, it is thinning in the north. The mass balance of the East Antarctic ice sheet is thought by Davis and others (2005) to be positive on the basis of the change in satellite-altimetry measurements made between 1992 and 2003. Measurement of changes in area and mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet was given a very high priority in recommendations by the Polar Research Board of the National Research Council (1986), in subsequent recommendations by the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) (1989, 1993), and by the National Science Foundation's (1990) Division of Polar Programs. On the basis of these recommendations, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) decided that the archive of early 1970s Landsat 1, 2, and 3 Multispectral Scanner (MSS) images of Antarctica and the subsequent repeat coverage made possible with Landsat and other satellite images provided an excellent means of documenting changes in the cryospheric coastline of Antarctica (Ferrigno and Gould, 1987). The availability of this information provided the impetus for carrying

  10. Variable stars observed with the AST3-1 telescope from dome A of antarctica

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Gang; Liu, Xuanming

    2015-01-01

    Dome A in the Antarctic plateau is likely one of the best astronomical observing sites on Earth. The first one of three Antarctic Survey Telescope (AST3-1), a 50/68 cm Schmidt-like equatorial-mount telescope, is the first trackable telescope of China operating in Antarctica and the biggest telescope located in Antarctic inland. AST3-1 obtained huge amounts of data in 2012 and we processed the time-series parts. Here we present light curves of 29 variable stars identified from ten-day observations in 2012 with AST3-1, including 22 newly discovered variable stars. 23 of them are eclipsing binaries and the others are pulsating stars. We present the properties of the 29 variable stars, including the classifications, periods and magnitude ranges in i band. For the 17 eclipsing binaries, the phased light curves are presented with the orbital period values well determined.

  11. Fossil fungi with suggested affinities to the Endogonaceae from the Middle Triassic of Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krings, Michael; Taylor, Thomas N; Dotzler, Nora; Persichini, Gianna

    2012-01-01

    Documented fossil evidence of zygomycetous fungi is rare. A conspicuous fungal fossil, Jimwhitea circumtecta gen. et sp. nov., occurs in permineralized peat from the Middle Triassic of Antarctica. The fossil is interpreted as a mantled zygosporangium that buds from a macrogametangium subtended by a sac-like macrosuspensor. The macrogametangium is united at its tip with a microgametangium which is subtended by a micro-suspensor. This configuration is strikingly similar to the zygosporangium-gametangia complexes seen in certain modern Endogonaceae. Co-occurring with J. circumtecta are isolated propagules closely resembling the zygosporangium of J. circumtecta and a portion of a sporocarp containing zygosporangia embedded in a gleba. Several of the sporangia are borne on ovoid or elongate structures, which we interpret as gametangia. These fossils offer an exceptionally detailed view of the morphology and reproductive biology of early Mesozoic zygomycetes.

  12. Fossilized spermatozoa preserved in a 50-Myr-old annelid cocoon from Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomfleur, Benjamin; Mörs, Thomas; Ferraguti, Marco; Reguero, Marcelo A.; McLoughlin, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The origin and evolution of clitellate annelids—earthworms, leeches and their relatives—is poorly understood, partly because body fossils of these delicate organisms are exceedingly rare. The distinctive egg cases (cocoons) of Clitellata, however, are relatively common in the fossil record, although their potential for phylogenetic studies has remained largely unexplored. Here, we report the remarkable discovery of fossilized spermatozoa preserved within the secreted wall layers of a 50-Myr-old clitellate cocoon from Antarctica, representing the oldest fossil animal sperm yet known. Sperm characters are highly informative for the classification of extant Annelida. The Antarctic fossil spermatozoa have several features that point to affinities with the peculiar, leech-like ‘crayfish worms' (Branchiobdellida). We anticipate that systematic surveys of cocoon fossils coupled with advances in non-destructive analytical methods may open a new window into the evolution of minute, soft-bodied life forms that are otherwise only rarely observed in the fossil record. PMID:26179804

  13. Subglacial landforms beneath Rutford Ice Stream, Antarctica: detailed bed topography from ice-penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Edward C.; Pritchard, Hamish D.; Smith, Andrew M.

    2016-04-01

    We present a digital elevation model of the bed of Rutford Ice Stream, Antarctica, derived from radio-echo sounding data. The data cover an 18 × 40 km area immediately upstream of the grounding line of the ice stream. This area is of particular interest because repeated seismic surveys have shown that rapid erosion and deposition of subglacial sediments has taken place. The bed topography shows a range of different subglacial landforms including mega-scale glacial lineations, drumlins and hummocks. This data set will form a baseline survey which, when compared to future surveys, should reveal how active subglacial landscapes change over time. These data also allow comparison between subglacial landforms in an active system with those observed in deglaciated areas in both polar regions. The data set comprises observed ice thickness data, an interpolated bed elevation grid, observed surface elevation data and a surface elevation grid. The data set is available at http://doi.org/269.

  14. Subsolidus physical and chemical mixing of granite and gabbro during mylonitization, South Victoria Land, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachel Walcott, C.; Craw, Dave

    1993-12-01

    At Dromedary Massif, Southern Victoria Land, Antarctica, a suite of coarse-grained granite dykes cross-cuts a gabbro pluton which has been partially metamorphosed at amphibolite facies. During regional deformation, strain has been inhomogeneously distributed through the gabbro pluton and has been concentrated in granite dykes. In zones of relatively high strain, the granite dykes have developed a mylonitic fabric. A high strain gradient between granitic mylonite and metagabbroic host rock has induced isochemical mylonitization of the margin of the host. This grain size reduction allowed chemical diffusion between granitic and metagabbroic mylonites, resulting in a marginal zone of biotite-rich mylonite with intermediate composition. Biotite-rich mylonite decoupled from metagabbroic mylonite and flowed with granitic mylonite. Continued folding and transposition of granitic mylonite and biotite-rich mylonite has produced compositionally banded mylonite zones through thorough and irreversible mixing of the two lithologies.

  15. Grounding line variability and subglacial lake drainage on Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joughin, Ian; Shean, David E.; Smith, Ben E.; Dutrieux, P.

    2016-09-01

    We produced a 6 year time series of differential tidal displacement for Pine Island Ice Shelf, Antarctica, using speckle-tracking methods applied to fine-resolution TerraSAR-X data. These results reveal that the main grounding line has maintained a relatively steady position over the last 6 years, following the speedup that terminated in ~2009. In the middle of the shelf, there are grounded spots that migrate downstream over the 6 year record. Examination of high-resolution digital elevation models reveals that these grounded spots form where deep keels (thickness anomalies) advect over an approximately flow-parallel bathymetric high, maintaining intermittent contact with the bed. These data sets also reveal several subsidence and uplift events associated with subglacial lake drainages in the fast-flowing region above the grounding line. Although these drainages approximately double the rate of subglacial water flow over periods of a few weeks, they have no discernible effect on horizontal flow speed.

  16. Biodegradable plastic-degrading enzyme from Pseudozyma antarctica: cloning, sequencing, and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinozaki, Yukiko; Morita, Tomotake; Cao, Xiao-hong; Yoshida, Shigenobu; Koitabashi, Motoo; Watanabe, Takashi; Suzuki, Ken; Sameshima-Yamashita, Yuka; Nakajima-Kambe, Toshiaki; Fujii, Takeshi; Kitamoto, Hiroko K

    2013-04-01

    Pseudozyma antarctica JCM 10317 exhibits a strong degradation activity for biodegradable plastics (BPs) such as agricultural mulch films composed of poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) and poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate) (PBSA). An enzyme named PaE was isolated and the gene encoding PaE was cloned from the strain by functional complementation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The deduced amino acid sequence of PaE contains 198 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 20,362.41. High identity was observed between this sequence and that of cutinase-like enzymes (CLEs) (61-68%); therefore, the gene encoding PaE was named PaCLE1. The specific activity of PaE against emulsified PBSA was 54.8±6.3 U/mg. In addition to emulsified BPs, PaE degraded solid films of PBS, PBSA, poly(ε-caprolactone), and poly(lactic acid).

  17. Chondritic meteorite fragments associated with the Permian-Triassic boundary in Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Asish R; Petaev, Michail I; Poreda, Robert J; Jacobsen, Stein B; Becker, Luann

    2003-11-21

    Multiple chondritic meteorite fragments have been found in two sedimentary rock samples from an end-Permian bed at Graphite Peak in Antarctica. The Ni/Fe, Co/Ni, and P/Fe ratios in metal grains; the Fe/Mg and Mn/Fe ratios in olivine and pyroxene; and the chemistry of Fe-, Ni-, P-, and S-bearing oxide in the meteorite fragments are typical of CM-type chondritic meteorites. In one sample, the meteoritic fragments are accompanied by more abundant discrete metal grains, which are also found in an end-Permian bed at Meishan, southern China. We discuss the implications of this finding for a suggested global impact event at the Permian-Triassic boundary.

  18. Fatty acid composition of Euphausia superba, Thysanoessa macrura and Euphausia crystallorophias collected from Prydz Bay, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Li, Chaolun; Wang, Yanqing

    2016-04-01

    The information of trophic relationship is important for studying the Southern Ocean ecosystems. In this study, three dominant krill species, Euphausia superba, Thysanoessa macrura and Euphausia crystallorophias, were collected from Prydz Bay, Antarctica, during austral summer of 2009/2010. The composition of fatty acids in these species was studied. E. superba and T. macrura showed a similar fatty acid composition which was dominated by C14:0, C16:0, EPA (eicosapentenoic acid) and DHA (decosahexenoic acid) while E. crystallorophias showed higher contents of C18:1(n-9), C18:1(n-7), DHA and EPA than the former two. Higher fatty acid ratios of C18:1(n-9)/18:1(n-7), PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acid)/SFA (saturated fatty acid), and 18PUFA/16PUFA indicated that E. crystallorophias should be classified as a typical omnivore with a higher trophic position compared with E. superba and T. macrura.

  19. Brief communication: Organochlorine pesticides in an archived firn core from Law Dome, East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigot, Marie; Curran, Mark A. J.; Moy, Andrew D.; Muir, Derek C. G.; Hawker, Darryl W.; Cropp, Roger; Teixeira, Camilla F.; Bengtson Nash, Susan M.

    2016-10-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were, for the first time, quantified in archived firn cores from East Antarctica representative of 1945-1957 and 1958-1967 (current era, C.E.). The core sections were melted under high-purity nitrogen atmosphere, and the meltwater was analysed. Methods allowed quantification of hexachlorocyclohexanes, heptachlor, trans-chlordane, dieldrin and endrin. While the core presented evidence of nominal contamination by modern-use chemicals, indicating handling and/or storage contamination, legacy OCP concentrations and deposition rates reported are orders of magnitude lower than those from Arctic regions, lending support for their validity. The study further provides a description of equipment used and suggests methods to overcome logistical challenges associated with trace organic contaminant detection in polar regions.

  20. High basal melting forming a channel at the grounding line of Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Oliver J.; Fricker, Helen A.; Siegfried, Matthew R.; Christianson, Knut; Nicholls, Keith W.; Corr, Hugh F. J.; Catania, Ginny

    2016-01-01

    Antarctica's ice shelves are thinning at an increasing rate, affecting their buttressing ability. Channels in the ice shelf base unevenly distribute melting, and their evolution provides insight into changing subglacial and oceanic conditions. Here we used phase-sensitive radar measurements to estimate basal melt rates in a channel beneath the currently stable Ross Ice Shelf. Melt rates of 22.2 ± 0.2 m a-1 (>2500% the overall background rate) were observed 1.7 km seaward of Mercer/Whillans Ice Stream grounding line, close to where subglacial water discharge is expected. Laser altimetry shows a corresponding, steadily deepening surface channel. Two relict channels to the north suggest recent subglacial drainage reorganization beneath Whillans Ice Stream approximately coincident with the shutdown of Kamb Ice Stream. This rapid channel formation implies that shifts in subglacial hydrology may impact ice shelf stability.

  1. First light from the Dome C (Antarctica) of a phase knife stellar coronagraph

    CERN Document Server

    Guerri, Geraldine; Daban, Jean-Baptiste; Aristidi, Eric; Bendjoya, Philippe; Rivet, Jean-Pierre; Vakili, Farrokh

    2009-01-01

    We report on the first daytime on-sky results of a Phase Knife stellar Coronagraph operated in the visible from the French-Italian Concordia station at Dome C of Antarctica. This site has proven in the last few years to offer excellent atmospheric seeing conditions for high spatial resolution observations. The coronagraphic performances obtained from laboratory experiments and numerical models have been compared with those measured from daytime on-sky data recorded on bright single and multiple stars: Canopus (HD 45348), and alpha Centauri (HD 128620J). No correction system was used (adaptive optics or tip-tilt mirror) so that atmospheric turbulence alone defines the image quality, and thus the coronagraphic performances. Moreover, the experiment could not run under optimal operational conditions due to hardware/software problems. Satisfactory results have been obtained: broad band total rejection exceeding 15 were attained in the visible. This first day-time observation campaign yields an experimental feedba...

  2. Analysis of Ionospheric Scintillation Characteristics in Sub-Antarctica Region with GNSS Data at Macquarie Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kai; Liu, Yang; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Jinling

    2017-01-01

    Ionospheric scintillation has a great impact on radio propagation and electronic system performance, thus is extensively studied currently. The influence of scintillation on Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is particularly evident, making GNSS an effective medium to study characteristics of scintillation. Ionospheric scintillation varies greatly in relation with temporal and spatial distribution. In this paper, both temporal and spatial characteristics of scintillation are investigated based on Macquarie Island’s GNSS scintillation data collected from 2011 to 2015. Experiments demonstrate that occurrence rates of amplitude scintillation have a close relationship with solar activity, while phase scintillation is more likely to be generated by geomagnetic activity. In addition, scintillation distribution behaviors related to elevation and azimuth angles are statistically analyzed for both amplitude and phase scintillation. The proposed work is valuable for a deeper understanding of theoretical mechanisms of ionospheric scintillation in this region, and provides a reference for GNSS applications in certain regions around sub-Antarctica. PMID:28085087

  3. Cold-active halophilic bacteria from the ice-sealed Lake Vida, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondino, Lindsay J; Asao, Marie; Madigan, Michael T

    2009-10-01

    Lake Vida is a large, permanently ice-covered lake in the Victoria Valley of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica and is unique among Dry Valley lakes because it is ice-sealed, with an ice-cover of nearly 19 m. Enrichment cultures of melt-water from Lake Vida 15.9 m ice yielded five pure cultures of aerobic, heterotrophic bacteria. Of these, one strain grew at -8 degrees C and the four others at -4 degrees C. All isolates were either halotolerant or halophilic, with two strains capable of growth at 15% NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the Lake Vida isolates to be Gammaproteobacteria, related to species of Psychrobacter and Marinobacter. This is the first report of pure cultures of bacteria from Lake Vida, and the isolates displayed a phenotype consistent with life in a cold hypersaline environment.

  4. The tectonic development and erosion of the Knox Subglacial Sedimentary Basin, East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maritati, A.; Aitken, A. R. A.; Young, D. A.; Roberts, J. L.; Blankenship, D. D.; Siegert, M. J.

    2016-10-01

    Sedimentary basins beneath the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) have immense potential to inform models of the tectonic evolution of East Antarctica and its ice-sheet. However, even basic characteristics such as thickness and extent are often unknown. Using airborne geophysical data, we resolve the tectonic architecture of the Knox Subglacial Sedimentary Basin in western Wilkes Land. In addition, we apply an erosion restoration model to reconstruct the original basin geometry for which we resolve geometry typical of a transtensional pull-apart basin. The tectonic architecture strongly indicates formation as a consequence of the rifting of India from East Gondwana from ca. 160-130 Ma, and we suggest a spatial link with the western Mentelle Basin offshore Western Australia. The erosion restoration model shows that erosion is confined within the rift margins, suggesting that rift structure has strongly influenced the evolution of the Denman and Scott ice streams.

  5. Olive oil glycero lysis with the immobilized lipase Candida antarctica in a solvent free system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, A. K.; Mukhopadhyay, M.

    2012-11-01

    In the present work, the solvent free lipase glycerolysis of olive oil for the production of monoglyceride (MG) and diglyceride (DG) with an immobilized Lipase B Candida antarctica was studied. The experiments were performed in batch mode by varying different process parameters. The Results showed that the MG and DG yields were dependent on operating conditions such as time, temperature, glycerol/ oil molar ratio, enzyme concentration and the water content in glycerol. The optimum operating time for maximum MG, 26 wt% and DG, 30 wt% production was 3h. The initial reaction rate was studied by varying different process parameters for 1h. The initial reaction rate increased at 30 degree centigrade temperature, 2:1 glycerol/oil molar ratio, 3.5% (w/w) water content in glycerol and 0.015g of enzyme loading. Comparative data for MG and DG yields for different oils and enzyme combinations were presented.

  6. Major, trace element and stable isotope geochemistry of synorogenic breccia bodies, Ellsworth Mountains, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddock, J.P.; McGillion, M.S.; Webers, G.F.

    2007-01-01

    Cambrian carbonates in the Heritage Range of the Ellsworth Mountains, West Antarctica host a series of carbonate-rich breccia bodies that formed contemporaneously with the Permian Gondwanide orogen. The breccia bodies had a three-stage genesis, with the older breccias containing Cambrian limestone (and marble) clasts supported by calcite, whereas the younger breccias are nearly clast-free and composed entirely of matrix calcite. Breccia clasts, calcite matrix and detrital matrix samples were analyzed using x-ray fluorescence (major and trace elements), x-ray diffraction, and stable isotopes (C, O) and suggest that the breccias formed as part of a closed geochemical system, at considerable depth, within the Cambrian limestone host as the Ellsworth Mountains deformed into a fold-and-thrust belt along the margin of Gondwana

  7. BIOCATALYTIC METHODS IN THE SUNFLOWER BIODIESEL PRODUCTION BY Candida antarctica LIPASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiara Priscilla de Souza

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of lipases in reactions of transformation of vegetable oil is against the principles of green chemistry, mainly because they are renewable and have a high efficiency and specificity in oleochemical reactions. Among the lipases studied stands out mainly Candida antarctica B (Novozym ® 435 and being marketed already immobilized in support of acrylic resin, has the advantage of being reused in the reactions. It was possible to optimize a system of transesterification by a continuous process, with which it was possible maximum conversion of substrate (sunflower oil in ethyl esters, and perform 87 cycles with the same enzyme without reducing the activity and 224 cycles, after the reduction of the activity. The system obtained are adequate to objectives and can be used in absence of organic solvent, it is only need the alcohol excess.

  8. Assessment of deep electrical conductivity features of Northern Victoria Land (Antarctica under other geophysical constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Caneva

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The lithospheric and crustal structure of the Victoria Land continental block (Antarctica has been studied by geological and geophysical surveys. Among them magnetovariational investigations (MV have been addressed to highlight the deep electrical conductivity patterns which contribute to the understanding of continental rifting and tectonic setting of the region. The hypothetical event map for H linearly polarized perpendicular to the coast indicates a possible broad coast parallel conductivity anomaly zone. Despite the coast effect, this feature could be related to the deep upper mantle thermal anomaly leading to Cenozoic uplift of the Transantarctic Mountains rift flank. However, both the hypothetic event map polarized parallel to the coast and the induction arrows suggest that the area of enhanced conductivity may be confined to the Deep Freeze Range crustal block along the western flank of the Mesozoic Rennick Graben. We also discuss the possible association between increased conductivity over the Southern Cross block and extensive Cenozoic alkaline plutonism.

  9. Assessment of deep electrical conductivity features of Northern Victoria Land (Antarctica) under other geophysical constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armadillo, E.; Ferraccioli, F.; Bozzo, E.; Caneva, G.; Caneva, A. [Genoa Univ., Genoa (Italy). Dipt. per lo Studio del Territorio e delle sue Risorse

    2000-04-01

    The lithospheric and crustal structure of the Victoria Land continental block (Antarctica) has been studied by geological and geophysical surveys. Among them magnetovariational investigations (MV) have been addressed to highlight the deep electrical conductivity patterns which contribute to the understanding of continental rifting and tectonic setting of the region. The hypothetical event map for H linearly polarized perpendicular to the coast indicates a possible broad coast parallel conductivity anomaly zone. Despite the coast effect, this feature could be related to the deep upper mantle thermal anomaly leading to cenozoic uplift of the Transantarctic Mountains rift flank. However, both the hypothetic event map polarized parallel to the coast and the induction arrows suggest that the area of enhanced conductivity may be confined to the Deep Freeze Range crustal block along the western flank of the Mesozoic Rennick Graben. The possible association between increased conductivity over the Southern Cross block and extensive cenozoic alkaline plutonism.

  10. Accumulation and temperature changes in Princess Elizabeth Land, Antarctica in the past 250 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A 50 m firn core drilled in Princess Elizabeth Land, Antarctica, during the 1996/1997 Chinese First Antarctic Inland Expedition, has been measured for б18O and major ions. Based on these data, the features of the climate change in the investigated region in the past 250 years have first been studied. In the past 250 years, the change trend of climate in this region can be divided into two periods by the year 1860. Both the temperature and accumulation rate display increasing trend before 1860, while after 1860, the decreasing trend of the temperature is obvious but the change of the accumulation rate is not clear. Although both the temperature and the accumulation rate are increasing in the past 50 years, they are not the highest values in the past 250 years. So it is clear that the climate change in this region during this period does not reflect recent global wanning.

  11. Pressurized brines in continental Antarctica as a possible analogue of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Emanuele; Dalle Fratte, Michele; Azzaro, Maurizio; Guglielmin, Mauro

    2016-09-01

    Interest in brines in extreme and cold environments has recently increased after they have been found on Mars. Those brines can be potential new subsurface habitats for peculiar ecosystems. In the McMurdo Dry Valleys of the Antarctic, the best analogue for Mars conditions, only a few cases of brines have been identified in some perennially frozen lakes and in one case in an underground aquifer. Here, we present the occurrence of pressurized brines in a shallow perennially ice-covered lake south of 70°S in an ice-free area of Victoria Land, Antarctica. For the first time, we also imaged, by means of ground penetrating radar data, the existence of a pingo-like-feature (PLF) formed by the extrusion of brines, which has also been confirmed by borehole evidence. Those brines are fed by an underground talik external to the lake basin, enhancing the possibility of unexploited ecosystems that could find an analogue in Martian environments.

  12. Feasibility report: Operation of light air cushion vehicle at McMurdo Sound, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibbern, J. S.

    1987-02-01

    This report explores the viability of the use of an air cushion vehicle (ACV) or hovercraft to perform logistic and scientific support in the area of McMurdo Station, Antarctica. After a review of personnel assets and facilities at McMurdo Station to support the ACV plus a reconnaissance of the five major routes selected, it appears that an air cushion vehicle in the 1 to 1 1/2 ton payload class would be of significant value to support operations. It would reduce transit times for surface vehicle traverses on the routes selected and reduce requirements for expenditure of helicopter flight time in others. Of major significance is the ability to handle passenger/shuttle requirements between the Scott Base transition and Williams Field Skiway. Use of the ACV for high frequency passenger operations would help preserve the snow road for cargo operations during periods of road deterioration.

  13. Analysis of long-term precipitation pattern over Antarctica derived from satellite-borne radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, L.; Porcù, F.; Casella, D.; Dietrich, S.; Panegrossi, G.; Petracca, M.; Sanò, P.

    2015-01-01

    Mass accumulation is a key geophysical parameter in understanding the Antarctic climate and its role in the global system. The local mass variation is driven by a number of different mechanisms: the deposition of snow and ice crystals on the surface from the atmosphere is generally modified by strong surface winds and variations in temperature and humidity at the ground, making it difficult to measure directly the accumulation by a sparse network of ground based instruments. Moreover, the low cloud total water/ice content and the varying radiative properties of the ground pose problems in the retrieval of precipitation from passive space-borne sensors at all frequencies. Finally, numerical models, despite their high spatial and temporal resolution, show discordant results and are difficult to be validated using ground-based measurements. A significant improvement in the knowledge of the atmospheric contribution to the mass balance over Antarctica is possible by using active space-borne instruments, such as the Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR) on board the low earth orbit CloudSat satellite, launched in 2006 and still operating. The radar measures the vertical profile of reflectivity at 94 GHz (sensitive to small ice particles) providing narrow vertical cross-sections of clouds along the satellite track. The aim of this work is to show that, after accounting for the characteristics of precipitation and the effect of surface on reflectivity in Antarctica, the CPR can retrieve snowfall rates on a single event temporal scale. Furthermore, the CPR, despite its limited temporal and spatial sampling capabilities, also effectively observes the annual snowfall cycle in this region. Two years of CloudSat data over Antarctica are analyzed and converted in water equivalent snowfall rate. Two different approaches for precipitation estimates are considered in this work. The results are analyzed in terms of annual and monthly averages, as well as in terms of instantaneous values. The

  14. Analysis of long-term precipitation pattern over Antarctica derived from satellite-borne radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Milani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mass accumulation is a key geophysical parameter in understanding the Antarctic climate and its role in the global system. The local mass variation is driven by a number of different mechanisms: the deposition of snow and ice crystals on the surface from the atmosphere is generally modified by strong surface winds and variations in temperature and humidity at the ground, making it difficult to measure directly the accumulation by a sparse network of ground based instruments. Moreover, the low cloud total water/ice content and the varying radiative properties of the ground pose problems in the retrieval of precipitation from passive space-borne sensors at all frequencies. Finally, numerical models, despite their high spatial and temporal resolution, show discordant results and are difficult to be validated using ground-based measurements. A significant improvement in the knowledge of the atmospheric contribution to the mass balance over Antarctica is possible by using active space-borne instruments, such as the Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR on board the low earth orbit CloudSat satellite, launched in 2006 and still operating. The radar measures the vertical profile of reflectivity at 94 GHz (sensitive to small ice particles providing narrow vertical cross-sections of clouds along the satellite track. The aim of this work is to show that, after accounting for the characteristics of precipitation and the effect of surface on reflectivity in Antarctica, the CPR can retrieve snowfall rates on a single event temporal scale. Furthermore, the CPR, despite its limited temporal and spatial sampling capabilities, also effectively observes the annual snowfall cycle in this region. Two years of CloudSat data over Antarctica are analyzed and converted in water equivalent snowfall rate. Two different approaches for precipitation estimates are considered in this work. The results are analyzed in terms of annual and monthly averages, as well as in terms of

  15. Review of the geology and paleontology of the Ellsworth Mountains, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webers, G.F.; Splettstoesser, J.F.

    2007-01-01

    The geology of the Ellsworth Mountains has become known in detail only within the past 40-45 years, and the wealth of paleontologic information within the past 25 years. The mountains are an anomaly, structurally speaking, occurring at right angles to the Transantarctic Mountains, implying a crustal plate rotation to reach the present location. Paleontologic affinities with other parts of Gondwanaland are evident, with nearly 150 fossil species ranging in age from Early Cambrian to Permian, with the majority from the Heritage Range. Trilobites and mollusks comprise most of the fauna discovered and identified, including many new genera and species. A Glossopteris flora of Permian age provides a comparison with other Gondwana floras of similar age. The quartzitic rocks that form much of the Sentinel Range have been sculpted by glacial erosion into spectacular alpine topography, resulting in eight of the highest peaks in Antarctica.

  16. UAV observations of the wintertime boundary layer over the Terra Bay Polynya, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassano, John; Knuth, Shelley

    2010-05-01

    Aerosonde unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) were used during September 2009 to observe the atmosphere and ocean / sea ice surface state in the vicinity of the Terra Nova Bay polynya, Antarctica. These flights were the first wintertime UAV flights ever made in the Antarctic, and were also the longest duration UAV flights made to date in the Antarctic, with a maximum flight time of over 17 hours. A total of 130 flight hours were flown during September 2009, with a total of 8 science flights to Terra Nova Bay. The flights took place at the end of the Antarctic winter, in an environment characterized by strong katabatic winds and strong air-sea fluxes. Observations of the boundary layer evolution of the katabatic winds propagating over the Terra Nova Bay polynya will be presented. The advantages of using UAVs for boundary layer observations in remote locations as well as the logistical challenges of operating UAVs in the Antarctic winter will also be presented.

  17. Cloning and expression of N-glycosylation-related glucosidase from Glaciozyma antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajit, Noor Liana Mat; Kamaruddin, Shazilah; Hashim, Noor Haza Fazlin; Bakar, Farah Diba Abu; Murad, Abd. Munir Abd.; Mahadi, Nor Muhammad; Mackeen, Mukram Mohamed

    2016-11-01

    The need for functional oligosaccharides in various field is ever growing. The enzymatic approach for synthesis of oligosaccharides is advantageous over traditional chemical synthesis because of the regio- and stereo- selectivity that can be achieved without the need for protection chemistry. In this study, the α-glucosidase I protein sequence from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (UniProt database) was compared using Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) with Glaciozyma antarctica genome database. Results showed 33% identity and an E-value of 1 × 10-125 for α-glucosidase I. The gene was amplified, cloned into the pPICZα C vector and used to transform Pichia pastoris X-33 cells. Soluble expression of α-Glucosidase I (˜91 kDa) was achieved at 28 °C with 1.0 % of methanol.

  18. Expression of a Deschampsia antarctica Desv. Polypeptide with Lipase Activity in a Pichia pastoris Vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Rabert

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The current study isolated and characterized the Lip3F9 polypeptide sequence of Deschampsia antarctica Desv. (GeneBank Accession Number JX846628, which was found to be comprised of 291 base pairs and was, moreover, expressed in Pichia pastoris X-33 cells. The enzyme was secreted after 24 h of P. pastoris culture incubation and through induction with methanol. The expressed protein showed maximum lipase activity (35 U/L with an optimal temperature of 37 °C. The lipase-expressed enzyme lost 50% of its specific activity at 25 °C, a behavior characteristic of a psychrotolerant enzyme. Recombinant enzyme activity was measured in the presence of ionic and non-ionic detergents, and a decrease in enzyme activity was detected for all concentrations of ionic and non-ionic detergents assessed.

  19. Antarctica EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Stan

    2013-01-01

    NASA astronaut Stan Love shared his experiences with the Antarctic Search for Meteorites (ANSMET), an annual expedition to the southern continent to collect valuable samples for research in planetary science. ANSMET teams operate from isolated, remote field camps on the polar plateau, where windchill factors often reach -40? F. Several astronaut participants have noted ANSMET's similarity to a space mission. Some of the operational concepts, tools, and equipment employed by ANSMET teams may offer valuable insights to designers of future planetary surface exploration hardware.

  20. Protecting Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    House Science Committee Chairman Robert Walker (R-Pa.) has introduced a bill into Congress to give the United States the legislative authority to implement the 1991 Environmental Protocol to the Antarctic Treaty. That protocol established rules and principles to shield the Antarctic environment from human spoilage—placing limits on the discharge of pollutants, protecting plant and animal life, and requiring environmental impact assessments before new activities and programs are launched. The protocol also forbids prospecting or developing of mineral resources except for scientific research.

  1. Usnea antarctica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst, S.; Convey, P.; Huiskes, A.H.L.; Aerts, R.

    2016-01-01

    Studies of cryptogam responses to climate change in the polar regions are scarce because these slow-growing organisms require long-term monitoring studies. Here, we analyse the response of a lichen and moss community to 10 years of passive environmental manipulation using open-top chambers (OTCs) in

  2. Year Round Operation of Autonomous, Low Power Geophysical Stations in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, B. C.; White, S.; Bonnett, B.; Parker, T.; Johns, B.; Anderson, K. R.

    2009-12-01

    Year round operation of autonomous, low power geophysical stations in Antarctica presents both technical and logistical challenges. Prior to 2005, few if any autonomous seismic or GPS stations operated continuously throughout the austral winter. There are two basic environmental challenges in Antarctica beyond the logistical challenge: the margins with relatively mild temperatures but extreme winds and the Polar Plateau with extreme temperatures but relatively little wind. Large caches of lead-acid batteries can operate stations on the Antarctic margins where temperatures are relatively high, but are logistically expensive and will not survive the extreme temperatures of the Polar Plateau. Primary lithium thionyl chloride batteries have been proven to be successful and economical for use in the extreme plateau environment. These technical and logistical challenges were the focus of an IRIS/PASSCAL-UNAVCO collaboration to design power and communications for a < 5W system capable of continuous operation without intervention for two years. This collaboration has resulted in the successful operation of close to 100 GPS and seismic stations on several IPY projects with better than 80% data return. Our systems were designed to challenging logistical constrains for increased efficiency in polar operations. These year-round systems can now be deployed in a single twin otter flight. The IRIS/PASSCAL-UNAVCO collaboration has resulted in deployable systems backed by facilities with proven track records of longevity of technical field support. Our expertise and sustained engineering has resulted in a robust community product. We have significantly lowered the barriers of entry to scientists who desire year-round autonomous data collection in the Polar regions. A transparent development process with broad community support and input has resulted in a new generation of GPS and seismic systems fielded on several major IPY projects. The challenge now is how to keep the development

  3. Metabolic rates of the antarctic amphipod Gondogeneia antarctica at different temperatures and salinities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Gomes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in environmental factors may deeply affect the energy budget of Antarctic organisms as many of them are stenothermal and/or stenohaline ectotherms. In this context, the aim of this study is to contribute to knowledge on variations in the energy demand of the Antarctic amphipod, Gondogeneia antarctica as a function of temperature and salinity. Experiments were held at the Brazilian Antarctic Station "Comandante Ferraz", under controlled conditions. Animals collected at Admiralty Bay were acclimated to temperatures of 0ºC; 2.5ºC and 5ºC and to salinities of 35, 30 and 25. Thirty measurements were made for each of the nine combinations of the three temperatures and three salinities, totalling 270 measurements. Metabolic rates were assessed by oxygen consumption and total nitrogenous ammonia excretion, in sealed respirometers. When acclimated to salinities 30 or 35, metabolic rates at 0ºC and 2.5ºC were very similar indicating a possible mechanism of metabolic compensation for temperature. At 5.0ºC, however, metabolic rates were always higher. Lower salinities enhanced the effects of temperature on metabolism and ammonia excretion rates. The physiological adaptations of individuals of G. antarctica suggest adaptive mechanisms for energy saving, adjusted to an environment with stable conditions of temperature and salinity. Little is known about the joint effects of salinity and temperature and this study is an important contribution to the understanding of the mechanism of polar organisms in their adaptation to both factors.

  4. Antarctotrechus balli sp. n. (Carabidae, Trechini: the first ground beetle from Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan C. Ashworth

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Fossil elytra of a small trechine carabid are reported from the Oliver Bluffs on the Beardmore Glacier at lat. 85°S. They were compared with counterparts from the extant genera Trechisibus, Tasmanorites, Oxytrechus and Pseudocnides. The fossils share some characters but are sufficiently different to be described as a new genus and species. We named the new species Antarctotrechus balli in honour of George E. Ball who made major contributions to the study of carabids through his own research and the training of students while at the University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. The closest extant relatives to the extinct A. balli are species of Trechisibus, which inhabit South America, the Falkland Islands and South Georgia, and Tasmanorites, which inhabit Tasmania, Australia. Plant fossils associated with A. balli included Nothofagus (southern beech, Ranunculus (buttercup, moss mats and cushion plants that were part of a tundra biome. Collectively, the stratigraphic relationships and the growth characteristics of the fossil plants indicate that A. balli inhabited the sparsely-vegetated banks of a stream that was part of an outwash plain at the head of a fjord in the Transantarctic Mountains. Other insects represented by fossils in the tundra biome include a listroderine weevil and a cyclorrhaphan fly. The age of the fossils, based on comparison of associated pollen with 40Ar/39Ar dated pollen assemblages from the McMurdo Dry Valleys, is probably Early to Mid-Miocene in the range 14–20 Ma. The tundra biome, including A. balli, became extinct in the interior of Antarctica about 14 Ma and on the margins of the continent by 10–13 Ma. A. balli confirms that trechines were once widely distributed in Gondwana. For A. balli and other elements of the tundra biome it appears they continued to inhabit a warmer Antarctica for many millions of years after rifting of Tasmania (45 Ma and southern South America (31 Ma.

  5. Inorganic chemistry, petrography and palaeobotany of Permian coals in the Prince Charles Mountains, East Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdgate, G.R. [School of Earth Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Victoria, 3010 (Australia); McLoughlin, S. [School of Natural Resource Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, P.O. Box 2434, Brisbane, Queensland 4001 (Australia); Drinnan, A.N. [School of Botany, The University of Melbourne, Victoria, 3010 (Australia); Finkelman, R.B.; Willett, J.C.; Chiehowsky, L.A. [U.S. Geological Survey, Mail Stop 956, Reston, VA 20092 (United States)

    2005-07-20

    Sampled outcrops of Permian coal seams of the Bainmedart Coal Measures in the Lambert Graben, eastern Antarctica, have been analysed for their proximates, ultimates, ash constituents and trace elements. A similar series of samples has been analysed for their principle maceral and microlithotype components and vitrinite reflectance. The coals are sub-bituminous to high volatile bituminous in rank; maturity increases markedly in southern exposures around Radok Lake where the oldest part of the succession is exposed and some strata have been intruded by mafic dykes and ultramafic sills. The coal ash is mostly silica and aluminium oxides, indicating that the mineral ash component is mostly quartz and various clay minerals. The ratio of silica to aluminium oxides appears to increase in an upward stratigraphic direction. The coal macerals include a relatively high liptinite content (mainly sporinite) that is significantly higher than for typical Gondwana coals. Greater degrees of weathering within the floodbasin/peat mire environments associated with climatic drying towards the end of the Permian might account for both preferential sporopollenin preservation and increased silica:aluminium oxide ratios up-section. Correlation of the coal maceral components to adjacent peninsula India coals indicates the closest comparative coals of similar age and rank occur within the Godavari Basin, rather then the Mahanadi Basin, which is traditionally interpreted to have been contiguous with the Lambert Graben before Gondwanan breakup. The petrological characteristics suggest that either previous interpretations of Palaeozoic basin alignments between Antarctica and India are incorrect, or that environmental settings and post-Permian burial histories of these basins were strongly independent of their tectonic juxtaposition. A permineralized peat bed within the succession reveals that the coals predominantly comprise wood- and leaf-rich debris derived from low-diversity forest

  6. Anthropogenic and biogenic hydrocarbons in soils and vegetation from the South Shetland Islands (Antarctica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrerizo, Ana; Tejedo, Pablo; Dachs, Jordi; Benayas, Javier

    2016-11-01

    Two Antarctic expeditions (in 2009 and 2011) were carried out to assess the local and remote anthropogenic sources of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, as well as potential biogenic hydrocarbons. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), n-alkanes, biomarkers such as phytane (Ph) and pristane (Pr), and the aliphatic unresolved complex mixture (UCM), were analysed in soil and vegetation samples collected at Deception, Livingston, Barrientos and Penguin Islands (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica). Overall, the patterns of n-alkanes in lichens, mosses and grass were dominated by odd-over-even carbon number alkanes. Mosses and vascular plants showed high abundances of n-C21 to n-C35, while lichens also showed high abundances of n-C17 and n-C19. The lipid content was an important factor controlling the concentrations of n-alkanes in Antarctic vegetation (r(2)=0.28-0.53, p-level<0.05). n-C12 to n-C35 n-alkanes were analysed in soils with a predominance of odd C number n-alkanes (n-C25, n-C27, n-C29, and n-C31), especially in the background soils not influenced by anthropogenic sources. The large values for the carbon predominance index (CPI) and the correlations between odd alkanes and some PAHs suggest the potential biogenic sources of these hydrocarbons in Antarctica. Unresolved complex mixture and CPI values ~1 detected at soils collected at intertidal areas and within the perimeter of Juan Carlos research station, further supported the evidence that even a small settlement (20 persons during the austral summer) can affect the loading of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in nearby soils. Nevertheless, the assessment of Pr/n-C17 and Ph/n-C18 ratios showed that hydrocarbon degradation is occurring in these soils.

  7. Application of a regional model to astronomical site testing in western Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falvey, Mark; Rojo, Patricio M.

    2016-08-01

    The quality of ground-based astronomical observations is significantly affected by local atmospheric conditions, and the search for the best sites has led to the construction of observatories at increasingly remote locations, including recent initiatives on the high plateaus of East Antarctica where the calm, dry, and cloud-free conditions during winter are recognized as amongst the best in the world. Site selection is an important phase of any observatory development project, and candidate sites must be tested in the field with specialized equipment, a process both time consuming and costly. A potential means of screening site locations before embarking on field testing is through the use of regional climate models (RCMs). In this study, we describe the application of the Polar version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to the preliminary site suitability assessment of a hitherto unstudied region in West Antarctica. Numerical simulations with WRF were carried out for the winter (MJJA) of 2011 at 3- and 1-km spatial resolution over a region centered on the Ellsworth mountain range. Comparison with observations of surface wind speed and direction, temperature, and specific humidity at nine automatic weather stations indicates that the model performed well in capturing the mean values and time variability of these variables. Credible features revealed by the model includes zones of high winds over the southernmost part of the Ellsworth Mountains, a deep thermal inversion over the Ronne-Fincher Ice Shelf, and strong west to east moisture gradient across the entire study area. Comparison of simulated cloud fraction with a CALIPSO spacebourne Lidar climatology indicates that the model may underestimate cloud occurrence, a problem that has been noted in previous studies. A simple scoring system was applied to reveal the most promising locations. The results of this study indicate that the WRF model is capable of providing useful guidance during the

  8. Radionuclides in soils of Byers Peninsula, South Shetland Islands, Western Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navas, A. [Estacion Experimental de Aula Dei, CSIC, Apartado 202, Zaragoza (Spain)]. E-mail: anavas@eead.csic.es; Soto, J. [Dpt. Ciencias Medicas y Quirurgicas, Universidad de Cantabria, Avda, Cardenal Herrera Oria s/n. 39011 Santander (Spain); Lopez-Martinez, J. [Dpt. Quimica Agricola, Geologia y Geoquimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma, de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2005-05-01

    As a part of a broader study of the surface formations in maritime Antarctica, a preliminary survey on the content of radionuclides has been carried out in soils of Byers Peninsula, located in the western end of Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands. Data on natural and artificial radionuclides are very scarce in Antarctica and the studied soil samples can be representative of the maritime Antarctic environment. Byers Peninsula has an extensive presence of permafrost and an active layer, the studied soils being Criosols and Cryic Leptosols. A series of soil cores between 13 and 40 cm depth have been collected in different lithological and altitudinal contexts. In the southwestern sector of the peninsula, soils have been sampled in seven different sites along a transect on different geomorphological units from an upper marine platform (88 m above sea level) to a Holocene raised beach at an altitude of 24 m a.s.l. The parent materials are mainly Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous marine sandstones and conglomerates and Lower Cretaceous volcanoclastic materials. Individual samples have been obtained from the cores according to textural and colour criteria and analysed for {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs by gamma spectrometry. Radionuclides show variations in the depth profile as well as in the different morphoedaphic environments studied. Variability in some radionuclides seems to be related to mineralogy derived from parent materials as well as with cryogenic and soil processes affecting the depth distribution of the granulometric fractions and the organic matter.

  9. Evaluation of four global reanalysis products using in situ observations in the Amundsen Sea Embayment, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. W.; Renfrew, I. A.; Orr, A.; Webber, B. G. M.; Holland, D. M.; Lazzara, M. A.

    2016-06-01

    The glaciers within the Amundsen Sea Embayment (ASE), West Antarctica, are amongst the most rapidly retreating in Antarctica. Meteorological reanalysis products are widely used to help understand and simulate the processes causing this retreat. Here we provide an evaluation against observations of four of the latest global reanalysis products within the ASE region—the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Interim Reanalysis (ERA-I), Japanese 55-year Reanalysis (JRA-55), Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR), and Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA). The observations comprise data from four automatic weather stations (AWSs), three research vessel cruises, and a new set of 38 radiosondes all within the period 2009-2014. All four reanalyses produce 2 m temperature fields that are colder than AWS observations, with the biases varying from approximately -1.8°C (ERA-I) to -6.8°C (MERRA). Over the Amundsen Sea, spatially averaged summertime biases are between -0.4°C (JRA-55) and -2.1°C (MERRA) with notably larger cold biases close to the continent (up to -6°C) in all reanalyses. All four reanalyses underestimate near-surface wind speed at high wind speeds (>15 m s-1) and exhibit dry biases and relatively large root-mean-square errors (RMSE) in specific humidity. A comparison to the radiosonde soundings shows that the cold, dry bias at the surface extends into the lower troposphere; here ERA-I and CFSR reanalyses provide the most accurate profiles. The reanalyses generally contain larger temperature and humidity biases, (and RMSE) when a temperature inversion is observed, and contain larger wind speed biases (~2 to 3 m s-1), when a low-level jet is observed.

  10. Ecophysiological properties of cultivable heterotrophic bacteria and yeasts dominating in phytocenoses of Galindez Island, maritime Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileva-Tonkova, Evgenia; Romanovskaya, Victoria; Gladka, Galina; Gouliamova, Dilnora; Tomova, Iva; Stoilova-Disheva, Margarita; Tashyrev, Oleksandr

    2014-04-01

    Antarctic plants are stable specific microenvironments for microbial colonization that are still less explored. In this study, we investigated cultivable heterotrophic bacteria and yeasts dominating in plant samples collected from different terrestrial biotopes near Ukrainian Antarctic Base on Galindez Island, maritime Antarctica. Phylogenetic analysis revealed affiliation of the bacterial isolates to genera Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Brevundimonas, Sporosarcina, Dermacoccus, Microbacterium, Rothia and Frondihabitans, and the yeast isolates to genera Rhodosporidium, Cryptococcus, Leucosporidiella, Candida and Exophiala. Some ecophysiological properties of isolated strains were determined that are important in response to different stresses such as psychro- and halotolerance, UV-resistance and production of hydrolytic enzymes. The majority of isolates (88 %) was found to be psychrotolerant; all are halotolerant. Significant differences in survival subsequent to UV-C radiation were observed among the isolates, as measured by culturable counts. For the bacterial isolates, lethal doses in the range 80-600 J m⁻² were determined, and for the yeast isolates--in the range 300-1,000 J m⁻². Dermacoccus profundi U9 and Candida davisiana U6 were found as most UV resistant among the bacterial and yeast isolates, respectively. Producers of caseinase, gelatinase, β-glucosidase, and cellulase were detected. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on isolation of UV resistant strain D. profundi, and Frondihabitans strain from Antarctica, and on detection of cellulase activity in Antarctic yeast strain C. davisiana. The results obtained contribute to clarifying adaptation strategies of Antarctic microbiota and its possible role in functional stability of Antarctic biocenoses. Stress tolerant strains were detected that are valuable for ecological and applied studies.

  11. Validation of Airborne FMCW Radar Measurements of Snow Thickness Over Sea Ice in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galin, Natalia; Worby, Anthony; Markus, Thorsten; Leuschen, Carl; Gogineni, Prasad

    2012-01-01

    Antarctic sea ice and its snow cover are integral components of the global climate system, yet many aspects of their vertical dimensions are poorly understood, making their representation in global climate models poor. Remote sensing is the key to monitoring the dynamic nature of sea ice and its snow cover. Reliable and accurate snow thickness data are currently a highly sought after data product. Remotely sensed snow thickness measurements can provide an indication of precipitation levels, predicted to increase with effects of climate change in the polar regions. Airborne techniques provide a means for regional-scale estimation of snow depth and distribution. Accurate regional-scale snow thickness data will also facilitate an increase in the accuracy of sea ice thickness retrieval from satellite altimeter freeboard estimates. The airborne data sets are easier to validate with in situ measurements and are better suited to validating satellite algorithms when compared with in situ techniques. This is primarily due to two factors: better chance of getting coincident in situ and airborne data sets and the tractability of comparison between an in situ data set and the airborne data set averaged over the footprint of the antennas. A 28-GHz frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) radar loaned by the Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets to the Australian Antarctic Division is used to measure snow thickness over sea ice in East Antarctica. Provided with the radar design parameters, the expected performance parameters of the radar are summarized. The necessary conditions for unambiguous identification of the airsnow and snowice layers for the radar are presented. Roughnesses of the snow and ice surfaces are found to be dominant determinants in the effectiveness of layer identification for this radar. Finally, this paper presents the first in situ validated snow thickness estimates over sea ice in Antarctica derived from an FMCW radar on a helicopterborne platform.

  12. Marisediminicola antarctica gen. nov., sp. nov., an actinobacterium isolated from the Antarctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-Rong; Yu, Yong; Luo, Wei; Zeng, Yin-Xin

    2010-11-01

    Strain ZS314(T) was isolated from a sandy intertidal sediment sample collected from the coastal area off the Chinese Antarctic Zhongshan Station, east Antarctica (6 9° 22' 13″ S 76 ° 21' 41″ E). The cells were Gram-positive, motile, short rods. The temperature range for growth was 0-26 °C and the pH for growth ranged from 5 to 10, with optimum growth occurring within the temperature range 18-23 °C and pH range 6.0-8.0. Growth occurred in the presence of 0-6 % (w/v) NaCl, with optimum growth occurring in the presence of 2-4 % (w/v) NaCl. Strain ZS314(T) had MK-10 as the major menaquinone and anteiso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(16 : 0) and anteiso-C(17 : 0) as major fatty acids. The cell-wall peptidoglycan type was B2β with ornithine as the diagnostic diamino acid. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol. The genomic DNA G+C content was approximately 67 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity showed that strain ZS314(T) represents a new lineage in the family Microbacteriaceae. On the basis of the phylogenetic analyses and phenotypic characteristics, a new genus, namely Marisediminicola gen. nov., is proposed, harbouring the novel species Marisediminicola antarctica sp. nov. with the type strain ZS314(T) (=DSM 22350(T) =CCTCC AB 209077(T)).

  13. Top predators in relation to bathymetry, ice and krill during austral winter in Marguerite Bay, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribic, C.A.; Chapman, E.; Fraser, William R.; Lawson, G.L.; Wiebe, P.H.

    2008-01-01

    A key hypothesis guiding the US Southern Ocean Global Ocean Ecosystems Dynamics (US SO GLOBEC) program is that deep across-shelf troughs facilitate the transport of warm and nutrient-rich waters onto the continental shelf of the Western Antarctic Peninsula, resulting in enhanced winter production and prey availability to top predators. We tested aspects of this hypothesis during austral winter by assessing the distribution of the resident pack-ice top predators in relation to these deep across-shelf troughs and by investigating associations between top predators and their prey. Surveys were conducted July-August 2001 and August-September 2002 in Marguerite Bay, Antarctica, with a focus on the main across-shelf trough in the bay, Marguerite Trough. The common pack-ice seabird species were snow petrel (Pagodroma nivea, 1.2 individuals km-2), Antarctic petrel (Thalassoica antarctica, 0.3 individuals km-2), and Ade??lie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae, 0.5 individuals km-2). The most common pack-ice pinniped was crabeater seal (Lobodon carcinophagus). During both winters, snow and Antarctic petrels were associated with low sea-ice concentrations independent of Marguerite Trough, while Ade??lie penguins occurred in association with this trough. Krill concentrations, both shallow and deep, also were associated with Ade??lie penguin and snow petrel distributions. During both winters, crabeater seal occurrence was associated with deep krill concentrations and with regions of lower chlorophyll concentration. The area of lower chlorophyll concentrations occurred in an area with complex bathymetry close to land and heavy ice concentrations. Complex or unusual bathymetry via its influence on physical and biological processes appears to be one of the keys to understanding how top predators survive during the winter in this Antarctic region. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Bacterial diversity in rhizosphere soil from Antarctic vascular plants of Admiralty Bay, maritime Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Lia C R S; Peixoto, Raquel S; Cury, Juliano C; Sul, Woo Jun; Pellizari, Vivian H; Tiedje, James; Rosado, Alexandre S

    2010-08-01

    The Antarctic is a pristine environment that contributes to the maintenance of the global climate equilibrium. The harsh conditions of this habitat are fundamental to selecting those organisms able to survive in such an extreme habitat and able to support the relatively simple ecosystems. The DNA of the microbial community associated with the rhizospheres of Deschampsia antarctica Desv (Poaceae) and Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth) BartI (Caryophyllaceae), the only two native vascular plants that are found in Antarctic ecosystems, was evaluated using a 16S rRNA multiplex 454 pyrosequencing approach. This analysis revealed similar patterns of bacterial diversity between the two plant species from different locations, arguing against the hypothesis that there would be differences between the rhizosphere communities of different plants. Furthermore, the phylum distribution presented a peculiar pattern, with a bacterial community structure different from those reported of many other soils. Firmicutes was the most abundant phylum in almost all the analyzed samples, and there were high levels of anaerobic representatives. Also, some phyla that are dominant in most temperate and tropical soils, such as Acidobacteria, were rarely found in the analyzed samples. Analyzing all the sample libraries together, the predominant genera found were Bifidobacterium (phylum Actinobacteria), Arcobacter (phylum Proteobacteria) and Faecalibacterium (phylum Firmicutes). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first major bacterial sequencing effort of this kind of soil, and it revealed more than expected diversity within these rhizospheres of both maritime Antarctica vascular plants in Admiralty Bay, King George Island, which is part of the South Shetlands archipelago.

  15. Horizontal distributions of aerosol constituents and their mixing states in Antarctica during the JASE traverse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hara

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of aerosol number concentrations and direct aerosol sampling were conducted on continental Antarctica during the traverse of Japanese–Swedish joint Antarctic expedition (JASE from 14 November 2007 until 24 January 2008. Aerosol concentrations in background conditions decreased gradually with latitude in inland regions during the traverse. The lowest aerosol number concentrations were 160 L−1 in Dp > 0.3 μm, and 0.5 L−1 in Dp > 2 μm. In contrast, aerosol concentrations reached 3278 L−1 in Dp > 0.3 μm, and 215 L−1 in Dp > 2 μm under strong wind conditions. The estimated aerosol mass concentrations were 0.04–5.7 μg m−3. Single particle analysis of aerosol particles collected during the JASE traverse was conducted using a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer. Major aerosol constituents were sulfates in fine mode, and sulfate, sea-salts, modified sea-salts, and fractionated sea-salts in coarse mode. K-rich sulfates, Mg-rich sulfate, Ca-rich sulfates, and minerals were identified as minor aerosol constituents. Sea-salt particles were modified greatly with SO42− and NO3− in coarse mode, and dominantly with SO42− in fine mode during the traverse. Most sea-salt particles in the continental region were modified with sulfate and methanesulfonate near the coast, although NO3− contributed markedly to sea-salt modification in inland areas during summer. Mg-rich sea-salt particles and Mg-free sea-salt particles were present in coarse and fine modes from the coast to inland areas. These sea-salt particles might be associated with sea-salt fractionation on the snow surface of continental Antarctica.

  16. Last deglacial relative sea level variations in Antarctica derived from glacial isostatic adjustment modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun'ichi Okuno

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We present relative sea level (RSL curves in Antarctica derived from glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA predictions based on the melting scenarios of the Antarctic ice sheet since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM given in previous works. Simultaneously, Holocene-age RSL observations obtained at the raised beaches along the coast of Antarctica are shown to be in agreement with the GIA predictions. The differences from previously published ice-loading models regarding the spatial distribution and total mass change of the melted ice are significant. These models were also derived from GIA modelling; the variations can be attributed to the lack of geological and geographical evidence regarding the history of crustal movement due to ice sheet evolution. Next, we summarise the previously published ice load models and demonstrate the RSL curves based on combinations of different ice and earth models. The RSL curves calculated by GIA models indicate that the model dependence of both the ice and earth models is significantly large at several sites where RSL observations were obtained. In particular, GIA predictions based on the thin lithospheric thickness show the spatial distributions that are dependent on the melted ice thickness at each sites. These characteristics result from the short-wavelength deformation of the Earth. However, our predictions strongly suggest that it is possible to find the average ice model despite the use of the different models of lithospheric thickness. By sea level and crustal movement observations, we can deduce the geometry of the post-LGM ice sheets in detail and remove the GIA contribution from the crustal deformation and gravity change observed by space geodetic techniques, such as GPS and GRACE, for the estimation of the Antarctic ice mass change associated with recent global warming.

  17. Occurrence of Legacy and New Persistent Organic Pollutants in Avian Tissues from King George Island, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Tae; Son, Min-Hui; Kang, Jung-Ho; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Jung, Jin-Woo; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2015-11-17

    Legacy and new persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), Dechlorane Plus (DPs) and related compounds (Dechloranes), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), were analyzed in avian tissue samples from King George Island, Antarctica. The avian species consisted of the Gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua), the Adelie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae), the South polar skua (Stercorarius maccormicki), and the Brown skua (Stercorarius antarcticus). HBCDs were detected in all samples and ranged from 1.67-713 pg/g-lipid. In the penguin samples, the concentrations of PCNs ranged from 0.69-2.07 ng/g-lipid, whereas those in the skua samples ranged from 7.41-175 ng/g-lipid. The levels of Dechloranes ranged from 0.60-1.30 ng/g-lipid in the penguin samples and from 6.57-47.4 ng/g-lipid in the skua samples. The concentrations and congener distributions of OCPs and PCBs were similar to the results of previous reports. The three new POPs were detected in all samples, and this study was one of the first reports on the occurrence of these pollutants in the Antarctic biota. Because Antarctica is one of the most pristine places on Earth, the detection of new POPs in the Antarctic birds, especially penguins, is direct evidence of the long-range transport of pollutants. Furthermore, the concentration ratios of the penguin to the skua samples (BMFs-p) were greater than 1 in most legacy and new POPs, and the BMFs-p values of the new POPs were comparable to those of some OCPs, suggesting a possibility of biomagnification. Despite the small sample size, the results of this study identified POP contamination of the Antarctic avian species and long-range transport and biomagnification of HBCDs, Dechloranes, and PCNs.

  18. {sup 137}Cs in marine sediments of Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Paulo Alves de Lima [Instituto Oceanográfico, Universidade de São Paulo (IO-USP), Pça. do Oceanográfico, 191, Butantã, SP, 05508 900 (Brazil); Ribeiro, Andreza Portella, E-mail: andrezpr@usp.br [Instituto Oceanográfico, Universidade de São Paulo (IO-USP), Pça. do Oceanográfico, 191, Butantã, SP, 05508 900 (Brazil); Mestrado de Gestão Ambiental e Sustentabilidade, Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE), Avenida Francisco Matarazzo, 612, prédio C, andar térreo, Água Branca, São Paulo, SP, 05001 100 (Brazil); Nascimento, Mylene Giseli do; Martins, Cesar de Castro [Centro de Estudos do Mar, Universidade Federal do Paraná (CEM-UFPR), Av. Beira-mar, no number, Balneário Pontal do Sul, Pontal do Paraná, PR, 83255 971 (Brazil); Mahiques, Michel Michaelovitch de; Montone, Rosalinda Carmelo; Figueira, Rubens Cesar Lopes [Instituto Oceanográfico, Universidade de São Paulo (IO-USP), Pça. do Oceanográfico, 191, Butantã, SP, 05508 900 (Brazil)

    2013-01-15

    The radionuclide cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) is produced exclusively by anthropogenic processes and primarily by nuclear explosions. This study determined the reference inventory that is {sup 137}Cs associated with the element's original input, and utilized the levels of activity of this radionuclide previously measured in five sediment profiles collected from Admiralty Bay, Antarctica, to investigate the mobility of this element in the environment. {sup 137}Cs has a half-life of 30 years. Because of this, it is environmentally persistent and has been shown to accumulate in marine organisms. The mean reference inventory of this radionuclide in Admiralty Bay sediments, determined using high resolution gamma ray spectrometry, was 20.23 ± 8.94 Bq m{sup −2}, and within the ambient {sup 137}Cs activity range. A model of {sup 137}Cs diffusion–convection was applied to data collected from 1 cm intervals in sediment cores with the aim of providing insights with respect to this element's behavior in sediments. Model results showed a significant correlation between measured and modeled values using the concentrations of {sup 137}Cs, and estimated input into the system from the global fallout of past nuclear tests and expected values based on local sedimentation rates. Results highlight the importance of accounting for the vertical diffusion of {sup 137}Cs in marine sediments when used as a tracer for environmental processes and for assessing potential bioavailability. - Highlights: ► Cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) is produced exclusively by anthropogenic processes. ► A model of diffusion–convection simulated {sup 137}Cs environmental behavior. ► This is important for assessing the bioavailability of this toxic element. ► In Antarctica ice cover influenced the input to the sediments.

  19. Distribution patterns of typical enzyme activities in tundra soils on the Fildes Peninsula of maritime Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Wei; WANG Qing; ZHU Renbin; MA Dawei

    2015-01-01

    Soil enzyme activities can be used as indicators of microbial activity and soil fertility. In this paper, the activities of invertase (IA), phosphatase (PA) and urease (UA) were investigated in tundra soils collected from marine animal colonies, areas of human activity and background areas on Fildes Peninsula, maritime Antarctica. Soil enzyme activities were in the range of 1.0–82.7 mg·kg-1·h-1 for IA, 0.2–8.2 mg·kg-1·h-1 for PA and 0.2–39.8 mg·kg-1·h-1 for UA. The spatial distribution patterns for soil enzyme activities corresponded strongly with marine animal activity and human activity. Significantly higher soil IA and PA activities occurred in penguin colony soils, whereas seal colony soils showed higher UA activity. Statistical analysis indicated that soil IA activity was controlled by the levels of soil nutrients (TOC, TN and TP), PA activity was closely related with TP, and UA activity was affected by the soil pH. Overall, the deposition amount of penguin guano or seal excreta could impact the distribution of enzyme activity in Antarctic tundra soils. Multiple stepwise regression models were established between the enzyme activities, soil physicochemical properties and heavy metals Cu and Zn ([IA]=0.7[TP]–0.2[Cu]+22.3[TN]+15.1, [PA]=0.3[TP]+0.03[Mc]+0.2, [UA]=16.7[pH]–0.5[Cu]+ 0.4[Zn]–72.6). These models could be used to predict enzyme activities in the tundra soils, which could be helpful to study the effects of marine animal activity and environmental change on tundra ecosystems in maritime Antarctica.

  20. Experimental culture of non-indigenous Juncus bufonius from King George Island, South Shetland Island, Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marely Cuba-Díaz; Eduardo Fuentes; Mauricio Rondanelli-Reyes; Ángela Machuca

    2015-01-01

    Juncus bufonius L. (Juncaceae) is recognized by the US Department of Agriculture as a weed or invasive plant. Recently, we reported on J. bufonius L. var. bufonius associated with the native vascular plants Deschampsia antarctica and Colobanthus quitensis in the environs of the Polish Arctowski Station, King George Island, in the Maritime Antarctica. In this study, we evaluated the developmental stages and morphological characteristics of J. bufonius plants cultivated in controlled conditions beginning with seeds obtained from plants of the Antarctic population. Germination occurred at 3 weeks and the germination percentage was low (22.5%). The average time between the anthesis and seed formation was 7 weeks, similar to that reported for other species in the Juncaceae. According to data reported in the literature, Antarctic individuals were significantly smaller than their relatives growing in other conditions, except for the number of inflorescences. The morphological characteristics of a species vary according to its distribution and the edaphoclimatic environment where it occur; cosmopolitan plants shuch as J. bufonius also have reduced stature in cold environments. The low percentage germination may have been due to water availability in the plant chamber in which the study was conducted. J. bufonius is intolerant of dry environments, and once it suffers hydric stress its recovery is very low; thus, a moister environment could be beneficial. J. bufonius has become established amongst native vegetation near Arctowski Station and without careful control or eradication; it may have the potential to spread far beyond the site, as has happened with the alien grass Poa annua as human disturbance and climate warming increase.

  1. Relation between surface topography and sea-salt snow chemistry from Princess Elizabeth Land, East Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mahalinganathan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies on Antarctic snow have established an unambiguous correlation between variability of sea-salt records and site specific features like elevation and proximity to the sea. On the other hand, variations of Cl/Na+ ratios in snow have been attributed to the reaction mechanisms involving atmospheric acids. In the present study, the annual records of Na+, Cl and SO42− were investigated using snow cores along a 180 km coast to inland transect in Princess Elizabeth Land, East Antarctica. Exceptionally high Na+ concentrations and large variations in Cl/Na+ ratios were observed up to 50 km (∼1100 m elevation of the transect. The steepest slope in the entire transect (49.3 m km−1 was between 20 and 30 km and the sea-salt records in snow from this area revealed extensive modifications, with Cl/Na+ ratios as low as 0.2. Statistical analysis showed a strong association between the slope and variations in Cl/Na+ ratios along the transect (r = −0.676, 99% confidence level. While distance from the coast accounted for some variability, the altitude by itself has no significant control over the sea-salt ion variability. However, the steep slopes influence the deposition of sea-salt aerosols in snow. The wind redistribution of snow due to the steep slopes on the coastal escarpment increases the concentration of Na+, resulting in a low Cl/Na+ ratios. We propose that the slope variations in the coastal regions of Antarctica could significantly influence the sea-salt chemistry of snow.

  2. Ambient Seismic Signals Observed in Iceberg?Filled Waters of the Ross Sea, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macayeal, D. R.; Okal, E. A.; Aster, R. C.

    2006-12-01

    A two-year seismometer deployment on various icebergs in the Ross Sea and on the Ross Ice Shelf (PASSCAL project SOUTHBERG) have produced an unusual seismological "tone poem" constituting a sample of ambient conditions in an iceberg-covered, coastal sea of Antarctica. The original motivation of the project was to investigate the source of signals seen as T-phases in the equatorial Pacific [e.g., Talandier et al., 2002]. During the periods of continuous seismometer operation (i.e., during the October - April periods of 2003-4 and 2004-5 when photovoltaic charging systems kept seismometers in operation) on icebergs B15A, C16 and Nascent Iceberg (a site not yet calved from the Ross Ice Shelf), about 1300 events were observed (roughly one event per day). These events are attributed to the icebergs, and are loosely referred to as "iceberg tremor" due to their long duration (many hours) and spectral structure (e.g., characterized by clearly preferential frequencies in the 1-3 Hz range, accompanied by multiple harmonics of a variable-pitch fundamental). The purpose of this presentation is to give a general qualitative overview of the various categories of iceberg tremor, and to describe their relationship to other variables observed (e.g., iceberg drift velocity, iceberg-on-iceberg collision, iceberg-on-seabed scraping). Speculation on the cause or causes of iceberg tremor will be postponed pending further study. Suggestions as to the relationship between the ambient tone poem of iceberg-covered waters and hydro-acoustic and seismic signals seen in the ocean beyond Antarctica will be offered.

  3. Magnetotelluric investigation of the Vestfold Hills and Rauer Group, East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Jared R.; Selway, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    The Vestfold Hills and Rauer Group in East Antarctica have contrasting Archean to Neoproterozoic geological histories and are believed to be juxtaposed along a suture zone that now lies beneath the Sørsdal Glacier. Exact location and age of this suture zone are unknown, as is its relationship to regional deformation associated with the amalgamation of East Gondwana. To image the suture zone, magnetotelluric (MT) data were collected in Prydz Bay, East Antarctica, mainly along a profile crossing the Sørsdal Glacier and regions inland of the Vestfold Hills and Rauer Group islands. Time-frequency analysis of the MT time series yielded three important observations: (1) Wind speeds in excess of ∼8 m/s reduce coherence between electric and magnetic fields due to charged wind-blown particles of ice and snow. (2) Estimation of the MT transfer function is best between 1000 and 1400 UT when ionospheric Hall currents enhance the magnetic source field. (3) Nonplanar source field effects were minimal but detectable and removed from estimation of the MT transfer function. Inversions of MT data in 2-D and 3-D produce similar resistivity models, where structures in the preferred 3-D resistivity model correlate strongly with regional magnetic data. The electrically conductive Rauer Group is separated from the less conductive Vestfold Hills by a resistive zone under the Sørsdal Glacier, which is interpreted to be caused by oxidation during suturing. Though a suture zone has been imaged, no time constrains on suturing can be made from the MT data.

  4. Photosynthesis-irradiance responses in the Ross Sea, Antarctica: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W. O., Jr.; Donaldson, K.

    2015-06-01

    A meta-analysis of photosynthesis-irradiance measurements was completed using data from the Ross Sea, Antarctica, using a total of 417 independent measurements. PmB, the maximum, chlorophyll-specific, irradiance-saturated rate of photosynthesis, averaged 1.1 ± 0.06 μg C (μg Chl)-1 h-1. Light-limited, chlorophyll-specific photosynthetic rates (αB) averaged 0.030 ± 0.023 μg C (μg Chl)-1 h-1 (μmol quanta m-2 s-1)-1. Significant variations in PmB and αB were found as a function of season, with spring maximum photosynthetic rates being 60% greater than those in summer. Similarly, α values were 48% greater in spring. There was no detectable effect of sampling location on the photo-synthetic parameters, and temperature and macronutrient (NO3) concentrations also did not have an influence. However, irradiance and carbon dioxide concentrations, when altered under controlled conditions, exerted significant influences on photosynthetic parameters. Specifically, reduced irradiance resulted in significantly decreased PmB and increased αB values, and increased CO2 concentrations resulted in significantly increased PmB and αB values. Comparison of photosynthetic parameters derived at stations where iron concentrations were above and below 0.1 nM indicated that reduced iron levels were associated with significantly increased PmB values, confirming the importance of iron within the photosynthetic process. No significant difference was detected between stations dominated by diatoms and those dominated by the haptophyte Phaeocystis antarctica. The meta-analysis confirms the photosynthetic rates predicted from global analyses that are based solely on temperature and irradiance availability, but suggests that, for more accurate predictions of productivity in polar systems, a more detailed model that includes temporal effects of photosynthetic parameters will be required.

  5. Spatio-temporal variations in aerosol properties over the oceanic regions between coastal India and Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaubey, Jai Prakash; Moorthy, K. Krishna; Babu, S. Suresh; Gogoi, Mukunda M.

    2013-11-01

    Measurements of aerosol optical depth (AOD), mass concentrations of black carbon (MB) and composite aerosols (MT) in the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) were made during onward [Dec 2007 to Jan 2008; Northern Hemispheric (NH) winter] and return (Mar-Apr 2008; NH spring) legs of the trans-continental cruise of 27th Indian Scientific Expedition to Antarctica (ISEA) during International Polar Year of 2007-2008. Large latitudinal gradients are seen; with AOD decreasing from coastal India (AOD~0.45) to coastal Antarctica (AOD~0.04) during NH winter. The measurements also evidenced a strong seasonality of AOD over all regions, with a decrease of the values and gradient in NH spring. BC concentration in the MABL decreases exponentially from 3800 ng m-3 (over 10°N) to 624 ng m-3 near equator and much lower values (<100 ng m-3) over southern oceanic region. Seasonality in the latitudinal gradients of AOD, MB and MT exists over regions north of 20°S. Multi campaign [Pilot Expedition to Southern Ocean (2004), Special Expedition to Larsemann Hills (2007) and Tropical Indian Ocean cruise (2010)] analysis over these oceanic regions showed that the pattern over the regions (south of 20°S) remained the same. Seasonality of AOD exists over Atlantic Ocean as well. Temporal variation of AOD at different latitudes derived from AERONET data also showed marked seasonality and latitudinal variation in northern hemisphere than in southern Hemisphere. Satellite retrieved AOD showed good correlation with the ship borne measurements; while GOCART retrieved AOD underestimates but gives a measure of the spatial variations.

  6. Identification and characterization of yeasts isolated from sedimentary rocks of Union Glacier at the Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barahona, Salvador; Yuivar, Yassef; Socias, Gabriel; Alcaíno, Jennifer; Cifuentes, Víctor; Baeza, Marcelo

    2016-07-01

    The study of the yeasts that inhabit cold environments, such as Antarctica, is an active field of investigation oriented toward understanding their ecological roles in these ecosystems. In a great part, the interest in cold-adapted yeasts is due to several industrial and biotechnological applications that have been described for them. The aim of this work was to isolate and identify yeasts from sedimentary rock samples collected at the Union Glacier, Antarctica. Furthermore, the yeasts were physiologically characterized, including the production of metabolites of biotechnological interest. The yeasts isolated that were identified at the molecular level belonged to genera Collophora (1 isolate), Cryptococcus (2 isolates), Sporidiobolus (4 isolates), Sporobolomyces (1 isolate) and Torrubiella (2 isolates). The majority of yeasts were basidiomycetous and psychrotolerant. By cross-test assays for anti-yeast activity, it was determined that Collophora sp., Sporidiobolus salmonicolor, and Sporobolomyces roseus secreted a protein factor that kills Sporidiobolus metaroseus. The colored yeasts Sp. salmonicolor, Sp. metaroseus and Collophora sp. produced several carotenoid pigments that were identified as 2,3 dihydroxy-γ-carotene, -carotene, 4-ketotorulene, torulene β-cryptoxanthin and spirilloxanthin. Concerning analysis of mycosporines, these metabolites were only found in the yeasts Torrubiella sp. and Cryptococcus sp. T11-10-1. Furthermore, the yeasts were evaluated for the production of extracellular hydrolytic activities. Of the twelve activities analyzed, alkaline phosphatase, invertase, gelatinase, cellulase, amylase, and protease enzyme activities were detected. The yeasts Cryptococcus sp. T11-10-1 and Sporidiobolus metaroseus showed the highest number of different enzyme activities.

  7. Postdepositional losses of methane sulfonate, nitrate, and chloride at the European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica deep-drilling site in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, R.; Traufetter, F.; Fischer, H.; Oerter, H.; Piel, C.; Miller, H.

    2004-04-01

    We quantified postdepositional losses of methane sulfonate (MSA-), nitrate, and chloride at the European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica (EPICA) drilling site in Dronning Maud Land (DML) (75°S, 0°E). Analyses of four intermediate deep firn cores and 13 snow pits were considered. We found that about 26 ± 13% of the once deposited nitrate and typically 51 ± 20% of MSA- were lost, while for chloride, no significant depletion could be observed in firn older than one year. Assuming a first order exponential decay rate, the characteristic e-folding time for MSA- is 6.4 ± 3 years and 19 ± 6 years for nitrate. It turns out that for nitrate and MSA- the typical mean concentrations representative for the last 100 years were reached after 5.4 and 6.5 years, respectively, indicating that beneath a depth of around 1.2-1.4 m postdepositional losses can be neglected. In the area of investigation, only MSA- concentrations and postdepositional losses showed a distinct dependence on snow accumulation rate. Consequently, MSA- concentrations archived at this site should be significantly dependent on the variability of annual snow accumulation, and we recommend a corresponding correction. With a simple approach, we estimated the partial pressure of the free acids MSA, HNO3, and HCl on the basis of Henry's law assuming that ionic impurities of the bulk ice matrix are localized in a quasi-brine layer (QBL). In contrast to measurements, this approach predicts a nearly complete loss of MSA-, NO3-, and Cl-.

  8. Direct evidence of histopathological impacts of wastewater discharge on resident Antarctic fish (Trematomus bernacchii) at Davis Station, East Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Patricia A; King, Catherine K; Stark, Jonathan S; Mondon, Julie A

    2014-10-15

    During the 2009/2010 summer, a comprehensive environmental impact assessment (EIA) of the wastewater discharge at Davis Station, East Antarctica was completed. As part of this, histological alteration of gill and liver tissue in Antarctic Rock-cod (Trematomus bernacchii) from four sites along a spatial gradient from the wastewater outfall were assessed. All fish within 800 m of the outfall exhibited significant histological changes in both tissues. Common pathologies observed in fish closest to the outfall include proliferation of epithelial cells with associated secondary lamellar fusion in the gills and multifocal granulomata with inflammation and necrosis as well as cysts in the liver. Fish from sites >800 m from the outfall also exhibited alterations but to a lesser degree, with prevalence and severity decreasing with increasing distance from the outfall. This study highlights the value of histopathological investigations as part of EIAs and provides the first evidence of sub-lethal alteration associated with wastewater discharge in East Antarctica.

  9. Ecosystem evolution of seal colony and the influencing factors in the 20th century on Fildes Peninsula, West Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Huang; Liguang Sun; Xinming Wang; Yuhong Wang; Tao Huang

    2011-01-01

    As the topmost predator in Antarctica,the seal is a unique indicator of Antarctic environment and climate changes.In this study,we collected a sediment core from the Fildes Peninsula of West Antarctica,and used cholesterol,cholestanol,epicoprostanol,coprostanol,and seal hair numbers as the proxy indicators of seal population size and phytol as of general vegetation,and we reconstructed the 20th century history of variation of the seal population and vegetation abundance on this island.The sealing industry in the early 20th century caused the dramatic decline of seal population,and the ban of seal hunting since the 1960s led to its recovery of seal population.The seal population during the past century was primarily controlled by human activities and krill density.The reconstructed relation between seal population and vegetation abundance may offer new insights into Antarctic environment and ecology.

  10. Ultrastructure of Lobosphaera reniformis (Watanabe) Komárek et Fott (Chlorellales) from King George Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    A. Massalski; T. Mrozińska; Olech, M.

    2014-01-01

    Lobosphaera reniformis (Wat.) Kom. et Fott (=Chlorella reniformis Wat.) so far known only from Japan, and Papua Island, was for the first time found in Antarctica (King George Island, South Shetland Islands). In laboratory cultures a complete life cycle was obtained, and most of its stages were followed by the electron microscopy. Reproduction is by morphologically different autospores. In some large vegetative cells two Golgi apparatuses lying side by side were observed.

  11. Ultrastructure of Lobosphaera reniformis (Watanabe Komárek et Fott (Chlorellales from King George Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Massalski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lobosphaera reniformis (Wat. Kom. et Fott (=Chlorella reniformis Wat. so far known only from Japan, and Papua Island, was for the first time found in Antarctica (King George Island, South Shetland Islands. In laboratory cultures a complete life cycle was obtained, and most of its stages were followed by the electron microscopy. Reproduction is by morphologically different autospores. In some large vegetative cells two Golgi apparatuses lying side by side were observed.

  12. Contemporary reliance on bicarbonate acquisition predicts increased growth of seagrass Amphibolis antarctica in a high-CO2 world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnell, Owen W; Connell, Sean D; Irving, Andrew D; Watling, Jennifer R; Russell, Bayden D

    2014-01-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 is increasing the availability of dissolved CO2 in the ocean relative to HCO3 (-). Currently, many marine primary producers use HCO3 (-) for photosynthesis, but this is energetically costly. Increasing passive CO2 uptake relative to HCO3 (-) pathways could provide energy savings, leading to increased productivity and growth of marine plants. Inorganic carbon-uptake mechanisms in the seagrass Amphibolis antarctica were determined using the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide (AZ) and the buffer tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (TRIS). Amphibolis antarctica seedlings were also maintained in current and forecasted CO2 concentrations to measure their physiology and growth. Photosynthesis of A. antarctica was significantly reduced by AZ and TRIS, indicating utilization of HCO3 (-)-uptake mechanisms. When acclimated plants were switched between CO2 treatments, the photosynthetic rate was dependent on measurement conditions but not growth conditions, indicating a dynamic response to changes in dissolved CO2 concentration, rather than lasting effects of acclimation. At forecast CO2 concentrations, seedlings had a greater maximum electron transport rate (1.4-fold), photosynthesis (2.1-fold), below-ground biomass (1.7-fold) and increase in leaf number (2-fold) relative to plants in the current CO2 concentration. The greater increase in photosynthesis (measured as O2 production) compared with the electron transport rate at forecasted CO2 concentration suggests that photosynthetic efficiency increased, possibly due to a decrease in photorespiration. Thus, it appears that the photosynthesis and growth of seagrasses reliant on energetically costly HCO3 (-) acquisition, such as A. antarctica, might increase at forecasted CO2 concentrations. Greater growth might enhance the future prosperity and rehabilitation of these important habitat-forming plants, which have experienced declines of global significance.

  13. [Clinico-biochemical aspects of human adaptation in central Antarctica as applied to the problems of space biology and medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbanov, V V; Khmel'kov, V P; Krupina, T N; Kuznetscv, A G; Kuz'min, M P

    1977-01-01

    The paper presents the results of clinical, physiological and biochemical examination of 27 polar explorer--members of the 17th Soviet Antartic Expedition at the Vostok station. It gives data on the morbidity rate and describes the development of the asthenic-neurotic syndrome. On the basis of studies of catecholamines and serotonin, the role of the sympatho-adrenal system in the human adaptation to the harsh environments of the Central Antarctica has been shown.

  14. Ice core evidence for a 20th century increase in surface mass balance in coastal Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Morgane; Tison, Jean-Louis; Fjøsne, Karen; Hubbard, Bryn; Kjær, Helle A.; Lenaerts, Jan T. M.; Drews, Reinhard; Sheldon, Simon G.; De Bondt, Kevin; Claeys, Philippe; Pattyn, Frank

    2016-10-01

    Ice cores provide temporal records of surface mass balance (SMB). Coastal areas of Antarctica have relatively high and variable SMB, but are under-represented in records spanning more than 100 years. Here we present SMB reconstruction from a 120 m-long ice core drilled in 2012 on the Derwael Ice Rise, coastal Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica. Water stable isotope (δ18O and δD) stratigraphy is supplemented by discontinuous major ion profiles and continuous electrical conductivity measurements. The base of the ice core is dated to AD 1759 ± 16, providing a climate proxy for the past ˜ 250 years. The core's annual layer thickness history is combined with its gravimetric density profile to reconstruct the site's SMB history, corrected for the influence of ice deformation. The mean SMB for the core's entire history is 0.47 ± 0.02 m water equivalent (w.e.) a-1. The time series of reconstructed annual SMB shows high variability, but a general increase beginning in the 20th century. This increase is particularly marked during the last 50 years (1962-2011), which yields mean SMB of 0.61 ± 0.01 m w.e. a-1. This trend is compared with other reported SMB data in Antarctica, generally showing a high spatial variability. Output of the fully coupled Community Earth System Model (CESM) suggests that, although atmospheric circulation is the main factor influencing SMB, variability in sea surface temperatures and sea ice cover in the precipitation source region also explain part of the variability in SMB. Local snow redistribution can also influence interannual variability but is unlikely to influence long-term trends significantly. This is the first record from a coastal ice core in East Antarctica to show an increase in SMB beginning in the early 20th century and particularly marked during the last 50 years.

  15. Mannosylerythritol lipids secreted by phyllosphere yeast Pseudozyma antarctica is associated with its filamentous growth and propagation on plant surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Shigenobu; Morita, Tomotake; Shinozaki, Yukiko; Watanabe, Takashi; Sameshima-Yamashita, Yuka; Koitabashi, Motoo; Kitamoto, Dai; Kitamoto, Hiroko

    2014-01-01

    The biological function of mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) towards their producer, Pseudozyma antarctica, on plant surfaces was investigated. MEL-producing wild-type strain and its MEL production-defective mutant strain (ΔPaEMT1) were compared in terms of their phenotypic traits on the surface of plastic plates, onion peels, and fresh leaves of rice and wheat. While wild-type cells adhering on plastic surfaces and onion peels changed morphologically from single cells to elongated ones for a short period of about 4 h and 1 day, respectively, ΔPaEMT1 cells did not. Microscopic observation of both strains grown on plant leaf surfaces verified that the wild type colonized a significantly bigger area than that of ΔPaEMT1. However, when MELs were exogenously added to the mutant cells on plant surfaces, their colonized area became enlarged. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed a secretion of higher amount of MELs in the cell suspension incubated with wheat leaf cuttings compared to that in the suspension without cuttings. Transcriptional analysis by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR verified that the expression of erythritol/mannose transferase gene and MELs transporter gene of P. antarctica increased in the cells inoculated onto wheat leaves at 4, 6, and 8 days of incubation, indicating a potential of P. antarctica to produce MELs on the leaves. These findings demonstrate that MELs produced by P. antarctica on plant surfaces could be expected to play a significant role in fungal morphological development and propagation on plant surfaces.

  16. Electric Vehicle Performance at McMurdo Station (Antarctica) and Comparison with McMurdo Station Conventional Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sears, T.; Lammert, M.; Colby, K.; Walter, R.

    2014-09-01

    This report examines the performance of two electric vehicles (EVs) at McMurdo, Antarctica (McMurdo). The study examined the performance of two e-ride Industries EVs initially delivered to McMurdo on February 16, 2011, and compared their performance and fuel use with that of conventional vehicles that have a duty cycle similar to that of the EVs used at McMurdo.

  17. Lipids and pigment-protein complexes of photosynthetic apparatus of Deschampsia antarctica Desv. plants under UV-B radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svietlova N. B.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate structural and functional modifications of major components of photosynthetic membranes of endemic antarctic species D. antarctica under UV-B radiation. Methods. For quantitative determination of photosynthetic membrane components we used Arnon’s method (for chlorophylls and carotenoids; separation of carotenoids was carried out by Merzlyak’s method; polar lipids were isolated by Zill and Harmon method in modification of Yakovenko and Mihno; glycolipids separation and identification we carried out by Yamamoto method; and sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol content was determined by Kean method. The separation, disintegration and determination of pigment-protein complexes of chloroplasts were carried out by Anderson method. Authenticity of differences between the mean arithmetic values of indices was set after the Student criterion. Differences were considered as reliable at p 0.05. Results. We determined structural and functional changes in lipids, carotenoids and pigment-protein complexes at the photosyntetic apparatus level in D. antarctica plants under UV-B radiation. Conclusions. Adaptation of D. antarctica plants to UV-B radiation is accompanied by a cascade of physiological and biochemical rearrangements at the level of photosynthetic apparatus, manifested as the changes in pigment, lipid and pigment-protein complexes content

  18. An improved bathymetry compilation for the Bellingshausen Sea, Antarctica, to inform ice-sheet and ocean models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. C. Graham

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The southern Bellingshausen Sea (SBS is a rapidly-changing part of West Antarctica, where oceanic and atmospheric warming has led to the recent basal melting and break-up of the Wilkins ice shelf, the dynamic thinning of fringing glaciers, and sea-ice reduction. Accurate sea-floor morphology is vital for understanding the continued effects of each process upon changes within Antarctica's ice sheets. Here we present a new bathymetric grid for the SBS compiled from shipborne multibeam echo-sounder, spot-sounding and sub-ice measurements. The 1-km grid is the most detailed compilation for the SBS to-date, revealing large cross-shelf troughs, shallow banks, and deep inner-shelf basins that continue inland of coastal ice shelves. The troughs now serve as pathways which allow warm deep water to access the ice sheet in the SBS. Our dataset highlights areas still lacking bathymetric constraint, as well as regions for further investigation, including the likely routes of palaeo-ice streams. The new compilation is a major improvement upon previous grids and will be a key dataset for incorporating into simulations of ocean circulation, ice-sheet change and history. It will also serve forecasts of ice stability and future sea-level contributions from ice loss in West Antarctica, required for the next IPCC assessment report in 2013.

  19. An improved bathymetry compilation for the Bellingshausen Sea, Antarctica, to inform ice-sheet and ocean models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. C. Graham

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The southern Bellingshausen Sea (SBS is a rapidly-changing part of West Antarctica, where oceanic and atmospheric warming has led to the recent basal melting and break-up of the Wilkins ice shelf, the dynamic thinning of fringing glaciers, and sea-ice reduction. Accurate sea-floor morphology is vital for understanding the continued effects of each process upon changes within Antarctica's ice sheets. Here we present a new bathymetric grid for the SBS compiled from shipborne echo-sounder, spot-sounding and sub-ice measurements. The 1-km grid is the most detailed compilation for the SBS to-date, revealing large cross-shelf troughs, shallow banks, and deep inner-shelf basins that continue inland of coastal ice shelves. The troughs now serve as pathways which allow warm deep water to access the ice fronts in the SBS. Our dataset highlights areas still lacking bathymetric constraint, as well as regions for further investigation, including the likely routes of palaeo-ice streams. The new compilation is a major improvement upon previous grids and will be a key dataset for incorporating into simulations of ocean circulation, ice-sheet change and history. It will also serve forecasts of ice stability and future sea-level contributions from ice loss in West Antarctica, required for the next IPCC assessment report in 2013.

  20. A new sediment-dwelling pholadid bivalve from Oligocene glaciomarine sediments of King George Island, West Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Hryniewicz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a re-description of the pholadid bivalve from the Oligocene Polonez Cove Formation, King George Island, West Antarctica, previously identified as Penitella sp. The study is based on a collection of 210 specimens, preserved exclusively in life position in flask-shaped Gastrochaenolites type borings which have been subsequently buried by glaciomarine diamictite. The systematic study showed that this pholadid is a new species belonging to the genus Pholadidea rather than to Penitella and we name it Pholadidea gradzinskii sp. nov. The species is one of very few Late Cretaceous–Paleogene pholadids that we could safely identify as Pholadidea. All of them are known exclusively from the southern Pacific and adjacent areas (New Zealand, Antarctica, and Patagonia. We demonstrate that the genus attained its Recent broad distribution before the middle Miocene, when the first species of Pholadidea appeared in the Northern Hemisphere. The mass occurrence of P. gradzinskii in the Oligocene of West Antarctica results from favourable living condition in a shallow marine environment. Low sedimentation rate allowed the settlement of numerous larvae and their subsequent metamorphosis, growth, and maturity terminated by the mass mortality caused by the burial by marine diamictite. The sediment-boring Paleogene species of Pholadidea, among them P. gradzinskii, follow the wood-boring Late Cretaceous species P. (Hatasia wiffenae, which reflects a general pattern of evolution of substrate selection among pholadoid bivalves.

  1. Upper limits for chlorophylla changes with brine volume in sea ice during the austral spring in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhijun; LI Runling; WANG Zipan; HAAS Christian; DIECKMANN Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    During the winter and spring of 2006, we investigated the sea ice physics and marine biology in the northwest Weddell Sea, Antarctica aboard R/VPolarstern. We determined the texture of each ice core and 71 ice crystal thin sections from 27 ice cores. We analyzed 393 ice cores, their temperatures, 348 block density and salinity samples, and 311 chlorophylla (Chla) and phaeophytin samples along the cruise route during the investigation. Based on the vertical distributions of 302 groups of data for the ice porosity and Chla content in the ice at the same position, we obtained new evidence that ice physical parameters influence the Chla content in ice. We collected snow and ice thickness data, and established the effects of the snow and ice thickness on the Chla blooms under the ice, as well as the relationships between the activity of ice algae cells and the brine volume in ice according to the principle of environmental control of the ecological balance. We determined the upper limits for Chla in the brine volume of granular and columnar ice in the Antarctica, thereby demonstrating the effects of ice crystals on brine drainage, and the contributions of the physical properties of sea ice to Chla blooms near the ice bottom and on the ice-water interface in the austral spring. Moreover, we found that the physical properties of sea ice affect ice algae and they are key control elements that modulate marine phytoplankton blooms in the ice-covered waters around Antarctica.

  2. Low cyanobacterial diversity in biotopes of the Transantarctic Mountains and Shackleton Range (80-82°S), Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Carazo, Rafael; Hodgson, Dominic A; Convey, Peter; Wilmotte, Annick

    2011-09-01

    The evolutionary history and geographical isolation of the Antarctic continent have produced a unique environment rich in endemic organisms. In many regions of Antarctica, cyanobacteria are the dominant phototrophs in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. We have used microscopic and molecular approaches to examine the cyanobacterial diversity of biotopes at two inland continental Antarctic sites (80-82°S). These are among the most southerly locations where freshwater-related ecosystems are present. The results showed a low cyanobacterial diversity, with only 3-7 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) per sample obtained by a combination of strain isolations, clone libraries and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis based on 16S rRNA genes. One OTU was potentially endemic to Antarctica and is present in several regions of the continent. Four OTUs were shared by the samples from Forlidas Pond and the surrounding terrestrial mats. Only one OTU, but no internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences, was common to Forlidas Pond and Lundström Lake. The ITS sequences were shown to further discriminate different genotypes within the OTUs. ITS sequences from Antarctic locations appear to be more closely related to each other than to non-Antarctic sequences. Future research in inland continental Antarctica will shed more light on the geographical distribution and evolutionary isolation of cyanobacteria in these extreme habitats.

  3. Polyphasic characterization of 10 selected ecologically relevant filamentous cyanobacterial strains from the South Shetland Islands, Maritime Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jancusova, Miroslava; Kovacik, Lubomir; Pereira, Antonio Batista; Dusinsky, Roman; Wilmotte, Annick

    2016-07-01

    The evolutionary relationships of 10 Antarctic cyanobacterial strains of the order Oscillatoriales isolated from King George and Deception Islands, South Shetland Islands were studied by a polyphasic approach (morphology, 16S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer sequences). The studied taxa are characteristic of coastal Antarctic biotopes, where they form distinct populations and ecologically delimited communities. They were isolated from terrestrial habitats: microbial mats in seepages; crusts on soil, rocks, bones and mosses; mud, sometimes close to bird colonies; and from guano. Based on major phenotypic features, the strains were divided into four distinct morphotypes: Leptolyngbya borchgrevinkii (A), Leptolyngbya frigida (B), Microcoleus sp. (C) and Wilmottia murrayi (D). This morphological identification was in agreement with the phylogenetic relationships. For the first time, the 16S rRNA gene sequence of a strain corresponding to the L. borchgrevinkii morphotype was determined. Morphotype B is most related to sequences assigned to L. frigida isolated from microbial mats of coastal lakes in East Antarctica. Morphotype C belongs to a cluster including strains with morphotypes corresponding to Microcoleus attenuatus, Microcoleus favosus and Microcoleus sp., which are from Antarctica and other continents. Morphotype D is grouped with sequences assigned to W. murrayi mostly isolated from Antarctica.

  4. GENOTOXICITY OF SHALLOW WATERS NEAR THE BRAZILIAN ANTARCTIC STATION "COMANDANTE FERRAZ" (EACF, ADMIRALTY BAY, KING GEORGE ISLAND, ANTARCTICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur José da Silva Rocha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Series of biomonitoring surveys were undertaken weekly in February 2012 to investigate the genotoxicity of the shallow waters around the Brazilian Antarctic Station "Comandante Ferraz" (EACF. The comet assay was applied to assess the damage to the DNA of hemocytes of the crustacean amphipods Gondogeneia antarctica collected from shallow waters near the Fuel Tanks (FT and Sewage Treatment Outflow (STO of the research station, and compare it to the DNA damage of animals from Punta Plaza (PPL and Yellow Point (YP, natural sites far from the EACF defined as experimental controls. The damage to the DNA of hemocytes of G. antarctica was not significantly different between sites in the biomonitoring surveys I and II. In survey III, the damage to the DNA of animals captured in shallow waters near the Fuel Tanks (FT and Sewage Treatment Outflow (STO was significantly higher than that of the control site of Punta Plaza (PPL. In biomonitoring survey IV, a significant difference was detected only between the FT and PPL sites. Results demonstrated that the shallow waters in front of the station may be genotoxic and that the comet assay and hemocytes of G. antarctica are useful tools for assessing genotoxicity in biomonitoring studies of Antarctic marine coastal habitats.

  5. Application of a quantitative histological health index for Antarctic rock cod (Trematomus bernacchii) from Davis Station, East Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Patricia A; King, Catherine K; Mondon, Julie A

    2015-08-01

    A quantitative Histological Health Index (HHI) was applied to Antarctic rock cod (Trematomus bernacchii) using gill, liver, spleen, kidney and gonad to assess the impact of wastewater effluent from Davis Station, East Antarctica. A total of 120 fish were collected from 6 sites in the Prydz Bay region of East Antarctica at varying distances from the wastewater outfall. The HHI revealed a greater severity of alteration in fish at the wastewater outfall, which decreased stepwise with distance. Gill and liver displayed the greatest severity of alteration in fish occurring in close proximity to the wastewater outfall, showing severe and pronounced alteration respectively. Findings of the HHI add to a growing weight of evidence indicating that the current level of wastewater treatment at Davis Station is insufficient to prevent impact to the surrounding environment. The HHI for T. bernacchii developed in this study is recommended as a useful risk assessment tool for assessing in situ, sub-lethal impacts from station-derived contamination in coastal regions throughout Antarctica.

  6. Coastal-change and glaciological map of the Ronne Ice Shelf area, Antarctica, 1974-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrigno, Jane G.; Foley, K.M.; Swithinbank, C.; Williams, R.S.; Dalide, L.M.

    2005-01-01

    (MSS) images of Ant-arctica and the subsequent repeat coverage made possible with Landsat and other satellite images provided an excellent means of documenting changes in the coastline of Antarctica (Ferrigno and Gould, 1987). The availability of this information provided the impetus for carrying out a comprehensive analysis of the glaciological features of the coastal regions and changes in ice fronts of Antarctica (Swithinbank, 1988; Williams and Ferrigno, 1988). The project was later modified to include Landsat 4 and 5 MSS and Thematic Mapper (TM) (and in some areas Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+)), RADARSAT images, and other data where available, to compare changes during a 20- to 25- or 30-year time interval (or longer where data were available, as in the Antarctic Peninsula). The results of the analysis are being used to produce a digital database and a series of USGS Geologic Investigations Series Maps (I-2600) consisting of 23 maps at 1:1,000,000 scale and 1 map at 1:5,000,000 scale, in both paper and digital format (Williams and others, 1995; Williams and Ferrigno, 1998; Ferrigno and others, 2002) (available online at http://www.glaciers.er.usgs.gov).

  7. Acquisition of isotopic composition for surface snow in East Antarctica and the links to climatic parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touzeau, Alexandra; Landais, Amaëlle; Stenni, Barbara; Uemura, Ryu; Fukui, Kotaro; Fujita, Shuji; Guilbaud, Sarah; Ekaykin, Alexey; Casado, Mathieu; Barkan, Eugeni; Luz, Boaz; Magand, Olivier; Teste, Grégory; Le Meur, Emmanuel; Baroni, Mélanie; Savarino, Joël; Bourgeois, Ilann; Risi, Camille

    2016-04-01

    The isotopic compositions of oxygen and hydrogen in ice cores are invaluable tools for the reconstruction of past climate variations. Used alone, they give insights into the variations of the local temperature, whereas taken together they can provide information on the climatic conditions at the point of origin of the moisture. However, recent analyses of snow from shallow pits indicate that the climatic signal can become erased in very low accumulation regions, due to local processes of snow reworking. The signal-to-noise ratio decreases and the climatic signal can then only be retrieved using stacks of several snow pits. Obviously, the signal is not completely lost at this stage, otherwise it would be impossible to extract valuable climate information from ice cores as has been done, for instance, for the last glaciation. To better understand how the climatic signal is passed from the precipitation to the snow, we present here results from varied snow samples from East Antarctica. First, we look at the relationship between isotopes and temperature from a geographical point of view, using results from three traverses across Antarctica, to see how the relationship is built up through the distillation process. We also take advantage of these measures to see how second-order parameters (d-excess and 17O-excess) are related to δ18O and how they are controlled. d-excess increases in the interior of the continent (i.e., when δ18O decreases), due to the distillation process, whereas 17O-excess decreases in remote areas, due to kinetic fractionation at low temperature. In both cases, these changes are associated with the loss of original information regarding the source. Then, we look at the same relationships in precipitation samples collected over 1 year at Dome C and Vostok, as well as in surface snow at Dome C. We note that the slope of the δ18O vs. temperature (T) relationship decreases in these samples compared to those from the traverses, and thus caution is

  8. Chemical composition of aerosol in the atmospheric surface layer of the East Antarctica coastal zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Golobokova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition of aerosol in the ground layer of the coastal zone in East Antarctica is analyzed in the article. The aerosol samples were taken in 2006–2015 during seasonal works of the Russian Antarctic Expeditions (RAE, namely, these were 52nd–53rd, 55th, and 58th–60th expeditions. Samples were taken in the 200‑km band of the sea-shore zone along routes of the research vessels (REV «Akademik Fedorov» and «Akademik Treshnikov» as well as on territories of the Russian stations Molodezhnaya and Mirny. Although the results obtained did show the wide range of the aerosol concentrations and a certain variability of their chemical composition, some common features of the variability were revealed. Thus, during the period from 2006 to 2014 a decrease of average values of the sums were noted. Spatially, a tendency of decreasing of the ion concentrations was found in the direction from the station Novolazarevskaya to the Molodezhnaya one, but the concentrations increased from the Molodezhnaya to the station Mirny. The sum of ions of the aerosol in the above mentioned coastal zone was, on the average, equal to 2.44 μg/m3, and it was larger than that on the territory of the Antarctic stations Molodezhnaya (0,29 μg/m3 and Mirny (0,50 ág / m3. The main part to the sum of the aerosol ions on the Antarctic stations was contributed by Na+, Ca2+, Cl−, SO4 2−. The main ions in aerosol composition in the coastal zone are ions Na+ and Cl−. The dominant contribution of the sea salt and SO4 2− can be traced in not only the composition of atmospheric aerosols, but also in the chemical composition of the fresh snow in the coastal areas of East Antarctica: at the Indian station Maitri, on the Larsemann Hills, and in a boring located in 55.3 km from the station Progress (K = 1.4÷6.1. It was noted that values of the coefficient of enrichment K of these ions decreases as someone moves from a shore to inland. Estimation of

  9. Teleseismic SKS splitting beneath East Antarctica using broad-band stations around Soya Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Y.; Kanao, M.

    2006-12-01

    We observed shear wave splitting of SKS waves from digital seismographs that are recorded at 5 stations around Soya Coast in the Lutzow-Holm Bay, East Antarctica. Their recording systems are composed of a three-component broadband seismometer (CMG-40T), a digital recording unit and a solar power battery supply. The events used were selected from 1999 to 2004 and phase arrival times were calculated using the IASPEI91 earth model (Kennet, 1995). In general, we chose the data from earthquakes with m>6.0 and a distance range 85° < Δ < 130° for the most prominent SKS waves We used the methods of Silver and Chan (1991) for the inversion of anisotropy parameters and estimated the splitting parameters φ (fast polarization direction) and δt (delay time between split waves) assuming a single layer of hexagonal symmetry with a horizontal symmetry axis. The weighted averages of all splitting parameters (φ, δt) for each station are AKR (30±4, 1.30±0.2), LNG (58±6, 1.27±0.2), SKL (67±10, 0.94±0.2), SKV (40±6, 1.28±0.3) and TOT (52±8, 1.26±0.3), where the weights are inversely proportional to the standard deviations for each solution. As compared to typical delay times of SKS waves which show 1.2s (Silver and Chan 1991; Vinnik et al., 1992), the result shows generally the same value. In previous study, Kubo and Hiramatsu (1998) estimate the splitting parameter for Syowa station (SYO), where is located near our using stations in East Antarctica, and the results are (49±3, 0.70±0.1). Although it is consistent with our results for fast polarization direction, δt for our results are large relatively to those of SYO. The difference may be due to either different incident angle or more complex anisotropic structure. We found that fast polarization direction is systematically parallel to coast line in the Lutzow-Holm Bay, East Antarctica, which is consistent with NE-SW paleo compressional stress. The absolute plate motion based on the HS2-NUVEL1 (Gripp and Gordon

  10. (7)Be, (210)Pb, and (210)Po in the surface air from the Arctic to Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Bertil R R; Holm, Elis

    2014-12-01

    In the present study we have investigated the activity concentrations of (210)Pb, (210)Po as well as (7)Be in surface air of the North and South Atlantic (1988-1989), the Arctic Ocean (1991), and along the coastline of Siberia (1994) during succeeding expeditions in the Swedish Polar Research program. During the cruises in the Arctic Ocean during 1991-07-28 to 1991-10-04 the average air concentrations of (7)Be was 0.6 ± 0.4 mBq/m(3), (210)Pb 40 ± 4 μBq/m(3) and (210)Po-38 ± 10 μBq/m(3). During the Swedish-Russian Tundra Ecology-94 expedition along the Siberian coastline the average air concentrations of (7)Be and (210)Pb measured during May-July were 11 ± 3, and 2.4 ± 0.4 mBq/m(3), and during July-September they were 7.2 ± 2 and 2.7 ± 1.1 mBq/m(3) respectively. The results from measurements of the activity concentration of (210)Pb in the air over the Arctic Ocean vary between 75 and 176 μBq/m(3). In the air close to land masses, however, the activity concentration of (210)Pb in the air increases to 269-2712 μBq/m(3). The activity concentration of (7)Be in the South Atlantic during the cruise down to Antarctica varied between 1.3 and 1.7 with an average of 1.5 ± 0.8 mBq/m(3). The activity concentration of (210)Pb in the South Atlantic down to Antarctica varied between 6 and 14 μBq/m(3). At the Equator the activity concentration recorded in November 1988 was 630 μBq/m(3) and in April 1989 it was 260 μBq/m(3). The average activity concentration of (210)Pb during the route Gothenburg-Montevideo in 1988 was 290 and on the return Montevideo-Gothenburg it was 230 μBq/m(3). The activity concentration of (210)Po in the South Atlantic down to Antarctica varied between 15 and 58 μBq/m(3). At the Equator the activity concentration in November 1988 was 170 and in April 1989 it was 70 μBq/m(3). The average activity concentration of (210)Po during the route Gothenburg-Montevideo in 1988 was 63 and on the return Montevideo

  11. New aerogeophysical evidences of riftogenic crust over Princess Elizabeth Land, East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golynsky, Dmitry; Golynsky, Alexander; Kiselev, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    Analysis of radio-echosounding and RADARSAT mosaic data by Golynsky & Golynsky (2007) reveals at least 500 km long structure called the Gaussberg rift over the eastern part of Princess Elizabeth Land, East Antarctica. This previously unknown continuous structure consists of two sub-parallel depressions separated by segmented horst-like escarpments that are largely hidden under the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. One of these segments is Mount Brown escarpment, which reaches a height of 1982 m. It was suggested that the rift was probably initiated at the same time as the Lambert graben, marked by the deposition of coal-bearing Permian sediment and probably inherited the tectonically weak zone of the Proterozoic igneous belt along its boundary with the Vestfold-Rauer Archean cratonic block. The Gaussberg rift may be considered as a hypothetical accommodation zone of the Carboniferous-Permian intracontinental rift along 4000 km of the West Australian and East Indian margins, which filled with thick Permian-Triassic sediment including alluvial coals (Harrowfield et al., 2005). Supposedly, the Gaussberg rift corresponds to the Mahanadi Valley of East India and the Lambert rift system has across-rift alignment with Godavari Valley. New Russian ice penetrating radar data collected in 2012-13 over western part of the suggested rift shows that in places the floor of the central depression is more than 1000 m below sea level. Horst and graben systems are heavily segmented by N-S running transverse lineaments that in addition clearly discernible in the RADARSAT data. New high-quality magnetic data show that severe changes in the magnetic fabric observed in vicinity, along strike and over borders of the structure are though to be due to the tectonic nature. Interruption of the long wavelength high-intensity magnetic anomaly belt associated with southern boundary of the Vestfold-Rauer cratonic block near the western depression can't be explained by a subglacial erosion, in our

  12. Plasma-Neutral Coupling on the Dark and Bright Sides of Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, X.; Yu, Z.; Fong, W.; Chen, C.; Zhao, J.; Huang, W.; Roberts, B. R.; Fuller-Rowell, T. J.; Richmond, A. D.; Gerrard, A. J.; Weatherwax, A. T.; Gardner, C. S.

    2014-12-01

    The polar mesosphere and thermosphere provide a unique natural laboratory for studying the complex physical, chemical, neutral dynamical and electrodynamics processes in the Earth's atmosphere and space environment. McMurdo (geographic 77.83S, geomagnetic 80S) is located by the poleward edge of the aurora oval; so energetic particles may penetrate into the lower thermosphere and mesosphere along nearly vertical geomagnetic field lines. Lidar observations at McMurdo from December 2010 to 2014 have discovered several neutral atmosphere phenomena closely related to ionosphereic parameters and geomagnetic activity. For example, the diurnal tidal amplitude of temperatures not only increases super-exponentially from 100 to 110 km but also its growth rate becomes larger at larger Kp index. The lidar discovery of neutral iron (Fe) layers with gravity wave signatures in the thermosphere enabled the direct measurements of neutral temperatures from 30 to 170 km, revealing the neutral-ion coupling and aurora-enhanced Joule heating. A lidar 'marathon' of 174-hour continuous observations showed dramatic changes of composition (Fe atoms and ice particles) densities (over 40 times) in the mesopause region and their correlations to solar events. In this paper we will study the plasma-neutral coupling on the dark side of Antarctica via observation analysis and numerical modeling of the thermospheric Fe layers in the 100-200 km. A newly developed thermospheric Fe/Fe+ model is used to quantify how Fe+ ions are transported from their main deposition region to the E-F region and then neutralized to form Fe layers under dark polar conditions. We will also study the plasma-neutral coupling on the bright side of Antarctica via analyzing Fe events in summer. Complementary observations will be combined to show how the extreme changes of Fe layers are related to aurora particle precipitation and visible/sub-visible ice particles. These observations and studies will open new areas of

  13. WD2014: A new reference chronology for ice cores from Antarctica?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigl, Michael; McConnell, Joseph R.; Winstrup, Mai; Fudge, Taylor J.; Cole-Dai, Jihong; Ferris, David; Taylor, Kendrick; Buizert, Christo; Rhodes, Rachael; McGwire, Ken; Welten, Kees C.; Woodruff, Thomas E.; Dunbar, Nelia; Iverson, Nels; Maselli, Olivia J.; Pasteris, Daniel R.; Muscheler, Raimund

    2015-04-01

    Here we present a chronology (WD2014) for the upper part (0-2850 m, 31.2 ka BP) of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS)-Divide ice core which is based on layer counting of distinctive annual cycles preserved in the elemental, chemical and electrical conductivity records. These cycles are caused by the seasonally varying impurity concentrations in snowfall reflecting source strength of emissions, transport and deposition efficiency. A new ice core chronology has been developed using manual interpretation as well as by using a layer detection algorithm based on Hidden Markov Models taking advantage of the large suite of sub-annually resolved and co-registered aerosol records from high-resolution continuous measurements. The age model is validated against the absolute dated radiocarbon calibration curve IntCal13 using ice-core Be-10 measurements for proxy synchronization. These records reveal an unprecedented accuracy of the new ice core chronology since the Last Glacial Maximum. The new chronology can become a reference chronology for ice cores with synchronization to other ice cores achievable through the unique high-resolution sulfur record indicating hundreds of volcanic signals common to many other deep ice cores in Antarctica. A developing tephra framework for ice cores from West Antarctica will allow to better integrating Antarctic ice cores and the marine and terrestrial records from the southern hemisphere in the future, thus gaining a detailed chronologic picture of climatic changes and environmental consequences for the region over the past 31,000 years. This southern hemisphere perspective is a fundamental step in developing a detailed global understanding of the effects of past climate changes, and its implications for the future. Due to a small ice-age gas-age difference (delta-age) at WAIS Divide - because of high annual snowfall rates at this site - and a new high-resolution WAIS CH4 record, this new ice core chronology provides also independent

  14. Stratosphere/mesosphere coupling during the winter/summer transition at Davis, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lübken, Franz-Josef; Höffner, Josef; Viehl, Timo P.; Becker, Erich; Latteck, Ralph; Kaifler, Bernd; Morris, Ray J.

    2015-04-01

    The mobile scanning iron lidar of the Leibniz Institute of Atmospheric Physics in Kühlungsborn (IAP) was in operation at Davis, Antarctica, from December 15, 2010, until December 31, 2012. It measured iron densities, vertical winds, and temperatures in the iron layer, i. e. from approximately 80 to 100 km. The measurement principle is based on probing the Doppler broadened resonance line of iron atoms at 386 nm. The lidar can operate under daylight conditions. Typical values for temperature uncertainty, altitude and time resolution are 3-5 K, 1 km, and 1 hour, respectively. At Davis, the lidar has achieved at total of 2900 hours of temperature measurements which is presumably the largest nearly continuous data set in Antarctica. In this presentation we concentrate on the winter/summer transition in three consecutive years and compare with circulation changes in the stratosphere derived from MERRA (NASA's Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications). We also compare with the northern hemisphere (NH). We find that the thermal structure around the mesopause at Davis is closely coupled to the general circulation in the stratosphere, more precisely to the transition from winter to summer conditions. In contrast to theoretical expectations we occasionally find the mesopause significantly higher and colder(!) compared to the NH. The mesopause altitude changes by several kilometers throughout the summer season, which is significantly different from the summer in the northern hemispheric. Depending on altitude, temperatures can be warmer or colder compared to the NH summer. The Australian Antarctic Division has been operating a 55 MHz VHF radar at Davis since February 2003. We have studied the seasonal variation of polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSE). PMSE are strong radar echoes related to ice particles and therefore require atmospheric temperatures lower than the frost point temperature. We note that (apart from low temperatures) more ingredients

  15. Psychrotolerant Anaerobes from Lake Podprudnoe, Antarctica and Penguin Spheniscus demersus Colony, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guisler, Melissa; Pikuta, Elena V.; Townsend, Alisa; Hoover, Richard B.

    2009-01-01

    The study of a sample collected from a wind-made ice sculpture near Lake Podprudnoe, Antarctica led to the isolation of the psychrotolerant strain ISLP-3. Cells of the new isolate are vibrio-shaped that measure 0.5 x 1.0-3.0 micron in size. Growth occurs within the temperature range 5-35 C with the optimum at 22 C. Salinity range for growth is 0-2 % NaCl with the optimum at 0.25 %. The new isolate grows within a pH range from 6.0 to 9.5 with the optimum at 7.5. Strain ISLP-3 is saccharolytic, growing on the following substrates: D-glucose, D-ribose, D-fructose, D-arabinose, maltose, sucrose, D-trehalose, D-mannose, D-cellobiose, lactose, starch, chitin, triethylamine, N-acetylglucosamine, and urea. The best growth occurred on D-cellobiose. An environmental sample of pond water near a colony of the endemic species of African penguins, Spheniscus demersus, was collected in February 2008 and delivered directly to the Astrobiology laboratory at NSSTC. The microbiological study of this sample led to the isolation of two psychrotolerant strains ARHSd-7G and ARHSd-9G. Both strains are strictly anaerobic bacteria and are able to grow at high pH and low temperatures. The cells of strain ARHSd-7G are motile, vibrio-shaped, spore-forming cells. Optimal growth of this strain occurs at 30 C, 3 % NaCl, and pH 8.9. The isolate ARHSd-7G combines sugarlytic and proteolytic metabolisms, growing on some proteolysis products including peptone and yeast extract and a number of sugars. The second isolate, ARHSd-9G, exhibits thin, elongated rods that measure 0.4 x 3-5 micron. The cells are motile and spore-forming. Optimal growth of strain ARHSd-9G occurs at 30 C, 1.75 % NaCl, and pH 8.5. The strain ARHSd-9G is sugarlytic, growing well on substrates such as D-glucose, sucrose, D-cellobiose, maltose, fructose, D-mannose, and trehalose (the only exception is positive growth on yeast extract). In this report, the physiological and morphological characteristics of the novel psychrotolerant

  16. Psychrotolerant anaerobes from Lake Podprudnoye, Antarctica and penguin Spheniscus demersus colony, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guisler, Melissa; Pikuta, Elena V.; Townsend, Alisa; Hoover, Richard B.

    2009-08-01

    The study of a sample collected from a wind-made ice sculpture near Lake Podprudnoe, Antarctica led to the isolation of the psychrotolerant strain ISLP-3. Cells of the new isolate are vibrio-shaped that measure 0.5 x 1.0-3.0 μm in size. Growth occurs within the temperature range 5-35ºC with the optimum at 22 °C. Salinity range for growth is 0-2 % NaCl with the optimum at 0.25 %. The new isolate grows within a pH range from 6.0 to 9.5 with the optimum at 7.5. Strain ISLP-3 is saccharolytic, growing on the following substrates: D-glucose, D-ribose, D-fructose, D-arabinose, maltose, sucrose, D-trehalose, D-mannose, D-cellobiose, lactose, starch, chitin, triethylamine, N-acetylglucosamine, and urea. The best growth occurred on D-cellobiose. An environmental sample of pond water near a colony of the endemic species of African penguins, Spheniscus demersus, was collected in February 2008 and delivered directly to the Astrobiology laboratory at NSSTC. The microbiological study of this sample led to the isolation of two psychrotolerant strains ARHSd-7G and ARHSd-9G. Both strains are strictly anaerobic bacteria and are able to grow at high pH and low temperatures. The cells of strain ARHSd-7G are motile, vibrio-shaped, spore-forming cells. Optimal growth of this strain occurs at 30 ºC, 3 % NaCl, and pH 8.9. The isolate ARHSd-7G combines sugarlytic and proteolytic metabolisms, growing on some proteolysis products including peptone and yeast extract and a number of sugars. The second isolate, ARHSd-9G, exhibits thin, elongated rods that measure 0.4 x 3-5 μm. The cells are motile and spore-forming. Optimal growth of strain ARHSd-9G occurs at 30 ºC, 1.75 % NaCl, and pH 8.5. The strain ARHSd-9G is sugarlytic, growing well on substrates such as D-glucose, sucrose, D-cellobiose, maltose, fructose, D-mannose, and trehalose (the only exception is positive growth on yeast extract). In this report, the physiological and morphological characteristics of the novel

  17. Fe availability drives phytoplankton photosynthesis rates during spring bloom in the Amundsen Sea Polynya, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Carlijn Alderkamp

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To evaluate what drives phytoplankton photosynthesis rates in the Amundsen Sea Polynya (ASP, Antarctica, during the spring bloom, we studied phytoplankton biomass, photosynthesis rates, and water column productivity during a bloom of Phaeocystis antarctica (Haptophyceae and tested effects of iron (Fe and light availability on these parameters in bioassay experiments in deck incubators. Phytoplankton biomass and productivity were highest (20 µg chlorophyll a L−1 and 6.5 g C m−2 d−1 in the central ASP where sea ice melt water and surface warming enhanced stratification, reducing mixed layer depth and increasing light availability. In contrast, maximum photosynthesis rate (P*max, initial light-limited slope of the photosynthesis–irradiance curve (α*, and maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm were highest in the southern ASP near the potential Fe sources of the Dotson and Getz ice shelves. In the central ASP, P*max, α*, and Fv/Fm were all lower. Fe addition increased phytoplankton growth rates in three of twelve incubations, and at a significant level when all experiments were analyzed together, indicating Fe availability may be rate-limiting for phytoplankton growth in several regions of the ASP early in the season during build-up of the spring bloom. Moreover, Fe addition increased P*max, α*, and Fv/Fm in almost all experiments when compared to unamended controls. Incubation under high light also increased P*max, but decreased Fv/Fm and α* when compared to low light incubation. These results indicate that the lower values for P*max, α*, and Fv/Fm in the central ASP, compared to regions close to the ice shelves, are constrained by lower Fe availability rather than light availability. Our study suggests that higher Fe availability (e.g., from higher melt rates of ice shelves would increase photosynthesis rates in the central ASP and potentially increase water column productivity 1.7-fold, making the ASP

  18. Oligocene to Miocene terrestrial climate change and the demise of forests on Wilkes Land, East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzmann, Ulrich; Strother, Stephanie; Sangiorgi, Francesca; Bijl, Peter; Pross, Joerg; Woodward, John; Escutia, Carlota; Brinkhuis, Henk

    2016-04-01

    The question whether Cenozoic climate was warm enough to support a substantial vegetation cover on the Antarctic continent is of great significance to the ongoing controversial debate on the dynamic behaviour of Antarctic land ice during the transition from a greenhouse to an icehouse world. Here we present palynological results from an Oligocene to Miocene sediment record provided by the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 318 to the Wilkes Land margin (East Antarctica). The Oligocene assemblages (33.9-23 Ma) are dominated by pollen and spores from temperate forest and sub-Antarctic shrub vegetation inhabiting different altitudinal zones. These include a lowland cold temperate forest with Dacrydium and Lagarostrobos (both common in southern forests of New Zealand and Tasmania today) and a high altitude tundra shrubland comprising Microcachrys, Nothofagus (southern beech) and Podocarpaceae conifers. A decline in pollen percentages of Dacrydium and Lagarostrobos and absence of Proteaceae indicate climate cooling during the late Oligocene (~25-23 Ma). However, the continuous presence of Lagarostrobos suggests that the full transition to a tundra environment had not yet occurred and climate on Wilkes Land during the late Oligocene was still warm enough to support forest vegetation in sheltered areas. Temperature reconstructions derived from the fossil pollen assemblages using the Coexistence Approach suggest mean annual temperatures (MATs) between 6.7-13.7°C during the early Oligocene and a drop of minimum MATs to 5.8°C in the late Oligocene. Pollen of "unambiguous" forest indicators, such as Lagarostrobos, are absent in the Miocene sediment record (16.2 -12.5 Ma) but temperatures were still high enough (minimum MATs > 5°C) to sustain a woody sub-Antarctic vegetation under partially ice-free conditions. Wilkes Land provides a unique record of Antarctic vegetation change from a subtropical, highly diverse Eocene rainforest to an Oligocene cold temperate

  19. Glaciomarine sedimentation and landforms in Admiralty Bay, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrani, Fabio; Ayres Neto, Arthur; Vieira, Rosemary

    2015-04-01

    This work consists on the integration and interpretation of high-resolution seismic profiles, geological sampling and multibeam bathymetry in order to analyze and understand the evolution of the deglaciation of Admiralty Bay, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica, since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Data were obtained from three expeditions to Antarctica between 2009 and 2013, totaling 500 km of seismic lines and five geological cores. The characterization of the bottom geology was performed by analyzing the echocharacters and the sedimentary thickness of the glaciomarine deposits. Its correlation with the collected samples provided interpretation of the depositional paleoenvironments, allowing the reconstruction and evolution of the glaciers since the LGM and the recognition of glaciomarine processes. Multibeam bathymetry also provided records of submarine landforms related to glacial events and changes in positions of glaciers in the region. In this way, we ought to answer the question: which glaciomarine records are present in Admiralty Bay that can broaden our understanding of the evolution of its deglaciation during the advances and retreats of glaciers that once dominated the fjord, and its sedimentary processes? Four different echocharacters have been identified. Echoes I and II show good resolution and are characterized by continuous and sharp echoes with sub-parallel reflections and the presence of glaciomarine muds. Very prolonged echoes and absence of sub-parallel reflectors characterizes Echoes III and IV. Eco III is associated with the shallower portions of the bay, with little sediment thickness, sandier content and presence of ice rafted debris. Eco IV is associated with morainical banks and grounding zones. Seabed landform features show that the region experienced major glacial advance, with subsequent rapid retreat of the glaciers in the deeper parts of the fjord, followed by slower retreat, with the presence of several recessional moraines in the

  20. Muricauda antarctica sp. nov., a marine member of the Flavobacteriaceae isolated from Antarctic seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yue-Hong; Yu, Pei-Song; Zhou, Ya-Dong; Xu, Lin; Wang, Chun-Sheng; Wu, Min; Oren, Aharon; Xu, Xue-Wei

    2013-09-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped bacterium with appendages, designated Ar-22(T), was isolated from a seawater sample collected from the western part of Prydz Bay, near Cape Darnley, Antarctica. Strain Ar-22(T) grew optimally at 35 °C, at pH 7.5 and in the presence of 1-3% (w/v) NaCl. The isolate was positive for casein, gelatin and Tween 20 decomposition and negative for H2S production and indole formation. Chemotaxonomic analysis showed that MK-6 was the major isoprenoid quinone and phosphatidylethanolamine was the major polar lipid. The major fatty acids were iso-C(17:0) 3-OH, iso-C(15:1) G, iso-C(15:0) and C(16:1)ω7c/iso-C(15:0) 2OH. The genomic DNA G+C content was 44.8 mol%. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain Ar-22(T) is closely related to members of the genus Muricauda, sharing 94.2-97.3% sequence similarity with the type strains of species of the genus Muricauda and being most closely related to the Muricauda aquimarina. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison confirmed that strain Ar-22(T) formed a deep lineage with Muricauda flavescens. Sequence similarity between strain Ar-22(T) and Muricauda ruestringensis DSM 13258(T), the type species of the genus Muricauda, was 96.9%. Strain Ar-22(T) exhibited mean DNA-DNA relatedness values of 40.1%, 49.4% and 25.7% to M. aquimarina JCM 11811(T), M. flavescens JCM 11812(T) and Muricauda lutimaris KCTC 22173(T), respectively. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic data, strain Ar-22(T) represents a novel species of the genus Muricauda, for which the name Muricauda antarctica sp. nov. (type strain Ar-22(T) =CGMCC 1.12174(T) = JCM 18450(T)) is proposed.