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Sample records for antarctic nematode molecular

  1. Molecular evolution in Panagrolaimus nematodes: origins of parthenogenesis, hermaphroditism and the Antarctic species P. davidi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LaMunyon Craig W

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As exemplified by the famously successful model organism Caenorhabditis elegans, nematodes offer outstanding animal systems for investigating diverse biological phenomena due to their small genome sizes, short generation times and ease of laboratory maintenance. Nematodes in the genus Panagrolaimus have served in comparative development and anhydrobiosis studies, and the Antarctic species P. davidi offers a powerful paradigm for understanding the biological mechanisms of extreme cold tolerance. Panagrolaimus nematodes are also unique in that examples of gonochoristic, hermaphroditic and parthenogenetic reproductive modes have been reported for members of this genus. The evolutionary origins of these varying reproductive modes and the Antarctic species P. davidi, however, remain enigmatic. Results We collected nuclear ribosomal RNA gene and mitochondrial protein-coding gene sequences from diverse Panagrolaimus species and strains, including newly discovered isolates from Oregon, to investigate phylogenetic relationships in this nematode genus. Nuclear phylogenies showed that the species and strains historically identified as members of Panagrolaimus constitute a paraphyletic group, suggesting that taxonomic revision is required for Panagrolaimus and related nematode lineages. Strain-specific reproductive modes were mapped onto the molecular phylogeny to show a single origin of parthenogenesis from a presumably gonochoristic ancestor. The hermaphroditic strains were all placed outside a major monophyletic clade that contained the majority of other Panagrolaimus nematodes. Phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial sequences showed that substantial molecular and geographic diversity exists within the clade of parthenogenetic strains. The Antarctic species P. davidi was found to be very closely related to two Panagrolaimus strains from southern California. Phylogenetic and molecular clock analyses suggested that P. davidi and the

  2. Molecular mechanisms of nematode-nematophagous microbe interactions: basis for biological control of plant-parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Zou, Chenggang; Xu, Jianping; Ji, Xinglai; Niu, Xuemei; Yang, Jinkui; Huang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2015-01-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes cause significant damage to a broad range of vegetables and agricultural crops throughout the world. As the natural enemies of nematodes, nematophagous microorganisms offer a promising approach to control the nematode pests. Some of these microorganisms produce traps to capture and kill the worms from the outside. Others act as internal parasites to produce toxins and virulence factors to kill the nematodes from within. Understanding the molecular basis of microbe-nematode interactions provides crucial insights for developing effective biological control agents against plant-parasitic nematodes. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of the interactions between nematodes and nematophagous microorganisms, with a focus on the molecular mechanisms by which nematophagous microorganisms infect nematodes and on the nematode defense against pathogenic attacks. We conclude by discussing several key areas for future research and development, including potential approaches to apply our recent understandings to develop effective biocontrol strategies. PMID:25938277

  3. [Evolution and systematics of nematodes based on molecular investigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okulewicz, Anna; Perec, Agnieszka

    2004-01-01

    Evolution and systematics of nematodes based on molecular investigation. The use of molecular phylogenetics to examine the interrelationships between animal parasites, free-living nematodes, and plant parasites versus traditional classification based on morphological-ecological characters was discussed and reviewed. Distinct differences were observed between parasitic nematodes and free-living ones. Within the former group, animal parasites turned out to be distinctly different from plant parasites. Using small subunit of ribosomal RNA gene sequence from a wide range of nematodes, there is a possibility to compare animal-parasitic, plant-parasitic and free-living taxa. Nowadays the parasitic nematodes expressed sequence tag (EST) project is currently generating sequence information to provide a new source of data to examine the evolutionary history of this taxonomic group. PMID:16859012

  4. Host-Parasite Interaction of Root-Knot Nematodes (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae): Cellular and Molecular Aspect

    OpenAIRE

    Gökhan Aydınlı; Sevilhan Mennan

    2014-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) have specialized and complex relationships with their host plants. A better understanding of interaction between nematode and their host will help to provide new point of view for root-knot nematode management. For this purpose, recently investigations on cellular and molecular basis of root-knot nematode parasitism and host response were reviewed.

  5. Molecular phylogeny of beetle associated diplogastrid nematodes suggests host switching rather than nematode-beetle coevolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sommer Ralf J

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nematodes are putatively the most species-rich animal phylum. They have various life styles and occur in a variety of habitats, ranging from free-living nematodes in aquatic or terrestrial environments to parasites of animals and plants. The rhabditid nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is one of the most important model organisms in modern biology. Pristionchus pacificus of the family of the Diplogastridae has been developed as a satellite model for comparison to C. elegans. The Diplogastridae, a monophyletic clade within the rhabditid nematodes, are frequently associated with beetles. How this beetle-association evolved and whether beetle-nematode coevolution occurred is still elusive. As a prerequisite to answering this question a robust phylogeny of beetle-associated Diplogastridae is needed. Results Sequences for the nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA and for 12 ribosomal protein encoding nucleotide sequences were collected for 14 diplogastrid taxa yielding a dataset of 5996 bp of concatenated aligned sequences. A molecular phylogeny of beetle-associated diplogastrid nematodes was established by various algorithms. Robust subclades could be demonstrated embedded in a phylogenetic tree topology with short internal branches, indicating rapid ancestral divergences. Comparison of the diplogastrid phylogeny to a comprehensive beetle phylogeny revealed no major congruence and thus no evidence for a long-term coevolution. Conclusion Reconstruction of the phylogenetic history of beetle-associated Diplogastridae yields four distinct subclades, whose deep phylogenetic divergence, as indicated by short internal branch lengths, shows evidence for evolution by successions of ancient rapid radiation events. The stem species of the Diplogastridae existed at the same time period when the major radiations of the beetles occurred. Comparison of nematode and beetle phylogenies provides, however, no evidence for long-term coevolution of

  6. Nematodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utilization of nematodes for a study of radiation biology was considered. Structure, generation, rearing method, and genetic nature of nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans, Turbatri acetic, etc.) were given an outline. As the advantage of a study using nematodes as materials, shortness of one generation time, simplicity in structure, and smallness of the whole cells, specific regular movement, and heliotaxis to chemical substances and light were mentioned. Effect of x-ray on survival rate of nematodes and effect of ultraviolet on nematodes and their eggs were described. It was suggested that nematodes was useful for studies on aging and radiation biology, and a possibility existed that nematodes would be used in studies of cancer and malformation. (Serizawa, K.)

  7. Top 10 plant-parasitic nematodes in molecular plant pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, J.T.; Haegeman, A.; Danchin, E.G.J.; Gaur, H.S.; Helder, J.; Jones, M.G.K.; Kikuchi, T.; Manzanilla-López, R.; Palomares-Rius, J.E.; Wesemael, W.M.L.; Perry, R.N.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this review was to undertake a survey of researchers working with plant-parasitic nematodes in order to determine a ‘top 10’ list of these pathogens based on scientific and economic importance. Any such list will not be definitive as economic importance will vary depending on the region o

  8. Molecular evolution of hemoglobins of Antarctic fishes (Notothenioidei)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, W.T.; Beintema, J.J; D Avino, R.; Tamburrini, M.; di Prisco, G.

    1997-01-01

    Amino acid sequences of alpha- and beta-chains of human hemoglobin and of hemoglobins of coelacanth and 24 teleost fish species, including 11 antarctic and two temperate Notothenioidei, were analyzed using maximum parsimony. Trees were derived for the alpha- and beta-chains separately and for tandem

  9. Reproductive mode evolution in nematodes: insights from molecular phylogenies and recently discovered species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denver, D R; Clark, K A; Raboin, M J

    2011-11-01

    The Phylum Nematoda has long been known to contain a great diversity of species that vary in reproductive mode, though our understanding of the evolutionary origins, causes and consequences of nematode reproductive mode change have only recently started to mature. Here we bring together and analyze recent progress on reproductive mode evolution throughout the phylum, resulting from the application of molecular phylogenetic approaches and newly discovered nematode species. Reproductive mode variation is reviewed in multiple free-living, animal-parasitic and plant-parasitic nematode groups. Discussion ranges from the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and its close relatives, to the plant-parasitic nematodes of the Meloidogyne genus where there is extreme variation in reproductive mode between and even within species, to the vertebrate-parasitic genus Strongyloides and related genera where reproductive mode varies across generations (heterogony). Multiple evolutionary transitions from dioecous (obligately outcrossing) to hermaphroditism and parthenogenesis in the phylum are discussed, along with one case of an evolutionary transition from hermaphroditism to doioecy in the Oscheius genus. We consider the roles of underlying genetic mechanisms in promoting reproductive plasticity in this phylum, as well as the potential evolutionary forces promoting transitions in reproductive mode. PMID:21787872

  10. Recrystallization in a Freezing Tolerant Antarctic Nematode, Panagrolaimus davidi, and a Alpine Weta, Hemideina maori (Orthoptera; Stenopelmatidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramløv, Hans; Wharton, David A.; Wilson, Peter W.

    1996-01-01

    The ability of haemolymph from the freezing tolerant weta,Hemideina maori,and supernatant from homogenates of the freezing tolerant nematodePanagrolaimus davidito inhibit the recrystallization of ice was examined using the “splat freezing” technique and annealing on a cryomicroscope stage. There...... was no recrystallization inhibition in weta haemolymph or in insect ringer controls. Recrystallization inhibition was present in the nematode supernatant but this was destroyed by heating and was absent in controls.P. davidisurvives intracellular freezing and recrystallization inhibition may be...

  11. Molecular phylogenetic perspectives for character classification and convergence: Framing some issues with nematode vulval appendages and telotylenchid tail termini

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    Characters flagged as convergent based on newer molecular phylogenetic trees inform both practical identification and more esoteric classification. Nematode morphological characters such as lateral lines, bullae and laciniae are quite independent structures from those similarly named in other organi...

  12. Molecular epidemiology, phylogeny and evolution of the filarial nematode Wuchereria bancrofti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Scott T; Tisch, Daniel J; Zimmerman, Peter A

    2014-12-01

    Wuchereria bancrofti (Wb) is the most widely distributed of the three nematodes known to cause lymphatic filariasis (LF), the other two being Brugia malayi and Brugia timori. Current tools available to monitor LF are limited to diagnostic tests targeting DNA repeats, filarial antigens, and anti-filarial antibodies. While these tools are useful for detection and surveillance, elimination programs have yet to take full advantage of molecular typing for inferring infection history, strain fingerprinting, and evolution. To date, molecular typing approaches have included whole mitochondrial genomes, genotyping, targeted sequencing, and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPDs). These studies have revealed much about Wb biology. For example, in one study in Papua New Guinea researchers identified 5 major strains that were widespread and many minor strains some of which exhibit geographic stratification. Genome data, while rare, has been utilized to reconstruct evolutionary relationships among taxa of the Onchocercidae (the clade of filarial nematodes) and identify gene synteny. Their phylogeny reveals that speciation from the common ancestor of both B. malayi and Wb occurred around 5-6 millions years ago with shared ancestry to other filarial nematodes as recent as 15 million years ago. These discoveries hold promise for gene discovery and identifying drug targets in species that are more amenable to in vivo experiments. Continued technological developments in whole genome sequencing and data analysis will likely replace many other forms of molecular typing, multiplying the amount of data available on population structure, genetic diversity, and phylogenetics. Once widely available, the addition of population genetic data from genomic studies should hasten the elimination of LF parasites like Wb. Infectious disease control programs have benefited greatly from population genetics data and recently from population genomics data. However, while there is currently a surplus

  13. Molecular and morphological analysis of an Antarctic tardigrade, Acutuncus antarcticus

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    Hiroshi Kagoshima

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We isolated a species of tardigrade from moss samples collected from Langhovde and Skarvsnes, near Syowa station, East Antarctic, from which we cultured a parthenogenetic strain in Petri dishes with co-occurring cyanobacteria or green algae. This culture was maintained at both 4 and 10ºC, though the latter proved more suitable for growth. Eggs were laid free, rather than in exuviae. We isolated the 18S rRNA sequences from this tardigrade, identical to that of Acutuncus antarcticus from King George island, South Shetland islands. Morphological analyses via both light and scanning electron microscopy also show general agreement with characteristics of A. antarcticus: dorsal and ventral apophyses for the insertion of stylet muscles and dorsal longitudinal thickening on the anterior part of buccal tube; presence of pharyngeal apophyses, two macroplacoids and absence of a microplacoid; the surface structure of egg; and claw shape. Peribuccal lamellae were absent, but six oval swellings surrounded the mouth opening. An additional study of moss pillars from lake Hotoke-ike, Skarvsnes, proved the existence of the same tardigrade taxon living at the bottom of the lake.

  14. Principal Component Analysis and Molecular Characterization of Reniform Nematode Populations in Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyaku, Seloame T; Kantety, Ramesh V; Cebert, Ernst; Lawrence, Kathy S; Honger, Joseph O; Sharma, Govind C

    2016-04-01

    U.S. cotton production is suffering from the yield loss caused by the reniform nematode (RN), Rotylenchulus reniformis. Management of this devastating pest is of utmost importance because, no upland cotton cultivar exhibits adequate resistance to RN. Nine populations of RN from distinct regions in Alabama and one population from Mississippi were studied and thirteen morphometric features were measured on 20 male and 20 female nematodes from each population. Highly correlated variables (positive) in female and male RN morphometric parameters were observed for body length (L) and distance of vulva from the lip region (V) (r = 0.7) and tail length (TL) and c' (r = 0.8), respectively. The first and second principal components for the female and male populations showed distinct clustering into three groups. These results show pattern of sub-groups within the RN populations in Alabama. A one-way ANOVA on female and male RN populations showed significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) among the variables. Multiple sequence alignment (MSA) of 18S rRNA sequences (421) showed lengths of 653 bp. Sites within the aligned sequences were conserved (53%), parsimony-informative (17%), singletons (28%), and indels (2%), respectively. Neighbor-Joining analysis showed intra and inter-nematodal variations within the populations as clone sequences from different nematodes irrespective of the sex of nematode isolate clustered together. Morphologically, the three groups (I, II and III) could not be distinctly associated with the molecular data from the 18S rRNA sequences. The three groups may be identified as being non-geographically contiguous. PMID:27147932

  15. Principal Component Analysis and Molecular Characterization of Reniform Nematode Populations in Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyaku, Seloame T.; Kantety, Ramesh V.; Cebert, Ernst; Lawrence, Kathy S.; Honger, Joseph O.; Sharma, Govind C.

    2016-01-01

    U.S. cotton production is suffering from the yield loss caused by the reniform nematode (RN), Rotylenchulus reniformis. Management of this devastating pest is of utmost importance because, no upland cotton cultivar exhibits adequate resistance to RN. Nine populations of RN from distinct regions in Alabama and one population from Mississippi were studied and thirteen morphometric features were measured on 20 male and 20 female nematodes from each population. Highly correlated variables (positive) in female and male RN morphometric parameters were observed for body length (L) and distance of vulva from the lip region (V) (r = 0.7) and tail length (TL) and c′ (r = 0.8), respectively. The first and second principal components for the female and male populations showed distinct clustering into three groups. These results show pattern of sub-groups within the RN populations in Alabama. A one-way ANOVA on female and male RN populations showed significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) among the variables. Multiple sequence alignment (MSA) of 18S rRNA sequences (421) showed lengths of 653 bp. Sites within the aligned sequences were conserved (53%), parsimony-informative (17%), singletons (28%), and indels (2%), respectively. Neighbor-Joining analysis showed intra and inter-nematodal variations within the populations as clone sequences from different nematodes irrespective of the sex of nematode isolate clustered together. Morphologically, the three groups (I, II and III) could not be distinctly associated with the molecular data from the 18S rRNA sequences. The three groups may be identified as being non-geographically contiguous. PMID:27147932

  16. Molecular evidence for cryptic species among the Antarctic fish Trematomus bernacchii and Trematomus hansoni

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bernardi, G.; Goswami, U.

    in the amplification using an ABI 373 automated sequencer (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA). Sequence analysis Sequences were aligned with the aid of the computer program Clustal in Sequence Navigator (Applied Biosystems). Two sequences from the literature... of mitochondrial DNA in fishesh HOCHACHKA, P.W. & MOMMSEN, T.P., eds. Biochemistry and molecular biology of fishes. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publications, 1-38. MILLER, R.G. 1993. A history and atlas of the fishes of the Antarctic ocean. Carson City, NV...

  17. Toxocara nematodes in stray cats from shiraz, southern iran: intensity of infection and molecular identification of the isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fattaneh Mikaeili

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxocara is a common nematode of cats in different parts of Iran. Despite the close association of cats with human, no attempt has been done so far for molecular identification of this nematode in the country. Therefore, current study was performed on identification of some isolates of Toxocara from stray cats in Shiraz, Fars Province, Southern Iran, based on morphological and molecular approaches, and also determination of intensity of infection.This cross-sectional study was carried out on 30 stray cats trapped from different geographical areas of Shiraz in 2011. Adult male and female worms were recovered from digestive tract after dissection of cats. Morphological features using existing keys and PCR-sequencing of ITS-rDNA region and pcox1 mitochondrial l gene were applied for the delineating the species of the parasites.Eight out of 30 cats (26.7% were found infected with Toxocara nematodes. All the isolates were confirmed as Toxocara cati based on morphological features and the sequence of ribosomal and mitochondrial targets. Intensity of infection ranged from one to a maximum of 39 worms per cat, with a mean of 10.25±12.36, and higher abundance of female nematodes.The most prevalent ascaridoid nematode of stray cats in the study area was T. cati and female nematodes were more abundant than that of males. This issue has important role in spreading of eggs in the environment and impact on human toxocariasis.

  18. Molecular signals regulating translocation and toxicity of graphene oxide in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiuli; Zhao, Yunli; Li, Yiping; Wang, Dayong

    2014-09-01

    Both in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated the toxic effects of graphene oxide (GO). However, the molecular basis for the translocation and toxicity of GO is still largely unclear. In the present study, we employed an in vivo Caenorhabditis elegans assay system to identify molecular signals involved in the control of the translocation and toxicity of GO. We identified 7 genes whose mutations altered both the translocation and toxicity of GO. Mutations of the hsp-16.48, gas-1, sod-2, sod-3, and aak-2 genes caused greater GO translocation into the body and toxic effects on both primary and secondary targeted organs compared with wild type; however, mutations of the isp-1 and clk-1 genes resulted in significantly decreased GO translocation into the body and toxicity on both primary and secondary targeted organs compared with wild-type. Moreover, mutations of the hsp-16.48, gas-1, sod-2, sod-3, and aak-2 genes caused increased intestinal permeability and prolonged mean defecation cycle length in GO-exposed nematodes, whereas mutations of the isp-1 and clk-1 genes resulted in decreased intestinal permeability in GO-exposed nematodes. Therefore, for the underlying mechanism, we hypothesize that both intestinal permeability and defecation behavior may have crucial roles in controlling the functions of the identified molecular signals. The molecular signals may further contribute to the control of transgenerational toxic effects of GO. Our results provide an important insight into understanding the molecular basis for the in vivo translocation and toxicity of GO.Both in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated the toxic effects of graphene oxide (GO). However, the molecular basis for the translocation and toxicity of GO is still largely unclear. In the present study, we employed an in vivo Caenorhabditis elegans assay system to identify molecular signals involved in the control of the translocation and toxicity of GO. We identified 7 genes whose mutations

  19. Molecular taxonomy, phylogeny and biogeography of nematodes belonging to the Trichinella genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozio, Edoardo; Hoberg, Eric; La Rosa, Giuseppe; Zarlenga, Dante S

    2009-07-01

    Studying parasites of the genus Trichinella provides scientists of today many advantages. This is a group of zoonotic nematodes that circulates freely among wildlife hosts with one in particular, Trichinella spiralis that is exceptionally well adapted to domestic swine. Recent reports suggest that human infections from hunted animals are on the rise worldwide and numerous countries still experience problems with T. spiralis in their domestic food supplies. Trichinella is a genus whose members are easily propagated in the laboratories, have been used as models to investigate host-parasite relationships and parasitism among clade I organisms, and represent a poorly investigated link between the phylum Nematoda and other Metazoans. The importance of T. spiralis in better understanding the tree of life was so recognized that in 2004, its genome was carefully selected as one of only nine key non-mammalian organisms to be sequenced to completion. Since it was first discovered in 1835, this genus has expanded from being monospecific to eight species including four other genotypes of undetermined taxonomic rank. Inasmuch as discriminating morphological data have been scant, our understanding of the genus has been relegated to a compilation of molecular, biochemical and biological data. Herein, we provide a collection of information and up-to-date interpretations on the taxonomy, diagnostics, systematics, micro- and macroevolution, and the biogeographical and biohistorical reconstruction of the genus Trichinella. PMID:19460327

  20. A nematode microtubule-associated protein, PTL-1, closely resembles its mammalian counterparts in overall molecular architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashi, Yurika; Kotani, Susumu; Adachi, Takeshi

    2016-06-01

    The mammalian microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs), MAP2, MAP4, and τ, are structurally similar and considered to be evolutionarily related. The primary structure of a nematode MAP, PTL-1, also reportedly resembles those of the MAPs, but only in a small portion of the molecule. In this study, we elucidated the overall domain organization of PTL-1, using a molecular dissection technique. Firstly, we isolated nematode microtubules and proved that the recombinant PTL-1 binds to nematode and porcine microtubules with similar affinities. Then, the recombinant PTL-1 was genetically dissected to generate four shorter polypeptides, and their microtubule-binding and assembly promoting activities were assessed, using porcine microtubules and tubulin. PTL-1 was found to consist of two parts, microtubule-binding and projection domains, with the former further divided into three functionally distinct subdomains. The molecular architecture of PTL-1 was proved to be quite analogous to its mammalian counterparts, MAP2, MAP4, and τ, strongly supporting their evolutionary relationships. PMID:26906882

  1. Peroxiredoxin 6 from the Antarctic emerald rockcod: molecular characterization of its response to warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolomeo, A M; Carraro, A; Bakiu, R; Toppo, S; Place, S P; Ferro, D; Santovito, G

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we describe the purification and molecular characterization of two peroxiredoxins (Prdxs), referred to as Prdx6A and Prdx6B, from Trematomus bernacchii, a teleost widely distributed in many areas of Antarctica, that plays a pivotal role in the Antarctic food chain. The two putative amino acid sequences were compared with Prdx6 orthologs from other fish, highlighting a high percentage of identity and similarity with the respective variant, in particular for the residues that are essential for the characteristic peroxidase and phospholipase activities of these enzymes. Phylogenetic analyses suggest the appearance of the two prdx6 genes through a duplication event before the speciation that led to the differentiation of fish families and that the evolution of the two gene variants seems to proceed together with the evolution of fish orders and families. The temporal expression of Prdx6 mRNA in response to short-term thermal stress showed a general upregulation of prdx6b and inhibition of prdx6a, suggesting that the latter is the variant most affected by temperature increase. The variations of mRNA accumulation are more conspicuous in heart than the liver, probably related to behavioral changes of the specimens in response to elevated temperature. These data, together with the peculiar differences between the molecular structures of the two Prdx6s in T. bernacchii as well as in the tropical species Stegastes partitus, suggest an adaptation that allowed these poikilothermic aquatic vertebrates to colonize very different environments, characterized by different temperature ranges. PMID:26433650

  2. The bivalve Laternula elliptica: physiological and molecular response to changing coastal Antarctic environments

    OpenAIRE

    Husmann, Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    Increasing temperatures and glacier-disintegration at the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) are presently altering environmental conditions in shallow coastal areas. Rising water temperatures, enhanced ice scouring impacts as well as increasing input of inorganic sediments from melt water runoff are anticipated to particularly affect slow growing sessile benthic filter feeders like the Antarctic soft shell clam Laternula elliptica, a long-lived species which is a major component of the nearsh...

  3. Molecular identification of anisakid nematodes third stage larvae isolated from common squid ( Todarodes pacificus) in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyobudi, Eko; Jeon, Chan-Hyeok; Choi, Kwangho; Lee, Sung Il; Lee, Chung Il; Kim, Jeong-Ho

    2013-06-01

    The occurrence of Genus Anisakis nematode larvae in marine fishes and cephalopods is epidemiologically important because Anisakis simplex larval stage can cause a clinical disease in humans when infected hosts are consumed raw. Common squid ( Todarodes pacificus) from Korean waters were investigated for anisakid nematodes infection during 2009˜2011. In total, 1,556 larvae were collected from 615 common squids and 732 of them were subsequently identified by PCR-RFLP analysis of ITS rDNA. Depending on the sampling locations, the nematode larvae from common squid showed different prevalence, intensity and species distribution. A high prevalence (P) and mean intensity (MI) of infection were observed in the Yellow Sea (n = 250, P = 86.0%, MI = 5.99 larvae/host) and the southern sea of Korea (n = 126, P = 57.1%, MI = 3.36 larvae/host). Anisakis pegreffii was dominantly found in common squid from the southern sea (127/ 140, 90.7%) and the Yellow Sea (561/565, 98.9%). In contrast, the P and MI of infection were relatively low in the East Sea (n = 239, P = 8.37%, MI = 1.25 larvae/host). A. pegreffii was not found from the East Sea and 52.0% (13/25) of the nematodes were identified as A. simplex. Most of them were found in the body cavity or digestive tract of common squid, which are rarely consumed raw by humans. Considering the differenences in anisakid nematode species distribution and their microhabitat in common squid, it remains unclear whether common squid plays an important role in the epidemiology of human anisakis infection in Korea. Further extensive identification of anisakid nematodes in common squid, with geographical and seasonal information will be necessary.

  4. Effects of climatic changes on anisakid nematodes in polar regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokicki, Jerzy

    2009-11-01

    Anisakid nematodes are common in Antarctic, sub-Antarctic, and Arctic areas. Current distributional knowledge of anisakids in the polar regions is reviewed. Climatic variables influence the occurrence and abundance of anisakids, directly influencing their free-living larval stages and also indirectly influencing their predominantly invertebrate (but also vertebrate) hosts. As these parasites can also be pathogenic for humans, the paucity of information available is a source of additional hazard. As fish are a major human dietary component in Arctic and Antarctic areas, and are often eaten without heat processing, a high risk of infection by anisakid larvae might be expected. The present level of knowledge, particularly relating to anisakid larval stages present in fishes, is far from satisfactory. Preliminary molecular studies have revealed the presence of species complexes. Contemporary climate warming is modifying the marine environment and may result in an extension of time during which anisakid eggs can persist and hatch, and of the time period during which newly hatched larvae remain viable. As a result there may be an increase in the extent of anisakid distribution. Continued warming will modify the composition of the parasitic nematode fauna of marine animals, due to changes in feeding habits, as the warming of the sea and any localised reduction in salinity (from freshwater runoff) can be expected to bring about changes in the species composition of pelagic and benthic invertebrates.

  5. Molecular Taxonomy, Phylogeny and Biogeography of nematodes belonging to the Trichinella genus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studying parasites of the genus Trichinella provides scientists of today many advantages. This is a group of zoonotic nematodes that circulate freely among wildlife hosts with one in particular, Trichinella spiralis that is particularly well adapted to domestic swine. Indeed, recent reports suggest ...

  6. Phylogenetic relationships within major nematode clades based on multiple molecular markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rybarczyk-Mydlowska, K.

    2013-01-01

    Nematodes are probably the most abundant Metazoans on our planet. They are present in densities of millions of individuals per square meter in soil and sediments. However, these inconspicuous animals are hardly known to the general public as most individuals are colorless and smaller than 1 mm. If p

  7. Molecular systematics, phylogeny and ecology of anisakid nematodes of the genus Anisakis Dujardin, 1845: an update

    OpenAIRE

    Mattiucci S.; Nascetti G.

    2006-01-01

    Advances in the taxonomy and ecological aspects concerning geographical distribution and hosts of the so far genetically recognised nine taxa of the nematodes belonging to genus Anisakis (i.e. A. pegreffii, A. simplex s.s., A. simplex C, A. typica, A. ziphidarum, Anisakis sp., A. physeteris, A. brevispiculata and A. paggiae) are here summarized. Genetic differentiation and phylogenetic relationships inferred from allozyme (20 enzyme-loci) and mitochondrial (sequences of cox-2 gene) markers, a...

  8. Molecular Evolution and Mutation Accumulation Lines in the Nematode Pristionchus pacificus

    OpenAIRE

    Molnar, Ruxandra

    2012-01-01

    The nematode Pristionchus pacificus has been established as a model system for modern evolutionary studies. Evolutionary reconstruction of the natural history of organisms requires knowledge about the development, ecology, and phylogeny of species. Mutations are the source of natural variation, hence studies of mutational processes improve the understanding of the natural history of an organism. Mutation accumulation (MA) lines experiments facilitate the study of spontaneous mutation rates ov...

  9. Morphology and molecular phylogeny of an Antarctic population of Paraholosticha muscicola (Kahl, 1932) Wenzel, 1953 (Ciliophora, Hypotricha)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae-Ho; Park, Kyung-Min; Min, Gi-Sik; Berger, Helmut; Kim, Sanghee

    2015-12-01

    The morphology of an Antarctic soil population of Paraholosticha muscicola, type species of Paraholosticha, is described from life and after protargol preparation. The data agree rather well with that of relevant descriptions, but the total variability of several features is relatively high in this species. Paraholosticha ovata and P. lichenicola are very likely junior synonyms. In addition, we sequenced the SSU rRNA gene of P. muscicola and thus we can estimate for the first time the phylogenetic position of a member of the Keronopsidae, the sole hypotrichs that divide in cysts. The molecular data basically support the position derived from morphological concepts, that is, P. muscicola branches off outside the Dorsomarginalia because kinety fragmentation and dorsomarginal rows are lacking. However, as in many other molecular analyses, discrepancies with morphology-based hypothesis are present. The misclassification of Paraholosticha and its sister-group Keronopsis in the Keronidae, with Kerona pediculus as type species, is discussed.

  10. Late Oligocene to Late Miocene Antarctic Climate Reconstructions Using Molecular and Isotopic Biomarker Proxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, B.; Mckay, R. M.; Bendle, J. A.; Naish, T.; Levy, R. H.; Ventura, G. T.; Moossen, H. M.; Krishnan, S.; Pagani, M.

    2015-12-01

    Major climate and environmental changes occurred during late Oligocene to the late Miocene when atmospheric CO2 ranged between 500 and 300ppm, indicating threshold response of Antarctic ice sheets and climate to relatively modest CO2 variations. This implies that the southern high latitudes are highly sensitive to feedbacks associated with changes in global ice sheet and sea-ice extent, as well as terrestrial and marine ecosystems. This study focuses on two key intervals during the evolution of the Antarctic Ice Sheet: (1) The Late Oligocene and the Oligocene/Miocene boundary, when the East Antarctic Ice Sheet expanded close to present day volume following an extended period of inferred warmth. (2) The Mid-Miocene Climate Optimum (MMCO ~17-15 Ma), a period of global warmth and moderately elevated CO2 (350->500 ppm) which was subsequently followed by rapid cooling at 14-13.5 Ma. Reconstructions of climate and ice sheet variability, and thus an understanding of the various feedbacks that occurred during these intervals, are hampered by a lack of temperature and hydroclimate proxy data from the southern high latitudes. We present proxy climate reconstructions using terrestrial and marine organic biomarkers that provide new insights into Antarctica's climate evolution, using Antarctic drill cores and outcrop samples from a range of depositional settings. Bacterial ether-lipids have been analysed to determine terrestrial mean annual temperatures and soil pH (via the methylation and cyclisation indexes of branched tetraethers - MBT and CBT, respectively). Tetraether-lipids of crenarchaeota found in marine sediments sampled from continental shelves around Antarctica have been used to derive sea surface temperatures using the TEX86 index. Compound specific stable isotopes on n-alkanes sourced from terrestrial plants have been analysed to investigate changes in the hydrological and carbon cycles.

  11. Nematode-trapping fungi eavesdrop on nematode pheromones

    OpenAIRE

    Hsueh, Yen-Ping; Mahanti, Parag; Schroeder, Frank C.; Sternberg, Paul W.

    2012-01-01

    The recognition of molecular patterns associated with specific pathogens or food sources is fundamental to ecology and plays a major role in the evolution of predator-prey relationships [1]. Recent studies showed that nematodes produce an evolutionarily highly conserved family of small molecules, the ascarosides, which serve essential functions in regulating nematode development and behavior [2-4]. Here we show that nematophagous fungi, natural predators of soil-dwelling nematodes [5], can de...

  12. Genetic and Molecular Epidemiological Characterization of a Novel Adenovirus in Antarctic Penguins Collected between 2008 and 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sook-Young Lee

    Full Text Available Antarctica is considered a relatively uncontaminated region with regard to the infectious diseases because of its extreme environment, and isolated geography. For the genetic characterization and molecular epidemiology of the newly found penguin adenovirus in Antarctica, entire genome sequencing and annual survey of penguin adenovirus were conducted. The entire genome sequences of penguin adenoviruses were completed for two Chinstrap penguins (Pygoscelis antarctica and two Gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua. The whole genome lengths and G+C content of penguin adenoviruses were found to be 24,630-24,662 bp and 35.5-35.6%, respectively. Notably, the presence of putative sialidase gene was not identified in penguin adenoviruses by Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE-PCR as well as consensus specific PCR. The penguin adenoviruses were demonstrated to be a new species within the genus Siadenovirus, with a distance of 29.9-39.3% (amino acid, 32.1-47.9% in DNA polymerase gene, and showed the closest relationship with turkey adenovirus 3 (TAdV-3 in phylogenetic analysis. During the 2008-2013 study period, the penguin adenoviruses were annually detected in 22 of 78 penguins (28.2%, and the molecular epidemiological study of the penguin adenovirus indicates a predominant infection in Chinstrap penguin population (12/30, 40%. Interestingly, the genome of penguin adenovirus could be detected in several internal samples, except the lymph node and brain. In conclusion, an analysis of the entire adenoviral genomes from Antarctic penguins was conducted, and the penguin adenoviruses, containing unique genetic character, were identified as a new species within the genus Siadenovirus. Moreover, it was annually detected in Antarctic penguins, suggesting its circulation within the penguin population.

  13. Complete mitochondrial genome of Angiostrongylus malaysiensis lungworm and molecular phylogeny of Metastrongyloid nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Song, Sze-Looi; Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Lim, Phaik-Eem

    2016-09-01

    Angiostrongylus malaysiensis is a nematode parasite of various rat species. When first documented in Malaysia, it was referred to as A. cantonensis. Unlike A. cantonensis, the complete mitochondrial genome of A. malaysiensis has not been documented. We report here its complete mitogenome, its differentiation from A. cantonensis, and the phylogenetic relationships with its congeners and other Metastrongyloid taxa. The whole mitogenome of A. malaysiensis had a total length of 13,516bp, comprising 36 genes (12 PCGs, 2 rRNA and 22 tRNA genes) and a control region. It is longer than that of A. cantonensis (13,509bp). Its control region had a long poly T-stretch of 12bp which was not present in A. cantonensis. A. malaysiensis and A. cantonensis had identical start codon for the 12 PCGs, but four PCGs (atp6, cob, nad2, nad6) had different stop codon. The cloverleaf structure for the 22 tRNAs was similar in A. malaysiensis and A. cantonensis except the TΨC-arm was absent in trnV for A. malaysiensis but present in A. cantonensis. The Angiostrongylus genus was monophyletic, with A. malaysiensis and A. cantonensis forming a distinct lineage from that of A. costaricensis and A. vasorum. The genetic distance between A. malaysiensis and A. cantonensis was p=11.9% based on 12 PCGs, p=9.5% based on 2 rRNA genes, and p=11.6% based on 14 mt-genes. The mitogenome will prove useful for studies on phylogenetics and systematics of Angiostrongylus lungworms and other Metastrongyloid nematodes. PMID:27207134

  14. Evolution and ecology of antarctic sponges

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas Ramirez, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Sponges are abundant and species-rich in Antarctic waters, and play important roles in the benthic ecosystems of the continent. The taxonomy of Antarctic sponges is, to some extent, well established, yet the phylogenetic relationships of this fauna remain unknown. Here, the first contributions to the knowledge of the evolution of Antarctic sponges are presented. A molecular phylogeny for the common Antarctic shelf glass sponge genus Rossella is provided. Based on nuclear and mitochondrial mar...

  15. [Characterization of the Structure of the Prokaryotic Complex of Antarctic Permafrost by Molecular Genetic Techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manucharova, N A; Trosheva, E V; Kol'tsova, E M; Demkina, E V; Karaevskaya, E V; Rivkina, E M; Mardanov, A V; El'-Registan, G I

    2016-01-01

    A prokaryotic mesophilic organotrophic community responsible for 10% of the total microbial number determined by epifluorescence microscopy was reactivated in the samples ofAntarctic permafrost retrieved from the environment favoring long-term preservation of microbial communities (7500 years). No culturable forms were obtained without resuscitation procedures (CFU = 0). Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes were the dominant microbial groups in the complex. Initiation of the reactivated microbial complex by addition of chitin (0.1% wt/vol) resulted in an increased share of metabolically active biomass (up to 50%) due to the functional domination of chitinolytics caused by the target resource. Thus, sequential application of resuscitation procedures and initiation of a specific physiological group (in this case, chitinolytics) to a permafrost-preserved microbial community made it possible to reveal a prokaryotic complex capable of reversion of metabolic activity (FISH data), to determine its phylogenetic structure by metagenomic anal-ysis, and to isolate a pure culture of the dominant microorganism with high chitinolytic activity. PMID:27301132

  16. Cyst nematode-induced changes in plant development

    OpenAIRE

    Goverse, A.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis describes a first attempt to investigate the biological activity of cyst nematode secretions on plant cell proliferation and the molecular mechanisms underlying feeding cell development in plant roots upon cyst nematode infection.To investigate the role of nematode secretions in feeding cell development, the in vitro induction and collection of putative nematode signalling molecules is needed. Chapter 2 describes the specific induction of nematode secretions from infective juvenil...

  17. Molecular characterization and development of real-time PCR assay for pine-wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Nematoda: Parasitaphelenchidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Weimin; Giblin-Davis, Robin M

    2013-01-01

    Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, the pine-wood nematode (PWN), is the causal agent of pine wilt disease, one of the most damaging emerging pest problems to forests around the world. It is native to North America where it causes relatively minor damage to native conifers but is labeled an EPPO-A-2 pest and a quarantine nematode for many countries outside of the United States because of its potential for destruction to their native conifers. Exports of wood logs and commodities involving softwood packaging materials now require a lab test for the presence/absence of this regulated nematode species. We characterized the DNA sequences on the ribosomal DNA small subunit, large subunit D2/D3, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase subunit one on the aphelenchid species and described the development of a real-time-PCR method for rapid and accurate identification of PWN targeting the ITS-1. A total of 97 nematode populations were used to evaluate the specificity and sensitivity of this assay, including 45 populations of B. xylophilus and 36 populations of 21 other species of Bursaphelenchus which belong to the abietinus, cocophilus, eggersi, fungivorus, hofmanni, kevini, leoni, sexdentati, and xylophilus groups and one unassigned group from a total of 13 groups in the genus Bursaphelenchus; 15 populations of Aphelenchoides besseyi, A. fragariae, Aphelenchoides species and Aphelenchus avenae; and one population of mixed nematode species from a soil sample. This assay proved to be specific to B. xylophilus only and was sensitive to a single nematode specimen regardless of the life stages present. This approach provides rapid species identification necessary to comply with the zero-tolerance export regulations. PMID:24244367

  18. Acid phosphatase-1 1, a molecular marker tightly linked to root-knot nematode resistance in tomato.

    OpenAIRE

    Aarts, J.M.M.J.G.

    1993-01-01

    Root knot nematode resistance in tomato is a genetic trait which is determined by a single dominant gene ( Mi ) on chromosome 6 of tomato. Information about the mRNA or protein product is completely lacking, which precludes the cloning of Mi by conventional strategies based on gene expression. However, an acid phosphatase-1 allozyme marker ( Aps-1 1 ) is known, which shows tight genetic linkage to the root knot nematode resistance trait. With a view to isolating Mi nucleotide sequences by a p...

  19. Nematodes, bacteria, and flies: a tripartite model for nematode parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallem, Elissa A; Rengarajan, Michelle; Ciche, Todd A; Sternberg, Paul W

    2007-05-15

    More than a quarter of the world's population is infected with nematode parasites, and more than a hundred species of nematodes are parasites of humans [1-3]. Despite extensive morbidity and mortality caused by nematode parasites, the biological mechanisms of host-parasite interactions are poorly understood, largely because of the lack of genetically tractable model systems. We have demonstrated that the insect parasitic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, its bacterial symbiont Photorhabdus luminescens, and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster constitute a tripartite model for nematode parasitism and parasitic infection. We find that infective juveniles (IJs) of Heterorhabditis, which contain Photorhabdus in their gut, can infect and kill Drosophila larvae. We show that infection activates an immune response in Drosophila that results in the temporally dynamic expression of a subset of antimicrobial peptide (AMP) genes, and that this immune response is induced specifically by Photorhabdus. We also investigated the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying IJ recovery, the developmental process that occurs in parasitic nematodes upon host invasion and that is necessary for successful parasitism. We find that the chemosensory neurons and signaling pathways that control dauer recovery in Caenorhabditis elegans also control IJ recovery in Heterorhabditis, suggesting conservation of these developmental processes across free-living and parasitic nematodes. PMID:17475494

  20. A molecular analysis of desiccation tolerance mechanisms in the anhydrobiotic nematode Panagrolaimus superbus using expressed sequenced tags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyson Trevor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some organisms can survive extreme desiccation by entering into a state of suspended animation known as anhydrobiosis. Panagrolaimus superbus is a free-living anhydrobiotic nematode that can survive rapid environmental desiccation. The mechanisms that P. superbus uses to combat the potentially lethal effects of cellular dehydration may include the constitutive and inducible expression of protective molecules, along with behavioural and/or morphological adaptations that slow the rate of cellular water loss. In addition, inducible repair and revival programmes may also be required for successful rehydration and recovery from anhydrobiosis. Results To identify constitutively expressed candidate anhydrobiotic genes we obtained 9,216 ESTs from an unstressed mixed stage population of P. superbus. We derived 4,009 unigenes from these ESTs. These unigene annotations and sequences can be accessed at http://www.nematodes.org/nembase4/species_info.php?species=PSC. We manually annotated a set of 187 constitutively expressed candidate anhydrobiotic genes from P. superbus. Notable among those is a putative lineage expansion of the lea (late embryogenesis abundant gene family. The most abundantly expressed sequence was a member of the nematode specific sxp/ral-2 family that is highly expressed in parasitic nematodes and secreted onto the surface of the nematodes' cuticles. There were 2,059 novel unigenes (51.7% of the total, 149 of which are predicted to encode intrinsically disordered proteins lacking a fixed tertiary structure. One unigene may encode an exo-β-1,3-glucanase (GHF5 family, most similar to a sequence from Phytophthora infestans. GHF5 enzymes have been reported from several species of plant parasitic nematodes, with horizontal gene transfer (HGT from bacteria proposed to explain their evolutionary origin. This P. superbus sequence represents another possible HGT event within the Nematoda. The expression of five of the 19

  1. Polysialylation of brain gangliosides as a possible molecular mechanism for survival of antarctic ice fish below the freezing point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, K.; Rahmann, H.

    In order to determine possible adaptation strategies of vertebrates to extreme low-temperature environments, we compared the concentration and composition of gangliosides from the brains of eight species of Antarctic Notothenioid ``ice'' fishes with those of warm-adapted species and those of fishes from habitats of moderate temperature. The concentration of whole-brain gangliosides in the ice fishes was comparable with that in moderate-temperature species (between 3.36 and 4.31 mg NeuAc/g protein). The composition of brain gangliosides differed, however. In particular, the relative concentrations of polysialogangliosides (= polarity) and alkali-labile gangliosides was higher in all Antarctic species investigated than in warm-adapted fish species. This difference is considered a suitable mechanism for keeping neuronal membranes functional even below the freezing point. This interpretation is supported by additional physicochemical results with artificial monolayer membranes, which give evidence for a high thermosensitivity of ganglioside complexes in connection with calcium.

  2. Genomics of reproduction in nematodes: prospects for parasite intervention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, Alasdair J; Cottee, Pauline A; Gasser, Robin B

    2008-02-01

    Understanding reproductive processes in parasitic nematodes has the potential to lead to the informed design of new anthelmintics and control strategies. Little is known, however, about the molecular mechanisms underlying sex determination, gametogenesis and reproductive physiology for most parasitic nematodes. Together with comparative analyses of data for the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, molecular investigations are beginning to provide insights into the processes involved in reproduction and development in parasitic nematodes. Here, we review recent developments, focusing on technological aspects and on molecules associated with sex-specific differences in adult nematodes. PMID:18182326

  3. Morphological, molecular and developmental characterization of the thelastomatid nematode Thelastoma bulhoesi (de Magalhães, 1900) (Oxyuridomorpha: Thelastomatidae) parasite of Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus, 1758) (Blattodea: Blattidae) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Sota; Morffe, Jans; Vicente, Cláudia S L; Ikeda, Kenji; Shinya, Ryoji; Hasegawa, Koichi

    2016-06-01

    The American cockroach Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus, 1758) (Blattodea: Blattidae) has been spreading worldwide by commerce and has successfully adjusted to living with humans. There are many reports of thelastomatid parasitic nematode isolated from P. americana in many countries including USA, Canada, India, Argentina, Bulgaria, but not in Japan. We have investigated the parasitic nematodes in P. americana lab strain and field-captured individuals in Japan and found that Thelastoma bulhoesi (de Magalhães, 1900) (Oxyuridomorpha: Thelastomatidae) parasitizes with high infection rates. We described morphological, molecular, and developmental characters of the parasitic nematode because such information was missing despite it has been discovered more than one hundred years ago. We described morphometrics with DIC microscopy and fine structure of male and female adult with SEM observation. We also reveal the embryonic and postembryonic development of this nematode. This is the first report of a thelastomatid nematode isolated from American cockroach in Japan, and the data showed here is also very useful and fundamental for further analysis of the cockroach and parasite relations. PMID:27078647

  4. Subtilisin-like proteases in nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Catherine B; Jin, Jingmin; McReynolds, Larry A

    2007-09-01

    Cleavage by subtilisin-like proteases (subtilases) is an essential step in post-translational processing of proteins found in organisms ranging from yeast to mammals. Our knowledge of the diversity of this protease family in nematodes is aided by the rapid increase in sequence information, especially from the Brugia malayi genome project. Genetic studies of the subtilases in Caenorhabitis elegans give valuable insight into the biological function of these proteases in other nematode species. In this review, we focus on the subtilases in filarial nematodes as well as other parasitic and free-living nematodes in comparison to what is known in C. elegans. Topics to be addressed include expansion and diversity of the subtilase gene family during evolution, enhanced complexity created by alternative RNA splicing, molecular and biochemical characterization of the different subtilases and the challenges of designing subtilase-specific inhibitors for parasitic nematodes. PMID:17570539

  5. Integrative taxonomy of the stunt nematodes of the genera Bitylenchus and Tylenchorhynchus (Nematoda, Telotylenchidae) with description of two new species and a molecular phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genera Tylenchorhynchus Cobb, 1913 and Bitylenchus Filipjev, 1934 contain 104 and 29 valid species, respectively, of plant-parasitic nematodes collectively known as "stunt nematodes”. Stunt nematodes have a broad geographical distribution in several continents and some species damage agricultur...

  6. Molecular and biochemical characterisation of ornithine decarboxylases in the sheep abomasal nematode parasites Teladorsagia circumcincta and Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umair, Saleh; Knight, Jacqueline S; Simpson, Heather V

    2013-06-01

    Full length cDNA encoding ornithine decarboxylases (ODC; EC 4.1.1.17) were cloned from the sheep abomasal nematode parasites Teladorsagia circumcincta (TcODC) and Haemonchus contortus (HcODC). The TcODC (1272 bp) and HcODC cDNA (1266 bp) encoded 424 and 422 amino acid proteins respectively. The predicted TcODC amino acid sequence showed 87% identity with HcODC and 65% and 64% with Caenorhabditis elegans and Caenorhabditis briggsae ODC respectively. All binding sites and active regions were completely conserved in both proteins. Soluble N-terminal His-tagged ODC proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21, purified and characterised. The recombinant TcODC and HcODC had very similar kinetic properties: K(m) ornithine was 0.2-0.25 mM, optimum [PLP] was 0.3 mM and the pH optima were pH 8. No enzyme activity was detected when arginine was used as substrate. One millimolar difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) completely inhibited TcODC and HcODC activity, whereas 2 mM agmatine did not inhibit activity. The present study showed that ODC is a separate enzyme from arginine decarboxylase and strictly uses ornithine as substrate. PMID:23499950

  7. Molecular survey of trichostrongyle nematodes in a Bison bison herd experiencing clinical parasitism, and effects of avermectin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eljaki, A A; Al Kappany, Y M; Grosz, D D; Smart, A J; Hildreth, M B

    2016-08-30

    North American bison (Bison bison) producers face many challenges, including the potential clinical and economics problems caused by trichostrongyle nematodes within their herds. Little is known about the prevalence, intensity, geographical distribution and clinical significance of these parasites in commercial bison herds, even from regions where bison production has become popular. This study involved a large herd of bison from eastern South Dakota that was experiencing clinical parasitism due to a temporary over-stocking problem. After documenting fecal egg counts (FECs) and trichostrongyle genera present among the 3 main age-categories (i.e. adults, yearlings, calves) of bison during this heavily infected grazing season, the effects of doramectin treatment on the different age groups was also evaluated. This is the first bison study using PCR to identify genera of trichostrongyles in fecal samples. Virtually all 103 bison fecal samples from all 3 age classes were shedding trichostrongyle eggs by the end of the season, and the mean FECs were 34 eggs/g (EPG) among the cows, 125 EPG in the yearlings, and 186 EGP among calves. Based upon this heavily-infected herd, there is evidence that the susceptibility of bison to trichostrongyles is more similar to beef cattle than to sheep. Other parasites such as Moniezia, Nematodirus, Trichuris, and coccidians were also identified in these samples. All but 3 of the 51 samples analyzed with PCR shown at least 1 trichostrongyle genera. Ostertagia was detected in 68.6% of the samples, Cooperia in 80.39%, Haemonchus in at least 73% and Trichostrongylus in 16% of the herd. Most commonly, bison were infected with combinations of Haemonchus/Ostertagia/Cooperia. After treatment with doramectin, the mean FECs dropped by 99.9% for all of the bison age classes. PMID:27523937

  8. Morphological and molecular characterization of a new isolate of entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema feltiae (Filipjev (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae from the Arasbaran forests, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Nikdel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Steinernema feltiae isolate IRAZ13 was recovered from one soil sample collected from the Arasbaran forests, Iran. The new isolate can be distinguished from other isolates by morphologic and morphometric data, and DNA sequences. The first generation male is characterized by spicule length 79 ± 5 (73–87 μm, SW ratio [(spicule length/anal body diameter*100] 160 ± 13 (137–177, GS ratio GS [(gubernaculum/spicule length*100] 79 ± 8 (62–87, genital papillae arrangement and the second generation male by a mucron 10 ± 1 (9–11 μm long. For the infective juvenile, the body is 883 ± 82 (754–975 μm long, lateral fields with eight equally developed ridges, head smooth, slightly offset, large gonad primordium cells, a long hyaline tail portion (equal to half of tail length, and pore-like phasmid at 41% of the tail length to the semicircle anus are the differentiation factors. Additionally, molecular studies obtained from the 28S-D2/D3 region and ITS1 rDNA sequence analyses and phylogenetic reconstruction further support this nematode as a different isolate.

  9. Biogeochemistry and limnology in Antarctic subglacial weathering: molecular evidence of the linkage between subglacial silica input and primary producers in a perennially ice-covered lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Yoshinori; Kojima, Hisaya; Takeda, Eriko; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Fukui, Manabu

    2015-12-01

    We report a 6,000 years record of subglacial weathering and biogeochemical processes in two perennially ice-covered glacial lakes at Rundvågshetta, on the Soya Coast of Lützow-Holm Bay, East Antarctica. The two lakes, Lake Maruwan Oike and Lake Maruwan-minami, are located in a channel that drains subglacial water from the base of the East Antarctic ice sheet. Greenish-grayish organic-rich laminations in sediment cores from the lakes indicate continuous primary production affected by the inflow of subglacial meltwater containing relict carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and other essential nutrients. Biogenic silica, amorphous hydrated silica, and DNA-based molecular signatures of sedimentary facies indicate that diatom assemblages are the dominant primary producers, supported by the input of inorganic silicon (Si) from the subglacial inflow. This study highlights the significance of subglacial water-rock interactions during physical and chemical weathering processes and the importance of such interactions for the supply of bioavailable nutrients.

  10. Molecular and phylogenetic analysis of the filarial nematode Micipsella numidica from the hare Lepus europaeus in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielli, S; Galuppi, R; Fraulo, M; Savini, F; Morandi, B; Cancrini, G; Poglayen, G

    2016-07-01

    The genus Micipsella comprises three species of filariae to date identified in lagomorphs only, whereas the other genera belonging to the subfamily Splendidofilariinae are described as parasites of birds, reptiles and mammals. In the present study seven specimens of Micipsella numidica (Seurat, 1917), collected from the hare Lepus europaeus in Italy, were characterized genetically by molecular amplification of the mitochondrial genes (12S rDNA; cox1) and the 5S rDNA gene spacer region. Phylogenetic trees inferred using available sequences from filariae and those identified in this study evidenced a close relationship between M. numidica and Splendidofilariinae of other mammals and reptiles (Rumenfilaria andersoni and Madathamugadia hiepei). The present findings, apart from adding new data about the hosts in Italy, support the taxonomic position of M. numidica and highlight the substantial biological and molecular differences existing between Splendidofilariinae and other Onchocercidae. The study also contributes to our knowledge of the molecular/genetic diagnosis of filarial parasites of veterinary and medical concern in any vertebrate or invertebrate host. PMID:26123728

  11. Nematode effector proteins: an emerging paradigm of parasitism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytonematodes use a stylet and secreted effectors to invade host tissues and extract nutrients to support their growth and development. The molecular function of nematode effectors is currently the subject of intense investigation. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of nematode ...

  12. Nematode taxonomy: from morphology to metabarcoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M.; Sapp, M.; Prior, T.; Karssen, G.; Back, M.

    2015-11-01

    Nematodes represent a species rich and morphologically diverse group of metazoans inhabiting both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Their role as biological indicators and as key players in nutrient cycling has been well documented. Some groups of nematodes are also known to cause significant losses to crop production. In spite of this, knowledge of their diversity is still limited due to the difficulty in achieving species identification using morphological characters. Molecular methodology has provided very useful means of circumventing the numerous limitations associated with classical morphology based identification. We discuss herein the history and the progress made within the field of nematode systematics, the limitations of classical taxonomy and how the advent of high throughput sequencing is facilitating advanced ecological and molecular studies.

  13. Morphological, molecular, and differential-host characterization of Meloidogyne floridensis n. sp (Nematoda : Meloidogynidae), a root-knot nematode parasitizing peach in Florida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Handoo, Z.A.; Nyczepir, A.P.; Esmenjaud, D.; Beek, van J.G.; Castagnone-Sereno, P.; Carta, L.K.; Skantar, A.M.; Higgins, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    A root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne floridensis n. sp., is described and illustrated from peach originally collected from Gainesville, Florida. This new species resembles M. incognita, M. christiei, M. graminicola, and M. hispanica, but with LM and SEM observations it differs from these species either

  14. Molecular characteristics and efficacy of 16D10 siRNAs in inhibiting root-knot nematode infection in transgenic grape hairy roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root-knot nematodes (RKNs) infect many annual and perennial crops and are the most devastating soil-born pests in vineyards. To develop a biotech-based solution for controlling RKNs in grapes, we evaluated the efficacy of plant-derived RNA interference (RNAi) silencing of a conserved RKN effector ge...

  15. Antarctic research today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the appetite for living and dead natural resources, the political and economical interest concerning the Antarctic increases throughout the world. There are three interrelated main subjects accounting for the international interest: The shelf tectonic puzzle of the original continent of Gondwana, where the Antarctic is situated in the centre, between Australia, South Africa and South America, and the hopes concerning the existence of mineral resources under the ice of the Antarctic are based thereon. The Antarctic forms the biggest unified living space of the world. (orig.)

  16. The Nematode Caenorhabditis Elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Cynthia

    1988-01-01

    Discusses advantages of nematode use for studying patterns of cell division, differentiation, and morphogenesis. Describes nematode development. Cites experimental approaches available for genetic studies. Reviews the topics of control of cell division and differentiation, the nervous system, and muscle assembly and function of the organism. (RT)

  17. Traditional and molecular detection methods reveal intense interguild competition and other multitrophic interactions associated with native entomopathogenic nematodes in Swiss tillage soils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Campos-Herrera, R.; Jaffuel, G.; Chiriboga, X.; Blanco-Pérez, R.; Fesselet, M.; Půža, Vladimír; Mascher, F.; Turlings, T. C. J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 389, 1-2 (2015), s. 237-255. ISSN 0032-079X Grant ostatní: Swiss National Science Foundation(CH) 143065 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : entomopathogenic nematodes * annual crops * soil food web Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.952, year: 2014 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11104-014-2358-4

  18. Nematode model systems in evolution and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Ralf J; Bumbarger, Daniel J

    2012-01-01

    The free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is one of the most important model organisms in all areas of modern biology. Using the knowledge about C. elegans as a baseline, nematodes are now intensively studied in evolution and development. Evolutionary developmental biology or for short, 'evo-devo' has been developed as a new research discipline during the last two decades to investigate how changes in developmental processes and mechanisms result in the modification of morphological structures and phenotypic novelty. In this article, we review the concepts that make nematode evo-devo a successful approach to evolutionary biology. We introduce selected model systems for nematode evo-devo and provide a detailed discussion of four selected case studies. The most striking finding of nematode evo-devo is the magnitude of developmental variation in the context of a conserved body plan. Detailed investigation of early embryogenesis, gonad formation, vulva development, and sex determination revealed that molecular mechanisms evolve rapidly, often in the context of a conserved body plan. These studies highlight the importance of developmental systems drift and neutrality in evolution. PMID:23801489

  19. Identification of Autophagy in the Pine Wood Nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and the Molecular Characterization and Functional Analysis of Two Novel Autophagy-Related Genes, BxATG1 and BxATG8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Na Deng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, causes huge economic losses in pine forests, has a complex life cycle, and shows the remarkable ability to survive under unfavorable and changing environmental conditions. This ability may be related to autophagy, which is still poorly understood in B. xylophilus and no autophagy-related genes have been previously characterized. In this study, transmission electron microscopy was used to confirm that autophagy exists in B. xylophilus. The full-length cDNAs of BxATG1 and BxATG8 were first cloned from B. xylophilus, and BxATG1 and BxATG8 were characterized using bioinformatics methods. The expression pattern of the autophagy marker BxATG8 was investigated using in situ hybridization (ISH. BxATG8 was expressed in esophageal gland and hypodermal seam cells. We tested the effects of RNA interference (RNAi on BxATG1 and BxATG8. The results revealed that BxATG1 and BxATG8 were likely associated with propagation of nematodes on fungal mats. This study confirmed the molecular characterization and functions of BxATG1 and BxATG8 in B. xylophilus and provided fundamental information between autophagy and B. xylophilus.

  20. Advance of entomopathogenic nematodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarized the history and present condition of studying and utilizing entomopathogenic nematodes at home and abroad, expounded its taxonomy, life cycle and the mechanism with symbiotic bacteria killing host insect. Taxonomy, mycelial form, pathogenic function and anti-bacteria function of symbiotic bacteria were introduced. Production and utilization of entomopathogenic nematodes, the characteristic genetic improvement by use of biological engineering technology, as well as the existing problem and applying foreground were also discussed.

  1. Molecular characterization of the reniform nematode C-type lectin gene family reveals a likely role in mitigating environmental stresses during plant parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganji, Satish; Jenkins, Johnie N; Wubben, Martin J

    2014-03-10

    The reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis, is a damaging semi-endoparasitic pathogen of more than 300 plant species. Transcriptome sequencing of R. reniformis parasitic females revealed an enrichment for sequences homologous to C-type lectins (CTLs), an evolutionarily ancient family of Ca(+2)-dependent carbohydrate-binding proteins that are involved in the innate immune response. To gain further insight as to the potential role of CTLs in facilitating plant parasitism by R. reniformis, we performed a comprehensive assessment of the CTL gene family. 5'- and 3'-RACE experiments identified a total of 11 R. reniformis CTL transcripts (Rr-ctl-1 through Rr-ctl-11) that ranged in length from 1083 to 1,194 bp and showed 93-99% identity with one another. An alignment of cDNA and genomic sequences revealed three introns with the first intron residing within the 5'-untranslated region. BLAST analyses showed the closest homologs belonging to the parasitic nematodes Heligmosomoides polygyrus and Heterodera glycines. Rr-ctl-1, -2, and -3 were expressed throughout the R. reniformis life cycle; whereas, the remaining Rr-ctl genes showed life stage-specific expression. Quantitative real time RT-PCR determined that Rr-ctl transcripts were 839-fold higher in sedentary female nematodes than the next most abundant life stage. Predicted Rr-CTL peptides ranged from 301 to 338 amino acids long, possessed an N-terminal signal peptide for secretion, and contained a conserved CLECT domain, including the mannose-binding motifs EPN and EPD and the conserved WND motif that is required for binding Ca(+2). In addition, Rr-CTL peptides harbored repeats of a novel 17-mer motif within their C-terminus that showed similarity to motifs associated with bacterial ice nucleation proteins. In situ hybridization of Rr-ctl transcripts within sedentary females showed specific accumulation within the hypodermis of the body regions exposed to the soil environment; those structures embedded within the

  2. The activation and suppression of plant innate immunity by parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goverse, Aska; Smant, Geert

    2014-01-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes engage in prolonged and intimate relationships with their host plants, often involving complex alterations in host cell morphology and function. It is puzzling how nematodes can achieve this, seemingly without activating the innate immune system of their hosts. Secretions released by infective juvenile nematodes are thought to be crucial for host invasion, for nematode migration inside plants, and for feeding on host cells. In the past, much of the research focused on the manipulation of developmental pathways in host plants by plant-parasitic nematodes. However, recent findings demonstrate that plant-parasitic nematodes also deliver effectors into the apoplast and cytoplasm of host cells to suppress plant defense responses. In this review, we describe the current insights in the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the activation and suppression of host innate immunity by plant-parasitic nematodes along seven critical evolutionary and developmental transitions in plant parasitism. PMID:24906126

  3. Roles of Steroids in Nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The inability of nematodes to biosynthesize steroids de novo and the resulting dependence of parasitic nematodes upon their hosts have enhanced the importance of elucidating the metabolism of sterols and the hormonal and other functions of steroids in nematodes. Biochemical research has revealed th...

  4. Nematode cholinergic pharmacology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nematode acetylcholine (ACh) receptors were characterized using both biochemical and electrophysiological techniques, including: (1) receptor binding studies in crude homogenates of the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the parasitic nematode Ascaris lumbricoides with the high-affinity probe [3H]N-methylscopolamine ([3H]NMS) which binds to muscarinic receptors in many vertebrate and invertebrate tissues (2) measurement of depolarization and contraction induced by a variety of cholinergic agents, including N-methylscopolamine (NMS), in an innervated dorsal muscle strip preparation of Ascaris; (3) examination of the antagonistic actions of d-tubocurarine (dTC) and NMS at dorsal neuromuscular junction; (4) measurement of input resistance changes in Ascaris commissural motorneurons induced by ACh, dTC, NMS, pilocarpine and other cholinergic drugs

  5. Nematode cholinergic pharmacology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segerberg, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Nematode acetylcholine (ACh) receptors were characterized using both biochemical and electrophysiological techniques, including: (1) receptor binding studies in crude homogenates of the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the parasitic nematode Ascaris lumbricoides with the high-affinity probe ({sup 3}H)N-methylscopolamine (({sup 3}H)NMS) which binds to muscarinic receptors in many vertebrate and invertebrate tissues (2) measurement of depolarization and contraction induced by a variety of cholinergic agents, including N-methylscopolamine (NMS), in an innervated dorsal muscle strip preparation of Ascaris; (3) examination of the antagonistic actions of d-tubocurarine (dTC) and NMS at dorsal neuromuscular junction; (4) measurement of input resistance changes in Ascaris commissural motorneurons induced by ACh, dTC, NMS, pilocarpine and other cholinergic drugs.

  6. Pack hunting by a common soil amoeba on nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisen, Stefan; Rosengarten, Jamila; Koller, Robert; Mulder, Christian; Urich, Tim; Bonkowski, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Soils host the most complex communities on Earth, including the most diverse and abundant eukaryotes, i.e. heterotrophic protists. Protists are generally considered as bacterivores, but evidence for negative interactions with nematodes both from laboratory and field studies exist. However, direct impacts of protists on nematodes remain unknown. We isolated the soil-borne testate amoeba Cryptodifflugia operculata and found a highly specialized and effective pack-hunting strategy to prey on bacterivorous nematodes. Enhanced reproduction in presence of prey nematodes suggests a beneficial predatory life history of these omnivorous soil amoebae. Cryptodifflugia operculata appears to selectively impact the nematode community composition as reductions of nematode numbers were species specific. Furthermore, we investigated 12 soil metatranscriptomes from five distinct locations throughout Europe for 18S ribosomal RNA transcripts of C. operculata. The presence of C. operculata transcripts in all samples, representing up to 4% of the active protist community, indicates a potential ecological importance of nematophagy performed by C. operculata in soil food webs. The unique pack-hunting strategy on nematodes that was previously unknown from protists, together with molecular evidence that these pack hunters are likely to be abundant and widespread in soils, imply a considerable importance of the hitherto neglected trophic link 'nematophagous protists' in soil food webs. PMID:26079718

  7. Evolution of early embryogenesis in rhabditid nematodes

    OpenAIRE

    Brauchle, Michael; Kiontke, Karin; MacMenamin, Philip; Fitch, David H. A.; Piano, Fabio

    2009-01-01

    The cell biological events that guide early embryonic development occur with great precision within species but can be quite diverse across species. How these cellular processes evolve and which molecular components underlie evolutionary changes is poorly understood. To begin to address these questions, we systematically investigated early embryogenesis, from the one- to the four-cell embryo, in 34 nematode species related to C. elegans. We found 40 cell-biological characters that captured th...

  8. Sugars in Antarctic aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaro, Elena; Kirchgeorg, Torben; Zangrando, Roberta; Vecchiato, Marco; Piazza, Rossano; Barbante, Carlo; Gambaro, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    The processes and transformations occurring in the Antarctic aerosol during atmospheric transport were described using selected sugars as source tracers. Monosaccharides (arabinose, fructose, galactose, glucose, mannose, ribose, xylose), disaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose, lactulose), alcohol-sugars (erythritol, mannitol, ribitol, sorbitol, xylitol, maltitol, galactitol) and anhydrosugars (levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan) were measured in the Antarctic aerosol collected during four different sampling campaigns. For quantification, a sensitive high-pressure anion exchange chromatography was coupled with a single quadrupole mass spectrometer. The method was validated, showing good accuracy and low method quantification limits. This study describes the first determination of sugars in the Antarctic aerosol. The total mean concentration of sugars in the aerosol collected at the "Mario Zucchelli" coastal station was 140 pg m-3; as for the aerosol collected over the Antarctic plateau during two consecutive sampling campaigns, the concentration amounted to 440 and 438 pg m-3. The study of particle-size distribution allowed us to identify the natural emission from spores or from sea-spray as the main sources of sugars in the coastal area. The enrichment of sugars in the fine fraction of the aerosol collected on the Antarctic plateau is due to the degradation of particles during long-range atmospheric transport. The composition of sugars in the coarse fraction was also investigated in the aerosol collected during the oceanographic cruise.

  9. Antarctic ozone depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antarctic ozone depletion is most severe during the southern hemisphere spring, when the local reduction in the column amount may be as much as 50 percent. The extent to which this ozone poor air contributes to the observed global ozone loss is a matter of debate, but there is some evidence that fragments of the 'ozone hole' can reach lower latitudes following its breakup in summer. Satellite data show the seasonal evolution of the ozone hole. A new dimension has been added to Antarctic ozone depletion with the advent of large volcanic eruptions such as that from Mount Pinatubo in 1991. (author). 5 refs., 1 fig

  10. Transcriptomics and comparative analysis of three antarctic notothenioid fishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Chul Shin

    Full Text Available For the past 10 to 13 million years, Antarctic notothenioid fish have undergone extraordinary periods of evolution and have adapted to a cold and highly oxygenated Antarctic marine environment. While these species are considered an attractive model with which to study physiology and evolutionary adaptation, they are poorly characterized at the molecular level, and sequence information is lacking. The transcriptomes of the Antarctic fishes Notothenia coriiceps, Chaenocephalus aceratus, and Pleuragramma antarcticum were obtained by 454 FLX Titanium sequencing of a normalized cDNA library. More than 1,900,000 reads were assembled in a total of 71,539 contigs. Overall, 40% of the contigs were annotated based on similarity to known protein or nucleotide sequences, and more than 50% of the predicted transcripts were validated as full-length or putative full-length cDNAs. These three Antarctic fishes shared 663 genes expressed in the brain and 1,557 genes expressed in the liver. In addition, these cold-adapted fish expressed more Ub-conjugated proteins compared to temperate fish; Ub-conjugated proteins are involved in maintaining proteins in their native state in the cold and thermally stable Antarctic environments. Our transcriptome analysis of Antarctic notothenioid fish provides an archive for future studies in molecular mechanisms of fundamental genetic questions, and can be used in evolution studies comparing other fish.

  11. Bacterial endosymbionts of plant-parasitic nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several groups of bacteria have been reported as endosymbionts of various orders of nematodes including the filarial nematodes (Brugia malayi, Wucheria bancrofti and Onchocerca volvulus (Spiruida)), the entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernema spp., and Heterorhabditis spp. (Rhabditida)), and plant-p...

  12. UPREGULATION OF STRESS ASSOCIATED GENES IN THE OVERWINTERING STAGES OF THE ANTARCTIC MIDGE, BELGICA ANTARCTICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have investigated the molecular basis of stress resistance in the midge Belgica antarctica, the largest known free-living animal to adapt to a terrestrial existence on the Antarctic continent. Prevalent in specific locations throughout the Antarctic peninsula, this insect has a two-year life cyc...

  13. Intestinal nematodes: biology and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epe, Christian

    2009-11-01

    A variety of nematodes occur in dogs and cats. Several nematode species inhabit the small and large intestines. Important species that live in the small intestine are roundworms of the genus Toxocara (T canis, T cati) and Toxascaris (ie, T leonina), and hookworms of the genus Ancylostoma (A caninum, A braziliense, A tubaeforme) or Uncinaria (U stenocephala). Parasites of the large intestine are nematodes of the genus Trichuris (ie, whipworms, T vulpis). After a comprehensive description of their life cycle and biology, which are indispensable for understanding and justifying their control, current recommendations for nematode control are presented and discussed thereafter. PMID:19932365

  14. Modelling the Antarctic Ice Sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke; Holm, A.

    2015-01-01

    Science) Antarctic Ice Sheet (DAIS) model (Shaffer 2014) is forced by reconstructed time series of Antarctic temperature, global sea level and ocean subsurface temperature over the last two glacial cycles. In this talk a modelling work of the Antarctic ice sheet over most of the Cenozoic era using the......The Antarctic ice sheet is a major player in the Earth’s climate system and is by far the largest depository of fresh water on the planet. Ice stored in the Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) contains enough water to raise sea level by about 58 m, and ice loss from Antarctica contributed significantly to...... DAIS model will be presented. G. Shaffer (2014) Formulation, calibration and validation of the DAIS model (version 1), a simple Antarctic ice sheet model sensitive to variations of sea level and ocean subsurface temperature, Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 1803‐1818...

  15. Antarctic Tourism and Maritime Heritage

    OpenAIRE

    Basberg, Bjørn L.

    2010-01-01

    Maritime activities in the Antarctic region date back to the eighteenth century. They evolved from exploration and discoveries to commercial enterprises, especially sealing, whaling and fishing. Antarctic tourism is a much more recent phenomenon, developing mainly from the 1950s and 1960s. Today over 40,000 tourists visit the Antarctic annually, most of them on cruise ships. This essay reviews the historical development of this tourism. The focus is on how maritime heritage has been treated a...

  16. Antarctic science preserve polluted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simarski, Lynn Teo

    Geophysicists are alarmed at the electromagnetic pollution of a research site in the Antarctic specifically set aside to study the ionosphere and magnetosphere. A private New Zealand communications company called Telecom recently constructed a satellite ground station within the boundaries of this Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI), protected since the mid-1970s. The placement of a commercial facility within this site sets an ominous precedent not only for the sanctity of other SSSIs, but also for Specially Protected Areas—preserves not even open to scientific research, such as certain penguin rookeries.The roughly rectangular, one-by-one-half mile site, located at Arrival Heights not far from McMurdo Station, is one of a number of areas protected under the Antarctic treaty for designated scientific activities. Many sites are set aside for geological or biological research, but this is the only one specifically for physical science.

  17. Social networks of educated nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entomopathogenic nematodes are obligate lethal parasitoids of insect larvae that navigate a chemically complex belowground environment while interacting with their insect hosts, plants, and each other. In this environment, prior exposure to volatile compounds appears to prime nematodes in a compound...

  18. Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of the Amphid Sensilla in the Microbial Feeding Nematode, Acrobeles complexus (Nematoda: Rhabditida)

    OpenAIRE

    Bumbarger, Daniel J.; Wijeratne, Sitara; Carter, Cale; Crum, John; Ellisman, Mark H.; Baldwin, James G.

    2009-01-01

    Amphid sensilla are the primary olfactory, chemoreceptive, and thermoreceptive organs in nematodes. Their function is well described for the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans, but it is not clear to what extent we can generalize these findings to distantly related nematodes of medical, economic, and agricultural importance. Current detailed descriptions of anatomy and sensory function are limited to nematodes that recent molecular phylogenies would place in the same taxonomic family, the ...

  19. Long-Term In Vitro System for Maintenance and Amplification of Root-Knot Nematodes in Cucumis sativus Roots

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz-Manzano, Fernando E.; Olmo, Rocío; Cabrera, Javier; Barcala, Marta; Escobar, Carolina; Fenoll, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes (RKN) are polyphagous plant-parasitic roundworms that produce large crop losses, representing a relevant agricultural pest worldwide. After infection, they induce swollen root structures called galls containing giant cells (GCs) indispensable for nematode development. Among efficient control methods are biotechnology-based strategies that require a deep knowledge of underlying molecular processes during the plant-nematode interaction. Methods of achieving this knowledge in...

  20. The Role of Plant Hormones in Nematode Feeding Cell Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goverse, A.; Bird, D.

    2011-01-01

    In this Chapter, we discuss recent advances in the role of plant hormones in the molecular mechanisms underlying feeding cell formation both by cyst (CN) and root-knot nematodes (RKN). Phytohormones are small signalling molecules that regulate plant growth and development, including the formation of

  1. Signatures of adaptation to plant parasitism in nematode genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, David McK; Jones, John T; Opperman, Charles H; Kikuchi, Taisei; Danchin, Etienne G J

    2015-02-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes cause considerable damage to global agriculture. The ability to parasitize plants is a derived character that appears to have independently emerged several times in the phylum Nematoda. Morphological convergence to feeding style has been observed, but whether this is emergent from molecular convergence is less obvious. To address this, we assess whether genomic signatures can be associated with plant parasitism by nematodes. In this review, we report genomic features and characteristics that appear to be common in plant-parasitic nematodes while absent or rare in animal parasites, predators or free-living species. Candidate horizontal acquisitions of parasitism genes have systematically been found in all plant-parasitic species investigated at the sequence level. Presence of peptides that mimic plant hormones also appears to be a trait of plant-parasitic species. Annotations of the few genomes of plant-parasitic nematodes available to date have revealed a set of apparently species-specific genes on every occasion. Effector genes, important for parasitism are frequently found among those species-specific genes, indicating poor overlap. Overall, nematodes appear to have developed convergent genomic solutions to adapt to plant parasitism. PMID:25656361

  2. Biodiversity and biogeography of Antarctic and sub-Antarctic mollusca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linse, Katrin; Griffiths, Huw J.; Barnes, David K. A.; Clarke, Andrew

    2006-04-01

    For many decades molluscan data have been critical to the establishment of the concept of a global-scale increase in species richness from the poles to the equator. Low polar diversity is key to this latitudinal cline in diversity. Here we investigate richness patterns in the two largest classes of molluscs at both local and regional scales throughout the Southern Ocean. We show that biodiversity is very patchy in the Southern Ocean (at the 1000-km scale) and test the validity of historical biogeographic sub-regions and provinces. We used multivariate analysis of biodiversity patterns at species, genus and family levels to define richness hotspots within the Southern Ocean and transition areas. This process identified the following distinct sub-regions in the Southern Ocean: Antarctic Peninsula, Weddell Sea, East Antarctic—Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctic—Enderby Land, East Antarctic—Wilkes Land, Ross Sea, and the independent Scotia arc and sub Antarctic islands. Patterns of endemism were very different between the bivalves and gastropods. On the basis of distributional ranges and radiation centres of evolutionarily successful families and genera we define three biogeographic provinces in the Southern Ocean: (1) the continental high Antarctic province excluding the Antarctic Peninsula, (2) the Scotia Sea province including the Antarctic Peninsula, and (3) the sub Antarctic province comprising the islands in the vicinity of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current.

  3. The Surface Coat of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes: Chemical Composition, Origin, and Biological Role—A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Spiegel, Y.; McClure, M. A.

    1995-01-01

    Chemical composition, origin, and biological role of the surface coat (SC) of plant-parasitic nematodes are described and compared with those of animal-parasitic and free-living nematodes. The SC of the plant-parasitic nematodes is 5-30 nm thick and is characterized by a net negative charge. It consists, at least in part, of glycoproteins and proteins with various molecular weights, depending upon the nematode species. The lability of its components and the binding of human red blood cells to...

  4. Ecuadorian antarctic act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To develop research in this continent involves to take communion with earth where the cold pole of the planet is located, the stormiest sea of the world surround it and where the capricious continental and geographical distribution permits the pass of meteorological violent and continuous systems. The Ecuador, in execution of the acquired commitments like Full Member of the System of the Antarctic Treaty, carried out the VII Expedition to the White Continent with an extensive program of scientific investigation in the field of: Sciences of Life, Sciences of the Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, so much in the environment of the Pacific Southeast, the Drake Pass, Bransfield Strait and the nearby ecosystems antarctic to Point Fort William in the Greenwich Island, site where the Ecuadorian station Pedro Vicente Maldonado is located. The scientific articles, result of the fruitful work of national investigator is consigned in this fourth edition. This publication constitutes our contribution to the world in the knowledge, understanding and handling of the marvelous White Continent from the middle of our planet, Ecuador

  5. Reference values for nematode communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waarde, J. van der; Wagelmans, M. [Bioclear bv, Groningen (Netherlands); Keidel, H. [Blgg bv (Netherlands); Knoben, R. [Royal Haskoning (Netherlands); Schouten, T.; Bogte, J. [RIVM (Netherlands); Goede, R. de; Bongers, T. [Wageningen Univerity and Research Centre (Netherlands); Didden, W.; Doelman, P. [Advies (Netherlands); Kerkum, F.; Jonge, J. de [RIZA, Lelystad (Netherlands)

    2003-07-01

    The TRIAD approach is increasingly used for the assessment of ecological risks of soil and sediment contamination. The interpretation of the results form this TRIAD are however hampered by a lack of reference values. These reference values ideally reflect the ecological situation in non-contaminated but comparable ecosystems. As a part of the TRIAD approach nematodes are routinely used as indicators of soil quality but clear reference values are not available. The aim of the project was to develop a reference system for nematode fauna to facilitate assessment of ecological risks. All available data on nematodes in Dutch soil and sediments were collected and put together in one database: the first complete Dutch nematode database. After a quality check, a total of approximately 1600 samples was selected for further analysis. (orig.)

  6. Social Networks of Educated Nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Denis S.; Alborn, Hans T.; Duncan, Larry W.; Stelinski, Lukasz L.

    2015-01-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes are obligate lethal parasitoids of insect larvae that navigate a chemically complex belowground environment while interacting with their insect hosts, plants, and each other. In this environment, prior exposure to volatile compounds appears to prime nematodes in a compound specific manner, increasing preference for volatiles they previously were exposed to and decreasing attraction to other volatiles. In addition, persistence of volatile exposure influences this response. Longer exposure not only increases preference, but also results in longer retention of that preference. These entomopathogenic nematodes display interspecific social behavioral plasticity; experienced nematodes influence the behavior of different species. This interspecific social behavioral plasticity suggests a mechanism for rapid adaptation of belowground communities to dynamic environments. PMID:26404058

  7. The Antarctic ozone depletion caused by Erebus volcano gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuev, V. V.; Zueva, N. E.; Savelieva, E. S.; Gerasimov, V. V.

    2015-12-01

    Heterogeneous chemical reactions releasing photochemically active molecular chlorine play a key role in Antarctic stratospheric ozone destruction, resulting in the Antarctic ozone hole. Hydrogen chloride (HCl) is one of the principal components in these reactions on the surfaces of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs). PSCs form during polar nights at extremely low temperatures (lower than -78 °C) mainly on sulfuric acid (H2SO4) aerosols, acting as condensation nuclei and formed from sulfur dioxide (SO2). However, the cause of HCl and H2SO4 high concentrations in the Antarctic stratosphere, leading to considerable springtime ozone depletion, is still not clear. Based on the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data over the last 35 years and by using the NOAA HYSPLIT trajectory model, we show that Erebus volcano gas emissions (including HCl and SO2) can reach the Antarctic stratosphere via high-latitude cyclones with the annual average probability Pbarann. of at least ∼0.235 (23.5%). Depending on Erebus activity, this corresponds to additional annual stratospheric HCl mass of 1.0-14.3 kilotons (kt) and SO2 mass of 1.4-19.7 kt. Thus, Erebus volcano is the natural and powerful source of additional stratospheric HCl and SO2, and hence, the cause of the Antarctic ozone depletion, together with man-made chlorofluorocarbons.

  8. What shapes edaphic communities in mineral and ornithogenic soils of Cierva Point, Antarctic Peninsula?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mataloni, G.; Garraza, G. González; Bölter, M.; Convey, P.; Fermani, P.

    2010-08-01

    Three mineral soil and four ornithogenic soil sites were sampled during summer 2006 at Cierva Point (Antarctic Peninsula) to study their bacterial, microalgal and faunal communities in relation to abiotic and biotic features. Soil moisture, pH, conductivity, organic matter and nutrient contents were consistently lower and more homogeneous in mineral soils. Ornithogenic soils supported larger and more variable bacterial abundances than mineral ones. Algal communities from mineral soils were more diverse than those from ornithogenic soils, although chlorophyll- a concentrations were significantly higher in the latter. This parameter and bacterial abundance were correlated with nutrient and organic matter contents. The meiofauna obtained from mineral soils was homogeneous, with one nematode species dominating all samples. The fauna of ornithogenic soils varied widely in composition and abundance. Tardigrades and rotifers dominated the meiofauna at eutrophic O2, where they supported a large population of the predatory nematode Coomansus gerlachei. At site O3, high bacterial abundance was consistent with high densities of the bacterivorous nematodes Plectus spp. This study provides evidence that Antarctic soils are complex and diverse systems, and suggests that biotic interactions (e.g. competition and predation) may have a stronger and more direct influence on community variability in space and time than previously thought.

  9. Nematode spatial and ecological patterns from tropical and temperate rainforests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota L Porazinska

    Full Text Available Large scale diversity patterns are well established for terrestrial macrobiota (e.g. plants and vertebrates, but not for microscopic organisms (e.g. nematodes. Due to small size, high abundance, and extensive dispersal, microbiota are assumed to exhibit cosmopolitan distributions with no biogeographical patterns. This assumption has been extrapolated from local spatial scale studies of a few taxonomic groups utilizing morphological approaches. Recent molecularly-based studies, however, suggest something quite opposite. Nematodes are the most abundant metazoans on earth, but their diversity patterns are largely unknown. We conducted a survey of nematode diversity within three vertical strata (soil, litter, and canopy of rainforests at two contrasting latitudes in the North American meridian (temperate: the Olympic National Forest, WA, U.S.A and tropical: La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica using standardized sampling designs and sample processing protocols. To describe nematode diversity, we applied an ecometagenetic approach using 454 pyrosequencing. We observed that: 1 nematode communities were unique without even a single common species between the two rainforests, 2 nematode communities were unique among habitats in both rainforests, 3 total species richness was 300% more in the tropical than in the temperate rainforest, 4 80% of the species in the temperate rainforest resided in the soil, whereas only 20% in the tropics, 5 more than 90% of identified species were novel. Overall, our data provided no support for cosmopolitanism at both local (habitats and large (rainforests spatial scales. In addition, our data indicated that biogeographical patterns typical of macrobiota also exist for microbiota.

  10. Comparison of Internal Transcribed Spacers and Intergenic Spacer Regions of Five Common Iranian Sheep Bursate Nematodes

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Nabavi; Brendan Conneely; Elaine McCarthy; Barbara Good; Parviz Shayan; Theo de Waal

    2014-01-01

    Background Accurate identification of sheep nematodes is a critical point in epidemiological studies and monitoring of drug resistance in flocks. However, due to a close morphological similarity between the eggs and larval stages of many of these nematodes, such identification is not a trivial task. There are a number of studies showing that molecular targets in ribosomal DNA (Internal transcribed spacer 1, 2 and Intergenic spacer) are suitable for accurate identification of sheep bursate nem...

  11. Emerging spatial patterns in Antarctic prokaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Wie eChong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in knowledge of patterns of biogeography in terrestrial eukaryotic organisms have led to a fundamental paradigm shift in understanding of the controls and history of life on land in Antarctica, and its interactions over the long term with the glaciological and geological processes that have shaped the continent. However, while it has long been recognized that the terrestrial ecosystems of Antarctica are dominated by microbes and their processes, knowledge of microbial diversity and distributions has lagged far behind that of the macroscopic eukaryote organisms. Increasing human contact with and activity in the continent is leading to risks of biological contamination and change in a region whose isolation has protected it for millions of years at least; these risks may be particularly acute for microbial communities which have, as yet, received scant recognition and attention. Even a matter apparently as straightforward as Protected Area designation in Antarctica requires robust biodiversity data which, in most parts of the continent, remain almost completely unavailable. A range of important contributing factors mean that it is now timely to reconsider the state of knowledge of Antarctic terrestrial prokaryotes. Rapid advances in molecular biological approaches are increasingly demonstrating that bacterial diversity in Antarctica may be far greater than previously thought, and that there is overlap in the environmental controls affecting both Antarctic prokaryotic and eukaryotic communities. Bacterial dispersal mechanisms and colonization patterns remain largely unaddressed, although evidence for regional evolutionary differentiation is rapidly accruing and, with this, there is increasing appreciation of patterns in regional bacterial biogeography in this large part of the globe. In this review, we set out to describe the state of knowledge of Antarctic prokaryote diversity patterns, drawing analogy with those of eukaryote

  12. Antarctic Miocene Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, A. C.; Lewis, A. R.

    2013-12-01

    Fossils from Antarctic Miocene terrestrial deposits, coupled with stratigraphic, geochemical and paleontological data from marine boreholes, provide new insights into the climatic history of the continent. During the Miocene, ice caps coalesced to form ice sheets and vegetated surfaces gave way to barren expanses. The cryospheric changes especially have global climatic implications. The fossil data consists of diatoms, pollen and spores, and macroscopic remains of plants, ostracods, insects, molluscs and a fish. Plant fossils include wood and leaves of Nothofagus (southern beech), seeds of several vascular plants, including Ranunculus (buttercup), Hippuris (mare's-tail) and Myriophyllum (watermilfoil), megaspores of Isoetes (quillwort), and moss species. The insect chitin consists of larval head capsules of Chironomidae (midges) and exoskeletal parts of Coleoptera (beetles). The molluscs include freshwater gastropods and bivalves. The majority of these taxa are likely descendants of taxa that had survived on the continent from the Paleogene or earlier. Even though early Miocene glaciations may have been large, the climate was never cold enough to cause the extinction of the biota, which probably survived in coastal refugia. Early Miocene (c. 20 Ma) macrofossils from the McMurdo Dry Valleys (77°S) support palynological interpretations from the Cape Roberts and ANDRILL marine records that the upland vegetation was a shrub tundra. Mean summer temperature (MST) in the uplands was c. 6°C and possibly higher at the coast. The climate was wet, supporting mires and lakes. By the mid-Miocene, even though the climate continued to be wet. MST was c. 4°C which was too cold to support Nothofagus and most vascular plant species. Stratigraphic evidence indicates that the time between the Early and Mid-Miocene was a time of repeated ice advances and retreats of small glaciers originating from ice caps. At c. 14 Ma there appears to have been a modal shift in climate to

  13. Environmental contamination in Antarctic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargagli, R

    2008-08-01

    Although the remote continent of Antarctica is perceived as the symbol of the last great wilderness, the human presence in the Southern Ocean and the continent began in the early 1900s for hunting, fishing and exploration, and many invasive plant and animal species have been deliberately introduced in several sub-Antarctic islands. Over the last 50 years, the development of research and tourism have locally affected terrestrial and marine coastal ecosystems through fuel combustion (for transportation and energy production), accidental oil spills, waste incineration and sewage. Although natural "barriers" such as oceanic and atmospheric circulation protect Antarctica from lower latitude water and air masses, available data on concentrations of metals, pesticides and other persistent pollutants in air, snow, mosses, lichens and marine organisms show that most persistent contaminants in the Antarctic environment are transported from other continents in the Southern Hemisphere. At present, levels of most contaminants in Antarctic organisms are lower than those in related species from other remote regions, except for the natural accumulation of Cd and Hg in several marine organisms and especially in albatrosses and petrels. The concentrations of organic pollutants in the eggs of an opportunistic top predator such as the south polar skua are close to those that may cause adverse health effects. Population growth and industrial development in several countries of the Southern Hemisphere are changing the global pattern of persistent anthropogenic contaminants and new classes of chemicals have already been detected in the Antarctic environment. Although the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty provides strict guidelines for the protection of the Antarctic environment and establishes obligations for all human activity in the continent and the Southern Ocean, global warming, population growth and industrial development in countries of the Southern

  14. Antarctic Thresholds - Ecosystem Resilience and Adaptation a new SCAR-Biology Programme

    OpenAIRE

    Gutt, Julian; Adams, Byron; Bracegirdle, Thomas; Cowan, Don; Cummings, Vonda; di Prisco, Guido; Gradinger, Rolf; Isla, Enrique; McIntyre, Trevor; Murphy, Eugene; Peck, Lloyd; Schloss, Irene; Smith, Craig; Suckling, Coleen; Takahashi, Akinori

    2013-01-01

    Stresses on Antarctic ecosystems result from environmental change, including extreme events, and from (other) human impacts. Consequently, Antarctic habitats are changing, some at a rapid pace while others are relatively stable. A cascade of responses from molecular through organismic to the community level are expected. The differences in biological complexity and evolutionary histories between both polar regions and the rest of the planet suggest that stresses on polar ...

  15. Functional Characterization of a Novel Class of Morantel-Sensitive Acetylcholine Receptors in Nematodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Courtot

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine receptors are pentameric ligand-gated channels involved in excitatory neuro-transmission in both vertebrates and invertebrates. In nematodes, they represent major targets for cholinergic agonist or antagonist anthelmintic drugs. Despite the large diversity of acetylcholine-receptor subunit genes present in nematodes, only a few receptor subtypes have been characterized so far. Interestingly, parasitic nematodes affecting human or animal health possess two closely related members of this gene family, acr-26 and acr-27 that are essentially absent in free-living or plant parasitic species. Using the pathogenic parasitic nematode of ruminants, Haemonchus contortus, as a model, we found that Hco-ACR-26 and Hco-ACR-27 are co-expressed in body muscle cells. We demonstrated that co-expression of Hco-ACR-26 and Hco-ACR-27 in Xenopus laevis oocytes led to the functional expression of an acetylcholine-receptor highly sensitive to the anthelmintics morantel and pyrantel. Importantly we also reported that ACR-26 and ACR-27, from the distantly related parasitic nematode of horses, Parascaris equorum, also formed a functional acetylcholine-receptor highly sensitive to these two drugs. In Caenorhabditis elegans, a free-living model nematode, we demonstrated that heterologous expression of the H. contortus and P. equorum receptors drastically increased its sensitivity to morantel and pyrantel, mirroring the pharmacological properties observed in Xenopus oocytes. Our results are the first to describe significant molecular determinants of a novel class of nematode body wall muscle AChR.

  16. Towers for Antarctic Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerschlag, R. H.; Bettonvil, F. C. M.; Jägers, A. P. L.; Nielsen, G.

    To take advantage of the exceptional seeing above the boundary layer on Antarctic sites, a high-resolution telescope must be mounted on a support tower. An open transparent tower of framework minimizes the upward temperature-disturbed airflow. A typical minimum height is 30m. The tower platform has to be extremely stable against wind-induced rotational motions, which have to be less than fractions of an arc second, unusually small from a mechanical engineering viewpoint. In a traditional structure, structural deflections result in angular deflections of the telescope platform, which introduce tip and tilt motions in the telescope. However, a structure that is designed to deflect with parallel motion relative to the horizontal plane will undergo solely translation deflections in the telescope platform and thus will not degrade the image. The use of a parallel motion structure has been effectively demonstrated in the design of the 15-m tower for the Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) on La Palma. Special framework geometries are developed, which make it possible to construct high towers in stories having platforms with extreme stability against wind-induced tilt. These geometric solutions lead to constructions, being no more massive than a normal steel framework carrying the same load. Consequently, these lightweight towers are well suited to difficult sites as on Antarctica. A geometry with 4 stories has been worked out.

  17. ORAL NEMATODE INFECTION OF TARANTULAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral nematode infection of Theraphosidae spiders, known as tarantulas, has been recently identified from several collections in the UK and mainland Europe. The disease has also been seen in captive and wild spiders from the Americas, Asia and Africa. Spider symptoms are described from anorexia until...

  18. Antarctic Ozone Hole, 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Each spring the ozone layer over Antarctica nearly disappears, forming a 'hole' over the entire continent. The hole is created by the interaction of some man-made chemicals-freon, for example-with Antarctica's unique weather patterns and extremely cold temperatures. Ozone in the stratosphere absorbs ultraviolet radiation from the sun, thereby protecting living things. Since the ozone hole was discovered many of the chemicals that destroy ozone have been banned, but they will remain in the atmosphere for decades. In 2000, the ozone hole grew quicker than usual and exceptionally large. By the first week in September the hole was the largest ever-11.4 million square miles. The top image shows the average total column ozone values over Antarctica for September 2000. (Total column ozone is the amount of ozone from the ground to the top of the atmosphere. A relatively typical measurement of 300 Dobson Units is equivalent to a layer of ozone 0.12 inches thick on the Earth's surface. Levels below 220 Dobson Units are considered to be significant ozone depletion.) The record-breaking hole is likely the result of lower than average ozone levels during the Antarctic fall and winter, and exceptionally cold temperatures. In October, however (bottom image), the hole shrank dramatically, much more quickly than usual. By the end of October, the hole was only one-third of it's previous size. In a typical year, the ozone hole does not collapse until the end of November. NASA scientists were surprised by this early shrinking and speculate it is related to the region's weather. Global ozone levels are measured by the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS). For more information about ozone, read the Earth Observatory's ozone fact sheet, view global ozone data and see these ozone images. Images by Greg Shirah, NASA GSFC Scientific Visualization Studio.

  19. Anthelmintic resistance in equine nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline B. Matthews

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthelmintics have been applied indiscriminately to control horse nematodes for over 40 years. Three broad-spectrum anthelmintic classes are currently registered for nematode control in horses: benzimidazoles (fenbendazole, oxibendazole, tetrahydropyrimidines (pyrantel and macrocyclic lactones (ivermectin, moxidectin. Generally, control strategies have focused on nematode egg suppression regimens that involve the frequent application of anthelmintics to all horses at intervals based on strongyle egg reappearance periods after treatment. The widespread use of such programmes has substantially reduced clinical disease, especially that associated with large strongyle species; however, high treatment frequency has led to considerable selection pressure for anthelmintic resistance, particularly in cyathostomin species. Field studies published over the last decade indicate that benzimidazole resistance is widespread globally in cyathostomins and there are also many reports of resistance to pyrantel in these worms. Cyathostomin resistance to macrocyclic lactone compounds is emerging, principally measured as a reduction in strongyle egg reappearance time observed after treatment. Ivermectin resistance is a further concern in the small intestinal nematode, Parascaris equorum, an important pathogen of foals. These issues indicate that horse nematodes must now be controlled using methods less dependent on anthelmintic use and more reliant on management practices designed to reduce the force of infection in the environment. Such strategies include improved grazing management integrated with targeted anthelmintic administration involving faecal egg count (FEC-directed treatments. The latter require that the supporting diagnostic tests available are robust and practically applicable. Recent research has focused on maximising the value of FEC analysis in horses and on optimizing protocols for anthelmintic efficacy testing. Other studies have sought to develop

  20. Feeding repellence in Antarctic bryozoans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figuerola, Blanca; Núñez-Pons, Laura; Moles, Juan; Avila, Conxita

    2013-11-01

    The Antarctic sea star Odontaster validus and the amphipod Cheirimedon femoratus are important predators in benthic communities. Some bryozoans are part of the diet of the asteroid and represent both potential host biosubstrata and prey for this omnivorous lysianassid amphipod. In response to such ecological pressure, bryozoans are expected to develop strategies to deter potential predators, ranging from physical to chemical mechanisms. However, the chemical ecology of Antarctic bryozoans has been scarcely studied. In this study we evaluated the presence of defenses against predation in selected species of Antarctic bryozoans. The sympatric omnivorous consumers O. validus and C. femoratus were selected to perform feeding assays with 16 ether extracts (EE) and 16 butanol extracts (BE) obtained from 16 samples that belonged to 13 different bryozoan species. Most species (9) were active (12 EE and 1 BE) in sea star bioassays. Only 1 BE displayed repellence, indicating that repellents against the sea star are mainly lipophilic. Repellence toward C. femoratus was found in all species in different extracts (10 EE and 12 BE), suggesting that defenses against the amphipod might be both lipophilic and hydrophilic. Interspecific and intraspecific variability of bioactivity was occasionally detected, suggesting possible environmental inductive responses, symbiotic associations, and/or genetic variability. Multivariate analysis revealed similarities among species in relation to bioactivities of EE and/or BE. These findings support the hypothesis that, while in some cases alternative chemical or physical mechanisms may also provide protection, repellent compounds play an important role in Antarctic bryozoans as defenses against predators.

  1. Antarctic snow and global climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global circulation models (GCM) indicate that global warming will be most pronounced at polar regions and high latitudes, causing concern about the stability of the Antarctic ice cap. A project entitled the Seasonal Snow in Antarctica examined the properties of the near surface snow to determine the current conditions that influence snow cover development. The goal was to assess the response of the snow cover in Queen Maud Land (QML) to an increased atmospheric carbon dioxide content. The Antarctic snow cover in QML was examined as part of the FINNARP expeditions in 1999 and 2000 which examined the processes that influence the snow cover. Its energy and mass balance were also assessed by examining the near surface snow strata in shallow (1-2 m) pits and by taking measurements of environmental variables. This made it possible to determine if the glacier is in danger of melting at this northerly location in the Antarctic. The study also made it possible to determine which variables need to change and by how much, for significant melting to occur. It was shown that the Antarctic anticyclone creates particular conditions that protect the snow cover from melting. The anticyclone brings dry air from the stratosphere during most of the year and is exempt from the water vapour feedback. It was concluded that even a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide will not produce major snow melt runoff. 8 refs

  2. Evidence for widespread endemism among Antarctic micro-organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyverman, Wim; Verleyen, Elie; Wilmotte, Annick; Hodgson, Dominic A.; Willems, Anne; Peeters, Karolien; Van de Vijver, Bart; De Wever, Aaike; Leliaert, Frederik; Sabbe, Koen

    2010-08-01

    Understanding the enormous diversity of microbes, their multiple roles in the functioning of ecosystems, and their response to large-scale environmental and climatic changes, are at the forefront of the international research agenda. In Antarctica, where terrestrial and lacustrine environments are predominantly microbial realms, an active and growing community of microbial ecologists is probing this diversity and its role in ecosystem processes. In a broader context, this work has the potential to make a significant contribution to the long-standing debate as to whether microbes are fundamentally different from macroorganisms in their biogeography. According to the ubiquity hypothesis, microbial community composition is not constrained by dispersal limitation and is solely the result of species sorting along environmental gradients. However, recent work on several groups of microalgae is challenging this view. Global analyses using morphology-based diatom inventories have demonstrated that, in addition to environmental harshness, geographical isolation underlies the strong latitudinal gradients in local and regional diversity in the Southern hemisphere. Increasing evidence points to a strong regionalization of diatom floras in the Antarctic and sub-Antarctic regions, mirroring the biogeographical regions that have been recognized for macroorganisms. Likewise, the application of molecular-phylogenetic techniques to cultured and uncultured diversity revealed a high number of Antarctic endemics among cyanobacteria and green algae. Calibration of these phylogenies suggests that several clades have an ancient evolutionary history within the Antarctic continent, possibly dating back to 330 Ma. These findings are in line with the current view on the origin of Antarctic terrestrial metazoa, including springtails, chironomids and mites, with most evidence suggesting a long history of geographic isolation on a multi-million year, even pre-Gondwana break-up timescale.

  3. Unexpected Variation in Neuroanatomy among Diverse Nematode Species

    OpenAIRE

    Nathan Schroeder

    2016-01-01

    Nematodes are considered excellent models for understanding fundamental aspects of neuron function. However, nematodes are less frequently used as models for examining the evolution of nervous systems. While the habitats and behaviors of nematodes are diverse, the neuroanatomy of nematodes is often considered highly conserved. A small number of nematode species greatly influences our understanding of nematode neurobiology. The free-living species Caenorhabditis elegans and, to a lesser extent...

  4. Biocontrol: Fungal Parasites of Female Cyst Nematodes

    OpenAIRE

    Kerry, Brian

    1980-01-01

    Three species of fungi, Catenaria auxiliarls (Kühn) Tribe, Nematophthora gynophila Kerry and Crump, and a Lagenidiaceous fungus have been found attacking female cyst nematodes. All are zoosporic fungi which parasitize females on the root surface, cause the breakdown of the nematode cuticle, and prevent cyst formation. Their identification and some aspects of their biology are reviewed. N. gynophila is widespread in Britain and reduces populations of the cereal cyst nematode, Heterodera avenae...

  5. Survey of Nematodes on Coffee in Hawaii

    OpenAIRE

    Schenck, S; Schmitt, D. P.

    1992-01-01

    Surveys of coffee fields in Hawaii during 1989-1991 indicated the presence of 10 nematode species in 8 genera. After coffee was planted in fields previously in sugarcane, populations of Criconemella sp. and Pratylenchus zeae gradually decreased, while Rotylenchulus reniformis and, in one field, Meloidogyne incognita, increased in numbers. Coffee is a poor host of R. reniformis, but weeds in coffee plantations may support this nematode. At present, nematodes pose no serious threat to Hawaii's ...

  6. Epidemiological studies of nematodes in fishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three hundred fresh water fishes of six species were collected from six different fish farms of Lahore for the prevalence of nematodes. Out of 300 fishes examined, 12 were found to be infected with the helminthes, majority of them were isolated from the stomach and intestines. The following two species of nematodes were recorded; Capillaria spp. and Eustrongylides spp. The overall prevalence of intestinal nematodes was recorded as 4%(12/300). The prevalence of nematodes was recorded on monthly basis which ranged from 0-8%. The highest prevalence of nematodes was 8% (4/50) during March, while the lowest prevalence was noted in June 0%.Singharee (Sperata sawari) showed the maximum infestation of nematodes of 8% (4/50), whereas in Silver Carp (Hypopthaimichthys molitrix) minimum prevalence of nematode (0%) was noted. The prevalence of different nematode in a particular fish specie was also recorded, and it was stated that overall prevalence of capillaria spp. was 6% in Rahu (Labeo rohita) and Saul (Channa marullius). Similarly overall infestation of Eustrongylides sp. was recorded as 4% in Singharee (Sperata sawari) and Silver carp (Hypopthaimichthys molitrix). The nematode intensity might be linked with the genetic makeup, intestinal vigor, and other managemental and environmental factors. (author)

  7. Exploring the host parasitism of the migratory plant-parasitic nematode Ditylenchus destuctor by expressed sequence tags analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Huan; Gao, Bing-li; Kong, Ling-an; Yu, Qing; Huang, Wen-kun; He, Xu-feng; Long, Hai-bo; Peng, De-liang

    2013-01-01

    The potato rot nematode, Ditylenchus destructor, is a very destructive nematode pest on many agriculturally important crops worldwide, but the molecular characterization of its parasitism of plant has been limited. The effectors involved in nematode parasitism of plant for several sedentary endo-parasitic nematodes such as Heterodera glycines, Globodera rostochiensis and Meloidogyne incognita have been identified and extensively studied over the past two decades. Ditylenchus destructor, as a migratory plant parasitic nematode, has different feeding behavior, life cycle and host response. Comparing the transcriptome and parasitome among different types of plant-parasitic nematodes is the way to understand more fully the parasitic mechanism of plant nematodes. We undertook the approach of sequencing expressed sequence tags (ESTs) derived from a mixed stage cDNA library of D. destructor. This is the first study of D. destructor ESTs. A total of 9800 ESTs were grouped into 5008 clusters including 3606 singletons and 1402 multi-member contigs, representing a catalog of D. destructor genes. Implementing a bioinformatics' workflow, we found 1391 clusters have no match in the available gene database; 31 clusters only have similarities to genes identified from D. africanus, the most closely related species to D. destructor; 1991 clusters were annotated using Gene Ontology (GO); 1550 clusters were assigned enzyme commission (EC) numbers; and 1211 clusters were mapped to 181 KEGG biochemical pathways. 22 ESTs had similarities to reported nematode effectors. Interestedly, most of the effectors identified in this study are involved in host cell wall degradation or modification, such as 1,4-beta-glucanse, 1,3-beta-glucanse, pectate lyase, chitinases and expansin, or host defense suppression such as calreticulin, annexin and venom allergen-like protein. This result implies that the migratory plant-parasitic nematode D. destructor secrets similar effectors to those of sedentary

  8. Exploring the host parasitism of the migratory plant-parasitic nematode Ditylenchus destuctor by expressed sequence tags analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Peng

    Full Text Available The potato rot nematode, Ditylenchus destructor, is a very destructive nematode pest on many agriculturally important crops worldwide, but the molecular characterization of its parasitism of plant has been limited. The effectors involved in nematode parasitism of plant for several sedentary endo-parasitic nematodes such as Heterodera glycines, Globodera rostochiensis and Meloidogyne incognita have been identified and extensively studied over the past two decades. Ditylenchus destructor, as a migratory plant parasitic nematode, has different feeding behavior, life cycle and host response. Comparing the transcriptome and parasitome among different types of plant-parasitic nematodes is the way to understand more fully the parasitic mechanism of plant nematodes. We undertook the approach of sequencing expressed sequence tags (ESTs derived from a mixed stage cDNA library of D. destructor. This is the first study of D. destructor ESTs. A total of 9800 ESTs were grouped into 5008 clusters including 3606 singletons and 1402 multi-member contigs, representing a catalog of D. destructor genes. Implementing a bioinformatics' workflow, we found 1391 clusters have no match in the available gene database; 31 clusters only have similarities to genes identified from D. africanus, the most closely related species to D. destructor; 1991 clusters were annotated using Gene Ontology (GO; 1550 clusters were assigned enzyme commission (EC numbers; and 1211 clusters were mapped to 181 KEGG biochemical pathways. 22 ESTs had similarities to reported nematode effectors. Interestedly, most of the effectors identified in this study are involved in host cell wall degradation or modification, such as 1,4-beta-glucanse, 1,3-beta-glucanse, pectate lyase, chitinases and expansin, or host defense suppression such as calreticulin, annexin and venom allergen-like protein. This result implies that the migratory plant-parasitic nematode D. destructor secrets similar effectors to

  9. Developmental variations among Panagrolaimid nematodes indicate developmental system drift within a small taxonomic unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, Philipp H; Nsah, Ndifon A; Grotehusmann, Henny; Kroiher, Michael; Loer, Curtis; Schierenberg, Einhard

    2014-06-01

    Comparative studies of nematode embryogenesis among different clades revealed considerable variations. However, to what extent developmental differences exist between closely related species has mostly remained nebulous. Here, we explore the correlation between phylogenetic neighborhood and developmental variation in a restricted and morphologically particularly uniform taxonomic group (Panagrolaimidae) to determine to what extent (1) morphological and developmental characters go along with molecular data and thus can serve as diagnostic tools for the definition of kinship and (2) developmental system drift (DSD; modifications of developmental patterns without corresponding morphological changes) can be found within a small taxonomic unit. Our molecular approaches firmly support subdivision of Panagrolaimid nematodes into two monophyletic groups. These can be discriminated by distinct peculiarities in early embryonic cell lineages and a mirror-image expression pattern of the gene skn-1. This suggests major changes in the logic of cell specification and the action of DSD in the studied representatives of the two neighboring nematode taxa. PMID:24849338

  10. Discrimination of Gastrointestinal Nematode Eggs from Crude Fecal Egg Preparations by Inhibitor-Resistant Conventional and Real-Time PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Janina Demeler; Sabrina Ramünke; Sonja Wolken; Davide Ianiello; Laura Rinaldi; Jean Bosco Gahutu; Giuseppe Cringoli; Georg von Samson-Himmelstjerna; Jürgen Krücken

    2013-01-01

    Diagnosis of gastrointestinal nematodes relies predominantly on coproscopic methods such as flotation, Kato-Katz, McMaster or FLOTAC. Although FLOTAC allows accurate quantification, many nematode eggs can only be differentiated to genus or family level. Several molecular diagnostic tools discriminating closely related species suffer from high costs for DNA isolation from feces and limited sensitivity since most kits use only small amounts of feces (

  11. Antarctic tourism and the maritime heritage

    OpenAIRE

    Basberg, Bjørn L.

    2008-01-01

    Maritime activity in the Antarctic region goes back to the 18th Century. It evolved from exploration and discoveries to commercial activities, especially sealing and whaling. Antarctic tourism is a more recent phenomenon, developing gradually from the 1960s. Today, more than 20.000 tourists visit the Antarctic annually – mostly on cruise ships. The paper reviews the historical development of these activities. The main focus is on how the maritime heritage has been dealt with an...

  12. Antarctic skuas recognize individual humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won Young; Han, Yeong-Deok; Lee, Sang-Im; Jablonski, Piotr G; Jung, Jin-Woo; Kim, Jeong-Hoon

    2016-07-01

    Recent findings report that wild animals can recognize individual humans. To explain how the animals distinguish humans, two hypotheses are proposed. The high cognitive abilities hypothesis implies that pre-existing high intelligence enabled animals to acquire such abilities. The pre-exposure to stimuli hypothesis suggests that frequent encounters with humans promote the acquisition of discriminatory abilities in these species. Here, we examine individual human recognition abilities in a wild Antarctic species, the brown skua (Stercorarius antarcticus), which lives away from typical human settlements and was only recently exposed to humans due to activities at Antarctic stations. We found that, as nest visits were repeated, the skua parents responded at further distances and were more likely to attack the nest intruder. Also, we demonstrated that seven out of seven breeding pairs of skuas selectively responded to a human nest intruder with aggression and ignored a neutral human who had not previously approached the nest. The results indicate that Antarctic skuas, a species that typically inhabited in human-free areas, are able to recognize individual humans who disturbed their nests. Our findings generally support the high cognitive abilities hypothesis, but this ability can be acquired during a relatively short period in the life of an individual as a result of interactions between individual birds and humans. PMID:26939544

  13. A novel bacterial symbiont in the nematode Spirocerca lupi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gottlieb Yuval

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The parasitic nematode Spirocerca lupi (Spirurida: Thelaziidae, the canine esophageal worm, is the causative agent of spirocercosis, a disease causing morbidity and mortality in dogs. Spirocerca lupi has a complex life cycle, involving an obligatory coleopteran intermediate host (vector, an optional paratenic host, and a definitive canid host. The diagnosis of spirocercosis is challenging, especially in the early disease stages, when adult worms and clinical signs are absent. Thus, alternative approaches are needed to promote early diagnosis. The interaction between nematodes and their bacterial symbionts has recently become a focus of novel treatment regimens for other helminthic diseases. Results Using 16S rDNA-based molecular methods, here we found a novel bacterial symbiont in S. lupi that is closely related to Comamonas species (Brukholderiales: Comamonadaceae of the beta-proteobacteria. Its DNA was detected in eggs, larvae and adult stages of S. lupi. Using fluorescent in situ hybridization technique, we localized Comamonas sp. to the gut epithelial cells of the nematode larvae. Specific PCR enabled the detection of this symbiont's DNA in blood obtained from dogs diagnosed with spirocercosis. Conclusions The discovery of a new Comamonas sp. in S. lupi increase the complexity of the interactions among the organisms involved in this system, and may open innovative approaches for diagnosis and control of spirocercosis in dogs.

  14. An alternative storage method for entomopathogenic nematodes

    OpenAIRE

    GÜLCÜ, Barış; HAZIR, Selçuk

    2012-01-01

    Tetra Pak containers were evaluated as an alternative to tissue culture flasks for nematode storage. Our data showed that Tetra Pak containers were an excellent alternative to tissue culture flasks for storage of H. bacteriophora and will more than likely be useful for other entomopathogenic nematode species.

  15. Compatibility of Soil Amendments with Entomopathogenic Nematodes

    OpenAIRE

    Bednarek, Andrzej; Gaugler, Randy

    1997-01-01

    The impact of inorganic and organic fertilizers on the infectivity, reproduction, and population dynamics of entomopathogenic nematodes was investigated. Prolonged (10- to 20-day) laboratory exposure to high inorganic fertilizer concentrations inhibited nematode infectivity and reproduction, whereas short (1-day) exposures increased infectivity. Heterorhabditis bacteriophora was more sensitive to adverse effects than were two species of Steinernema. In field studies, organic manure resulted i...

  16. Thiamine-induced priming against root-knot nematode infection in rice involves lignification and hydrogen peroxide generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen-Kun; Ji, Hong-Li; Gheysen, Godelieve; Kyndt, Tina

    2016-05-01

    Thiamine (vitamin B1, VB1) can act as a plant defence trigger, or priming agent, leading to a rapid counterattack on pathogen invasion. In this study, the priming effect of thiamine on rice (Oryza sativa cv. Nipponbare) and its activity against root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne graminicola) infection were evaluated. Thiamine treatment and subsequent nematode inoculation activated hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) accumulation and lignin deposition in plant roots, and this correlated with enhanced transcription of OsPAL1 and OsC4H, two genes involved in the phenylpropanoid pathway. The number of nematodes in rice roots was slightly but significantly reduced, and the development of the nematodes was delayed, whereas no direct toxic effects of VB1 on nematode viability and infectivity were observed. The combined application of thiamine with l-2-aminooxy-3-phenylpropionic acid (AOPP), an inhibitor of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), significantly hampered the VB1-priming capacity. These findings indicate that thiamine-induced priming in rice involves H2 O2 and phenylpropanoid-mediated lignin production, which hampers nematode infection. Further cellular and molecular studies on the mechanism of thiamine-induced defence will be useful for the development of novel nematode control strategies. PMID:27103216

  17. MIC3 over-expression reduces cotton susceptibility to root-knot nematode

    Science.gov (United States)

    The inheritance of root-knot nematode (RKN) resistance in cotton has been the focus of much research; however, the mechanism of the resistance at the molecular level remains largely unknown. To date, increased transcript and protein levels of MIC3 in galls of resistant plants remains the only examp...

  18. Systematics and DNA barcoding of free-living marine nematodes with emphasis on tropical desmodorids using nuclear SSU rDNA and mitochondrial COI sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Armenteros, M.; Rojas-Corzo, A; Ruiz-Abierno, A.; Derycke, S.; Backeljau, T.; Decraemer, W.

    2014-01-01

    The diversity and phylogenetic relationships of the Desmodoridae, a widespread tropical family of free-living marine nematodes, is hitherto poorly known both from molecular and taxonomic points of view. We performed a molecular phylogenetic analysis of marine nematodes to: i) disentangle relationships among tropical desmodorid species; and ii) compare the performance of the nuclear SSU rDNA and mitochondrial COI nucleotide sequences in 42 and 45 nominal species, respectively, to identify spec...

  19. Phylogenetic position of Antarctic Scalpelliformes (Crustacea: Cirripedia: Thoracica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linse, Katrin; Jackson, Jennifer A.; Fitzcharles, Elaine; Sands, Chester J.; Buckeridge, John S.

    2013-03-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of seven Antarctic barnacle species, one verrucomorph and six scalpelliforms from the Scotia, Weddell and Ross seas were investigated using DNA sequences from two nuclear genes (18 S and 28 S) and one mitochondrial gene (COI), with a combined total length of 3,151 base pairs. Analyses of these new sequences, together with those of previously published ibliform, lepadiform, scalpelliform, balanomorph and verrucomorph species, confirm that the Scalpelliformes are not monophyletic. Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses consistently recovered a monophyletic group which comprised Ornatoscalpellum stroemii (Sars) and the Southern Ocean scalpellomorphs; Arcoscalpellum sp. from the Weddell Sea, Arcoscalpellum africanum from Elephant Island, A. bouveti from Bouvet Island, the circum-Antarctic Litoscalpellum discoveryi, Litoscalpellum sp. from Shag Rocks and Scalpellum sp. from the Falkland Trough. We also used multiple fossil constraints in a relaxed clock Bayesian framework to estimate divergence times for the 18 S+28 S phylogeny. Our results indicate a mid Cretaceous divergence for the Weddell Sea Arcoscalpellum sp, followed by a late Cretaceous divergence from the North Atlantic O. stroemii. Subsequent to this, the Antarctic scalpellomorphs began to radiate at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. Monophyly within the scalpellid genera Arcoscalpellum, Litoscalpellum and Scalpellum was strongly rejected by all loci. Our results show incongruence between taxonomy and molecular systematics and highlight the need for more species to be sequenced as well as taxonomic revisions to resolve uncertainties in the phylogenetic relationships of the stalked barnacles.

  20. Environmental radioactivity in the antarctic station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study about environmental radioactivity in the Peruvian antarctic station Machu Pichu they were carried out during the last three periods to the southern summer. The objective of the project it is to evaluate environmental component in order to elaborate a study it base on the levels background radioactivity and artificial in the antarctic region

  1. The “potato road” and biogeographic history of potato cyst nematode populations from different continents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Or Violeta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The general opinion about the introduction of potato in Europe is the one regarding the direction from South America to Spain and subsequent distribution to other continents. Some historical data point out an alternative road. The potato spread from its place of origin to other continents in the light of parasite-host relationship, relying on nematode molecular data, is discussed in the present work. Biogeographic history of potato cyst nematode populations from different continents is in congruence with historical records. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31018 i br. III 46007

  2. Analysis of the Transcriptome of the Infective Stage of the Beet Cyst Nematode, H. schachtii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Fosu-Nyarko

    Full Text Available The beet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii, is a major root pest that significantly impacts the yield of sugar beet, brassicas and related species. There has been limited molecular characterisation of this important plant pathogen: to identify target genes for its control the transcriptome of the pre-parasitic J2 stage of H. schachtii was sequenced using Roche GS FLX. Ninety seven percent of reads (i.e., 387,668 with an average PHRED score > 22 were assembled with CAP3 and CLC Genomics Workbench into 37,345 and 47,263 contigs, respectively. The transcripts were annotated by comparing with gene and genomic sequences of other nematodes and annotated proteins on public databases. The annotated transcripts were much more similar to sequences of Heterodera glycines than to those of Globodera pallida and root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.. Analysis of these transcripts showed that a subset of 2,918 transcripts was common to free-living and plant parasitic nematodes suggesting that this subset is involved in general nematode metabolism and development. A set of 148 contigs and 183 singletons encoding putative homologues of effectors previously characterised for plant parasitic nematodes were also identified: these are known to be important for parasitism of host plants during migration through tissues or feeding from cells or are thought to be involved in evasion or modulation of host defences. In addition, the presence of sequences from a nematode virus is suggested. The sequencing and annotation of this transcriptome significantly adds to the genetic data available for H. schachtii, and identifies genes primed to undertake required roles in the critical pre-parasitic and early post-parasitic J2 stages. These data provide new information for identifying potential gene targets for future protection of susceptible crops against H. schachtii.

  3. Gastrointestinal nematode species diversity in Soay sheep kept in a natural environment without active parasite control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Rona; Melville, Lynsey; Sargison, Fiona; Kenyon, Fiona; Nussey, Dan; Watt, Kathryn; Sargison, Neil

    2016-08-30

    Molecular methods based on ITS2 sequence analysis were used to identify strongylid parasites and describe their diversity in a management intervention and anthelmintic drug treatment-free sheep flock. Fourteen different nematode parasite species were identified in the flock and the results showed a greater level of nematode species diversity than is normally reported in managed farmed flocks, with the presence of parasites such as Bunostomum trigonocephalum, Ostertagia leptospicularis, Spiculopteragia houdemeri and Trichostrongylus retortaeformis that are considered to be absent or rare in sheep kept in comparable localities. The implied prevalences of Haemonchus contortus in lambs, and of Trichostrongylus axei in lambs, ewes and rams, were higher than those in farmed sheep kept in similar regions, while those of Teladorsagia circumcincta and Trichostrongylus vitrinus were lower. Comparison of the patterns of nematode parasite infection between the summer and autumn sampling periods showed differences from the scenarios that are commonplace in comparable managed flocks; with T. vitrinus burdens of the lambs being higher in the summer than in the winter, and Oesophagostomum venulosum being the predominant nematode species in the adult sheep during the summer, while more-or-less absent from these groups during the winter. Rams played an important role in the epidemiology of certain parasitic nematode species. The relatively non-pathogenic O. venulosum was the only parasitic nematode species to predominate in any group during the study. This preliminary characterisation of the nematode parasite burdens of sheep extensively grazed on diverse unimproved pastures will aid in the understanding of the parasitological consequences of intensive grazing management and of the manner in which modern agriculture upsets the equilibrium between parasites and their hosts. These factors must be accounted for when defining the concept of sustainable parasite control and informing

  4. Transcriptome analysis of stress tolerance in entomopathogenic nematodes of the genus Steinernema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaari, Mor; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Koltai, Hinanit; Salame, Liora; Glazer, Itamar

    2016-02-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes of the genus Steinernema are effective biological control agents. The infective stage of these parasites can withstand environmental stresses such as desiccation and heat, but the molecular and physiological mechanisms involved in this tolerance are poorly understood. We used 454 pyrosequencing to analyse transcriptome expression in Steinernema spp. that differ in their tolerance to stress. We compared these species, following heat and desiccation treatments, with their non-stressed counterparts. More than 98% of the transcripts found matched homologous sequences in the UniRef90 database, mostly nematode genes (85%). Among those, 60.8% aligned to the vertebrate parasites including Ascaris suum, Loa loa, and Brugia malayi, 23.3% aligned to bacteriovores, mostly from the genus Caenorhabditis, and 1% aligned to EPNs. Analysing gene expression patterns of the stress response showed a large fraction of down-regulated genes in the desiccation-tolerant nematode Steinernema riobrave, whereas a larger fraction of the genes in the susceptible Steinernema feltiae Carmiel and Gvulot strains were up-regulated. We further compared metabolic pathways and the expression of specific stress-related genes. In the more tolerant nematode, more genes were down-regulated whereas in the less tolerant strains, more genes were up-regulated. This phenomenon warrants further exploration of the mechanism governing induction of the down-regulation process. The present study revealed many genes and metabolic cycles that are differentially expressed in the stressed nematodes. Some of those are well known in other nematodes or anhydrobiotic organisms, but several are new and should be further investigated for their involvement in desiccation and heat tolerance. Our data establish a foundation for further exploration of stress tolerance in entomopathogenic nematodes and, in the long term, for improving their ability to withstand suboptimal environmental conditions. PMID

  5. Expression of serine proteinase P186 of Arthrobotrys oligospora and analysis of its nematode-degrading activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hailong; Qiao, Jun; Meng, Qingling; Gong, Shasha; Chen, Cheng; Liu, Tianli; Tian, Lulu; Cai, Xuepeng; Luo, Jianxun; Chen, Chuangfu

    2015-12-01

    The nematode-trapping fungi possess a unique capability of predating and invading nematodes. As a representative nematode-trapping fungus, Arthrobotrys oligospora has been widely used to study the interactions between nematode-trapping fungi and their hosts. Serine proteinase is one of the important virulence factors during process of invasion of the nematode-trapping fungi into nematodes. In this study, using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, we amplified the gene sequence of serine proteinase 186 from A. oligospora, cloned it into pPIC9K vector and expressed it in the yeast Pichia pastoris. The expressed recombinant serine proteinase186 (reP186) was purified via Ni-affinity chromatography. The in vitro nematode-degrading activity of reP186 was analyzed. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot analysis revealed that reP186 with molecular weight of 33 kDa was successfully obtained. ReP186 was capable of degrading a series of protein substrates including casein, gelatin, bovine serum albumin, denatured collagen and nematode cortical layer. The reP186 exhibited the maximal activity at pH 8.0 and 55 °C and was highly sensitive to the inhibitor, phenylmethanesulfonylfluoride. Treatment of Caenorhabditis elegans and Haemonchus contortus with reP186 for 12, 24 and 36 h, respectively, resulted in 62, 88 and 100 % of killing rates for C. elegans, and 52, 65 and 84 % of killing rates for H. contortus, respectively, indicating a relatively strong nematode-degrading bioactivity of reP186. PMID:26419902

  6. Detection and Description of Soils with Specific Nematode Suppressiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Westphal, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    Soils with specific suppressiveness to plant-parasitic nematodes are of interest to define the mechanisms that regulate population density. Suppressive soils prevent nematodes from establishing and from causing disease, and they diminish disease severity after initial nematode damage in continuous culturing of a host. A range of non-specific and specific soil treatments, followed by infestation with a target nematode, have been employed to identify nematode-suppressive soils. Biocidal treatme...

  7. Dehydration, rehydration and overhydration alter patterns of gene expression in the Antarctic midge, Belgica antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated molecular responses elicited by three types of dehydration (fast, slow and cryoprotective), rehydration and overhydration in larvae of the Antarctic midge, Belgica antarctica. The larvae spend most the year encased in ice but during the austral summer are vulnerable to summer storms,...

  8. Nematode communities in contaminated river sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nematode communities of eight sites from three river catchments were investigated in terms of the genera composition, feeding types, and life-history strategists. The sampling sites showed a gradient of anthropogenic contamination with heavy metals and organic pollutants being important factors in differentiating the sites. Nematode community structure was related to sediment pollution and the hydro-morphological structure of the sampling sites. Heavily contaminated sites were characterized by communities with high relative abundances of omnivorous and predacious nematodes (Tobrilus, c-p 3; Mononchus, c-p 4), while sites with low to medium contamination were dominated by bacterivorous nematodes (Monhystera, Daptonema; c-p 2) or suction feeders (Dorylaimus, c-p 4). The relatively high Maturity Index values in the heavily polluted sites were surprising. Nematodes turned out to be a suitable organism group for monitoring sediment quality, with generic composition being the most accurate indicator for assessing differences in nematode community structure. - Nematode community structure of river sediments is related to pollution and site structure

  9. Nematode communities in contaminated river sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heininger, Peter [Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG), Am Mainzer Tor 1, 56068 Koblenz (Germany); Hoess, Sebastian [Ecossa - Ecological Sediment and Soil Assessment, Thierschstr. 43, 80538 Munich (Germany); Claus, Evelyn [Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG), Am Mainzer Tor 1, 56068 Koblenz (Germany); Pelzer, Juergen [Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG), Am Mainzer Tor 1, 56068 Koblenz (Germany); Traunspurger, Walter [University of Bielefeld, Department of Animal Ecology, Morgenbreede 45, 33615 Bielefeld (Germany)]. E-mail: traunspurger@uni-bielefeld.de

    2007-03-15

    Nematode communities of eight sites from three river catchments were investigated in terms of the genera composition, feeding types, and life-history strategists. The sampling sites showed a gradient of anthropogenic contamination with heavy metals and organic pollutants being important factors in differentiating the sites. Nematode community structure was related to sediment pollution and the hydro-morphological structure of the sampling sites. Heavily contaminated sites were characterized by communities with high relative abundances of omnivorous and predacious nematodes (Tobrilus, c-p 3; Mononchus, c-p 4), while sites with low to medium contamination were dominated by bacterivorous nematodes (Monhystera, Daptonema; c-p 2) or suction feeders (Dorylaimus, c-p 4). The relatively high Maturity Index values in the heavily polluted sites were surprising. Nematodes turned out to be a suitable organism group for monitoring sediment quality, with generic composition being the most accurate indicator for assessing differences in nematode community structure. - Nematode community structure of river sediments is related to pollution and site structure.

  10. Testing oils in antarctic soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The resident seals, whales and penguins in Antarctica's Ross Sea region have only environmentally friendly ways of getting around. In contrast, wherever humans go in the Antarctic and whatever they do, be it research, tourism or fishing, they need fuel for their planes, icebreaker ships, land vehicles and generators. Because of this, petroleum hydrocarbons are the most likely source of pollution in the Antarctic. Accidental oil spills often occur near scientific stations, where storage and refuelling of aircraft and vehicles can result in spills. Spills also occur as a consequence of drilling activities. Dr Jackie Aislabie, a microbiologist from the New Zealand government's research company Landcare Research, is leading a program aimed at understanding how oil spills impact on Antarctic soils. The properties of pristine soils were compared with oil-contaminated soil at three locations: Scott Base, Marble Point and in the Wright Valley at Bull Pass. Soils in the Scott Base area are impacted by the establishment and continuous habitation of the base over 40 years, and a hydrocarbon-contaminated site was sampled near a former storage area for drums of mixed oils. Soil sampled from Marble Point was taken from near the old Marble Point camp, which was inhabited from 1957 to about 1963. Oil stains were visible on the soil surface, and are assumed to have been there for more than 30 years. The samples selected for analysis from the Wright Valley came from a spill site near Bull Pass that occurred during seismic bore-hole drilling activities in 1985. The contamination levels ranged from below detection to just over 29,000 μg/g of soil. Descriptions and analyse results are included into a Geographic Information System and associated soils database

  11. Investigation of Nematode Diversity using Scanning Electron Microscopy and Fluorescent Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seacor, Taylor; Howell, Carina

    2013-03-01

    Nematode worms account for the vast majority of the animals in the biosphere. They are colossally important to global public health as parasites, and to agriculture both as pests and as beneficial inhabitants of healthy soil. Amphid neurons are the anterior chemosensory neurons in nematodes, mediating critical behaviors including chemotaxis and mating. We are examining the cellular morphology and external anatomy of amphid neurons, using fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, respectively, of a wide range of soil nematodes isolated in the wild. We use both classical systematics (e.g. diagnostic keys) and molecular markers (e.g. ribosomal RNA) to classify these wild isolates. Our ultimate aim is to build a detailed anatomical database in order to dissect genetic pathways of neuronal development and function across phylogeny and ecology. Research supported by NSF grants 092304, 0806660, 1058829 and Lock Haven University FPDC grants

  12. Findings of Entomopathogenic Nematodes (Rhabditida, Steinernematidae in Nature Reserves in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakovlev Ye. B.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Findings of Entomopathogenic Nematodes (Rhabditida, Steinernematidae in Nature Reserves in-Ukraine. Yakovlev, Ye. B., Kharchenko, V. A., Mráček, Z. — Five strains of Steinernema Travassos, 1927 were isolated by live baiting method with last instar larvae of Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus, 1758 from the reserves of some central and southern oblasts of Ukraine and the Crimean AR. Entomopathogenic nematodes were recovered from 5 of 196 (2.6 % soil samples collected in 2010. Isolated nematodes were identified using a combination of molecular (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA gene sequencing and morphological techniques. Four of the isolated strains were recognized as S. feltiae (Filipjev, 1934, one as S. arenarium (Artyukhovsky, 1967.

  13. Effects of four organic amendments on banana parasitic nematodes and soil nematode communities

    OpenAIRE

    Tabarant, P.; Villenave, Cécile; Risede, J. M.; J. Roger-Estrade; Thuries, L.; Dorel, M

    2011-01-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes are injurious crop pests that have been managed mainly by chemical nematicides. However, safe and alternative methods such as those based on organic materials need to be developed. Our study has evaluated (i) the effects of four organic amendments with different biochemical compositions that are abundantly produced in the study area (Guadeloupe, French West Indies) on soil nematode communities and (ii) some of the suppression mechanisms of banana parasitic nematodes,...

  14. Serine/threonine phosphatases in socioeconomically important parasitic nematodes--prospects as novel drug targets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Bronwyn E; Hofmann, Andreas; McCluskey, Adam; Gasser, Robin B

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the fundamental biology of parasitic nematodes (=roundworms) that cause serious diseases, affecting literally billions of animals and humans worldwide. Unlocking the biology of these neglected pathogens using modern technologies will yield crucial and profound knowledge of their molecular biology, and could lead to new treatment and control strategies. Supported by studies in the free-living nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, some recent investigations have provided improved insights into selected protein phosphatases (PPs) of economically important parasitic nematodes (Strongylida). In the present article, we review this progress and assess the potential of serine/threonine phosphatase (STP) genes and/or their products as targets for new nematocidal drugs. Current information indicates that some small molecules, known to specifically inhibit PPs, might be developed as nematocides. For instance, some cantharidin analogues are known to display exquisite PP-inhibitor activity, which indicates that some of them could be designed and tailored to specifically inhibit selected STPs of nematodes. This information provides prospects for the discovery of an entirely novel class of nematocides, which is of paramount importance, given the serious problems linked to anthelmintic resistance in parasitic nematode populations of livestock, and has the potential to lead to significant biotechnological outcomes. PMID:20732402

  15. Marine Nematode Taxonomy in Africa: Promising Prospects Against Scarcity of Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufahja, Fehmi; Semprucci, Federica; Beyrem, Hamouda; Bhadury, Punyasloke

    2015-09-01

    From the late 19th century, Africa has faced heavy exploitation of its natural resources with increasing land/water pollution, and several described species have already become extinct or close to extinction. This could also be the case for marine nematodes, which are the most abundant and diverse benthic group in marine sediments, and play major roles in ecosystem functioning. Compared to Europe and North America, only a handful of investigations on marine nematodes have been conducted to date in Africa. This is due to the scarcity of experienced taxonomists, absence of identification guides, as well as local appropriate infrastructures. A pivotal project has started recently between nematologists from Africa (Tunisia), India, and Europe (Italy) to promote taxonomic study and biodiversity estimation of marine nematodes in the African continent. To do this, as a first step, collection of permanent slides of marine nematodes (235 nominal species and 14 new to science but not yet described) was recently established at the Faculty of Sciences of Bizerte (Tunisia). Capacity building of next generation of African taxonomists have been carried out at level of both traditional and molecular taxonomy (DNA barcoding and next-generation sequencing [NGS]), but they need to be implemented. Indeed, the integration of these two approaches appears crucial to overcome lack of information on the taxonomy, ecology, and biodiversity of marine nematodes from African coastal waters. PMID:26527841

  16. Underwater Optics in Sub-Antarctic and Antarctic Coastal Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huovinen, Pirjo; Ramírez, Jaime; Gómez, Iván

    2016-01-01

    Understanding underwater optics in natural waters is essential in evaluating aquatic primary production and risk of UV exposure in aquatic habitats. Changing environmental conditions related with global climate change, which imply potential contrasting changes in underwater light climate further emphasize the need to gain insights into patterns related with underwater optics for more accurate future predictions. The present study evaluated penetration of solar radiation in six sub-Antarctic estuaries and fjords in Chilean North Patagonian region (39–44°S) and in an Antarctic bay (62°S). Based on vertical diffuse attenuation coefficients (Kd), derived from measurements with a submersible multichannel radiometer, average summer UV penetration depth (z1%) in these water bodies ranged 2–11 m for UV-B (313 nm), 4–27 m for UV-A (395 nm), and 7–30 m for PAR (euphotic zone). UV attenuation was strongest in the shallow Quempillén estuary, while Fildes Bay (Antarctica) exhibited the highest transparency. Optically non-homogeneous water layers and seasonal variation in transparency (lower in winter) characterized Comau Fjord and Puyuhuapi Channel. In general, multivariate analysis based on Kd values of UV and PAR wavelengths discriminated strongly Quempillén estuary and Puyuhuapi Channel from other study sites. Spatial (horizontal) variation within the estuary of Valdivia river reflected stronger attenuation in zones receiving river impact, while within Fildes Bay a lower spatial variation in water transparency could in general be related to closeness of glaciers, likely due to increased turbidity through ice-driven processes. Higher transparency and deeper UV-B penetration in proportion to UV-A/visible wavelengths observed in Fildes Bay suggests a higher risk for Antarctic ecosystems reflected by e.g. altered UV-B damage vs. photorepair under UV-A/PAR. Considering that damage repair processes often slow down under cool temperatures, adverse UV impact could be

  17. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Antarctic stalked jellyfish, Haliclystus antarcticus Pfeffer, 1889 (Staurozoa: Stauromedusae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsing-Hui Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In present study, the complete mitogenome sequence of the Antarctic stalked jellyfish, Haliclystus antarcticus Pfeffer (Staurozoa: Stauromedusae has been sequenced by next-generation sequencing method. The assembled mitogenome comprises of 15,766 bp including 13 protein coding genes, 7 transfer RNAs, and 2 ribosomal RNA genes. The overall base of Antarctic stalked jellyfish constitutes of 26.5% for A, 19.6% for C, 19.8% for G, 34.1% for T and show 90% identity to Sessile Jelly, Haliclystus sanjuanensis, in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. The complete mitogenome of the Antarctic stalked jellyfish, contributes fundamental and significant DNA molecular data for further phylogeography and evolutionary analysis for seahorse phylogeny. The complete sequence was deposited in DBBJ/EMBL/GenBank under accession number KU947038.

  18. Root-knot Nematode in Field Corn

    OpenAIRE

    Tiwari, Siddharth; Eisenback, J. D.; Youngman, R. R. (Roger Ray)

    2009-01-01

    Describes four species of plant parasitic nematodes in the genus Meloidogyne, their life cycle, habitat, host plants, and types of damage to field corn. Also notes non-chemical and chemical means of control.

  19. Control of insect pests by entomopathogenic nematodes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Půža, Vladimír

    Cham : Springer International Publishing, 2015 - (Lugtenberg, B.), s. 175-183 ISBN 978-3-319-08574-6 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Nematodes Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection

  20. Fungi associated with free-living soil nematodes in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karabörklü Salih

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Free-living soil nematodes have successfully adapted world-wide to nearly all soil types from the highest to the lowest of elevations. In the current study, nematodes were isolated from soil samples and fungi associated with these free-living soil nematodes were determined. Large subunit (LSU rDNAs of nematode-associated fungi were amplified and sequenced to construct phylogenetic trees. Nematode-associated fungi were observed in six nematode strains belonging to Acrobeloides, Steinernema and Cephalobus genera in different habitats. Malassezia and Cladosporium fungal strains indicated an association with Acrobeloides and Cephalobus nematodes, while Alternaria strains demonstrated an association with the Steinernema strain. Interactions between fungi and free-living nematodes in soil are discussed. We suggest that nematodes act as vectors for fungi.

  1. Application of Mitochondrial DNA Polymorphism to Meloidogyne Molecular Population Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Hyman, B. C.; Whipple, L.E.

    1996-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular biology have enabled the genotyping of individual nematodes, facilitating the analysis of genetic variability within and among plant-pathogenic nematode isolates. This review first describes representative examples of how RFLP, RAPD, AFLP, and DNA sequence analysis have been employed to describe populations of several phytonematodes, including the pinewood, burrowing, root-knot, and cyst nematodes. The second portion of this paper evaluates the utility of a size-v...

  2. Nematode Problems Affecting Agriculture in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Davide, R. G.

    1988-01-01

    Nematodes are considered major pests on most economic crops in the Philippines, particularly on banana, pineapple, citrus, tomato, ramie, and sugarcane. Radopholus similis is the most destructive nematode on banana, while Meloidogyne spp. are more serious on various vegetable crops such as tomato, okra, and celery and on fiber crops such as ramie. Tylenchulus semipenetrans is a problem on citrus and Rotylenchulus reniformis on pineapple and some legume crops. Hirschmanniella oryzae and Aphele...

  3. Nematode control in 'green' ruminant production systems

    OpenAIRE

    Waller, Peter J.; Thamsborg, Stig M.

    2004-01-01

    Collectively, nematode parasites of domestic ruminants continue to pose the greatest disease problem in grazing livestock systems worldwide, despite the powerful and extensive chemotherapeutic arsenal available for their control. The widespread development of anthelmintic resistance, particularly in nematode parasites of small ruminants, and the trend towards nonchemical (ecological, organic, green) farming of livestock has provided an impetus for the research and development of alternative p...

  4. Technological advancements and their importance for nematode identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mohammed; Sapp, Melanie; Prior, Thomas; Karssen, Gerrit; Back, Matthew Alan

    2016-06-01

    Nematodes represent a species-rich and morphologically diverse group of metazoans known to inhabit both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Their role as biological indicators and as key players in nutrient cycling has been well documented. Some plant-parasitic species are also known to cause significant losses to crop production. In spite of this, there still exists a huge gap in our knowledge of their diversity due to the enormity of time and expertise often involved in characterising species using phenotypic features. Molecular methodology provides useful means of complementing the limited number of reliable diagnostic characters available for morphology-based identification. We discuss herein some of the limitations of traditional taxonomy and how molecular methodologies, especially the use of high-throughput sequencing, have assisted in carrying out large-scale nematode community studies and characterisation of phytonematodes through rapid identification of multiple taxa. We also provide brief descriptions of some the current and almost-outdated high-throughput sequencing platforms and their applications in both plant nematology and soil ecology.

  5. Factors associated with the suppressiveness of sugarcane soils to plant-parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirling, Graham R; Rames, Emily; Stirling, A Marcelle; Hamill, Sharon

    2011-09-01

    Observations in three Australian sugarcane fields suggested that the soil just under the trash blanket (the covering of crop residue that remains on the soil surface after crops are harvested) was suppressive to plant-parasitic nematodes. Roots were concentrated in this upper layer of soil but plant-parasitic nematode populations were relatively low and roots showed few signs of nematode damage. Root biomass was much lower 15 cm further down the soil profile, where root health was poor and populations of plant-parasitic nematodes were 3-5 times higher than near the soil surface. A bioassay in which Radopholus similis (a nematode that does not occur in sugarcane soils) was inoculated into heat-sterilized and untreated soils, confirmed that biological factors were limiting nematode populations in some of the soils, with soil from 0-2 cm much more suppressive than soil from 15-17 cm. Surface soil from one site was highly suppressive, as only 16% of R. similis recoverable from heated soil were retrieved from this soil after 8 days. Numerous soil chemical, biochemical, and biological properties were measured, and non-linear regression analysis identified two major groups of factors that were significantly associated with suppressiveness. One group reflected the amount of organic matter in soil (total C, total N, and labile C) and the other was associated with the size of the free-living nematode community (total numbers of free-living nematodes, and numbers of plant associates, bacterial feeders, fungal feeders, and carnivores). These results suggested that suppressiveness was biologically mediated and was sustained by C inputs from crop residues and roots. Since nematode-trapping fungi in the test soils could not be quantified using traditional dilution plating methods, their possible role as suppressive agents was assessed by generating TRFLP profiles with Orbiliales-specific primers, and by sequencing cloned PCR products. Although the molecular data were obtained

  6. An automated system for measuring parameters of nematode sinusoidal movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stirbl Robert C

    2005-02-01

    of the goa-1 gene, which encodes Go-alpha. We also demonstrate the use of this system for analyzing the effects of toxic agents. Concentration-response curves for the toxicants arsenite and aldicarb, both of which affect motility, were determined for wild-type and several mutant strains, identifying P-glycoprotein mutants as not significantly more sensitive to either compound, while cat-4 mutants are more sensitive to arsenite but not aldicarb. Conclusions Automated analysis of nematode movement facilitates a broad spectrum of experiments. Detailed genetic analysis of multiple alleles and of distinct genes in a regulatory network is now possible. These studies will facilitate quantitative modeling of C. elegans movement, as well as a comparison of gene function. Concentration-response curves will allow rigorous analysis of toxic agents as well as of pharmacological agents. This type of system thus represents a powerful analytical tool that can be readily coupled with the molecular genetics of nematodes.

  7. Carbonate Deposition on Antarctic Shelves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, T. D.; James, N. P.; Malcolm, I.

    2011-12-01

    Limestones associated with glaciomarine deposits occur throughout the geologic record but remain poorly understood. The best-described examples formed during major ice ages of the Neoproterozoic and Late Paleozoic. Quaternary analogs on Antarctic shelves have received comparatively little study. Here, we report on the composition, spatial distribution, and stratigraphic context of carbonate sediments contained in piston cores from the Ross Sea. The goals of this work are to (1) document the nature and distribution of carbonate sediments on the Ross Sea continental shelf and (2) examine temporal relationships to Quaternary glaciation. Results will be used to develop criteria that will improve understanding of analogous deposits in the ancient record. All carbonate-rich intervals in piston cores from the Ross Rea, now housed at the Antarctic Marine Geology Research Facility at Florida State University, were examined and described in detail. Sediment samples were disaggregated and sieved into size fractions before description with paleontological analysis carried out on the coarsest size fraction (>250 microns). Carbonate-rich sediments are concentrated in the northwestern Ross Sea, along the distal margins of Mawson and Pennell Banks. Calcareous facies include a spectrum of lithologies that range from fossiliferous mud, sand, and gravel to skeletal floatstone-rudstone and bafflestone. Floatstone-rudstone and bafflestone is most abundant along western-facing slopes in areas protected from the Antarctic Coastal Current. Sand-prone facies dominate the tops of banks and mud-prone, often spicultic, facies occur in deeper areas. The carbonate factory is characterized by a low-diversity, heterozoan assemblage that is dominated by stylasterine hydrocorals, barnacles, and bryozoans. Molluscs and echinoids are present but not abundant. Planktic and benthic foraminifera are ubiquitous components of the sediment matrix, which is locally very rich in sponge spicules. Biota rarely

  8. Denitrification in the Antarctic stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salawitch, R. J.; Gobbi, G. P.; Wofsy, S. C.; Mcelroy, M. B.

    1989-01-01

    Rapid loss of ozone over Antarctica in spring requires that the abundance of gaseous nitric acid be very low. Precipitation of particulate nitric acid has been assumed to occur in association with large ice crystals, requiring significant removal of H2O and temperatures well below the frost point. However, stratospheric clouds exhibit a bimodal size distribution in the Antarctic atmosphere, with most of the nitrate concentrated in particles with radii of 1 micron or greater. It is argued here that the bimodal size distribution sets the stage for efficient denitrification, with nitrate particles either falling on their own or serving as nuclei for the condensation of ice. Denitrification can therefore occur without significant dehydration, and it is unnecessary for temperatures to drop significantly below the frost point.

  9. Role of the meiobenthos in Antarctic ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Vanhove, S.; Wittoeck, J; Beghyn, M.; Van Gansbeke, D.; Van Kenhove, A.; Coomans, A.; Vincx, M.

    1997-01-01

    To date meiobenthic research remained a big white spot in the systematic-ecological work on Antarctic zoobenthos. Therefore the relative importance of the meiofauna (organisms within the size range of 38-1000µm) in the Antarctic benthic community has been assessed by a combined field ecology and experimental approach. This was done in two contrasting conditions, e.g. the deep sea and low subtidal, where as to the depth of the water column the benthic characteristics were, respectively, indire...

  10. Mechanisms of invasive population establishment and spread of pinewood nematodes in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE BingYan; CHENG XinYue; SHI Juan; ZHANG QingWen; DAI ShuMing; CHENG Fei Xue; LUO YouQing

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of our study of the pinewood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophi-lus). By population genetic analysis, it was determined that there was no genetic bottle caused by the founder effect and genetic drift in the Chinese invasive population. Multiple invasions with large amounts of nematodes from different sources led to rich genetic diversity in the invasive population. Keeping high genetic diversity in the invasive process may be one of the genetic mechanisms in its successful invasion. By testing interspecies competition, it was shown that, with high fecundity and a strong competitive ability, B. Xylophilus outcompeted the native species B. Mucronatus in the natural ecosystem during the invasion process. Competitive displacement may be one of the ecological mechanisms of B. Xylophilus's invasion. In addition, an unequal interspecific hybridization with intro-gress was in favor of the invasive species which also accelerated the replacement of B. Mucronatus by B. Xylophilus. The structures, functions and evolutions of a few important genes that are closely related to the ecological adaptation of pinewood nematodes were studied to explore the molecular mechanism of its ecological adaptations. Further, the resistance and resilience mechanism of the pine ecosystem invaded by pinewood nematodes was also investigated. The results of these studies uncovered a por-tion of the genetic and ecological mechanisms of PWN's successful invasion and laid a foundation for further study to obtain a comprehensive interpretation of the mechanisms of the nematode invasion. The results also provided a scientific basis for effectively controlling the occurrence and spread of pine wilt disease which is caused by nematodes. Various aspects requiring further investigation are considered.

  11. Mechanisms of invasive population establishment and spread of pinewood nematodes in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of our study of the pinewood nematode(Bursaphelenchus xylophi-lus).By population genetic analysis,it was determined that there was no genetic bottle caused by the founder effect and genetic drift in the Chinese invasive population.Multiple invasions with large amounts of nematodes from different sources led to rich genetic diversity in the invasive population.Keeping high genetic diversity in the invasive process may be one of the genetic mechanisms in its successful invasion.By testing interspecies competition,it was shown that,with high fecundity and a strong competitive ability,B.xylophilus outcompeted the native species B.mucronatus in the natural ecosystem during the invasion process.Competitive displacement may be one of the ecological mechanisms of B.xylophilus’s invasion.In addition,an unequal interspecific hybridization with intro-gress was in favor of the invasive species which also accelerated the replacement of B.mucronatus by B.xylophilus.The structures,functions and evolutions of a few important genes that are closely related to the ecological adaptation of pinewood nematodes were studied to explore the molecular mechanism of its ecological adaptations.Further,the resistance and resilience mechanism of the pine ecosystem invaded by pinewood nematodes was also investigated.The results of these studies uncovered a portion of the genetic and ecological mechanisms of PWN’s successful invasion and laid a foundation for further study to obtain a comprehensive interpretation of the mechanisms of the nematode invasion.The results also provided a scientific basis for effectively controlling the occurrence and spread of pine wilt disease which is caused by nematodes.Various aspects requiring further investigation are considered.

  12. Interspecific nematode signals regulate dispersal behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Kaplan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dispersal is an important nematode behavior. Upon crowding or food depletion, the free living bacteriovorus nematode Caenorhabditis elegans produces stress resistant dispersal larvae, called dauer, which are analogous to second stage juveniles (J2 of plant parasitic Meloidogyne spp. and infective juveniles (IJs of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN, e.g., Steinernema feltiae. Regulation of dispersal behavior has not been thoroughly investigated for C. elegans or any other nematode species. Based on the fact that ascarosides regulate entry in dauer stage as well as multiple behaviors in C. elegans adults including mating, avoidance and aggregation, we hypothesized that ascarosides might also be involved in regulation of dispersal behavior in C. elegans and for other nematodes such as IJ of phylogenetically related EPNs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of C. elegans dauer conditioned media, which shows strong dispersing activity, revealed four known ascarosides (ascr#2, ascr#3, ascr#8, icas#9. A synthetic blend of these ascarosides at physiologically relevant concentrations dispersed C. elegans dauer in the presence of food and also caused dispersion of IJs of S. feltiae and J2s of plant parasitic Meloidogyne spp. Assay guided fractionation revealed structural analogs as major active components of the S. feltiae (ascr#9 and C. elegans (ascr#2 dispersal blends. Further analysis revealed ascr#9 in all Steinernema spp. and Heterorhabditis spp. infected insect host cadavers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Ascaroside blends represent evolutionarily conserved, fundamentally important communication systems for nematodes from diverse habitats, and thus may provide sustainable means for control of parasitic nematodes.

  13. Microbeam irradiation of the C. elegans nematode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The understanding of complex radiation responses in biological systems, such as non-targeted effects as represented by the bystander response, can be enhanced by the use of genetically amenable model organisms. Almost all bystander studies to date have been carried out by using conventional single-cell in vitro systems, which are useful tools to characterize basic cellular and molecular responses. A few studies have been reported in monolayer explants and bystander responses have been also investigated in a three-dimensional normal human tissue system. However, despite the well-know usefulness of in vitro models, they cannot capture the complexity of radiation responses of living systems such as animal models. To carry out in vivo studies on the bystander effect we have developed a new technique to expose living organisms using proton microbeams. We report the use of a nematode C. elegans strain with a Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) reporter for the hsp-4 heat-shock gene as an in vivo model for radiation studies. Exposing animals to heat and chemicals stressors leads to whole body increases in the hsp-4 protein reflected by enhanced fluorescence. We report here that γ-rays also can induce stress response in a dose dependent manner. However, whole body exposure to stress agents does not allow for evaluation of distance dependent response in non targeted tissues: the so-called bystander effect. We used the RARAF microbeam to site specifically deliver 3 MeV protons to a site in the tail of young worms. GFP expression was enhanced after 24 hours in a number dependent manner at distances > 100 μm from the site of irradiation. (author)

  14. Evaluation and verification of resistance in selected vegetable crops for sustainable root-knot nematode management in developing agriculture / Tshiamo Shilla Mothata

    OpenAIRE

    Mothata, Tshiamo Shilla

    2006-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes, (Meloidogyne species) are a major constraint in vegetable production systems. These parasites cause high yield losses, particularly in subsistence farming systems. This study was conducted to establish i) whether monospecific populations of M. incognita race 2 and M. javanica were used in these trials by means of molecular identification, ii) determine whether root-knot nematode-resistance is present in commercially available tomato, green bean, pumpkin and...

  15. [Trichostrongyloidea nematodes, parasites of Microchiroptera].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durette-Desset, M C; Chabaud, A G

    1975-01-01

    1. a) List of Nematodes collected by Professor Aellen in european Microchiroptera. Additionnal morphological data to the study of Molinostrongylus alatus, M. panousei, M. skrjabini. Description of M. aelleni n. sp. b) Description of M. richardae n. sp., M. benexae n. sp. et M. bauchoti n. sp., parasites of malagasian Molossidae. c) Description of M. colleyi n. sp. and M. owyangi n. sp., parasites of Malaysian Vespertilioninae, and of Allintoschius dunni n. sp., discovered in Myotis mystacinus from Malaysia and Pipistrellus nanus from Africa. 2. Taking into account the characteristics of the synlophe, the 17 species of the genus Molinostrongylus may be divided into five groups, each one being reasonably well characteristic of the genus of their Chiropteran host. 3. The composition of the Trichostrongyloidea fauna of Chiroptera and its relationship with Trichostrongyloidea from other Mammals (Tupaiidae, Pholidotes, Primates, Sciuridés) are analysed. Six groups are separated and divided into two well defined lines: 1) genus Strongylacantha, and 2) 12 genera stemming more or less directly from the Molineinae, 4. The three conical outgrowths at the tip of the female tail which differenciate presently the Anoplostrogylinae from the Molineinae appear to be an unreliable characteristic. The two subfamilies form a complex group which will be better understood if the evolution of the synlophe and that of the caudal bursa of the males are taken into account. PMID:1211768

  16. Influence of Metalaxyl on Three Nematodes of Citrus

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplan, David T.

    1983-01-01

    Metalaxyl significantly reduced population of Pratylenchus coffeae, Radopholus similis, and Tylenchulus semipenetrans in roots of Citrus limon (rough lemon) under greenhouse conditions. Postinoculation treatment of rough lemon seedlings was not as effective i n reducing nematode populations as was treatment before inoculation. Fewer nematodes infected metalaxyl-treated roots than nontreated roots. However, incubation of nematodes in metalaxyl did not inhibit nematode motility or their ability...

  17. Extended phenotype: nematodes turn ants into bird-dispersed fruits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, D P; Kronauer, D J C; Boomsma, J J

    2008-01-01

    A recent study has discovered a novel extended phenotype of a nematode which alters its ant host to resemble ripe fruit. The infected ants are in turn eaten by frugivorous birds that disperse the nematode's eggs.......A recent study has discovered a novel extended phenotype of a nematode which alters its ant host to resemble ripe fruit. The infected ants are in turn eaten by frugivorous birds that disperse the nematode's eggs....

  18. Management of Root-Nematode (Meloidogyne SPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhouse and field experiments were undertaken to determine the possibility of using soil amendments with different C:N levels or applied at different rates and times in the control of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.)in tomato c.v Cal J.A naturally infested field was used while artificial inoculation was done in the greenhouse. Root galling was rated on a scale of 0-10, nematode population was estimated by counting second stage juveniles extracted from 200 cm3 soil and fruit yields were recorded at the end of the season. Nematode population densities and galling indices were significantly (P< or=0.05) lower in amended soils compared to the control. Application of the amendments also resulted in significant (P< or=0.05) increase in yields. Chicken manure, compost manure, neem products and pig manure were were the most effective amendments. Fresh chicken manure had a more suppressive effect on nematode than when the manure was decomposed within or outside a nematode infested field. A general decrease in juvenile populations and galling was observed with increase of organic amendments applied

  19. 76 FR 60357 - Golden Nematode; Removal of Regulated Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 Golden Nematode; Removal of Regulated Areas.... SUMMARY: We are amending the golden nematode regulations by removing the townships of Elba and Byron in... two townships are free of golden nematode, and we have determined that regulation of these areas is...

  20. Towards a genome sequence for reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) currently accounts for $130M in annual losses to the U.S. cotton industry and has supplanted root-knot nematode as the major nematode pest of cotton in Mississippi, Louisiana, and Alabama. Moreover, in other cotton-producing states the range and influenc...

  1. Nematode Parasites and Associates of Ants: Past and Present

    OpenAIRE

    George Poinar

    2012-01-01

    Ants can serve as developmental, definitive, intermediate, or carrier hosts of a variety of nematodes. Parasitic ant nematodes include members of the families Mermithidae, Tetradonematidae, Allantonematidae, Seuratidae, Physalopteridae, Steinernematidae, and Heterorhabditidae. Those nematodes that are phoretically associated with ants, internally or externally, are represented by the Rhabditidae, Diplogastridae, and Panagrolaimidae. Fossils of mermithids, tetradonematids, allantonematids, and...

  2. Microbial ecology and nematode control in natural ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, S.R.; Van der Putten, W.H.; Kerry, B.R.

    2011-01-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes have traditionally been studied in agricultural systems, where they can be pests of importance on a wide range of crops. Nevertheless, nematode ecology in natural ecosystems is receiving increasing interest because of the role of nematodes in soil food webs, nutrient cyclin

  3. Health aspects of Antarctic tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prociv, P

    1998-12-01

    Increasing numbers of seaborne tourists are visiting Antarctica, with most coming from the United States (3503 in 1996-97), Germany (777), and Australia (680; cf. 356 in 1994-95 and 410 in 1995-96). The impression among travel medicine clinicians is that, each year, more prospective travelers seek advice about the health demands of this type of adventure, mostly relating to fitness for travel, exposure to extreme cold, hazards in ice and snow, and other potential health risks. This is a recent phenomenon. While a regular shipping service had been established between the Falklands and the subantarctic islands of South Georgia and the South Shetlands by 1924, the first documented tourists accompanied an Argentine expedition to the South Orkneys in 1933.1 Commercial airline flights over these islands and the Antarctic Peninsula began in 1956, from Chile, and recreational cruises to the Peninsula began in 1958. Tourist numbers subsequently grew slowly, for what was clearly an exclusive and very expensive undertaking, with few ships available for these hazardous voyages. From 1957 to 1993, 37,000 tourists visited by sea, most seeing only the Peninsula.2 The dramatic recent growth in numbers is a consequence of the collapse of the Soviet Union. The small fleet of ice-strengthened research vessels and working icebreakers, which was made redundant by withdrawal of central government support from isolated communities and military activities along the northern coast of Siberia (and from Antarctic research bases), now accounts for the bulk of charter-cruise tourism to Antarctica, at competitive prices. According to the International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators,3 7322 people traveled to Antarctica on commercially organized voyages in the 1996-97 season, and a record 10,000 shipborne visitors were expected for the 1997-98 season (November-March), traveling mainly from South America to the Peninsula on 15 ice-reinforced vessels, each carrying between 36 and 180

  4. Controls and variability of solute and sedimentary fluxes in Antarctic and sub-Antarctic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwolinski, Zbigniew

    2015-04-01

    The currently prepared SEDIBUD Book on "Source-to-Sink Fluxes in Undisturbed Cold Environments" (edited by Achim A. Beylich, John C. Dixon and Zbigniew Zwolinski and published by Cambridge University Press) is summarizing and synthesizing the achievements of the International Association of Geomorphologists` (I.A.G./A.I.G.) Working Group SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments), which has been active since 2005 (http://www.geomorph.org/wg/wgsb.html). The book comprises five parts. One of them is part about sub-Antarctic and Antarctic Environments. This part "Sub-Antarctic and Antarctic Environments" describes two different environments, namely oceanic and continental ones. Each part contains results of research on environmental drivers and rates of contemporary solute and sedimentary fluxes in selected sites. Apart from describing the environmental conditions of the whole continent of Antarctica and sub-Antarctic islands (Zb.Zwolinski, M.Kejna, A.N.Lastochkin, A.Zhirov, S.Boltramovich) this part of the book characterizes terrestrial polar oases free from multi-year ice and snow covers (Zb.Zwolinski). The detailed results of geoecological and sedimentological research come from different parts of Antarctica. Antarctic continental shelf (E.Isla) is an example of sub-Antarctic oceanic environment. South Shetlands, especially King George Island (Zb.Zwolinski, M.Kejna, G.Rachlewicz, I.Sobota, J.Szpikowski), is an example of sub-Antarctic terrestrial environment. Antarctic Peninsula (G.Vieira, M.Francelino, J.C.Fernandes) and surroundings of McMurdo Dry Valleys (W.B.Lyons, K.A.Welch, J.Levy, A.Fountain, D.McKnight) are examples of Antarctic continental environments. The key goals of the Antarctic and sub-Antarctic book chapters are following: (i) identify the main environmental drivers and rates of contemporary solute and sedimentary fluxes, and (ii) model possible effects of projected climate change on solute and sedimentary fluxes in cold climate environments

  5. ENDOPARASITIC NEMATODES OF THE GENUS PRATYLENCHUS ON SOYBEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Majić

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the study were to determine susceptibility of soybean cultivars to root lesion nematodes (genus Pratylenchus, effect of intensity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF colonization on penetration of endoparasitic nematodes in soybean roots, and trophic biodiversity of nematode community in soybean. In the period 2005 - 2007, investigations were conducted at experimental sites of Agricultural Institute Osijek. Seven soybean cultivars were included (Korana, Kuna, Anica, Una, Ika, Podravka 95 i Tisa. Soil and roots were sampled during four soybean growth stages. Nematode populations from soil and root samples were determined as well as reproductive index (RI of root lesion nematode population, and intensity of AMF root colonization. Ten ecological indexes were calculated in order to determine trophic biodiversity of nematode community: H’, λ, N1, N2, E1, E2, PPI, NCR, F/B, B+F/BP. Two Pratylenchus species were determined from the soil samples: P. thornei Sher & Allen 1953 and P. scribneri Steiner 1943. The results indicate negative effect of Pratylenchus spp. (extracted from soil samples on soybean yields for all but one cultivar (Una. However, increase in root lesion nematode population did not lead to linear decrease in plant biomass. Cultivars Ika, Podravka 95, Tisa and Una proved to be the best hosts to root lesion nematodes since these cultivars statistically differed among cultivars for the highest density of root lesion nematodes. Cultivar Una showed the least susceptibility to root lesion nematodes since it had the lowest RI and negative effects on yields were not determined. Due to high RI values and negative effect on soybean yields. Population densities of root lesion nematodes from soil samples, (compared to nematodes detected in roots are more reliable indicator of root lesion nematodes damaging potential. Since values of RI for Pratylenchus spp. in soil samples were determined as very high and soybean yields were

  6. Remote Sensing of Parasitic Nematodes in Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Gary W.; King, Roger; Kelley, Amber T.; Vickery, John

    2007-01-01

    A method and apparatus for remote sensing of parasitic nematodes in plants, now undergoing development, is based on measurement of visible and infrared spectral reflectances of fields where the plants are growing. Initial development efforts have been concentrated on detecting reniform nematodes (Rotylenchulus reniformis) in cotton plants, because of the economic importance of cotton crops. The apparatus includes a hand-held spectroradiometer. The readings taken by the radiometer are processed to extract spectral reflectances at sixteen wavelengths between 451 and 949 nm that, taken together, have been found to be indicative of the presence of Rotylenchulus reniformis. The intensities of the spectral reflectances are used to estimate the population density of the nematodes in an area from which readings were taken.

  7. 76 FR 9849 - Comprehensive Environmental Evaluations for Antarctic Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Article 3 of Annex I to the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic... Comprehensive Environmental Evaluations for Antarctic Activities SUMMARY: The Department of State gives notice of the availability of two draft Comprehensive Environmental Evaluations (CEEs) for...

  8. Hsp-90 and the biology of nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitland Kirsty

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hsp-90 from the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is unique in that it fails to bind to the specific Hsp-90 inhibitor, geldanamycin (GA. Here we surveyed 24 different free-living or parasitic nematodes with the aim of determining whether C. elegans Hsp-90 was the exception or the norm amongst the nematodes. We combined these data with codon evolution models in an attempt to identify whether hsp-90 from GA-binding and non-binding species has evolved under different evolutionary constraints. Results We show that GA-binding is associated with life history: free-living nematodes and those parasitic species with free-living larval stages failed to bind GA. In contrast, obligate parasites and those worms in which the free-living stage in the environment is enclosed within a resistant egg, possess a GA-binding Hsp-90. We analysed Hsp-90 sequences from fifteen nematode species to determine whether nematode hsp-90s have undergone adaptive evolution that influences GA-binding. Our data provide evidence of rapid diversifying selection in the evolution of the hsp-90 gene along three separate lineages, and identified a number of residues showing significant evidence of adaptive evolution. However, we were unable to prove that the selection observed is correlated with the ability to bind geldanamycin or not. Conclusion Hsp-90 is a multi-functional protein and the rapid evolution of the hsp-90 gene presumably correlates with other key cellular functions. Factors other than primary amino acid sequence may influence the ability of Hsp-90 to bind to geldanamycin.

  9. Can parasites halt the invader? Mermithid nematodes parasitizing the yellow-legged Asian hornet in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villemant, Claire; Zuccon, Dario; Rome, Quentin; Muller, Franck; Poinar, George O; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2015-01-01

    Since its introduction in France 10 years ago, the yellow-legged Asian bee-hawking hornet Vespa velutina has rapidly spread to neighboring countries (Spain, Portugal, Belgium, Italy, and Germany), becoming a new threat to beekeeping activities. While introduced species often leave behind natural enemies from their original home, which benefits them in their new environment, they can also suffer local recruitment of natural enemies. Three mermithid parasitic subadults were obtained from V. velutina adults in 2012, from two French localities. However, these were the only parasitic nematodes reported up to now in Europe, in spite of the huge numbers of nests destroyed each year and the recent examination of 33,000 adult hornets. This suggests that the infection of V. velutina by these nematodes is exceptional. Morphological criteria assigned the specimens to the genus Pheromermis and molecular data (18S sequences) to the Mermithidae, due to the lack of Pheromermis spp. sequences in GenBank. The species is probably Pheromermis vesparum, a parasite of social wasps in Europe. This nematode is the second native enemy of Vespa velutina recorded in France, after a conopid fly whose larvae develop as internal parasitoids of adult wasps and bumblebees. In this paper, we provide arguments for the local origin of the nematode parasite and its limited impact on hornet colony survival. We also clarify why these parasites (mermithids and conopids) most likely could not hamper the hornet invasion nor be used in biological control programs against this invasive species. PMID:26038716

  10. Can parasites halt the invader? Mermithid nematodes parasitizing the yellow-legged Asian hornet in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Villemant

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Since its introduction in France 10 years ago, the yellow-legged Asian bee-hawking hornet Vespa velutina has rapidly spread to neighboring countries (Spain, Portugal, Belgium, Italy, and Germany, becoming a new threat to beekeeping activities. While introduced species often leave behind natural enemies from their original home, which benefits them in their new environment, they can also suffer local recruitment of natural enemies. Three mermithid parasitic subadults were obtained from V. velutina adults in 2012, from two French localities. However, these were the only parasitic nematodes reported up to now in Europe, in spite of the huge numbers of nests destroyed each year and the recent examination of 33,000 adult hornets. This suggests that the infection of V. velutina by these nematodes is exceptional. Morphological criteria assigned the specimens to the genus Pheromermis and molecular data (18S sequences to the Mermithidae, due to the lack of Pheromermis spp. sequences in GenBank. The species is probably Pheromermis vesparum, a parasite of social wasps in Europe. This nematode is the second native enemy of Vespa velutina recorded in France, after a conopid fly whose larvae develop as internal parasitoids of adult wasps and bumblebees. In this paper, we provide arguments for the local origin of the nematode parasite and its limited impact on hornet colony survival. We also clarify why these parasites (mermithids and conopids most likely could not hamper the hornet invasion nor be used in biological control programs against this invasive species.

  11. Transcript analysis of parasitic females of the sedentary semi-endoparasitic nematode Rotylenchulus reniformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wubben, Martin J; Callahan, Franklin E; Scheffler, Brian S

    2010-07-01

    Rotylenchulus reniformis, the reniform nematode, is a sedentary semi-endoparasitic nematode capable of infecting >300 plant species, including a large number of crops such as cotton, soybean, and pineapple. In contrast to other economically important plant-parasitic nematodes, molecular genetic data regarding the R. reniformis transcriptome is virtually nonexistant. Herein, we present a survey of R. reniformis ESTs that were sequenced from a sedentary parasitic female cDNA library. Cluster analysis of 2004 high quality ESTs produced 123 contigs and 508 singletons for a total of 631 R. reniformis unigenes. BLASTX analyses revealed that 39% of all unigenes showed similarity to known proteins (Enematode which (i) provides the transcript sequence data necessary for investigating engineered resistance against R. reniformis and (ii) hints at the existance of a thiamin biosynthesis pathway in an animal. PMID:20346373

  12. Diversity of free-living marine nematodes (Enoplida) from Baja California assessed by integrative taxonomy

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Tiago José; Fonseca, Gustavo; Mundo-Ocampo, Manuel; Guilherme, Betânia Cristina; Rocha-Olivares, Axayácatl

    2010-01-01

    We used morphological and molecular approaches to evaluate the diversity of free-living marine nematodes (order Enoplida) at four coastal sites in the Gulf of California and three on the Pacific coast of Baja California, Mexico. We identified 22 morphological species belonging to six families, of which Thoracostomopsidae and Oncholaimidae were the most diverse. The genus Mesacanthion (Thoracostomopsidae) was the most widespread and diverse. Five allopatric species, genetically and morphologic...

  13. Climate-dependent evolution of Antarctic ectotherms: An integrative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pörtner, Hans O.

    2006-04-01

    The paper explores the climate-dependent evolution of marine Antarctic fauna and tries to identify key mechanisms involved as well as the driving forces that have caused the physiological and life history characteristics observed today. In an integrative approach it uses the recent concept of oxygen and capacity limited thermal tolerance to identify potential links between molecular, cellular, whole-organism, and ecological characteristics of marine animal life in the Antarctic. As a generalized pattern, minimization of baseline energy costs, for the sake of maximized growth in the cold, appears as one over-arching principle shaping the evolution and functioning of Antarctic marine ectotherms. This conclusion is supported by recent comparisons with (sub-) Arctic ectotherms, where elevated levels of energy turnover result at unstable, including cold temperatures, and are related to wide windows of thermal tolerance and associated metabolic features. At biochemical levels, metabolic regulation at low temperatures in general, is supported by the cold compensation of enzyme kinetic parameters like substrate affinities and turnover numbers, through minute structural modifications of the enzyme molecule. These involve a shift in protein folding, sometimes supported by the replacement of individual amino acids. The hypothesis is developed that efficient metabolic regulation at low rates in Antarctic marine stenotherms occurs through high mitochondrial densities at low capacities and possibly enhanced levels of Arrhenius activation energies or activation enthalpies. This contrasts the more costly patterns of metabolic regulation at elevated rates in cold-adapted eurytherms. Energy savings in Antarctic ectotherms, largely exemplified in fish, typically involve low-cost, diffusive oxygen distribution due to high density of lipid membranes, loss of haemoglobin, myoglobin and the heat shock response, reduced anaerobic capacity, large myocytes with low ion exchange activities

  14. Meteorological observatory for Antarctic data collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last years, a great number of automatic weather stations was installed in Antarctica, with the aim to examine closely the weather and climate of this region and to improve the coverage of measuring points on the Antarctic surface. In 1987 the Italian Antarctic Project started to set up a meteorological network, in an area not completely covered by other countries. Some of the activities performed by the meteorological observatory, concerning technical functions such as maintenance of the AWS's and the execution of radio soundings, or relating to scientific purposes such as validation and elaboration of collected data, are exposed. Finally, some climatological considerations on the thermal behaviour of the Antarctic troposphere such as 'coreless winter', and on the wind field, including katabatic flows in North Victoria Land are described

  15. The Antarctic cryptoendolithic ecosystem - Relevance to exobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, E. I.; Ocampo-Friedmann, R.

    1984-01-01

    Cryptoendolithic microorganisms in the Antarctic desert live inside porous sandstone rocks, protected by a thin rock crust. While the rock surface is abiotic, the microclimate inside the rock is comparatively mild. These organisms may have descended from early, pre-glaciation Antarctic life forms and thus may represent the last outpost of life in a gradually deteriorating environment. Assuming that life once arose on Mars, it is conceivable that, following the loss of water, the last of surviving organisms withdrew to similar insulated microenvironments. Because such microscopic pockets have little connection with the outside environment, their detection may be difficult. The chances that the Viking lander could sample cryptoendolithic microorganisms in the Antarctic desert would be infinitesimal.

  16. Genomics of Entomopathogenic Nematodes and Implications for Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dihong; Baiocchi, Tiffany; Dillman, Adler R

    2016-08-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) have been used in biological control but improvement is needed to realize their full potential for broader application in agriculture. Some improvements have been gained through selective breeding and the isolation of additional species and populations. Having genomic sequences for at least six EPNs opens the possibility of genetic improvement, either by facilitating the selection of candidate genes for hypothesis-driven studies of gene-trait relations or by genomics-assisted breeding for desirable traits. However, the genomic data will be of limited use without a more mechanistic understanding of the genes underlying traits that are important for biological control. Additionally, molecular tools are required to fully translate the genomic resources into further functional studies and better biological control. PMID:27142565

  17. Phylogenetic analysis and in vitro culture of mosses from the Antarctic Fildes Peninsula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shenghao; ZHANG Zhaohui; WANG Nengfei; CONG Bailin; ZHANG Pengying; LIN Xuezheng; HUANG Xiaohang

    2014-01-01

    Molecular genetic techniques have proven very useful for initial analysis of the extent of genetic variation and dispersal in several Antarctic moss species. In the present study, the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rDNA) and internal transcribed spacers of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS rDNA) were sequenced in nine individuals of different mosses from the Fildes Peninsula of Antarctica. Sequence alignment showed that the extreme environment tended to increase the genetic diversity of Antarctic mosses. In addition, in our phylogenetic analysis, one previously unidentiifed Antarctic moss species was characterized by comparison with SSU and ITS rDNA sequences of known moss species. Moreover, the optimal culture medium and conditions for surface explant sterilization and protonemata induction in tissue culture of Pohlia nutans were investigated. The successful establishment of a tissue culture protocol together with the phylogenetic analysis of Antarctic mosses will provide technological support to establish an effective resource regeneration method for discovering new functional genes and gaining novel insights into the mechanisms of stress acclimation.

  18. First geomagnetic measurements in the Antarctic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspopov, O. M.; Demina, I. M.; Meshcheryakov, V. V.

    2014-05-01

    Based on data from literature and archival sources, we have further processed and analyzed the results of geomagnetic measurements made during the 1772-1775 Second World Expedition by James Cook and the 1819-1821 overseas Antarctic Expedition by Russian mariners Bellingshausen and Lazarev. Comparison with the GUFM historical model showed that there are systematic differences in the spatial structure of both the declination and its secular variation. The results obtained can serve as a basis for the construction of regional models of the geomagnetic field for the Antarctic region.

  19. Climate Change Influences on Antarctic Bird Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczak-Abshire, Małgorzata

    2010-01-01

    Rapid changes in the major environmental variables like: temperature, wind and precipitation have occurred in the Antarctic region during the last 50 years. In this very sensitive region, even small changes can potentially lead to major environmental perturbations. Then the climate change poses a new challenge to the survival of Antarctic wildlife. As important bioindicators of changes in the ecosystem seabirds and their response to the climate perturbations have been recorded. Atmospheric warming and consequent changes in sea ice conditions have been hypothesized to differentially affect predator populations due to different predator life-history strategies and substantially altered krill recruitment dynamics.

  20. Nematodes: Model Organisms in High School Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, TJ; Anderson, Margery; Dillman, Adler; Yourick, Debra; Jett, Marti; Adams, Byron J.; Russell, RevaBeth

    2007-01-01

    In a collaborative effort between university researchers and high school science teachers, an inquiry-based laboratory module was designed using two species of insecticidal nematodes to help students apply scientific inquiry and elements of thoughtful experimental design. The learning experience and model are described in this article. (Contains 4…

  1. The genomes of root-knot nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, David McK; Williamson, Valerie M; Abad, Pierre; McCarter, James; Danchin, Etienne G J; Castagnone-Sereno, Philippe; Opperman, Charles H

    2009-01-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes are the most destructive group of plant pathogens worldwide and are extremely challenging to control. The recent completion of two root-knot nematode genomes opens the way for a comparative genomics approach to elucidate the success of these parasites. Sequencing revealed that Meloidogyne hapla, a diploid that reproduces by facultative, meiotic parthenogenesis, encodes approximately 14,200 genes in a compact, 54 Mpb genome. Indeed, this is the smallest metazoan genome completed to date. By contrast, the 86 Mbp Meloidogyne incognita genome encodes approximately 19,200 genes. This species reproduces by obligate mitotic parthenogenesis and exhibits a complex pattern of aneuploidy. The genome includes triplicated regions and contains allelic pairs with exceptionally high degrees of sequence divergence, presumably reflecting adaptations to the strictly asexual reproductive mode. Both root-knot nematode genomes have compacted gene families compared with the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and both encode large suites of enzymes that uniquely target the host plant. Acquisition of these genes, apparently via horizontal gene transfer, and their subsequent expansion and diversification point to the evolutionary history of these parasites. It also suggests new routes to their control. PMID:19400640

  2. Thermoregulation in the life cycle of nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaney, Eileen

    2006-05-31

    An unanswered question in the biology of many parasites is the mechanism by which environmental (or external) and intrinsic signals are integrated to determine the switch from one developmental stage to the next. This is particularly pertinent for nematode parasites, many of which have a free-living stage in the environment prior to infection of the mammalian host, or for parasites such as filarial nematodes, which utilise an insect vector for transmission. The environmental changes experienced by a parasite upon infection of a mammalian host are extremely complex and poorly understood. However, the ability of a parasite to sense its new environment must be intrinsically linked to its developmental programme, as progression of the life cycle is dependent upon the infection event. In this review, the relationship between temperature and development in filarial nematodes and in the free-living species Caenorhabditis elegans is summarised, with a focus on the role of heat shock factor and heat shock protein 90 in the nematode life cycle. PMID:16620827

  3. Meloidogyne incognita nematode resistance QTL in carrot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) are major pests attacking carrots (Daucus carota) worldwide, causing galling and forking of the storage roots, rendering them unacceptable for market. Genetic resistance could significantly reduce the need for broad-spectrum soil fumigants in carrot production....

  4. Terrestrial and submarine evidence for the extent and timing of the Last Glacial Maximum and the onset of deglaciation on the maritime-Antarctic and sub-Antarctic islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Dominic A.; Graham, Alastair G. C.; Roberts, Stephen J.; Bentley, Michael J.; Cofaigh, Colm Ó.; Verleyen, Elie; Vyverman, Wim; Jomelli, Vincent; Favier, Vincent; Brunstein, Daniel; Verfaillie, Deborah; Colhoun, Eric A.; Saunders, Krystyna M.; Selkirk, Patricia M.; Mackintosh, Andrew; Hedding, David W.; Nel, Werner; Hall, Kevin; McGlone, Matt S.; Van der Putten, Nathalie; Dickens, William A.; Smith, James A.

    2014-09-01

    This paper is the maritime and sub-Antarctic contribution to the Scientific Committee for Antarctic Research (SCAR) Past Antarctic Ice Sheet Dynamics (PAIS) community Antarctic Ice Sheet reconstruction. The overarching aim for all sectors of Antarctica was to reconstruct the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) ice sheet extent and thickness, and map the subsequent deglaciation in a series of 5000 year time slices. However, our review of the literature found surprisingly few high quality chronological constraints on changing glacier extents on these timescales in the maritime and sub-Antarctic sector. Therefore, in this paper we focus on an assessment of the terrestrial and offshore evidence for the LGM ice extent, establishing minimum ages for the onset of deglaciation, and separating evidence of deglaciation from LGM limits from those associated with later Holocene glacier fluctuations. Evidence included geomorphological descriptions of glacial landscapes, radiocarbon dated basal peat and lake sediment deposits, cosmogenic isotope ages of glacial features and molecular biological data. We propose a classification of the glacial history of the maritime and sub-Antarctic islands based on this assembled evidence. These include: (Type I) islands which accumulated little or no LGM ice; (Type II) islands with a limited LGM ice extent but evidence of extensive earlier continental shelf glaciations; (Type III) seamounts and volcanoes unlikely to have accumulated significant LGM ice cover; (Type IV) islands on shallow shelves with both terrestrial and submarine evidence of LGM (and/or earlier) ice expansion; (Type V) Islands north of the Antarctic Polar Front with terrestrial evidence of LGM ice expansion; and (Type VI) islands with no data. Finally, we review the climatological and geomorphological settings that separate the glaciological history of the islands within this classification scheme.

  5. Ascaris suum: molecular cloning of an intermediate filament

    OpenAIRE

    Bisoffi, Marco; Betschart, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    It has been proposed that intermediate filament proteins are involved in force transduction from the muscle cells through the hypodermis to the cuticle of nematodes. An additional role of intermediate filaments as excretory/secretory components of parasitic nematodes is under discussion. We report on the molecular characterization of the cDNA clone AsIF of the intestinal nematode parasite Ascaris suum, encoding a member of the intermediate filament protein family by sequence comparison with i...

  6. The bacterial community of entomophilic nematodes and host beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneru, Sneha L; Salinas, Heilly; Flores, Gilberto E; Hong, Ray L

    2016-05-01

    Insects form the most species-rich lineage of Eukaryotes and each is a potential host for organisms from multiple phyla, including fungi, protozoa, mites, bacteria and nematodes. In particular, beetles are known to be associated with distinct bacterial communities and entomophilic nematodes. While entomopathogenic nematodes require symbiotic bacteria to kill and reproduce inside their insect hosts, the microbial ecology that facilitates other types of nematode-insect associations is largely unknown. To illuminate detailed patterns of the tritrophic beetle-nematode-bacteria relationship, we surveyed the nematode infestation profiles of scarab beetles in the greater Los Angeles area over a five-year period and found distinct nematode infestation patterns for certain beetle hosts. Over a single season, we characterized the bacterial communities of beetles and their associated nematodes using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. We found significant differences in bacterial community composition among the five prevalent beetle host species, independent of geographical origin. Anaerobes Synergistaceae and sulphate-reducing Desulfovibrionaceae were most abundant in Amblonoxia beetles, while Enterobacteriaceae and Lachnospiraceae were common in Cyclocephala beetles. Unlike entomopathogenic nematodes that carry bacterial symbionts, insect-associated nematodes do not alter the beetles' native bacterial communities, nor do their microbiomes differ according to nematode or beetle host species. The conservation of Diplogastrid nematodes associations with Melolonthinae beetles and sulphate-reducing bacteria suggests a possible link between beetle-bacterial communities and their associated nematodes. Our results establish a starting point towards understanding the dynamic interactions between soil macroinvertebrates and their microbiota in a highly accessible urban environment. PMID:26992100

  7. Loss of the insulator protein CTCF during nematode evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schierenberg Einhard

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The zinc finger (ZF protein CTCF (CCCTC-binding factor is highly conserved in Drosophila and vertebrates where it has been shown to mediate chromatin insulation at a genomewide level. A mode of genetic regulation that involves insulators and insulator binding proteins to establish independent transcriptional units is currently not known in nematodes including Caenorhabditis elegans. We therefore searched in nematodes for orthologs of proteins that are involved in chromatin insulation. Results While orthologs for other insulator proteins were absent in all 35 analysed nematode species, we find orthologs of CTCF in a subset of nematodes. As an example for these we cloned the Trichinella spiralis CTCF-like gene and revealed a genomic structure very similar to the Drosophila counterpart. To investigate the pattern of CTCF occurrence in nematodes, we performed phylogenetic analysis with the ZF protein sets of completely sequenced nematodes. We show that three ZF proteins from three basal nematodes cluster together with known CTCF proteins whereas no zinc finger protein of C. elegans and other derived nematodes does so. Conclusion Our findings show that CTCF and possibly chromatin insulation are present in basal nematodes. We suggest that the insulator protein CTCF has been secondarily lost in derived nematodes like C. elegans. We propose a switch in the regulation of gene expression during nematode evolution, from the common vertebrate and insect type involving distantly acting regulatory elements and chromatin insulation to a so far poorly characterised mode present in more derived nematodes. Here, all or some of these components are missing. Instead operons, polycistronic transcriptional units common in derived nematodes, seemingly adopted their function.

  8. Comparative analysis of macrophage migration inhibitory factors (MIFs) from the parasitic nematode Onchocerca volvulus and the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajonina-Ekoti, Irene; Kurosinski, Marc Andre; Younis, Abuelhassan Elshazly; Ndjonka, Dieudonne; Tanyi, Manchang Kingsley; Achukwi, Mbunkah; Eisenbarth, Albert; Ajonina, Caroline; Lüersen, Kai; Breloer, Minka; Brattig, Norbert W; Liebau, Eva

    2013-09-01

    The macrophage migration inhibitory factors (MIFs) from the filarial parasite Onchocerca volvulus (OvMIF) were compared to the MIFs from the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (CeMIF) with respect to molecular, biochemical and immunological properties. Except for CeMIF-4, all other MIFs demonstrated tautomerase activity. Surprisingly, OvMIF-1 displayed oxidoreductase activity. The strongest immunostaining for OvMIF-1 was observed in the outer cellular covering of the adult worm body, the syncytial hypodermis; moderate immunostaining was observed in the uterine wall. The generation of a strong humoral immune response towards OvMIF-1 and reduced reactivity to OvMIF-2 was indicated by high IgG levels in patients infected with O. volvulus and cows infected with the closely related Onchocerca ochengi, both MIFs revealing identical amino acid sequences. Using Litomosoides sigmodontis-infected mice, a laboratory model for filarial infection, MIFs derived from the tissue-dwelling O. volvulus, the rodent gut-dwelling Strongyloides ratti and from free-living C. elegans were recognized, suggesting that L. sigmodontis MIF-specific IgM and IgG1 were produced during L. sigmodontis infection of mice and cross-reacted with all MIF proteins tested. Thus, MIF apparently functions as a target of B cell response during nematode infection, but in the natural Onchocerca-specific human and bovine infection, the induced antibodies can discriminate between MIFs derived from parasitic or free-living nematodes. PMID:23820606

  9. Contrasting Arctic and Antarctic sea ice temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancoppenolle, Martin; Raphael, Marilyn; Rousset, Clément; Vivier, Frédéric; Moreau, Sébastien; Delille, Bruno; Tison, Jean-Louis

    2016-04-01

    Sea ice temperature affects the sea ice growth rate, heat content, permeability and habitability for ice algae. Large-scale simulations with NEMO-LIM suggest large ice temperature contrasts between the Arctic and the Antarctic sea ice. First, Antarctic sea ice proves generally warmer than in the Arctic, in particular during winter, where differences reach up to ~10°C. Second, the seasonality of temperature is different among the two hemispheres: Antarctic ice temperatures are 2-3°C higher in spring than they are in fall, whereas the opposite is true in the Arctic. These two key differences are supported by the available ice core and mass balance buoys temperature observations, and can be attributed to differences in air temperature and snow depth. As a result, the ice is found to be habitable and permeable over much larger areas and much earlier in late spring in the Antarctic as compared with the Arctic, which consequences on biogeochemical exchanges in the sea ice zone remain to be evaluated.

  10. Relevance of antarctic microbial ecosystems to exobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckay, Christopher P.

    1993-01-01

    Antarctic microbial ecosystems which provide biological and physical analogs that can be used in exobiology are studied. Since the access to extraterrestrial habitats is extremely difficult, terrestrial analogs represent the best opportunity for both formulation and preliminary testing of hypothesis about life. Antarctica, as one of few suitable environments on earth is considered to be a major locus of progress in exobiology.

  11. Unveiling the Biodiversity of Deep-Sea Nematodes through Metabarcoding: Are We Ready to Bypass the Classical Taxonomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Nematodes inhabiting benthic deep-sea ecosystems account for >90% of the total metazoan abundances and they have been hypothesised to be hyper-diverse, but their biodiversity is still largely unknown. Metabarcoding could facilitate the census of biodiversity, especially for those tiny metazoans for which morphological identification is difficult. We compared, for the first time, different DNA extraction procedures based on the use of two commercial kits and a previously published laboratory protocol and tested their suitability for sequencing analyses of 18S rDNA of marine nematodes. We also investigated the reliability of Roche 454 sequencing analyses for assessing the biodiversity of deep-sea nematode assemblages previously morphologically identified. Finally, intra-genomic variation in 18S rRNA gene repeats was investigated by Illumina MiSeq in different deep-sea nematode morphospecies to assess the influence of polymorphisms on nematode biodiversity estimates. Our results indicate that the two commercial kits should be preferred for the molecular analysis of biodiversity of deep-sea nematodes since they consistently provide amplifiable DNA suitable for sequencing. We report that the morphological identification of deep-sea nematodes matches the results obtained by metabarcoding analysis only at the order-family level and that a large portion of Operational Clustered Taxonomic Units (OCTUs) was not assigned. We also show that independently from the cut-off criteria and bioinformatic pipelines used, the number of OCTUs largely exceeds the number of individuals and that 18S rRNA gene of different morpho-species of nematodes displayed intra-genomic polymorphisms. Our results indicate that metabarcoding is an important tool to explore the diversity of deep-sea nematodes, but still fails in identifying most of the species due to limited number of sequences deposited in the public databases, and in providing quantitative data on the species encountered. These aspects

  12. Neogene kinematic history of Nazca-Antarctic-Phoenix slab windows beneath Patagonia and the Antarctic Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitsprecher, Katrin; Thorkelson, Derek J.

    2009-01-01

    The Patagonian slab window is a subsurface tectonic feature resulting from subduction of the Nazca-Antarctic spreading-ridge system (Chile Rise) beneath southern South America. The geometry of the slab window had not been rigorously defined, in part because of the complex nature of the history of ridge subduction in the southeast Pacific region, which includes four interrelated spreading-ridge systems since 20 Ma: first, the Nazca-Phoenix ridge beneath South America, then simultaneous subduction of the Nazca-Antarctic and the northern Phoenix-Antarctic spreading-ridge systems beneath South America, and the southern Phoenix-Antarctic spreading-ridge system beneath Antarctica. Spreading-ridge paleo-geographies and rotation poles for all relevant plate pairs (Nazca, Phoenix, Antarctic, South America) are available from 20 Ma onward, and form the mathematical basis of our kinematic reconstruction of the geometry of the Patagonia and Antarctic slab windows through Neogene time. At approximately 18 Ma, the Nazca-Phoenix-Antarctic oceanic (ridge-ridge-ridge) triple junction enters the South American trench; we recognize this condition as an unstable quadruple junction. Heat flow at this junction and for some distance beneath the forearc would be considerably higher than is generally recognized in cases of ridge subduction. From 16 Ma onward, the geometry of the Patagonia slab window developed from the subduction of the trailing arms of the former oceanic triple junction. The majority of the slab window's areal extent and geometry is controlled by the highly oblique (near-parallel) subduction angle of the Nazca-Antarctic ridge system, and by the high contrast in relative convergence rates between these two plates relative to South America. The very slow convergence rate of the Antarctic slab is manifested by the shallow levels achieved by the slab edge (< 45 km); thus no point on the Antarctic slab is sufficiently deep to generate "normal" mantle-derived arc-type magmas

  13. Occurrence and abundance of anisakid nematode larvae in five species of fish from southern Australian waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsi, Shokoofeh; Eisenbarth, Albert; Saptarshi, Shruti; Beveridge, Ian; Gasser, Robin B; Lopata, Andreas L

    2011-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to conduct, in southern Australian waters, a preliminary epidemiological survey of five commercially significant species of fish (yellow-eye mullet, tiger flathead, sand flathead, pilchard and king fish) for infections with anisakid nematodes larvae using a combined morphological-molecular approach. With the exception of king fish, which was farmed and fed commercial pellets, all other species were infected with at least one species of anisakid nematode, with each individual tiger flathead examined being infected. Five morphotypes, including Anisakis, Contracaecum type I and II and Hysterothylacium type IV and VIII, were defined genetically using mutation scanning and targeted sequencing of the second internal transcribed spacer of nuclear ribosomal DNA. The findings of the present study provide a basis for future investigations of the genetic composition of anisakid populations in a wide range of fish hosts in Australia and for assessing their public health significance. PMID:21057811

  14. Untargeted Metabolomics of Tomato Plants after Root-Knot Nematode Infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloh, Kodjo; Sasanelli, Nicola; Maxia, Andrea; Caboni, Pierluigi

    2016-07-27

    After 2 months from the infestation of tomato plants with the root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita, we performed a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry untargeted fingerprint analysis for the identification of characteristic metabolites and biomarkers. Principal component analysis, and orthogonal projections to latent structures discriminant analysis suggested dramatic local changes of the plant metabolome. In the case of tomato leaves, β-alanine, phenylalanine, and melibiose were induced in response to RKN stimuli, while ribose, glycerol, myristic acid, and palmitic acid were reduced. For tomato stems, upregulated metabolites were ribose, sucrose, fructose, and glucose, while fumaric acid and glycine were downregulated. The variation in molecular strategies to the infestation of RKNs may play an important role in how Solanum lycopersicum and other plants adapt to nematode parasitic stress. PMID:27389052

  15. Dispersal and gene flow in free-living marine nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derycke, Sofie; Backeljau, Thierry; Moens, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Dispersal and gene flow determine connectivity among populations, and can be studied through population genetics and phylogeography. We here review the results of such a framework for free-living marine nematodes. Although field experiments have illustrated substantial dispersal in nematodes at ecological time scales, analysis of the genetic diversity illustrated the importance of priority effects, founder effects and genetic bottlenecks for population structuring between patches nematode species with contrasting life histories (extreme colonizers vs persisters) or with different habitat preferences (algae vs sediment) show similar, low genetic structuring. Finally, historical events have shaped the genetic pattern of marine nematodes and show that gene flow is restricted at large geographical scales. We also discuss the presence of substantial cryptic diversity in marine nematodes, and end with highlighting future important steps to further unravel nematode evolution and diversity. PMID:23356547

  16. Organic and Inorganic Nitrogen Amendments to Soil as Nematode Suppressants

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Kábana, R.

    1986-01-01

    Inorganic fertilizers containing ammoniacal nitrogen or formulations releasing this form of N in the soil are most effective for suppressing nematode populations. Anhydrous ammonia has been shown to reduce soil populations of Tylenchorhynchus claytoni, Helicotylenchus dihystera, and Heterodera glycines. The rates required to obtain significant suppression of nematode populations are generally in excess of 150 kg N/ha. Urea also suppresses several nematode species, including Meloidogyne spp., ...

  17. Microsporidian Infection in a Free-Living Marine Nematode

    OpenAIRE

    Ardila-Garcia, A. M.; Fast, N. M.

    2012-01-01

    Microsporidia are unicellular fungi that are obligate endoparasites. Although nematodes are one of the most abundant and diverse animal groups, the only confirmed report of microsporidian infection was that of the “nematode killer” (Nematocida parisii). N. parisii was isolated from a wild Caenorhabditis sp. and causes an acute and lethal intestinal infection in a lab strain of Caenorhabditis elegans. We set out to characterize a microsporidian infection in a wild nematode to determine whether...

  18. [Tendencies of nematodes communities to recover after soil cover degradation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruzdeva, L I; Sushchuk, A A

    2010-01-01

    The way nematodes form communities on a new substrate after complete soil and plant cover degradation is studied on a model of industrial dumping. It is revealed that recovery of soil cover after degradation begins with invasion of mainly the upper soil horizon by nematodes. At the early stages, species that are resistant to unfavorable environmental conditions dominate (bacteriophages), next the abundances of carnivores and nematodes that are connected with plants increase, which indicates the process of biocenosis regeneration. PMID:21275095

  19. Anthelmintics Are Substrates and Activators of Nematode P Glycoprotein▿

    OpenAIRE

    Kerboeuf, Dominique; Guégnard, Fabrice

    2011-01-01

    P glycoproteins (Pgp), members of the ABC transporter superfamily, play a major role in chemoresistance. In nematodes, Pgp are responsible for resistance to anthelmintics, suggesting that they are Pgp substrates, as they are in mammalian cells. However, their binding to nematode Pgp and the functional consequences of this interaction have not been investigated. Our study showed that levamisole and most of the macrocyclic lactones (MLs) are Pgp substrates in nematodes. Ivermectin, although a v...

  20. A Trojan horse mechanism of bacterial pathogenesis against nematodes

    OpenAIRE

    Niu, Qiuhong; Huang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Lin; Xu, Jianping; Yang, Dongmei; Wei, Kangbi; Niu, Xuemei; An, Zhiqiang; Bennett, Joan Wennstrom; Zou, Chenggang; Yang, Jinkui; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of host–pathogen interaction can provide crucial information for successfully manipulating their relationships. Because of its genetic background and practical advantages over vertebrate model systems, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans model has become an attractive host for studying microbial pathogenesis. Here we report a “Trojan horse” mechanism of bacterial pathogenesis against nematodes. We show that the bacterium Bacillus nematocida B16 lures nematodes by ...

  1. Mucocutaneous manifestations of helminth infections: Nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupi, Omar; Downing, Christopher; Lee, Michael; Pino, Livia; Bravo, Francisco; Giglio, Patricia; Sethi, Aisha; Klaus, Sidney; Sangueza, Omar P; Fuller, Claire; Mendoza, Natalia; Ladizinski, Barry; Woc-Colburn, Laila; Tyring, Stephen K

    2015-12-01

    In the 21st century, despite increased globalization through international travel for business, medical volunteerism, pleasure, and immigration/refugees into the United States, there is little published in the dermatology literature regarding the cutaneous manifestations of helminth infections. Approximately 17% of travelers seek medical care because of cutaneous disorders, many related to infectious etiologies. This review will focus on the cutaneous manifestations of helminth infections and is divided into 2 parts: part I focuses on nematode infections, and part II focuses on trematode and cestode infections. This review highlights the clinical manifestations, transmission, diagnosis, and treatment of helminth infections. Nematodes are roundworms that cause diseases with cutaneous manifestations, such as cutaneous larval migrans, onchocerciasis, filariasis, gnathostomiasis, loiasis, dracunculiasis, strongyloidiasis, ascariasis, streptocerciasis, dirofilariasis, and trichinosis. Tremadotes, also known as flukes, cause schistosomiasis, paragonimiasis, and fascioliasis. Cestodes (tapeworms) are flat, hermaphroditic parasites that cause diseases such as sparganosis, cysticercosis, and echinococcus. PMID:26568337

  2. Biogenic magnetite in the nematode caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranfield, Charles G; Dawe, Adam; Karloukovski, Vassil; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E; de Pomerai, David; Dobson, Jon

    2004-01-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is widely used as a model system in biological research. Recently, examination of the production of heat-shock proteins in this organism in response to mobile phone-type electromagnetic field exposure produced the most robust demonstration to date of a non-thermal, deleterious biological effect. Though these results appear to be a sound demonstration of non-thermal bioeffects, to our knowledge, no mechanism has been proposed to explain them. We show, apparently for the first time, that biogenic magnetite, a ferrimagnetic iron oxide, is present in C. elegans. Its presence may have confounding effects on experiments involving electromagnetic fields as well as implications for the use of this nematode as a model system for iron biomineralization in multi-cellular organisms. PMID:15801597

  3. Distribution of entomopathogenic nematodes in Southern Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanga, Françoise Ngo; Waeyenberge, Lieven; Hauser, Stefan; Moens, Maurice

    2012-01-01

    A first survey of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) was conducted in three agro-ecological zones of Southern Cameroon in 2007 and 2008. Entomopathogenic nematodes were recovered from 26 of 251 soil samples (10.4%). Three species, Heterorhabditis baujardi, Steinernema sp. A and Steinernema sp. B were found. The two steinernematids were considered unidentified species. Among the positive samples, 23 samples contained only H. baujardi (88.5%), two contained Steinernema sp. A co-occurring with H. baujardi (7.7%), and one sample contained Steinernema sp. B (3.9%). H. baujardi was frequent in forest and fruit crop (cocoa and oil palm plantations). Steinernema sp. A was found in a tree plantation of teak, Steinernema sp. B in a forest habitat. Nematodes were mostly present in acidic soils with pH ranging from 3.7 to 7.0. The highest EPN presence was recorded in sandy loam, sandy clay loam, sandy clay and clay soils. EPNs were not recovered in sand, loamy sand and clay loam soils. Using principal component analysis for elucidating the major variation patterns among sampling sites, four factors explaining for 73.64% of the overall variance were extracted. Factors were a combination of geographical (latitude, longitude, altitude), soil (pH, contents of sand, silt and clay, organic carbon, texture), and moisture (wilting point, field capacity) parameters as well as climatic parameters (mean annual rainfall, mean air temperature). Logistic regression and redundancy analyses (RDA) revealed that soil pH, longitude, available water and altitude were associated with presence and absence of EPN. Both logistic regression and RDA indicated that, increasing soil pH and longitude, associated with decreasing altitude, led to higher percentages of samples containing entomopathogenic nematodes. PMID:21983478

  4. Nematode Locomotion in Unconfined and Confined Fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Bilbao, Alejandro; Wajnryb, Eligiusz; Vanapalli, Siva; Blawzdziewicz, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    The millimeter-long soil-dwelling nematode {\\it C. elegans} propels itself by producing undulations that propagate along its body and turns by assuming highly curved shapes. According to our recent study [PLoS ONE \\textbf{7}, e40121 (2012)] all these postures can be accurately described by a piecewise-harmonic-curvature (PHC) model. We combine this curvature-based description with highly accurate hydrodynamic bead models to evaluate the normalized velocity and turning angles for a worm swimmi...

  5. Terrestrial nematodes in a changing environment.

    OpenAIRE

    Goede, de, E.D.

    1993-01-01

    Increasing awareness of the nature and extent of soil pollution on soil biota and their role in soil processes has resulted in exploring the possibilities of biological assessment systems to indicate the ecological condition of soils and to predict the ecological efficacy of e.g. policy measures. The research presented in this thesis is part of a project in which the possibilities of nematodes as bioindicator organisms are studied. The objectives of the study were to investigate i. the use of...

  6. Metal stress in free-living nematodes

    OpenAIRE

    Hamelijnck-Arts, M.S.J.

    2001-01-01

    Terrestrial invertebrates offer meaningful targets for assessing the potential adverse effects of chemicals on soil ecosystems. Invertebrates play a major role in the functioning of the soil ecosystem by enhancing the soil structure, mineralization and the decomposition of organic material, and because of their role in the foodweb. The most dominant group of terrestrial invertebrates, in fact of all multicellular organisms on earth, are nematodes, also called threadworms or roundworms. Nemato...

  7. Antihelmintic Resistance For Gastrointestinal Bovine Nematodes

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Torres Vásquez; Germán Alonso Prada Sanmiguel; Dildo Márquez Lara

    2007-01-01

    The gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN), in domestic animals, especially in bovines are a very important factor that affects their productivity, because cattle production systems have intervened in the relationship between gastrointestinal parasites (PGI) and the host, breaking therefore the ecological balance between them. In many opportunities the development of parasitic populations have been favored or a parasitic population have been led to extinction, it has made that these populations exp...

  8. Entomopathogenic and plant pathogenic nematodes as opposing forces in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Eric; Eleftherianos, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes are responsible for substantial damages within the agriculture industry every year, which is a challenge that has thus far gone largely unimpeded. Chemical nematicides have been employed with varying degrees of success, but their implementation can be cumbersome, and furthermore they could potentially be neutralising an otherwise positive effect from the entomopathogenic nematodes that coexist with plant-parasitic nematodes in soil environments and provide protection for plants against insect pests. Recent research has explored the potential of employing entomopathogenic nematodes to protect plants from plant-parasitic nematodes, while providing their standard degree of protection against insects. The interactions involved are highly complex, due to both the three-organism system and the assortment of variables present in a soil environment, but a strong collection of evidence has accumulated regarding the suppressive capacity of certain entomopathogenic nematodes and their mutualistic bacteria, in the context of limiting the infectivity of plant-parasitic nematodes. Specific factors produced by certain entomopathogenic nematode complexes during the process of insect infection appear to have a selectively nematicidal, or at least repellant, effect on plant-parasitic nematodes. Using this information, an opportunity has formed to adapt this relationship to large-scale, field conditions and potentially relieve the agricultural industry of one of its most substantial burdens. PMID:26527129

  9. Engineering natural and synthetic resistance for nematode management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrain, T C

    1999-12-01

    Bioengineering strategies are being developed that will provide specific and durable resistance against plant-parasitic nematodes in crops. The strategies come under three categories: (i) transfer of natural resistance genes from plants that have them to plants that do not, to mobilize the defense mechanisms in susceptible crops; (ii) interference with the biochemical signals that nematodes exchange with plants during parasitic interactions, especially those resulting in the formation of specialized feeding sites for the sedentary endoparasites-many nematode genes and many plant genes are potential targets for manipulation; and (iii) expression in plant cells of proteins toxic to nematodes. PMID:19270915

  10. Detection and description of soils with specific nematode suppressiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Andreas

    2005-03-01

    Soils with specific suppressiveness to plant-parasitic nematodes are of interest to define the mechanisms that regulate population density. Suppressive soils prevent nematodes from establishing and from causing disease, and they diminish disease severity after initial nematode damage in continuous culturing of a host. A range of non-specific and specific soil treatments, followed by infestation with a target nematode, have been employed to identify nematode-suppressive soils. Biocidal treatments, soil transfer tests, and baiting approaches together with observations of the plant-parasitic nematode in the root zone of susceptible host plants have improved the understanding of nematode-suppressive soils. Techniques to demonstrate specific soil suppressiveness against plant-parasitic nematodes are compared in this review. The overlap of studies on soil suppressiveness with recent advances in soil health and quality is briefly discussed. The emphasis is on methods (or criteria) used to detect and identify soils that maintain specific soil suppressiveness to plant-parasitic nematodes. While biocidal treatments can detect general and specific soil suppressiveness, soil transfer studies, by definition, apply only to specific soil suppressiveness. Finally, potential strategies to exploit suppressive soils are presented. PMID:19262851

  11. Nematode locomotion in unconfined and confined fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbao, Alejandro; Wajnryb, Eligiusz; Vanapalli, Siva A.; Blawzdziewicz, Jerzy

    2013-08-01

    The millimeter-long soil-dwelling nematode Caenorhabditis elegans propels itself by producing undulations that propagate along its body and turns by assuming highly curved shapes. According to our recent study [V. Padmanabhan et al., PLoS ONE 7, e40121 (2012), 10.1371/journal.pone.0040121] all these postures can be accurately described by a piecewise-harmonic-curvature model. We combine this curvature-based description with highly accurate hydrodynamic bead models to evaluate the normalized velocity and turning angles for a worm swimming in an unconfined fluid and in a parallel-wall cell. We find that the worm moves twice as fast and navigates more effectively under a strong confinement, due to the large transverse-to-longitudinal resistance-coefficient ratio resulting from the wall-mediated far-field hydrodynamic coupling between body segments. We also note that the optimal swimming gait is similar to the gait observed for nematodes swimming in high-viscosity fluids. Our bead models allow us to determine the effects of confinement and finite thickness of the body of the nematode on its locomotion. These effects are not accounted for by the classical resistive-force and slender-body theories.

  12. Assaying environmental nickel toxicity using model nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudel, David; Douglas, Chandler; Huffnagle, Ian; Besser, John M.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    Although nickel exposure results in allergic reactions, respiratory conditions, and cancer in humans and rodents, the ramifications of excess nickel in the environment for animal and human health remain largely undescribed. Nickel and other cationic metals travel through waterways and bind to soils and sediments. To evaluate the potential toxic effects of nickel at environmental contaminant levels (8.9-7,600 μg Ni/g dry weight of sediment and 50-800 μg NiCl2/L of water), we conducted assays using two cosmopolitan nematodes, Caenorhabditis elegans and Pristionchus pacificus. We assayed the effects of both sediment-bound and aqueous nickel upon animal growth, developmental survival, lifespan, and fecundity. Uncontaminated sediments were collected from sites in the Midwestern United States and spiked with a range of nickel concentrations. We found that nickel-spiked sediment substantially impairs both survival from larval to adult stages and adult longevity in a concentration-dependent manner. Further, while aqueous nickel showed no adverse effects on either survivorship or longevity, we observed a significant decrease in fecundity, indicating that aqueous nickel could have a negative impact on nematode physiology. Intriguingly, C. elegans and P. pacificus exhibit similar, but not identical, responses to nickel exposure. Moreover, P. pacificus could be tested successfully in sediments inhospitable to C. elegans. Our results add to a growing body of literature documenting the impact of nickel on animal physiology, and suggest that environmental toxicological studies could gain an advantage by widening their repertoire of nematode species.

  13. Does Antarctic glaciation cool the world?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Goldner

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study we compare the simulated climatic impact of adding the Antarctic Ice Sheet to the "Greenhouse World" of the Eocene and removing the Antarctic Ice Sheet from the Modern world. The Modern surface temperature anomaly (ΔT induced by Antarctic Glaciation ranges from −1.22 to −0.18 K when CO2 is dropped from 2240 to 560 ppm, whereas the Eocene ΔT is nearly constant at −0.3 K. We calculate the climate sensitivity parameter S[Antarctica] which is defined as the change in surface temperature (ΔT divided by the change in radiative forcing (ΔQAntarctica imposed by prescribing the glacial properties of Antarctica. While the ΔT associated with the imposed Antarctic properties is relatively consistent across the Eocene cases, the radiative forcing is not. This leads to a wide range of S[Antarctica], with Eocene values systematically smaller than Modern.

    This differing temperature response in Eocene and Modern is partially due to the smaller surface area of the imposed forcing over Antarctica in the Eocene and partially due to the presence of strong positive sea-ice feedbacks in the Modern. The system's response is further mediated by differing shortwave cloud feedbacks which are large and of opposite sign operating in Modern and Eocene configurations. A negative cloud feedback warms much of the Earth's surface as a large ice sheet is introduced in Antarctica in the Eocene, whereas in the Modern this cloud feedback is positive and acts to enhance cooling introduced by adding an ice sheet. Because of the importance of cloud feedbacks in determining the final temperature sensitivity of the Antarctic Ice Sheet our results are likely to be model dependent. Nevertheless, these model results show that the radiative forcing and feedbacks induced by the Antarctic Ice Sheet did not significantly decrease global mean surface temperature across

  14. Microbial endolithic biofilms: a means of surviving the harsh conditions of the Antarctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Los Ríos, Asunción; Wierzchos, Jacek; Sancho, Leopoldo G.; Grube, Martín; Ascaso, Carmen

    2002-11-01

    Much of the Antarctic continent's microbiota is restricted to endolithic microecosystems which harbour distinct microbial communities as biofilms. The lithic substrate and the microorganisms comprising these films are intimately linked, giving rise to complex mineral-microbe interactions. The Antarctic biofilms analysed in this study were characterised by the presence of extracellular polymer substances. Cyanobacteria appeared as key components of these biofilms in zones where there were no nearby lichen thalli. Fungal cells were the predominant organisms in areas inhabited by epilithic lichens. The combined use of microscopy and molecular techniques enabled the identification of the different biological components of biofilms found in subsurface layers of the lighic substrate. It is proposed that in this extreme environment, the structure of the biofilm may favour the formation of microsites with specific physicochemical conditions that permit the survival of microbial communities.

  15. Nematode parasites infecting the starry batfish Halieutaea stellata (Vahl) (Lophiiformes: Ogcocephalidae) from the East and South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Zhao, W-T; Guo, Y-N; Zhang, L-P

    2016-05-01

    The starry batfish Halieutaea stellata (Vahl) is a small, benthic fish found in Indo-West Pacific Oceans. However, our present knowledge of the helminth parasites of this fish is still fragmentary. In this study, a total of 29 fish collected from the East and South China Sea were examined to determine the prevalence, intensity and species composition of helminth parasites in H. stellata. Using morphological and molecular approaches, four species of nematodes were found parasitic in this fish host, including the adults and fourth-stage larvae of Raphidascaroides nipponensis Yamaguti 1941; adults and third-stage larvae of Raphidascaris lophii (Wu 1949), third- and fourth-stage larvae of Hysterothylacium larval type IV-A of Shamsi, Gasser & Beveridge 2013 and third-stage larvae of Hysterothylacium amoyense (Hsü 1993). Halieutaea stellata represents a new host record for the three last-named nematodes. Raphidascaroides nipponensis with the highest prevalence (82.5%) and intensity (mean = 13.5) of infection was considered as the dominant parasite species in H. stellata. The detailed morphology of the different developmental stages of the four nematode species was studied using light and scanning electron microscopy. All nematode species were also genetically characterized by sequencing and analysing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the ribosomal DNA. This study provides further data on the occurrence of nematode parasites in H. stellata and also contributes to facilitate an accurate and rapid diagnosis of the infection by these little-known nematodes. PMID:25917527

  16. Searching for eukaryotic life preserved in Antarctic permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onofri, Silvano; Zucconi, Laura; Selbmann, Laura; Ripa, Caterina; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Guglielmin, Mauro; Turchetti, Benedetta; Buzzini, Pietro

    Permafrost is defined as a soil remaining at 0 C or below throughout two or more consecutive years. Mainly present in polar areas, it occurs in all ice-free areas of Continental Antarc-tica. With the evidences of the possible presence of water ice below the surface of Mars and Moon, permafrost is now considered a possible reservoir of prokaryotic and eukaryotic spores outside the Earth. Cultivable fungi and yeasts have been isolated from Antarctic permafrost collected at different depths (233, 316 and 335 cm) in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, the largest ice-free area in Antarctica, and identified with cultural, physiological and molecular methods. Filamentous fungi belonged to the genera Penicillium, Eurotium, Cladosporium, Alternaria, Engyodonthium, Cordiceps, Rhizopus, Aureobasidium, whereas yeasts belonged to the genera Cryptococcus and Sporidiobolus. Penicillia were the most represented, and the most frequently recorded species were Penicillium palitans and P. chrysogenum. Most of the species found have been already recorded in Antarctic ecosystems as well as in other cold habitats (Onofri et al., 2007); for Eurotium amstelodami and Cryptococcus stepposus these are the first isolations in Antarctica. All the filamentous fungal isolates can be defined as mesophilic having optimal growth temperatures at 20-25 C and poor growth at 0 C after prolonged incubation. All the yeast isolates grew within a wide range of temperature (from 4 to 25 C). The molecular anal-yses based on the ITS rDNA sequences, for filamentous fungi, and on D1/D2 domain of LSU rRNA gene and ITS sequences for yeasts, revealed that these genotypes do not deviate from the global gene pool of microorganisms commonly spreading worldwide at present. Annual mean permafrost temperature (MAPT) in the sampling area was -18.8 C in 2008, with daily fluctuations lower than 1 C/day at 1 m of depth, but less 0.5 C/year at the depth of 17 m (Guglielmin pers. com.), and maximum thaw depth not exceeding 1 m

  17. Prospects for exploring molecular developmental processes in Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaou, S; Gasser, R B

    2006-07-01

    Haemonchus contortus of small ruminants is a parasitic nematode of major socio-economic importance world-wide. While there is considerable knowledge of the morphological changes which take place during the life cycle of H. contortus, very little is understood about the molecular and biochemical processes which govern developmental changes in the parasite. Recent technological advances and the imminent genomic sequence for H. contortus provide unique opportunities to investigate the molecular basis of such processes in parasitic nematodes. This article reviews molecular and biochemical aspects of development in H. contortus, reports on some recent progress on signal transduction molecules in this parasite and emphasises the opportunities that new technologies and the free-living nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, offer for investigating developmental aspects in H. contortus and related strongylid nematodes, also in relation to developing novel approaches for control. PMID:16759659

  18. Evaluation of soil bioremediation techniques in an aged diesel spill at the Antarctic Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus, Hugo E; Peixoto, Raquel S; Cury, Juliano C; van Elsas, Jan D; Rosado, Alexandre S

    2015-12-01

    Many areas on the Antarctic continent already suffer from the direct and indirect influences of human activities. The main cause of contamination is petroleum hydrocarbons because this compound is used as a source of energy at the many research stations around the continent. Thus, the current study aims to evaluate treatments for bioremediation (biostimulation, bioaugmentation, and bioaugmentation + biostimulation) using soils from around the Brazilian Antarctic Station "Comandante Ferraz" (EACF), King George Island, Antarctic Peninsula. The experiment lasted for 45 days, and at the end of this period, chemical and molecular analyses were performed. Those analyses included the quantification of carbon and nitrogen, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis (with gradient denaturation), real-time PCR, and quantification of total hydrocarbons and polyaromatics. Molecular tests evaluated changes in the profile and quantity of the rrs genes of archaea and bacteria and also the alkB gene. The influence of the treatments tested was directly related to the type of soil used. The work confirmed that despite the extreme conditions found in Antarctic soils, the bacterial strains degraded hydrocarbons and bioremediation treatments directly influenced the microbial communities present in these soils even in short periods. Although the majority of the previous studies demonstrate that the addition of fertilizer seems to be most effective at promoting bioremediation, our results show that for some conditions, autochthonous bioaugmentation (ABA) treatment is indicated. This work highlights the importance of understanding the processes of recovery of contaminated environments in polar regions because time is crucial to the soil recovery and to choosing the appropriate treatment. PMID:26286513

  19. Onset and role of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, P. F.; Threshers Barn, Whitcott Keysett, Clun, Shropshire SY7 8QE, UK; Filippelli, G. M.; Department of Earth Sciences, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI), Indianapolis, IN 46202-5132, USA; Florindo, F.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma2, Roma, Italia; Martin, E. E.; Department of Geological Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-2120, USA; Howard, D. S.; Department of Earth & Environmental Sciences, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14611, USA

    2007-01-01

    For some time, onset of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) was considered to have caused or stabilised full Antarctic glaciation. Recently, however, the importance of the ACC in this role has been questioned. In order to understand the relationship between the ACC and Antarctic glaciation, and thence the importance of ocean circulation to palaeoclimate, we need to determine the development history of both processes. To this end, we summarise all published estimates of ACC ons...

  20. Relative Changes in Krill Abundance Inferred from Antarctic Fur Seal

    OpenAIRE

    Tao Huang; Liguang Sun; John Stark; Yuhong Wang; Zhongqi Cheng; Qichao Yang; Song Sun

    2011-01-01

    Antarctic krill Euphausia superba is a predominant species in the Southern Ocean, it is very sensitive to climate change, and it supports large stocks of fishes, seabirds, seals and whales in Antarctic marine ecosystems. Modern krill stocks have been estimated directly by net hauls and acoustic surveys; the historical krill density especially the long-term one in the Southern Ocean, however, is unknown. Here we inferred the relative krill population changes along the West Antarctic Peninsula ...

  1. On the Atmospheric Correction of Antarctic Airborne Hyperspectral Data

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Black; Andrew Fleming; Teal Riley; Graham Ferrier; Peter Fretwell; John McFee; Stephen Achal; Alejandra Umana Diaz

    2014-01-01

    The first airborne hyperspectral campaign in the Antarctic Peninsula region was carried out by the British Antarctic Survey and partners in February 2011. This paper presents an insight into the applicability of currently available radiative transfer modelling and atmospheric correction techniques for processing airborne hyperspectral data in this unique coastal Antarctic environment. Results from the Atmospheric and Topographic Correction version 4 (ATCOR-4) package reveal absolute reflectan...

  2. Surface influence on the marine and coastal Antarctic atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Valkonen, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    The Antarctic region plays an important role in the global climate system, and it contributes to the future of global climate through changes in regional factors, such as sea ice, atmospheric circulation patterns and moisture distribution. The aim of this thesis is to improve the understanding of the influence of the Earth surface on the marine and coastal Antarctic atmosphere. The thesis outlines the characteristics of typical phenomena of the Antarctic environment both near the surface and ...

  3. Encouraging Advances Made by Chinese Scientists in Antarctic Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Qingsong

    2003-01-01

    @@ Chinese scientists began involving in the Antarctic research in 1980. As the first step, some 40 Chinese scientists were sent to Antarctic stations of Australia and other countries during the period from 1980 to 1984. Then,China established two Antarctic stations of its own, and purchased an icebreaker, enabling China to carry on its own independent research program both on land and at sea.

  4. Terrestrial age dating of antarctic meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last three antarctic field seasons, US and Japanese teams have collected several thousand meteorites. The terrestrial age of these objects is of interest because such knowledge enables the setting of lower bounds on the lower age of the ice sheet, provides information about ice movement, and aids understanding of the accumulation mechanism of the meteorites. Terrestrial ages can be established by measuring the decay of radioactive species produced by bombardment of cosmic rays while the objects are in space. After entering the Earth's atmosphere the meteorites essentially are completely shielded from cosmic rays. The radioactive products that exist at saturation values in space then decay exponentially toward zero activity. By the end of 1980, data will be established on 150 to 200 selected samples. With that large a data base we should have a fairly clear picture of the terrestrial age distribution of antarctic meteorites

  5. [Taxonomical status of the psychrotolerant Antarctic microorganisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanovskaia, V A; Gladka, G V; Tashireva, A A; Tashirev, A B

    2013-01-01

    The aerobic chemoorganotrophic bacteria, dominating in soils and phytocenosis of the Antarctic Region, on combination of morphological and biochemical properties belong to several taxons of Bacteria domain. Gram-negative strains 3189, 3415 (fam. Halomonadaceae, Halomonas sp.) and 3088, 3468, 3469 (fam. Moraxellaceae, Psychrobacter sp.) belong to phylum Proteobacteria, to class Gammaproteobacteria. Gram-negative strains 3294 3392 (Rhizobiales, fam. Methylobacteriaceae, Methylobacterium sp.) relate to class Alphaproteobacteria of this phylum. Gram-positive strains 3179, 3275, 3470, 3471 (fam. Microbacteriaceae, Cryobacterium sp.), 3054, 3058, 3411 (fam. Corynebacteriaceae, Corynebacterium sp.) and 3194, 3398 (fam. Micrococcaceae, Micrococcus sp.) relate to phylum Actinobacteria, class Actinobacteria. Thus, the psychrophilic and psychrotolerant Antarctic bacteria (aerobic chemoorganotrophic) isolated from phytocenosis and soils of polar region are characterized by wide taxonomic variety. PMID:24450178

  6. Unexpected Variation in Neuroanatomy among Diverse Nematode Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ziduan; Boas, Stephanie; Schroeder, Nathan E.

    2016-01-01

    Nematodes are considered excellent models for understanding fundamental aspects of neuron function. However, nematodes are less frequently used as models for examining the evolution of nervous systems. While the habitats and behaviors of nematodes are diverse, the neuroanatomy of nematodes is often considered highly conserved. A small number of nematode species greatly influences our understanding of nematode neurobiology. The free-living species Caenorhabditis elegans and, to a lesser extent, the mammalian gastrointestinal parasite Ascaris suum are, historically, the primary sources of knowledge regarding nematode neurobiology. Despite differences in size and habitat, C. elegans and A. suum share a surprisingly similar neuroanatomy. Here, we examined species across several clades in the phylum Nematoda and show that there is a surprising degree of neuroanatomical variation both within and among nematode clades when compared to C. elegans and Ascaris. We found variation in the numbers of neurons in the ventral nerve cord and dye-filling pattern of sensory neurons. For example, we found that Pristionchus pacificus, a bacterial feeding species used for comparative developmental research had 20% fewer ventral cord neurons compared to C. elegans. Steinernema carpocapsae, an insect-parasitic nematode capable of jumping behavior, had 40% more ventral cord neurons than C. elegans. Interestingly, the non-jumping congeneric nematode, S. glaseri showed an identical number of ventral cord neurons as S. carpocapsae. There was also variability in the timing of neurodevelopment of the ventral cord with two of five species that hatch as second-stage juveniles showing delayed neurodevelopment. We also found unexpected variation in the dye-filling of sensory neurons among examined species. Again, sensory neuron dye-filling pattern did not strictly correlate with phylogeny. Our results demonstrate that variation in nematode neuroanatomy is more prevalent than previously assumed and

  7. Unexpected variation in neuroanatomy among diverse nematode species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziduan eHan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nematodes are considered excellent models for understanding fundamental aspects of neuron function. However, nematodes are less frequently used as models for examining the evolution of nervous systems. While the habitats and behaviors of nematodes are diverse, the neuroanatomy of nematodes is often considered highly conserved. A small number of nematode species greatly influences our understanding of nematode neurobiology. The free-living species Caenorhabditis elegans and, to a lesser extent, the mammalian gastrointestinal parasite Ascaris suum are, historically, the primary sources of knowledge regarding nematode neurobiology. Despite differences in size and habitat, C. elegans and Ascaris suum share a surprisingly similar neuroanatomy. Here, we examined species across several clades in the phylum Nematoda and show that there is a surprising degree of neuroanatomical variation both within and among nematode clades when compared to C. elegans and Ascaris. We found variation in the numbers of neurons in the ventral nerve cord and dye-filling pattern of sensory neurons. For example, we found that Pristionchus pacificus, a bacterial feeding species used for comparative developmental research, had 20% fewer ventral cord neurons compared to C. elegans. Steinernema carpocapse, an insect-parasitic nematode capable of jumping behavior, had 40% more ventral cord neurons than C. elegans. Interestingly, the non-jumping congeneric nematode, S. glaseri showed an identical number of ventral cord neurons as S. carpocapsae. There was also variability in the timing of neurodevelopment of the ventral cord with two of five species that hatch as second-stage juveniles showing delayed neurodevelopment. We also found unexpected variation in the dye-filling of sensory neurons among examined species. Again, sensory neuron dye-filling pattern did not strictly correlate with phylogeny. Our results demonstrate that variation in nematode neuroanatomy is more prevalent

  8. Unexpected Variation in Neuroanatomy among Diverse Nematode Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ziduan; Boas, Stephanie; Schroeder, Nathan E

    2015-01-01

    Nematodes are considered excellent models for understanding fundamental aspects of neuron function. However, nematodes are less frequently used as models for examining the evolution of nervous systems. While the habitats and behaviors of nematodes are diverse, the neuroanatomy of nematodes is often considered highly conserved. A small number of nematode species greatly influences our understanding of nematode neurobiology. The free-living species Caenorhabditis elegans and, to a lesser extent, the mammalian gastrointestinal parasite Ascaris suum are, historically, the primary sources of knowledge regarding nematode neurobiology. Despite differences in size and habitat, C. elegans and A. suum share a surprisingly similar neuroanatomy. Here, we examined species across several clades in the phylum Nematoda and show that there is a surprising degree of neuroanatomical variation both within and among nematode clades when compared to C. elegans and Ascaris. We found variation in the numbers of neurons in the ventral nerve cord and dye-filling pattern of sensory neurons. For example, we found that Pristionchus pacificus, a bacterial feeding species used for comparative developmental research had 20% fewer ventral cord neurons compared to C. elegans. Steinernema carpocapsae, an insect-parasitic nematode capable of jumping behavior, had 40% more ventral cord neurons than C. elegans. Interestingly, the non-jumping congeneric nematode, S. glaseri showed an identical number of ventral cord neurons as S. carpocapsae. There was also variability in the timing of neurodevelopment of the ventral cord with two of five species that hatch as second-stage juveniles showing delayed neurodevelopment. We also found unexpected variation in the dye-filling of sensory neurons among examined species. Again, sensory neuron dye-filling pattern did not strictly correlate with phylogeny. Our results demonstrate that variation in nematode neuroanatomy is more prevalent than previously assumed and

  9. Antarctic terrestrial ecosystems: responses to environmental change

    OpenAIRE

    Convey, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The consequences of climate change are exciting considerable concern worldwide. Parts of Antarctica are facing the most rapid rates of anthropogenic climate change currently seen on the planet. This paper sets out to introduce contemporary ecosystems of the Antarctic, and the factors that have influenced them and their biodiversity over evolutionary timescales. Contemporary climate change processes significant to terrestrial biota, and the biological consequences of these changes seen t...

  10. Isotopic heterogeneity of East Antarctic mantle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotopic heterogeneity of deep garnet-bearing mantle xenolytes of East Antarctics is studied to analyze the mechanisms of geochemical heterogeneity occurrence in the Earth mantle. Analysis of isotope data for the system 143Nd/144Nd - Sm/Nd permitted ascertaining the time of the last thermal impact on the mantle material (108-35 bill. years) for certain nodules, which is close to the age of ultra base alkali magmatism intrusion

  11. Photosynthesis in Antarctic sea ice diatoms

    OpenAIRE

    Mock, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    This thesis was conducted to apply new techniques for measuring photosynthesis in Antarctic sea ice diatoms. A systematic approach of investigations was applied to obtain precise measurements of photosynthesis under natural conditions in the field from which questions were derived for further analysis in the laboratory. In situ measurements with the tracer 14C through the entire thickness of a young sea ice floe revealed that algae are able to actively assimilate dissolved inorganic carbon un...

  12. Oil Pollution in the Antarctic Terrestrial Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Kevin; Stallwood, Bethan

    2006-01-01

    Fuel oil has been extensively relied upon as an energy source since the earliest discovery and exploration of Antarctica. During this time oil spills have occurred, particularly around established research stations, which have had a negative impact on the terrestrial environment. Recently developed bioremediative technology, using indigenous Antarctic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria, may be used to assist in cleaning up existing oil-contaminated land

  13. Satellite magnetic anomalies of the Antarctic crust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Alsdorf

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Spatially and temporally static crustal magnetic anomalies are contaminated by static core field effects above spherical harmonic degree 12 and dynamic, large-amplitude external fields. To extract crustal magnetic anomalies from the measurements of NASA's Magsat mission, we separate crustal signals from both core and external field effects. In particular, we define Magsat anomalies relative to the degree 11 field and use spectral correlation theory to reduce them for external field effects. We obtain a model of Antarctic crustal thickness by comparing the region's terrain gravity effects to free-air gravity anomalies derived from the Earth Gravity Model 1996 (EGM96. To separate core and crustal magnetic effects, we obtain the pseudo-magnetic effect of the crustal thickness variations from their gravity effect via Poisson's theorem for correlative potentials. We compare the pseudo-magnetic effect of the crustal thickness variations to field differences between degrees 11 and 13 by spectral correlation analysis. We thus identify and remove possible residual core field effects in the Magsat anomalies relative to the degree 11 core field. The resultant anomalies reflect possible Antarctic contrasts due both to crustal thickness and intracrustal variations of magnetization. In addition, they provide important constraints on the geologic interpretation of aeromagnetic survey data, such as are available for the Weddell Province. These crustal anomalies also may be used to correct for long wavelength errors in regional compilations of near-surface magnetic survey data. However, the validity of these applications is limited by the poor quality of the Antarctic Magsat data that were obtained during austral Summer and Fall when south polar external field activity was maximum. Hence an important test and supplement for the Antarctic crustal Magsat anomaly map will be provided by the data from the recently launched Ørsted mission, which will yield coverage

  14. PSEUDO MAGNETIC ANOMALIES IN THE ANTARCTIC SEA

    OpenAIRE

    マツモト, タケシ; カミヌマ, カツタダ; Takeshi, MATSUMOTO; Katsutada, Kaminuma

    1988-01-01

    Pseudo magnetic anomaly in the Antarctic Sea has been calculated using the gravity data derived from altimetric geoid. Comparison of the pseudo magnetic anomaly thus calculated with the theoretical magnetic anomaly predicted from topography has been made with respect to the large fracture zones composed of short-wavelength ridges and troughs in the Southeastern Pacific, which shows that these two anomalies coincide well with each other. Gravity anomaly calculated from topography only also coi...

  15. Tephrochronology : Methodology and correlations, Antarctic Peninsula Area

    OpenAIRE

    Molén, Mats

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Methods for tephrochronology are evaluated, in the following way: Lake sediments <500 years old from three small Antarctic lakes were analysed for identification of tephras. Subsamples were analysed for a) grain size, and identification and concentration of volcanogenic grains, b) identification of tephra horizons, c) element abundance by EPMA WDS/EDS and LA-ICP-MS, and d) possible correlations between lakes and volcanoes. Volcanogenic minerals and shards were found all through th...

  16. New and rare cephalopods from the Antarctic waters

    OpenAIRE

    Kubodera,Tsunemi/Okutani,Takeshi

    1986-01-01

    Three species of Antarctic cephalopods, Grimpoteuthis antarctica n. sp., male specimens of Megaleledone senoi TAKI and Gonatus antarcticus LONNBERG are described with some considerations to their systematic status.

  17. Measurements of 36Cl in Antarctic meteorites and Antarctic ice using a Van de Graaff accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosmic-ray produced 36Cl(tsub(1/2) = 3.0 X 105 years) has been measured in four Antarctic meteorites and one sample of Antarctic ice using a tandem Van de Graaff accelerator as an ultrasensitive mass spectrometer with the extremely low background level of 36Cl/Cl -16. Results from this ion counting technique (applied here to extraterrestrial materials for the first time) are used to support a two-stage irradiation model for the Yamato-7301and Allan Hills-76008 meteorites and to show a long terrestrial age (0.7 +- 0.1 m.y.) for Allan Hills-77002. Yamato-7304 has a terrestrial age of less than 0.1 m.y. The 36Cl content of the Antarctic ice sample from the Yamato Mountain area implies that the age of the ice cap at this site is less than one 36Cl half-life. (Auth.)

  18. Balance of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    For several decades, measurements of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet showed it to be retreating rapidly. But new data derived from satellite-borne radar sensors show the ice sheet to be growing. Changing Antarctic ice sheets remains an area of high scientific interest, particularly in light of recent global warming concerns. These new findings are significant because scientists estimate that sea level would rise 5-6 meters (16-20 feet) if the ice sheet collapsed into the sea. Do these new measurements signal the end of the ice sheet's 10,000-year retreat? Or, are these new satellite data simply much more accurate than the sparse ice core and surface measurements that produced the previous estimates? Another possibility is that the ice accumulation may simply indicate that the ice sheet naturally expands and retreats in regular cycles. Cryologists will grapple with these questions, and many others, as they examine the new data. The image above depicts the region of West Antarctica where scientists measured ice speed. The fast-moving central ice streams are shown in red. Slower tributaries feeding the ice streams are shown in blue. Green areas depict slow-moving, stable areas. Thick black lines depict the areas that collect snowfall to feed their respective ice streams. Reference: Ian Joughin and Slawek Tulaczyk Science Jan 18 2002: 476-480. Image courtesy RADARSAT Antarctic Mapping Project

  19. Skip spawning as a reproductive strategy in Antarctic fish species: the Antarctic silverfish (Pleuragramma antarctica) case study

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Pisano; Stuart Hanchet; Marino Vacchi

    2015-01-01

    The Antarctic silverfish Pleuragramma antarctica (Notothenioidei, Nototheniidae) is the most abundant pelagic fish inhabiting the frigid Antarctic coastal waters. It plays relevant roles in the local ecosystems, where it is often considered a keystone species connecting lower and upper trophic levels within the coastal marine food web. Despite its ecological relevance, and although many aspects of the Antarctic silverfish biology have already been elucidated, knowledge on important components...

  20. New plant-parasitic nematode from the mostly mycophagous genus Bursaphelenchus discovered inside figs in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natsumi Kanzaki

    Full Text Available A new nematode species, Bursaphelenchus sycophilus n. sp. is described. The species was found in syconia of a fig species, Ficus variegata during a field survey of fig-associated nematodes in Japan. Because it has a well-developed stylet and pharyngeal glands, the species is considered an obligate plant parasite, and is easily distinguished from all other fungal-feeding species in the genus based upon these characters. Although B. sycophilus n. sp. shares an important typological character, male spicule possessing a strongly recurved condylus, with the "B. eremus group" and the "B. leoni group" of the genus, it was inferred to be monophyletic with the "B. fungivorus group". The uniquely shaped stylet and well-developed pharyngeal glands is reminiscent of the fig-floret parasitic but paraphyletic assemblage of "Schistonchus". Thus, these morphological characters appear to be an extreme example of convergent evolution in the nematode family, Aphelenchoididae, inside figs. Other characters shared by the new species and its close relatives, i.e., lack of ventral P1 male genital papilla, female vulval flap, and papilla-shaped P4 genital papillae in males, corroborate the molecular phylogenetic inference. The unique biological character of obligate plant parasitism and highly derived appearance of the ingestive organs of Bursaphelenchus sycophilus n. sp. expands our knowledge of the potential morphological, physiological and developmental plasticity of the genus Bursaphelenchus.

  1. Enrichment of humic material with hydroxybenzene moieties intensifies its physiological effects on the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Ralph; Menzel, Stefanie; Tiedt, Sophie; Kubsch, Georg; Stösser, Reinhardt; Bährs, Hanno; Putschew, Anke; Saul, Nadine; Steinberg, Christian E W

    2011-10-15

    Dissolved humic substances are taken up by organisms and interact on various molecular and biochemical levels. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, such material can promote longevity and increase its reproductive capacity; moreover, the worms tend to stay for longer in humic-enriched environments. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the chemical enrichment of humic substances with hydroxybenzene moieties intensifies these physiological effects. Based on the leonardite humic acid HuminFeed (HF), we followed a polycondensation reaction in which this natural humic substance and a dihydroxybenzene (hydroquinone or benzoquinone) served as reaction partners. Several analytical methods showed the formation of the corresponding copolymers. The chemical modification boosted the antioxidant properties of HF both in vitro and in vivo. Humic substances enriched with hydroxybenzene moieties caused a significantly increased tolerance to thermal stress in C. elegans and extended its lifespan. Exposed nematodes showed delayed linear growth and onset of reproduction and a stronger pumping activity of the pharynx. Thus, treated nematodes act younger than they really are. In this feature the modified HF replicated the biological impact of hydroquinone-homopolymers and various plant polyphenol monomers, thereby supporting the hydroxybenzene moieties of humic substances as major effective structures for the physiological effects observed in C. elegans. PMID:21902274

  2. Additional records of metazoan parasites from Caribbean marine mammals, including genetically identified anisakid nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón-Llavina, Marlene M; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A; Mattiucci, Simonetta; Paoletti, Michela; Nascetti, Giuseppe; Williams, Ernest H

    2009-10-01

    Studies of marine mammal parasites in the Caribbean are scarce. An assessment for marine mammal endo- and ectoparasites from Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, but extending to other areas of the Caribbean, was conducted between 1989 and 1994. The present study complements the latter and enhances identification of anisakid nematodes using molecular markers. Parasites were collected from 59 carcasses of stranded cetaceans and manatees from 1994 to 2006, including Globicephala macrorhynchus, Kogia breviceps, Kogia sima, Lagenodelphis hosei, Mesoplodon densirostris, Peponocephala electra, Stenella longirostris, Steno bredanensis, Trichechus manatus. Tursiops truncatus, and Ziphius cavirostris. Sixteen species of endoparasitic helminthes were morphologically identified, including two species of acanthocephalans (Bolbosoma capitatum, Bolbosoma vasculosum), nine species of nematodes (Anisakis sp., Anisakis brevispiculata, Anisakis paggiae, Anisakis simplex, Anisakis typica, Anisakis ziphidarium, Crassicauda anthonyi, Heterocheilus tunicatus, Pseudoterranova ceticola), two species of cestodes (Monorygma grimaldi, Phyllobothrium delphini), and three species of trematodes (Chiorchis groschafti, Pulmonicola cochleotrema, Monoligerum blairi). The nematodes belonging to the genus Anisakis recovered in some stranded animals were genetically identified to species level based on their sequence analysis of mitochondrial DNA (629 bp of mtDNA cox 2). A total of five new host records and six new geographic records are presented. PMID:19582477

  3. Collective behavior of nematodes in a thin fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gart, Sean; Jung, Sunghwan

    2010-11-01

    Many organisms live in a confined fluidic environment such as in a thin fluid layer on dermal tissues, in saturated soil, and others. In this study, we investigate collective behaviors of nematodes in a thin fluid layer. The actively moving nematodes feel various hydrodynamic forces such as surface tension from the top air-liquid interface, viscous stress from the bottom surface, and more. Two or more nematodes in close proximity can be drawn together by the capillary force between bodies. This capillary force also makes it difficult for nematodes to separate. The Strouhal number and a ratio of amplitude to wavelength are measured before and after nematode aggregation and separation. Grouped and separate nematodes have no significant changes of the Strouhal number and the ratio of amplitude to wavelength, which shows that body stroke and kinematic performance do not change while grouped together. This result implies that nematodes gain no mechanical advantage during locomotion when grouped but that the capillary force draws and keeps nematodes joined together.

  4. Depth-stratified soil sampling for assessing nematode communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani de Oliveira Arieira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the importance of stratified soil sampling on the detection (and therefore the distribution of nematode communities and the differentiation of ecosystems by collecting stratified soil samples at intervals of 10 cm and non-stratified samples from 0 to 30 cm in two soil management systems (no-tillage and conventional tillage and in a native forest fragment. The nematode frequency and prominence values were obtained after extraction by successive screening operations, sugar floatation clarification and the identification of nematodes to the genus level. The nematode communities were compared two-by-two based on Sorensen’s community coefficient (CC and the percentage similarity (PS. Relative abundances of functional guilds were subjected to a principal component analysis (PCA and classified in dendrograms. Thirty-two edaphic nematode genera were found, and the nematode communities sampled on a non-stratified basis in the soil profile exhibited a high level of similarity because they could not be accurately characterized. Genera with low abundances were not detected. In the stratified samples, we were able to classify and group the nematodes present at different depths, mainly from 0 to 10 cm. Stratified soil sampling allowed a more accurate characterization and greater differentiation of nematode communities, identifying taxa that occurred at lower abundance levels, irrespective of frequency.

  5. Two new species of soil nematodes from Manipur, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanu, Loukrakpam Bina; Meitei, N Mohilal; Shah, M Manjur

    2016-09-01

    Survey for soil nematodes associated with mulberry plants in valley districts of Manipur revealed the presence of two new species of soil nematodes of the genus Tylenchus sp. and Telotylenchus sp. The two new species are described and illustrated here. PMID:27605765

  6. A model of nematode dynamics in the Westerschelde estuary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, J.; Vincx, M.; Herman, P.M.J.

    1996-01-01

    We developed a time dynamic model to investigate the temporal dynamics of nematode community in the brackish zone of the Westerschelde Estuary. The biomass of four nematode feeding groups observed from March 1991 to February 1992 is used to calibrate the model. Using environmental data as the input,

  7. Nematode community structure as a bioindicator in environmental monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, T.; Ferris, H.

    1999-01-01

    Four of every five multicellular animals on the planet are nematodes. They occupy any niche that provides an available source of organic carbon in marine, freshwater and terrestrial environments. Nematodes vary in sensitivity to pollutants and environmental disturbance. Recent development of indices

  8. Glutathione peroxidases of the potato cyst nematode Globodera Rostochiensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, J.T.; Reavy, B.; Smant, G.; Prior, A.E.

    2004-01-01

    We report the cloning and characterisation of full-length DNAs complementary to RNA (cDNAs) encoding two glutathione peroxidases (GpXs) from a plant parasitic nematode, the potato cyst nematode (PCN) Globodera rostochiensis. One protein has a functional signal peptide that targets the protein for se

  9. A satellite explosion in the genome of holocentric nematodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A Subirana

    Full Text Available Centromere sequences in the genome are associated with the formation of kinetochores, where spindle microtubules grow in mitosis. Centromere sequences usually have long tandem repeats (satellites. In holocentric nematodes it is not clear how kinetochores are formed during mitosis; they are distributed throughout the chromosomes. For this reason it appeared of interest to study the satellites in nematodes in order to determine if they offer any clue on how kinetochores are assembled in these species. We have studied the satellites in the genome of six nematode species. We found that the presence of satellites depends on whether the nematode chromosomes are holocentric or monocentric. It turns out that holocentric nematodes are unique because they have a large number of satellites scattered throughout their genome. Their number, length and composition are different in each species: they apparently have very little evolutionary conservation. In contrast, no scattered satellites are found in the monocentric nematode Trichinella spiralis. It appears that the absence/presence of scattered satellites in the genome distinguishes monocentric from holocentric nematodes. We conclude that the presence of satellites is related to the holocentric nature of the chromosomes of most nematodes. Satellites may stabilize a higher order structure of chromatin and facilitate the formation of kinetochores. We also present a new program, SATFIND, which is suited to find satellite sequences.

  10. Characterization of reniform nematode genome through shotgun sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    The reniform nematode (RN), a major agricultural pest particularly on cotton in the United States(U.S.), is among the major plant parasitic nematodes for which limited genomic information exists. In this study, over 380 Mb of sequence data were generated from four pooled adult female RN and assembl...

  11. The ARM West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubin, Dan; Bromwich, David; Vogelmann, Andrew; Verlinde, Johannes; Russell, Lynn

    2016-04-01

    West Antarctica is one of the most rapidly warming regions on Earth, and its changing climate in both atmosphere and ocean is linked to loss of Antarctic ice mass and global sea level rise. The specific mechanisms for West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) warming are not fully understood, but are hypothesized to involve linkage between moisture from Southern Ocean storm tracks and the surface energy balance over the WAIS, and related teleconnections with subtropical and tropical meteorology. This present lack of understanding has motivated a climate science and cloud physics campaign jointly supported by the US National Science Foundation (NSF) and Department of Energy (DOE), called the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE). The DOE's second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2) was deployed to McMurdo Station on Ross Island in November 2015 and will operate through December 2016. The AMF2 includes (1) cloud research radars, both scanning and zenith, operating in the Ka- and X-bands, (2) high spectral resolution and polarized micropulse lidars, and (3) a suite of shortwave and longwave broadband and spectral radiometers. A second suite of instruments is deployed at the WAIS Divide Ice Camp on the West Antarctic plateau during December 2015 and January 2016. The WAIS instrument suite provides (1) measurement of all surface energy balance components, (2) a polarized micropulse lidar and shortwave spectroradiometer, (3) microwave total water column measurement, and (4) four times daily rawinsonde launches which are the first from West Antarctica since 1967. There is a direct linkage between the WAIS instrument suite and the AMF2 at McMurdo, in that air masses originating in Southern Ocean storm tracks that are driven up over the WAIS often subsequently descend over the Ross Ice Shelf and arrive at Ross Island. Preliminary data are already illustrating the prevalence of mixed-phase clouds and their role in the surface energy balance

  12. Transcriptional profiling of trait deterioration in the insect pathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shapiro-Ilan David I

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The success of a biological control agent depends on key traits, particularly reproductive potential, environmental tolerance, and ability to be cultured. These traits can deteriorate rapidly when the biological control agent is reared in culture. Trait deterioration under laboratory conditions has been widely documented in the entomopathogenic nematode (EPN Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Hb but the specific mechanisms behind these genetic processes remain unclear. This research investigates the molecular mechanisms of trait deterioration of two experimental lines of Hb, an inbred line (L5M and its original parental line (OHB. We generated transcriptional profiles of two experimental lines of Hb, identified the differentially expressed genes (DEGs and validated their differential expression in the deteriorated line. Results An expression profiling study was performed between experimental lines L5M and OHB of Hb with probes for 15,220 ESTs from the Hb transcriptome. Microarray analysis showed 1,185 DEGs comprising of 469 down- and 716 up-regulated genes in trait deteriorated nematodes. Analysis of the DEGs showed that trait deterioration involves massive changes of the transcripts encoding enzymes involved in metabolism, signal transduction, virulence and longevity. We observed a pattern of reduced expression of enzymes related to primary metabolic processes and induced secondary metabolism. Expression of sixteen DEGs in trait deteriorated nematodes was validated by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR which revealed similar expression kinetics for all the genes tested as shown by microarray. Conclusion As the most closely related major entomopathogen to C. elegans, Hb provides an attractive near-term application for using a model organism to better understand interspecies interactions and to enhance our understanding of the mechanisms underlying trait deterioration in biological control agents. This information

  13. Geoethical Approach to Antarctic Subglacial Lakes Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talalay, Pavel; Markov, Alexey; Sysoev, Mikhail

    2014-05-01

    Antarctic subglacial aquatic environment have become of great interest to the science community because they may provide unique information about microbial evolution, the past climate of the Earth, and the formation of the Antarctic ice sheet. Nowadays it is generally recognized that a vast network of lakes, rivers, and streams exists thousands of meters beneath Antarctic Ice Sheets. Up to date only four boreholes accessed subglacial aquatic system but three of them were filled with high-toxic drilling fluid, and the subglacial water was contaminated. Two recent exploration programs proposed by UK and USA science communities anticipated direct access down to the lakes Ellsworth and Whillans, respectively, in the 2012/2013 Antarctic season. A team of British scientists and engineers engaged in the first attempt to drill into Lake Ellsworth but failed. US research team has successfully drilled through 800 m of Antarctic ice to reach a subglacial lake Whillans and retrieve water and sediment samples. Both activities used hot-water drilling technology to access lakes. Hot water is considered by the world science community as the most clean drilling fluid medium from the present point of view but it cannot solve environmental problems in total because hot-water even when heated to 90 °C, filtered to 0.2 μm, and UV treated at the surface could pick up microorganisms from near-surface snow and circulate them in great volume through the borehole. Another negative impact of hot-water circulation medium is thermal pollution of subglacial water. The new approach to Antarctic subglacial lakes exploration is presented by sampling technology with recoverable autonomous sonde which is equipped by two hot-points with heating elements located on the bottom and top sides of the sonde. All down-hole sonde components will be sterilized by combination of chemical wash, HPV and UV sterilization prior using. At the beginning of the summer season sonde is installed on the surface of the

  14. Entomogenous nematode Neoaplectana carpocapsae: radiation and mammalian safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infective-stage juveniles of Neoaplacetana carpocapsae were acutely sensitive to short uv radiation (254 nm) and natural sunlight. High nematode mortality, although delayed, accompanied uv exposure. Irradiation rapidly reduced nematode pathogenicity, so that nematodes exposed for 7 min were unable to cause lethal infections in Galleria mallonella larvae. Moreover, the median survival time of Galleria larvae increased progressively as nematode exposure to uv was lengthened. Inhibition of nematode reproduction and development was noted at exposure periods more than 2.45 and 5 min, respectively. However, irradiation did not appear to affect juvenile motility. Exposure to direct sunlight also reduced pathogenicity, in a range from 6.9 to 94.9% at 30 and 60 min of exposure, respectively. Long uv (366 nm) did not affect juveniles at the exposures tested

  15. Multifaceted effects of host plants on entomopathogenic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazir, Selcuk; Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Hazir, Canan; Leite, Luis G; Cakmak, Ibrahim; Olson, Dawn

    2016-03-01

    The success of parasites can be impacted by multi-trophic interactions. Tritrophic interactions have been observed in parasite-herbivore-host plant systems. Here we investigate aspects of multi-trophic interactions in a system involving an entomopathogenic nematode (EPN), its insect host, and host plant. Novel issues investigated include the impact of tritrophic interactions on nematode foraging behavior, the ability of EPNs to overcome negative tritrophic effects through genetic selection, and interactions with a fourth trophic level (nematode predators). We tested infectivity of the nematode, Steinernema riobrave, to corn earworm larvae (Helicoverpa zea) in three host plants, tobacco, eggplant and tomato. Tobacco reduced nematode virulence and reproduction relative to tomato and eggplant. However, successive selection (5 passages) overcame the deficiency; selected nematodes no longer exhibited reductions in phenotypic traits. Despite the loss in virulence and reproduction nematodes, first passage S. riobrave was more attracted to frass from insects fed tobacco than insects fed on other host plants. Therefore, we hypothesized the reduced virulence and reproduction in S. riobrave infecting tobacco fed insects would be based on a self-medicating tradeoff, such as deterring predation. We tested this hypothesis by assessing predatory success of the mite Sancassania polyphyllae and the springtail Sinella curviseta on nematodes reared on tobacco-fed larvae versus those fed on greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella, tomato fed larvae, or eggplant fed larvae. No advantage was observed in nematodes derived from tobacco fed larvae. In conclusion, our results indicated that insect-host plant diet has an important effect on nematode foraging, infectivity and reproduction. However, negative host plant effects, might be overcome through directed selection. We propose that host plant species should be considered when designing biocontrol programs using EPNs. PMID:26896698

  16. Development of the system nematode, Ditylenchus Dipsaci (Kuehn) Filipjev, and the potato tuber nematode, D. Destructor thore, after gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juvenile and adult nematodes emerged from onion and garlic samples on the 3 rd week after irradiation with doses up to 0.5 kGy and from potato treated with doses up to 2.0 kGy. However, irradiation of onion infected with Ditylenchus dipsaci caused the inhibition of the development and growth of juvenile nematodes to mature forms. Doses of gamma radiation ranging from 0.1 to 0.5 kGy had only a slight effect, if any, on the development and growth of D. dipsaci nematodes infecting garlic, but they increased juvenile mortality. Gamma radiation at doses up to 2.0 kGy induced increased mortality of nematode juveniles of the potato tuber nematode, D. destructor but less so inhibited their development to mature forms. Nematodes were found to be resistant to irradiation treatment. Therefore the use of gamma irradiation for nematode disinfestation of agricultural products seems to be impractical, if the aim of the treatment is to kill these pests within a few weeks. The level of radiation required to kill nematodes in infected plants would damage plant tissues so that the further storage of vegetables will be impossible. (author). 22 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  17. ACTIVITY OF FUNGAL CULTURE FILTRATES AGAINST SOYBEAN CYST NEMATODE AND ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE EGG HATCH AND JUVENILE MOTILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungi were isolated from soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) eggs collected in China, and 253 isolates were assayed for production of compounds active against H. glycines and root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita). Fungal isolates were grown for 3 and 7 days in potato dextrose broth (PD...

  18. Recent Developments in Nematode Steroid Biochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Chitwood, David J.; Lozano, Ruben; Lusby, William R.

    1986-01-01

    Current knowledge of steroid nutrition, metabolism, and function in free-living, plant-parasitic and animal-parasitic nematodes is reviewed, with emphasis upon recent investigation of Caenorhabditis elegans. A number of 4-desmethylsterols with a trans-A/B ring configuration can satisfy the steroid nutritional requirement in C. elegans, but sterols with a cis-A/B ring configuration or trans-A/B sterols with a 4-methyl group cannot. C. elegans removes methyl or ethyl substituents at C-24 of the...

  19. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the amphid sensilla in the microbial feeding nematode, Acrobeles complexus (Nematoda: Rhabditida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumbarger, Daniel J; Wijeratne, Sitara; Carter, Cale; Crum, John; Ellisman, Mark H; Baldwin, James G

    2009-01-10

    Amphid sensilla are the primary olfactory, chemoreceptive, and thermoreceptive organs in nematodes. Their function is well described for the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans, but it is not clear to what extent we can generalize these findings to distantly related nematodes of medical, economic, and agricultural importance. Current detailed descriptions of anatomy and sensory function are limited to nematodes that recent molecular phylogenies would place in the same taxonomic family, the Rhabditidae. Using serial thin-section transmission electron microscopy, we reconstructed the anatomy of the amphid sensilla in the more distantly related nematode, Acrobeles complexus (Cephalobidae). Amphid structure is broadly conserved in number and arrangement of cells. Details of cell anatomy differ, particularly for the sensory neurite termini. We identify an additional sensory neuron not found in the amphid of C. elegans and propose homology with the C. elegans interneuron AUA. Hypotheses of homology for the remaining sensory neurons are also proposed based on comparisons between C. elegans, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Haemonchus contortus. PMID:19003904

  20. Mining the secretome of root-knot nematodes for cell wall modifying proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roze, E.H.A.

    2008-01-01

    The products of parasitism genes in nematodes must be secreted to reach their targets at the nematode-plant interface. These nematode secretory proteins are therefore recognised to play an important role in the nematode-plant interaction and as a result have been subject of intense study for years.

  1. Proteomic Alterations of Antarctic Ice Microalga Chlamydomonas sp. Under Low-Temperature Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-Feng Kan; Jin-Lai Miao; Cui-Juan Shi; Guang-You Li

    2006-01-01

    Antarctic ice microalga can survive and thrive in cold channels or pores in the Antarctic ice layer. In order to understand the adaptive mechanisms to low temperature, in the present study we compared two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE) profiles of normal and low temperature-stressed Antarctic ice microalga Chlamydomonas sp. cells. In addition, new protein spots induced by low temperature were identified with peptide mass fingerprinting based on matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and database searching. Well-resolved and reproducible 2-DE patterns of both normal and low temperature-stressed cells were acquired. A total of 626 spots was detected in control cells and 652 spots were detected in the corresponding low temperature-stressed cells. A total of 598 spots was matched between normal and stressed cells. Two newly synthesized proteins (a and b) in low temperature-stressed cells were characterized. Protein spot A (53 kDa, pI 6.0) was similar to isopropylmalate/homocitrate/citramalate synthases, which act in the transport and metabolism of amino acids. Protein spot b (25 kDa, pI 8.0) was related to glutathione S-transferase, which functions as a scavenger of active oxygen, free radicals, and noxious metabolites. The present study is valuable for the application of ice microalgae, establishing an ice microalga Chlamydomonas sp. proteome database, and screening molecular biomarkers for further studies.

  2. Ancient climate change, antifreeze, and the evolutionary diversification of Antarctic fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Near, Thomas J; Dornburg, Alex; Kuhn, Kristen L; Eastman, Joseph T; Pennington, Jillian N; Patarnello, Tomaso; Zane, Lorenzo; Fernández, Daniel A; Jones, Christopher D

    2012-02-28

    The Southern Ocean around Antarctica is among the most rapidly warming regions on Earth, but has experienced episodic climate change during the past 40 million years. It remains unclear how ancient periods of climate change have shaped Antarctic biodiversity. The origin of antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGPs) in Antarctic notothenioid fishes has become a classic example of how the evolution of a key innovation in response to climate change can drive adaptive radiation. By using a time-calibrated molecular phylogeny of notothenioids and reconstructed paleoclimate, we demonstrate that the origin of AFGP occurred between 42 and 22 Ma, which includes a period of global cooling approximately 35 Ma. However, the most species-rich lineages diversified and evolved significant ecological differences at least 10 million years after the origin of AFGPs, during a second cooling event in the Late Miocene (11.6-5.3 Ma). This pattern indicates that AFGP was not the sole trigger of the notothenioid adaptive radiation. Instead, the bulk of the species richness and ecological diversity originated during the Late Miocene and into the Early Pliocene, a time coincident with the origin of polar conditions and increased ice activity in the Southern Ocean. Our results challenge the current understanding of the evolution of Antarctic notothenioids suggesting that the ecological opportunity that underlies this adaptive radiation is not linked to a single trait, but rather to a combination of freeze avoidance offered by AFGPs and subsequent exploitation of new habitats and open niches created by increased glacial and ice sheet activity. PMID:22331888

  3. Purification and characterization of cold-adapted beta-agarase from an Antarctic psychrophilic strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An extracellular β-agarase was purified from Pseudoalteromonas sp. NJ21, a Psychrophilic agar-degrading bacterium isolated from Antarctic Prydz Bay sediments. The purified agarase (Aga21 revealed a single band on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, with an apparent molecular weight of 80 kDa. The optimum pH and temperature of the agarase were 8.0 and 30 °C, respectively. However, it maintained as much as 85% of the maximum activities at 10 °C. Significant activation of the agarase was observed in the presence of Mg2+, Mn2+, K+; Ca2+, Na+, Ba2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, Co2+, Fe2+, Sr2+ and EDTA inhibited the enzyme activity. The enzymatic hydrolyzed product of agar was characterized as neoagarobiose. Furthermore, this work is the first evidence of cold-adapted agarase in Antarctic psychrophilic bacteria and these results indicate the potential for the Antarctic agarase as a catalyst in medicine, food and cosmetic industries.

  4. Unraveling the intraguild competition between Oscheius spp. nematodes and entomopathogenic nematodes: Implications for their natural distribution in Swiss agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Herrera, Raquel; Půža, Vladimir; Jaffuel, Geoffrey; Blanco-Pérez, Rubén; Čepulytė-Rakauskienė, Rasa; Turlings, Ted C J

    2015-11-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) are excellent biological control agents to fight soil-dwelling insect pests. In a previous survey of agricultural soils of Switzerland, we found mixtures of free-living nematodes (FLN) in the genus Oscheius, which appeared to be in intense competition with EPN. As this may have important implications for the long-term persistence of EPN, we studied this intraguild competition in detail. We hypothesized that (i) Oscheius spp. isolates act as scavengers rather than entomopathogens, and (ii) cadavers with relatively small numbers of EPN are highly suitable resources for Oscheius spp. reproduction. To study this, we identified Oscheius spp. isolated from Swiss soils, quantified the outcome of EPN/Oscheius competition in laboratory experiments, developed species-specific primers and probe for quantitative real-time PCR, and evaluated their relative occurrence in the field in the context of the soil food web. Molecular analysis (ITS/D2D3) identified MG-67/MG-69 as Oscheius onirici and MG-68 as O. tipulae (Dolichura-group). Oscheius spp. indeed behaved as scavengers, reproducing in ∼64% of frozen-killed cadavers from controlled experiments. Mixed infection in the laboratory by Oscheius spp. with low (3 IJs) or high (20 IJs) initial EPN numbers revealed simultaneous reproduction in double-exposed cadavers which resulted in a substantial reduction in the number of EPN progeny from the cadaver. This effect depended on the number of EPN in the initial inoculum and differed by EPN species; Heterorhabditis megidis was better at overcoming competition. This study reveals Oscheius spp. as facultative kleptoparasites that compete with EPN for insect cadavers. Using real-time qPCR, we were able to accurately quantify this strong competition between FLN and EPN in cadavers that were recovered after soil baiting (∼86% cadavers with >50% FLN production). The severe competition within the host cadavers and the intense management of the soils in

  5. 77 FR 5403 - Conservation of Antarctic Animals and Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION 45 CFR Part 670 Conservation of Antarctic Animals and Plants AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, The National...

  6. Biological studies in the Antarctic waters: A review

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.

    stream_size 12 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Proc_Workshop_Antarct_Stud_1990_407.pdf.txt stream_source_info Proc_Workshop_Antarct_Stud_1990_407.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO...

  7. Laboratory study of nitrate photolysis in Antarctic snow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berhanu, Tesfaye A.; Meusinger, Carl; Erbland, Joseph;

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric nitrate is preserved in Antarctic snow firn and ice. However, at low snow accumulation sites, post-depositional processes induced by sunlight obscure its interpretation. The goal of these studies (see also Paper I by Meusinger et al. [" Laboratory study of nitrate photolysis in Antarc...... reproduce the stable isotopic composition of nitrate found in Antarctic snow profiles. © 2014 Author(s)....

  8. Effect of nematode-trapping fungi on an entomopathogenic nematode originating from the same field site in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppenhöfer, A M; Jaffee, B A; Muldoon, A E; Strong, D R; Kaya, H K

    1996-11-01

    We determined whether nematode-trapping fungi may influence the dynamics of a coastal shrub community. The food chain interactions in the shrub community involve the dominant plant species, its major insect herbivore, and an entomopathogenic nematode, Heterorhabditis hepialus. Of the 12 nematode-trapping fungi previously isolated from soils at the study site, 5 were selected for this study. Arthrobotrys oligospora, Geniculifera paucispora, Monacrosporium eudermatum, and Monacrosporium cionopagum efficiently trapped and colonized H. hepialus on agar; in contrast Nematoctonus concurrens trapped but did not infect or colonize the nematode on agar. To determine whether these fungi can suppress H. hepialus in soil, we added the fungi in the form of fungal-colonized nematodes to pasteurized (2 hr at 62 degrees C) and raw (nontreated) soil from the study site. Suppression was measured by comparing nematode invasion into a wax moth larva in fungus-treated and untreated soil in vials at 20 degrees C. Fungal population density in soil was estimated using dilution plating and most probable number procedures. All fungi suppressed H. hepialus if the wax moth larvae were added 4 days after the nematodes. Suppression ranged between 37 and 54% and did not differ among fungi. Suppression was usually greater in raw than in pasteurized soil. Raw soil contained a constant background of nematode-trapping fungi, and A. oligospora was the most common among these; no background was detected in pasteurized soil. The presence of background fungi in raw soil may explain the higher suppression in raw than in pasteurized soil. Fungal propagule densities in our laboratory experiments were similar to those observed in the field, suggesting that nematode-trapping fungi may influence the dynamics of the plant, insect herbivore, and entomopathogenic nematode in the coastal ecosystem. PMID:8931364

  9. How much snow falls on the Antarctic ice sheet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Palerme

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Climate models predict Antarctic precipitation to increase during the 21st century, but their present day Antarctic precipitation differs. A fully model-independent climatology of the Antarctic precipitation characteristics, such as snowfall rates and frequency, is needed to assess the models, but was not available so far. Satellite observation of precipitation by active spaceborne sensors has been possible in the polar regions since the launch of CloudSat in 2006. Here we use CloudSat products to build the first multi-year model-independent climatology of Antarctic precipitation. The mean snowfall rate from August 2006 to April 2011 is 171 mm yr−1 over the Antarctic ice sheet north of 82° S. The ECMWF ERA Interim dataset agrees well with the new satellite climatology.

  10. Nematode Locomotion in Unconfined and Confined Fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Bilbao, Alejandro; Vanapalli, Siva; Blawzdziewicz, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    The millimeter-long soil-dwelling nematode {\\it C. elegans} propels itself by producing undulations that propagate along its body and turns by assuming highly curved shapes. According to our recent study [PLoS ONE \\textbf{7}, e40121 (2012)] all these postures can be accurately described by a piecewise-harmonic-curvature (PHC) model. We combine this curvature-based description with highly accurate hydrodynamic bead models to evaluate the normalized velocity and turning angles for a worm swimming in an unconfined fluid and in a parallel-wall cell. We find that the worm moves twice as fast and navigates more effectively under a strong confinement, due to the large transverse-to-longitudinal resistance-coefficient ratio resulting from the wall-mediated far-field hydrodynamic coupling between body segments. We also note that the optimal swimming gait is similar to the gait observed for nematodes swimming in high-viscosity fluids. Our bead models allow us to determine the effects of confinement and finite thickness...

  11. Molecular cloning and bioinformatics analysis of the S-adenosyl homocysteine hydrolase(SAHH)gene in the Antarctic ice alga Chlamydomonas sp.ICE-L(Chlamydomonadales, Chlamydomonas)%南极冰藻Chlamydomonas sp.ICE-L S-腺苷同型半胱氨酸水解酶基因的克隆及其生物信息学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金慧; 丁燏; 简纪常; 吴灶和

    2011-01-01

    S-Adenosyl-L-methionine(SAM)is the most common methyl donor in a multitude of cellular methyla-tion reactions. Numerous methyltransferases transfer the methyl group from SAM to their respective biological acceptors, forming S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine(SAH). SAH is hydrolyzed to adenosine and L-homocysteine by S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase(SAHH, EC 3.3.1.1). SAHH is an essential enzyme in all living cells, and has been explored as a potential drug target for many bacteria and parasites. The inhibition of SAHH activity can result in the accumulation of SAH and reduce the S-adenosylmethionine(SAM):SAH ratio in cells. In that case, SAHH can act as a potent feedback inhibitor, blocking the SAM-dependent methylation that is required for the metabolism of a wide variety of biological compounds such as nucleic acids, proteins, phospholipids, and other small molecules. SAHH is found in animals, plants, fungi, and other microorganisms. Antarctic ice microalgae with special characteristics to withstand the extreme environment characterized by low temperatures and ice, high levels of dissolved oxygen, and strong seasonal changes in light intensity have been investigated in recent years. To further understand the intrinsic mechanisms by which the Antarctic sea ice alga Chlamydomonas sp. ICE-L responds to ecological and environmental factors, we cloned and analyzed its SAHH. A cDNA encoding S-adenosyl homocysteine hydrolase(designated as ICE-LSAHH)was cloned from this alga by RT-PCR and RACE-PCR methods. The ICE-LSAHH full-length cDNA sequence was 1844 bp, including a 5'-terminal untranslated region(UTR)of 36 bp, a 3'-terminal UTR of 344 bp with a poly(A)tail, and an open reading frame(ORF)of 1461 bp encoding a polypeptide of 487 amino acids. The predicted molecular weight(MW)of ICE-LSAHH was 53 kD with an estimated pi of 5.16. Using SignalP 3.0 and TMHMM Server v. 2.0 software, it was predicted that the ICE-LSAHH protein did not contain a signal peptide or a transmembranous

  12. Did glacial advances during the Pleistocene influence differently the demographic histories of benthic and pelagic Antarctic shelf fishes? - Interferences from intraspecific mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence diversity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janko, Karel; Lecointre, G.; DeVries, A.; Couloux, A.; Cruaud, C.; Marshall, C.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2007), s. 220-236. ISSN 1471-2148 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB600450602 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Antarctic shelf fishes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.091, year: 2007

  13. On the Methodology of Nematode Extraction from Field Samples: Density Flotation Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Viglierchio, David R.; Yamashita, Tom T.

    1983-01-01

    Density flotation has been frequently used for the extraction of nematodes from field samples. Density flotation curves for four nematode species and five solutes have been prepared. The curves confirm that flotation was governed by several factors: solute density, solute osmotic activity, and physiological properties of the nematode species. Nematode viability and function can be adversely affected by improper selection of solute for density extraction of nematodes; nevertheless, some nemato...

  14. Changes in soil nematode communities under the impact of fertilizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruzdeva, L. I.; Matveeva, E. M.; Kovalenko, T. E.

    2007-06-01

    Changes taking place in the communities of soil nematodes of an artificially sown meadow under the impact of annually applied mineral fertilizers have been studied in a field experiment for nine years. It is shown that changes in the species composition, trophic structure, and numbers of nematodes from different genera depend on the fertilizer applied and on the competitiveness of the plant species grown. The spectra of nematode genera sensitive to the complete mineral fertilizer (NPK) and to the particular nutrients have been identified with the use of a number of parameters, including the maturity index of nematode communities, the biotope preferences of the particular nematode genera, and the general pattern of nematode habitats. The results obtained in this study can be used to assess the effect of mineral fertilizers on the soil fauna and to suggest optimum application rates of mineral fertilizers ensuring the sustainable development of meadow herbs. The use of the data on the trophic structure of nematode communities for predicting the ways of organic matter decomposition in the soil is discussed.

  15. Microsporidian infection in a free-living marine nematode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila-Garcia, A M; Fast, N M

    2012-12-01

    Microsporidia are unicellular fungi that are obligate endoparasites. Although nematodes are one of the most abundant and diverse animal groups, the only confirmed report of microsporidian infection was that of the "nematode killer" (Nematocida parisii). N. parisii was isolated from a wild Caenorhabditis sp. and causes an acute and lethal intestinal infection in a lab strain of Caenorhabditis elegans. We set out to characterize a microsporidian infection in a wild nematode to determine whether the infection pattern of N. parisii in the lab is typical of microsporidian infections in nematodes. We describe a novel microsporidian species named Sporanauta perivermis (marine spore of roundworms) and characterize its infection in its natural host, the free-living marine nematode Odontophora rectangula. S. perivermis is not closely related to N. parisii and differs strikingly in all aspects of infection. Examination by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the infection was localized in the hypodermal and muscle tissues only and did not involve the intestines. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) confirmed infection in the muscle and hypodermis, and surprisingly, it also revealed that the parasite infects O. rectangula eggs, suggesting a vertical mode of transmission. Our observations highlight the importance of studying parasites in their natural hosts and indicate that not all nematode-infecting microsporidia are "nematode killers"; instead, microsporidiosis can be more versatile and chronic in the wild. PMID:23087371

  16. Fast recession of a West Antarctic glacier

    OpenAIRE

    Rignot, EJ

    1998-01-01

    Satellite radar interferometry observations of Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica, reveal that the glacier hinge-line position retreated 1.2 ± 0.3 kilometers per year between 1992 and 1996, which in turn implies that the ice thinned by 3.5 ± 0.9 meters per year. The fast recession of Pine Island Glacier, predicted to be a possible trigger for the disintegration of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, is attributed to enhanced basal melting of the glacier floating tongue by warm ocean waters.

  17. Automatic focusing system of BSST in Antarctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Peng-Yi; Liu, Jia-Jing; Zhang, Guang-yu; Wang, Jian

    2015-10-01

    Automatic focusing (AF) technology plays an important role in modern astronomical telescopes. Based on the focusing requirement of BSST (Bright Star Survey Telescope) in Antarctic, an AF system is set up. In this design, functions in OpenCV is used to find stars, the algorithm of area, HFD or FWHM are used to degree the focus metric by choosing. Curve fitting method is used to find focus position as the method of camera moving. All these design are suitable for unattended small telescope.

  18. Nematode 18S rRNA gene is a reliable tool for environmental biosafety assessment of transgenic banana in confined field trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakacwa, R; Kiggundu, A; Talwana, H; Namaganda, J; Lilley, C; Tushemereirwe, W; Atkinson, H

    2013-10-01

    Information on relatedness in nematodes is commonly obtained by DNA sequencing of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region. However, the level of diversity at this locus is often insufficient for reliable species differentiation. Recent findings suggest that the sequences of a fragment of the small subunit nuclear ribosomal DNA (18S rRNA or SSU), identify genera of soil nematodes and can also distinguish between species in some cases. A database of soil nematode genera in a Ugandan soil was developed using 18S rRNA sequences of individual nematodes from a GM banana confined field trial site at the National Agricultural Research Laboratories, Kawanda in Uganda. The trial was planted to evaluate transgenic bananas for resistance to black Sigatoka disease. Search for relatedness of the sequences gained with entries in a public genomic database identified a range of 20 different genera and sometimes distinguished species. Molecular markers were designed from the sequence information to underpin nematode faunal analysis. This approach provides bio-indicators for disturbance of the soil environment and the condition of the soil food web. It is being developed to support environmental biosafety analysis by detecting any perturbance by transgenic banana or other GM crops on the soil environment. PMID:23661261

  19. Plant nematodes in South Africa. 11. Checklist of plant nematodes of the protected areas of KwaZulu-Natal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariette Marais

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nematodes are some of the most abundant soil organisms and are an essential part of soil ecology. These organisms are used as indicator organisms and can be linked to soil health. Biological collections contain vast amounts of data, with the National Collection of Nematodes housed at the Plant Protection Research Institute, Agricultural Research Council being no different. During the digitising of the collection a number of unpublished records of plant nematodes reported from protected areas in KwaZulu-Natal were found in the South African Plant-Parasitic Nematode Survey database. A total of 222 plant nematode species belonging to 39 genera were reported from the province, with only 94 of these species reported from the protected areas and 172 and 159 species reported from uncultivated (outside the protected areas and cultivated areas, respectively. Only nine species, Criconema silvum, Criconema talanum, Helicotylenchus marethae, Ogma dracomontanum, Ogma louisi, Ogma ueckermanni, Paralongidorus deborae, Trichodorus rinae and Xiphinemella marindae were described from protected areas, whilst O. dracomontanum, P. deborae and T. rinae were subsequently also reported from other provinces.Conservation implications: A higher degree of diversity of nematodes was observed in the unprotected areas of the province. The observation suggests that nematode fauna, and by implication also other invertebrates, are not adequately protected.

  20. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Drechmeria coniospora Reveals Core and Specific Genetic Requirements for Fungal Endoparasitism of Nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebrigand, Kevin; He, Le D; Thakur, Nishant; Arguel, Marie-Jeanne; Polanowska, Jolanta; Henrissat, Bernard; Record, Eric; Magdelenat, Ghislaine; Barbe, Valérie; Raffaele, Sylvain; Barbry, Pascal; Ewbank, Jonathan J

    2016-05-01

    Drechmeria coniospora is an obligate fungal pathogen that infects nematodes via the adhesion of specialized spores to the host cuticle. D. coniospora is frequently found associated with Caenorhabditis elegans in environmental samples. It is used in the study of the nematode's response to fungal infection. Full understanding of this bi-partite interaction requires knowledge of the pathogen's genome, analysis of its gene expression program and a capacity for genetic engineering. The acquisition of all three is reported here. A phylogenetic analysis placed D. coniospora close to the truffle parasite Tolypocladium ophioglossoides, and Hirsutella minnesotensis, another nematophagous fungus. Ascomycete nematopathogenicity is polyphyletic; D. coniospora represents a branch that has not been molecularly characterized. A detailed in silico functional analysis, comparing D. coniospora to 11 fungal species, revealed genes and gene families potentially involved in virulence and showed it to be a highly specialized pathogen. A targeted comparison with nematophagous fungi highlighted D. coniospora-specific genes and a core set of genes associated with nematode parasitism. A comparative gene expression analysis of samples from fungal spores and mycelia, and infected C. elegans, gave a molecular view of the different stages of the D. coniospora lifecycle. Transformation of D. coniospora allowed targeted gene knock-out and the production of fungus that expresses fluorescent reporter genes. It also permitted the initial characterisation of a potential fungal counter-defensive strategy, involving interference with a host antimicrobial mechanism. This high-quality annotated genome for D. coniospora gives insights into the evolution and virulence of nematode-destroying fungi. Coupled with genetic transformation, it opens the way for molecular dissection of D. coniospora physiology, and will allow both sides of the interaction between D. coniospora and C. elegans, as well as the

  1. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Drechmeria coniospora Reveals Core and Specific Genetic Requirements for Fungal Endoparasitism of Nematodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Lebrigand

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Drechmeria coniospora is an obligate fungal pathogen that infects nematodes via the adhesion of specialized spores to the host cuticle. D. coniospora is frequently found associated with Caenorhabditis elegans in environmental samples. It is used in the study of the nematode's response to fungal infection. Full understanding of this bi-partite interaction requires knowledge of the pathogen's genome, analysis of its gene expression program and a capacity for genetic engineering. The acquisition of all three is reported here. A phylogenetic analysis placed D. coniospora close to the truffle parasite Tolypocladium ophioglossoides, and Hirsutella minnesotensis, another nematophagous fungus. Ascomycete nematopathogenicity is polyphyletic; D. coniospora represents a branch that has not been molecularly characterized. A detailed in silico functional analysis, comparing D. coniospora to 11 fungal species, revealed genes and gene families potentially involved in virulence and showed it to be a highly specialized pathogen. A targeted comparison with nematophagous fungi highlighted D. coniospora-specific genes and a core set of genes associated with nematode parasitism. A comparative gene expression analysis of samples from fungal spores and mycelia, and infected C. elegans, gave a molecular view of the different stages of the D. coniospora lifecycle. Transformation of D. coniospora allowed targeted gene knock-out and the production of fungus that expresses fluorescent reporter genes. It also permitted the initial characterisation of a potential fungal counter-defensive strategy, involving interference with a host antimicrobial mechanism. This high-quality annotated genome for D. coniospora gives insights into the evolution and virulence of nematode-destroying fungi. Coupled with genetic transformation, it opens the way for molecular dissection of D. coniospora physiology, and will allow both sides of the interaction between D. coniospora and C. elegans, as

  2. Phylogeny of the nematode genus Pristionchus and implications for biodiversity, biogeography and the evolution of hermaphroditism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sommer Ralf J

    2007-07-01

    framework for microevolutionary and biogeographic analyses. An additional major implication of our studies is the use of Pristionchus for nematode biodiversity assessments. While some species are represented by more than 100 isolates, others were found less than four times. Such patterns were observed on all continents and in all phylogenetic clades indicating that species asymmetry is a widespread phenomenon, which can now be further investigated by molecular tools.

  3. Diversity of free-living marine nematodes (Enoplida) from Baja California assessed by integrative taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Tiago José; Fonseca, Gustavo; Mundo-Ocampo, Manuel; Guilherme, Betânia Cristina; Rocha-Olivares, Axayácatl

    2010-01-01

    We used morphological and molecular approaches to evaluate the diversity of free-living marine nematodes (order Enoplida) at four coastal sites in the Gulf of California and three on the Pacific coast of Baja California, Mexico. We identified 22 morphological species belonging to six families, of which Thoracostomopsidae and Oncholaimidae were the most diverse. The genus Mesacanthion (Thoracostomopsidae) was the most widespread and diverse. Five allopatric species, genetically and morphologically differentiated, were found in two localities in the Gulf of California (M. sp1 and M. sp2) and three in the Pacific coast (M. sp3, M. sp4 and M. sp5). Overall, we produced 19 and 20 sequences for the 18S and 28S genes, respectively. Neither gene displayed intraspecific polymorphisms, which allowed us to establish that some morphological variation was likely either ontogenetic or due to phenotypic plasticity. Although 18S and 28S phylogenies were topologically congruent (incongruence length difference test, P > 0.05), divergences between species were much higher in the 28S gene. Moreover, this gene possessed a stronger phylogenetic signal to resolve relationships involving Rhabdodemania and Bathylaimus. On the other hand, the close relationship of Pareurystomina (Enchilidiidae) with oncholaimids warrants further study. The 28S sequences (D2D3 domain) may be better suited for DNA barcoding of marine nematodes than those from the 18S rDNA, particularly for differentiating closely related or cryptic species. Finally, our results underline the relevance of adopting an integrative approach encompassing morphological and molecular analyses to improve the assessment of marine nematode diversity and advance their taxonomy. PMID:24391248

  4. Longitudinal surface structures (flowstripes on Antarctic glaciers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Glasser

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal surface structures (''flowstripes'' are common on many glaciers but their origin and significance are poorly understood. In this paper we present observations of the development of these longitudinal structures from four different Antarctic glacier systems (the Lambert Glacier/Amery Ice Shelf area, outlet glaciers in the Ross Sea sector, ice-shelf tributary glaciers on the Antarctic Peninsula, and the onset zone of a tributary to the Recovery Glacier Ice Stream in the Filchner Ice Shelf area. Mapping from optical satellite images demonstrates that longitudinal surface structures develop in two main situations: (1 as relatively wide flow stripes within glacier flow units and (2 as relatively narrow flow stripes where there is convergent flow around nunataks or at glacier confluence zones. Our observations indicate that the confluence features are narrower, sharper, and more clearly defined features. They are characterised by linear troughs or depressions on the ice surface and are much more common than the former type. Longitudinal surface structures within glacier flow units have previously been explained as the surface expression of localised bed perturbations but a universal explanation for those forming at glacier confluences is lacking. Here we propose that these features are formed at zones of ice acceleration and extensional flow at glacier confluences. We provide a schematic model for the development of longitudinal surface structures based on extensional flow that can explain their ridge and trough morphology as well as their down-ice persistence.

  5. Interhemispheric coupling and warm Antarctic interglacials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. B. Holden

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Ice core evidence indicates that even though atmospheric CO2 concentrations did not exceed ~300 ppm at any point during the last 800 000 years, East Antarctica was at least ~3–4 °C warmer than pre-industrial (CO2 ~280 ppm in each of the last four interglacials. During the previous three interglacials, this anomalous warming was short lived (~3 000 years and apparently occurred before the completion of Northern Hemisphere deglaciation. Hereafter, we refer to these periods as "Warmer than Present Transients" (WPTs. We here present transient 800 kyr simulations using the intermediate complexity model GENIE-1 which suggest that WPTs could be explained as a consequence of the meltwater-forced slowdown of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC during glacial terminations. It is well known that a slowed AMOC would increase southern Sea Surface Temperature (SST through the bipolar seesaw. Observational data supports this hypothesis, suggesting that the AMOC remained weak throughout the terminations preceding WPTs, strengthening rapidly at a time which coincides closely with peak Antarctic temperature. In order to investigate model and boundary condition uncertainty, we additionally present three ensembles of transient GENIE-1 simulations across Termination II (135 000 to 124 000 BP and three snapshot HadCM3 simulations at 130 000 Before Present (BP. These simulations together reproduce both the timing and magnitude of WPTs, and point to the potential importance of an albedo feedback associated with West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS retreat.

  6. Solar power for an Antarctic rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lever, J. H.; Ray, L. R.; Streeter, A.; Price, A.

    2006-03-01

    Sensors mounted on mobile robots could serve a variety of science missions in Antarctica. Although weather conditions can be harsh, Antarctic snowfields offer unique conditions to facilitate long-distance robot deployment: the absence of obstacles, firm snow with high albedo, and 24 h sunlight during the summer. We have developed a four-wheel-drive, solar-powered rover that capitalizes on these advantages. Analyses and field measurements confirm that solar power reflected from Antarctic snow contributes 30-40% of the power available to a robot consisting of a five-side box of solar panels. Mobility analyses indicate that the 80 kg rover can move at 0.8 m s-1 during clear sky conditions on firm snow into a 5 m s-1 headwind, twice the speed needed to achieve the design target of 500 km in 2 weeks. Local winter tests of the chassis demonstrated good grade-climbing ability and lower than predicted rolling resistance. Tests of the completed robot occurred in Greenland in 2005.

  7. Extremophiles in an Antarctic Marine Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain Dickinson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent attempts to explore marine microbial diversity and the global marine microbiome have indicated a large proportion of previously unknown diversity. However, sequencing alone does not tell the whole story, as it relies heavily upon information that is already contained within sequence databases. In addition, microorganisms have been shown to present small-to-large scale biogeographical patterns worldwide, potentially making regional combinations of selection pressures unique. Here, we focus on the extremophile community in the boundary region located between the Polar Front and the Southern Antarctic Circumpolar Current in the Southern Ocean, to explore the potential of metagenomic approaches as a tool for bioprospecting in the search for novel functional activity based on targeted sampling efforts. We assessed the microbial composition and diversity from a region north of the current limit for winter sea ice, north of the Southern Antarctic Circumpolar Front (SACCF but south of the Polar Front. Although, most of the more frequently encountered sequences  were derived from common marine microorganisms, within these dominant groups, we found a proportion of genes related to secondary metabolism of potential interest in bioprospecting. Extremophiles were rare by comparison but belonged to a range of genera. Hence, they represented interesting targets from which to identify rare or novel functions. Ultimately, future shifts in environmental conditions favoring more cosmopolitan groups could have an unpredictable effect on microbial diversity and function in the Southern Ocean, perhaps excluding the rarer extremophiles.

  8. CHAMP Magnetic Anomalies of the Antarctic Crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung Rae; Gaya-Pique, Luis R.; vonFrese, Ralph R. B.; Taylor, Patrick T.; Kim, Jeong Woo

    2003-01-01

    Regional magnetic signals of the crust are strongly masked by the core field and its secular variations components and hence difficult to isolate in the satellite measurements. In particular, the un-modeled effects of the strong auroral external fields and the complicated- behavior of the core field near the geomagnetic poles conspire to greatly reduce the crustal magnetic signal-to-noise ratio in the polar regions relative to the rest of the Earth. We can, however, use spectral correlation theory to filter the static lithospheric and core field components from the dynamic external field effects. To help isolate regional lithospheric from core field components, the correlations between CHAMP magnetic anomalies and the pseudo magnetic effects inferred from gravity-derived crustal thickness variations can also be exploited.. Employing these procedures, we processed the CHAMP magnetic observations for an improved magnetic anomaly map of the Antarctic crust. Relative to the much higher altitude Orsted and noisier Magsat observations, the CHAMP magnetic anomalies at 400 km altitude reveal new details on the effects of intracrustal magnetic features and crustal thickness variations of the Antarctic.

  9. Microbial biomass and basal respiration in Sub-Antarctic and Antarctic soils in the areas of some Russian polar stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Abakumov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Antarctica is the unique place for pedological investigations. Soils of Antarctica have been studied intensively during the last century. Antarctic logistic provides the possibility to scientists access the terrestrial landscapes mainly in the places of polar stations. That is why the main and most detailed pedological investigations were conducted in Mc Murdo Valleys, Transantarctic Mountains, South Shetland Islands, Larsemann hills and Schirmacher Oasis. Investigations were conducted during the 53rd and 55th Russian Antarctic expeditions on the base of soil pits and samples collected in Sub-Antarctic and Antarctic regions. Soils of diverse Antarctic landscapes were studied with aim to assess the microbial biomass level, basal respiration rates and metabolic activity of microbial communities. The investigation conducted shows that soils of Antarctic are quite different in profile organization and carbon content. In general, Sub-Antarctic soils are characterized by more developed humus (sod organo-mineral horizons as well as the upper organic layer. The most developed organic layers were revealed in peat soils of King-George Island, where its thickness reach even 80 cm. These soils as well as soils under guano are characterized by the highest amount of total organic carbon (TOC 7.22–33.70%. Coastal and continental soils of Antarctic are presented by less developed Leptosols, Gleysols, Regolith and rare Ornhitosol with TOC levels about 0.37–4.67%. The metabolic ratios and basal respiration were higher in Sub-Antarctic soils than in Antarctic ones which can be interpreted as result of higher amounts of fresh organic remnants in organic and organo-mineral horizons. Also the soils of King-George island have higher portion of microbial biomass (max 1.54 mg g−1 than coastal (max 0.26 mg g−1 and continental (max 0.22 mg g−1 Antarctic soils. Sub-Antarctic soils mainly differ from Antarctic ones in increased organic layers thickness and total

  10. Condensed tannins act against cattle nematodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novobilský, Adam; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2011-01-01

    The use of natural plant anthelmintics was suggested as a possible alternative control of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) in ruminants. Direct anthelmintic effects of tannin-containing plants have already been shown in sheep and goat GIN. These anthelmintic properties are mainly associated with...... condensed tannins. In the present study, we evaluated possible in vitro effects of three tannin-containing plants against bovine GIN. Effects of Onobrychis viciifolia, Lotus pedunculatus and Lotus corniculatus condensed tannin (CT) extracts on Cooperia oncophora and Ostertagia ostertagi were determined by a...... (third stage larvae) was also affected by CT extracts from all three plants. In both in vitro assays, extracts with added polyvinylpolypyrrolidone, an inhibitor of tannins, generated almost the same values as the negative control; this confirms the role of CT in the anthelmintic effect of these plant...

  11. Nematode parasite genes: what's in a name?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beech, Robin N; Wolstenholme, Adrian J; Neveu, Cédric; Dent, Joseph A

    2010-07-01

    The central theme of Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet is that names are meaningless, artificial constructs, detached from any underlying reality. By contrast, we argue that a well chosen gene name can concisely convey a wealth of relevant biological information. A consistent nomenclature adds transparency that can have a real impact on our understanding of gene function. Currently, genes in parasitic nematodes are often named ad hoc, leading to confusion that can be resolved by adherence to a nomenclature standard adapted from Caenorhabditis elegans. We demonstrate this with ligand-gated ion-channels and propose that the flood of genome data and differences between parasites and the free living C. elegans will require modification of the standard. PMID:20478743

  12. Nematode parasites of waterfowl (Anseriformes) from western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, M.E.

    1974-01-01

    Thirty-four species of nematodes were found in 415 Anseriformes (Anatidae) of 27 species; 93.7% of birds over 4 weeks old were infected. Data on prevalence, host specificity, age of host, and geographic distribution are given. Infections were more intense in sick birds and birds in poor physical condition. Accidental or abnormal infection was more likely in sick than in normal birds. From 1 to 13 species of nematodes are reported from each host species, including 118 new host records, 3 nematodes new for North America, and 1 new species. Multiple infections were present in 76.5% of birds parasitized; eight species of nematodes were found in one whistling swan (Olor columbianus).

  13. Nematode Hsp90: highly conserved but functionally diverse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillan, Victoria; Devaney, Eileen

    2014-08-01

    Nematodes are amongst the most successful and abundant organisms on the planet with approximately 30 000 species described, although the actual number of species is estimated to be one million or more. Despite sharing a relatively simple and invariant body plan, there is considerable diversity within the phylum. Nematodes have evolved to colonize most ecological niches, and can be free-living or can parasitize plants or animals to the detriment of the host organism. In this review we consider the role of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) in the nematode life cycle. We describe studies on Hsp90 in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and comparative work on the parasitic species Brugia pahangi, and consider whether a dependence upon Hsp90 can be exploited for the control of parasitic species. PMID:24721950

  14. Proteomics: an efficient tool to analyze nematode proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proteomic technologies have been successfully used to analyze proteins structure and characterization in plants, animals, microbes and humans. We used proteomics methodologies to separate and characterize soybean cyst nematode (SCN) proteins. Optimizing the quantity of proteins required to separat...

  15. Antarctic Porifera database from the Spanish benthic expeditions

    OpenAIRE

    Pilar Rios; Javier Cristobo

    2014-01-01

    The information about the sponges in this dataset is derived from the samples collected during five Spanish Antarctic expeditions: Bentart 94, Bentart 95, Gebrap 96, Ciemar 99/00 and Bentart 2003. Samples were collected in the Antarctic Peninsula and Bellingshausen Sea at depths ranging from 4 to 2044 m using va­rious sampling gears.The Antarctic Porifera database from the Spanish benthic expeditions is unique as it provides in­formation for an under-explored region of the Southern Oc...

  16. Bacterial diversity of autotrophic enriched cultures from remote, glacial Antarctic, Alpine and Andean aerosol, snow and soil samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. González-Toril

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Four different communities and one culture of autotrophic microbial assemblages were obtained by incubation of samples collected from high elevation snow in the Alps (Mt. Blanc area and the Andes (Nevado Illimani summit, Bolivia, from Antarctic aerosol (French station Dumont d'Urville and a maritime Antarctic soil (King George Island, South Shetlands, Uruguay Station Artigas, in a minimal mineral (oligotrophic media. Molecular analysis of more than 200 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that all cultured cells belong to the Bacteria domain. Phylogenetic comparison with the currently available rDNA database allowed sequences belonging to Proteobacteria Alpha-, Beta- and Gamma-proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes phyla to be identified. The Andes snow culture was the richest in bacterial diversity (eight microorganisms identified and the marine Antarctic soil the poorest (only one. Snow samples from Col du Midi (Alps and the Andes shared the highest number of identified microorganisms (Agrobacterium, Limnobacter, Aquiflexus and two uncultured Alphaproteobacteria clones. These two sampling sites also shared four sequences with the Antarctic aerosol sample (Limnobacter, Pseudonocardia and an uncultured Alphaproteobacteriaclone. The only microorganism identified in the Antarctica soil (Brevundimonas sp. was also detected in the Antarctic aerosol. Most of the identified microorganisms had been detected previously in cold environments, marine sediments soils and rocks. Air current dispersal is the best model to explain the presence of very specific microorganisms, like those identified in this work, in environments very distant and very different from each other.

  17. Discrimination of gastrointestinal nematode eggs from crude fecal egg preparations by inhibitor-resistant conventional and real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeler, Janina; Ramünke, Sabrina; Wolken, Sonja; Ianiello, Davide; Rinaldi, Laura; Gahutu, Jean Bosco; Cringoli, Giuseppe; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Krücken, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Diagnosis of gastrointestinal nematodes relies predominantly on coproscopic methods such as flotation, Kato-Katz, McMaster or FLOTAC. Although FLOTAC allows accurate quantification, many nematode eggs can only be differentiated to genus or family level. Several molecular diagnostic tools discriminating closely related species suffer from high costs for DNA isolation from feces and limited sensitivity since most kits use only small amounts of feces (Phusion DNA polymerase which is particularly resistant to PCR inhibitors. Qualitative results were obtained with feces of goats, cattle, horses, swine, cats, dogs and mice. The finally established protocol was also compatible with quantitative real-time PCR in the presence of EvaGreen and no PCR inhibition was detectable when extracts were diluted at least fourfold. Sensitivity was comparable to DNA isolation protocols and spiked samples with five epg were reliably detected. For Toxocara cati a detection limit below one epg was demonstrated. It was possible to distinguish T. cati and Toxocara canis using high resolution melt (HRM) analysis, a rapid tool for species identification. In human samples, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and HRM analysis were used to discriminate Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. The method is able to significantly improve molecular diagnosis of gastrointestinal nematodes by increasing speed and sensitivity while decreasing overall costs. For identification of species or resistance alleles, analysis of PCR products with many different post PCR methods can be used such as RFLP, reverse-line-blot, Sanger sequencing and HRM. PMID:23620739

  18. Potential contribution of P-glycoproteins to macrocyclic lactone resistance in the cattle parasitic nematode Cooperia oncophora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeler, Janina; Krücken, Jürgen; AlGusbi, Salha; Ramünke, Sabrina; De Graef, Jessie; Kerboeuf, Dominique; Geldhof, Peter; Pomroy, William E; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg

    2013-03-01

    Resistance against macrocyclic lactones such as ivermectin is widespread among parasitic gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants and is rapidly increasing in cattle parasites. ABC transporters of the subfamily B, the so-called P-glycoproteins (Pgps) have been frequently implicated in ivermectin resistance and are a major cause of multi-drug resistance in protozoa and helminths. The Pgp inhibitor verapamil (VPL) dramatically enhanced susceptibility of the cattle parasitic nematode Cooperia oncophora to ivermectin in vitro as measured in a larval developmental assay and a larval migration inhibition assay using third stage larvae. Moreover, VPL completely restored susceptibility to ivermectin in a resistant isolate resulting in virtually identical dose-response curves of susceptible and resistant isolates in the presence of VPL. Further characterisation of the molecular mechanisms resulting in Pgp-mediated ivermectin resistance is still hampered by the lack of molecular and biochemical information for Pgps of parasitic nematodes. Using PCR with degenerate primers, fragments of four different C. oncophora Pgps could be amplified and the Conpgp-2, previously implicated in macrocyclic lactone resistance in Haemonchus contortus, and Conpgp-3 full-length cDNAs were obtained by RACE PCR. The pgp sequences presented here contribute important data required to systematically screen resistant C. oncophora isolates for up- or down-regulation of Pgps and for the detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms in Pgps to detect selection of specific Pgp alleles by anthelmintics as early as possible. PMID:23384738

  19. Nematode Hsp90: highly conserved but functionally diverse

    OpenAIRE

    Gillan, Victoria; Devaney, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    Nematodes are amongst the most successful and abundant organisms on the planet with approximately 30 000 species described, although the actual number of species is estimated to be one million or more. Despite sharing a relatively simple and invariant body plan, there is considerable diversity within the phylum. Nematodes have evolved to colonize most ecological niches, and can be free-living or can parasitize plants or animals to the detriment of the host organism. In this review we consider...

  20. Dispersal and gene flow in free-living marine nematodes

    OpenAIRE

    Derycke Sofie; Backeljau Thierry; Moens Tom

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Dispersal and gene flow determine connectivity among populations, and can be studied through population genetics and phylogeography. We here review the results of such a framework for free-living marine nematodes. Although field experiments have illustrated substantial dispersal in nematodes at ecological time scales, analysis of the genetic diversity illustrated the importance of priority effects, founder effects and genetic bottlenecks for population structuring between patches

  1. Dispersal and gene flow in free-living marine nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derycke Sofie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dispersal and gene flow determine connectivity among populations, and can be studied through population genetics and phylogeography. We here review the results of such a framework for free-living marine nematodes. Although field experiments have illustrated substantial dispersal in nematodes at ecological time scales, analysis of the genetic diversity illustrated the importance of priority effects, founder effects and genetic bottlenecks for population structuring between patches

  2. Enzymology of the nematode cuticle: A potential drug target?

    OpenAIRE

    Page, Antony P.; Stepek, Gillian; Winter, Alan D.; Pertab, David

    2014-01-01

    All nematodes possess an external structure known as the cuticle, which is crucial for their development and survival. This structure is composed primarily of collagen, which is secreted from the underlying hypodermal cells. Extensive studies using the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans demonstrate that formation of the cuticle requires the activity of an extensive range of enzymes. Enzymes are required both pre-secretion, for synthesis of component proteins such as collagen, and pos...

  3. Microsporidia are natural intracellular parasites of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    OpenAIRE

    Emily R Troemel; Marie-Anne Félix; Whiteman, Noah K.; Antoine Barrière; Ausubel, Frederick M.

    2008-01-01

    For decades the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been an important model system for biology, but little is known about its natural ecology. Recently, C. elegans has become the focus of studies of innate immunity and several pathogens have been shown to cause lethal intestinal infections in C. elegans. However none of these pathogens has been shown to invade nematode intestinal cells, and no pathogen has been isolated from wild-caught C. elegans. Here we describe an intracellular patho...

  4. Olfaction shapes host–parasite interactions in parasitic nematodes

    OpenAIRE

    Dillman, Adler R.; Guillermin, Manon L.; Lee, Joon Ha; KIM, Brian; Sternberg, Paul W.; Hallem, Elissa A.

    2012-01-01

    Many parasitic nematodes actively seek out hosts in which to complete their lifecycles. Olfaction is thought to play an important role in the host-seeking process, with parasites following a chemical trail toward host-associated odors. However, little is known about the olfactory cues that attract parasitic nematodes to hosts or the behavioral responses these cues elicit. Moreover, what little is known focuses on easily obtainable laboratory hosts rather than on natural or other ecologically ...

  5. Phylogenetic relationships of the Wolbachia of nematodes and arthropods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katelyn Fenn

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Wolbachia are well known as bacterial symbionts of arthropods, where they are reproductive parasites, but have also been described from nematode hosts, where the symbiotic interaction has features of mutualism. The majority of arthropod Wolbachia belong to clades A and B, while nematode Wolbachia mostly belong to clades C and D, but these relationships have been based on analysis of a small number of genes. To investigate the evolution and relationships of Wolbachia symbionts we have sequenced over 70 kb of the genome of wOvo, a Wolbachia from the human-parasitic nematode Onchocerca volvulus, and compared the genes identified to orthologues in other sequenced Wolbachia genomes. In comparisons of conserved local synteny, we find that wBm, from the nematode Brugia malayi, and wMel, from Drosophila melanogaster, are more similar to each other than either is to wOvo. Phylogenetic analysis of the protein-coding and ribosomal RNA genes on the sequenced fragments supports reciprocal monophyly of nematode and arthropod Wolbachia. The nematode Wolbachia did not arise from within the A clade of arthropod Wolbachia, and the root of the Wolbachia clade lies between the nematode and arthropod symbionts. Using the wOvo sequence, we identified a lateral transfer event whereby segments of the Wolbachia genome were inserted into the Onchocerca nuclear genome. This event predated the separation of the human parasite O. volvulus from its cattle-parasitic sister species, O. ochengi. The long association between filarial nematodes and Wolbachia symbionts may permit more frequent genetic exchange between their genomes.

  6. Biocontrol: Bacillus penetrans and Related Parasites of Nematodes

    OpenAIRE

    Sayre, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    Bacillus penetrans Mankau, 1975, previously described as Duboscqia penetrans Thorne 1940, is a candidate agent for biocontrol of nematodes. This review considers the life stages of this bacterium: vegetative growth phase, colony fragmentation, sporogenesis, soil phase, spore attachment, and penetration into larvae of root-knot nematodes. The morphology of the microthallus colonies and the unusual external features of the spore are discussed. Taxonomic affinities with the actinomycetes, partic...

  7. Granite Rock Outcrops: An Extreme Environment for Soil Nematodes?

    OpenAIRE

    Austin, Erin; Semmens, Katharine; Parsons, Charles; Treonis, Amy

    2009-01-01

    We studied soil nematode communities from the surface of granite flatrock outcrops in the eastern Piedmont region of the United States. The thin soils that develop here experience high light intensity and extreme fluctuations in temperature and moisture and host unique plant communities. We collected soils from outcrop microsites in Virginia (VA) and North Carolina (NC) in various stages of succession (Primitive, Minimal, and Mature) and compared soil properties and nematode communities to th...

  8. The host immune response to gastrointestinal nematode infection in sheep

    OpenAIRE

    McRae, K. M.; Stear, M. J.; Good, B.; Keane, O. M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Gastrointestinal nematode infection represents a major threat to the health, welfare and productivity of sheep populations worldwide. Infected lambs have a reduced ability to absorb nutrients from the gastrointestinal tract, resulting in morbidity and occasional mortality. The current chemo‐dominant approach to nematode control is considered unsustainable due to the increasing incidence of anthelmintic resistance. In addition, there is growing consumer demand for food products from an...

  9. Plant-parasitic Nematode Problems in the Pacific Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Bridge, John

    1988-01-01

    The Pacific islands have a diverse range of food and cash crops with indigenous and introduced nematode problems. The staple food crops have serious nematode pests, such as Meloidogyne spp. on sweet potato, Hirschmanniella miticausa causing corm rot of taro, and Pratylenchus coffeae and Radopholus sp. producing tuber dry rot of yams. Bananas are infested with P. coffeae or R. similis, citrus with Tylenchulus semipenetrans, rice with Aphelenchoides besseyi, and ginger with Meloidogyne spp. and...

  10. Characterizing Ancylostoma caninum transcriptome and exploring nematode parasitic adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Hawdon John; Wilson Richard K; Martin John; Abubucker Sahar; Wang Zhengyuan; Mitreva Makedonka

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Hookworm infection is one of the most important neglected diseases in developing countries, with approximately 1 billion people infected worldwide. To better understand hookworm biology and nematode parasitism, the present study generated a near complete transcriptome of the canine hookworm Ancylostoma caninum to a very high coverage using high throughput technology, and compared it to those of the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the parasite Brugia malayi....

  11. Origanum vulgare (Lamiaceae) OVICIDAL POTENTIAL ON GASTROINTESTINAL NEMATODES OF CATTLE

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Laitano Dias de Castro; Isabel Martins Madrid; Cíntia Lidiane Guidotti Aguiar; Leonardo Mortagua de Castro; Marlete Brum Cleff; Maria Elisabeth Aires Berne; Fábio Pereira Leivas Leite

    2013-01-01

    Due to anthelmintic resistance in nematodes, several research studies have been developed seeking control alternatives to these parasites. This study evaluated the in vitro action of Origanum vulgare on gastrointestinal nematode eggs of cattle. In order to evaluate the ability to inhibit egg hatch, different dried leaves extracts of this plant were tested, such as dye, hydroalcoholic and aqueous extracts at concentrations varying from 0.62 to 80 mg/mL. Each assay was accompanied by control co...

  12. Motility of small nematodes in disordered wet granular media

    OpenAIRE

    Juarez, G.; Lu, K.; Sznitman, J.; Arratia, P.E.

    2010-01-01

    The motility of the worm nematode \\textit{Caenorhabditis elegans} is investigated in shallow, wet granular media as a function of particle size dispersity and area density ($\\phi$). Surprisingly, we find that the nematode's propulsion speed is enhanced by the presence of particles in a fluid and is nearly independent of area density. The undulation speed, often used to differentiate locomotion gaits, is significantly affected by the bulk material properties of wet mono- and polydisperse granu...

  13. Plant nematode interactions : a view on compatible interrelationships

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Diana; Petitot, Anne-Sophie; Grossi de Sá, M.; V; Phong Nguyên; de Almeida Engler, J; KYNDT, T.

    2015-01-01

    Monocotyledonous crops including cereals, sugar cane, banana and cassava make an important tribute to agricultural commodities both in production and value worldwide. Diseases caused by nematodes in monocots are well documented and new data are emerging on interactions of these pathogens with some important monocotyledonous crop species. This review focuses on major monocotyledonous plant–nematode systems describing the biology and genetics of some interactions and highlighting efforts ...

  14. Mass Cultivation of Entomopathogenic Nematode in Artificial Media

    OpenAIRE

    Dyah Rini Indriyanti; Nur Lailatul Muharromah

    2016-01-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) of the genera Heterorhabditis and Steinernema are commercially used to control pest insect. EPN is widely cultivated through in-vivo and in vitro methods. This research aims to discover the abundance of EPN cultivated in various artificial media. Seven types of media composition were tested in this research: media A (yeast + soybean powder), media B (yeast + chicken liver), media C (yeast + dog food), media D (yolk + soybean powder),...

  15. Solution structure of CEH-37 homeodomain of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •We have determined solution structures of CEH-37 homedomain. •CEH-37 HD has a compact α-helical structure with HTH DNA binding motif. •Solution structure of CEH-37 HD shares its molecular topology with that of the homeodomain proteins. •Residues in the N-terminal region and HTH motif are important in binding to Caenorhabditis elegans telomeric DNA. •CEH-37 could play an important role in telomere function via DNA binding. -- Abstract: The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans protein CEH-37 belongs to the paired OTD/OTX family of homeobox-containing homeodomain proteins. CEH-37 shares sequence similarity with homeodomain proteins, although it specifically binds to double-stranded C. elegans telomeric DNA, which is unusual to homeodomain proteins. Here, we report the solution structure of CEH-37 homeodomain and molecular interaction with double-stranded C. elegans telomeric DNA using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. NMR structure shows that CEH-37 homeodomain is composed of a flexible N-terminal region and three α-helices with a helix-turn-helix (HTH) DNA binding motif. Data from size-exclusion chromatography and fluorescence spectroscopy reveal that CEH-37 homeodomain interacts strongly with double-stranded C. elegans telomeric DNA. NMR titration experiments identified residues responsible for specific binding to nematode double-stranded telomeric DNA. These results suggest that C. elegans homeodomain protein, CEH-37 could play an important role in telomere function via DNA binding

  16. Solution structure of CEH-37 homeodomain of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Sunjin [Structural Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics Lab, Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yong Woo; Kim, Woo Taek [Department of Systems Biology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Weontae, E-mail: wlee@spin.yonsei.ac.kr [Structural Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics Lab, Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: •We have determined solution structures of CEH-37 homedomain. •CEH-37 HD has a compact α-helical structure with HTH DNA binding motif. •Solution structure of CEH-37 HD shares its molecular topology with that of the homeodomain proteins. •Residues in the N-terminal region and HTH motif are important in binding to Caenorhabditis elegans telomeric DNA. •CEH-37 could play an important role in telomere function via DNA binding. -- Abstract: The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans protein CEH-37 belongs to the paired OTD/OTX family of homeobox-containing homeodomain proteins. CEH-37 shares sequence similarity with homeodomain proteins, although it specifically binds to double-stranded C. elegans telomeric DNA, which is unusual to homeodomain proteins. Here, we report the solution structure of CEH-37 homeodomain and molecular interaction with double-stranded C. elegans telomeric DNA using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. NMR structure shows that CEH-37 homeodomain is composed of a flexible N-terminal region and three α-helices with a helix-turn-helix (HTH) DNA binding motif. Data from size-exclusion chromatography and fluorescence spectroscopy reveal that CEH-37 homeodomain interacts strongly with double-stranded C. elegans telomeric DNA. NMR titration experiments identified residues responsible for specific binding to nematode double-stranded telomeric DNA. These results suggest that C. elegans homeodomain protein, CEH-37 could play an important role in telomere function via DNA binding.

  17. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin susceptibility and isolation of resistance mutants in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marroquin, L D; Elyassnia, D; Griffitts, J S; Feitelson, J S; Aroian, R V

    2000-01-01

    The protein toxins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are the most widely used natural insecticides in agriculture. Despite successful and extensive use of these toxins in transgenic crops, little is known about toxicity and resistance pathways in target insects since these organisms are not ideal for molecular genetic studies. To address this limitation and to investigate the potential use of these toxins to control parasitic nematodes, we are studying Bt toxin action and resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans. We demonstrate for the first time that a single Bt toxin can target a nematode. When fed Bt toxin, C. elegans hermaphrodites undergo extensive damage to the gut, a decrease in fertility, and death, consistent with toxin effects in insects. We have screened for and isolated 10 recessive mutants that resist the toxin's effects on the intestine, on fertility, and on viability. These mutants define five genes, indicating that more components are required for Bt toxicity than previously known. We find that a second, unrelated nematicidal Bt toxin may utilize a different toxicity pathway. Our data indicate that C. elegans can be used to undertake detailed molecular genetic analysis of Bt toxin pathways and that Bt toxins hold promise as nematicides. PMID:10924467

  18. Different adaptations of Chinese winter-over expeditioners during prolonged Antarctic and sub-Antarctic residence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nan; Wu, Quan; Li, Hao; Zhang, Tao; Xu, Chengli

    2016-05-01

    Prolonged residence in Antarctica is characterized by exposure to isolated, confined, and extreme (ICE) environment. Winter-over expeditioners at research stations often exhibit a complex of psychophysiological symptoms, which varied by stations and sociocultural backgrounds. To understand the different patterns of psychophysiological responses provoked by environmental stress, we conducted a longitudinal assessment of mood and endocrine function in two groups of Chinese expeditioners who were deployed to sub-Antarctic (Great Wall Station, 62°S, N = 12) and Antarctic (Zhongshan Station, 66°S, N = 16) from December 2003 to 2005. Measures of mood, thyroid function, the levels of plasma catecholamine, and circulating interleukins were obtained at departure from China, mid-winter (Antarctica), end of winter (Antarctica), and return to China, respectively. The Zhongshan Station crew experienced significant increases in fatigue, anger, tension, confusion, and decrease in free thyroxine (FT4), norepinephrine (NE), and epinephrine (E) during the winter, increase in thyrotropin (TSH) and total triiodothyronine (TT3) when returning, whereas their counterparts at Great Wall Station only experienced increased TT3 after deployment. Moreover, compared with the Great Wall Station crew, the Zhongshan Station crew exhibited greater increase in anger, greater decrease in FT4, total thyroxine (TT4), NE and E over the winter, and greater increase in TSH when returning. Chinese expeditioners who lived and worked at the Antarctic station and the sub-Antarctic station for over a year showed different change patterns in mood and endocrine hormones. Negative mood and endocrine dysfunction were positively associated with the severity of environment. The study is a supplement to scientific knowledge on psychophysiological variation under ICE environment, which has certain applied value for the development of preventive countermeasures or interventions.

  19. Low endemism, continued deep-shallow interchanges, and evidence for cosmopolitan distributions in free-living marine nematodes (order Enoplida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W Kelley

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nematodes represent the most abundant benthic metazoa in one of the largest habitats on earth, the deep sea. Characterizing major patterns of biodiversity within this dominant group is a critical step towards understanding evolutionary patterns across this vast ecosystem. The present study has aimed to place deep-sea nematode species into a phylogenetic framework, investigate relationships between shallow water and deep-sea taxa, and elucidate phylogeographic patterns amongst the deep-sea fauna. Results Molecular data (18 S and 28 S rRNA confirms a high diversity amongst deep-sea Enoplids. There is no evidence for endemic deep-sea lineages in Maximum Likelihood or Bayesian phylogenies, and Enoplids do not cluster according to depth or geographic location. Tree topologies suggest frequent interchanges between deep-sea and shallow water habitats, as well as a mixture of early radiations and more recently derived lineages amongst deep-sea taxa. This study also provides convincing evidence of cosmopolitan marine species, recovering a subset of Oncholaimid nematodes with identical gene sequences (18 S, 28 S and cox1 at trans-Atlantic sample sites. Conclusions The complex clade structures recovered within the Enoplida support a high global species richness for marine nematodes, with phylogeographic patterns suggesting the existence of closely related, globally distributed species complexes in the deep sea. True cosmopolitan species may additionally exist within this group, potentially driven by specific life history traits of Enoplids. Although this investigation aimed to intensively sample nematodes from the order Enoplida, specimens were only identified down to genus (at best and our sampling regime focused on an infinitesimal small fraction of the deep-sea floor. Future nematode studies should incorporate an extended sample set covering a wide depth range (shelf, bathyal, and abyssal sites, utilize additional genetic loci (e

  20. Intraocular nematode with diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakariah Sakinah

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Live intraocular nematode is a rare occurrence. Nematode can migrate actively within the eye, creating visual symptoms and damaging ocular tissue. Case presentation A 26-year old man presented with painless reduced vision of the left eye for one week duration. It was associated with floaters. Visual acuity on the left eye was hand movement. Anterior segment examination was normal with normal intra-ocular pressure. Fundus examination showed a live nematode lying subretinally at the macular area with macular oedema and multifocal chorioretinal lesions at peripheral retina. There was no vitritis, vasculitis or any retinal hemorrhage. Systemic examination revealed normal findings and laboratory studies only showed leucocytosis with normal eosinophil count and negative serum toxocara antibody. The diagnosis of introcular nematode with diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis was made. He was treated with oral anti-helminths and a course of oral steroid at a reducing dose. The nematode had died evidenced by its immobility during the treatment and finally disintegrated, leaving macular oedema with mottling appearance and mild hyperpigmentation. Multifocal chorioretinal lesions had also resolved. However despite treatment his visual acuity during follow-up had remained poor. Conclusions Cases of intraocular nematode, though not commonly encountered, continue to present the ophthalmologist with the problem of diagnosis and management and hence poorer prognosis to the patient.

  1. A Device to Measure the Propulsive Power of Nematodes

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, J; Gnatt, M; Raizen, D M; Bau, H H

    2011-01-01

    In the fluid dynamics video, we present a microfluidic device to measure the propulsive power of nematodes. The device consists of a tapered conduit filled with aqueous solution. The conduit is subjected to a DC electric field with the negative pole at the narrow end and to pressure-driven flow directed from the narrow end. The nematode is inserted at the conduit's wide end. Directed by the electric field (through electrotaxis), the nematode swims deliberately upstream toward the negative pole of the DC field. As the conduit narrows, the average fluid velocity and the drag force on the nematode increase. Eventually, the nematode arrives at an equilibrium position, at which its propulsive force balances the viscous drag force induced by the adverse flow. The equilibrium position of different animals, with similar body lengths, was measured as a function of the flow rate. The flow field around the nematode was obtained by direct numerical simulations with the experimentally imaged gait and the tapered geometry ...

  2. The host immune response to gastrointestinal nematode infection in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, K M; Stear, M J; Good, B; Keane, O M

    2015-12-01

    Gastrointestinal nematode infection represents a major threat to the health, welfare and productivity of sheep populations worldwide. Infected lambs have a reduced ability to absorb nutrients from the gastrointestinal tract, resulting in morbidity and occasional mortality. The current chemo-dominant approach to nematode control is considered unsustainable due to the increasing incidence of anthelmintic resistance. In addition, there is growing consumer demand for food products from animals not subjected to chemical treatment. Future mechanisms of nematode control must rely on alternative, sustainable strategies such as vaccination or selective breeding of resistant animals. Such strategies take advantage of the host's natural immune response to nematodes. The ability to resist gastrointestinal nematode infection is considered to be dependent on the development of a protective acquired immune response, although the precise immune mechanisms involved in initiating this process remain to be fully elucidated. In this study, current knowledge on the innate and acquired host immune response to gastrointestinal nematode infection in sheep and the development of immunity is reviewed. PMID:26480845

  3. Communities of terrestrial nematodes after different approaches to heathland restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radochova, Petra; Frouz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Since the 20th century, the distribution of European heathlands rapidly decreased due to agricultural intensification, heavy use of artificial fertilizers or acidification (Aerts & Heil, 1993). Therefore, various attempts of heathland restoration are under way in these days. Analysis of nematode community composition can be one of the tools suitable for succession evaluation (Ferris et al., 2001). In 2011, 2013 and 2014, soil samples were collected from heathland restoration experiment (launched in 2011) where different restoration methods were applied in a 3 × 3 factorial experiment; existing heathlands were also sampled to identify the target community both in dry and wet heathland. A total of 60 samples of extracted nematodes were analysed for absolute abundance, trophic groups, and genera dominance. Various indices were calculated to describe the nematode community. We were able to prove faster development of wet heathlands towards the target community. However, because of large data variability, there was no significant difference between treatments. Development of wet and dry heathlands differed also in increased proportion of omniphagous nematodes in 2013 and predators in 2014 in dry heathlands. After three years of heathland restoration, nematode community has not yet reached parameters of the target community. References Aerts, R., Heil, G. W., 1993. Heathlands: patterns and processes in a changing environment, 1st ed, Geobotany: 20. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, p. 229. Ferris, H., Bongers, T., De Goede, R. G. M., 2001. A framework for soil food web diagnostics: Extension of the nematode faunal analysis oncept. Appl. Soil Ecol. 18, 13-29.

  4. Comparative analysis of complete mitochondrial genome sequences confirms independent origins of plant-parasitic nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultana Tahera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nematode infraorder Tylenchomorpha (Class Chromadorea includes plant parasites that are of agricultural and economic importance, as well as insect-associates and fungal feeding species. Among tylenchomorph plant parasites, members of the superfamily Tylenchoidea, such as root-knot nematodes, have great impact on agriculture. Of the five superfamilies within Tylenchomorpha, one (Aphelenchoidea includes mainly fungal-feeding species, but also some damaging plant pathogens, including certain Bursaphelenchus spp. The evolutionary relationships of tylenchoid and aphelenchoid nematodes have been disputed based on classical morphological features and molecular data. For example, similarities in the structure of the stomatostylet suggested a common evolutionary origin. In contrast, phylogenetic hypotheses based on nuclear SSU ribosomal DNA sequences have revealed paraphyly of Aphelenchoidea, with, for example, fungal-feeding Aphelenchus spp. within Tylenchomorpha, but Bursaphelenchus and Aphelenchoides spp. more closely related to infraorder Panagrolaimomorpha. We investigated phylogenetic relationships of plant-parasitic tylenchoid and aphelenchoid species in the context of other chromadorean nematodes based on comparative analysis of complete mitochondrial genome data, including two newly sequenced genomes from Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Aphelenchoidea and Pratylenchus vulnus (Tylenchoidea. Results The complete mitochondrial genomes of B. xylophilus and P. vulnus are 14,778 bp and 21,656 bp, respectively, and identical to all other chromadorean nematode mtDNAs in that they contain 36 genes (lacking atp8 encoded in the same direction. Their mitochondrial protein-coding genes are biased toward use of amino acids encoded by T-rich codons, resulting in high A+T richness. Phylogenetic analyses of both nucleotide and amino acid sequence datasets using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods did not support B. xylophilus as most

  5. Biomarkers and Microbial Fossils In Antarctic Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzchos, J.; Ascaso, C.

    Lithobiontic microbial communities living within Antarctic rocks are an example of survival in an extremely cold and dry environment. Any unfavourable change in ex- ternal conditions can result in the death and disappearance of microscopic organisms, and this may be followed by the appearance of trace biomarkers and microbial fossils. The extinction of these microorganisms in some zones of the Ross Desert, probably provoked by the hostile environment, might be considered a good terrestrial analogue of the first stage of the disappearance of possible life on early Mars. Granite samples from maritime Antarctica (Granite Harbour) and sandstone rocks from the continental Ross Desert were collected with the aim of searching for biomarkers and microbial fossils at the microscopic level of observation. To this end, a novel in situ applica- tion of scanning electron microscopy with backscattered electron imaging was com- bined with the simultaneous use of X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy techniques. Our findings confirm the existence of inorganic biomarkers in the form of physico- chemically bioweathered minerals within the granitic rocks. The presence of Fe-rich diagenetic minerals, such as iron hydroxide nanocrystals and biogenic clays around chasmoendolithic hyphae and bacterial cells was also observed. Others biomarkers, including inorganic deposits such as calcium oxalates and silica accumulations, are clear signs of endolithic microorganism activity. The interior of the sandstone rocks (Ross Desert, Mt. Fleming) reveal the presence of microbial fossils of algae and other endolithic microorganisms. These microbial fossils, detected for the first time within Antarctic rocks, contain well preserved and morphologically distinguishable relics of ultrastructural cytoplasm elements, such as cell walls, chloroplast membranes, and oc- casionally, pyrenoids and traces of organic matter. These structures are similar to those observed in live cells also found in Antarctic

  6. Mutation and evolutionary rates in adelie penguins from the antarctic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig D Millar

    Full Text Available Precise estimations of molecular rates are fundamental to our understanding of the processes of evolution. In principle, mutation and evolutionary rates for neutral regions of the same species are expected to be equal. However, a number of recent studies have shown that mutation rates estimated from pedigree material are much faster than evolutionary rates measured over longer time periods. To resolve this apparent contradiction, we have examined the hypervariable region (HVR I of the mitochondrial genome using families of Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae from the Antarctic. We sequenced 344 bps of the HVR I from penguins comprising 508 families with 915 chicks, together with both their parents. All of the 62 germline heteroplasmies that we detected in mothers were also detected in their offspring, consistent with maternal inheritance. These data give an estimated mutation rate (micro of 0.55 mutations/site/Myrs (HPD 95% confidence interval of 0.29-0.88 mutations/site/Myrs after accounting for the persistence of these heteroplasmies and the sensitivity of current detection methods. In comparison, the rate of evolution (k of the same HVR I region, determined using DNA sequences from 162 known age sub-fossil bones spanning a 37,000-year period, was 0.86 substitutions/site/Myrs (HPD 95% confidence interval of 0.53 and 1.17. Importantly, the latter rate is not statistically different from our estimate of the mutation rate. These results are in contrast to the view that molecular rates are time dependent.

  7. Plant nematodes in South Africa. 12. Checklist of plant nematodes of the protected areas of the Eastern Cape Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariette Marais

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Soil-inhabiting nematodes, including plant-parasitic nematodes, are considered to be the most abundant multicellular organisms in the soil, and of particular interest since they are an integral part of the interlocking chain of nutrient conversions. Because of their abundance and relative susceptibility to both physical and chemical changes, these organisms are used as indicator organisms. The National Collection of Nematodes (NCN consists of a core collection, the Meloidogyne Collection and the Juan Heyns Collection, which are housed at the Plant Protection Research Institute of the Agricultural Research Council in Pretoria. Vast amounts of biodiversity data are contained in NCN, and the digitising of the collection from 2007 to 2014 yielded unpublished locality information, especially datasets of plant nematodes reported from protected areas of the Eastern Cape. Two hundred and thirty plant nematode species belonging to 36 genera were reported from the Eastern Cape. Of these, only 80 were from protected areas, whilst 163 were from uncultivated areas (outside protected areas and 148 from cultivated areas. Ten species were described from protected areas, namely Criconemoides silvicola, Meloinema silvicola, Ogma tuberculatum, Paralongidorus cebensis, Paralongidorus hanliae, Scutellonema tsitsikamense, Trichodorus vandenbergae, Xiphinema erriae, Xiphinema ornatizulu and Xiphinema simplex. Only M. silvicola, O. tuberculatum, P. cebensis and S. tsitsikamense were not reported from other provinces, suggesting endemism.Conservation implications: The diversity of nematode fauna is not adequately protected as most nematode biodiversity in the Eastern Cape lies outside protected areas, with only 80 of the 230 plant-feeding nematode species in the province being reported from protected areas.

  8. Changes in the West Antarctic ice sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The portion of the West Antarctic ice sheet that flows into the Ross Sea is thinning in some places and thickening in others. These changes are not caused by any current climatic change, but by the combination of a delayed response to the end of the last global glacial cycle and an internal instability. The near-future impact of the ice sheet on global sea level is largely due to processes internal to the movement of the ice sheet, and not so much to the threat of a possible greenhouse warming. Thus the near-term future of the ice sheet is already determined. However, too little of the ice sheet has been surveyed to predict its overall future behavior

  9. Joint Antarctic School Expedition - An International Collaboration for High School Students and Teachers on Antarctic Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella, J.; Warburton, J.; Bartholow, S.; Reed, L. F.

    2014-12-01

    The Joint Antarctic School Expedition (JASE) is an international collaboration program between high school students and teachers from the United States and Chile aimed at providing the skills required for establishing the scientific international collaborations that our globalized world demands, and to develop a new approach for science education. The National Antarctic Programs of Chile and the United States worked together on a pilot program that brought high school students and teachers from both countries to Punta Arenas, Chile, in February 2014. The goals of this project included strengthening the partnership between the two countries, and building relationships between future generations of scientists, while developing the students' awareness of global scientific issues and expanding their knowledge and interest in Antarctica and polar science. A big component of the project involved the sharing by students of the acquired knowledge and experiences with the general public. JASE is based on the successful Chilean Antarctic Science Fair developed by Chile´s Antarctic Research Institute. For 10 years, small groups of Chilean students, each mentored by a teacher, perform experimental or bibliographical Antarctic research. Winning teams are awarded an expedition to the Chilean research station on King George Island. In 2014, the Chileans invited US participation in this program in order to strengthen science ties for upcoming generations. On King George Island, students have hands-on experiences conducting experiments and learning about field research. While the total number of students directly involved in the program is relatively small, the sharing of the experience by students with the general public is a novel approach to science education. Research experiences for students, like JASE, are important as they influence new direction for students in science learning, science interest, and help increase science knowledge. We will share experiences with the

  10. Organic carbon in Antarctic snow: spatial trends and possible sources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Antony, R.; Mahalinganathan, K.; Thamban, M.; Nair, S.

    Organic carbon records in Antarctic snow are sparse despite the fact that it is of great significance to global carbon dynamics, snow photochemistry, and air–snow exchange processes. Here, surface snow total organic carbon (TOC) along with sea...

  11. A Comparative Study of Antarctic Arctic and Himalayan Ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Pathak

    1989-07-01

    Full Text Available Arctic, Antarctic and inaccessible lofty regions of Himalayas,which are geographically diverse areas and have been a constant source of inspiration, envisages a challenging field of study 'by early adventurers and scientists of the world. Characteristics of ice obtained at Arctic and Antarctic do not possess similar properties. Even thesalient properties of snow and ice of western and central Himalayas vary due to its differing free water content. A study has been carriedout based on recent Antarctic Expedition by Indian scientists and the data gathered along litha-tectonic regions of Himalayas and their characteristics have been compared, wkich brings out stratigraphic and metamorphic characteristics of the ice and snow. In the present paper,an analysis of the ice and snow properties of Arctic, Antarctic and Himalayan regions has been presented.

  12. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Daily Antarctic Oscillation Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Antarctic Oscillation (AAO) is a leading teleconnection pattern in the Southern Hemisphere circulation. It is calculated as the first Empirical Orthogonal...

  13. Morphogenesis of Antarctic Paleosols: Martian Analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaney, W. C.; Dohm, J. M.; Baker, V. R.; Newsom, Horton E.; Malloch, D.; Hancock, R. G. V.; Campbell, Iain; Sheppard, D.; Milner, M. W.

    2001-11-01

    Samples of horizons in paleosols from the Quartermain Mountains of the Antarctic Dry Valleys (Aztec and New Mountain areas) were analyzed for their physical characteristics, mineralogy, chemical composition, and microbiology to determine the accumulation and movement of salts and other soluble constituents and the presence/absence of microbial populations. Salt concentrations are of special interest because they are considered to be a function of age, derived over time, in part from nearby oceanic and high-altitude atmospheric sources. The chemical composition of ancient Miocene-age paleosols in these areas is the direct result of the deposition and weathering of airborne-influxed salts and other materials, as well as the weathering of till derived principally from local dolerite and sandstone outcrops. Paleosols nearer the coast have greater contents of Cl, whereas near the inland ice sheet, nitrogen tends to increase on a relative basis. The accumulation and vertical distribution of salts and other soluble chemical elements indicate relative amounts of movement in the profile over long periods of time, in the order of several million years. Four of the six selected subsamples from paleosol horizons in two ancient soil profiles contained nil concentrations of bacteria and fungi. However, two horizons at depths of between 3 and 8 cm, in two profiles, yielded several colonies of the fungi Beauveria bassiana and Penicillium brevicompactum, indicating very minor input of organic carbon. Beauveria bassiana is often reported in association with insects and is used commercially for the biological control of some insect pests. Penicillium species are commonly isolated from Arctic, temperate, and tropical soils and are known to utilize a wide variety of organic carbon and nitrogen compounds. The cold, dry soils of the Antarctic bear a close resemblance to various present and past martian environments where similar weathering could occur and possible microbial populations

  14. Fundamental differences between Arctic and Antarctic ozone depletion

    OpenAIRE

    Solomon, Susan; Haskins, Jessica; Ivy, Diane J.; Min, Flora

    2014-01-01

    Fundamental differences in observed ozone depletion between the Arctic and the Antarctic are shown, clarifying distinctions between both average and extreme ozone decreases in the two hemispheres. Balloon-borne and satellite measurements in the heart of the ozone layer near 18−24 km altitude show that extreme ozone decreases often observed in the Antarctic ozone hole region have not yet been measured in the Arctic in any year, including the unusually cold Arctic spring of 2011. The data provi...

  15. Perspectives on the economic history of the Antarctic region

    OpenAIRE

    Basberg, Bjørn L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper starts out by indicating how the economic history of the Antarctic could be conceptualized, given the peculiarities of the continent and the region (no permanent population, no sovereignty in a traditional sense, extreme remoteness, rigorous climate etc.). Second, it describes the main industries throughout Antarctic history. Third, it examines the quantitative data available on economic activity in the region, suggests how we should proceed to analyse the economic a...

  16. Holocene subsurface temperature variability in the eastern Antarctic continental margin

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, J. H.; X. Crosta; Willmott, V.; Renssen, H.; J. Bonnin; Helmke, P.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2012-01-01

    We reconstructed subsurface (similar to 45-200 m water depth) temperature variability in the eastern Antarctic continental margin during the late Holocene, using an archaeal lipid-based temperature proxy (TEX86 L). Our results reveal that subsurface temperature changes were probably positively coupled to the variability of warmer, nutrient-rich Modified Circumpolar Deep Water (MCDW, deep water of the Antarctic circumpolar current) intrusion onto the continental shelf. The TEX86 L record, in c...

  17. Wind profile radar for study of Antarctic air circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a brief discussion of meteorological methods used in the Antarctic, the paper gives an outline of a coordinated international research project whose objective is to set up a wind profiler radar station that would give meteorologists information regarding Antarctic atmospheric dynamics useful in their investigation of the causes and effects of the hole in the ozone layer. The radar instrumentation is to provide continuous readings of wind velocity at varying altitudes above the polar continent

  18. Obliquity-paced Pliocene West Antarctic ice sheet oscillations

    OpenAIRE

    Naish, T.; Antarctic Research Centre, Victoria University of Wellington, Kelburn Parade, PO Box 600, Wellington 6012, New Zealand; Powell, R.; Department of Geology & Environmental Geosciences, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, Illinois 60115, USA.; Levy, R.; ANDRILL Science Management Office, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, USA; Wilson, G.; University of Otago, Department of Geology, PO Box 56, Leith Street, Dunedin, Otago 9001, New Zealand; Scherer, R.; Department of Geology & Environmental Geosciences, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, Illinois 60115, USA.; Talarico, F.; Universita` di Siena, Dipartimento di Scienze delle Terra, Via Laterina 8, I-53100 Siena, Italy; Krissek, L.; Ohio State University, Department of Geological Sciences, 275 Mendenhall Lab, 125 South Oval Mall, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA; Niessen, F.; Alfred Wegener Institute, Department of Geosciences, Postfach 12 01 6, Am Alten Hafen 26, D-27515 Bremerhaven, Germany; Pompilio, M.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Pisa, Pisa, Italia; Wilson, T.; Ohio State University, Department of Geological Sciences, 275 Mendenhall Lab, 125 South Oval Mall, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA; Carter, L.; Antarctic Research Centre, Victoria University of Wellington, Kelburn Parade, PO Box 600, Wellington 6012, New Zealand; DeConto, R.; Department of Geosciences, 233 Morrell Science Centre, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003-9297, USA; Huybers, P.; Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Harvard University, Massachusetts 02138, USA; McKay, R.; Antarctic Research Centre, Victoria University of Wellington, PO Box 600, Wellington - New Zealand; Pollard, D.; Earth and Environmental Systems Institute, 2217 Earth-Engineering Science Bldg, University Park, PA 16802, USA

    2009-01-01

    Thirty years after oxygen isotope records frommicrofossils deposited in ocean sediments confirmed the hypothesis that variations in the Earth’s orbital geometry control the ice ages1, fundamental questions remain over the response of the Antarctic ice sheets to orbital cycles2. Furthermore, an understanding of the behaviour of the marine-based West Antarctic ice sheet (WAIS) during the ‘warmer-than- present’ early-Pliocene epoch (̃5–3Myr ago) is needed to better constrain the possibl...

  19. A Bivalve Proxy for Neogene Antarctic Shelf Marine Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, N. A.; Williams, M.; Quilty, P. G.; Leng, M. J.; Zalasiewicz, J. A.; Smellie, J.; Dowsett, H. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Neogene shallow-marine successions of the Antarctic Peninsula and of the East Antarctic region preserve rich assemblages of bivalve molluscs. These bivalve molluscs provide a detailed record of palaeoseasonality in the chemical signature and morphology of their shells that can be used to assess sea temperatures and sea ice extent for the Antarctic shelf during the Pliocene. Analyses identify the following. 1) Neogene bivalves from James Ross Island, Antarctic Peninsula, comprise material of late Miocene through to late Pliocene age. Results identify warm (ca. 3-10 °C) early Pliocene sea temperatures, and cooler late Pliocene sea temperatures (ca. 0-4 °C), and flag a cooling trend which is consistent with the evolution of polar climate through this interval. 2) Neogene bivalves from the Larsemann Hills, East Antarctic, identify generally warmer than present sea temperatures (ca. 0-11 °C) in the early Pliocene consistent with data from other fossil groups of this age, including dolphins and silicoflagellates. The new data may provide significant ground truth for climate models assessing the Southern Ocean and Antarctic shelf climate.

  20. Effect of Antarctic solar radiation on sewage bacteria viability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, K.A. [National Environment Research Council, Cambridge (United Kingdom). British Antarctic Survey

    2005-06-01

    The majority of coastal Antarctic research stations discard untreated sewage waste into the near-shore marine environment. However, Antarctic solar conditions are unique, with ozone depletion increasing the proportion of potentially damaging ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation reaching the marine environment. This study assessed the influence of Antarctic solar radiation on the viability of Escherichia coli and sewage microorganisms at Rothera Research Station, Adelaide Island, Antarctic Peninsula. Cell viability decreased with increased exposure time and with exposure to shorter wavelengths of solar radiation. Cell survival also declined with decreasing cloud cover, solar zenith angle and ozone column depth. However, particulates in sewage increased the persistence of viable bacteria. Ultraviolet radiation doses over Rothera Point were highest during the austral summer. During this time, solar radiation may act to partially reduce the number of viable sewage-derived microorganisms in the surface seawater around Antarctic outfalls. Nevertheless, this effect is not reliable and every effort should be made to fully treat sewage before release into the Antarctic marine environment. (author)

  1. Parasites of the Antarctic toothfish (Dissostichus mawsoni Norman, 1937 (Perciformes, Nototheniidae in the Pacific sector of the Antarctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya I. Gordeev

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Antarctic toothfish (Dissostichus mawsoni Norman, 1937 is one of the main target species of commercial fisheries in the Antarctic. It is an endemic and is found along the shelf of Antarctica, as well as on the slopes of seamounts, underwater elevations and islands in the sub-Antarctic. It feeds on a variety of fish and cephalopods and can be an intermediate/paratenic host of some helminthes, whose final hosts are whales, seals, large rays and sharks. This article presents new data on toothfish infection in the Pacific sector of the Antarctic. Specimens were examined during commercial longline fishing in the Ross Sea and the Amundsen Sea in January–February 2013. Fourteen species of parasites were found using standard parasitological methods and genetic analysis.

  2. Development of a regional glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT)-temperature calibration for Antarctic and sub-Antarctic lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Louise C.; Pearson, Emma J.; Juggins, Steve; Hodgson, Dominic A.; Saunders, Krystyna M.; Verleyen, Elie; Roberts, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    A regional network of quantitative reconstructions of past climate variability is required to test climate models. In recent studies, temperature calibration models based on the relative abundances of sedimentary glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) have enabled past temperature reconstructions in both marine and terrestrial environments. Nevertheless, to date these methods have not been widely applied in high latitude environments due to poor performance of the GDGT-temperature calibrations at lower temperatures. To address this we studied 32 lakes from Antarctica, the sub-Antarctic Islands and Southern Chile to: 1) quantify their GDGT composition and investigate the environmental controls on GDGT composition; and 2) develop a GDGT-temperature calibration model for inferring past temperatures from Antarctic and sub-Antarctic lakes. GDGTs were found in all 32 lakes studied and in 31 lakes branched GDGTs (brGDGTs) were the dominant compounds. Statistical analyses of brGDGT composition in relation to temperature, pH, conductivity and water depth showed that the composition of brGDGTs is strongly correlated with mean summer air temperature (MSAT). This enabled the development of the first regional brGDGT-temperature calibration for use in Antarctic and sub-Antarctic lakes using four brGDGT compounds (GDGT-Ib, GDGT-II, GDGT-III and GDGT-IIIb). A key discovery was that GDGT-IIIb is of particular importance in cold lacustrine environments. The addition of this compound significantly improved the model's performance from r2 = 0.67, RMSEP-LOO (leave-one-out) = 2.23 °C, RMSEP-H (h-block) = 2.37 °C when applying the re-calibrated global GDGT-temperature calibration to our Antarctic dataset to r2 = 0.83, RMSEP-LOO = 1.68 °C, RMSEP-H = 1.65 °C for our new Antarctic calibration. This shows that Antarctic and sub-Antarctic, and possibly other high latitude, palaeotemperature reconstructions should be based on a regional GDGT-temperature calibration where specific

  3. Current Status of Soil-transmitted Nematode Infection in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YING-DAN CHEN; LIN-HUA TANG; LONG-QI XU

    2008-01-01

    Objective To Carry out national surveys for ascertaining the current status and trends of soil-transmitted nematode infections in China,providing scientific basis for forther developing control strategies.Methods In 1988-1992(hereinafter abbreriated as "survey in 1990"),a stratified cluster random sampling method was used in the survey.In 2001-2004(hereinafter abbreriated as "survey in 2003"),in order to compare with the survey in 1990,two-characteristic stratified cluster random sampling method was used and 687 investigation spots were sampled from the 2848 spots selected in the survey in 1990.Kato-Katz thick smear method was used to examine the eggs of soil-transmitted nematodes in fecal samples. Results The prevalence rates were 53.6% and 19.6% for soil-transmitted nematodes,14.6%and 6.120% for hookworms,44.6% and 12.7% for Ascaris lumbricoides,17.4% and 4.630% for Trichuris trichiura in survey 1990 and survey 2003,respectively.The prevalence rates of soil-transmitted nematodes were higher in 13 provinces than the average level in China in the survey in 1990.and higher in 8 provinces than the average level in the survey in 2003.The prevalence of hookworms,Ascaris lumbricoides,Trichurls trichiura and the overall prevalence of soft-transmitted nematodes were higher in females than in males.It is estimated from the results of survey in 2003 that the number of persons with soil-transmitted nematode infections in the country is about 129 million,less than that in the survey in 1990. Conclusion The prevalence of soil-transmitted nematodes has declined considerably but is still relatively high in some provinces and autonomous regions.Control activities and socioeconomic development may have contributed to the decreased prevalence.

  4. Crystallization, preliminary X-ray diffraction studies and Raman microscopy of the major haemoglobin from the sub-Antarctic fish Eleginops maclovinus in the carbomonoxy form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major haemoglobin of the sub-Antarctic fish E. maclovinus is the first sub-Antarctic fish haemoglobin to be crystallized and its structural characterization will shed light on the molecular mechanisms of cold adaptation and the role of the Root effect in fish. The blood of the sub-Antarctic fish Eleginops maclovinus (Em) contains three haemoglobins. The major haemoglobin (Hb1Em) displays the Root effect, a drastic decrease in the oxygen affinity and a loss of cooperativity at acidic pH. The carbomonoxy form of HbEm1 has been crystallized in two different crystal forms, orthorhombic (Ortho) and hexagonal (Hexa), and high-resolution diffraction data have been collected for both forms (1.45 and 1.49 Å resolution, respectively). The high-frequency resonance Raman spectra collected from the two crystal forms using excitation at 514 nm were almost indistinguishable. Hb1Em is the first sub-Antarctic fish Hb to be crystallized and its structural characterization will shed light on the molecular mechanisms of cold adaptation and the role of the Root effect in fish haemoglobins

  5. BACTERIAL PREFERENCES OF THE BACTERIVOROUS SOIL NEMATODE CEPHALOBUS BREVICAUDA (CEPHALOBIDAE): EFFECT OF BACTERIAL TYPE AND SIZE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cell size and type may affect availability of bacteria for consumption by bacterivorous nematodes in the soil and in culture. This study explored the bacterial preferences of the bacterivorous soil nematode Cephalobus brevicauda (Cephalobidae) by comparing bactgeria isolated dir...

  6. Plant and soil nematodes from Lokchao Yangoupokpi Wildlife Sanctuary, Manipur, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mohilal

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study soil samples were collected from Lokchao Yangoupokpi Wildlife Sanctuary to investigate about what nematode species are associated with different plant hosts. This study shows rich nematode diversity in the sanctuary.

  7. Impact of sewage disposal on a nematode community of a tropical sandy beach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nanajkar, M.; Ingole, B.S.

    Free-living marine nematodes from an intertidal sandy beach from Goa near the Panjim city, central west coast of India was investigated along a gradient of sewage pollution. High nematode diversity (11 species) and abundance was observed near...

  8. Antihelmintic Resistance For Gastrointestinal Bovine Nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Torres Vásquez

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN, in domestic animals, especially in bovines are a very important factor that affects their productivity, because cattle production systems have intervened in the relationship between gastrointestinal parasites (PGI and the host, breaking therefore the ecological balance between them. In many opportunities the development of parasitic populations have been favored or a parasitic population have been led to extinction, it has made that these populations express genes that would not express under normal conditions, favoring thus, resistance to medications that were made to their destruction. NGI are highly important in all cattle exploitations, but their inappropriate handling, mainly in the pharmacological aspect, has created vermifuge resistance by some parasitic populations. This article will determine the importance of the vermifuge resistance in cattle exploitations, as a factor of risk for the control of parasitic populations. The most important antihelmintic groups used in bovine are Benzimidazoles, Levamisol and Ivermectine and with these products resistance has been reported by parasitic populations such as in Haemochus contortus, Trichostrongylus. colubriformis, Ostertagia circumcicta, Ostertagia ostertagi. Different risk factors were classified in extrinsic (which don’t depend on the gastrointestinal parasite and intrinsic (which depend directly on gastrointestinal parasites related with genetics which occupy a great importance in the development of the vermifuge resistance.

  9. GABA localization in the nematode Ascaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A histochemical approach was used to examine the distribution of GABA-associated neurons in the nematode Ascaris, an organism whose small number of morphologically simple neurons make it an excellent preparation for analyzing neuronal phenotypes. Two GABAergic markers were examined: GABA-like immunoreactivity (GLIR), a marker for endogenous stores of GABA; and [3H]-GABA uptake, a marker for GABA uptake sites. Strong GLIR was present in the cell bodies, neurites and commissures of dorsal and ventral inhibitory motorneurons present in this region. Strong GLIR was also present in the cell bodies and processes of the four RME neurons in the nerve ring and in several other ganglionic neurons. Staining was absent in excitatory motorneurons, in ventral cord interneurons and in muscle cells and hypodermis. GABA uptake sites were found in single neural processes in both the ventral and dorsal nerve cords. [3H]-GABA labeling was also observed in the other two RME cells and several other cephalic neurons. Four putative cholinergic excitatory motorneurons in the retrovesicular ganglion (RVG) were heavily labeled. Ventral and dorsal nerve cord inhibitory motorneurons did not take up [3H]-GABA. Labeling of the ventral cord excitatory motorneuron somata and cell bodies was at or slightly above background. Heavy labeling of muscle cells was also observed

  10. GABA localization in the nematode Ascaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guastella, J.

    1988-01-01

    A histochemical approach was used to examine the distribution of GABA-associated neurons in the nematode Ascaris, an organism whose small number of morphologically simple neurons make it an excellent preparation for analyzing neuronal phenotypes. Two GABAergic markers were examined: GABA-like immunoreactivity (GLIR), a marker for endogenous stores of GABA; and ({sup 3}H)-GABA uptake, a marker for GABA uptake sites. Strong GLIR was present in the cell bodies, neurites and commissures of dorsal and ventral inhibitory motorneurons present in this region. Strong GLIR was also present in the cell bodies and processes of the four RME neurons in the nerve ring and in several other ganglionic neurons. Staining was absent in excitatory motorneurons, in ventral cord interneurons and in muscle cells and hypodermis. GABA uptake sites were found in single neural processes in both the ventral and dorsal nerve cords. ({sup 3}H)-GABA labeling was also observed in the other two RME cells and several other cephalic neurons. Four putative cholinergic excitatory motorneurons in the retrovesicular ganglion (RVG) were heavily labeled. Ventral and dorsal nerve cord inhibitory motorneurons did not take up ({sup 3}H)-GABA. Labeling of the ventral cord excitatory motorneuron somata and cell bodies was at or slightly above background. Heavy labeling of muscle cells was also observed.

  11. Genome Similarity Implies that Citrus-Parasitic Burrowing Nematodes do not Represent a Unique Species

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplan, D. T.; Opperman, C. H.

    1997-01-01

    Burrowing nematodes from Central America, Dominican Republic, Florida, Guadeloupe, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico were characterized for their ability to parasitize citrus, but citrus parasites were found only in Florida. Sequence tag sites originally amplified from a citrus-parasitic burrowing nematode were polymorphic among 37 burrowing nematode isolates and were not correlated with citrus parasitism, nematode isolate collection site, or amplification of a 2.4-kb sequence tag site (DK#1). Results ...

  12. Nematode resistance in bananas : screening results on some new Mycosphaerella resistant banana hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Quénéhervé, Patrick; Salmon, F.; Topart, Patrick; Horry, J. P.

    2009-01-01

    Banana hybrids with resistance to Yellow Sigatoka and Black Leaf Streak disease were evaluated for resistance to the burrowing nematode Radopholus similis and to the lesion nematode Pratylenchus coVeae in a growth chamber at 24-28. Plants produced by tissue culture were acclimatised for 6 weeks prior to inoculation. Forty-five days after inoculation with nematodes, the root systems were processed and nematode numbers assessed. Two cultivars of Grande Naine (Musa AAA, Cavendish subgroup, ITC12...

  13. Evaluation of host-seeking behavior in a diverse group of nematode species

    OpenAIRE

    Chaisson, Keely Ellen

    2013-01-01

    One of the behaviors of parasitic nematodes that is essential for successful parasitism is host seeking, a complex behavior requiring nematodes to integrate sensory cues to find suitablehosts in which to complete their life cycles. Olfaction is a critical component of this response; many nematode parasites use carbon dioxide and other host-produced volatiles to locate their hosts. I investigated the odor responses of four species of skin penetrating mammalian-parasitic nematodes: the rat para...

  14. Overview of Organic Amendments for Management of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes, with Case Studies from Florida

    OpenAIRE

    McSorley, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Organic amendments have been widely used for management of plant-parasitic nematodes. Relatively rapid declines in nematode population levels may occur when decomposing materials release toxic compounds, while longer-term effects might include increases in nematode antagonists. Improved crop nutrition and plant growth following amendment use may lead to tolerance of plant-parasitic nematodes. Results depend on a great variety of factors such as material used, processing/composting of material...

  15. On the Methodology of Nematode Extraction from Field Samples: Comparison of Methods for Soil Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Viglierchio, David R.; Schmitt, Richard V.

    1983-01-01

    The commonly used nematode extraction methods were compared using three soil types and four nematode species. The comparison was repeated in three trials by the same operator to estimate operator reproducibility. Extraction efficiency was dependent upon method, soil type, and nematode species, and reproducibility was not particularly satisfactory for routine analyses. Extraction by any method tested was less than 50% efficient. Quantitative nematode extraction methodology needs serious attent...

  16. Enzymology of the nematode cuticle: A potential drug target?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Antony P; Stepek, Gillian; Winter, Alan D; Pertab, David

    2014-08-01

    All nematodes possess an external structure known as the cuticle, which is crucial for their development and survival. This structure is composed primarily of collagen, which is secreted from the underlying hypodermal cells. Extensive studies using the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans demonstrate that formation of the cuticle requires the activity of an extensive range of enzymes. Enzymes are required both pre-secretion, for synthesis of component proteins such as collagen, and post-secretion, for removal of the previous developmental stage cuticle, in a process known as moulting or exsheathment. The excretion/secretion products of numerous parasitic nematodes contain metallo-, serine and cysteine proteases, and these proteases are conserved across the nematode phylum and many are involved in the moulting/exsheathment process. This review highlights the enzymes required for cuticle formation, with a focus on the post-secretion moulting events. Where orthologues of the C. elegans enzymes have been identified in parasitic nematodes these may represent novel candidate targets for future drug/vaccine development. PMID:25057463

  17. Proteomic Investigation of Photorhabdus Bacteria for Nematode-Host Specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ram; Kushwah, Jyoti; Ganguly, Sudershan; Garg, Veena; Somvanshi, Vishal S

    2016-09-01

    Majority of animals form symbiotic relationships with bacteria. Based on the number of bacterial species associating with an animal, these symbiotic associations can be mono-specific, relatively simple (2-25 bacterial species/animal) or highly complex (>10(2)-10(3) bacterial species/animal). Photorhabdus (family-Enterobacteriaceae) forms a mono-specific symbiotic relationship with the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis. This system provides a tractable genetic model for animal-microbe symbiosis studies. Here, we investigated the bacterial factors that may be responsible for governing host specificity between nematode and their symbiont bacteria using proteomics approach. Total protein profiles of P. luminescens ssp. laumondii (host nematode- H. bacteriophora) and P. luminescens ssp. akhurstii (host nematode- H. indica) were compared using 2-D gel electrophoresis, followed by identification of differentially expressed proteins by MALDI-TOF MS. Thirty-nine unique protein spots were identified - 24 from P. luminescens ssp. laumondii and 15 from P. luminescens ssp. akhurstii. These included proteins that might be involved in determining host specificity directly (for e.g. pilin FimA, outer membrane protein A), indirectly through effect on bacterial secondary metabolism (for e.g. malate dehydrogenase Mdh, Pyruvate formate-lyase PflA, flavo protein WrbA), or in a yet unknown manner (for e.g. hypothetical proteins, transcription regulators). Further functional validation is needed to establish the role of these bacterial proteins in nematode-host specificity. PMID:27407301

  18. The collective motion of nematodes in a thin liquid layer

    CERN Document Server

    Gart, Sean; Jung, Sunghwan

    2010-01-01

    Many organisms live in confined fluidic environments such as the thin liquid layers on the skin of host organisms or in partially- saturated soil. We investigate the collective behaviour of nematodes in a thin liquid layer, which was first observed by Gray and Lissmann, [J. Exp. Biol. 41, 135 (1964)]. We show experimentally that nematodes confined by a thin liquid film come into contact and only separate again after some intervention. We attribute this collective motion to an attractive force between them arising from the surface tension of the layer and show that for nearby nematodes this force is typically stronger than the force that may be exerted by the nematodes' muscles. We believe this to be the first demonstration of the "Cheerios effect" acting on a living organism. However, we find that being grouped together does not significantly alter the body stroke and kinematic performance of the nematode: there are no statistically significant changes of the Strouhal number and the ratio of amplitude to wave...

  19. Soy desiccants herbicides acting in nematode populations on community land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Baiochi Riboldi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of herbicides is the main method of weed control in soybeans. Desiccants are also being used routinely to anticipate the harvest and / or minimize the deterioration of seed quality. There is the possibility of direct or indirect contact with such pesticides, affect the community of nematodes in the soil. However, such effects and their magnitudes are yet to be clarified, especially in the case of selective herbicides. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the use of selective herbicides in soybean on nematodes harmful to the crop. The experiment was conducted with transgenic soybean (‘M-SOY 7908RR’. The experimental design was a randomized block design with the following treatments: paraquat (400 g a.i ha-1, diquat (200 g a.i ha-1, a mixture of paraquat and diquat (300 + 150 g a.i ha-1, two doses of carfentrazone ethyl (20 g a.i ha-1 and 30 g a.i ha-1 and control (without desiccant application. The nematode community in the area was monitored in four periods. In none of those was found significant variation in the populations of nematodes harmful to soybeans, due to the application of any of desiccants. However, especially in the last sampling time, the desiccant application always resulted in increased populations of free-living nematodes and parasites those considered weak for soybean.

  20. Separate origins of ice-binding proteins in antarctic chlamydomonas species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A Raymond

    Full Text Available The green alga Chlamydomonas raudensis is an important primary producer in a number of ice-covered lakes and ponds in Antarctica. A C. raudensis isolate (UWO241 from Lake Bonney in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, like many other Antarctic algae, was found to secrete ice-binding proteins (IBPs, which appear to be essential for survival in icy environments. The IBPs of several Antarctic algae (diatoms, a prymesiophyte, and a prasinophyte are similar to each other (here designated as type I IBPs and have been proposed to have bacterial origins. Other IBPs (type II IBPs that bear no resemblance to type I IBPs, have been found in the Antarctic Chlamydomonas sp. CCMP681, a putative snow alga, raising the possibility that chlamydomonad IBPs developed separately from the IBPs of other algae. To test this idea, we obtained the IBP sequences of C. raudensis UWO241 by sequencing the transcriptome. A large number of transcripts revealed no sequences resembling type II IBPs. Instead, many isoforms resembling type I IBPs were found, and these most closely matched a hypothetical protein from the bacterium Stigmatella aurantiaca. The sequences were confirmed to encode IBPs by the activity of a recombinant protein and by the matching of predicted and observed isoelectric points and molecular weights. Furthermore, a mesophilic sister species, C. raudensis SAG49.72, showed no ice-binding activity or PCR products from UWO241 IBP primers. These results confirm that algal IBPs are required for survival in icy habitats and demonstrate that they have diverse origins that are unrelated to the taxonomic positions of the algae. Last, we show that the C. raudensis UWO241 IBPs can change the structure of ice in a way that could increase the survivability of cells trapped in the ice.

  1. Separate origins of ice-binding proteins in antarctic chlamydomonas species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, James A; Morgan-Kiss, Rachael

    2013-01-01

    The green alga Chlamydomonas raudensis is an important primary producer in a number of ice-covered lakes and ponds in Antarctica. A C. raudensis isolate (UWO241) from Lake Bonney in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, like many other Antarctic algae, was found to secrete ice-binding proteins (IBPs), which appear to be essential for survival in icy environments. The IBPs of several Antarctic algae (diatoms, a prymesiophyte, and a prasinophyte) are similar to each other (here designated as type I IBPs) and have been proposed to have bacterial origins. Other IBPs (type II IBPs) that bear no resemblance to type I IBPs, have been found in the Antarctic Chlamydomonas sp. CCMP681, a putative snow alga, raising the possibility that chlamydomonad IBPs developed separately from the IBPs of other algae. To test this idea, we obtained the IBP sequences of C. raudensis UWO241 by sequencing the transcriptome. A large number of transcripts revealed no sequences resembling type II IBPs. Instead, many isoforms resembling type I IBPs were found, and these most closely matched a hypothetical protein from the bacterium Stigmatella aurantiaca. The sequences were confirmed to encode IBPs by the activity of a recombinant protein and by the matching of predicted and observed isoelectric points and molecular weights. Furthermore, a mesophilic sister species, C. raudensis SAG49.72, showed no ice-binding activity or PCR products from UWO241 IBP primers. These results confirm that algal IBPs are required for survival in icy habitats and demonstrate that they have diverse origins that are unrelated to the taxonomic positions of the algae. Last, we show that the C. raudensis UWO241 IBPs can change the structure of ice in a way that could increase the survivability of cells trapped in the ice. PMID:23536869

  2. The Antarctic krill Euphausia superba shows diurnal cycles of transcription under natural conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano De Pittà

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Polar environments are characterized by extreme seasonal changes in day length, light intensity and spectrum, the extent of sea ice during the winter, and food availability. A key species of the Southern Ocean ecosystem, the Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba has evolved rhythmic physiological and behavioral mechanisms to adapt to daily and seasonal changes. The molecular organization of the clockwork underlying these biological rhythms is, nevertheless, still only partially understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The genome sequence of the Antarctic krill is not yet available. A normalized cDNA library was produced and pyrosequenced in the attempt to identify large numbers of transcripts. All available E. superba sequences were then assembled to create the most complete existing oligonucleotide microarray platform with a total of 32,217 probes. Gene expression signatures of specimens collected in the Ross Sea at five different time points over a 24-hour cycle were defined, and 1,308 genes differentially expressed were identified. Of the corresponding transcripts, 609 showed a significant sinusoidal expression pattern; about 40% of these exibithed a 24-hour periodicity while the other 60% was characterized by a shorter (about 12-hour rhythm. We assigned the differentially expressed genes to functional categories and noticed that those concerning translation, proteolysis, energy and metabolic process, redox regulation, visual transduction and stress response, which are most likely related to daily environmental changes, were significantly enriched. Two transcripts of peroxiredoxin, thought to represent the ancestral timekeeping system that evolved about 2.5 billion years ago, were also identified as were two isoforms of the EsRh1 opsin and two novel arrestin1 sequences involved in the visual transduction cascade. CONCLUSIONS: Our work represents the first characterization of the krill diurnal transcriptome under natural conditions

  3. Steinernema jeffreyense n. sp. (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae), a new entomopathogenic nematode from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malan, A P; Knoetze, R; Tiedt, L R

    2016-05-01

    During a non-targeted survey for entomopathogenic nematodes in South Africa, a new species of Steinernema was isolated from a soil sample collected from underneath a guava tree, close to the shore at Jeffrey's Bay. The nematode was isolated by means of the insect-baiting technique using last-instar larvae of Galleria mellonella. It is described herein as Steinernema jeffreyense n. sp. The nematode can be separated from other described, closely related species in terms of the morphological and morphometric characteristics of the different life stages, and in terms of the characterization and phylogeny of DNA sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA of the 18S gene, and of the D2D3 region of the 28S rDNA gene. The new species is placed molecularly in the arenarium-glaseri-karii-longicaudatum group characterized by the following morphological characters: infective third-stage juvenile with a body length of 926 (784-1043) μm, distance from head to excretory pore of 87 (78-107) μm, tail length of 81 (50-96) μm, with an E% of 109 (86-169), and eight evenly spaced ridges (i.e. nine lines) in the middle of the body. First-generation males have a spicule length of 88 (79-95) μm and gubernaculum length of 57 (51-61) μm. Male mucron is absent in both generations. First-generation females have an asymmetrical protuberance and a short, double-flapped epiptygmata, with both flaps directed to the front. The tail of the first-generation female is shorter than the anal body width, with a mucron on the dorsal tail tip, with D% = 78 (59-99). Cross-hybridization with S. khoisanae, S. tophus and S. innovationi showed the new species to isolate reproductively from the others. The analyses of ITS rDNA and D2D3 sequence of the 18S and 28S rDNA genes support the studied nematode isolate to be a valid new species belonging to the 'glaseri' group (Clade V). PMID:25758326

  4. Satellite DNA as a target for TaqMan real-time PCR detection of the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Cecile; Castagnone, Chantal; Boonham, Neil; Tomlinson, Jenny; Lawson, Rebecca; Hockland, Sue; Quill, James; Vieira, Paulo; Mota, Manuel; Castagnone-Sereno, Philippe

    2007-11-01

    SUMMARY The pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is a major pathogen of conifers, which impacts on forest health, natural ecosystem stability and international trade. As a consequence, it has been listed as a quarantine organism in Europe. A real-time PCR approach based on TaqMan chemistry was developed to detect this organism. Specific probe and primers were designed based on the sequence of the MspI satellite DNA family previously characterized in the genome of the nematode. The method proved to be specific in tests with target DNA from PWN isolates from worldwide origin. From a practical point of view, detection limit was 1 pg of target DNA or one individual nematode. In addition, PWN genomic DNA or single individuals were positively detected in mixed samples in which B. xylophilius was associated with the closely related non-pathogenic species B. mucronatus, up to the limit of 0.01% or 1% of the mixture, respectively. The real-time PCR assay was also used in conjunction with a simple DNA extraction method to detect PWN directly in artificially infested wood samples. These results demonstrate the potential of this assay to provide rapid, accurate and sensitive molecular identification of the PWN in relation to pest risk assessment in the field and quarantine regulation. PMID:20507540

  5. 7 CFR 301.85-9 - Movement of live golden nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement of live golden nematodes. 301.85-9 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Golden Nematode Quarantine and Regulations § 301.85-9 Movement of live golden nematodes. Regulations requiring a permit for and...

  6. Trapping of root-knot nematodes by the adhesive hyphae-forming fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Belder, E.

    1994-01-01

    The present study addresses the ecology of a particular isolate of Arthrobotrys oligospora (CBS 289.82) in relation to its efficacy in controlling the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne hapla.This isolate was selected because it differs from most nematode-trapping fungi in that it captures nematodes wi

  7. High-throughput sequencing of nematode communities from total soil DNA extractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sapkota, Rumakanta; Nicolaisen, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    nematodes without the need for enrichment was developed. Using this strategy on DNA templates from a set of 22 agricultural soils, we obtained 64.4% sequences of nematode origin in total, whereas the remaining sequences were almost entirely from other metazoans. The nematode sequences were derived from a...

  8. A Treadmill to Localize, Exercise, and Measure the Propulsive Power of Nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jinzhou; Chuan, Han-Sheng; Gnatt, Michael; Raizen, David; Bau, Haim

    2011-11-01

    The nematodes C. elegans is often used as model biological system to study the genetic basis of behavior, disease-progression, and aging, as well as to develop new therapies and screen drugs. On occasion, it is desirable to quantify the nematode's muscle power. Here, we present a kind of nematode treadmill. The device consists of a tapered conduit filled with aqueous solution. The conduit is subjected to a DC electric field and to pressure-driven flow directed from the narrow end. The nematode is inserted at the conduit's wide end. Directed by the electric field (through electrotaxis), the nematode swims deliberately upstream toward the negative pole. As the conduit narrows, the average fluid velocity and the drag force on the nematode increase. Eventually, the nematode arrives at an equilibrium position, at which its propulsive power balances the viscous drag force. The nematode's propulsive power is estimated with direct numerical simulations of the flow field around the nematode. The calculations utilize the experimentally imaged gait as a boundary condition. The device is useful to retain the nematode at a nearly fixed position for prolonged observations under a microscope, to keep the nematode exercising, and to estimate the nematode's power based on the conduit's width at the equilibrium position.

  9. A SNARE-like protein and biotin are implicated in soybean cyst nematode virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some phytoparasitic nematodes have the ability to infect and reproduce on plants that are normally considered resistant to nematode infection. Such nematodes are referred to as virulent and the mechanisms they use to evade or suppress host plant defenses are not well understood. Here, we report the ...

  10. Antarctic Single Frames = Frame Level Records of Antarctica Photos: 1946 - 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs of Antarctica from the United States Antarctic Resource Center (USARC) and the British Antarctic Survey (BAS) are maintained in this collection....

  11. Nematodes of elasmobranch fishes from the southern coast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Knoff

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available New records for nematode species recovered from elasmobranch fishes in Brazil are established and new systematical arrangements proposed. Parascarophis sphyrnae Campana-Rouget, 1955 from the spiral valve of Sphyrna zygaena is referred for the first time in South America as a new host record. Procamallanus (S. pereirai Annereaux, 1946, from the spiral valve of Raja castelnaui is reported parasitizing an elasmobranch host. Nematode larvae of the genera Anisakis, Contracaecum, Pseudoterranova and Raphidascaris are listed from the stomach and spiral valves of several hosts. Anisakidae larvae previously referred in Brazil in the genus Phocanema should be reallocated in Pseudoterranova. Nematodes of the genera Anisakis, Contracaecum, Pseudoterranova and Raphidascaris are reported for the first time parasitizing elasmobranchs in Brazil.

  12. Induction of mutations for nematode resistance in tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work is to develop resistance to root-knot nematodes in tomato by induction, selection and utilization of the newly created resistant strains. Seeds of two varieties of tomato Lycopersicon esculentum L., namely Amcopack and Supermarmande, were subjected to various doses of gamma rays ranging from 10 Krads to 40 Krads in an effort to gain resistance to Meloidogyne incognita Chitwood, the prevalent species of nematodes in Lebanon. The variety Supermarmande seemed not to be affected by irradiation while Amcopack gained some resistance with a corresponding increase in the dose of radiation. The data suggest that in a variety like Amcopack, irradiation may stimulate resistance while in others like Supermarmande, susceptibility is not reduced with a corresponding increase of dosage. Those alterations in reaction within varieties may be due to genetic differences which allow some varieties to acquire resistance to nematodes when exposed to certain dosages, while others to suffer seriously due to sensitivity. (author)

  13. Ups and downs of RNA interference in parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Collette; Samarasinghe, Buddhini; Knox, David P

    2012-09-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is widely used in Caenorhabiditis elegans to identify essential gene function. In parasitic nematodes RNAi has been reported to result in transcript knockdown of some target genes, but not others, thus limiting its use as a potential functional genomics tool. We recently extended work in Haemonchus contortus to examine why only some genes seem to be susceptible to RNAi and to test RNAi effects in vivo. Here we review our findings, which suggest that site of gene expression influences silencing. This most likely reflects limited uptake of dsRNA from the environment, a phenomenon also observed in other free-living nematodes. We discuss new technologies to improve dsRNA delivery, such as nanoparticles being developed for therapeutic siRNA delivery, and methods to monitor RNAi effects. Alternative approaches will be important in progressing the application of RNAi to identify essential gene function in parasitic nematodes. PMID:21854774

  14. Gastrointestinal nematodes in dogs from Debre Zeit, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacob, H T; Ayele, T; Fikru, R; Basu, A K

    2007-09-01

    The study was conducted during the period between January 2005 and June 2006 to determine the frequency of gastrointestinal (GI) nematode infections of dogs in and around Debre Zeit, using qualitative and quantitative coprological (N = 100) and postmortem examinations (N = 20). By coproscopy 51% dogs were positive for different types of nematodal eggs, out of which 23.5% were with mixed infections. On necropsy 95% animals were found positive for adult parasites, of which 31.6% were showing more than one species of adult nematodes. The coproscopical examination revealed 32% infection with Ancylostoma caninum followed by Toxocara canis (21%), Spirocerca lupi (7%) and Trichuris vulpis (3%), while postmortem examination showed 70, 45, 23.5 and 5% infection, respectively. The study further indicated significant difference (P 0.05) between sexes. PMID:17614203

  15. The safety band of Antarctic ice shelves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürst, Johannes Jakob; Durand, Gaël; Gillet-Chaulet, Fabien; Tavard, Laure; Rankl, Melanie; Braun, Matthias; Gagliardini, Olivier

    2016-05-01

    The floating ice shelves along the seaboard of the Antarctic ice sheet restrain the outflow of upstream grounded ice. Removal of these ice shelves, as shown by past ice-shelf recession and break-up, accelerates the outflow, which adds to sea-level rise. A key question in predicting future outflow is to quantify the extent of calving that might precondition other dynamic consequences and lead to loss of ice-shelf restraint. Here we delineate frontal areas that we label as `passive shelf ice’ and that can be removed without major dynamic implications, with contrasting results across the continent. The ice shelves in the Amundsen and Bellingshausen seas have limited or almost no `passive’ portion, which implies that further retreat of current ice-shelf fronts will yield important dynamic consequences. This region is particularly vulnerable as ice shelves have been thinning at high rates for two decades and as upstream grounded ice rests on a backward sloping bed, a precondition to marine ice-sheet instability. In contrast to these ice shelves, Larsen C Ice Shelf, in the Weddell Sea, exhibits a large `passive’ frontal area, suggesting that the imminent calving of a vast tabular iceberg will be unlikely to instantly produce much dynamic change.

  16. Iodine monoxide in the Antarctic snowpack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Platt

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent ground-based and space borne observations suggest the presence of significant amounts of iodine monoxide in the boundary layer of Antarctica, which are expected to have an impact on the ozone budget and might contribute to the formation of new airborne particles. So far, the source of these iodine radicals has been unknown. This paper presents long-term measurements of iodine monoxide at the German Antarctic research station Neumayer, which indicate that the snowpack is the main source for iodine radicals. The measurements have been performed using multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS. Using a coupled atmosphere-snowpack radiative transfer model, the comparison of the signals observed from scattered skylight and from light reflected by the snowpack yields several ppb of iodine monoxide in the upper layers of the sunlit snowpack throughout the year. Snow pit samples from Neumayer Station contain up to 700 ng/l of total iodine, representing a sufficient reservoir for these extraordinarily high IO concentrations.

  17. Iodine monoxide in the Antarctic snowpack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Frieß

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent ground-based and space borne observations suggest the presence of significant amounts of iodine monoxide in the boundary layer of Antarctica, which are expected to have an impact on the ozone budget and might contribute to the formation of new airborne particles. So far, the source of these iodine radicals has been unknown. This paper presents long-term measurements of iodine monoxide at the German Antarctic research station Neumayer, which indicate that high IO concentrations in the order of 50 ppb are present in the snow interstitial air. The measurements have been performed using multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS. Using a coupled atmosphere – snowpack radiative transfer model, the comparison of the signals observed from scattered skylight and from light reflected by the snowpack yields several ppb of iodine monoxide in the upper layers of the sunlit snowpack throughout the year. Snow pit samples from Neumayer Station contain up to 700 ng/l of total iodine, representing a sufficient reservoir for these extraordinarily high IO concentrations.

  18. Responses of Antarctic Oscillation to global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, S.

    2015-12-01

    The Antarctic Oscillation (AAO) is the major annular mode dominates the spatiotemporal variability of the atmospheric circulation in the Southern Hemisphere. This study examined the sensitivity of AAO to future warming by analyzing the outputs of 34 state-of-the-art climate models participating in phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparion Project (CMIP5). The model simulations include the stabilized (RCP4.5) and business as usual (RCP8.5) scenarios as well as the idealized 1% per year increase in atmospheric CO2 to quadrupling (1pctCO2) and an instantaneous quadrupling of CO2 (abrupt4xCO2). We show that the CMIP5 models on average simulate increases in the AAO in every season by 2100 under the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. However, due to the impacts of ozone, aerosol and land use changes, the amplitudes of the projected changes in AAO to future climate scenarios are quit different on different seasons. After the impact of ozone, aerosol and land use changes were removed; it was found that the impact of greenhouse gases (GHGs) on AAO is similar on all seasons. The increases of AAO are accelerating following the increase of GHGs. Our results are also consistent with the simulations of 1pctCO2 and abrupt4xCO2.

  19. Ionospheric irregularities at Antarctic using GPS measurements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sunita Tiwari; Amit Jain; Shivalika Sarkar; Sudhir Jain; A K Gwal

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to study the behaviour of the ionospheric scintillation at high latitude during geomagnetically quiet and disturbed conditions which is one of the most relevant themes in the space weather studies. Scintillation is a major problem in navigation application using GPS and in satellite communication at high latitudes. Severe amplitude fading and strong scintillation affect the reliability of GPS navigational system and satellite communication. To study the effects of the ionospheric scintillations, GPS receiver installed at Antarctic station Maitri (Geog. 70.76°S; 11.74°E) was used. The data is collected by using GISTM 4004A, NOVATEL’S GPS receiver during March 2008. Studies show that percentage occurrence of phase scintillation is well correlated with geomagnetic activity during the observation period. The result also shows that very intense scintillations can degrade GPS based location determination due to loss of lock of satellites. These findings indicate that the dependence of scintillations and irregularity occurrence on geomagnetic activity is associated with the magnetic local time (MLT). Large number of patches are reported and their activity depends on the magnetic activity index.

  20. Automated detection of Antarctic blue whale calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socheleau, Francois-Xavier; Leroy, Emmanuelle; Pecci, Andres Carvallo; Samaran, Flore; Bonnel, Julien; Royer, Jean-Yves

    2015-11-01

    This paper addresses the problem of automated detection of Z-calls emitted by Antarctic blue whales (B. m. intermedia). The proposed solution is based on a subspace detector of sigmoidal-frequency signals with unknown time-varying amplitude. This detection strategy takes into account frequency variations of blue whale calls as well as the presence of other transient sounds that can interfere with Z-calls (such as airguns or other whale calls). The proposed method has been tested on more than 105 h of acoustic data containing about 2200 Z-calls (as found by an experienced human operator). This method is shown to have a correct-detection rate of up to more than 15% better than the extensible bioacoustic tool package, a spectrogram-based correlation detector commonly used to study blue whales. Because the proposed method relies on subspace detection, it does not suffer from some drawbacks of correlation-based detectors. In particular, it does not require the choice of an a priori fixed and subjective template. The analytic expression of the detection performance is also derived, which provides crucial information for higher level analyses such as animal density estimation from acoustic data. Finally, the detection threshold automatically adapts to the soundscape in order not to violate a user-specified false alarm rate. PMID:26627784

  1. Prospects for surviving climate change in Antarctic aquatic species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peck Lloyd S

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Maritime Antarctic freshwater habitats are amongst the fastest changing environments on Earth. Temperatures have risen around 1°C and ice cover has dramatically decreased in 15 years. Few animal species inhabit these sites, but the fairy shrimp Branchinecta gaini typifies those that do. This species survives up to 25°C daily temperature fluctuations in summer and passes winter as eggs at temperatures down to -25°C. Its annual temperature envelope is, therefore around 50°C. This is typical of Antarctic terrestrial species, which exhibit great physiological flexibility in coping with temperature fluctuations. The rapidly changing conditions in the Maritime Antarctic are enhancing fitness in these species by increasing the time available for feeding, growth and reproduction, as well as increasing productivity in lakes. The future problem these animals face is via displacement by alien species from lower latitudes. Such invasions are now well documented from sub-Antarctic sites. In contrast the marine Antarctic environment has very stable temperatures. However, seasonality is intense with very short summers and long winter periods of low to no algal productivity. Marine animals grow slowly, have long generation times, low metabolic rates and low levels of activity. They also die at temperatures between +5°C and +10°C. Failure of oxygen supply mechanisms and loss of aerobic scope defines upper temperature limits. As temperature rises, their ability to perform work declines rapidly before lethal limits are reached, such that 50% of populations of clams and limpets cannot perform essential activities at 2–3°C, and all scallops are incapable of swimming at 2°C. Currently there is little evidence of temperature change in Antarctic marine sites. Models predict average global sea temperatures will rise by around 2°C by 2100. Such a rise would take many Antarctic marine animals beyond their survival limits. Animals have 3 mechanisms for

  2. Temperature-based bioclimatic parameters can predict nematode metabolic footprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhusal, Daya Ram; Tsiafouli, Maria A; Sgardelis, Stefanos P

    2015-09-01

    Nematode metabolic footprints (MFs) refer to the lifetime amount of metabolized carbon per individual, indicating a connection to soil food web functions and eventually to processes supporting ecosystem services. Estimating and managing these at a convenient scale requires information upscaling from the soil sample to the landscape level. We explore the feasibility of predicting nematode MFs from temperature-based bioclimatic parameters across a landscape. We assume that temperature effects are reflected in MFs, since temperature variations determine life processes ranging from enzyme activities to community structure. We use microclimate data recorded for 1 year from sites differing by orientation, altitude and vegetation cover. At the same sites we estimate MFs for each nematode trophic group. Our models show that bioclimatic parameters, specifically those accounting for temporal variations in temperature and extremities, predict most of the variation in nematode MFs. Higher fungivorous and lower bacterivorous nematode MFs are predicted for sites with high seasonality and low isothermality (sites of low vegetation, mostly at low altitudes), indicating differences in the relative contribution of the corresponding food web channels to the metabolism of carbon across the landscape. Higher plant-parasitic MFs were predicted for sites with high seasonality. The fitted models provide realistic predictions of unknown cases within the range of the predictor's values, allowing for the interpolation of MFs within the sampled region. We conclude that upscaling of the bioindication potential of nematode communities is feasible and can provide new perspectives not only in the field of soil ecology but other research areas as well. PMID:25899615

  3. Complex Geodetic Research in Ukrainian Antarctic Station "Academician Vernadsky" (Years 2002 - 2005, 2013-2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretyak, Kornyliy; Hlotov, Volodymyr; Holubinka, Yuriy; Marusazh, Khrystyna

    2016-06-01

    In this paper is given an information about complex geodetic research in Ukrainian Antarctic station "Academician Vernadsky". Research were carried by Lviv polytechnic scientists, during Antarctic expeditions in years 2002 - 2005, 2013, 2014. Main objectives of the studies were: (a) study of the islands glaciers surface volumes changes in Antarctic archipelago and Antarctic Peninsula using terestrial laser scaning and digital terrestrial stereophotogrammetry survey; (b) investigation of Penola strain tectonic fault, using the results of precise GNSS observations.

  4. On the Linkage between Antarctic Surface Water Stratification and Global Deep-Water Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Keeling, R.F.; Visbeck, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The suggestion is advanced that the remarkably low static stability of Antarctic surface waters may arise from a feedback loop involving global deep-water temperatures. If deep-water temperatures are too warm, this promotes Antarctic convection, thereby strengthening the inflow of Antarctic Bottom Water into the ocean interior and cooling the deep ocean. If deep waters are too cold, this promotes Antarctic stratification allowing the deep ocean to warm because of the input of North Atlantic D...

  5. The spatial extent and dynamics of the Antarctic Cold Reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro, Joel B.; Bostock, Helen C.; Bitz, Cecilia M.; He, Feng; Vandergoes, Marcus J.; Steig, Eric J.; Chase, Brian M.; Krause, Claire E.; Rasmussen, Sune O.; Markle, Bradley R.; Cortese, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Antarctic ice cores show that a millennial-scale cooling event, the Antarctic Cold Reversal (14,700 to 13,000 years ago), interrupted the last deglaciation. The Antarctic Cold Reversal coincides with the Bølling-Allerød warm stage in the North Atlantic, providing an example of the inter-hemispheric coupling of abrupt climate change generally referred to as the bipolar seesaw. However, the ocean-atmosphere dynamics governing this coupling are debated. Here we examine the extent and expression of the Antarctic Cold Reversal in the Southern Hemisphere using a synthesis of 84 palaeoclimate records. We find that the cooling is strongest in the South Atlantic and all regions south of 40° S. At the same time, the terrestrial tropics and subtropics show abrupt hydrologic variations that are significantly correlated with North Atlantic climate changes. Our transient global climate model simulations indicate that the observed extent of Antarctic Cold Reversal cooling can be explained by enhanced northward ocean heat transport from the South to North Atlantic, amplified by the expansion and thickening of sea ice in the Southern Ocean. The hydrologic variations at lower latitudes result from an opposing enhancement of southward heat transport in the atmosphere mediated by the Hadley circulation. Our findings reconcile previous arguments about the relative dominance of ocean and atmospheric heat transports in inter-hemispheric coupling, demonstrating that the spatial pattern of past millennial-scale climate change reflects the superposition of both.

  6. Relative changes in krill abundance inferred from Antarctic fur seal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Huang

    Full Text Available Antarctic krill Euphausia superba is a predominant species in the Southern Ocean, it is very sensitive to climate change, and it supports large stocks of fishes, seabirds, seals and whales in Antarctic marine ecosystems. Modern krill stocks have been estimated directly by net hauls and acoustic surveys; the historical krill density especially the long-term one in the Southern Ocean, however, is unknown. Here we inferred the relative krill population changes along the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP over the 20th century from the trophic level change of Antarctic fur seal Arctocephalus gazella using stable carbon (δ(13C and nitrogen (δ(15N isotopes of archival seal hairs. Since Antarctic fur seals feed preferentially on krill, the variation of δ(15N in seal hair indicates a change in the proportion of krill in the seal's diets and thus the krill availability in local seawater. For the past century, enriching fur seal δ(15N values indicated decreasing krill availability. This is agreement with direct observation for the past ∼30 years and suggests that the recently documented decline in krill populations began in the early parts of the 20th century. This novel method makes it possible to infer past krill population changes from ancient tissues of krill predators.

  7. Antarctic ecosystems as models for extraterrestrial surface habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn-Williams, D. D.; Edwards, H. G. M.

    2000-09-01

    Surface habitats in Antarctic deserts are near the limits of life on Earth and resemble those hypothesized for early Mars. Cyanobacteria dominate the transient riverbeds, stromatolitic sediments in ice-covered lakes, and endolithic communities in translucent rock. There is still no direct evidence of photosynthetic life on early Mars, but cyanobacteria are amongst the earliest microbes detectable in the fossil record for analogous habitats on Earth. Key biomolecules persist in Antarctic microbial habitats, even after extinction by excessive low temperatures, desiccation and UV-B stress within the Ozone Hole. Pigments (or their fossil residues), such as chlorophyll and the UV-protectants scytonemin, carotene and quinones, are good biomarkers. To show not only their presence but also their micro-spatial distribution in situ, we describe the use of FT-Raman spectroscopy with 1064 nm excitation to avoid autofluorescence from the pigments. We report not only the diversity of biomolecules that we have diagnosed from their unique Raman spectra of Antarctic cyanobacterial communities, but also their functional stratification in endolithic communities. Our analyses of Antarctic habitats show the potential of this remote, non-intrusive technique to probe for buried biomolecules on future Mars missions and in Antarctic Lake Vostok, >4 km beneath the Central Ice Sheet, with implications for the putative analogous sub-ice ocean on Europa.

  8. New records of nematodes of passerine migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okulewicz, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Parasitological examination of three passerine bird species: the Red-backed Shrike Lanius collurio, Eurasian Golden Oriole Oriolus oriolus and Yellow Wagtail Motacilla flava, revealed the presence of the nematodes Acuaria subula, Diplotriaena ozouxi, Viguiera euryoptera and Microtetrameres inermis. All the birds were obtained in the spring (April-May); the nematodes found were mature, which indicates infection in the hosts' wintering grounds. The gizzard worm Acuaria subula is a new record from Motacilla flava in Europe. Viguiera euryoptera and Diplotriaena ozouxi are new to the Polish fauna. PMID:24881284

  9. Nematode Population Fluctuations during Decomposition of Specific Organic Amendments

    OpenAIRE

    McSorley, R.; Frederick, J. J.

    1999-01-01

    Population densities of nematodes in field soil without plants were monitored for 10 months following application of organic amendments to pots in a greenhouse. The four treatments consisted of three different kinds of organic amendments: homogeneous crop residues of maize (Zea mays, C:N = 48.0:1), Texas panicum (Panicum texanum, C:N = 32.9:1), or velvetbean (Mucuna pruriens, C:N = 18.6:1), plus a control without any amendment. Plant-parasitic nematodes declined in all treatments due to absen...

  10. WormBase: a comprehensive resource for nematode research

    OpenAIRE

    Todd W Harris; Antoshechkin, Igor; Bieri, Tamberlyn; Blasiar, Darin; Chan, Juancarlos; Chen, Wen J.; De La Cruz, Norie; Davis, Paul; Duesbury, Margaret; Fang, Ruihua; Fernandes, Jolene; Han, Michael; Kishore, Ranjana; Lee, Raymond; Müller, Hans-Michael

    2010-01-01

    WormBase (http://www.wormbase.org) is a central data repository for nematode biology. Initially created as a service to the Caenorhabditis elegans research field, WormBase has evolved into a powerful research tool in its own right. In the past 2 years, we expanded WormBase to include the complete genomic sequence, gene predictions and orthology assignments from a range of related nematodes. This comparative data enrich the C. elegans data with improved gene predictions and a better understand...

  11. ORGANIC VS CONVENTIONAL: SOIL NEMATODE COMMUNITY STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapp, C; Storey, S G; Malan, A P

    2014-01-01

    Global increases in human population are creating an ever-greater need for food production. Poor soil management practices have degraded soil to such an extent that rapidly improved management practices is the only way to ensure future food demands. In South Africa, deciduous fruit producers are realising the need for soil health, and for an increased understanding of the benefits of soil ecology, to ensure sustainable fruit production. This depends heavily on improved orchard management. Conventional farming relies on the addition of artificial fertilizers, and the application of chemicals, to prevent or minimise, the effects of the soil stages of pest insects, and of plant-parasitic nematodes. Currently, there is resistance toward conventional farming practices, which, it is believed, diminishes biodiversity within the soil. The study aimed to establish the soil nematode community structure and function in organically, and conventionally, managed deciduous fruit orchards. This was done by determining the abundance, the diversity, and the functionality of the naturally occurring free-living, and plant-parasitic, nematodes in deciduous fruit orchards in the Western Cape province of South Africa. The objective of the study was to form the basis for the use of nematodes as future indicators of soil health in deciduous fruit orchards. Orchards from neighbouring organic, and conventional, apricot farms, and from an organic apple orchard, were studied. All the nematodes were quantified, and identified, to family level. The five nematode-classified trophic groups were found at each site, while 14 families were identified in each orchard, respectively. Herbivores were dominant in all the orchards surveyed. Organic apples had the fewest herbivores and fungivores, with the highest number of carnivores. When comparing organic with conventional apricot orchards, higher numbers of plant-parasitic nematodes were found in the organic apricot orchards. The Maturity Index (MI

  12. Surviving the cold: molecular analyses of insect cryoprotective dehydration in the Arctic springtail Megaphorura arctica (Tullberg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Željko D

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insects provide tractable models for enhancing our understanding of the physiological and cellular processes that enable survival at extreme low temperatures. They possess three main strategies to survive the cold: freeze tolerance, freeze avoidance or cryoprotective dehydration, of which the latter method is exploited by our model species, the Arctic springtail Megaphorura arctica, formerly Onychiurus arcticus (Tullberg 1876. The physiological mechanisms underlying cryoprotective dehydration have been well characterised in M. arctica and to date this process has been described in only a few other species: the Antarctic nematode Panagrolaimus davidi, an enchytraied worm, the larvae of the Antarctic midge Belgica antarctica and the cocoons of the earthworm Dendrobaena octaedra. There are no in-depth molecular studies on the underlying cold survival mechanisms in any species. Results A cDNA microarray was generated using 6,912 M. arctica clones printed in duplicate. Analysis of clones up-regulated during dehydration procedures (using both cold- and salt-induced dehydration has identified a number of significant cellular processes, namely the production and mobilisation of trehalose, protection of cellular systems via small heat shock proteins and tissue/cellular remodelling during the dehydration process. Energy production, initiation of protein translation and cell division, plus potential tissue repair processes dominate genes identified during recovery. Heat map analysis identified a duplication of the trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS gene in M. arctica and also 53 clones co-regulated with TPS, including a number of membrane associated and cell signalling proteins. Q-PCR on selected candidate genes has also contributed to our understanding with glutathione-S-transferase identified as the major antioxdidant enzyme protecting the cells during these stressful procedures, and a number of protein kinase signalling molecules

  13. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Drechmeria coniospora Reveals Core and Specific Genetic Requirements for Fungal Endoparasitism of Nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Nishant; Arguel, Marie-Jeanne; Polanowska, Jolanta; Henrissat, Bernard; Record, Eric; Magdelenat, Ghislaine; Barbe, Valérie; Raffaele, Sylvain; Barbry, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Drechmeria coniospora is an obligate fungal pathogen that infects nematodes via the adhesion of specialized spores to the host cuticle. D. coniospora is frequently found associated with Caenorhabditis elegans in environmental samples. It is used in the study of the nematode’s response to fungal infection. Full understanding of this bi-partite interaction requires knowledge of the pathogen’s genome, analysis of its gene expression program and a capacity for genetic engineering. The acquisition of all three is reported here. A phylogenetic analysis placed D. coniospora close to the truffle parasite Tolypocladium ophioglossoides, and Hirsutella minnesotensis, another nematophagous fungus. Ascomycete nematopathogenicity is polyphyletic; D. coniospora represents a branch that has not been molecularly characterized. A detailed in silico functional analysis, comparing D. coniospora to 11 fungal species, revealed genes and gene families potentially involved in virulence and showed it to be a highly specialized pathogen. A targeted comparison with nematophagous fungi highlighted D. coniospora-specific genes and a core set of genes associated with nematode parasitism. A comparative gene expression analysis of samples from fungal spores and mycelia, and infected C. elegans, gave a molecular view of the different stages of the D. coniospora lifecycle. Transformation of D. coniospora allowed targeted gene knock-out and the production of fungus that expresses fluorescent reporter genes. It also permitted the initial characterisation of a potential fungal counter-defensive strategy, involving interference with a host antimicrobial mechanism. This high-quality annotated genome for D. coniospora gives insights into the evolution and virulence of nematode-destroying fungi. Coupled with genetic transformation, it opens the way for molecular dissection of D. coniospora physiology, and will allow both sides of the interaction between D. coniospora and C. elegans, as well as the

  14. γ-irradiation of wild beet translocation lines and monosomic addition lines in sugar beet carrying nematode resistance genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The beet cyst nematode (BCN, Heterodera schachtii Schmidt) is a severe pest in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). The only sources of resistance are distantly related wild beet species such as Beta procumbens. Sugar beet lines, carrying a translocation from B. procumbens chromosome 1, display complete resistance to the BCN. A nematode resistance gene, designated Hs2pro-7, had been cloned from the translocation line A906001. This gene gave complete resistance in a complementation study done with sugar beet hairy roots, however only partial resistance was found in whole sugar beet plants transformed with the same construct. There are strong indications for a second resistance gene on this translocation designated Hs1-1. Unfortunately, the resistance gene cannot be fine mapped due to complete lack of recombination on the wild beet translocation. In order to narrow down to the target region for Hs1-1, a mutant screening among the offspring of γ- irradiated beets was done. 2670 seeds from a translocation line were irradiated with 100 Gy and 578 resistant M1-offspring were analysed with three molecular markers spread around the translocation. Mutants are presently detected by the absence of molecular markers. A second screening at irradiation levels of 200 and 400 Gy was done and the plants are being analysed. Another experiment was started to produce translocations carrying the B. procumbens chromosome 7 which houses the Hs2pro-7 gene for nematode resistance. This resistance has not been broken by virulent pathotypes of H. schachtii as demonstrated with monosomic addition lines. To select resistant plants with a translocation derived from chromosome 7, 2826 seeds of monosomic addition lines of chromosome 7 were irradiated with 400 Gy. The M1-families will be tested for their resistance and the size of the chromosome fragment introduced will be determined by molecular marker analysis. (author)

  15. [Effect of the soil contamination with a potato cyst-forming nematode on the community structure of soil-inhabiting nematodes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruzdeva, L I; Suzhchuk, A A

    2008-01-01

    Nematode community structure of the potato fields with different infection levels of potato cyst-forming nematode (PCN) such as 10, 30 and 214 cysts per 100 g of soil has been investigated. The influence of specialized parasite on nematode fauna and dominance character of different ecological-trophic groups were described. Parasitic nematode genera in natural meadow biocenosis and agrocenoses without PCN are Paratylenchus, Tylenchorhynchus, and Helicotylenchus. It is established, that Paratylenchus nanus was the prevalent species among plant parasites at low infection level. Larvae of Globodera prevailed in the soil with middle and high infection levels and substituted individuals of other genera of parasitic nematodes. The fact of increase in number of hyphal-feeding nematode Aphelenchus avenae was revealed. PMID:19198175

  16. Species distribution within the free-living marine nematode genus Dichromadora in the Weddell Sea and adjacent areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeeren, Hannelore; Vanreusel, Ann; Vanhove, Sandra

    2004-07-01

    Studies of Antarctic, free-living, marine nematodes are mostly restricted to genus level. In the current study, the genus Dichromadora (Kreis, H.A., 1929. Capita Zoologica 2(7), 1-98) is analysed to species level. Dichromadora is one of the genera that are frequently present along the continental margin of the eastern Weddell Sea. Samples were retrieved from the 1000-2000 m depth line in the eastern Weddell Sea (Halley Bay, Vestkapp and Kapp Norvegia), South Sandwich Trench and the Drake Passage. Eight species are distinguished within the genus Dichromadora of which seven are new to science. Out of these seven species, five are described taxonomically: Dichromadora weddellensis sp. n. , Dichromadora southernis sp. n. , Dichromadora polarsternis sp. n., Dichromadora parva sp. n., and Dichromadora polaris sp. n. The two other species ( D. spec A, D. spec B) receive, as to the scarcety of available specimens, no scientific name. The distribution of the Dichromadora species from Antarctica are discussed in the context of deep-sea (1000-2000 m) observations in Arctic, Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans.

  17. Increased susceptibility to bacterial wilt in tomatoes by nematode galling and the role of the Mi gene in resistance to nematodes and bacterial wilt

    OpenAIRE

    Deberdt, P.; Quénéhervé, Patrick; Darrasse, A; Prior, P

    1999-01-01

    The soil-borne bacterial pathogen #Ralstonia solanacearum$ commonly coexists with polyspecific nematode populations in tropical and subtropical areas. The wounding of roots by nematodes is usually invoked to explain the correlation between nematode infection and bacterial wilt, since this wounding increases the number of sites for bacterial entry. Bacterial wilt development on tomato was investigated in a controlled environment on the susceptible tomato cultivar Floradel and the polygenically...

  18. A Simple Method to Measure Nematodes' Propulsive Thrust and the Nematode Ratchet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bau, Haim; Yuan, Jinzhou; Raizen, David

    2015-11-01

    Since the propulsive thrust of micro organisms provides a more sensitive indicator of the animal's health and response to drugs than motility, a simple, high throughput, direct measurement of the thrust is desired. Taking advantage of the nematode C. elegans being heavier than water, we devised a simple method to determine the propulsive thrust of the animals by monitoring their velocity when swimming along an inclined plane. We find that the swimming velocity is a linear function of the sin of the inclination angle. This method allows us to determine, among other things, the animas' propulsive thrust as a function of genotype, drugs, and age. Furthermore, taking advantage of the animals' inability to swim over a stiff incline, we constructed a sawteeth ratchet-like track that restricts the animals to swim in a predetermined direction. This research was supported, in part, by NIH NIA Grant 5R03AG042690-02.

  19. Morphological and molecular identification of Dirofilaria immitis from Jackal (Canis aureus) in North Khorasan, northeast Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Heidari; Eshrat B Kia; Kourosh Arzamani; Meysam Sharifdini; Iraj Mobedi; Zabihollah Zarei; Bahareh Kamranrashani

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: The heartworm Dirofilaria immitis is an important mosquito-borne zoonotic nematode of domestic and wild mammals throughout the world, causing cardiopulmonary dirofilariasis. This parasite has been reported from carnivores in some provinces of Iran. However, in the present study, the occurrence of this filarial nematode is reported for the first time in wild canids of the North Khorasan Province, located in northeast Iran, based on morphological and molecular character...

  20. Antarctic DNA moving forward: genomic plasticity and biotechnological potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Rosales, Cecilia; Fullana, Natalia; Musto, Héctor; Castro-Sowinski, Susana

    2012-06-01

    Antarctica is the coldest, driest, and windiest continent, where only cold-adapted organisms survive. It has been frequently cited as a pristine place, but it has a highly diverse microbial community that is continually seeded by nonindigenous microorganisms. In addition to the intromission of 'alien' microorganisms, global warming strongly affects microbial Antarctic communities, changing the genes (qualitatively and quantitatively) potentially available for horizontal gene transfer. Several mobile genetic elements have been described in Antarctic bacteria (including plasmids, transposons, integrons, and genomic islands), and the data support that they are actively involved in bacterial evolution in the Antarctic environment. In addition, this environment is a genomic source for the identification of novel molecules, and many investigators have used culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches to identify cold-adapted proteins. Some of them are described in this review. We also describe studies for the design of new recombinant technologies for the production of 'difficult' proteins. PMID:22360528

  1. Terrestrial 81Kr-Kr ages of Antarctic meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production rate of 38Ar in meteorites-P(38)-has been determined, as a function of the sample's chemical composition, from 81Kr-Kr exposure ages of four eucrite falls. The cosmogenic 78Kr/83Kr ratio is used to estimate the shielding dependence of P(38). From the ''true'' 38Ar exposure ages and the apparent 81Kr-Kr exposure ages of nine Antarctic eucrite finds, terrestrial ages are calculated. The distribution of terrestrial ages of Allan Hills meteorites is discussed. Meteorites from this blue ice field have two sources: Directly deposited falls and meteorites transported to the Allan Hills inside the moving Antarctic ice sheet. During the surface residence time meteorites decompose due to weathering processes. The weathering ''half-life'' is about 1.6 x 105 a. From the different age distributions of Allan Hills and Yamato meteorites, it is concluded that meteorite concentrations of different Antarctic ice fields need different explanations. (author)

  2. Nematode community structure and diversity pattern in sandy beaches of Qingdao, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Er; Mu, Fanghong; Zhang, Zhinan; Yang, Shichao; Zhang, Ting; Li, Jia

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the diversity and structure of free-living marine nematode communities at three sandy beaches representing typical intertidal environments of a temperate zone in Qingdao, Shandong Province, China. Average nematode abundance ranged from 1006 to 2170 ind. 10 cm-2, and a total of 34 nematode genera were recorded, of which only 8 were common in all the studied beaches. Pielou's evenness and Shannon-Wiener diversity index were the lowest at the second beach where nematode abundance was the highest. The highest species diversity index coincided with the lowest nematode abundance at Shilaoren beach. Sediment median grain size, sorting coefficient, and chlorophyll-a content were essential for differentiation in nematode abundance and species diversity, whereas taxonomic diversity of nematode was homogeneous across the three beaches. In 0-20 cm sediment profile, nematode abundance declined abruptly with depth, whereas nematode diversity changed gently with obvious difference in 16-20 cm layer. Sediment granulometry and chlorophyll- a content were the two foremost factors which influenced the vertical distribution pattern of nematode generic diversity. Non-selective deposit feeders constituted the most dominant trophic group, followed by epistratum feeders. Bathylaimus (family: Tripyloididae) dominated at the second and Yangkou beach, while Theristus (family: Xyalidae) prevailed at Shilaoren beach. Omnivores and predators became important at Shilaoren beach because of the high proportion of Enoplolaimus. Even though, nematode community of the studied beaches did not differ significantly from each other.

  3. [Characteristics of soil nematode community of different agricultural areas in Jiangsu Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Jia-guo; Liu, Bei-bei; Mao, Miao; Ye, Cheng-long; Yu, Li; Hu, Feng

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigated the genus diversity of soil nematodes of different agricultural areas in Jiangsu Province, analyzed the relationship between soil nematodes and soil environmental factors, and discussed the roles of soil nematodes as biological indicators of soil health. The results showed that, a total of 41 nematode genera were found in all six agricultural areas, belonging to 19 families, 7 orders, 2 classes. The numbers and community compositions of nematodes were obviously influenced by soil texture, fertilization and tillage practices. In all six agricultural areas, the numbers of nematodes in coastal agricultural area (400 individuals per 100 g dry soil) were significantly larger than that in Xuhuai, Ningzhenyang, and riverside agricultural areas. While the smallest number of nematodes was found in Yanjiang agricultural area (232 individuals per 100 g dry soil), which might be due to the differences in soil texture, annual rainfall and annual air temperature and other factors. The dominant genera of nematodes were similar in the adjacent agricultural areas. Correlation analysis showed that there was a significant positive correlation between the number of soil nematodes and levels of soil nutrients (soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available nitrogen, available potassium and available phosphorus). Redundancy analysis (RDA) indicated the total nitrogen, available potassium and pH obviously affected some soil nematode genera. The analysis of spatial distribution characteristics of soil nematode community in farmland of Jiangsu Province could provide data for health assessment of agricultural ecosystems. PMID:26915207

  4. Breeding Soybeans for Resistance to Physiological Race 4 of Cyst Nematode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lian-zheng; WANG Lan; YAN Qing-shang; ZHAO Rong-juan; CHEN Pin-san; LI Qiang

    2002-01-01

    Soybean cyst nematode causes serious damage to soybean production. In 1991, we started breeding studies on the resistance of soybeans to the cyst nematode. We found that near the Beijing area the dominant race of the cyst nematode was race 4. We made more than 50 combinations of cross. The best combination was Dan 8 × PI 437654 which resulted in marked segregation in plant height, pod habit, resistance to cyst nematode and maturity. We obtained many new soybean lines highly resistant to the cyst nematode through the pedigree method of selection, enlarging the number of plants of good combinations, alternative breeding in the North and in the South, and identification at an early generation. We now have released three soybean cultivars, Zhonghuang 12, Zhonghuang 13 and Zhonghuang 17 with moderate resistance to the cyst nematode in Beijing, Anhui, Tianjin and Northern China. In addition, we obtained many lines which were highly resistant to the cyst nematode.

  5. Comparative genetics and genomics of nematodes: genome structure, development, and lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Ralf J; Streit, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Nematodes are found in virtually all habitats on earth. Many of them are parasites of plants and animals, including humans. The free-living nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, is one of the genetically best-studied model organisms and was the first metazoan whose genome was fully sequenced. In recent years, the draft genome sequences of another six nematodes representing four of the five major clades of nematodes were published. Compared to mammalian genomes, all these genomes are very small. Nevertheless, they contain almost the same number of genes as the human genome. Nematodes are therefore a very attractive system for comparative genetic and genomic studies, with C. elegans as an excellent baseline. Here, we review the efforts that were made to extend genetic analysis to nematodes other than C. elegans, and we compare the seven available nematode genomes. One of the most striking findings is the unexpectedly high incidence of gene acquisition through horizontal gene transfer (HGT). PMID:21721943

  6. 单条线虫DNA提取方法%Method of extract DNA from a single nematode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王江岭; 张建成; 顾建锋

    2011-01-01

    added solutes. (2) All the process is finished in one PCR tube, no liquid transported and less solutes added. So the pollution and bad effect to the later PCR process are greatly reduced. (3) Manual disruption of nematode is replaced by poikilothermic treatment; pollution is avoided and no experiment technique is required. Compared with two other proteinase K methods of nematode DNA extraction, this method was proved effective and stabile, and could be used in rapid test; nematode proteins were dissolved completely and more DNA released, the PCR result is good even when the extracted DNA were diluted for 32 time, which procides more molecular experiments chances.

  7. Depletion in Antarctic ozone and associated climatic change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perhaps the most significant discovery in the atmospheric sciences in the last decade has been the observation of large decreases in ozone. These losses in ozone occur during austral spring, and from 1979 the severity of the depletion increased non-monotonically until September of 1987 when the lowest column ozone amounts ever recorded were observed in Antarctica. While the surprising ozone hole in the remote icy continent of Antarctica emphasizes the potential importance and complexity of processes in the high latitude stratosphere, it also motivated this study on the nature of greenhouse effect on polar climate due to perturbations in column ozone amount in association with observed increases in other trace gases in the Antarctic atmosphere. The authors have examined the potential climatic effects of changes in the concentration of greenhouse gases on thermal structure of the Antarctic atmosphere using both steady-state and time-dependent climate models. When the authors incorporate the greenhouse effect of increases in methane, nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and chlorofluorocarbons in association with decrease in ozone at the levels of maximum concentration in their radiative flux computations for the Antarctic region, the net result is a surface warming which is in fair agreement with that inferred from mean Antarctic temperature series. Further, the stratospheric cooling due to the ozone hole phenomenon is not only restricted to low and middle stratosphere but also extends deep into the upper Antarctic stratosphere, particularly in the beginning of November. In view of this, it is possible that the polar stratospheric warming phenomenon associated with planetary wave events could be significantly disturbed by ozone depletion in the Antarctic atmosphere, leading to appreciable perturbations in the general circulation

  8. Antarctic Porifera database from the Spanish benthic expeditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Rios

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The information about the sponges in this dataset is derived from the samples collected during five Spanish Antarctic expeditions: Bentart 94, Bentart 95, Gebrap 96, Ciemar 99/00 and Bentart 2003. Samples were collected in the Antarctic Peninsula and Bellingshausen Sea at depths ranging from 4 to 2044 m using va­rious sampling gears.The Antarctic Porifera database from the Spanish benthic expeditions is unique as it provides in­formation for an under-explored region of the Southern Ocean (Bellingshausen Sea. It fills an information gap on Antarctic deep-sea sponges, for which there were previously very few data.This phylum is an important part of the Antarctic biota and plays a key role in the structure of the Antarctic marine benthic community due to its considerable diversity and predominance in different areas. It is often a dominant component of Southern Ocean benthic communities.The quality of the data was controlled very thoroughly with GPS systems onboard the R/V Hesperides and by checking the data against the World Porifera Database (which is part of the World Register of Marine Species, WoRMS. The data are therefore fit for completing checklists, inclusion in biodivers­ity pattern analysis and niche modelling. The authors can be contacted if any additional information is needed before carrying out detailed biodiversity or biogeographic studies.The dataset currently contains 767 occurrence data items that have been checked for systematic reliability. This database is not yet complete and the collection is growing. Specimens are stored in the author’s collection at the Spanish Institute of Oceanography (IEO in the city of Gijón (Spain. The data are available in GBIF.

  9. Antarctic Porifera database from the Spanish benthic expeditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Pilar; Cristobo, Javier

    2014-01-01

    THE INFORMATION ABOUT THE SPONGES IN THIS DATASET IS DERIVED FROM THE SAMPLES COLLECTED DURING FIVE SPANISH ANTARCTIC EXPEDITIONS: Bentart 94, Bentart 95, Gebrap 96, Ciemar 99/00 and Bentart 2003. Samples were collected in the Antarctic Peninsula and Bellingshausen Sea at depths ranging from 4 to 2044 m using various sampling gears. The Antarctic Porifera database from the Spanish benthic expeditions is unique as it provides information for an under-explored region of the Southern Ocean (Bellingshausen Sea). It fills an information gap on Antarctic deep-sea sponges, for which there were previously very few data. This phylum is an important part of the Antarctic biota and plays a key role in the structure of the Antarctic marine benthic community due to its considerable diversity and predominance in different areas. It is often a dominant component of Southern Ocean benthic communities. The quality of the data was controlled very thoroughly with GPS systems onboard the R/V Hesperides and by checking the data against the World Porifera Database (which is part of the World Register of Marine Species, WoRMS). The data are therefore fit for completing checklists, inclusion in biodiversity pattern analysis and niche modelling. The authors can be contacted if any additional information is needed before carrying out detailed biodiversity or biogeographic studies. The dataset currently contains 767 occurrence data items that have been checked for systematic reliability. This database is not yet complete and the collection is growing. Specimens are stored in the author's collection at the Spanish Institute of Oceanography (IEO) in the city of Gijón (Spain). The data are available in GBIF. PMID:24843257

  10. Antarctic Ozone Hole on September 17, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Satellite data show the area of this year's Antarctic ozone hole peaked at about 26 million square kilometers-roughly the size of North America-making the hole similar in size to those of the past three years, according to scientists from NASA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Researchers have observed a leveling-off of the hole size and predict a slow recovery. Over the past several years the annual ozone hole over Antarctica has remained about the same in both its size and in the thickness of the ozone layer. 'This is consistent with human-produced chlorine compounds that destroy ozone reaching their peak concentrations in the atmosphere, leveling off, and now beginning a very slow decline,' said Samuel Oltmans of NOAA's Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory, Boulder, Colo. In the near future-barring unusual events such as explosive volcanic eruptions-the severity of the ozone hole will likely remain similar to what has been seen in recent years, with year-to-year differences associated with meteorological variability. Over the longer term (30-50 years) the severity of the ozone hole in Antarctica is expected to decrease as chlorine levels in the atmosphere decline. The image above shows ozone levels on Spetember 17, 2001-the lowest levels observed this year. Dark blue colors correspond to the thinnest ozone, while light blue, green, and yellow pixels indicate progressively thicker ozone. For more information read: 2001 Ozone Hole About the Same Size as Past Three Years. Image courtesy Greg Shirah, GSFC Scientific Visualization Studio, based on data from the TOMS science team

  11. Viral distribution and activity in Antarctic waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guixa-Boixereu, Núria; Vaqué, Dolors; Gasol, Josep M.; Sánchez-Cámara, Jaime; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos

    Variability in abundance of virus-like particles (VLP), VLP decay rates and prokaryotic mortality due to viral infection were determined in three Antarctic areas: Bellingshausen Sea, Bransfield Strait and Gerlache Strait, during December 1995 and February 1996. VLP abundance showed very small spatial variability in the three areas (7×10 6-2×10 7 VLP ml -1). VLP abundance, on the other hand, decreased one order of magnitude from the surface to the bottom, in two stations where deep vertical profiles were sampled. Low seasonal variability in VLP abundance was found when comparing each area separately. Diel VLP variability was also very low. VLP abundance showed the lowest values when solar irradiation was maximal, in two of the three stations where diel cycles were examined. Viral decay rates (VDR) were determined using KCN in two kinds of experiments. Type 1 experiments were performed in 6 stations to determine viral decay. Type 2 experiments were carried out in 2 stations to examine the influence of temperature and organic matter concentration on viral decay. VDR was not influenced by these parameters. Prokaryotic mortality due to viral infection was always higher than that due to bacterivores in the stations where both factors of prokaryotic mortality were measured. Viral infection accounted for all the prokaryotic heterotrophic production in Bellingshausen Sea and Gerlache Strait and for half of the prokaryotic heterotrophic production in Bransfield Strait. These high values of prokaryotic mortality due to viral infection are difficult to reconcile in nature, and more work is necessary to determine the mechanisms involved in the disappearance of viruses.

  12. Microbiology and Geochemistry of Antarctic Paleosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaney, W. C.; Malloch, D.; Hancock, R. G. V.; Campbell, I. B.; Sheppard, D.

    2000-08-01

    Samples of ancient soils from horizons in paleosols from the Quartermain Mountains (Aztec and New Mountain areas of the Antarctic Dry Valleys) were analyzed for their chemical composition and microbiology to determine the accumulation and movement of salts and other soluble constituents. The salt concentrations are of special interest because they are considered to be a function of age, derived in part from nearby oceanic and high altitude atmospheric sources. The geochemistry of ancient Miocene-age paleosols in these areas is the direct result of the deposition and weathering of till, derived principally from dolerite and sandstone source rock, in association with airborne-influxed salts. Paleosols nearer the coast have greater contents of chlorine, and farther inland near the Inland Ice Sheet, nitrogen tends to increase on a relative basis. The accumulation and vertical distribution of salts and other soluble chemical elements indicate relative amounts of movement in the profile over long periods of time, to the order of several million years. Iron, both in total concentration and in the form of various extracts, indicates it can be used as a geochronometer to assess the buildup of goethite plus hematite over time in the paleosols. Trends for ferrihydrite, a partially soluble Fe-hydroxide, shows limited profile translocation that might be related to the movement of salt. Six of the eight selected subsamples from paleosol horizons in three soil profiles contained nil concentrations of bacteria and fungi. However, two horizons at depths of between three to eight centimeters yielded several colonies of the fungi Beauveria bassiana and Penicillium spp., indicating some input of organic carbon. Beauveria bassiana is often reported in association with insects and is used commercially for the biological control of some insect pests. Penicillium species are commonly isolated from Arctic, temperate and tropical soils and are known to utilize a wide variety of organic

  13. Hydrochemical characteristic of different modifications of Antarctic waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batrak, K. V.

    2008-06-01

    The report considers the distribution of several hydrochemical components (dissolved oxygen, mineral phosphorus, dissolved silicon, and nitrate nitrogen) depending on the disposition of different structural water modifications constituting the unified Antarctic structural type. It is shown that the character of the silicon distribution in the waters of the South Polar zone is mainly determined by large-scale circulation features. The distribution of mineral phosphorus and nitrate nitrogen is characterized by a certain patchiness related to the photosynthesis intensity. An attempt was made to follow the supply and transformation of dissolved silicon, nitrates, and phosphates in the Antarctic.

  14. Yellow Pigment Aurovertins Mediate Interactions between the Pathogenic Fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia and Its Nematode Host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-li; Li, Lin-fang; Li, Dong-xian; Wang, Baile; Zhang, Keqin; Niu, Xuemei

    2015-07-29

    Nematophagous fungi are globally distributed soil fungi and well-known natural predators of soil-dwelling nematodes. Pochonia chlamydosporia can be found in diverse nematode-suppressive soils as a parasite of nematode eggs and is one of the most studied potential biological control agents of nematodes. However, little is known about the functions of small molecules in the process of infection of nematodes by this parasitic fungus or about small-molecule-mediated interactions between the pathogenic fungus and its host. Our recent study demonstrated that a P. chlamydosporia strain isolated from root knots of tobacco infected by the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita produced a class of yellow pigment metabolite aurovertins, which induced the death of the free-living nematode Panagrellus redivevus. Here we report that nematicidal P. chlamydosporia strains obtained from the nematode worms tended to yield a total yellow pigment aurovertin production exceeding the inhibitory concentration shown in nematicidal bioassays. Aurovertin D was abundant in the pigment metabolites of P. chlamydosporia strains. Aurovertin D showed strong toxicity toward the root-knot nematode M. incognita and exerted profound and detrimental effects on the viability of Caenorhabditis elegans even at a subinhibitory concentration. Evaluation of the nematode mutation in the β subunit of F1-ATPase, together with the application of RNA interference in screening each subunit of F1FO-ATPase in the nematode worms, demonstrated that the β subunit of F1-ATPase might not be the specific target for aurovertins in nematodes. The resistance of C. elegans daf-2(e1370) and the hypersensitivity of C. elegans daf-16(mu86) to aurovertin D indicated that DAF-16/FOXO transcription factor in nematodes was triggered in response to the aurovertin attack. These findings advance our understanding of the roles of aurovertin production in the interactions between nematodes and the pathogen fungus P. chlamydosporia

  15. Profiling Nematode Communities in Unmanaged Flowerbed and Agricultural Field Soils in Japan by DNA Barcode Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morise, Hisashi; Miyazaki, Erika; Yoshimitsu, Shoko; Eki, Toshihiko

    2012-01-01

    Soil nematodes play crucial roles in the soil food web and are a suitable indicator for assessing soil environments and ecosystems. Previous nematode community analyses based on nematode morphology classification have been shown to be useful for assessing various soil environments. Here we have conducted DNA barcode analysis for soil nematode community analyses in Japanese soils. We isolated nematodes from two different environmental soils of an unmanaged flowerbed and an agricultural field using the improved flotation-sieving method. Small subunit (SSU) rDNA fragments were directly amplified from each of 68 (flowerbed samples) and 48 (field samples) isolated nematodes to determine the nucleotide sequence. Sixteen and thirteen operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained by multiple sequence alignment from the flowerbed and agricultural field nematodes, respectively. All 29 SSU rDNA-derived OTUs (rOTUs) were further mapped onto a phylogenetic tree with 107 known nematode species. Interestingly, the two nematode communities examined were clearly distinct from each other in terms of trophic groups: Animal predators and plant feeders were markedly abundant in the flowerbed soils, in contrast, bacterial feeders were dominantly observed in the agricultural field soils. The data from the flowerbed nematodes suggests a possible food web among two different trophic nematode groups and plants (weeds) in the closed soil environment. Finally, DNA sequences derived from the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 (COI) gene were determined as a DNA barcode from 43 agricultural field soil nematodes. These nematodes were assigned to 13 rDNA-derived OTUs, but in the COI gene analysis were assigned to 23 COI gene-derived OTUs (cOTUs), indicating that COI gene-based barcoding may provide higher taxonomic resolution than conventional SSU rDNA-barcoding in soil nematode community analysis. PMID:23284767

  16. Gender-associated genes in filarial nematodes are important for reproduction and potential intervention targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben-Wen Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A better understanding of reproductive processes in parasitic nematodes may lead to development of new anthelmintics and control strategies for combating disabling and disfiguring neglected tropical diseases such as lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis. Transcriptomatic analysis has provided important new insights into mechanisms of reproduction and development in other invertebrates. We have performed the first genome-wide analysis of gender-associated (GA gene expression in a filarial nematode to improve understanding of key reproductive processes in these parasites. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The Version 2 Filarial Microarray with 18,104 elements representing ∼85% of the filarial genome was used to identify GA gene transcripts in adult Brugia malayi worms. Approximately 19% of 14,293 genes were identified as GA genes. Many GA genes have potential Caenorhabditis elegans homologues annotated as germline-, oogenesis-, spermatogenesis-, and early embryogenesis- enriched. The potential C. elegans homologues of the filarial GA genes have a higher frequency of severe RNAi phenotypes (such as lethal and sterility than other C. elegans genes. Molecular functions and biological processes associated with GA genes were gender-segregated. Peptidase, ligase, transferase, regulator activity for kinase and transcription, and rRNA and lipid binding were associated with female GA genes. In contrast, catalytic activity from kinase, ATP, and carbohydrate binding were associated with male GA genes. Cell cycle, transcription, translation, and biological regulation were increased in females, whereas metabolic processes of phosphate and carbohydrate metabolism, energy generation, and cell communication were increased in males. Significantly enriched pathways in females were associated with cell growth and protein synthesis, whereas metabolic pathways such as pentose phosphate and energy production pathways were enriched in males. There were

  17. DNA barcoding reveals new insights into the diversity of Antarctic species of Orchomene sensu lato (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Lysianassoidea)

    OpenAIRE

    Havermans, C.; Nagy, Z.T.; Sonet, G.; De Broyer, C; Martin, P.

    2011-01-01

    Recent molecular analyses revealed that several so-called "circum-Antarctic" benthic crustacean species appeared to be complexes of cryptic species with restricted distributions. In this study we used a DNA barcoding approach based on mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene sequences in order to detect possible cryptic diversity and to test the circumpolarity of some lysianassoid species. The orchomenid genus complex consists of the genera Abyssorchomene, Falklandia, Orchomenella, Orchomenyx ...

  18. ECONOMIC THRESHOLDS UNDER UNCERTAINTY WITH APPLICATION TO CORN NEMATODE MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Moffitt, L. Joe; Hall, Darwin C.; Osteen, Craig D.

    1984-01-01

    An economic threshold of agricultural pest management is derived. Results provide a method for researchers to use in making improved pest control recommendations to farmers without farm level decision-making. An empirical illustration for lesion nematode management in irrigated corn is given and directions for further research are indicated.

  19. Resistance of Watermelon Germplasm to Root-Knot Nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) seriously impact yields of watermelon throughout the southern U.S. Pre-plant fumigation of soil with methyl bromide is the primary method for controlling these pests in watermelon. Although host resistance would be one of the most economical and environmental...

  20. IN VITRO CULTURING OF THE PREDATORY SOIL NEMATODE CLARKUS PAPILLATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkus papillatus is a widely distributed predatory soil nematode and is of interest in the study of soil ecology, yet very little information exists on its in vitro culturing. In this investigation, an artificial environment was created to maintain C. papillatus for multi-gener...

  1. Radiation sensitivity of pine wood nematodes in woodchips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation sensitivity of pine wood nematodes has been tested over a range of dose values with a cesium-137 irradiator. Lethal doses were found to lie in a range above 6-8 kGy, too high to make this an economically attractive means of deinfestation for commercial woodchips. (author)

  2. Evaluation of some Vulval Appendages in Nematode Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    A survey of the nature and phylogenetic distribution of nematode vulval appendages revealed three major classes based on composition, position and orientation: membranes, flaps, and epiptygma. Minor classes included cuticular inflations, vulval tubes of extruded gonadal tissues, vulval ridges, and p...

  3. 75 FR 54592 - Pale Cyst Nematode; Update of Quarantined Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... INFORMATION: Background The pale cyst nematode (PCN, Globodera pallida) is a major pest of potato crops in..._pest_info/potato/pcn.shtml ). The description of the quarantined area will include the date the..._health/plant_pest_info/potato/pcn.shtml ). Authority: 7 U.S.C. 7701-7772 and 7781-7786; 7 CFR 2.22,...

  4. The Blue Neck Syndrome : Nematode Larvae in Skin Scrapings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugathan P

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel non-inflammatory type of pigmentation of the neck associated with nematode larvae on affected skin is described. The name ′Blue neck syndrome′ is suggested for this condition because of the characteristic clinical appearance. Antinematode agents such as albendazole and neem oil have been found to be effective in the treatment.

  5. Maintenance of genetic variation in automictic root-knot nematodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Beek, J. G. ( Hans); Punacker, Laas P.

    2008-01-01

    Differences in amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) between isolates and between mono-female lines of facultative automictic Meloidogyne hapla race A and obligate apomictic M incognita were determined to test the hypothesis that inverted meiosis occurs. DNA of the parthenogenetic nematode

  6. The use entomopathogenic and molluscparasitic nematodes as biocontrol agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nermuť, Jiří; Půža, Vladimír; Mráček, Zdeněk

    Tours : Institut de Recherche sur la Biologie de l´Insecte, 2011. s. 73-73. [Annual Meeting of the European PhD Network in "Insect Sciences" /2./. 07.11.2011-11.11.2011, Tours] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : nematodes

  7. Farmer evaluation of biocontrol methods against rootknot nematodes in tomatoes

    OpenAIRE

    McLeod, Anni; Ndungu, Beth; Karanja, Daniel; Karanja, Peter

    2002-01-01

    This report was presented at the UK Organic Research 2002 Conference. Root-knot nematodes in tomatoes cause financial loss to Kenyan smallholders. While soil fumigation appears to be losing effectiveness two bio-control agents (bcas), Pasteuria penetrans and Verticillium chlamydosporium, appear promising. Participatory budgeting is being used to compare the bcas with chemical and other biological controls on commercial and organic smallholdings.

  8. Limiting opportunities for cheating stabilizes virulence in insect parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro-Ilan, David; Raymond, Ben

    2016-03-01

    Cooperative secretion of virulence factors by pathogens can lead to social conflict when cheating mutants exploit collective secretion, but do not contribute to it. If cheats outcompete cooperators within hosts, this can cause loss of virulence. Insect parasitic nematodes are important biocontrol tools that secrete a range of significant virulence factors. Critically, effective nematodes are hard to maintain without live passage, which can lead to virulence attenuation. Using experimental evolution, we tested whether social cheating might explain unstable virulence in the nematode Heterorhabditis floridensis by manipulating relatedness via multiplicity of infection (MOI), and the scale of competition. Passage at high MOI, which should reduce relatedness, led to loss of fitness: virulence and reproductive rate declined together and all eight independent lines suffered premature extinction. As theory predicts, relatedness treatments had more impact under stronger global competition. In contrast, low MOI passage led to more stable virulence and increased reproduction. Moreover, low MOI lineages showed a trade-off between virulence and reproduction, particularly for lines under stronger between-host competition. Overall, this study indicates that evolution of virulence theory is valuable for the culture of biocontrol agents: effective nematodes can be improved and maintained if passage methods mitigate possible social conflicts. PMID:26989437

  9. Garlic exhibits lack of control over gastrointestinal nematodes in goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) continue to hinder small ruminant production because of anthelmintic resistance and lack of effective products for GIN control in organic production. The objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a commercially available certified organic garlic pr...

  10. Soybean Cyst Nematode SDS-PAGE Protein Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean cyst nematode (SCN, Heterodera glycines Ichinohe) represent one of the most serious threats to the stability of soybean crops in the United States. Initially discovered in North Carolina in the 1950s, it has spread rapidly through the Midwest generating an estimated $1 billion in failed crop...

  11. STUDY OF NEMATODES IN INDIGENOUS CHICKENS IN SWAT DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Sayyed, M. S. Phulanl, W.M. Bhatti1, M. Pardehi1 and Shamsher Ali

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Research was conducted on IO< indigenous chickens. Examination of guts revealed that out of 100 guts. 51 per cent were positive for nematodes. Mixed infestation was 16 per cent. Two species i.e., Ascaridia galli and Heterakis gallinarum were identified. The incidence rate of Ascaridia galli was higher (42 % as compared to Heterakis gallinarum (9 %.

  12. Hairy nightshade presence undermining some nematode-resistant potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbia root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne chitwoodi, is a major pest of potato in the Pacific Northwest and is controlled by costly soil fumigation. Potato breeding lines have been developed with resistance to the predominant race 1 (CRN-1) of M. chitwoodi. Hairy nightshade, Solanum sarrachoides, i...

  13. Evaluation of coffee genotypes for root-knot nematode resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloidogyne konaensis causes severe damage to the root systems of Coffea arabica cv. Typica ‘Guatemala’ grown in Kona, Hawaii. Farmers currently employ grafting of the nematode tolerant C. liberica var. dewevrei ‘Fukunaga’ to C. arabica cv. Typica scions. Greenhouse experiments confirmed C. liberi...

  14. Intestinal Nematode Parasites of Dogs: Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Awoke

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal nematode parasites of dogs from November 2009 to April 2010 in Gondar. The study discovered that Zoonotically important parasites are also serious problems of dogs in this area. Coprological examination of direct fecal smear and simple floatation techniques were deployed to screen parasite and determine their species. In this study the prevalence of intestinal nematodes was analyzed in relation to age, sex and types of breeds. Of the total 326 dogs' faecal samples examined, 14.7% (n = 48 were found to harbor one or more parasite species. The prevalence of intestinal nematode parasites was 4.6, 8.3 and 1.8% in less than 1 year, 1-3 years and greater than 3 years of age groups, respectively. The prevalence recorded on sex basis are 7.1% (female and 7.7% (male, and those of local and cross breeds were 10.7% and 4.0%, respectively. But the difference in prevalence among age, sex and age groups was not found statistically significant (p>0.05. Parasites from the four genera were identified and these include Ancylostoma caninum, Toxascaris leonina, Toxocara canis and Strongyloides stercoralis. Ancylostoma caninum (4.6% was the most prevalent parasites encountered as compared to other three types of nematode parasites.

  15. Characterising Antarctic and Southern Ocean Lithosphere with Magnetic and Gravity Imaging of East Antarctic Rift Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, A. P.; Kusznir, N. J.; Ferraccioli, F.; Jordan, T. A.; Purucker, M. E.; Golynsky, A. V.; Rogozhina, I.

    2012-12-01

    Since the International Geophysical Year (1957), a view has prevailed that the lithospheric structure of East Antarctica is relatively homogeneous, forming a geological block of largely cratonic nature, consisting of a mosaic of Precambrian terranes, stable since the Pan-African orogeny ~500 million years ago. Recent recognition of a continental-scale rift system cutting the East Antarctic interior indicates that this is incorrect, and has crystallised an alternative view of much more recent geological activity with important implications for tectonic reconstructions and controls on ice sheet formation and stability. The newly defined East Antarctic Rift System appears to extend from at least the South Pole to the continental margin at the Lambert Rift, a distance of 2500 km. This is comparable in scale to the well-studied East African rift system. New analysis of RadarSat data pioneered by Golynsky & Golynsky indicates that further rift zones may extend the East Antarctic Rift System into widely distributed extension zones within the continent. We have carried out a pilot study, using a newly developed gravity inversion technique with existing public domain satellite data, which shows that East Antarctica consists of distinct crustal thickness provinces with anomalously thick areas separated by thin, possibly rifted crust and overall high average thickness. Understanding the nature of crustal thickness in East Antarctica is critical because: 1) Better understanding of crustal thickness in Antarctica, especially along the ocean-continent transition (OCT), will make it possible to improve the plate reconstruction fit between Antarctica, Australia and India in Gondwana and also refine constraints on how and when these continents separated; 2) crustal thickness provinces can be used to aid supercontinent reconstructions and provide new assessments of the influence of basement architecture and mechanical properties on rifting processes; 3) tracking rift zones through

  16. Calculations of relative optical air masses for various aerosol types and minor gases in Arctic and Antarctic atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasi, Claudio; Petkov, Boyan H.

    2014-02-01

    The dependence functions of relative optical air mass on apparent solar zenith angle θ have been calculated over the θ molecular number density in the Arctic and Antarctic atmospheres, extinction coefficients of different aerosol types, and molecular number density of water vapor, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and oxygen dimer. The calculations were made using as weight functions the seasonal average vertical profiles of (i) pressure and temperature derived from multiyear sets of radiosounding measurements performed at Ny-Ålesund, Alert, Mario Zucchelli, and Neumayer stations; (ii) volume extinction coefficients of background summer aerosol, Arctic haze, and Kasatochi and Pinatubo volcanic aerosol measured with lidars or balloon-borne samplings; and (iii) molecular number concentrations of the above minor gases, derived from radiosonde, ozonesonde, and satellite-based observations. The air mass values were determined using a formula based on a realistic atmospheric air-refraction model. They were systematically checked by comparing their mutual differences with the uncertainties arising from the seasonal and daily variations in pressure and temperature conditions within the various ranges, where aerosol and gases attenuate the solar radiation most efficiently. The results provide evidence that secant-approximated and midlatitude air mass values are inappropriate for analyzing the Sun photometer measurements performed at polar sites. They indicate that the present evaluations can be reliably used to estimate the aerosol optical depth from the Arctic and Antarctic measurements of total optical depth, after appropriate corrections for the Rayleigh scattering and gaseous absorption optical depths.

  17. Persistent organohalogen contaminant burdens in Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) from the eastern Antarctic sector: A baseline study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A baseline for persistent organohalogen compound (POC) accumulation in the Antarctic keystone species, Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) has been established for a 50 deg. longitudinal range of the eastern Antarctic sector. Samples of adult krill, caught from 12 sites distributed between 30 deg. and 80 deg. E (60-70 deg. S), were analysed for > 100 organohalogen compounds including chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated organic compounds and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs). Organochlorine pesticides dominated measured krill contaminant burdens with hexachlorobenzene (HCB) as the single most abundant compound quantified. Krill HCB concentrations were comparable to those detected at this trophic level in both the Arctic and temperate northwest Atlantic, lending support for the hypothesis that HCB will approach global equilibrium at a faster rate than other POCs. Para, para'-dichlorodiphenylethene (p,p'-DDE) was detected at notable concentrations. Measurements of DDT and its degradation products provide an important baseline for monitoring the temporal and geographical influence of renewed, DDT usage for malaria-control in affected southern hemisphere countries. In contrast to the Arctic, PCBs did not feature prominently in contaminant burdens of Antarctic krill. The major commercial polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners -99 and -47 were quantified at low background levels with clear concentration spikes observed at around 70 deg. E , in the vicinity of modern, active research stations. The likelihood that local anthropogenic activities are supplementing low PBDE levels, delivered otherwise primarily via long range environmental transport, is discussed. The suspected naturally occurring brominated organic compound, 2,4,6-tribromoanisole (TBA), was a ubiquitous contaminant in all samples whereas the only PCDD/Fs quantifiable were trace levels of octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) and 1,2,3

  18. Detrended-Fluctuation Analysis of Nematode Movement in Heterogeneous Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapca, S. M.; Gonzalez-Nieto, P.; Tarquis, A. M.

    2009-04-01

    We consider multifractal analysis in time scale to analyse the effect of structural heterogeneity on the movement of the slug-parasitic nematode, Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita. The study involves image recording and analysis of nematode movement on a homogeneous layer of technical agar compared to movement of nematodes in a structurally heterogeneous environment that was created by adding sand particles to the plates of agar. The temporal scaling properties of the recorded trails were studied using a detrended fluctuation based method to capture the complex dynamic of movement data by comparing the multiscaling characteristics of nematode step lengths as affected by the different environments. A systematic analysis of the exponent of the structure function and the generalized Hurst exponent revealed that, while in homogeneous environment the movement was characterized by a long-range correlation with a Hurst exponent H(q) close to 1, varying little with respect to the order q of the fluctuation function, the impact of sand particle was to reduce the degree of persistence in the movement, the step lenghts being characterized by a smaller Hurst exponent, yet more variable. The results suggest that the presence of structural heterogeneity introduces a new bias into the movement, which plays an important role in complex environments where the nematode movement may be obstructed by soil particles. References Tarquis, A.M., Morato, M. C., Castellanos M.T., Perdigones A. 2009. Comparison of Structure Function and Detrended Fluctuation Analysis of Wind Time Series, Riv. Nuevo Cimento, in press. Gao, J., Cao, Y., Tung, W.-W., Hu J., 2007. Multiscale Analysis of Complex Times Series. Eds. John Wiley & Sons.

  19. Practical application of insect-parasitic nematodes and sterile flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The company 'de Groene Vlieg' started with commercial control of the onion fly by means of the sterile insect technique. At the moment 10 per cent of the Dutch spring sown onions are treated with this method. The mass-rearing, the estimations of populations and the repeated releases of sterilized flies make it a rather complicated method. It can be applied economically per field, but only in areas with a concentration of onion growing. For export we see no possibilities yet. In principle the sterile insect technique can be applied also to other flies (carrot rust fly, cabbage root fly), but a suitable artificial diet is still lacking. Since some years we also rear the insect parasitic nematodes Heterorhabditis sp. and Neoaplectana bibionis. The later is experimentally used with success against Agrotis segetum caterpillars in lettuce. Research will yield more applications of nematodes against different pests. We use Heterorhabditis sp. in practice against the black vine weevil (Otiorhynchus sulcatus), a serious pest in glass houses, tree nurseries and gardens. Good control is achieved with a dose of one half to one million nematodes per square meter in moist soil and with temperatures above 12 degrees C. The application is similar to that of a chemical insecticide. The pest is killed by symbiontic bacteria, released by the nematodes after penetrating into the body cavity of the larvae. The nematodes are delivered by mail. If cooled they can be kept alive for over four weeks in the package. We export already to Switzerland and plan to export also to Western Germany. At this moment a possible admittance is under investigation in the Netherlands for application of a nuclear polyhedrosis virus against Spodoptera exigua caterpillars

  20. Mermithid nematodes found in adult Anopheles from southeastern Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobylinski Kevin C

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over two dozen mermithid nematodes have been described parasitizing mosquitoes worldwide, however, only two species were found in Africa. Mermithid nematodes kill their mosquito host upon emergence, which suggests that they could be developed as biological control agents of mosquitoes. Both Romanomermis culicivorax and Romanomermis iyengari have been reared for mass release to control numerous Anopheles species vector populations, and in one instance this may have led to reduced malaria prevalence in a human population. Methods Anopheles mosquitoes were collected during a malaria study in southeastern Senegal. Two different adult blood fed mosquitoes had a single mermithid nematode emerge from their anus while they were being held post-capture. Primers from the 18 S rDNA were developed to sequence nematode DNA and screen mosquitoes for mermithid DNA. 18 S rDNA from the Senegalese mermithid and other mermithid entries in GenBank were used to create a Maximum Parsimony tree of the Mermithidae family. Results The mermithid was present in 1.8% (10/551 of the sampled adult Anopheles species in our study area. The mermithid was found in An. gambiae s.s., An. funestus, and An. rufipes from the villages of Ndebou, Boundoucondi, and Damboucoye. Maximum parsimony analysis confirmed that the nematode parasites found in Anopheles were indeed mermithid parasites, and of the mermithid sequences available in GenBank, they are most closely related to Strelkovimermis spiculatus. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of mermithids from adult Anopheles mosquitoes in Senegal. The mermithid appears to infect Anopheles mosquitoes that develop in diverse larval habitats. Although maximum parsimony analysis determined the mermithid was closely related to Strelkovimermis spiculatus, several characteristics of the mermithid were more similar to the Empidomermis genus. Future mermithid isolations will hopefully allow: formal

  1. Discrimination of gastrointestinal nematode eggs from crude fecal egg preparations by inhibitor-resistant conventional and real-time PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Demeler

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of gastrointestinal nematodes relies predominantly on coproscopic methods such as flotation, Kato-Katz, McMaster or FLOTAC. Although FLOTAC allows accurate quantification, many nematode eggs can only be differentiated to genus or family level. Several molecular diagnostic tools discriminating closely related species suffer from high costs for DNA isolation from feces and limited sensitivity since most kits use only small amounts of feces (<1 g. A direct PCR from crude egg preparations was designed for full compatibility with FLOTAC to accurately quantify eggs per gram feces (epg and determine species composition. Eggs were recovered from the flotation solution and concentrated by sieving. Lysis was achieved by repeated boiling and freezing cycles - only Trichuris eggs required additional mechanic disruption. Egg lysates were directly used as template for PCR with Phusion DNA polymerase which is particularly resistant to PCR inhibitors. Qualitative results were obtained with feces of goats, cattle, horses, swine, cats, dogs and mice. The finally established protocol was also compatible with quantitative real-time PCR in the presence of EvaGreen and no PCR inhibition was detectable when extracts were diluted at least fourfold. Sensitivity was comparable to DNA isolation protocols and spiked samples with five epg were reliably detected. For Toxocara cati a detection limit below one epg was demonstrated. It was possible to distinguish T. cati and Toxocara canis using high resolution melt (HRM analysis, a rapid tool for species identification. In human samples, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP and HRM analysis were used to discriminate Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. The method is able to significantly improve molecular diagnosis of gastrointestinal nematodes by increasing speed and sensitivity while decreasing overall costs. For identification of species or resistance alleles, analysis of PCR products with many

  2. Local scaling characteristics of Antarctic surface layer turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Basu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past years, several studies have validated Nieuwstadt's local scaling hypothesis by utilizing turbulence observations from the mid-latitude, nocturnal stable boundary layers. In this work, we probe into the local scaling characteristics of polar, long-lived stable boundary layers by analyzing turbulence data from the South Pole region of the Antarctic Plateau.

  3. Evaluating Wind Power Potential in the Spanish Antarctic Base (BAE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the work is to model wind field in the surroundings of the Spanish Antarctic Base (BAE in the following). The need of such a work comes from the necessity of an energy source able to supply the energy demand in the BAE during the Antarctic winter. When the BAE is in operation (in the Antarctic summer) the energy supply comes from a diesel engine. In the Antarctic winter the base is closed, but the demand of energy supply is growing up every year because of the increase in the number of technical and scientific machines that remain in the BAE taking different measurements. For this purpose the top of a closed hill called Pico Radio, not perturbed by close obstacles, has been chosen as the better site for the measurements. The measurement station is made up with a sonic anemometer and a small wind generator to supply the energy needed by the sensors head heating of the anemometer. This way, it will be also used as a proof for the suitability of a wind generator in the new chosen site, under those special climatic conditions.(Author) 3 refs

  4. Recent Rapid Regional Climate Warming on the Antarctic Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, D. G.; Marshall, G. J.; Connolley, W. M.; Parkinson, C.; Mulvaney, R.; Hodgson, D. A.; King, J. C.; Pudsey, C. J.; Turner, J.

    2002-12-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) confirmed that global warming was 0.6 ñ 0.2 degrees C during the 20th Century and cited increases in greenhouse gases as a likely contributor. But this average conceals the complexity of observed climate change, which is seasonally biased, decadally variable and geographically patchy. In particular, over the last 50 years three high-latitude areas have undergone recent rapid regional (RRR) warming ? substantially more rapid than the global mean. We discuss the spatial and temporal significance of RRR warming in one area, the Antarctic Peninsula. New analyses of station records show no ubiquitous polar amplification of global warming but significant RRR warming on the Antarctic Peninsula. We investigate the likelihood that this could be amplification of a global warming, and use climate-proxy data to indicate that this RRR warming on the Antarctic Peninsula is unprecedented over the last two millennia and unlikely to be a natural mode of variability. We can show a strong connection between RRR warming and reduced sea-ice duration in an area on the west of the Antarctic Peninsula, but here we cannot yet distinguish cause and effect. Thus for the present we cannot determine which process causes the RRR warming, and until the mechanism initiating and sustaining it is understood, and is convincingly reproduced in climate models, we lack a sound basis for predicting climate change in this region over the coming century.

  5. Pioneering work of CAS researchers in Antarctic expedition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The first observatory at Dome A On 12 January, China scientific expedition to Antarctica succeeded for a second time in climbing up to Dome A, the highest Antarctic icecap peak. A similar feat was made by Chinese scientists about three years ago in January 2005, leaving first human footprints there.

  6. Emplacement of Antarctic ice sheet mass affects circumpolar ocean flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rugenstein, M.; Stocchi, P.; van der Heydt, A.; Brinkhuis, H.

    2014-01-01

    During the Cenozoic the Antarctic continent experienced large fluctuations in ice-sheet volume. We investigate the effects of Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) on Southern Ocean circulation for the first continental scale glaciation of Antarctica (~ 34 Myr) by combining solid Earth and ocean dynami

  7. Occurrence of a taurine derivative in an antarctic glass sponge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Marianna; Núñez-Pons, Laura; Ciavatta, M Letizia; Castelluccio, Francesco; Avila, Conxita; Gavagnin, Margherita

    2014-04-01

    The n-butanol extract of an Antarctic hexactinellid sponge, Anoxycalyx (Scolymastra) joubini, was found to contain a taurine-conjugated anthranilic acid, never reported so far either as a natural product or by synthesis. The compound was inactive against human cancer cells in an in vitro growth inhibitory test, and also showed no antibacterial activity. PMID:24868857

  8. Microbial ecology and biogeochemistry of continental Antarctic soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don A Cowan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Antarctica Dry Valleys are regarded as the coldest hyperarid desert system on Earth. While a wide variety of environmental stressors including very low minimum temperatures, frequent freeze-thaw cycles and low water availability impose severe limitations to life, suitable niches for abundant microbial colonization exist. Antarctic desert soils contain much higher levels of microbial diversity than previously thought. Edaphic niches, including cryptic and refuge habitats, microbial mats and permafrost soils all harbour microbial communities which drive key biogeochemical cycling processes. For example, lithobionts (hypoliths and endoliths possess a genetic capacity for nitrogen and carbon cycling, polymer degradation and other system processes. Nitrogen fixation rates of hypoliths, as assessed through acetylene reduction assays, suggest that these communities are a significant input source for nitrogen into these oligotrophic soils. Here we review aspects of microbial diversity in Antarctic soils with an emphasis on functionality and capacity. We assess current knowledge regarding adaptations to Antarctic soil environments and highlight the current threats to Antarctic desert soil communities.

  9. An Antarctic Circumpolar Current driven by surface buoyancy forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, Andrew McC.

    2010-12-01

    Simulations of an idealised, but eddy-resolving, channel model of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) are used to investigate the sensitivity of ACC transport to wind and surface buoyancy forcing. The results are consistent with theoretical predictions of the eddy-saturated limit, where transport is independent of wind stress. In this parameter regime, buoyancy forcing provides the primary control over ACC transport.

  10. Maneuver simulation model of an experimental hovercraft for the Antarctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murao, Rinichi

    Results of an investigation of a hovercraft model designed for Antarctic conditions are presented. The buoyancy characteristics, the propellant control system, and simulation model control are examined. An ACV (air cushion vehicle) model of the hovercraft is used to examine the flexibility and friction of the skirt. Simulation results are presented which show the performance of the hovercraft.

  11. A multivariate analysis of Antarctic sea ice since 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes Neto, Newton de; Evangelista, Heitor [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (Uerj), LARAMG - Laboratorio de Radioecologia e Mudancas Globais, Maracana, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Tanizaki-Fonseca, Kenny [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (Uerj), LARAMG - Laboratorio de Radioecologia e Mudancas Globais, Maracana, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Dept. Analise Geoambiental, Inst. de Geociencias, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Penello Meirelles, Margareth Simoes [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ)/Geomatica, Maracana, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Garcia, Carlos Eiras [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG), Laboratorio de Oceanografia Fisica, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil)

    2012-03-15

    Recent satellite observations have shown an increase in the total extent of Antarctic sea ice, during periods when the atmosphere and oceans tend to be warmer surrounding a significant part of the continent. Despite an increase in total sea ice, regional analyses depict negative trends in the Bellingshausen-Amundsen Sea and positive trends in the Ross Sea. Although several climate parameters are believed to drive the formation of Antarctic sea ice and the local atmosphere, a descriptive mechanism that could trigger such differences in trends are still unknown. In this study we employed a multivariate analysis in order to identify the response of the Antarctic sea ice with respect to commonly utilized climate forcings/parameters, as follows: (1) The global air surface temperature, (2) The global sea surface temperature, (3) The atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration, (4) The South Annular Mode, (5) The Nino 3, (6) The Nino (3 + 4, 7) The Nino 4, (8) The Southern Oscillation Index, (9) The Multivariate ENSO Index, (10) the Total Solar Irradiance, (11) The maximum O{sub 3} depletion area, and (12) The minimum O{sub 3} concentration over Antarctica. Our results indicate that western Antarctic sea ice is simultaneously impacted by several parameters; and that the minimum, mean, and maximum sea ice extent may respond to a separate set of climatic/geochemical parameters. (orig.)

  12. Antarctic Cenozoic climate history from sedimentary records: ANDRILL and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, R M; Barrett, P J; Levy, R S; Naish, T R; Golledge, N R; Pyne, A

    2016-01-28

    Mounting evidence from models and geological data implies that the Antarctic Ice Sheet may behave in an unstable manner and retreat rapidly in response to a warming climate, which is a key factor motivating efforts to improve estimates of Antarctic ice volume contributions to future sea-level rise. Here, we review Antarctic cooling history since peak temperatures of the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (approx. 50 Ma) to provide a framework for future initiatives to recover sediment cores from subglacial lakes and sedimentary basins in Antarctica's continental interior. While the existing inventory of cores has yielded important insights into the biotic and climatic evolution of Antarctica, strata have numerous and often lengthy time breaks, providing a framework of 'snapshots' through time. Further cores, and more work on existing cores, are needed to reconcile Antarctic records with the more continuous 'far-field' records documenting the evolution of global ice volume and deep-sea temperature. To achieve this, we argue for an integrated portfolio of drilling and coring missions that encompasses existing methodologies using ship- and sea-ice-/ice-shelf-based drilling platforms as well as recently developed seafloor-based drilling and subglacial access systems. We conclude by reviewing key technological issues that will need to be overcome. PMID:26667911

  13. A novel Antarctic microbial endolithic community within gypsum crusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Kevin A; Lawley, Blair

    2003-07-01

    A novel endolithic microbial habitat is described from a climatically extreme site at Two Step Cliffs, Alexander Island, Antarctic Peninsula (71 degrees 54'S, 68 degrees 13'W). Small endolithic colonies (endolithic communities are less extensive than those of the Dry Valleys, continental Antarctica, probably owing to only recent deglaciation (<7000 year ago). PMID:12823188

  14. Microbial ecology and biogeochemistry of continental Antarctic soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Don A.; Makhalanyane, Thulani P.; Dennis, Paul G.; Hopkins, David W.

    2014-01-01

    The Antarctica Dry Valleys are regarded as the coldest hyperarid desert system on Earth. While a wide variety of environmental stressors including very low minimum temperatures, frequent freeze-thaw cycles and low water availability impose severe limitations to life, suitable niches for abundant microbial colonization exist. Antarctic desert soils contain much higher levels of microbial diversity than previously thought. Edaphic niches, including cryptic and refuge habitats, microbial mats and permafrost soils all harbor microbial communities which drive key biogeochemical cycling processes. For example, lithobionts (hypoliths and endoliths) possess a genetic capacity for nitrogen and carbon cycling, polymer degradation, and other system processes. Nitrogen fixation rates of hypoliths, as assessed through acetylene reduction assays, suggest that these communities are a significant input source for nitrogen into these oligotrophic soils. Here we review aspects of microbial diversity in Antarctic soils with an emphasis on functionality and capacity. We assess current knowledge regarding adaptations to Antarctic soil environments and highlight the current threats to Antarctic desert soil communities. PMID:24782842

  15. Antarctic and Southern Ocean influences on Late Pliocene global cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKay, R.; Naish, T.; Carter, L.; Riesselman, C.; Dunbar, R.; Sjunneskog, C.; Winter, D.; Sangiorgi, F.; Warren, C.; Pagani, M.; Schouten, S.; Willmott, V.; Levy, R.; DeConto , R.M.; Powell, R.D.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of Antarctica and the Southern Ocean on Late Pliocene global climate reconstructions has remained ambiguous due to a lack of well-dated Antarctic-proximal, paleoenvironmental records. Here we present ice sheet, sea-surface temperature, and sea ice reconstructions from the ANDRILL AND-1

  16. Is there a distinct continental slope fauna in the Antarctic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Stefanie; Griffiths, Huw J.; Barnes, David K. A.; Brandão, Simone N.; Brandt, Angelika; O'Brien, Philip E.

    2011-02-01

    The Antarctic continental slope spans the depths from the shelf break (usually between 500 and 1000 m) to ˜3000 m, is very steep, overlain by 'warm' (2-2.5 °C) Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW), and life there is poorly studied. This study investigates whether life on Antarctica's continental slope is essentially an extension of the shelf or the abyssal fauna, a transition zone between these or clearly distinct in its own right. Using data from several cruises to the Weddell Sea and Scotia Sea, including the ANDEEP (ANtarctic benthic DEEP-sea biodiversity, colonisation history and recent community patterns) I-III, BIOPEARL (BIOdiversity, Phylogeny, Evolution and Adaptive Radiation of Life in Antarctica) 1 and EASIZ (Ecology of the Antarctic Sea Ice Zone) II cruises as well as current databases (SOMBASE, SCAR-MarBIN), four different taxa were selected (i.e. cheilostome bryozoans, isopod and ostracod crustaceans and echinoid echinoderms) and two areas, the Weddell Sea and the Scotia Sea, to examine faunal composition, richness and affinities. The answer has important ramifications to the link between physical oceanography and ecology, and the potential of the slope to act as a refuge and resupply zone to the shelf during glaciations. Benthic samples were collected using Agassiz trawl, epibenthic sledge and Rauschert sled. By bathymetric definition, these data suggest that despite eurybathy in some of the groups examined and apparent similarity of physical conditions in the Antarctic, the shelf, slope and abyssal faunas were clearly separated in the Weddell Sea. However, no such separation of faunas was apparent in the Scotia Sea (except in echinoids). Using a geomorphological definition of the slope, shelf-slope-abyss similarity only changed significantly in the bryozoans. Our results did not support the presence of a homogenous and unique Antarctic slope fauna despite a high number of species being restricted to the slope. However, it remains the case that there may be

  17. The nematode extraction efficiency of the Oostenbrink eluctriator-cottonwool filter method with special reference to nematode body size and life strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschoor, B.C.; Goede, de R.G.M.

    2000-01-01

    The Oostenbrink elutriator-cottonwool filter method is widely used to extract nematodes from soil or litter samples. Nevertheless, its extraction efficiency with respect to nematode body dimensions and life strategy has hardly been investigated. In this study, losses in the elutriator, through the s

  18. Evaluation of the biological toxicity of lfuorine in Antarctic krill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ling; LU Xiaoqi; WANG Zhangmin; QIN Liqiang; LIN Zhiqin; YUAN Linxi; ZHANG Wen; YIN Xuebin

    2014-01-01

    Antarctic krill is a potentially nutritious food source for humans, but lfuorine (F) toxicity is a matter of concern. To evaluate the toxicity of F in Antarctic krill, 30 Wistar rats were divided into three groups with different dietary regimens:a control group, a krill treatment group (150 mg·kg-1 F), and a sodium lfuoride (NaF) treatment group (150 mg·kg-1 F). After three months, F concentrations in feces, plasma, and bone were determined, and the degree of dental and skeletal lfuorosis was assessed. The F concentrations in plasma and bone from the krill treatment group were 0.167 0±0.020 4 mg.L-1 and 2 709.8±301.9 mg·kg-1, respectively, compared with 0.043 8±0.005 5 mg·L-1 and 442.4±60.7 mg·kg-1, respectively, in samples from the control group. Concentrations of F in plasma and bone in the krill treatment group were higher than in the control group, but lower than in the NaF treatment group. The degree of dental lfuorosis in the krill treatment group was moderate, compared with severe in the NaF treatment group and normal in the control group. The degree of skeletal lfuorosis did not change signiifcantly in any group. These results showed that the toxicity of F in Antarctic krill was lower than for an equivalent concentration of F in NaF, but it was toxic for rats consuming krill in large quantities. To conclude, we discuss possible reasons for the reduced toxicity of F in Antarctic krill. The present study provides a direct toxicological reference for the consideration of Antarctic krill for human consumption.

  19. Fast, automated measurement of nematode swimming (thrashing without morphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sattelle David B

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The "thrashing assay", in which nematodes are placed in liquid and the frequency of lateral swimming ("thrashing" movements estimated, is a well-established method for measuring motility in the genetic model organism Caenorhabditis elegans as well as in parasitic nematodes. It is used as an index of the effects of drugs, chemicals or mutations on motility and has proved useful in identifying mutants affecting behaviour. However, the method is laborious, subject to experimenter error, and therefore does not permit high-throughput applications. Existing automation methods usually involve analysis of worm shape, but this is computationally demanding and error-prone. Here we present a novel, robust and rapid method of automatically counting the thrashing frequency of worms that avoids morphometry but nonetheless gives a direct measure of thrashing frequency. Our method uses principal components analysis to remove the background, followed by computation of a covariance matrix of the remaining image frames from which the interval between statistically-similar frames is estimated. Results We tested the performance of our covariance method in measuring thrashing rates of worms using mutations that affect motility and found that it accurately substituted for laborious, manual measurements over a wide range of thrashing rates. The algorithm used also enabled us to determine a dose-dependent inhibition of thrashing frequency by the anthelmintic drug, levamisole, illustrating the suitability of the system for assaying the effects of drugs and chemicals on motility. Furthermore, the algorithm successfully measured the actions of levamisole on a parasitic nematode, Haemonchus contortus, which undergoes complex contorted shapes whilst swimming, without alterations in the code or of any parameters, indicating that it is applicable to different nematode species, including parasitic nematodes. Our method is capable of analyzing a 30 s movie in

  20. Ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA analysis of Trichuridae nematodes of carnivores and small mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardone, Lisa; Deplazes, Peter; Macchioni, Fabio; Magi, Marta; Mathis, Alexander

    2013-10-18

    Several species of Trichuridae nematodes can infect dogs, cats and wild mammals. The diagnosis of these infections relies on the microscopic identification of eggs which are characterized by a similar "lemon" shape and polar plugs in all Trichuridae. Thus, morphological diagnosis to species level is challenging. The use of biomolecular diagnostic methods is desirable but very little genetic data are known from Trichuridae of carnivores and small mammals. The aim of this work was to genetically characterize several species of Trichuridae that can affect dogs, cats and wild mammals, as a basis to develop molecular diagnostic tests. Specimens (adult worms or eggs) of Eucoleus aerophilus (syn. Capillaria aerophila), Eucoleus boehmi (syn. Capillaria boehmi), Pearsonema plica (syn. Capillaria plica), Aonchotheca putorii (syn. Capillaria putorii), Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica), Calodium splenaecum (syn. Capillaria splenaeca) and Trichuris vulpis were obtained from carcasses of red foxes, feces of dogs, the liver of a vole and from the spleen of Crocidura sp. Parts of the small subunit rRNA (18S rRNA) gene and of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox 1 mtDNA) gene were amplified from the above mentioned nematodes, yielding the first 18S rRNA gene sequences of all the capillariid nematodes and the first cox 1 mtDNA sequences of E. boehmi, P. plica, C. hepaticum, A. putorii and T. vulpis. The 18S rRNA gene is highly conserved among the different species and not suitable as a target for specific diagnostic oligonucleotides. However, these sequences contribute to a better understanding of the complex taxonomic relations among Trichuridae. Indeed, a dendrogram based on the 18S rRNA gene locus supports the latest taxonomic revision. Interspecies divergence was much higher at the cox 1 mtDNA gene locus, rendering it suitable for DNA barcoding and particularly valuable in resolving closely related species. Furthermore, the mitochondrial genetic

  1. Microbeam Irradiation of the C. elegans Nematode

    OpenAIRE

    Bertucci, Antonella; POCOCK, Roger D. J.; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Brenner, David J.

    2009-01-01

    The understanding of complex radiation responses in biological systems, such as non-targeted effects as represented by the bystander response, can be enhanced by the use of genetically amenable model organisms. Almost all bystander studies to date have been carried out by using conventional single-cell in vitro systems, which are useful tools to characterize basic cellular and molecular responses. A few studies have been reported in monolayer explants and bystander responses have been also in...

  2. Susceptibility of irradiated Galleria mellonella F1Larvae to Entomopathogenic Nematodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combined effect of substerilizing doses of gamma radiation (40 and 100 Gy) and different concentrations of entomopathogenic nematodes (20, 40, 60, and 80 IJs) on the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella was studied. The 4th larval instar resulted from irradiated male parent pupae mated with normal female were tested for susceptibility to Heterorhabditis bacteriophora BA1 and Steinernema carpocapsae BA2. The mortality rate of the larvae increased by increrasing radiation dose and nematode concentrations. The reproduction of both nematode strains decreased significantly with increasing the treatments (radiation dose and nematode concentrations). In addition, exposure to gamma radiation and entomopathogenic nematodes significantly decreased the total haemocyte count (THC) of the larvae with increasing radiation doses (40 and 100 Gy) and both nematode strains concentrations (20 and 40 IJs) and reached the minimal count at the combiend effect. Finally, larvae were more susceptible to Steinernema carpocapsa than Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. (author)

  3. Assessment of nematode community structure as a bioindicator in river monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nematode communities from river water and sediments were assessed for the abundance, feeding types, maturity indices and nematode channel ratio (NCR). The sampling sites studied included different levels of pollution and contamination from agricultural, industrial and sewage sources. The nematode abundance found in the sediment samples was more than that in the water samples. The lowest nematode abundance in sediment samples and the lowest NCR in water samples were both found at the industrial pollution site. Water samples showed positive correlation between the NCR and river pollution index (RPI). Mean maturity indices in sediment samples were inversely correlated with RPI. The pollutant source determined the relationship between NCR and pollution level, while maturity index always showed negative correlation with pollutant level regardless of the pollutant sources. The nematode abundance and its community structure were both reliable bioindicators for monitoring long-term river pollution in both qualitative and quantitative aspects. - Nematode community structure in rivers is related to the contamination source and level.

  4. Assessment of nematode community structure as a bioindicator in river monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, H.C.; Chen, P.C. [Department of Plant Pathology, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuan Rd, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Tsay, T.T., E-mail: tttsay@nchu.edu.t [Department of Plant Pathology, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuan Rd, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China)

    2010-05-15

    Nematode communities from river water and sediments were assessed for the abundance, feeding types, maturity indices and nematode channel ratio (NCR). The sampling sites studied included different levels of pollution and contamination from agricultural, industrial and sewage sources. The nematode abundance found in the sediment samples was more than that in the water samples. The lowest nematode abundance in sediment samples and the lowest NCR in water samples were both found at the industrial pollution site. Water samples showed positive correlation between the NCR and river pollution index (RPI). Mean maturity indices in sediment samples were inversely correlated with RPI. The pollutant source determined the relationship between NCR and pollution level, while maturity index always showed negative correlation with pollutant level regardless of the pollutant sources. The nematode abundance and its community structure were both reliable bioindicators for monitoring long-term river pollution in both qualitative and quantitative aspects. - Nematode community structure in rivers is related to the contamination source and level.

  5. Molecular Evolution of Clustered MIC-3 (Meloidogyne Induced Cotton -3) Multigene Family of Gossypium Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uniqueness, content, localization, and defense-related features of the root-knot nematode resistance-associated MIC-3 multigene cluster in the genus Gossypium are all of interest for molecular evolutionary studies of duplicate genes in allopolyploids. Here we report molecular evolutionary rates of t...

  6. At-Sea Distribution and Prey Selection of Antarctic Petrels and Commercial Krill Fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descamps, Sébastien; Tarroux, Arnaud; Cherel, Yves; Delord, Karine; Godø, Olaf Rune; Kato, Akiko; Krafft, Bjørn A; Lorentsen, Svein-Håkon; Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Skaret, Georg; Varpe, Øystein

    2016-01-01

    Commercial fisheries may impact marine ecosystems and affect populations of predators like seabirds. In the Southern Ocean, there is an extensive fishery for Antarctic krill Euphausia superba that is projected to increase further. Comparing distribution and prey selection of fishing operations versus predators is needed to predict fishery-related impacts on krill-dependent predators. In this context, it is important to consider not only predators breeding near the fishing grounds but also the ones breeding far away and that disperse during the non-breeding season where they may interact with fisheries. In this study, we first quantified the overlap between the distribution of the Antarctic krill fisheries and the distribution of a krill dependent seabird, the Antarctic petrel Thalassoica antarctica, during both the breeding and non-breeding season. We tracked birds from the world biggest Antarctic petrel colony (Svarthamaren, Dronning Maud Land), located >1000 km from the main fishing areas, during three consecutive seasons. The overall spatial overlap between krill fisheries and Antarctic petrels was limited but varied greatly among and within years, and was high in some periods during the non-breeding season. In a second step, we described the length frequency distribution of Antarctic krill consumed by Antarctic petrels, and compared this with results from fisheries, as well as from diet studies in other krill predators. Krill taken by Antarctic petrels did not differ in size from that taken by trawls or from krill taken by most Antarctic krill predators. Selectivity for specific Antarctic krill stages seems generally low in Antarctic predators. Overall, our results show that competition between Antarctic petrels and krill fisheries is currently likely negligible. However, if krill fisheries are to increase in the future, competition with the Antarctic petrel may occur, even with birds breeding thousands of kilometers away. PMID:27533327

  7. At-Sea Distribution and Prey Selection of Antarctic Petrels and Commercial Krill Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descamps, Sébastien; Tarroux, Arnaud; Cherel, Yves; Delord, Karine; Godø, Olaf Rune; Kato, Akiko; Krafft, Bjørn A.; Lorentsen, Svein-Håkon; Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Skaret, Georg; Varpe, Øystein

    2016-01-01

    Commercial fisheries may impact marine ecosystems and affect populations of predators like seabirds. In the Southern Ocean, there is an extensive fishery for Antarctic krill Euphausia superba that is projected to increase further. Comparing distribution and prey selection of fishing operations versus predators is needed to predict fishery-related impacts on krill-dependent predators. In this context, it is important to consider not only predators breeding near the fishing grounds but also the ones breeding far away and that disperse during the non-breeding season where they may interact with fisheries. In this study, we first quantified the overlap between the distribution of the Antarctic krill fisheries and the distribution of a krill dependent seabird, the Antarctic petrel Thalassoica antarctica, during both the breeding and non-breeding season. We tracked birds from the world biggest Antarctic petrel colony (Svarthamaren, Dronning Maud Land), located >1000 km from the main fishing areas, during three consecutive seasons. The overall spatial overlap between krill fisheries and Antarctic petrels was limited but varied greatly among and within years, and was high in some periods during the non-breeding season. In a second step, we described the length frequency distribution of Antarctic krill consumed by Antarctic petrels, and compared this with results from fisheries, as well as from diet studies in other krill predators. Krill taken by Antarctic petrels did not differ in size from that taken by trawls or from krill taken by most Antarctic krill predators. Selectivity for specific Antarctic krill stages seems generally low in Antarctic predators. Overall, our results show that competition between Antarctic petrels and krill fisheries is currently likely negligible. However, if krill fisheries are to increase in the future, competition with the Antarctic petrel may occur, even with birds breeding thousands of kilometers away. PMID:27533327

  8. Antarctic bdelloid rotifers: diversity, endemism and evolution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Iakovenko, N. S.; Smykla, J.; Convey, P.; Kašparová, Eva; Kozeretska, I. A.; Trokhymets, V.; Dykyy, I.; Plewka, M.; Devetter, Miloslav; Duriš, Z.; Janko, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 761, č. 1 (2015), s. 5-43. ISSN 0018-8158 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600450903; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010009 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : Bdelloidea * DNA taxonomy * Molecular biogeography Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.275, year: 2014

  9. Factors associated with the suppressiveness of sugarcane soils to plant-parasitic nematodes

    OpenAIRE

    Stirling, Graham R.; Rames, Emily; Stirling, A. Marcelle; Hamill, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Observations in three Australian sugarcane fields suggested that the soil just under the trash blanket (the covering of crop residue that remains on the soil surface after crops are harvested) was suppressive to plant-parasitic nematodes. Roots were concentrated in this upper layer of soil but plant-parasitic nematode populations were relatively low and roots showed few signs of nematode damage. Root biomass was much lower 15 cm further down the soil profile, where root health was poor and po...

  10. Controlling Aphelenchoides subtenuis nematodes with a hot water treatment in Crocus and Allium

    OpenAIRE

    Leeuwen, van, A.G.J.M.; Trompert, J.P.T.

    2011-01-01

    Several bulbous crops like Crocus, Allium and some species of Tulipa and Narcissus can be infected with the nematode Aphelenchoides subtenuis. The nematodes cause retarded growth, poor or no flowering and eventually death of the bulbs and corms. A hot water treatment after lifting the bulbs has proved to be effective in controlling the nematodes. Due to a high incidence of infected stocks of bulbs a study was conducted to establish if the efficacy of the treatment could be improved by alterin...

  11. Partitioning Yield Loss on Yellow Squash into Nematode and Insect Components

    OpenAIRE

    McSorley, R.; Waddill, V.H.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of a contplex of several insect and nematode pests on yield of yellow squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) was examined in two field tests in southern Florida. Applications of permethrin for insect control and oxamyl primarily for nematode control plus some insect control were made alone and in combination to achieve differential reduction of various insect and nematode components contributing to yield loss. The effect of these components on yield was further analyzed by multiple regression....

  12. Effects of organic amendments on plant-parasitic nematode populations, root damage, and banana plant growth

    OpenAIRE

    Tabarant, P.; Villenave, Cécile; Risède, J.M.; J. Roger-Estrade; Dorel, M

    2011-01-01

    Nematodes are major pests for crops, including banana. Environmentally friendly methods for managing plant-parasitic nematodes have to be developed, such as organic material application. Our study focuses on the impacts of several organic amendments on banana plants, considering mainly their effect on soil nitrogen supply and soil microbial biomass, and the consequences on plant-parasitic nematode impacts on the plants. A microcosm experiment for 13 weeks was conducted to evaluate four organi...

  13. A Position Paper on the Electronic Publication of Nematode Taxonomic Manuscripts

    OpenAIRE

    Eyualem-Abebe,; Baldwin, James G.; Adams,Byron; Hope, Duane; Gardner, Scott; Huettel, Robin; Mullin, Peter; Powers, Topper; Sharma, Jyotsna; Ye, Weimin; Thomas, William K.

    2006-01-01

    Several nematode species have now attained ‘model organism’ status, yet there remain many niches in basic biological inquiry for which nematodes would be ideal model systems of study. However, furthering the model system approach is hindered by lack of information on nematode biodiversity. The shortage of taxonomic resources to inventory and characterize biodiversity hinders research programs in invasion biology, ecosystem functioning, conservation biology, and many others. The disproportion ...

  14. Soil solarization and crop rotation to manage root-knot nematodes in organic greenhouses

    OpenAIRE

    Védie, H.; Mateille, Thierry; Tavoillot, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Since 2008, several on-farm experiments were conducted in Mediterranean organic greenhouse cropping systems in France to assess the efficacy of two complementary methods designed to control root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.): soil solarization and crop rotations with non-susceptible host plants. Results showed that soil solarization reduced root and soil infestation of root-knot nematodes in subsequent crops and that nematode suppression gradually increased when used every year. This tech...

  15. In vivo efficacy of chicory silage against parasitic nematodes in cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Pena-Espinoza, Miguel Angel; Desrues, Oliver; Williams, A; S. Thamsborg; Enemark, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    Infections with parasitic nematodes are a persistent risk for grazing cattle, which is met with widespread use of synthetic anthelmintics. However, heavy reliance on these drugs may lead to selection of drug-resistant nematodes. Integrated control strategies, including anti-parasitic crops, are needed. Chicory (Cichorium intybus) can have an impact against sheep nematodes, but this has not been investigated in cattle. Our study aimed to assess the effect of chicory on infections with abomasal...

  16. Effects of Film Mulch and Soil Pesticides on Nematodes, Weeds, and Yields of Vegetable Crops

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, A. W.; Jaworski, C. A.; Glaze, N. C.; Sumner, D. R.; Chalfant, R. B.

    1981-01-01

    Field plots in Tifton loamy sand were treated with various soil pesticides in 1973 and 1974 and either left exposed or covered with biodegradable flint mulch. Test crops were cantaloup, slicing and pickling cucumber, squash, and sweet corn. Overhead sprinkler irrigation was used in 1973, and trickle irrigation under the film mulch was used on sweet corn in 1974. Soil was assayed for nematodes, and roots of plants were evaluated for damage by root-knot nematodes. Nematode populations were redu...

  17. Nematode Genera in Forest Soil Respond Differentially to Elevated CO2

    OpenAIRE

    Deborah A. Neher; Weicht, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    Previous reports suggest that fungivorous nematodes are the only trophic group in forest soils affected by elevated CO2. However, there can be ambiguity within trophic groups, and we examined data at a genus level to determine whether the conclusion remains similar. Nematodes were extracted from roots and soil of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and sweet gum (Liquidambar styraciflua) forests fumigated with either ambient air or CO2-enriched air. Root length and nematode biomass were estimated usi...

  18. Potato crop growth as influenced by potato cyst nematodes (Globodera pallida) and abiotic factors.

    OpenAIRE

    Ruijter, de, J.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the research described in this thesis was to determine the major mechanisms by which potato cyst nematodes reduce potato crop growth and to explain interactions known to occur with cultivar and abiotic factors. Understanding of these interactions may lead to strategies that potato growers can use to minimise nematode damage.The research concentrated on the interaction between nematodes and soil-related factors. Experiments were carried out, mainly under field conditions, in w...

  19. Interspecific and host-related gene expression patterns in nematode-trapping fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Karl-Magnus; Kumar, Dharmendra; Bentzer, Johan; Friman, Eva; Ahrén, Dag; Tunlid, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Background Nematode-trapping fungi are soil-living fungi that capture and kill nematodes using special hyphal structures called traps. They display a large diversity of trapping mechanisms and differ in their host preferences. To provide insights into the genetic basis for this variation, we compared the transcriptome expressed by three species of nematode-trapping fungi (Arthrobotrys oligospora, Monacrosporium cionopagum and Arthrobotrys dactyloides, which use adhesive nets, adhesive branche...

  20. Structure and seasonal changes of nematode communities from vernal pools (Santa Rosa Plateau)

    OpenAIRE

    de Ley, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Vernal pools are ephemeral wetlands, typically with a diverse and highly adapted flora and fauna. We conducted the first nematode survey on record for this ecologically important habitat. Soil samples were collected on six dates from four locations in and around each of two vernal pool basins in the Santa Rosa Plateau Ecological Reserve. Nematodes from plant roots and debris were extracted in a mist chamber separately from the rest of the soil, which was sieved. An estimated fifty-two nematod...

  1. Filarial Nematode Infection in Ixodes scapularis Ticks Collected from Southern Connecticut

    OpenAIRE

    Pabbati Namrata; Jamie M. Miller; Madari Shilpa; Patlolla Raghavender Reddy; Cheryl Bandoski; Rossi, Michael J.; Eva Sapi

    2014-01-01

    It was recently demonstrated that the lone star tick Amblyomma americanum could harbor filarial nematodes within the genus Acanthocheilonema. In this study, Ixodes scapularis (deer) ticks collected from Southern Connecticut were evaluated for their potential to harbor filarial nematodes. Non-engorged nymphal and adult stage Ixodes scapularis ticks were collected in Southern Connecticut using the standard drag method. In situ hybridization with filarial nematode specific sequences demonstrate...

  2. Managing Nematode Population Densities on Tomato Transplants Using Crop Rotation and a Nematicide

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, A. W.; Campbell, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Millet, milo, soybean, crotalaria, and Norman pigeon pea were used in conjunction with clean fallow and a nematicide (fensulfothion) for managing nematode populations in the production of tomato transplants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Glean fallow was the most effective treatment in suppressing nematode numbers. After 2 years in tomato, root-knot nematodes increased in numbers to damaging levels, and fallow was no longer effective for complete control even in conjunction with fensulfothi...

  3. INFLUENCE OF PHOSPHORUS AND ZINC APPLICATION ON SOIL NEMATODE COMMUNITY IN HOT PEPPER (CAPSICUM ANNUUM L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Mirjana Brmež; Ivana Varga; Teuta Benković-Lačić; Zdenko Lončarić

    2014-01-01

    This research studied nematode communities in the soil during hot pepper cultivation and under influence of Zn and P fertilizer application. The aim of this study was to determine changes in soil nematode communities during the cultivation of hot pepper under the influence of P, Zn and their combination (P+Zn) application. The study included the examination of changes in nematodes structure in soil, their total abundance, the total number of genera and analysis of trophic groups. Changes in n...

  4. Reflections on Plant and Soil Nematode Ecology: Past, Present and Future

    OpenAIRE

    Ferris, Howard; Griffiths, Bryan S.; Porazinska, Dorota L.; Powers, Thomas O.; Wang, Koon-Hui; Tenuta, Mario

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to highlight key developments in nematode ecology from its beginnings to where it stands today as a discipline within nematology. Emerging areas of research appear to be driven by crop production constraints, environmental health concerns, and advances in technology. In contrast to past ecological studies which mainly focused on management of plant-parasitic nematodes, current studies reflect differential sensitivity of nematode faunae. These differences, identif...

  5. Rhizosphere Colonization and Control of Meloidogyne spp. by Nematode-trapping Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Persson, Christina; Jansson, Hans-Börje

    1999-01-01

    The ability of nematode-trapping fungi to colonize the rhizosphere of crop plants has been suggested to be an important factor in biological control of root-infecting nematodes. In this study, rhizosphere colonization was evaluated for 38 isolates of nematode-trapping fungi representing 11 species. In an initial screen, Arthrobotrys dactyloides, A. superba, and Monacrosporium ellipsosporum were most frequently detected in the tomato rhizosphere. In subsequent pot experiments these fungi and t...

  6. Estimation of Surface Area and Volume of a Nematode from Morphometric Data

    OpenAIRE

    Simon Brown; Kevin C. Pedley; David C. SIMCOCK

    2016-01-01

    Nematode volume and surface area are usually based on the inappropriate assumption that the animal is cylindrical. While nematodes are approximately circular in cross section, the radius varies longitudinally. We use standard morphometric data to obtain improved estimates of volume and surface area based on (i) a geometrical approach and (ii) a Bézier representation of the nematode. These new estimators require only the morphometric data available from Cobb’s ratios, but if fewer coordinates ...

  7. Wild deer as potential vectors of anthelmintic-resistant abomasal nematodes between cattle and sheep farms

    OpenAIRE

    Chintoan-Uta, C.; Morgan, E R; Skuce, P. J.; Coles, G.C.

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes are among the most important causes of production loss in farmed ruminants, and anthelmintic resistance is emerging globally. We hypothesized that wild deer could potentially act as reservoirs of anthelmintic-resistant GI nematodes between livestock farms. Adult abomasal nematodes and faecal samples were collected from fallow (n = 24), red (n = 14) and roe deer (n = 10) from venison farms and areas of extensive or intensive livestock farming. Principal componen...

  8. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with olive tree in Southern Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Hamza, M.A.; Ferji, Z.; Ali, N; Tavoillot, Johannes; Chapuis, Elodie; El Oualkadi, A.; Moukhli, A.; Khadari, B.; Boubaker, H.; Lakhtar, H.; Roussos, Sevastianos; Mateille, Thierry; El Mousadik, A.

    2015-01-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes affect significantly the production of susceptible plants, including olive trees. In this context, nematode communities were determined in soil samples collected from 23 olive growing sites in the Haouz and Souss regions (southern Morocco). These sites corresponded to various modalities: wild (Olea europaea L. ssp. sylvestris) or cropped olive (Olea. europaea L. ssp. europaea), traditional or high-density cropping, rainfed or irrigated. Even free-living nematodes pre...

  9. Tracing soil erosion impacts on soil organisms using 137Cs and soil nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Craig; Rowan, John S.; McKenzie, Blair M.; Neilson, Roy

    2014-05-01

    The application of environmental radionuclides in soil tracing and erosion studies is now well established in geomorphology. Sediment and erosion-tracing studies are undertaken for a range of purposes in the earth sciences but until now few studies have used the technique to answer biological questions. An experiment was undertaken to measure patterns of soil loss and gain over 50 years, effectively calculating a field-scale sediment budget, to investigate soil erosion relationships between physical and biological soil components. Soil nematodes were identified as a model organism, a ubiquitous and abundant group sensitive to disturbance and thus useful indicator taxa of biological and physico-chemical changes. A field site was selected at the James Hutton Institute's experimental Balruddery Farm in NE Scotland. 10 metre-resolution topographical data was collected with differential GPS. Based on these data, a regular 30 m-resolution sampling grid was constructed in ArcGIS, and a field-sampling campaign undertaken. 104 soil cores (~50 cm-deep) were collected with a percussion corer. Radio-caesium (137Cs) activity concentrations were measured using high-purity germainum gamma-ray spectroscopy, and 137Cs areal activities derived from these values. Organic matter content by loss on ignition and grain-size distribution by laser granulometry were also measured. Additional samples were collected to characterise the soil nematode community, both for abundance and functional (trophic) composition using a combination of low-powered microscopy and molecular identification techniques (dTRFLP). Results were analysed with ArcGIS software using the Spatial Analyst package. Results show that spatial relationships between physical, chemical and biological parameters were complex and interrelated. Previous field management was found to influence these relationships. The results of this experiment highlight the role that soil erosion processes play in medium-term restructuring of the

  10. Diversity, Host Specialization, and Geographic Structure of Filarial Nematodes Infecting Malagasy Bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beza Ramasindrazana

    Full Text Available We investigated filarial infection in Malagasy bats to gain insights into the diversity of these parasites and explore the factors shaping their distribution. Samples were obtained from 947 individual bats collected from 52 sites on Madagascar and representing 31 of the 44 species currently recognized on the island. Samples were screened for the presence of micro- and macro-parasites through both molecular and morphological approaches. Phylogenetic analyses showed that filarial diversity in Malagasy bats formed three main groups, the most common represented by Litomosa spp. infecting Miniopterus spp. (Miniopteridae; a second group infecting Pipistrellus cf. hesperidus (Vespertilionidae embedded within the Litomosoides cluster, which is recognized herein for the first time from Madagascar; and a third group composed of lineages with no clear genetic relationship to both previously described filarial nematodes and found in M. griveaudi, Myotis goudoti, Neoromicia matroka (Vespertilionidae, Otomops madagascariensis (Molossidae, and Paratriaenops furculus (Hipposideridae. We further analyzed the infection rates and distribution pattern of Litomosa spp., which was the most diverse and prevalent filarial taxon in our sample. Filarial infection was disproportionally more common in males than females in Miniopterus spp., which might be explained by some aspect of roosting behavior of these cave-dwelling bats. We also found marked geographic structure in the three Litomosa clades, mainly linked to bioclimatic conditions rather than host-parasite associations. While this study demonstrates distinct patterns of filarial nematode infection in Malagasy bats and highlights potential drivers of associated geographic distributions, future work should focus on their alpha taxonomy and characterize arthropod vectors.

  11. Diversity, Host Specialization, and Geographic Structure of Filarial Nematodes Infecting Malagasy Bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasindrazana, Beza; Dellagi, Koussay; Lagadec, Erwan; Randrianarivelojosia, Milijaona; Goodman, Steven M; Tortosa, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    We investigated filarial infection in Malagasy bats to gain insights into the diversity of these parasites and explore the factors shaping their distribution. Samples were obtained from 947 individual bats collected from 52 sites on Madagascar and representing 31 of the 44 species currently recognized on the island. Samples were screened for the presence of micro- and macro-parasites through both molecular and morphological approaches. Phylogenetic analyses showed that filarial diversity in Malagasy bats formed three main groups, the most common represented by Litomosa spp. infecting Miniopterus spp. (Miniopteridae); a second group infecting Pipistrellus cf. hesperidus (Vespertilionidae) embedded within the Litomosoides cluster, which is recognized herein for the first time from Madagascar; and a third group composed of lineages with no clear genetic relationship to both previously described filarial nematodes and found in M. griveaudi, Myotis goudoti, Neoromicia matroka (Vespertilionidae), Otomops madagascariensis (Molossidae), and Paratriaenops furculus (Hipposideridae). We further analyzed the infection rates and distribution pattern of Litomosa spp., which was the most diverse and prevalent filarial taxon in our sample. Filarial infection was disproportionally more common in males than females in Miniopterus spp., which might be explained by some aspect of roosting behavior of these cave-dwelling bats. We also found marked geographic structure in the three Litomosa clades, mainly linked to bioclimatic conditions rather than host-parasite associations. While this study demonstrates distinct patterns of filarial nematode infection in Malagasy bats and highlights potential drivers of associated geographic distributions, future work should focus on their alpha taxonomy and characterize arthropod vectors. PMID:26751792

  12. Adaptive radiation within marine anisakid nematodes: a zoogeographical modeling of cosmopolitan, zoonotic parasites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kuhn

    Full Text Available Parasites of the nematode genus Anisakis are associated with aquatic organisms. They can be found in a variety of marine hosts including whales, crustaceans, fish and cephalopods and are known to be the cause of the zoonotic disease anisakiasis, a painful inflammation of the gastro-intestinal tract caused by the accidental consumptions of infectious larvae raw or semi-raw fishery products. Since the demand on fish as dietary protein source and the export rates of seafood products in general is rapidly increasing worldwide, the knowledge about the distribution of potential foodborne human pathogens in seafood is of major significance for human health. Studies have provided evidence that a few Anisakis species can cause clinical symptoms in humans. The aim of our study was to interpolate the species range for every described Anisakis species on the basis of the existing occurrence data. We used sequence data of 373 Anisakis larvae from 30 different hosts worldwide and previously published molecular data (n = 584 from 53 field-specific publications to model the species range of Anisakis spp., using a interpolation method that combines aspects of the alpha hull interpolation algorithm as well as the conditional interpolation approach. The results of our approach strongly indicate the existence of species-specific distribution patterns of Anisakis spp. within different climate zones and oceans that are in principle congruent with those of their respective final hosts. Our results support preceding studies that propose anisakid nematodes as useful biological indicators for their final host distribution and abundance as they closely follow the trophic relationships among their successive hosts. The modeling might although be helpful for predicting the likelihood of infection in order to reduce the risk of anisakiasis cases in a given area.

  13. Formation and Regulation of Adaptive Response in Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-L. Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available All organisms respond to environmental stresses (e.g., heavy metal, heat, UV irradiation, hyperoxia, food limitation, etc. with coordinated adjustments in order to deal with the consequences and/or injuries caused by the severe stress. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans often exerts adaptive responses if preconditioned with low concentrations of agents or stressor. In C. elegans, three types of adaptive responses can be formed: hormesis, cross-adaptation, and dietary restriction. Several factors influence the formation of adaptive responses in nematodes, and some mechanisms can explain their response formation. In particular, antioxidation system, heat-shock proteins, metallothioneins, glutathione, signaling transduction, and metabolic signals may play important roles in regulating the formation of adaptive responses. In this paper, we summarize the published evidence demonstrating that several types of adaptive responses have converged in C. elegans and discussed some possible alternative theories explaining the adaptive response control.

  14. Endosymbiotic bacteria associated with nematodes, ticks and amoebae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mark; Mediannikov, Oleg; Raoult, Didier; Greub, Gilbert

    2012-02-01

    Endosymbiosis is a mutualistic, parasitic or commensal symbiosis in which one symbiont is living within the body of another organism. Such symbiotic relationship with free-living amoebae and arthropods has been reported with a large biodiversity of microorganisms, encompassing various bacterial clades and to a lesser extent some fungi and viruses. By contrast, current knowledge on symbionts of nematodes is still mainly restricted to Wolbachia and its interaction with filarial worms that lead to increased pathogenicity of the infected nematode. In this review article, we aim to highlight the main characteristics of symbionts in term of their ecology, host cell interactions, parasitism and co-evolution, in order to stimulate future research in a field that remains largely unexplored despite the availability of modern tools. PMID:22126456

  15. The nematode C. elegans as a complex viscoelastic fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backholm, Matilda; Ryu, William S; Dalnoki-Veress, Kari

    2015-05-01

    The viscoelastic material properties of the model organism C. elegans were probed with a micropipette deflection technique and modelled with the standard linear solid model. Dynamic relaxation measurements were performed on the millimetric nematode to investigate its viscous characteristics in detail. We show that the internal properties of C. elegans can not be fully described by a simple Newtonian fluid. Instead, a power-law fluid model was implemented and shown to be in excellent agreement with experimental results. The nematode exhibits shear thinning properties and its complex fluid characteristics were quantified. The bending-rate dependence of the internal damping coefficient of C. elegans could affect its gait modulation in different external environments. PMID:25957177

  16. IMMUNE REGULATING ES-PRODUCTS IN PARASITIC NEMATODES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahlool, Qusay Zuhair Mohammad; Buchmann, Kurt; Kania, Per Walter;

    work elucidates the effect of ES substances on the fish immune system by measuring immune gene expression in spleen and liver of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) injected intraperitoneally with ES products isolated from A. simplex third stage larvae. The overall gene expression profile of exposed...... fish showed a generalized down-regulation of the immune genes tested, suggesting a role of ES proteins in minimizing the immune reaction of rainbow trout against invading nematodes. We also tested the enzymatic activity of the ES proteins and found that lipase, esterase lipase, valine and cysteine...... arylamidases, naphthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase and a-galactosidase activities were present in the ES solution. This type of hydrolytic enzyme activity may play a role in nematode penetration of host tissue. Based on the notion that A. simplex ES-proteins may have an immune-depressive effect, it could also be...

  17. Infection of Pratylenchus penetrans by Nematode-pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timper, P; Brodie, B B

    1993-06-01

    Eleven fungal isolates were tested in agar dishes for pathogenicity to Pratylenchus penetrans. Of the fungi that produce adhesive conidia, Hirsutella rhossiliensis was a virulent pathogen; Verticillium balanoides, Drechmeria coniospora, and Nematoctonus sp. were weak or nonpathogens. The trapping fungi, Arthrobotrys dactyloides, A. oligospora, Monacrosporium dlipsosporum, and M. cionopagum, killed most of the P. penetrans adults and juveniles added to the fungus cultures. An isolate of Nematoctonus that forms adhesive knobs trapped only a small proportion of the nematodes. In 17-cm(3) vials, soil moisture influenced survival of P. penetrans in the presence of H. rhossiliensis; nematode survival decreased with diminishing soil moisture. Hirsutella rhossiliensis and M. ellipsosporum were equally effective in reducing numbers of P. penetrans by 24-25% after 4 days in sand. After 25 days in soil artificially infested with H. rhossiliensis, numbers of P. penetrans were reduced by 28-53%. PMID:19279772

  18. How do the macrocyclic lactones kill filarial nematode larvae?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolstenholme, Adrian J; Maclean, Mary J; Coates, Ruby; McCoy, Ciaran J; Reaves, Barbara J

    2016-09-01

    The macrocyclic lactones (MLs) are one of the few classes of drug used in the control of the human filarial infections, onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis, and the only one used to prevent heartworm disease in dogs and cats. Despite their importance in preventing filarial diseases, the way in which the MLs work against these parasites is unclear. In vitro measurements of nematode motility have revealed a large discrepancy between the maximum plasma concentrations achieved after drug administration and the amounts required to paralyze worms. Recent evidence has shed new light on the likely functions of the ML target, glutamate-gated chloride channels, in filarial nematodes and supports the hypothesis that the rapid clearance of microfilariae that follows treatment involves the host immune system. PMID:27279086

  19. Effects of Abiotic Environmental Factors on Soybean Cyst Nematode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Yu-xi; ZHENG Ya-nan; CHEN Li-jie; ZHOU Xiao-min; WANG Yuan-yuan; SUN Jing-shuang

    2009-01-01

    As a pest, in order to complete its life history and reproduces effectively, soybean cyst nematode (SCN) (Heterodera glycines Ichinche 1952) must adapt to various environments and conditions for long periods of evolution. The nematode is widely dispersed year after year. Controlling this pest requires understanding characters and adaptability of SCN.Effects of abiotic factors, such as temperature, soil humidity, agrotype, pH value, ions, plant exudates, agricultural chemical and cultivation systems on SCN, are reviewed in this paper. The results show that SCN is able to endure various environmental stresses, especially low temperature. Because of its special life history, cyst stage help SCN over winter,resistance of SCN to environmental stress is strong. A few studies have reported the mechanism of SCN environmental adaptability. We emphasized the importance of studying environmental adaptability of SCN, which would benefit the control of SCN by ecological means.

  20. Isolation of selenium organic species from antarctic krill after enzymatic hydrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siwek, Mariana; Galunsky, Boris [Technical University Hamburg-Harburg, Institute of Biotechnology II, Hamburg (Germany); Niemeyer, Bernd [GKSS Research Centre, Institute for Coastal Research, Geesthacht (Germany); University of the Federal Armed Forces Hamburg, Institute of Thermodynamics, Hamburg (Germany)

    2005-02-01

    Total selenium content and its distribution in the soluble and insoluble protein-bound fractions obtained after aqueous extraction of antarctic krill samples were determined. About 26% of the total selenium (2.4 {mu}g g{sup -1} dry weight) was found in the supernatant; the rest was in the pellet. Isolation of low molecular selenium-containing fractions was also performed by enzymatic digestion of the protein, followed by size-exclusion chromatography in conjunction with atomic absorption spectrometry. From the applied various proteinases (pronase E, subtilisin Carlsberg, trypsin, chymotrypsin, proteinase and proteinase N from Bacillus subtilis and Novo 0.6 MPX enzyme), the treatment with pronase E led to best recovery of selenium. About 96% of the total Se was found in the hydrolysate, mainly in low molecular weight fractions. Eighty percent of the Se species were in fractions with molecular weights in the range of amino acids and short peptides. High-performance liquid chromatography/inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) allowed the identification of selenomethionine and the assumption that selenocystine or its derivatives were the main species in these fractions. (orig.)