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Sample records for antagonize vibrio anguillarum

  1. Disruption of Cell-to-Cell Signaling Does Not Abolish the Antagonism of Phaeobacter gallaeciensis toward the Fish Pathogen Vibrio anguillarum in Algal Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prol García, María Jesús; D'Alvise, Paul; Gram, Lone

    2013-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) regulates Phaeobacter gallaeciensis antagonism in broth systems; however, we demonstrate here that QS is not important for antagonism in algal cultures. QS mutants reduced Vibrio anguillarum to the same extent as the wild type. Consequently, a combination of probiotic Phaeobac......Quorum sensing (QS) regulates Phaeobacter gallaeciensis antagonism in broth systems; however, we demonstrate here that QS is not important for antagonism in algal cultures. QS mutants reduced Vibrio anguillarum to the same extent as the wild type. Consequently, a combination of probiotic...

  2. The phosphotransferase VanU represses expression of four qrr genes antagonizing VanO-mediated quorum-sensing regulation in Vibrio anguillarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Barbara; Lindell, Kristoffer; El Qaidi, Samir; Hjerde, Erik; Willassen, Nils-Peder; Milton, Debra L

    2011-12-01

    Vibrio anguillarum utilizes quorum sensing to regulate stress responses required for survival in the aquatic environment. Like other Vibrio species, V. anguillarum contains the gene qrr1, which encodes the ancestral quorum regulatory RNA Qrr1, and phosphorelay quorum-sensing systems that modulate the expression of small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) that destabilize mRNA encoding the transcriptional regulator VanT. In this study, three additional Qrr sRNAs were identified. All four sRNAs were positively regulated by σ(54) and the σ(54)-dependent response regulator VanO, and showed a redundant activity. The Qrr sRNAs, together with the RNA chaperone Hfq, destabilized vanT mRNA and modulated expression of VanT-regulated genes. Unexpectedly, expression of all four qrr genes peaked at high cell density, and exogenously added N-acylhomoserine lactone molecules induced expression of the qrr genes at low cell density. The phosphotransferase VanU, which phosphorylates and activates VanO, repressed expression of the Qrr sRNAs and stabilized vanT mRNA. A model is presented proposing that VanU acts as a branch point, aiding cross-regulation between two independent phosphorelay systems that activate or repress expression of the Qrr sRNAs, giving flexibility and precision in modulating VanT expression and inducing a quorum-sensing response to stresses found in a constantly changing aquatic environment.

  3. Continuous Exposure Of Vibrio Anguillarum To Tropodithietic Acid: Genetic Changes And Influence On Virulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Bastian Barker; D'Alvise, Paul; Grotkjær, Torben

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum is a major problem in aquaculture causing Vibriosis. Bacteria of the Roseobacter clade can antagonize pathogenic vibrios in cultures in live feed such as microalgae, rotifers and Artemia, as well as in fish larvae. Therefore, roseobacters could...... be promising as probiotics in fish rearing. Production of the antibacterial compound tropodithietic acid (TDA) by roseobacters is key in the antagonism of vibrios. However, the effects of continuous exposure to TDA on V. anguillarum remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate how prolonged TDA...

  4. Inactivation of Vibrio anguillarum by attached and planktonic Roseobacter cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Alvise, Paul; Melchiorsen, Jette; Porsby, Cisse Hedegaard

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate inhibition of Vibrio by Roseobacter in a combined liquid-surface system. Exposure of Vibrio anguillarum to surface-attached roseobacters (10e7 cfu/cm2) resulted in significant reduction or complete killing of the pathogen inoculated at 10e2 – 10e4...

  5. Vibriophages and their interactions with the fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Demeng; Gram, Lone; Middelboe, Mathias

    2014-05-01

    Vibrio anguillarum is an important pathogen in aquaculture, responsible for the disease vibriosis in many fish and invertebrate species. Disease control by antibiotics is a concern due to potential development and spread of antibiotic resistance. The use of bacteriophages to control the pathogen may offer a non-antibiotic-based approach to reduce vibriosis. A detailed understanding of the phage-host interaction is needed to evaluate the potential of phages to control the pathogen. In this study, we examined the diversity and interactions of 11 vibriophages, 24 V. anguillarum strains, and 13 Vibrio species strains. Together, the host ranges of the 11 phages covered all of the tested 37 Vibrio sp. host strains, which represented considerable temporal (20 years) and geographical (9 countries) differences in their origins of isolation. Thus, despite the occurrence of unique susceptibility patterns of the individual host isolates, key phenotypic properties related to phage susceptibility are distributed worldwide and maintained in the global Vibrio community for decades. The phage susceptibility pattern of the isolates did not show any relation to the physiological relationships obtained from Biolog GN2 profiles, demonstrating that similar phage susceptibility patterns occur across broad phylogenetic and physiological differences in Vibrio strains. Subsequent culture experiments with two phages and two V. anguillarum hosts demonstrated an initial strong lytic potential of the phages. However, rapid regrowth of both phage-resistant and phage-sensitive cells following the initial lysis suggested that several mechanisms of protection against phage infection had developed in the host populations.

  6. Vibriophages and Their Interactions with the Fish Pathogen Vibrio anguillarum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Demeng; Gram, Lone

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio anguillarum is an important pathogen in aquaculture, responsible for the disease vibriosis in many fish and invertebrate species. Disease control by antibiotics is a concern due to potential development and spread of antibiotic resistance. The use of bacteriophages to control the pathogen may offer a non-antibiotic-based approach to reduce vibriosis. A detailed understanding of the phage-host interaction is needed to evaluate the potential of phages to control the pathogen. In this study, we examined the diversity and interactions of 11 vibriophages, 24 V. anguillarum strains, and 13 Vibrio species strains. Together, the host ranges of the 11 phages covered all of the tested 37 Vibrio sp. host strains, which represented considerable temporal (20 years) and geographical (9 countries) differences in their origins of isolation. Thus, despite the occurrence of unique susceptibility patterns of the individual host isolates, key phenotypic properties related to phage susceptibility are distributed worldwide and maintained in the global Vibrio community for decades. The phage susceptibility pattern of the isolates did not show any relation to the physiological relationships obtained from Biolog GN2 profiles, demonstrating that similar phage susceptibility patterns occur across broad phylogenetic and physiological differences in Vibrio strains. Subsequent culture experiments with two phages and two V. anguillarum hosts demonstrated an initial strong lytic potential of the phages. However, rapid regrowth of both phage-resistant and phage-sensitive cells following the initial lysis suggested that several mechanisms of protection against phage infection had developed in the host populations. PMID:24610858

  7. Vibriophages and Their Interactions with the Fish Pathogen Vibrio anguillarum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Demeng; Gram, Lone; Middelboe, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio anguillarum is an important pathogen in aquaculture, responsible for the disease vibriosis in many fish and invertebrate species. Disease control by antibiotics is a concern due to potential development and spread of antibiotic resistance. The use of bacteriophages to control the pathogen...... may offer a non-antibiotic-based approach to reduce vibriosis. A detailed understanding of the phage-host interaction is needed to evaluate the potential of phages to control the pathogen. In this study, we examined the diversity and interactions of 11 vibriophages, 24 V. anguillarum strains, and 13...... Vibrio species strains. Together, the host ranges of the 11 phages covered all of the tested 37 Vibrio sp. host strains, which represented considerable temporal (20 years) and geographical (9 countries) differences in their origins of isolation. Thus, despite the occurrence of unique susceptibility...

  8. Crystal structures of the isochorismatase domains from Vibrio anguillarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jiansen; Deng, Tian; Ma, Qingjun

    2017-08-26

    Antibiotic resistance is becoming a global threat and overuse of antibiotics in aquaculture disease control worsens the situation. To reduce the risk of drug resistance developed in aquaculture, safer biocontrol programs are needed. Antivirulence therapy, with less chance for developing drug resistance, is a promising approach. To facilitate antivirulence inhibitor design against Vibrio anguillarum, a serious aquaculture pathogen, we present crystal structures for isochorismatase domains of AngB and VabB, which are required to synthesize siderophore, a critical virulence factor. Both structures are highly similar to known isochorismatases in fold and active site, therefore we conclude inhibitors for isochorismatases can be developed in a common framework. The structural information will improve design of virulence inhibitors against Vibrio anguillarum. We also firstly report that isochorismatase family could bind endogenous metabolite during the hetero-expression process, which is likely nicotinic acid, nicotinamide or pyrazinic acid, based on structural analysis and affinity prediction. Taken together, our results provide precise structural information of isochorismatase domains for antivirulence inhibitor design against Vibrio anguillarum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Inhibition of Vibrio anguillarum by Pseudomonas fluorescens AH2, a possible probiotic treatment of fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Lone; Melchiorsen, Jette; Spanggaard, Bettina

    1999-01-01

    To study the possible use of probiotics in fish farming, we evaluated the in vitro and in vivo antagonism of antibacterial strain Pseudomonas fluorescens strain AH2 against the fish- pathogenic bacterium Vibrio anguillarum. As iron is important in virulence and bacterial interactions, the effect....... fluorescens AH2 inhibited the growth of V. anguillarum during coculture, independently of the iron concentration, when the initial count of the antagonist was 100 to 1,000 times greater that of the fish pathogen. These in vitro results were successfully repeated in vivo. A probiotic effect in vivo was tested...... by exposing rainbow trout (Oncorynchus mykiss Walbaum) to P. fluorescens AH2 at a density of 10(5) CFU/ml for 5 days before a challenge with V. anguillarum at 10(4) to 10(5) CFU/ml for 1 h. Some fish were also exposed to P. fluorescens AH2 at 10(7) CFU/ml during the 1-h infection. The combined probiotic...

  10. Comparative Genome Analyses of Vibrio anguillarum Strains Reveal a Link with Pathogenicity Traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, Daniel; D'Alvise, Paul; Xu, Ruiqi

    2017-01-01

    Vibrio anguillarum is a marine bacterium that can cause vibriosis in many fish and shellfish species, leading to high mortalities and economic losses in aquaculture. Although putative virulence factors have been identified, the mechanism of pathogenesis of V. anguillarum is not fully understood...... a link between genotype and virulence characteristics of Vibrio anguillarum, which can be used to unravel the molecular evolution of V. anguillarum and can also be important from survey and diagnostic perspectives. Importance : Comparative genome analysis of strains of a pathogenic bacterial species can...

  11. Vibriophages Differentially Influence Biofilm Formation by Vibrio anguillarum Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Demeng; Dahl, Amalie; Middelboe, Mathias

    2015-07-01

    Vibrio anguillarum is an important pathogen in marine aquaculture, responsible for vibriosis. Bacteriophages can potentially be used to control bacterial pathogens; however, successful application of phages requires a detailed understanding of phage-host interactions under both free-living and surface-associated growth conditions. In this study, we explored in vitro phage-host interactions in two different strains of V. anguillarum (BA35 and PF430-3) during growth in microcolonies, biofilms, and free-living cells. Two vibriophages, ΦH20 (Siphoviridae) and KVP40 (Myoviridae), had completely different effects on the biofilm development. Addition of phage ΦH20 to strain BA35 showed efficient control of biofilm formation and density of free-living cells. The interactions between BA35 and ΦH20 were thus characterized by a strong phage control of the phage-sensitive population and subsequent selection for phage-resistant mutants. Addition of phage KVP40 to strain PF430-3 resulted in increased biofilm development, especially during the early stage. Subsequent experiments in liquid cultures showed that addition of phage KVP40 stimulated the aggregation of host cells, which protected the cells against phage infection. By the formation of biofilms, strain PF430-3 created spatial refuges that protected the host from phage infection and allowed coexistence between phage-sensitive cells and lytic phage KVP40. Together, the results demonstrate highly variable phage protection mechanisms in two closely related V. anguillarum strains, thus emphasizing the challenges of using phages to control vibriosis in aquaculture and adding to the complex roles of phages as drivers of prokaryotic diversity and population dynamics. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Complete genome sequence of Vibrio anguillarum phage CHOED successfully used for phage therapy in aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romero, Jaime; Higuera, Gastón; Gajardo, Felipe

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio anguillarum phage CHOED was isolated from Chilean mussels. It is a virulent phage showing effective inhibition of V. anguillarum. CHOED has potential in phage therapy, because it can protect fish from vibriosis in fish farms. Here, we announce the completely sequenced genome of V....... anguillarum phage CHOED....

  13. Complete genome sequence of Vibrio anguillarum phage CHOED successfully used for phage therapy in aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, Jaime; Higuera, Gastón; Gajardo, Felipe; Castillo Bermúdez, Daniel Elías; Middelboe, Mathias; García, Katherine; Ramírez, Carolina; Espejo, Romilio T.

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio anguillarum phage CHOED was isolated from Chilean mussels. It is a virulent phage showing effective inhibition of V. anguillarum. CHOED has potential in phage therapy, because it can protect fish from vibriosis in fish farms. Here, we announce the completely sequenced genome of V. anguillarum phage CHOED.

  14. Multilocus Sequence Analysis of Close Relatives Vibrio anguillarum and Vibrio ordalii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinum, Terje M; Karataş, Süheyla; Martinussen, Nora Tandstad; Meirelles, Pedro M; Thompson, Fabiano L; Colquhoun, Duncan J

    2016-09-15

    The genetic heterogeneity of the close relatives Vibrio anguillarum and Vibrio ordalii, both serious pathogens of fish causing extensive losses in aquaculture, was studied. Eight housekeeping genes, i.e., atpA, ftsZ, gapA, gyrB, mreB, rpoA, topA, and pyrH, were partially sequenced in 116 isolates from diverse fish species and geographical areas. The eight genes appear to be under purifying selection, and the genetic diversity in the total data set was estimated to be 0.767 ± 0.026. Our multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) scheme identified several widespread clonal complexes and resolved the isolates, for the most part, according to serotype. Serotype O2b isolates from diseased cod in Norway, Ireland, and Scotland were found to be extremely homogeneous. Horizontal gene transfer appears to be fairly common within and between clonal complexes. Taken together, MLSA and in silico DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) calculations suggest that some isolates previously characterized as V ordalii, i.e., 12B09, FF93, FS144, and FS238, are in fact V. anguillarum isolates. The precise taxonomic situation for two isolates from Atlantic cod that display several traits consistent with V. ordalii, i.e., NVI 5286 and NVI 5918, and a single environmental strain that was previously considered to represent V. ordalii, i.e., FF167, is less clear. It is still being debated whether V. anguillarum and V ordalii represent separate bacterial species. Our study addresses this issue and elucidates the degree of genetic variability within this group of closely related bacteria, based on a substantial number of isolates. Our results clearly illustrate the existence of different populations among putative V ordalii isolates. On the basis of additional full-length genomic analysis, we conclude that most environmental isolates previously identified as V ordalii lie firmly within the species V. anguillarum While bona fide fish-pathogenic V ordalii isolates display a very close genetic relationship with V

  15. Tandem heterocyclization domains in a nonribosomal peptide synthetase essential for siderophore biosynthesis in Vibrio anguillarum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Lorenzo, M.; Stork, M.; Naka, H.; Tolmasky, M.E.; Crosa, J.H.

    2008-01-01

    Anguibactin, the siderophore produced by Vibrio anguillarum 775, is synthesized via a nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) mechanism. Most of the genes required for anguibactin biosynthesis are harbored by the pJM1 plasmid. Complete sequencing of this plasmid identified an orf encoding a 108 kDa

  16. Determining Vaccination Frequency in Farmed Rainbow Trout Using Vibrio anguillarum O1 Specific Serum Antibody Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten-Andersen, Lars; Dalsgaard, Inger; Nylén, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite vaccination with a commercial vaccine with a documented protective effect against Vibrio anguillarum O1 disease outbreaks caused by this bacterium have been registered among rainbow trout at Danish fish farms. The present study examined specific serum antibody levels as a valid...

  17. Passive protection effect of anti-Vibrio anguillarum IgY-encapsulated feed on half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevi) against V. anguillarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaojian; Zhang, Xiaojun; Sun, Jingjing; Du, Xuedi; Li, Xiumei; Zhang, Yue; Lin, Li

    2016-09-01

    Vibrio anguillarum is one of the most harmful pathogens associated with hemorrhage septicemia syndrome in the half-smooth tongue sole (C. semilaevis) due to its high virulence. In this study, we attempted to treat half-smooth tongue sole with anti-V. anguillarum egg yolk powder to elicit a passive immunity directly against V. anguillarum infection. Anti-V. anguillarum IgY was β-cyclodextrin encapsulated in egg yolk powders as feed, which could avoid antibody inactivation in the gastrointestinal tract of half-smooth tongue sole. The IgY had an inhibiting effect on the infection of V. anguillarum in vitro. The survival rate of half-smooth tongue sole fed with basal diet containing 15% anti-V. anguillarum egg yolk powder was 70% after 7 days post-V. anguillarum challenge (10(7) CFU), which was significantly higher than those fed without anti-V. anguillarum egg yolk powder. As well, the bacterial burden in blood, liver, spleen and kidney was significantly lower in half-smooth tongue sole fed with specific IgY than those fed with non-specific IgY. These results suggested that pathogen-specific IgY may provide a valuable treatment for vibriosis infection and can be a promising food additive. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Vibrio anguillarum Is Genetically and Phenotypically Unaffected by Long-Term Continuous Exposure to the Antibacterial Compound Tropodithietic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Bastian Barker; Grotkjær, Torben; D'Alvise, Paul W; Yin, Guangliang; Zhang, Faxing; Bunk, Boyke; Spröer, Cathrin; Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel; Gram, Lone

    2016-08-01

    Minimizing the use of antibiotics in the food production chain is essential for limiting the development and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. One alternative intervention strategy is the use of probiotic bacteria, and bacteria of the marine Roseobacter clade are capable of antagonizing fish-pathogenic vibrios in fish larvae and live feed cultures for fish larvae. The antibacterial compound tropodithietic acid (TDA), an antiporter that disrupts the proton motive force, is key in the antibacterial activity of several roseobacters. Introducing probiotics on a larger scale requires understanding of any potential side effects of long-term exposure of the pathogen to the probionts or any compounds they produce. Here we exposed the fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum to TDA for several hundred generations in an adaptive evolution experiment. No tolerance or resistance arose during the 90 days of exposure, and whole-genome sequencing of TDA-exposed lineages and clones revealed few mutational changes, compared to lineages grown without TDA. Amino acid-changing mutations were found in two to six different genes per clone; however, no mutations appeared unique to the TDA-exposed lineages or clones. None of the virulence genes of V. anguillarum was affected, and infectivity assays using fish cell lines indicated that the TDA-exposed lineages and clones were less invasive than the wild-type strain. Thus, long-term TDA exposure does not appear to result in TDA resistance and the physiology of V. anguillarum appears unaffected, supporting the application of TDA-producing roseobacters as probiotics in aquaculture. It is important to limit the use of antibiotics in our food production, to reduce the risk of bacteria developing antibiotic resistance. We showed previously that marine bacteria of the Roseobacter clade can prevent or reduce bacterial diseases in fish larvae, acting as probiotics. Roseobacters produce the antimicrobial compound tropodithietic acid (TDA), and we

  19. Quorum sensing determines the choice of antiphage defense strategy in Vibrio anguillarum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Demeng; Svenningsen, Sine Lo; Middelboe, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    of the outcome of phage-bacterial encounters in the fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum is bacterial cell-cell communication, known as quorum sensing. Specifically, V. anguillarum PF430-3 cells locked in the low-cell-density state (ΔvanT mutant) express high levels of the phage receptor OmpK, resulting in a high...... susceptibility to phage KVP40, but achieve protection from infection by enhanced biofilm formation. By contrast, cells locked in the high-cell-density state (ΔvanΟ mutant) are almost completely unsusceptible due to quorum-sensing-mediated downregulation of OmpK expression. The phenotypes of the two quorum-sensing......-acylhomoserine lactone quorum-sensing signals in the culture medium, and (iii) survives mainly by one of these two defense mechanisms, rather than by genetic mutation to phage resistance. Taken together, our results demonstrate that V. anguillarum employs quorum-sensing information to choose between two complementary...

  20. Phaeobacter gallaeciensis reduces Vibrio anguillarum in cultures of microalgae and rotifers, and prevents vibriosis in cod larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul W D'Alvise

    Full Text Available Phaeobacter gallaeciensis can antagonize fish-pathogenic bacteria in vitro, and the purpose of this study was to evaluate the organism as a probiont for marine fish larvae and their feed cultures. An in vivo mechanism of action of the antagonistic probiotic bacterium is suggested using a non-antagonistic mutant. P. gallaeciensis was readily established in axenic cultures of the two microalgae Tetraselmis suecica and Nannochloropsis oculata, and of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis. P. gallaeciensis reached densities of 10(7 cfu/ml and did not adversely affect growth of algae or rotifers. Vibrio anguillarum was significantly reduced by wild-type P. gallaeciensis, when introduced into these cultures. A P. gallaeciensis mutant that did not produce the antibacterial compound tropodithietic acid (TDA did not reduce V. anguillarum numbers, suggesting that production of the antibacterial compound is important for the antagonistic properties of P. gallaeciensis. The ability of P. gallaeciensis to protect fish larvae from vibriosis was determined in a bath challenge experiment using a multidish system with 1 larva per well. Unchallenged larvae reached 40% accumulated mortality which increased to 100% when infected with V. anguillarum. P. gallaeciensis reduced the mortality of challenged cod larvae (Gadus morhua to 10%, significantly below the levels of both the challenged and the unchallenged larvae. The TDA mutant reduced mortality of the cod larvae in some of the replicates, although to a much lesser extent than the wild type. It is concluded that P. gallaeciensis is a promising probiont in marine larviculture and that TDA production likely contributes to its probiotic effect.

  1. Molecular cloning of the recA analog from the marine fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum 775

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    The recA analog from Vibrio anguillarum 775 was isolated by complementation of recA mutations in Escherichia coli, and its protein product was identified. The recA analog promoted recombination between two partially deleted lactose operons, stimulated both spontaneous and mitomycin C-induced phage production in RecA- lambda lysogens, and restored near wild-type levels of resistance to UV radiation and methyl methanesulfonate

  2. Quorum Sensing Determines the Choice of Antiphage Defense Strategy in Vibrio anguillarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Demeng; Svenningsen, Sine Lo; Middelboe, Mathias

    2015-06-16

    Selection for phage resistance is a key driver of bacterial diversity and evolution, and phage-host interactions may therefore have strong influence on the genetic and functional dynamics of bacterial communities. In this study, we found that an important, but so far largely overlooked, determinant of the outcome of phage-bacterial encounters in the fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum is bacterial cell-cell communication, known as quorum sensing. Specifically, V. anguillarum PF430-3 cells locked in the low-cell-density state (ΔvanT mutant) express high levels of the phage receptor OmpK, resulting in a high susceptibility to phage KVP40, but achieve protection from infection by enhanced biofilm formation. By contrast, cells locked in the high-cell-density state (ΔvanΟ mutant) are almost completely unsusceptible due to quorum-sensing-mediated downregulation of OmpK expression. The phenotypes of the two quorum-sensing mutant strains are accurately reflected in the behavior of wild-type V. anguillarum, which (i) displays increased OmpK expression in aggregated cells compared to free-living variants in the same culture, (ii) displays a clear inverse correlation between ompK mRNA levels and the concentration of N-acylhomoserine lactone quorum-sensing signals in the culture medium, and (iii) survives mainly by one of these two defense mechanisms, rather than by genetic mutation to phage resistance. Taken together, our results demonstrate that V. anguillarum employs quorum-sensing information to choose between two complementary antiphage defense strategies. Further, the prevalence of nonmutational defense mechanisms in strain PF430-3 suggests highly flexible adaptations to KVP40 phage infection pressure, possibly allowing the long-term coexistence of phage and host. Comprehensive knowledge on bacterial antiphage strategies and their regulation is essential for understanding the role of phages as drivers of bacterial evolution and diversity. In an applied context

  3. A controllable bacterial lysis system to enhance biological safety of live attenuated Vibrio anguillarum vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Teng; Guan, Lingyu; Shang, Pengfei; Wang, Qiyao; Xiao, Jingfan; Liu, Qin; Zhang, Yuanxing

    2015-08-01

    Bacterial strains used as backbone for the generation of vaccine prototypes should exhibit an adequate and stable safety profile. Given the fact that live attenuated vaccines often contain some potential risks in virulence recovery and spread infections, new approaches are greatly needed to improve their biological safety. Here, a critically iron-regulated promoter PviuA was screened from Vibrio anguillarum, which was demonstrated to respond to iron-limitation signal both in vitro and in vivo. By using PviuA as a regulatory switch to control the expression of phage P22 lysis cassette 13-19-15, a novel in vivo inducible bacterial lysis system was established in V. anguillarum. This system was proved to be activated by iron-limitation signals and then effectively lyse V. anguillarum both in vitro and in vivo. Further, this controllable bacterial lysis system, after being transformed into a live attenuated V. anguillarum vaccine strain MVAV6203, was confirmed to significantly improve biological safety of the live attenuated vaccine without impairing its immune protection efficacy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Identification and characterization of the Vibrio anguillarum prtV gene encoding a new metalloprotease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Zhaolan; Guo, Dongsheng; Mao, Yunxiang; Ye, Xuhong; Zou, Yuxia; Xiao, Peng; Hao, Bin

    2010-01-01

    We cloned and sequenced a prtV-like gene from Vibrio anguillarum M3 strain. This prtV gene encodes a putative protein of 918 amino acids, and is highly homologous to the V. cholerae prtV gene. We found that a prtV insertion mutant strain displayed lower gelatinase activity on gelatin agar, lower protease activity against azocasein, and lower activity for four glycosidases. This prtV mutant strain also had increased activity for two esterases in its extracellular products, as analyzed by the API ZYM system. In addition, the prtV mutant strain exhibited decreased growth in turbot intestinal mucus and reduced hemolytic activity on turbot erythrocytes. Infection experiments showed that the LD50 of the prtV mutant strain increased by at least 1 log compared to the wild-type in turbot fish. We propose that prtV plays an important role in the pathogenesis of V. anguillarum.

  5. Upconversion fluorescent strip sensor for rapid determination of Vibrio anguillarum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Peng; Wu, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Yihua; Yang, Xiaoling; Jiang, Xin; Xiao, Jingfan; Zhang, Yuanxing; Li, Chunzhong

    2014-03-01

    Here, we report a simple and ultrasensitive upconversion fluorescent strip sensor based on NaYF4:Yb,Er nanoparticles (NPs) and the lateral flow immunochromatographic assay (LFIA). Carboxyl-modified β-NaYF4:Yb,Er NPs were successfully synthesized by a facile one-pot solvothermal approach, upon further coupling with monoclonal antibody, the resultant UCNPs-antibody conjugates probes were used in LFIA and served as signal vehicles for the fluorescent reporters. V. anguillarum was used as a model analyte to demonstrate the use of this strip sensor. The limit of the detection for the fluorescent strip was determined as 102 CFU mL-1, which is 100 times lower than those displayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, while the time needed for the detection was only 15 min. Furthermore, no cross-reaction with other eight pathogens was found, indicating the good specificity of the strip. This developed LFIA would offer the potential as a useful tool for the quantification of pathogens analysis in the future.

  6. Determining vaccination frequency in farmed rainbow trout using Vibrio anguillarum O1 specific serum antibody measurements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Holten-Andersen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite vaccination with a commercial vaccine with a documented protective effect against Vibrio anguillarum O1 disease outbreaks caused by this bacterium have been registered among rainbow trout at Danish fish farms. The present study examined specific serum antibody levels as a valid marker for assessing vaccination status in a fish population. For this purpose a highly sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was developed and used to evaluate sera from farmed rainbow trout vaccinated against V. anguillarum O1. STUDY DESIGN: Immune sera from rainbow trout immunised with an experimental vaccine based on inactivated V. anguillarum O1 bacterin in Freund's incomplete adjuvant were used for ELISA optimisation. Subsequently, sera from farmed rainbow trout vaccinated with a commercial vaccine against V. anguillarum were analysed with the ELISA. The measured serum antibody levels were compared with the vaccine status of the fish (vaccinated/unvaccinated as evaluated through visual examination. RESULTS: Repeated immunisation with the experimental vaccine lead to increasing levels of specific serum antibodies in the vaccinated rainbow trout. The farmed rainbow trout responded with high antibody levels to a single injection with the commercial vaccine. However, the diversity in responses was more pronounced in the farmed fish. Primary visual examinations for vaccine status in rainbow trout from the commercial farm revealed a large pool of unvaccinated specimens (vaccination failure rate=20% among the otherwise vaccinated fish. Through serum analyses using the ELISA in a blinded set-up it was possible to separate samples collected from the farmed rainbow trout into vaccinated and unvaccinated fish. CONCLUSIONS: Much attention has been devoted to development of new and more effective vaccines. Here we present a case from a Danish rainbow trout farm indicating that attention should also be directed to the vaccination procedure in

  7. A distinctive dual-channel quorum-sensing system operates in Vibrio anguillarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croxatto, Antony; Pride, John; Hardman, Andrea; Williams, Paul; Cámara, Miguel; Milton, Debra L

    2004-06-01

    Many bacterial cells communicate using diffusible signal molecules to monitor cell population density via a process termed quorum sensing. In marine Vibrio species, the Vibrio harveyi-type LuxR protein is a key player in a quorum-sensing phosphorelay cascade, which controls the expression of virulence, symbiotic and survival genes. Previously, we characterized Vibrio anguillarum homologues of LuxR (VanT) and LuxMN (VanMN) and, in this study, we have identified homologues of LuxPQ (VanPQ) and LuxOU (VanOU). In contrast to other Vibrio species, vanT was expressed at low cell density and showed no significant induction as the cell number increased. In addition, although the loss of VanO increased vanT expression, the loss of VanU, unexpectedly, decreased it. Both VanN and VanQ were required for repression of vanT even in a vanU mutant, suggesting an alternative route for VanNQ signal transduction other than via VanU. VanT negatively regulated its own expression by binding and repressing the vanT promoter and by binding and activating the vanOU promoter. The signal relay results in a cellular response as expression of the metalloprotease, empA, was altered similar to that of vanT in all the mutants. Consequently, the V. anguillarum quorum-sensing phosphorelay systems work differently from those of V. harveyi and may be used to limit rather than induce vanT expression.

  8. Production of acylated homoserine lactones by different serotypes of Vibrio anguillarum both in culture and during infection of rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, C.; Sigh, J.; Nielsen, J.

    2003-01-01

    Onehundred and forty-eight out of onehundred and fifty strains of Vibrio anguillarum isolated from vibriosis in Danish marine aquaculture produced bacterial communication signals, acylated homoserine lactones, eliciting a response in the Agrobacterium tumefaciens (pZLR4) monitoring system. One...

  9. Extended serotyping scheme for Vibrio anguillarum with the definition and characterization of seven provisional O-serogroups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Grisez, L.; van Houdt, R.

    1999-01-01

    The present paper summarizes the serotyping scheme of the fish pathogenic bacterium Vibrio anguillarum and defines seven additional O-serogroups. Strains, collected in our laboratories that were nontypable with antisera against the previously defined 16 O-serotypes, were used for generating new...

  10. Pathogenicity of Vibrio anguillarum serogroup O1 strains compared to plasmids, outer membrane protein profiles and siderophore production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, K.; Gram, Lone; Austin, D.A.

    1997-01-01

    The virulence of 18 strains of Vibrio anguillarum serogroup 01 was compared to plasmid content, expression of siderophores and outer membrane proteins. All strains, irrespective of plasmid content, produced siderophores and inducible outer membrane proteins under iron-limited conditions. Only str...

  11. Development of a two-step, non-probed multiplex real-time PCR for surveilling Vibrio anguillarum in seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vibrio anguillarum is an aggressive and halophilic bacterial pathogen commonly found in seawater. Its presence in aquaculture facilities causes significant morbidity and mortality among aquaculture species primarily from hemorrhaging of the body and skin of the infected fish that eventually leads t...

  12. Biosynthesis and uptake of glycine betaine as cold-stress response to low temperature in fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yue; Wang, Qiyao; Gao, Xiating; Zhang, Yuanxing

    2017-01-01

    Fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum, a mesophile bacterium, is usually found in estuarine and marine coastal ecosystems worldwide that pose a constant stress to local organism by its fluctuation in salinity as well as notable temperature change. Though V. anguillarum is able to proliferate while maintain its pathogenicity under low temperature (5-18°C), so far, coldadaption molecular mechanism of the bacteria is unknown. In this study, V. anguillarum was found possessing a putative glycine betaine synthesis system, which is encoded by betABI and synthesizes glycine betaine from its precursor choline. Furthermore, significant up-regulation of the bet gene at the transcriptional level was noted in log phase in response to cold-stress. Moreover, the accumulation of betaine glycine was only found appearing at low growth temperatures, suggesting that response regulation of both synthesis system and transporter system are cold-dependent. Furthermore, in-frame deletion mutation in the two putative ABC transporters and three putative BCCT family transporters associated with glycine betaine uptake could not block cellular accumulation of betaine glycine in V. anguillarum under coldstress, suggesting the redundant feature in V. anguillarum betaine transporter system. These findings confirmed that glycine betaine serves as an effective cold stress protectant and highlighted an underappreciated facet of the acclimatization of V. anguillarum to cold environments.

  13. A Modified Quantum Dot-Based Dot Blot Assay for Rapid Detection of Fish Pathogen Vibrio anguillarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Xiao, Jingfan; Wang, Qiyao; Zhang, Yuanxing

    2016-08-28

    Vibrio anguillarum, a devastating pathogen causing vibriosis among marine fish, is prevailing in worldwide fishery industries and accounts for grievous economic losses. Therefore, a rapid on-site detection and diagnostic technique for this pathogen is in urgent need. In this study, two mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against V. anguillarum, 6B3-C5 and 8G3-B5, were generated by using hybridoma technology and their isotypes were characterized. MAb 6B3-C5 was chosen as the detector antibody and conjugated with quantum dots. Based on MAb 6B3- C5 labeled with quantum dots, a modified dot blot assay was developed for the on-site determination of V. anguillarum. It was found that the method had no cross-reactivity with other than V. anguillarum bacteria. The detection limit (LOD) for V. anguillarum was 1 × 10(3) CFU/ml in cultured bacterial suspension samples, which was a 100-fold higher sensitivity than the reported colloidal gold immunochromatographic test strip. When V. anguillarum was mixed with turbot tissue homogenates, the LOD was 1 × 10(3) CFU/ml, suggesting that tissue homogenates did not influence the detection capabilities. Preenrichment with the tissue homogenates for 12 h could raise the LOD up to 1 × 10(2) CFU/ml, confirming the reliability of the method.

  14. Isolation and Characterization of Bacteria Colonizing Acartia tonsa Copepod Eggs and Displaying Antagonist Effects against Vibrio anguillarum, Vibrio alginolyticus and Other Pathogenic Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahammed Zidour

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Copepods represent a major source of food for many aquatic species of commercial interest for aquaculture such as mysis shrimp and early stages of fishes. For the purpose of this study, the culturable mesophilic bacterial flora colonizing Acartia tonsa copepod eggs was isolated and identified. A total of 175 isolates were characterized based on their morphological and biochemical traits. The majority of these isolates (70% were Gram-negative bacteria. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS was used for rapid identification of bacterial isolates. Here, 58% of isolates were successfully identified at the genus level and among them, 54% were identified at the species level. These isolates belong to 12 different genera and 29 species. Five strains, identified as Bacillus pumilus, named 18 COPS, 35A COPS, 35R COPS, 38 COPS, and 40A COPS, showed strong antagonisms against several potential fish pathogens including Vibrio alginolyticus, V. anguillarum, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, using a differential approach, we show that the antimicrobial activity of the 35R COPS strain is linked primarily to the production of antimicrobial compounds of the amicoumacin family, as demonstrated by the specific UV-absorbance and the MS/MS fragmentation patterns of these compounds.

  15. Protective efficacy of six immunogenic recombinant proteins of Vibrio anguillarum and evaluation them as vaccine candidate for flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Jing; Xu, Hongsen; Wang, Yang; Tang, Xiaoqian; Sheng, Xiuzhen; Zhan, Wenbin

    2017-06-01

    Vibrio anguillarum is a severe bacterium that causes terminal haemorrhagic septicaemia in freshwater and marine fish. Virulence-associated proteins play an important role in bacterial pathogenicity and could be applied for immunoprophylaxis. In this study, six antigenic proteins from V. anguillarum were selected and the immune protective efficacy of their recombinant proteins was investigated. VirA, CheR, FlaC, OmpK, OmpR and Hsp33 were recombinantly produced and the reactions of recombinant proteins to flounder-anti-V. anguillarum antibodies (fV-ab) were detected, respectively. Then the recombinant proteins were injected to fish, after immunization, the percentages of surface membrane immunoglobulin-positive (sIg+) cell in lymphocytes, total antibodies, antibodies against V. anguillarum, antibodies against recombinant proteins and relative percent survival (RPS) were analyzed, respectively. The results showed that all the recombinant proteins could react to fV-ab, proliferate sIg + cells in lymphocytes and induce production of total antibodies, specific antibodies against V. anguillarum or the recombinant proteins; the RPS of rVirA, rCheR, rFlaC, rOmpK, rOmpR and rHsp33 against V. anguillarum was 70.27%, 27.03%, 16.22%, 62.16%, 45.95% and 81.08%, respectively. The results revealed that rHsp33, rVirA and rOmpK have good protections against V. anguillarum and could be vaccine candidates against V. anguillarum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Phage therapy as an approach to prevent Vibrio anguillarum infections in fish larvae production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda J Silva

    Full Text Available Fish larvae in aquaculture have high mortality rates due to pathogenic bacteria, especially the Vibrio species, and ineffective prophylactic strategies. Vaccination is not feasible in larvae and antibiotics have reduced efficacy against multidrug resistant bacteria. A novel approach to controlling Vibrio infections in aquaculture is needed. The potential of phage therapy to combat vibriosis in fish larvae production has not yet been examined. We describe the isolation and characterization of two bacteriophages capable of infecting pathogenic Vibrio and their application to prevent bacterial infection in fish larvae. Two groups of zebrafish larvae were infected with V. anguillarum (∼106 CFU mL-1 and one was later treated with a phage lysate (∼108 PFU mL-1. A third group was only added with phages. A fourth group received neither bacteria nor phages (fish control. Larvae mortality, after 72 h, in the infected and treated group was similar to normal levels and significantly lower than that of the infected but not treated group, indicating that phage treatment was effective. Thus, directly supplying phages to the culture water could be an effective and inexpensive approach toward reducing the negative impact of vibriosis in larviculture.

  17. Phage therapy as an approach to prevent Vibrio anguillarum infections in fish larvae production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Yolanda J; Costa, Liliana; Pereira, Carla; Mateus, Cristiana; Cunha, Angela; Calado, Ricardo; Gomes, Newton C M; Pardo, Miguel A; Hernandez, Igor; Almeida, Adelaide

    2014-01-01

    Fish larvae in aquaculture have high mortality rates due to pathogenic bacteria, especially the Vibrio species, and ineffective prophylactic strategies. Vaccination is not feasible in larvae and antibiotics have reduced efficacy against multidrug resistant bacteria. A novel approach to controlling Vibrio infections in aquaculture is needed. The potential of phage therapy to combat vibriosis in fish larvae production has not yet been examined. We describe the isolation and characterization of two bacteriophages capable of infecting pathogenic Vibrio and their application to prevent bacterial infection in fish larvae. Two groups of zebrafish larvae were infected with V. anguillarum (∼106 CFU mL-1) and one was later treated with a phage lysate (∼108 PFU mL-1). A third group was only added with phages. A fourth group received neither bacteria nor phages (fish control). Larvae mortality, after 72 h, in the infected and treated group was similar to normal levels and significantly lower than that of the infected but not treated group, indicating that phage treatment was effective. Thus, directly supplying phages to the culture water could be an effective and inexpensive approach toward reducing the negative impact of vibriosis in larviculture.

  18. The phytoplankton Nannochloropsis oculata enhances the ability of Roseobacter clade bacteria to inhibit the growth of fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Noor Sharifah

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton cultures are widely used in aquaculture for a variety of applications, especially as feed for fish larvae. Phytoplankton cultures are usually grown in outdoor tanks using natural seawater and contain probiotic or potentially pathogenic bacteria. Some Roseobacter clade isolates suppress growth of the fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum. However, most published information concerns interactions between probiotic and pathogenic bacteria, and little information is available regarding the importance of phytoplankton in these interactions. The objectives of this study, therefore, were to identify probiotic Roseobacter clade members in phytoplankton cultures used for rearing fish larvae and to investigate their inhibitory activity towards bacterial fish pathogens in the presence of the phytoplankton Nannochloropsis oculata.The fish pathogen V. anguillarum, was challenged with 6 Roseobacter clade isolates (Sulfitobacter sp. (2 strains, Thalassobius sp., Stappia sp., Rhodobacter sp., and Antarctobacter sp. from phytoplankton cultures under 3 different nutritional conditions. In an organic nutrient-rich medium (VNSS, 6 Roseobacter clade isolates, as well as V. anguillarum, grew well (10(9 CFU/ml, even when cocultured. In contrast, in a phytoplankton culture medium (ESM based on artificial seawater, coculture with the 6 isolates decreased the viability of V. anguillarum by approximately more than 10-fold. Excreted substances in media conditioned by growth of the phytoplankton N. oculata (NCF medium resulted in the complete eradication of V. anguillarum when cocultured with the roseobacters. Autoclaved NCF had the same inhibitory effect. Furthermore, Sulfitobacter sp. much more efficiently incorporated (14C- photosynthetic metabolites ((14C-EPM excreted by N. oculata than did V. anguillarum.Cocultures of a phytoplankton species and Roseobacter clade members exhibited a greater antibacterial effect against an important fish pathogen (V

  19. Gel shift analysis of the empA promoter region in Vibrio anguillarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denkin Steven M

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The induction of metalloprotease encoded by empA in Vibrio anguillarum occurs at high cell density in salmon intestinal mucus. Previously we have shown that there are significant differences in empA expression in two strains of V. anguillarum, M93Sm and NB10. It is hypothesized that differences in empA regulation are due to differences in binding of regulatory elements. Results Two strains of V. anguillarum, M93Sm and NB10, were examined and compared for the presence of DNA regulatory proteins that bind to and control the empA promoter region. Gel mobility shift assays, using a digoxigenin (DIG-labeled oligomer containing a lux box-like element and the promoter for empA, were done to demonstrate the presence of a DNA-binding protein. Protein extracts from NB10 cells incubated in Luria Bertani broth + 2% NaCl (LB20, nine salts solution + 200 μg/ml mucus (NSSM, 3M (marine minimal medium, or NSS resulted in a gel mobility shift. No gel mobility shift was seen when protein extracts from either LB20- or NSSM-grown M93Sm cells were mixed with the DIG-labeled empA oligomer. The azocasein assay detected protease activity in all incubation conditions for NB10 culture supernatants. In contrast, protease activity was detected in M93Sm culture supernatants only when incubated in NSSM. Since the luxR homologue in V. anguillarum, vanT, has been cloned, sequenced, and shown to be required for protease activity, we wanted to determine if vanT mutants of NB10 exhibit the same gel shift observed in the wild-type. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to create vanT mutants in V. anguillarum M93Sm and NB10 to test whether VanT is involved with the gel mobility shift. Both vanT mutants, M02 and NB02, did not produce protease activity in any conditions. However, protein extracts from NB02 incubated in each condition still exhibited a gel shift when mixed with the DIG-labeled empA oligomer. Conclusions The data demonstrate that protein extracts of V

  20. Transcriptome analysis revealed changes of multiple genes involved in immunity in Cynoglossus semilaevis during Vibrio anguillarum infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang; Wang, Shaolin; Chen, Songlin; Chen, Yadong; Liu, Yang; Shao, Changwei; Wang, Qilong; Lu, Yang; Gong, Guangye; Ding, Shaoxiong; Sha, Zhenxia

    2015-03-01

    Half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) is one of the most valuable marine aquatic species in Northern China. Given to the rapid development of aquaculture industry, the C. semilaevis was subjected to disease-causing bacteria Vibrio anguillarum. It therefore is indispensable and urgent to understand the mechanism of C. semilaevis host defense against V. anguillarum infection. In the present study, the extensively analysis at the transcriptome level for V. Anguillarum disease in tongue sole was carried out. In total, 94,716 high quality contigs were generated from 75,884,572 clean reads in three libraries (HOSG, NOSG, and CG). 22,746 unigenes were identified when compared with SwissProt, an NR protein database and NT nucleotide database. 954 genes exhibiting the differentially expression at least one pair of comparison in all three libraries were identified. GO enrichment for these genes revealed gene response to biotic stimulus, immune system regulation, and immune response and cytokine production. Further, the pathways such as complement and coagulation cascades and Vibrio cholerae infection pathways were enriched in defensing of pathogen. Besides, 13,428 SSRs and 118,239 SNPs were detected in tongue sole, providing further support for genetic variation and marker-assisted selection in future. In summary, this study identifies several putative immune pathways and candidate genes deserving further investigation in the context of development of therapeutic regimens and lays the foundation for selecting resistant lines of C. semilaevis against V. anguillarum. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. RpoS induces expression of the Vibrio anguillarum quorum-sensing regulator VanT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Barbara; Croxatto, Antony; Chen, Chang; Milton, Debra L

    2008-03-01

    In vibrios, regulation of the Vibrio harveyi-like LuxR transcriptional activators occurs post-transcriptionally via small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) that destabilize the luxR mRNA at a low cell population, eliminating expression of LuxR. Expression of the sRNAs is modulated by the vibrio quorum-sensing phosphorelay systems. However, vanT mRNA, which encodes a LuxR homologue in Vibrio anguillarum, is abundant at low and high cell density, indicating that VanT expression may be regulated via additional mechanisms. In this study, Western analyses showed that VanT was expressed throughout growth with a peak of expression during late exponential growth. VanO induced partial destabilization of vanT mRNA via activation of at least one Qrr sRNA. Interestingly, the sigma factor RpoS significantly stabilized vanT mRNA and induced VanT expression during late exponential growth. This induction was in part due to RpoS repressing expression of Hfq, an RNA chaperone. RpoS is not part of the quorum-sensing regulatory cascade since RpoS did not regulate expression or activity of VanO, and RpoS was not regulated by VanO or VanT. VanT and RpoS were needed for survival following UV irradiation and for pigment and metalloprotease production, suggesting that RpoS works with the quorum-sensing systems to modulate expression of VanT, which regulates survival and stress responses.

  2. VanT, a homologue of Vibrio harveyi LuxR, regulates serine, metalloprotease, pigment, and biofilm production in Vibrio anguillarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croxatto, Antony; Chalker, Victoria J; Lauritz, Johan; Jass, Jana; Hardman, Andrea; Williams, Paul; Cámara, Miguel; Milton, Debra L

    2002-03-01

    Vibrio anguillarum possesses at least two N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) quorum-sensing circuits, one of which is related to the luxMN system of Vibrio harveyi. In this study, we have cloned an additional gene of this circuit, vanT, encoding a V. harveyi LuxR-like transcriptional regulator. A V. anguillarum Delta vanT null mutation resulted in a significant decrease in total protease activity due to loss of expression of the metalloprotease EmpA, but no changes in either AHL production or virulence. Additional genes positively regulated by VanT were identified from a plasmid-based gene library fused to a promoterless lacZ. Three lacZ fusions (serA::lacZ, hpdA-hgdA::lacZ, and sat-vps73::lacZ) were identified which exhibited decreased expression in the Delta vanT strain. SerA is similar to 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenases and catalyzes the first step in the serine-glycine biosynthesis pathway. HgdA has identity with homogentisate dioxygenases, and HpdA is homologous to 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenases (HPPDs) involved in pigment production. V. anguillarum strains require an active VanT to produce high levels of an L-tyrosine-induced brown color via HPPD, suggesting that VanT controls pigment production. Vps73 and Sat are related to Vibrio cholerae proteins encoded within a DNA locus required for biofilm formation. A V. anguillarum Delta vanT mutant and a mutant carrying a polar mutation in the sat-vps73 DNA locus were shown to produce defective biofilms. Hence, a new member of the V. harveyi LuxR transcriptional activator family has been characterized in V. anguillarum that positively regulates serine, metalloprotease, pigment, and biofilm production.

  3. A live attenuated combination vaccine evokes effective immune-mediated protection against Edwardsiella tarda and Vibrio anguillarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Wu, Haizhen; Wang, Qiyao; Qu, Jiangbo; Liu, Qin; Xiao, Jingfan; Zhang, Yuanxing

    2014-10-14

    Edwardsiella tarda and Vibrio anguillarum are the two main pathogenic bacteria that cause edwardsiellosis and vibriosis in various species of fish raised in aquaculture. In our previous study, the live attenuated vaccines E. tarda WED and V. anguillarum MVAV6203 showed robust relative protection when vaccinated zebrafish or turbot were challenged with virulent E. tarda or V. anguillarum, respectively. Additionally, vaccinated fish processed the two vaccines through different pathways of antigen processing and presentation. Here, the immune protection of a combination vaccination consisting of E. tarda WED and V. anguillarum MVAV6203 was initially evaluated in zebrafish. After challenge with E. tarda and V. anguillarum at 1 month post-vaccination, the vaccinated zebrafish exhibited the relative protective survival of 70% and 90%, respectively. The expression of genes related to antigen recognition, processing and presentation were measured in the liver and spleen of vaccinated zebrafish. Gene expression profiling showed that more than one Toll-like receptor signaling pathway was activated and that both MHC I and II pathways of antigen processing and presentation were evoked. Later, the immune protection of the combination vaccine was evaluated in turbot and it showed similarly effective immune-mediated protection. By ELISA analysis, we found that the specific antibody levels in vaccinated turbot increased compared to those of fish vaccinated by a single vaccine during 2 months post-vaccination. Meanwhile, the expression levels of MHC I and II in the liver, spleen and kidney of vaccinated turbot were both up-regulated, suggesting that the MHC I and II pathways of antigen processing and presentation are activated in vaccinated turbot, similar to vaccinated zebrafish. In summary, a combination vaccine of live attenuated E. tarda WED and V. anguillarum MVAV6203 is effective and could be used widely in the future. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Stumbling across the Same Phage: Comparative Genomics of Widespread Temperate Phages Infecting the Fish Pathogen Vibrio anguillarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalatzis, Panos G; Rørbo, Nanna Iben; Castillo, Daniel; Mauritzen, Jesper Juel; Jørgensen, Jóhanna; Kokkari, Constantina; Zhang, Faxing; Katharios, Pantelis; Middelboe, Mathias

    2017-05-20

    Nineteen Vibrio anguillarum-specific temperate bacteriophages isolated across Europe and Chile from aquaculture and environmental sites were genome sequenced and analyzed for host range, morphology and life cycle characteristics. The phages were classified as Siphoviridae with genome sizes between 46,006 and 54,201 bp. All 19 phages showed high genetic similarity, and 13 phages were genetically identical. Apart from sporadically distributed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), genetic diversifications were located in three variable regions (VR1, VR2 and VR3) in six of the phage genomes. Identification of specific genes, such as N6-adenine methyltransferase and lambda like repressor, as well as the presence of a tRNA Arg , suggested a both mutualistic and parasitic interaction between phages and hosts. During short term phage exposure experiments, 28% of a V. anguillarum host population was lysogenized by the temperate phages and a genomic analysis of a collection of 31 virulent V. anguillarum showed that the isolated phages were present as prophages in >50% of the strains covering large geographical distances. Further, phage sequences were widely distributed among CRISPR-Cas arrays of publicly available sequenced Vibrios. The observed distribution of these specific temperate Vibriophages across large geographical scales may be explained by efficient dispersal of phages and bacteria in the marine environment combined with a mutualistic interaction between temperate phages and their hosts which selects for co-existence rather than arms race dynamics.

  5. Stumbling across the Same Phage: Comparative Genomics of Widespread Temperate Phages Infecting the Fish Pathogen Vibrio anguillarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panos G. Kalatzis

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen Vibrio anguillarum-specific temperate bacteriophages isolated across Europe and Chile from aquaculture and environmental sites were genome sequenced and analyzed for host range, morphology and life cycle characteristics. The phages were classified as Siphoviridae with genome sizes between 46,006 and 54,201 bp. All 19 phages showed high genetic similarity, and 13 phages were genetically identical. Apart from sporadically distributed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, genetic diversifications were located in three variable regions (VR1, VR2 and VR3 in six of the phage genomes. Identification of specific genes, such as N6-adenine methyltransferase and lambda like repressor, as well as the presence of a tRNAArg, suggested a both mutualistic and parasitic interaction between phages and hosts. During short term phage exposure experiments, 28% of a V. anguillarum host population was lysogenized by the temperate phages and a genomic analysis of a collection of 31 virulent V. anguillarum showed that the isolated phages were present as prophages in >50% of the strains covering large geographical distances. Further, phage sequences were widely distributed among CRISPR-Cas arrays of publicly available sequenced Vibrios. The observed distribution of these specific temperate Vibriophages across large geographical scales may be explained by efficient dispersal of phages and bacteria in the marine environment combined with a mutualistic interaction between temperate phages and their hosts which selects for co-existence rather than arms race dynamics.

  6. Protective effect of squilla chitosan–silver nanoparticles for Dicentrarchus labrax larvae infected with Vibrio anguillarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khouloud M. Barakat

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Antimicrobial nanoparticle therapy was proposed as an alternative strategy to reduce the use of antibiotics in larval-rearing systems. Antibacterial potential of the prepared squilla chitosan–silver nanoparticles and its protective effect on Dicentrarchus labrax (sea bass larvae in the early stages were studied against Vibrio angularium. Different concentrations of squilla chitosan (Csq and squilla chitosan–silver nanoparticles (Csq–AgNps (1, 2, 5, 10, and 20 % were, in vitro, tested against V.anguillarum and expressed as a role of Log10 mean. Sea bass larvae were treated using: 10 % Csq and 5 % Csq–AgNps as effective inhibitory concentrations against the pathogen either encapsulated during the feeding regime or added directly to the model system via the water from the onset of 4 weeks. The long-term administration of Csq–AgNps through enriched food for both non-infected and infected systems had survival % of 74.5 ± 1.5 and 72.5 ± 2.5, respectively. Larval clinical observations using Csq–AgNps were studied compared with the two controls. The current study found that 5 % encapsulated Csq–AgNps was enough to suppress infection and considered as an alternative to antibiotics in controlling virulent fish pathogens.

  7. Bacteriophage interactions with Vibrio anguillarum and the potential for phage therapy in marine aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørbo, Nanna Iben

    vibriosis which affects a lot of different fish species. As in the rest of the world, an increase in antibiotic resistant bacteria is also observed in the aquaculture industry making chemotherapeutics futile. Bacteriophage therapy offers a great potential in treatment and control of Vibrio anguillarum.......g. vaccines. The lytic broad-host-range phage KVP40 was applied to cod and turbot larvae to control different V. anguillarum strains. We observed that phage KVP40 was able to reduce and/or delay the mortality. Further, phage KVP40 was also able to reduced the mortality imposed by the natural bacterial...... background present in the larvae, emphasizing its potential as a therapeutic agent. In phage therapy the resistance mechanisms after phage exposure and the impact on the host are not fully understood. A molecular and mechanistic understanding of resistance mechanisms and virulence properties of the host...

  8. Identification and expression of antioxidant and immune defense genes in the surf clam Mesodesma donacium challenged with Vibrio anguillarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Aguayo, W; Lafarga-De la Cruz, F; Gallardo-Escárate, C

    2015-02-01

    The immune system in marine invertebrates is mediated through cellular and humoral components, which act together to address the action of potential pathogenic microorganisms. In bivalve mollusks biomolecules implicated in oxidative stress and recognition of pathogens have been involved in the innate immune response. To better understand the molecular basis of the immune response of surf clam Mesodesma donacium, qPCR approaches were used to identify genes related to its immune response against Vibrio anguillarum infection. Genes related to oxidative stress response and recognition of pathogens like superoxide dismutase (MdSOD), catalase (MdCAT), ferritin (MdFER) and filamin (MdFLMN) were identified from 454-pyrosequencing cDNA library of M. donacium and were evaluated in mantle, adductor muscle and gills. The results for transcripts expression indicated that MdSOD, MdFLMN and MdFER were primarily expressed in the muscle, while MdCAT was more expressed in gills. Challenge experiments with the pathogen V. anguillarum had showed that levels of transcript expression for MdSOD, MdCAT, MdFER, and MdFLMN were positively regulated by pathogen, following a time-dependent expression pattern with significant statistical differences between control and challenge group responses (p<0.05). These results suggest that superoxide dismutase, catalase, ferritin and filamin, could be contributing to the innate immune response of M. donacium against the pathogen V. anguillarum. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Roles of Heat Shock Proteins 70 and 90 in Exopalaemon carinicauda After WSSV and Vibrio anguillarum Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jitao; Li, Jian; Duan, Yafei; Chen, Ping; Liu, Ping

    2018-04-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs), such as HSP70 and HSP90, are a suite of highly conserved proteins produced in all cellular organisms when they are exposed to stresses. In aquatic animals, they have been proved to play important roles in response to environmental pollutants and particularly in the non-specific immune responses to pathogen infections. In the present study, the expression profiles of HSP70 and HSP90 genes in hemocytes and hepatopancreas from the ridgetail white prawn Exopalaemon carinicauda infected with WSSV and Vibrio anguillarum were detected using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). After WSSV challenge, the expression level of HSP 70 gene transcripts in the hemocytes and hepatopancreas increased to peak level at 6 h and 48 h, respectively. HSP90 gene transcripts in hemocytes and hepatopancreas were up-regulated significantly at 12 h and 6 h, respectively. During V. anguillarum challenge, the mRNA content of HSP70 gene in hemocytes and hepatopancreas increased significantly at 12 h and 6 h post-infection, respectively. The expression level of HSP90 gene both in hemocytes and hepatopancreas were up-regulated in the first 3 h. The expression patterns of HSP70 and HSP90 genes in hemocytes and hepatopancreas showed temporal and spatial differences after challenged with WSSV and V. anguillarum. The results suggested that HSPs might be involved in immune responses to pathogens challenge in E. carinicauda.

  10. The roles of heat shock proteins 70 and 90 in Exopalaemon carinicauda after WSSV and Vibrio anguillarum challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jitao; Li, Jian; Duan, Yafei; Chen, Ping; Liu, Ping

    2017-12-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs), such as HSP70 and HSP90, are a suite of highly conserved proteins produced in all cellular organisms when they are exposed to stresses. In aquatic animals, they have been proved to play important roles in response to environmental pollutants and particularly in the non-specific immune responses to pathogen infections. In the present study, the expression profiles of HSP70 and HSP90 genes in hemocytes and hepatopancreas from the ridgetail white prawn Exopalaemon carinicauda infected with WSSV and Vibrio anguillarum were detected using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). After WSSV challenge, the expression level of HSP 70 gene transcripts in the hemocytes and hepatopancreas increased to peak level at 6 h and 48 h, respectively. HSP90 gene transcripts in hemocytes and hepatopancreas were up-regulated significantly at 12 h and 6 h, respectively. During V. anguillarum challenge, the mRNA content of HSP70 gene in hemocytes and hepatopancreas increased significantly at 12 h and 6 h post-infection, respectively. The expression level of HSP90 gene both in hemocytes and hepatopancreas were up-regulated in the first 3 h. The expression patterns of HSP70 and HSP90 genes in hemocytes and hepatopancreas showed temporal and spatial differences after challenged with WSSV and V. anguillarum. The results suggested that HSPs might be involved in immune responses to pathogens challenge in E. carinicauda.

  11. Lipopolysaccharide O-antigen prevents phagocytosis of Vibrio anguillarum by rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss skin epithelial cells.

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    Kristoffer Lindell

    Full Text Available Colonization of host tissues is a first step taken by many pathogens during the initial stages of infection. Despite the impact of bacterial disease on wild and farmed fish, only a few direct studies have characterized bacterial factors required for colonization of fish tissues. In this study, using live-cell and confocal microscopy, rainbow trout skin epithelial cells, the main structural component of the skin epidermis, were demonstrated to phagocytize bacteria. Mutant analyses showed that the fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum required the lipopolysaccharide O-antigen to evade phagocytosis and that O-antigen transport required the putative wzm-wzt-wbhA operon, which encodes two ABC polysaccharide transporter proteins and a methyltransferase. Pretreatment of the epithelial cells with mannose prevented phagocytosis of V. anguillarum suggesting that a mannose receptor is involved in the uptake process. In addition, the O-antigen transport mutants could not colonize the skin but they did colonize the intestines of rainbow trout. The O-antigen polysaccharides were also shown to aid resistance to the antimicrobial factors, lysozyme and polymyxin B. In summary, rainbow trout skin epithelial cells play a role in the fish innate immunity by clearing bacteria from the skin epidermis. In defense, V. anguillarum utilizes O-antigen polysaccharides to evade phagocytosis by the epithelial cells allowing it to colonize rapidly fish skin tissues.

  12. MHC polymorphism and disease resistance to vibrio anguillarum in 8 families of half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis

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    Liu Yan-hong

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genes in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC have a critical role in both the innate and adaptive immune responses because of their involvement in presenting foreign peptides to T cells. However, the nature has remained largely unknown. Results We examined the genetic variation in MHC class IIB in half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis after challenge with vibrio anguillarum. Two thousand and four hundred fry from 12 half-smooth tongue sole families were challenged with Vibrio anguillarum. To determine any association between alleles and resistance or susceptibility to V. anguillarum, 160 individuals from four high-resistance (HR, 73.27% mortality families were selected for MHC IIB exon2 gene sequence analysis. The MHC IIB exon2 genes of tongue sole displayed a high level of polymorphism and were discovered at least four loci. Meanwhile, the dN/dS [the ratio of non-synonymous (dN substitutions to synonymous (dS substitutions] in the peptide-binding region (PBR was higher than that in the non-peptide-binding region (non-PBR. Eighty-eight alleles were discovered among 160 individuals, and 13 out of 88 alleles were used to analyze the distribution pattern between the resistant and susceptible families. Certain alleles presented in HR and LR with a different frequency, while other alleles were discovered in only the HR or LR families, not both. Five alleles, Cyse-DBB*6501, Cyse-DBB*4002, Cyse-DBB*6102, Cyse-DBB*5601 and Cyse-DBB*2801, were found to be associated with susceptibility to V. anguillarum with a frequency of 1.25%, 1.25%, 1.25%, 1.25% and 2.5% in the HR families, and 35%, 33.75%, 27.5%, 16.25%, 15% in the LR families (p Cyse-DBB*3301, Cyse-DBB*4701, Cyse-DBB*6801 and Cyse-DBB*5901, were found to be associated with resistance to V. anguillarum, with a frequency of 13.75%, 11.25%, 11.25%, 8.75% in the HR families and 1.25%, 1.25%, 1.25%, 1.25% and 1.25% in the LR families (p Conclusions Elucidation of the

  13. Exploration of Phage-Host Interactions in Fish Pathogen Vibrio anguillarum and Anti-Phage Defense Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Demeng

    Vibrio sp. strains, representing considerable temporal (20 years) and geographic (9 countries) variation in regards to their origins of isolation, and 11 vibriophages representing three different families (Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, and Podoviridae), were characterized with respect host range, morphology...... of bacterial pathogenicity development. Therefore, successful application of phage therapy in the treatment of vibriosis requires a detailed understanding of phage-host interactions, especially with regards to anti-phage defense mechanisms in the host. Part I. As a first approach, 24 V. anguillarum and 13......, genome size and lytic properties. Together the host range of the 11 vibriophages covered all the 37 Vibrio strains in the collection. In addition, the occurrence of unique susceptibility patterns of the individual host isolates, as well as key phenotypic properties related to phage susceptibility...

  14. Involvement of VAMP-2 in exocytosis of IL-1β in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) leukocytes after Vibrio anguillarum infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Yingmei; Huang Xiaohang; Cong Bailin; Liu Shenghao; Chen Kui; Li Guangyou; Gaisano, Herbert Y.

    2006-01-01

    Vibrio anguillarum is a major pathogen threatening the fish aquaculture in China. Infection of cultivated turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) with V. anguillarum induced rapid synthesis and secretion of IL-1β, which initiates the innate immune response. SNARE proteins are known to regulate vesicular trafficking and fusion in all eukaryotes. Here, we determined whether SNARE proteins, specifically vesicle-associated membrane protein-2 (VAMP-2), are involved in regulated exocytosis of IL-1β of leukocytes in marine fish. We show that VAMP-2 is present in turbot blood leukocytes, with nucleotide sequence identity of 88.2% and 93.0% to those of zebra fish and sea bass, respectively. After Vibrio infection, turbot leukocyte VAMP-2 was increased at the levels of transcription and translation in a temporal pattern coinciding with leukocyte IL-1β secretion. Confocal microscopy localized VAMP-2 to vesicle structures in leukocytes. Taken together, our results suggest that VAMP-2 is involved in regulated exocytosis of cytokines in immunocytes in fish

  15. Salinity-Based Toxicity of CuO Nanoparticles, CuO-Bulk and Cu Ion toVibrio anguillarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotini, Alice; Tornambè, Andrea; Cossi, Riccardo; Iamunno, Franco; Benvenuto, Giovanna; Berducci, Maria T; Maggi, Chiara; Thaller, Maria C; Cicero, Anna M; Manfra, Loredana; Migliore, Luciana

    2017-01-01

    Bacteria are used in ecotoxicology for their important role in marine ecosystems and their quick, reproducible responses. Here we applied a recently proposed method to assess the ecotoxicity of nanomaterials on the ubiquitous marine bacterium Vibrio anguillarum , as representative of brackish and marine ecosystems. The test allows the determination of 6-h EC 50 in a wide range of salinity, by assessing the reduction of bacteria actively replicating and forming colonies. The toxicity of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) at different salinities (5-20-35 ‰) was evaluated. CuSO 4 5H 2 O and CuO bulk were used as reference toxicants (solubility and size control, respectively). Aggregation and stability of CuO NP in final testing dispersions were characterized; Cu 2+ dissolution and the physical interactions between Vibrio and CuO NPs were also investigated. All the chemical forms of copper showed a clear dose-response relationship, although their toxicity was different. The order of decreasing toxicity was: CuSO 4 5H 2 O > CuO NP > CuO bulk. As expected, the size of CuO NP aggregates increased with salinity and, concurrently, their toxicity decreased. Results confirmed the intrinsic toxicity of CuO NPs, showing modest Cu 2+ dissolution and no evidence of CuO NP internalization or induction of bacterial morphological alterations. This study showed the V. anguillarum bioassay as an effective tool for the risk assessment of nanomaterials in marine and brackish environments.

  16. Elucidation of the Vibrio anguillarum genetic response to the potential fish probiont Pseudomonas fluorescens AH2, using RNA-arbitrarily primed PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmstrøm, Kim; Gram, Lone

    2003-01-01

    with the iron chelator 2,2-dipyridyl. A chromosomal transcript homologous to vibE that participates in vibriobactin synthesis in Vibrio cholerae was also upregulated during AH2 exposure. This transcript could represent a functionally active gene in V. anguillarum involved in biosynthesis of anguibactin...

  17. Identification of immunogenic proteins and evaluation of four recombinant proteins as potential vaccine antigens from Vibrio anguillarum in flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Jing; Xu, Hongsen; Wang, Yang; Tang, Xiaoqian; Sheng, Xiuzhen; Zhan, Wenbin

    2017-05-31

    Vibrio anguillarum is a severe bacterial pathogen that can infect a wide range of fish species. Identification of immunogenic proteins and development of vaccine are essential for disease prevention. In this study, immunogenic proteins were screened and identified from V. anguillarum, and then protective efficacy of the immunogenic proteins was evaluated. Immunogenic proteins in V. anguillarum whole cell were detected by Western blotting (WB) using immunized flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) serum, and then identified by Mass spectrometry (MS). The recombinant proteins of four identified immunogenic proteins were produced and immunized to fish, and then percentages of surface membrane immunoglobulin-positive (sIg+) cells in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL), total antibodies, antibodies against V. anguillarum, antibodies against recombinant proteins and relative percent survival (RPS) were measured, respectively. The results showed that five immunogenic proteins, VAA, Groel, OmpU, PteF and SpK, were identified; their recombinant proteins, rOmpU, rGroel, rSpK and rVAA, could induce the proliferation of sIg+ cells in PBL and production of total antibodies, antibodies against V. anguillarum and antibodies against the recombinant proteins; their protection against V. anguillarum showed 64.86%, 72.97%, 21.62% and 78.38% RPS, respectively. The results revealed that the immunoproteomic technique using fish anti-V. anguillarum serum provided an efficient way to screen the immunogenic protein for vaccine antigen. Moreover, the rVAA, rGroel and rOmpU had potential to be vaccine candidates against V. anguillarum infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Isocitrate dehydrogenase mutation in Vibrio anguillarum results in virulence attenuation and immunoprotection in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Xiangyu; Spinard, Edward J; Hillman, Shelby L; Nelson, David R

    2017-11-14

    Vibrio anguillarum is an extracellular bacterial pathogen that is a causative agent of vibriosis in finfish and crustaceans with mortality rates ranging from 30% to 100%. Mutations in central metabolism (glycolysis and the TCA cycle) of intracellular pathogens often result in attenuated virulence due to depletion of required metabolic intermediates; however, it was not known whether mutations in central metabolism would affect virulence in an extracellular pathogen such as V. anguillarum. Seven central metabolism mutants were created and characterized with regard to growth in minimal and complex media, expression of virulence genes, and virulence in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Only the isocitrate dehydrogenase (icd) mutant was attenuated in virulence against rainbow trout challenged by either intraperitoneal injection or immersion. Further, the icd mutant was shown to be immunoprotective against wild type V. anguillarum infection. There was no significant decrease in the expression of the three hemolysin genes detected by qRT-PCR. Additionally, only the icd mutant exhibited a significantly decreased growth yield in complex media. Growth yield was directly related to the abundance of glutamate. A strain with a restored wild type icd gene was created and shown to restore growth to a wild type cell density in complex media and pathogenicity in rainbow trout. The data strongly suggest that a decreased growth yield, resulting from the inability to synthesize α-ketoglutarate, caused the attenuation despite normal levels of expression of virulence genes. Therefore, the ability of an extracellular pathogen to cause disease is dependent upon the availability of host-supplied nutrients for growth. Additionally, a live vaccine strain could be created from an icd deletion strain.

  19. Salinity-Based Toxicity of CuO Nanoparticles, CuO-Bulk and Cu Ion to Vibrio anguillarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Rotini

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria are used in ecotoxicology for their important role in marine ecosystems and their quick, reproducible responses. Here we applied a recently proposed method to assess the ecotoxicity of nanomaterials on the ubiquitous marine bacterium Vibrio anguillarum, as representative of brackish and marine ecosystems. The test allows the determination of 6-h EC50 in a wide range of salinity, by assessing the reduction of bacteria actively replicating and forming colonies. The toxicity of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs at different salinities (5-20-35 ‰ was evaluated. CuSO4 5H2O and CuO bulk were used as reference toxicants (solubility and size control, respectively. Aggregation and stability of CuO NP in final testing dispersions were characterized; Cu2+ dissolution and the physical interactions between Vibrio and CuO NPs were also investigated. All the chemical forms of copper showed a clear dose-response relationship, although their toxicity was different. The order of decreasing toxicity was: CuSO4 5H2O > CuO NP > CuO bulk. As expected, the size of CuO NP aggregates increased with salinity and, concurrently, their toxicity decreased. Results confirmed the intrinsic toxicity of CuO NPs, showing modest Cu2+ dissolution and no evidence of CuO NP internalization or induction of bacterial morphological alterations. This study showed the V. anguillarum bioassay as an effective tool for the risk assessment of nanomaterials in marine and brackish environments.

  20. Location of Vibrio anguillarum resistance-associated trait loci in half-smooth tongue sole Cynoglossus semilaevis at its microsatellite linkage map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhihong; Guo, Li; Liu, Yang; Shao, Changwei; Chen, Songlin; Yang, Guanpin

    2016-11-01

    A cultured female half-smooth tongue sole ( Cynoglossus semilaevis) was crossed with a wild male, yielding the first filial generation of pseudo-testcrossing from which 200 fish were randomly selected to locate the Vibrio anguillarum resistance trait in half-smooth tongue sole at its microsatellite linkage map. In total, 129 microsatellites were arrayed into 18 linkage groups, ≥4 each. The map reconstructed was 852.85 cM in length with an average spacing of 7.68 cM, covering 72.07% of that expected (1 183.35 cM). The V. anguillarum resistance trait was a composite rather than a unit trait, which was tentatively partitioned into Survival time in Hours After V. anguillarum Infection (SHAVI) and Immunity of V. Anguillarum Infection (IVAI). Above a logarithm of the odds (LOD) threshold of 2.5, 18 loci relative to SHAVI and 3 relative to IVAI were identified. The 3 loci relative to IVAI explained 18.78%, 5.87% and 6.50% of the total phenotypic variation in immunity. The microsatellites bounding the 3 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) of IVAI may in future aid to the selection of V. anguillarum-immune half-smooth tongue sole varieties, and facilitate cloning the gene(s) controlling such immunity.

  1. NaCl concentration in the medium modulates the secretion of active EmpA protease in Vibrio anguillarum at post-transcriptional level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisafi, F; Denaro, R; Yakimov, M; Felice, M R; Giuliano, L; Genovese, L

    2015-12-01

    This study focused on the influence of different amounts of NaCl in the medium in Vibrio anguillarum EmpA protease production at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Vibrio anguillarum 975/I was cultivated in cM9 medium with varying concentrations of NaCl: 0·5, 1·5, 3·0%. EmpA protease was monitored in the supernatants by the skim milk test, azocasein assay and Western blot analysis. The empA gene expression was measured by real-time PCR. A mutant strain 975/I defective for the empA gene confirmed the specificity of the response for EmpA protease. Active protease production was induced by 0·5 and 1·5% NaCl-amended media; however, the strain cultivated in 3·0% NaCl was unable to secrete EmpA protease. The quantitative expression of the empA gene was very similar in all tested conditions. The NaCl concentration in the medium modulates the secretion of active EmpA protease in V. anguillarum at a post-transcriptional level. EmpA protease is one of the most important virulence factors in V. anguillarum. We demonstrated the influence of osmotic changes in the regulation of EmpA protease in the V. anguillarum 975/I strain. This finding has an important impact on the evaluation of factors determining the onset of disease in fish. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model to visualize infection dynamics of Vibrio anguillarum following intraperitoneal injection and bath exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jacob Günther; Korbut, Rozalia; Ohtani, Maki; Jørgensen, Louise von Gersdorff

    2017-08-01

    Vaccine development is important for sustainable fish farming and novel vaccines need to be efficacy tested before release to the market. Challenge of fish with the pathogen towards which the vaccine has been produced can be conducted either by external exposure though bathing or cohabitation, or by bypassing the mucosa through injection. The latter approach is often preferred since it is easier to control than the former. However, injection is not a very natural route of infection, and the bypass of the mucosa may result in a different efficacy profile of experimental fish compared to farmed fish, for which the vaccines are targeted. The zebrafish is by now a well established practical vertebrate model species due in part to its size and ease of maintenance and genetic manipulation. Here we use zebrafish as a model to visualize and compare the development of infection of Vibrio anguillarum on and in the fish following injection or bathing. Injection of 10 3 bacteria per fish resulted in approximately 50% mortality by day 4 post-injection. Similar mortality levels were reached in the other group by bathing in 1.25 × 10 9 bacteria for 1 min. The spreading of bacteria was followed for the first 24 h after injection/bathing by immunohistochemistry and optical projection tomography. The tissues and organs where bacteria were detected differed significantly as a result of time as well as treatment. In the bath group, bacteria were initially found on external surfaces including gut. After 24 h V. anguillarum still persisted in gut but had now also spread to the blood. In the injection group bacteria were found in the blood throughout all sampling times, as well as in the hypodermis and body cavity at most sampling times. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Vibriophages differentially influence biofilm formation by Vibrio anguillarum strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Demeng; Dahl, Amalie; Middelboe, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    -living and surface-associated growth conditions. In this study, we explored in vitro phage-host interactions in two different strains of V. anguillarum (BA35 and PF430-3) during growth in microcolonies, biofilms, and free-living cells. Two vibriophages, ΦH20 (Siphoviridae) and KVP40 (Myoviridae), had completely...... different effects on the biofilm development. Addition of phage ΦH20 to strain BA35 showed efficient control of biofilm formation and density of free-living cells. The interactions between BA35 and ΦH20 were thus characterized by a strong phage control of the phage-sensitive population and subsequent...... selection for phage-resistant mutants. Addition of phage KVP40 to strain PF430-3 resulted in increased biofilm development, especially during the early stage. Subsequent experiments in liquid cultures showed that addition of phage KVP40 stimulated the aggregation of host cells, which protected the cells...

  4. The response of mRNA expression upon secondary challenge with Vibrio anguillarum suggests the involvement of C-lectins in the immune priming of scallop Chlamys farreri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingjing; Wang, Lingling; Yang, Chuanyan; Jiang, Qiufen; Zhang, Huan; Yue, Feng; Huang, Mengmeng; Sun, Zhibin; Song, Linsheng

    2013-06-01

    The enhanced immunity against a second encounter with the particular pathogen has suggested the presence of "immune priming" in scallop. In the present study, the survival rate and expression patterns of five C-lectin isoforms from scallop Chlamys farreri were explored after "vaccination" of heat-killed Vibrio anguillarum or successively challenge with V. anguillarum and Micrococcus luteus. When scallops were challenged with live bacteria, the survival rate increased significantly only in the group firstly "vaccinated" with inactivated V. anguillarum and then challenged with live V. anguillarum compared with naive scallops (from 41% to 63.6%, Pimmuned previously with heat-killed V. anguillarum peaked significantly higher (26.7-, 121.7-, 60.1-, 27.4-, 16.3-fold to 0h, respectively, Pimmuned scallops (7.6-fold, P0.05; 5.7-fold, P0.05; 8.3-fold, P0.05; 14.5-fold, P0.05, to 0h, respectively). The response of mRNA expression to the secondary encounter with the same bacteria was stronger than that of successively encounter with the different class of bacteria. It was obvious that the mRNA expression of C-lectins in scallops was significantly enhanced by the successive challenge of same species of bacteria with a certain degree of specificity. All the results suggested that C-lectins might be involved in some form of immune priming, and it might provide new insights into mechanism of invertebrate immune priming. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Vibrio anguillarum Is Genetically and Phenotypically Unaffected by Long-Term Continuous Exposure to the Antibacterial Compound Tropodithietic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Bastian Barker; Grotkjær, Torben; D'Alvise, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Minimizing the use of antibiotics in the food production chain is essential for limiting the development and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. One alternative intervention strategy is the use of probiotic bacteria, and bacteria of the marine Roseobacter clade are capable of antagonizing fish......, and whole-genome sequencing of TDA-exposed lineages and clones revealed few mutational changes, compared to lineages grown without TDA. Amino acid-changing mutations were found in two to six different genes per clone; however, no mutations appeared unique to the TDA-exposed lineages or clones. None...... of the virulence genes of V. anguillarum was affected, and infectivity assays using fish cell lines indicated that the TDA-exposed lineages and clones were less invasive than the wild-type strain. Thus, long-term TDA exposure does not appear to result in TDA resistance and the physiology of V. anguillarum appears...

  6. Coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch strain differences in disease resistance and non-specific immunity, following immersion challenges with Vibrio anguillarum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfry, Shannon K.; Maule, Alec G.; Iwama, George K.

    2001-01-01

    Two strains of freshwater-reared coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch were compared for differences in the activity of selected non-specific immune factors before and after lethal and non-lethal immersion challenges with the marine bacterial pathogen Vibrio anguillarum (Vang). Two disease challenge experiments were performed. The first experimental challenge resulted in no mortality; however, significant strain and challenge treatment effects were detected at Day 16 post-challenge. Strain differences in plasma lysozyme activity were found in pre-challenge samples. The second challenge experiment compared the same strains of coho salmon following immersion challenges in different doses of Vang. The fish were sampled at Days 0, 2, 7, and 18 post-challenge and mortality, plasma lysozyme, and anterior kidney phagocyte respiratory burst activity were compared. There were significant strain differences in mortality in the high dose group. The more disease-resistant strain was found to have higher levels of plasma lysozyme and anterior kidney phagocyte respiratory burst activity. These strain differences were detected at various times in the lethal (high dose) and non-lethal challenge groups. There was a clear relationship between the enhanced survival of the more disease-resistant strain and a more sustained, elevated non-specific immune response following the experimental disease challenges. The results of this study suggest that the basis for strain differences in innate disease resistance is related to the ability of the fish to respond quickly to the initial infection and to maintain the response until the infection is quelled.

  7. Notable mucosal immune responses induced in the intestine of zebrafish (Danio rerio) bath-vaccinated with a live attenuated Vibrio anguillarum vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaohong; Wu, Haizhen; Chang, Xinyue; Tang, Yufei; Liu, Qin; Zhang, Yuanxing

    2014-09-01

    Live attenuated vaccine is one of the efficient vaccine candidates in aquaculture, which can be easily delivered to fish via bath-vaccination. An outstanding advantage of bath-vaccination is that vaccine delivery is through the same route as that utilized by many fish pathogens, generating specific mucosal immune responses. In this work, we investigated the mucosal immune responses induced by a live attenuated Vibrio anguillarum vaccine in zebrafish via bath-vaccination. Bacteria proliferated rapidly in 3 h after vaccination and maintained at a high level until 6 h in the intestine. Besides, bacteria persisted in the intestine for a longer time whereas decreased rapidly in the skin and gills. Moreover, a significant up-regulation of TLR5 triggering a MyD88-dependent signaling pathway was observed in the intestine, which implied that flagella were the crucial antigenic component of the live attenuated vaccine. And macrophages and neutrophils showed active responses participating in antigen recognition and sampling after vaccination. Furthermore, an inflammation was observed with plenty of lymphocytes in the intestine at 24 h post vaccination but eliminated within 7 days. In conclusion, the live attenuated V. anguillarum vaccine induced notable mucosal immune responses in the intestine which could be used as a mucosal vaccine vector in the future. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Profiling of acylated homoserine lactones of Vibrio anguillarum in vitro and in vivo: influence of growth conditions and serotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholtz, Chrstiane; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; L. Milton, Debra

    2006-01-01

    and biofilm formation. Using both thin layer chromatography and HPLC-high resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-HRMS), we demonstrate in this study that the same types of AHLs are produced by many serotypes of V. anguillarum and that altering in vitro growth conditions (salinity, temperature and iron...... tissues. Hence, the balance between the QS systems may be different during infection compared to in vitro cultures. For future studies of QS systems and the possible specific interference with expression of virulence factors, in vitro cultures should be optimised to reflect the in vivo situation.layer...... chromatography and HPLC-high resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-HRMS), we demonstrate in this study that the same types of AHLs are produced by many serotypes of V. anguillarum and that altering in vitro growth conditions (salinity, temperature and iron concentration) has little influence on the AHL...

  9. Exploration of Phage-Host Interactions in Fish Pathogen Vibrio anguillarum and Anti-Phage Defense Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Demeng

    of bacterial pathogenicity development. Therefore, successful application of phage therapy in the treatment of vibriosis requires a detailed understanding of phage-host interactions, especially with regards to anti-phage defense mechanisms in the host. Part I. As a first approach, 24 V. anguillarum and 13......T to repress ompK expression. It was demonstrated that QS controls the choice of anti-phage defense strategies in the V. anguillarum strain PF430-3, suggesting the presence of dynamic, temporary adaptations to phage infection pressure, while still securing the ability to produce a functional OmpK receptor....... In conclusion, this thesis provides a first insight into the dynamic vibriophage-host interactions, indicating the complexity of phage therapy in the treatment of vibriosis, regarding the evolution of anti-phage defense mechanisms, gene regulation, quorum sensing, biofilm formation, as well as pathogenesis...

  10. Vibrio salilacus sp. nov., a new member of the Anguillarum clade with six alleles of the 16S rRNA gene from a saline lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zhi-Ping; Liu, Ying; Liu, Hong-Can; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Yu-Guang; Liu, Zhi-Pei

    2015-08-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, catalase- and oxidase-positive, facultatively aerobic bacterium, strain DSG-S6T, was isolated from Dasugan Lake (salinity 3.1%, w/w), China. Its taxonomic position was determined by using a polyphasic approach. Cells of strain DSG-S6T were non-spore-forming, slightly bent rods, and motile by means of a single polar flagellum. Growth occurred in the presence of 0-7.0% (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 2.0%), at 4-35 °C (optimum, 30 °C) and at pH 6.0-10.5 (optimum, pH 8.0-8.5). C16 : 0, C18 : 1ω7c and C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c were the major fatty acids. Six alleles of the 16S rRNA gene sharing 98.9-99.9  % similarity were detected in strain DSG-S6T, which showed highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Vibrio aestuarianus ATCC 35048T (97.7 %), then to Vibrio pacinii LMG 19999T (97.6%) and Vibrio metschnikovii CIP 69.14T (96.8%). Multilocus sequence analysis of four housekeeping genes and 16S rRNA genes clearly clustered it as a member of the Anguillarum clade. Mean DNA-DNA relatedness between strain DSG-S6T and V. aestuarianus NBRC 15629T, V. pacinii CGMCC 1.12557T and V. metschnikovii JCM 21189T was 20.6 ± 2.3, 38.1 ± 3.5 and 24.2 ± 2.8%, respectively. The DNA G+C content was 46.8 mol% (Tm). Based on the data, it is concluded that strain DSG-S6T represents a novel species of the genus Vibrio, for which the name Vibrio salilacus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DSG-S6T ( = CGMCC 1.12427T = JCM 19265T).

  11. Phaeobacter gallaeciensis Reduces Vibrio anguillarum in Cultures of Microalgae and Rotifers, and Prevents Vibriosis in Cod Larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Alvise, Paul; Lillebø, Siril; Prol García, María Jesús

    2012-01-01

    -antagonistic mutant. P. gallaeciensis was readily established in axenic cultures of the two microalgae Tetraselmis suecica and Nannochloropsis oculata, and of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis. P. gallaeciensis reached densities of 10(7) cfu/ml and did not adversely affect growth of algae or rotifers. Vibrio...

  12. Molecular characterization of two kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor genes in the surf clam Mesodesma donacium exposed to Vibrio anguillarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Aguayo, Waleska; Núñez-Acuña, Gustavo; Valenzuela-Muñoz, Valentina; Chávez-Mardones, Jacqueline; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2013-06-01

    This study reports two kazal-type serine protease inhibitors (KPI) identified in a cDNA library from the surf clam Mesodesma donacium, and characterized through Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE). The KPIs, denoted as MdSPI-1 and MdSPI-2, presented full sequences of 1139 bp and 781 bp respectively. MdSPI-1 had a 5'untranslated region (UTR) of 175 bp, a 3'UTR of 283 bp and an open reading frame (ORF) of 681 pb that encodes for 227 amino acids. MdSPI-2 showed a 5'UTR of 70 bp, a 3'UTR of 279 bp and an ORF of 432 bp that encodes for 144 amino acids. Both sequences presented two kazal-type tandem domains. Phylogenetic analysis of MdSPI-1 and MdSPI-2 shows a main clade composed by other bivalve species and closely related crustaceans. Real time PCR analysis showed that MdSPI-1 is mainly up-regulated in mantle, foot, gills and muscle tissues, while MdSPI-2 is expressed principally in foot tissue. Moreover, to evaluate the immune response of MdSPI-1 and MdSPI-2, infections with Vibrio anguillarum were performed. Herein, MdSPI-1 and MdSPI-2 transcription expression were significantly up-regulated at 2 and 8 h post-challenge. Our results suggest that MdSPI-1 and MdSPI-2 are important humoral factors of innate immunity in M. donacium. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of Lily-type lectin (Sm LTL) in turbot Scophthalmus maximus, and its response to Vibrio anguillarum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dandan; Ma, Aijun; Huang, Zhihui; Shang, Xiaomei; Cui, Wenxiao; Yang, Zhi; Qu, Jiangbo

    2017-04-01

    A full-length lily-type lectin (Sm LTL) was identified from turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) in this study. By searching database for protein identification and function prediction, Sm LTL were confirmed. The full-length cDNA of Sm LTL is composed of 569 bp and contains a 339 bp ORF that encodes 112 amino acid residues. The Sm LTL peptide is characterized by a specific β-prism architecture and contains three mannose binding sites in a three-fold internal repeat between amino acids 30-99; two of the repeats share the classical mannose binding domain (QxDxNxVxY) while the third binding site was similar to other fish-specific binding motifs (TxTxGxRxV). The primary, secondary, and tertiary structures of Sm LTL were predicted and analyzed, indicating that the Sm LTL protein was hydrophilic, contained 5.36% α-helices, 39.29% extended strands, 16.07% β-folds, and 39.29% random coils, and three β-folds. Quantitative realtime polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis revealed that the Sm LTL mRNA was abundantly expressed in skin, gill, and intestine. Low levels of Sm LTL expression were observed in other tissues. The expression of Sm LTL in gill, skin and intestine increased at mRNA level after stimulation of Vibrio anguillarum, our results suggest that Sm LTL serve as the first line of defence against microbial infections and play a pivotal role in the innate mucosal immune system. The current study indicates that Sm LTL is a member of the lilytype lectin family and the information reported here will provide an important foundation for future research on the role of this protein.

  14. Isolation of TDA-producing Phaeobacter strains from sea bass larval rearing units and their probiotic effect against pathogenic Vibrio spp. in Artemia cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grotkjær, Torben; Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel; D'Alvise, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio anguillarum and reduce mortality in V. anguillarum-infected cod and turbot larvae. In this study, it was demonstrated that antagonistic Roseobacter-clade bacteria could be isolated from sea bass larval rearing units. In addition, it was shown that they not only antagonized V. anguillarum but also...... V. harveyi, which is the major bacterial pathogen in crustaceans and Mediterranean sea bass larvae cultures. Concomitantly, they significantly improved survival of V. harveyi-infected brine shrimp. 16S rRNA gene sequence homology identified the antagonists as Phaeobacter sp., and in silico DNA......-DNA hybridization indicated that they could belong to a new species. The genomes contained genes involved in synthesis of the antibacterial compound tropodithietic acid (TDA), and its production was confirmed by UHPLC-TOFMS. The new Phaeobacter colonized live feed (Artemia) cultures and reduced Vibrio counts...

  15. ANTAGONISM AGAINST VIBRIO CHOLERAE BY BACTERIAL DIFFUSIBLE COMPOUND IN THE FECAL MICROBIOTA OF RODENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Simone Helena da

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In an ex vivo agar plate assay, we monitored the appearance of an inhibitory halo against Vibrio cholerae from the feces of Wistar and Fischer rats aged 10 to 42 days. The frequency of Wistar rats showing halo increased from 0% (10 days to a maximum of 80.0% (29 days and then decreased to 53.3% (42 days. A similar pattern was obtained with Fischer rats but with a lower intensity (maximum frequency of 50.0% by day 36. In a separate experiment, when Wistar rats were fed a low-protein diet for 7 days, the inhibitory halo decreased drastically. Three apparently different colony morphologies were isolated from the dominant fecal microbiota: a facultative anaerobe (FAN and two strict anaerobes (SAN. The ex vivo inhibitory test showed a halo around the feces of germfree mice monoassociated with the FAN bacterium or one of the SAN bacterium but not of the germfree ones. After oral challenge of all groups with V. cholerae, a permissive and a drastic barrier effects were observed in mice with FAN and SAN associated bacteria, respectively. The FAN and one SAN bacteria used in the in vivo challenges were identified as Escherichia coli and Streptococcus intermedius, respectively. The potent antagonism developed by the rat intestinal microbiota against V. cholerae seems to be due, in part, to diffusible compounds and this phenomenon depends apparently on age, strain and nutrition of the animals. These preliminary results also suggest that this effect was due to more than one bacterial component at any given moment.

  16. Transmission of Vibrio cholerae is antagonized by lytic phage and entry into the aquatic environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J Nelson

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Cholera outbreaks are proposed to propagate in explosive cycles powered by hyperinfectious Vibrio cholerae and quenched by lytic vibriophage. However, studies to elucidate how these factors affect transmission are lacking because the field experiments are almost intractable. One reason for this is that V. cholerae loses the ability to culture upon transfer to pond water. This phenotype is called the active but non-culturable state (ABNC; an alternative term is viable but non-culturable because these cells maintain the capacity for metabolic activity. ABNC bacteria may serve as the environmental reservoir for outbreaks but rigorous animal studies to test this hypothesis have not been conducted. In this project, we wanted to determine the relevance of ABNC cells to transmission as well as the impact lytic phage have on V. cholerae as the bacteria enter the ABNC state. Rice-water stool that naturally harbored lytic phage or in vitro derived V. cholerae were incubated in a pond microcosm, and the culturability, infectious dose, and transcriptome were assayed over 24 h. The data show that the major contributors to infection are culturable V. cholerae and not ABNC cells. Phage did not affect colonization immediately after shedding from the patients because the phage titer was too low. However, V. cholerae failed to colonize the small intestine after 24 h of incubation in pond water-the point when the phage and ABNC cell titers were highest. The transcriptional analysis traced the transformation into the non-infectious ABNC state and supports models for the adaptation to nutrient poor aquatic environments. Phage had an undetectable impact on this adaptation. Taken together, the rise of ABNC cells and lytic phage blocked transmission. Thus, there is a fitness advantage if V. cholerae can make a rapid transfer to the next host before these negative selective pressures compound in the aquatic environment.

  17. Transmission of Vibrio cholerae is antagonized by lytic phage and entry into the aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Eric J; Chowdhury, Ashrafuzzaman; Flynn, James; Schild, Stefan; Bourassa, Lori; Shao, Yue; LaRocque, Regina C; Calderwood, Stephen B; Qadri, Firdausi; Camilli, Andrew

    2008-10-01

    Cholera outbreaks are proposed to propagate in explosive cycles powered by hyperinfectious Vibrio cholerae and quenched by lytic vibriophage. However, studies to elucidate how these factors affect transmission are lacking because the field experiments are almost intractable. One reason for this is that V. cholerae loses the ability to culture upon transfer to pond water. This phenotype is called the active but non-culturable state (ABNC; an alternative term is viable but non-culturable) because these cells maintain the capacity for metabolic activity. ABNC bacteria may serve as the environmental reservoir for outbreaks but rigorous animal studies to test this hypothesis have not been conducted. In this project, we wanted to determine the relevance of ABNC cells to transmission as well as the impact lytic phage have on V. cholerae as the bacteria enter the ABNC state. Rice-water stool that naturally harbored lytic phage or in vitro derived V. cholerae were incubated in a pond microcosm, and the culturability, infectious dose, and transcriptome were assayed over 24 h. The data show that the major contributors to infection are culturable V. cholerae and not ABNC cells. Phage did not affect colonization immediately after shedding from the patients because the phage titer was too low. However, V. cholerae failed to colonize the small intestine after 24 h of incubation in pond water-the point when the phage and ABNC cell titers were highest. The transcriptional analysis traced the transformation into the non-infectious ABNC state and supports models for the adaptation to nutrient poor aquatic environments. Phage had an undetectable impact on this adaptation. Taken together, the rise of ABNC cells and lytic phage blocked transmission. Thus, there is a fitness advantage if V. cholerae can make a rapid transfer to the next host before these negative selective pressures compound in the aquatic environment.

  18. A novel protein, TtpC, is a required component of the TonB2 complex for specific iron transport in the pathogens Vibrio anguillarum and Vibrio cholerae.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stork, M.; Otto, B.R.; Crosa, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    Active transport across the outer membrane in gram-negative bacteria requires the energy that is generated by the proton motive force in the inner membrane. This energy is transduced to the outer membrane by the TonB protein in complex with the proteins ExbB and ExbB. In the pathogen Vibrio

  19. Integrating small molecule signalling and H-NS antagonism in Vibrio cholerae, a bacterium with two chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, Charles J

    2015-08-01

    H-NS is a well-established silencer of virulence gene transcription in the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae. Biofilm formation aids V. cholerae in colonizing both its host and its external environments, and H-NS silences biofilm gene expression. Cyclic-di-guanosine monophosphate acts through the DNA binding proteins VpsR and VpsT to overcome H-NS-mediated repression of biofilm genes, driving a transition between a planktonic and a colonial/biofilm lifestyle. The H-NS binding pattern has now been charted on both chromosomes in V. cholerae, but whether or not this abundant DNA-binding-and-bridging protein plays any roles in nucleoid organization in this bacterium remains an open question. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Comparative assessment of Vibrio virulence in marine fish larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønneseth, A.; Castillo, D.; D'Alvise, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Vibrionaceae infections are a major obstacle for marine larviculture; however, little is known about virulence differences of Vibrio strains. The virulence of Vibrio strains, mostly isolated from vibriosis outbreaks in farmed fish, was tested in larval challenge trials with cod (Gadus morhua...... effects on survival. Some Vibrio strains were pathogenic in all of the larva species, while some caused disease only in one of the species. Twenty-nine of the Vibrio anguillarum strains increased the mortality of larvae from at least one fish species; however, pathogenicity of the strains differed...... markedly. Other Vibrio species had no or less pronounced effects on larval mortalities. Iron uptake has been related to V. anguillarum virulence; however, the presence or absence of the plasmid pJM1 encoding anguibactin did not correlate with virulence. The genomes of V. anguillarum were compared (D...

  1. Real-time PCR detection and quantification of fish probiotic Phaeobacter strain 27-4 and fish pathogenic Vibrio in microalgae, rotifer, Artemia and first feeding turbot (Psetta maxima) larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prol, M.J.; Bruhn, Jesper Bartholin; Pintado, J.

    2009-01-01

    To develop a SYBR Green quantitative real-time PCR protocol enabling detection and quantification of a fish probiotic and two turbot pathogenic Vibrio spp. in microcosms. Phaeobacter 27-4, Vibrio anguillarum 90-11-287 and Vibrio splendidus DMC-1 were quantified as pure and mixed cultures and in p...

  2. Intragenomic Variation Among 16S rRNA Copies in Vibrio - Significance of Lifestyle

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsholm, Line Strand

    2017-01-01

    Intragenomic heterogeneity among 16S rRNA gene copies has been found in several species of bacteria. In this thesis, the presence of different 16S rRNA gene copies and the differences in the relative abundance of these 16S rRNA gene variants for different lifestyles was examined for three species of Vibrio. The Vibrio strains used were Vibrio anguillarum strain HI610, Vibrio campbellii strain BB120 and the Vibrio sp. strain RD5-30. The methods used to examine this were denaturing gradient g...

  3. Bacteriocin production by indigenous marine catfish associated Vibrio spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zai, Arsalan Saeed; Ahmad, Samia; Rasool, Sheikh Ajaz

    2009-04-01

    Fifty strains of genus Vibrio were isolated (identified) from healthy and diseased marine catfish(es). The isolates were screened for bacteriocin (vibriocin) production. About 32% isolates were found bacteriocin producers. The best producer was identified as Vibrio anguillarum AVP10. The maximum production of vibriocin AVP10 was manifested at 29 degrees C at pH 7, after 18-20 h of incubation. Vibriocin activity was enhanced in the presence of citrate-phosphate buffer. The vibriocin AVP10 withstands autoclaving temperature and showed activity even after prolonged chloroform treatment. Proteolytic enzymes inhibited its activity, while lipolytic enzyme had no effect. It was found bioactive only against intrageneric bacterial strains. Mode of action of vibriocin AVP10 varies with the indicator (sensitive) culture used i.e. bactericidal effects was exerted against V. anguillarum AVS9 while bacteriostatic effect was shown against entero-toxigenic E. coli.

  4. Protective yeasts control V. anguillarum pathogenicity and modulate the innate immune response of challenged zebrafish (Danio rerio larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Stefano Caruffo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated mechanisms involved in the protection of zebrafish (Danio rerio larvae by two probiotic candidate yeasts, Debaryomyces hansenii 97 (Dh97 and Yarrowia lypolitica 242 (Yl242, against a Vibrio anguillarum challenge. We determined the effect of different yeast concentrations (104 – 107 UFC/mL to: i protect larvae from the challenge, ii reduce the in vivo pathogen concentration and iii modulate the innate immune response of the host. To evaluate the role of zebrafish microbiota in protection, the experiments were performed in conventionally raised and germ-free larvae. In vitro co-aggregation assays were performed to determine a direct yeast-pathogen interaction. Results showed that both yeasts significantly increased the survival rate of conventionally raised larvae challenged with V. anguillarum. The concentration of yeasts in larvae tended to increase with yeast inoculum, which was more pronounced for Dh97. Better protection was observed with Dh97 at a concentration of 106 CFU/mL compared to 104 CFU/mL. In germ-free conditions V. anguillarum reached higher concentrations in larvae and provoked significantly more mortality than in conventional conditions, revealing the protective role of the host microbiota. Interestingly, yeasts were equally (Dh97 or more effective (Yl242 in protecting germ-free than conventionally-raised larvae, showing that protection can be exerted only by yeasts and is not necessarily related to modulation of the host microbiota. Although none of the yeasts co-aggregated with V. anguillarum, they were able to reduce its proliferation in conventionally raised larvae, reduce initial pathogen concentration in germ-free larvae and prevent the upregulation of key components of the inflammatory/anti-inflammatory response (il1b, tnfa, c3, mpx and il10, respectively. These results show that protection by yeasts of zebrafish larvae challenged with V. anguillarum relates to an in vivo anti-pathogen effect, the

  5. Vibrios associated with mortality in cultured plaice Pleuronectes platessa fry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Austin, B.; Austin, D.A.

    1999-01-01

    Fifty two bacterial strains, identified as Vibrio spp., were isolated from diseased plaice fry. The most numerous group comprised V. anguillarum (26/52), of which 3 isolates belonged to serogroup O2a, 16 corresponded to serogroup O18, and 7 isolates were nontypeable. All serogroup O18 isolates had....... fluvialis isolates had identical ribotype patterns, indicating the presence of a single clone. The last 5 isolates belonged to 2 different, unidentified Vibrio species (n=2 and 3, respectively). Although all isolates were recovered from diseased plaice fry, their exact role as pathogens for the fry......, the strains may have been more virulent upon primary isolation from the plaice fry....

  6. IDENTIFICATION OF VIBRIO BACTERIA CAUSED VIBRIOSIS ON FRESHWATER PRAWN LARVAE (Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Wayan Desi Bintari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man farming in Bali needs to be supported by the provisionof healthy prawn larvae. Vibriosis infection can be a limiting factor on larval production system which cause highmass mortality in larvae. Therefore a bacteriological study is very important to identify of Vibrio species whichcan cause vibriosis in freshwater prawn larvae. Screening of Vibrio bacteria carried on larval rearing water atUPT Pembenihan Dinas Kelautan dan Perikanan Provinsi Bali which located in Pesinggahan Village, Klungkung.During study, 5 Vibrio isolates can be characterized (VSP01, VSP02, VSP04, VSP05 and VSP06 which wereisolated as dominant Vibrio bacteria in larval rearing water. Koch postulate test results showed that VSP06 cancause vibriosis in freshwater prawn larvae. The result of identification by BBL Cystal™ Identification Systems andidentification book Bergeys’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology Ninth Edition (Holt et al., 1994, BL6 wasidentified as Vibrio anguillarum.

  7. IDENTIFICATION OF VIBRIO BACTERIA CAUSED VIBRIOSIS ON FRESHWATER PRAWN LARVAE (Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Wayan Desi Bintari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man farming in Bali needs to be supported by the provisionof healthy prawn larvae. Vibriosis infection can be a limiting factor on larval production system which cause highmass mortality in larvae. Therefore a bacteriological study is very important to identify of Vibrio species whichcan cause vibriosis in freshwater prawn larvae. Screening of Vibrio bacteria carried on larval rearing water atUPT Pembenihan Dinas Kelautan dan Perikanan Provinsi Bali which located in Pesinggahan Village, Klungkung.During study, 5 Vibrio isolates can be characterized (VSP01, VSP02, VSP04, VSP05 and VSP06 which wereisolated as dominant Vibrio bacteria in larval rearing water. Koch postulate test results showed that VSP06 cancause vibriosis in freshwater prawn larvae. The result of identification by BBL Cystal™ Identification Systems andidentification book Bergeys’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology Ninth Edition (Holt et al., 1994, BL6 wasidentified as Vibrio anguillarum.

  8. [Isolation and physiological characteristics of lytic bacteriophages of Vibrio].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jia; Ye, Dezan; Kochel, Agnes; Jost, Guenter

    2008-06-01

    Vibrio is a widely distributed pathogen in aquatic environment. Our study aimed at searching for possible biological control of pathogenic vibrio. We collected natural samples from coast and lakes in spring of 2006 and autumn of 2005; and isolated lytic phages by double-layer plate method. We identified the hosts with 16S rDNA sequencing and observed their morphology with phages under electron microscopy. We also tested the physiological characteristics of phages. We isolated 96 bacteria and 2 phages (Vibio/XM/P1, Vibio/XM/P2). Their hosts belonged to Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio anguillarum. Both phages were hexagonal-headed and one with a tail. Physiological tests show that their optimum grow condition were pH7, 25 degrees C and pH8, 30 degrees C. Both phages were sensitive to high temperature and UV light. Vibrio/XM/P2 was sensitive to aether and chloroform whereas Vibrio/XM/P1 not.

  9. GroEL PCR- RFLP - An efficient tool to discriminate closely related pathogenic Vibrio species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvester, Reshma; Alexander, Deborah; Antony, Ally C; Hatha, Mohamed

    2017-04-01

    Vibrio sp. are autochthonous to marine and estuarine waters. Several species of Vibrio are pathogens. It is of utmost importance to detect and discriminate the Vibrio sp. that are often involved in food and water borne infections. Since 16S rRNA based identification has limited utility in differentiating the closely related pathogenic species from non pathogenic species, we have evaluated the discriminatory power of groEL PCR-RFLP for identification of closely related Vibrio sp. Accordingly, in the current study, the efficiency of groEL PCR- RFLP for detection and accurate differentiation of known pathogens among Vibrio sp. such as V. cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, V. mimicus, V. fluvialis, V. alginolyticus, V. anguillarum was evaluated. PCR amplified groEL gene fragment of each Vibrio sp. was digested separately using 5 restriction enzymes viz. Hha1, Rsa1, Alu1, Dde1 and Mbo1. The accuracy of the method was further validated by insilico restriction analysis of multiple strains of each species using NEBcutter. The method proved to be efficient for detection and differentiation of Vibrio species under study. Phylogenetic analysis also revealed groEL gene to be a better phylogenetic marker for Vibrio compared to 16S rRNA. Hence, the method can be employed for accurate detection of Vibrio sp. including the closely related species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Heterosporis anguillarum infection in a garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, B; Graner, I; Csokai, J

    2014-01-01

    A captive garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis) showed marked circumferential thickening of the body wall due to a chronic fibrous to necrotizing inflammatory reaction extending from the serosa to the skin. The lesions were associated with the presence of intra- and extracellular microsporidian organisms. With ultrastructural and molecular analyses the microsporidia were identified as Heterosporis anguillarum. This organism causes a morphologically similar disease in the Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica), but this is the first time it has been identified in an infected reptile. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. AI-2 quorum-sensing inhibitors affect the starvation response and reduce virulence in several Vibrio species, most likely by interfering with LuxPQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackman, Gilles; Celen, Shari; Baruah, Kartik; Bossier, Peter; Van Calenbergh, Serge; Nelis, Hans J; Coenye, Tom

    2009-12-01

    The increase of disease outbreaks caused by Vibrio species in aquatic organisms as well as in humans, together with the emergence of antibiotic resistance in Vibrio species, has led to a growing interest in alternative disease control measures. Quorum sensing (QS) is a mechanism for regulating microbial gene expression in a cell density-dependent way. While there is good evidence for the involvement of auto-inducer 2 (AI-2)-based interspecies QS in the control of virulence in multiple Vibrio species, only few inhibitors of this system are known. From the screening of a small panel of nucleoside analogues for their ability to disturb AI-2-based QS, an adenosine derivative with a p-methoxyphenylpropionamide moiety at C-3' emerged as a promising hit. Its mechanism of inhibition was elucidated by measuring the effect on bioluminescence in a series of Vibrio harveyi AI-2 QS mutants. Our results indicate that this compound, as well as a truncated analogue lacking the adenine base, block AI-2-based QS without interfering with bacterial growth. The active compounds affected neither the bioluminescence system as such nor the production of AI-2, but most likely interfered with the signal transduction pathway at the level of LuxPQ in V. harveyi. The most active nucleoside analogue (designated LMC-21) was found to reduce the Vibrio species starvation response, to affect biofilm formation in Vibrio anguillarum, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae, to reduce pigment and protease production in V. anguillarum, and to protect gnotobiotic Artemia from V. harveyi-induced mortality.

  12. Identification of the target DNA sequence and characterization of DNA binding features of HlyU, and suggestion of a redox switch for hlyA expression in the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae from in silico studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Debadrita; Pal, Aritrika; Chakravarty, Devlina; Chakrabarti, Pinak

    2015-02-18

    HlyU, a transcriptional regulator common in many Vibrio species, activates the hemolysin gene hlyA in Vibrio cholerae, the rtxA1 operon in Vibrio vulnificus and the genes of plp-vah1 and rtxACHBDE gene clusters in Vibrio anguillarum. The protein is also proposed to be a potential global virulence regulator for V. cholerae and V. vulnificus. Mechanisms of gene control by HlyU in V. vulnificus and V. anguillarum are reported. However, detailed elucidation of the interaction of HlyU in V. cholerae with its target DNA at the molecular level is not available. Here we report a 17-bp imperfect palindrome sequence, 5'-TAATTCAGACTAAATTA-3', 173 bp upstream of hlyA promoter, as the binding site of HlyU. This winged helix-turn-helix protein binds necessarily as a dimer with the recognition helices contacting the major grooves and the β-sheet wings, the minor grooves. Such interactions enhance hlyA promoter activity in vivo. Mutations affecting dimerization as well as those in the DNA-protein interface hamper DNA binding and transcription regulation. Molecular dynamic simulations show hydrogen bonding patterns involving residues at the mutation sites and confirmed their importance in DNA binding. On binding to HlyU, DNA deviates by ∼68º from linearity. Dynamics also suggest a possible redox control in HlyU. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  13. Multipurpose assessment for the quantification of Vibrio spp. and total bacteria in fish and seawater using multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Yeun; Lee, Jung-Lim

    2014-10-01

    This study describes the first multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assay developed, as a multipurpose assessment, for the simultaneous quantification of total bacteria and three Vibrio spp. (V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus and V. anguillarum) in fish and seawater. The consumption of raw finfish as sushi or sashimi has been increasing the chance of Vibrio outbreaks in consumers. Freshness and quality of fishery products also depend on the total bacterial populations present. The detection sensitivity of the specific targets for the multiplex assay was 1 CFU mL⁻¹ in pure culture and seawater, and 10 CFU g⁻¹ in fish. While total bacterial counts by the multiplex assay were similar to those obtained by cultural methods, the levels of Vibrio detected by the multiplex assay were generally higher than by cultural methods of the same populations. Among the natural samples without Vibrio spp. inoculation, eight out of 10 seawater and three out of 20 fish samples were determined to contain Vibrio spp. Our data demonstrate that this multiplex assay could be useful for the rapid detection and quantification of Vibrio spp. and total bacteria as a multipurpose tool for surveillance of fish and water quality as well as diagnostic method. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by JohnWiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Structure-activity relationship of cinnamaldehyde analogs as inhibitors of AI-2 based quorum sensing and their effect on virulence of Vibrio spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackman, Gilles; Celen, Shari; Hillaert, Ulrik; Van Calenbergh, Serge; Cos, Paul; Maes, Louis; Nelis, Hans J; Coenye, Tom

    2011-01-13

    Many bacteria, including Vibrio spp., regulate virulence gene expression in a cell-density dependent way through a communication process termed quorum sensing (QS). Hence, interfering with QS could be a valuable novel antipathogenic strategy. Cinnamaldehyde has previously been shown to inhibit QS-regulated virulence by decreasing the DNA-binding ability of the QS response regulator LuxR. However, little is known about the structure-activity relationship of cinnamaldehyde analogs. By evaluating the QS inhibitory activity of a series of cinnamaldehyde analogs, structural elements critical for autoinducer-2 QS inhibition were identified. These include an α,β unsaturated acyl group capable of reacting as Michael acceptor connected to a hydrophobic moiety and a partially negative charge. The most active cinnamaldehyde analogs were found to affect the starvation response, biofilm formation, pigment production and protease production in Vibrio spp in vitro, while exhibiting low cytotoxicity. In addition, these compounds significantly increased the survival of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans infected with Vibrio anguillarum, Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio vulnificus. Several new and more active cinnamaldehyde analogs were discovered and they were shown to affect Vibrio spp. virulence factor production in vitro and in vivo. Although ligands for LuxR have not been identified so far, the nature of different cinnamaldehyde analogs and their effect on the DNA binding ability of LuxR suggest that these compounds act as LuxR-ligands.

  15. Structure-activity relationship of cinnamaldehyde analogs as inhibitors of AI-2 based quorum sensing and their effect on virulence of Vibrio spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Brackman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many bacteria, including Vibrio spp., regulate virulence gene expression in a cell-density dependent way through a communication process termed quorum sensing (QS. Hence, interfering with QS could be a valuable novel antipathogenic strategy. Cinnamaldehyde has previously been shown to inhibit QS-regulated virulence by decreasing the DNA-binding ability of the QS response regulator LuxR. However, little is known about the structure-activity relationship of cinnamaldehyde analogs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By evaluating the QS inhibitory activity of a series of cinnamaldehyde analogs, structural elements critical for autoinducer-2 QS inhibition were identified. These include an α,β unsaturated acyl group capable of reacting as Michael acceptor connected to a hydrophobic moiety and a partially negative charge. The most active cinnamaldehyde analogs were found to affect the starvation response, biofilm formation, pigment production and protease production in Vibrio spp in vitro, while exhibiting low cytotoxicity. In addition, these compounds significantly increased the survival of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans infected with Vibrio anguillarum, Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio vulnificus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Several new and more active cinnamaldehyde analogs were discovered and they were shown to affect Vibrio spp. virulence factor production in vitro and in vivo. Although ligands for LuxR have not been identified so far, the nature of different cinnamaldehyde analogs and their effect on the DNA binding ability of LuxR suggest that these compounds act as LuxR-ligands.

  16. Multipurpose assessment for the quantification of Vibrio spp. and total bacteria in fish and seawater using multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Yeun; Lee, Jung-Lim

    2014-01-01

    Background This study describes the first multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assay developed, as a multipurpose assessment, for the simultaneous quantification of total bacteria and three Vibrio spp. (V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus and V. anguillarum) in fish and seawater. The consumption of raw finfish as sushi or sashimi has been increasing the chance of Vibrio outbreaks in consumers. Freshness and quality of fishery products also depend on the total bacterial populations present. Results The detection sensitivity of the specific targets for the multiplex assay was 1 CFU mL−1 in pure culture and seawater, and 10 CFU g−1 in fish. While total bacterial counts by the multiplex assay were similar to those obtained by cultural methods, the levels of Vibrio detected by the multiplex assay were generally higher than by cultural methods of the same populations. Among the natural samples without Vibrio spp. inoculation, eight out of 10 seawater and three out of 20 fish samples were determined to contain Vibrio spp. Conclusion Our data demonstrate that this multiplex assay could be useful for the rapid detection and quantification of Vibrio spp. and total bacteria as a multipurpose tool for surveillance of fish and water quality as well as diagnostic method. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by JohnWiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:24752974

  17. Halophilic Vibrio species from seafish in Senegal.

    OpenAIRE

    Schandevyl, P; Van Dyck, E; Piot, P

    1984-01-01

    Sucrose-positive and sucrose-negative halophilic Vibrio species at counts of up to 10(7)/100 g were isolated from muscles tissue in 27 and 43%, respectively, of 128 seafish from coastal waters in Senegal. Vibrio parahaemolyticus, including 21% urease-positive strains, was the most common isolate, followed by Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio damsela, and Vibrio fluvialis.

  18. Bacterial Associations: Antagonism to Symbiosis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, S.

    , such as endosymbiosis and antagonism. Commensalism ?Commensalism? was derived from the Latin term ?com mensa? meaning ?sharing a table?. In Commensalism, one-organism benefits and the other is neither harmed nor helped. Commensalism represents a simple type of positive...

  19. Differential Medium for Vibrio cholerae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrank, Gordon D.; Stager, Charles E.; Verwey, W. F.

    1973-01-01

    A differential medium designed for rapid presumptive identification of Vibrio cholerae was described and shown to be useful for enumeration of viable cholera vibrios in the presence of other intestinal bacteria. Images PMID:4764406

  20. Evolutionary inevitability of sexual antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connallon, Tim; Clark, Andrew G

    2014-02-07

    Sexual antagonism, whereby mutations are favourable in one sex and disfavourable in the other, is common in natural populations, yet the root causes of sexual antagonism are rarely considered in evolutionary theories of adaptation. Here, we explore the evolutionary consequences of sex-differential selection and genotype-by-sex interactions for adaptation in species with separate sexes. We show that sexual antagonism emerges naturally from sex differences in the direction of selection on phenotypes expressed by both sexes or from sex-by-genotype interactions affecting the expression of such phenotypes. Moreover, modest sex differences in selection or genotype-by-sex effects profoundly influence the long-term evolutionary trajectories of populations with separate sexes, as these conditions trigger the evolution of strong sexual antagonism as a by-product of adaptively driven evolutionary change. The theory demonstrates that sexual antagonism is an inescapable by-product of adaptation in species with separate sexes, whether or not selection favours evolutionary divergence between males and females.

  1. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model to visualize infection dynamics of Vibrio anguillarum following intraperitoneal injection and bath exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jacob Günther; Korbut, Rozalia; Ohtani, Maki

    2017-01-01

    Vaccine development is important for sustainable fish farming and novel vaccines need to be efficacy tested before release to the market. Challenge of fish with the pathogen towards which the vaccine has been produced can be conducted either by external exposure though bathing or cohabitation, or...

  2. Comparison of immune response of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, after multiple and single infections with WSSV and Vibrio anguillarum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our previous study demonstrated that Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) infected by multiple pathogens showed higher mortality and death occurred more quickly than those infected by a single pathogen [1]. For better understanding the defense mechanism against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV...

  3. Genomic taxonomy of vibrios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Cristiane C.; Vicente, Ana Carolina P.; Souza, Rangel C.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vibrio taxonomy has been based on a polyphasic approach. In this study, we retrieve useful taxonomic information (i.e. data that can be used to distinguish different taxonomic levels, such as species and genera) from 32 genome sequences of different vibrio species. We use a variety...... > 95% DNA identity in MLSA and supertree analysis, > 96% AAI, 61% proteome identity. Strains of the same species and species of the same genus will form monophyletic groups on the basis of MLSA and supertree. CONCLUSION: The combination of different......-based server. This novel approach to microbial systematics will result in a tremendous advance concerning biodiversity discovery, description, and understanding....

  4. Genomic taxonomy of vibrios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iida Tetsuya

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vibrio taxonomy has been based on a polyphasic approach. In this study, we retrieve useful taxonomic information (i.e. data that can be used to distinguish different taxonomic levels, such as species and genera from 32 genome sequences of different vibrio species. We use a variety of tools to explore the taxonomic relationship between the sequenced genomes, including Multilocus Sequence Analysis (MLSA, supertrees, Average Amino Acid Identity (AAI, genomic signatures, and Genome BLAST atlases. Our aim is to analyse the usefulness of these tools for species identification in vibrios. Results We have generated four new genome sequences of three Vibrio species, i.e., V. alginolyticus 40B, V. harveyi-like 1DA3, and V. mimicus strains VM573 and VM603, and present a broad analyses of these genomes along with other sequenced Vibrio species. The genome atlas and pangenome plots provide a tantalizing image of the genomic differences that occur between closely related sister species, e.g. V. cholerae and V. mimicus. The vibrio pangenome contains around 26504 genes. The V. cholerae core genome and pangenome consist of 1520 and 6923 genes, respectively. Pangenomes might allow different strains of V. cholerae to occupy different niches. MLSA and supertree analyses resulted in a similar phylogenetic picture, with a clear distinction of four groups (Vibrio core group, V. cholerae-V. mimicus, Aliivibrio spp., and Photobacterium spp.. A Vibrio species is defined as a group of strains that share > 95% DNA identity in MLSA and supertree analysis, > 96% AAI, ≤ 10 genome signature dissimilarity, and > 61% proteome identity. Strains of the same species and species of the same genus will form monophyletic groups on the basis of MLSA and supertree. Conclusion The combination of different analytical and bioinformatics tools will enable the most accurate species identification through genomic computational analysis. This endeavour will culminate in

  5. Nigribactin, a Novel Siderophore from Vibrio nigripulchritudo, Modulates Staphylococcus aureus Virulence Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lone Gram

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a serious human pathogen that employs a number of virulence factors as part of its pathogenesis. The purpose of the present study was to explore marine bacteria as a source of compounds that modulate virulence gene expression in S. aureus. During the global marine Galathea 3 expedition, a strain collection was established comprising bacteria that express antimicrobial activity against Vibrio anguillarum and/or Staphylococcus aureus. Within this collection we searched colony material, culture supernatants, and cell extracts for virulence modulating activity showing that 68 out of 83 marine bacteria (affiliated with the Vibrionaceae and Pseudoalteromonas sp. influenced expression of S. aureus hla encoding α-hemolysin toxin and/or spa encoding Protein A. The isolate that upon initial screening showed the highest degree of interference (crude ethyl acetate extract was a Vibrio nigripulchritudo. Extraction, purification and structural elucidation revealed a novel siderophore, designated nigribactin, which induces spa transcription. The effect of nigribactin on spa expression is likely to be independent from its siderophore activity, as another potent siderophore, enterobactin, failed to influence S. aureus virulence gene expression. This study shows that marine microorganisms produce compounds with potential use in therapeutic strategies targeting virulence rather than viability of human pathogens.

  6. Evidence for the role of horizontal transfer in generating pVT1, a large mosaic conjugative plasmid from the clam pathogen, Vibrio tapetis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaël Erauso

    Full Text Available The marine bacterium Vibrio tapetis is the causative agent of the brown ring disease, which affects the clam Ruditapes philippinarum and causes heavy economic losses in North of Europe and in Eastern Asia. Further characterization of V. tapetis isolates showed that all the investigated strains harbored at least one large plasmid. We determined the sequence of the 82,266 bp plasmid pVT1 from the CECT4600(T reference strain and analyzed its genetic content. pVT1 is a mosaic plasmid closely related to several conjugative plasmids isolated from Vibrio vulnificus strains and was shown to be itself conjugative in Vibrios. In addition, it contains DNA regions that have similarity with several other plasmids from marine bacteria (Vibrio sp., Shewanella sp., Listonella anguillarum and Photobacterium profundum. pVT1 contains a number of mobile elements, including twelve Insertion Sequences or inactivated IS genes and an RS1 phage element related to the CTXphi phage of V. cholerae. The genetic organization of pVT1 underscores an important role of horizontal gene transfer through conjugative plasmid shuffling and transposition events in the acquisition of new genetic resources and in generating the pVT1 modular organization. In addition, pVT1 presents a copy number of 9, relatively high for a conjugative plasmid, and appears to belong to a new type of replicon, which may be specific to Vibrionaceae and Shewanelleacae.

  7. Vibrio chromosome-specific families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukjancenko, Oksana; Ussery, David

    2014-01-01

    We have compared chromosome-specific genes in a set of 18 finished Vibrio genomes, and, in addition, also calculated the pan- and core-genomes from a data set of more than 250 draft Vibrio genome sequences. These genomes come from 9 known species and 2 unknown species. Within the finished...

  8. Multiplex PCR for detection of the Vibrio genus and five pathogenic Vibrio species with primer sets designed using comparative genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Joong; Ryu, Ji-Oh; Lee, Shin-Young; Kim, Ei-Seul; Kim, Hae-Yeong

    2015-10-26

    The genus Vibrio is clinically significant and major pathogenic Vibrio species causing human Vibrio infections are V. cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, V. alginolyticus and V. mimicus. In this study, we screened for novel genetic markers using comparative genomics and developed a Vibrio multiplex PCR for the reliable diagnosis of the Vibrio genus and the associated major pathogenic Vibrio species. A total of 30 Vibrio genome sequences were subjected to comparative genomics, and specific genes of the Vibrio genus and five major pathogenic Vibrio species were screened. The designed primer sets from the screened genes were evaluated by single PCR using DNAs from various Vibrio spp. and other non-Vibrio bacterial strains. A sextuplet multiplex PCR using six primer sets was developed to enable detection of the Vibrio genus and five pathogenic Vibrio species. The designed primer sets from the screened genes yielded specific diagnostic results for target the Vibrio genus and Vibrio species. The specificity of the developed multiplex PCR was confirmed with various Vibrio and non-Vibrio strains. This Vibrio multiplex PCR was evaluated using 117 Vibrio strains isolated from the south seashore areas in Korea and Vibrio isolates were identified as Vibrio spp., V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus and V. alginolyticus, demonstrating the specificity and discriminative ability of the assay towards Vibrio species. This novel multiplex PCR method could provide reliable and informative identification of the Vibrio genus and major pathogenic Vibrio species in the food safety industry and in early clinical treatment, thereby protecting humans against Vibrio infection.

  9. Methods for antagonizing glutamate neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, D W

    1990-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that glutamate-induced neuronal damage may contribute importantly to neuronal death in several neurological diseases, including cerebral hypoxia-ischemia. This review outlines a range of measures that might be used to protect neurons from such excitotoxic damage. The organizing thesis is a speculative consideration of glutamate neurotoxicity as a sequential three-stage process--induction, amplification, and expression--each perhaps specifically amenable to therapeutic interference. Overstimulation of glutamate receptors likely induces the intracellular accumulation of several substances, including Ca2+, Na+, inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate, and diacylglycerol. Blockade of this induction might be accomplished most easily by antagonizing postsynaptic glutamate receptors, but also might be accomplished by reducing glutamate release from presynaptic terminals, or improving glutamate clearance from synaptic clefts. Following induction, several steps may importantly amplify the resultant rise in intracellular free Ca2+, and promote the spread of excessive excitation to other circuit neurons. Protective strategies operative at this level might include blockade of additional Ca2+ influx, blockade of Ca2+ release from intracellular stores, and interference with the mechanisms coupling glutamate receptor stimulation to lasting enhancements of excitatory synaptic efficacy. Following amplification, toxic levels of intracellular free Ca2+ might trigger destructive cascades bearing direct responsibility for resultant neuronal degeneration--the expression of excitotoxicity. The most important cascades to block may be those related to the activation of catabolic enzymes, and the generation of free radicals. Broad consideration of possible methods for antagonizing glutamate neurotoxicity may be needed to develop therapies with the greatest efficacy, and least adverse consequences for brain function.

  10. Microbial Ecophysiology of Vibrio ruber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjaša Danevčič

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria use different adaptation strategies to survive environmental perturbations. In this minireview, adaptation strategies of new red-pigmented Vibrio ruber isolated from coastal environments to different environmental stresses (i.e. salinity, viscosity, UV light, mitomycin C, nutrient availability and temperature are reviewed. To cope with environmental stresses Vibrio ruber uses several different adaptive strategies. For example, lipid composition as well as phase behaviour are strongly dependent on salt concentration. Vibrio ruber membrane has no hydroxy fatty acids, but exceptionally high lysolipid content compared to other related Vibrio species. Inorganic nutrient uptake by bacteria is selective, depends on environmental conditions and varies several fold with environmental perturbations. Protein composition, carbon flow through the central metabolic pathways, energy generation as well as secondary metabolite production adapt readily to stress conditions. The activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase proved to be a good indicator of Vibrio ruber stress. Cells are able to modulate their local viscosity in response to variations of environmental viscosity. The bacterium harbours several viral genetic elements in its genome, which could be induced by mitomycin C. Environmental conditions during growth of bacteria have a significant effect on lysate carbon turnover. Secondary metabolite prodigiosin confers protection against UV in the environment, which adds to the known repertoire of prodigiosin ecophysiological functions. In conclusion, Vibrio ruber in its short acquaintance with the scientific community (less than ten years has proven to be an immensely valuable model system for ecophysiological studies of bacteria.

  11. Predatory bacteria as natural modulators of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus in seawater and oysters

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study shows that naturally occurring Vibrio predatory bacteria (VPB) exert a major role in controlling pathogenic vibrios in seawater and shellfish. The growth and persistence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp) and Vibrio vulnificus (Vv) were assessed in natural seawater and in the Eastern oyster...

  12. Antagonism of acetylcholine by adrenaline antagonists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benfey, B. G.; Grillo, S. A.

    1963-01-01

    Phenoxybenzamine antagonized the inhibitory action of acetylcholine on the guinea-pig isolated atrium. The antagonism was slow in onset, very slowly reversible, and could be overcome by increased concentrations of acetylcholine. In contrast, atropine inhibited the action of acetylcholine quickly, and the effect disappeared soon after withdrawal. The pA10 of phenoxybenzamine (2 hr of contact) was 6.8, and that of atropine (30 min of contact) was 8.4. In the presence of atropine phenoxybenzamine did not exert a slowly reversible antagonism, and the dose-ratio of acetylcholine returned to normal soon after withdrawal of both drugs. Phenoxybenzamine also antagonized acetylcholine in the guinea-pig isolated ileum, but with higher concentrations acetylcholine did not overcome the antagonism. The pA10 (60 min of contact) was 6.6. The pA10 of chlorpromazine in the atrium (2 hr of contact) and ileum (60 min of contact) was 5.9. Phentolamine, 2-diethylaminomethylbenzo-1,4-dioxan hydrochloride (883 F), and yohimbine antagonized acetylcholine in the atrium and ileum but required higher concentrations than chlorpromazine. PMID:13967429

  13. Multiplex PCR for detection of the Vibrio genus and five pathogenic Vibrio species with primer sets designed using comparative genomics

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyun-Joong; Ryu, Ji-Oh; Lee, Shin-Young; Kim, Ei-Seul; Kim, Hae-Yeong

    2015-01-01

    Background The genus Vibrio is clinically significant and major pathogenic Vibrio species causing human Vibrio infections are V. cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, V. alginolyticus and V. mimicus. In this study, we screened for novel genetic markers using comparative genomics and developed a Vibrio multiplex PCR for the reliable diagnosis of the Vibrio genus and the associated major pathogenic Vibrio species. Methods A total of 30 Vibrio genome sequences were subjected to comparati...

  14. Ethanolamine utilization in Vibrio alginolyticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Ethanolamine is used as an energy source by phylogenetically diverse bacteria including pathogens, by the concerted action of proteins from the eut-operon. Previous studies have revealed the presence of eutBC genes encoding ethanolamine-ammonia lyase, a key enzyme that breaks ethanolamine into acetaldehyde and ammonia, in about 100 bacterial genomes including members of gamma-proteobacteria. However, ethanolamine utilization has not been reported for any member of the Vibrio genus. Our comparative genomics study reveals the presence of genes that are involved in ethanolamine utilization in several Vibrio species. Using Vibrio alginolyticus as a model system we demonstrate that ethanolamine is better utilized as a nitrogen source than as a carbon source. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Dr. Lakshminarayan Iyer and Dr. Vivek Anantharaman (nominated by Dr. L Aravind). PMID:23234435

  15. Sensitivity of the vibrios to ultraviolet-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, S.K.; Chatterjee, S.N.

    1977-01-01

    The ultraviolet-inactivation kinetics of a number of strains of Vibrio cholerae (classical), Vibrio cholerae (el tor), NAG vibrios and Vibrio parahaemolyticus were investigated. Statistical analyses revealed significant differences between any two of the four types of vibrio in respect of their sensitivity to U.V. (author)

  16. Prevalence of Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the Maryland Coastal Bays

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pascuale, V. O.

    2016-02-01

    The bacterial family of Vibrionaceae is indigenous in the marine estuarine environments such as the Maryland Coastal Bays. Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus are both pathogenic bacteria. Understanding the distribution of Vibrio species is crucial because of the health concerns associated with the bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the overall abundance of bacteria with a focus on Vibrio species in the Maryland Coastal Bays. Seawater samples were collected from 10 different sites that differ with regard to water quality. The total bacteria count (TBC) was determined by two methods: Total plate count and Epifluorescence microscopy. The most-probable-number (MPN) methodology was used to estimate the population of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus. In addition to the bacteriological analysis, the environmental parameters of temperature and salinity were measured using YSI 6600 multiparameter meter. The average total bacteria count was 2.21 log CFU ml-1. Vibrio vulnificus comprised 5% of the total bacteria count while Vibrio parahaemolyticus comprised only 2% of the total bacteria count. Vibrio vulnificus ranged from 0.30 to 2.48 log MPN ml-1 at the sites tested. Lower Vibrio parahaemolyticus count was observed at the sites with a range of 0.30 to 1.97 log MPN ml-1. There was no significant correlation between the environmental parameters and the Vibrio spp. Since both Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus peak in the summer, there is a potential for a risk of wound infections and gastrointestinal illness based on this data.

  17. Zoonose Vibrio vulnificus: meldingsplicht raadzaam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, A.; Haenen, O.L.M.; Moller, L.

    2010-01-01

    Op de lijst van meldingsplichtige infectieziekten komen een aantal zoönosen voor, zoals pest, rabiës en leptospirose. De relatief onbekende zoönotische Vibrio vulnificus valt opmerkelijk genoeg niet onder de meldingsplichtige infectieziekten. Juist vanwege het zeer agressieve beloop van een

  18. Vibrio Parahaemolyticus: The Threat of Another Vibrio Acquiring Pandemic Potential

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramamurthy, T.; Nair, G.B.

    and pandemics mainly due to poor water supply and personal hygiene. The other important and most common seafood-borne halophilic Vibrio is V. parahaemolyticus. Since its discovery in 1953 (Fujino et al., 1953), many aspects on this pathogen were explored... that include 13 different O antigens and 71 different K antigens (Iguchi et al., 1995). Unlike V. cholerae, infection caused by V. parahaemolyticus has no relation with socioeconomic status, meteorological changes, quality of the water supply and general...

  19. Isolation and characterization of pathogenic Listonella anguillarum of diseased half-smooth tongue sole ( Cynoglossus semilaevis Günther)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaoqian; Zhou, Li; Zhan, Wenbin

    2008-08-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the cause of the acute mortality of half-smooth tongue sole Cynoglossus semilaevis Günther juveniles in a fish farm in Jimo, Shandong Province, China, in June 2006. Gross signs of the diseased tongue sole included several petechiae and ecchymoses on the body and fin necrosis and hemorrhagic lesion at the base of the fin. Bacteria were isolated from kidney, liver and hemorrhagic lesions of the diseased tongue sole. Among14 strains, SJ060621 was proved to be highly virulent to juvenile tongue sole with LD50 value of antibiotics tested, SJ060621 was sensitive to gentamicin and nitrofurantoin. It was identified as Listonella anguillarum with conventional plate and tube tests in combination with API 20E analysis. 16S rRNA gene and partial HSP60 gene sequenceing analysis revealed that the strain was highly homologous with L. anguillarum. Examination of the infected musculature by electron microscopy indicated numerous bacteria and lots of macrophages containing phagocytosed bacteria. Histopathological investigations revealed severe necrotic degenerative changes in the infected organs. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) was employed to detect the location of occurrence of bacteria, and bacteria were found in aggregations in the inflammatory areas in musculature.

  20. Phaeobacter inhibens as probiotic bacteria in non-axenic Artemia and algae cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grotkjær, Torben; Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel; D'Alvise, Paul

    2016-01-01

    was to determine if marine roseobacters in non-axenic systems were capable of antagonizing fish pathogenic vibrios. We added a controlled background microbiota of four bacterial strains to axenic Artemia and algae (Duniella) and these bacteria had a marginal but significant reducing effect on inoculated Vibrio......-axenic natural Artemia and algae (Tetraselmis) received from an aquaculture unit, Vibrio anguillarum grew to 107 CFU/ml but only reached 104 CFU/ml when P. inhibens was also added. P. inhibens was added at a concentration 106 CFU/ml in all systems and remained at this concentration at the end of the study...

  1. [Identification of Vibrio mimicus bacteriophages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaevskaia, N E; Kudriakova, T A; Avdeeva, E P; Makedonova, L D; Kachkina, G V

    2011-03-01

    Lysogeny was studied in Vibrio mimicus; the indicator V. cholerae El Tor strain was selected to identify phages. New V. mimicus phages were obtained and identified, which had a morphological similarity and an antigen affinity for morphological group I cholerae phages. Phage differentiation revealed that morphological group I V. mimicus phages showed certain differences manifested as their lytic activity against V. cholerae strain 1322-69 of serovar 37 while this property was absent in cholerae phages.

  2. Occurrences of pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus from Vellar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the predominant seafood pathogen associated with human gastroenteritis. Samples were collected from Vellar estuary, shrimp ponds and shrimp for characterization of V. parahaemolyticus. A total of 26 blue green centre (BG) Vibrio strains were isolated and characterized through biochemical ...

  3. Identification and mechanism of ABA receptor antagonism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melcher, Karsten; Xu, Yong; Ng, Ley-Moy; Zhou, X. Edward; Soon, Fen-Fen; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Suino-Powell, Kelly M; Kovach, Amanda; Tham, Fook S.; Cutler, Sean R.; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Xu, H. Eric (NU Sinapore); (Van Andel); (UCR)

    2010-11-11

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) functions through a family of fourteen PYR/PYL receptors, which were identified by resistance to pyrabactin, a synthetic inhibitor of seed germination. ABA activates these receptors to inhibit type 2C protein phosphatases, such as ABI1, yet it remains unclear whether these receptors can be antagonized. Here we demonstrate that pyrabactin is an agonist of PYR1 and PYL1 but is unexpectedly an antagonist of PYL2. Crystal structures of the PYL2-pyrabactin and PYL1-pyrabactin-ABI1 complexes reveal the mechanism responsible for receptor-selective activation and inhibition, which enables us to design mutations that convert PYL1 to a pyrabactin-inhibited receptor and PYL2 to a pyrabactin-activated receptor and to identify new pyrabactin-based ABA receptor agonists. Together, our results establish a new concept of ABA receptor antagonism, illustrate its underlying mechanisms and provide a rational framework for discovering novel ABA receptor ligands.

  4. Triclosan antagonizes fluconazole activity against Candida albicans.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Higgins, J

    2012-01-01

    Triclosan is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial compound commonly used in oral hygiene products. Investigation of its activity against Candida albicans showed that triclosan was fungicidal at concentrations of 16 mg\\/L. However, at subinhibitory concentrations (0.5-2 mg\\/L), triclosan antagonized the activity of fluconazole. Although triclosan induced CDR1 expression in C. albicans, antagonism was still observed in cdr1Δ and cdr2Δ strains. Triclosan did not affect fluconazole uptake or alter total membrane sterol content, but did induce the expression of FAS1 and FAS2, indicating that its mode of action may involve inhibition of fatty acid synthesis, as it does in prokaryotes. However, FAS2 mutants did not exhibit increased susceptibility to triclosan, and overexpression of both FAS1 and FAS2 alleles did not alter triclosan susceptibility. Unexpectedly, the antagonistic effect was specific for C. albicans under hypha-inducing conditions and was absent in the non-filamentous efg1Δ strain. This antagonism may be due to the membranotropic activity of triclosan and the unique composition of hyphal membranes.

  5. Triclosan Antagonizes Fluconazole Activity against Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, J.; Pinjon, E.; Oltean, H.N.; White, T.C.; Kelly, S.L.; Martel, C.M.; Sullivan, D.J.; Coleman, D.C.; Moran, G.P.

    2012-01-01

    Triclosan is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial compound commonly used in oral hygiene products. Investigation of its activity against Candida albicans showed that triclosan was fungicidal at concentrations of 16 mg/L. However, at subinhibitory concentrations (0.5-2 mg/L), triclosan antagonized the activity of fluconazole. Although triclosan induced CDR1 expression in C. albicans, antagonism was still observed in cdr1Δ and cdr2Δ strains. Triclosan did not affect fluconazole uptake or alter total membrane sterol content, but did induce the expression of FAS1 and FAS2, indicating that its mode of action may involve inhibition of fatty acid synthesis, as it does in prokaryotes. However, FAS2 mutants did not exhibit increased susceptibility to triclosan, and overexpression of both FAS1 and FAS2 alleles did not alter triclosan susceptibility. Unexpectedly, the antagonistic effect was specific for C. albicans under hypha-inducing conditions and was absent in the non-filamentous efg1Δ strain. This antagonism may be due to the membranotropic activity of triclosan and the unique composition of hyphal membranes. PMID:21972257

  6. Complete genome sequence of a giant Vibrio phage ValKK3 infecting Vibrio alginolyticus

    OpenAIRE

    Lal, Tamrin M.; Sano, Motohiko; Hatai, Kishio; Ransangan, Julian

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the complete sequence of a giant lytic marine myophage, Vibrio phage ValKK3 that is specific to Vibrio alginolyticus ATCC® 17749™. Vibrio phage ValKK3 was subjected to whole genome sequencing on MiSeq sequencing platform and annotated using Blast2Go. The complete sequence of ValKK3 genome was deposited in DBBJ/EMBL/GenBank under accession number KP671755.

  7. Complete genome sequence of a giant Vibrio phage ValKK3 infecting Vibrio alginolyticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamrin M. Lal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the complete sequence of a giant lytic marine myophage, Vibrio phage ValKK3 that is specific to Vibrio alginolyticus ATCC® 17749™. Vibrio phage ValKK3 was subjected to whole genome sequencing on MiSeq sequencing platform and annotated using Blast2Go. The complete sequence of ValKK3 genome was deposited in DBBJ/EMBL/GenBank under accession number KP671755.

  8. Antagonism correlates with metabolic similarity in diverse bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russel, Jakob; Røder, Henriette L; Madsen, Jonas S; Burmølle, Mette; Sørensen, Søren J

    2017-10-03

    In the Origin of Species , Charles R. Darwin [Darwin C (1859) On the Origin of Species ] proposed that the struggle for existence must be most intense among closely related species by means of their functional similarity. It has been hypothesized that this similarity, which results in resource competition, is the driver of the evolution of antagonism among bacteria. Consequently, antagonism should mostly be prevalent among phylogenetically and metabolically similar species. We tested the hypothesis by screening for antagonism among all possible pairwise interactions between 67 bacterial species from 8 different environments: 2,211 pairs of species and 4,422 interactions. We found a clear association between antagonism and phylogenetic distance, antagonism being most likely among closely related species. We determined two metabolic distances between our strains: one by scoring their growth on various natural carbon sources and the other by creating metabolic networks of predicted genomes. For both metabolic distances, we found that the probability of antagonism increased the more metabolically similar the strains were. Moreover, our results were not compounded by whether the antagonism was between sympatric or allopatric strains. Intriguingly, for each interaction the antagonizing strain was more likely to have a wider metabolic niche than the antagonized strain: that is, larger metabolic networks and growth on more carbon sources. This indicates an association between an antagonistic and a generalist strategy.

  9. Identification and mechanism of ABA receptor antagonism

    KAUST Repository

    Melcher, Karsten

    2010-08-22

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) functions through a family of fourteen PYR/PYL receptors, which were identified by resistance to pyrabactin, a synthetic inhibitor of seed germination. ABA activates these receptors to inhibit type 2C protein phosphatases, such as ABI1, yet it remains unclear whether these receptors can be antagonized. Here we demonstrate that pyrabactin is an agonist of PYR1 and PYL1 but is unexpectedly an antagonist of PYL2. Crystal structures of the PYL2-pyrabactin and PYL1-pyrabactin-ABI1 complexes reveal the mechanism responsible for receptor-selective activation and inhibition, which enables us to design mutations that convert PYL1 to a pyrabactin-inhibited receptor and PYL2 to a pyrabactin-activated receptor and to identify new pyrabactin-based ABA receptor agonists. Together, our results establish a new concept of ABA receptor antagonism, illustrate its underlying mechanisms and provide a rational framework for discovering novel ABA receptor ligands. © 2010 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Bacteriophage interactions with marine pathogenic Vibrios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalatzis, Panagiotis

    Incidents of Vibrio-associated diseases in marine aquaculture are increasingly reported on a global scale, incited also by the world’s rising temperature. Administration of antibiotics has been the most commonly applied remedy used for facing vibriosis outbreaks, giving rise to concerns about...... pathogens. The combinatory administration of virulent bacteriophages φSt2 and φGrn1, isolated against Vibrio alginolyticus significantly reduced the Vibrio load in cultures of Artemia salina live prey, decreasing subsequently the risk of a vibriosis outbreak in the marine hatchery. During infection...... to studying the interactions between marine pathogenic Vibrio and their corresponding bacteriophages, while discussing the potential and limitations of phage therapy application in the biological control of vibriosis....

  11. Bacteriophages in the control of pathogenic vibrios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Plaza

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibrios are common inhabitants of marine and estuarine environments. Some of them can be pathogenic to humans and/or marine animals using a broad repertory of virulence factors. Lately, several reports have indicated that the incidence of Vibrio infections in humans is rising and also in animals constitute a continuing threat for aquaculture. Moreover, the continuous use of antibiotics has been accompanied by an emergence of antibiotic resistance in Vibrio species, implying a necessity for efficient treatments. One promising alternative that emerges is the use of lytic bacteriophages; however, there are some drawbacks that should be overcome to make phage therapy a widely accepted method. In this work, we discuss about the major pathogenic Vibrio species and the progress, benefits and disadvantages that have been detected during the experimental use of bacteriophages to their control.

  12. Occurrences of pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus from Vellar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2013-04-03

    2001). Vibrio vulnificus as a health hazard for shrimp consumers. Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo. 43: 263- 266. Sambrook J, Fritsch EF, Maniatis T (1989). Molecular Cloning: A. Laboratory Manual, 2nd ed.

  13. Vibrio variabilis sp. nov. and Vibrio maritimus sp. nov., isolated from Palythoa caribaeorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimetto, Luciane A; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Moreira, Ana Paula B; Brocchi, Marcelo; Willems, Anne; De Vos, Paul; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2011-12-01

    Two novel vibrio isolates (R-40492(T) and R-40493(T)) originating from the zoanthid Palythoa caribaeorum in Brazil in 2005 were taxonomically characterized by means of a polyphasic approach comprising multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA), DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH), ΔT(m) analysis and phenotypic characterization. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that R-40492(T) and R-40493(T) fell within the genus Vibrio and were most closely related to each other with 99% similarity; similarities of these two novel isolates towards Vibrio neptunius LMG 20536(T), Vibrio coralliilyticus LMG 20984(T), Vibrio nigripulchritudo LMG 3896(T), Vibrio sinaloensis LMG 25238(T) and Vibrio brasiliensis LMG 20546(T) varied between 97.1 and 98.5%. DDH experiments showed that the two isolates had less than 15% relatedness to the phylogenetically most closely related Vibrio species. R-40492(T) and R-40493(T) had 55-57% relatedness to each other. The ΔT(m) between R-40492(T) and R-40493(T) was 6.12 °C. In addition, MLSA of concatenated sequences (16S rRNA, ftsZ, gyrB, recA, rpoA, topA, pyrH and mreB; 6035 bp in length) showed that the two novel isolates formed a separate branch with less than 92% concatenated gene sequence similarity towards known species of vibrios. Two novel species are proposed to accommodate these novel isolates, namely Vibrio variabilis sp. nov. (type strain, R-40492(T)=LMG 25438(T)=CAIM 1454(T)) and Vibrio maritimus sp. nov. (type strain, R-40493(T)=LMG 25439(T)=CAIM 1455(T)).

  14. Hatchery mortalities of larval oysters caused by Vibrio tubiashii and Vibrio coralliilyticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatchery production of bivalve shellfish has been hampered by the occasional presence of opportunistic pathogens, particularly Vibrio coralliilyticus and Vibrio tubiashii. The present study reports the results of several avenues of research to better define these pathogens and the roles they play i...

  15. Mortalities of eastern and pacific oyster larvae caused by the pathogens Vibrio coralliilyticus and Vibrio tubiashii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vibrio tubiashii is reported to be a bacterial pathogen of larval Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) and Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) and has been associated with major hatchery crashes, causing shortages in seed oysters for commercial shellfish producers. Another bacterium, Vibrio cora...

  16. Rapid proliferation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, and Vibrio cholerae during freshwater flash floods in French Mediterranean coastal lagoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Kevin; Hervio-Heath, Dominique; Mosser, Thomas; Rodier, Claire; Tournoud, Marie-George; Jumas-Bilak, Estelle; Colwell, Rita R; Monfort, Patrick

    2015-11-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, and Vibrio cholerae of the non-O1/non-O139 serotype are present in coastal lagoons of southern France. In these Mediterranean regions, the rivers have long low-flow periods followed by short-duration or flash floods during and after heavy intense rainstorms, particularly at the end of the summer and in autumn. These floods bring large volumes of freshwater into the lagoons, reducing their salinity. Water temperatures recorded during sampling (15 to 24°C) were favorable for the presence and multiplication of vibrios. In autumn 2011, before heavy rainfalls and flash floods, salinities ranged from 31.4 to 36.1‰ and concentrations of V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, and V. cholerae varied from 0 to 1.5 × 10(3) most probable number (MPN)/liter, 0.7 to 2.1 × 10(3) MPN/liter, and 0 to 93 MPN/liter, respectively. Following heavy rainstorms that generated severe flash flooding and heavy discharge of freshwater, salinity decreased, reaching 2.2 to 16.4‰ within 15 days, depending on the site, with a concomitant increase in Vibrio concentration to ca. 10(4) MPN/liter. The highest concentrations were reached with salinities between 10 and 20‰ for V. parahaemolyticus, 10 and 15‰ for V. vulnificus, and 5 and 12‰ for V. cholerae. Thus, an abrupt decrease in salinity caused by heavy rainfall and major flooding favored growth of human-pathogenic Vibrio spp. and their proliferation in the Languedocian lagoons. Based on these results, it is recommended that temperature and salinity monitoring be done to predict the presence of these Vibrio spp. in shellfish-harvesting areas of the lagoons. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Agonism and antagonism at the insulin receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Louise; Hansen, Bo Falck; Jensen, Pia

    2012-01-01

    Insulin can trigger metabolic as well as mitogenic effects, the latter being pharmaceutically undesirable. An understanding of the structure/function relationships between insulin receptor (IR) binding and mitogenic/metabolic signalling would greatly facilitate the preclinical development of new...... insulin analogues. The occurrence of ligand agonism and antagonism is well described for G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and other receptors but in general, with the exception of antibodies, not for receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). In the case of the IR, no natural ligand or insulin analogue has been...... shown to exhibit antagonistic properties, with the exception of a crosslinked insulin dimer (B29-B'29). However, synthetic monomeric or dimeric peptides targeting sites 1 or 2 of the IR were shown to be either agonists or antagonists. We found here that the S961 peptide, previously described to be an IR...

  18. Forced Normalization: Antagonism Between Epilepsy and Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Yasuhiko; Itoh, Yasuhiko

    2017-05-01

    The antagonism between epilepsy and psychosis has been discussed for a long time. Landolt coined the term "forced normalization" in the 1950s to describe psychotic episodes associated with the remission of seizures and disappearance of epileptiform activity on electroencephalograms in individuals with epilepsy. Since then, neurologists and psychiatrists have been intrigued by this phenomenon. However, although collaborative clinical studies and basic experimental researches have been performed, the mechanism of forced normalization remains unknown. In this review article, we present a historical overview of the concept of forced normalization, and discuss potential pathogenic mechanisms and clinical diagnosis. We also discuss the role of dopamine, which appears to be a key factor in the mechanism of forced normalization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of in vitro Vibrio static activity of Shewanella algae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To conquer disease problem in shrimp industries, probiotic biocontrol is a well known remedy now. The antagonistic ability of separated isolates from different parts of juvenile Penaeus monodon were screened against shrimp Vibrio pathogens; Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio alginolyticus. The most antagonistic effect ...

  20. ToxR Antagonizes H-NS Regulation of Horizontally Acquired Genes to Drive Host Colonization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misha I Kazi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The virulence regulator ToxR initiates and coordinates gene expression needed by Vibrio cholerae to colonize the small intestine and cause disease. Despite its prominence in V. cholerae virulence, our understanding of the direct ToxR regulon is limited to four genes: toxT, ompT, ompU and ctxA. Here, we determine ToxR's genome-wide DNA-binding profile and demonstrate that ToxR is a global regulator of both progenitor genome-encoded genes and horizontally acquired islands that encode V. cholerae's major virulence factors and define pandemic lineages. We show that ToxR shares more than a third of its regulon with the histone-like nucleoid structuring protein H-NS, and antagonizes H-NS binding at shared binding locations. Importantly, we demonstrate that this regulatory interaction is the critical function of ToxR in V. cholerae colonization and biofilm formation. In the absence of H-NS, ToxR is no longer required for V. cholerae to colonize the infant mouse intestine or for robust biofilm formation. We further illustrate a dramatic difference in regulatory scope between ToxR and other prominent virulence regulators, despite similar predicted requirements for DNA binding. Our results suggest that factors in addition to primary DNA structure influence the ability of ToxR to recognize its target promoters.

  1. Effects of Global Warming on Vibrio Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezzulli, Luigi; Pezzati, Elisabetta; Brettar, Ingrid; Höfle, Manfred; Pruzzo, Carla

    2015-06-01

    Vibrio-related infections are increasing worldwide both in humans and aquatic animals. Rise in global sea surface temperature (SST), which is approximately 1 °C higher now than 140 years ago and is one of the primary physical impacts of global warming, has been linked to such increases. In this chapter, major known effects of increasing SST on the biology and ecology of vibrios are described. They include the effects on bacterial growth rate, both in the field and in laboratory, culturability, expression of pathogenicity traits, and interactions with aquatic organisms and abiotic surfaces. Special emphasis is given to the effect of ocean warming on Vibrio interactions with zooplankters, which represent one of the most important aquatic reservoirs for these bacteria. The reported findings highlight the biocomplexity of the interactions between vibrios and their natural environment in a climate change scenario, posing the need for interdisciplinary studies to properly understand the connection between ocean warming and persistence and spread of vibrios in sea waters and the epidemiology of the diseases they cause.

  2. Assessment of mixture toxicity of copper, cadmium, and phenanthrenequinone to the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenxi; Lampi, Mark A; Huang, Xiao-Dong; Gerhardt, Karen; Dixon, D George; Greenberg, Bruce M

    2009-04-01

    Transition metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are cocontaminants at many sites. Contaminants in mixtures are known to interact with biological systems in ways that can greatly alter the toxicity of individual compounds. The toxicities (individually and as mixtures) of copper (Cu), a redox-active metal; cadmium (Cd), a nonredox active metal; and phenanthrenequinone (PHQ), a redox-active oxygenated PAH, were examined using the bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri. We found that the cotoxicity of Cu/PHQ was dependent on the ratio of concentrations of each chemical in the mixture. Different interaction types (synergism, antagonism, and additivity) were observed with different combinations of these toxicants. The interaction types changed from antagonism at a low Cu to PHQ ratio (1:4), to additive at an intermediate Cu to PHQ ratio (2:3), to synergistic at higher Cu to PHQ ratios (3:2 and 4:1). In contrast to Cu/PHQ mixtures, the cotoxicity of Cd/PHQ did not change at different mixture ratios and was found for the most part to be additive. For the individual chemicals and their mixtures, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was observed in V. fischeri, suggesting that individual and mixture toxicity of Cu, Cd, and PHQ to V. fischeri involves ROS-related mechanisms. This study shows that mixture ratios can alter individual chemical toxicity, and should be taken into account in risk assessment. Copyright 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Bacteriophages in the control of pathogenic vibrios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plaza, Nicolás; Castillo Bermúdez, Daniel Elías; Perez-Reytor, Diliana

    2018-01-01

    constitute a continuing threat for aquaculture. Moreover, the continuous use of antibiotics has been accompanied by an emergence of antibiotic resistance in Vibrio species, implying a necessity for efficient treatments. One promising alternative that emerges is the use of lytic bacteriophages; however......, there are some drawbacks that should be overcome to make phage therapy a widely accepted method. In this work, we discuss about the major pathogenic Vibrio species and the progress, benefits and disadvantages that have been detected during the experimental use of bacteriophages to their control....

  4. A Strategy for Antagonizing Quorum Sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G Chen; L Swem; D Swem; D Stauff; C OLoughlin; P Jeffrey; B Bassler; F Hughson

    2011-12-31

    Quorum-sensing bacteria communicate via small molecules called autoinducers to coordinate collective behaviors. Because quorum sensing controls virulence factor expression in many clinically relevant pathogens, membrane-permeable quorum sensing antagonists that prevent population-wide expression of virulence genes offer a potential route to novel antibacterial therapeutics. Here, we report a strategy for inhibiting quorum-sensing receptors of the widespread LuxR family. Structure-function studies with natural and synthetic ligands demonstrate that the dimeric LuxR-type transcription factor CviR from Chromobacterium violaceum is potently antagonized by molecules that bind in place of the native acylated homoserine lactone autoinducer, provided that they stabilize a closed conformation. In such conformations, each of the two DNA-binding domains interacts with the ligand-binding domain of the opposing monomer. Consequently, the DNA-binding helices are held apart by {approx}60 {angstrom}, twice the {approx}30 {angstrom} separation required for operator binding. This approach may represent a general strategy for the inhibition of multidomain proteins.

  5. Vibrio ecology - Identifying Environmental Determinants Favorable for the Presence and Transmission of Pathogenic Vibrios

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In a tri-coastal collaborative study, the population densities of vibrios are being determined in the Mississippi Sound, Puget Sound, Chesapeake Bay, and Timbalier...

  6. Vibrio population structure - Genetic and population structure analysis of clinical and environmental Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp) is a marine bacterium capable of causing severe gastroenteritis in humans, usually through the consumption of raw shellfish. Before...

  7. The polymorphism of chicken-type lysozyme gene in Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and its association with resistance/susceptibility to Listonella anguillarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinxiang; Zhou, Nayu; Fu, Ruixue; Cao, Dandan; Si, Yu; Li, Aoyun; Zhao, Haitao; Zhang, Quanqi; Yu, Haiyang

    2017-07-01

    Lysozyme is a crucially spread hydrolase in organisms that can defend against bacterial infection in innate immunity. In this study, we successfully sequenced the coding region of chicken-type lysozyme gene (PoLysC) in Paralichthys olivaceus and identified nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We then amplified the 2500 bp promoter region of lysozyme and identified the eight sites of polymorphisms. All SNPs were genotyped between susceptible and resistance groups after Listonella anguillarum challenge. One of these SNP sites in the codon of PoLysC was genotyped and determined to be a significant marker by analyzing its distribution in the susceptible and resistant groups. As a nonsynonymous mutation, the frequency of 140G/C genotype in the resistant group was higher (67.74%) than that in the susceptible group (32.26%). The linkage between SNP140 and polymorphisms in the promoter region was also studied. Results revealed that the frequency of haplotype CC -536 /CC -1200 /GG 140 in the resistance group was significantly higher than that in the susceptible group. The quantitative expression of lysozyme gene in the resistant group was also higher than that in the susceptible group. This finding indicated that the linkage between polymorphism -536 and -1200 sites in promoter and SNP140 in codon sequence was associated with the resistance of P. olivaceus to L. anguillarum. All these results suggest that the mutations in promoter and coding region were related to changes in PoLysC for resisting L. anguillarum. The haplotype CC -536 /CC -1200 /GG 140 was a potential marker and can thus be applied to selective breeding for the disease resistance of P. olivaceus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Genomic evidence that Vibrio inhibens is a heterotypic synonym of Vibrio jasicida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanczyk, Yoshiko; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Urbanczyk, Henryk

    2016-08-01

    Vibrio inhibens is a marine bacterium species of the genus Vibrio (Vibrionaceae, Gammaproteobacteria). The species has been shown to be closely related to members of the genus Vibrio in the so-called Harveyi clade. The clade includes at least 11 closely related species with similar physiological and biochemical properties. Due to these similarities, species of the Harveyi clade are difficult to characterize taxonomically. Previously phenotypic and genotypic properties of the V. inhibens type strain were compared with six species of the Harveyi clade, resulting in the possibility that V. inhibens could be a synonym of a previously described species. In this study, the taxonomic status of V. inhibens was analyzed using genomic approaches. The whole-genome sequence of the type strain of V. inhibens, CECT 7692T, was obtained and analyzed. Calculations of average nucleotide identity with the blast algorithm (ANIb) showed that CECT 7692T has an ANIb of 97.5 % or higher to five strains of Vibrio. jasicida, including the type strain, but an ANIb lower than 93.5 % to other members of the Harveyi clade Vibrio. Phylogenetic analysis based on nucleotide sequences of 133 protein-coding genes showed a close evolutionary relationship of CECT 7692T to V. jasicida. Based on these results, Vibrio inhibens is proposed to be a later heterotypic synonym of V. jasicida.

  9. Organic metabolites produced by Vibrio parahaemolyticus strain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identification and action of several antibacterial metabolites produced by a fish pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus strain An3 from marine ecosystem of Goa has been demonstrated. Antibacterial activity of the crude cell extract of the test bacterium has been evaluated against indicator pathogenic bacterial strains such as ...

  10. PHAGE TYPING OF VIBRIO "EL TOR"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. ADIBFAR

    1973-07-01

    Full Text Available 33 Stools from 518 patients suspected of having cholera were examined. From 174 of these patients Vibrio EI Tor was isolated. PO of these strains belonged to phage type IV, 53 to phage type V and one strain was untypable. It is suggested that these strains originated from two different sources.

  11. AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERI EKSTRAK BUAH ADAS (Foeniculum vulgare, Mill PADA Vibrio harveyi DAN Vibrio alginolyticus Antibacterial Activity of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill Extract on Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio harveyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budianto Budianto

    2015-10-01

    Pada penelitian ini menggunakan ekstrak air dari buah adas untuk mengetahui aktivitas antibakteri terhadap Vibrio harveyi dan Vibrio alginolyticus dengan menggunakan metode uji Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC dan difusi cakram kertas. Hasil yang diperoleh pada uji MIC, konsentrasi terkecil untuk menghambat pertumbuhan adalah 0,060 g/ml, untuk kedua spesies bakteri. Variasi perlakuan pada uji cakram kertas yaitu konsentrasi A (0,065 g/ml, B (0,070 g/ml, C (0,075 g/ml, D (0,080 g/ml, E (0,085 g/ml, F (0,090 g/ml dan kontrol (0,000 g/ml, hasil yang diperoleh adalah konsentrasi 0,090 g/ml memiliki diameter zona hambat tertinggi sebesar 11,17 ± 0,5 mm (V. harveyi dan 12,53 ± 1,14 mm (V. alginolyticus, sehingga dapat disimpulkan bahwa buah adas (F. vulgare Mill memiliki peranan ekologi yang sangat penting sebagai bahan pengobatan alternatif dalam pengendalian penyebaran penyakit Vibriosis yang disebabkan oleh V. harveyi dan V. alginolyticus. Kata kunci: Foeniculum vulgare Mill, Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio alginolyticus, uji MIC dan difusi cakram kertas

  12. EFFECT OF AGGREGATION ON VIBRIO CHOLERAE INACTIVATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extensive research has shown that microorganisms exhibit increased resistance due to clumping, aggregation, particle association, or modification of antecedent growth conditions. During the course of investigating a major water-borne Vibrio cholerae outbreak in Peru, U.S. EPA inv...

  13. Antimicrobial susceptibilty of potentially pathogenic halophilic Vibrio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance is indispensable for empirical treatment of infections and in preventing the spread of antimicrobial resistant microorganisms. This study is aimed at determining the antibiotic susceptibility of potentially pathogenic halophylic Vibrio species isolated in Lagos, Nigeria. Susceptibility ...

  14. Comparison of classifications of aptamers against Vibrio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a novel method to detect the pathogen Vibrio alginolyticus, 45 aptamers were previously selected and tested. In order to better understand the properties of these aptamers, it was essential to classify these aptamers based on appropriate criteria. The primary structure of 45 aptamers against V. alginolyticus was analyzed ...

  15. Isolation of lytic bacteriophage against Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crothers-Stomps, C; Høj, L; Bourne, D G; Hall, M R; Owens, L

    2010-05-01

    The isolation of lytic bacteriophage of Vibrio harveyi with potential for phage therapy of bacterial pathogens of phyllosoma larvae from the tropical rock lobster Panulirus ornatus. Water samples from discharge channels and grow-out ponds of a prawn farm in northeastern Australia were enriched for 24 h in a broth containing four V. harveyi strains. The bacteriophage-enriched filtrates were spotted onto bacterial lawns demonstrating that the bacteriophage host range for the samples included strains of V. harveyi, Vibrio campbellii, Vibrio rotiferianus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio proteolyticus. Bacteriophage were isolated from eight enriched samples through triple plaque purification. The host range of purified phage included V. harveyi, V. campbellii, V. rotiferianus and V. parahaemolyticus. Transmission electron microscope examination revealed that six purified phage belonged to the family Siphoviridae, whilst two belonged to the family Myoviridae. The Myoviridae appeared to induce bacteriocin production in a limited number of host bacterial strains, suggesting that they were lysogenic rather than lytic. A purified Siphoviridae phage could delay the entry of a broth culture of V. harveyi strain 12 into exponential growth, but could not prevent the overall growth of the bacterial strain. Bacteriophage with lytic activity against V. harveyi were isolated from prawn farm samples. Purified phage of the family Siphoviridae had a clear lytic ability and no apparent transducing properties, indicating they are appropriate for phage therapy. Phage resistance is potentially a major constraint to the use of phage therapy in aquaculture as bacteria are not completely eliminated. Phage therapy is emerging as a potential antibacterial agent that can be used to control pathogenic bacteria in aquaculture systems. The development of phage therapy for aquaculture requires initial isolation and determination of the bacteriophage host range, with subsequent creation of

  16. Copper homeostasis at the host vibrio interface: lessons from intracellular vibrio transcriptomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhove, Audrey S; Rubio, Tristan P; Nguyen, An N; Lemire, Astrid; Roche, David; Nicod, Julie; Vergnes, Agnès; Poirier, Aurore C; Disconzi, Elena; Bachère, Evelyne; Le Roux, Frédérique; Jacq, Annick; Charrière, Guillaume M; Destoumieux-Garzón, Delphine

    2016-03-01

    Recent studies revealed that several vibrio species have evolved the capacity to survive inside host cells. However, it is still often ignored if intracellular stages are required for pathogenicity. Virulence of Vibrio tasmaniensis LGP32, a strain pathogenic for Crassostrea gigas oysters, depends on entry into hemocytes, the oyster immune cells. We investigated here the mechanisms of LGP32 intracellular survival and their consequences on the host-pathogen interaction. Entry and survival inside hemocytes were required for LGP32-driven cytolysis of hemocytes, both in vivo and in vitro. LGP32 intracellular stages showed a profound boost in metabolic activity and a major transcription of antioxidant and copper detoxification genes, as revealed by RNA sequencing. LGP32 isogenic mutants showed that resistance to oxidative stress and copper efflux are two main functions required for vibrio intracellular stages and cytotoxicity to hemocytes. Copper efflux was also essential for host colonization and virulence in vivo. Altogether, our results identify copper resistance as a major mechanism to resist killing by phagocytes, induce cytolysis of immune cells and colonize oysters. Selection of such resistance traits could arise from vibrio interactions with copper-rich environmental niches including marine invertebrates, which favour the emergence of pathogenic vibrios resistant to intraphagosomal killing across animal species. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Highly diverse recombining populations of Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in French Mediterranean coastal lagoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Kévin; Mosser, Thomas; Aujoulat, Fabien; Hervio-Heath, Dominique; Monfort, Patrick; Jumas-Bilak, Estelle

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio cholerae are ubiquitous to estuarine and marine environments. These two species found in Mediterranean coastal systems can induce infections in humans. Environmental isolates of V. cholerae (n = 109) and V. parahaemolyticus (n = 89) sampled at different dates, stations and water salinities were investigated for virulence genes and by a multilocus sequence-based analysis (MLSA). V. cholerae isolates were all ctxA negative and only one isolate of V. parahaemolyticus displayed trh2 gene. Most Sequence Types (ST) corresponded to unique ST isolated at one date or one station. Frequent recombination events were detected among different pathogenic species, V. parahaemolyticus, V. cholerae, Vibrio mimicus, and Vibrio metoecus. Recombination had a major impact on the diversification of lineages. The genetic diversity assessed by the number of ST/strain was higher in low salinity condition for V. parahaemolyticus and V. cholerae whereas the frequency of recombination events in V. cholerae was lower in low salinity condition. Mediterranean coastal lagoon systems housed V. cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus with genetic diversities equivalent to the worldwide diversity described so far. The presence of STs found in human infections as well as the frequency of recombination events in environmental vibrios populations could predict a potential epidemiological risk. PMID:26236294

  18. Noncompetitive, Voltage-Dependent NMDA Receptor Antagonism by Hydrophobic Anions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsenbardt, Andrew J.; Chisari, Mariangela; Yu, Andrew; Shu, Hong-Jin; Zorumski, Charles F.

    2013-01-01

    NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antagonists are dissociative anesthetics, drugs of abuse, and are of therapeutic interest in neurodegeneration and neuropsychiatric disease. Many well-known NMDAR antagonists are positively charged, voltage-dependent channel blockers. We recently showed that the hydrophobic anion dipicrylamine (DPA) negatively regulates GABAA receptor function by a mechanism indistinguishable from that of sulfated neurosteroids. Because sulfated neurosteroids also modulate NMDARs, here we examined the effects of DPA on NMDAR function. In rat hippocampal neurons DPA inhibited currents gated by 300 µM NMDA with an IC50 of 2.3 µM. Neither onset nor offset of antagonism exhibited dependence on channel activation but exhibited a noncompetitive profile. DPA antagonism was independent of NMDAR subunit composition and was similar at extrasynaptic and total receptor populations. Surprisingly, similar to cationic channel blockers but unlike sulfated neurosteroids, DPA antagonism was voltage dependent. Onset and offset of DPA antagonism were nearly 10-fold faster than DPA-induced increases in membrane capacitance, suggesting that membrane interactions do not directly explain antagonism. Furthermore, voltage dependence did not derive from association of DPA with a site on NMDARs directly accessible to the outer membrane leaflet, assessed by DPA translocation experiments. Consistent with the expected lack of channel block, DPA antagonism did not interact with permeant ions. Therefore, we speculate that voltage dependence may arise from interactions of DPA with the inherent voltage dependence of channel gating. Overall, we conclude that DPA noncompetitively inhibits NMDA-induced current by a novel voltage-dependent mechanism and represents a new class of anionic NMDAR antagonists. PMID:23144238

  19. Cholera and other vibrio-associated diarrhoeas*

    OpenAIRE

    1980-01-01

    In recent years, there have been major advances in knowledge of Vibrio species and related organisms that are responsible for diarrhoeal diseases, particularly V. cholerae O-Group 1 (epidemic strains), atypical V. cholerae O-Group 1, non-O-Group 1 V. cholerae (non-epidemic strains), V. parahaemolyticus, V. alginolyticus, and ”Group F vibrios”. This article reviews the important new information, and identifies gaps in our knowledge, on aspects such as the epidemiology and bacteriology of vibri...

  20. Trichoderma spp. from rhizosphere soil and their antagonism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and forty six (146) isolates of Trichoderma spp. were obtained from rhizosphere soils of potato plants in the middle areas of Gansu Province, China. By means of dual culture method, they were examined for antagonism against Fusarium sambucinum, which causes potato dry rot. Ten of the isolates were found ...

  1. The Impotence of Pseudo-Antagonism: A Derridean Response to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Impotence of Pseudo-Antagonism: A Derridean Response to Zizek\\'s Charge of Practical Irrelevance. A Hurst. Abstract. This article addresses a strange investment within 'continental' philosophy, in asserting the impotence of a Derridean approach when it comes to addressing practical (juridical, political, ethical, ...

  2. Rhubarb Antagonizes Matrix Metalloproteinase-9-induced Vascular Endothelial Permeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Liang Cui

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The rhubarb mixture of emodin, 3,8-dihydroxy-1-methyl-anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid, 1-O-caffeoyl-2-(4-hydroxyl-O-cinnamoyl-β-D-glucose, daucosterol linoleate, and rhein, at a low concentration, antagonized the MMP9-induced HUVEC monolayer permeability by promoting HUVEC proliferation and reducing extracellular VE-cadherin concentrations.

  3. Antagonism in the carbon footprint between beef and dairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The higher increase in production (milk) of intensive dairy cows, compared to the increase in production (calf weight) of intensive beef cows, explains the antagonism in the carbon footprint between different beef and dairy production systems. Unfortunately, carbon sequestration estimates have been neglected and thus the ...

  4. Molecular chaperones antagonize proteotoxicity by differentially modulating protein aggregation pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas, Peter M; Summers, Daniel W; Cyr, Douglas M

    2009-01-01

    The self-association of misfolded or damaged proteins into ordered amyloid-like aggregates characterizes numerous neurodegenerative disorders. Insoluble amyloid plaques are diagnostic of many disease states. Yet soluble, oligomeric intermediates in the aggregation pathway appear to represent the toxic culprit. Molecular chaperones regulate the fate of misfolded proteins and thereby influence their aggregation state. Chaperones conventionally antagonize aggregation of misfolded, disease protei...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3930 - Vibrio cholerae serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vibrio cholerae serological reagents. 866.3930 Section 866.3930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3930 Vibrio cholerae serological reagents. (a)...

  6. AN INVESTIGATION ON PATHOGENIC VIBRIOS DISTRIBUTION IN DOMESTIC WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Almasi

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Municipal wastewater is one of the most important pollution sources for water supply resources. Identification and enumeration of pathogenic agents particularly pathogenic Vibrios are beneficial for controlling and prevention planning of the infectious diseases. This research was carried out to identify the distribution of the recognized pathogenic Vibrios with emphasizing on identification of Vibrio cholera in the wastewater of Kermanshah city western Iran in 2002. The method of study was cross sectional descriptive. There were 8 discharge outlet domestic wastewaters, which had been chosen as sampling sites. Samples were collected weekly in randomized manner in daytime. Three hundred and thirty nine samples were collected and analyzed. The results indicated site 7 with 5 positives, sites 4 and 8 each with 3, site 5 with 2, sites 2, 3 and 6 each with one positive, whereas, there was not any Vibrio detected in site 1. The most positive samples were seen in spring, late summer and early autumn. The positive results were detected on May, June, September, and October. Among positive samples, Vibrio parahemolyticus, could be regarded based on differentiation tests. Vibrio cholera was not seen. It seems that the presence of Vibrio parahemolyticus was due to some food store deal with distribution of seafood. Hence it is suggested that this relationship could be considered through analytical study using PCR for detection of Vibrios.

  7. Carriage of vibrio species by shrimps harvested from the coastal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of Vibrio spp in unprocessed shrimps and their susceptibility to antibiotics. Design: A prospective study of Vibrio spp associated with shrimps harvested from the coastal waters of South West Cameroon. Setting: A laboratory based study at the Department of Life Sciences, University ...

  8. Vibrio spp. ISOLATED FROM SHRIMPS AND WATER FROM A MARINE FARM IN PERNAMBUCO, BRAZIL Víbrios en el agua y en las gambas del mar (Litopenaeus vannamei, Boone, 1931 cultivado en Pernambuco Vibrio spp. ISOLADOS DE CAMARÃO E ÁGUA DE CULTIVO DE FAZENDA MARINHA EM PERNAMBUCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos André Bezerra Alves

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Water and shrimp samples were collected monthly, during all cultivation phases, in three located farms at Pernambuco coast, on winter and summer, for Vibrio spp. quantification and identification. The counting’s were correlated, through mathematical models (P<0.05, with the variables season, water biochemical parameters, wet mount, histopathology exam, toxins presence and handling techniques used. Just the variable cultivation time interfered at total counting of Vibrio spp. in all samples were obtained countings that varied 0.1x 10 to 6.2 x 103 UFC/mL in water, of 7.0 x 10 to 8.2 x 105 UFC/g in powder-larva, of 1.1 x 10 to 1.1 x 105 UFC/mL in hemolymph and of 2.5 x 102 to 1.1 x 106UFC/g in hepatopancreas. The species V. mediterranei (1%, V. mimicus (1.25%, V. fischeri (4.25%, V. cincinnatiensis (4.25%, V. metschnikovii (4.25%, V. proteolyticus (5.5%, V. harveyi (5.5%, V. hollisae (5.5%, V. carchariae (7%, V. vulnificus (8.5%, V. damsela (8.5%, V. parahaemolyticus (13%, V. fluvialis (15%, V. anguillarum (16.5% were identified. It is concluded that the Vibrionaceae load increases proportionally with cultivation time, due to the organic matter increment, what can turn the susceptible animals to the infection for vibrios.

    KEY WORD: Vibrionaceae, Vibrio spp., shrimp and pond water.
    El agua y muestras de la gamba eran la publicación mensual reunido, durante todas las fases del cultivo, en tres granjas localizadas a la costa de Pernambuco, en invierno y verano, para la cuantificación e identificación el de Vibrio spp.. El contando fueron puestos en correlación, a través de los modelos matemáticos (P <0,05, con la estación de las variables, agua que los parámetros bioquímicos, montaña mojada, examen del histopatologia, presencia de las toxinas y técnicas manejando usaron. Simplemente el tiempo del cultivo inconstante interfirió a total que

  9. Antagonism of type I interferon responses by new world hantaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Jessica R; Prescott, Joseph; Brown, Kyle S; Best, Sonja M; Ebihara, Hideki; Feldmann, Heinz

    2010-11-01

    Evasion of interferon (IFN)-mediated antiviral signaling is a common defense strategy for pathogenic RNA viruses. To date, research on IFN antagonism by hantaviruses is limited and has focused on only a subset of the numerous recognized hantavirus species. The host IFN response has two phases, an initiation phase, resulting in the induction of alpha/beta IFN (IFN-α/β), and an amplification phase, whereby IFN-α/β signals through the Jak/STAT pathway, resulting in the establishment of the cellular antiviral state. We examined interactions between these critical host responses and the New World hantaviruses. We observed delayed cellular responses in both Andes virus (ANDV)- and Sin Nombre virus (SNV)-infected A549 and Huh7-TLR3 cells. We found that IFN-β induction is inhibited by coexpression of ANDV nucleocapsid protein (NP) and glycoprotein precursor (GPC) and is robustly inhibited by SNV GPC alone. Downstream amplification by Jak/STAT signaling is also inhibited by SNV GPC and by either NP or GPC of ANDV. Therefore, ANDV- and SNV-encoded proteins have the potential for inhibiting both IFN-β induction and signaling, with SNV exhibiting the more potent antagonism ability. Herein we identify ANDV NP, a previously unrecognized inhibitor of Jak/STAT signaling, and show that IFN antagonism by ANDV relies on expression of both the glycoproteins and NP, whereas the glycoproteins appear to be sufficient for antagonism by SNV. These data suggest that IFN antagonism strategies by hantaviruses are quite variable, even between species with similar disease phenotypes, and may help to better elucidate species-specific pathogenesis.

  10. [THE IDENTIFICATION AND DIFFERENTIATION OF BACTERIOPHAGES OF HUMAN PATHOGENIC VIBRIO].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaevskaia, N E; Kudriakova, T A; Makedonova, L D; Kachkina, G V

    2015-04-01

    The issue of identification and differentiation of large group of bacteriophages of human pathogenic vibrio is still unresolved. In research and practical applied purposes it is important to consider characteristics of bacteriophages for establishing similarity and differences between them. The actual study was carried out to analyze specimens of DNA-containing bacteriophages of pathogenic vibrio. The overwhelming majority of them characterized by complicated type of symmetry--phages with double-helical DNA and also phages with mono-helical DNA structure discovered recently in vibrio. For the first time, the general framework of identification and differentiation of bacteriophages of pathogenic vibrio was developed. This achievement increases possibility to establish species assignment of phages and to compare with phages registered in the database. "The collection of bacteriophages and test-strains of human pathogenic vibrio" (No2010620549 of 24.09.210).

  11. Environmental occurrence and clinical impact of Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus: a European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker-Austin, Craig; Stockley, Louise; Rangdale, Rachel; Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime

    2010-02-01

    Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus are ubiquitous Gram-negative bacterial pathogens found naturally in marine and estuarine waters, and are a leading cause of seafood-associated bacterial illness. These pathogens are commonly reported in the USA and in many Asian countries, including China, Japan and Taiwan; however, there is growing concern that V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus may represent an important and increasing clinical problem in Europe. Several factors underlie the need for a greater understanding of these non-cholera vibrios within a European context. First, there is a growing body of evidence to suggest that V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus infections are increasing, and tend to follow regional climatic trends, with outbreaks typically following episodes of unusually warm weather. Such findings are especially alarming given current predictions regarding warming of marine waters as a result of global climatic change. Second, a myriad of epidemiological factors may greatly increase the incidence as well as clinical burden of these pathogens - including increasing global consumption and trade of seafood produce coupled to an increase in the number of susceptible individuals consuming seafood produce. Finally, there is currently a lack of detailed surveillance information regarding non-cholerae Vibrio infections in Europe, as these pathogens are not notifiable in many countries, which probably masks the true clinical burden of many human infections. This review will present a pertinent overview of both the environmental occurrence and clinical impact of V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus in Europe. © 2010 Crown copyright.

  12. Chemotactic Behaviors of Vibrio cholerae Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawagishi, Ikuro; Nishiyama, So-Ichiro

    2017-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, swims in aqueous environments with a single polar flagellum. In a spatial gradient of a chemical, the bacterium can migrate in "favorable" directions, a property that is termed chemotaxis. The chemotaxis of V. cholerae is not only critical for survival in various environments and but also is implicated in pathogenicity. In this chapter, we describe how to characterize the chemotactic behaviors of V. cholerae: these methods include swarm assay, temporal stimulation assay, capillary assay, and receptor methylation assay.

  13. Antibiotic resistance mechanisms of Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaoka, Maya; Miyata, Sarah T; Unterweger, Daniel; Pukatzki, Stefan

    2011-04-01

    As the causative agent of cholera, the bacterium Vibrio cholerae represents an enormous public health burden, especially in developing countries around the world. Cholera is a self-limiting illness; however, antibiotics are commonly administered as part of the treatment regimen. Here we review the initial identification and subsequent evolution of antibiotic-resistant strains of V. cholerae. Antibiotic resistance mechanisms, including efflux pumps, spontaneous chromosomal mutation, conjugative plasmids, SXT elements and integrons, are also discussed. Numerous multidrug-resistant strains of V. cholerae have been isolated from both clinical and environmental settings, indicating that antibiotic use has to be restricted and alternative methods for treating cholera have to be implemented.

  14. Vibrio Iron Transport: Evolutionary Adaptation to Life in Multiple Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mey, Alexandra R.; Wyckoff, Elizabeth E.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Iron is an essential element for Vibrio spp., but the acquisition of iron is complicated by its tendency to form insoluble ferric complexes in nature and its association with high-affinity iron-binding proteins in the host. Vibrios occupy a variety of different niches, and each of these niches presents particular challenges for acquiring sufficient iron. Vibrio species have evolved a wide array of iron transport systems that allow the bacteria to compete for this essential element in each of its habitats. These systems include the secretion and uptake of high-affinity iron-binding compounds (siderophores) as well as transport systems for iron bound to host complexes. Transporters for ferric and ferrous iron not complexed to siderophores are also common to Vibrio species. Some of the genes encoding these systems show evidence of horizontal transmission, and the ability to acquire and incorporate additional iron transport systems may have allowed Vibrio species to more rapidly adapt to new environmental niches. While too little iron prevents growth of the bacteria, too much can be lethal. The appropriate balance is maintained in vibrios through complex regulatory networks involving transcriptional repressors and activators and small RNAs (sRNAs) that act posttranscriptionally. Examination of the number and variety of iron transport systems found in Vibrio spp. offers insights into how this group of bacteria has adapted to such a wide range of habitats. PMID:26658001

  15. Vibrio Iron Transport: Evolutionary Adaptation to Life in Multiple Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Shelley M; Mey, Alexandra R; Wyckoff, Elizabeth E

    2016-03-01

    Iron is an essential element for Vibrio spp., but the acquisition of iron is complicated by its tendency to form insoluble ferric complexes in nature and its association with high-affinity iron-binding proteins in the host. Vibrios occupy a variety of different niches, and each of these niches presents particular challenges for acquiring sufficient iron. Vibrio species have evolved a wide array of iron transport systems that allow the bacteria to compete for this essential element in each of its habitats. These systems include the secretion and uptake of high-affinity iron-binding compounds (siderophores) as well as transport systems for iron bound to host complexes. Transporters for ferric and ferrous iron not complexed to siderophores are also common to Vibrio species. Some of the genes encoding these systems show evidence of horizontal transmission, and the ability to acquire and incorporate additional iron transport systems may have allowed Vibrio species to more rapidly adapt to new environmental niches. While too little iron prevents growth of the bacteria, too much can be lethal. The appropriate balance is maintained in vibrios through complex regulatory networks involving transcriptional repressors and activators and small RNAs (sRNAs) that act posttranscriptionally. Examination of the number and variety of iron transport systems found in Vibrio spp. offers insights into how this group of bacteria has adapted to such a wide range of habitats. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Vibrio elicits targeted transcriptional responses from copepod hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almada, Amalia A; Tarrant, Ann M

    2016-06-01

    Copepods are abundant crustaceans that harbor diverse bacterial communities, yet the nature of their interactions with microbiota are poorly understood. Here, we report that Vibrio elicits targeted transcriptional responses in the estuarine copepod Eurytemora affinis We pre-treated E. affinis with an antibiotic cocktail and exposed them to either a zooplankton specialist (Vibrio sp. F10 9ZB36) or a free-living species (Vibrio ordalii 12B09) for 24 h. We then identified via RNA-Seq a total of 78 genes that were differentially expressed following Vibrio exposure, including homologs of C-type lectins, chitin-binding proteins and saposins. The response differed between the two Vibrio treatments, with the greatest changes elicited upon inoculation with V. sp. F10 We suggest that these differentially regulated genes play important roles in cuticle integrity, the innate immune response, and general stress response, and that their expression may enable E. affinis to recognize and regulate symbiotic vibrios. We further report that V. sp. F10 culturability is specifically altered upon colonization of E. affinis These findings suggest that rather than acting as passive environmental vectors, copepods discriminately interact with vibrios, which may ultimately impact the abundance and activity of copepod-associated bacteria. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Network structure embracing mutualism-antagonism continuums increases community robustness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesinos-Navarro, Alicia; Hiraldo, Fernando; Tella, José L; Blanco, Guillermo

    2017-11-01

    Theory predicts that contrasting properties of mutualistic and antagonistic networks differentially promote community resilience to species loss. However, the outcome of most ecological interactions falls within a continuum between mutualism and antagonism, and we ignore the extent to which this interactions' continuum might influence community stability. Using a large data set of interactions, we compared co-extinction cascades that either consider or ignore the mix of beneficial and detrimental actions that parrots exert on plants. When the antagonism-mutualism continuum was considered, a combination of the properties that separately enhance community stability in ecological networks emerged. This combination of properties led to an overall increase of the parrot community robustness to face plant species loss. Our results highlight that the conditional outcomes of interactions can influence the structure of ecological networks, thus affecting our predictions of community stability against eventual changes.

  18. Interleukin-1 Antagonism Decreases Cortisol Levels in Obese Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Urwyler, Sandrine Andrea; Schuetz, Philipp; Ebrahimi, Fahim; Donath, Marc Y.; Christ-Crain, Mirjam

    2017-01-01

    Increased cortisol levels in obesity may contribute to the associated metabolic syndrome. In obesity, the activated innate immune system leads to increased interleukin (IL)-1β, which is known to stimulate the release of adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH).; We hypothesized that in obesity IL-1 antagonism would result in downregulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, leading to decreased cortisol levels.; In this prospective intervention study, we included 73 patients with obesity (b...

  19. Radiosensitivity of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in seafood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piadang, S.; Kraisorn, K.

    1988-01-01

    The influence of two salt concentration 0.85% and 3% NaCl, on the radiosensitivity of 3 cultures of Vibrio parahaemolyticus K 3 , K 13 , and K 28 , incoulated into sterile crab meat and pealed shrimp homogerntes was investigated. In peeled shrimp, with 0.85% NaCl, its D 10 values for strains K 3 , K 13 and K 28 were 57.1+-0.50, 62.6+-0.79, 47.9+-0.43 Gy, respectively. The variation of the strains was increased in 3% salt concentration with D 10 values of 80.5+-0.88, 73.3+-1.04, 52.8+-0.44 Gy, for strains K 3 , K 13 and K 28 , respectively. For the crab meat honagenate with 0.85% NaCl, its D 10 value for strains K 3 and K 13 were 57.8+-0.72 and 52.1+-0.96 Gy, and the values for 3% NaCl were 70.0+-0.12 and 52.7+-0.82 Gy, respectively. In most cases the complete destruction was obtained with 50-60 kGy. Vibrio parahaemolyticus in seafood could be readily controlled by radicidation

  20. Ethanol-induced hypothermia in rats is antagonized by dexamethasone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carreño C.F.T.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of dexamethasone on ethanol-induced hypothermia was investigated in 3.5-month old male Wistar rats (N = 10 animals per group. The animals were pretreated with dexamethasone (2.0 mg/kg, ip; volume of injection = 1 ml/kg 15 min before ethanol administration (2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 g/kg, ip; 20% w/v and the colon temperature was monitored with a digital thermometer 30, 60 and 90 min after ethanol administration. Ethanol treatment produced dose-dependent hypothermia throughout the experiment (-1.84 ± 0.10, -2.79 ± 0.09 and -3.79 ± 0.15oC for 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 g/kg ethanol, respectively, 30 min after ethanol but only the effects of 2.0 and 3.0 g/kg ethanol were significantly antagonized (-0.57 ± 0.09 and -1.25 ± 0.10, respectively, 30 min after ethanol by pretreatment with dexamethasone (ANOVA, P<0.05. These results are in agreement with data from the literature on the rapid antagonism by glucocorticoids of other effects of ethanol. The antagonism was obtained after a short period of time, suggesting that the effect of dexamethasone is different from the classical actions of corticosteroids

  1. Antagonism of Innate Immunity by Paramyxovirus Accessory Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raychel Chambers

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Paramyxovirinae, a subfamily of Paramyxoviridae, are negative strand RNA viruses comprised of many important human and animal pathogens, which share a high degree of genetic and structural homology. The accessory proteins expressed from the P/V/C gene are major factors in the pathogenicity of the viruses, because of their ability to abrogate various facets of type I interferon (IFN induction and signaling. Most of the paramyxoviruses exhibit a commonality in their ability to antagonize innate immunity by blocking IFN induction and the Jak/STAT pathway. However, the manner in which the accessory proteins inhibit the pathway differs among viruses. Similarly, there are variations in the capability of the viruses to counteract intracellular detectors (RNA helicases, mda-5 and RIG-I. Furthermore, a functional specificity in the antagonism of the IFN response has been reported, suggesting that specificity in the circumvention of innate immunity restricts viral host range. Available evidence indicates that paramyxoviruses employ specific strategies to antagonize the IFN response of their specific hosts, which is one of the major factors that determine viral pathogenicity and host range.

  2. Genome analysis of three novel lytic Vibrio coralliilyticus phages isolated from seawater, Okinawa, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramphul, Chitra; Casareto, Beatriz Estela; Dohra, Hideo; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Yoshimatsu, Katsuhiko; Yoshinaga, Koichi; Suzuki, Yoshimi

    2017-10-01

    Three novel Vibrio phages were isolated from seawater in Okinawa. The Vibrio phage RYC infected Vibrio coralliilyticus SWA 07, while Vibrio phages CKB-S1 and CKB-S2 infected the coral pathogen V. coralliilyticus P1 (LMG 23696). The Vibrio phages CKB-S1 and CKB-S2 displayed head-tail structures whereas the Vibrio phage RYC showed a tailless non-enveloped capsid. All these Vibrio phages contained linear and double-stranded DNA. The whole genome sequencing revealed that Vibrio phage RYC has a larger genome size compared to Vibrio phages CKB-S1 and CKB-S2, and six tRNAs genes were found only in Vibrio phage RYC. Genome-wide comparison showed that Vibrio phage CKB-S1 was closely related, but was not identical, to Vibrio parahaemolyticus phages VP16T and VP16C. Meanwhile, the Vibrio phages RYC and CKB-S2 did not show high genome-wide similarity to any phages. These results suggest that the Vibrio phages CKB-S1, CKB-S2 and RYC are novel phages, which need further exploration, especially for their potential applications in phage therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Small RNA Control of Cell-to-Cell Communication in Vibrio Harveyi and Vibrio Cholerae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svenningsen, Sine Lo

    Quorum sensing is a process of cell-to-cell communication, by which bacteria coordinate gene expression and behavior on a population-wide scale. Quorum sensing is accomplished through production, secretion, and subsequent detection of chemical signaling molecules termed autoinducers. The human pathogen Vibrio cholerae and the marine bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio harveyi incorporate information from multiple autoinducers, and also environmental signals and metabolic cues into their quorum-sensing pathways. At the core of these pathways lie several homologous small regulatory RNA molecules, the Quorum Regulatory RNAs. Small noncoding RNAs have emerged throughout the bacterial and eukaryotic kingdoms as key regulators of behavioral and developmental processes. Here, I review our present understanding of the role of the Qrr small RNAs in integrating quorum-sensing signals and in regulating the individual cells response to this information.

  4. Vibrio lentus protects gnotobiotic sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) larvae against challenge with Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeck, M; Duchateau, L; Van den Broeck, W; Van Trappen, S; De Vos, P; Coulombet, C; Boon, N; Haesebrouck, F; Decostere, A

    2016-03-15

    Due to the mounting awareness of the risks associated with the use of antibiotics in aquaculture, treatment with probiotics has recently emerged as the preferred environmental-friendly prophylactic approach in marine larviculture. However, the presence of unknown and variable microbiota in fish larvae makes it impossible to disentangle the efficacy of treatment with probiotics. In this respect, the recent development of a germ-free culture model for European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) larvae opened the door for more controlled studies on the use of probiotics. In the present study, 206 bacterial isolates, retrieved from sea bass larvae and adults, were screened in vitro for haemolytic activity, bile tolerance and antagonistic activity against six sea bass pathogens. Subsequently, the harmlessness and the protective effect of the putative probiotic candidates against the sea bass pathogen Vibrio harveyi were evaluated in vivo adopting the previously developed germ-free sea bass larval model. An equivalence trial clearly showed that no harmful effect on larval survival was elicited by all three selected probiotic candidates: Bacillus sp. LT3, Vibrio lentus and Vibrio proteolyticus. Survival of Vibrio harveyi challenged larvae treated with V. lentus was superior in comparison with the untreated challenged group, whereas this was not the case for the larvae supplemented with Bacillus sp. LT3 and V. proteolyticus. In this respect, our results unmistakably revealed the protective effect of V. lentus against vibriosis caused by V. harveyi in gnotobiotic sea bass larvae, rendering this study the first in its kind. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Effects of ambient exposure, refrigeration, and icing on Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus abundances in oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J L; Lydon, K A; Kinsey, T P; Friedman, B; Curtis, M; Schuster, R; Bowers, J C

    2017-07-17

    Vibrio vulnificus (Vv) and V. parahaemolyticus (Vp) illnesses are typically acquired through the consumption of raw molluscan shellfish, particularly oysters. As Vibrio spp. are naturally-occurring bacteria, one means of mitigation of illness is achieved by limiting post-harvest growth. In this study, effects of ambient air storage, refrigeration, and icing of oysters on Vibrio spp. abundances were examined at two sites in Alabama (AL) [Dog River (DR) and Cedar Point (CP)] and one site in Delaware Bay, New Jersey (NJ). As the United States shellfish program recommendations include testing for total these organisms and gene targets, Vv and total (tlh) and pathogenic (tdh+ and trh+) Vp were enumerated from samples using MPN-real-time-PCR approaches. Mean Vv and Vp abundances in oysters from AL-DR were lowest in immediately iced samples (2.3 and -0.1 log MPN/g, respectively) and highest in the 5h ambient then refrigerated samples (3.4 and 0.5 log MPN/g, respectively). Similarly, in AL-CP Vv and Vp mean levels in oysters were lowest in immediately iced samples (3.6 and 1.2 log MPN/g, respectively) and highest in 5h ambient then refrigerated samples (5.1 and 3.2 log MPN/g, respectively). Mean levels of pathogenic Vp from AL sites were frequently below the limit of detection (refrigerated post-harvest. These results suggest vibriosis risk can be mitigated by shorter storage times and more rapid cooling of oysters, providing data regulatory authorities can use to evaluate Vibrio spp. control plans. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns and Plasmid Profile of Vibrio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    32.14%) samples of Vibrio cholerae isolates recovered from water samples from Elele Community. All isolates showed a multiple resistance patterns to 7 antibiotics namely amoxicillin, cotrimoxazole, nitrofurantoin, gentamicin, tetracycline, ...

  7. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Vibrio spp. within the Sydney Harbour Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siboni, Nachshon; Balaraju, Varunan; Carney, Richard; Labbate, Maurizio; Seymour, Justin R.

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio are a genus of marine bacteria that have substantial environmental and human health importance, and there is evidence that their impact may be increasing as a consequence of changing environmental conditions. We investigated the abundance and composition of the Vibrio community within the Sydney Harbour estuary, one of the most densely populated coastal areas in Australia, and a region currently experiencing rapidly changing environmental conditions. Using quantitative PCR (qPCR) and Vibrio-specific 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing approaches we observed significant spatial and seasonal variation in the abundance and composition of the Vibrio community. Total Vibrio spp. abundance, derived from qPCR analysis, was higher during the late summer than winter and within locations with mid-range salinity (5–26 ppt). In addition we targeted three clinically important pathogens: Vibrio cholerae, V. Vulnificus, and V. parahaemolyticus. While toxigenic strains of V. cholerae were not detected in any samples, non-toxigenic strains were detected in 71% of samples, spanning a salinity range of 0–37 ppt and were observed during both late summer and winter. In contrast, pathogenic V. vulnificus was only detected in 14% of samples, with its occurrence restricted to the late summer and a salinity range of 5–26 ppt. V. parahaemolyticus was not observed at any site or time point. A Vibrio-specific 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing approach revealed clear shifts in Vibrio community composition across sites and between seasons, with several Vibrio operational taxonomic units (OTUs) displaying marked spatial patterns and seasonal trends. Shifts in the composition of the Vibrio community between seasons were primarily driven by changes in temperature, salinity and NO2, while a range of factors including pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen (DO) and NOx (Nitrogen Oxides) explained the observed spatial variation. Our evidence for the presence of a spatiotemporally dynamic Vibrio community

  8. Catechol Siderophore Transport by Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyckoff, Elizabeth E; Allred, Benjamin E; Raymond, Kenneth N; Payne, Shelley M

    2015-09-01

    Siderophores, small iron-binding molecules secreted by many microbial species, capture environmental iron for transport back into the cell. Vibrio cholerae synthesizes and uses the catechol siderophore vibriobactin and also uses siderophores secreted by other species, including enterobactin produced by Escherichia coli. E. coli secretes both canonical cyclic enterobactin and linear enterobactin derivatives likely derived from its cleavage by the enterobactin esterase Fes. We show here that V. cholerae does not use cyclic enterobactin but instead uses its linear derivatives. V. cholerae lacked both a receptor for efficient transport of cyclic enterobactin and enterobactin esterase to promote removal of iron from the ferrisiderophore complex. To further characterize the transport of catechol siderophores, we show that the linear enterobactin derivatives were transported into V. cholerae by either of the catechol siderophore receptors IrgA and VctA, which also transported the synthetic siderophore MECAM [1,3,5-N,N',N″-tris-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-triaminomethylbenzene]. Vibriobactin is transported via the additional catechol siderophore receptor ViuA, while the Vibrio fluvialis siderophore fluvibactin was transported by all three catechol receptors. ViuB, a putative V. cholerae siderophore-interacting protein (SIP), functionally substituted for the E. coli ferric reductase YqjH, which promotes the release of iron from the siderophore in the bacterial cytoplasm. In V. cholerae, ViuB was required for the use of vibriobactin but was not required for the use of MECAM, fluvibactin, ferrichrome, or the linear derivatives of enterobactin. This suggests the presence of another protein in V. cholerae capable of promoting the release of iron from these siderophores. Vibrio cholerae is a major human pathogen and also serves as a model for the Vibrionaceae, which include other serious human and fish pathogens. The ability of these species to persist and acquire essential

  9. Genome Sequence of the Human Pathogen Vibrio cholerae Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Cristiane C.; Marin, Michel A.; Dias, Graciela M.; Dutilh, Bas E.; Edwards, Robert A.; Iida, Tetsuya; Thompson, Fabiano L.; Vicente, Ana Carolina P.

    2011-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 Amazonia is a pathogen that was isolated from cholera-like diarrhea cases in at least two countries, Brazil and Ghana. Based on multilocus sequence analysis, this lineage belongs to a distinct profile compared to strains from El Tor and classical biotypes. The genomic analysis revealed that it contains Vibrio pathogenicity island 2 and a set of genes related to pathogenesis and fitness, such as the type VI secretion system, present in choleragenic V. cholerae strains. PMID:21952545

  10. Passive Immune-Protection of Litopenaeus vannamei against Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio parahaemolyticus Infections with Anti-Vibrio Egg Yolk (IgY)-Encapsulated Feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaojian; Zhang, Xiaojun; Lin, Li; Yao, Dongrui; Sun, Jingjing; Du, Xuedi; Li, Xiumei; Zhang, Yue

    2016-05-17

    Vibrio spp. are major causes of mortality in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) which is lacking adaptive immunity. Passive immunization with a specific egg yolk antibody (IgY) is a potential method for the protection of shrimp against vibriosis. In this study, immune effects of the specific egg yolk powders (IgY) against both V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus on white shrimp were evaluated. The egg yolk powders against V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus for passive immunization of white shrimp were prepared, while a tube agglutination assay and an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used for detection of IgY titer. Anti-Vibrio egg yolk was encapsulated by β-cyclodextrin, which could keep the activity of the antibody in the gastrointestinal tract of shrimp. The results showed that the anti-Vibrio egg powders had an inhibiting effect on V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus in vitro. Lower mortality of infected zoeae, mysis, and postlarva was observed in groups fed with anti-Vibrio egg powders, compared with those fed with normal egg powders. The bacterial load in postlarva fed with specific egg powders in seeding ponds was significantly lower than those fed with normal egg powders in seeding ponds. These results show that passive immunization by oral administration with specific egg yolk powders (IgY) may provide a valuable protection of vibrio infections in white shrimp.

  11. Abundance and antibiotic susceptibility of Vibrio spp. isolated from microplastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverty, A. L.; Darr, K.; Dobbs, F. C.

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing concern for `microplastics' (particles resistance profiles of Vibrio spp. found on them. We collected 22 microplastic pieces, paired seawater samples, and from them cultured 44 putative Vibrio spp. isolates, 18 of which were PCR-confirmed as V. parahaemolyticus and 3 as V. vulnificus. There were no PCR-confirmed V. cholerae isolates. We used the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion susceptibility test to examine the isolates' response to six antibiotics: chloramphenicol (30μg), gentamicin (10μg), ampicillin (10μg), streptomycin (10μg), tetracycline (30μg), and rifampin (5μg). Vibrio isolates were susceptible to three or more of the six antibiotics tested and all were susceptible to tetracycline and chloramphenicol. There were no apparent differences between the antibiotic susceptibilities of vibrios isolated from microplastics compared to those from the water column. In every instance tested, vibrios on microplastics were enriched by at least two orders of magnitude compared to those from paired seawater samples. This study demonstrates that microplastic particles serve as a habitat for Vibrio species, in particular V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus, confirming the conjecture of Zettler et al. (2013) that plastics may serve as a vector for these and other potentially pathogenic bacteria.

  12. Vibrio vulnificus: An Environmental and Clinical Burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sing-Peng Heng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio vulnificus is a Gram negative, rod shaped bacterium that belongs to the family Vibrionaceae. It is a deadly, opportunistic human pathogen which is responsible for the majority of seafood-associated deaths worldwide. V. vulnificus infection can be fatal as it may cause severe wound infections potentially requiring amputation or lead to sepsis in susceptible individuals. Treatment is increasingly challenging as V. vulnificus has begun to develop resistance against certain antibiotics due to their indiscriminate use. This article aims to provide insight into the antibiotic resistance of V. vulnificus in different parts of the world as well as an overall review of its clinical manifestations, treatment, and prevention. Understanding the organism's antibiotic resistance profile is vital in order to select appropriate treatment and initiate appropriate prevention measures to treat and control V. vulnificus infections, which should eventually help lower the mortality rate associated with this pathogen worldwide.

  13. Intestinal Colonization Dynamics of Vibrio cholerae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almagro-Moreno, Salvador; Pruss, Kali; Taylor, Ronald K.

    2015-01-01

    To cause the diarrheal disease cholera, Vibrio cholerae must effectively colonize the small intestine. In order to do so, the bacterium needs to successfully travel through the stomach and withstand the presence of agents such as bile and antimicrobial peptides in the intestinal lumen and mucus. The bacterial cells penetrate the viscous mucus layer covering the epithelium and attach and proliferate on its surface. In this review, we discuss recent developments and known aspects of the early stages of V. cholerae intestinal colonization and highlight areas that remain to be fully understood. We propose mechanisms and postulate a model that covers some of the steps that are required in order for the bacterium to efficiently colonize the human host. A deeper understanding of the colonization dynamics of V. cholerae and other intestinal pathogens will provide us with a variety of novel targets and strategies to avoid the diseases caused by these organisms. PMID:25996593

  14. Comparative microscopy study of Vibrio cholerae flagella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konnov, Nikolai P.; Baiburin, Vil B.; Zadnova, Svetlana P.; Volkov, Uryi P.

    1999-06-01

    A fine structure of bacteria flagella is an important problem of molecular cell biology. Bacteria flagella are the self-assembled structures that allow to use the flagellum protein in a number of biotechnological applications. However, at present, there is a little information about high resolution scanning probe microscopy study of flagellum structure, in particular, about investigation of Vibrio cholerae flagella. In our lab have been carried out the high resolution comparative investigation of V. cholerae flagella by means of various microscopes: tunneling (STM), scanning force (SFM) and electron transmission. As a scanning probe microscope is used designed in our lab versatile SPM with replaceable measuring heads. Bacteria were grown, fixed and treated according to the conventional techniques. For STM investigations samples were covered with Pt/Ir thin films by rotated vacuum evaporation, in SFM investigations were used uncovered samples. Electron microscopy of the negatively stained bacteria was used as a test procedure.

  15. Vibrio cholerae Biofilms and Cholera Pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisia J Silva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae can switch between motile and biofilm lifestyles. The last decades have been marked by a remarkable increase in our knowledge of the structure, regulation, and function of biofilms formed under laboratory conditions. Evidence has grown suggesting that V. cholerae can form biofilm-like aggregates during infection that could play a critical role in pathogenesis and disease transmission. However, the structure and regulation of biofilms formed during infection, as well as their role in intestinal colonization and virulence, remains poorly understood. Here, we review (i the evidence for biofilm formation during infection, (ii the coordinate regulation of biofilm and virulence gene expression, and (iii the host signals that favor V. cholerae transitions between alternative lifestyles during intestinal colonization, and (iv we discuss a model for the role of V. cholerae biofilms in pathogenicity.

  16. VISCOSITY DICTATES METABOLIC ACTIVITY of Vibrio ruber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja eBoric

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about metabolic activity of bacteria, when viscosity of their environment changes. In this work, bacterial metabolic activity in media with viscosity ranging from 0.8 to 29.4 mPas was studied. Viscosities up to 2.4 mPas did not affect metabolic activity of Vibrio ruber. On the other hand, at 29.4 mPas respiration rate and total dehydrogenase activity increased 8 and 4-fold, respectively. The activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase increased up to 13-fold at higher viscosities. However, intensified metabolic activity did not result in faster growth rate. Increased viscosity delayed the onset as well as the duration of biosynthesis of prodigiosin. As an adaptation to viscous environment V. ruber increased metabolic flux through the pentose phosphate pathway and reduced synthesis of a secondary metabolite. In addition, V. ruber was able to modify the viscosity of its environment.

  17. Viscosity dictates metabolic activity of Vibrio ruber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borić, Maja; Danevčič, Tjaša; Stopar, David

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about metabolic activity of bacteria, when viscosity of their environment changes. In this work, bacterial metabolic activity in media with viscosity ranging from 0.8 to 29.4 mPas was studied. Viscosities up to 2.4 mPas did not affect metabolic activity of Vibrio ruber. On the other hand, at 29.4 mPas respiration rate and total dehydrogenase activity increased 8 and 4-fold, respectively. The activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) increased up to 13-fold at higher viscosities. However, intensified metabolic activity did not result in faster growth rate. Increased viscosity delayed the onset as well as the duration of biosynthesis of prodigiosin. As an adaptation to viscous environment V. ruber increased metabolic flux through the pentose phosphate pathway and reduced synthesis of a secondary metabolite. In addition, V. ruber was able to modify the viscosity of its environment. PMID:22826705

  18. Vibrio cholerae Biofilms and Cholera Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Anisia J.; Benitez, Jorge A.

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae can switch between motile and biofilm lifestyles. The last decades have been marked by a remarkable increase in our knowledge of the structure, regulation, and function of biofilms formed under laboratory conditions. Evidence has grown suggesting that V. cholerae can form biofilm-like aggregates during infection that could play a critical role in pathogenesis and disease transmission. However, the structure and regulation of biofilms formed during infection, as well as their role in intestinal colonization and virulence, remains poorly understood. Here, we review (i) the evidence for biofilm formation during infection, (ii) the coordinate regulation of biofilm and virulence gene expression, and (iii) the host signals that favor V. cholerae transitions between alternative lifestyles during intestinal colonization, and (iv) we discuss a model for the role of V. cholerae biofilms in pathogenicity. PMID:26845681

  19. Localized quorum sensing in Vibrio fischeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Mary E; Snyder, Charles E; Kopp, Nathaniel D; Velegol, Darrell

    2008-04-01

    Quorum sensing is almost always regarded as a population density effect in three-dimensional bulk samples of bacteria. Here we create two-dimensional samples of Vibrio fischeri cells adhered onto glass surfaces to examine the effect of local population densities on quorum sensing. This is done by measuring the luminescent response. The 2-D bacterial populations enable us to simultaneously account for time and distance effects on quorum sensing, which were previously very challenging to access in typical three-dimensional bulk samples. Thus, we are able to consider quorum sensing in terms of signal diffusion. A diffusion model of quorum sensing signals guides the experiments and shows that for a given cell spacing (density) and diffusion time there exists a "true quorum"- a number of cells necessary for quorum sensing. We find that quorum sensing can occur locally in 2-D surface samples and is a function of cell population density as well as signal diffusion time.

  20. Detection and Antimicrobial Resistance of Vibrio Isolates in Aquaculture Environments: Implications for Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igbinosa, Etinosa O

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of Vibrio isolates recovered from four different fish pond facilities in Benin City, Nigeria, determine their antibiogram profiles, and evaluate the public health implications of these findings. Fish pond water samples were collected from four sampling sites between March and September 2014. A total of 56 samples were collected and screened for the isolation of Vibrio species using standard culture-based methods. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to confirm the identities of the Vibrio species using the genus-specific and species-specific primers. Vibrio species were detected at all the study sites at a concentration on the order of 10(3) and 10(6) CFU/100 ml. A total of 550 presumptive Vibrio isolates were subjected to PCR confirmation. Of these isolates, 334 isolates tested positive, giving an overall Vibrio prevalence rate of 60.7%. The speciation of the 334 Vibrio isolates from fish ponds yielded 32.63% Vibrio fluvialis, 20.65% Vibrio parahaemolyticus, 18.26% Vibrio vulnificus, and 28.44% other Vibrio species. In all, 167 confirmed Vibrio isolates were selected from a pool of 334 confirmed Vibrio isolates for antibiogram profiling. The susceptibility profiles of 20 antimicrobial agents on the isolates revealed a high level of resistance for AMP(R), ERY(R), NAL(R), SUL(R), TMP(R), SXT(R), TET(R), OTC(R), and CHL(R). The percentage of multiple drug resistance Vibrio isolates was 67.6%. The multiple antibiotic resistance index mean value of 0.365 for the Vibrio isolates found in this study indicated that the Vibrio isolates were exposed to high-risk sources of contamination when antibiotics were frequently used. The resistant Vibrio strains could be transmitted through the food chain to humans and therefore constitutes a risk to public health.

  1. Photodynamic effect of curcumin on Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Juan; Mou, Haijin; Xue, Changhu; Leung, Albert Wingnang; Xu, Chuanshan; Tang, Qing-Juan

    2016-09-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. parahaemolyticus) is currently a major cause of bacterial diarrhoea associated with seafood consumption. The objective of this study was to determine the inactivation effect of curcumin-mediated photodynamic action on V. parahaemolyticus. First of all, V. parahaemolyticus suspended in PBS buffer was irradiated by a visible light from a LED light source with an energy density of 3.6J/cm(2). Colony forming units (CFU) were counted and the viability of V. parahaemolyticus cells was calculated after treatment. Singlet oxygen ((1)O2) production after photodynamic action of curcumin was evaluated using 9,10-Anthracenediyl-bis (methylene) dimalonic acid (ADMA). Bacterial outer membrane protein was extracted and analyzed using electrophoresis SDS-PAGE. DNA and RNA of V. parahaemolyticus were also extracted and analyzed using agarose gel electrophoresis after photodynamic treatment. Finally, the efficacy of photodynamic action of curcumin was preliminarily evaluated in the decontamination of V. parahaemolyticus in oyster. Results showed that the viability of V. parahaemolyticus was significantly decreased to non-detectable levels over 6.5-log reductions with the curcumin concentration of 10 and 20μM. Photodynamic action of curcumin significantly increased the singlet oxygen level with the curcumin concentration of 10μM. Notable damage was found to bacterial outer membrane proteins and genetic materials after photodynamic treatment. Photodynamic action of curcumin reduced the number of V. parahaemolyticus contaminating in oyster to non-detectable level. Our findings demonstrated that photodynamic action of curcumin could be a potentially good method to inactivate Vibrio parahaemolyticus contaminating in oyster. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. SIV Nef proteins recruit the AP-2 complex to antagonize Tetherin and facilitate virion release.

    OpenAIRE

    Fengwen Zhang; Wilmina N Landford; Melinda Ng; Matthew W McNatt; Paul D Bieniasz; Theodora Hatziioannou

    2011-01-01

    Lentiviral Nef proteins have multiple functions and are important for viral pathogenesis. Recently, Nef proteins from many simian immunodefiency viruses were shown to antagonize a cellular antiviral protein, named Tetherin, that blocks release of viral particles from the cell surface. However, the mechanism by which Nef antagonizes Tetherin is unknown. Here, using related Nef proteins that differ in their ability to antagonize Tetherin, we identify three amino-acids in the C-terminal domain o...

  3. Interleukin-1 Antagonism Decreases Cortisol Levels in Obese Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urwyler, Sandrine Andrea; Schuetz, Philipp; Ebrahimi, Fahim; Donath, Marc Y; Christ-Crain, Mirjam

    2017-05-01

    Increased cortisol levels in obesity may contribute to the associated metabolic syndrome. In obesity, the activated innate immune system leads to increased interleukin (IL)-1β, which is known to stimulate the release of adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH). We hypothesized that in obesity IL-1 antagonism would result in downregulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, leading to decreased cortisol levels. In this prospective intervention study, we included 73 patients with obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥30 kg/m2) and at least one additional feature of the metabolic syndrome. The primary end point was change in morning cortisol from baseline to after the administration of the IL-1 receptor antagonist (anakinra/Kineret®, total dose 3 × 100 mg). Secondary end points were effects on salivary cortisol and ACTH. Median age was 56 years, 50.7% of patients were female, and median BMI was 36.3 kg/m2. Median morning serum cortisol levels (nmol/L) decreased significantly after IL-1 antagonism [from baseline, 452 to 423; absolute difference, -38.7; 95% confidence interval (CI), -64 to -13.4; P = 0.0019]. Similar effects were found for salivary cortisol levels (-2.8; 95% CI, -4.4 to -1.3; P = 0.0007), ACTH levels (-2.2; 95% CI; -4.2 to -0.1; P = 0.038), systolic blood pressure (-5.2, 95% CI, -8.5 to -1.8; P = 0.0006), and heart rate (-2.9; 95% CI, -4.7 to -1.0; P = 0.0029). IL-1 antagonism in obese individuals with features of the metabolic syndrome leads to a decrease in serum cortisol, salivary cortisol, and ACTH levels along with a reduction in systolic blood pressure and heart rate. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  4. What is the clinical significance of ventricular mural antagonism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunkenheimer, Paul P; Niederer, Peter; Stephenson, Robert S

    2018-01-01

    for the existence of such forces, which are auxotonic in nature. This is in contrast to the tangentially aligned myocytes that produce constrictive forces, which are unloading in nature. The ventricular myocardium is, therefore, able to function in an antagonistic fashion, with the prevailing constrictive forces...... acting simultaneously with a dilatory force component. The ratio of constrictive to dilating force varies locally according to the specific mural architecture. Such antagonism acts according to local demands to preserve the ventricular shape, store the elastic energy that drives the fast late systolic...

  5. Platformed antagonism: Racist discourses on fake Muslim Facebook pages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farkas, Johan; Schou, Jannick; Neumayer, Christina

    2018-01-01

    This research examines how fake identities on social media create and sustain antagonistic and racist discourses. It does so by analysing 11 Danish Facebook pages, disguised as Muslim extremists living in Denmark, conspiring to kill and rape Danish citizens. It explores how anonymous content...... producers utilize Facebook's socio-technical characteristics to construct, what we propose to term as, platformed antagonism. This term refers to socio-technical and discursive practices that produce new modes of antagonistic relations on social media platforms. Through a discourse-theoretical analysis...

  6. Molecular chaperones antagonize proteotoxicity by differentially modulating protein aggregation pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Peter M; Summers, Daniel W; Cyr, Douglas M

    2009-01-01

    The self-association of misfolded or damaged proteins into ordered amyloid-like aggregates characterizes numerous neurodegenerative disorders. Insoluble amyloid plaques are diagnostic of many disease states. Yet soluble, oligomeric intermediates in the aggregation pathway appear to represent the toxic culprit. Molecular chaperones regulate the fate of misfolded proteins and thereby influence their aggregation state. Chaperones conventionally antagonize aggregation of misfolded, disease proteins and assist in refolding or degradation pathways. Recent work suggests that chaperones may also suppress neurotoxicity by converting toxic, soluble oligomers into benign aggregates. Chaperones can therefore suppress or promote aggregation of disease proteins to ameliorate the proteotoxic accumulation of soluble, assembly intermediates.

  7. Building a new research framework for social evolution: intralocus caste antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennell, Tanya M; Holman, Luke; Morrow, Edward H; Field, Jeremy

    2018-01-16

    The breeding and non-breeding 'castes' of eusocial insects provide a striking example of role-specific selection, where each caste maximises fitness through different morphological, behavioural and physiological trait values. Typically, queens are long-lived egg-layers, while workers are short-lived, largely sterile foragers. Remarkably, the two castes are nevertheless produced by the same genome. The existence of inter-caste genetic correlations is a neglected consequence of this shared genome, potentially hindering the evolution of caste dimorphism: alleles that increase the productivity of queens may decrease the productivity of workers and vice versa, such that each caste is prevented from reaching optimal trait values. A likely consequence of this 'intralocus caste antagonism' should be the maintenance of genetic variation for fitness and maladaptation within castes (termed 'caste load'), analogous to the result of intralocus sexual antagonism. The aim of this review is to create a research framework for understanding caste antagonism, drawing in part upon conceptual similarities with sexual antagonism. By reviewing both the social insect and sexual antagonism literature, we highlight the current empirical evidence for caste antagonism, discuss social systems of interest, how antagonism might be resolved, and challenges for future research. We also introduce the idea that sexual and caste antagonism could interact, creating a three-way antagonism over gene expression. This includes unpacking the implications of haplodiploidy for the outcome of this complex interaction. © 2018 The Authors. Biological Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  8. Effects of Pollution on Vibrios in Woji River OJESANMI, A S; IBE, S N ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    1987). Incidence of. Vibrio cholerae from estuaries of the United States west coast. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 53, 1344-1348. Ndon, JA; Udo,SM; Wehrenberg, WB (1992). Vibrio-Associated Gastroenteritis in the lower Cross-. River basin of Nigeria.

  9. Prevalence and heterogeneity of Hemolysin gene vhh among hatchery isolates of Vibrio harveyi in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parvathi, A.; George; Kumar

    Vibrio harveyi, pathogenic to fish, harbor a hemolysin gene vhh, the homologues of which are found in many species of the Genus Vibrio. It is investigated that the prevalence of vhh gene among V. harveyi isolated from Penaeus monodon hatcheries...

  10. Liquid holding recovery and photoreactivation of the ultraviolet-inactivated vibrios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, S.K.; Chatterjee, S.N.

    1981-01-01

    The kinetics of liquid holding recovery and photoreactivation of the ultra-violet-inactivated vibrios have been investigated. Photoreactivation was highest (about 80%) for Vibrio cholerae (classical) strains but the liquid holding recovery was highest (about 29%) for Vibrio parahemolyticus ones. Significance of the differences between any two of the four vibrio biotypes in respect of their liquid holding recovery and also photoreactivation was analysed statistically. (auth.)

  11. Persistence of Antibiotic Resistant Vibrio spp. in Shellfish Hatchery Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubert, Javier; Osorio, Carlos R; Prado, Susana; Barja, Juan L

    2016-11-01

    The characterization of antibiotic-resistant vibrios isolated from shellfish aquaculture is necessary to elucidate the potential transfer of resistance and to establish effective strategies against vibriosis. With this aim, we analyzed a collection of bacterial isolates obtained from 15 failed hatchery larval cultures that, for the most part, had been treated experimentally with chloramphenicol to prevent vibriosis. Isolates were obtained during a 2-year study from experimental cultures of five different clam species. Among a total of 121 Vibrio isolates studied, 28 were found to be chloramphenicol resistant, suggesting that the shellfish hatchery had been using a sublethal concentration of the antibiotic. Interestingly, chloramphenicol-resistant vibrios showed also resistance to tetracycline and amoxicillin (group A; n = 19) or to streptomycin (group B; n = 9). Chloramphenicol-resistant vibrios were subjected to a PCR amplification and DNA sequencing of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase genes (cat), and the same approach was followed to study the tetracycline resistance markers (tet). 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing revealed that chloramphenicol-resistant vibrios pertained mostly to the Splendidus clade. Conjugation assays demonstrated that various R-plasmids which harbored the cat II/tet(D) genes and cat III gene in groups A and B respectively, were transferred to E. coli and bivalve pathogenic vibrios. Most interestingly, transconjugants exhibited the antibiotic resistance patterns of the donors, despite having been selected only on the basis of chloramphenicol resistance. This is the first report carried out in a bivalve hatchery elucidating the persistence of resistant vibrios, the mechanisms of antibiotic resistance, and the transfer of different R-plasmids.

  12. Antagonism between Bacteriostatic and Bactericidal Antibiotics Is Prevalent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázár, Viktória; Papp, Balázs; Arnoldini, Markus; Abel zur Wiesch, Pia; Busa-Fekete, Róbert; Fekete, Gergely; Pál, Csaba; Ackermann, Martin; Bonhoeffer, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Combination therapy is rarely used to counter the evolution of resistance in bacterial infections. Expansion of the use of combination therapy requires knowledge of how drugs interact at inhibitory concentrations. More than 50 years ago, it was noted that, if bactericidal drugs are most potent with actively dividing cells, then the inhibition of growth induced by a bacteriostatic drug should result in an overall reduction of efficacy when the drug is used in combination with a bactericidal drug. Our goal here was to investigate this hypothesis systematically. We first constructed time-kill curves using five different antibiotics at clinically relevant concentrations, and we observed antagonism between bactericidal and bacteriostatic drugs. We extended our investigation by performing a screen of pairwise combinations of 21 different antibiotics at subinhibitory concentrations, and we found that strong antagonistic interactions were enriched significantly among combinations of bacteriostatic and bactericidal drugs. Finally, since our hypothesis relies on phenotypic effects produced by different drug classes, we recreated these experiments in a microfluidic device and performed time-lapse microscopy to directly observe and quantify the growth and division of individual cells with controlled antibiotic concentrations. While our single-cell observations supported the antagonism between bacteriostatic and bactericidal drugs, they revealed an unexpected variety of cellular responses to antagonistic drug combinations, suggesting that multiple mechanisms underlie the interactions. PMID:24867991

  13. Chronicles of Insurrection: Tronti, Negri and the Subject of Antagonism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Toscano

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to trace the origins of contemporary ‘post-workerism’ in the formulation of concepts of political subjectivity, antagonism and insurrection in Tronti and Negri. In particular, it tries to excavate the seemingly paradoxical position which postulates the increasing immanence of struggles, as based on the Marxian thesis of real subsumption, together with the intensification of the political autonomy or separation of the working class. In order to grasp the political and theoretical proposals of Italian workerism and autonomism, Toscano concentrates on the thesis of a historical transformation of capitalism into an increasingly parasitical and politically violent social relation, a thesis which is grounded in an interpretation of Marx’s notion of ‘tendency’ and which serves as the background to the exploration, especially in Negri, of increasingly uncompromising forms of antagonism. The article focuses especially on Tronti’s so-called ‘Copernican revolution’—giving workers’ struggles primacy in the understanding of capitalism—and critically inquires into the effect of this workerist axiom on Negri’s writings on proletarian sabotage and insurrection in the 1970s. By way of a conclusion, it notes the difficulties in prolonging the workerist gambit in light of capital’s continued effort, as Tronti would put it, to emancipate itself from the working class.

  14. Antagonism trait facets and comprehensive psychosocial disability: Comparing information across self, informant, and interviewer reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Eunyoe; Nuzum, Hallie; Clark, Lee Anna

    2017-10-01

    It is widely known that personality traits collectively discussed as the Dark Triad are antagonistic and associated with poor interpersonal relationships, but few studies have examined how specific facets of antagonism are associated with psychosocial adjustment or how antagonism relates to psychosocial adjustment other than interpersonal functioning. The purpose of this study was to examine how 6 antagonism facets-manipulativeness, grandiosity, attention-seeking, hostility, callousness, and deceitfulness-relate to comprehensive psychosocial functional domains (i.e., well-being, interpersonal relationships, basic daily functioning) using information about both antagonism and functioning from 3 sources-self, informant, and interviewer. Data were from 318 primary participants and informants. We present 3 main findings: (1) When psychosocial functioning and antagonism traits were both rated by informants, all psychosocial disability domains were consistently positively associated with antagonism traits. (2) We next created a single psychosocial-disability factor score via principal factors analysis of all raters' psychosocial-functioning scores. When all 3 raters' reports of domain-level antagonism were used as independent variables in a simultaneous regression analysis to predict this overall functioning score, informant-reported antagonism most strongly predicted psychosocial functioning, followed by interviewer-rated antagonism. (3) We then created 6 facet scores by summing the 3 raters' scores on each. When we used these scores to predict psychosocial functioning, hostility was the main trait significantly predicting psychosocial functioning. The study provides further insight into associations of psychosocial disability with antagonism facets from different raters' perspectives. The findings thus further our understanding of psychosocial outcomes associated with antagonism, the core of the dark traits. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Anti-vibrio potentials of acetone and aqueous leaf extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the anti-vibrio potentials of acetone and aqueous leaf extracts of Ocimum gratissimum and determine its relevance in the treatment of vibrios infection. Methods: The agar-well diffusion method was used for screening the extracts for their anti-vibrio activity. Broth micro-dilution assay was used to ...

  16. Prevalence study of Vibrio species and frequency of the virulence genes of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from fresh and salted shrimps in Genaveh seaport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Hosseini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio species are important seafood-borne pathogens that are responsible for 50-70% of gasteroenteritis. The present study was carried out in order to determine the prevalence of Vibrio species and the distribution of tdh, tlh and trh virulence genes in Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from fresh and salted shrimp samples. Totally, 60 fresh and salted shrimp samples were collected from the Genaveh seaport. Microbial culture was used to isolate Vibrio species. In addition, the presences of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio cholera, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio harveyi and the virulence genes of V. parahaemolyticus were studied using the PCR method. Results showed that 20% of fresh and 23.33% of salted shrimp samples were positive for Vibrio species. In studied samples, V. vulnificus had the highest prevalence rate (8.33%, while V. cholera had the lowest prevalence rate (1.66%. From a total of 4 detected V. parahaemolyticus, all of them had tlh gene (100%. The distribution of tdh and trh genes in isolated V. parahaemolyticus strains were 50% and 25%, respectively. High prevalence of Vibrio species and especially virulent V. parahaemolyticus in samples confirmed the lack of hygienic condition in the production and distribution centers of shrimp.

  17. [Preparation of monoclonal antibodies against flagellin core protein of Vibrio cholerae and its application in establishing double-antibody sandwich ELISA for testing Vibrio cholerae from food products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jinxia; Zeng, Jing; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Haiyu; Liu, Xuesong; Cao, Dong

    2013-11-01

    To prepare the monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against flagellin core protein of Vibrio cholerae and establish the double-antibody sandwich ELISA method for testing Vibrio cholerae from food products. BALB/c mice were immunized with flagellin extracted from Vibrio cholerae Vc75 by differential centrifugation. The splenocytes from the immunized mice were fused with Sp2/0 myeloma cells when the antibody titer in serum reached 1:32 000. The hybridoma cell lines were obtained by regular subcloning and used to generate ascites. And mAbs reacting to Vibrio cholerae flagellin were achieved by purified from the ascites. Six hybridoma cell lines stably secreting mAbs against Vibrio cholerae flagellin were taken and named VcNo.1-VcNo.6. The mAb titer in serum by indirect ELISA was 1:2 × 10(6). SDS-PAGE showed that the flagellin protein molecular weight (Mr) was 44 000 and the purity was high. Double-antibody sandwich ELISA method was set up using VcNo.6 antibody for detecting Vibrio cholerae. The sensitivity reached 10(3) CFU/mL. The ELISA method showed high specificity to Vibrio cholerae through testing 100 Vibrio cholerae (100% positive) and 101 non-Vibrio cholerae strains (100% negative). The detection limit was 1 CFU/g sample in artificial contaminated samples. The mAbs against flagellin core protein of Vibrio cholerae was successfully prepared and used to set up the double-antibody sandwich ELISA. The mAb of VcNo.6 was highly specific to Vibrio cholerae. The sensitivity of the established ELISA was as high as 10(3) CFU/mL. Moreover, it did not react to non-Vibrio cholerae strains. Therefore, the mAbs of VcNo.6 could be widely used in Vibrio cholerae detection from food samples as well as clinical samples.

  18. Bovine Lactoferrin and Lactoferrin-Derived Peptides Inhibit the Growth of Vibrio cholerae and Other Vibrio species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Acosta-Smith

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria, some of which can cause serious infectious diseases. Vibrio infections are associated with the consumption of contaminated food and classified in Vibrio cholera infections and non-cholera Vibrio infections. In the present study, we investigate whether bovine lactoferrin (bLF and several synthetic peptides corresponding to bLF sequences, are able to inhibit the growth or have bactericidal effect against V. cholerae and other Vibrio species. The antibacterial activity of LF and LF-peptides was assessed by kinetics of growth or determination of colony forming unit in bacteria treated with the peptides and antibiotics. To get insight in the mode of action, the interaction between bLF and bLF-peptides (coupled to FITC and V. cholera was evaluated. The damage of effector-induced bacterial membrane permeability was measured by inclusion of the fluorescent dye propidium iodide using flow cytometry, whereas the bacterial ultrastructural damage in bacteria treated was observed by transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that bLF and LFchimera inhibited the growth of the V. cholerae strains; LFchimera permeabilized the bacteria which membranes were seriously damaged. Assays with a multidrug-resistant strain of Vibrio species indicated that combination of sub-lethal doses of LFchimera with ampicillin or tetracycline strongly reduced the concentration of the antibiotics to reach 95% growth inhibition. Furthermore, LFchimera were effective to inhibit the V. cholerae counts and damage due to this bacterium in a model mice. These data suggest that LFchimera and bLF are potential candidates to combat the V. cholerae and other multidrug resistant Vibrio species.

  19. Bovine Lactoferrin and Lactoferrin-Derived Peptides Inhibit the Growth of Vibrio cholerae and Other Vibrio species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Smith, Erika; Viveros-Jiménez, Karina; Canizalez-Román, Adrian; Reyes-Lopez, Magda; Bolscher, Jan G. M.; Nazmi, Kamran; Flores-Villaseñor, Hector; Alapizco-Castro, Gerardo; de la Garza, Mireya; Martínez-Garcia, Jesús J.; Velazquez-Roman, Jorge; Leon-Sicairos, Nidia

    2018-01-01

    Vibrio is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria, some of which can cause serious infectious diseases. Vibrio infections are associated with the consumption of contaminated food and classified in Vibrio cholera infections and non-cholera Vibrio infections. In the present study, we investigate whether bovine lactoferrin (bLF) and several synthetic peptides corresponding to bLF sequences, are able to inhibit the growth or have bactericidal effect against V. cholerae and other Vibrio species. The antibacterial activity of LF and LF-peptides was assessed by kinetics of growth or determination of colony forming unit in bacteria treated with the peptides and antibiotics. To get insight in the mode of action, the interaction between bLF and bLF-peptides (coupled to FITC) and V. cholera was evaluated. The damage of effector-induced bacterial membrane permeability was measured by inclusion of the fluorescent dye propidium iodide using flow cytometry, whereas the bacterial ultrastructural damage in bacteria treated was observed by transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that bLF and LFchimera inhibited the growth of the V. cholerae strains; LFchimera permeabilized the bacteria which membranes were seriously damaged. Assays with a multidrug-resistant strain of Vibrio species indicated that combination of sub-lethal doses of LFchimera with ampicillin or tetracycline strongly reduced the concentration of the antibiotics to reach 95% growth inhibition. Furthermore, LFchimera were effective to inhibit the V. cholerae counts and damage due to this bacterium in a model mice. These data suggest that LFchimera and bLF are potential candidates to combat the V. cholerae and other multidrug resistant Vibrio species. PMID:29375503

  20. Proteomics Analysis Reveals Previously Uncharacterized Virulence Factors in Vibrio proteolyticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Ray

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Vibrio include many pathogens of humans and marine animals that share genetic information via horizontal gene transfer. Hence, the Vibrio pan-genome carries the potential to establish new pathogenic strains by sharing virulence determinants, many of which have yet to be characterized. Here, we investigated the virulence properties of Vibrio proteolyticus, a Gram-negative marine bacterium previously identified as part of the Vibrio consortium isolated from diseased corals. We found that V. proteolyticus causes actin cytoskeleton rearrangements followed by cell lysis in HeLa cells in a contact-independent manner. In search of the responsible virulence factor involved, we determined the V. proteolyticus secretome. This proteomics approach revealed various putative virulence factors, including active type VI secretion systems and effectors with virulence toxin domains; however, these type VI secretion systems were not responsible for the observed cytotoxic effects. Further examination of the V. proteolyticus secretome led us to hypothesize and subsequently demonstrate that a secreted hemolysin, belonging to a previously uncharacterized clan of the leukocidin superfamily, was the toxin responsible for the V. proteolyticus-mediated cytotoxicity in both HeLa cells and macrophages. Clearly, there remains an armory of yet-to-be-discovered virulence factors in the Vibrio pan-genome that will undoubtedly provide a wealth of knowledge on how a pathogen can manipulate host cells.

  1. Non-Cholera Vibrios: The Microbial Barometer of Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker-Austin, Craig; Trinanes, Joaquin; Gonzalez-Escalona, Narjol; Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the role of climate change in driving the spread of waterborne infectious diseases, such as those caused by bacterial pathogens. One particular group of pathogenic bacteria - vibrios - are a globally important cause of diseases in humans and aquatic animals. These Gram-negative bacteria, including the species Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio cholerae, grow in warm, low-salinity waters, and their abundance in the natural environment mirrors ambient environmental temperatures. In a rapidly warming marine environment, there are greater numbers of human infections, and most notably outbreaks linked to extreme weather events such as heatwaves in temperate regions such as Northern Europe. Because the growth of pathogenic vibrios in the natural environment is largely dictated by temperature, we argue that this group of pathogens represents an important and tangible barometer of climate change in marine systems. We provide a number of specific examples of the impacts of climate change on this group of bacteria and their associated diseases, and discuss advanced strategies to improve our understanding of these emerging waterborne diseases through the integration of microbiological, genomic, epidemiological, climatic, and ocean sciences. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Antibiotic use for Vibrio infections: important insights from surveillance data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kam Cheong; Brown, Anthony M; Luscombe, Georgina M; Wong, Shin Jie; Mendis, Kumara

    2015-06-11

    There is a paucity of data on the in vivo efficacy of antibiotics for lethal Vibrio species. Analyses of long-term surveillance datasets may provide insights into use of antibiotics to decrease mortality. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Cholera and Other Vibrio Illness Surveillance (COVIS) dataset from 1990 to 2010, with 8056 records, was analysed to ascertain trends in antibiotics use and mortality. Two-thirds of patients (5243) were prescribed antibiotics - quinolones (56.1 %), cephalosporins (24.1 %), tetracyclines (23.5 %), and penicillins (15.4 %). Considering all Vibrio species, the only class of antibiotic associated with reduced odds of mortality was quinolone (odds ratio 0.56, 95 % CI 0.46-0.67). Patients with V. vulnificus treated according to CDC recommendations had lower mortality (quinolone alone: 16.7 %, 95 % CI 10.2-26.1; tetracycline plus cephalosporin: 21.7 %, 16.8-27.5; no antibiotic: 51.1 %, 45.6-56.7; each p Vibrio species, mortality rates increased with number of antibiotics in the treatment regimen (p Vibrio species, use of quinolones is associated with lower mortality and penicillin alone is not particularly effective. For the most lethal species, V. vulnificus, treatment that includes either quinolone or tetracycline is associated with lower mortality than cephalosporin alone. We recommend treating patients who present with a clinical syndrome suggestive of V. vulnificus infection with a treatment regimen that includes a quinolone.

  3. New Vibrio species associated to molluscan microbiota: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romalde, Jesús L.; Dieguez, Ana L.; Lasa, Aide; Balboa, Sabela

    2014-01-01

    The genus Vibrio consists of more than 100 species grouped in 14 clades that are widely distributed in aquatic environments such as estuarine, coastal waters, and sediments. A large number of species of this genus are associated with marine organisms like fish, molluscs and crustaceans, in commensal or pathogenic relations. In the last decade, more than 50 new species have been described in the genus Vibrio, due to the introduction of new molecular techniques in bacterial taxonomy, such as multilocus sequence analysis or fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism. On the other hand, the increasing number of environmental studies has contributed to improve the knowledge about the family Vibrionaceae and its phylogeny. Vibrio crassostreae, V. breoganii, V. celticus are some of the new Vibrio species described as forming part of the molluscan microbiota. Some of them have been associated with mortalities of different molluscan species, seriously affecting their culture and causing high losses in hatcheries as well as in natural beds. For other species, ecological importance has been demonstrated being highly abundant in different marine habitats and geographical regions. The present work provides an updated overview of the recently characterized Vibrio species isolated from molluscs. In addition, their pathogenic potential and/or environmental importance is discussed. PMID:24427157

  4. Role of Heat Shock Proteases in Quorum-Sensing-Mediated Regulation of Biofilm Formation byVibrioSpecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung-Jo; Jung, You-Chul; Park, Soon-Jung; Lee, Kyu-Ho

    2018-01-02

    Capsular polysaccharide (CPS) is essential for the dispersal of biofilms formed by the pathogenic bacterium Vibrio vulnificus CPS production is induced by the quorum-sensing (QS) master regulator SmcR when biofilms mature. However, V. vulnificus biofilms formed under heat shock conditions did not exhibit the dispersion stage. Transcripts of the CPS gene cluster were at basal levels in the heat-exposed cell owing to reduced cellular levels of SmcR. At least two proteases induced by heat shock, ClpPA and Lon, were responsible for determining the instability of SmcR. In vitro and in vivo assays demonstrated that SmcR levels were regulated via proteolysis by these proteases, with preferential proteolysis of monomeric SmcR. Thus, CPS production was not induced by QS when bacteria were heat treated. Further studies performed with other Vibrio species demonstrated that high temperature deactivated the QS circuits by increased proteolysis of their QS master regulators, thus resulting in alterations to the QS-regulated phenotypes, including biofilm formation. IMPORTANCE The term "quorum-sensing mechanism" is used to describe diverse bacterial cell density-dependent activities that are achieved by sensing of the signaling molecules and subsequent signal transduction to the master regulators. These well-known bacterial regulatory systems regulate the expression of diverse virulence factors and the construction of biofilms in pathogenic bacteria. There have been numerous studies designed to control bacterial quorum sensing by using small molecules to antagonize the quorum-sensing regulatory components or to interfere with the signaling molecules. In the present study, we showed that the quorum-sensing regulatory circuits of pathogenic Vibrio species were deactivated by heat shock treatment via highly increased proteolysis of the master transcription factors. Our results showed a new mode of quorum deactivation which can be achieved under conditions of high but nonlethal

  5. Isolation and characterization of five lytic bacteriophages infecting a Vibrio strain closely related to Vibrio owensii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan-Ping; Gong, Ting; Jost, Günter; Liu, Wen-Hua; Ye, De-Zan; Luo, Zhu-Hua

    2013-11-01

    Vibrio owensii is a potential bacterial pathogen in marine aquaculture system. In this study, five lytic phages specific against Vibrio strain B8D, closely related to V. owensii, were isolated from seawater of an abalone farm. The phages were characterized with respect to morphology, genome size, growth phenotype, as well as thermal, and pH stability. All phages were found to belong to the family Siphoviridae with long noncontractile tails and terminal fibers. Restriction analysis indicated that the five phages were dsDNA viruses with molecular weights ranging from c. 30 to 48 kb. One-step growth experiments revealed that the phages were heterogeneous in latent periods (10-70 min), rise periods (40-70 min), and burst sizes [23-331 plaque-forming units (PFU) per infected cell] at the same host strain. All phages were thermal stable and were tolerant to a wide range of pH. The results indicated that these phages could be potential candidates of a phage cocktail for biological control of V. owensii in aquaculture systems. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of molecular methods to discriminate the closely related species Vibrio fluvialis and Vibrio furnissii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmeister, Falko; Wieczorek, Angelina; Dieckmann, Ralf; Taureck, Karin; Strauch, Eckhard

    2014-10-01

    Vibrio furnissii and Vibrio fluvialis are two closely related species which are regarded as emerging human pathogens. Human infections have been mainly associated with consumption of seafood or drinking of contaminated water. V. furnissii strains can be distinguished from V. fluvialis by their ability to produce gas from fermentation of carbohydrates. In this study, we compare two phenotypic (biochemical testing and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time of flight mass spectrometry, MALDI-TOF MS) and three genotypic techniques (rpoB sequencing, conventional PCR and real-time PCR) for determination of the two species. The methods were evaluated on a collection of 42 V. furnissii and 32 V. fluvialis strains, which were isolated from marine environments and from animals intended for food production. Four of the applied methods allowed the unambiguous discrimination of the two species, while the biochemical testing was the least reliable technique, due to a high variation in the phenotype of gas production from carbohydrates. In view of the One Health concept reliable diagnostic techniques are a prerequisite for preventive public health measurements, as pathogens isolated from animals can cross species borders and methods for detection of sources, reservoirs and ways of transmission of pathogenic bacteria are indispensable for the prevention of infectious diseases in humans and animals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Vibrio parahaemolyticus- An emerging foodborne pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Nelapati

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a halophilic gram negative, motile, oxidase positive, straight or curved rod-shaped, facultative anaerobic bacteria that occur naturally in the marine environment. They form part of the indigenous microflora of aquatic habitats of various salinity and are the major causative agents for some of the most serious diseases in fish, shellfish and penacid shrimp. This human pathogen causes acute gastroenteritis characterized by diarrhea, vomiting and abdominal cramps through consumption of contaminated raw fish or shellfish. V. parahaemolyticus is the leading cause of gastroenteritis due to the consumption of seafood worldwide. The incidence of V. parahaemolyticus infection has been increasing in many parts of the world, due to the emergence of O3:K6 serotype carrying the tdh gene which is responsible for most outbreaks worldwide. The pathogenicity of this organism is closely correlated with the Kanagawa phenomenon (KP + due to production of Kanagawa hemolysin or the thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH. The TDH and TRH (TDH-related hemolysin encoded by tdh and trh genes are considered to be important virulence factors. [Vet. World 2012; 5(1.000: 48-63

  8. Surface-attachment sequence in Vibrio Cholerae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utada, Andrew; Gibiansky, Maxsim; Wong, Gerard

    2013-03-01

    Vibrio cholerae is a gram-negative bacterium that causes the human disease cholera. It is found natively in brackish costal waters in temperate climates, where it attaches to the surfaces of a variety of different aquatic life. V. cholerae has a single polar flagellum making it highly motile, as well as a number of different pili types, enabling it to attach to both biotic and abiotic surfaces. Using in-house built tracking software we track all surface-attaching bacteria from high-speed movies to examine the early-time attachment profile of v. cholerae onto a smooth glass surface. Similar to previous work, we observe right-handed circular swimming trajectories near surfaces; however, in addition we see a host of distinct motility mechanisms that enable rapid exploration of the surface before forming a more permanent attachment. Using isogenic mutants we show that the motility mechanisms observed are due to a complex combination of hydrodynamics and pili-surface interactions. Lauga, E., DiLuzio, W. R., Whitesides, G. M., Stone, H. A. Biophys. J. 90, 400 (2006).

  9. Characterization of clinical and environmental isolates of Vibrio cidicii sp. nov., a close relative of Vibrio navarrensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orata, Fabini D; Xu, Yue; Gladney, Lori M; Rishishwar, Lavanya; Case, Rebecca J; Boucher, Yan; Jordan, I King; Tarr, Cheryl L

    2016-10-01

    Four Vibrio spp. isolates from the historical culture collection at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, obtained from human blood specimens (n=3) and river water (n=1), show characteristics distinct from those of isolates of the most closely related species, Vibrio navarrensis and Vibrio vulnificus, based on phenotypic and genotypic tests. They are specifically adapted to survival in both freshwater and seawater, being able to grow in rich media without added salts as well as salinities above that of seawater. Phenotypically, these isolates resemble V. navarrensis, their closest known relative with a validly published name, but the group of isolates is distinguished from V. navarrensis by the ability to utilize l-rhamnose. Average nucleotide identity and percent DNA-DNA hybridization values obtained from the pairwise comparisons of whole-genome sequences of these isolates to V. navarrensis range from 95.4-95.8 % and 61.9-64.3 %, respectively, suggesting that the group represents a different species. Phylogenetic analysis of the core genome, including four protein-coding housekeeping genes (pyrH, recA, rpoA and rpoB), places these four isolates into their own monophyletic clade, distinct from V. navarrensis and V. vulnificus. Based on these differences, we propose these isolates represent a novel species of the genus Vibrio, for which the name Vibrio cidicii sp. nov. is proposed; strain LMG 29267T (=CIP 111013T=2756-81T), isolated from river water, is the type strain.

  10. Reclassification of the larval pathogen for marine bivalves Vibrio tubiashii subsp. europaeus as Vibrio europaeus sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubert, Javier; Romalde, Jesús L; Spinard, Edward J; Nelson, David R; Gomez-Chiarri, Marta; Barja, Juan L

    2016-11-01

    The Orientalis clade has a relevant significance for bivalve aquaculture since it includes the pathogens Vibrio bivalvicida, Vibrio tubiashii subsp. tubiashii and Vibrio tubiashii subsp. europaeus. However, the previous taxonomic description of the subspecies of V. tubiashii shows some incongruities that should be emended. In the genomic age, the comparison between genome assemblies is the key to clarify the taxonomic position of both subspecies. With this purpose, we have tested the ability of multilocus sequence analysis based on eight housekeeping gene sequences (gapA, gyrB, ftsZ, mreB, pyrH, recA, rpoA and topA), different in silico genome-to-genome comparisons, chemotaxonomic features and phenotypic traits to reclassify the subspecies V. tubiashii subsp. europaeus within the Orientalis clade. This polyphasic approach clearly demonstrated that this subspecies is phylogenetically and phenotypically distinct from V. tubiashii and should be elevated to the rank of species as Vibrio europaeus sp. nov. This reclassification allows us to update the Orientalis clade (V. bivalvicida,V. brasiliensis, V. crosai, V. hepatarius, V. orientalis, V. sinaloensis, V. tubiashii and V. europaeus sp. nov.) and reconstruct a better phylogeny of the genus Vibrio. An emended description of V. tubiashii is provided. Finally, the proposed novel species is represented by emergent bivalve pathogens [type strain PP-638T (=CECT 8136T=DSM 27349T), PP2-843 and 07/118 T2] responsible for high mortalities in Spanish and French hatcheries.

  11. Insights into bacteriophage application in controlling Vibrio species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vengadesh Letchumanan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial infections from various organisms including Vibrio sp. pose a serious hazard to humans in many forms from clinical infection to affecting the yield of agriculture and aquaculture via infection of livestock. Vibrio sp. is one of the main foodborne pathogens causing human infection and is also a common cause of losses in the aquaculture industry. Prophylactic and therapeutic usage of antibiotics has become the mainstay of managing this problem, however this in turn led to the emergence of multidrug resistant strains of bacteria in the environment; which has raised awareness of the critical need for alternative non antibiotic based methods of preventing and treating bacterial infections. Bacteriophages - viruses that infect and result in the death of bacteria – are currently of great interest as a highly viable alternative to antibiotics. This article provides an insight into bacteriophage application in controlling Vibrio species as well underlining the advantages and drawbacks of phage therapy.

  12. Molecular analysis of the emergence of pandemic Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, EF; Cohen, AL; Naughton, LM

    2008-01-01

    Background Vibrio parahaemolyticus is abundant in the aquatic environment particularly in warmer waters and is the leading cause of seafood borne gastroenteritis worldwide. Prior to 1995, numerous V. parahaemolyticus serogroups were associated with disease, however, in that year an O3:K6 serogroup...... the genomes of four published Vibrio species and constructed genome BLAST atlases. We identified 24 regions, gaps in the genome atlas, of greater than 10 kb that were unique to RIMD2210633. These 24 regions included an integron, f237 phage, 2 type III secretion systems (T3SS), a type VI secretion system (T6SS......) and 7 Vibrio parahaemolyticus genomic islands (VPaI-1 to VPaI-7). Comparative genomic analysis of our fifth genome, V. parahaemolyticus AQ3810, an O3:K6 isolate recovered in 1983, identified four regions unique to each V. parahaemolyticus strain. Interestingly, AQ3810 did not encode 8 of the 24 regions...

  13. Antibiotic-resistant mutants of γ-irradiated vibrios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokurova, E.N.; Golovina, V.S.

    1981-01-01

    It was demonstrated that a nutrition medium has a protective effect against γ-radiation-induced lethal damages to vibrios. The values of D 0 and LD 90 were 3 times higher for vibrios irradiated in a nutrition medium than in a physiological solution. There was a small shoulder in the survival curve under both irradiation conditions. Exposure of vibrios to γ-quanta induced mutations resistant to streptomycin, their frequency increasing exponentially with radiation dose. The frequency of spontaneous mutations resistant to streptomycin was (5.85+-1.90)x10 -8 . Mutations resistant to chloramphenicol did not occur spontaneously and were not induced by γ-radiation. A spontaneous streptomycin-resistant mutant did not differ in radiosensitivity from the parent strain: n=1.54 and 1.46, D 0 =12.2 and 12.1 Gy and LD 90 =32.7 and 33.9 Gy respectively [ru

  14. Insights into Bacteriophage Application in Controlling Vibrio Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letchumanan, Vengadesh; Chan, Kok-Gan; Pusparajah, Priyia; Saokaew, Surasak; Duangjai, Acharaporn; Goh, Bey-Hing; Ab Mutalib, Nurul-Syakima; Lee, Learn-Han

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial infections from various organisms including Vibrio sp. pose a serious hazard to humans in many forms from clinical infection to affecting the yield of agriculture and aquaculture via infection of livestock. Vibrio sp. is one of the main foodborne pathogens causing human infection and is also a common cause of losses in the aquaculture industry. Prophylactic and therapeutic usage of antibiotics has become the mainstay of managing this problem, however, this in turn led to the emergence of multidrug resistant strains of bacteria in the environment; which has raised awareness of the critical need for alternative non-antibiotic based methods of preventing and treating bacterial infections. Bacteriophages – viruses that infect and result in the death of bacteria – are currently of great interest as a highly viable alternative to antibiotics. This article provides an insight into bacteriophage application in controlling Vibrio species as well underlining the advantages and drawbacks of phage therapy. PMID:27486446

  15. Therapeutic potential of endothelin receptor antagonism in kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czopek, Alicja; Moorhouse, Rebecca; Webb, David J; Dhaun, Neeraj

    2016-03-01

    Our growing understanding of the role of the endothelin (ET) system in renal physiology and pathophysiology is from emerging studies of renal disease in animal models and humans. ET receptor antagonists reduce blood pressure and proteinuria in chronic kidney disease and cause regression of renal injury in animals. However, the therapeutic potential of ET receptor antagonism has not been fully explored and clinical studies have been largely limited to patients with diabetic nephropathy. There remains a need for more work in nondiabetic chronic kidney disease, end-stage renal disease (patients requiring maintenance dialysis and those with a functioning kidney transplant), ischemia reperfusion injury, and sickle cell disease. The current review summarizes the most recent advances in both preclinical and clinical studies of ET receptor antagonists in the field of kidney disease. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Selective and mixed endothelin receptor antagonism in cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaun, Neeraj; Pollock, David M; Goddard, Jane; Webb, David J

    2007-11-01

    Within five years of discovering endothelin (ET-1) in 1988, the first report of an orally available ET receptor antagonist was published. Within twelve years, bosentan, the first ET receptor antagonist to gain marketing authorization, was made available for the treatment of pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH). Since this milestone in ET biology, several ET receptor antagonists have been developed, principally to target cardiovascular disease states. ET-1 acts through two receptors--ET(A) and ET(B). Currently, the mixed antagonist, bosentan, and the selective ET(A) antagonist, sitaxsentan, are both licensed for the treatment of PAH, and clinical trials with these and other agents are ongoing for many diseases, including scleroderma, diabetic nephropathy and prostate cancer. Although there has been no argument about the importance of blocking ET(A) receptors, there remains a long-running debate as to whether additional ET(B) antagonism is of benefit, and this is the topic of the following review.

  17. Calcitonin gene-related peptide antagonism and cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashina, Håkan; Newman, Lawrence; Ashina, Sait

    2017-01-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a key signaling molecule involved in migraine pathophysiology. Efficacy of CGRP monoclonal antibodies and antagonists in migraine treatment has fueled an increasing interest in the prospect of treating cluster headache (CH) with CGRP antagonism. The exact...... role of CGRP and its mechanism of action in CH have not been fully clarified. A search for original studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in English was performed in PubMed and in ClinicalTrials.gov . The search term used was "cluster headache and calcitonin gene related peptide......" and "primary headaches and calcitonin gene related peptide." Reference lists of identified articles were also searched for additional relevant papers. Human experimental studies have reported elevated plasma CGRP levels during both spontaneous and glyceryl trinitrate-induced cluster attacks. CGRP may play...

  18. Interferon Induction by RNA Viruses and Antagonism by Viral Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuchen Nan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Interferons are a group of small proteins that play key roles in host antiviral innate immunity. Their induction mainly relies on host pattern recognition receptors (PRR. Host PRR for RNA viruses include Toll-like receptors (TLR and retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I like receptors (RLR. Activation of both TLR and RLR pathways can eventually lead to the secretion of type I IFNs, which can modulate both innate and adaptive immune responses against viral pathogens. Because of the important roles of interferons, viruses have evolved multiple strategies to evade host TLR and RLR mediated signaling. This review focuses on the mechanisms of interferon induction and antagonism of the antiviral strategy by RNA viruses.

  19. Vibrio injenensis sp. nov., isolated from human clinical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Jayoung; Shin, Jeong Hwan; Shin, Yeseul; Park, In-Soon; Kim, Hongik; Kook, Joong-Ki; Kang, Seok-Seong; Kim, Dae-Soo; Park, Kun-Hyang; Chang, Young-Hyo

    2017-01-01

    Vibrio species are well known as motile, mostly oxidase-positive, facultative anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria. They are abundant in aquatic environments and are a common cause of human infections including diarrhea, soft tissue diseases, and bacteremia. Here, two Gram-negative bacteria, designated M12-1144 T and M12-1181, were isolated from human clinical specimens and identified using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Phylogenetic study based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the isolates belong to the genus Vibrio, and are closely related to Vibrio metschnikovii KCTC 32284 T (98.3%) and Vibrio cincinnatiensis KCTC 2733 T (97.8%). The major fatty acids were summed feature 3 (C 16:1 ω7c/C 16:1 ω6c, 38.0%), C 16:0 (23.0%), and summed feature 8 (C 18:1 ω7c or C 18:1 ω6c, 19.3%) and major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, and phosphatidylethanolamine. The G + C content of the genomic DNA was determined to be 44.1 mol%. DNA-DNA relatedness between the two newly isolated strains and V. metschnikovii KCTC 32284 T and V. cincinnatiensis KCTC 2733 T was between 42.6 to 47.5%. The similarities of genome-to-genome distance between M12-1144 T and related species ranged from 18.4-54.8%. Based on these results, a new species of the genus Vibrio, Vibrio injenensis is proposed. The type strain is M12-1144 T (=KCTC 32233 T  =JCM 30011 T ).

  20. Ozone Technology for Pathogenic Bacteria of Shrimp (Vibrio sp.) Disinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulansarie, Ria; Dyah Pita Rengga, Wara; Rustamadji

    2018-03-01

    One of important marine commodities in Indonesia, shrimps are susceptible with Vibrio sp bacteria infection. That infection must be cleared. One of the technologies for disinfecting Vibrio sp. is ozone technology. In this research, Vibrio sp. is a pathogenic bacterium which infects Penaeus vannamei. Ozone technology is applied for threatening Vibrio sp. In this research, ozonation was performed in different pH. Those are neutral, acid (pH=4), and base (pH=9). The sample was water from shrimp embankment from Balai Besar Perikanan Budidaya Air Payau (BBPBAP) located in Jepara. That water was the habitat of Penaeus vannamei shrimp. The brand of ozonator used in this research was “AQUATIC”. The used ozonator in this research had 0,0325 g/hour concentration. The flow rate of sample used in this research was 2 L/minute. The ozonation process was performed in continuous system. A tank, pipe, pump, which was connected with microfilter, flowmeter and ozone generator were the main tools in this research. It used flowmeter and valve to set the flow rate scalable as desired. The first step was the insert of 5 L sample into the receptacle. Then, by using a pump, a sample supplied to the microfilter to be filtered and passed into the flow meter. The flow rate was set to 2 LPM. Furthermore, gas from ozonator passed to the flow for the disinfection of bacteria and then was recycled to the tank and the process run continuously. Samples of the results of ozonation were taken periodically from time 0, 3, 7, 12, 18, 24 to 30 minutes. The samples of the research were analyzed using Total Plate Count (TPC) test in BBPBAP Jepara to determine the number of Vibrio sp. bacteria. The result of this research was the optimal condition for pathogenic bacteria of shrimp (Vibrio sp.) ozonation was in neutral condition.

  1. Monomicrobial Aeromonas and Vibrio bacteremia in cirrhotic adults in southern Taiwan: Similarities and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syue, Ling-Shan; Chen, Po-Lin; Wu, Chi-Jung; Lee, Nan-Yao; Lee, Ching-Chi; Li, Chia-Wen; Li, Ming-Chi; Tang, Hung-Jen; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Ko, Wen-Chien

    2016-08-01

    Aeromonas and Vibrio are important water-borne pathogens causing substantial morbidity and mortality in cirrhotic patients in Taiwan, but the differences in clinical manifestations of Aeromonas and Vibrio bacteremia have not been reported in detail. From January 2003 to September 2013, cirrhotic patients with monomicrobial Aeromonas or Vibrio bacteremia at a medical center in Taiwan were included in this study. The study population consisted of 77 cirrhotic patients with Aeromonas bacteremia and 48 patients with Vibrio bacteremia. Both pathogens clustered during the summer season; Vibrio bacteremia was more correlated with higher temperatures (Vibrio: r(2) = 0.95, p Vibrio bacteremia mainly occurred in mildly or moderately decompensated cirrhosis (Child-Pugh class A and B: 45.8% vs. 20.8%, p = 0.003), and caused more soft-tissue infections (31.3% vs. 5.2%; p Vibrio and Aeromonas bacteremia (14.6% vs. 14.3%, p = 0.96), but those with Vibrio bacteremia underwent a fulminant course, as evidenced by a shorter time from bacteremia onset to death (3.1 days vs. 8.2 days, p = 0.04). In cirrhotic patients, bacteremia caused by Aeromonas and Vibrio species clustered in summer months and caused similar mortality, but Vibrio bacteremia led to a more severe and fulminant sepsis. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Long-term effects of ocean warming on vibrios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruzzo, C.; Pezzati, E.; Brettar, I.; Reid, P. C.; Colwell, R.; Höfle, M. G.; vezzulli, L.

    2012-12-01

    Vibrios are a major source of human disease, play an important role in the ecology and health of marine animals and are regarded as an abundant fraction of culturable bacteria of the ocean. There has been a considerable global effort to reduce the risk of Vibrio infections and yet in most countries both human and non-human illnesses associated with these bacteria are increasing. The cause of this increase is not known, but since vibrios are strongly thermodependant there is good reason to believe that global warming may have contributed. To investigate this possibility we examined historical samples from the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) archive using advanced molecular analysis and pyrosequencing. For the first time we were able to recover environmental DNA from CPR samples that had been stored for up to ~50 years in a formalin-fixed format, which is suitable for molecular analyses of the associated prokaryotic community. To overcome the problem of DNA degradation due to the sample age and storage in formalin we develop an unbiased index of abundance for Vibrio quantification in CPR samples termed a 'relative Vibrio Abundance Index' (VAI). VAI is defined as the ratio of Vibrio spp. cells to total bacterial cells assessed by Real-Time PCR using genus-specific and universal primers, respectively, producing small amplicons of similar size (~100bp). We assessed VAI index on 55 samples (each representing 10 nautical miles tow equal to 3 m3 of filtered sewater) collected in August by the CPR survey in the North Sea from off the Rhine and Humber estuaries between 1961 to 2005 showing that the genus Vibrio has increased in prevalence in the last 44 years and that this increase is correlated significantly, during the same period, with warming sea surface temperature. In addition, by applying deep sequencing analysis of a subset of these samples we provide evidence that bacteria belonging to the genus Vibrio, including the human pathogen V. cholerae, not only increased

  3. Leucine uptake and bacteriophage adsorption a Vibrio strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robb, F.T.; Robb, S.M.; Mothibeli, M.A.; Woods, D.R.

    1982-01-01

    Vibrio mutants with altered leucine transport systems were isolated as part of a study on the physiological characteristics of stationary phase Vibrio cells. The strains are investigated and show that mutants which are defective in leucine uptake are unable to adsorb phage α3a. Elevated leucine transport produces a concomitant increase in the rate of phage adsorption. Phage adsortpion and L-leucine transport experiments indicated that there was a correlation between phage α3a adsorption and leucine uptake. The results suggest that the transport of L-leucine and phage α3 are linked

  4. Phenotypic characterization and RAPD fingerprinting of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio alginolyticus isolated during Tunisian fish farm outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadok, Khouadja; Mejdi, Snoussi; Nourhen, Saidi; Amina, Bakhrouf

    2013-01-01

    The genus Vibrio is characterized by a large number of species and some of them are human pathogens causing gastrointestinal and wound infections through the ingestion or manipulation of contaminated fishes and shellfish including Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio alginolyticus. In this study, we reported the phenotypic and molecular characterization of 9 V. parahaemolyticus and 27 V. alginolyticus strains isolated from outbreaks affecting cultured Gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) and Sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) along the Tunisian coast from 2008 to 2009. All isolates were tested for the presence of DNase, caseinase, protease, lipase, amylase, gelatinase, hemolytic activity and antibacterial resistance to different drugs. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA was used to examine the genetic relatedness among the V. parahaemolyticus and V. alginolyticus strains.

  5. Unique and conserved genome regions in Vibrio harveyi and related species in comparison with the shrimp pathogen Vibrio harveyi CAIM 1792

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valles, Iliana Espinoza; Vora, Gary J; Lin, Baochuan

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio harveyi CAIM 1792 is a marine bacterial strain that causes mortality in farmed shrimp in north-west Mexico, and the identification of virulence genes in this strain is important for understanding its pathogenicity. The aim of this work was to compare the V. harveyi CAIM 1792 genome....... The proteome of CAIM 1792 had higher similarity to those of other V. harveyi strains (78 %) than to those of the other closely related species Vibrio owensii (67 %), Vibrio rotiferianus (63 %) and Vibrio campbellii (59 %). Pan-genome ORFans trees showed the best fit with the accepted phylogeny based on DNA...

  6. Development of a More Sensitive and Specific Chromogenic Agar Medium for the Detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Other Vibrio Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Marie; Thorsen, Trevor

    2016-11-08

    Foodborne infections in the US caused by Vibrio species have shown an upward trend. In the genus Vibrio, V. parahaemolyticus is responsible for the majority of Vibrio-associated infections. Thus, accurate differentiation among Vibrio spp. and detection of V. parahaemolyticus is critically important to ensure the safety of our food supply. Although molecular techniques are increasingly common, culture-depending methods are still routinely done and they are considered standard methods in certain circumstances. Hence, a novel chromogenic agar medium was tested with the goal of providing a better method for isolation and differentiation of clinically relevant Vibrio spp. The protocol compared the sensitivity, specificity and detection limit for the detection of V. parahaemolyticus between the new chromogenic medium and a conventional medium. Various V. parahaemolyticus strains (n=22) representing diverse serotypes and source of origins were used. They were previously identified by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and further verified in our laboratory by tlh-PCR. In at least four separate trials, these strains were inoculated on the chromogenic agar and thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose (TCBS) agar, which is the recommended medium for culturing this species, followed by incubation at 35-37 °C for 24-96 hr. Three V. parahaemolyticus strains (13.6%) did not grow optimally on TCBS, nonetheless exhibited green colonies if there was growth. Two strains (9.1%) did not yield the expected cyan colonies on the chromogenic agar. Non-V. parahaemolyticus strains (n=32) were also tested to determine the specificity of the chromogenic agar. Among these strains, 31 did not grow or exhibited other colony morphologies. The mean recovery of V. parahaemolyticus on the chromogenic agar was ~96.4% relative to tryptic soy agar supplemented with 2% NaCl. In conclusion, the new chromogenic agar is an effective medium to detect V

  7. Replication ofVibrio choleraeclassical CTX phage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Jin; Yu, Hyun Jin; Lee, Je Hee; Kim, Jae-Ouk; Han, Seung Hyun; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Chun, Jongsik; Nair, G Balakrish; Kim, Dong Wook

    2017-02-28

    The toxigenic classical and El Tor biotype Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1 strains are generated by lysogenization of host-type-specific cholera toxin phages (CTX phages). Experimental evidence of the replication and transmission of an El Tor biotype-specific CTX phage, CTX-1, has explained the evolution of V. cholerae El Tor biotype strains. The generation of classical biotype strains has not been demonstrated in the laboratory, and the classical biotype-specific CTX phage, CTX-cla, is considered to be defective with regard to replication. However, the identification of atypical El Tor strains that contain CTX-cla-like phage, CTX-2, indicates that CTX-cla and CTX-2 replicate and can be transmitted to V. cholerae strains. The replication of CTX-cla and CTX-2 phages and the transduction of El Tor biotype strains by various CTX phages under laboratory conditions are demonstrated in this report. We have established a plasmid-based CTX phage replication system that supports the replication of CTX-1, CTX-cla, CTX-2, and CTX-O139. The replication of CTX-2 from the tandem repeat of lysogenic CTX-2 in Wave 2 El Tor strains is also presented. El Tor biotype strains can be transduced by CTX phages in vitro by introducing a point mutation in toxT , the transcriptional activator of the tcp (toxin coregulated pilus) gene cluster and the cholera toxin gene. This mutation also increases the expression of cholera toxin in El Tor strains in a sample single-phase culture. Our results thus constitute experimental evidence of the genetic mechanism of the evolution of V. cholerae .

  8. The evolution of reduced antagonism--A role for host-parasite coevolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, A K; Stoy, K S; Gelarden, I A; Penley, M J; Lively, C M; Morran, L T

    2015-11-01

    Why do some host-parasite interactions become less antagonistic over evolutionary time? Vertical transmission can select for reduced antagonism. Vertical transmission also promotes coevolution between hosts and parasites. Therefore, we hypothesized that coevolution itself may underlie transitions to reduced antagonism. To test the coevolution hypothesis, we selected for reduced antagonism between the host Caenorhabditis elegans and its parasite Serratia marcescens. This parasite is horizontally transmitted, which allowed us to study coevolution independently of vertical transmission. After 20 generations, we observed a response to selection when coevolution was possible: reduced antagonism evolved in the copassaged treatment. Reduced antagonism, however, did not evolve when hosts or parasites were independently selected without coevolution. In addition, we found strong local adaptation for reduced antagonism between replicate host/parasite lines in the copassaged treatment. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that coevolution was critical to the rapid evolution of reduced antagonism. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  9. Detection of quorum sensing molecules from Vibrio harveyi and use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explores the extraction and detection processes of quorum sensing molecules such as N-aceyl homoserine lactone compounds (AHL) from marine Vibrio harveyi. The spent culture of V. harveyi was solvent partitioned for AHL, rotary evaporated and re-suspended in 50% acetonitrile then detected with reporter ...

  10. Detection of viable toxigenic Vibrio cholerae and virulent Shigella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DRINIE

    2003-04-02

    Apr 2, 2003 ... Key words: Vibrio cholerae, Shigella, water-borne pathogens, polymerase chain reaction, environmental waters, drinking water, detection. Introduction ... in drinking water supplies and source waters should thus be viewed as a high priority. ... water, tap water and treated effluent). The bacterial cells from ...

  11. Localization of immunodominant linear B-cell epitopes of Vibrio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2012-05-01

    May 1, 2012 ... Outer membrane protein U (OmpU), an adhesion protein of Vibrio mimicus, is a good antigen, but its epitopes are still unclear. In order to locate the epitopes of OmpU protein, epitope prediction was performed using the amino acid sequence of OmpU protein of V. mimicus HX4 strain that was isolated.

  12. Vibrio trends in the ecology of the Venice lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Shamsur; Martino, Maria Elena; Cardazzo, Barbara; Facco, Pierantonio; Bordin, Paola; Mioni, Renzo; Novelli, Enrico; Fasolato, Luca

    2014-04-01

    Vibrio is a very diverse genus that is responsible for different human and animal diseases. The accurate identification of Vibrio at the species level is important to assess the risks related to public health and diseases caused by aquatic organisms. The ecology of Vibrio spp., together with their genetic background, represents an important key for species discrimination and evolution. Thus, analyses of population structure and ecology association are necessary for reliable characterization of bacteria and to investigate whether bacterial species are going through adaptation processes. In this study, a population of Vibrionaceae was isolated from shellfish of the Venice lagoon and analyzed in depth to study its structure and distribution in the environment. A multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) was developed on the basis of four housekeeping genes. Both molecular and biochemical approaches were used for species characterization, and the results were compared to assess the consistency of the two methods. In addition, strain ecology and the association between genetic information and environment were investigated through statistical models. The phylogenetic and population analyses achieved good species clustering, while biochemical identification was demonstrated to be imprecise. In addition, this study provided a fine-scale overview of the distribution of Vibrio spp. in the Venice lagoon, and the results highlighted a preferential association of the species toward specific ecological variables. These findings support the use of MLSA for taxonomic studies and demonstrate the need to consider environmental information to obtain broader and more accurate bacterial characterization.

  13. Detection and confirmation of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-08-20

    Aug 20, 2013 ... PCR template. Therefore, the multiplex PCR assay described herein is a quick, sensitive and effective method for monitoring of V. cholerae in the environment as well as for confirmation of its toxigenicity and epidemic potential. CONCLUSION. Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 is the major causative agent of.

  14. Biofilm recruitment of Vibrio cholerae by matrix proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duperthuy, Marylise; Uhlin, Bernt Eric; Wai, Sun Nyunt

    2015-11-01

    The appearance of bacterial biofilms involves secretion of polysaccharides and proteins that form an extracellular matrix embedding the bacteria. Proteases have also been observed, but their role has remained unclear. Smith and co-workers have now found that proteolysis can contribute to further recruitment of bacteria to Vibrio cholerae biofilms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Detection and confirmation of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epidemic cholera caused by toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 is a major health problem in several developing countries. Traditional methods for identifying V. cholerae involve cultural, biochemical and immunological assays which are cumbersome and often take several days to complete. In the present study, a direct cell ...

  16. Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns and Plasmid Profile of Vibrio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    ABSTRACT: The antibiotic susceptibility patterns and plasmid profile were studied for 18(32.14%) samples of Vibrio cholerae isolates recovered from water samples from Elele Community. All isolates showed a multiple resistance patterns to 7 antibiotics namely amoxicillin, cotrimoxazole, nitrofurantoin, gentamicin,.

  17. Prevalence of Vibrio cholerae in rivers of Mpumalanga province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cholera is a life-threatening diarrhoeal disease, which mainly affects inhabitants of developing countries due to poor socio-economic conditions and lack of access to potable water and sanitation. Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae are the aetiological agents of cholera. These bacteria are autochthonous to aquatic environments, ...

  18. Filamentous phage associated with recent pandemic strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    OpenAIRE

    Iida, T.; Hattori, A.; Tagomori, K.; Nasu, H.; Naim, R.; Honda, T.

    2001-01-01

    A group of pandemic strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus has recently appeared in Asia and North America. We demonstrate that a filamentous phage is specifically associated with the pandemic V. parahaemolyticus strains. An open reading frame unique to the phage is a useful genetic marker to identify these strains.

  19. Survival of Vibrio cholerae in industrially polluted water, with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    containing industrial effluents. The effect of iron as well as pH on the survival of Vibrio cholerae (non-O1, El Tor and classical strains) in water samples from 12 points, where selected industrial effluents were discharged into rivers, was studied.

  20. Extraction from prawn shells of substances cryoprotective for Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimodori, S; Moriya, T; Kohashi, O; Faming, D; Amako, K

    1989-10-01

    Substances cryoprotective for Vibrio cholerae were detected from prawn shells immersed in phosphate-buffered saline. This cryoprotective activity was heat resistant and sensitive to treatment with trypsin. For the exhibition of its full activity, the presence of Mg ion was indispensable. The cryoprotective activity of this substance was more active than that of other known cryoprotectants, like glycerol or serum.

  1. Genome sequence of the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae Amazonia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, C.C.; Marin, M.A.; Dias, G.M.; Dutilh, B.E.; Edwards, R.A.; Iida, T.; Thompson, F.L.; Vicente, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 Amazonia is a pathogen that was isolated from cholera-like diarrhea cases in at least two countries, Brazil and Ghana. Based on multilocus sequence analysis, this lineage belongs to a distinct profile compared to strains from El Tor and classical biotypes. The genomic analysis

  2. Ion-swimming speed variation of Vibrio cholerae cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present work we report the variation in swimming speed of Vibrio cholerae with respect to the change in concentration of sodium ions in the medium. We have also studied the variation in swimming speed with respect to temperature. We find that the swimming speed initially shows a linear increase with the increase of ...

  3. Vibrio damsela associated with diseased fish in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Dalsgaard, Inger; Larsen, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    A total of 26 Vibrio damsela strains were isolated in Denmark. Fifteen strains were isolated from the head kidney of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in aquaculture, eight were from organs of two stingrays (Dasyatis pastinaca) held in captivity, two were from organs and pathological material...

  4. Localization of immunodominant linear B-cell epitopes of Vibrio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Outer membrane protein U (OmpU), an adhesion protein of Vibrio mimicus, is a good antigen, but its epitopes are still unclear. In order to locate the epitopes of OmpU protein, epitope prediction was performed using the amino acid sequence of OmpU protein of V. mimicus HX4 strain that was isolated from the diseased ...

  5. Pseudomonas piscicida kills vibrios by two distinct mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseudoalteromonas piscicida is a naturally-occurring marine bacterium which kills competing bacteria, including vibrios. In studies by Richards et al. (AEM00175-17), three strains of P. piscicida were isolated and characterized. Strains secreted proteolytic enzymes which likely killed competing or...

  6. Vibrio Cholerae 01 Infections In Jos, Nigeria | Opajobi | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study to determine the prevalence of Vibrio cholerae 01 in stool sample submitted for routine examination of enteric pathogens, as well as identify the serotypes and antibiogram of the isolates to commonly used antibiotics was undertaken. The survey involved the examination of 774 (763 stool and 11 rectal swabs) ...

  7. In situ measured elimination of Vibrio cholerae from brackish water

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martínez-P., M. E.; Macek, Miroslav; Castro-G., M. T.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 1 (2004), s. 133-140 ISSN 1360-2276 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME 296 Grant - others:UNAM/DGAPA/PAPIT(MX) IN216796 Keywords : Vibrio cholera e * protozoan feeding * brackish water Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.969, year: 2004

  8. Salmonella and Vibrio cholerae in Nile perch ( Lates niloticus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nile perch (Lates niloticus) industry in East Africa has suffered severe economic losses in the last few years due to failure to comply with the microbiological standards of European Union (E.U). Fresh and frozen products have been suspected to be contaminated with Salmonella and Vibrio cholerae. This has led to a ...

  9. Isolation and molecular identification of Vibrio spp. by sequencing of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Out of the 93 cultured samples only 48 (51.6%) yielded colonies on Thiosulfate Citrate Bile Salt agar (TCBS) with culture characteristics of Vibrio spp. More than half (n=27) of processed seafood samples (n=46) yielded colonies on TCBS, while only 44.6% of samples of meat and meat products showed colonies on TCBS.

  10. Natural modulators of Vibrios in seawater and shellfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naturally occurring marine bacteria, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus, are major threats to the safety of molluscan shellfish in the US and elsewhere. Illnesses range from mild gastrointestinal upset to septicemia and death. In studies on the uptake and persistence of V. parahaemolyticus ...

  11. Proteomics Analysis Reveals Previously Uncharacterized Virulence Factors in Vibrio proteolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Ann; Kinch, Lisa N; de Souza Santos, Marcela; Grishin, Nick V; Orth, Kim; Salomon, Dor

    2016-07-26

    Members of the genus Vibrio include many pathogens of humans and marine animals that share genetic information via horizontal gene transfer. Hence, the Vibrio pan-genome carries the potential to establish new pathogenic strains by sharing virulence determinants, many of which have yet to be characterized. Here, we investigated the virulence properties of Vibrio proteolyticus, a Gram-negative marine bacterium previously identified as part of the Vibrio consortium isolated from diseased corals. We found that V. proteolyticus causes actin cytoskeleton rearrangements followed by cell lysis in HeLa cells in a contact-independent manner. In search of the responsible virulence factor involved, we determined the V. proteolyticus secretome. This proteomics approach revealed various putative virulence factors, including active type VI secretion systems and effectors with virulence toxin domains; however, these type VI secretion systems were not responsible for the observed cytotoxic effects. Further examination of the V. proteolyticus secretome led us to hypothesize and subsequently demonstrate that a secreted hemolysin, belonging to a previously uncharacterized clan of the leukocidin superfamily, was the toxin responsible for the V. proteolyticus-mediated cytotoxicity in both HeLa cells and macrophages. Clearly, there remains an armory of yet-to-be-discovered virulence factors in the Vibrio pan-genome that will undoubtedly provide a wealth of knowledge on how a pathogen can manipulate host cells. The pan-genome of the genus Vibrio is a potential reservoir of unidentified toxins that can provide insight into how members of this genus have successfully risen as emerging pathogens worldwide. We focused on Vibrio proteolyticus, a marine bacterium that was previously implicated in virulence toward marine animals, and characterized its interaction with eukaryotic cells. We found that this bacterium causes actin cytoskeleton rearrangements and leads to cell death. Using a

  12. Deep-sea hydrothermal vent bacteria related to human pathogenic Vibrio species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Nur A; Grim, Christopher J; Lipp, Erin K; Rivera, Irma N G; Chun, Jongsik; Haley, Bradd J; Taviani, Elisa; Choi, Seon Young; Hoq, Mozammel; Munk, A Christine; Brettin, Thomas S; Bruce, David; Challacombe, Jean F; Detter, J Chris; Han, Cliff S; Eisen, Jonathan A; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R

    2015-05-26

    Vibrio species are both ubiquitous and abundant in marine coastal waters, estuaries, ocean sediment, and aquaculture settings worldwide. We report here the isolation, characterization, and genome sequence of a novel Vibrio species, Vibrio antiquarius, isolated from a mesophilic bacterial community associated with hydrothermal vents located along the East Pacific Rise, near the southwest coast of Mexico. Genomic and phenotypic analysis revealed V. antiquarius is closely related to pathogenic Vibrio species, namely Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio harveyi, and Vibrio vulnificus, but sufficiently divergent to warrant a separate species status. The V. antiquarius genome encodes genes and operons with ecological functions relevant to the environment conditions of the deep sea and also harbors factors known to be involved in human disease caused by freshwater, coastal, and brackish water vibrios. The presence of virulence factors in this deep-sea Vibrio species suggests a far more fundamental role of these factors for their bacterial host. Comparative genomics revealed a variety of genomic events that may have provided an important driving force in V. antiquarius evolution, facilitating response to environmental conditions of the deep sea.

  13. Household Transmission of Vibrio cholerae in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D Sugimoto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae infections cluster in households. This study's objective was to quantify the relative contribution of direct, within-household exposure (for example, via contamination of household food, water, or surfaces to endemic cholera transmission. Quantifying the relative contribution of direct exposure is important for planning effective prevention and control measures.Symptom histories and multiple blood and fecal specimens were prospectively collected from household members of hospital-ascertained cholera cases in Bangladesh from 2001-2006. We estimated the probabilities of cholera transmission through 1 direct exposure within the household and 2 contact with community-based sources of infection. The natural history of cholera infection and covariate effects on transmission were considered. Significant direct transmission (p-value<0.0001 occurred among 1414 members of 364 households. Fecal shedding of O1 El Tor Ogawa was associated with a 4.9% (95% confidence interval: 0.9%-22.8% risk of infection among household contacts through direct exposure during an 11-day infectious period (mean length. The estimated 11-day risk of O1 El Tor Ogawa infection through exposure to community-based sources was 2.5% (0.8%-8.0%. The corresponding estimated risks for O1 El Tor Inaba and O139 infection were 3.7% (0.7%-16.6% and 8.2% (2.1%-27.1% through direct exposure, and 3.4% (1.7%-6.7% and 2.0% (0.5%-7.3% through community-based exposure. Children under 5 years-old were at elevated risk of infection. Limitations of the study may have led to an underestimation of the true risk of cholera infection. For instance, available covariate data may have incompletely characterized levels of pre-existing immunity to cholera infection. Transmission via direct exposure occurring outside of the household was not considered.Direct exposure contributes substantially to endemic transmission of symptomatic cholera in an urban setting. We provide the first estimate of

  14. Caffeine antagonism of alcohol-induced driving impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, A; Robinson, J H

    2001-07-01

    The extent to which caffeine antagonizes alcohol-induced impairment of simulated automobile driving at the current lowest legal American limit (0.08% BrAC) was the focus of this study. Fifteen adults swallowed a capsule (0, 200, or 400 mg caffeine) then drank a beverage (0.0 or 0.6 g/kg ethanol) in a within-subject, double-blind, randomized procedure. Forty-five minutes later, participants completed a test battery of subjective effects scales, dynamic posturography, critical flicker fusion (CFF), choice reaction time (CRT), divided attention (Stroop test), and simulated driving. Alcohol alone increased ratings of 'dizzy', 'drug effect', and 'high', slowed CRT and brake latency, and increased body sway. Caffeine alone increased ratings of 'alert' and 'jittery', but did not significantly affect body sway or psychomotor performance. Both caffeine doses comparably counteracted alcohol impairment of brake latency but not CRT or body sway. Brake latency with either alcohol-caffeine combination remained significantly longer than that with placebo. Stroop and CFF performance were unaffected by any drug condition. The results suggest that caffeine may increase alertness and improve reaction time after alcohol use but will not completely counteract alcohol impairment in a driver.

  15. Superiority of antagonic-stress composition versus nicergoline in gerontopsychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, F; Popa, R; Mihalas, G; Stefanigă, P; Mihalas, I G; Măties, R; Mateescu, R

    1994-06-30

    Nicergoline (NE)--a cerebral vasodilator with nicotinic acid esterified in its molecule--and Antagonic-Stress (AS) composition--a neurometabolic nootropic, also containing nicotinic acid but with fast and prolonged release--were evaluated in senile dementia of Alzheimer's type (SDAT), mild to moderate intensity (DSM-IV Options Book, 1991 and ICD-10, 1990 criteria). A double-blind, randomized, comparative, and parallel clinical trial was performed on 62 old people divided into 2 groups and exclusively treated with NE or AS. Psychogeriatric evaluations (Sandoz Clinical Assessment-Geriatric scale, Self-Assessment Scale-Geriatric and their subscales) and psychometric tests (digit symbol of WAIS, Wechsler Memory Scale, and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-WAIS) were made before and after 3 months of treatment. Prolonged and large dose treatments with NE and AS significantly decreased the psychogeriatric scores, diminished the deterioration index, and improved cognitive performances (ANOVA). Therapeutical effects of AS were significantly higher than those of NE (ANCOVA). The better actions of AS in senile dementia and for improving cognitive function and behavior are discussed in connection with its multiple neurometabolic composition, the synergism of components, the antiischemic action of its antioxidants, its anti-free radical complementary action (deceleration of the aging rate, brain and erythrocyte lipofuscinolysis, complex antioxidative and scavenger formula), the multivitamin and multimineral supplementation and, finally, with the superiority of multitherapy vs. monotherapy.

  16. Tachykinin receptors antagonism for asthma: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couto Nuno

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tachykinins substance P, neurokinin A and neurokinin B seem to account for asthma pathophysiology by mediating neurogenic inflammation and several aspects of lung mechanics. These neuropeptides act mainly by their receptors NK1, NK2 and NK3, respectively which may be targets for new asthma therapy. Methods This review systematically examines randomized controlled trials evaluating the effect of tachykinins receptors antagonism on asthma. Symptoms, airway inflammation, lung function and airway inflammation were considered as outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Airways Group Specialized Register of Asthma Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE/PubMed and EMBASE. The search is as current as June 2010. Quality rating of included studies followed the Cochrane Collaboration and GRADE Profiler approaches. However, data were not pooled together due to different measures among the studies. Results Our systematic review showed the potential of NK receptor antagonist to decrease airway responsiveness and to improve lung function. However, effects on airway inflammation and asthma symptoms were poorly or not described. Conclusion The limited available evidence suggests that tachykinin receptors antagonists may decrease airway responsiveness and improve lung function in patients with asthma. Further large randomized trials are still required.

  17. Vibrio vulnificus phage PV94 is closely related to temperate phages of V. cholerae and other Vibrio species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryshliak, Mark; Hammerl, Jens A; Reetz, Jochen; Strauch, Eckhard; Hertwig, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus is an important pathogen which can cause serious infections in humans. Yet, there is limited knowledge on its virulence factors and the question whether temperate phages might be involved in pathogenicity, as is the case with V. cholerae. Thus far, only two phages (SSP002 and VvAW1) infecting V. vulnificus have been genetically characterized. These phages were isolated from the environment and are not related to Vibrio cholerae phages. The lack of information on temperate V. vulnificus phages prompted us to isolate those phages from lysogenic strains and to compare them with phages of other Vibrio species. In this study the temperate phage PV94 was isolated from a V. vulnificus biotype 1 strain by mitomycin C induction. PV94 is a myovirus whose genome is a linear double-stranded DNA of 33,828 bp with 5'-protruding ends. Sequence analysis of PV94 revealed a modular organization of the genome. The left half of the genome comprising the immunity region and genes for the integrase, terminase and replication proteins shows similarites to V. cholerae kappa phages whereas the right half containing genes for structural proteins is closely related to a prophage residing in V. furnissii NCTC 11218. We present the first genomic sequence of a temperate phage isolated from a human V. vulnificus isolate. The sequence analysis of the PV94 genome demonstrates the wide distribution of closely related prophages in various Vibrio species. Moreover, the mosaicism of the PV94 genome indicates a high degree of horizontal genetic exchange within the genus Vibrio, by which V. vulnificus might acquire virulence-associated genes from other species.

  18. Vibrio vulnificus phage PV94 is closely related to temperate phages of V. cholerae and other Vibrio species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Pryshliak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vibrio vulnificus is an important pathogen which can cause serious infections in humans. Yet, there is limited knowledge on its virulence factors and the question whether temperate phages might be involved in pathogenicity, as is the case with V. cholerae. Thus far, only two phages (SSP002 and VvAW1 infecting V. vulnificus have been genetically characterized. These phages were isolated from the environment and are not related to Vibrio cholerae phages. The lack of information on temperate V. vulnificus phages prompted us to isolate those phages from lysogenic strains and to compare them with phages of other Vibrio species. RESULTS: In this study the temperate phage PV94 was isolated from a V. vulnificus biotype 1 strain by mitomycin C induction. PV94 is a myovirus whose genome is a linear double-stranded DNA of 33,828 bp with 5'-protruding ends. Sequence analysis of PV94 revealed a modular organization of the genome. The left half of the genome comprising the immunity region and genes for the integrase, terminase and replication proteins shows similarites to V. cholerae kappa phages whereas the right half containing genes for structural proteins is closely related to a prophage residing in V. furnissii NCTC 11218. CONCLUSION: We present the first genomic sequence of a temperate phage isolated from a human V. vulnificus isolate. The sequence analysis of the PV94 genome demonstrates the wide distribution of closely related prophages in various Vibrio species. Moreover, the mosaicism of the PV94 genome indicates a high degree of horizontal genetic exchange within the genus Vibrio, by which V. vulnificus might acquire virulence-associated genes from other species.

  19. Antagonism of relaxin by glibenclamide in the uterus of the rat in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, S J; Hollingsworth, M

    1991-09-01

    1. The effects of glibenclamide (a blocker of adenosine triphosphate [ATP]-dependent K(+)-channels) on the inhibition of uterine contractions by relaxin, salbutamol and cromakalim were compared in vivo. 2. Glibenclamide (20 mg kg-1) did not antagonize salbutamol. Glibenclamide produced a parallel rightward shift in the dose-response curve to cromakalim with a 5.5 fold decrease in uterine sensitivity (post-vehicle log ID50, -0.87 mg kg-1; post-glibenclamide log ID50, -0.07 mg kg-1). Glibenclamide produced a non-parallel rightward shift in the dose-response curve to relaxin (post-vehicle log ID50, 0.99 microgram kg-1; post-glibenclamide log ID50, 2.28 micrograms kg-1). 3. Glibenclamide reversed established inhibition of uterine contractions by cromakalim or relaxin but not that by salbutamol. 4. Insulin produced no antagonism of relaxin on isolated uterus of the rat, demonstrating that glibenclamide antagonism of relaxin in vivo is not by released insulin. Apamin did not antagonize relaxin in vivo, suggesting that small calcium-activated K(+)-channels are not involved in the action of relaxin. 5. Comparison of the lack of antagonism of salbutamol with the non-competitive-like antagonism of relaxin by glibenclamide suggests that relaxin does not relax uterine smooth muscle predominantly by increasing intracellular adenosine 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate concentrations. Comparison of the non-competitive-like antagonism of relaxin and the competitive-like antagonism of cromakalim by glibenclamide suggests that the two relaxants may share, in part, a common mechanism of action and that additional mechanism(s) may also be involved in the inhibitory action of relaxin.

  20. Vibrio Parahemolyticus in the Wastewater of Kermanshah City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Almasi

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available آب و فاضلاب                                                                                                                                                                                                               شماره 51- سال 1383     Municipal wastewater is one of the most important pollution sources for water supply resources. Soil, vegetable, and food material are exposed as well. Identification and enumeration of pathogenic agents particularly pathogenic Vibrios are beneficial for control and prevention planning of the infectious diseases. This research carried out to identify the distribution of the recognized pathogenic Vibrios emphasizing on identification of Vibrio cholerain the wastewater of city of Kermanshah in 2001. Population of city of Kermanshah was estimated over 713000 and produced wastewater was approximately 150 l/cap/d. The method of study was cross-sectional descriptive. Sampling procedure was adopted from standard Methods for the Examination of water and wastewater, and the method for Vibrios identification was according to finegold 1990. There were 8 discharge outlet domestic wastewaters, which had been chosen as sampling sites. Samples were collected weekly in randomized manner in day time. Although 288 samples should be collected statistically, 339 samples were collected and analyzed. The results indicated that site 7 with 5 positives, sites 4 and 8 with 3 positives, site 5 with 2 postitives and sites 2, 3 and 6 with one positive suspected to vibrio pathogens. However, not any Vibrio detected in site 1. The most positive samples were seen in spring, late summer and early autumn. The positive results were detected in May, June, September, and October. Among samples which have been detected as a

  1. Small RNA target genes and regulatory connections in the Vibrio cholerae quorum sensing system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Brian K; Svenningsen, Sine Lo

    2011-01-01

    The two-component quorum sensing (QS) system, first described in the marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi and evolutionarily conserved among members of the genus Vibrio, has been best studied in the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae (1, 2). In the V. cholerae QS system, the response to the accumulation o...... manner. This mechanism ensures the proper timing of the QS response, which includes the expression of traits critical for virulence and for the formation of biofilms (2-6)....

  2. MR findings of infectious myositis caused by vibrio vulnificus: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joon Ho; Na, Jae Boem

    2003-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus infection is a fatal disease occurring after the consumption of seafood in patients with underlying liver disease. Inflammation of the skin, subcutanous fat and fascia disseminates from the lower extremity to the trunk and upper extremity. Infection myositis caused by vibrio vulnificus is rare, and its MR findings have not been reported. We report these in a case of infectious myositis caused by vibrio vulnificus involving both lower extremities

  3. Market survey of Vibrio spp. and other microrganisms in Italian shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, A; Normanno, G; Addante, N; Dambrosio, A; Montagna, C O; Quaglia, N C; Celano, G V; Chiocco, D

    2004-10-01

    A survey was conducted of Vibrio spp., Escherichia coli, fecal coliforms, and Salmonella in 644 molluscan shellfish samples marketed in the Apulia region of southern Italy. Vibrios were found in 278 samples (43%), and levels of E. coli and fecal coliforms were above the Italian legal limit in 27 and 34 samples (4 and 5%), respectively. Salmonella was not detected in any of the samples. Because the majority of the vibrio isolates were found in samples that were compliant with Italian regulations, there appears to be no relationship between the presence of microorganisms of fecal origin and the presence of vibrios potentially harmful to human health.

  4. The Zymovars of Vibrio cholerae: Multilocus Enzyme Electrophoresis of Vibrio cholerae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda S Freitas

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Zymovars analysis also known as multilocus enzyme electrophoresis is applied here to investigate the genetic variation of Vibrio cholerae strains and characterise strains or group of strains of medical and epidemiological interest. Fourteen loci were analyzed in 171 strains of non-O1 non-O139, 32 classical and 61 El Tor from America, Africa, Europe and Asia. The mean genetic diversity was 0.339. It is shown that the same O antigen (both O1 and non-O1 may be present in several geneticaly diverse (different zymovars strains. Conversely the same zymovar may contain more than one serogroup. It is confirmed that the South American epidemic strain differs from the 7th pandemic El Tor strain in locus LAP (leucyl leucyl aminopeptidase. Here it is shown that this rare allele is present in 1 V. mimicus and 4 non-O1 V. cholerae. Non toxigenic O1 strains from South India epidemic share zymovar 14A with the epidemic El Tor from the 7th pandemic, while another group have diverse zymovars. The sucrose negative epidemic strains isolated in French Guiana and Brazil have the same zymovar of the current American epidemic V. cholerae.

  5. Investigation of household contamination of Vibrio cholerae in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hossain, Zenat Zebin; Farhana, Israt; Mohan Tulsiani, Suhella

    The role of in-house transmission on the incidence of Vibrio cholerae, the deadly waterborne pathogen, is still not developed. The aim of the current study was to investigate possible contamination routes in household domain for effective cholera control in Bangladesh. To examine the prevalence....... cholerae El Tor strain N16961, showed hemolysis and proteolysis activity but none of them exhibited any hemagglutinin activity on human erythrocytes. The study findings indicate that V. cholerae contamination is mostly originated in and around kitchen area rather than latrine area. Contaminated food...... and water supply may be the reason behind this relatively high presence of virulence factors in food plates and water pots. Direct exposure routes of disease transmission should be a major consideration in cholera prevention policies. Investigation of household contamination of Vibrio cholerae in Bangladesh...

  6. Vibrio vulnificus-infektioner i Danmark sommeren 1994

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Brita Grønbech; Frimodt-Møller, N; Dalsgaard, A.

    1996-01-01

    The clinical manifestations and epidemiological data of 11 patients infected with Vibrio vulnificus found in Denmark during the unusually warm summer of 1994 are reported. All patients had been exposed to seawater prior to illness, but none had consumed seafood. Nine patients, including four with...... climates such as the Danish. Exposure to seawater, including handling of fresh seafood, during warm periods carries a risk of infection with V. vulnificus.......The clinical manifestations and epidemiological data of 11 patients infected with Vibrio vulnificus found in Denmark during the unusually warm summer of 1994 are reported. All patients had been exposed to seawater prior to illness, but none had consumed seafood. Nine patients, including four...

  7. FURTHER STUDIES ON THE ETIOLOGICAL ROLE OF VIBRIO FETUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T; Little, R B; Taylor, M S

    1920-11-30

    The data bearing on these three cases are quite sufficient to rule out Bacillus abortus as the agent. Not only the cultures and guinea pig tests of fetal tissues and contents of the digestive tract, but also the agglutination and guinea pig tests of the milk, were negative. The same is true of the agglutination tests of the blood serum. Only in one case was the placenta obtained in part. The stained films and the sections from various regions showed no abortion bacilli. Guinea pig tests of placental tissue were negative for Bacillus abortus. On the other hand) minute organisms resembling vibrios were detected in the cytoplasm of endothelial cells within capillaries in the edematous subchorionic tissue. Subsequently the agglutination titer of the blood serum of one of these cases rose to a level indicating infection with Bacillus abortus during the second pregnancy. The peculiar distribution of abortions due to Vibrio fetus among older cows and heifers in this herd, resulting at first in cases among older cows and latterly passing to young stock, may be explained by certain occurrences in the herd itself. It may be assumed that the infection was originally brought in by purchased cows. The young stock is kept segregated from these in a special barn, and when 6 months old it is pastured on outlying farms until returned in an advanced stage of pregnancy. The heifers during the first pregnancy were thus kept away from vibrio carriers until after the first calf was born. In June and July, 1919, 55 older cows, purchased and native, were placed on the young stock pasture. The three cases of abortion in heifers due to Vibrio fetus occurred October 24, November 9, and December 2, 1919. The age and condition of the fetuses accord very well with the assumption that Vibrio fetus was introduced among the young stock in June or July of the same year. The information gathered thus far concerning vibrionic abortion in this herd enables us to formulate a tentative hypothesis

  8. Marine Vibrio Species Produce the Volatile Organic Compound Acetone

    OpenAIRE

    Nemecek-Marshall, M.; Wojciechowski, C.; Kuzma, J.; Silver, G. M.; Fall, R.

    1995-01-01

    While screening aerobic, heterotrophic marine bacteria for production of volatile organic compounds, we found that a group of isolates produced substantial amounts of acetone. Acetone production was confirmed by gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and high-performance liquid chromatography. The major acetone producers were identified as nonclinical Vibrio species. Acetone production was maximal in the stationary phase of growth and was stimulated by addition of l-leucine...

  9. Quorum Regulated Resistance of Vibrio cholerae against Environmental Bacteriophages

    OpenAIRE

    M. Mozammel Hoque; Iftekhar Bin Naser; S. M. Nayeemul Bari; Jun Zhu; John J. Mekalanos; Shah M. Faruque

    2016-01-01

    Predation by bacteriophages can significantly influence the population structure of bacterial communities. Vibrio cholerae the causative agent of cholera epidemics interacts with numerous phages in the aquatic ecosystem, and in the intestine of cholera patients. Seasonal epidemics of cholera reportedly collapse due to predation of the pathogen by phages. However, it is not clear how sufficient number of the bacteria survive to seed the environment in the subsequent epidemic season. We found t...

  10. Sources of Vibrio mimicus contamination of turtle eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña, M T; Díaz, G; Bolaños, H; Barquero, C; Sánchez, O; Sánchez, L M; Mora, G; Chaves, A; Campos, E

    1999-01-01

    Vibrio mimicus contamination of sand increased significantly during the arrival of the olive ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) at Ostional anidation beach, Costa Rica. Statistical analysis supports that eggs are contaminated with V. mimicus by contact with the sand nest. V. mimicus was isolated from eggs of all nests tested, and ctxA+ strains were found in 31% of the nests, all of which were near the estuary.

  11. Adsorption kinetics of laterally and polarly flagellated Vibrio.

    OpenAIRE

    Belas, M R; Colwell, R R

    1982-01-01

    The adsorption of laterally and polarly flagellated bacteria to chitin was measured, and from the data obtained, a modified Langmuir adsorption isotherm was derived. Results indicated that the adsorption of laterally flagellated Vibrio parahaemolyticus follows the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, a type of adsorption referred to as surface saturation kinetics, when conditions are favorable for the production of lateral flagella. When conditions were not favorable for the production of lateral fl...

  12. Perceived sex discrimination amplifies the effect of antagonism on cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutin, Angelina R; English, Devin; Evans, Michele K; Zonderman, Alan B

    2014-06-01

    Compared to men, the decline in smoking during the past few decades has been slower for women, and smoking-related morbidity and mortality has increased substantially. Identifying sex-specific risk factors will inform more targeted intervention/prevention efforts. The purpose of this research is to examine the interactive effect of psychological (trait antagonism) and social (perceived sex discrimination) factors on current cigarette smoking and whether these effects differ by sex. Participants in the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span study (HANDLS; N = 454) and participants in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS; N = 8,155) completed measures of antagonism, perceived sex discrimination, and reported whether they smoked currently. Logistic regressions were used to predict smoking from antagonism, discrimination, and their interaction. Antagonism was associated with an increased risk of smoking. For women, there was an interaction between antagonism and discrimination: among women who perceived sex discrimination, every standard deviation increase in antagonism was associated with a 2.5 increased risk of current smoking in HANDLS (odds ratio [OR] = 2.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.46-4.39) and an almost 1.5 increased risk in HRS (OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.18-1.73). This interaction was not significant for men in either sample. In 2 independent samples, perceived sex discrimination amplified the effect of antagonism on cigarette smoking for women but not men. A hostile disposition and a perceived hostile social environment have a synergistic effect on current cigarette smoking for women.

  13. Characterization of Pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus from the Chesapeake Bay, Maryland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlene J. Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis associated with seafood consumption in the United States. Here we investigated the presence of virulence factors and genetic diversity of V. parahaemolyticus isolated from water, oyster, and sediment samples from the Chesapeake Bay, Maryland. Of more than 2,350 presumptive Vibrio collected, more than half were confirmed through PCR as V. parahaemolyticus, with 10 encoding both tdh and trh and 6 encoding only trh. Potentially pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus were then serotyped with O1:KUT and O3:KUT predominant. Furthermore, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was performed and the constructed dendrogram displayed high diversity, as did results from multiple-locus VNTR analysis. Vibrio parahaemolyticus was readily isolated from Chesapeake Bay waters but was less frequently isolated from oyster and sediment samples collected during this study. Potentially pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus was isolated in fewer numbers and the isolates displayed expansive diversity. Although characteristics of the pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus were highly variable and the percent of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus detected was low, it is important to note that, pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus are present in the Chesapeake Bay, warranting seafood monitoring to minimize risk of disease for the public, and to reduce the economic burden of V. parahaemolyticus related illness.

  14. Biocompatible capped iron oxide nanoparticles for Vibrio cholerae detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anshu; Baral, Dinesh; Rawat, Kamla; Solanki, Pratima R.; Bohidar, H. B.

    2015-05-01

    We report the studies relating to fabrication of an efficient immunosensor for Vibrio cholerae detection. Magnetite (iron oxide (Fe3O4)) nanoparticles (NPs) have been synthesized by the co-precipitation method and capped by citric acid (CA). These NPs were electrophoretically deposited onto indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrate and used for immobilization of monoclonal antibodies against Vibrio cholerae (Ab) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) for Vibrio cholerae detection using an electrochemical technique. The structural and morphological studies of Fe3O4 and CA-Fe3O4/ITO were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering (DLS) techniques. The average crystalline size of Fe3O4, CA-Fe3O4 nanoparticles obtained were about 29 ± 1 nm and 37 ± 1 nm, respectively. The hydrodynamic radius of the nanoparticles was found to be 77.35 nm (Fe3O4) and 189.51 nm (CA-Fe3O4) by DLS measurement. The results of electrochemical response studies of the fabricated BSA/Ab/CA-Fe2O3/ITO immunosensor exhibits a good detection range of 12.5-500 ng mL-1 with a low detection limit of 0.32 ng mL-1, sensitivity 0.03 Ω/ng ml-1 cm-2, and reproducibility more than 11 times.

  15. Evaluation of the probiotics Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus plantarum bioencapsulated in Artemia nauplii against vibriosis in European sea bass larvae (Dicentrarchus labrax, L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touraki, Maria; Karamanlidou, Gerda; Karavida, Penelope; Chrysi, Karamanoli

    2012-06-01

    Two potential probiotics Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus plantarum were evaluated for use in aquaculture as preventive measures against vibriosis. In vitro evaluation of the probiotics using co-culture assays with the pathogen Vibrio anguillarum and testing for the production of antibacterial substances showed the presence of antagonism and confirmed the production of antibacterial substances. Both potential probiotics were administered to the live fish feed Artemia franciscana nauplii, offering protection against a subsequent challenge of the nauplii with the fish pathogen V. anguillarum, with best survival rates of the nauplii and the most efficient protection offered by B. subtilis. Nauplii enriched with B. subtilis were further used to evaluate the protection of sea bass larvae against vibriosis. The untreated group of fish challenged with V. anguillarum presented low survival of 36.7 %, while the fish treated with nauplii enriched with the probiotic B. subtilis showed significantly increased survival rates of 86.7 % after challenge with the pathogen. The survival of healthy unchallenged fish treated with the probiotic was not significantly different from control unchallenged fish (90-94 %). Our results indicate that B. subtilis is a probiotic suitable to be used for the prevention of vibriosis in fish larvae and can be safely administered through their live feed Artemia nauplii.

  16. Differential effects of ethanol antagonism and neuroprotection in peptide fragment NAPVSIPQ prevention of ethanol-induced developmental toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkemeyer, Michael F.; Chen, Shao-yu; Menkari, Carrie E.; Brenneman, Douglas E.; Sulik, Kathleen K.; Charness, Michael E.

    2003-01-01

    NAPVSIPQ (NAP), an active fragment of the glial-derived activity-dependent neuroprotective protein, is protective at femtomolar concentrations against a wide array of neural insults and prevents ethanol-induced fetal wastage and growth retardation in mice. NAP also antagonizes ethanol inhibition of L1-mediated cell adhesion (ethanol antagonism). We performed an Ala scanning substitution of NAP to determine the role of ethanol antagonism and neuroprotection in NAP preve...

  17. Antagonism of Bacillus spp. against Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Monteiro

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The antagonism of eight Bacillus isolates was investigated against nine strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (causal agent of crucifers black rot to assess the role of lipopeptides in this process. Antimicrobial and hemolytic (surfactant activity tests were performed in vitro using agar diffusion methods. Antibiosis and hemolysis were positive for four Bacillus isolates against all X. campestris pv. campestris strains. The correlation observed between antimicrobial and hemolytic activities indicated that lipopeptides were involved in the antibiosis mechanism of the studied antagonists. Fermentation studies were carried out with the isolates that showed highest antimicrobial and hemolytic activities, to follow up growth and production of bioactive and surfactant compounds. Production of bioactive and surfactant compounds was observed during the late growth phase of the Bacillus isolates.Investigação sobre o antagonismo de oito isolados de Bacillus: B. subtilis R14, B. megaterium pv. cerealis RAB7, B. megaterium pv. cerealis C211, B. megaterium C116, Bacillus sp. RAB9, B. cereus C240, Bacillus sp. C11 e B. cereus C210, contra nove linhagens de X. campestris pv. campestris (bactéria responsável pela podridão negra das crucíferas foi realizada para se verificar a participação de lipopeptídeos neste mecanismo. Testes de atividades antimicrobiana e hemolítica (surfactante foram realizados, utilizando-se o método de difusão em ágar. Antibiose e hemólise foram positivas para quatro isolados de Bacillus: R14, RAB7, C116 e C210. A correlação observada entre as atividades antimicrobiana e a hemolítica indica que lipopeptídeos estão envolvidos no mecanismo de antibiose dos isolados investigados. As fermentações foram realizadas com os isolados que demonstraram melhores resultados nos testes de atividades antimicrobiana e hemolítica: R14, RAB7 e C116, para acompanhar o crescimento e a produção de compostos bioativos e

  18. Effect of HIV-1 Env on SERINC5 Antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beitari, Saina; Ding, Shilei; Pan, Qinghua; Finzi, Andrés; Liang, Chen

    2017-02-15

    SERINC5 is able to restrict HIV-1 infection by drastically impairing the infectivity of viral particles. Studies have shown that the HIV-1 Nef protein counters SERINC5 through downregulating SERINC5 from the cell surface and preventing the virion incorporation of SERINC5. In addition, the Env proteins of some HIV-1 strains can also overcome SERINC5 inhibition. However, it is unclear how HIV-1 Env does so and why HIV-1 has two mechanisms to resist SERINC5 inhibition. The results of this study show that neither Env nor Nef prevents high levels of ectopic SERINC5 from being incorporated into HIV-1 particles, except that Env, but not Nef, is able to resist inhibition by virion-associated SERINC5. Testing of a panel of HIV-1 Env proteins from different subtypes revealed a high frequency of SERINC5-resistant Envs. Interestingly, although the SERINC5-bearing viruses were not inhibited by SERINC5 itself, they became more sensitive to the CCR5 inhibitor maraviroc and some neutralizing antibodies than the SERINC5-free viruses, which suggests a possible influence of SERINC5 on Env function. We conclude that HIV-1 Env is able to overcome SERINC5 without preventing SERINC5 virion incorporation. HIV-1 Nef is known to enhance the infectivity of HIV-1 particles and to contribute to the maintenance of high viral loads in patients. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remained elusive until the recent discovery of the antiviral activity of SERINC5. SERINC5 profoundly inhibits HIV-1 but is antagonized by Nef, which prevents the incorporation of SERINC5 into viral particles. Here, we show that HIV-1 Env, but not Nef, is able to resist high levels of SERINC5 without excluding SERINC5 from incorporation into viral particles. However, the virion-associated SERINC5 renders HIV-1 more sensitive to some broadly neutralizing antibodies. It is possible that, under the pressure of some neutralizing antibodies in vivo, HIV-1 needs Nef to remove SERINC5 from viral particles, even though

  19. Context-dependent antagonism between Akt inhibitors and topoisomerase poisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez-Peralta, Marina; Flatten, Karen S; Loegering, David A; Peterson, Kevin L; Schneider, Paula A; Erlichman, Charles; Kaufmann, Scott H

    2014-05-01

    Signaling through the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway, which is aberrantly activated in >50% of carcinomas, inhibits apoptosis and contributes to drug resistance. Accordingly, several Akt inhibitors are currently undergoing preclinical or early clinical testing. To examine the effect of Akt inhibition on the activity of multiple widely used classes of antineoplastic agents, human cancer cell lines were treated with the Akt inhibitor A-443654 [(2S)-1-(1H-indol-3-yl)-3-[5-(3-methyl-2H-indazol-5-yl)pyridin-3-yl]oxypropan-2-amine; ATP-competitive] or MK-2206 (8-[4-(1-aminocyclobutyl)phenyl]-9-phenyl-2H-[1,2,4]triazolo[3,4-f][1,6]naphthyridin-3-one;dihydrochloride; allosteric inhibitor) or with small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) along with cisplatin, melphalan, camptothecin, or etoposide and assayed for colony formation. Surprisingly different results were observed when Akt inhibitors were combined with different drugs. Synergistic effects were observed in multiple cell lines independent of PI3K pathway status when A-443654 or MK-2206 was combined with the DNA cross-linking agents cisplatin or melphalan. In contrast, effects of the Akt inhibitors in combination with camptothecin or etoposide were more complicated. In HCT116 and DLD1 cells, which harbor activating PI3KCA mutations, A-443654 over a broad concentration range enhanced the effects of camptothecin or etoposide. In contrast, in cell lines lacking activating PI3KCA mutations, partial inhibition of Akt signaling synergized with camptothecin or etoposide, but higher A-443654 or MK-2206 concentrations (>80% inhibition of Akt signaling) or PDK1 siRNA antagonized the topoisomerase poisons by diminishing DNA synthesis, a process that contributes to effective DNA damage and killing by these agents. These results indicate that the effects of combining inhibitors of the PI3K/Akt pathway with certain classes of chemotherapeutic agents might be more

  20. The Dynamics of Genetic Interactions between Vibrio metoecus and Vibrio cholerae, Two Close Relatives Co-Occurring in the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orata, Fabini D; Kirchberger, Paul C; Méheust, Raphaël; Barlow, E Jed; Tarr, Cheryl L; Boucher, Yan

    2015-10-09

    Vibrio metoecus is the closest relative of Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the potent diarrheal disease cholera. Although the pathogenic potential of this new species is yet to be studied in depth, it has been co-isolated with V. cholerae in coastal waters and found in clinical specimens in the United States. We used these two organisms to investigate the genetic interaction between closely related species in their natural environment. The genomes of 20 V. cholerae and 4 V. metoecus strains isolated from a brackish coastal pond on the US east coast, as well as 4 clinical V. metoecus strains were sequenced and compared with reference strains. Whole genome comparison shows 86-87% average nucleotide identity (ANI) in their core genes between the two species. On the other hand, the chromosomal integron, which occupies approximately 3% of their genomes, shows higher conservation in ANI between species than any other region of their genomes. The ANI of 93-94% observed in this region is not significantly greater within than between species, meaning that it does not follow species boundaries. Vibrio metoecus does not encode toxigenic V. cholerae major virulence factors, the cholera toxin and toxin-coregulated pilus. However, some of the pathogenicity islands found in pandemic V. cholerae were either present in the common ancestor it shares with V. metoecus, or acquired by clinical and environmental V. metoecus in partial fragments. The virulence factors of V. cholerae are therefore both more ancient and more widespread than previously believed. There is high interspecies recombination in the core genome, which has been detected in 24% of the single-copy core genes, including genes involved in pathogenicity. Vibrio metoecus was six times more often the recipient of DNA from V. cholerae as it was the donor, indicating a strong bias in the direction of gene transfer in the environment. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the

  1. Antagonism of morphine-induced central respiratory depression by donepezil in the anesthetized rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIKI TSUJITA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphine is often used in cancer pain and postoperative analgesic management but induces respiratory depression. Therefore, there is an ongoing search for drug candidates that can antagonize morphine-induced respiratory depression but have no effect on morphine-induced analgesia. Acetylcholine is an excitatory neurotransmitter in central respiratory control and physostigmine antagonizes morphine-induced respiratory depression. However, physostigmine has not been applied in clinical practice because it has a short action time, among other characteristics. We therefore asked whether donepezil (a long-acting acetylcholinesterase inhibitor used in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease can antagonize morphine-induced respiratory depression. Using the anesthetized rabbit as our model, we measured phrenic nerve discharge as an index of respiratory rate and amplitude. We compared control indices with discharges after the injection of morphine and after the injection of donepezil. Morphine-induced depression of respiratory rate and respiratory amplitude was partly antagonized by donepezil without any effect on blood pressure and end-tidal C0(2. In the other experiment, apneic threshold PaC0(2 was also compared. Morphine increased the phrenic nerve apnea threshold but this was antagonized by donepezil. These findings indicate that systemically administered donepezil partially restores morphine-induced respiratory depression and morphine-deteriorated phrenic nerve apnea threshold in the anesthetized rabbit

  2. Vibrio Pathogens: A Public Health Concern in Rural Water Resources in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osunla, Charles A; Okoh, Anthony I

    2017-10-07

    Members of the Vibrio genus are autochthonous inhabitants of aquatic environments and play vital roles in sustaining the aquatic milieu. The genus comprises about 100 species, which are mostly of marine or freshwater origin, and their classification is frequently updated due to the continuous discovery of novel species. The main route of transmission of Vibrio pathogens to man is through drinking of contaminated water and consumption inadequately cooked aquatic food products. In sub-Saharan Africa and much of the developing world, some rural dwellers use freshwater resources such as rivers for domestic activities, bathing, and cultural and religious purposes. This review describes the impact of inadequately treated sewage effluents on the receiving freshwater resources and the associated risk to the rural dwellers that depends on the water. Vibrio infections remain a threat to public health. In the last decade, Vibrio disease outbreaks have created alertness on the personal, economic, and public health uncertainties associated with the impact of contaminated water in the aquatic environment of sub-Saharan Africa. In this review, we carried out an overview of Vibrio pathogens in rural water resources in Sub-Saharan Africa and the implication of Vibrio pathogens on public health. Continuous monitoring of Vibrio pathogens among environmental freshwater and treated effluents is expected to help reduce the risk associated with the early detection of sources of infection, and also aid our understanding of the natural ecology and evolution of Vibrio pathogens.

  3. Complete genome sequence for the shellfish pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus RE98 isolated from a shellfish hatchery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vibrio coralliilyticus is a pathogen of corals and larval shellfish. Publications on strain RE98 list it as a Vibrio tubiashii; however, whole genome sequencing confirms RE98 as V. coralliilyticus containing a total of 6,037,824 bp consisting of two chromosomes (3,420,228 and 1,917,482 bp), and two...

  4. Onderzoek pathogene vibrio soorten in Nederlandse mosselen en oesters in augustus en september 2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalberts, C.H.J.

    2003-01-01

    Naar aanleiding van de hoge weerstemperatuur in augustus 2003 zijn in de kweek- en verwatergebieden van mosselen en oesters in Nederland enkele monsters onderzocht op de aanwezigheid van voor de mens pathogene vibrio soorten. In geen van de 18 monsters is Vibrio parahaemolyticus, vulnificus of

  5. Bactericidal effect of lactoferrin and lactoferrin chimera against halophilic Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leon-Sicairos, N.; Canizalez-Roman, A.; de la Garza, M.; Reyes-Lopez, M.; Zazueta-Beltran, J.; Nazmi, K.; Gomez-Gil, B.; Bolscher, J.G.

    2009-01-01

    Infections caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus, an halophilic member of the genus Vibrio, have increased globally in the last 5 years. Diarrhea caused by V. parahaemolyticus results from eating raw or undercooked seafood. The aim of this work was to investigate whether lactoferrin and some

  6. Vibrio Pathogens: A Public Health Concern in Rural Water Resources in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osunla, Charles A.

    2017-01-01

    Members of the Vibrio genus are autochthonous inhabitants of aquatic environments and play vital roles in sustaining the aquatic milieu. The genus comprises about 100 species, which are mostly of marine or freshwater origin, and their classification is frequently updated due to the continuous discovery of novel species. The main route of transmission of Vibrio pathogens to man is through drinking of contaminated water and consumption inadequately cooked aquatic food products. In sub-Saharan Africa and much of the developing world, some rural dwellers use freshwater resources such as rivers for domestic activities, bathing, and cultural and religious purposes. This review describes the impact of inadequately treated sewage effluents on the receiving freshwater resources and the associated risk to the rural dwellers that depends on the water. Vibrio infections remain a threat to public health. In the last decade, Vibrio disease outbreaks have created alertness on the personal, economic, and public health uncertainties associated with the impact of contaminated water in the aquatic environment of sub-Saharan Africa. In this review, we carried out an overview of Vibrio pathogens in rural water resources in Sub-Saharan Africa and the implication of Vibrio pathogens on public health. Continuous monitoring of Vibrio pathogens among environmental freshwater and treated effluents is expected to help reduce the risk associated with the early detection of sources of infection, and also aid our understanding of the natural ecology and evolution of Vibrio pathogens. PMID:28991153

  7. Vibrio Pathogens: A Public Health Concern in Rural Water Resources in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles A. Osunla

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Members of the Vibrio genus are autochthonous inhabitants of aquatic environments and play vital roles in sustaining the aquatic milieu. The genus comprises about 100 species, which are mostly of marine or freshwater origin, and their classification is frequently updated due to the continuous discovery of novel species. The main route of transmission of Vibrio pathogens to man is through drinking of contaminated water and consumption inadequately cooked aquatic food products. In sub-Saharan Africa and much of the developing world, some rural dwellers use freshwater resources such as rivers for domestic activities, bathing, and cultural and religious purposes. This review describes the impact of inadequately treated sewage effluents on the receiving freshwater resources and the associated risk to the rural dwellers that depends on the water. Vibrio infections remain a threat to public health. In the last decade, Vibrio disease outbreaks have created alertness on the personal, economic, and public health uncertainties associated with the impact of contaminated water in the aquatic environment of sub-Saharan Africa. In this review, we carried out an overview of Vibrio pathogens in rural water resources in Sub-Saharan Africa and the implication of Vibrio pathogens on public health. Continuous monitoring of Vibrio pathogens among environmental freshwater and treated effluents is expected to help reduce the risk associated with the early detection of sources of infection, and also aid our understanding of the natural ecology and evolution of Vibrio pathogens.

  8. Genomic diversity of vibrios associated with the Brazilian coral Mussismilia hispida and its sympatric zoanthids (Palythoa caribaeorum, Palythoa variabilis and Zoanthus solanderi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimetto, L A; Brocchi, M; Gondo, M; Thompson, C C; Gomez-Gil, B; Thompson, F L

    2009-06-01

    A taxonomic survey of the vibrios associated with the Brazilian endemic coral Mussismilia hispida and the sympatric zoanthids (i.e. Palythoa caribaeorum, Palythoa variabilis and Zoanthus solanderi). Mucus of 54 cnidarian specimens collected in three different places at São Sebastião in two consecutive years (i.e. 2005 and 2006) was used for taxonomic characterization of the cnidarian microbiota. Ninety-eight of the 151 vibrio isolates fell within the vibrio core group according to partial 16S rDNA sequences. We performed the sequencing of recA and pyrH genes of all vibrio isolates. The most abundant taxa belonged to the vibrio core group (Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio rotiferianus, Vibrio campbellii and Vibrio alginolyticus), Vibrio mediterranei (=Vibrio shillonii) and Vibrio chagasii. With the exception of V. chagasii which was found only in the mucus of M. hispida, the other species appeared in different hosts with no evidence for the presence of host-specific clones or species. Using rep-PCR analysis, we observed a high genomic heterogeneity within the vibrios. Each vibrio isolate generated a different rep-PCR fingerprint pattern. There was a complete agreement between the grouping based on rep-PCR and concatenated sequences of pyrH, recA and 16S rDNA, but the pyrH gene has the highest discriminatory power for vibrio species identification. The vibrio core group is dominant in the mucus of these cnidarians. There is a tremendous diversity of vibrio lineages within the coral mucus. pyrH gene sequences permit a clear-cut identification of vibrios. The taxonomic resolution provided by pyrH (but not recA) appears to be enough for identifying species of vibrios and for disclosing putative new taxa. The vibrio core group appears to be dominant in the mucus of the Brazilian cnidarians. The overrepresentation of these vibrios may reflect as yet unknown ecological functions in the coral holobiont.

  9. Efek Antibakteri Ekstrak Daun Mimba (Azadirachta indica A. Juss terhadap Bakteri Vibrio algynoliticus Secara In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uli Ayini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Budidaya udang windu di Indonesia telah berkembang pesat. Salah satu kendala budidaya udang adalah penyakit Vibriosis yang disebabkan oleh bakteri Vibrio algynoliticus. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui efek antibakeri ekstrak daun mimba terhadap bakteri Vibrio algynoliticus. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode dilusi untuk mengetahui efek antibakteri ekstrak daun mimba terhadap bakteri Vibrio algynoliticus secara in vitro. Konsentrasi ekstrak yang digunakan (% yaitu: 0; 2,5; 5; 7,5; 10; 12,5 dan sebagai kontrol terdiri dari kontrol positif, dan kontrol negatif. Pengumpulan data untuk menentukan MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration dilakukan dengan membandingkan kejernihan kultur di medium TSB 2% pada berbagai konsentrasi yang berbeda, dengan kontrol positif dan kontrol negatif. Penentuan MBC (Minimum Bacterisidal Concentration dilakukan dengan melihat ada tidaknya dan jumlah koloni bakteri Vibrio alginolyticus yang muncul pada medium subkultur TSA 2% setelah inkubasi 24 jam. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan nilai MIC yaitu konsentrasi 5%, hal ini ditunjukkan dengan tabung yang mulai jernih. Nilai MBC ekstrak daun mimba terhadap bakteri Vibrio alginolyticus adalah konsentrasi 12,5% ditandai dengan sudah tidak munculnya  koloni bakteri Vibrio alginolyticus. Berdasarkan penelitian ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa ekstrak daun mimba dapat memberikan efek antibakteri terhadap bakteri Vibrio alginolyticus secara in vitro.Tiger shrimp cultivation in Indonesia has been growing rapidly. The main obstacle is the shrimp farming vibriosis disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio algynoliticus. The aim of this research was to determine the effects of neem leaf extract antibakeri against Vibrio algynoliticus. This study used a dilution method to determine the antibacterial effect of neem leaf extract against Vibrio algynoliticus bacteria in vitro. The concentration of the extract used (%: 0; 2.5; 5; 7.5; 10; 12.5 and as a control consisting of a positive

  10. Vibrio ecology in PNW - The Ecology of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the Pacific Northwest: Implications for risk assessment and early warning systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Over the past decade, there has been a significant increase in Vibrio parahaemolyticus-related gastroenteritis from the consumption of raw oysters harvested in...

  11. The complete genome sequence and analysis of vB_VorS-PVo5, a Vibrio phage infectious to the pathogenic bacterium Vibrio ordalii ATCC-33509.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverría-Vega, Alex; Morales-Vicencio, Pablo; Saez-Saavedra, Camila; Ceh, Janja; Araya, Rubén

    2016-01-01

    The bacterium Vibrio ordalii is best known as the causative agent of vibriosis outbreaks in fish and thus recognized for generating serious production losses in aquaculture systems. Here we report for the first time on the isolation and the genome sequencing of phage vB_VorS-PVo5, infectious to Vibrio ordalii ATCC 33509. The features as well as the complete genome sequence and annotation of the Vibrio phage are described; vB_VorS-PVo5 consists of a lineal double stranded DNA totaling ~ 80.6 Kb in length. Considering its ability to lyse Vibrio ordalii ATCC 33509, the phage is likely to gain importance in future aquaculture applications by controlling the pathogen and as such replacing antibiotics as the treatment of choice.

  12. Saharan dust nutrients promote Vibrio bloom formation in marine surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrich, Jason R.; Ebling, Alina M.; Landing, William M.; Joyner, Jessica L.; Kemp, Keri M.; Griffin, Dale W.; Lipp, Erin K.

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio is a ubiquitous genus of marine bacteria, typically comprising a small fraction of the total microbial community in surface waters, but capable of becoming a dominant taxon in response to poorly characterized factors. Iron (Fe), often restricted by limited bioavailability and low external supply, is an essential micronutrient that can limit Vibrio growth. Vibrio species have robust metabolic capabilities and an array of Fe-acquisition mechanisms, and are able to respond rapidly to nutrient influx, yet Vibrio response to environmental pulses of Fe remains uncharacterized. Here we examined the population growth of Vibrioafter natural and simulated pulses of atmospherically transported Saharan dust, an important and episodic source of Fe to tropical marine waters. As a model for opportunistic bacterial heterotrophs, we demonstrated that Vibrio proliferate in response to a broad range of dust-Fe additions at rapid timescales. Within 24 h of exposure, strains of Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio alginolyticus were able to directly use Saharan dust–Fe to support rapid growth. These findings were also confirmed with in situ field studies; arrival of Saharan dust in the Caribbean and subtropical Atlantic coincided with high levels of dissolved Fe, followed by up to a 30-fold increase of culturable Vibrio over background levels within 24 h. The relative abundance of Vibrio increased from ∼1 to ∼20% of the total microbial community. This study, to our knowledge, is the first to describe Vibrio response to Saharan dust nutrients, having implications at the intersection of marine ecology, Fe biogeochemistry, and both human and environmental health.

  13. Occurrence and Diversity of Clinically Important Vibrio Species in the Aquatic Environment of Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokashvili, Tamar; Whitehouse, Chris A.; Tskhvediani, Ana; Grim, Christopher J.; Elbakidze, Tinatin; Mitaishvili, Nino; Janelidze, Nino; Jaiani, Ekaterine; Haley, Bradd J.; Lashkhi, Nino; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R.; Tediashvili, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Among the more than 70 different Vibrio species inhabiting marine, estuarine, and freshwater ecosystems, 12 are recognized as human pathogens. The warm subtropical climate of the Black Sea coastal area and inland regions of Georgia likely provides a favorable environment for various Vibrio species. From 2006 to 2009, the abundance, ecology, and diversity of clinically important Vibrio species were studied in different locations in Georgia and across seasons. Over a 33-month period, 1,595 presumptive Vibrio isolates were collected from the Black Sea (n = 657) and freshwater lakes around Tbilisi (n = 938). Screening of a subset of 440 concentrated and enriched water samples by PCR-electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry (PCR-ESI/MS) detected the presence of DNA from eight clinically important Vibrio species: V. cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, V. mimicus, V. alginolyticus, V. harveyi, V. metschnikovii, and V. cincinnatiensis. Almost 90% of PCR/ESI-MS samples positive for Vibrio species were collected from June through November. Three important human-pathogenic Vibrio species (V. cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, and V. vulnificus) were detected in 62.8, 37.8, and 21.4% of samples testing positive for Vibrios, respectively. The results of these activities suggest that natural reservoirs for human-pathogenic Vibrios exist in Georgian aquatic environments. Water temperature at all sampling sites was positively correlated with the abundance of clinically important Vibrio spp. (except V. metschnikovii), and salinity was correlated with species composition at particular Black Sea sites as well as inland reservoirs. PMID:26528464

  14. Temperature-dependent inhibition of opportunistic Vibrio pathogens by native coral commensal bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydenborg, Beck R; Krediet, Cory J; Teplitski, Max; Ritchie, Kim B

    2014-02-01

    Bacteria living within the surface mucus layer of corals compete for nutrients and space. A number of stresses affect the outcome of this competition. The interactions between native microorganisms and opportunistic pathogens largely determine the coral holobiont's overall health and fitness. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that commensal bacteria isolated from the mucus layer of a healthy elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata, are capable of inhibition of opportunistic pathogens, Vibrio shiloi AK1 and Vibrio coralliilyticus. These vibrios are known to cause disease in corals and their virulence is temperature dependent. Elevated temperature (30 °C) increased the cell numbers of one commensal and both Vibrio pathogens in monocultures. We further tested the hypothesis that elevated temperature favors pathogenic organisms by simultaneously increasing the fitness of vibrios and decreasing the fitness of commensals by measuring growth of each species within a co-culture over the course of 1 week. In competition experiments between vibrios and commensals, the proportion of Vibrio spp. increased significantly under elevated temperature. We finished by investigating several temperature-dependent mechanisms that could influence co-culture differences via changes in competitive fitness. The ability of Vibrio spp. to utilize glycoproteins found in A. palmata mucus increased or remained stable when exposed to elevated temperature, while commensals' tended to decrease utilization. In both vibrios and commensals, protease activity increased at 30 °C, while chiA expression increased under elevated temperatures for Vibrio spp. These results provide insight into potential mechanisms through which elevated temperature may select for pathogenic bacterial dominance and lead to disease or a decrease in coral fitness.

  15. VibrioBase: A MALDI-TOF MS database for fast identification of Vibrio spp. that are potentially pathogenic in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erler, René; Wichels, Antje; Heinemeyer, Ernst-August; Hauk, Gerhard; Hippelein, Martin; Reyes, Nadja Torres; Gerdts, Gunnar

    2015-02-01

    Mesophilic marine bacteria of the family Vibrionaceae, specifically V. cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus, are considered to cause severe illness in humans. Due to climate-change-driven temperature increases, higher Vibrio abundances and infections are predicted for Northern Europe, which in turn necessitates environmental surveillance programs to evaluate this risk. We propose that whole-cell matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) profiling is a promising tool for the fast and reliable species classification of environmental isolates. Because the reference database does not contain sufficient Vibrio spectra we generated the VibrioBase database in this study. Mass spectrometric data were generated from 997 largely environmental strains and filed in this new database. MALDI-TOF MS clusters were assigned based on the species classification obtained by analysis of partial rpoB (RNA polymerase beta-subunit) sequences. The affiliation of strains to species-specific clusters was consistent in 97% of all cases using both approaches, and the extended VibrioBase generated more specific species identifications with higher matching scores compared to the commercially available database. Therefore, we have made the VibrioBase database freely accessible, which paves the way for detailed risk assessment studies of potentially pathogenic Vibrio spp. from marine environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Incidence of Vibrio cholerae and related vibrios in a coastal lagoon and seawater influenced by lake discharges along an annual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garay, E; Arnau, A; Amaro, C

    1985-08-01

    Most probable numbers of Vibrio cholerae and related vibrios were determined in Albufera Lake, Valencia, Spain, and in coastal waters under the influence of the lake discharges over the course of an annual cycle. The influence of temperature, kind of water, and characteristics of the different sampling sites on the numbers of vibrios recovered was evaluated. Maximum recovery of vibrios reached 10(3)/ml in both types of waters analyzed. V. cholerae numbers reached 10(3)/ml in the lake and 10(2) in one of the coastal sites. Frequently during the warm season, all vibrios isolated were identified as V. cholerae. Occasionally, no V. cholerae was recovered. The recovery of vibrios was significantly influenced by the temperature of the water and the type of water analyzed. Most of the V. cholerae isolates were included in Heiberg groups I and II, and nearly 50% of the strains used chitin as sole carbon source. Indole was not produced by 100% of the strains. All strains tested were non-O1 serovars.

  17. Ecology of antibiotic resistant vibrios in traditional shrimp farming system (bhery of West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leesa Priyadarsani

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the ecology of antibiotic resistant bacteria with emphasis on sucrose negative vibrios in water and sediments samples of traditional shrimp farming system (bhery in West Bengal, India. Methods: The vibrios were isolated from traditional shrimp farm samples on thiosulphate citrate bile salt sucrose agar and sucrose negative bacterial strains were used as biomarkers to assess the frequency of antibiotic resistance. Results: The incoming water brought presumptive vibrios ranging from 5.50000×10 1 to 1.00×10 3 mL in to the bhery, and there appeared to build up vibrios in the culture system with days of culture, as there was about 9 fold increase in vibrios. The levels of vibrios were observed to be moderately higher in outlet water and ranged between 4.15×10 2 and 4.15×10 3 mL. The counts of vibrios in pond sediment was found to be 1.00×10 2 –4.90×10 3 g; while in inlet (2.00×10 2 –4.20×10 4 g and outlet (3.00×10 2 –6.85×10 3 g their levels were observed to be higher than the pond sediment. Thirteen different Vibrio species were encountered in traditional shrimp culture system and all vibrios were sensitive to chloramphenicol, followed by ciprofloxacin and gatifloxacin (98.24%, gentamicin (95.61% and other antibiotics. The multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR, i.e., resistance to at least two antibiotics, was noticed among 43.85% of the sucrose negative vibrios and 41.86% of the sucrose negative non-vibrios. All vibrios harveyi strains exhibited MAR. Although no antibiotic was used in the bhery, the prevalence of MAR in 44% of the sucrose negative vibrios and nonvibrios is a cause of concern. The MAR index was higher in inlet water and sediment samples. The MAR observed in biomarker strains of pond water and sediment (40% was comparable to those of inlet samples, thus confirming the fact that incoming water was the major source of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Conclusions: It seems that the shrimp culture in bhery

  18. Vibrio fujianensis sp. nov., isolated from aquaculture water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yujie; Chen, Aiping; Dai, Hang; Huang, Ying; Kan, Biao; Wang, Duochun

    2018-02-13

    A Gram-stain-negative, facultatively anaerobic strain, designated FJ201301 T , was isolated from aquaculture water collected from Fujian province, China. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain FJ201301 T belonged to the genus Vibrio, formed a distinct cluster with Vibriocincinnatiensis ATCC 35912 T and shared the highest similarity with Vibriosalilacus CGMCC 1.12427 T . A 15 bp insertion found in the 16S rRNA gene was a significant marker that distinguished strain FJ201301 T from several phylogenetic neighbours (e.g. V. cincinnatiensis). Multilocus sequence analysis of eight genes (ftsZ, gapA, gyrB, mreB, pyrH, recA, rpoA and topA; concatenated 4135 bp sequence) showed that, forming a long and independent phylogenetic branch, strain FJ201301 T clustered with V. cincinnatiensis ATCC 35912 T , Vibrioinjenensis KCTC 32233 T and Vibriometschnikovii CIP 69.14 T clearly separated from V. salilacus CGMCC 1.12427 T . Furthermore, the highest in silico DNA-DNA hybridization and average nucleotide identity values between strain FJ201301 T and the closest related species were 26.3 and 83.1 % with V. cincinnatiensis ATCC 35912 T , less than the proposed cutoff levels for species delineation, i.e. 70 and 95 %, respectively. Biochemical, sequence and genomic analysis suggested the designation of strain FJ201301 T representing a novel species of the genus Vibrio, for which the name Vibrio fujianensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is FJ201301 T (=DSM 104687 T =CGMCC 1.16099 T ).

  19. Detection of quorum-sensing-related molecules in Vibrio scophthalmi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riedel Kathrin

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell-to-cell communication (also referred to as quorum sensing based on N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs is a widespread response to environmental change in Gram-negative bacteria. AHLs seem to be highly variable, both in terms of the acyl chain length and in the chemical structure of the radicals. Another quorum sensing pathway, the autoinducer-2-based system, is present both in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In this study the presence of signal molecules belonging to both quorum sensing signalling pathways was analysed in the marine symbiotic species Vibrio scophthalmi. Results Three AHL-like signal molecules were detected in V. scophthalmi supernatants with the Agrobacterium tumefaciens sensor assay. This observation was further supported by the decrease in the presence of these signal molecules after cloning and expression of lactonase AiiA from Bacillus cereus in the V. scophthalmi strains. One of the signal molecules was identified as N-(3-hydroxy dodecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone. V. scophthalmi was also shown to carry a functional LuxS synthase. The coding sequence for a luxS-like gene was obtained showing a maximum similarity of 78% with Vibrio vulnificus. Analysis of the translated sequence revealed that the sequenced luxS gene carried the conserved domain, which is common to luxS sequences found in other species, and which is essential for LuxS enzymatic activity. Conclusion The data are consistent with the presence of quorum-sensing signal molecules from both AHL- and autoinducer 2-based quorum sensing systems in V. scophthalmi, which are homologous to others previously described in various Vibrio species. How this bacterium interacts with other bacteria and eukaryotic cells to compete ecologically with other intestinal bacteria present in the fish Scophthalmus maximus warrants further investigation.

  20. Molecular analysis of the emergence of pandemic Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binnewies Tim T

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vibrio parahaemolyticus is abundant in the aquatic environment particularly in warmer waters and is the leading cause of seafood borne gastroenteritis worldwide. Prior to 1995, numerous V. parahaemolyticus serogroups were associated with disease, however, in that year an O3:K6 serogroup emerged in Southeast Asia causing large outbreaks and rapid hospitalizations. This new highly virulent strain is now globally disseminated. Results We performed a four-way BLAST analysis on the genome sequence of V. parahaemolyticus RIMD2210633, an O3:K6 isolate from Japan recovered in 1996, versus the genomes of four published Vibrio species and constructed genome BLAST atlases. We identified 24 regions, gaps in the genome atlas, of greater than 10 kb that were unique to RIMD2210633. These 24 regions included an integron, f237 phage, 2 type III secretion systems (T3SS, a type VI secretion system (T6SS and 7 Vibrio parahaemolyticus genomic islands (VPaI-1 to VPaI-7. Comparative genomic analysis of our fifth genome, V. parahaemolyticus AQ3810, an O3:K6 isolate recovered in 1983, identified four regions unique to each V. parahaemolyticus strain. Interestingly, AQ3810 did not encode 8 of the 24 regions unique to RMID, including a T6SS, which suggests an additional virulence mechanism in RIMD2210633. The distribution of only the VPaI regions was highly variable among a collection of 42 isolates and phylogenetic analysis of these isolates show that these regions are confined to a pathogenic clade. Conclusion Our data show that there is considerable genomic flux in this species and that the new highly virulent clone arose from an O3:K6 isolate that acquired at least seven novel regions, which included both a T3SS and a T6SS.

  1. Biocompatible capped iron oxide nanoparticles for Vibrio cholerae detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Anshu; Rawat, Kamla; Solanki, Pratima R; Bohidar, H B; Baral, Dinesh

    2015-01-01

    We report the studies relating to fabrication of an efficient immunosensor for Vibrio cholerae detection. Magnetite (iron oxide (Fe 3 O 4 )) nanoparticles (NPs) have been synthesized by the co-precipitation method and capped by citric acid (CA). These NPs were electrophoretically deposited onto indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrate and used for immobilization of monoclonal antibodies against Vibrio cholerae (Ab) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) for Vibrio cholerae detection using an electrochemical technique. The structural and morphological studies of Fe 3 O 4 and CA-Fe 3 O 4 /ITO were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering (DLS) techniques. The average crystalline size of Fe 3 O 4 , CA-Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles obtained were about 29 ± 1 nm and 37 ± 1 nm, respectively. The hydrodynamic radius of the nanoparticles was found to be 77.35 nm (Fe 3 O 4 ) and 189.51 nm (CA-Fe 3 O 4 ) by DLS measurement. The results of electrochemical response studies of the fabricated BSA/Ab/CA-Fe 2 O 3 /ITO immunosensor exhibits a good detection range of 12.5–500 ng mL −1 with a low detection limit of 0.32 ng mL −1 , sensitivity 0.03 Ω/ng ml −1 cm −2 , and reproducibility more than 11 times. (paper)

  2. Isolamento de vibrios potencialmente patogênicos em moluscos bivalves

    OpenAIRE

    Glavur Rogerio Matte

    1994-01-01

    Neste estudo, 26 amostras de ostras (Crassostrea gigas) comercializadas na cidade de São Paulo e em alguns pontos do litoral de São Paulo, e 36 amostras de mexilhões (Perna perna) colhidas mensalmente em 3 pontos do litoral de Ubatuba - SP, foram submetidas à pesquisa de vibrios potencialmente patogênicos. As amostras desses moluscos eram submetidas a enriquecimento em água peptonada alcalina sem cloreto de sódio e com 1 por cento de cloreto de sódio, e GSTB. O isolamento foi realizado em ág...

  3. Environmental determinants of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the Chesapeake Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Benjamin J K; Jacobs, John M; Davis, Meghan F; Schwab, Kellogg J; DePaola, Angelo; Curriero, Frank C

    2017-08-25

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus naturally-occurs in brackish and marine waters and is one of the leading causes of seafood-borne illness. Previous work studying the ecology of V. parahaemolyticus is often limited in geographic extent and lacking a full range of environmental measures. This study used a unique, large dataset of surface water samples in the Chesapeake Bay ( n =1,385) collected from 148 monitoring stations from 2007 to 2010. Water was analyzed for over 20 environmental parameters with additional meteorological and surrounding land use data. V. parahaemolyticus -specific genetic markers thermolabile hemolysin ( tlh ), thermostable direct hemolysin ( tdh ), and tdh -related hemolysin ( trh ) were assayed using quantitative PCR (qPCR), and interval-censored regression models with non-linear effects were estimated to account for limits of detection and quantitation. tlh was detected in 19.6% of water samples; tdh or trh markers were not detected. Results confirmed previously reported positive associations for V. parahaemolyticus abundance with temperature and turbidity and negative associations with high salinity (> 10-23‰). Furthermore, the salinity relationship was determined to be a function of both low temperature and turbidity, with an increase of either nullifying the high salinity effect. Associations with dissolved oxygen and phosphate also appeared stronger when samples were taken nearby human developments. Renewed focus on the V. parahaemolyticus ecological paradigm is warranted to protect public health. Importance Vibrio parahaemolyticus is one of the leading causes of seafood-borne illness in the United States and across the globe. Exposure is often through consuming raw or undercooked shellfish. Given the natural presence of the bacterium in the marine environment, improved understanding of its environmental determinants is necessary for future preventative measures. This analysis of environmental Vibrio parahaemolyticus is one of only a few that

  4. Quorum Sensing Disruption in Vibrio harveyi Bacteria by Clay Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Sajo P; Scholin, Jonathon; Ching, San; Chi, Fang; Herpfer, Marc

    2018-01-10

    This work describes the use of clay minerals as catalysts for the degradation of quorum sensing molecule N-(3-oxooctanoyl)-dl-homoserine lactone. Certain clay minerals as a result of their surface properties and porosity can catalytically degrade the quorum sensing molecule into smaller fragments. The disruption of quorum sensing by clay in a growing Gram-negative Vibrio harveyi bacteria culture was also studied by monitoring luminescence and population density of the bacteria, wherein quenching of bacterial quorum sensing activity was observed by means of luminescence reduction. The results of this study show that food-grade clays can be used as biocatalysts in disrupting bacterial activity in various media.

  5. Vibrios associated with mortality in cultured plaice Pleuronectes platessa fry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Austin, B.; Austin, D.A.

    1999-01-01

    identical ribotype patterns. Fourteen isolates were identified as V. splendidus biotype I (n = 11) or V. splendidus-like (n = 3). Seven isolates were V. fluvialis, representing the first isolation of this species in Denmark and the first description of V. fluvialis associated with diseased fish. All V....... fluvialis isolates had identical ribotype patterns, indicating the presence of a single clone. The last 5 isolates belonged to 2 different, unidentified Vibrio species (n=2 and 3, respectively). Although all isolates were recovered from diseased plaice fry, their exact role as pathogens for the fry...

  6. Application of Reverse Transcriptase-PCR-DGGE as a rapid method for routine determination of Vibrio spp. in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahorm, Kanchana; Prakitchaiwattana, Cheunjit

    2018-01-02

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the feasibility of PCR-DGGE and Reverse Transcriptase-PCR-DGGE techniques for rapid detection of Vibrio species in foods. Primers GC567F and 680R were initially evaluated for amplifying DNA and cDNA of ten references Vibrio species by PCR method. The GC-clamp PCR amplicons were separated according to their sequences by the DGGE using 10% (w/v) polyacrylamide gel containing 45-70% urea and formamide denaturants. Two pair of Vibrio species, which could not be differentiated on the gel, was Vibrio fluvialis - Vibrio furnissii and Vibrio parahaemolyticus - Vibrio harveyi. To determine the detection limit, in the community of 10 reference strains containing the same viable population, distinct DNA bands of 3 species; Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio mimicus and Vibrio alginolyticus were consistently observed by PCR-DGGE technique. In fact, 5 species; Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio mimicus, Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio fluvialis consistently observed by Reverse Transcriptase-PCR-DGGE. In the community containing different viable population increasing from 10 2 to 10 5 CFU/mL, PCR-DGGE analysis only detected the two most prevalent species, while RT-PCR-DGGE detected the five most prevalent species. Therefore, Reverse Transcriptase-PCR-DGGE was also selected for detection of various Vibrio cell conditions, including viable cell (VC), injured cells from frozen cultures (IVC) and injured cells from frozen cultures with pre-enrichment (PIVC). It was found that cDNA band of all cell conditions gave the same migratory patterns, except that multiple cDNA bands of Plesiomonas shigelloides under IVC and PIVC conditions were found. When Reverse Transcriptase-PCR-DGGE was used for detecting Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the pathogen-spiked food samples, Vibrio parahaemolyticus could be detected in the spiked samples containing at least 10 2 CFU/g of this pathogen. The results obtained also corresponded to standard method (USFDA, 2004

  7. Persistence, Seasonal Dynamics and Pathogenic Potential of Vibrio Communities from Pacific Oyster Hemolymph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendling, Carolin C.; Batista, Frederico M.; Wegner, K. Mathias

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Vibrio occur at a continuum from free-living to symbiotic life forms, including opportunists and pathogens, that can contribute to severe diseases, for instance summer mortality events of Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas. While most studies focused on Vibrio isolated from moribund oysters during mortality outbreaks, investigations of the Vibrio community in healthy oysters are rare. Therefore, we characterized the persistence, diversity, seasonal dynamics, and pathogenicity of the Vibrio community isolated from healthy Pacific oysters. In a reciprocal transplant experiment we repeatedly sampled hemolymph from adult Pacific oysters to differentiate population from site-specific effects during six months of in situ incubation in the field. We characterized virulence phenotypes and genomic diversity based on multilocus sequence typing in a total of 70 Vibrio strains. Based on controlled infection experiments we could show that strains with the ability to colonize healthy adult oysters can also have the potential to induce high mortality rates on larvae. Diversity and abundance of Vibrio varied significantly over time with highest values during and after spawning season. Vibrio communities from transplanted and stationary oysters converged over time, indicating that communities were not population specific, but rather assemble from the surrounding environment forming communities, some of which can persist over longer periods. PMID:24728233

  8. Mutualism and Antagonism: Ecological Interactions Among Bark Beetles, Mite and Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.D. Klepzig; J.C. Moser; M.J. Lombardero; M.P. Ayres; R.W. Hofstetter; C.J. Walkinshaw

    2001-01-01

    Insect-fungal complexes provide challenging and fascinating systems for the study of biotic interactions between plants. plant pathogens, insect vectors and other associated organisms. The types of interactions among these organisms (mutualism. antagonism. parasitism. phoresy. etc.) are as variable as the range of organisms involved (plants, fungi, insects. mites. etc...

  9. Design and development of benzoxazole derivatives with toll-like receptor 9 antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Swarnali; Mukherjee, Ayan; Paul, Barnali; Rahaman, Oindrila; Roy, Shounak; Maithri, Gundaram; Ramya, Bandaru; Pal, Sourav; Ganguly, Dipyaman; Talukdar, Arindam

    2017-07-07

    Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) is a major therapeutic target for numerous inflammatory disorders. Development of small molecule inhibitors for TLR9 remains largely empirical due to lack of structural understanding of potential TLR9 antagonism by small molecules and due to the unusual topology of the ligand binding surface of the receptor. To develop a structural model for rational design of small molecule TLR9 antagonists, an enhanced homology model of human TLR9 (hTLR9) was constructed. Binding mode analysis of a series of molecules having characteristic molecular geometry, flexibility and basicity was conducted based on crystal structure of the inhibitory DNA (iDNA) bound to horse and bovine TLR9. Interaction with specific amino acid residues in four leucine rich repeat (LRR) regions of TLR9 was identified to be critical for antagonism by small molecules. The biological validation of TLR9 antagonism and its correlation with probe-receptor interactions led to a reliable model that could be used for development of novel small molecules with potent TLR9 antagonism (IC 50 30-100 nM) with excellent selectivity against TLR7. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Enterobacteria and Vibrio from Macrobrachium amazonicum prawn farming in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelo-Branco, Débora de Souza Collares Maia; Sales, Jamille Alencar; Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Guedes, Glaucia Morgana de Melo; Ponte, Yago Brito de; Sampaio, Célia Maria de Souza; Bandeira, Tereza de Jesus Pinheiro Gomes; Moreira, José Luciano Bezerra; Alencar, Lucas Pereira de; Paiva, Manoel de Araújo Neto; Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Monteiro, André Jalles; Pereira-Neto, Waldemiro de Aquino; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the isolation of enterobacteria associated with Macrobrachium amazonicum (M. amazonicum) farming and evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Vibrio strains. Strains were isolated from female M. amazonicum prawns and environmental and hatchery water. Biochemical assays were used to identify bacterial genera and those belonging to the genus Vibrio were submitted to further analyses for species identification, through Vitek 2 automated system and serotyping. Susceptibility test was performed according to Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute. The following genera of enterobacteria were recovered: Enterobacter (n = 11), Citrobacter (n = 10), Proteus (n = 2), Serratia (n = 2), Kluyvera (n = 2), Providencia (n = 2), Cedecea (n = 1), Escherichia (n = 1), Edwardsiella (n = 1) and Buttiauxella (n = 1). As for Vibrio, three species were identified: Vibrio cholerae non-O1/non-O139 (n = 4), Vibrio vulnificus (V. vulnificus) (n = 1) and Vibrio mimicus (n = 1). Vibrio spp. showed minimum inhibitory concentrations values within the susceptibility range established by Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute for almost all antibiotics, except for V. vulnificus, which presented intermediate profile to ampicillin. Enterobacteria do not seem to be the most important pathogens associated with M. amazonicum farming, whereas the recovery of Vibrio spp. from larviculture, with emphasis on Vibrio cholerae and V. vulnificus, deserves special attention due to their role as potentially zoonotic aquaculture-associated pathogens. Furthermore, the intermediate susceptibility of V. vulnificus to ampicillin reflects the importance of monitoring drug use in prawn farming. Copyright © 2016 Hainan Medical College. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus recovered from recreational and commercial areas of Chesapeake Bay and Maryland Coastal Bays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristi S Shaw

    Full Text Available Vibrio vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus in the estuarine-marine environment are of human health significance and may be increasing in pathogenicity and abundance. Vibrio illness originating from dermal contact with Vibrio laden waters or through ingestion of seafood originating from such waters can cause deleterious health effects, particularly if the strains involved are resistant to clinically important antibiotics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate antimicrobial susceptibility among these pathogens. Surface-water samples were collected from three sites of recreational and commercial importance from July to September 2009. Samples were plated onto species-specific media and resulting V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus strains were confirmed using polymerase chain reaction assays and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility using the Sensititre® microbroth dilution system. Descriptive statistics, Friedman two-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA were used to analyze the data. Vibrio vulnificus (n = 120 and V. parahaemolyticus (n = 77 were isolated from all sampling sites. Most isolates were susceptible to antibiotics recommended for treating Vibrio infections, although the majority of isolates expressed intermediate resistance to chloramphenicol (78% of V. vulnificus, 96% of V. parahaemolyticus. Vibrio parahaemolyticus also demonstrated resistance to penicillin (68%. Sampling location or month did not significantly impact V. parahaemolyticus resistance patterns, but V. vulnificus isolates from St. Martin's River had lower overall intermediate resistance than that of the other two sampling sites during the month of July (p = 0.0166. Antibiotics recommended to treat adult Vibrio infections were effective in suppressing bacterial growth, while some antibiotics recommended for pediatric treatment were not effective against some of the recovered isolates. To our knowledge, these are the first antimicrobial

  12. Vibrio japonicus sp. nov., a novel member of the Nereis clade in the genus Vibrio isolated from the coast of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Hiroyasu; Osawa, Ikuko; Adachi, Hayamitsu; Kawada, Manabu

    2017-01-01

    A novel Vibrio strain, JCM 31412T, was isolated from seawater collected from the Inland Sea (Setonaikai), Japan, and characterized as a Gram-negative, oxidase-positive, catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic, motile, ovoid-shaped bacterium with one polar flagellum. Based on 16S rDNA gene identity, strain JCM 31412T showed a close relationship with type strains of Vibrio brasiliensis (LMG 20546T, 98.2% identity), V. harveyi (NBRC 15634T, 98.2%), V. caribbeanicus (ATCC BAA-2122T, 97.8%) and V. proteolyticus (NBRC 13287T, 97.8%). The G+C content of strain JCM 31412T DNA was 46.8%. Multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) of eight loci (ftsZ, gapA, gyrB, mreB, pyrH, recA, rpoA and topA; 5535bp) further clustered strain JCM 31412T in the Nereis clade, genus Vibrio. Phenotypically, strain JCM 31412T differed from the closest related Vibrio species in its utilization of melibiose and raffinose, and its lack of casein and gelatin hydrolysis. It was further differentiated based on its fatty acid composition, specifically properties of C12:03OH and summed features, which were significantly different from those of V. brasiliensis, V. nigripulchritudo and V. caribbeanicus type strains. Overall, the results of DNA-DNA hybridization, and physiological and biochemical analysis differentiated strain JCM 31412T from other described species of the genus Vibrio. Based on these polyphasic taxonomic findings, it was therefore concluded that JCM 31412T was a novel Vibrio species, for which the name Vibrio japonicus sp. nov. was proposed, with JCM 31412T (= LMG 29636T = ATCC TSD-62T) as the type strain.

  13. Vibrio japonicus sp. nov., a novel member of the Nereis clade in the genus Vibrio isolated from the coast of Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyasu Doi

    Full Text Available A novel Vibrio strain, JCM 31412T, was isolated from seawater collected from the Inland Sea (Setonaikai, Japan, and characterized as a Gram-negative, oxidase-positive, catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic, motile, ovoid-shaped bacterium with one polar flagellum. Based on 16S rDNA gene identity, strain JCM 31412T showed a close relationship with type strains of Vibrio brasiliensis (LMG 20546T, 98.2% identity, V. harveyi (NBRC 15634T, 98.2%, V. caribbeanicus (ATCC BAA-2122T, 97.8% and V. proteolyticus (NBRC 13287T, 97.8%. The G+C content of strain JCM 31412T DNA was 46.8%. Multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA of eight loci (ftsZ, gapA, gyrB, mreB, pyrH, recA, rpoA and topA; 5535bp further clustered strain JCM 31412T in the Nereis clade, genus Vibrio. Phenotypically, strain JCM 31412T differed from the closest related Vibrio species in its utilization of melibiose and raffinose, and its lack of casein and gelatin hydrolysis. It was further differentiated based on its fatty acid composition, specifically properties of C12:03OH and summed features, which were significantly different from those of V. brasiliensis, V. nigripulchritudo and V. caribbeanicus type strains. Overall, the results of DNA-DNA hybridization, and physiological and biochemical analysis differentiated strain JCM 31412T from other described species of the genus Vibrio. Based on these polyphasic taxonomic findings, it was therefore concluded that JCM 31412T was a novel Vibrio species, for which the name Vibrio japonicus sp. nov. was proposed, with JCM 31412T (= LMG 29636T = ATCC TSD-62T as the type strain.

  14. Bacteriophage Interactions with Marine Pathogenic Vibrios: Implications for Phage Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    A global distribution in marine, brackish, and freshwater ecosystems, in combination with high abundances and biomass, make vibrios key players in aquatic environments, as well as important pathogens for humans and marine animals. Incidents of Vibrio-associated diseases (vibriosis) in marine aquaculture are being increasingly reported on a global scale, due to the fast growth of the industry over the past few decades years. The administration of antibiotics has been the most commonly applied therapy used to control vibriosis outbreaks, giving rise to concerns about development and spreading of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the environment. Hence, the idea of using lytic bacteriophages as therapeutic agents against bacterial diseases has been revived during the last years. Bacteriophage therapy constitutes a promising alternative not only for treatment, but also for prevention of vibriosis in aquaculture. However, several scientific and technological challenges still need further investigation before reliable, reproducible treatments with commercial potential are available for the aquaculture industry. The potential and the challenges of phage-based alternatives to antibiotic treatment of vibriosis are addressed in this review. PMID:29495270

  15. Invariant recognition of polychromatic images of Vibrio cholerae 01

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Borrego, Josue; Mourino-Perez, Rosa R.; Cristobal, Gabriel; Pech-Pacheco, Jose L.

    2002-04-01

    Cholera is an acute intestinal infectious disease. It has claimed many lives throughout history, and it continues to be a global health threat. Cholera is considered one of the most important emergence diseases due its relation with global climate changes. Automated methods such as optical systems represent a new trend to make more accurate measurements of the presence and quantity of this microorganism in its natural environment. Automatic systems eliminate observer bias and reduce the analysis time. We evaluate the utility of coherent optical systems with invariant correlation for the recognition of Vibrio cholerae O1. Images of scenes are recorded with a CCD camera and decomposed in three RGB channels. A numeric simulation is developed to identify the bacteria in the different samples through an invariant correlation technique. There is no variation when we repeat the correlation and the variation between images correlation is minimum. The position-, scale-, and rotation-invariant recognition is made with a scale transform through the Mellin transform. The algorithm to recognize Vibrio cholerae O1 is the presence of correlation peaks in the green channel output and their absence in red and blue channels. The discrimination criterion is the presence of correlation peaks in red, green, and blue channels.

  16. [Identification and molecular study on vibrio cholerae in sea products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zhao-rui; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Duo-chun; Zhong, Hao-jie; Xu, Jin; Ran, Lu; Wang, Mao-wu; Wang, Zi-jun; Kan, Biao

    2007-07-01

    To investigate the serologic type, phage-biotype and toxic factor of Vibrio cholerae isolated from different sea products, analyze the relation between the Vibrio cholerae in sea products and cholera epidemiology, and provide references for forecasting cholera epidemic situation and drawing out a preventing plan. The biotype of strains isolated was analyzed by using type and phage-biotype serological methods. The toxic gene was detected by PCR. The constituent ratio of V. cholerae O139, Ogawa and Inaba were, respectively, 48.44%, 20.31% and 31.25% in 64 strains of V. cholerae. The result of phage-biotype showed that the 26 strains of V. cholerae O1 were all non-epidemic strains. The result of toxic gene detecting showed that positive rate of V. cholerae O139 was higher than those of Ogawa and Inaba. The positive rate of toxic gene in V. cholerae O139 was high and the V. cholerae O139 was mainly in turtle, breed aquatics water and crustacean, so these sea products were the important sectors in cholera prevention and control.

  17. Identification and Initial Characterization of Prophages in Vibrio campbellii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Nicola; Reiger, Matthias; Toro-Nahuelpan, Mauricio; Brachmann, Andreas; Poettinger, Lisa; Plener, Laure; Lassak, Jürgen; Jung, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Phages are bacteria targeting viruses and represent the most abundant biological entities on earth. Marine environments are exceptionally rich in bacteriophages, harboring a total of 4x1030 viruses. Nevertheless, marine phages remain poorly characterized. Here we describe the identification of intact prophage sequences in the genome of the marine γ-proteobacterium Vibrio campbellii ATCC BAA-1116 (formerly known as V. harveyi ATCC BAA-1116), which presumably belong to the family of Myoviridae. One prophage was found on chromosome I and shows significant similarities to the previously identified phage ΦHAP-1. The second prophage region is located on chromosome II and is related to Vibrio phage kappa. Exposure of V. campbellii to mitomycin C induced the lytic cycle of two morphologically distinct phages and, as expected, extracellular DNA from induced cultures was found to be specifically enriched for the sequences previously identified as prophage regions. Heat stress (50°C, 30 min) was also found to induce phage release in V. campbellii. Notably, promoter activity of two representative phage genes indicated heterogeneous phage induction within the population.

  18. Bacteriophage Interactions with Marine Pathogenic Vibrios: Implications for Phage Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panos G. Kalatzis

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A global distribution in marine, brackish, and freshwater ecosystems, in combination with high abundances and biomass, make vibrios key players in aquatic environments, as well as important pathogens for humans and marine animals. Incidents of Vibrio-associated diseases (vibriosis in marine aquaculture are being increasingly reported on a global scale, due to the fast growth of the industry over the past few decades years. The administration of antibiotics has been the most commonly applied therapy used to control vibriosis outbreaks, giving rise to concerns about development and spreading of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the environment. Hence, the idea of using lytic bacteriophages as therapeutic agents against bacterial diseases has been revived during the last years. Bacteriophage therapy constitutes a promising alternative not only for treatment, but also for prevention of vibriosis in aquaculture. However, several scientific and technological challenges still need further investigation before reliable, reproducible treatments with commercial potential are available for the aquaculture industry. The potential and the challenges of phage-based alternatives to antibiotic treatment of vibriosis are addressed in this review.

  19. Antibiotic Resistance of Vibrio cholerae Isolates from Kashan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afzali H.MD,

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims: Cholera is an acute diarrheal disease that can lead to severe dehydration and death. Antibiotic resistance is a big challenge in infective disease like Cholera. The present study aimed to understand the characteristics and trends of antibiotic resistance of V. cholerae isolations in and around Kashan, Iran. Instrument & Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, samples were gathered using census method from 1998 to 2013 in Kashan, Iran. 1132 fecal samples of patients with acute diarrhea and 237 samples of suspected water samples were taken. The serotypes and biotypes were determined by an enzymatic method. Antibiotic susceptibility test was performed by using Disk Diffusion Method. Data were analyzed using SPSS 23 software. Fisher-exact and Chi-square tests were used to compare the statistical parameters. Findings: 96 fecal samples (8.5% and 18 water samples (7.6% were positive for Vibrio cholerae. Non-agglutinating (Nag isolates (75.4% were more common than serotype Inaba (13.2% and Ogawa (11.4%. Nag serotypes were mostly resistant to cefixime (44% and ampicillin (33%. In contaminated water samples also the most frequent cases were Nag serotype (50%. Nag serotype showed 22.2% of resistance to ampicillin and nitrofurantoin. Conclusion: Vibrio cholerae isolates in Kashan, Iran, are highly resistant to antibiotics, especially Nag serotypes.

  20. Vibrio vulnificus as a health hazard for shrimp consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NASCIMENTO Susy Margella Melo do

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 30 years, a number of Vibrio species found in the aquatic environment have been indicated as cause of disease in human beings. Vibrio vulnificus is an emergent pathogen, an invasive and lethal marine bacterium related to wound infection and held accountable for gastroenteritis and primary septicemia. It occurs quite frequently in marine organisms, mainly in mollusks. This study aimed at isolating and identifying strains of V. vulnificus based upon the analysis of twenty samples of seabob shrimp, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller, purchased at the Mucuripe fish market (Fortaleza, Brazil. TCBS agar was used to isolate suspect strains. Seven of twenty-nine strains isolated from six different samples were confirmed as such by means of biochemical evidence and thus submitted to biological assays to determine their virulence. The susceptibility of the V. vulnificus strains to a number of antibiotics was tested. None of the V. vulnificus strains showed signs of virulence during a 24-hour observation period, possibly due to the shedding of the capsules by the cells. As to the results of the antimicrobial susceptibility tests, the seven above-mentioned V. vulnificus strains were found to be sensitive to nitrofurantoin (NT, ciprofloxacin (CIP, gentamicin (GN and chloramphenicol (CO and resistant to clindamycin (CI, penicillin (PN and ampicillin (AP.

  1. Identification and Initial Characterization of Prophages in Vibrio campbellii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Lorenz

    Full Text Available Phages are bacteria targeting viruses and represent the most abundant biological entities on earth. Marine environments are exceptionally rich in bacteriophages, harboring a total of 4x1030 viruses. Nevertheless, marine phages remain poorly characterized. Here we describe the identification of intact prophage sequences in the genome of the marine γ-proteobacterium Vibrio campbellii ATCC BAA-1116 (formerly known as V. harveyi ATCC BAA-1116, which presumably belong to the family of Myoviridae. One prophage was found on chromosome I and shows significant similarities to the previously identified phage ΦHAP-1. The second prophage region is located on chromosome II and is related to Vibrio phage kappa. Exposure of V. campbellii to mitomycin C induced the lytic cycle of two morphologically distinct phages and, as expected, extracellular DNA from induced cultures was found to be specifically enriched for the sequences previously identified as prophage regions. Heat stress (50°C, 30 min was also found to induce phage release in V. campbellii. Notably, promoter activity of two representative phage genes indicated heterogeneous phage induction within the population.

  2. Production and characterization of a monoclonal antibody against mannose-sensitive hemagglutinin of Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falero, G; Rodríguez, B L; Valmaseda, T; Pérez, M E; Pérez, J L; Fando, R; Robert, A; Campos, J; Silva, A; Sierra, G; Benítez, J A

    1998-02-01

    We have generated murine monoclonal antibodies (MAb) against Vibrio cholerae mannose-sensitive hemagglutinin (MSHA) using conventional hybridoma procedures. Seven hybridomas were obtained and one characterized. Hybridoma 2F12/F1 secreted an antibody of the IgG3 type that reacted with a 17-kDa antigen corresponding to the product of the mshA gene. This MAb inhibited mannose-sensitive agglutination of chicken erythrocytes by EL tor and O139 vibrios. Vibrios expressing MSHA activity inhibited binding of the antibody secreted by 2F12/F1 to MSHA-coated microtiter plates.

  3. Antimicrobial effect of dietary oregano essential oil against Vibrio bacteria in shrimps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gracia-Valenzuela M.H.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of dietary oregano essential oils on the growth of Vibrio bacteria in shrimps was evaluated. Shrimps were fed: (i food with oregano oil with a high level of thymol; (ii food with oregano oil with a high level of carvacrol, and (iii food without oregano oil (the control. The animals were infected by three species of Vibrio (vulnificus, parahaemolyticus and cholerae. The microbial counts of Vibrio species were significantly lower (p <0.05 in tissues from animals whose food was supplemented with oregano oil. We concluded that dietary supplementation of shrimps with oregano oil provides antimicrobial activity into the body of the penaeids.

  4. Complete genome sequence of a giant Vibrio bacteriophage VH7D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhu-Hua; Yu, Yan-Ping; Jost, Günter; Xu, Wei; Huang, Xiang-Ling

    2015-12-01

    A Vibrio sp. lytic phage VH7D was isolated from seawater of an abalone farm in Xiamen, China. The phage was capable of lysing Vibrio rotiferianus DSM 17186(T) and Vibrio harveyi DSM 19623(T). The complete genome of this phage consists of 246,964 nucleotides with a GC content of 41.31%, which characterized it as a giant vibriophage. Here we report the complete genome sequence and major findings from the genomic annotation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Community-Level and Species-Specific Associations between Phytoplankton and Particle-Associated Vibrio Species in Delaware's Inland Bays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, Christopher R; Salvitti, Lauren R; Whereat, Edward B; Coyne, Kathryn J

    2015-09-01

    Vibrio species are an abundant and diverse group of bacteria that form associations with phytoplankton. Correlations between Vibrio and phytoplankton abundance have been noted, suggesting that growth is enhanced during algal blooms or that association with phytoplankton provides a refuge from predation. Here, we investigated relationships between particle-associated Vibrio spp. and phytoplankton in Delaware's inland bays (DIB). The relative abundances of particle-associated Vibrio spp. and algal classes that form blooms in DIB (dinoflagellates, diatoms, and raphidophytes) were determined using quantitative PCR. The results demonstrated a significant correlation between particle-associated Vibrio abundance and phytoplankton, with higher correlations to diatoms and raphidophytes than to dinoflagellates. Species-specific associations were examined during a mixed bloom of Heterosigma akashiwo and Fibrocapsa japonica (Raphidophyceae) and indicated a significant positive correlation for particle-associated Vibrio abundance with H. akashiwo but a negative correlation with F. japonica. Changes in Vibrio assemblages during the bloom were evaluated using automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA), which revealed significant differences between each size fraction but no significant change in Vibrio assemblages over the course of the bloom. Microzooplankton grazing experiments showed that losses of particle-associated Vibrio spp. may be offset by increased growth in the Vibrio population. Moreover, analysis of Vibrio assemblages by ARISA also indicated an increase in the relative abundance for specific members of the Vibrio community despite higher grazing pressure on the particle-associated population as a whole. The results of this investigation demonstrate links between phytoplankton and Vibrio that may lead to predictions of potential health risks and inform future management practices in this region. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All

  6. Aspects of vibrio parahaemolyticus(SAK) in fish preservation by irradiation 1. The presence of vibrio parahaemolyticus(SAK) in coastal areas of Sumatra and Java

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhadi, F.

    1984-01-01

    A study was carried out on the presence of vibrio parahaemolyticus in samples of sediment and seafoods originating from the eastern coast of Sumatra and the north coastal areas of Java. In a total of 2.434 samples of sediment and seafoods, 79 (3,3%) were found to contain vibrio parahaemolyticus. Among the 467 sediment samples, 1.650 fish, 133 shellfish, 123 shrimps, and 61 crab samples, 22 (4.7%), 41 (2.5%), 12 (9.0%), 2 (1,6%) and 2 (3.3%) were positive for vibrio parahaemolyticus, respectively. Based on the sampling areas, the high incidence of vibrio parahaemolyticus was found in samples collected from Riau (5.4%), while the samples from East Java was only about 0.4%. The contamination level of vibrio parahaemolyticus in samples collected from coastal areas of Sumatra and Java is relatively lower compared with the data obtained from some other coastal areas in the United States and Japan. (author)

  7. Vibrio cholerae Detection in Water and Wastewater by Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Barzamini

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vibrio cholerae is a significant human pathogen worldwide and annually causes some cases of deaths. Contaminated water plays an important role in transmission of this pathogen, which indicates the importance of early diagnosis. Objectives: The current study aimed to perform Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR on water and wastewater samples to determine the detection limit for Vibrio cholerae. Materials and Methods: PCR was performed on the DNA extracted from Vibrio cholerae of the contaminated water and wastewater using ctxA gene specific primers. The accuracy of PCR method to detect these bacteria was also assessed. Results: The result of PCR performed on the extracted DNA showed a specific 241 base pair band. The limit of bacterial detection for water and wastewater were 40 cfu/mL and 81 cfu/mL, respectively. Conclusions: In the current study, PCR performance using the ctxA gene specific primers to detect Vibrio cholerae was found highly accurate and specific.

  8. Experimental Reservoirs of Human Pathogens: The Vibrio Cholerae Paradigm (7th Annual SFAF Meeting, 2012)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colwell, Rita [University of Maryland

    2012-06-01

    Rita Colwell on "Experimental Reservoirs of Human Pathogens: The Vibrio cholerae paradigm" at the 2012 Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future Meeting held June 5-7, 2012 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

  9. Color correlation for the recognition of Vibrio cholerae O1 in seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourino-Perez, Rosa R.; Alvarez-Borrego, Josue

    1999-07-01

    Application of color correlation optical systems for the recognition of Vibrio cholerae 01 in seawater samples with matched filters and phase only filters recorded in holographic plates in three channels (RGB).

  10. Biotype-Specific Restriction and Modification of DNA in Vibrio cholerae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbesi, Franca; Manning, Paul A.

    1982-01-01

    By using Vibrio cholerae typing phages it was possible to demonstrate that within V. cholerae of the O-1 serotype there are at least two biotype-specific DNA restriction and modification systems. PMID:7130366

  11. Competitive Survival of Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella typhimurium and Shigella dysenteriae in Riverbed Sediments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Abia, AL

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available investigated the survival of Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium, Vibrio cholerae and Shigella dysenteriae in riverbed sediments of the Apies River. Experiments were performed in flow chambers containing three sediment types and connected...

  12. Clinical, hematological and biochemical alterations in olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus following experimental infection by Vibrio scophthalmi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hematological analysis can provide key values for monitoring fish health conditions. There is no information available on hematological changes of olive flounder following infection by Vibrio scophthalmi. In this study, hematological and biochemical alterations were determined for olive flounder inf...

  13. DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF OYSTER (CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA) DEFENSES ON CLINICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISOLATES OF VIBRIO PARAHEMOLYTICUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three clinical (2030, 2062, and 2107) and three environmental (1094, 1163, and ATCC 17802) isolates of Vibrio parahaemolyticus were exposed to hemocytes and plasma collected from oysters (Crassostrea virginica) to determine their susceptibility to putative oyster defenses. Clinic...

  14. RESPONSES OF OYSTER (CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA) HEMOCYTES TO NONPATHOGENIC AND CLINICAL ISOLATES OF VIBRIO PARAHAEMOLYTICUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial uptake by oysters (Crassostrea virginica) and bactericidal activity of oyster hemocytes were studied using four environmental isolates and three clinical isolates of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Clinical isolates (2030, 2062, 2107) were obtained from gastroenteritis patien...

  15. Antibiotic resistance monitoring in Vibrio spp. isolated from rearing environment and intestines of abalone Haliotis diversicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R X; Wang, J Y; Sun, Y C; B L Yang; A L Wang

    2015-12-30

    546 Vibrio isolates from rearing seawater (292 strains) and intestines of abalone (254 strains) were tested to ten antibiotics using Kirby-Bauer diffusion method. Resistant rates of abalone-derived Vibrio isolates to chloramphenicol (C), enrofloxacin (ENX) and norfloxacin (NOR) were 40%) to kanamycin (KNA), furazolidone (F), tetracycline (TE), gentamicin (GM) and rifampin (RA). 332 isolates from seawater (n=258) and abalone (n=74) were resistant to more than three antibiotics. Peaked resistant rates of seawater-derived isolates to multiple antibiotics were overlapped in May and August. Statistical analysis showed that pH had an important effect on resistant rates of abalone-derived Vibrio isolates to RA, NOR, and ENX. Salinity and dissolved oxygen were negatively correlated with resistant rates of seawater-derived Vibrio isolates to KNA, RA, and PG. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Risk assessment of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in seafood: interpretative summary and technical report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2011-01-01

    "Vibrio parahaemolyticus are common causes of diarrhoeal disease worldwide. These marine micro-organisms, native in estuarine waters globally, concentrate in the gut of filter-feeding molluscan shellfish, such as oysters, clams and mussels...

  17. INFLUENCE OF SEASONAL FACTORS ON OYSTER HEMOCYTE KILLING OF VIBRIO PARAHEMOLYTICUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seasonal variation of cellular defenses of oyster Crassostrea virginica against Vibrio parahaemolyticus were examined from June 1997 to December 1998 using a recently developed bactericidal assay that utilizes a tetrazolium dye. Mean hemocyte numbers, plasma lysozyme, and P. mari...

  18. Environmental influences on the seasonal distribution of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the Pacific Northwest of the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Populations of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the environment can be influenced by numerous factors. We assessed the correlation of total (tl+) and potentially virulent (tdh+) V. parahaemolyticus in water with three harmful algal bloom (HAB) genera (Pseudo-nitzschia, Alexandrium and ...

  19. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor strains ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    23S rRNA intergenic spacer regions; J. Biosci. 30 619–. 625]. 1. Introduction. Vibrio cholerae, a Gram-negative bacterium, is responsi- ble for severe epidemics of cholera. ... cholerae represent a fundamental characteristic of cho-.

  20. Corrosion of mild steel and stainless steel by marine Vibrio sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhaDevi; Wagh, A.B.

    Microbially induced corrosion (MIC) of stainless steel and mild steel coupons exposed to media with and without a bacterial culture Vibrio sp. was studied using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Pitting type of corrosion was noticed which was more...

  1. FK phage for differentiating the classical and El T or groups of Vibrio cholerae.

    OpenAIRE

    Takeya, K; Otohuji, T; Tokiwa, H

    1981-01-01

    A new vibrio-infecting phage (FK phage) isolated from sewage lysed all strains of Vibrio cholerae biovar cholerae, whereas all strains of V. cholerae biovar El Tor were resistant to it. FK phage was entirely different from Mukerjee group IV phage in morphology and antigenicity. In addition to group IV phage, the use of FK phage will be useful in the examination and typing of V. cholerae.

  2. Vibrio ishigakensis sp. nov., in Halioticoli clade isolated from seawater in Okinawa coral reef area, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Al-Saari, Nurhidayu; Rohul Amin, A K M; Sato, Kazumichi; Mino, Sayaka; Suda, Wataru; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Ohkuma, Moriya; Hargreaves, Paulo Iiboshi; Meirelles, Pedro Milet; Thompson, Fabiano L; Thompson, Cristiane; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Sawabe, Toko; Sawabe, Tomoo

    2016-07-01

    Five novel strains showing non-motile, alginolytic, halophilic and fermentative features were isolated from seawater samples off Okinawa in coral reef areas. These strains were characterized by an advanced polyphasic taxonomy including genome based taxonomy using multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) and in silico DNA-DNA similarity (in silico DDH). Phylogenetic analyses on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the isolates could be assigned to the genus Vibrio, however they were not allocated into any distinct cluster with known Vibrionaceae species. MLSA based on eight protein-coding genes (gapA, gyrB, ftsZ, mreB, pyrH, recA, rpoA, and topA) showed the vibrios formed an outskirt branch of Halioticoli clade. The experimental DNA-DNA hybridization data revealed that the five strains were in the range of being defined as conspecific but separate from nine Halioticoli clade species. The G+C contents of the Vibrio ishigakensis strains were 47.3-49.1mol%. Both Amino Acid Identity and Average Nucleotide Identity of the strain C1(T) against Vibrio ezurae HDS1-1(T), Vibrio gallicus HT2-1(T), Vibrio halioticoli IAM 14596(T), Vibrio neonatus HDD3-1(T) and Vibrio superstes G3-29(T) showed less than 95% similarity. The genome-based taxonomic approach by means of in silico DDH values also supports the V. ishigakensis strains being distinct from the other known Halioticoli clade species. Sixteen traits (growth temperature range, DNase and lipase production, indole production, and assimilation of 10 carbon compounds) distinguished these strains from Halioticoli clade species. The names V. ishigakensis sp. nov. is proposed for the species of Halioticoli clade, with C1(T) as the type strain (JCM 19231(T)=LMG 28703(T)). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Vibrio spp. in Retail and Farm Shrimps in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, L; Alter, T; Huehn, S

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Vibrio spp. in shrimp at retail and in shrimp farms in Ecuador and to determine the antimicrobial agent resistance patterns of farm isolates. The presence of genes linked to early mortality syndrome (EMS) or acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) also was evaluated. Vibrio spp. were isolated from retail shrimps in Cuenca, Ecuador, and farm shrimps originating from provinces El Oro and Guayas, Ecuador. A total of 229 shrimp samples were collected, of which 71 originated from retail markets in Cuenca and 158 came from shrimp farms. Overall, 219 (95.6%) samples tested positive for Vibrio spp. Vibrio parahaemolyticus (80.8%) was the most common species detected, followed by Vibrio alginolyticus (50.2%), Vibrio cholerae (11.3%), and Vibrio vulnificus (3.5%). None of the V. parahaemolyticus isolates carried the virulence-associated tdh and trh genes. In V. parahaemolyticus shrimp farm isolates, high resistance was found to ampicillin (92.2%), and intermediate resistance was found to tetracycline (51.3%) and amikacin (22.1%). Of the V. parahaemolyticus strains, 68 were resistant to at least three antimicrobial agents, and 2 were resistant to seven antimicrobial agents simultaneously. Up to 18 resistant isolates were found for V. alginolyticus, whereas V. vulnificus and V. cholerae isolates were more susceptible. None of the V. parahaemolyticus isolates carried the EMS-AHPND plasmid. The results of this study revealed the ubiquitous occurrence of Vibrio spp. in shrimps at retail and on shrimp farms in Ecuador.

  4. Vibrio spp. from Macrobrachium amazonicum prawn farming are inhibited by Moringa oleifera extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Sales, Jamille Alencar; de Souza Sampaio, Celia Maria; Barbosa, Francisco Geraldo; de Araújo Neto Paiva, Manoel; de Melo Guedes, Glaucia Morgana; de Alencar, Lucas Pereira; de Ponte, Yago Brito; de Jesus Pinheiro Gomes Bandeira, Tereza; Moreira, José Luciano Bezerra; de Souza Collares Maia Castelo-Branco, Débora; de Aquino Pereira-Neto, Waldemiro; de Aguiar Cordeiro, Rossana; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the in vitro antimicrobial potential of extracts of stem, leaves, flowers, pods and seeds of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) against Vibrio spp. from hatchery water and the prawn Macrobrachium amazonicum. The ethanol extracts of stem, leaves, pods and seeds and chloroform extract of flowers of M. oleifera were tested against Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae) serogroups non-O1/non-O139 (n = 4), Vibrio vulnificus (n = 1) and Vibrio mimicus (n = 1). Escherichia coli (E. coli) (ATCC(®) 25922) was used as quality control. Vibrio species were obtained from Macrobrachium amazonicum prawns and from hatchery water from prawn farming. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was determined by broth microdilution method. The best result was obtained with the ethanol extract of pods, which inhibited three strains of the V. cholerae, Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio mimicus and E. coli (MIC range 0.312-5.000 mg/mL). The chloroform extract of flowers was effective against all V. cholerae strains and E. coli (MIC range 0.625-1.250 mg/mL). However, the ethanol extracts of stem and seeds showed low effectiveness in inhibiting the bacterial growth. The extracts of pods, flowers and leaves of M. oleifera have potential for the control of Vibrio spp. Further studies are necessary to isolate the bioactive compounds responsible for this antimicrobial activity. Copyright © 2015 Hainan Medical College. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Ocean warming and spread of pathogenic vibrios in the aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezzulli, Luigi; Colwell, Rita R; Pruzzo, Carla

    2013-05-01

    Vibrios are among the most common bacteria that inhabit surface waters throughout the world and are responsible for a number of severe infections both in humans and animals. Several reports recently showed that human Vibrio illnesses are increasing worldwide including fatal acute diarrheal diseases, such as cholera, gastroenteritis, wound infections, and septicemia. Many scientists believe this increase may be associated with global warming and rise in sea surface temperature (SST), although not enough evidence is available to support a causal link between emergence of Vibrio infections and climate warming. The effect of increased SST in promoting spread of vibrios in coastal and brackish waters is considered a causal factor explaining this trend. Field and laboratory studies carried out over the past 40 years supported this hypothesis, clearly showing temperature promotes Vibrio growth and persistence in the aquatic environment. Most recently, a long-term retrospective microbiological study carried out in the coastal waters of the southern North Sea provided the first experimental evidence for a positive and significant relationship between SST and Vibrio occurrence over a multidecadal time scale. As a future challenge, macroecological studies of the effects of ocean warming on Vibrio persistence and spread in the aquatic environment over large spatial and temporal scales would conclusively support evidence acquired to date combined with studies of the impact of global warming on epidemiologically relevant variables, such as host susceptibility and exposure. Assessing a causal link between ongoing climate change and enhanced growth and spread of vibrios and related illness is expected to improve forecast and mitigate future outbreaks associated with these pathogens.

  6. Peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in-situ hybridization for identification of Vibrio spp. in aquatic products and environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaofeng; Li, Ke; Wu, Shan; Shuai, Jiangbing; Fang, Weihuan

    2015-08-03

    A peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA-FISH) method was developed for specific detection of the Vibrio genus. In silico analysis by BLAST and ProbeCheck showed that the designed PNA probe targeting the 16S rRNAs was suitable for specific identification of Vibrio. Specificity and sensitivity of the probe Vib-16S-1 were experimentally verified by its reactivity against 18 strains of 9 Vibrio species and 14 non-Vibrio strains of 14 representative species. The PNA-FISH assay was able to identify 47 Vibrio positive samples from selectively enriched cultures of 510 samples of aquatic products and environments, comparable with the results obtained by biochemical identification and real-time PCR. We conclude that PNA-FISH can be an alternative method for rapid identification of Vibrio species in a broad spectrum of seafood or related samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Aspects of vibrio parahaemolyticus(SAK) in fish preservation by irradiation 2. Radiation sensitivity of vibrio parahaemolyticus(SAK) to gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhadi, F.

    1985-01-01

    This experiment was done to determine the effect of suspending medium on radiation sensitivity of vibrio parahaemolyticus strains isolated from marine environment. D 10 value of nine strains tested were found to be around 151-281 Gy in fish homogenate, and 102-210 Gy in saline solution. The reduction of vibrio parahaemolyticus in fish homogenate at doses of 500 and 750 Gy were found to be 1.8-3.3 logs and 2.7-5.0 logs, respectively, while in saline solution the values were found to be 2.4-4.9 logs and 3.6-7.4 logs. Radiation sensitivity of vibrio parahaemolyticus varied between strains and also depended upon the suspending medium. (author)

  8. Distribution, genetic richness and phage sensitivity of Vibrio spp. from coastal British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comeau, André M; Suttle, Curtis A

    2007-07-01

    This study examined the distribution, susceptibility to viral infection and genetic diversity of Vibrio spp. in the coastal waters and sediments of British Columbia during summer (July and August). Abundances of presumptive Vibrio spp. ranged from 1.5 to 346 ml(-1) within the water column (1-291 m); whereas, abundances at the water-sediment interface were much higher (up to approximately 3 x 10(4)Vibrio spp. cc(-1)), and decreased with sediment depth (down to 30 cm). The genetic diversity of Vibrio spp. isolates was not tied to the location from which they originated and was only influenced in a minor way by the type of environment. However, the environment had a greater effect on phage-typing patterns. Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates from environments with high abundances of cells (sediments and oysters) were generally more susceptible to viral infection than those from the water column which were highly resistant. Therefore, although Vibrio spp. were widespread in the areas investigated, the results show that there is segregation of bacterial host strains in different environments, under differing selection pressures, which ultimately will affect in situ phage production.

  9. Prevalence of listeria, Aeromonas, and Vibrio species in fish used for human consumption in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücel, Nihal; Balci, Senay

    2010-02-01

    A total of 78 raw retail fish samples from 30 freshwater and 48 marine fish were examined for the presence of Listeria, Aeromonas, and Vibrio species. The overall incidence of Listeria spp. was 30% in freshwater samples and 10.4% in marine fish samples. Listeria monocytogenes (44.5%) was the most commonly isolated species in freshwater fish, and Listeria murrayi (83.5%) was the most commonly isolated species in marine fish samples. Motile aeromonads were more common in marine fish samples (93.7%) than in freshwater fish samples (10%). Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio fluvialis, and Vibrio damsela were isolated only in marine fish samples, representing 40.9, 38.6, and 36.3% of Vibrio isolates, respectively. In freshwater and marine fish, the highest incidences of Listeria and Aeromonas were found in skin samples; the highest incidence of Vibrio in marine fish was found in gill samples. The location of Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes in a fish was significantly different among freshwater fish. A high incidence of these bacterial pathogens was found in the brown trout (Salmo trutta) and horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus). Handling of contaminated fish, cross-contamination, or eating raw fish might pose a health hazard, especially in immunosuppressed individuals, elderly people, and children. This study highlights the importance of bacterial pathogens in fish intended for human consumption, but more study is needed.

  10. Natural transformation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus: A rapid method to create genetic deletions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimalapati, Suneeta; de Souza Santos, Marcela; Servage, Kelly; De Nisco, Nicole J; Dalia, Ankur B; Orth, Kim

    2018-03-19

    The Gram-negative bacterium Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an opportunistic human pathogen and the leading cause of seafood borne acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Recently, this bacterium was implicated as the etiologic agent of a severe shrimp disease with consequent devastating outcomes to shrimp farming. In both cases, acquisition of genetic material via horizontal transfer provided V. parahaemolyticus with new virulence tools to cause disease. Dissecting the molecular mechanisms of V. parahaemolyticus pathogenesis often requires manipulating its genome. Classically, genetic deletions in V. parahaemolyticus are performed using a laborious, lengthy, multi-step process. Herein, we describe a fast and efficient method to edit this bacterium's genome based on V. parahaemolyticus natural competence. Although this method is similar to one previously described, V. parahaemolyticus requires counter selection for curing of acquired plasmids due to its recalcitrant nature of retaining extrachromosomal DNA. We believe this approach will be of use to the Vibrio community. Importance Spreading of Vibrios throughout the world correlates with increased global temperatures. As they spread, they find new niches to survive, proliferate and invade. Therefore, genetic manipulation of Vibrios is of utmost importance for studying these species. Herein, we have delineated and validated a rapid method to create genetic deletions in Vibrio parahaemolyticus This study provides insightful methodology for studies with other Vibrio species. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  11. Inhibition of marine Vibrio sp. by pyoverdine from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Liang, Weikang; Li, Chenghua

    2016-01-25

    Siderophores are low-molecular-weight chemicals that are secreted by many microorganisms to chelate iron from the external environment in order to facilitate their growth and diverse metabolisms. In this study, a fluorescent siderophore, pyoverdine, secreted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA1 was purified by affinity chromatography using Cu-sepharose. Pyoverdine was determined to have a molecular mass of 1333.54 Da, as determined by MALDI-TOF/TOF, and belong to type I pyoverdine, as determined by PCR analysis of its corresponding outer membrane ferri-pyoverdine receptor. Pyoverdine showed different degrees of inhibitory effects on the growth of marine Vibrio sp. strains. It was also shown that the biofilm developed by Vibrio parahaemolyticus WzW1 and Wz2121 and Vibrio cyclitrophicus HS12 was significantly reduced, alone with the repressed growth in the presence of pyoverdine. Siderophore production was determined in the strains of Vibrio sp. in response to the pyoverdine-induced iron-limited conditions. The siderophore production of most Vibrio sp. was up-regulated, with the exception of the bacteria that produced little siderophore. Furthermore, Apostichopus japonicus cultured in pyoverdine pretreated seawater showed a relative percent of survival of 89% when they were challenged by Vibrio splendidus. Our results demonstrated that pyoverdine may be a promising agent that could be potentially applied to treat vibriosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Vibrio bivalvicida sp. nov., a novel larval pathogen for bivalve molluscs reared in a hatchery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubert, Javier; Romalde, Jesús L; Prado, Susana; Barja, Juan L

    2016-02-01

    Three isolates were obtained from cultures of carpet shell clam (Ruditapes decussatus) reared in a bivalve hatchery (Galicia, NW Spain) from different sources: healthy broodstock, moribund larvae and the seawater corresponding to the larval tank. All isolates were studied by a polyphasic approach, including a phylogenetic analysis based on concatenated sequences of the five housekeeping genes ftsZ, gyrB, pyrH, recA and rpoA. The analysis supported their inclusion in the Orientalis clade of the genus Vibrio, and they formed a tight group separated from the closest relatives: Vibrio tubiashii subsp. europaensis, Vibrio tubiashii subsp. tubiashii and Vibrio orientalis. The percentages of genomic resemblance, including average nucleotide identity, DNA-DNA hybridization and in silico genome-to-genome comparison, between the type strain and the closest relatives were below values for species delineation and confirmed the taxonomic position of the new species, which could be differentiated from the related taxa on the basis of several phenotypic and chemotaxonomic features, including FAME and MALDI-TOF-MS. The pathogenicity of the new species was demonstrated in larvae of R. decussatus, Ruditapes philippinarum, Ostrea edulis and Donax trunculus. The results demonstrated that the strains analyzed represented a novel species in the Orientalis clade of the genus Vibrio, for which the name Vibrio bivalvicida sp. nov. is proposed, with 605(T) (= CECT 8855(T)=CAIM 1904(T)) designated as the type strain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Antibiotic resistance and plasmid profiling of Vibrio spp. in tropical waters of Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, K G; Bong, C W; Lee, C W

    2016-03-01

    Vibrio species isolated from four different sampling stations in the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia were screened for their antimicrobial resistance and plasmid profiles. A total of 138 isolates belonging to 15 different species were identified. Vibrio campbellii, V. parahaemolyticus, V. harveyi, and V. tubiashii were found to predominance species at all stations. High incidence of erythromycin, ampicillin, and mecillinam resistance was observed among the Vibrio isolates. In contrast, resistance against aztreonam, cefepime, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and sulfonamides was low. All the Vibrio isolates in this study were found to be susceptible to imipenem, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and oxytetracycline. Ninety-five percent of the Vibrio isolates were resistant to one or more different classes of antibiotic, and 20 different resistance antibiograms were identified. Thirty-two distinct plasmid profiles with molecular weight ranging from 2.2 to 24.8 kb were detected among the resistance isolates. This study showed that multidrug-resistant Vibrio spp. were common in the aquatic environments of west coast of Peninsular Malaysia.

  14. Seasonal Prevalence of Enteropathogenic Vibrio and Their Phages in the Riverine Estuarine Ecosystem of South Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mookerjee, Subham; Batabyal, Prasenjit; Sarkar, Madhumanti Halder; Palit, Anup

    2015-01-01

    Diarrheal disease remains an unsolved problem in developing countries. The emergence of new etiological agents (non-cholera vibrios) is a major cause of concern for health planners. We attempted to unveil the seasonal dynamics of entero-pathogenic Vibrios in Gangetic riverine-estuarine ecosystem. 120 surface water samples were collected for a period of one year from 3 sampling sites on the Hooghly river. Five enteropathogenic Vibrio species, V. cholerae (35%), V. parahaemolyticus (22.5%), V. mimicus (19.1%), V. alginolyticus (15.8%) and V. vulnificus (11.6%), were present in the water samples. The vibriophages, V. vulnificus ɸ (17.5%), V. alginolyticus ɸ (17.5%), V. parahaemolyticus ɸ (10%), V. cholerae non-O1/O139 ɸ (26.6%) and V. mimicus ɸ (9.1%), were also detected in these samples. The highest number of Vibrios were noted in the monsoon (20-34°C), and to a lesser extent, in the summer (24-36°C) seasons. Samples positive for phages for any of the identified Vibrio species were mostly devoid of that particular bacterial organism and vice versa. The detection of toxin genes and resistance to β-lactam antibiotics in some environmental enteropathogenic Vibrio species in the aquatic niches is a significant outcome. This finding is instrumental in the south Bengal diarrhoeal incidence.

  15. Seasonal Prevalence of Enteropathogenic Vibrio and Their Phages in the Riverine Estuarine Ecosystem of South Bengal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subham Mookerjee

    Full Text Available Diarrheal disease remains an unsolved problem in developing countries. The emergence of new etiological agents (non-cholera vibrios is a major cause of concern for health planners. We attempted to unveil the seasonal dynamics of entero-pathogenic Vibrios in Gangetic riverine-estuarine ecosystem. 120 surface water samples were collected for a period of one year from 3 sampling sites on the Hooghly river. Five enteropathogenic Vibrio species, V. cholerae (35%, V. parahaemolyticus (22.5%, V. mimicus (19.1%, V. alginolyticus (15.8% and V. vulnificus (11.6%, were present in the water samples. The vibriophages, V. vulnificus ɸ (17.5%, V. alginolyticus ɸ (17.5%, V. parahaemolyticus ɸ (10%, V. cholerae non-O1/O139 ɸ (26.6% and V. mimicus ɸ (9.1%, were also detected in these samples. The highest number of Vibrios were noted in the monsoon (20-34°C, and to a lesser extent, in the summer (24-36°C seasons. Samples positive for phages for any of the identified Vibrio species were mostly devoid of that particular bacterial organism and vice versa. The detection of toxin genes and resistance to β-lactam antibiotics in some environmental enteropathogenic Vibrio species in the aquatic niches is a significant outcome. This finding is instrumental in the south Bengal diarrhoeal incidence.

  16. Prevalence of potentially pathogenic Vibrio species in the seafood marketed in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhadi, Nasreldin; Radu, Son; Chen, Chien-Hsien; Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki

    2004-07-01

    Seafood samples obtained in seafood markets and supermarkets at 11 sites selected from four states in Malaysia were examined for the presence of nine potentially pathogenic species from the genus Vibrio between July 1998 and June 1999. We examined 768 sample sets that included shrimp, squid, crab, cockles, and mussels. We extensively examined shrimp samples from Selangor State to determine seasonal variation of Vibrio populations. Eight potentially pathogenic Vibrio species were detected, with overall incidence in the samples at 4.6% for V. cholerae, 4.7% for V. parahaemolyticus, 6.0% for V. vulnificus, 11% for V. alginolyticus, 9.9% for V. metschnikovii, 1.3% for V. mimicus, 13% for V. damsela, 7.6% for V. fluvialis, and 52% for a combined population of all of the above. As many as eight Vibrio species were detected in shrimp and only four in squid and peel mussels. The overall percent incidence of any of the eight vibrios was highest (82%) in cockles (Anadara granosa) among the seafoods examined and was highest (100%) in Kuching, Sarawak State, and lowest (25%) in Penang, Pulau Penang State, among the sampling sites. Of 97 strains of V. cholerae isolated, one strain belonged to the O1 serotype and 14 to the O139 serotype. The results indicate that the various seafood markets in Malaysia are contaminated with potentially pathogenic Vibrio species regardless of the season and suggest that there is a need for adequate consumer protection measures.

  17. Biosensing Vibrio cholerae with Genetically Engineered Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holowko, Maciej B; Wang, Huijuan; Jayaraman, Premkumar; Poh, Chueh Loo

    2016-11-18

    Cholera is a potentially mortal, infectious disease caused by Vibrio cholerae bacterium. Current treatment methods of cholera still have limitations. Beneficial microbes that could sense and kill the V. cholerae could offer potential alternative to preventing and treating cholera. However, such V. cholerae targeting microbe is still not available. This microbe requires a sensing system to be able to detect the presence of V. cholera bacterium. To this end, we designed and created a synthetic genetic sensing system using nonpathogenic Escherichia coli as the host. To achieve the system, we have moved proteins used by V. cholerae for quorum sensing into E. coli. These sensor proteins have been further layered with a genetic inverter based on CRISPRi technology. Our design process was aided by computer models simulating in vivo behavior of the system. Our sensor shows high sensitivity to presence of V. cholerae supernatant with tight control of expression of output GFP protein.

  18. Vibrio cholerae infection, novel drug targets and phage therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazil, Mobashar Hussain Urf Turabe; Singh, Durg V

    2011-10-01

    Vibrio cholerae is the causative agent of the diarrheal disease cholera. Although antibiotic therapy shortens the duration of diarrhea, excessive use has contributed to the emergence of antibiotic resistance in V. cholerae. Mobile genetic elements have been shown to be largely responsible for the shift of drug resistance genes in bacteria, including some V. cholerae strains. Quorum sensing communication systems are used for interaction among bacteria and for sensing environmental signals. Sequence analysis of the ctxB gene of toxigenic V. cholerae strains demonstrated its presence in multiple cholera toxin genotypes. Moreover, bacteriophage that lyse the bacterium have been reported to modulate epidemics by decreasing the required infectious dose of the bacterium. In this article, we will briefly discuss the disease, its clinical manifestation, antimicrobial resistance and the novel approaches to locate drug targets to treat cholera.

  19. Acute Otitis due to Vibrio fluvialis after Swimming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Jen Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 40-year-old female presented with purulent exudate through the left auditive duct and pain in the left ear region, which intensified during mastication. After collection of the pus from the left ear lesion, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid for seven days was prescribed for a presumed diagnosis of acute otitis. Four days later, the pus culture grew V. fluvialis which is further identified by API 20E identification system (bioMérieux. Following the successful completion of a course of antibiotics, the patient recovered completely and without complication. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of Vibrio fluvialis otitis after swimming in an immunocompetent patient.

  20. Identification and characterization of Vibrio cholerae surface proteins by radioiodination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, K.; Parker, C.D.

    1985-01-01

    Whole cells and isolated outer membrane from Vibrio cholerae (Classical, Inaba) were radiolabeled with Iodogen or Iodo-beads as catalyst. Radiolabeling of whole cells was shown to be surface specific by sodium dodecyl sulfate-urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of whole cells and cell fractions. Surface-labeled whole cells regularly showed 16 distinguishable protein species, of which nine were found in radiolabeled outer membrane preparations obtained by a lithium chloride- lithium acetate procedure. Eight of these proteins were found in outer membranes prepared by sucrose density gradient centrifugation and Triton X-100 extraction of radiolabeled whole cells. The mobility of several proteins was shown to be affected by temperature, and the major protein species exposed on the cell surface was shown to consist of at least two different peptides

  1. Environmental reservoirs and mechanisms of persistence of Vibrio cholerae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Carla; Erken, Martina; Noorian, Parisa; Sun, Shuyang; McDougald, Diane

    2013-01-01

    It is now well accepted that Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the water-borne disease cholera, is acquired from environmental sources where it persists between outbreaks of the disease. Recent advances in molecular technology have demonstrated that this bacterium can be detected in areas where it has not previously been isolated, indicating a much broader, global distribution of this bacterium outside of endemic regions. The environmental persistence of V. cholerae in the aquatic environment can be attributed to multiple intra- and interspecific strategies such as responsive gene regulation and biofilm formation on biotic and abiotic surfaces, as well as interactions with a multitude of other organisms. This review will discuss some of the mechanisms that enable the persistence of this bacterium in the environment. In particular, we will discuss how V. cholerae can survive stressors such as starvation, temperature, and salinity fluctuations as well as how the organism persists under constant predation by heterotrophic protists. PMID:24379807

  2. Survival of Vibrio cholerae O1 on fomites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farhana, Israt; Hossain, Zenat Zebin; Tulsiani, Suhella Mohan

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that the contamination sources of cholera causing bacteria, Vibrio cholerae, are water and food, but little is known about the transmission role of the fomites (surfaces that can carry pathogens) commonly used in households. In the absence of appropriate nutrients or growth...... conditions on fomites, bacteria have been known to assume a viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state after a given period of time. To investigate whether and when V. cholerae O1 assumes such a state, this study investigated the survival and viable quantification on a range of fomites such as paper, wood, glass......, plastic, cloth and several types of metals under laboratory conditions. The fomites were inoculated with an outbreak strain of V. cholerae and its culturability was examined by drop plate count method at 30 min intervals for up to 6 h. For molecular detection, the viable/dead stain ethidium monoazide (EMA...

  3. Comparative Genomics of Vibrio cholerae from Haiti, Asia, and Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Aleisha R.; Van Domselaar, Gary; Stroika, Steven; Walker, Matthew; Kent, Heather; Tarr, Cheryl; Talkington, Deborah; Rowe, Lori; Olsen-Rasmussen, Melissa; Frace, Michael; Sammons, Scott; Dahourou, Georges Anicet; Boncy, Jacques; Smith, Anthony M.; Mabon, Philip; Petkau, Aaron; Graham, Morag; Gilmour, Matthew W.

    2011-01-01

    Cholera was absent from the island of Hispaniola at least a century before an outbreak that began in Haiti in the fall of 2010. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis of clinical isolates from the Haiti outbreak and recent global travelers returning to the United States showed indistinguishable PFGE fingerprints. To better explore the genetic ancestry of the Haiti outbreak strain, we acquired 23 whole-genome Vibrio cholerae sequences: 9 isolates obtained in Haiti or the Dominican Republic, 12 PFGE pattern-matched isolates linked to Asia or Africa, and 2 nonmatched outliers from the Western Hemisphere. Phylogenies for whole-genome sequences and core genome single-nucleotide polymorphisms showed that the Haiti outbreak strain is genetically related to strains originating in India and Cameroon. However, because no identical genetic match was found among sequenced contemporary isolates, a definitive genetic origin for the outbreak in Haiti remains speculative. PMID:22099115

  4. Pre-earthquake non-epidemic Vibrio cholerae in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Winstead-Derlega, Christopher; Houpt, Eric; Heidkamp, Rebecca; Pape, Jean; Dillingham, Rebecca

    2014-01-15

    To our knowledge, there was no record of Vibrio cholerae in Haiti until the 2010 post earthquake outbreak. This study describes the analysis of 301 stool samples from 117 infants in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, who participated in a pediatric nutrition study between July 2008 and October 2009. Nine samples were identified positive with both SYBR Green and Taqman-MGB probe based molecular assays targeting V. cholerae hlyA and toxR, respectively (Ct = 33-40), but none were O1 or O139. Our results from multiple molecular assays demonstrate the presence of non-O1/O139 V. cholerae DNA in stools collected from nine asymptomatic Haitian infants two years prior to the 2010 earthquake.

  5. Detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in cockle (Anadara granosa) by PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilung, Lesley Maurice; Radu, Son; Bahaman, Abdul Rani; Rahim, Raha Abdul; Napis, Suhaimi; Ling, Michael Wong Clemente Vui; Tanil, Gwendelynne Bulan; Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki

    2005-11-01

    This study aimed to determine the occurrence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in cockles (Anadara granosa) at a harvesting area and to detect the presence of virulent strains carrying the thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh) and TDH-related hemolysin genes (trh) using PCR. Of 100 samples, 62 were positive for the presence of V. parahaemolyticus with an MPN (most probable number) value greater than 3.0 (>1100 MPN per g). The PCR analysis revealed 2 samples to be positive for the tdh gene and 11 to be positive for the trh gene. Hence, these results demonstrate the presence of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus in cockles harvested in the study area and reveal the potential risk of illness associated with their consumption.

  6. Vibrio palustris sp. nov. and Vibrio spartinae sp. nov., two novel members of the Gazogenes clade, isolated from salt-marsh plants (Arthrocnemum macrostachyum and Spartina maritima).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucena, Teresa; Arahal, David R; Ruvira, María A; Navarro-Torre, Salvadora; Mesa, Jennifer; Pajuelo, Eloísa; Rodriguez-Llorente, Ignacio D; Rodrigo-Torres, Lidia; Piñar, María J; Pujalte, María J

    2017-09-01

    Two bacterial strains, EAod9T and SMJ21T, isolated from salt-marsh plants, were determined to be related to species of the genus Vibriofrom from 16S rRNA sequence comparisons. Their closest phylogenetic relatives are members of the Gazogenes clade, Vibrio mangrovi and Vibrio rhizosphaerae , which show the greatest similarity to the SMJ21TrRNA sequence (97.3 and 97.1 %, respectively), while EAod9T had less than 97.0 % similarity to any other species of the genus Vibrio. Both strains share the basic characteristics of the genus Vibrio, as they are Gram-stain negative, motile, slightly halophilic, facultatively anaerobic bacteria. In addition, they are oxidase-negative and unable to grow on TCBS Agar; they grow between 15 to 26 °C, pH 6 to 8 and in up to 10 % (w/v) total salinity. They produce indol, are positive in the Voges-Proskauer test and are negative for arginine dihydrolase, lysine and ornithine decarboxylases. Strain SMJ21T is aerogenic and red-pigmented, due to prodigiosin production, while strain EAod9T ferments glucose without gas and is not pigmented. The major cellular fatty acids of both novel strains were C16 : 1ω7c/C16 : 1ω6c and C16 : 0. WGSobtained for both strains, along with the other five members of the clade, allowed the determination of ANI indexes and in silico estimations of DDH values, which confirmed that the two strains represent two novel species of the genus Vibrio: Vibriopalustris sp. nov. (with EAod9T=CECT 9027T=LMG 29724T as the proposed type strain) and Vibrio spartinae sp. nov. (with SMJ21T=CECT 9026T=LMG 29723T as the proposed type strain).

  7. Does gestrinone antagonize the effects of estrogen on endometrial implants upon the peritoneum of rats?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Rodrigues Lobo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of estrogen treatment in combination with gestrinone on an experimental rat model of endometriosis. METHODS: Uterine transplants were attached to the peritoneum of female Wistar rats via a surgical autotransplantation technique. The implanted area was measured during the proestrus phase and after hormonal treatment. We performed morphometric analysis and examined the macroscopic and morphometric alterations of endometrial implants after hormonal treatment in ovariectomized rats. RESULTS: The high dose of estrogen caused macroscopic increases in the endometrial implant group compared with other groups, which were similar to increases in the proestrus phase. The low dose showed morphometric development of implants, such as an increase in number of endometrial glands, leukocyte infiltration and mitosis. Gestrinone antagonized both doses of estrogen. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that gestrinone antagonizes estrogen's effects on rat peritoneal endometrial implants.

  8. Vibrio vulnificus bacteriophage SSP002 as a possible biocontrol agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Sung; Choi, Slae; Shin, Hakdong; Lee, Ju-Hoon; Choi, Sang Ho

    2014-01-01

    A novel Vibrio vulnificus-infecting bacteriophage, SSP002, belonging to the Siphoviridae family, was isolated from the coastal area of the Yellow Sea of South Korea. Host range analysis revealed that the growth inhibition of phage SSP002 is relatively specific to V. vulnificus strains from both clinical and environmental samples. In addition, a one-step growth curve analysis and a bacteriophage stability test revealed a latent period of 65 min, a burst size of 23 ± 2 PFU, as well as broad temperature (20°C to 60°C) and pH stability (pH 3 to 12) ranges. A Tn5 random transposon mutation of V. vulnificus and partial DNA sequencing of the inserted Tn5 regions revealed that the flhA, flhB, fliF, and fleQ mutants are resistant to SSP002 phage infection, suggesting that the flagellum may be the host receptor for infection. The subsequent construction of specific gene-inactivated mutants (flhA, flhB, fliF, and fleQ) and complementation experiments substantiated this. Previously, the genome of phage SSP002 was completely sequenced and analyzed. Comparative genomic analysis of phage SSP002 and Vibrio parahaemolyticus phage vB_VpaS_MAR10 showed differences among their tail-related genes, supporting different host ranges at the species level, even though their genome sequences are highly similar. An additional mouse survival test showed that the administration of phage SSP002 at a multiplicity of infection of 1,000 significantly protects mice from infection by V. vulnificus for up to 2 months, suggesting that this phage may be a good candidate for the development of biocontrol agents against V. vulnificus infection.

  9. Ozone Disinfection of Vibrio vulnificus in Shrimp Pond Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyah Pita Rengga, Wara; Cahya Julyta Putri, Echa; Wulansarie, Ria; Suryanto, Agus

    2018-03-01

    One variety of shrimp, L.Vanamei, often uses brackish water during the operation in the shrimp pond. Chlorination and ultraviolet are usually used for disinfection of brackish water. However, it is ineffective and forms sediment in the water distribution. It can be a negative impact on the water quality cause a contamination on the shrimp, so the farmers might have loss of profit because Vibrio vulnificus causes infection and dead on the shrimp. It affects the safety of consumers and should be minimized. The purpose of this study is to reduce the number of V. vulnificus bacteria in the pond water. The water was put in the storage tanks then pumped to filter out the impurities of the water. Furthermore, the water set the flow rate in 1 LPM, 2 LPM, and 3 LPM. After that, the ozone was injected to the water flow to sterilize the V. vulnificus bacteria. Finally, the water was returned to the original tank. The water from the tank was taken through a valve and analyzed in 0, 3, 7, 12, 18, 24, 30 minutes. The sample was analyzed immediately using a Total Plate Count method to determine the number of V. vulnificus bacteria in the shrimp pond water. The flow rate shows that the longer time of ozone made a lower amount of Vibrio v. bacteria. In 2 LPM water, it shows the optimum results of V. vulnificus. bacteria reduction for 88.1% compared to the flow rate of 1 LPM and 3 LPM with the bacteria reduction of 68,8% and 70.6%. This study shows that the ozone with a flow rate of 2 LPM circulation is the most effective method to help reducing the number of V. vulnificus in brackish water distribution system in the shrimp environment and potentially as a disinfectant.

  10. Autoinducers act as biological timers in Vibrio harveyi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Anetzberger

    Full Text Available Quorum sensing regulates cell density-dependent phenotypes and involves the synthesis, excretion and detection of so-called autoinducers. Vibrio harveyi strain ATCC BAA-1116 (recently reclassified as Vibrio campbellii, one of the best-characterized model organisms for the study of quorum sensing, produces and responds to three autoinducers. HAI-1, AI-2 and CAI-1 are recognized by different receptors, but all information is channeled into the same signaling cascade, which controls a specific set of genes. Here we examine temporal variations of availability and concentration of the three autoinducers in V. harveyi, and monitor the phenotypes they regulate, from the early exponential to the stationary growth phase in liquid culture. Specifically, the exponential growth phase is characterized by an increase in AI-2 and the induction of bioluminescence, while HAI-1 and CAI-1 are undetectable prior to the late exponential growth phase. CAI-1 activity reaches its maximum upon entry into stationary phase, while molar concentrations of AI-2 and HAI-1 become approximately equal. Similarly, autoinducer-dependent exoproteolytic activity increases at the transition into stationary phase. These findings are reflected in temporal alterations in expression of the luxR gene that encodes the master regulator LuxR, and of four autoinducer-regulated genes during growth. Moreover, in vitro phosphorylation assays reveal a tight correlation between the HAI-1/AI-2 ratio as input and levels of receptor-mediated phosphorylation of LuxU as output. Our study supports a model in which the combinations of autoinducers available, rather than cell density per se, determine the timing of various processes in V. harveyi populations.

  11. Evaluation of the antagonism of nicotine by mecamylamine and pempidine in the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    Antagonists have been crucial in the characterization of nicotine's pharmacology. Initial evidence for the existence of central nicotinic receptors was based on the fact that nicotine produced a number of behavioral effects that were antagonized by ganglionic blockers that crossed the blood-brain barrier, such as mecamylamine and pempidine. These compounds are thought to be noncompetitive antagonists due to the fact that they do not compete for agonist binding to brain homogenate in vitro. However, pharmacological evidence in support of noncompetitive antagonism is lacking. Dose-response curves for nicotine were determined in the presence of various doses of pempidine for depression of spontaneous activity and antinociception in mice. Pempidine was found to shift the dose response curves for these effects of nicotine in a manner consistent with noncompetitive antagonism. A number of mecamylamine analogs were investigated for antagonism of these central effects of nicotine as well. These studies revealed that the N-, 2-, and 3-methyls were crucial for optimal efficacy and potency and suggests that these compounds possess a specific mechanism of action, possibly involving a receptor. Furthermore, the structure-activity relationships for the mecamylamine analogs were found to be different than that previously reported for the agonists, suggesting that they do not act at the same site. The binding of [ 3 H]-L-nicotine and [ 3 H]-pempidine was studied in vitro to mouse brain homogentate and in situ to rat brain slices. The in situ binding of [ 3 H]-L-nicotine to rat brain slices was quantitated autoradiographically to discrete brain areas in the presence and absence of 1, 10 and 100 μM nicotine and pempidine. Pempidine did not effectively displace [ 3 H]-L-nicotine binding

  12. Relation of arginine-lysine antagonism to herpes simplex growth in tissue culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, R S; DeLong, D C; Nelson, J D

    1981-01-01

    In the studies conducted, arginine deficiency suppressed herpes simplex virus replication in tissue culture. Lysine, an analog of arginine, as an antimetabolite, antagonized the viral growth-promoting action of arginine. The in vitro data may be the basis for the observation that patients prone to herpetic lesions and other related viral infections, particularly during periods of stress, should abstain from arginine excess and may also require supplemental lysine in their diet.

  13. Antagonism between penicillin and erythromycin against Streptococcus pneumoniae in vitro and in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, H K; Jensen, T G; Dessau, R B

    2000-01-01

    The combination of beta-lactam antibiotics and macrolides is often recommended for the initial empirical treatment of acute pneumonia in order to obtain activity against the most important pathogens. Theoretically, this combination may be inexpedient, as the bacteriostatic agent may antagonize...... and in vivo between penicillin and erythromycin suggests that ss-lactam antibiotics and macrolides should not be administered together unless pneumococcal infection is ruled out....

  14. Isolation of urease-positive Vibrio parahaemolyticus from diarrheal patients in Northeast Brazi Vibrio parahaemolyticus urease-positivos de pacientes diarréicos no Nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Magalhães

    1991-08-01

    Full Text Available Of 21 human fecal strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, isolated on the Northeast Coast of Brazil, eight (38% were urease positive. Most of these strains, in contrast to the urease-negative ones, did not produce the hemolysin responsible for the Kanagawa phenomenon.De 21 linhagens de Vibrio parahaemolyticus, isoladas de fezes humanas, na costa Nordeste do Brasil, oito (38% foram urease positivas. A maioria dessas linhagens, em contraste com as urease-negativas, não produziram a hemolisina responsável pelo fenômeno Kanagawa.

  15. At 1 antagonism and renin inhibition in mice: Pivotal role of targeting angiotensin II in chronic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Fraune (Christoph); S. Lange (Simon); C. Krebs (Christian); A. Hölzel (Alexandra); J. Baucke (Jana); N. Divac (Nevena); E. Schwedhelm (Edzard); T. Streichert (Thomas); J. Velden (Joachim); I.M. Garrelds (Ingrid); A.H.J. Danser (Jan); A.-R. Frenay (Anne-Roos); H. van Goor (Harry); J.A. Jankowski (Janusz Antoni); R. Stahl (Rolf); G. Nguyen (Genevieve); U. Wenzel (Ulrich)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe role of the renin-angiotensin system in chronic kidney disease involves multiple peptides and receptors. Exerting antipodal pathophysiological mechanisms, renin inhibition and AT 1 antagonism ameliorate renal damage. However, it is unclear which mechanism exerts better

  16. Arctigenin antagonizes mineralocorticoid receptor to inhibit the transcription of Na/K-ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ye; Zhou, Meili; Wang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is one of the most important risk factors in cardiovascular disease and is the most common chronic disease. Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists have been successfully used in clinic for the treatment of hypertension. Our study aims to investigate whether Arctigenin can antagonize MR and inhibit the transcription of Na/K-ATPase. The yeast two-hybrid assay was used to screen natural products and Arctigenin was identified as an MR antagonist. The direct binding of Arctigenin to MR was determined using assays based on surface plasmon resonance, differential scanning calorimetry and fluorescence quenching. Furthermore, results from mammalian one-hybrid and transcriptional activation experiments also confirmed that Arctigenin can potently antagonize MR in cells. We demonstrated that Arctigenin can decrease the level of Na/K-ATPase mRNA by antagonizing MR in HK-2 cells. Our findings show that Arctigenin can effectively decrease Na/K-ATPase transcription; thus highlight its potential as an anti-hypertensive drug lead compound. Our current findings demonstrate that Arctigenin is an antagonist of MR and effectively decreases the Na/K-ATPase 1 gene expression. Our work provides a hint for the drug discovery against cardiovascular disease.

  17. Antagonism of Sorafenib and Regorafenib actions by platelet factors in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Alessandro, Rosalba; Refolo, Maria G; Lippolis, Catia; Giannuzzi, Grazia; Carella, Nicola; Messa, Caterina; Cavallini, Aldo; Carr, Brian I

    2014-01-01

    Platelets are frequently altered in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. Platelet lysates (hPL) can enhance HCC cell growth and decrease apoptosis. The aims were to evaluate whether hPL can modulate the actions of Sorafenib or Regorafenib, two clinical HCC multikinase antagonists. Several human HCC cell lines were grown in the presence and absence of Sorafenib or Regorafenib, with or without hPL. Growth was measured by MTT assay, apoptosis was assessed by Annexin V and by western blot, and autophagy and MAPK growth signaling were also measured by western blot, and migration and invasion were measured by standard in vitro assays. Both Sorafenib and Regorafenib-mediated inhibition of cell growth, migration and invasion were all antagonized by hPL. Drug-mediated apoptosis and decrease in phospho-ERK levels were both blocked by hPL, which also increased anti-apoptotic phospho-STAT, Bax and Bcl-xL levels. Preliminary data, obtained with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), included in hPL, revealed that these factors were able to antagonized Sorafenib in a proliferation assay, in particular when used in combination. Platelet factors can antagonize Sorafenib or Regorafenib-mediated growth inhibition and apoptosis in HCC cells. The modulation of platelet activity or numbers has the potential to enhance multikinase drug actions

  18. In vitro antagonism of Trichoderma harzianum Rifai against Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Acosta-Suárez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro antagonism of Trichoderma harzianum against Mycosphaerella fijiensis, foliar pathogen of banana and plantain, was evaluated. The assays were performed using the dual culture method. Competition for space and nutrients, the antagonistic capacity and forms and intensity of antagonism were determined considering the invasion of the surface of the colony, colonization and sporulation of T. harzianum on M. fijiensis after seven days of inoculation. Finally, the effect of volatile metabolites of T. harzianum was evaluated. The results showed in vitro antagonism of T. harzianum against M. fijiensis by competition for space and nutrients of the culture medium. Trichoderma grew over the pathogen colony with hyperparasitism and high intensity. Also, it completely covered the surface of the culture medium. T. harzianum not inhibited the growth of M. fijiensis by volatile metabolites. Damage was observed in the integrity of the cell wall of M. fijiensis hyphae and the cell content exit. The use of antagonistic fungi, could contribute to the design of strategies for integrated management of this disease. Key words: banana and plantain, biocontrol, mechanisms of action

  19. Relative contributions of Vibrio polysaccharide and quorum sensing to the resistance of Vibrio cholerae to predation by heterotrophic protists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyang Sun

    Full Text Available Protozoan grazing is a major mortality factor faced by bacteria in the environment. Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the disease cholera, is a natural inhabitant of aquatic ecosystems, and its survival depends on its ability to respond to stresses, such as predation by heterotrophic protists. Previous results show that grazing pressure induces biofilm formation and enhances a smooth to rugose morphotypic shift, due to increased expression of Vibrio polysaccharide (VPS. In addition to negatively controlling vps genes, the global quorum sensing (QS regulator, HapR, plays a role in grazing resistance as the ΔhapR strain is efficiently consumed while the wild type (WT is not. Here, the relative and combined contributions of VPS and QS to grazing resistance were investigated by exposing VPS and HapR mutants and double mutants in VPS and HapR encoding genes at different phases of biofilm development to amoeboid and flagellate grazers. Data show that the WT biofilms were grazing resistant, the VPS mutants were less resistant than the WT strain, but more resistant than the QS mutant strain, and that QS contributes to grazing resistance mainly in mature biofilms. In addition, grazing effects on biofilms of mixed WT and QS mutant strains were investigated. The competitive fitness of each strain in mixed biofilms was determined by CFU and microscopy. Data show that protozoa selectively grazed the QS mutant in mixed biofilms, resulting in changes in the composition of the mixed community. A small proportion of QS mutant cells which comprised 4% of the mixed biofilm biovolume were embedded in grazing resistant WT microcolonies and shielded from predation, indicating the existence of associational protection in mixed biofilms.

  20. Gastroenteritis humanas associadas a Vibrio parahaemolyticus no Recife, Brasil Vibrio parahaemolyticus associated with human gastroenteritis in Recife, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Magalhães

    1991-02-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se estudo sobre a ocorrência do Vibrio parahaemolyticus em 1.100 fezes diarréicas, enviadas rotineiramente a laboratório clínico privado do Recife, para diagnóstico microbiológico. Isolou-se o V. parahaemolyticus de 14 (1,3% amostras fecais. Entretanto, se nós consideramos apenas os espécimes dos pacientes adultos, a taxa de isolamento do V. parahaemolyticus elevou-se para 7,1%. Na maioria dos casos (92,86%, o V. parahaemolyticus foi o único enteropatógeno reconhecido. Demonstraram-se sete antígenos K entre as cepas isoladas e três não puderam ser sorotipadas. Apenas duas linhagens, ambas ureolíticas, não produziram a toxina direta termoestável. Nós concluímos que o V. parahaemolyticus é importante causa de diarréia do adulto no Recife, em consumidores de frutos do mar.A study was carried out on the occurrence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in 1.100 diarrheal feces, routinely sent to a private clinical laboratory for microbiologic diagnosis, in Recife. V. parahaemolyticus was isolated from 14 (1.3% fecal samples. However, if we considered only the specimens from adult patients, the isolation rate of V. parahaemolyticus rose to 7.1%. In most cases (92.86%, V. parahaemolyticus was the only enteropathogen recognized. Among the isolates, seven K antigen serovars were demonstrated, and three were untypable. Only two human isolates, both ureolytic, did not produce the thermostable direct hemolysin. We concluded that V. parahaemolyticus is an important cause of sea food linked diarrhea among adults in Recife.

  1. Production of homozygous transgenic rainbow trout with enhanced disease resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies conducted in our laboratory showed that transgenic medaka expressing cecropin B transgenes exhibited resistant characteristic to fish bacterial pathogens, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Vibrio anguillarum. To confirm whether antimicrobial peptide gene will also exhibit antibacterial an...

  2. New insights into Oculina patagonica coral diseases and their associated Vibrio spp. communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Portillo, Esther; Yarza, Pablo; Peñalver, Cindy; Ramos-Esplá, Alfonso A; Antón, Josefa

    2014-01-01

    Bleaching of Oculina patagonica has been extensively studied in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, although no studies have been carried out in the Western basin. In 1996 Vibrio mediterranei was reported as the causative agent of bleaching in O. patagonica but it has not been related to bleached or healthy corals since 2003, suggesting that it was no longer involved in bleaching of O. patagonica. In an attempt to clarify the relationship between Vibrio spp., seawater temperature and coral diseases, as well as to investigate the putative differences between Eastern and Western Mediterranean basins, we have analysed the seasonal patterns of the culturable Vibrio spp. assemblages associated with healthy and diseased O. patagonica colonies. Two sampling points located in the Spanish Mediterranean coast were chosen for this study: Alicante Harbour and the Marine Reserve of Tabarca. A complex and dynamic assemblage of Vibrio spp. was present in O. patagonica along the whole year and under different environmental conditions and coral health status. While some Vibrio spp. were detected all year around in corals, the known pathogens V. mediteranei and V. coralliilyticus were only present in diseased specimens. The pathogenic potential of these bacteria was studied by experimental infection under laboratory conditions. Both vibrios caused diseased signs from 24 °C, being higher and faster at 28 °C. Unexpectedly, the co-inoculation of these two Vibrio species seemed to have a synergistic pathogenic effect over O. patagonica, as disease signs were readily observed at temperatures at which bleaching is not normally observed. PMID:24621525

  3. Real-time PCR optimization to identify environmental Vibrio spp. strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tall, A; Teillon, A; Boisset, C; Delesmont, R; Touron-Bodilis, A; Hervio-Heath, D

    2012-08-01

    To identify Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio alginolyticus using standardized DNA extraction method and real-time PCR assays, among a large number of bacterial strains isolated from marine environment. Methods for DNA extraction and real-time PCR were standardized to identify a large number of Vibrio spp. strains isolated through regular collection campaigns of environmental samples. Three real-time PCR assays were developed from a multiplex PCR, targeting V. vulnificus, V. cholerae and V. alginolyticus on the dnaJ gene. After testing their specificity, these systems were applied for the identification of 961 strains isolated at 22°C (446 strains) and 37°C (515 strains) in September 2009. The predominance of V. alginolyticus (82·6%) among the Vibrio spp. strains isolated at 37°C was shown. At 22°C, only 1·6% of the strains were identified by PCR and they were V. alginolyticus. Reproducible and specific real-time PCR assays combined to a DNA extraction method on microplates were used to constitute a large environmental Vibrio strains collection and to identify and detect potential human pathogenic Vibrio isolated at 37°C. For environmental strains isolated at 22°C, because of the higher species diversity, other approaches, like sequencing, should be chosen for identification. The protocol developed in this study provides an appropriate and rapid screening tool to identify a large number of bacterial strains routinely isolated from the environment in long-term studies. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Vibrio sp. DSM 14379 pigment production--a competitive advantage in the environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starič, Nejc; Danevčič, Tjaša; Stopar, David

    2010-10-01

    The ability to produce several antibacterial agents greatly increases the chance of producer's survival. In this study, red-pigmented Vibrio sp. DSM 14379 and Bacillus sp., both isolated from the same sampling volume from estuarine waters of the Northern Adriatic Sea, were grown in a co-culture. The antibacterial activity of the red pigment extract was tested on Bacillus sp. in microtiter plates. The MIC(50) for Bacillus sp. was estimated to be around 10⁻⁵ mg/L. The extract prepared form the nonpigmented mutant of Vibrio sp. had no antibacterial effect. The pigment production of Vibrio sp. was studied under different physicochemical conditions. There was no pigment production at high or low temperatures, high or low salt concentrations in peptone yeast extract (PYE) medium, low glucose concentration in mineral growth medium or high glucose concentration in PYE medium. This indicates that the red pigment production is a luxurious good that Vibrio sp. makes only under favorable conditions. The Malthusian fitness of Bacillus sp. in a co-culture with Vibrio sp. under optimal environmental conditions dropped from 4.0 to -7.6, which corresponds to three orders of magnitude decrease in the number of CFU relative to the monoculture. The nonpigmented mutant of Vibrio sp. in a co-culture with Bacillus sp. had a significant antibacterial activity. This result shows that studying antibacterial properties in isolation (i.e. pigment extract only) may not reveal full antibacterial potential of the bacterial strain. The red pigment is a redundant antibacterial agent of Vibrio sp.

  5. Relationships between Environmental Factors and Pathogenic Vibrios in the Northern Gulf of Mexico ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. N.; Flowers, A. R.; Noriea, N. F.; Zimmerman, A. M.; Bowers, J. C.; DePaola, A.; Grimes, D. J.

    2010-01-01

    Although autochthonous vibrio densities are known to be influenced by water temperature and salinity, little is understood about other environmental factors associated with their abundance and distribution. Densities of culturable Vibrio vulnificus containing vvh (V. vulnificus hemolysin gene) and V. parahaemolyticus containing tlh (thermolabile hemolysin gene, ubiquitous in V. parahaemolyticus), tdh (thermostable direct hemolysin gene, V. parahaemolyticus pathogenicity factor), and trh (tdh-related hemolysin gene, V. parahaemolyticus pathogenicity factor) were measured in coastal waters of Mississippi and Alabama. Over a 19-month sampling period, vibrio densities in water, oysters, and sediment varied significantly with sea surface temperature (SST). On average, tdh-to-tlh ratios were significantly higher than trh-to-tlh ratios in water and oysters but not in sediment. Although tlh densities were lower than vvh densities in water and in oysters, the opposite was true in sediment. Regression analysis indicated that SST had a significant association with vvh and tlh densities in water and oysters, while salinity was significantly related to vibrio densities in the water column. Chlorophyll a levels in the water were correlated significantly with vvh in sediment and oysters and with pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus (tdh and trh) in the water column. Furthermore, turbidity was a significant predictor of V. parahaemolyticus density in all sample types (water, oyster, and sediment), and its role in predicting the risk of V. parahaemolyticus illness may be more important than previously realized. This study identified (i) culturable vibrios in winter sediment samples, (ii) niche-based differences in the abundance of vibrios, and (iii) predictive signatures resulting from correlations between environmental parameters and vibrio densities. PMID:20817802

  6. Impact of Hurricane Irene on Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus concentrations in surface water, sediment, and cultured oysters in the Chesapeake Bay, MD, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Kristi S; Jacobs, John M; Crump, Byron C

    2014-01-01

    To determine if a storm event (i.e., high winds, large volumes of precipitation) could alter concentrations of Vibrio vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus in aquacultured oysters (Crassostrea virginica) and associated surface water and sediment, this study followed a sampling timeline before and after Hurricane Irene impacted the Chesapeake Bay estuary in late August 2011. Aquacultured oysters were sampled from two levels in the water column: surface (0.3 m) and near-bottom (just above the sediment). Concentrations of each Vibrio spp. and associated virulence genes were measured in oysters with a combination of real-time PCR and most probable number (MPN) enrichment methods, and in sediment and surface water with real-time PCR. While concentration shifts of each Vibrio species were apparent post-storm, statistical tests indicated no significant change in concentration for either Vibrio species by location (surface or near bottom oysters) or date sampled (oyster tissue, surface water, and sediment concentrations). V. vulnificus in oyster tissue was correlated with total suspended solids (r = 0.41, P = 0.04), and V. vulnificus in sediment was correlated with secchi depth (r = -0.93, P Chesapeake Bay.

  7. Unique and conserved genome regions in Vibrio harveyi and related species in comparison with the shrimp pathogen Vibrio harveyi CAIM 1792.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza-Valles, Iliana; Vora, Gary J; Lin, Baochuan; Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas; González-Castillo, Adrián; Ussery, Dave; Høj, Lone; Gomez-Gil, Bruno

    2015-09-01

    Vibrio harveyi CAIM 1792 is a marine bacterial strain that causes mortality in farmed shrimp in north-west Mexico, and the identification of virulence genes in this strain is important for understanding its pathogenicity. The aim of this work was to compare the V. harveyi CAIM 1792 genome with related genome sequences to determine their phylogenic relationship and explore unique regions in silico that differentiate this strain from other V. harveyi strains. Twenty-one newly sequenced genomes were compared in silico against the CAIM 1792 genome at nucleotidic and predicted proteome levels. The proteome of CAIM 1792 had higher similarity to those of other V. harveyi strains (78%) than to those of the other closely related species Vibrio owensii (67%), Vibrio rotiferianus (63%) and Vibrio campbellii (59%). Pan-genome ORFans trees showed the best fit with the accepted phylogeny based on DNA-DNA hybridization and multi-locus sequence analysis of 11 concatenated housekeeping genes. SNP analysis clustered 34/38 genomes within their accepted species. The pangenomic and SNP trees showed that V. harveyi is the most conserved of the four species studied and V. campbellii may be divided into at least three subspecies, supported by intergenomic distance analysis. blastp atlases were created to identify unique regions among the genomes most related to V. harveyi CAIM 1792; these regions included genes encoding glycosyltransferases, specific type restriction modification systems and a transcriptional regulator, LysR, reported to be involved in virulence, metabolism, quorum sensing and motility.

  8. Impact of Hurricane Irene on Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus concentrations in surface water, sediment and cultured oysters in the Chesapeake Bay, Maryland, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristi S Shaw

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To determine if a storm event (i.e., high winds, large volumes of precipitation could alter concentrations of Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in aquacultured oysters (Crassostrea virginica and associated surface water and sediment, this study followed a sampling timeline before and after Hurricane Irene impacted the Chesapeake Bay estuary in late August 2011. Aquacultured oysters were sampled from two levels in the water column: surface 0.3 m and near-bottom just above the sediment. Concentrations of each Vibrio spp. and associated virulence genes were measured in oysters with a combination of real-time PCR and most probable number enrichment methods, and in sediment and surface water with real-time PCR. While concentration shifts of each Vibrio species were apparent post-storm, statistical tests indicated no significant change in concentration change for either Vibrio species by location (surface or near bottom oysters or date sampled (oyster tissue, surface water and sediment concentrations. V. vulnificus in oyster tissue was correlated with total suspended solids (r=0.41, p=0.04, and V. vulnificus in sediment was correlated with secchi depth (r=-0.93, p< 0.01, salinity (r=-0.46, p=0.02, tidal height (r=-0.45, p=0.03, and surface water V. vulnificus (r=0.98, p< 0.01. V. parahaemolyticus in oyster tissue did not correlate with environmental measurements, but V. parahaemolyticus in sediment and surface water correlated with several measurements including secchi depth (r=-0.48, p=0.02[sediment]; r=-0.97 p< 0.01[surface water] and tidal height (r=-0.96. p< 0.01[sediment], r=-0.59,p< 0.01 [surface water]. The concentrations of Vibrio spp. were higher in oysters relative to other studies (average V. vulnificus 4x105 MPN g-1, V. parahaemolyticus 1x105 MPN g-1, and virulence-associated genes were detected in most oyster samples. This study provides a first estimate of storm-related Vibrio density changes in oyster tissues, sediment and

  9. Vibrio cholerae VciB Mediates Iron Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Eric D; Payne, Shelley M

    2017-06-15

    Vibrio cholerae is the causative agent of the severe diarrheal disease cholera. V. cholerae thrives within the human host, where it replicates to high numbers, but it also persists within the aquatic environments of ocean and brackish water. To survive within these nutritionally diverse environments, V. cholerae must encode the necessary tools to acquire the essential nutrient iron in all forms it may encounter. A prior study of systems involved in iron transport in V. cholerae revealed the existence of vciB , which, while unable to directly transport iron, stimulates the transport of iron through ferrous (Fe 2+ ) iron transport systems. We demonstrate here a role for VciB in V. cholerae in which VciB stimulates the reduction of Fe 3+ to Fe 2+ , which can be subsequently transported into the cell with the ferrous iron transporter Feo. Iron reduction is independent of functional iron transport but is associated with the electron transport chain. Comparative analysis of VciB orthologs suggests a similar role for other proteins in the VciB family. Our data indicate that VciB is a dimer located in the inner membrane with three transmembrane segments and a large periplasmic loop. Directed mutagenesis of the protein reveals two highly conserved histidine residues required for function. Taken together, our results support a model whereby VciB reduces ferric iron using energy from the electron transport chain. IMPORTANCE Vibrio cholerae is a prolific human pathogen and environmental organism. The acquisition of essential nutrients such as iron is critical for replication, and V. cholerae encodes a number of mechanisms to use iron from diverse environments. Here, we describe the V. cholerae protein VciB that increases the reduction of oxidized ferric iron (Fe 3+ ) to the ferrous form (Fe 2+ ), thus promoting iron acquisition through ferrous iron transporters. Analysis of VciB orthologs in Burkholderia and Aeromonas spp. suggest that they have a similar activity, allowing a

  10. Vibrio cholerae Colonization of Soft-Shelled Turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiazheng; Yan, Meiying; Gao, He; Lu, Xin; Kan, Biao

    2017-07-15

    Vibrio cholerae is an important human pathogen and environmental microflora species that can both propagate in the human intestine and proliferate in zooplankton and aquatic organisms. Cholera is transmitted through food and water. In recent years, outbreaks caused by V. cholerae -contaminated soft-shelled turtles, contaminated mainly with toxigenic serogroup O139, have been frequently reported, posing a new foodborne disease public health problem. In this study, the colonization by toxigenic V. cholerae on the body surfaces and intestines of soft-shelled turtles was explored. Preferred colonization sites on the turtle body surfaces, mainly the carapace and calipash of the dorsal side, were observed for the O139 and O1 strains. Intestinal colonization was also found. The colonization factors of V. cholerae played different roles in the colonization of the soft-shelled turtle's body surface and intestine. Mannose-sensitive hemagglutinin (MSHA) of V. cholerae was necessary for body surface colonization, but no roles were found for toxin-coregulated pili (TCP) or N -acetylglucosamine-binding protein A (GBPA). Both TCP and GBPA play important roles for colonization in the intestine, whereas the deletion of MSHA revealed only a minor colonization-promoting role for this factor. Our study demonstrated that V. cholerae can colonize the surfaces and the intestines of soft-shelled turtles and indicated that the soft-shelled turtles played a role in the transmission of cholera. In addition, this study showed that the soft-shelled turtle has potential value as an animal model in studies of the colonization and environmental adaption mechanisms of V. cholerae in aquatic organisms. IMPORTANCE Cholera is transmitted through water and food. Soft-shelled turtles contaminated with Vibrio cholerae (commonly the serogroup O139 strains) have caused many foodborne infections and outbreaks in recent years, and they have become a foodborne disease problem. Except for epidemiological

  11. Vibrio panuliri sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from spiny lobster, Panulirus penicillatus and transfer of Vibrio ponticus from Scophthalmi clade to the newly proposed Ponticus clade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Prabla; Poddar, Abhijit; Schumann, Peter; Das, Subrata K

    2014-12-01

    A novel marine bacterium, strain LBS2(T) was isolated from eggs carried on pleopods of the spiny lobster collected from Andaman Sea. Heterotrophic growth occurred at 1-7% NaCl. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity revealed the strain LBS2(T) belonged to the genus Vibrio and showed above 97% similarity with eight type strains of the genus Vibrio. Multilocus analysis based on ftsZ, gapA, gyrB, mreB, pyrH recA, rpoA, and topA revealed LBS2(T) formed a separate cluster with Vibrio ponticus DSM 16217(T) with 89.8% multilocus gene sequence similarity. However, strain LBS2(T) is distantly related with other members of the Scophthalmi clade in terms of 16S rRNA signatures, phenotypic variations and multilocus gene sequence similarity, for which we propose LBS2(T) belongs to a new clade i.e. Ponticus clade with V. ponticus DSM 16217(T) as the representative type strain of the clade. DNA-DNA homologies between strain LBS2(T) and closely related strains were well below 70%. DNA G + C content was 45.3 mol%. On the basis of our polyphasic study, strain LBS2(T) represents a novel species of the genus Vibrio, for which the name Vibrio panuliri sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LBS2(T) (= JCM 19500(T) = DSM 27724(T) = LMG 27902(T)). Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Identification of capsule, biofilm, lateral flagellum, and type IV pili in Vibrio mimicus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tercero-Alburo, J J; González-Márquez, H; Bonilla-González, E; Quiñones-Ramírez, E I; Vázquez-Salinas, C

    2014-11-01

    Vibrio mimicus is a bacterium that causes gastroenteritis; it is closely related to Vibrio cholerae, and can cause acute diarrhea like cholera- or dysentery-type diarrhea. It is distributed worldwide. Factors associated with virulence (such as hemolysins, enterotoxins, proteases, phospholipases, aerobactin, and hemagglutinin) have been identified; however, its pathogenicity mechanism is still unknown. In pathogenic Vibrio species such as V. cholerae, Vibrio. parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus, capsule, biofilms, lateral flagellum, and type IV pili are structures described as essential for pathogenicity. These structures had not been described in V. mimicus until this work. We used 20 V. mimicus strains isolated from water (6), oyster (9), and fish (5) samples and we were able to identify the capsule, biofilm, lateral flagellum, and type IV pili through phenotypic tests, electron microscopy, PCR, and sequencing. In all tested strains, we observed and identified the presence of capsular exopolysaccharide, biofilm formation in an in vitro model, as well as swarming, multiple flagellation, and pili. In addition, we identified homologous genes to those described in other bacteria of the genus in which these structures have been found. Identification of these structures in V. mimicus is a contribution to the biology of this organism and can help to reveal its pathogenic behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Essential oils of Nigella sativa protects Artemia from the pathogenic effect of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Dahv2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manju, Sivalingam; Malaikozhundan, Balasubramanian; Withyachumnarnkul, Boonsirm; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam

    2016-05-01

    The anti-Vibrio activity of essential oils (EOs) of nine medicinal plants was tested against 28 Vibrio spp. isolated from diseased Fenneropenaeus indicus. EO of Nigella sativa exhibited anti-Vibrio activity against all Vibrio spp. and greater inhibition was noted for the isolate V2 which was identified as Vibrio parahaemolyticus Dahv2. Further, EO of N. sativa effectively inhibited V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2 with an inhibition zone of 23.9mm at 101.2μgml(-1). Moreover, EO of N. sativa revealed anti-biofilm activity at 101.2μgml(-1) against V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2 and inhibited the growth of V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2 at 100μgml(-1).In vivo experimental infection studies showed that the survival of Artemia spp. infected with V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2 at 1×10(3)cfuml(-1) was only 40%. However, the survival of Artemia spp. was significantly increased after challenge with 100μgml(-1) of EO of N. sativa. EO of N. sativa showed higher anti-oxidant potential and total phenol content than other EOs tested. The anti-oxidant activity of EO of N. sativa was highly correlated to their total phenolic contents (r=0.836, P<0.05). This observation suggests that EO of N. sativa protected the Artemia spp. after experimental infection of V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Description of a novel marine bacterium, Vibrio hyugaensis sp. nov., based on genomic and phenotypic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanczyk, Yoshiko; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Urbanczyk, Henryk

    2015-07-01

    Three luminous bacteria strains have been isolated from seawater samples collected in the coastal regions of the Miyazaki prefecture in Japan. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences identified the three strains as members of the genus Vibrio (Vibrionaceae, Gammaproteobacteria), closely related to bacteria in the so-called 'Harveyi clade.' The genomes of the three strains were estimated to be between 5.49Mbp and 5.95Mbp, with average G+C of 43.91%. The genome sequence data was used to estimate relatedness of the three strains to related Vibrio bacteria, including estimation of frequency of recombination events, calculation of average nucleotide identity (ANI), and a phylogenetic analysis based on concatenated alignment of nucleotide sequences of 135 protein coding genes. Results of these analyses in all cases showed the three strains forming a group clearly separate from previously described Vibrio species. A phenotypic analysis revealed that the three strains have character similar to Vibrio bacteria in the 'Harveyi clade', but can be differentiated from previously described species by testing for hydrolysis of esculin. Based on results of genomic, phylogenetic and phenotypic analyses presented in this study, it can be concluded that the three strains represent a novel species, for which the name Vibrio hyugaensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 090810a(T) (=LMG 28466(T)=NBRC 110633(T)). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Infection Vibrio sp. Bacteria on Kappaphycus Seaweed Varieties Brown and Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irmawati, Yuni; Sudirjo, Fien

    2017-10-01

    Disease in seaweed or ice-ice, until today is still a major problem in the cultivation of seaweed. Changes in extreme environmental conditions is a trigger factor of ice-ice, which can result in seaweed susceptible to infection with pathogenic microorganisms, such as bacteria Vibrio sp. This research aims to determine the bacteria Vibrio sp. infection in seaweed Kappaphycus varieties of brown and green. Vibrio sp. bacteria isolated in the infected seaweed thallus ice-ice, grown on TCBS media, purification, gram staining and biochemical tests. Vibrio sp. infected to seaweed Kappaphycus brown and green varieties in containers controlled by different density, 105 CFU/ml, 106 CFU/ml and 107CFU/ml. Observations were made to change clinical effect in thallus seaweed for 14 days of observation. The results obtained show that the levels of infection bacteria Vibrio sp. higher in seaweed Kappaphycus green varieties both in density 105 CFU/ml, 106 CFU/ml and 107CFU/ml, when compared with varieties brown.

  16. Occurrence of Vibrio and Salmonella species in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected along the Moroccan Atlantic coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannas, Hasna; Mimouni, Rachida; Chaouqy, Noureddine; Hamadi, Fatima; Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    This study reports the occurrence of different Vibrio and Salmonella species in 52 samples of Mytilus galloprovincialis collected from four sites along the Atlantic coast between Agadir and Essaouira (Anza, Cap Ghir, Imssouane and Essaouira). The level of Escherichia coli (E. coli) was also determined to evaluate the degree of microbial pollution in the investigated areas. In this study three methods were used : AFNOR NF EN ISO 6579 V08-013 for Salmonella spp., the provisional method routinely used by several laboratories (Institut Pasteur, Paris,…) for Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the seafood, and the most probable number method (MPN) using Norm ISO/TS 16649-3 (2005) for E. coli. The most frequently isolated Vibrios were Vibrio alginolyticus (90.4% of samples), followed by V. cholerae non O1 non O139 (15.4%) and V. parahaemolyticus (7.7%). Salmonella spp. was found in 15% of the samples. The number of E. coli ranged between 0.2/100 g and 1.8 10(3) /100 g of mussel soft tissues. This study indicates the potential sanitary risk associated with the presence of pathogenic bacteria in cultivated mussels in the two populous regions of southern Morocco, where shellfish production and maritime tourism are important to the local economy.

  17. Phytoplankton production systems in a shellfish hatchery: variations of the bacterial load and diversity of vibrios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubert, J; Fernández-Pardo, A; Nóvoa, S; Barja, J L; Prado, S

    2015-06-01

    Outbreaks of disease caused by some Vibrio species represent the main production bottleneck in shellfish hatcheries. Although the phytoplankton used as food is one of the main sources of bacteria, studies of the associated bacterial populations, specifically vibrios, are scarce. The aim of the study was the microbiological monitoring of the microalgae as the first step in assessing the risk disease for bivalve cultures. Two phytoplankton production systems were sampled weekly throughout 1-year period in a bivalve hatchery. Quantitative analysis revealed high levels of marine heterotrophic bacteria in both systems throughout the study. Presumptive vibrios were detected occasionally and at low concentrations. In most of the cases, they belonged to the Splendidus and Harveyi clades. The early detection of vibrios in the microalgae may be the key for a successful bivalve culture. Their abundance and diversity were affected by factors related to the hatchery environment. This work represents the first long study where the presence of vibrios was evaluated rigorously in phytoplankton production systems and provides a suitable microbiological protocol to control and guarantee the quality of the algal cultures to avoid the risk of transferring potential pathogens to shellfish larvae and/or broodstock. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. POTENCY OF VIBRIO ISOLATES FOR BIOCONTROL OF VIBRIOSIS IN TIGER SHRIMP (PENAEUS MONODON LARVAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. W. LAY

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to obtain Vibrio isolates able to function as biocontr ol of vibriosis in shrimp hatchery. Thirty one Vibrio isolates were isolated from tiger shrimp larvae and hatchery environments, i.e. Labuan, Pangandaran, and Lampung, Indonesia. Pathogenic V. harveyi MR5339 was obtained from Maros, South-Sulawesi and was made as a rifampicin resistant mutant (RFR to screen for those 31 Vibrio isolates in in vitro assays and to allow us to monitor their presence in shrimp larvae and larval rearing water. Almost all Vibrio isolates could inhibit the growth of pathogenic V. harveyi MR5339 RFR. SKT-b isolate from Skeletonema was the most effective to inhibit the growth of V. harveyi MR5339 Rf* and significantly reduced larval mortality in pathogen challenge assays. These prospective biocontrol bacteria, at concentration of 10" CFU/ml, did not show pathogenicity to shrimp larvae. SKT-b was Gram negative, short rod-shape, exhibited yellow colonies on TCBS and swarming on SWC-agar media, motile, u tilized glucose and sucrose but not lactose: produced extra-cellular protease and amylase, but did not produce chitmase. Partial sequencing of 16S-rRNA gene SKT-b showed SKT-b similarity to Vibrio alginofyticus.

  19. Effect of Climate Change on the Concentration and Associated Risks of Vibrio Spp. in Dutch Recreational Waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, Ankie; Schets, Franciska M; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria; de Nijs, Ton; Schijven, Jack F; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the number of reported cases of recreational- water-related Vibrio illness in the Netherlands is low. However, a notable higher incidence of Vibrio infections has been observed in warm summers. In the future, such warm summers are expected to occur more often, resulting in enhanced water

  20. Effect of Climate Change on the Concentration and Associated Risks of Vibrio Spp. in Dutch Recreational Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterk, Ankie; Schets, Franciska M; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria; de Nijs, Ton; Schijven, Jack F

    2015-09-01

    Currently, the number of reported cases of recreational- water-related Vibrio illness in the Netherlands is low. However, a notable higher incidence of Vibrio infections has been observed in warm summers. In the future, such warm summers are expected to occur more often, resulting in enhanced water temperatures favoring Vibrio growth. Quantitative information on the increase in concentration of Vibrio spp. in recreational water under climate change scenarios is lacking. In this study, data on occurrence of Vibrio spp. at six different bathing sites in the Netherlands (2009-2012) were used to derive an empirical formula to predict the Vibrio concentration as a function of temperature, salinity, and pH. This formula was used to predict the effects of increased temperatures in climate change scenarios on Vibrio concentrations. For Vibrio parahaemolyticus, changes in illness risks associated with the changed concentrations were calculated as well. For an average temperature increase of 3.7 °C, these illness risks were calculated to be two to three times higher than in the current situation. Current illness risks were, varying per location, on average between 10(-4) and 10(-2) per person for an entire summer. In situations where water temperatures reached maximum values, illness risks are estimated to be up to 10(-2) and 10(-1) . If such extreme situations occur more often during future summers, increased numbers of ill bathers or bathing-water-related illness outbreaks may be expected. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  1. Phylogenomics characterization of a highly virulent Edwardsiella strain ET080813(T) encoding two distinct T3SS and three T6SS gene clusters: Propose a novel species as Edwardsiella anguillarum sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Shuai; Lai, Qiliang; Liu, Qin; Wu, Haizhen; Xiao, Jingfan; Shao, Zongze; Wang, Qiyao; Zhang, Yuanxing

    2015-02-01

    As important zoonotic organisms causing infections in humans, Edwardsiella bacteria are also notorious leading fish pathogens haunting worldwide aquaculture industries. However, the taxa are now widely recognized to be misclassified, which hurdled the understanding of the epidemiology and development of effective diagnostics and vaccines. Currently the genus Edwardsiella consists of three species Edwardsiella tarda, E. ictaluri, and E. hoshinae. Previous phylogenomic analysis revealed that E. tarda strains display two major highly divergent genomic types (genotypes), EdwGI and EdwGII, and the former represents a genotype of fish-pathogenic isolates and being recently proposed as a novel species E. piscicida, sp. nov. Here multiple phylogenetic analyses and the genome-level comparisons of EdwGI strains disclose that the phylogroup strains from diseased eel formed an obviously distinct cluster that could be equated with a new species status. The phylogenetic evidence for the new species assignment was also supported by corresponding DNA-DNA hybridization estimation values and by phenotypic characteristics. Interestingly, further comparative genomics reveals that these strains have acquired the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) genes and as a result these bacteria contain at least 2 sets of distinct T3SS and 3 sets of T6SS gene clusters, respectively. It is therefore proposed that the phylogroup strains from diseased eel should be classified as Edwardisella anguillarum sp. nov., and the type strain is ET080813(T) (=DSM27202(T)=CCUG 64215(T)=CCTCC AB2013118(T)=MCCC 1K00238(T)). These findings will contribute to development of species-specific control measures against Edwardsiella bacterium in aquatic animals, while also shedding light on the pathogenesis evolution in Edwardsiella bacterium. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Sensitivity of Vibrio cholerae cells to lethal and mutagenic effect of UV-irradiation mediated by plasmids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiganova, I.G.; Evdokimova, N.M.; Aleshkin, G.I.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of UV-irradiation on Vibrio cholerae cells and its changes mediated by the plasmid R245 have been studied. Vibrio cholerae strains 569B and RV31 have been shown to be considerably more sensitive to lethal effect of UV-irradiation as compared with Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium cells. Highly toxigenic strain 569B and practically atoxigenic strain RV31 have the same UV-sensitivity. Lethla effect of UV-irradiation on Vibrio cholerae cells is incresed when the irradiated cells are plated on enriched media. UV-induction of mutations was not registered in plasmidless strains of Vibrio cholerae. Plasmid R245 increase UV-resistance of vibrio cells and makes them UV-mutable

  3. Antagonism of a (+)N-allylnormetazocine stimulus by (-)PPAP and several structurally related analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennon, R A; Young, R; Herndon, J L

    1993-08-01

    Employing rats trained to discriminate 5 mg/kg of the benzomorphan opioid (+)N-allylnormetazocine [(+)NANM] from vehicle, tests of stimulus generalization and antagonism were conducted to determine the influence of several potential sigma-receptor ligands. It has been previously suggested that the (+)NANM stimulus may involve concurrent action at sigma- and phencyclidine (PCP) receptors. Although the low-affinity sigma-antagonist rimcazole was without stimulus-attenuating effect, three novel sigma-ligands--(-)PPAP, CNS 3018, and CNS 3093 (ID50 doses = 3.2, 6.7, and 4.5 mg/kg, respectively)--antagonized the (+)NANM stimulus in a dose-related fashion. The nonselective serotonergic agent 1-(3-trifluoromethyl)phenylpiperazine (TFMPP) produced partial generalization in (+)NANM-trained animals whereas buspirone, a 5-hydroxytryptamine1A (5-HT1A) agonist, attenuated (to 27% drug-appropriate responding) the (+)NANM stimulus. Because the prototypic 5-HT1A agonist 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) failed to attenuate the (+)NANM stimulus at pharmacologically relevant doses, it seems unlikely that the (+)NANM stimulus involves a 5-HT1A mechanism. TFMPP and buspirone display modest affinity for sigma-receptors and this may account for the present findings with these agents. The present results neither establish a role for sigma involvement in the stimulus properties of (+)NANM nor eliminate a role for PCP receptors. They do, however, demonstrate that sigma-ligands with little to no affinity for PCP receptors are capable of antagonizing the (+)NANM stimulus.

  4. Alcohol-Induced Impairment of Balance is Antagonized by Energy Drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczinski, Cecile A; Fillmore, Mark T; Stamates, Amy L; Maloney, Sarah F

    2018-01-01

    The acute administration of alcohol reliably impairs balance and motor coordination. While it is common for consumers to ingest alcohol with other stimulant drugs (e.g., caffeine, nicotine), little is known whether prototypical alcohol-induced balance impairments are altered by stimulant drugs. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the coadministration of a high-caffeine energy drink with alcohol can antagonize expected alcohol-induced increases in body sway. Sixteen social drinkers (of equal gender) participated in 4 separate double-blind dose administration sessions that involved consumption of alcohol and energy drinks, alone and in combination. Following dose administration, participants completed automated assessments of balance stability (both eyes open and eyes closed) measured using the Biosway Portable Balance System. Participants completed several subjective measures including self-reported ratings of sedation, stimulation, fatigue, and impairment. Blood pressure and pulse rate were recorded repeatedly. The acute administration of alcohol increased body sway, and the coadministration of energy drinks antagonized this impairment. When participants closed their eyes, alcohol-induced body sway was similar whether or not energy drinks were ingested. While alcohol administration increased ratings of sedation and fatigue, energy drink administration increased ratings of stimulation and reduced ratings of fatigue. Modest increases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure following energy drink administration were also observed. Visual assessment of balance impairment is frequently used to indicate that an individual has consumed too much alcohol (e.g., as part of police-standardized field sobriety testing or by a bartender assessing when someone should no longer be served more alcohol). The current findings suggest that energy drinks can antagonize alcohol-induced increases in body sway, indicating that future work is needed to determine whether this

  5. Azithromycin May Antagonize Inhaled Tobramycin When Targeting Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Cystic Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nick, Jerry A.; Moskowitz, Samuel M.; Chmiel, James F.; Forssén, Anna V.; Kim, Sun Ho; Saavedra, Milene T.; Saiman, Lisa; Taylor-Cousar, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Recent studies of inhaled tobramycin in subjects with cystic fibrosis (CF) find less clinical improvement than previously observed. Nonhuman data suggest that in some strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, azithromycin can antagonize tobramycin. Objectives: We tested the hypothesis that concomitant azithromycin use correlates with less improvement in key outcome measures in subjects receiving inhaled tobramycin while not affecting those receiving a comparative, nonaminoglycoside inhaled antibiotic. Methods: We studied a cohort of 263 subjects with CF enrolled in a recent clinical trial comparing inhaled tobramycin with aztreonam lysine. We performed a secondary analysis to examine key clinical and microbiologic outcomes based on concomitant, chronic azithromycin use at enrollment. Measurements and Main Results: The cohort randomized to inhaled tobramycin and reporting azithromycin use showed a significant decrease in the percent predicted FEV1 after one and three courses of inhaled tobramycin when compared with those not reporting azithromycin use (28 d: −0.51 vs. 3.43%, P azithromycin and inhaled tobramycin use was also associated with earlier need for additional antibiotics, lesser improvement in disease-related quality of life, and a trend toward less reduction in sputum P. aeruginosa density. Subjects randomized to inhaled aztreonam lysine had significantly greater improvement in these outcome measures, which were unaffected by concomitant azithromycin use. Outcomes in those not using azithromycin who received inhaled tobramycin were not significantly different from subjects receiving aztreonam lysine. Azithromycin also antagonized tobramycin but not aztreonam lysine in 40% of P. aeruginosa clinical isolates tested in vitro. Conclusions: Oral azithromycin may antagonize the therapeutic benefits of inhaled tobramycin in subjects with CF with P. aeruginosa airway infection. PMID:24476418

  6. Logic of two antagonizing intra-species quorum sensing systems in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapat, Mahendra Kumar; Saini, Supreet

    2018-03-01

    Bacteria release signaling molecules into the surrounding environment and sense them when present in their proximity. Using this strategy, a cell estimates the number of neighbors in its surrounding. Upon sensing a critical number of individuals, bacteria coordinate a number of cellular processes. This density-dependent control of gene expression and physiology is called quorum sensing (QS). Quorum sensing controls a wide variety of functions in bacteria, including those related to motility, growth, virulence etc. Quorum sensing has been widely observed in bacteria while the individuals of the same species or different species compete and cooperate each other. Interestingly, many species possess more than one QS system (intra-species) and these QS systems interact each other to perform quorum sensing. Thus, several logical arrangements can be possible based on the interaction among intra-species QS systems - parallel, series, antagonizing, and agonizing. In this work, we perform simulations to understand the logic of interaction between two antagonizing intra-species QS systems. In such an interaction, one QS system gets fully expressed and the other only gets partially expressed. This is found to be dictated by the interplay between autoinducer's diffusivity and antagonizing strength. In addition, we speculate an important role of the intracellular regulators (eg. LuxR) in maintaining the uniform response among the individual cells from the different localities. We also expect the interplay between the autoinducer's diffusivity and distribution of cells in fine tuning the collective response. Interestingly, in a localized niche with a heterogeneous cell distribution, the cells are expected to perform a global quorum sensing via fully expressed QS system and a local quorum sensing via partially expressed QS system. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [The in vitro action of plants on Vibrio cholerae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, J M; Chumpitaz, J; Valencia, E

    1994-01-01

    Natural products of several plants, according to the geographic location, are used by Peruvian people in the popular treatment of diarrhea, with good success. When cholerae cases appeared in Peru, we were interested to know the "in vitro" effect against Vibrio cholerae 01, of these useful plants to treat diarrhea. The following plants were tested: Cichorium intybus, Althaea officinalis, Psorela glandulosa, Geranium maculatum, Punica granatum, Malus sativa, Cydonia oblonga, Chenopodium ambrosoides, Krameria triandria, Tea chinensis, Daucus carota, Persea gratissima, Psidium guayaba and Lippia dulcis. Decoction or infusion of the plants were used in the "in vitro" experiments. The following plants showed no "in vitro" effect against V. cholerae: Cichorium intybus, Althaea officinalis, Psorela glandulosa, Geranium maculatum, Chenopodium ambrosoides, Krameria triandria, Psidium guayaba, Lippia dulcis and Daucus carota. Decoction of Malus sativa and Cydenia oblonga showed bactericidal effect for their acidity and stone avocado (Persea gratissima) a late bactericidal effect. Tea infusión and the decoction of Punica granatum peel, showed the best bactericidal effect and we suggest to use them as to stop cholera spreading.

  8. α-Hydroxyketone Synthesis and Sensing by Legionella and Vibrio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Hilbi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria synthesize and sense low molecular weight signaling molecules, termed autoinducers, to measure their population density and community complexity. One class of autoinducers, the α-hydroxyketones (AHKs, is produced and detected by the water-borne opportunistic pathogens Legionella pneumophila and Vibrio cholerae, which cause Legionnaires’ disease and cholera, respectively. The “Legionella quorum sensing” (lqs or “cholera quorum sensing” (cqs genes encode enzymes that produce and sense the AHK molecules “Legionella autoinducer-1” (LAI-1; 3-hydroxypentadecane-4-one or cholera autoinducer-1 (CAI-1; 3-hydroxytridecane-4-one. AHK signaling regulates the virulence of L. pneumophila and V. cholerae, pathogen-host cell interactions, formation of biofilms or extracellular filaments, expression of a genomic “fitness island” and competence. Here, we outline the processes, wherein AHK signaling plays a role, and review recent insights into the function of proteins encoded by the lqs and cqs gene clusters. To this end, we will focus on the autoinducer synthases catalysing the biosynthesis of AHKs, on the cognate trans-membrane sensor kinases detecting the signals, and on components of the down-stream phosphorelay cascade that promote the transmission and integration of signaling events regulating gene expression.

  9. Adverse effects of organic arsenical compounds towards Vibrio fischeri bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulladosa, Elena; Murat, Jean-Claude; Bollinger, Jean-Claude; Villaescusa, Isabel

    2007-05-15

    The most frequently encountered forms of organic arsenic, namely, dimethylarsinic acid, monomethylarsonic acid, arsenobetaine, arsenocholine and Roxarsone (4-hydroxy-3-nitrobenzene arsonic acid) were tested for toxicity either by using the Microtox bioassay, based on the rapid (within 15 min) fading of luminescence emitted by Vibrio fischeri marine bacteria, or by monitoring growth rate of the same bacteria for 3 days. Organic arsenic was generally found to be less toxic to these biological models than inorganic arsenic. In many cases, EC50 values for DMA, MMA or HNAA when using luminescence or growth inhibition assays could not be determined because of the low toxicity of the compounds. Nevertheless, results from the luminescence inhibition assay, which was found to be more sensitive than the growth inhibition assay, allowed to rank toxicity as follows: arsenate at pH 8>HNAA at pH 5>arsenate at pH 5>MMA at pH 5>HNAA at pH 8>DMA at pH 5. Arsenobetaine and monomethylarsonic acid were unexpectedly found to stimulate bacterial growth (hormesis effect). pH was found to have a strong influence on the observed toxicity as a consequence of the pH-induced changes in the chemical speciation of the tested molecules. In most cases it appeared that negatively charged forms were less toxic than the uncharged ones.

  10. The pathogenesis, detection and prevention of Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongzhi eWang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a Gram-negative motile bacterium that inhabits marine and estuarine environments throughout the world, is a major food-borne pathogen that causes life-threatening diseases in humans after the consumption of raw or undercooked seafood. The global occurrence of V. parahaemaolyticus accentuates the importance of investigating its virulence factors and their effects on the human host. This review describes the virulence factors of V. parahaemolyticus reported to date, including hemolysin, urease, two type III secretion systems (T3SS and two type VI secretion systems (T6SS, which both cause both cytotoxicity in cultured cells and enterotoxicity in animal models. We describe various types of detection methods, based on virulence factors, that are used for quantitative detection of V. parahaemolyticus in seafood. We also discuss some useful preventive measures and therapeutic strategies for the diseases mediated by V. parahaemolyticus, which can reduce, to some extent, the damage to humans and aquatic animals attributable to V. parahaemolyticus. This review extends our understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of V. parahaemolyticus mediated by virulence factors and the diseases it causes in its human host. It should provide new insights for the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of V. parahaemolyticus infection.

  11. Proteomic analysis of Vibrio cholerae outer membrane vesicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altindis, Emrah; Fu, Yang; Mekalanos, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) produced by Gram-negative bacteria provide an interesting research material for defining cell-envelope proteins without experimental cell disruption. OMVs are also promising immunogenic platforms and may play important roles in bacterial survival and pathogenesis. We used in-solution trypsin digestion coupled to mass spectrometry to identify 90 proteins present in OMVs of Vibrio cholerae when grown under conditions that activate the TCP pilus virulence regulatory protein (ToxT) virulence regulon. The ToxT expression profile and potential contribution to virulence of these proteins were assessed using ToxT and in vivo RNA-seq, Tn-seq, and cholera stool proteomic and other genome-wide data sets. Thirteen OMV-associated proteins appear to be essential for cell growth, and therefore may represent antibacterial drug targets. Another 12 nonessential OMV proteins, including DegP protease, were required for intestinal colonization in rabbits. Comparative proteomics of a degP mutant revealed the importance of DegP in the incorporation of nine proteins into OMVs, including ones involved in biofilm matrix formation and various substrates of the type II secretion system. Taken together, these results suggest that DegP plays an important role in determining the content of OMVs and also affects phenotypes such as intestinal colonization, proper function of the type II secretion system, and formation of biofilm matrix. PMID:24706774

  12. The Cpx System Regulates Virulence Gene Expression in Vibrio cholerae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Nicole; Pukatzki, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria possess signal transduction pathways capable of sensing and responding to a wide variety of signals. The Cpx envelope stress response, composed of the sensor histidine kinase CpxA and the response regulator CpxR, senses and mediates adaptation to insults to the bacterial envelope. The Cpx response has been implicated in the regulation of a number of envelope-localized virulence determinants across bacterial species. Here, we show that activation of the Cpx pathway in Vibrio cholerae El Tor strain C6706 leads to a decrease in expression of the major virulence factors in this organism, cholera toxin (CT) and the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP). Our results indicate that this occurs through the repression of production of the ToxT regulator and an additional upstream transcription factor, TcpP. The effect of the Cpx response on CT and TCP expression is mostly abrogated in a cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) mutant, although expression of the crp gene is unaltered. Since TcpP production is controlled by CRP, our data suggest a model whereby the Cpx response affects CRP function, which leads to diminished TcpP, ToxT, CT, and TCP production. PMID:25824837

  13. Molecular tools in understanding the evolution of Vibrio cholerae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahaman, Md. Habibur; Islam, Tarequl; Colwell, Rita R.; Alam, Munirul

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the etiological agent of cholera, has been a scourge for centuries. Cholera remains a serious health threat for developing countries and has been responsible for millions of deaths globally over the past 200 years. Identification of V. cholerae has been accomplished using a variety of methods, ranging from phenotypic strategies to DNA based molecular typing and currently whole genomic approaches. This array of methods has been adopted in epidemiological investigations, either singly or in the aggregate, and more recently for evolutionary analyses of V. cholerae. Because the new technologies have been developed at an ever increasing pace, this review of the range of fingerprinting strategies, their relative advantages and limitations, and cholera case studies was undertaken. The task was challenging, considering the vast amount of the information available. To assist the study, key references representative of several areas of research are provided with the intent to provide readers with a comprehensive view of recent advances in the molecular epidemiology of V. cholerae. Suggestions for ways to obviate many of the current limitations of typing techniques are also provided. In summary, a comparative report has been prepared that includes the range from traditional typing to whole genomic strategies. PMID:26500613

  14. Nonredundant Roles of Iron Acquisition Systems in Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Eric D; Wyckoff, Elizabeth E; Mey, Alexandra R; Fisher, Carolyn R; Payne, Shelley M

    2016-02-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the severe diarrheal disease cholera, thrives in both marine environments and the human host. To do so, it must encode the tools necessary to acquire essential nutrients, including iron, under these vastly different conditions. A number of V. cholerae iron acquisition systems have been identified; however, the precise role of each system is not fully understood. To test the roles of individual systems, we generated a series of mutants in which only one of the four systems that support iron acquisition on unsupplemented LB agar, Feo, Fbp, Vct, and Vib, remains functional. Analysis of these mutants under different growth conditions showed that these systems are not redundant. The strain carrying only the ferrous iron transporter Feo grew well at acidic, but not alkaline, pH, whereas the ferric iron transporter Fbp promoted better growth at alkaline than at acidic pH. A strain defective in all four systems (null mutant) had a severe growth defect under aerobic conditions but accumulated iron and grew as well as the wild type in the absence of oxygen, suggesting the presence of an additional, unidentified iron transporter in V. cholerae. In support of this, the null mutant was only moderately attenuated in an infant mouse model of infection. While the null mutant used heme as an iron source in vitro, we demonstrate that heme is not available to V. cholerae in the infant mouse intestine. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. A Periplasmic Polymer Curves Vibrio cholerae and Promotes Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Thomas M; Bratton, Benjamin P; Duvshani, Amit; Miguel, Amanda; Sheng, Ying; Martin, Nicholas R; Nguyen, Jeffrey P; Persat, Alexandre; Desmarais, Samantha M; VanNieuwenhze, Michael S; Huang, Kerwyn Casey; Zhu, Jun; Shaevitz, Joshua W; Gitai, Zemer

    2017-01-12

    Pathogenic Vibrio cholerae remains a major human health concern. V. cholerae has a characteristic curved rod morphology, with a longer outer face and a shorter inner face. The mechanism and function of this curvature were previously unknown. Here, we identify and characterize CrvA, the first curvature determinant in V. cholerae. CrvA self-assembles into filaments at the inner face of cell curvature. Unlike traditional cytoskeletons, CrvA localizes to the periplasm and thus can be considered a periskeletal element. To quantify how curvature forms, we developed QuASAR (quantitative analysis of sacculus architecture remodeling), which measures subcellular peptidoglycan dynamics. QuASAR reveals that CrvA asymmetrically patterns peptidoglycan insertion rather than removal, causing more material insertions into the outer face than the inner face. Furthermore, crvA is quorum regulated, and CrvA-dependent curvature increases at high cell density. Finally, we demonstrate that CrvA promotes motility in hydrogels and confers an advantage in host colonization and pathogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Quorum Regulated Resistance of Vibrio cholerae against Environmental Bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, M Mozammel; Naser, Iftekhar Bin; Bari, S M Nayeemul; Zhu, Jun; Mekalanos, John J; Faruque, Shah M

    2016-11-28

    Predation by bacteriophages can significantly influence the population structure of bacterial communities. Vibrio cholerae the causative agent of cholera epidemics interacts with numerous phages in the aquatic ecosystem, and in the intestine of cholera patients. Seasonal epidemics of cholera reportedly collapse due to predation of the pathogen by phages. However, it is not clear how sufficient number of the bacteria survive to seed the environment in the subsequent epidemic season. We found that bacterial cell density-dependent gene expression termed "quorum sensing" which is regulated by signal molecules called autoinducers (AIs) can protect V. cholerae against predatory phages. V. cholerae mutant strains carrying inactivated AI synthase genes were significantly more susceptible to multiple phages compared to the parent bacteria. Likewise when mixed cultures of phage and bacteria were supplemented with exogenous autoinducers CAI-1 or AI-2 produced by recombinant strains carrying cloned AI synthase genes, increased survival of V. cholerae and a decrease in phage titer was observed. Mutational analyses suggested that the observed effects of autoinducers are mediated in part through the quorum sensing-dependent production of haemaglutinin protease, and partly through downregulation of phage receptors. These results have implication in developing strategies for phage mediated control of cholera.

  17. Phage therapy treatment of the coral pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Yossi; Joseph Pollock, F; Rosenberg, Eugene; Bourne, David G

    2013-02-01

    Vibrio coralliilyticus is an important coral pathogen demonstrated to cause disease outbreaks worldwide. This study investigated the feasibility of applying bacteriophage therapy to treat the coral pathogen V. coralliilyticus. A specific bacteriophage for V. coralliilyticus strain P1 (LMG23696), referred to here as bacteriophage YC, was isolated from the seawater above corals at Nelly Bay, Magnetic Island, central Great Barrier Reef (GBR), the same location where the bacterium was first isolated. Bacteriophage YC was shown to be a lytic phage belonging to the Myoviridae family, with a rapid replication rate, high burst size, and high affinity to its host. By infecting its host bacterium, bacteriophage YC was able to prevent bacterial-induced photosystem inhibition in pure cultures of Symbiodinium, the photosymbiont partner of coral and a target for virulence factors produced by the bacterial pathogen. Phage therapy experiments using coral juveniles in microtiter plates as a model system revealed that bacteriophage YC was able to prevent V. coralliilyticus-induced photoinactivation and tissue lysis. These results demonstrate that bacteriophage YC has the potential to treat coral disease outbreaks caused by the bacterial pathogen V. coralliilyticus, making it a good candidate for phage therapy treatment of coral disease. © 2012 The Authors. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  18. Vibrio cholerae: A historical perspective and current trend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Oyenike Oladokun

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae is a Gram-negative, curved, rod-shaped bacteria with two of its strains V. cholerae O1 and V. cholerae O139 known to cause cholera, a deadly diarrheal disease that has repeatedly plagued the world in pandemics since 1817 and still remains a public health problem globally till today. The pathogens’ persistence in aquatic milieux during inter-epidemic periods is facilitated by the production of a biofilm, thus evolving from being an infection of oral-fecal transmission to a more composite ecological framework of a communicable disease. The outbreaks of cholera spread rapidly in various intensities within and among countries and even continents and the World Health Organization estimates that 3–5 million cases outbreak and over 200 000 die yearly from cholera. Also, the impact of a cholera epidemic is not limited to its high morbidity and mortality rates alone, but also the grievous impact on the economy of the countries experiencing the outbreaks. In this review, we carried out an overview of V. cholerae including its isolation and detection, genetics as well as a comparison of the toxigenic and non-toxigenic determinants in the human host and the host defences. Furthermore, the history of global pandemics, cost implications, conflict and ecological methodologies of cholera prevention and control. The management of disease and antibiotic resistance in V. cholerae are also highlighted.

  19. Genetic characterization of trh positive Vibrio spp. isolated from Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anette eBauer Ellingsen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH and/or TDH-related hemolysin (TRH genes are carried by most virulent Vibrio parahaemolyticus serovars. In Norway, trh+ V. parahaemolyticus constitute 4.4% and 4.5 % of the total number of V. parahaemolyticus isolated from blue mussel (Mytilus edulis and water, respectively. The trh gene is located in a region close to the gene cluster for urease production (ure. This region was characterized in V. parahaemolyticus strain TH3996 and it was found that a nickel transport operon (nik was located between the first gene (ureR and the rest of the ure cluster genes. The organization of the trh-ureR-nik-ure gene cluster in the Norwegian trh+ isolates was unknown. In this study, we explore the gene organization within the trh-ureR-nik-ure cluster for these isolates. PCR analyses revealed that the genes within the trh-ureR-nik-ure gene cluster of Norwegian trh+ isolates were organized in a similar fashion as reported previously for TH33996. Additionally, the phylogenetic relationship among these trh+ isolates was investigated using Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST. Analysis by MLST or ureR-trh sequences generated two different phylogenetic trees for the same strains analyzed, suggesting that ureR-trh genes have been acquired at different times in Norwegian V. parahaemolyticus isolates. MLST results revealed that some pathogenic and non-pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus isolates in Norway appear to be highly genetically related.

  20. Ecology of Vibrio cholerae serogroup 01 in aquatic environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René J. Borroto

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The endemic and seasonal nature of cholera depends upon the survival of Vibrio cholerae 01 in a viable but not necessarily culturable state in ecologic niches in aquatic environments during interepidemic periods. To understand the ecology of V. cholerae it is necessary to know which aquatic ecosystems can harbor it and thus contribute to the endemic presence of cholera in Latin America. This article summarizes knowledge about the ecology of V. cholerae 01, specifically, the abiotic and biotic factors that are relevant to the microbe’s survival in aquatic environments. This pathogen finds favorable conditions in waters characterized by moderate salinity, high nutrient content, warm temperature, neutral or slightly alkaline pH, and the presence of aquatic macrophytes, phytoplankton, zooplankton, fish, mollusks, and crusta ceans. These ecologic conditions are typical of estuaries and coastal swamps, and toxigenic V. cholerae 01 is now considered an autochthonous member of the microbial flora of these environments. The microorganism has also shown the ability to colonize freshwater ecosystems in its viable but not necessarily culturable form, if organic or inorganic substrates that favor its survival are available.

  1. Environmental reservoirs and mechanisms of persistence of Vibrio cholerae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla eLutz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It is now well accepted that Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the water-borne disease cholera, is acquired from environmental sources where it persists between outbreaks of the disease. Recent advances in molecular technology have demonstrated that this bacterium could be detected in areas where it had not been isolated from before, indicating a much broader, global distribution of this bacterium rather than specifically within regions where cholera is endemic. The environmental persistence of V. cholerae in the aquatic environment can be attributed to multiple intra- and interspecific strategies such as responsive gene regulation and biofilm formation on biotic and abiotic surfaces, as well as interactions with a multitude of other organisms. This review will discuss some of the mechanisms that enable the persistence of the bacterium in the sometimes hostile environment. In particular, we will discuss how V. cholerae can survive stressors such as starvation, temperature and salinity fluctuations as well as how the organism persists under constant predation by heterotrophic protists.

  2. Vibrio infections among marine and fresh-water fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    1959-01-01

    In 1951. B. J. Earpio found a vibrio infection among salmon fingerlings being reared in saltwater at the Deception Pass Biological Station of the Washington State Department of Fisheries. The disease waa characterized by erythema at the base of fins and on the sides of the fish, necrotic areas in the Inusculature, inflammation of the intestinal tract, and general septicernia. The disease reappeared the next year, killing nearly all of the churn salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) fingerlings, killing about half of the pink salmon (O. gorbuscha) fingerlings, and affecting to a lesser degree the chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) fingerlings. Also, late in 1952. R. R. Rucker and E. J. Ordal found the same disease at a rainbow trout hatchery of the Washington State Department of Game at Vancouver. The disease caused severe losses there among the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) and among the sea-run form of the same species (called steelhead trout). The disease was manifested by bloody, necrotic areas in the musculature and inflammation of the viscera, відоіШат to furumaculoвiв,

  3. The repertoire of glycosphingolipids recognized by Vibrio cholerae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Benktander

    Full Text Available The binding of cholera toxin to the ganglioside GM1 as the initial step in the process leading to diarrhea is nowadays textbook knowledge. In contrast, the knowledge about the mechanisms for attachment of Vibrio cholerae bacterial cells to the intestinal epithelium is limited. In order to clarify this issue, a large number of glycosphingolipid mixtures were screened for binding of El Tor V. cholerae. Several specific interactions with minor complex non-acid glycosphingolipids were thereby detected. After isolation of binding-active glycosphingolipids, characterization by mass spectrometry and proton NMR, and comparative binding studies, three distinct glycosphingolipid binding patterns were defined. Firstly, V. cholerae bound to complex lacto/neolacto glycosphingolipids with the GlcNAcβ3Galβ4GlcNAc sequence as the minimal binding epitope. Secondly, glycosphingolipids with a terminal Galα3Galα3Gal moiety were recognized, and the third specificity was the binding to lactosylceramide and related compounds. V. cholerae binding to lacto/neolacto glycosphingolipids, and to the other classes of binding-active compounds, remained after deletion of the chitin binding protein GbpA. Thus, the binding of V. cholerae to chitin and to lacto/neolacto containing glycosphingolipids represents two separate binding specificities.

  4. Structure of Vibrio cholerae ribosome hibernation promoting factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Bari, Heather; Berry, Edward A.

    2013-01-01

    The X-ray crystal structure of ribosome hibernation promoting factor from V. cholerae has been determined at 2.0 Å resolution. The crystal was phased by two-wavelength MAD using cocrystallized cobalt. The X-ray crystal structure of ribosome hibernation promoting factor (HPF) from Vibrio cholerae is presented at 2.0 Å resolution. The crystal was phased by two-wavelength MAD using cocrystallized cobalt. The asymmetric unit contained two molecules of HPF linked by four Co atoms. The metal-binding sites observed in the crystal are probably not related to biological function. The structure of HPF has a typical β–α–β–β–β–α fold consistent with previous structures of YfiA and HPF from Escherichia coli. Comparison of the new structure with that of HPF from E. coli bound to the Thermus thermophilus ribosome [Polikanov et al. (2012 ▶), Science, 336, 915–918] shows that no significant structural changes are induced in HPF by binding

  5. Characterization of Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae from Haiti, 2010–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopp, Cheryl; Tarr, Cheryl; Parsons, Michele B.; Dahourou, Georges; Freeman, Molly; Joyce, Kevin; Turnsek, Maryann; Garrett, Nancy; Humphrys, Michael; Gomez, Gerardo; Stroika, Steven; Boncy, Jacques; Ochieng, Benjamin; Oundo, Joseph; Klena, John; Smith, Anthony; Keddy, Karen; Gerner-Smidt, Peter

    2011-01-01

    In October 2010, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention received reports of cases of severe watery diarrhea in Haiti. The cause was confirmed to be toxigenic Vibrio cholerae, serogroup O1, serotype Ogawa, biotype El Tor. We characterized 122 isolates from Haiti and compared them with isolates from other countries. Antimicrobial drug susceptibility was tested by disk diffusion and broth microdilution. Analyses included identification of rstR and VC2346 genes, sequencing of ctxAB and tcpA genes, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis with SfiI and NotI enzymes. All isolates were susceptible to doxycycline and azithromycin. One pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern predominated, and ctxB sequence of all isolates matched the B-7 allele. We identified the tcpETCIRS allele, which is also present in Bangladesh strain CIRS 101. These data show that the isolates from Haiti are clonally and genetically similar to isolates originating in Africa and southern Asia and that ctxB-7 and tcpETCIRS alleles are undergoing global dissemination. PMID:22099116

  6. ANTAGONISM OF PROGESTERONE RECEPTOR SUPPRESSES CAROTID BODY RESPONSES TO HYPOXIA AND NICOTINE IN RAT PUPS

    OpenAIRE

    JOSEPH, V.; NIANE, L. M.; BAIRAM, A.

    2012-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that antagonism of progesterone receptor (PR) in newborn rats alters carotid body and respiratory responses to hypoxia and nicotinic receptor agonists. Rats were treated with the PR antagonist mifepristone (daily oral gavage 40 μg/g/d) or vehicle between post-natal days 3 and 15. In 11–14-day-old rats, we used in vitro carotid body/carotid sinus nerve preparation and whole body plethysmography to assess the carotid body and ventilatory responses to hypoxia (65 mmHg in...

  7. Antagonism between penicillin and erythromycin against Streptococcus pneumoniae in vitro and in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, H K; Jensen, T G; Dessau, R B

    2000-01-01

    The combination of beta-lactam antibiotics and macrolides is often recommended for the initial empirical treatment of acute pneumonia in order to obtain activity against the most important pathogens. Theoretically, this combination may be inexpedient, as the bacteriostatic agent may antagonize...... the effect of the bactericidal agent. In this study, the possible interaction between penicillin and erythromycin was investigated in vitro and in vivo against four clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae with MICs of penicillin ranging from 0.016 to 0.5 mg/L and of erythromycin from 0. 25 to >128 mg...

  8. Antagonism of Bacillus subtilis strain AG1 against vine wood fungal pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alfonzo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Antagonistic substances produced by a Bacillus subtilis strain (AG1, which were previously found to slow down the growth of esca fungi in vitro, were produced in an artificial medium, isolated from the cell-free medium by precipitation and acidification (to less than pH 2.5 and extracted from the precipitate with 96% ethanol. The crude extract employed in antibiotic assays confirmed, in vitro, the antagonism of B. subtilis against Phaeoacremonium aleophilum and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, and also showed an antifungal activity toward Verticillium dahliae and Botryosphaeria rhodina.

  9. Surface proteins from Lactobacillus kefir antagonize in vitro cytotoxic effect of Clostridium difficile toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carasi, Paula; Trejo, Fernando M; Pérez, Pablo F; De Antoni, Graciela L; Serradell, María de los Angeles

    2012-02-01

    In this work, the ability of S-layer proteins from kefir-isolated Lactobacillus kefir strains to antagonize the cytophatic effects of toxins from Clostridium difficile (TcdA and TcdB) on eukaryotic cells in vitro was tested by cell detachment assay. S-layer proteins from eight different L. kefir strains were able to inhibit the damage induced by C. difficile spent culture supernatant to Vero cells. Besides, same protective effect was observed by F-actin network staining. S-layer proteins from aggregating L. kefir strains (CIDCA 83115, 8321, 8345 and 8348) showed a higher inhibitory ability than those belonging to non-aggregating ones (CIDCA 83111, 83113, JCM 5818 and ATCC 8007), suggesting that differences in the structure could be related to the ability to antagonize the effect of clostridial toxins. Similar results were obtained using purified TcdA and TcdB. Protective effect was not affected by proteases inhibitors or heat treatment, thus indicating that proteolytic activity is not involved. Only preincubation with specific anti-S-layer antibodies significantly reduced the inhibitory effect of S-layer proteins, suggesting that this could be attributed to a direct interaction between clostridial toxins and L. kefir S-layer protein. Interestingly, the interaction of toxins with S-layer carrying bacteria was observed by dot blot and fluorescence microscopy with specific anti-TcdA or anti-TcdB antibodies, although L. kefir cells did not show protective effects. We hypothesize that the interaction between clostridial toxins and soluble S-layer molecules is different from the interaction with S-layer on the surface of the bacteria thus leading a different ability to antagonize cytotoxic effect. This is the first report showing the ability of S-layer proteins from kefir lactobacilli to antagonize biological effects of bacterial toxins. These results encourage further research on the role of bacterial surface molecules to the probiotic properties of L. kefir and could

  10. An effector of the Irish potato famine pathogen antagonizes a host autophagy cargo receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagdas, Yasin F; Belhaj, Khaoula; Maqbool, Abbas; Chaparro-Garcia, Angela; Pandey, Pooja; Petre, Benjamin; Tabassum, Nadra; Cruz-Mireles, Neftaly; Hughes, Richard K; Sklenar, Jan; Win, Joe; Menke, Frank; Findlay, Kim; Banfield, Mark J; Kamoun, Sophien; Bozkurt, Tolga O

    2016-01-01

    Plants use autophagy to safeguard against infectious diseases. However, how plant pathogens interfere with autophagy-related processes is unknown. Here, we show that PexRD54, an effector from the Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans, binds host autophagy protein ATG8CL to stimulate autophagosome formation. PexRD54 depletes the autophagy cargo receptor Joka2 out of ATG8CL complexes and interferes with Joka2's positive effect on pathogen defense. Thus, a plant pathogen effector has evolved to antagonize a host autophagy cargo receptor to counteract host defenses. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10856.001 PMID:26765567

  11. Bacterial Seed Endophytes of Domesticated Cucurbits Antagonize Fungal and Oomycete Pathogens Including Powdery Mildew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman M. Khalaf

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The cucurbit vegetables, including cucumbers, melons and pumpkins, have been cultivated for thousands of years without fungicides. However, their seed germination stage is prone to be infected by soil-borne fungal and oomycete pathogens. Endophytes are symbionts that reside inside plant tissues including seeds. Seed endophytes are founders of the juvenile plant microbiome and can promote host defense at seed germination and later stages. We previously isolated 169 bacterial endophytes associated with seeds of diverse cultivated cucurbits. We hypothesized that these endophytes can antagonize major fungal and oomycete pathogens. Here we tested the endophytes for in vitro antagonism (dual culture assays against important soil-borne pathogens (Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium graminearum, Phytophthora capsici, Pythium aphanideratum. The endophytes were also assayed in planta (leaf disk and detached leaf bioassays for antagonism against a foliar pathogen of global importance, Podosphaera fuliginea, the causative agent of cucurbit powdery mildew. The endophytes were further tested in vitro for secretion of volatile organic compounds (VOCs known to induce plant defense. Extracellular ribonuclease activity was also tested, as a subset of pathogenesis-related (PR proteins of plant hosts implicated in suppression of fungal pathogens, displays ribonuclease activity. An unexpected majority of the endophytes (70%, 118/169 exhibited antagonism to the five phytopathogens, of which 68% (50/73 of in vitro antagonists belong to the genera Bacillus and Paenibacillus. All Lactococcus and Pantoea endophytes exhibited anti-oomycete activity. However, amongst the most effective inoculants against Podosphaera fuliginea were Pediococcus and Pantoea endophytes. Interestingly, 67% (113/169 of endophytes emitted host defense inducing VOCs (acetoin/diacetyl and 62% (104/169 secreted extracellular ribonucleases in vitro, respectively. These results show that seeds of cultivated

  12. Distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of Vibrio species associated with zooplankton in coastal area of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ji Hye; Mok, Jong Soo; Jung, Yeoun Joong; Lee, Ka Jeong; Kwon, Ji Young; Park, Kunbawui; Moon, Seong Yong; Kwon, Soon Jae; Ryu, A Ra; Lee, Tea Seek

    2017-12-15

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus are the most common pathogens causing seafood-borne illnesses in Korea. This study determines the abundance and antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic Vibrio species in seawater and zooplankton samples from the Geoje Island coast in Korea, which is an important area for coastal fisheries, the fishing industry, and tourism. The two Vibrio species were detected more in mesozooplankton samples than in seawater samples. V. parahaemolyticus isolates showed greater resistance than those of V. vulnificus for antimicrobials. Of V. parahaemolyticus isolates, 93.3% exhibited resistance to three or more antimicrobial agents. Conversely, more than 80% of V. vulnificus isolates showed susceptibility to all antimicrobials examined, with the exception of rifampicin. Our findings show that strong antimicrobial resistance of V. parahaemolyticus in the surveyed area was exposed to conventionally used antibiotics, therefore necessitating proper surveillance programs for the monitoring of antimicrobial resistance patterns in seawater bodies and aquatic animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence and diversity of Aeromonas and Vibrio spp. in coastal waters of Southern Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dumontet, S.; Krovacek, K.; Svenson, S.B.

    2000-01-01

    . The results indicate that all the investigated areas were submitted to a wide spatial fluctuation of fecal contamination and that Vibrio and Aeromonas spp. were present in both high and low fecal-contaminated stations. Sixty two percent of the investigated samples were positive for Aeromonas spp., while 42......% of samples were positive for Vibrio spp. It was interesting to note that 38% of the positive stations for both Aeromonas and Vibrio spp. showed a fecal coliform contamination of water at indicators (such as fecal...... and A. caviae. Furthermore, the antibiotic resistance patterns of isolated bacteria showed the presence of a number of resistant strains among the isolates. In order to discriminate the isolates on the basis of their biochemical profiles and/or antibiotic resistance patterns, cluster analysis...

  14. Complete genomic sequence of the Vibrio alginolyticus lytic bacteriophage PVA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiancheng; Cao, Zhenhui; Xu, Yongping; Li, Xiaoyu; Li, Huaqiang; Wu, Feifei; Wang, Lili; Cao, Fang; Li, Zhen; Li, Shuying; Jin, Liji

    2014-12-01

    A novel Vibrio alginolyticus lytic bacteriophage was isolated from sewage samples obtained from a local aquatic market. Morphological analysis revealed that the phage, designated as PVA1, belonged to the family Podoviridae. The complete genomic sequence of phage PVA1 contained 41,529 bp with a G + C content of 43.7 % and 75 putative open reading frames. The genome was grouped into four modules, including phage structure, DNA packaging, DNA replication and regulation, and some additional functions. Further genomic comparison of the phage PVA1 with other known phages showed no significant similarities. Genes related to virulence and lysogeny were not detected in the phage genome. Our results suggest that phage PVA1 may be classified as a new Vibrio phage. We believe that these phage genomic sequence data will provide useful basic information for further molecular research on this Vibrio phage and its host as well for determining its infection/interaction mechanisms.

  15. Chitin stimulates production of the antibiotic andrimid in a Vibrio corallilyticus strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wietz, Matthias; Månsson, Maria; Gram, Lone

    2011-01-01

    Vibrio coralliilyticus is a putative coral pathogen in tropical oceans, but also possesses antagonistic traits. We previously reported antibacterial activity in Vibrio coralliilyticus strain S2052 based upon the antibiotic andrimid. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether V....... coralliilyticus S2052 produces the antibiotic under conditions mimicking natural habitats of vibrios. S2052 synthesized andrimid with both chitin and macroalgal extracts as sole nutrient source. With chitin, the biosynthesis of metabolites other than andrimid was largely abolished, and the yield of the antibiotic...... per cell was twofold higher. In cultures with Artemia as live chitin model system, S2052 reached up to 108 cells ml-1, produced andrimid and showed attachment to the exoskeleton and chitinous exuviae. The metabolic focus on andrimid production with chitin indicates that the antibiotic could serve...

  16. Quorum Sensing Gene Regulation by LuxR/HapR Master Regulators in Vibrios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Alyssa S; Chaparian, Ryan R; van Kessel, Julia C

    2017-10-01

    The coordination of group behaviors in bacteria is accomplished via the cell-cell signaling process called quorum sensing. Vibrios have historically been models for studying bacterial communication due to the diverse and remarkable behaviors controlled by quorum sensing in these bacteria, including bioluminescence, type III and type VI secretion, biofilm formation, and motility. Here, we discuss the Vibrio LuxR/HapR family of proteins, the master global transcription factors that direct downstream gene expression in response to changes in cell density. These proteins are structurally similar to TetR transcription factors but exhibit distinct biochemical and genetic features from TetR that determine their regulatory influence on the quorum sensing gene network. We review here the gene groups regulated by LuxR/HapR and quorum sensing and explore the targets that are common and unique among Vibrio species. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  17. Detection of Salmonella sp., Vibrio sp. and total plate count bacteria on blood cockle (Anadara granosa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekawati, ER; Yusmiati, S. N. H.

    2018-01-01

    Blood cockle (Anadara granosa) has high level of zinc and protein, which is beneficial for therapeutic function for malnourished particularly stunting case in children. Zinc in animal foods is more absorbable than that from vegetable food. Blood cockle (Anadara granosa) is rich in nutrient and an excellent environment for the growth of microorganisms. This research aimed to identify the contamination of Salmonella sp., Vibrio sp. and total plate count bacteria on blood cockle (Anadara granosa). This was observation research with laboratory analysis. Salmonella sp. and Vibrio sp. were detected from blood cockle. Total plate count was determine of the total amount of the bacteria. Results detected from 20 samples of blood cockle showed that all samples were negative of Salmonella sp. and 1 sample positive Vibrio sp. The result of total plate count bacteria was sample.

  18. Protein deprivation decreases male survival and the intensity of sexual antagonism in southern field crickets Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, C S; Dingemanse, N J

    2017-04-01

    Recent theory predicts that the magnitude of sexual antagonism should depend on how well populations are adapted to their environment. We tested this idea experimentally by comparing intersexual genetic correlations for adult survival in pedigreed populations of southern field crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus) raised on naturally balanced (free-choice) vs. imbalanced (protein-deprived) diets. We tested for (1) sex differences in nutritional intake and preference, (2) sex-specific effects of protein deprivation on survival and (3) diet dependence of the level of sexual antagonism. Adult males and females consumed a similar amount of protein, but protein deprivation decreased male survival but not female survival. Protein deprivation appeared to decrease the degree of sexual antagonism as intersexual genetic correlations were significantly lower than 1 only for the complementary free-choice diet group but close to 1 for the protein-deficient diet group. Our findings thereby implied that variation in nutritional environments can alter the magnitude of sexual antagonism. This research represents an important step towards understanding the relationship between sexual antagonism and adaptation in heterogeneous environments. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  19. Experimental testing of Mackay's model for functional antagonism in the isolated costo-uterus of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, P. J.; Lulich, K. M.; Paterson, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    Several key predictions of a recently developed model for functional antagonism (Mackay, 1981) were experimentally tested using the rat isolated costo-uterine preparation. In the presence of the functional antagonist fenoterol (Fen), the functional constants (KAF) for carbachol and oxotremorine (Oxo) were respectively 9.9 and 3.4 fold greater than their corresponding affinity constants (KA). According to Mackay's model for functional antagonism, the higher KAF/KA ratio for carbachol indicates that this cholinoceptor agonist has a greater efficacy than Oxo. This was confirmed by using conventional pharmacological methods. As predicted from the model of functional antagonism, the plot of KAF/KA-1 against the fraction of cholinoceptors not irreversibly blocked by phenoxybenzamine (Pbz) was linear for both carbachol and Oxo and the lines of best fit crossed the axes at a point not significantly different from the origin. The value of 4.6 for the relative efficacy of carbachol to Oxo estimated from functional antagonism studies was comparable to the value of 5.6 calculated using the method of irreversible antagonism proposed by Furchgott (1966). PMID:3840396

  20. Vibrio spp. and Salmonella spp., presence and susceptibility in crabs Ucides cordatus Vibrio spp. e Salmonella spp. em caranguejos, Ucides cordatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regine H.S.F. Vieira

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Vibrio spp. and Salmonella spp. in crabs marketed at the Bezerra de Menezes Ave., Fortaleza, State of Ceará, Brazil, was assessed between February and May, 2003. The number of individuals sampled in each one of the fifteen weekly samplings ranged between four and eight. Seven strains of Salmonella, from four different samplings, were identified, being five of them identified as serotype S. Senftenberg and two as S. Poona. All strains of Salmonella were sensitive to the tested anti-microbial drugs, with the exception of tetracycline and nalidixic acid, for which an intermediary sensibility was found. The MPN's for Vibrio ranged between 110/g and 110,000/g. Of the forty five Vibrio strains isolated from the crab samples, only 10 were identified up to the species level: two V. alginolyticus and eight V. parahaemolyticus. Bacteria belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonaceae families were also identified, namely Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Pantoea agglomerans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The proper cooking of the animals is recommended in order to avoid problems for the consumers of this crustacean.Foram pesquisadas a presença de Vibrio spp. e de Salmonella spp. em caranguejos comercializados na Av. Bezerra de Menezes, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brasil, no período entre fevereiro e maio de 2003. O número de indivíduos em cada, das quinze coletas realizadas, semanalmente, variava entre quatro e oito dependendo do tamanho dos animais, totalizando um número de 90 (noventa animais examinados. Foram identificadas sete cepas de Salmonella spp. provenientes de quatro coletas: cinco foram identificadas como sorovar S. Senftenberg e duas como S. Poona. Todas as cepas de Salmonella, isoladas das amostras de caranguejos, apresentaram sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos testados, com exceção de tetraciclina e ácido nalidíxico para os quais elas apresentaram uma sensibilidade intermediária. Os NMPs

  1. Chitinase determinants of Vibrio vulnificus: gene cloning and applications of a chitinase probe.

    OpenAIRE

    Wortman, A T; Somerville, C C; Colwell, R R

    1986-01-01

    To initiate study of the genetic control of chitinolytic activity in vibrios, the chitobiase gene was isolated by cloning chromosomal DNA prepared from Vibrio vulnificus. Chimeric plasmids were constructed from Sau3A I partial digests of chromosomal DNA by ligating 5 to 15-kilobase fragments into the BamHI site, i.e., in the Tcr gene, of pBR322 (Amr Tcr). The resulting plasmids were transformed into Escherichia coli DH1. Chitobiase activity of the insert-bearing clones was detected by using a...

  2. An exocellular thermolysin-like metalloprotease produced by Vibrio fluvialis: purification, characterization, and gene cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Shin-ichi; Sonoda, Yuka; Wakiyama, Hiroko; Rahman, Md Monzur; Tomochika, Ken-ichi; Shinoda, Sumio; Yamamoto, Shigeo; Tobe, Kazuo

    2002-09-01

    An exocellular metalloprotease produced by Vibrio fluvialis, an enteropathogenic vibrio, was purified and characterized. The metalloprotease (V. fluvialis protease [VFP]) was found to have very similar characteristics to V. vulnificus protease, including a molecular mass of 45kDa, sensitivity to chelating agents or competitive inhibitors for thermolysin-like metalloproteases, and the substrate specificity. The structural gene for VFP was also cloned, and its nucleotide sequence was determined. The deduced amino acid sequence confirmed that VFP was a member of the thermolysin family. VFP, like V. vulnificus protease, showed the haemagglutinating, permeability-enhancing and haemorrhagic activities in addition to the proteolytic activity toward oligopeptide, casein or elastin.

  3. Extinction of Vibrio choleare in acidic substrata: contaminated cabbage and lettuce treated with lime juice

    OpenAIRE

    Mata, Leonardo; Vargas, Cecilia; Saborío Argüello, Daniel; Vives Blanco, Marcela

    1994-01-01

    artículo -- Universidad de Costa Rica. Instituto de Investigaciones en Salud, 1994 Lime juice killed Malian of Vibrio cholerae 01, El Tor, Inaba, present on cabbage and lettuce contaminated in the laboratory. The lethal effect was evident within 5 min of exposure to lime juice. No vibrios could be recovered at dilution 1:10 using alkaline peptone water (APW) and thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-saccharose agar (TCBS). More than 99.9 % of the initial inoculum was effectively destroyed. The nu...

  4. Vibrio mexicanus sp. nov., isolated from a cultured oyster Crassostrea corteziensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Castillo, Adrián; Enciso-Ibarrra, Julissa; Bolán-Mejia, M Carmen; Balboa, Sabela; Lasa, Aide; Romalde, Jesús L; Cabanillas-Beltrán, Hector; Gomez-Gil, Bruno

    2015-08-01

    A bacterial strain was taxonomically characterised by means of a genomic approach comprising 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA), the DNA G+C content, whole genome analyses (ANI and GGDC) and phenotypic characterisation. The strain CAIM 1540(T) was isolated from a cultured oyster Crassostrea corteziensis in La Cruz, Sinaloa state, México. The isolate was found to be catalase and oxidase positive, cells were observed to be motile, O/129-sensitive and facultatively anaerobic. The almost-complete 16S rRNA gene sequence placed this strain within the genus Vibrio; the closest related species were found to be Vibrio aestivus, Vibrio marisflavi, Vibrio maritimus and Vibrio variabilis with similarity values of 99.02, 97.05, 96.70, and 96.59 % respectively. MLSA of four housekeeping genes (ftsZ, gapA, recA, and topA) was performed with the closely related species. A draft genome sequence of strain CAIM 1540(T) was obtained. The DNA G+C content of this strain was determined to be 43.7 mol%.The ANI values with V. aestivus were 89.6 % (ANIb), 90.6 % (ANIm) and a GGDC value of 39.5 ± 2.5 % was obtained; with V. marisflavi the genomic similarities were 71.5 % (ANIb), 85.5 % (ANIm) and 20.2 ± 2.3 % (GGDC); with V. maritimus 72.6 % (ANIb), 85.7 % (ANIm) and 22.0 ± 2.0 % (GGDC); and with V. variabilis 72.6 % (ANIb), 85.8 % (ANIm) and 21.6 ± 1.6 % (GGDC). These ANI and GGDC values are below the threshold for the delimitation of prokaryotic species, i.e. 95-96 and 70 %, respectively. Phenotypic characters also showed differences with the closest related species analysed. The results presented here support the description of a novel species, for which the name Vibrio mexicanus sp. nov. is proposed, with strain CAIM 1540(T) (= CECT 8828(T), = DSM 100338(T)) as the type strain. In addition, we found that the recently described species Vibrio thalassae and Vibrio madracius might be a single species because the values of ANIb 95.8 %, ANIm 96.6 % and

  5. Occurrence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in cockle (Anadara granosa harvested from the south coast of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srimek Chowpongpang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a seafood-borne pathogen that is widely distributed in the marine environment. Theoccurrence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in cockle (Anadara granosa harvested at the south coast of Thailand was determined.A total of 65 samples were collected monthly. They were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Vibrioparahaemolyticus was found in all samples. The virulence strain carrying the thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh and TDHrelatedhemolysin gene (trh was found in samples collected in July. This information can be used for the risk-assessment planand eating cooked cockle is recommended.

  6. Effect of endothelin antagonism on apnea frequency following chronic intermittent hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Lucas M; Liu, Yuzhen; Weiss, J Woodrow

    2014-04-01

    Chronic hypoxia increases the hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR). Augmented HVR contributes to central apneas seen in heart failure and complex sleep apnea. Endothelin receptor (ETR) antagonism decreases carotid body afferent activity following chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH). We speculated ETR antagonism would reduce HVR and apneas following CIH. HVR and apneas were measured after exposure to CIH and room air sham (SHAM). ETR blocker Ambrisentan was administered via the chow of CIH-exposed animals from days 1 to 12 of CIH (CIH/AMB). A separate crossover group was exposed to CIH and fed normal chow (placebo) days 1-6, and Ambrisentan days 7-12 (CIH/PLA-AMB). SHAM and CIH/PLA animals were fed placebo days 1-12. The CIH/AMB and CIH/PLA-AMB rats had reduced HVR compared to CIH/PLA, similar HVR compared to sham exposed animals, and reduced apnea frequency compared to CIH/PLA animals. The reduced HVR and post-hypoxic apneas resulting from Ambrisentan administration suggests ETR antagonists may have utility in reducing central apneas following CIH. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Dynamical transitions in a pollination-herbivory interaction: a conflict between mutualism and antagonism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás A Revilla

    Full Text Available Plant-pollinator associations are often seen as purely mutualistic, while in reality they can be more complex. Indeed they may also display a diverse array of antagonistic interactions, such as competition and victim-exploiter interactions. In some cases mutualistic and antagonistic interactions are carried-out by the same species but at different life-stages. As a consequence, population structure affects the balance of inter-specific associations, a topic that is receiving increased attention. In this paper, we developed a model that captures the basic features of the interaction between a flowering plant and an insect with a larval stage that feeds on the plant's vegetative tissues (e.g. leaves and an adult pollinator stage. Our model is able to display a rich set of dynamics, the most remarkable of which involves victim-exploiter oscillations that allow plants to attain abundances above their carrying capacities and the periodic alternation between states dominated by mutualism or antagonism. Our study indicates that changes in the insect's life cycle can modify the balance between mutualism and antagonism, causing important qualitative changes in the interaction dynamics. These changes in the life cycle could be caused by a variety of external drivers, such as temperature, plant nutrients, pesticides and changes in the diet of adult pollinators.

  8. Specialization in the yucca-yucca moth obligate pollination mutualism: A role for antagonism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoff, David M

    2016-10-01

    Specialized brood pollination systems involve both mutualism and antagonism in the overall interaction and have led to diversification in both plants and insects. Although largely known for mutualism, the role of the antagonistic side of the interaction in these systems has been overlooked. Specialization may be driven by plant defenses to feeding by the insect larvae that consume and kill developing plant ovules. The interaction among yuccas and yucca moths is cited as a classic example of the importance of mutualism in specialization and diversification. Pollinators moths are very host specific, but whether this specificity is due to adult pollination ability or larval feeding ability is unclear. Here, I test the potential role of antagonism in driving specialization among yuccas and yucca moths. I examined the ability of the most-polyphagous yucca moth pollinator, Tegeticula yuccasella, to pollinate and develop on five Yucca species used across its range. Yucca species endemic to the Great Plains and Texas were transplanted to a common garden in Syracuse, New York and exposed to the local pollinator moth population over 3 years. Local moths visited all but one of the Yucca species, but had drastically lower rates of successful larval development on non-natal Yucca species in comparison to the local host species. Specialization in many brood pollination systems may be strongly influenced by the antagonistic rather than the mutualistic side of the overall interaction, suggesting that antagonistic coevolution is a possible source of diversification. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  9. FXR antagonism of NSAIDs contributes to drug-induced liver injury identified by systems pharmacology approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Weiqiang; Cheng, Feixiong; Jiang, Jing; Zhang, Chen; Deng, Xiaokang; Xu, Zhongyu; Zou, Shien; Shen, Xu; Tang, Yun; Huang, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are worldwide used drugs for analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory therapeutics. However, NSAIDs often cause several serious liver injuries, such as drug-induced liver injury (DILI), and the molecular mechanisms of DILI have not been clearly elucidated. In this study, we developed a systems pharmacology approach to explore the mechanism-of-action of NSAIDs. We found that the Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR) antagonism of NSAIDs is a potential molecular mechanism of DILI through systematic network analysis and in vitro assays. Specially, the quantitative real-time PCR assay reveals that indomethacin and ibuprofen regulate FXR downstream target gene expression in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, the western blot shows that FXR antagonism by indomethacin induces the phosphorylation of STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3), promotes the activation of caspase9, and finally causes DILI. In summary, our systems pharmacology approach provided novel insights into molecular mechanisms of DILI for NSAIDs, which may propel the ways toward the design of novel anti-inflammatory pharmacotherapeutics. PMID:25631039

  10. FXR antagonism of NSAIDs contributes to drug-induced liver injury identified by systems pharmacology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Weiqiang; Cheng, Feixiong; Jiang, Jing; Zhang, Chen; Deng, Xiaokang; Xu, Zhongyu; Zou, Shien; Shen, Xu; Tang, Yun; Huang, Jin

    2015-01-29

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are worldwide used drugs for analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory therapeutics. However, NSAIDs often cause several serious liver injuries, such as drug-induced liver injury (DILI), and the molecular mechanisms of DILI have not been clearly elucidated. In this study, we developed a systems pharmacology approach to explore the mechanism-of-action of NSAIDs. We found that the Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR) antagonism of NSAIDs is a potential molecular mechanism of DILI through systematic network analysis and in vitro assays. Specially, the quantitative real-time PCR assay reveals that indomethacin and ibuprofen regulate FXR downstream target gene expression in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, the western blot shows that FXR antagonism by indomethacin induces the phosphorylation of STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3), promotes the activation of caspase9, and finally causes DILI. In summary, our systems pharmacology approach provided novel insights into molecular mechanisms of DILI for NSAIDs, which may propel the ways toward the design of novel anti-inflammatory pharmacotherapeutics.

  11. Small molecule stabilization of the KSR inactive state antagonizes oncogenic Ras signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Neil S; Scopton, Alex P; Dar, Arvin C

    2016-09-01

    Deregulation of the Ras-mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is an early event in many different cancers and a key driver of resistance to targeted therapies. Sustained signalling through this pathway is caused most often by mutations in K-Ras, which biochemically favours the stabilization of active RAF signalling complexes. Kinase suppressor of Ras (KSR) is a MAPK scaffold that is subject to allosteric regulation through dimerization with RAF. Direct targeting of KSR could have important therapeutic implications for cancer; however, testing this hypothesis has been difficult owing to a lack of small-molecule antagonists of KSR function. Guided by KSR mutations that selectively suppress oncogenic, but not wild-type, Ras signalling, we developed a class of compounds that stabilize a previously unrecognized inactive state of KSR. These compounds, exemplified by APS-2-79, modulate KSR-dependent MAPK signalling by antagonizing RAF heterodimerization as well as the conformational changes required for phosphorylation and activation of KSR-bound MEK (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase). Furthermore, APS-2-79 increased the potency of several MEK inhibitors specifically within Ras-mutant cell lines by antagonizing release of negative feedback signalling, demonstrating the potential of targeting KSR to improve the efficacy of current MAPK inhibitors. These results reveal conformational switching in KSR as a druggable regulator of oncogenic Ras, and further suggest co-targeting of enzymatic and scaffolding activities within Ras-MAPK signalling complexes as a therapeutic strategy for overcoming Ras-driven cancers.

  12. FCJ-156 Hacking the Social: Internet Memes, Identity Antagonism, and the Logic of Lulz.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan M. Milner

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available 4chan and reddit are participatory media collectives undergirded by a “logic of lulz” that favours distanced irony and critique. It often works at the expense of core identity categories like race and gender. However, the logic need not be entirely counterproductive to public discourse. Provided that diverse identities find voice instead of exclusion, these sites may facilitate vibrant, agonistic discussion instead of disenfranchising antagonism. In order to assess this potential for productive agonism, I undertook a critical discourse analysis of these collectives. Emphasising the image memes they produce, I evaluated discourses on race and gender. Both race and gender representations were dominated by familiar stereotypes and partial representations. However, while dissenting perspectives on race were repressed or excluded, dissenting perspectives on gender were vocalised and contested. The ‘logic of lulz’ facilitated both dominance and counter, each articulated with heavy reliance on irony and critique. This logic ambiguously balanced agonism and antagonism, but contestation provided sharper engagement than repression.

  13. Seeds of the Wild Progenitor of Maize Possess Bacteria That Antagonize Foodborne Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehata, Hanan R; Griffiths, Mansel W; Raizada, Manish N

    2017-04-01

    Endophytes are microorganisms that inhabit plant tissues without causing disease. Some endophytes help their hosts to combat pathogens. Here we explored the hypothesis that the plant-derived foods consumed by humans and other animals host endophytes that also antagonize foodborne pathogens or food-rotting agents. Our laboratory previously cultured a library of bacterial endophytes from different members of the maize/corn family (Zea) including wild relatives. Here, 190 of these endophytes were screened for their ability to antagonize four foodborne pathogens (Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium perfringens, and Salmonella enterica Newport) and a food spoiling agent (Pseudomonas fluorescens) using dual culture assays. Two Paenibacillus polymyxa endophytes (strains 3C6 and 3G11) were found to inhibit the growth of all five deleterious strains on agar. Using conserved polymerase chain reaction primers and sequencing, both beneficial endophytes were found to encode polymyxin genes, suggesting a potential antibacterial mechanism of action. Polymyxin production by both strains was confirmed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Strains 3C6 and 3G11 originated, respectively, from the seeds of the wild Central American maize species Zea diploperennis, and the wild ancestor of modern maize, Zea mays ssp parviglumis (Parviglumis). As the latter is the direct ancestor of modern maize, we discuss the role its endophyte(s) may have played in promoting crop domestication by suppressing foodborne pathogens and/or food-spoilage agents.

  14. Antagonism of cyanide toxicity by isosorbide dinitrate: possible role of nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, P; Borowitz, J L; Kanthasamy, A G; Kane, M D; Gunasekar, P G; Isom, G E

    1995-12-15

    In a search for improved cyanide antidotes, the efficacy of isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN), was compared with that of the known cyanide antidote, NaNO2. ISDN was as effective as an optimal dose of NaNO2 in protecting mice against cyanide lethality. To study the mechanism involved, the extent of formation of the cyanide scavenger, methemoglobin, in the action of ISDN was determined. ISDN (300 mg/kg, p.o.) increased methemoglobin from 5 to 10% of total hemoglobin, while, in contrast, NaNO2 (100 mg/kg, i.p.) increased methemoglobin levels to 50% of total hemoglobin. Lowering the dose of NaNO2 to 30 mg/kg reduced methemoglobin levels to approximately 10% of total hemoglobin and in turn nearly abolished its antidotal effect. Decreasing methemoglobin to less than control levels using methylene blue failed to abolish cyanide antagonism by ISDN. Thus, methemoglobin formation by ISDN does not account for its antidotal action. Further studies comparing the respiratory depressant effects of cyanide in the presence of ISDN or NaNO2 also indicated that these two antidotes have different mechanisms of action. Efforts to produce tolerance to the antidotal effect of ISDN against cyanide toxicity were unsuccessful. It is suggested that the well-known ability of ISDN to generate nitric oxide may account for the noted cyanide antagonism.

  15. IFITM Proteins Restrict HIV-1 Infection by Antagonizing the Envelope Glycoprotein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyou Yu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The interferon-induced transmembrane (IFITM proteins have been recently shown to restrict HIV-1 and other viruses. Here, we provide evidence that IFITM proteins, particularly IFITM2 and IFITM3, specifically antagonize the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env, thereby inhibiting viral infection. IFITM proteins interact with HIV-1 Env in viral producer cells, leading to impaired Env processing and virion incorporation. Notably, the level of IFITM incorporation into HIV-1 virions does not strictly correlate with the extent of inhibition. Prolonged passage of HIV-1 in IFITM-expressing T lymphocytes leads to emergence of Env mutants that overcome IFITM restriction. The ability of IFITMs to inhibit cell-to-cell infection can be extended to HIV-1 primary isolates, HIV-2 and SIVs; however, the extent of inhibition appears to be virus-strain dependent. Overall, our study uncovers a mechanism by which IFITM proteins specifically antagonize HIV-1 Env to restrict HIV-1 infection and provides insight into the specialized role of IFITMs in HIV infection.

  16. Structural basis for dsRNA recognition and interferon antagonism by Ebola VP35

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, Daisy W.; Prins, Kathleen C.; Borek, Dominika M.; Farahbakhsh, Mina; Tufariello, JoAnn M.; Ramanan, Parameshwaran; Nix, Jay C.; Helgeson, Luke A.; Otwinowski, Zbyszek; Honzatko, Richard B.; Basler, Christopher F.; Amarasinghe, Gaya K. (Sinai); (Iowa State); (LBNL); (UTSMC)

    2010-03-12

    Ebola viral protein 35 (VP35), encoded by the highly pathogenic Ebola virus, facilitates host immune evasion by antagonizing antiviral signaling pathways, including those initiated by RIG-I-like receptors. Here we report the crystal structure of the Ebola VP35 interferon inhibitory domain (IID) bound to short double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), which together with in vivo results reveals how VP35-dsRNA interactions contribute to immune evasion. Conserved basic residues in VP35 IID recognize the dsRNA backbone, whereas the dsRNA blunt ends are 'end-capped' by a pocket of hydrophobic residues that mimic RIG-I-like receptor recognition of blunt-end dsRNA. Residues critical for RNA binding are also important for interferon inhibition in vivo but not for viral polymerase cofactor function of VP35. These results suggest that simultaneous recognition of dsRNA backbone and blunt ends provides a mechanism by which Ebola VP35 antagonizes host dsRNA sensors and immune responses.

  17. Aggression, Sibling Antagonism, and Theory-of-Mind During the First Year of Siblinghood: A Developmental Cascade Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ju-Hyun; Volling, Brenda L.; Lane, Jonathan D.; Wellman, Henry M.

    2016-01-01

    A developmental cascade model was tested to examine longitudinal associations among firstborn children’s aggression, Theory-of-Mind, and antagonism toward their younger sibling during the first year of siblinghood. Aggression and Theory-of-Mind were assessed before the birth of a sibling, and 4 and 12 months after the birth, and antagonism was examined at 4 and 12 months in a sample of 208 firstborn children (initial M age = 30 months, 56% girls) from primarily European American, middle- class families. Firstborns’ aggression consistently predicted high sibling antagonism both directly and through poorer Theory-of-Mind. Results highlight the importance of examining longitudinal influences across behavioral, social-cognitive, and relational factors that are closely intertwined even from the early years of life. PMID:27096923

  18. Symbiont interactions in a tripartite mutualism: exploring the presence and impact of antagonism between two fungus-growing ant mutualists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Poulsen

    Full Text Available Mutualistic associations are shaped by the interplay of cooperation and conflict among the partners involved, and it is becoming increasingly clear that within many mutualisms multiple partners simultaneously engage in beneficial interactions. Consequently, a more complete understanding of the dynamics within multipartite mutualism communities is essential for understanding the origin, specificity, and stability of mutualisms. Fungus-growing ants cultivate fungi for food and maintain antibiotic-producing Pseudonocardia actinobacteria on their cuticle that help defend the cultivar fungus from specialized parasites. Within both ant-fungus and ant-bacterium mutualisms, mixing of genetically distinct strains can lead to antagonistic interactions (i.e., competitive conflict, which may prevent the ants from rearing multiple strains of either of the mutualistic symbionts within individual colonies. The success of different ant-cultivar-bacterium combinations could ultimately be governed by antagonistic interactions between the two mutualists, either as inhibition of the cultivar by Pseudonocardia or vice versa. Here we explore cultivar-Pseudonocardia antagonism by evaluating in vitro interactions between strains of the two mutualists, and find frequent antagonistic interactions both from cultivars towards Pseudonocardia and vice versa. To test whether such in vitro antagonistic interactions affect ant colonies in vivo, we performed sub-colony experiments using species of Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants. We created novel ant-fungus-bacterium pairings in which there was antagonism from one, both, or neither of the ants' microbial mutualists, and evaluated the effect of directional antagonism on cultivar biomass and Pseudonocardia abundance on the cuticle of workers within sub-colonies. Despite the presence of frequent in vitro growth suppression between cultivars and Pseudonocardia, antagonism from Pseudonocardia towards the cultivar did not reduce sub

  19. Survival of Vibrio cholerae O1 on fomites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhana, Israt; Hossain, Zenat Zebin; Tulsiani, Suhella Mohan; Jensen, Peter Kjær Mackie; Begum, Anowara

    2016-09-01

    It is well established that the contamination sources of cholera causing bacteria, Vibrio cholerae, are water and food, but little is known about the transmission role of the fomites (surfaces that can carry pathogens) commonly used in households. In the absence of appropriate nutrients or growth conditions on fomites, bacteria have been known to assume a viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state after a given period of time. To investigate whether and when V. cholerae O1 assumes such a state, this study investigated the survival and viable quantification on a range of fomites such as paper, wood, glass, plastic, cloth and several types of metals under laboratory conditions. The fomites were inoculated with an outbreak strain of V. cholerae and its culturability was examined by drop plate count method at 30 min intervals for up to 6 h. For molecular detection, the viable/dead stain ethidium monoazide (EMA) which inhibits amplification of DNA from dead cells was used in combination with real-time polymerase chain reaction (EMA-qPCR) for direct quantitative analyses of viable V. cholerae at 2, 4, 6, 24 h and 7 day time intervals. Results showed that V. cholerae on glass and aluminum surfaces lost culturability within one hour after inoculation but remained culturable on cloth and wood for up to four hours. VBNC V. cholerae on dry fomite surfaces was detected and quantified by EMA-qPCR even 7 days after inoculation. In conclusion, the prolonged survival of V. cholerae on various household fomites may play vital role in cholera transmission and needs to be further investigated.

  20. Structural requirements of cholesterol for binding to Vibrio cholerae hemolysin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikigai, Hajime; Otsuru, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Koichiro; Shimamura, Tadakatsu

    2006-01-01

    Cholesterol is necessary for the conversion of Vibrio cholerae hemolysin (VCH) monomers into oligomers in liposome membranes. Using different sterols, we determined the stereochemical structures of the VCH-binding active groups present in cholesterol. The VCH monomers are bound to cholesterol, diosgenin, campesterol, and ergosterol, which have a hydroxyl group at position C-3 (3betaOH) in the A ring and a C-C double bond between positions C-5 and C-6 (C-C Delta(5)) in the B ring. They are not bound to epicholesterol and dihydrocholesterol, which form a covalent link with a 3alphaOH group and a C-C single bond between positions C-5 and C-6, respectively. This result suggests that the 3betaOH group and the C-CDelta(5) bond in cholesterol are required for VCH monomer binding. We further examined VCH oligomer binding to cholesterol. However, this oligomer did not bind to cholesterol, suggesting that the disappearance of the cholesterol-binding potential of the VCH oligomer might be a result of the conformational change caused by the conversion of the monomer into the oligomer. VCH oligomer formation was observed in liposomes containing sterols with the 3betaOH group and the C-C Delta(5) bond, and it correlated with the binding affinity of the monomer to each sterol. Therefore, it seems likely that monomer binding to membrane sterol leads to the assembly of the monomer. However, since oligomer formation was induced by liposomes containing either epicholesterol or dihydrocholesterol, the 3betaOH group and the C-C Delta(5) bond were not essential for conversion into the oligomer.

  1. A Comprehensive Epidemiological Research for Clinical Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Shanghai

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    Huan Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus is one of the most important pathogen for seafood-borne gastroenteritis in Shanghai and the rest of the world. A total of 42 V. parahaemolyticus strains were isolated from 1900 fecal specimens collected from patients in Shanghai hospital presenting from January 2014 to December 2015. All isolates were evaluated for potential virulence factors [tdh, trh, and type three secretion system (T3SS genes], typed using multilocus sequence typing (MLST and screened for antimicrobial resistance phenotype and genotype. And for the first time, the relationship between virulence, genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of these isolates were identified. The results showed that 37 isolates carried the tdh gene (88.1% and only seven isolates were positive for the trh gene. The T3SS1 and T3SS2 genes were detected in all strains and only trh-positive isolates are also containing the T3SS2β genes. MLST analysis of the 42 Shanghai isolates identified 20 sequence types (STs with 16 novel STs and that these clinical V. parahaemolyticus strains showed high degrees of genetic diversity. All isolates expressed high levels of resistance against Ampicillin (100.0%, Streptomycin (100.0%, Cephazolin (92.9%, Kanamycin (92.8% and Amikacin (90.5%, and eight out of 38 resistance genes (SHV, tet(B, strA, qnrA, gryA, qnrB, sulI, sulII were detected in at least two isolates. This study confirms that antimicrobial resistance of clinical V. parahaemolyticus isolates is greater than those of environmental isolates. Furthermore, no clear correlation between antimicrobial resistance and virulence or genetic diversity was found in this study. These results add to epidemiological data of clinical V. parahaemolyticus isolates in Shanghai and highlight the need for additional mechanistic studies, especially antimicrobial resistance, to reduce the burden of disease caused by this pathogen in China.

  2. RpoS controls the Vibrio cholerae mucosal escape response.

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    Alex Toftgaard Nielsen

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae causes a severe diarrhoeal disease by secreting a toxin during colonization of the epithelium in the small intestine. Whereas the initial steps of the infectious process have been intensively studied, the last phases have received little attention. Confocal microscopy of V. cholerae O1-infected rabbit ileal loops captured a distinctive stage in the infectious process: 12 h post-inoculation, bacteria detach from the epithelial surface and move into the fluid-filled lumen. Designated the "mucosal escape response," this phenomenon requires RpoS, the stationary phase alternative sigma factor. Quantitative in vivo localization assays corroborated the rpoS phenotype and showed that it also requires HapR. Expression profiling of bacteria isolated from ileal loop fluid and mucus demonstrated a significant RpoS-dependent upregulation of many chemotaxis and motility genes coincident with the emigration of bacteria from the epithelial surface. In stationary phase cultures, RpoS was also required for upregulation of chemotaxis and motility genes, for production of flagella, and for movement of bacteria across low nutrient swarm plates. The hapR mutant produced near-normal numbers of flagellated cells, but was significantly less motile than the wild-type parent. During in vitro growth under virulence-inducing conditions, the rpoS mutant produced 10- to 100-fold more cholera toxin than the wild-type parent. Although the rpoS mutant caused only a small over-expression of the genes encoding cholera toxin in the ileal loop, it resulted in a 30% increase in fluid accumulation compared to the wild-type. Together, these results show that the mucosal escape response is orchestrated by an RpoS-dependent genetic program that activates chemotaxis and motility functions. This may furthermore coincide with reduced virulence gene expression, thus preparing the organism for the next stage in its life cycle.

  3. Detection, Isolation, and Identification of Vibrio cholerae from the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huq, Anwar; Haley, Bradd J.; Taviani, Elisa; Chen, Arlene; Hasan, Nur A.; Colwell, Rita R.

    2012-01-01

    Recent molecular advances in microbiology have greatly improved the detection of bacterial pathogens in the environment. Improvement and a downward trend in the cost of molecular detection methods have contributed to increased frequency of detection of pathogenic microorganisms where traditional culture-based detection methods have failed. Culture methods also have been greatly improved and the confluence of the two suites of methods provides a powerful tool for detection, isolation, and characterization of pathogens. While molecular detection provides data on the presence and type of pathogens, culturing methods allow a researcher to preserve the organism of interest for “–omics” studies, such as genomic, metabolomic, secretomic, and transcriptomic analysis, which are rapidly becoming more affordable. This has yielded a clearer understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of microorganisms that cause disease. Specifically, important advances have been made over the past several years on isolation, detection, and identification of Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera in humans. In this unit, we present commonly accepted methods for isolation, detection, and characterization of V. cholerae, providing more extensive knowledge of the ecology and epidemiology of this organism. This unit has been fully revised and updated from the earlier unit (Huq, Grim et al. 2006) with the latest knowledge and additional information not previously included. We have also taken into account of cost of reagents and equipment that may be prohibitive for many researchers and have, therefore, included protocols for all laboratories, including those with limited resources, likely to be located in regions of cholera endemicity. PMID:22875567

  4. Mechanistic Insights Into Filamentous Phage Integration In Vibrio cholerae

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    Bhabatosh eDas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae, the etiological agent of acute diarrhoeal disease cholera, harbors large numbers of lysogenic filamentous phages, contribute significantly to the host pathogenesis and provide fitness factors to the pathogen that help the bacterium to survive in natural environment. Most of the vibriophage genomes are not equipped with integrase and thus exploit two host-encoded tyrosine recombinases, XerC and XerD, for lysogenic conversion. Integration is site-specific and it occurs at dimer resolution site (dif of either one or both chromosomes of V. cholerae. Each dif sequence contains two recombinase-binding sequences flanking a central region. The integration follows a sequential strand exchanges between dif and attP sites within a DNA-protein complex consisting of one pair of each recombinase and two DNA fragments. During entire process of recombination, both the DNA components and recombinases of the synaptic complex keep transiently interconnected. Within the context of synaptic complex, both of the actuated enzymes mediate cleavage of phosphodiester bonds. First cleavage generates a phosphotyrosyl-linked recombinase-DNA complex at the recombinase binding sequence and free 5’-hydroxyl end at the first base of the central region. Following the cleavage, the exposed bases with 5’-hydroxyl ends of the central region of dif and attP sites melt from their complementary strands and react with the recombinase-DNA phosphotyrosyl linkage of their recombining partner. Subsequent ligation between dif and attP strands requires complementary base pair interactions at the site of phosphodiester bond formation. Integration mechanism is mostly influenced by the compatibility of dif and attP sequences. dif sites are highly conserved across bacterial phyla. Different phage genomes have different attP sequences; therefore they rely on different mechanisms for integration. Here, I review our current understanding of integration mechanisms used by the

  5. Serogroup conversion of Vibrio cholerae in aquatic reservoirs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Blokesch

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The environmental reservoirs for Vibrio cholerae are natural aquatic habitats, where it colonizes the chitinous exoskeletons of copepod molts. Growth of V. cholerae on a chitin surface induces competence for natural transformation, a mechanism for intra-species gene exchange. The antigenically diverse O-serogroup determinants of V. cholerae are encoded by a genetically variable biosynthetic cluster of genes that is flanked on either side by chromosomal regions that are conserved between different serogroups. To determine whether this genomic motif and chitin-induced natural transformation might enable the exchange of serogroup-specific gene clusters between different O serogroups of V. cholerae, a strain of V. cholerae O1 El Tor was co-cultured with a strain of V. cholerae O139 Bengal within a biofilm on the same chitin surface immersed in seawater, and O1-to-O139 transformants were obtained. Serogroup conversion of the O1 recipient by the O139 donor was demonstrated by comparative genomic hybridization, biochemical and serological characterization of the O-antigenic determinant, and resistance of O1-to-O139 transformants to bacteriolysis by a virulent O1-specific phage. Serogroup conversion was shown to have occurred as a single-step exchange of large fragments of DNA. Crossovers were localized to regions of homology common to other V. cholerae serogroups that flank serogroup-specific encoding sequences. This result and the successful serogroup conversion of an O1 strain by O37 genomic DNA indicate that chitin-induced natural transformation might be a common mechanism for serogroup conversion in aquatic habitats and for the emergence of V. cholerae variants that are better adapted for survival in environmental niches or more pathogenic for humans.

  6. Effect of Dietary Minerals on Virulence Attributes of Vibrio cholerae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varunkumar Bhattaram

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae is a water-borne pathogen responsible for causing a toxin-mediated profuse diarrhea in humans, leading to severe dehydration and death in unattended patients. With increasing reports of antibiotic resistance in V. cholerae, there is a need for alternate interventional strategies for controlling cholera. A potential new strategy for treating infectious diseases involves targeting bacterial virulence rather than growth, where a pathogen’s specific mechanisms critical for causing infection in hosts are inhibited. Since bacterial motility, intestinal colonization and cholera toxin are critical components in V. cholerae pathogenesis, attenuating these virulence factors could potentially control cholera in humans. In this study, the efficacy of sub-inhibitory concentration (SIC, highest concentration not inhibiting bacterial growth of essential minerals, zinc (Zn, selenium (Se, and manganese (Mn in reducing V. cholerae motility and adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2, cholera toxin production, and toxin binding to the ganglioside receptor (GM1 was investigated. Additionally, V. cholerae attachment and toxin production in an ex vivo mouse intestine model was determined. Further, the effect of Zn, Se and Mn on V. cholerae virulence genes, ctxAB (toxin production, fliA (motility, tcpA (intestinal colonization, and toxR (master regulon was determined using real-time quantitative PCR. All three minerals significantly reduced V. cholerae motility, adhesion to Caco-2 cells, and cholera toxin production in vitro, and decreased adhesion and toxin production in mouse intestine ex vivo (P < 0.05. In addition, Zn, Se, and Mn down-regulated the transcription of virulence genes, ctxAB, fliA, and toxR. Results suggest that Zn, Se, and Mn could be potentially used to reduce V. cholerae virulence. However, in vivo studies in an animal model are necessary to validate these results.

  7. Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns of Isolated Vibrio cholerae Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Hajia

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cholera is a potentially life-threatening acute diarrheal disease caused by the toxigenic bacteria, Vibrio cholerae. Antibiotics should be selected using local antibiotic susceptibility testing patterns. Objectives: This study was performed to identify the patterns of antimicrobial resistance in isolates collected from laboratory-confirmed cases of cholera during three years, from 2011 to 2013. Materials and Methods: All isolates at the Health Reference Laboratory were tested by the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC Test using Liofilchem against ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, cefixime, ampicillin, tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and erythromycin. The following organisms were used as quality control strains for MIC E-testing; Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853. Results: Results of susceptibility testing showed complete sensitivity to ciprofloxacin, cefixime and amplicillin for both isolated Inaba and Ogawa serotypes except all isolated Inaba serotypes from year 2011, which were resistant to cefixime. These resistant Inaba serotypes were not isolated in the next year. Inaba serotypes showed an increased resistance rate of up to 100% to nalidixic acid, tetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethaxazone, while Ogawa serotypes were 100% sensitive at the end of year 2013. The susceptibility pattern of erytromycine was similar in these two types. Sensitivity to erythromycin was decreased in both Inaba and Ogawa serotypes. Conclusions: The analyzed results indicate that tetracycline should not be considered as a first line antibiotic therapy for patients infected with Ogawa serotypes. Also, national guidelines for confirmation of cholera should be improved by responsible authorities to cover new resistance during outbreaks.

  8. T6SS intraspecific competition orchestrates Vibrio cholerae genotypic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostiuk, Benjamin; Unterweger, Daniel; Provenzano, Daniele; Pukatzki, Stefan

    2017-09-01

    Vibrio cholerae is a diverse species that inhabits a wide range of environments from copepods in brackish water to the intestines of humans. In order to remain competitive, V. cholerae uses the versatile type-VI secretion system (T6SS) to secrete anti-prokaryotic and anti-eukaryotic effectors. In addition to competing with other bacterial species, V. cholerae strains also compete with one another. Some strains are able to coexist, and are referred to as belonging to the same compatibility group. Challenged by diverse competitors in various environments, different V. choleare strains secrete different combination of effectors - presumably to best suit their niche. Interestingly, all pandemic V. cholerae strains encode the same three effectors. In addition to the diversity displayed in the encoded effectors, the regulation of V. cholerae also differs between strains. Two main layers of regulation appear to exist. One strategy connects T6SS activity with behavior that is suited to fighting eukaryotic cells, while the other is linked with natural competence - the ability of the bacterium to acquire and incorporate extracellular DNA. This relationship between bacterial killing and natural competence is potentially a source of diversification for V. cholerae as it has been shown to incorporate the DNA of cells recently killed through T6SS activity. It is through this process that we hypothesize the transfer of virulence factors, including T6SS effector modules, to happen. Switching of T6SS effectors has the potential to change the range of competitors V. cholerae can kill and to newly define which strains V. cholerae can co-exist with, two important parameters for survival in diverse environments. Copyright© by the Spanish Society for Microbiology and Institute for Catalan Studies.

  9. Genome assortment, not serogroup, defines Vibrio cholerae pandemic strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brettin, Thomas S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bruce, David C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Challacombe, Jean F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Detter, John C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Han, Cliff S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Munik, A C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chertkov, Olga [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Meincke, Linda [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Saunders, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Choi, Seon Y [SEOUL NATL. UNIV.; Haley, Bradd J [U. MARYLAND; Taviani, Elisa [U. MARYLAND; Jeon, Yoon - Seong [INTL. VACCINE INST. SEOUL; Kim, Dong Wook [INTL. VACCINE INST. SEOUL; Lee, Jae - Hak [SEOUL NATL. UNIV.; Walters, Ronald A [PNNL; Hug, Anwar [NATL. INST. CHOLERIC ENTERIC DIS.; Colwell, Rita R [U. MARYLAND

    2009-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, is a bacterium autochthonous to the aquatic environment, and a serious public health threat. V. cholerae serogroup O1 is responsible for the previous two cholera pandemics, in which classical and El Tor biotypes were dominant in the 6th and the current 7th pandemics, respectively. Cholera researchers continually face newly emerging and re-emerging pathogenic clones carrying combinations of new serogroups as well as of phenotypic and genotypic properties. These genotype and phenotype changes have hampered control of the disease. Here we compare the complete genome sequences of 23 strains of V. cholerae isolated from a variety of sources and geographical locations over the past 98 years in an effort to elucidate the evolutionary mechanisms governing genetic diversity and genesis of new pathogenic clones. The genome-based phylogeny revealed 12 distinct V. cholerae phyletic lineages, of which one, designated the V. cholerae core genome (CG), comprises both O1 classical and EI Tor biotypes. All 7th pandemic clones share nearly identical gene content, i.e., the same genome backbone. The transition from 6th to 7th pandemic strains is defined here as a 'shift' between pathogenic clones belonging to the same O1 serogroup, but from significantly different phyletic lineages within the CG clade. In contrast, transition among clones during the present 7th pandemic period can be characterized as a 'drift' between clones, differentiated mainly by varying composition of laterally transferred genomic islands, resulting in emergence of variants, exemplified by V.cholerae serogroup O139 and V.cholerae O1 El Tor hybrid clones that produce cholera toxin of classical biotype. Based on the comprehensive comparative genomics presented in this study it is concluded that V. cholerae undergoes extensive genetic recombination via lateral gene transfer, and, therefore, genome assortment, not serogroup, should be used to

  10. Vibrio cholerae Infection of Drosophilamelanogaster Mimics the Human Disease Cholera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Cholera, the pandemic diarrheal disease caused by the gram-negative bacterium Vibrio cholerae, continues to be a major public health challenge in the developing world. Cholera toxin, which is responsible for the voluminous stools of cholera, causes constitutive activation of adenylyl cyclase, resulting in the export of ions into the intestinal lumen. Environmental studies have demonstrated a close association between V. cholerae and many species of arthropods including insects. Here we report the susceptibility of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, to oral V. cholerae infection through a process that exhibits many of the hallmarks of human disease: (i death of the fly is dependent on the presence of cholera toxin and is preceded by rapid weight loss; (ii flies harboring mutant alleles of either adenylyl cyclase, Gsalpha, or the Gardos K channel homolog SK are resistant to V. cholerae infection; and (iii ingestion of a K channel blocker along with V. cholerae protects wild-type flies against death. In mammals, ingestion of as little as 25 mug of cholera toxin results in massive diarrhea. In contrast, we found that ingestion of cholera toxin was not lethal to the fly. However, when cholera toxin was co-administered with a pathogenic strain of V. cholerae carrying a chromosomal deletion of the genes encoding cholera toxin, death of the fly ensued. These findings suggest that additional virulence factors are required for intoxication of the fly that may not be essential for intoxication of mammals. Furthermore, we demonstrate for the first time the mechanism of action of cholera toxin in a whole organism and the utility of D. melanogaster as an accurate, inexpensive model for elucidation of host susceptibility to cholera.

  11. DNA-uptake machinery of naturally competent Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Patrick; Blokesch, Melanie

    2013-10-29

    Natural competence for transformation is a mode of horizontal gene transfer that is commonly used by bacteria to take up DNA from their environment. As part of this developmental program, so-called competence genes, which encode the components of a DNA-uptake machinery, are expressed. Several models have been proposed for the DNA-uptake complexes of competent bacteria, and most include a type IV (pseudo)pilus as a core component. However, cell-biology-based approaches to visualizing competence proteins have so far been restricted to Gram-positive bacteria. Here, we report the visualization of a competence-induced pilus in the Gram-negative bacterium Vibrio cholerae. We show that piliated cells mostly contain a single pilus that is not biased toward a polar localization and that this pilus colocalizes with the outer membrane secretin PilQ. PilQ, on the other hand, forms several foci around the cell and occasionally colocalizes with the dynamic cytoplasmic-traffic ATPase PilB, which is required for pilus extension. We also determined the minimum competence regulon of V. cholerae, which includes at least 19 genes. Bacteria with mutations in those genes were characterized with respect to the presence of surface-exposed pili, DNA uptake, and natural transformability. Based on these phenotypes, we propose that DNA uptake in naturally competent V. cholerae cells occurs in at least two steps: a pilus-dependent translocation of the incoming DNA across the outer membrane and a pilus-independent shuttling of the DNA through the periplasm and into the cytoplasm.

  12. Interleukin-1 antagonism moderates the inflammatory state associated with Type 1 diabetes during clinical trials conducted at disease onset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabrera, Susanne M; Wang, Xujing; Chen, Yi-Guang

    2016-01-01

    It was hypothesized that IL-1 antagonism would preserve β-cell function in new onset Type 1 diabetes (T1D). However, the Anti-Interleukin-1 in Diabetes Action (AIDA) and TrialNet Canakinumab (TN-14) trials failed to show efficacy of IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) or canakinumab, as measured...... to their treatment arm. While the transcriptional signatures from the two trials were distinct, both therapies achieved varying immunomodulation consistent with IL-1 inhibition. On average, IL-1 antagonism resulted in modest normalization relative to healthy controls. At endpoint, signatures were quantified using...

  13. SAMD9 is an innate antiviral host factor with stress response properties that can be antagonized by poxviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; McFadden, Grant

    2015-02-01

    We show that SAMD9 is an innate host antiviral stress response element that participates in the formation of antiviral granules. Poxviruses, myxoma virus and vaccinia virus specifically, utilize a virus-encoded host range factor(s), such as a member of the C7L superfamily, to antagonize SAMD9 to prevent granule formation in a eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α)-independent manner. When SAMD9 is stimulated due to failure of the viral antagonism during infection, the resulting antiviral granules exhibit properties different from those of the canonical stress granules. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Identification of DLD, by immunoproteomic analysis and evaluation as a potential vaccine antigen against three Vibrio species in Epinephelus coioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Huanying; Chen, Liming; Hoare, Rowena; Huang, Yucong; ZaoheWu; Jian, Jichang

    2016-02-24

    Vibrio spp. represent a serious threat to the culture of Epinephelus coioides (Orange-spotted Grouper) in Southeast Asia. In this study we used two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and Western blotting to identify common immunogenic proteins of Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Membranes were probed with orange-spotted grouper anti-V. alginolyticus sera and accordingly 60, 58 and 48 immunogenic protein spots were detected. By matching analysis for the three Western blotting membranes, 6 cross immunogenic spots for the three Vibrio species were identified. They were Outer membrane protein W (OmpW), dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLD), succinate dehydrogenase flavoprotein subunit(SDHA), elongation factor Ts(Ts), peptide ABC transporter periplasmic peptide-binding protein and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase(PEPCK). One of the proteins, DLD, was used to evaluate the cross protective function for E. coioides with a bacterial immunization and challenge method. The relative percent survival rate of E. coioides against V. alginolyticus, V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus was 90%, 86% and 80%, respectively. This work may provide potential cross protective vaccine candidate antigens for three Vibrio species, and DLD may be considered as an effective cross-protective immunogen against three Vibrio species. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Ecology of Vibrio cholerae serogroup 01 in aquatic environments La ecología de Vibrio cholerae serogrupo 01 en ambientes acúaticos

    OpenAIRE

    René J. Borroto

    1997-01-01

    The endemic and seasonal nature of cholera depends upon the survival of Vibrio cholerae 01 in a viable but not necessarily culturable state in ecologic niches in aquatic environments during interepidemic periods. To understand the ecology of V. cholerae it is necessary to know which aquatic ecosystems can harbor it and thus contribute to the endemic presence of cholera in Latin America. This article summarizes knowledge about the ecology of V. cholerae 01, specifically, the abiotic and biotic...

  16. The annual cycle of zooplankton-associated Vibrio cholerae and related vibrios in Albufera lake and its coastal surrounding waters (Valencia, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnau, A; Pujalte, M J; Amaro, C; Garay, E

    1988-12-01

    Most probable numbers of zooplankton-associated Vibrio spp. and V. cholerae were determined in Albufera lake, Spain, and in its coastal receiving waters throughout a year. Highest counts of 10(5) bacterial cells/g of plankton were associated to high temperatures and were also related to the kind of water. All isolates were non-01 serovars, and most belonged to Heiberg groups I and II.

  17. Differences in Abundances of Total Vibrio spp., V. vulnificus, and V. parahaemolyticus in Clams and Oysters in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froelich, B A; Phippen, B; Fowler, P; Noble, R T; Oliver, J D

    2017-01-15

    Filter feeding shellfish can concentrate pathogenic bacteria, including Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, as much as 100-fold from the overlying water. These shellfish, especially clams and oysters, are often consumed raw, providing a route of entry for concentrated doses of pathogenic bacteria into the human body. The numbers of foodborne infections with these microbes are increasing, and a better understanding of the conditions that might trigger elevated concentrations of these bacteria in seafood is needed. In addition, if bacterial concentrations in water are correlated with those in shellfish, then sampling regimens could be simplified, as water samples can be more rapidly and easily obtained. After sampling of oysters and clams, either simultaneously or separately, for over 2 years, it was concluded that while Vibrio concentrations in oysters and water were related, this was not the case for levels in clams and water. When clams and oysters were collected simultaneously from the same site, the clams were found to have lower Vibrio levels than the oysters. Furthermore, the environmental parameters that were correlated with levels of Vibrio spp. in oysters and water were found to be quite different from those that were correlated with levels of Vibrio spp. in clams. This study shows that clams are a potential source of infection in North Carolina, especially for V. parahaemolyticus These findings also highlight the need for clam-specific environmental research to develop accurate Vibrio abundance models and to broaden the ecological understanding of clam-Vibrio interactions. This is especially relevant as foodborne Vibrio infections from clams are being reported. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Microbiology.

  18. Host, pathogen and the environment: the case of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and magnesium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiruvayipati, Suma; Bhassu, Subha

    2016-01-01

    Macrobrachium rosenbergii is well-known as the giant freshwater prawn, and is a commercially significant source of seafood. Its production can be affected by various bacterial contaminations. Among which, the genus Vibrio shows a higher prevalence in aquatic organisms, especially M. rosenbergii, causing food-borne illnesses. Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a species of Vibrio is reported as the main causative of the early mortality syndrome. Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection in M. rosenbergii was studied previously in relation to the prawn's differentially expressed immune genes. In the current review, we will discuss the growth conditions for both V. parahaemolyticus and M. rosenbergii and highlight the role of magnesium in common, which need to be fully understood. Till date, there has not been much research on this aspect of magnesium. We postulate a model that screens a magnesium-dependent pathway which probably might take effect in connection with N-acetylglucosamine binding protein and chitin from V. parahaemolyticus and M. rosenbergii, respectively. Further studies on magnesium as an environment for V. parahaemolyticus and M. rosenbergii interaction studies will provide seafood industry with completely new strategies to employ and to avoid seafood related contaminations.

  19. Fuse or die: how to survive the loss of Dam in Vibrio cholerae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Val, Marie-Eve; Kennedy, Sean P; Soler-Bistue, Alfonso J.

    2014-01-01

    Dam methylates GATC sequences in γ-proteobacteria genomes, regulating several cellular functions including replication. In Vibrio cholerae, which has two chromosomes, Dam is essential for viability, owing to its role in chr2 replication initiation. In this study, we isolated spontaneous mutants o...

  20. The protective activity of tea catechins against experimental infection by Vibrio cholerae O1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, M; Okubo, S; Ikigai, H; Suzuki, T; Suzuki, Y; Hara, Y; Shimamura, T

    1992-01-01

    Tea catechins inhibited the fluid accumulation induced by cholera toxin in sealed adult mice. The catechins also reduced fluid accumulation by Vibrio cholerae O1 in ligated intestinal loops of rabbits. These findings suggest that tea catechins may possess protective activity against V. cholerae O1.