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Sample records for antagonist induce sensitization

  1. Stress Sensitization of Ethanol Withdrawal-Induced Reduction in Social Interaction: Inhibition by CRF-1 and Benzodiazepine Receptor Antagonists and a 5-HT1A-Receptor Agonist

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    Breese, George R; Knapp, Darin J; Overstreet, David H

    2004-01-01

    Repeated withdrawals from chronic ethanol sensitize the withdrawal-induced reduction in social interaction behaviors. This study determined whether stress might substitute for repeated withdrawals to facilitate withdrawal-induced anxiety-like behavior. When two 1-h periods of restraint stress were applied at 1-week intervals to rats fed control diet, social interaction was reduced upon withdrawal from a subsequent 5-day exposure to ethanol diet. Neither this ethanol exposure alone nor exposur...

  2. Prenatal exposure to an NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801 reduces density of parvalbumin-immunoreactive GABAergic neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex and enhances phencyclidine-induced hyperlocomotion but not behavioral sensitization to methamphetamine in postpubertal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abekawa, Tomohiro; Ito, Koki; Nakagawa, Shin; Koyama, Tsukasa

    2007-06-01

    Neurodevelopmental deficits of parvalbumin-immunoreactive gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic interneurons in prefrontal cortex have been reported in schizophrenia. Glutamate influences the proliferation of this type of interneuron by an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-receptor-mediated mechanism. The present study hypothesized that prenatal blockade of NMDA receptors would disrupt GABAergic neurodevelopment, resulting in differences in effects on behavioral responses to a noncompetitive NMDA antagonist, phencyclidine (PCP), and a dopamine releaser, methamphetamine (METH). GABAergic neurons were immunohistochemically stained with parvalbumin antibody. Psychostimulant-induced hyperlocomotion was measured using an infrared sensor. Prenatal exposure (E15-E18) to the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 reduced the density of parvalbumin-immunoreactive neurons in rat medial prefrontal cortex on postnatal day 63 (P63) and enhanced PCP-induced hyperlocomotion but not the acute effects of METH on P63 or the development of behavioral sensitization. Prenatal exposure to MK-801 reduced the number of parvalbumin-immunoreactive neurons even on postnatal day 35 (P35) and did not enhance PCP-induced hyperlocomotion, the acute effects of METH on P35, or the development of behavioral sensitization to METH. These findings suggest that prenatal blockade of NMDA receptors disrupts GABAergic neurodevelopment in medial prefrontal cortex, and that this disruption of GABAergic development may be related to the enhancement of the locomotion-inducing effect of PCP in postpubertal but not juvenile offspring. GABAergic deficit is unrelated to the effects of METH. This GABAergic neurodevelopmental disruption and the enhanced PCP-induced hyperlocomotion in adult offspring prenatally exposed to MK-801 may prove useful as a new model of the neurodevelopmental process of pathogenesis of treatment-resistant schizophrenia via an NMDA-receptor-mediated hypoglutamatergic mechanism.

  3. NMDA receptor antagonists inhibit catalepsy induced by either dopamine D1 or D2 receptor antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, N A; Blackman, A; Awere, S; Leander, J D

    1993-06-11

    In the present study, we investigated the ability of NMDA receptor antagonists to inhibit catalepsy induced by haloperidol, or SCH23390 and clebopride, selective dopamine D1 and D2 receptor antagonists respectively. Catalepsy was measured by recording the time the animal remained with its forepaws placed over a rod 6 cm above the bench. Pretreatment with either the non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801 (0.25-0.5 mg/kg i.p.) or the competitive antagonist, LY274614 (10-20 mg/kg i.p.) reduced the cataleptic response produced by haloperidol (10 mg/kg), SCH23390 (2.5-10 mg/kp i.p.) or clebopride (5-20 mg/kg i.p.). This demonstrates that NMDA receptor antagonists will reduce both dopamine D1 and D2 receptor antagonist-induced catalepsy. Muscle relaxant doses of chlordiazepoxide (10 mg/kg i.p.) failed to reduce the catalepsy induced by haloperidol, suggesting that the anticataleptic effect of the NMDA receptor antagonists was not due to a non-specific action. These results support the hypothesis that NMDA receptor antagonists may have beneficial effects in disorders involving reduced dopaminergic function, such as Parkinson's disease.

  4. Effects of BDNF receptor antagonist on the severity of physical and psychological dependence, morphine-induced locomotor sensitization and the ventral tegmental area-nucleus accumbens BDNF levels in morphine- dependent and withdrawn rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil-Khalili, Masoumeh; Rashidy-Pour, Ali; Bandegi, Ahmad Reza; Yousefi, Behpoor; Jorjani, Hassan; Miladi-Gorji, Hossein

    2018-03-06

    This study examined the effects of systemic administration of the TrkB receptor antagonist (ANA-12) on the severity of physical and psychological dependence and morphine-induced locomotor sensitization, the ventral tegmental area (VTA)-nucleus accumbens (NAc) BDNF levels in morphine-dependent and withdrawn rats. Rats were injected with bi-daily doses (10 mg/kg, at 12 h intervals) of morphine for 10 days. Then, rats were tested for naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal signs, the anxiety (the elevated plus maze-EPM) after the last morphine injection and injection of ANA12 (ip). Also, morphine-induced locomotor sensitization was evaluated after morphine challenge followed by an injection of ANA-12 in morphine-withdrawn rats. The VTA-NAc BDNF levels were assessed in morphine-dependent and withdrawn rats. The overall Gellert-Holtzman score was significantly higher in morphine-dependent rats receiving ANA-12 than in those receiving saline. Also, the percentage of time spent in the open arms in control and morphine-dependent rats receiving ANA-12 were higher compared to the Cont/Sal and D/Sal rats, respectively. There was no significant difference in the locomotor activity and the VTA-NAc BDNF levels between D/Sal/morphine and D/ANA-12/morphine groups after morphine withdrawal. We conclude that the systemic administration of ANA-12 exacerbates the severity of physical dependence on morphine and partially attenuates the anxiety-like behavior in morphine-dependent rats. However, ANA-12 did not affect morphine-induced locomotor sensitization and the VTA-NAc BDNF levels in morphine-dependent and withdrawn rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Adverse cutaneous reactions induced by TNF-alpha antagonist therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrás-Blasco, Joaquín; Navarro-Ruiz, Andrés; Borrás, Consuelo; Casterá, Elvira

    2009-11-01

    To review adverse cutaneous drug reactions induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) antagonist therapy. A literature search was performed using PubMed (1996-March 2009), EMBASE, and selected MEDLINE Ovid bibliography searches. All language clinical trial data, case reports, letters, and review articles identified from the data sources were used. Since the introduction of TNF-alpha antagonist, the incidence of adverse cutaneous drug reactions has increased significantly. A wide range of different skin lesions might occur during TNF-alpha antagonist treatment. New onset or exacerbation of psoriasis has been reported in patients treated with TNF-alpha antagonists for a variety of rheumatologic conditions. TNF-alpha antagonist therapy has been associated with a lupus-like syndrome; most of these case reports occurred in patients receiving either etanercept or infliximab. Serious skin reactions such as erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis have been reported rarely with the use of TNF-alpha antagonists. As the use of TNF-alpha antagonists continues to increase, the diagnosis and management of cutaneous side effects will become an increasingly important challenge. In patients receiving TNF-alpha antagonist treatment, skin disease should be considered, and clinicians need to be aware of the adverse reactions of these drugs.

  6. MDM2 Antagonists Counteract Drug-Induced DNA Damage

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    Anna E. Vilgelm

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Antagonists of MDM2-p53 interaction are emerging anti-cancer drugs utilized in clinical trials for malignancies that rarely mutate p53, including melanoma. We discovered that MDM2-p53 antagonists protect DNA from drug-induced damage in melanoma cells and patient-derived xenografts. Among the tested DNA damaging drugs were various inhibitors of Aurora and Polo-like mitotic kinases, as well as traditional chemotherapy. Mitotic kinase inhibition causes mitotic slippage, DNA re-replication, and polyploidy. Here we show that re-replication of the polyploid genome generates replicative stress which leads to DNA damage. MDM2-p53 antagonists relieve replicative stress via the p53-dependent activation of p21 which inhibits DNA replication. Loss of p21 promoted drug-induced DNA damage in melanoma cells and enhanced anti-tumor activity of therapy combining MDM2 antagonist with mitotic kinase inhibitor in mice. In summary, MDM2 antagonists may reduce DNA damaging effects of anti-cancer drugs if they are administered together, while targeting p21 can improve the efficacy of such combinations.

  7. [Necrotic leg ulcer revealing vasculitis induced by vitamin K antagonists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabli, H; Hocar, O; Akhdari, N; Amal, S; Hakkou, M; Hamdaoui, A

    2015-12-01

    Vitamin K antagonists are widely used in thromboembolic diseases. Hemorrhagic complications related to drug overdose represent their main side effect. We report a rare side effect, a severe and unexpected type of skin vasculitis - necrotic leg ulcer - induced by vitamin K antagonist. A 63-year-old female with a history of diabetes developed hyperalgesic necrotic ulcerations on the lower limbs one month after starting an acenocoumarol-based treatment for ischemic heart disease. Histological examination revealed lymphocytic vasculitis with fibrinoid necrosis. Etiological explorations searching for vasculitis were negative. In the absence of a precise etiology, drug-induced ulcer was suspected. Low molecular weight heparin was prescribed to replace acenocoumarol. The lesions slowly resolved with topical treatment. The chronological criteria and the negativity of etiological explorations allowed the diagnosis of vitamin K antagonist-induced necrotic skin ulcer. Clinicians should be aware of this rare complication induced by oral anticoagulants because of its practical therapeutic implications. This is the first case of necrotic leg ulcer induced by acenocoumarol corresponding histologically to necrotising lymphocytic vasculitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Picrotoxin-induced seizures modified by morphine and opiate antagonists.

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    Thomas, J; Nores, W L; Kenigs, V; Olson, G A; Olson, R D

    1993-07-01

    The effects of naloxone, Tyr-MIF-1, and MIF-1 on morphine-mediated changes in susceptibility to picrotoxin-induced seizures were studied. Rats were pretreated with naloxone, MIF-1, Tyr-MIF-1, or saline. At 15-min intervals, they received a second pretreatment of morphine or saline and then were tested for seizures following a convulsant dose of picrotoxin. Several parameters of specific categories of seizures were scored. Morphine increased the number of focal seizure episodes, duration of postseizure akinesis, and incidence of generalized clonic seizures. Naloxone tended to block the morphine-mediated changes in susceptibility. Tyr-MIF-1 had effects similar to naloxone on duration of postseizure immobility but tended to potentiate the effects of morphine on focal seizure episodes. The effects of morphine and the opiate antagonists on focal seizure episodes and postseizure duration suggest the general involvement of several types of opiate receptors in these picrotoxin-induced behaviors. However, the observation of antagonistic effects for Tyr-MIF-1 on immobility but agonistic effects for focal seizures suggests that the type of effect exerted by opiate agents may depend upon other neuronal variables.

  9. Blood pressure, magnesium and other mineral balance in two rat models of salt-sensitive, induced hypertension: effects of a non-peptide angiotensin II receptor type 1 antagonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondón, Lusliany Josefina; Marcano, Eunice; Rodríguez, Fátima; del Castillo, Jesús Rafael

    2014-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin system is critically involved in regulating arterial blood pressure (BP). Inappropriate angiotensin type-1 receptor activation by angiotensin-II (Ang-II) is related to increased arterial BP. Mg has a role in BP; it can affect cardiac electrical activity, myocardial contractility, and vascular tone. To evaluate the relationship between high BP induced by a high sodium (Na) diet and Mg, and other mineral balances, two experimental rat models of salt-sensitive, induced-hypertension were used: Ang-II infused and Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats. We found that: 1) Ang-II infusion progressively increased BP, which was accompanied by hypomagnesuria and signs of secondary hyperaldosteronism; 2) an additive effect between Ang-II and a high Na load may have an effect on strontium (Sr), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) balances; 3) Dahl SS rats fed a high Na diet had a slow pressor response, accompanied by altered Mg, Na, potassium (K), and phosphate (P) balances; and 4) losartan prevented BP increases induced by Ang II-NaCl, but did not modify mineral balances. In Dahl SS rats, losartan attenuated high BP and ameliorated magnesemia, Na and K balances. Mg metabolism maybe considered a possible defect in this strain of rat that may contribute to hypertension.

  10. In vitro sensitivity of antagonistic Trichoderma atroviride to herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Helena Santoro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Trichoderma atroviride was tested in vitro for its sensitivity to different herbicides. The dosages tested were recommended dosage (RD, half dosage (½RD, and double dosage (2RD. Germination, colony-forming units (CFU, radial growth, and spore production were evaluated. Carfentrazone-ethyl and sulfentrazone inhibited the germination at RD and 2RD. A reduction in the CFU was observed for glufosinate-ammonium, atrazine, carfentrazone-ethyl, diuron + paraquat dichloride, imazapyr, oxyfluorfen, and sulfentrazone at each of the tested dosages. Radial growth was influenced by ametryn, atrazine, carfentrazone-ethyl, oxyfluorfen, and sulfentrazone herbicides, with an 80% reduction of the colonial area. Spore production was affected by carfentrazone-ethyl, oxyfluorfen, and sulfentrazone with colonial area reductions of over 70%. It was concluded that 2,4 D, clomazone, and imazapyr herbicides showed the least toxicity to T. atroviride and should be used in the crops where the fungus has been applied for phytopathogen control.

  11. Inhibition of radiation-induced polyuria by histamine receptor antagonists

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    Donlon, M.A.; Melia, J.A.; Helgeson, E.A.; Wolfe, W.W.

    1986-03-01

    In previous studies the authors have demonstrated that gamma radiation results in polyuria, which is preceded by polydypsia. This suggests that the increased thirst elicited by radiation causes increased urinary volume (UV). Histamine, which is released following radiation exposure, also elicits drinking by nonirradiated rats when administered exogenously. In this study the authors have investigated both the role of water deprivation and the effect of histamine receptor antagonists (HRA) on radiation-induced polyuria. Sprague-Dawley rats were housed individually in metabolic cages. Water was allowed ad libitum except in deprivation experiments where water was removed for 24 hr immediately following radiation. Cimetidine (CIM), an H2 HRA, and dexbromopheniramine (DXB), an H1 HRA, were administered i.p. (16 and 1 mg/kg, respectively) 30 min prior to irradiation (950 rads from a cobalt source). UV was determined at 24-hr intervals for 3 days preceding irradiation and 24 hr postirradiation. UV in DXB treated rats was significantly reduced 24 hr postirradiation (CON = 427 +/- 54%; DXB = 247 +/- 39% of preirradiated CON) compared to postirradiation control values. CIM did not affect postirradiation UV. These data suggest that radiation-induced polyuria is caused by polydypsia which is, in part, mediated by histamine induced by an H1 receptor.

  12. Inhibition of radiation-induced polyuria by histamine receptor antagonists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donlon, M.A.; Melia, J.A.; Helgeson, E.A.; Wolfe, W.W.

    1986-01-01

    In previous studies the authors have demonstrated that gamma radiation results in polyuria, which is preceded by polydypsia. This suggests that the increased thirst elicited by radiation causes increased urinary volume (UV). Histamine, which is released following radiation exposure, also elicits drinking by nonirradiated rats when administered exogenously. In this study the authors have investigated both the role of water deprivation and the effect of histamine receptor antagonists (HRA) on radiation-induced polyuria. Sprague-Dawley rats were housed individually in metabolic cages. Water was allowed ad libitum except in deprivation experiments where water was removed for 24 hr immediately following radiation. Cimetidine (CIM), an H2 HRA, and dexbromopheniramine (DXB), an H1 HRA, were administered i.p. (16 and 1 mg/kg, respectively) 30 min prior to irradiation (950 rads from a cobalt source). UV was determined at 24-hr intervals for 3 days preceding irradiation and 24 hr postirradiation. UV in DXB treated rats was significantly reduced 24 hr postirradiation (CON = 427 +/- 54%; DXB = 247 +/- 39% of preirradiated CON) compared to postirradiation control values. CIM did not affect postirradiation UV. These data suggest that radiation-induced polyuria is caused by polydypsia which is, in part, mediated by histamine induced by an H1 receptor

  13. Effects of the NMDA receptor antagonist, D-CPPene, on sensitization to the operant decrement produced by naloxone in morphine-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bespalov, A Y; Medvedev, I O; Sukhotina, I A; Zvartau, E E

    2001-04-01

    Sensitization to the rate-decreasing effects of opioid antagonists induced by acute pretreatment with opioid agonists has been suggested to reflect initial changes in opioid systems that underlie physical dependence. Glutamate receptors are implicated in the development and expression of opioid dependence, and antagonists acting at the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of glutamate receptors have been shown repeatedly to attenuate the severity of opioid withdrawal. The present study evaluated the ability of a competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, D-CPPene (SDZ EAA 494; 3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)-1-propenyl-1-phosphonic acid), to affect morphine-induced sensitization to naloxone in rats trained to lever-press on a multiple-trial, fixed-ratio 10 schedule of food reinforcement. D-CPPene (0.3-3 mg/kg) was administered either 4 h or 30 min prior to the test session. Morphine (10 mg/kg) or its vehicle was administered 4 h before naloxone challenge (0.3-3 mg/kg). D-CPPene failed to prevent morphine-induced potentiation of the naloxone-produced decrement in operant performance. Thus, these results suggest that agonist-induced sensitization to behavioral effects of opioid antagonists may be insensitive to NMDA receptor blockade.

  14. FGFR antagonist induces protective autophagy in FGFR1-amplified breast cancer cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yi; Xie, Xiaoyan; Li, Xinyi; Wang, Peiqi; Jing, Qian; Yue, Jiaqi; Liu, Yang; Cheng, Zhong; Li, Jingyi; Song, Haixing; Li, Guoyu; Liu, Rui; Wang, Jinhui

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer, representing approximately 30% of all gynecological cancer cases diagnosed yearly, is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality for women. Amplification of FGFR1 is frequently observed in breast cancers and is associated with poor prognosis. Though FGFRs have long been considered as anti-cancer drug targets, and a cluster of FGFR antagonists are currently under clinical trials, the precise cellular responses under the treatment of FGFR antagonists remains unclear. Here, we show that PD166866, an FGFR1-selective inhibitor, inhibits proliferation and triggers anoikis in FGFR1-amplified breast cancer cell lines. Notably, we demonstrate that PD166866 induces autophagy in FGFR1-amplified breast cancer cell lines, while blockage of autophagy by Atg5 knockdown further enhances the anti-proliferative activities of PD166866. Moreover, mechanistic study reveals that PD166866 induces autophagy through repressing Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. Together, the present study provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-tumor activities of FGFR antagonists, and may further assist the FGFRs-based drug discovery. -- Highlights: •FGFR1 antagonist inhibits cell viability in FGFR1-amplified breast cancer cells. •FGFR1 antagonist induces autophagy in FGFR1-amplified breast cancer cells. •FGFR1 antagonist-induced autophagy is protective. •FGFR1 antagonist induces autophagy by inhibiting Akt/mTOR pathway.

  15. FGFR antagonist induces protective autophagy in FGFR1-amplified breast cancer cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yi [The School of Biomedical Sciences, Chengdu Medical College, Chengdu 610083 (China); Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Xie, Xiaoyan; Li, Xinyi; Wang, Peiqi [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China College of Stomatology, Sichuan University (China); Jing, Qian; Yue, Jiaqi; Liu, Yang [The School of Biomedical Sciences, Chengdu Medical College, Chengdu 610083 (China); Cheng, Zhong [Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Li, Jingyi, E-mail: li--jingyi@hotmail.com [The School of Biomedical Sciences, Chengdu Medical College, Chengdu 610083 (China); Song, Haixing [The School of Biomedical Sciences, Chengdu Medical College, Chengdu 610083 (China); Li, Guoyu, E-mail: liguoyulisa@163.com [School of Pharmacy, Shihezi University, Shihezi 832003 (China); Liu, Rui, E-mail: liurui_scu@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China College of Stomatology, Sichuan University (China); Wang, Jinhui [School of Pharmacy, Shihezi University, Shihezi 832003 (China)

    2016-05-20

    Breast cancer, representing approximately 30% of all gynecological cancer cases diagnosed yearly, is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality for women. Amplification of FGFR1 is frequently observed in breast cancers and is associated with poor prognosis. Though FGFRs have long been considered as anti-cancer drug targets, and a cluster of FGFR antagonists are currently under clinical trials, the precise cellular responses under the treatment of FGFR antagonists remains unclear. Here, we show that PD166866, an FGFR1-selective inhibitor, inhibits proliferation and triggers anoikis in FGFR1-amplified breast cancer cell lines. Notably, we demonstrate that PD166866 induces autophagy in FGFR1-amplified breast cancer cell lines, while blockage of autophagy by Atg5 knockdown further enhances the anti-proliferative activities of PD166866. Moreover, mechanistic study reveals that PD166866 induces autophagy through repressing Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. Together, the present study provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-tumor activities of FGFR antagonists, and may further assist the FGFRs-based drug discovery. -- Highlights: •FGFR1 antagonist inhibits cell viability in FGFR1-amplified breast cancer cells. •FGFR1 antagonist induces autophagy in FGFR1-amplified breast cancer cells. •FGFR1 antagonist-induced autophagy is protective. •FGFR1 antagonist induces autophagy by inhibiting Akt/mTOR pathway.

  16. Effects of sigma(1) receptor ligand MS-377 on D(2) antagonists-induced behaviors.

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    Karasawa, Jun-ichi; Takahashi, Shinji; Takagi, Kaori; Horikomi, Kazutoshi

    2002-10-01

    (R)-(+)-1-(4-Chlorophenyl)-3-[4-(2-methoxyethyl)piperazin-1-yl]methyl-2-pyrrolidinone L-tartrate (MS-377) is a novel antipsychotic agent with selective and high affinity for sigma(1) receptor. The present study was carried out to clarify the interaction of MS-377 with dopamine D(2) receptor antagonists (D(2) antagonists) in concurrent administration, and then the involvement of sigma receptors in the interaction. The effects of MS-377 on haloperidol- or sultopride-induced inhibition of apomorphine-induced climbing behavior and catalepsy were investigated in mice and rats, respectively. In addition, the effects of (+)-SKF-10,047 and SA4503, both of which are sigma receptor agonists, and WAY-100,635, which is a 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist, on the interaction due to the concurrent use were also investigated. MS-377 potentiated the inhibitory effects of haloperidol or sultopride on apomorphine-induced climbing behavior in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, MS-377 did not affect the catalepsy induction by these drugs. The potentiation of the inhibitory effects of haloperidol or sultopride on apomorphine-induced climbing behavior by MS-377 was not inhibited by WAY-100,635, but was inhibited by (+)-SKF-10,047 and SA4503. These findings showed that MS-377 potentiates the efficacy of D(2) antagonists, but it does not deteriorate the adverse effect. Moreover, sigma(1) receptors are involved in this potentiation of the efficacy of D(2) antagonists by MS-377.

  17. Contributions of different modes of TRPV1 activation to TRPV1 antagonist-induced hyperthermia.

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    Garami, Andras; Shimansky, Yury P; Pakai, Eszter; Oliveira, Daniela L; Gavva, Narender R; Romanovsky, Andrej A

    2010-01-27

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) antagonists are widely viewed as next-generation pain therapeutics. However, these compounds cause hyperthermia, a serious side effect. TRPV1 antagonists differentially block three modes of TRPV1 activation: by heat, protons, and chemical ligands (e.g., capsaicin). We asked what combination of potencies in these three modes of TRPV1 activation corresponds to the lowest potency of a TRPV1 antagonist to cause hyperthermia. We studied hyperthermic responses of rats, mice, and guinea pigs to eight TRPV1 antagonists with different pharmacological profiles and used mathematical modeling to find a relative contribution of the blockade of each activation mode to the development of hyperthermia. We found that the hyperthermic effect has the highest sensitivity to the extent of TRPV1 blockade in the proton mode (0.43 to 0.65) with no to moderate sensitivity in the capsaicin mode (-0.01 to 0.34) and no sensitivity in the heat mode (0.00 to 0.01). We conclude that hyperthermia-free TRPV1 antagonists do not block TRPV1 activation by protons, even if they are potent blockers of the heat mode, and that decreasing the potency to block the capsaicin mode may further decrease the potency to cause hyperthermia.

  18. From Chemotherapy-Induced Emesis to Neuroprotection: Therapeutic Opportunities for 5-HT3 Receptor Antagonists.

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    Fakhfouri, Gohar; Mousavizadeh, Kazem; Mehr, Sharam Ejtemaei; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza; Zirak, Mohammad Reza; Ghia, Jean-Eric; Rahimian, Reza

    2015-12-01

    5-HT3 receptor antagonists are extensively used as efficacious agents in counteracting chemotherapy-induced emesis. Recent investigations have shed light on other potential effects (analgesic, anxiolytic, and anti-psychotic). Some studies have reported neuroprotective properties for the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists in vitro and in vivo. When administered to Aβ-challenged rat cortical neurons, 5-HT3 receptor antagonists substantially abated apoptosis, elevation of cytosolic Ca(2), glutamate release, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and caspase-3 activity. In addition, in vivo studies show that 5-HT3 receptor antagonists possess, alongside their anti-emetic effects, notable immunomodulatory properties in CNS. We found that pretreatment with tropisetron significantly improved neurological deficits and diminished leukocyte transmigration into the brain, TNF-α level, and brain infarction in a murine model of embolic stroke. Our recent investigation revealed that tropisetron protects against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity in vivo through both 5-HT3 receptor-dependent and -independent pathways. Tropisetron, in vitro, was found to be an efficacious inhibitor of the signaling pathway leading to the activation of pro-inflammatory NF-κB, a transcription factor pivotal to the upregulation of several neuroinflammatory mediators in brain. This mini review summarizes novel evidence concerning effects of 5-HT3 antagonists and their possible mechanisms of action in ameliorating neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer, multiple sclerosis, and stroke. Further, we discuss some newly synthesized 5-HT3 receptor antagonists with dual properties of 5-HT3 receptor blockade/alpha-7 nicotinic receptor activator and their potential in management of memory impairment. Since 5-HT3 receptor antagonists possess a large therapeutic window, they can constitute a scaffold for design and synthesis of new neuroprotective medications.

  19. Monitoring of treatment with vitamin K antagonists: recombinant thromboplastins are more sensitive to factor VII than tissue-extract thromboplastins.

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    Biedermann, J S; van den Besselaar, A M H P; de Maat, M P M; Leebeek, F W G; Kruip, M J H A

    2017-03-01

    Essentials Differences in sensitivity to factor VII (FVII) have been suggested between thromboplastins. FVII-induced International Normalized Ratio (INR) changes differ between commercial reagents. Recombinant human thromboplastins are more sensitive to FVII than tissue-extract thromboplastins. Thromboplastin choice may affect FVII-mediated INR stability. Background Differences regarding sensitivity to factor VII have been suggested for recombinant human and tissue-extract thromboplastins used for International Normalized Ratio (INR) measurement, but the evidence is scarce. Differences in FVII sensitivity are clinically relevant, as they can affect INR stability during treatment with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs). Objectives To determine whether commercial thromboplastins react differently to changes in FVII. Methods We studied the effect of addition of FVII on the INR in plasma by using three tissue-extract (Neoplastin C1+, Hepato Quick, and Thromborel S) and three recombinant human (Recombiplastin 2G, Innovin, and CoaguChek XS) thromboplastins. Three different concentrations of purified human FVII (0.006, 0.012 and 0.062 μg mL -1 plasma), or buffer, were added to five certified pooled plasmas of patients using VKAs (INR of 1.5-3.5). Changes in FVII activity were measured with two bioassays (Neoplastin and Recombiplastin), and relative INR changes were compared between reagents. Results After addition of 0.062 μg mL -1 FVII, FVII activity in the pooled plasmas increased by approximately 20% (Neoplastin) or 32% (Recombiplastin) relative to the activity in pooled normal plasma. All thromboplastins showed dose-dependent INR decreases. The relative INR change in the pooled plasmas significantly differed between the six thromboplastins. No differences were observed among recombinant or tissue-extract thromboplastins. Pooled results indicated that the FVII-induced INR change was greater for recombinant than for tissue-extract thromboplastins. Conclusions Differences

  20. Purification and reconstitution of the calcium antagonist receptor of the voltage-sensitive calcium channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, B.M.

    1986-01-01

    Treatment with digitonin solubilized the calcium antagonist receptor as a stable complex with [ 3 H]nitrendipine from rat brain membranes. The solubilized complex retains allosteric coupling to binding sites for diltiazem, verapamil, and inorganic calcium antagonist sites. The calcium antagonist receptor from cardiac sarcolemma and the transverse-tubule membrane of skeletal muscle is also efficiently solubilized with digitonin and the receptor in all three tissues is a large glycoprotein with a sedimentation coefficient of 20 S. The T-tubule calcium antagonist receptor complex was extensively purified by a combination of chromatography on WGA-Sepharose, ion exchange chromatography, and sedimentation on sucrose gradients to yield preparations estimated to be 41% homogeneous by specific activity and 63% homogeneous by SDS gel electrophoresis. Analysis of SDS gels detect three polypeptides termed α(Mr 135,000), β(Mr 50,000), and γ(Mr 32,000) as noncovalently associated subunits of the calcium antagonist receptor. The α and γ subunits are glycosylated polypeptides, and the molecular weight of the core polypeptides are 108,000 and 24,000 respectively. The calcium antagonist receptor was reconstituted into a phospholipid bilayer by adding CHAPS and exogeneous lipid to the purified receptor followed by rapid detergent removal. This procedure resulted in the incorporation of 45% of the calcium antagonist receptor into closed phospholipid vesicles. Data suggests that the α, β, and γ subunits of the T-tubule calcium antagonist receptor are sufficient to form a functional calcium channel

  1. Effects of a histamine H4 receptor antagonist on cisplatin-induced anorexia in mice.

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    Yamamoto, Kouichi; Okui, Rikuya; Yamatodani, Atsushi

    2018-04-12

    Cancer chemotherapy often induces gastrointestinal symptoms such as anorexia, nausea, and vomiting. Antiemetic agents are effective in inhibiting nausea and vomiting, but patients still experience anorexia. We previously reported that chemotherapeutic agent-induced anorexia is associated with an increase of inflammatory cytokines. Other studies also reported that antagonism of the histamine H 4 receptor is anti-inflammatory. In this study, we investigated the involvement of the H 4 receptor in the development of chemotherapy-induced anorexia in mice. Cisplatin-induced anorexia occurred within 24 h of its administration and continued for 3 days. The early phase (day 1), but not the delayed phase (days 2 and 3), of anorexia was inhibited by the daily injection of a 5-HT 3 receptor antagonist (granisetron). However, a corticosteroid (dexamethasone) or selective H 4 receptor antagonist (JNJ7777120) abolished the delayed phases of anorexia. Cisplatin significantly increased TNF-α mRNA expression in the hypothalamus and spleen, and the period of expression increase paralleled the onset period of anorexia. In addition, pretreatment with JNJ7777120 completely inhibited the increased expression. These results suggest that TNF-α mRNA expression via H 4 receptors may contribute to the development of cisplatin-induced anorexia, and that H 4 receptor antagonists are potentially useful treatments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Developmental Programming: Prenatal and Postnatal Androgen Antagonist and Insulin Sensitizer Interventions Prevent Advancement of Puberty and Improve LH Surge Dynamics in Prenatal Testosterone-Treated Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Herkimer, Carol; Abi Salloum, Bachir; Moeller, Jacob; Beckett, Evan; Sreedharan, Rohit

    2015-07-01

    Prenatal T excess induces maternal hyperinsulinemia, early puberty, and reproductive/metabolic defects in the female similar to those seen in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. This study addressed the organizational/activational role of androgens and insulin in programming pubertal advancement and periovulatory LH surge defects. Treatment groups included the following: 1) control; 2) prenatal T; 3) prenatal T plus prenatal androgen antagonist, flutamide; 4) prenatal T plus prenatal insulin sensitizer, rosiglitazone; 5) prenatal T and postnatal flutamide; 6) prenatal T and postnatal rosiglitazone; and 7) prenatal T and postnatal metformin. Prenatal treatments spanned 30-90 days of gestation and postnatal treatments began at approximately 8 weeks of age and continued throughout. Blood samples were taken twice weekly, beginning at approximately 12 weeks of age to time puberty. Two-hour samples after the synchronization with prostaglandin F2α were taken for 120 hours to characterize LH surge dynamics at 7 and 19 months of age. Prenatal T females entered puberty earlier than controls, and all interventions prevented this advancement. Prenatal T reduced the percentage of animals having LH surge, and females that presented LH surge exhibited delayed timing and dampened amplitude of the LH surge. Prenatal androgen antagonist, but not other interventions, restored LH surges without normalizing the timing of the surge. Normalization of pubertal timing with prenatal/postnatal androgen antagonist and insulin sensitizer interventions suggests that pubertal advancement is programmed by androgenic actions of T involving insulin as a mediary. Restoration of LH surges by cotreatment with androgen antagonist supports androgenic programming at the organizational level.

  3. Antagonistic Coevolution Drives Whack-a-Mole Sensitivity in Gene Regulatory Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeewoen Shin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Robustness, defined as tolerance to perturbations such as mutations and environmental fluctuations, is pervasive in biological systems. However, robustness often coexists with its counterpart, evolvability--the ability of perturbations to generate new phenotypes. Previous models of gene regulatory network evolution have shown that robustness evolves under stabilizing selection, but it is unclear how robustness and evolvability will emerge in common coevolutionary scenarios. We consider a two-species model of coevolution involving one host and one parasite population. By using two interacting species, key model parameters that determine the fitness landscapes become emergent properties of the model, avoiding the need to impose these parameters externally. In our study, parasites are modeled on species such as cuckoos where mimicry of the host phenotype confers high fitness to the parasite but lower fitness to the host. Here, frequent phenotype changes are favored as each population continually adapts to the other population. Sensitivity evolves at the network level such that point mutations can induce large phenotype changes. Crucially, the sensitive points of the network are broadly distributed throughout the network and continually relocate. Each time sensitive points in the network are mutated, new ones appear to take their place. We have therefore named this phenomenon "whack-a-mole" sensitivity, after a popular fun park game. We predict that this type of sensitivity will evolve under conditions of strong directional selection, an observation that helps interpret existing experimental evidence, for example, during the emergence of bacterial antibiotic resistance.

  4. Attenuation of antagonist-induced impairment of dopamine receptors by L-prolyl-L-leucyl-glycinamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, M.I.M.

    1988-01-01

    The present study was undertaken in order to determine whether chronic,long-term postnatal challenge of rat pups per se, with specific dopamine D1 and D2 receptor antagonists, would modify the ontogeny of the respective receptor types. Since the neuropeptide L-prolyl-L-leucyl-glycinamide (PLG) attenuates the effect of haloperidol on dopamine D2 receptors in adult rats it was of interest to determine whether PLG would modulate antagonists-induced alterations in the ontogeny of striatal dopamine D1 and D2 receptors. Half of the rats were treated daily for 32 days from birth with SCH-23390, a selective dopamine D1 antagonist; or spiroperidol, a selective dopamine D2 antagonists; or both SCH-23390 and spiroperidol; or saline. The other half of the litters were treated with PLG, in combination with the other treatments. Animals were decapitated at 5, 8, and 12 weeks from birth for neurochemical analysis of the striatum. Chronic SCH-23390 treatment produced a 70-80% decrease in the binding of [ 3 H] SCH-23390 to striatal homogenates. The alteration at 5 weeks was associated with a 78% decrease in the Bmax for [ 3 H] SCH-23390 binding, and no change in the K D . Similarly, at 5, 8, and 12 weeks, chronic spiroperidol treatment reduced the binding of [ 3 H] spiroperidol to striatal homogenates by 70-80%

  5. Effects of oral cetirizine, a selective H1 antagonist, on allergen- and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in subjects with asthma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gong, H

    1990-03-01

    The protective efficacy of oral cetirizine, a selective and potent H1-receptor antagonist, against the immediate bronchoconstrictive response to allergen inhalation and exercise challenge was evaluated in 16 subjects with stable, predominantly mild asthma. The subjects underwent double-blind, crossover pretreatments in randomized order in two separate protocols with (1) three daily oral doses of 20 mg of cetirizine and placebo, followed by allergen inhalation, and (2) single oral doses of cetirizine (5, 10, and 20 mg), albuterol (4 mg), and placebo, followed by exercise with cold-air inhalation. Cetirizine failed to decrease bronchial sensitivity to inhaled allergen in eight of 10 subjects. Neither cetirizine nor albuterol uniformly inhibited exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Serum concentrations of cetirizine were consistent with systemic H1-blocking activity. Modest bronchodilation occurred after administration of cetirizine and albuterol before exercise but not after the third dose of cetirizine in the allergen protocol. One subject developed moderate drowsiness during multiple dosing with cetirizine. Thus, cetirizine, in the doses studied, is not uniformly effective in preventing allergen- or exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Histamine is one of many mediators participating in immediate asthmatic responses, and selective H1 antagonists do not completely block these airway events. However, cetirizine may still clinically benefit some patients with asthma, such as patients with allergic rhinitis or urticaria.

  6. Oral tremor induced by the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine is suppressed by the adenosine A2A antagonists MSX-3 and SCH58261, but not the adenosine A1 antagonist DPCPX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Lyndsey E; Galtieri, Daniel J; Brennum, Lise T; Sager, Thomas N; Hockemeyer, Jörg; Müller, Christa E; Hinman, James R; Chrobak, James J; Salamone, John D

    2010-02-01

    Tremulous jaw movements in rats, which can be induced by dopamine (DA) antagonists, DA depletion, and cholinomimetics, have served as a useful model for studies of tremor. Although adenosine A(2A) antagonists can reduce the tremulous jaw movements induced by DA antagonists and DA depletion, there are conflicting reports about the interaction between adenosine antagonists and cholinomimetic drugs. The present studies investigated the ability of adenosine antagonists to reverse the tremorogenic effect of the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine. While the adenosine A(2A) antagonist MSX-3 was incapable of reversing the tremulous jaw movements induced by the 4.0mg/kg dose of pilocarpine, both MSX-3 and the adenosine A(2A) antagonist SCH58261 reversed the tremulous jaw movements elicited by 0.5mg/kg pilocarpine. Systemic administration of the adenosine A(1) antagonist DPCPX failed to reverse the tremulous jaw movements induced by either an acute 0.5mg/kg dose of the cholinomimetic pilocarpine or the DA D2 antagonist pimozide, indicating that the tremorolytic effects of adenosine antagonists may be receptor subtype specific. Behaviorally active doses of MSX-3 and SCH 58261 showed substantial in vivo occupancy of A(2A) receptors, but DPCPX did not. The results of these studies support the use of adenosine A(2A) antagonists for the treatment of tremor. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Dopamine antagonists and brief vision distinguish lens-induced- and form-deprivation-induced myopia

    OpenAIRE

    Nickla, Debora L.; Totonelly, Kristen

    2011-01-01

    In eyes wearing negative lenses, the D2 dopamine antagonist spiperone was only partly effective in preventing the ameliorative effects of brief periods of vision (Nickla et al., 2010), in contrast to reports from studies using form deprivation. The present study was done to directly compare the effects of spiperone, and the D1 antagonist SCH-23390, on the two different myopiagenic paradigms. 12-day old chickens wore monocular diffusers (form deprivation) or − 10 D lenses attached to the feath...

  8. Behavioral consequences of NMDA antagonist-induced neuroapoptosis in the infant mouse brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla M Yuede

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to NMDA glutamate antagonists during the brain growth spurt period causes widespread neuroapoptosis in the rodent brain. This period in rodents occurs during the first two weeks after birth, and corresponds to the third trimester of pregnancy and several years after birth in humans. The developing human brain may be exposed to NMDA antagonists through drug-abusing mothers or through anesthesia.We evaluated the long-term neurobehavioral effects of mice exposed to a single dose of the NMDA antagonist, phencyclidine (PCP, or saline, on postnatal day 2 (P2 or P7, or on both P2 and P7. PCP treatment on P2 + P7 caused more severe cognitive impairments than either single treatment. Histological examination of acute neuroapoptosis resulting from exposure to PCP indicated that the regional pattern of degeneration induced by PCP in P2 pups was different from that in P7 pups. The extent of damage when evaluated quantitatively on P7 was greater for pups previously treated on P2 compared to pups treated only on P7.These findings signify that PCP induces different patterns of neuroapoptosis depending on the developmental age at the time of exposure, and that exposure at two separate developmental ages causes more severe neuropathological and neurobehavioral consequences than a single treatment.

  9. NMDA or 5-HT receptor antagonists impair memory reconsolidation and induce various types of amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, V P; Solntseva, S V; Kozyrev, S A; Nikitin, P V; Shevelkin, A V

    2018-06-01

    Elucidation of amnesia mechanisms is one of the central problems in neuroscience with immense practical application. Previously, we found that conditioned food presentation combined with injection of a neurotransmitter receptor antagonist or protein synthesis inhibitor led to amnesia induction. In the present study, we investigated the time course and features of two amnesias: induced by impairment of memory reconsolidation using an NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist (MK-801) and a serotonin receptor antagonist (methiothepin, MET) on snails trained with food aversion conditioning. During the early period of amnesia (types of amnesia. Retraining an on 1st or 3rd day of amnesia induction facilitated memory formation, i.e. the number of CS + US pairings was lower than at initial training. On the 10th or 30th day after the MET/reminder, the number of CS + US pairings did not change between initial training and retraining. Retraining on the 10th or 30th day following the MK-801/reminder in the same or a new context of learning resulted in short, but not long-term, memory, and the number of CS + US pairings was higher than at the initial training. This type of amnesia was specific to the CS we used at initial training, since long-term memory for another kind of CS could be formed in the same snails. The attained results suggest that disruption of memory reconsolidation using antagonists of serotonin or NMDA glutamate receptors induced amnesias with different abilities to form long-term memory during the late period of development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Intracerebroventricular Infusion of the (Pro)renin Receptor Antagonist PRO20 Attenuates Deoxycorticosterone Acetate-Salt–Induced Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wencheng; Sullivan, Michelle N.; Zhang, Sheng; Worker, Caleb J.; Xiong, Zhenggang; Speth, Robert C.; Feng, Yumei

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that binding of prorenin to the (pro)renin receptor (PRR) plays a major role in brain angiotensin II formation and the development of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertension. Here, we designed and developed an antagonistic peptide, PRO20, to block prorenin binding to the PRR. Fluorescently labeled PRO20 bound to both mouse and human brain tissues with dissociation constants of 4.4 and 1.8 nmol/L, respectively. This binding was blocked by coincubation with prorenin and was diminished in brains of neuron-specific PRR-knockout mice, indicating specificity of PRO20 for PRR. In cultured human neuroblastoma cells, PRO20 blocked prorenin-induced calcium influx in a concentration- and AT1 receptor–dependent manner. Intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 dose-dependently inhibited prorenin-induced hypertension in C57Bl6/J mice. Furthermore, acute intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 reduced blood pressure in both DOCA-salt and genetically hypertensive mice. Chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 attenuated the development of hypertension and the increase in brain hypothalamic angiotensin II levels induced by DOCA-salt. In addition, chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 improved autonomic function and spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity in mice treated with DOCA-salt. In summary, PRO20 binds to both mouse and human PRRs and decreases angiotensin II formation and hypertension induced by either prorenin or DOCA-salt. Our findings highlight the value of the novel PRR antagonist, PRO20, as a lead compound for a novel class of antihypertensive agents and as a research tool to establish the validity of brain PRR antagonism as a strategy for treating hypertension. PMID:25421983

  11. Intracerebroventricular infusion of the (Pro)renin receptor antagonist PRO20 attenuates deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt-induced hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wencheng; Sullivan, Michelle N; Zhang, Sheng; Worker, Caleb J; Xiong, Zhenggang; Speth, Robert C; Feng, Yumei

    2015-02-01

    We previously reported that binding of prorenin to the (pro)renin receptor (PRR) plays a major role in brain angiotensin II formation and the development of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertension. Here, we designed and developed an antagonistic peptide, PRO20, to block prorenin binding to the PRR. Fluorescently labeled PRO20 bound to both mouse and human brain tissues with dissociation constants of 4.4 and 1.8 nmol/L, respectively. This binding was blocked by coincubation with prorenin and was diminished in brains of neuron-specific PRR-knockout mice, indicating specificity of PRO20 for PRR. In cultured human neuroblastoma cells, PRO20 blocked prorenin-induced calcium influx in a concentration- and AT(1) receptor-dependent manner. Intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 dose-dependently inhibited prorenin-induced hypertension in C57Bl6/J mice. Furthermore, acute intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 reduced blood pressure in both DOCA-salt and genetically hypertensive mice. Chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 attenuated the development of hypertension and the increase in brain hypothalamic angiotensin II levels induced by DOCA-salt. In addition, chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 improved autonomic function and spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity in mice treated with DOCA-salt. In summary, PRO20 binds to both mouse and human PRRs and decreases angiotensin II formation and hypertension induced by either prorenin or DOCA-salt. Our findings highlight the value of the novel PRR antagonist, PRO20, as a lead compound for a novel class of antihypertensive agents and as a research tool to establish the validity of brain PRR antagonism as a strategy for treating hypertension. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Dual orexin receptor antagonist 12 inhibits expression of proteins in neurons and glia implicated in peripheral and central sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, R J; Denson, J E; Sullivan, L Q; Durham, P L

    2014-06-06

    Sensitization and activation of trigeminal nociceptors is implicated in prevalent and debilitating orofacial pain conditions including temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders. Orexins are excitatory neuropeptides that function to regulate many physiological processes and are reported to modulate nociception. To determine the role of orexins in an inflammatory model of trigeminal activation, the effects of a dual orexin receptor antagonist (DORA-12) on levels of proteins that promote peripheral and central sensitization and changes in nocifensive responses were investigated. In adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, mRNA for orexin receptor 1 (OX₁R) and receptor 2 (OX₂R) were detected in trigeminal ganglia and spinal trigeminal nucleus (STN). OX₁R immunoreactivity was localized primarily in neuronal cell bodies in the V3 region of the ganglion and in laminas I-II of the STN. Animals injected bilaterally with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) in the TMJ capsule exhibited increased expression of P-p38, P-ERK, and lba1 in trigeminal ganglia and P-ERK and lba1 in the STN at 2 days post injection. However, levels of each of these proteins in rats receiving daily oral DORA-12 were inhibited to near basal levels. Similarly, administration of DORA-12 on days 3 and 4 post CFA injection in the TMJ effectively inhibited the prolonged stimulated expression of protein kinase A, NFkB, and Iba1 in the STN on day 5 post injection. While injection of CFA mediated a nocifensive response to mechanical stimulation of the orofacial region at 2h and 3 and 5 days post injection, treatment with DORA-12 suppressed the nocifensive response on day 5. Somewhat surprisingly, nocifensive responses were again observed on day 10 post CFA stimulation in the absence of daily DORA-12 administration. Our results provide evidence that DORA-12 can inhibit CFA-induced stimulation of trigeminal sensory neurons by inhibiting expression of proteins associated with sensitization of peripheral and central

  13. US -endorphin-(1-27) is a naturally occurring antagonist to etorphine-induced analgesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolas, P.; Li, C.H.

    1985-05-01

    The potent opioid peptide US -endorphin is found in the brain and pituitary with two related fragments, US -endorphin-(1-27) and US -endorphin-(1-26). The fragments, retain substantial opioid-receptor binding activity but are virtually inactive analgesically. US -Endorphin-(1-27) inhibits US -endorphin-induced and etorphine-induced analgesia when coinjected intracerebroventricularly into mice. Antagonism by competition at the same site(s) is suggested from parallel shifts of the dose-response curves of etorphine or US -endorphin in the presence of US -endorphin-(1-27). Its potency is 4-5 times greater than that of the opiate antagonist naloxone. US -Endorphin-(1-26) does not antagonize the antinociceptive action of etorphine or US -endorphin in doses up to 500 pmol per animal.

  14. P2Y1 receptor antagonists mitigate oxygen and glucose deprivation‑induced astrocyte injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hui; Liu, Zhong-Qiang; Zhou, Hui; Wang, Zhi-Ling; Tao, Yu-Hong; Tong, Yu

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate the effects of blocking the calcium signaling pathway of astrocytes (ASs) on oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD)‑induced AS injury. The association between the changes in the concentrations of AS‑derived transmitter ATP and glutamic acid, and the changes in calcium signaling under the challenge of OGD were investigated. The cortical ASs of Sprague Dawley rats were cultured to establish the OGD models of ASs. The extracellular concentrations of ATP and glutamic acid in the normal group and the OGD group were detected, and the intracellular concentration of calcium ions (Ca2+) was detected. The effects of 2'‑deoxy‑N6‑methyl adenosine 3', 5'‑diphosphate diammonium salt (MRS2179), a P2Y1 receptor antagonist, on the release of calcium and glutamic acid of ASs under the condition of OGD were observed. The OGD challenge induced the release of glutamic acid and ATP by ASs in a time‑dependent manner, whereas elevation in the concentration of glutamic acid lagged behind that of the ATP and Ca2+. The concentration of Ca2+ inside ASs peaked 16 h after OGD, following which the concentration of Ca2+ was decreased. The effects of elevated release of glutamic acid by ASs when challenged by OGD may be blocked by MRS2179, a P2Y1 receptor antagonist. Furthermore, MRS2179 may significantly mitigate OGD‑induced AS injury and increase cell survival. The ASs of rats cultured in vitro expressed P2Y1 receptors, which may inhibit excessive elevation in the concentration of intracellular Ca2+. Avoidance of intracellular calcium overload and the excessive release of glutamic acid may be an important reason why MRS2179 mitigates OGD‑induced AS injury.

  15. Dopamine antagonists and brief vision distinguish lens-induced- and form-deprivation-induced myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickla, Debora L; Totonelly, Kristen

    2011-11-01

    In eyes wearing negative lenses, the D2 dopamine antagonist spiperone was only partly effective in preventing the ameliorative effects of brief periods of vision (Nickla et al., 2010), in contrast to reports from studies using form-deprivation. The present study was done to directly compare the effects of spiperone, and the D1 antagonist SCH-23390, on the two different myopiagenic paradigms. 12-day old chickens wore monocular diffusers (form-deprivation) or -10 D lenses attached to the feathers with matching rings of Velcro. Each day for 4 days, 10 μl intravitreal injections of the dopamine D2/D4 antagonist spiperone (5 nmoles) or the D1 antagonist SCH-23390, were given under isoflurane anesthesia, and the diffusers (n = 16; n = 5, respectively) or lenses (n = 20; n = 6) were removed for 2 h immediately after. Saline injections prior to vision were done as controls (form-deprivation: n = 11; lenses: n = 10). Two other saline-injected groups wore the lenses (n = 12) or diffusers (n = 4) continuously. Axial dimensions were measured by high frequency A-scan ultrasonography at the start, and on the last day immediately prior to, and 3 h after the injection. Refractive errors were measured at the end of the experiment using a Hartinger's refractometer. In form-deprived eyes, spiperone, but not SCH-23390, prevented the ocular growth inhibition normally effected by the brief periods of vision (change in vitreous chamber depth, spiperone vs saline: 322 vs 211 μm; p = 0.01). By contrast, neither had any effect on negative lens-wearing eyes given similar unrestricted vision (210 and 234 μm respectively, vs 264 μm). The increased elongation in the spiperone-injected form-deprived eyes did not, however, result in a myopic shift, probably due to the inhibitory effect of the drug on anterior chamber growth (drug vs saline: 96 vs 160 μm; p effects of brief periods of unrestricted vision differ for form-deprivation versus negative lens-wear, which may imply different growth

  16. Effect of the CRF1-receptor antagonist pexacerfont on stress-induced eating and food craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, David H; Kennedy, Ashley P; Furnari, Melody; Heilig, Markus; Shaham, Yavin; Phillips, Karran A; Preston, Kenzie L

    2016-12-01

    In rodents, antagonism of receptors for corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) blocks stress-induced reinstatement of drug or palatable food seeking. To test anticraving properties of the CRF 1 antagonist pexacerfont in humans. We studied stress-induced eating in people scoring high on dietary restraint (food preoccupation and chronic unsuccessful dieting) with body-mass index (BMI) >22. In a double-blind, between-groups trial, 31 "restrained" eaters were stabilized on either pexacerfont (300 mg/day for 7 days, then 100 mg/day for 21 days) or placebo. On day 15, they underwent a math-test stressor; during three subsequent visits, they heard personalized craving-induction scripts. In each session, stress-induced food consumption and craving were assessed in a bogus taste test and on visual analog scales. We used digital video to monitor daily ingestion of study capsules and nightly rating of food problems/preoccupation on the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS). The study was stopped early due to an administrative interpretation of US federal law, unrelated to safety or outcome. The bogus taste tests suggested some protective effect of pexacerfont against eating after a laboratory stressor (r effect  = 0.30, 95 % CL = -0.12, 0.63, Bayes factor 11.30). Similarly, nightly YFAS ratings were lower with pexacerfont than placebo (r effect  = 0.39, CI 0.03, 0.66), but this effect should be interpreted with caution because it was present from the first night of pill ingestion, despite pexacerfont's slow pharmacokinetics. The findings may support further investigation of the anticraving properties of CRF 1 antagonists, especially for food.

  17. Minocycline exacerbates apoptotic neurodegeneration induced by the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 in the early postnatal mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inta, Ioana; Vogt, Miriam A; Vogel, Anne S; Bettendorf, Markus; Gass, Peter; Inta, Dragos

    2016-10-01

    NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antagonists induce in perinatal rodent cortical apoptosis and protracted schizophrenia-like alterations ameliorated by antipsychotic treatment. The broad-spectrum antibiotic minocycline elicits antipsychotic and neuroprotective effects. Here we tested, if minocycline protects also against apoptosis triggered by the NMDAR antagonist MK-801 at postnatal day 7. Surprisingly, minocycline induced widespread cortical apoptosis and exacerbated MK-801-triggered cell death. In some areas such as the subiculum, the pro-apoptotic effect of minocycline was even more pronounced than that elicited by MK-801. These data reveal among antipsychotics unique pro-apoptotic properties of minocycline, raising concerns regarding consequences for brain development and the use in children.

  18. Effects of the CGRP receptor antagonist BIBN4096BS on capsaicin-induced carotid haemodynamic changes in anaesthetised pigs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Kapoor (Kapil); U. Arulmani (Udayasankar); J.P. Heiligers (Jan); I.M. Garrelds (Ingrid); E.W. Willems (Edwin); H. Doods (Henri); C.M. Villalón (Carlos); P.R. Saxena (Pramod Ranjan)

    2003-01-01

    textabstract1. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a potent vasodilator released from capsaicin-sensitive trigeminal sensory nerves, seems to be involved in the pathogenesis of migraine. Hence, CGRP receptor antagonists may serve as a novel treatment for migraine. This study

  19. Induction of the Wnt antagonist Dickkopf-1 is involved in stress-induced hippocampal damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Matrisciano

    Full Text Available The identification of mechanisms that mediate stress-induced hippocampal damage may shed new light into the pathophysiology of depressive disorders and provide new targets for therapeutic intervention. We focused on the secreted glycoprotein Dickkopf-1 (Dkk-1, an inhibitor of the canonical Wnt pathway, involved in neurodegeneration. Mice exposed to mild restraint stress showed increased hippocampal levels of Dkk-1 and reduced expression of β-catenin, an intracellular protein positively regulated by the canonical Wnt signalling pathway. In adrenalectomized mice, Dkk-1 was induced by corticosterone injection, but not by exposure to stress. Corticosterone also induced Dkk-1 in mouse organotypic hippocampal cultures and primary cultures of hippocampal neurons and, at least in the latter model, the action of corticosterone was reversed by the type-2 glucocorticoid receptor antagonist mifepristone. To examine whether induction of Dkk-1 was causally related to stress-induced hippocampal damage, we used doubleridge mice, which are characterized by a defective induction of Dkk-1. As compared to control mice, doubleridge mice showed a paradoxical increase in basal hippocampal Dkk-1 levels, but no Dkk-1 induction in response to stress. In contrast, stress reduced Dkk-1 levels in doubleridge mice. In control mice, chronic stress induced a reduction in hippocampal volume associated with neuronal loss and dendritic atrophy in the CA1 region, and a reduced neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. Doubleridge mice were resistant to the detrimental effect of chronic stress and, instead, responded to stress with increases in dendritic arborisation and neurogenesis. Thus, the outcome of chronic stress was tightly related to changes in Dkk-1 expression in the hippocampus. These data indicate that induction of Dkk-1 is causally related to stress-induced hippocampal damage and provide the first evidence that Dkk-1 expression is regulated by corticosteroids in the central

  20. Proteasome phosphorylation regulates cocaine-induced sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Frankie R; Howell, Kristin K; Dozier, Lara E; Anagnostaras, Stephan G; Patrick, Gentry N

    2018-04-01

    Repeated exposure to cocaine produces structural and functional modifications at synapses from neurons in several brain regions including the nucleus accumbens. These changes are thought to underlie cocaine-induced sensitization. The ubiquitin proteasome system plays a crucial role in the remodeling of synapses and has recently been implicated in addiction-related behavior. The ATPase Rpt6 subunit of the 26S proteasome is phosphorylated by Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinases II alpha at ser120 which is thought to regulate proteasome activity and distribution in neurons. Here, we demonstrate that Rpt6 phosphorylation is involved in cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization. Cocaine concomitantly increases proteasome activity and Rpt6 S120 phosphorylation in cultured neurons and in various brain regions of wild type mice including the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex. In contrast, cocaine does not increase proteasome activity in Rpt6 phospho-mimetic (ser120Asp) mice. Strikingly, we found a complete absence of cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization in the Rpt6 ser120Asp mice. Together, these findings suggest a critical role for Rpt6 phosphorylation and proteasome function in the regulation cocaine-induced behavioral plasticity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Inducible nitric oxide inhibitors block NMDA antagonist-stimulated motoric behaviors and medial prefrontal cortical glutamate efflux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadley C Bergstrom

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO plays a critical role in the motoric and glutamate releasing action of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA-antagonist stimulants. Earlier studies utilized neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitors (nNOS for studying the neurobehavioral effects of noncompetitive NMDA-antagonist stimulants such as dizocilpine (MK-801 and phencyclidine (PCP. This study explores the role of the inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitors (iNOS aminoguanidine (AG and (--epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG in NMDA-antagonist induced motoric behavior and prefrontal cortical glutamate efflux. Adult male rats were administered a dose range of AG, EGCG or vehicle prior to receiving NMDA antagonists MK-801, PCP or a conventional psychostimulant (cocaine and tested for motoric behavior in an open arena. Glutamate in the medial prefrontal cortex was measured using in vivo microdialysis after a combination of AG or EGCG prior to MK-801. Acute administration of AG or EGCG dose-dependently attenuated the locomotor and ataxic properties of MK-801 and PCP. Both AG and EGCG were unable to block the motoric effects of cocaine, indicating the acute pharmacologic action of AG and EGCG is specific to NMDA antagonism and not generalizable to all stimulant class drugs. AG and EGCG normalized MK-801-stimulated medial prefrontal cortical glutamate efflux. These data demonstrate that AG and EGCG attenuates NMDA antagonist-stimulated motoric behavior and cortical glutamate efflux. Our results suggest that EGCG-like polyphenol nutraceuticals (contained in green tea and chocolate may be clinically useful in protecting against the adverse behavioral dissociative and cortical glutamate stimulating effects of NMDA antagonists. Medications that interfere with NMDA antagonists such as MK-801 and PCP have been proposed as treatments for schizophrenia.

  2. Inhibition of common cold-induced aggravation of childhood asthma by leukotriene receptor antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihara, Shigemi; Fukuda, Hironobu; Abe, Toshio; Nishida, Mitsuhiro; Yamada, Yumi; Kanno, Noriko; Arisaka, Osamu

    2012-09-01

    Virus infection is an important risk factor for aggravation of childhood asthma. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of drugs on aggravation of asthma induced by a common cold. Asthma control was examined in a survey of 1,014 Japanese pediatric patients with bronchial asthma. The occurrence of common cold, asthma control, and drugs used for asthma control were investigated using a modified Childhood Asthma Control Test (C-ACT) for patients aged cold and aggravation of asthma were significantly higher in patients aged cold-induced aggravation was significantly less effective in patients aged cold, asthma control was significantly more effective for those treated with leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs) compared to treatment without LTRAs. Asthma control did not differ between patients who did or did not take inhaled corticosteroids or long-acting β2 stimulants. These findings showed a high prevalence of common cold in younger patients with childhood asthma and indicated that common cold can induce aggravation of asthma. LTRAs are useful for long-term asthma control in very young patients who develop an asthma attack due to a common cold.

  3. Morphine potentiates seizures induced by GABA antagonists and attenuates seizures induced by electroshock in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, F; Gale, K

    1983-11-25

    In a naloxone-reversible, dose-dependent manner, morphine (10-50 mg/kg i.p.) protected against seizures induced by maximal electroshock and increased the incidence and severity of seizures induced by bicuculline, in rats. Morphine also potentiated seizures induced by isoniazid and by picrotoxin. Thus, opiate activity influences the expression of seizures in contrasting ways depending upon the mode of seizure induction. Since morphine consistently potentiated seizures induced by interference with GABA transmission, it appears that GABAergic systems may be of particular significance for the elucidation of the varied effects of morphine on seizure susceptibility.

  4. Definition of critical periods for Hedgehog pathway antagonist-induced holoprosencephaly, cleft lip, and cleft palate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galen W Heyne

    Full Text Available The Hedgehog (Hh signaling pathway mediates multiple spatiotemporally-specific aspects of brain and face development. Genetic and chemical disruptions of the pathway are known to result in an array of structural malformations, including holoprosencephaly (HPE, clefts of the lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P, and clefts of the secondary palate only (CPO. Here, we examined patterns of dysmorphology caused by acute, stage-specific Hh signaling inhibition. Timed-pregnant wildtype C57BL/6J mice were administered a single dose of the potent pathway antagonist vismodegib at discrete time points between gestational day (GD 7.0 and 10.0, an interval approximately corresponding to the 15th to 24th days of human gestation. The resultant pattern of facial and brain dysmorphology was dependent upon stage of exposure. Insult between GD7.0 and GD8.25 resulted in HPE, with peak incidence following exposure at GD7.5. Unilateral clefts of the lip extending into the primary palate were also observed, with peak incidence following exposure at GD8.875. Insult between GD9.0 and GD10.0 resulted in CPO and forelimb abnormalities. We have previously demonstrated that Hh antagonist-induced cleft lip results from deficiency of the medial nasal process and show here that CPO is associated with reduced growth of the maxillary-derived palatal shelves. By defining the critical periods for the induction of HPE, CL/P, and CPO with fine temporal resolution, these results provide a mechanism by which Hh pathway disruption can result in "non-syndromic" orofacial clefting, or HPE with or without co-occurring clefts. This study also establishes a novel and tractable mouse model of human craniofacial malformations using a single dose of a commercially available and pathway-specific drug.

  5. The Histamine H3 Receptor Antagonist DL77 Ameliorates MK801-Induced Memory Deficits in Rats

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    Nermin Eissa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The role of Histamine H3 receptors (H3Rs in memory, and the prospective of H3R antagonists in pharmacological control of neurodegenerative disorders, e.g., Alzheimer disease (AD is well-accepted. For that reason, the procognitive effects of the H3R antagonist DL77 on cognitive impairments induced with MK801 were tested in an inhibitory passive avoidance paradigm (PAP and novel object recognition (NOR task in adult male rats, using donepezil (DOZ as a standard drug. Acute systemic pretreatment with DL77 (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg, i.p. significantly ameliorated memory deficits induced with MK801 in PAP (all P < 0.05, n = 7. The ameliorative effect of most promising dose of DL77 (5 mg/kg, i.p. was reversed when rats were co-injected with the H3R agonist R-(α-methylhistamine (RAMH, 10 mg/kg, i.p. (p = 0.701 for MK801-amnesic group vs. MK801+DL77+RAMH group, n = 6. In the NOR paradigm, DL77 (5 mg/kg, i.p. counteracted long-term memory (LTM deficits induced with MK801 (P < 0.05, n = 6–8, and the DL77-provided effect was similar to that of DOZ (p = 0.788, n = 6–8, and was reversed when rats were co-injected with RAMH (10 mg/kg, i.p. (p = 0.877, n = 6, as compared to the (MK801-amnesic group. However, DL77 (5 mg/kg, i.p. did not alter short-term memory (STM impairment in NOR test (p = 0.772, n = 6–8, as compared to (MK801-amnesic group. Moreover, DL77 (5 mg/kg failed to modify anxiety and locomotor behaviors of animals innate to elevated-plus maze (EPM (p = 0.67 for percentage of time spent exploring the open arms, p = 0.52 for number of entries into the open arms, p = 0.76 for percentage of entries into the open arms, and p = 0.73 number of closed arm entries as compared to saline-treated groups, all n = 6, demonstrating that the procognitive effects observed in PAP or NOR tests were unconnected to alterations in emotions or in natural locomotion of tested animals. These results signify the potential involvement of H3Rs in modulating

  6. Toscana virus induces interferon although its NSs protein reveals antagonistic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori Savellini, Gianni; Weber, Friedemann; Terrosi, Chiara; Habjan, Matthias; Martorelli, Barbara; Cusi, Maria Grazia

    2011-01-01

    Toscana virus (TOSV) is a phlebotomus-transmitted virus that belongs to the family Bunyaviridae and causes widespread infections in humans; about 30 % of these cases result in aseptic meningitis. In the present study, it was shown that TOSV is an inducer of beta interferon (IFN-β), although its non-structural protein (NSs) could inhibit the induction of IFN-β if expressed in a heterologous context. A recombinant Rift Valley fever virus expressing the TOSV NSs could suppress IFN-β expression in infected cells. Moreover, in cells expressing NSs protein from a cDNA plasmid, IFN-β transcripts were not inducible by poly(I : C). Unlike other members of the family Bunyaviridae, TOSV appears to express an NSs protein that is a weak antagonist of IFN induction. Characterization of the interaction of TOSV with the IFN system will help our understanding of virus-host cell interactions and may explain why the pathogenesis of this disease is mostly mild in humans.

  7. Effects of a Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Antagonist on Experimentally Induced Rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hyun Kim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This prospective, randomized, and controlled study examined the effects of tumor necrosis factor soluble receptor type I (sTNFRI, a TNF-α antagonist on experimentally induced rhinosinusitis in rats. The experimental groups received an instillation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS plus an intramuscular injection of amoxicillin/clavulanate (antibiotic group, an instillation of sTNFRI (sTNFRI group, an instillation of sTNFRI and an injection of amoxicillin/clavulanate (sTNFRI/antibiotic group, or no additional treatment (LPS group. Histopathological changes were determined using hematoxylin-eosin and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS staining. Leakage of exudate was determined using fluorescence microscopy. Vascular permeability was measured using the Evans blue dye technique. Expression of MUC5AC was measured using reverse transcriptase PCR. The sTNFRI, antibiotic, and sTNFRI/antibiotic groups had significantly less capillary permeability, mucosal edema, PAS staining, and expression of MUC5AC than the LPS group. There were no differences in capillary permeability, mucosal edema, PAS staining, and MUC5AC expression between the sTNFRI and sTNFRI/antibiotic groups. The antibiotic group had PAS staining similar to that of the sTNFRI and sTNFRI/antibiotic groups but had a greater increase in capillary permeability, mucosal edema, and MUC5AC expression. This study shows that sTNFRI reduces inflammatory activity and mucus hypersecretion in LPS-induced rhinosinusitis in rats.

  8. Protection of DFP-induced oxidative damage and neurodegeneration by antioxidants and NMDA receptor antagonist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaja-Milatovic, Snjezana; Gupta, Ramesh C.; Aschner, Michael; Milatovic, Dejan

    2009-01-01

    Prophylactic agents acutely administered in response to anticholinesterases intoxication can prevent toxic symptoms, including fasciculations, seizures, convulsions and death. However, anticholinesterases also have long-term unknown pathophysiological effects, making rational prophylaxis/treatment problematic. Increasing evidence suggests that in addition to excessive cholinergic stimulation, organophosphate compounds such as diisopropylphosphorofluoridate (DFP) induce activation of glutamatergic neurons, generation of reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS), leading to neurodegeneration. The present study investigated multiple affectors of DFP exposure critical to cerebral oxidative damage and whether antioxidants and NMDA receptor antagonist memantine provide neuroprotection by preventing DFP-induced biochemical and morphometric changes in rat brain. Rats treated acutely with DFP (1.25 mg/kg, s.c.) developed onset of toxicity signs within 7-15 min that progressed to maximal severity of seizures and fasciculations within 60 min. At this time point, DFP caused significant (p 2 -isoprostanes, F 2 -IsoPs; and F 4 -neuroprostanes, F 4 -NeuroPs), RNS (citrulline), and declines in high-energy phosphates (HEP) in rat cerebrum. At the same time, quantitative morphometric analysis of pyramidal neurons of the hippocampal CA1 region revealed significant (p 2 -IsoPs, F 4 -NeuroPs, citrulline, and depletion of HEP were noted. Furthermore, attenuation in oxidative damage following antioxidants or memantine pretreatment was accompanied by rescue from dendritic degeneration of pyramidal neurons in the CA1 hippocampal area. These findings closely associated DFP-induced lipid peroxidation with dendritic degeneration of pyramidal neurons in the CA1 hippocampal area and point to possible interventions to limit oxidative injury and dendritic degeneration induced by anticholinesterase neurotoxicity.

  9. Does airborne nickel exposure induce nickel sensitization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Eugen; Ranft, Ulrich; Eberwein, Georg; Gladtke, Dieter; Sugiri, Dorothee; Behrendt, Heidrun; Ring, Johannes; Schäfer, Torsten; Begerow, Jutta; Wittsiepe, Jürgen; Krämer, Ursula; Wilhelm, Michael

    2010-06-01

    Nickel is one of the most prevalent causes of contact allergy in the general population. This study focuses on human exposure to airborne nickel and its potential to induce allergic sensitization. The study group consisted of 309 children at school-starter age living in the West of Germany in the vicinity of two industrial sources and in a rural town without nearby point sources of nickel. An exposure assessment of nickel in ambient air was available for children in the Ruhr district using routinely monitored ambient air quality data and dispersion modelling. Internal nickel exposure was assessed by nickel concentrations in morning urine samples of the children. The observed nickel sensitization prevalence rates varied between 12.6% and 30.7%. Statistically significant associations were showed between exposure to nickel in ambient air and urinary nickel concentration as well as between urinary nickel concentration and nickel sensitization. Furthermore, an elevated prevalence of nickel sensitization was associated with exposure to increased nickel concentrations in ambient air. The observed associations support the assumption that inhaled nickel in ambient air might be a risk factor for nickel sensitization; further studies in larger collectives are necessary.

  10. Amelioration of cold injury-induced cortical brain edema formation by selective endothelin ETB receptor antagonists in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michinaga, Shotaro; Nagase, Marina; Matsuyama, Emi; Yamanaka, Daisuke; Seno, Naoki; Fuka, Mayu; Yamamoto, Yui; Koyama, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    Brain edema is a potentially fatal pathological condition that often occurs in stroke and head trauma. Following brain insults, endothelins (ETs) are increased and promote several pathophysiological responses. This study examined the effects of ETB antagonists on brain edema formation and disruption of the blood-brain barrier in a mouse cold injury model (Five- to six-week-old male ddY mice). Cold injury increased the water content of the injured cerebrum, and promoted extravasation of both Evans blue and endogenous albumin. In the injury area, expression of prepro-ET-1 mRNA and ET-1 peptide increased. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of BQ788 (ETB antagonist), IRL-2500 (ETB antagonist), or FR139317 (ETA antagonist) prior to cold injury significantly attenuated the increase in brain water content. Bolus administration of BQ788, IRL-2500, or FR139317 also inhibited the cold injury-induced extravasation of Evans blue and albumin. Repeated administration of BQ788 and IRL-2500 beginning at 24 h after cold injury attenuated both the increase in brain water content and extravasation of markers. In contrast, FR139317 had no effect on edema formation when administrated after cold injury. Cold injury stimulated induction of glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive reactive astrocytes in the injured cerebrum. Induction of reactive astrocytes after cold injury was attenuated by ICV administration of BQ788 or IRL-2500. These results suggest that ETB receptor antagonists may be an effective approach to ameliorate brain edema formation following brain insults.

  11. Amelioration of cold injury-induced cortical brain edema formation by selective endothelin ETB receptor antagonists in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shotaro Michinaga

    Full Text Available Brain edema is a potentially fatal pathological condition that often occurs in stroke and head trauma. Following brain insults, endothelins (ETs are increased and promote several pathophysiological responses. This study examined the effects of ETB antagonists on brain edema formation and disruption of the blood-brain barrier in a mouse cold injury model (Five- to six-week-old male ddY mice. Cold injury increased the water content of the injured cerebrum, and promoted extravasation of both Evans blue and endogenous albumin. In the injury area, expression of prepro-ET-1 mRNA and ET-1 peptide increased. Intracerebroventricular (ICV administration of BQ788 (ETB antagonist, IRL-2500 (ETB antagonist, or FR139317 (ETA antagonist prior to cold injury significantly attenuated the increase in brain water content. Bolus administration of BQ788, IRL-2500, or FR139317 also inhibited the cold injury-induced extravasation of Evans blue and albumin. Repeated administration of BQ788 and IRL-2500 beginning at 24 h after cold injury attenuated both the increase in brain water content and extravasation of markers. In contrast, FR139317 had no effect on edema formation when administrated after cold injury. Cold injury stimulated induction of glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive reactive astrocytes in the injured cerebrum. Induction of reactive astrocytes after cold injury was attenuated by ICV administration of BQ788 or IRL-2500. These results suggest that ETB receptor antagonists may be an effective approach to ameliorate brain edema formation following brain insults.

  12. One week treatment with the IL-1 receptor antagonist anakinra leads to a sustained improvement in insulin sensitivity in insulin resistant patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asseldonk, van E.J.P.; Poppel, van P.C.M.; Ballak, D.B.; Stienstra, Rinke; Netea, M.G.; Tack, C.J.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation associated with obesity is involved in the development of insulin resistance. We hypothesized that anti-inflammatory treatment with the Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist anakinra would improve insulin sensitivity.In an open label proof-of-concept study, we included overweight

  13. Changes in antagonistic activity of lactic acid bacteria induced by their response to technological factors

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    Dovile Jonkuviene

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the changes in antagonistic activity of selected lactic acid bacteria (LAB in response to technological factors used in food production. The antimicrobial activity of 12 selected LAB strains was assessed against the bacterial and fungal strains using the agar well diffusion method. Sodium chloride (NaCl 6.5–8.0%, glucose 20-30% and pH 4.0, pH 8.0 and higher were the most crucial factors in reducing the spectra of the microorganisms antagonized. Heating at 80 °C or 100 °C had a greater negative impact than 63 °C on the antifungal activity of LAB. Freezing at –72 °C eliminated the antifungal activity, or it changed from fungicidal to fungistatic. Although each LAB demonstrated the ability to retain antimicrobial activity induced by various technological factors, Lactococcus lactis 768/5 was superior in retaining high antimicrobial activity against tested indicator strains.

  14. The novel non-imidazole histamine H3 receptor antagonist DL77 reduces voluntary alcohol intake and ethanol-induced conditioned place preference in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahi, Amine; Sadek, Bassem; Nurulain, Syed M; Łażewska, Dorota; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

    2015-11-01

    It has become clear that histamine H3 receptors (H3R) have been implicated in modulating ethanol intake and preference in laboratory animals. The novel non-imidazole H3R antagonist DL77 with excellent selectivity profile shows high in-vivo potency as well as in-vitro antagonist affinity with ED50 of 2.1 ± 0.2 mg/kg and pKi=8.08, respectively. In the present study, and applying an unlimited access two-bottle choice procedure, the anti-alcohol effects of the H3R antagonist, DL77 (0, 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg; i.p.), were investigated in adult mice. In this C57BL/6 line, effects of DL77 on voluntary alcohol intake and preference, as well as on total fluid intake were evaluated. Results have shown that DL77, dose-dependently, reduced both ethanol intake and preference. These effects were very selective as both saccharin and quinine, used to control for taste sensitivity, and intakes were not affected following DL77 pre-application. More importantly, systemic administration of DL77 (10 mg/kg) during acquisition inhibited ethanol-induced conditioned-place preference (EtOH-CPP) as measured using an unbiased protocol. The anti-alcohol activity observed for DL77 was abrogated when mice were pretreated with the selective H3R agonist R-(α)-methyl-histamine (RAMH) (10 mg/kg), or with the CNS penetrant H1R antagonist pyrilamine (PYR) (10mg/kg). These results suggest that DL77 has a predominant role in two in vivo effects of ethanol. Therefore, signaling via H3R is essential for ethanol-related consumption and conditioned reward and may represent a novel therapeutic pharmacological target to tackle ethanol abuse and alcoholism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction: The effects of montelukast, a leukotriene receptor antagonist

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    James P Kemp

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available James P KempClinical Professor of Pediatrics, Division of Immunology and Allergy, University of California School of Medicine, San Diego, CA, USAAbstract: Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB is very common in both patients with asthma and those who are otherwise thought to be normal. The intensity of exercise as well as the type of exercise is important in producing symptoms. This may make some types of exercise such as swimming more suitable and extended running more difficult for patients with this condition. A better understanding of EIB will allow the physician to direct the patient towards a type of exercise and medications that can result in a more active lifestyle without the same concern for resulting symptoms. This is especially important for schoolchildren who are usually enrolled in physical education classes and elite athletes who may desire to participate in competitive sports. Fortunately several medications (short- and long-acting β2-agonists, cromolyn, nedocromil, inhaled corticosteroids, and more recently leukotriene modifiers have been shown to be effective in preventing or attenuating the effects of exercise in many patients. In addition, inhaled β2-agonists have been shown to quickly reverse the airway obstruction that develops in patients and continue to be the reliever medications of choice. Inhaled corticosteroids are increasingly being recommended as regular therapy now that the role of inflammation and airway injury has been identified in EIB. With the discovery that there is a release of mediators such as histamine and leukotrienes from cells in the airway following exercise with resulting airway obstruction in susceptible individuals, interest has turned to attenuating their effects with mediator antagonists especially those that block the effects of leukotrienes. Studies with an oral leukotriene antagonist, montelukast, have shown beneficial effects in adults and children aged as young as 6 years with EIB

  16. The depressor response to intracerebroventricular hypotonic saline is sensitive to TRPV4 antagonist RN1734

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire H Feetham

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Several reports have shown that the periventricular region of the brain, including the paraventricular nucleus (PVN, is critical to sensing and responding to changes in plasma osmolality. Further studies also implicate the transient receptor potential ion channel, type V4 (TRPV4 channel in this homeostatic behaviour. In previous work we have shown that TRPV4 ion channels couple to calcium-activated potassium channels in the PVN to decrease action potential firing frequency in response to hypotonicity. In the present study we investigated whether, similarly, intracerebroventricular (ICV application of hypotonic solutions modulated cardiovascular parameters, and if so whether this was sensitive to a TRPV4 channel inhibitor. We found that ICV injection of 270mOsmol artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF decreased mean blood pressure, but not heart rate, compared to naïve mice or mice injected with 300mOsmol ACSF. This effect was abolished by treatment with the TRPV4 inhibitor RN1734. These data suggest that periventricular targets within the brain are capable of generating depressor action in response to TRPV4 ion channel activation. Potentially, in the future, the TRPV4 channel, or the TRPV4–KCa coupling mechanism, may serve as a therapeutic target for treatment of cardiovascular disease.

  17. Convulsions induced by centrally administered NMDA in mice: effects of NMDA antagonists, benzodiazepines, minor tranquilizers and anticonvulsants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, J. L.; Pieri, L.; Prud'hon, B.

    1989-01-01

    1. Convulsions were induced reproducibly by intracerebroventricular injection of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) to conscious mice. 2. Competitive (carboxypiperazine-propylphosphonic acid, CPP; 2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid, AP7) and non-competitive (MK801; phencyclidine, PCP; thienylcyclohexylpiperidine, TCP; dextrorphan; dextromethorphan) NMDA antagonists prevented NMDA-induced convulsions. 3. Benzodiazepine receptor agonists and partial agonists (triazolam, diazepam, clonazepam, Ro 16-6028), classical anticonvulsants (diphenylhydantoin, phenobarbitone, sodium valproate) and meprobamate were also found to prevent NMDA-induced convulsions. 4. Flumazenil (a benzodiazepine receptor antagonist) and the GABA agonists THIP and muscimol (up to subtoxic doses) were without effect. 5. Flumazenil reversed the anticonvulsant action of diazepam, but not that of MK801. 6. Results obtained in this model differ somewhat from those described in a seizure model with systemic administration of NMDA. An explanation for this discrepancy is offered. 7. This model is a simple test for assessing the in vivo activity of NMDA antagonists and also expands the battery of chemically-induced seizure models for characterizing anticonvulsants not acting at NMDA receptors. PMID:2574061

  18. Prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea: the role of neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptor antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bošnjak, Snežana M; Gralla, Richard J; Schwartzberg, Lee

    2017-05-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea (CIN) has a significant negative impact on the quality of life of cancer patients. The use of 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT 3 ) receptor antagonists (RAs) has reduced the risk of vomiting, but (except for palonosetron) their effect on nausea, especially delayed nausea, is limited. This article reviews the role of NK 1 RAs when combined with 5-HT 3 RA-dexamethasone in CIN prophylaxis. Aprepitant has not shown consistent superiority over a two-drug (ondansetron-dexamethasone) combination in nausea control after cisplatin- or anthracycline-cyclophosphamide (AC)-based highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC). Recently, dexamethasone and dexamethasone-metoclopramide were demonstrated to be non-inferior to aprepitant and aprepitant-dexamethasone, respectively, for the control of delayed nausea after HEC (AC/cisplatin), and are now recognized in the guidelines. The potential impact of the new NK 1 RAs rolapitant and netupitant (oral fixed combination with palonosetron, as NEPA) in CIN prophylaxis is discussed. While the clinical significance of the effect on nausea of the rolapitant-granisetron-dexamethasone combination after cisplatin is not conclusive, rolapitant addition showed no improvement in nausea prophylaxis after AC or moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC). NEPA was superior to palonosetron in the control of nausea after HEC (AC/cisplatin). Moreover, the efficacy of NEPA in nausea control was maintained over multiple cycles of HEC/MEC. Recently, NK 1 RAs have been challenged by olanzapine, with olanzapine showing superior efficacy in nausea prevention after HEC. Fixed antiemetic combinations (such as NEPA) or new antiemetics with a long half-life that may be given once per chemotherapy cycle (rolapitant or NEPA) may improve patient compliance with antiemetic treatment.

  19. Casopitant: a novel NK(1)-receptor antagonist in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruhlmann, Christina; Herrstedt, Jørn

    2009-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) are among the most feared and distressing symptoms experienced by patients with cancer. The knowledge of the pathogenesis and neuropharmacology of CINV has expanded enormously over the last decades, the most significant discoveries being the role of 5......-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)(3)- and neurokinin (NK)(1) receptors in the emetic reflex arch. This has led to the development of two new classes of antiemetics acting as highly selective antagonists at one of these receptors. These drugs have had a huge impact in the protection from chemotherapy-induced vomiting...

  20. Casopitant: a novel NK1-receptor antagonist in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Ruhlmann

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Christina Ruhlmann, Jørn HerrstedtOdense University Hospital, Department of Oncology, Odense, DenmarkAbstract: Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV are among the most feared and distressing symptoms experienced by patients with cancer. The knowledge of the pathogenesis and neuropharmacology of CINV has expanded enormously over the last decades, the most significant discoveries being the role of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT3- and neurokinin (NK1 receptors in the emetic reflex arch. This has led to the development of two new classes of antiemetics acting as highly selective antagonists at one of these receptors. These drugs have had a huge impact in the protection from chemotherapy-induced vomiting, whereas the effect on nausea seems to be limited. The first NK1 receptor antagonist, aprepitant, became clinically available in 2003, and casopitant, the second in this class of antiemetics, has now completed phase III trials. This review delineates the properties and clinical use of casopitant in the prevention of CINV.Keywords: casopitant, GW679769, NK1 receptor antagonist, chemotherapy, emesis

  1. Effects of mecamylamine (a nicotinic receptor antagonist on harman induced-amnesia in an inhibitory avoidance test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nasehi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: β-carbolines alkaloids suchv as harmane have been found in common plant-derived foodstuffs (wheat, rice, corn, barley, grape and mushrooms. These alkaloids have many cognitive effects including alteration short and long term memory. In the present study, the effect of intra-CA1 injection of the nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine on amnesia induced by harmane was examined in mice. Materials and Methods: Mice were bilaterally implanted with chronic cannulae in the CA1 regions of the dorsal hippocampus. One week after cannulae implantation, mice were trained in a step-down type inhibitory avoidance task, and were tested 24 h after training to measure step-down latency as a scale of memory. Results: Pre-training or post-training systemic injection of harmane induced amnesia. Pre-testing intra-dorsal hippocampus administration of the high dose of nicotinic receptor antagonist, mecamylamine (4 µg/mice also induced amnesia. On the other hand, pre-test intra-CA1 injection of ineffective doses of mecamylamine (0.5, 1 and 2 µg/mice fully restored harmane induced amnesia. Conclusion: The present finding in this study indicated that a complex interaction exists between nicotinic receptor of dorsal hippocampus and amnesia induced by Harmane.

  2. Bacterial antagonists of fungal pathogens also control root-knot nematodes by induced systemic resistance of tomato plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Adam

    Full Text Available The potential of bacterial antagonists of fungal pathogens to control the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita was investigated under greenhouse conditions. Treatment of tomato seeds with several strains significantly reduced the numbers of galls and egg masses compared with the untreated control. Best performed Bacillus subtilis isolates Sb4-23, Mc5-Re2, and Mc2-Re2, which were further studied for their mode of action with regard to direct effects by bacterial metabolites or repellents, and plant mediated effects. Drenching of soil with culture supernatants significantly reduced the number of egg masses produced by M. incognita on tomato by up to 62% compared to the control without culture supernatant. Repellence of juveniles by the antagonists was shown in a linked twin-pot set-up, where a majority of juveniles penetrated roots on the side without inoculated antagonists. All tested biocontrol strains induced systemic resistance against M. incognita in tomato, as revealed in a split-root system where the bacteria and the nematodes were inoculated at spatially separated roots of the same plant. This reduced the production of egg masses by up to 51%, while inoculation of bacteria and nematodes in the same pot had only a minor additive effect on suppression of M. incognita compared to induced systemic resistance alone. Therefore, the plant mediated effect was the major reason for antagonism rather than direct mechanisms. In conclusion, the bacteria known for their antagonistic potential against fungal pathogens also suppressed M. incognita. Such "multi-purpose" bacteria might provide new options for control strategies, especially with respect to nematode-fungus disease complexes that cause synergistic yield losses.

  3. Bacterial antagonists of fungal pathogens also control root-knot nematodes by induced systemic resistance of tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Mohamed; Heuer, Holger; Hallmann, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    The potential of bacterial antagonists of fungal pathogens to control the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita was investigated under greenhouse conditions. Treatment of tomato seeds with several strains significantly reduced the numbers of galls and egg masses compared with the untreated control. Best performed Bacillus subtilis isolates Sb4-23, Mc5-Re2, and Mc2-Re2, which were further studied for their mode of action with regard to direct effects by bacterial metabolites or repellents, and plant mediated effects. Drenching of soil with culture supernatants significantly reduced the number of egg masses produced by M. incognita on tomato by up to 62% compared to the control without culture supernatant. Repellence of juveniles by the antagonists was shown in a linked twin-pot set-up, where a majority of juveniles penetrated roots on the side without inoculated antagonists. All tested biocontrol strains induced systemic resistance against M. incognita in tomato, as revealed in a split-root system where the bacteria and the nematodes were inoculated at spatially separated roots of the same plant. This reduced the production of egg masses by up to 51%, while inoculation of bacteria and nematodes in the same pot had only a minor additive effect on suppression of M. incognita compared to induced systemic resistance alone. Therefore, the plant mediated effect was the major reason for antagonism rather than direct mechanisms. In conclusion, the bacteria known for their antagonistic potential against fungal pathogens also suppressed M. incognita. Such "multi-purpose" bacteria might provide new options for control strategies, especially with respect to nematode-fungus disease complexes that cause synergistic yield losses.

  4. Modulation of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis by pegylated hyaluronidase and dopamine receptor antagonist in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenii Germanovich Skurikhin

    Full Text Available Hyaluronidases are groups of enzymes that degrade hyaluronic acid (HA. To stop enzymatic hydrolysis we modified testicular hyaluronidase (HYAL by activated polyethylene oxide with the help of electron-beam synthesis. As a result we received pegylated hyaluronidase (pegHYAL. Spiperone is a selective D2 dopamine receptor antagonist. It was demonstrated on the model of a single bleomycin damage of alveolar epithelium that during the inflammatory phase monotherapy by pegHYAL or spiperone reduced the populations of hematopoietic stem /progenitor cells in the lung parenchyma. PegHYAL also reduced the levels of transforming growth factor (TGF-β, interleukin (IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α in the serum and lungs, while spiperone reduced the level of the serum IL-1β. Polytherapy by spiperone and pegHYAL caused the increase of the quantity of hematopoietic stem/ progenitor cells in the lungs. Such an influx of blood cell precursors was observed on the background of considerable fall level of TGF-β and the increase level of TNF-α in the serum and lungs. These results show pegHYAL reduced the bleomycin-induced fibrosis reaction (production and accumulation of collagen in the lung parenchyma. This effect was observed at a single and repetitive bleomycin damage of alveolar epithelium, the antifibrotic activity of pegHYAL surpassing the activity of testicular HYAL. The antifibrotic effect of pegHYAL is enhanced by an additional instillation of spiperone. Therapy by pegHYAL causes the flow of CD31‒ CD34‒ CD45‒ CD44+ CD73+ CD90+ CD106+-cells into the fibrous lungs. These cells are incapable of differentiating into fibroblast cells. Spiperone instillation separately or together with pegHYAL reduced the MSC-like cells considerably. These data enable us to assume, that pegHYAL is a new and promising instrument both for preventive and therapy of toxic pneumofibrosis. The blockage of D2 dopamine receptors with the following change of hyaluronan

  5. Developmental Programming: Prenatal and Postnatal Androgen Antagonist and Insulin Sensitizer Interventions Prevent Advancement of Puberty and Improve LH Surge Dynamics in Prenatal Testosterone-Treated Sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Herkimer, Carol; Abi Salloum, Bachir; Moeller, Jacob; Beckett, Evan; Sreedharan, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal T excess induces maternal hyperinsulinemia, early puberty, and reproductive/metabolic defects in the female similar to those seen in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. This study addressed the organizational/activational role of androgens and insulin in programming pubertal advancement and periovulatory LH surge defects. Treatment groups included the following: 1) control; 2) prenatal T; 3) prenatal T plus prenatal androgen antagonist, flutamide; 4) prenatal T plus prenatal insuli...

  6. Endothelin-1 receptor antagonists protect the kidney against the nephrotoxicity induced by cyclosporine-A in normotensive and hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caires, A; Fernandes, G S; Leme, A M; Castino, B; Pessoa, E A; Fernandes, S M; Fonseca, C D; Vattimo, M F; Schor, N; Borges, F T

    2017-12-11

    Cyclosporin-A (CsA) is an immunosuppressant associated with acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease. Nephrotoxicity associated with CsA involves the increase in afferent and efferent arteriole resistance, decreased renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular filtration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Endothelin-1 (ET-1) receptor blockade with bosentan (BOS) and macitentan (MAC) antagonists on altered renal function induced by CsA in normotensive and hypertensive animals. Wistar and genetically hypertensive rats (SHR) were separated into control group, CsA group that received intraperitoneal injections of CsA (40 mg/kg) for 15 days, CsA+BOS and CsA+MAC that received CsA and BOS (5 mg/kg) or MAC (25 mg/kg) by gavage for 15 days. Plasma creatinine and urea, mean arterial pressure (MAP), RBF and renal vascular resistance (RVR), and immunohistochemistry for ET-1 in the kidney cortex were measured. CsA decreased renal function, as shown by increased creatinine and urea. There was a decrease in RBF and an increase in MAP and RVR in normotensive and hypertensive animals. These effects were partially reversed by ET-1 antagonists, especially in SHR where increased ET-1 production was observed in the kidney. Most MAC effects were similar to BOS, but BOS seemed to be better at reversing cyclosporine-induced changes in renal function in hypertensive animals. The results of this work suggested the direct participation of ET-1 in renal hemodynamics changes induced by cyclosporin in normotensive and hypertensive rats. The antagonists of ET-1 MAC and BOS reversed part of these effects.

  7. Endothelin-1 receptor antagonists protect the kidney against the nephrotoxicity induced by cyclosporine-A in normotensive and hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Caires

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyclosporin-A (CsA is an immunosuppressant associated with acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease. Nephrotoxicity associated with CsA involves the increase in afferent and efferent arteriole resistance, decreased renal blood flow (RBF and glomerular filtration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Endothelin-1 (ET-1 receptor blockade with bosentan (BOS and macitentan (MAC antagonists on altered renal function induced by CsA in normotensive and hypertensive animals. Wistar and genetically hypertensive rats (SHR were separated into control group, CsA group that received intraperitoneal injections of CsA (40 mg/kg for 15 days, CsA+BOS and CsA+MAC that received CsA and BOS (5 mg/kg or MAC (25 mg/kg by gavage for 15 days. Plasma creatinine and urea, mean arterial pressure (MAP, RBF and renal vascular resistance (RVR, and immunohistochemistry for ET-1 in the kidney cortex were measured. CsA decreased renal function, as shown by increased creatinine and urea. There was a decrease in RBF and an increase in MAP and RVR in normotensive and hypertensive animals. These effects were partially reversed by ET-1 antagonists, especially in SHR where increased ET-1 production was observed in the kidney. Most MAC effects were similar to BOS, but BOS seemed to be better at reversing cyclosporine-induced changes in renal function in hypertensive animals. The results of this work suggested the direct participation of ET-1 in renal hemodynamics changes induced by cyclosporin in normotensive and hypertensive rats. The antagonists of ET-1 MAC and BOS reversed part of these effects.

  8. "Interaction of different doses of Aspartame with Morphine-induced antinociception in the presence of MK-801, a NMDA antagonist "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollahi M

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the relative role of sweetness and comparative effects of different taste sensation of the non - caloric sweetener , aspartame on pain and its interaction with MK - 80] as a non - selective MMDA antagonist by formalin - test in mice. The formalin - test was chosen because it measures the response to a long - lasting nociceptive stimulus and closely resembles to the clinical pain. Morphine induced a dose dependent antinociception in the early and late phases of formalin test. Twelve days pretreatment of animals by aspartame ( 0.08% , 0.16% , 0.32% significantly potentiated morphine - induced (1.5-9 mg/kg analgesia in the early phase but significantly antagonized its analgesic effect in the late phase, dose dependently. Aspartame (0.16% alone showed a reduction in pain response . Naloxone (0.4 mg/kg significantly antagonized the antinociceptive effect of morphine in the presence of aspartame (0-0.32% in the early phase. Increasing the dose of aspartame decreased effects of naloxone. MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg as an N- Methyl - D - Aspartate (NMDA antagonist significantly potentiated the effect of aspartame on morphine - induced antinociception in the early phase. In the late phase, naloxone (0.4 mg/kg increased pain response but MK- 801 (0.1 mg/kg induced anti-inflammatory effect significantly. Treatment of animals with MK- 801 alone, significantly induced analgesia in both phases of formalin - test. This effect was potentiated with aspartame dose - dependently. Possible interaction of aspartame with NMDA receptors and its role to facilitate endogenous opioid system are proposed mechanisms of aspartame in modulating morphine - induced antinociception. Furthermore, the resulting association between morphine and aspartame chronic consumption may be explained as an interactive action rather than simple dose combination of both drugs.

  9. Alpha-Adrenoceptor Antagonists Improve Memory by Activating -methyl-D-Aspartate-Induced Ion Currents in the Rat Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Hee Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Alpha1 (α1-adrenoceptor antagonists are widely used to treat lower urinary tract symptoms. These drugs not only act on peripheral tissues, but also cross the blood-brain barrier and affect the central nervous system. Therefore, α1-adrenoceptor antagonists may enhance brain functions. In the present study, we investigated the effects of tamsulosin, an α1-adrenoceptor antagonist, on short-term memory, as well as spatial learning and memory, in rats. Methods: The step-down avoidance test was used to evaluate short-term memory, and an eight-arm radial maze test was used to evaluate spatial learning and memory. TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling staining was performed in order to evaluate the effect of tamsulosin on apoptosis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Patch clamp recordings were used to evaluate the effect of tamsulosin on ionotropic glutamate receptors, such as N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA, amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA, and kainate receptors, in hippocampal CA1 neurons. Results: Tamsulosin treatment improved short-term memory, as well as spatial learning and memory, without altering apoptosis. The amplitudes of NMDA-induced ion currents were dose-dependently increased by tamsulosin. However, the amplitudes of AMPA- and kainate-induced ion currents were not affected by tamsulosin. Conclusions: Tamsulosin enhanced memory function by activating NMDA receptor-mediated ion currents in the hippocampus without initiating apoptosis. The present study suggests the possibility of using tamsulosin to enhance memory under normal conditions, in addition to its use in treating overactive bladder.

  10. Importance of D1 and D2 receptor stimulation for the induction and expression of cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization in preweanling rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Sanders A; Rudberg, Krista N; Veliz, Ana; Dhargalkar, Janhavi M; Garcia, Aleesha S; Romero, Loveth C; Gonzalez, Ashley E; Mohd-Yusof, Alena; Crawford, Cynthia A

    2017-05-30

    The behavioral manifestations of psychostimulant-induced sensitization vary markedly between young and adult rats, suggesting that the neural mechanisms mediating this phenomenon differ across ontogeny. In this project we examined the importance of D1 and D2 receptors for the induction and expression of cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization during the preweanling period. In the behavioral experiments, rats were injected with reversible D1 and/or D2 antagonists (SCH23390 and/or raclopride) or an irreversible receptor antagonist (EEDQ) either before cocaine administration on the pretreatment day (induction) or before cocaine challenge on the test day (expression). In the EEDQ experiments, receptor specificity was assessed by using selective dopamine antagonists to protect D1 and/or D2 receptors from inactivation. Receptor binding assays showed that EEDQ caused substantial reductions in dorsal striatal D1 and D2 binding sites, while SCH23390 and raclopride fully protected D1 and D2 receptors from EEDQ-induced alkylation. Behavioral results showed that neither D1 nor D2 receptor stimulation was necessary for the induction of cocaine sensitization in preweanling rats. EEDQ disrupted the sensitization process, suggesting that another receptor type sensitive to EEDQ alkylation was necessary for the induction process. Expression of the sensitized response was prevented by an acute injection of a D1 receptor antagonist. The pattern of DA antagonist-induced effects described for preweanling rats is, with few exceptions, similar to what is observed when the same drugs are administered to adult rats. Thus, it appears that maturational changes in D1 and D2 receptor systems are not responsible for ontogenetic differences in the behavioral manifestation of cocaine sensitization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Rimonabant, a selective cannabinoid1 receptor antagonist, protects against light-induced retinal degeneration in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Tomoyo; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Inoue, Yuki; Otsuka, Tomohiro; Ohno, Yuta; Ogami, Shiho; Yamane, Shinsaku; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Hara, Hideaki

    2017-05-15

    The endocannabinoid system is involved in some neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. An endogenous constellation of proteins related to cannabinoid 1 receptor signaling, including free fatty acids, diacylglycerol lipase, and N-acylethanolamine-hydrolyzing acid amidase, are localized in the murine retina. Moreover, the expression levels of endogenous agonists of cannabinoid receptors are changed in the vitreous fluid. However, the role of the endocannabinoid system in the retina, particularly in the light-induced photoreceptor degeneration, remains unknown. Therefore, we investigated involvement of the cannabinoid 1 receptor in light-induced retinal degeneration using in vitro and in vivo models. To evaluate the effect of cannabinoid 1 receptors in light irradiation-induced cell death, the mouse retinal cone-cell line (661W) was treated with a cannabinoid 1 receptor antagonist, rimonabant. Time-dependent changes of expression and localization of retinal cannabinoid 1 receptors were measured using Western blot and immunostaining. Retinal damage was induced in mice by exposure to light, followed by intravitreal injection of rimonabant. Electroretinograms and histologic analyses were performed. Rimonabant suppressed light-induced photoreceptor cell death. Cannabinoid 1 receptor expression was upregulated by light exposure. Treatment with rimonabant improved both a- and b-wave amplitudes and the thickness of the outer nuclear layer. These results suggest that the cannabinoid 1 receptor is involved in light-induced retinal degeneration and it may represent a therapeutic target in the light-induced photoreceptor degeneration related diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Radioprotective effects of histamine H2 receptor antagonists famotidine and ranitidine on gamma ray induced chromosome damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, N.K.

    2013-01-01

    Histamine H2 receptor antagonist such as Cimetidine, Famotidine and Ranitidine are used in the clinical treatment of peptic ulcer. In vitro metaphase analysis and micronucleus assay were used to test the effects of famotidine and ranitidine on Cobalt 60 γ-ray induced clastogenic effects. Heparinised whole blood was obtained from healthy non-smoker volunteers. Blood samples were irradiated at a dose of 3Gy and incubated at 37 deg C for 1h. Lymphocyte cultures were initiated for metaphase chromosomes and cytochalasin B blocked micronucleus analysis. Aqueous solution of Famotidine (150 g/ml) and Ranitidine (500 g/ml) was added to the whole blood cultures at 0h and 24h. Cultures were harvested and processed at 48h and 72h for chromosome aberrations and micronucleus analysis respectively. Cultures treated with Famotidine at 0h and 24h after 3Gy γ-ray irradiation induce 60.90% and 56.52% inhibition in dicentrics, 48.70% and 43.61% inhibition in total aberrations. Ranitidine at 0h and 24h after 3Gy γ-ray irradiation induce 52.17% and 43.47% inhibition in dicentrics, 33.60% and 46.15% inhibition in total aberrations, when compared with 3Gy γ-ray irradiation alone. 43-54% inhibition in Binucleated cells with micronuclei and 47.72% inhibition in micronuclei at 0h treatment respectively. In conclusion radioprotective effects of Histamine H2 receptor antagonists famotidine and ranitidine on γ-ray induced chromosome damage is observed and the drugs effectively reduced the frequency of radiation induced chromosome aberrations and micronucleus. Famotidine was found to be more effective. The mechanism in which these drugs reduce clastogenic effect of γ-radiation is not fully understood. It might be due to their antioxidant and free radical-scavenging properties. (author)

  13. Vitamin A active metabolite, all-trans retinoic acid, induces spinal cord sensitization. II. Effects after intrathecal administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alique, M; Lucio, F J; Herrero, J F

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: In our previous study (see accompanying paper) we observed that all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) p.o. induces changes in spinal cord neuronal responses similar to those observed in inflammation-induced sensitization. In the present study we assessed the it. effects of ATRA, and its mechanisms of action. Experimental approach: The effects of all drugs were studied after it. administration in nociceptive withdrawal reflexes using behavioural tests in awake male Wistar rats. Key results: The administration of ATRA in normal rats induced a dose-dependent enhancement of nociceptive responses to noxious mechanical and thermal stimulation, as well as responses to innocuous stimulation. The intensity of the responses was similar to that observed in non-treated animals after carrageenan-induced inflammation. The effect induced by ATRA was fully prevented by the previous administration of the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) pan-antagonist LE540 but not by the retinoid X receptor (RXR) pan-antagonist HX531, suggesting a selective action on spinal cord RARs. The COX inhibitor dexketoprofen and the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist IL-1ra inhibited ATRA effect. The results indicate that COX and interleukin-1 are involved in the effects of ATRA in the spinal cord, similar to that seen in inflammation. Conclusions and implications: In conclusion, ATRA induces changes in the spinal cord similar to those observed in inflammation. The sensitization-like effect induced by ATRA was mediated by RARs and associated with a modulation of COX-2 and interleukin-1 activities. ATRA might be involved in the mechanisms underlying the initiation and/or maintenance of sensitization in the spinal cord. PMID:16847438

  14. Triazole RGD antagonist reverts TGFβ1-induced endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition in endothelial precursor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, Francesca; Peppicelli, Silvia; Fabbrizzi, Pierangelo; Biagioni, Alessio; Mazzanti, Benedetta; Menchi, Gloria; Calorini, Lido; Pupi, Alberto; Trabocchi, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Fibrosis is the dramatic consequence of a dysregulated reparative process in which activated fibroblasts (myofibroblasts) and Transforming Growth Factor β1 (TGFβ1) play a central role. When exposed to TGFβ1, fibroblast and epithelial cells differentiate in myofibroblasts; in addition, endothelial cells may undergo endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndoMT) and actively participate to the progression of fibrosis. Recently, the role of αv integrins, which recognize the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) tripeptide, in the release and signal transduction activation of TGFβ1 became evident. In this study, we present a class of triazole-derived RGD antagonists that interact with αvβ3 integrin. Above different compounds, the RGD-2 specifically interferes with integrin-dependent TGFβ1 EndoMT in Endothelial Colony-Forming Cells (ECPCs) derived from circulating Endothelial Precursor Cells (ECPCs). The RGD-2 decreases the amount of membrane-associated TGFβ1, and reduces both ALK5/TGFβ1 type I receptor expression and Smad2 phosphorylation in ECPCs. We found that RGD-2 antagonist reverts EndoMT, reducing α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and vimentin expression in differentiated ECPCs. Our results outline the critical role of integrin in fibrosis progression and account for the opportunity of using integrins as target for anti-fibrotic therapeutic treatment.

  15. Antagonist targeting microRNA-155 protects against lithium-pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in C57BL/6 mice by activating brain-derived neurotrophic factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengxu eCai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a severe brain disorder affecting numerous patients. Recently, it is inferred that modulation of microRNA-155 (miR-155 could serve as a promising treatment of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE. In the current study, the therapeutic potential of miR-155 antagonist against TLE was evaluated and the underlying mechanism involved in this regulation was explored. TLE model was induced by lithium-pilocarpine method. The effect of miR-155 antagonist on epilepticus symptoms of TLE mice was assessed using Racine classification and electroencephalogram (EEG recordings. The expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and its association with miR-155 were also assessed with a series of experiments. Our results showed that level of miR-155 was significantly up-regulated after induction of TLE model. Based on the results of EEG and behavior analyses, seizures in mice were alleviated by miR-155 antagonist. Moreover, administration of miR-155 antagonist also significantly increased the level of BDNF. The results of dual luciferase assay and western blotting showed that miR-155 antagonist exerted its action on status epilepticus by directly regulating the activity of BDNF. Taken all the information together, our results demonstrated that miR-155 antagonist might firstly induce the expression of BDNF, which then contributed to the alleviation of epilepsy in the current study.

  16. Post-sensitization treatment with rimonabant blocks the expression of cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization and c-Fos protein in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, Eduardo A V; Oliveira-Lima, Alexandre J; Yokoyama, Thais S; Santos-Baldaia, Renan; Ribeiro, Luciana T C; Baldaia, Marilia A; da Silva, Raphael Wuo; Hollais, Andre Willian; Talhati, Fernanda; Longo, Beatriz Monteiro; Berro, Lais Fernanda; Frussa-Filho, Roberto

    2017-05-01

    CB1 receptor antagonists have been shown to prevent acute and long-term behavioral effects of cocaine. Here we evaluate the effectiveness of the CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant to modify sensitized responses to cocaine. Mice were treated with saline or cocaine injections in a 15-day intermittent sensitization treatment and subsequently treated with either vehicle, 1 or 10mg/kg rimonabant in the drug-associated environment for 8 consecutive days. Animals were then challenged with saline and cocaine in the open-field apparatus on subsequent days to evaluate the expression of conditioned and sensitized effects to cocaine. c-Fos protein expression was evaluated in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), ventral tegmental area (VTA), basolateral amygdala (BLA), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and caudate-putamen (CPu) after the last (cocaine) challenge. Previous treatment with 10mg/kg rimonabant blocked the expression of conditioned hyperlocomotion and behavioral sensitization to cocaine, but not acute cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion. These behavioral effects were accompanied by significant changes in c-Fos expression in the brain reward system. Chronic cocaine sensitization blunted a subsequent acute cocaine-induced increase in c-Fos protein in the NAcc, effect that was reversed by previous treatment with rimonabant. Treatment with 10mg/kg rimonabant also attenuated the significant increase in c-Fos expression in the CPu, mPFC and BLA induced by previous chronic sensitization with cocaine. Our findings add to the evidence that drugs targeting CB1 receptors are good candidates for the treatment of cocaine abuse and provide further insights into the mechanisms underlying endocannabinoid signaling within the brain reward system in the context of cocaine abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Short-chain C6 ceramide sensitizes AT406-induced anti-pancreatic cancer cell activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Xiaoguang; Sun, Baoyou; Zhang, Jingjing; Zhang, Ruishen; Zhang, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Our previous study has shown that AT406, a first-in-class small molecular antagonist of IAPs (inhibitor of apoptosis proteins), inhibits pancreatic cancer cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. The aim of this research is to increase AT406's sensitivity by adding short-chain C6 ceramide. We show that co-treatment of C6 ceramide dramatically potentiated AT406-induced caspase/apoptosis activation and cytotoxicity in established (Panc-1 and Mia-PaCa-2 lines) and primary human pancreatic cancer cells. Reversely, caspase inhibitors largely attenuated C6 ceramide plus AT406-induced above cancer cell death. Molecularly, C6 ceramide downregulated Bcl-2 to increase AT406's sensitivity in pancreatic cancer cells. Intriguingly, C6 ceramide-mediated AT406 sensitization was nullified with Bcl-2 shRNA knockdown or pretreatment of the Bcl-2 inhibitor ABT-737. In vivo, liposomal C6 ceramide plus AT406 co-administration dramatically inhibited Panc-1 xenograft tumor growth in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. The combined anti-tumor activity was significantly more potent than either single treatment. Expressions of IAPs (cIAP1/XIAP) and Bcl-2 were downregulated in Panc-1 xenografts with the co-administration. Together, we demonstrate that C6 ceramide sensitizes AT406-mediated anti-pancreatic cancer cell activity possibly via downregulating Bcl-2. - Highlights: • C6 ceramide dramatically potentiates AT406-induced pancreatic cancer cell death. • C6 ceramide facilitates AT406-induced pancreatic cancer cell apoptosis. • C6 ceramide downregulates Bcl-2 to increase AT406's sensitivity in pancreatic cancer cells. • Liposomal C6 ceramide enhances AT406-induced anti-pancreatic cancer activity in vivo.

  18. Competitive and noncompetitive antagonists at N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors protect against methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic damage in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonsalla, P K; Riordan, D E; Heikkila, R E

    1991-02-01

    The administration of methamphetamine (METH) to experimental animals results in damage to nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. We have demonstrated previously that the excitatory amino acids may be involved in this neurotoxicity. For example, several compounds which bind to the phenyclidine site within the ion channel linked to the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor protected mice from the METH-induced loss of neostriatal tyrosine hydroxylase activity and dopamine content. The present study was conducted to characterize further the role of the excitatory amino acids in mediating the neurotoxic effects of METH. The administration of three or four injections of METH (10 mg/kg) every 2 hr to mice produced large decrements in neostriatal dopamine content (80-84%) and in tyrosine hydroxylase activity (65-74%). A dose-dependent protection against these METH-induced decreases was seen with two noncompetitive NMDA antagonists, ifenprodil and SL 82.0715 (25-50 mg/kg/injection), both of which are thought to bind to a polyamine or sigma site associated with the NMDA receptor complex, and with two competitive NMDA antagonists, CGS 19755 (25-50 mg/kg/injection) and NPC 12626 (150-300 mg/kg/injection). Moreover, an intrastriatal infusion of NMDA (0.1 mumol) produced a slight but significant loss of neostriatal dopamine which was potentiated in mice that also received a systemic injection of METH. The results of these studies strengthen the hypothesis that the excitatory amino acids play a critical role in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic damage induced by METH.

  19. Effect of paraoxon on muscarinic, dopamine and γ-aminobutyric acid receptors of brain and sensitivity to muscarinic antagonists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernando, J.C.R.; Hoskins, B.; Ho, I.K.

    1986-01-01

    Several acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors decrease muscarinic cholinergic (mACh) receptors in the brain, alteration of dopamine (DA) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors after AChE inhibition was also reported. In view of the important interactions among DA, GABA and ACh systems, whether this is a common effect of AChE inhibitors should be established. They report the effect of the AChE inhibitor, paraoxon, on DA, GABA and mACh receptors in the rat. The binding of 3 H-QNB (for mACh), 3 H-spiperone (for DA) and 3 H-muscimol (for GABA) to striatal and hippocampal membranes was analyzed. Also, behavioral sensitivity to atropine was studied. Twenty-four hr after a single dose (0.75 mg/kg, s.c.) of paraoxon, the density of mACh receptors in the striatum was decreased but, at 3 days, no change was seen. In the hippocampus, the mACh receptors were not affected. Repeated treatment with paraoxon (0.3 mg/kg, 48 hourly) for 2 weeks reduced the mACh receptor density in both regions. Neither single nor repeated paraoxon treatment had an effect on DA or GABA receptors. After single or repeated dosing with paraoxon, myoclonus induced by atropine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) was enhanced. The results show rapid downregulation of mACh receptors by paraoxon. DA or GABA, however, appear not to be affected under these treatment regimens

  20. Fasitibant chloride, a kinin B2 receptor antagonist, and dexamethasone interact to inhibit carrageenan-induced inflammatory arthritis in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenti, Claudio; Giuliani, Sandro; Cialdai, Cecilia; Tramontana, Manuela; Maggi, Carlo Alberto

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Bradykinin, through the kinin B2 receptor, is involved in inflammatory processes related to arthropathies. B2 receptor antagonists inhibited carrageenan-induced arthritis in rats in synergy with anti-inflammatory steroids. The mechanism(s) underlying this drug interaction was investigated. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Drugs inhibiting inflammatory mediators released by carrageenan were injected, alone or in combination, into the knee joint of pentobarbital anaesthetized rats 30 min before intra-articular administration of carrageenan. Their effects on the carrageenan-induced inflammatory responses (joint pain, oedema and neutrophil recruitment) and release of inflammatory mediators (prostaglandins, IL-1β, IL-6 and the chemokine GRO/CINC-1), were assessed after 6 h. KEY RESULTS The combination of fasitibant chloride (MEN16132) and dexamethasone was more effective than each drug administered alone in inhibiting knee joint inflammation and release of inflammatory mediators. Fasitibant chloride, MK571, atenolol, des-Arg9-[Leu8]-bradykinin (B2 receptor, leukotriene, catecholamine and B1 receptor antagonists, respectively) and dexketoprofen (COX inhibitor), reduced joint pain and, except for the latter, also diminished joint oedema. A combination of drugs inhibiting joint pain (fasitibant chloride, des-Arg9-[Leu8]-bradykinin, dexketoprofen, MK571 and atenolol) and oedema (fasitibant chloride, des-Arg9-[Leu8]-bradykinin, MK571 and atenolol) abolished the respective inflammatory response, producing inhibition comparable with that achieved with the combination of fasitibant chloride and dexamethasone. MK571 alone was able to block neutrophil recruitment. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Bradykinin-mediated inflammatory responses to intra-articular carrageenan were not controlled by steroids, which were not capable of preventing bradykinin effects either by direct activation of the B2 receptor, or through the indirect effects mediated by release of eicosanoids

  1. CGRP receptor antagonist olcegepant (BIBN4096BS) does not prevent glyceryl trinitrate-induced migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedskov, J F; Tfelt-Hansen, P; Petersen, K A

    2010-01-01

    and in nine of 13 with placebo (p=0.68). The headache scores were similar after the two treatments (p=0.58). Thus CGRP receptor blockade did not prevent GTN-induced migraine. CONCLUSIONS: The present study indicates that NO does not induce migraine by liberating CGRP. The most likely explanation for our...

  2. N-acetyl-L-tryptophan, a substance-P receptor antagonist attenuates aluminum-induced spatial memory deficit in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Joylee; Mudgal, Jayesh; Rao, Chamallamudi Mallikarjuna; Arora, Devinder; Basu Mallik, Sanchari; Pai, K S R; Nampoothiri, Madhavan

    2018-06-01

    Neuroinflammation plays an important role in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease. Neurokinin substance P is a key mediator which modulates neuroinflammation through neurokinin receptor. Involvement of substance P in Alzheimer's disease is still plausible and various controversies exist in this hypothesis. Preventing the deleterious effects of substance P using N-acetyl-L-tryptophan, a substance P antagonist could be a promising therapeutic strategy. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of N-acetyl-L-tryptophan on aluminum induced spatial memory alterations in rats. Memory impairment was induced using aluminum chloride (AlCl 3 ) at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 42 d. After induction of dementia, rats were exposed to 30 and 50 mg/kg of N-acetyl-L-tryptophan for 28 d. Spatial memory alterations were measured using Morris water maze. Acetylcholinesterase activity and antioxidant enzyme glutathione level were assessed in hippocampus, frontal cortex and striatum. The higher dose of N-acetyl-L-tryptophan (50 mg/kg) significantly improved the aluminum induced memory alterations. N-acetyl-L-tryptophan exposure resulted in significant increase in acetylcholinesterase activity and glutathione level in hippocampus. The neuroprotective effect of N-acetyl-L-tryptophan could be due to its ability to block substance P mediated neuroinflammation, reduction in oxidative stress and anti-apoptotic properties. To conclude, N-acetyl-L-tryptophan may be considered as a novel neuroprotective therapy in Alzheimer's disease.

  3. Ghrelin receptor antagonism of morphine-induced conditioned place preference and behavioral and accumbens dopaminergic sensitization in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerabek, Pavel; Havlickova, Tereza; Puskina, Nina; Charalambous, Chrysostomos; Lapka, Marek; Kacer, Petr; Sustkova-Fiserova, Magdalena

    2017-11-01

    An increasing number of studies over the past few years have demonstrated ghrelin's role in alcohol, cocaine and nicotine abuse. However, the role of ghrelin in opioid effects has rarely been examined. Recently we substantiated in rats that ghrelin growth hormone secretagogue receptors (GHS-R1A) appear to be involved in acute opioid-induced changes in the mesolimbic dopaminergic system associated with the reward processing. The aim of the present study was to ascertain whether a ghrelin antagonist (JMV2959) was able to inhibit morphine-induced biased conditioned place preference and challenge-morphine-induced accumbens dopaminergic sensitization and behavioral sensitization in adult male rats. In the place preference model, the rats were conditioned for 8 days with morphine (10 mg/kg s.c.). On the experimental day, JMV2959 (3 and 6 mg/kg i.p.) or saline were administered before testing. We used in vivo microdialysis to determine changes of dopamine and its metabolites in the nucleus accumbens in rats following challenge-morphine dose (5 mg/kg s.c.) with or without JMV2959 (3 and 6 mg/kg i.p.) pretreatment, administered on the 12th day of spontaneous abstinence from morphine repeated treatment (5 days, 10-40 mg/kg). Induced behavioral changes were simultaneously monitored. Pretreatment with JMV2959 significantly and dose dependently reduced the morphine-induced conditioned place preference and significantly and dose dependently reduced the challenge-morphine-induced dopaminergic sensitization and affected concentration of by-products associated with dopamine metabolism in the nucleus accumbens. JMV2959 pretreatment also significantly reduced challenge-morphine-induced behavioral sensitization. Our present data suggest that GHS-R1A antagonists deserve to be further investigated as a novel treatment strategy for opioid addiction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. CGRP receptors mediating CGRP-, adrenomedullin- and amylin-induced relaxation in porcine coronary arteries. Characterization with 'Compound 1' (WO98/11128), a non-peptide antagonist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasbak, P; Sams, A; Schifter, S

    2001-01-01

    . The partial porcine mRNA sequences shared 82 - 92% nucleotide identity with human sequences. 3. The human peptides alphaCGRP, betaCGRP, AM and amylin induced relaxation with pEC(50) values of 8.1, 8.1, 6.7 and 6.1 M respectively. 4. The antagonistic properties of a novel non-peptide CGRP antagonist 'Compound...... 1' (WO98/11128), betaCGRP(8 - 37) and the proposed AM receptor antagonist AM(22 - 52) were compared to the well-known CGRP(1) receptor antagonist alphaCGRP(8 - 37). 5. The alphaCGRP(8 - 37) and betaCGRP(8 - 37) induced concentration-dependent (10(-7) - 10(-5) M) rightward shift of both the alpha......(-6) M) had no significant antagonistic effect. 7. In conclusion, the building blocks forming CGRP and AM receptors were present in the porcine LAD, whereas those of the amylin receptor were not. alphaCGRP, betaCGRP, AM and amylin mediated vasorelaxation via the CGRP receptors. No functional response...

  5. One week treatment with the IL-1 receptor antagonist anakinra leads to a sustained improvement in insulin sensitivity in insulin resistant patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asseldonk, Edwin J P; van Poppel, Pleun C M; Ballak, Dov B; Stienstra, Rinke; Netea, Mihai G; Tack, Cees J

    2015-10-01

    Inflammation associated with obesity is involved in the development of insulin resistance. We hypothesized that anti-inflammatory treatment with the Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist anakinra would improve insulin sensitivity. In an open label proof-of-concept study, we included overweight patients diagnosed with type 1 diabetes with an HbA1c level over 7.5%. Selecting insulin resistant patients with longstanding type 1 diabetes allowed us to study the effects of anakinra on insulin sensitivity. Patients were treated with 100mg anakinra daily for one week. Insulin sensitivity, insulin need and blood glucose profiles were measured before, after one week and after four weeks of follow-up. Fourteen patients completed the study. One week of anakinra treatment led to an improvement of insulin sensitivity, an effect that was sustained for four weeks. Similarly, glucose profiles, HbA1c levels and insulin needs improved. In conclusion, one week of treatment with anakinra improves insulin sensitivity in patients with type 1 diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The NMDA antagonist memantine affects training induced motor cortex plasticity – a study using transcranial magnetic stimulation [ISRCTN65784760

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwenkreis Peter

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Training of a repetitive synchronised movement of two limb muscles leads to short-term plastic changes in the primary motor cortex, which can be assessed by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS mapping. We used this paradigm to study the effect of memantine, a NDMA antagonist, on short-term motor cortex plasticity in 20 healthy human subjects, and we were especially interested in possible differential effects of different treatment regimens. In a randomised double-blinded cross over study design we therefore administered placebo or memantine either as a single dosage or as an ascending dosage over 8 days. Before and after one hour of motor training, which consisted of a repetitive co-contraction of the abductor pollicis brevis (APB and the deltoid muscle, we assessed the motor output map of the APB muscle by TMS under the different conditions. Results We found a significant medial shift of the APB motor output map after training in the placebo condition, indicating training-induced short-term plastic changes in the motor cortex. A single dosage of memantine had no significant effect on this training-induced plasticity, whereas memantine administered in an ascending dosage over 8 days was able to block the cortical effect of the motor training. The memantine serum levels after 8 days were markedly higher than the serum levels after a single dosage of memantine, but there was no individual correlation between the shift of the motor output map and the memantine serum level. Besides, repeated administration of a low memantine dosage also led to an effective blockade of training-induced cortical plasticity in spite of serum levels comparable to those reached after single dose administration, suggesting that the repeated administration was more important for the blocking effect than the memantine serum levels. Conclusion We conclude that the NMDA-antagonist memantine is able to block training-induced motor cortex plasticity when

  7. Effect of the AT1-receptor antagonists losartan, irbesartan, and telmisartan on angiotensin II-induced facilitation of sympathetic neurotransmission in the rat mesenteric artery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balt, J. C.; Mathy, M. J.; Nap, A.; Pfaffendorf, M.; van Zwieten, P. A.

    2001-01-01

    SUMMARY: The effect of the AT1-receptor antagonists losartan, irbesartan, and telmisartan on angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced facilitation of noradrenergic neurotransmission was investigated in the isolated rat mesenteric artery under isometric conditions. Electrical field stimulation (2, 4, and 8

  8. Vitamin K-antagonists accelerate atherosclerotic calcification and induce a vulnerable plaque phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon J Schurgers

    Full Text Available Vitamin K-antagonists (VKA are treatment of choice and standard care for patients with venous thrombosis and thromboembolic risk. In experimental animal models as well as humans, VKA have been shown to promote medial elastocalcinosis. As vascular calcification is considered an independent risk factor for plaque instability, we here investigated the effect of VKA on coronary calcification in patients and on calcification of atherosclerotic plaques in the ApoE(-/- model of atherosclerosis.A total of 266 patients (133 VKA users and 133 gender and Framingham Risk Score matched non-VKA users underwent 64-slice MDCT to assess the degree of coronary artery disease (CAD. VKA-users developed significantly more calcified coronary plaques as compared to non-VKA users. ApoE(-/- mice (10 weeks received a Western type diet (WTD for 12 weeks, after which mice were fed a WTD supplemented with vitamin K(1 (VK(1, 1.5 mg/g or vitamin K(1 and warfarin (VK(1&W; 1.5 mg/g & 3.0 mg/g for 1 or 4 weeks, after which mice were sacrificed. Warfarin significantly increased frequency and extent of vascular calcification. Also, plaque calcification comprised microcalcification of the intimal layer. Furthermore, warfarin treatment decreased plaque expression of calcification regulatory protein carboxylated matrix Gla-protein, increased apoptosis and, surprisingly outward plaque remodeling, without affecting overall plaque burden.VKA use is associated with coronary artery plaque calcification in patients with suspected CAD and causes changes in plaque morphology with features of plaque vulnerability in ApoE(-/- mice. Our findings underscore the need for alternative anticoagulants that do not interfere with the vitamin K cycle.

  9. Reversal of sibutramine-induced anorexia with a selective 5-HT(2C) receptor antagonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, Suzanne; Cooper, Alison J; Barnes, Nicholas M

    2011-04-01

    The monoamine reuptake inhibitor sibutramine reduces food intake but the receptor subtypes mediating the effects of sibutramine on feeding remain to be clearly identified. The involvement of the 5-HT(2C) receptor subtype in the satiety-enhancing effects of sibutramine was investigated by examining the effects of co-administration of sibutramine with the selective 5-HT(2C) receptor antagonist SB 242084 Microstructural analyses of licking for a glucose solution by non-deprived, male rats were performed over a range of doses of sibutramine to identify a selective satiety-enhancing dose (experiment 1). Similar analyses were performed after administration of a vehicle control, two doses of SB 242084 alone or two doses of SB 242084 in combination with sibutramine (experiment 2). Sibutramine at doses of 1-3 mg/kg selectively reduced glucose consumption via a reduction in the number of bouts of licking. Non-selective effects to increase latency to lick were only observed at the higher dose of 6 mg/kg. Co-administration of sibutramine (3 mg/kg) with SB 242084 (1 or 3 mg/kg) reversed the effect of sibutramine on bout number whereas either dose of SB 242084 alone had no significant effect. We confirm behaviourally selective effects of sibutramine on feeding and provide further support for the satiety-enhancing effects of sibutramine. Our data also provide evidence for the involvement of the 5-HT(2C) receptor in the satiety-enhancing effects of sibutramine although additional targets may have an impact, and further investigation of the molecular mechanisms underlying the efficacy of sibutramine as an anorectic is warranted.

  10. Effects of the mGluR5 antagonist MPEP on ethanol withdrawal induced anxiety-like syndrome in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Jaya; Hapidin, Hermizi; Bee, Yvonne-Tee Get; Ismail, Zalina

    2013-11-26

    Abstinence from chronic ethanol consumption leads to the manifestation of a variety of symptoms attributed to central nervous system hyperexcitability, such as increased irritability, anxiety, and restlessness. Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) in addictive behaviours. This study investigates the effects of the mGluR5 antagonist 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine (MPEP) on ethanol withdrawal induced anxiety using two behavioural paradigms. Male Wistar rats were fed a Modified Liquid Diet (MLD) containing low fat cow milk, sucrose, and maltodextrin with a gradual introduction of 2.4%, 4.8% and 7.2% ethanol for 20 days. Six hours into ethanol withdrawal, the rats were intraperitoneally injected with normal saline and MPEP (2.5, 5.0, 10, 20, 30 mg/kg) and were assessed for ethanol withdrawal induced anxiety-like syndrome using an automated elevated plus maze and an open field. MPEP at 10 mg/kg significantly attenuated ethanol withdrawal induced anxiety without any compromising effects on locomotor activities. Despite reversing several indices of ethanol withdrawal induced anxiety in both the elevated plus maze and the open field, low doses of MPEP (2.5, 5 mg/kg) significantly compromised the locomotor activities of ethanol withdrawn rats. High doses of MPEP (20 and 30 mg/kg) significantly attenuated withdrawal anxiety when tested in the elevated plus maze but not in the open field. Administration of MPEP (2.5, 5, 10, 20, 30 mg/kg) has no significant compromising effect on the locomotor activities of ethanol naïve rats. Despite significantly reducing withdrawal anxiety in both behavioural paradigms at 10 mg/kg, the compromising effects of low and high doses of MPEP must be further explored along with the therapeutic efficiency of this drug for relieving withdrawal induced anxiety.

  11. Efficacy of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists in radiotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: A quantitative systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tramer, M.R.; Reynolds, D.J.M.; Stoner, N.S.; Moore, R.A.; McQuay, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    5-HT 3 receptor antagonists are used to treat radiation-induced sickness. The purpose of this study was to define anti-emetic efficacy and potential for harm of these drugs in radiotherapy. A systematic search, critical appraisal and quantitative analysis of relevant data using the number-needed-to-treat or harm (NNT/H) were conducted. Acute (0 to 24 h) and delayed (beyond 24 h) anti-emetic efficacy were analysed separately. Data from 1,404 patients were found in 40 trials published in 36 reports. Data from 197 patients receiving ondansetron or granisetron in five randomised trials were regarded as valid according to preset criteria. One placebo-controlled trial had 10 patients per group and in this ondansetron was not significantly different from placebo. In a larger (n=105) placebo-controlled trial, ondansetron was significantly more efficacious than metoclopramide for complete control of acute vomiting (NNT 2.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7-3.3) and acute nausea (NNT 3.6, 95% CI 2.2-10.2). Three trials reported delayed outcomes with ondansetron or granisetron: there was no evidence of any difference compared with placebo or other anti-emetics. Two trials reported no acute or delayed but a 'worst day' outcome; in these ondansetron's antivomiting effect was significantly better than placebo (NNT 4.4, 95% CI 2.5-23) or prochlorperazine (NNT 3.8, 95% CI 2.4-10.3), but not its antinausea effect. Constipation and headache were associated significantly with 5-HT 3 receptor antagonists compared with other anti-emetics or placebo (NNH 6.4 and 17.1, respectively). Only 14% of published data enabled valid estimation of the anti-emetic efficacy of 5-HT 3 receptor antagonists in radiotherapy. There was some evidence that these drugs prevent acute vomiting: 40% of treated patients will benefit (NNT approximately 2.5). The evidence for nausea was less clear. There was no evidence that these drugs are of any benefit beyond 24 h. There was evidence that they produce specific

  12. Efficacy of 5-HT{sub 3} receptor antagonists in radiotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: A quantitative systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tramer, M.R. [Pain Research and Nuffield Department of Anaesthetics, University of Oxford, Oxford Radcliffe Hospital, The Churchill, Headington, Oxford (United Kingdom); Reynolds, D.J.M. [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford, Radcliffe Hospital (United Kingdom); Stoner, N.S. [ICRF Department of Medical Oncology, Oxford Radcliffe Hospital (United Kingdom); Moore, R.A.; McQuay, H.J. [Pain Research and Nuffield Department of Anaesthetics, University of Oxford, Oxford Radcliffe Hospital, The Churchill, Headington, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    1998-11-01

    5-HT{sub 3} receptor antagonists are used to treat radiation-induced sickness. The purpose of this study was to define anti-emetic efficacy and potential for harm of these drugs in radiotherapy. A systematic search, critical appraisal and quantitative analysis of relevant data using the number-needed-to-treat or harm (NNT/H) were conducted. Acute (0 to 24 h) and delayed (beyond 24 h) anti-emetic efficacy were analysed separately. Data from 1,404 patients were found in 40 trials published in 36 reports. Data from 197 patients receiving ondansetron or granisetron in five randomised trials were regarded as valid according to preset criteria. One placebo-controlled trial had 10 patients per group and in this ondansetron was not significantly different from placebo. In a larger (n=105) placebo-controlled trial, ondansetron was significantly more efficacious than metoclopramide for complete control of acute vomiting (NNT 2.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7-3.3) and acute nausea (NNT 3.6, 95% CI 2.2-10.2). Three trials reported delayed outcomes with ondansetron or granisetron: there was no evidence of any difference compared with placebo or other anti-emetics. Two trials reported no acute or delayed but a 'worst day' outcome; in these ondansetron's antivomiting effect was significantly better than placebo (NNT 4.4, 95% CI 2.5-23) or prochlorperazine (NNT 3.8, 95% CI 2.4-10.3), but not its antinausea effect. Constipation and headache were associated significantly with 5-HT{sub 3} receptor antagonists compared with other anti-emetics or placebo (NNH 6.4 and 17.1, respectively). Only 14% of published data enabled valid estimation of the anti-emetic efficacy of 5-HT{sub 3} receptor antagonists in radiotherapy. There was some evidence that these drugs prevent acute vomiting: 40% of treated patients will benefit (NNT approximately 2.5). The evidence for nausea was less clear. There was no evidence that these drugs are of any benefit beyond 24 h. There was

  13. Antagonist effects of veratric acid against UVB-induced cell damages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seoung Woo; Jung, Eunsun; Kim, Seungbeom; Lee, Kyung-Eun; Youm, Jong-Kyung; Park, Deokhoon

    2013-05-10

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces DNA damage, oxidative stress, and inflammatory processes in human epidermis, resulting in inflammation, photoaging, and photocarcinogenesis. Adequate protection of skin against the harmful effect of UV irradiation is essential. In recent years naturally occurring herbal compounds such as phenolic acids, flavonoids, and high molecular weight polyphenols have gained considerable attention as beneficial protective agents. The simple phenolic veratric acid (VA, 3,4-dimethoxybenzoic acid) is one of the major benzoic acid derivatives from vegetables and fruits and it also occurs naturally in medicinal mushrooms which have been reported to have anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities. However, it has rarely been applied in skin care. This study, therefore, aimed to explore the possible roles of veratric acid in protection against UVB-induced damage in HaCaT cells. Results showed that veratric acid can attenuate cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) formation, glutathione (GSH) depletion and apoptosis induced by UVB. Furthermore, veratric acid had inhibitory effects on the UVB-induced release of the inflammatory mediators such as IL-6 and prostaglandin-E2. We also confirmed the safety and clinical efficacy of veratric acid on human skin. Overall, results demonstrated significant benefits of veratric acid on the protection of keratinocyte against UVB-induced injuries and suggested its potential use in skin photoprotection.

  14. Antagonist Effects of Veratric Acid against UVB-Induced Cell Damages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deokhoon Park

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet (UV radiation induces DNA damage, oxidative stress, and inflammatory processes in human epidermis, resulting in inflammation, photoaging, and photocarcinogenesis. Adequate protection of skin against the harmful effect of UV irradiation is essential. In recent years naturally occurring herbal compounds such as phenolic acids, flavonoids, and high molecular weight polyphenols have gained considerable attention as beneficial protective agents. The simple phenolic veratric acid (VA, 3,4-dimethoxybenzoic acid is one of the major benzoic acid derivatives from vegetables and fruits and it also occurs naturally in medicinal mushrooms which have been reported to have anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities. However, it has rarely been applied in skin care. This study, therefore, aimed to explore the possible roles of veratric acid in protection against UVB-induced damage in HaCaT cells. Results showed that veratric acid can attenuate cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs formation, glutathione (GSH depletion and apoptosis induced by UVB. Furthermore, veratric acid had inhibitory effects on the UVB-induced release of the inflammatory mediators such as IL-6 and prostaglandin-E2. We also confirmed the safety and clinical efficacy of veratric acid on human skin. Overall, results demonstrated significant benefits of veratric acid on the protection of keratinocyte against UVB-induced injuries and suggested its potential use in skin photoprotection.

  15. Impact of a CXCL12/CXCR4 Antagonist in Bleomycin (BLM Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis and Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4 Induced Hepatic Fibrosis in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leola N Chow

    Full Text Available Modulation of chemokine CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 has been implicated in attenuation of bleomycin (BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced hepatic injury. In pulmonary fibrosis, published reports suggest that collagen production in the injured lung is derived from fibrocytes recruited from the circulation in response to release of pulmonary CXCL12. Conversely, in hepatic fibrosis, resident hepatic stellate cells (HSC, the key cell type in progression of fibrosis, upregulate CXCR4 expression in response to activation. Further, CXCL12 induces HSC proliferation and subsequent production of collagen I. In the current study, we evaluated AMD070, an orally bioavailable inhibitor of CXCL12/CXCR4 in alleviating BLM-induced pulmonary and CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis in mice. Similar to other CXCR4 antagonists, treatment with AMD070 significantly increased leukocyte mobilization. However, in these two models of fibrosis, AMD070 had a negligible impact on extracellular matrix deposition. Interestingly, our results indicated that CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling has a role in improving mortality associated with BLM induced pulmonary injury, likely through dampening an early inflammatory response and/or vascular leakage. Together, these findings indicate that the CXCL12-CXCR4 signaling axis is not an effective target for reducing fibrosis.

  16. Effects of the histamine H₃ receptor antagonist ABT-239 on cognition and nicotine-induced memory enhancement in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruk, Marta; Miszkiel, Joanna; McCreary, Andrew C; Przegaliński, Edmund; Filip, Małgorzata; Biała, Grażyna

    2012-01-01

    The strong correlation between central histaminergic and cholinergic pathways on cognitive processes has been reported extensively. However, the role of histamine H(3) receptor mechanisms interacting with nicotinic mechanisms has not previously been extensively investigated. The current study was conducted to determine the interactions of nicotinic and histamine H(3) receptor systems with regard to learning and memory function using a modified elevated plus-maze test in mice. In this test, the latency for mice to move from the open arm to the enclosed arm (i.e., transfer latency) was used as an index of memory. We tested whether ABT-239 (4-(2-{2-[(2R)-2-methylpyrrolidinyl]ethyl}-benzofuran-5-yl), an H(3) receptor antagonist/inverse agonist, had influence on two different stages of memory, i.e., memory acquisition and consolidation (administered prior to or immediately after the first trial, respectively) and whether ABT-239 influenced nicotine-induced memory enhancement. Our results revealed that the acute administration of nicotine (0.035 and 0.175 mg/kg), but not of ABT-239 (0.1-3 mg/kg) reduced transfer latency in the acquisition and consolidation phases. In combination studies, concomitant administration of either ABT-239 (1 and 3 mg/kg) and nicotine (0.035 mg/kg), or ABT-239 (0.1 mg/kg) and nicotine (0.0175 mg/kg) further increased nicotine-induced improvement in both memory acquisition and consolidation. The present data confirm an important role for H(3) receptors in regulating nicotine-induced mnemonic effects since inhibition of H(3) receptors augmented nicotine-induced memory enhancement in mice.

  17. The selective orexin receptor 1 antagonist ACT-335827 in a rat model of diet-induced obesity associated with metabolic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Steiner, Michel A.; Sciarretta, Carla; Pasquali, Anne; Jenck, Francois

    2013-01-01

    The orexin system regulates feeding, nutrient metabolism and energy homeostasis. Acute pharmacological blockade of orexin receptor 1 (OXR-1) in rodents induces satiety and reduces normal and palatable food intake. Genetic OXR-1 deletion in mice improves hyperglycemia under high-fat (HF) diet conditions. Here we investigated the effects of chronic treatment with the novel selective OXR-1 antagonist ACT-335827 in a rat model of diet-induced obesity (DIO) associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS...

  18. A RNA antagonist of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha, EZN-2968, inhibits tumor cell growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greenberger, Lee M; Horak, Ivan D; Filpula, David

    2008-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor that plays a critical role in angiogenesis, survival, metastasis, drug resistance, and glucose metabolism. Elevated expression of the alpha-subunit of HIF-1 (HIF-1alpha), which occurs in response to hypoxia or activation of growth facto...

  19. Antagonist Effects of Veratric Acid against UVB-Induced Cell Damages

    OpenAIRE

    Deokhoon Park; Jong-Kyung Youm; Kyung-Eun Lee; Seungbeom Kim; Eunsun Jung; Seoung Woo Shin

    2013-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces DNA damage, oxidative stress, and inflammatory processes in human epidermis, resulting in inflammation, photoaging, and photocarcinogenesis. Adequate protection of skin against the harmful effect of UV irradiation is essential. In recent years naturally occurring herbal compounds such as phenolic acids, flavonoids, and high molecular weight polyphenols have gained considerable attention as beneficial protective agents. The simple phenolic veratric acid (VA, ...

  20. Inhibition of Common Cold-Induced Aggravation of Childhood Asthma by Leukotriene Receptor Antagonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigemi Yoshihara

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: : These findings showed a high prevalence of common cold in younger patients with childhood asthma and indicated that common cold can induce aggravation of asthma. LTRAs are useful for long-term asthma control in very young patients who develop an asthma attack due to a common cold.

  1. The NK-1 Receptor Antagonist L-732,138 Induces Apoptosis and Counteracts Substance P-Related Mitogenesis in Human Melanoma Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Muñoz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been recently demonstrated that substance P (SP and neurokinin-1 (NK-1 receptor antagonists induce cell proliferation and cell inhibition in human melanoma cells, respectively. However, the antitumor action of the NK-1 receptor antagonist L-732,138 on such cells is unknown. The aim of this study was to demonstrate an antitumor action of L-732,138 against three human melanoma cell lines (COLO 858, MEL HO, COLO 679. We found that L-732,138 elicits cell growth inhibition in a concentration dependent manner in the melanoma cells studied. Moreover, L-732,138 blocks SP mitogen stimulation. The specific antitumor action of L-732,138 occurred through the NK-1 receptor and melanoma cell death was by apoptosis. These findings indicate that the NK-1 receptor antagonist L-732,138 could be a new antitumor agent in the treatment of human melanoma.

  2. The NK-1 Receptor Antagonist L-732,138 Induces Apoptosis and Counteracts Substance P-Related Mitogenesis in Human Melanoma Cell Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muñoz, Miguel, E-mail: mmunoz@cica.es; Rosso, Marisa; González-Ortega, Ana [Research Laboratory on Neuropeptides, Virgen del Rocío University Hospital, Sevilla (Spain); Coveñas, Rafael [Institute of Neurosciences of Castilla y León (INCYL), Laboratory of Neuroanatomy of the Peptidergic Systems (Laboratory 14), Salamanca (Spain)

    2010-04-20

    It has been recently demonstrated that substance P (SP) and neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor antagonists induce cell proliferation and cell inhibition in human melanoma cells, respectively. However, the antitumor action of the NK-1 receptor antagonist L-732,138 on such cells is unknown. The aim of this study was to demonstrate an antitumor action of L-732,138 against three human melanoma cell lines (COLO 858, MEL HO, COLO 679). We found that L-732,138 elicits cell growth inhibition in a concentration dependent manner in the melanoma cells studied. Moreover, L-732,138 blocks SP mitogen stimulation. The specific antitumor action of L-732,138 occurred through the NK-1 receptor and melanoma cell death was by apoptosis. These findings indicate that the NK-1 receptor antagonist L-732,138 could be a new antitumor agent in the treatment of human melanoma.

  3. Butyrate down regulates BCL-XL and sensitizes human fibroblasts to radiation and chemotherapy induced apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Diana H.; Ljungman, Mats; Zhang Fenfen; Chen Feng; McLaughlin, William P.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Butyrate is a short chain fatty acid that has been implicated in the induction of cell cycle arrest, cell differentiation and apoptosis. The purpose of this study was to determine if butyrate treatment sensitizes cells to radiation or chemotherapy induced apoptosis. Materials and Methods: Normal neonatal human diploid fibroblasts were used throughout this study. Apoptosis was scored and quantified using three different methods. First, cell morphology using propidium iodide and fluorescence microscopy was used to qualitatively determine apoptosis and to quantify the percentage of cells undergoing apoptosis. Second, apoptosis induced DNA degradation was scored by quantifying the amount of cells appearing in a sub-G1 peak using fixed and PI-stained cells and flow cytometry. Third, apoptosis-induced DNA degradation was examined by using an assay involving direct lysis of cells in the wells of agarose gels followed by conventional gel electrophoresis. Western blotting was used to quantify the cellular levels of the apoptosis regulators, Bcl-2, Bcl-XL and Bax. Results: Human diploid fibroblasts, which were resistant to radiation induced apoptosis, were found to undergo massive apoptosis when radiation was combined with butyrate treatment. Sensitization was obtained when butyrate was added before or after radiation although the combination of both pre and post-treatment was the most effective. Butyrate was also found to enhance UV light and cisplatin-induced apoptosis. These findings correlated with a reduction of the apoptosis antagonist Bcl-XL. Bcl-XL levels significantly dropped in a time and dose dependent manner. In addition, butyrate effectively blocked UV-induced accumulation of p53. Conclusion: Our results suggest that butyrate may be an attractive agent to use in combination with radiation or chemotherapy to lower the apoptotic threshold of tumor cells, regardless of the p53 status of the tumor cells

  4. Inhibition of Common Cold-Induced Aggravation of Childhood Asthma by Leukotriene Receptor Antagonists

    OpenAIRE

    Shigemi Yoshihara; Hironobu Fukuda; Toshio Abe; Mitsuhiro Nishida; Yumi Yamada; Noriko Kanno; Osamu Arisaka

    2012-01-01

    Background: : Virus infection is an important risk factor for aggravation of childhood asthma. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of drugs on aggravation of asthma induced by a common cold. Methods: : Asthma control was examined in a survey of 1,014 Japanese pediatric patients with bronchial asthma. The occurrence of common cold, asthma control, and drugs used for asthma control were investigated using a modified Childhood Asthma Control Test (C-ACT) for patients aged

  5. Acute stress-induced sensitization of the pituitary-adrenal response to heterotypic stressors: independence of glucocorticoid release and activation of CRH1 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belda, Xavier; Daviu, Núria; Nadal, Roser; Armario, Antonio

    2012-09-01

    A single exposure to some severe stressors causes sensitization of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) response to novel stressors. However, the putative factors involved in stress-induced sensitization are not known. In the present work we studied in adult male rats the possible role of glucocorticoids and CRH type 1 receptor (CRH-R1), using an inhibitor of glucocorticoid synthesis (metyrapone, MET), the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist RU38486 (mifepristone) and the non-peptide CRH-R1 antagonist R121919. In a first experiment we demonstrated with different doses of MET (40-150 mg/kg) that the highest dose acted as a pharmacological stressor greatly increasing ACTH release and altering the normal circadian pattern of HPA hormones, but no dose affected ACTH responsiveness to a novel environment as assessed 3 days after drug administration. In a second experiment, we found that MET, at a dose (75 mg/kg) that blocked the corticosterone response to immobilization (IMO), did not alter IMO-induced ACTH sensitization. Finally, neither the GR nor the CRH-R1 antagonists blocked IMO-induced ACTH sensitization on the day after IMO. Thus, a high dose of MET, in contrast to IMO, was unable to sensitize the HPA response to a novel environment despite the huge activation of the HPA axis caused by the drug. Neither a moderate dose of MET that markedly reduced corticosterone response to IMO, nor the blockade of GR or CRH-R1 receptors was able to alter stress-induced HPA sensitization. Therefore, stress-induced sensitization is not the mere consequence of a marked HPA activation and does not involve activation of glucocorticoid or CRH-R1 receptors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The IL-6 receptor super-antagonist Sant7 enhances antiproliferative and apoptotic effects induced by dexamethasone and zoledronic acid on multiple myeloma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassone, Pierfrancesco; Galea, Eulalia; Forciniti, Samantha; Tagliaferri, Pierosandro; Venuta, Salvatore

    2002-10-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is the major growth and survival factor for multiple myeloma (MM), and has been shown to protect MM cells from apoptosis induced by a variety of agents. IL-6 receptor antagonists, which prevent the assembly of functional IL-6 receptor complexes, inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in MM cells. We have investigated whether the IL-6 receptor super-antagonist Sant7 might enhance the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects induced by the combination of dexamethasone (Dex) and zoledronic acid (Zln) on human MM cell lines and primary cells from MM patients. Here we show that each of these compounds individually induced detectable antiproliferative effects on MM cells. Sant7 significantly enhanced growth inhibition and apoptosis induced by Dex and Zln on both MM cell lines and primary MM cells. These results indicate that overcoming IL-6 mediated cell resistance by Sant7 potentiates the effect of glucocorticoides and bisphosphonates on MM cell growth and survival, providing a rationale for therapies including IL-6 antagonists in MM.

  7. Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 activation enhances hapten sensitization in a T-helper type 2-driven fluorescein isothiocyanate-induced contact hypersensitivity mouse model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiba, Takahiro; Tamai, Takuma; Sahara, Yurina; Kurohane, Kohta; Watanabe, Tatsuo; Imai, Yasuyuki

    2012-01-01

    Some chemicals contribute to the development of allergies by increasing the immunogenicity of other allergens. We have demonstrated that several phthalate esters, including dibutyl phthalate (DBP), enhance skin sensitization to fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) in a mouse contact hypersensitivity model, in which the T-helper type 2 (Th2) response is essential. On the other hand, some phthalate esters were found to activate transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) cation channels on sensory neurons. We then found a positive correlation between the enhancing effects of several types of phthalate esters on skin sensitization to FITC and their ability to activate TRPA1. Here we examined the involvement of TRPA1 in sensitization to FITC by using TRPA1 agonists other than phthalate esters. During skin sensitization to FITC, the TRPA1 agonists (menthol, carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde and DBP) augmented the ear-swelling response as well as trafficking of FITC-presenting dendritic cells to draining lymph nodes. We confirmed that these TRPA1 agonists induced calcium influx into TRPA1-expressing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. We also found that TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031 inhibited DBP-induced calcium influx into TRPA1-expressing CHO cells. After pretreatment with this antagonist upon skin sensitization to FITC, the enhancing effect of DBP on sensitization was suppressed. These results suggest that TRPA1 activation will become a useful marker to find chemicals that facilitate sensitization in combination with other immunogenic haptens. -- Highlights: ► Role of TRPA1 activation was revealed in a mouse model of skin sensitization to FITC. ► TRPA1 agonists enhanced skin sensitization as well as dendritic cell trafficking. ► Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) has been shown to enhance skin sensitization to FITC. ► TRPA1 activation by DBP was inhibited by a selective antagonist, HC-030031. ► HC-030031 inhibited the enhancing effect of DBP on skin sensitization to FITC.

  8. Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 activation enhances hapten sensitization in a T-helper type 2-driven fluorescein isothiocyanate-induced contact hypersensitivity mouse model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiba, Takahiro; Tamai, Takuma; Sahara, Yurina; Kurohane, Kohta [Laboratory of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52‐1 Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka City, Shizuoka 422‐8526 (Japan); Watanabe, Tatsuo [Laboratory of Food Chemistry, School of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52‐1 Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka City, Shizuoka 422‐8526 (Japan); Imai, Yasuyuki, E-mail: imai@u-shizuoka-ken.ac.jp [Laboratory of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52‐1 Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka City, Shizuoka 422‐8526 (Japan)

    2012-11-01

    Some chemicals contribute to the development of allergies by increasing the immunogenicity of other allergens. We have demonstrated that several phthalate esters, including dibutyl phthalate (DBP), enhance skin sensitization to fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) in a mouse contact hypersensitivity model, in which the T-helper type 2 (Th2) response is essential. On the other hand, some phthalate esters were found to activate transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) cation channels on sensory neurons. We then found a positive correlation between the enhancing effects of several types of phthalate esters on skin sensitization to FITC and their ability to activate TRPA1. Here we examined the involvement of TRPA1 in sensitization to FITC by using TRPA1 agonists other than phthalate esters. During skin sensitization to FITC, the TRPA1 agonists (menthol, carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde and DBP) augmented the ear-swelling response as well as trafficking of FITC-presenting dendritic cells to draining lymph nodes. We confirmed that these TRPA1 agonists induced calcium influx into TRPA1-expressing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. We also found that TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031 inhibited DBP-induced calcium influx into TRPA1-expressing CHO cells. After pretreatment with this antagonist upon skin sensitization to FITC, the enhancing effect of DBP on sensitization was suppressed. These results suggest that TRPA1 activation will become a useful marker to find chemicals that facilitate sensitization in combination with other immunogenic haptens. -- Highlights: ► Role of TRPA1 activation was revealed in a mouse model of skin sensitization to FITC. ► TRPA1 agonists enhanced skin sensitization as well as dendritic cell trafficking. ► Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) has been shown to enhance skin sensitization to FITC. ► TRPA1 activation by DBP was inhibited by a selective antagonist, HC-030031. ► HC-030031 inhibited the enhancing effect of DBP on skin sensitization to FITC.

  9. The excitatory amino acid receptor antagonist MK-801 prevents the hypersensitivity induced by spinal cord ischemia in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, J.X.; Xu, X.J.; Aldskogius, H.; Seiger, A.; Wiesenfeld-Hallin, Z.

    1991-01-01

    Protection by the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 against transient spinal cord ischemia-induced hypersensitivity was studied in rats. The spinal ischemia was initiated by vascular occlusion resulting from the interaction between the photosensitizing dye Erythrosin B and an argon laser beam. The hypersensitivity, termed allodynia, where the animals reacted by vocalization to nonnoxious mechanical stimuli in the flank area, was consistently observed during several days after induction of the ischemia. Pretreatment with MK-801 (0.1-0.5 mg/kg, iv) 10 min before laser irradiation dose dependently prevented the occurrence of allodynia. The neuroprotective effect of MK-801 was not reduced by maintaining normal body temperature during and after irradiation. There was a significant negative correlation between the delay in the administration of MK-801 after irradiation and the protective effect of the drug. Histological examination revealed slight morphological damage in the spinal cord in 38% of control rats after 1 min of laser irradiation without pretreatment with MK-801. No morphological abnormalities were observed in rats after pretreatment with MK-801 (0.5 mg/kg). The present results provide further evidence for the involvement of excitatory amino acids, through activation of the NMDA receptor, in the development of dysfunction following ischemic trauma to the spinal cord

  10. Non-analgesic effects of opioids: management of opioid-induced constipation by peripheral opioid receptor antagonists: prevention or withdrawal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The therapeutic action of opioid analgesics is compromised by peripheral adverse effects among which opioid-induced constipation (OIC) is the most disabling, with a prevalence reported to vary between 15 and 90 %. Although OIC is usually treated with laxatives, there is insufficient clinical evidence that laxatives are efficacious in this indication. In contrast, there is ample evidence from double- blind, randomized and placebo-controlled trials that peripheral opioid receptor antagonists (PORAs) counteract OIC. This specific treatment modality is currently based on subcutaneous methylnaltrexone for the interruption of OIC in patients with advanced illness, and a fixed combination of oral prolonged-release naloxone with prolonged-release oxycodone for the prevention of OIC in the treatment of non-cancer and cancer pain. Both drugs counteract OIC while the analgesic effect of opioids remains unabated. The clinical studies show that more than 50 % of the patients with constipation under opioid therapy may benefit from the use of PORAs, while PORA-resistant patients are likely to suffer from non-opioid-induced constipation, the prevalence of which increases with age. While the addition of naloxone to oxycodone seems to act by preventing OIC, the intermittent dosing of methylnaltrexone every other day seems to stimulate defaecation by provoking an intestinal withdrawal response. The availability of PORAs provides a novel opportunity to specifically control OIC and other peripheral adverse effects of opioid analgesics (e.g., urinary retention and pruritus). The continuous dosing of a PORA has the advantage of few adverse effects, while intermittent dosing of a PORA can be associated with abdominal cramp-like pain.

  11. Antagonistic Effect of Atorvastatin on High Fat Diet Induced Survival during Acute Chagas Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dazhi; Lizardo, Kezia; Cui, Min Hui; Ambadipudi, Kamalakar; Lora, Jose; Jelicks, Linda A; Nagajyothi, Jyothi F

    2016-01-01

    Chagasic cardiomyopathy, which is seen in Chagas Disease, is the most severe and life-threatening manifestation of infection by the kinetoplastid Trypanosoma cruzi. Adipose tissue and diet play a major role in maintaining lipid homeostasis and regulating cardiac pathogenesis during the development of Chagas cardiomyopathy. We have previously reported that T. cruzi has a high affinity for lipoproteins and that the invasion rate of this parasite increases in the presence of cholesterol, suggesting that drugs that inhibit cholesterol synthesis, such as statins, could affect infection and the development of Chagasic cardiomyopathy. The dual epidemic of diabetes and obesity in Latin America, the endemic regions for Chagas Disease, has led to many patients in the endemic region of infection having hyperlipidemia that is being treated with statins such as atorvastatin. The current study was performed to examine using mice fed on either regular or high fat diet the effect of atorvastatin on T. cruzi infection-induced myocarditis and to evaluate the effect of this treatment during infection on adipose tissue physiology and cardiac pathology. Atorvastatin was found to regulate lipolysis and cardiac lipidopathy during acute T. cruzi infection in mice and to enhance tissue parasite load, cardiac LDL levels, inflammation, and mortality in during acute infection. Overall, these data suggest that statins, such as atorvastatin, have deleterious effects during acute Chagas disease. PMID:27416748

  12. Stereoselective inhibition of thromboxane-induced coronary vasoconstriction by 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eltze, M.; Boer, R.; Sanders, K.H.; Boss, H.; Ulrich, W.R.; Flockerzi, D.

    1990-01-01

    The biological activity of the (+)-S- and (-)-R-enantiomers of niguldipine, of the (-)-S- and (+)-R-enantiomers of felodipine and nitrendipine, and of rac-nisoldipine and rac-nimodipine was investigated in vitro and in vivo. Inhibition of coronary vasoconstriction due to the thromboxane A2 (TxA2)-mimetic U-46619 in guinea pig Langendorff hearts, displacement of (+)-[ 3 H]isradipine from calcium channel binding sites of guinea pig skeletal muscle T-tubule membranes, and blood pressure reduction in spontaneously hypertensive rats were determined. The enantiomers were obtained by stereoselective synthesis. Cross-contamination was less than 0.5% for both S- and R-enantiomers of niguldipine and nitrendipine and less than 1% for those of felodipine. From the doses necessary for a 50% inhibition of coronary vasoconstriction, stereoselectivity ratios for (+)-(S)-/(-)-(R)-niguldipine, (-)-(S)-/(+)-(R)-felodipine, and (-)-(S)-/(+)-(R)-nitrendipine of 28, 13, and 7, respectively, were calculated. The potency ratio rac-nisoldipine/rac-nimodipine was 3.5. Ratios obtained from binding experiments and antihypertensive activity were (+)-(S)-/(-)-(R)-niguldipine = 45 and 35, (-)-(S)-/(+)-(R)-felodipine = 12 and 13, (-)-(S)-/(+)-(R)-nitrendipine = 8 and 8, and rac-nisoldipine/rac-nimodipine = 8 and 7, respectively. Highly significant correlations were found between the in vitro potency of the substances to prevent U-46619-induced coronary vasoconstriction and their affinity for calcium channel binding sites as well as their antihypertensive activity

  13. The Beneficial Effect of Fesoterodine, a Competitive Muscarinic Receptor Antagonist on Erectile Dysfunction in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz-Oral, Didem; Bayatli, Nur; Gur, Serap

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the possible role of fesoterodine (a competitive muscarinic receptor antagonist) on erectile dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. A total of 16 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were equally divided into control and diabetic groups. Diabetes was induced by a single intravenous injection of streptozotocin (25-35 mg/kg). In vivo erectile responses were evaluated by the stimulation of cavernosal nerves, and measurements were repeated after the intracavernosal injection of fesoterodine (1 µM) in rats. The relaxation responses to fesoterodine were examined via incubation with various inhibitors. The relaxant responses of corpus cavernosum (CC) strips were observed in the presence or the absence of fesoterodine (10 µM). Intracavernous administration of fesoterodine restored in vivo erectile response at 5.0- and 7.5-V levels, except for 2.5 V in diabetic rats. Basal intracavernosal pressure (5.4 ± 0.9 mm Hg) in diabetic rats was markedly increased after injection of fesoterodine (33.9 ± 7.9 mm Hg, P <.001). In bath studies, fesoterodine resulted in a relaxation of CC in a concentration-dependent manner, which was reduced in diabetic rats. Nifedipine (l-type Ca 2+ channel blocker) inhibited maximum fesoterodine-induced relaxation by 58%. The nonselective K + channel blocker tetraethylammonium and glibenclamide incubation did not change the relaxant response to fesoterodine. The relaxant responses to acetylcholine (10 µM), electrical field stimulation (10 Hz), and sodium nitroprusside (0.01 µM) in diabetic rats were increased after incubation with fesoterodine (10 µM). Fesoterodine improved erectile function and relaxation of isolated strips of rat CC. The underlying mechanism of fesoterodine is likely due to the blocking of l-type calcium channels independent of the nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway. Further investigations are warranted to fully elucidate the restorative effects of

  14. Serotonin induces memory-like, rapamycin-sensitive hyperexcitability in sensory axons of aplysia that contributes to injury responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weragoda, Ramal M S; Walters, Edgar T

    2007-09-01

    The induction of long-term facilitation (LTF) of synapses of Aplysia sensory neurons (SNs) by serotonin (5-HT) has provided an important mechanistic model of memory, but little is known about other long-term effects of 5-HT on sensory properties. Here we show that crushing peripheral nerves results in long-term hyperexcitability (LTH) of the axons of these nociceptive SNs that requires 5-HT activity in the injured nerve. Serotonin application to a nerve segment induces local axonal (but not somal) LTH that is inhibited by 5-HT-receptor antagonists. Blockade of crush-induced axonal LTH by an antagonist, methiothepin, provides evidence for mediation of this injury response by 5-HT. This is the first demonstration in any axon of neuromodulator-induced LTH, a phenomenon potentially important for long-lasting pain. Methiothepin does not reduce axonal LTH induced by local depolarization, so 5-HT is not required for all forms of axonal LTH. Serotonin-induced axonal LTH is expressed as reduced spike threshold and increased repetitive firing, whereas depolarization-induced LTH involves only reduced threshold. Like crush- and depolarization-induced LTH, 5-HT-induced LTH is blocked by inhibiting protein synthesis. Blockade by rapamycin, which also blocks synaptic LTF, is interesting because the eukaryotic protein kinase that is the target of rapamycin (TOR) has a conserved role in promoting growth by stimulating translation of proteins required for translation. Rapamycin sensitivity suggests that localized increases in translation of proteins that promote axonal conduction and excitability at sites of nerve injury may be regulated by the same signals that increase translation of proteins that promote neuronal growth.

  15. Toxic clinical hypoxic radiation sensitizers plus radiation-induced toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richmond, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    The operational definition espoused twelve years ago that clinical hypoxic radiation sensitizers should be nontoxic interferes with the recognition and research of useful radiation sensitizers. Eight years ago the toxic antitumor drug cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum(II) was reported to be a hypoxic radiation sensitizer and the selective antitumor action of this drug was stressed as potentially creating tumor-targeted radiation sensitization. This rationale of oxidative antitumor drugs as toxic and targeted clinical sensitizers is useful, and has led to the study reported here. The antitumor drug cis-(1,1-cyclobutane-dicarboxylato)diammineplatinum(II), or JM-8, is being tested in clinical trials. Cells of S. typhimurium in PBS in the presence of 0.2mM JM-8 are found to be sensitized to irradiation under hypoxic, but not oxic, conditions. JM-8 is nontoxic to bacteria at this concentration, but upon irradiation the JM-8 solution becomes highly toxic. This radiation induced toxicity of JM-8 preferentially develops from hypoxic solution, and thus contributes to the rationale of hypoxic tumor cell destruction

  16. The ability of H1 or H2 receptor antagonists or their combination in counteracting the glucocorticoid-induced alveolar bone loss in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzat, Bassant A; Abbass, Marwa M S

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare between three possible osteoporotic treatments in prevention of glucocorticoid-induced alveolar bone loss. Fifty adult female Wistar rats with an average weight 150-200 g were randomized into five groups: group I (control) was intraperitoneally injected with saline. The other experimental groups (II & III, IV & V) were intraperitoneally injected with 200 µg/100 g body weight dexamethasone. The experimental groups III, IV and V received intraperitoneal injection of 10 mg/kg/day pheniramine maleate (H1 receptor antagonist), ranitidine hydrochloride (H2 receptor antagonist) and concomitant doses of both H1 & H2 receptor antagonists respectively. After 30 days, the rats have been sacrificed. The mandibles were examined histologically, histochemically and histomorphometrically. The bone mineral density was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Histopathologically the glucocorticoid group showed wide medullary cavities with wide osteocytic lacunae. These marrow cavities were reduced in the prophylactic groups (III, IV) but increased in group V. Bone histomorphometric analysis revealed improvement in static bone parameters in groups III and IV and deterioration in group V in comparison to group II. The DEXA revealed significant reduction in the bone mineral density in all experimental groups compared to the control group. In a rat model, the administration of H1 or H2 receptor antagonists separately could minimize the alveolar bone loss caused by the administration of glucocorticoids while concomitant administration of both H1 and H2 receptor antagonists deteriorated the bone condition. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Necrose cutânea induzida por antagonistas da vitamina K Skin necrosis induced by vitamin K antagonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Manoel da Silva Silvestre

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Os anticoagulantes orais que atuam através do antagonismo à vitamina K são utilizados na prática clínica há muito tempo, porém ainda há dificuldades no seu manejo e na condução das complicações. Entre as complicações, as mais conhecidas são os transtornos hemorrágicos, mas outras também devem ser reconhecidas, tais como a necrose induzida por varfarina. Esta é uma grave, porém rara complicação, cuja fisiopatologia é ainda obscura e cujas causas são indefinidas. Dentre as possíveis causas, as mais prováveis são a deficiência de proteína C e de proteína S, reações de hipersensibilidade e deficiência de fator VII. Há maior incidência desta complicação entre mulheres de meia-idade, acometendo preferencialmente mamas e glúteos. As medidas mais importantes para o tratamento são: suspensão imediata da droga, uso de heparina não fracionada ou de baixo peso molecular em doses terapêuticas, emprego da vitamina K e, eventualmente, infusão de plasma fresco congelado ou de proteína C ativada recombinante.Oral anticoagulants acting via vitamin K antagonists have long been employed in the clinical practice. However, difficulties related to the management of treatment regimens and complications still persist. Among the complications, bleeding disorders are widely known, but others should also be taken into consideration, such as warfarin-induced skin necrosis. The pathophysiology of this rare but severe complication is still obscure, and its causes remain to be defined. Among possible causes, protein C and protein S deficiency, hypersensitivity reactions and VII factor deficiency are the most probable ones. There is an increased incidence of warfarin-induced skin necrosis among middle-aged women, usually affecting breasts and buttocks. The most important treatment measures are immediate discontinuation of the drug, use of unfractionated or low-molecular-weight heparin at therapeutic doses, use of vitamin K and

  18. Andrographolide sensitizes prostate cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruo-Jing Wei

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL is a promising agent for anticancer therapy. The identification of small molecules that can establish the sensitivity of prostate cancer (PCa cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis is crucial for the targeted treatment of PCa. PC3, DU145, JAC-1, TsuPr1, and LNCaP cells were treated with Andrographolide (Andro and TRAIL, and the apoptosis was measured using the Annexin V/PI double staining method. Real time-polymerase chain reaction (PCR and Western blot analysis were performed to measure the expression levels of target molecules. RNA interference technique was used to down-regulate the expression of the target protein. We established a nude mouse xenograft model of PCa, which was used to measure the caspase-3 activity in the tumor cells using flow cytometry. In this research study, our results demonstrated that Andro preferentially increased the sensitivity of PCa cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis at subtoxic concentrations, and the regulation mechanism was related to the up-regulation of DR4. In addition, it also increased the p53 expression and led to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in the cells. Further research revealed that the DR4 inhibition, p53 expression, and ROS generation can significantly reduce the apoptosis induced by the combination of TRAIL and Andro in PCa cells. In conclusion, Andro increases the sensitivity of PCa cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis through the generation of ROS and up-regulation of p53 and then promotes PCa cell apoptosis associated with the activation of DR4.

  19. Peripherally Administered Y2-Receptor Antagonist BIIE0246 Prevents Diet-Induced Obesity in Mice With Excess Neuropeptide Y, but Enhances Obesity in Control Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ailanen, Liisa; Vähätalo, Laura H; Salomäki-Myftari, Henriikka; Mäkelä, Satu; Orpana, Wendy; Ruohonen, Suvi T; Savontaus, Eriika

    2018-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) plays an important role in the regulation of energy homeostasis in the level of central and sympathetic nervous systems (SNSs). Genetic silencing of peripheral Y 2 -receptors have anti-obesity effects, but it is not known whether pharmacological blocking of peripheral Y 2 -receptors would similarly benefit energy homeostasis. The effects of a peripherally administered Y 2 -receptor antagonist were studied in healthy and energy-rich conditions with or without excess NPY. Genetically obese mice overexpressing NPY in brain noradrenergic nerves and SNS (OE-NPY DβH ) represented the situation of elevated NPY levels, while wildtype (WT) mice represented the normal NPY levels. Specific Y 2 -receptor antagonist, BIIE0246, was administered (1.3 mg/kg/day, i.p.) for 2 or 4.5 weeks to OE-NPY DβH and WT mice feeding on chow or Western diet. Treatment with Y 2 -receptor antagonist increased body weight gain in both genotypes on chow diet and caused metabolic disturbances (e.g., hyperinsulinemia and hypercholesterolemia), especially in WT mice. During energy surplus (i.e., on Western diet), blocking of Y 2 -receptors induced obesity in WT mice, whereas OE-NPY DβH mice showed reduced fat mass gain, hepatic glycogen and serum cholesterol levels relative to body adiposity. Thus, it can be concluded that with normal NPY levels, peripheral Y 2 -receptor antagonist has no potential for treating obesity, but oppositely may even induce metabolic disorders. However, when energy-rich diet is combined with elevated NPY levels, e.g., stress combined with an unhealthy diet, Y 2 -receptor antagonism has beneficial effects on metabolic status.

  20. Injections of the selective adenosine A2A antagonist MSX-3 into the nucleus accumbens core attenuate the locomotor suppression induced by haloperidol in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiwari, Keita; Madson, Lisa J; Farrar, Andrew M; Mingote, Susana M; Valenta, John P; DiGianvittorio, Michael D; Frank, Lauren E; Correa, Merce; Hockemeyer, Jörg; Müller, Christa; Salamone, John D

    2007-03-28

    There is considerable evidence of interactions between adenosine A2A receptors and dopamine D2 receptors in striatal areas, and antagonists of the A2A receptor have been shown to reverse the motor effects of DA antagonists in animal models. The D2 antagonist haloperidol produces parkinsonism in humans, and also induces motor effects in rats, such as suppression of locomotion. The present experiments were conducted to study the ability of the adenosine A2A antagonist MSX-3 to reverse the locomotor effects of acute or subchronic administration of haloperidol in rats. Systemic (i.p.) injections of MSX-3 (2.5-10.0 mg/kg) were capable of attenuating the suppression of locomotion induced by either acute or repeated (i.e., 14 day) administration of 0.5 mg/kg haloperidol. Bilateral infusions of MSX-3 directly into the nucleus accumbens core (2.5 microg or 5.0 microg in 0.5 microl per side) produced a dose-related increase in locomotor activity in rats treated with 0.5 mg/kg haloperidol either acutely or repeatedly. There were no overall significant effects of MSX-3 infused directly into the dorsomedial nucleus accumbens shell or the ventrolateral neostriatum. These results indicate that antagonism of adenosine A2A receptors can attenuate the locomotor suppression produced by DA antagonism, and that this effect may be at least partially mediated by A2A receptors in the nucleus accumbens core. These studies suggest that adenosine and dopamine systems interact to modulate the locomotor and behavioral activation functions of nucleus accumbens core.

  1. Impact of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists on chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: a retrospective cohort study

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    Lin Swu-Jane

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 1st generation 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor antagonists (5-HT3 RAs, and palonosetron, a 2nd generation 5-HT3 RA, are indicated for the prevention of chemotherapy (CT-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV associated with moderately (MEC and highly emetogenic CT agents (HEC. This study explores the impact of step therapy policies requiring use of an older 5-HT3 RA before palonosetron on risk of CINV associated with hospital or emergency department (ED admissions. Methods Patients who received cyclophosphamide post breast cancer (BC surgery or who were diagnosed with lung cancer on carboplatin (LC-carboplatin or cisplatin (LC-cisplatin were selected from PharMetrics’ (IMS LifeLink claims dataset (2005-2008. Patients were followed for 6 months from initial CT administration for CINV events identified through ICD-9-CM codes. Patients were grouped into those initiated with older, generic 5-HT3 RAs (ondansetron, granisetron, and dolasetron and those initiated and maintained on palonosetron throughout study follow-up. CINV events and CINV days were analyzed using multivariate regressions controlling for demographic and clinical variables. Results Eligible patients numbered 3,606 in BC, 4,497 in LC-carboplatin and 1,154 in LC-cisplatin cohorts, with 52%, 40%, and 34% in the palonosetron group, respectively. There was no significant difference between the two 5-HT3 RA groups in age or Charlson Comorbidity Index among the two MEC cohorts (BC and LC-carboplatin. Among the LC-cisplatin cohort, palonosetron users were older with more males than the older 5-HT3 RA group (age: 60.1 vs. 61.3; males, 66.9% vs. 56.9%. Compared to the older 5-HT3 RAs, the palonosetron groups incurred 22%-51% fewer 5-HT3 RA pharmacy claims, had fewer patients with CINV events (3.5% vs. 5.5% in BC, 9.5% vs. 12.8% in LC-carboplatin, 16.4% vs. 21.7% in LC-cisplatin, and had lower risk for CINV events (odds ratios 0.62, 0.71, or 0.71, respectively; p 3 RA group (p

  2. Impact of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists on chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Swu-Jane; Hatoum, Hind T; Buchner, Deborah; Cox, David; Balu, Sanjeev

    2012-07-23

    1st generation 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor antagonists (5-HT3 RAs), and palonosetron, a 2nd generation 5-HT3 RA, are indicated for the prevention of chemotherapy (CT)-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) associated with moderately (MEC) and highly emetogenic CT agents (HEC). This study explores the impact of step therapy policies requiring use of an older 5-HT3 RA before palonosetron on risk of CINV associated with hospital or emergency department (ED) admissions. Patients who received cyclophosphamide post breast cancer (BC) surgery or who were diagnosed with lung cancer on carboplatin (LC-carboplatin) or cisplatin (LC-cisplatin) were selected from PharMetrics' (IMS LifeLink) claims dataset (2005-2008). Patients were followed for 6 months from initial CT administration for CINV events identified through ICD-9-CM codes. Patients were grouped into those initiated with older, generic 5-HT3 RAs (ondansetron, granisetron, and dolasetron) and those initiated and maintained on palonosetron throughout study follow-up. CINV events and CINV days were analyzed using multivariate regressions controlling for demographic and clinical variables. Eligible patients numbered 3,606 in BC, 4,497 in LC-carboplatin and 1,154 in LC-cisplatin cohorts, with 52%, 40%, and 34% in the palonosetron group, respectively. There was no significant difference between the two 5-HT3 RA groups in age or Charlson Comorbidity Index among the two MEC cohorts (BC and LC-carboplatin). Among the LC-cisplatin cohort, palonosetron users were older with more males than the older 5-HT3 RA group (age: 60.1 vs. 61.3; males, 66.9% vs. 56.9%). Compared to the older 5-HT3 RAs, the palonosetron groups incurred 22%-51% fewer 5-HT3 RA pharmacy claims, had fewer patients with CINV events (3.5% vs. 5.5% in BC, 9.5% vs. 12.8% in LC-carboplatin, 16.4% vs. 21.7% in LC-cisplatin), and had lower risk for CINV events (odds ratios 0.62, 0.71, or 0.71, respectively; pRAs. Further studies on impact of step therapy policy are

  3. Dopamine D2/3- and μ-opioid receptor antagonists reduce cue-induced responding and reward impulsivity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, S C; Beck-Schimmer, B; Kajdi, M-E; Müller, D; Tobler, P N; Quednow, B B

    2016-07-05

    Increased responding to drug-associated stimuli (cue reactivity) and an inability to tolerate delayed gratification (reward impulsivity) have been implicated in the development and maintenance of drug addiction. Whereas data from animal studies suggest that both the dopamine and opioid system are involved in these two reward-related processes, their role in humans is less clear. Moreover, dopaminergic and opioidergic drugs have not been directly compared with regard to these functions, even though a deeper understanding of the underlying mechanisms might inform the development of specific treatments for elevated cue reactivity and reward impulsivity. In a randomized, double-blind, between-subject design we administered the selective dopamine D2/D3 receptor antagonist amisulpride (400 mg, n=41), the unspecific opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone (50 mg, n=40) or placebo (n=40) to healthy humans and measured cue-induced responding with a Pavlovian-instrumental transfer task and reward impulsivity with a delay discounting task. Mood was assessed using a visual analogue scale. Compared with placebo, amisulpride significantly suppressed cue-induced responding and reward impulsivity. The effects of naltrexone were similar, although less pronounced. Both amisulpride and naltrexone decreased average mood ratings compared with placebo. Our results demonstrate that a selective blockade of dopamine D2/D3 receptors reduces cue-induced responding and reward impulsivity in healthy humans. Antagonizing μ-opioid receptors has similar effects for cue-induced responding and to a lesser extent for reward impulsivity.

  4. BITC Sensitizes Pancreatic Adenocarcinomas to TRAIL-induced Apoptosis

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    Christina A. Wicker

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is an aggressive cancer with a greater than 95% mortality rate and short survival after diagnosis. Chemotherapeutic resistance hinders successful treatment. This resistance is often associated with mutations in codon 12 of the K-Ras gene (K-Ras 12, which is present in over 90% of all pancreatic adenocarcinomas. Codon 12 mutations maintain Ras in a constitutively active state leading to continuous cellular proliferation. Our study determined if TRAIL resistance in pancreatic adenocarcinomas with K-Ras 12 mutations could be overcome by first sensitizing the cells with Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC. BITC is a component of cruciferous vegetables and a cell cycle inhibitor. BxPC3, MiaPaCa2 and Panc-1 human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell lines were examined for TRAIL resistance. Our studies show BITC induced TRAIL sensitization by dual activation of both the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways.

  5. Features of natural and gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist-induced corpus luteum regression and effects of in vivo human chorionic gonadotropin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Canto, Felipe; Sierralta, Walter; Kohen, Paulina; Muñoz, Alex; Strauss, Jerome F; Devoto, Luigi

    2007-11-01

    The natural process of luteolysis and luteal regression is induced by withdrawal of gonadotropin support. The objectives of this study were: 1) to compare the functional changes and apoptotic features of natural human luteal regression and induced luteal regression; 2) to define the ultrastructural characteristics of the corpus luteum at the time of natural luteal regression and induced luteal regression; and 3) to examine the effect of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) on the steroidogenic response and apoptotic markers within the regressing corpus luteum. Twenty-three women with normal menstrual cycles undergoing tubal ligation donated corpus luteum at specific stages in the luteal phase. Some women received a GnRH antagonist prior to collection of corpus luteum, others received an injection of hCG with or without prior treatment with a GnRH antagonist. Main outcome measures were plasma hormone levels and analysis of excised luteal tissue for markers of apoptosis, histology, and ultrastructure. The progesterone and estradiol levels, corpus luteum DNA, and protein contents in induced luteal regression resembled those of natural luteal regression. hCG treatment raised progesterone and estradiol in both natural luteal regression and induced luteal regression. The increase in apoptosis detected in induced luteal regression by cytochrome c in the cytosol, activated caspase-3, and nuclear DNA fragmentation, was similar to that observed in natural luteal regression. The antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 was significantly lower during natural luteal regression. The proapoptotic proteins Bax and Bak were at a constant level. Apoptotic and nonapoptotic death of luteal cells was observed in natural luteal regression and induced luteal regression at the ultrastructural level. hCG prevented apoptotic cell death, but not autophagy. The low number of apoptotic cells disclosed and the frequent autophagocytic suggest that multiple mechanisms are involved in cell death at luteal

  6. Effect of bradykinin antagonists on bradykinin-induced plasma extravasation, venoconstriction, prostaglandin E2 release, nociceptor stimulation and contraction of the iris sphincter muscle in the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesbacher, T.; Lembeck, F.

    1987-01-01

    1 The inhibition of the bradykinin-induced plasma extravasation by six bradykinin (Bk) antagonists was tested on rabbit skin. All of them showed inhibitory effects without an agonistic action in the does used. B4310 (Lys-Lys-3-Hyp-5,8-Thi-7-DPhe-Bk) was the most active antagonist and was therefore used in the subsequent experiments. 2 B4310 (5-500 nM) antagonized the bradykinin-induced reduction of the venous outflow from the rabbit isolated ear in dose-dependent manner without affecting the arterial vasoconstriction induced by angiotensin II. 3 The bradykinin-induced release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) from the perfused rabbit ear was reduced by 63% when B4310 (800 nM) was infused before, during and after the bradykinin injection. 4 Bradykinin was injected into the ear artery of anaesthetized rabbits and the reflex hypotensive response was used as indicator of the nociception. The response was antagonized by a local infusion of B4310 (50 and 500 nM). The antagonism was dose-dependent and reversible. The parallel shift of the dose-response curve to bradykinin suggests a competitive inhibition. However, B4310 did not antagonize acetylcholine-induced nociceptor stimulation. 5 B4310 inhibited bradykinin-induced stimulation of the trigeminal nerve which results in a substance P-mediated contraction of the iris sphincter muscle. A pA2 of 7.59 was calculated. B4310 did not inhibit capsaicin-induced contractions. 6 It is concluded that B4310 inhibits specifically five different actions of bradykinin which are related to its possible pathophysiological role. PMID:3479223

  7. Novel Peripherally Restricted Cannabinoid 1 Receptor Selective Antagonist TXX-522 with Prominent Weight-Loss Efficacy in Diet Induced Obese Mice

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    Wei Chen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The clinical development of the first generation of globally active cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R antagonists was suspended because of their adverse neuropsychiatric effects. Selective blockade of peripheral CB1Rs has the potential to provide a viable strategy for the treatment of severe obesity while avoiding these central nervous system side effects. In the current study, a novel compound (TXX-522 was rationally designed based on the parent nucleus of a classical CB1R-selective antagonist/inverse agonist, rimonabant (SR141716A. Docking assays indicate that TXX-522 was bound with the CB1R in a mode similar to that of SR141716A. TXX-522 showed good binding, CB1R-selectivity (over the CB2R, and functional antagonist activities in a range of in vitro molecular and cellular assays. In vivo analysis of the steady state distribution of TXX-522 in the rat brain and blood tissues and the assay of its functional effects on CB1R activity collectively showed that TXX-522 showed minimal brain penetration. Moreover, the in vivo pharmacodynamic study further revealed that TXX-522 had good oral bioavailability and a potent anti-obesity effect, and ameliorated insulin resistance in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. No impact on food intake was observed in this model, confirming the limited brain penetration of this compound. Thus, the current study indicates that TXX-522 is a novel and potent peripherally acting selective CB1R antagonist with the potential to control obesity and related metabolic disorders.

  8. Characterization of cutaneous vascular permeability induced by platelet-activating factor in guinea pigs and rats and its inhibition by a platelet-activating factor receptor antagonist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, S.B.; Li, C.L.; Lam, M.H.; Shen, T.Y.

    1985-01-01

    Mechanisms of platelet-activating factor (PAF)-induced increases of cutaneous vascular permeability in guinea pigs and in rats were further explored. PAF so far is the most potent vasoactive mediator, being more than 1000-fold more potent than histamine and bradykinin in both species. In guinea pigs, there is a time delay of 5 to 10 minutes before PAF action, whereas, in the rat, the increased vasopermeability occurs immediately following the intradermal PAF injection. Relative vasoactive potencies of PAF and several structure-related analogues in both species correlate very well with their relative inhibition of the binding of 3 H-PAF to specific receptor sites on isolated rabbit platelet plasma membranes and their aggregatory abilities of rabbit platelets. Furthermore, the PAF-induced cutaneous vascular permeability is inhibitable by a competitive specific PAF receptor antagonist, kadsurenone, suggesting that binding of PAF to its specific receptor site is the first step to initiate its action of increased cutaneous vascular permeability. Several pure cyclooxygenase inhibitors, including indomethacin, diflunisal, and flurbiprofen, and the dual cyclooxygenase/lipoxygenase inhibitor, BW755C, but not the histamine antagonists, inhibit the PAF-induced vasopermeability in guinea pigs. The inhibition by indomethacin or BW755C can be fully reversed by coinjection intradermally with PAF and prostaglandin E1 but not leukotriene B4. Also, prostaglandin E1 but not leukotriene B4 enhances the guinea pig in vivo response to PAF in this model. However, in rats, none of the cyclooxygenase inhibitors, histamine antagonists, or BW755C inhibit the PAF effect of cutaneous phenomena

  9. Pre-treatment with Toll-like receptor 4 antagonist inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced preterm uterine contractility, cytokines, and prostaglandins in rhesus monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams Waldorf, Kristina M.; Persing, David; Novy, Miles J.; Sadowsky, Drew W.; Gravett, Michael G.

    2009-01-01

    Intra-uterine infection, which occurs in the majority of early preterm births, triggers an immune response culminating in preterm labor. We hypothesized that blockade of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced immune responses by a Toll-like receptor 4 antagonist (TLR4A) would prevent elevations in amniotic fluid (AF) cytokines, prostaglandins, and uterine contractility. Chronically catheterized rhesus monkeys at 128-147 days gestation received intra-amniotic infusions of either: 1) saline (n=6), 2) LPS (0.15-10μg; n=4), or 3) TLR4A pre-treatment with LPS (10 μg) one hour later (n=4). AF cytokines, prostaglandins, and uterine contractility were compared using oneway ANOVA with Bonferroni-adjusted pairwise comparisons. Compared to saline controls, LPS induced significant elevations in AF IL-8, TNF-α, PGE2, PGF2α, and uterine contractility (p<0.05). In contrast, TLR4A pre-treatment inhibited LPS-induced uterine activity and was associated with significantly lower AF IL-8, TNF-α, PGE2, and PGF2α versus LPS alone (p<0.05). Toll-like receptor antagonists, together with antibiotics, may delay or prevent infection-associated preterm birth. PMID:18187405

  10. The involvement of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-induced place preference and behavioral sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouri, Akihiro; Noda, Yukihiro; Niwa, Minae; Matsumoto, Yurie; Mamiya, Takayoshi; Nitta, Atsumi; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Furukawa, Shoei; Iwamura, Tatsunori; Nabeshima, Toshitaka

    2017-06-30

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is known to induce dependence and psychosis in humans. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in the synaptic plasticity and neurotrophy in midbrain dopaminergic neurons. This study aimed to investigate the role of BDNF in MDMA-induced dependence and psychosis. A single dose of MDMA (10mg/kg) induced BDNF mRNA expression in the prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, and amygdala, but not in the striatum or the hippocampus. However, repeated MDMA administration for 7 days induced BDNF mRNA expression in the striatum and hippocampus. Both precursor and mature BDNF protein expression increased in the nucleus accumbens, mainly in the neurons. Additionally, rapidly increased extracellular serotonin levels and gradually and modestly increased extracellular dopamine levels were noted within the nucleus accumbens of mice after repeated MDMA administration. Dopamine receptor antagonists attenuated the effect of repeated MDMA administration on BDNF mRNA expression in the nucleus accumbens. To examine the role of endogenous BDNF in the behavioral and neurochemical effects of MDMA, we used mice with heterozygous deletions of the BDNF gene. MDMA-induced place preference, behavioral sensitization, and an increase in the levels of extracellular serotonin and dopamine within the nucleus accumbens, were attenuated in BDNF heterozygous knockout mice. These results suggest that BDNF is implicated in MDMA-induced dependence and psychosis by activating the midbrain serotonergic and dopaminergic neurons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Protection against amphetamine-induced neurotoxicity toward striatal dopamine neurons in rodents by LY274614, an excitatory amino acid antagonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, R W; Hemrick-Luecke, S K; Ornstein, P L

    1992-10-01

    LY274614, 3SR,4aRS,6SR,8aRS-6-[phosphonomethyl]decahydr oisoquinoline-3- carboxylic acid, has been described as a potent antagonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of glutamate receptor. Here its ability to antagonize the prolonged depletion of dopamine in the striatum by amphetamine in iprindole-treated rats is reported. A single 18.4 mg/kg (i.p.) dose of (+/-)-amphetamine hemisulfate, given to rats pretreated with iprindole, resulted in persistent depletion of dopamine in the striatum 1 week later. This prolonged depletion of dopamine in the striatum was antagonized by dizocilpine (MK-801, a non-competitive antagonist of NMDA receptors) or by LY274614 (a competitive antagonist of NMDA receptors). The protective effect of LY274614 was dose-dependent, being maximum at 10-40 mgkg (i.p.). A 10 mg/kg dose of LY274614 was effective in antagonizing the depletion of dopamine in the striatum, when given as long as 8 hr prior to amphetamine but not when given 24 hr prior to amphetamine. Depletion of dopamine in the striatum was also antagonized when LY274614 was given after the injection of amphetamine; LY274614 protected when given up to 4 hr after but not when given 8 or 24 hr after amphetamine. The prolonged depletion of dopamine in the striatum in mice, given multiple injections of methamphetamine, was also antagonized dose-dependently and completely by LY274614. The data strengthen the evidence that the neurotoxic effect of amphetamine and related compounds toward nigrostriatal dopamine neurons involves NMDA receptors and that LY274614 is an NMDA receptor antagonist with long-lasting in vivo effects in rats.

  12. Histologic and inflammatory lamellar changes in horses with oligofructose-induced laminitis treated with a CXCR1/2 antagonist

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Leonardo R. de; Mendes, Heloisa M.F.; Soriani, Frederico M.; Souza, Danielle G. de; Alves, Geraldo Eleno S.; Teixeira, Mauro M.; Faleiros, Rafael R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: With the hypothesis that blocking chemokine signaling can ameliorate acute laminitis, the aim was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of intravenous DF1681B, a selective antagonist for CXCR1 and CXCR2 (chemokine receptors), in an oligofructose equine laminitis model. To twelve mixed breed clinically healthy hoses with no previous history of hoof-related lameness was administered oligofructose (10g/kg given by nasogastric tube) and divided into two groups: treated (intravenous DF1681B...

  13. Monomeric tartrate resistant acid phosphatase induces insulin sensitive obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernilla Lång

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with macrophage infiltration of adipose tissue, which may link adipose inflammation to insulin resistance. However, the impact of inflammatory cells in the pathophysiology of obesity remains unclear. Tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP is an enzyme expressed by subsets of macrophages and osteoclasts that exists either as an enzymatically inactive monomer or as an active, proteolytically processed dimer.Using mice over expressing TRAP, we show that over-expression of monomeric, but not the dimeric form in adipose tissue leads to early onset spontaneous hyperplastic obesity i.e. many small fat cells. In vitro, recombinant monomeric, but not proteolytically processed TRAP induced proliferation and differentiation of mouse and human adipocyte precursor cells. In humans, monomeric TRAP was highly expressed in the adipose tissue of obese individuals. In both the mouse model and in the obese humans the source of TRAP in adipose tissue was macrophages. In addition, the obese TRAP over expressing mice exhibited signs of a low-grade inflammatory reaction in adipose tissue without evidence of abnormal adipocyte lipolysis, lipogenesis or insulin sensitivity.Monomeric TRAP, most likely secreted from adipose tissue macrophages, induces hyperplastic obesity with normal adipocyte lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity.

  14. The effects of the novel DA D3 receptor antagonist SR 21502 on cocaine reward, cocaine seeking and cocaine-induced locomotor activity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaj, E; Ananthan, S; Saliba, M; Ranaldi, Robert

    2014-02-01

    There is a focus on developing D3 receptor antagonists as cocaine addiction treatments. We investigated the effects of a novel selective D3 receptor antagonist, SR 21502, on cocaine reward, cocaine-seeking, food reward, spontaneous locomotor activity and cocaine-induced locomotor activity in rats. In Experiment 1, rats were trained to self-administer cocaine under a progressive ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement and tested with vehicle or one of three doses of SR 21502. In Experiment 2, animals were trained to self-administer cocaine under a fixed ratio schedule of reinforcement followed by extinction of the response. Then, animals were tested with vehicle or one of the SR 21502 doses on cue-induced reinstatement of responding. In Experiment 3, animals were trained to lever press for food under a PR schedule and tested with vehicle or one dose of the compound. In Experiments 4 and 5, in separate groups of animals, the vehicle and three doses of SR 21502 were tested on spontaneous or cocaine (10 mg/kg, IP)-induced locomotor activity, respectively. SR 21502 produced significant, dose-related (3.75, 7.5 and 15 mg/kg) reductions in breakpoint for cocaine self-administration, cue-induced reinstatement (3.75, 7.5 and 15 mg/kg) and cocaine-induced locomotor activity (3.75, 7.5 and 15 mg/kg) but failed to reduce food self-administration and spontaneous locomotor activity. SR 21502 decreases cocaine reward, cocaine-seeking and locomotor activity at doses that have no effect on food reward or spontaneous locomotor activity. These data suggest SR 21502 may selectively inhibit cocaine's rewarding, incentive motivational and stimulant effects.

  15. The Combination of Marketed Antagonists of α1b-Adrenergic and 5-HT2A Receptors Inhibits Behavioral Sensitization and Preference to Alcohol in Mice: A Promising Approach for the Treatment of Alcohol Dependence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice Trovero

    Full Text Available Alcohol-dependence is a chronic disease with a dramatic and expensive social impact. Previous studies have indicated that the blockade of two monoaminergic receptors, α1b-adrenergic and 5-HT2A, could inhibit the development of behavioral sensitization to drugs of abuse, a hallmark of drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviors in rodents. Here, in order to develop a potential therapeutic treatment of alcohol dependence in humans, we have blocked these two monoaminergic receptors by a combination of antagonists already approved by Health Agencies. We show that the association of ifenprodil (1 mg/kg and cyproheptadine (1 mg/kg (α1-adrenergic and 5-HT2 receptor antagonists marketed as Vadilex ® and Periactine ® in France, respectively blocks behavioral sensitization to amphetamine in C57Bl6 mice and to alcohol in DBA2 mice. Moreover, this combination of antagonists inhibits alcohol intake in mice habituated to alcohol (10% v/v and reverses their alcohol preference. Finally, in order to verify that the effect of ifenprodil was not due to its anti-NMDA receptors property, we have shown that a combination of prazosin (0.5 mg/kg, an α1b-adrenergic antagonist, Mini-Press ® in France and cyproheptadine (1 mg/kg could also reverse alcohol preference. Altogether these findings strongly suggest that combined prazosin and cyproheptadine could be efficient as a therapy to treat alcoholism in humans. Finally, because α1b-adrenergic and 5-HT2A receptors blockade also inhibits behavioral sensitization to psychostimulants, opioids and tobacco, it cannot be excluded that this combination will exhibit some efficacy in the treatment of addiction to other abused drugs.

  16. The Fly Sensitizing Pigment Enhances UV Spectral Sensitivity While Preventing Polarization-Induced Artifacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Ilić

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Microvillar photoreceptors are intrinsically capable of detecting the orientation of e-vector of linearly polarized light. They provide most invertebrates with an additional sensory channel to detect important features of their visual environment. However, polarization sensitivity (PS of photoreceptors may lead to the detection of polarization-induced false colors and intensity contrasts. Most insect photoreceptors are thus adapted to have minimal PS. Flies have twisted rhabdomeres with microvilli rotated along the length of the ommatidia to reduce PS. The additional UV-absorbing sensitizing pigment on their opsin minimizes PS in the ultraviolet. We recorded voltage from Drosophila photoreceptors R1–6 to measure the spectral dependence of PS and found that PS in the UV is invariably negligible but can be substantial above 400 nm. Using modeling, we demonstrate that in R1–6 without the sensitizing pigment, PS in the UV (PSUV would exceed PS in the visible part of the spectrum (PSVIS by a factor PSUV/PSVIS = 1.2–1.8, as lower absorption of Rh1 rhodopsin reduces self-screening. We use polarimetric imaging of objects relevant to fly polarization vision to show that their degree of polarization outdoors is highest in the short-wavelength part of the spectrum. Thus, under natural illumination, the sensitizing pigment in R1–6 renders even those cells with high PS in the visible part unsuitable for proper polarization vision. We assume that fly ventral polarization vision can be mediated by R7 alone, with R1–6 serving as an unpolarized reference channel.

  17. Agmatine induced NO dependent rat mesenteric artery relaxation and its impairment in salt-sensitive hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadkari, Tushar V; Cortes, Natalie; Madrasi, Kumpal; Tsoukias, Nikolaos M; Joshi, Mahesh S

    2013-11-30

    l-Arginine and its decarboxylated product, agmatine are important mediators of NO production and vascular relaxation. However, the underlying mechanisms of their action are not understood. We have investigated the role of arginine and agmatine in resistance vessel relaxation of Sprague-Dawley (SD) and Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rats. Second or 3rd-order mesenteric arterioles were cannulated in an organ chamber, pressurized and equilibrated before perfusing intraluminally with agonists. The vessel diameters were measured after mounting on the stage of a microscope fitted with a video camera. The gene expression in Dahl rat vessel homogenates was ascertained by real-time PCR. l-Arginine initiated relaxations (EC50, 5.8±0.7mM; n=9) were inhibited by arginine decarboxylase (ADC) inhibitor, difluoromethylarginine (DFMA) (EC50, 18.3±1.3mM; n=5) suggesting that arginine-induced vessel relaxation was mediated by agmatine formation. Agmatine relaxed the SD rat vessels at significantly lower concentrations (EC50, 138.7±12.1μM; n=22), which was compromised by l-NAME (l-N(G)-nitroarginine methyl ester, an eNOS inhibitor), RX821002 (α-2 AR antagonist) and pertussis toxin (G-protein inhibitor). The agmatine-mediated vessel relaxation from high salt Dahl rats was abolished as compared to that from normal salt rats (EC50, 143.9±23.4μM; n=5). The α-2A AR, α-2B AR and eNOS mRNA expression was downregulated in mesenteric arterioles of high-salt treated Dahl hypertensive rats. These findings demonstrate that agmatine facilitated the relaxation via activation of α-2 adrenergic G-protein coupled receptor and NO synthesis, and this pathway is compromised in salt-sensitive hypertension. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Influenza A virus does not encode a tetherin antagonist with Vpu-like activity and induces IFN-dependent tetherin expression in infected cells.

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    Michael Winkler

    Full Text Available The interferon-induced host cell factor tetherin inhibits release of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV from the plasma membrane of infected cells and is counteracted by the HIV-1 protein Vpu. Influenza A virus (FLUAV also buds from the plasma membrane and is not inhibited by tetherin. Here, we investigated if FLUAV encodes a functional equivalent of Vpu for tetherin antagonism. We found that expression of the FLUAV protein NS1, which antagonizes the interferon (IFN response, did not block the tetherin-mediated restriction of HIV release, which was rescued by Vpu. Similarly, tetherin-mediated inhibition of HIV release was not rescued by FLUAV infection. In contrast, FLUAV infection induced tetherin expression on target cells in an IFN-dependent manner. These results suggest that FLUAV escapes the antiviral effects of tetherin without encoding a tetherin antagonist with Vpu-like activity.

  19. ACTH antagonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian John Clark

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ACTH acts via a highly selective receptor that is a member of the melanocortin receptor subfamily of type 1 G protein-coupled receptors. The ACTH receptor, also known as the melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R is unusual in that it is absolutely dependent on a small accessory protein, melanocortin receptor accessory protein (MRAP for cell surface expression and function. ACTH is the only known naturally occurring agonist for this receptor. This lack of redundancy and high degree of ligand specificity suggests that antagonism of this receptor could provide a useful therapeutic aid and a potential investigational tool. Clinical situations in which this could be useful include (1 Cushing’s disease and ectopic ACTH syndrome – especially whilst preparing for definitive treatment of a causative tumour, or in refractory cases, or (2 congenital adrenal hyperplasia – as an adjunct to glucocorticoid replacement. A case for antagonism in other clinical situations in which there is ACTH excess can also be made. In this article we will explore the scientific and clinical case for an ACTH antagonist, and will review the evidence for existing and recently described peptides and modified peptides in this role.

  20. Novel 5-HT5A receptor antagonists ameliorate scopolamine-induced working memory deficit in mice and reference memory impairment in aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Mayako; Okabe, Mayuko; Yamamoto, Noriyuki; Yarimizu, Junko; Harada, Katsuya

    2015-03-01

    Despite the human 5-HT5A receptor being cloned in 1994, the biological function of this receptor has not been extensively characterized due to a lack of specific ligands. We recently reported that the selective 5-HT5A receptor antagonist ASP5736 ameliorated cognitive impairment in several animal models of schizophrenia. Given that areas of the brain with high levels of 5-HT5A receptor expression, such as the hippocampus and cerebral cortex, have important functions in cognition and memory, we evaluated the chemically diverse, potent and brain-penetrating 5-HT5A receptor antagonists ASP5736, AS2030680, and AS2674723 in rodent models of cognitive dysfunction associated with dementia. Each of these compounds exhibited a high affinity for recombinant 5-HT5A receptors that was comparable to that of the non-selective ligand of this receptor, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Although each compound had a low affinity for other receptors, 5-HT5A was the only receptor for which all three compounds had a high affinity. Each of the three compounds ameliorated scopolamine-induced working memory deficit in mice and improved reference memory impairment in aged rats at similar doses. Further, ASP5736 decreased the binding of LSD to 5-HT5A receptors in the olfactory bulb of rats in a dose-dependent manner and occupied 15%-50% of brain 5-HT5A receptors at behaviorally effective doses. These results indicate that the 5-HT5A receptor is involved in learning and memory and that treatment with 5-HT5A receptor antagonists might be broadly effective for cognitive impairment associated with not only schizophrenia but also dementia. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Kindling-induced potentiation of excitatory and inhibitory inputs to hippocampal dentate granule cells. II. Effects of the NMDA antagonist MK-801.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Robinson, G B

    1991-10-18

    The effect of the non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist MK-801 on the early development of kindling-induced potentiation was examined in the rabbit hippocampal dentate gyrus. MK-801 (0.5 mg\\/kg) was administered 2 h before each daily kindling stimulation was applied to the perforant path. This treatment continued for the first 10 days of kindling. MK-801 depressed the growth of the afterdischarge duration and suppressed development of behavioral seizures. MK-801 did not block kindling-induced potentiation of either the perforant path-dentate granule cell population spike or excitatory postsynaptic potential. Random impulse train stimulation and non-linear systems analytic techniques were used to examine kindling-induced potentiation of presumed GABAergic recurrent inhibitory circuits. Both the magnitude and duration of kindling-induced response inhibition, to the second of each pair of impulses within the train, were reduced in rabbits pretreated with MK-801. These results suggest that MK-801 differentially affects kindling-induced potentiation of excitatory and inhibitory circuits within the rabbit hippocampal dentate gyrus.

  2. Protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II) specifically increased in Italian hepatocellular carcinoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viggiani, Valentina; Palombi, Sara; Gennarini, Giuseppina; D'Ettorre, Gabriella; De Vito, Corrado; Angeloni, Antonio; Frati, Luigi; Anastasi, Emanuela

    2016-10-01

    As a marker for Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC), Protein Induced by Vitamin K Absence II (PIVKA-II) seems to be superior to alpha fetoprotein (AFP). To better characterize the role of PIVKA-II, both AFP and PIVKA-II have been measured in Italian patients with diagnosis of HCC compared with patients affected by non-oncological liver pathologies. Sixty serum samples from patients with HCC, 60 samples from patients with benign liver disease and 60 samples obtained from healthy blood donors were included in the study. PIVKA-II and AFP were measured by LUMIPULSE(®) G1200 (Fujirebio-Europe, Belgium). We considered as PIVKA-II cutoff 70 mAU/ml (mean +3SD) of the values observed in healthy subjects. The evaluation of PIVKA-II showed a positivity of 70% in patients with HCC and 5% in patients with benign diseases (p < 0.0001) whereas high levels of AFP were observed in 55% of HCC patients and in 47% of patients with benign diseases. The combined Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis of the two analytes revealed a higher sensitivity (75%) compared to those observed for the individual biomarkers. In conclusion, we demonstrate that as a marker for HCC, PIVKA-II is more specific for HCC and less prone to elevation during chronic liver diseases. The combination of the two biomarkers, evaluated by the ROC analysis, improved the specificity compared to a single marker. These data suggest that the combined analysis of the two markers could be a useful tool in clinical practice.

  3. Radiation induced variations in photoperiod-sensitivity, thermo-sensitivity and the number of days to heading in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, S.C.

    1975-01-01

    Radiation induced semi-dwarf mutants derived from five japonica type varieties of rice were studied with regard to their photoperiod-sensitivity, thermo-sensitivity and the number of days to heading. The experiment was carried out under the natural conditions at Taipei. The coefficient of photoperiod-sensitivity and thermo-sensitivity as developed by Oka (1954) were estimated for the mutants in comparison with their original varieties. It was observed that these various physiological characters could be altered easily by mutations. Mutants showed wider ranges in both positive and negative directions than their original varieties in all physiological characters studied. Even though heading date depends on both photoperiod-sensitivity and thermo-sensitivity, it was estimated which of the two contributed more to the induced earliness in each mutant. This offers a basis for selecting early maturing lines of rice

  4. Micronuclei: sensitivity for the detection of radiation induced damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giorgio, M.; Nasazzi, N.B.; Taja, M.R.

    1998-01-01

    The in vitro cytokinesis-block (CB) micronucleus (MN) assay for human peripheral blood has been used extensively for the assessment of chromosomal damage induced by ionizing radiation and chemicals and considered a suitable biological dosimeter for estimating in vivo whole body exposures, particularly in the case of large scale radiation accidents. One of the major drawbacks of the MN assay is its reduced sensitivity for the detection of damage induced by low doses of low LET radiation, due to the high variability among the spontaneous MN frequencies. It is suggested that age, smoking habit and sex are the main confounding factors that contribute to the observed variability. Previous work in our laboratory, shows a significant positive correlation of the spontaneous and radiation induced MN frequencies with age and smoking habit, the latter being the strongest confounder. These findings led to in vitro studies of the dose-response relationships for smoking and non smoking donors evaluated separately, using 60 Co γ rays. The objectives of the present work are: 1-To increase the amount of data of the dose-response relationships, using γ rays from a 60 Co source, for smoking and non smoking donors, in order to find, if applicable, a correction factor for the calibration curve that takes into account the smoking habit of the individual in the case of accidental overexposure dose assessment, particularly in the low dose range. 2-To establish general conclusions on the current state of the technique. The sample for smoking and non smoking calibration curves was enlarged in the range of 0Gy to 2Gy. The fitting of both curves, performed up to the 2Gy dose, resulted in a linear quadratic model. MN distribution among bi nucleated cells was found to be over dispersed with respect to Poisson distribution, the average ratio of variance to mean being 1.13 for non smokers and 1.17 for smokers. Each fitted calibration curve, for smoking and non smoking donors, fell within the 95

  5. Particle transport model sensitivity on wave-induced processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staneva, Joanna; Ricker, Marcel; Krüger, Oliver; Breivik, Oyvind; Stanev, Emil; Schrum, Corinna

    2017-04-01

    Different effects of wind waves on the hydrodynamics in the North Sea are investigated using a coupled wave (WAM) and circulation (NEMO) model system. The terms accounting for the wave-current interaction are: the Stokes-Coriolis force, the sea-state dependent momentum and energy flux. The role of the different Stokes drift parameterizations is investigated using a particle-drift model. Those particles can be considered as simple representations of either oil fractions, or fish larvae. In the ocean circulation models the momentum flux from the atmosphere, which is related to the wind speed, is passed directly to the ocean and this is controlled by the drag coefficient. However, in the real ocean, the waves play also the role of a reservoir for momentum and energy because different amounts of the momentum flux from the atmosphere is taken up by the waves. In the coupled model system the momentum transferred into the ocean model is estimated as the fraction of the total flux that goes directly to the currents plus the momentum lost from wave dissipation. Additionally, we demonstrate that the wave-induced Stokes-Coriolis force leads to a deflection of the current. During the extreme events the Stokes velocity is comparable in magnitude to the current velocity. The resulting wave-induced drift is crucial for the transport of particles in the upper ocean. The performed sensitivity analyses demonstrate that the model skill depends on the chosen processes. The results are validated using surface drifters, ADCP, HF radar data and other in-situ measurements in different regions of the North Sea with a focus on the coastal areas. The using of a coupled model system reveals that the newly introduced wave effects are important for the drift-model performance, especially during extremes. Those effects cannot be neglected by search and rescue, oil-spill, transport of biological material, or larva drift modelling.

  6. The N-Methyl-d-Aspartate Receptor Antagonist MK-801 Prevents Thallium-Induced Behavioral and Biochemical Alterations in the Rat Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio-Rico, Laura; Villeda-Hernández, Juana; Santamaría, Abel; Königsberg, Mina; Galván-Arzate, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Thallium (Tl(+)) is a toxic heavy metal capable of increasing oxidative damage and disrupting antioxidant defense systems. Thallium invades the brain cells through potassium channels, increasing neuronal excitability, although until now the possible role of glutamatergic transmission in this event has not been investigated. Here, we explored the possible involvement of a glutamatergic component in the Tl(+)-induced toxicity through the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist dizocilpine (MK-801) in rats. The effects of MK-801 (1 mg/kg, intraperitoneally [ip]) on early (24 hours) motor alterations, lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, and GSH peroxidase activity induced by Tl(+) acetate (32 mg/kg, ip) were evaluated in adult rats. MK-801 attenuated the Tl(+)-induced hyperactivity and lipid peroxidation in the rat striatum, hippocampus and midbrain, and produced mild effects on other end points. Our findings suggest that glutamatergic transmission via NMDA receptors might be involved in the Tl(+)-induced altered regional brain redox activity and motor performance in rats. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Sex and smoking sensitive model of radon induced lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhukovsky, M.; Yarmoshenko, I.

    2006-01-01

    Radon and radon progeny inhalation exposure are recognized to cause lung cancer. Only strong evidence of radon exposure health effects was results of epidemiological studies among underground miners. Any single epidemiological study among population failed to find reliable lung cancer risk due to indoor radon exposure. Indoor radon induced lung cancer risk models were developed exclusively basing on extrapolation of miners data. Meta analyses of indoor radon and lung cancer case control studies allowed only little improvements in approaches to radon induced lung cancer risk projections. Valuable data on characteristics of indoor radon health effects could be obtained after systematic analysis of pooled data from single residential radon studies. Two such analyses are recently published. Available new and previous data of epidemiological studies of workers and general population exposed to radon and other sources of ionizing radiation allow filling gaps in knowledge of lung cancer association with indoor radon exposure. The model of lung cancer induced by indoor radon exposure is suggested. The key point of this model is the assumption that excess relative risk depends on both sex and smoking habits of individual. This assumption based on data on occupational exposure by radon and plutonium and also on the data on external radiation exposure in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the data on external exposure in Mayak nuclear facility. For non-corrected data of pooled European and North American studies the increased sensitivity of females to radon exposure is observed. The mean value of ks for non-corrected data obtained from independent source is in very good agreement with the L.S.S. study and Mayak plutonium workers data. Analysis of corrected data of pooled studies showed little influence of sex on E.R.R. value. The most probable cause of such effect is the change of men/women and smokers/nonsmokers ratios in corrected data sets in North American study. More correct

  8. Sex and smoking sensitive model of radon induced lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhukovsky, M.; Yarmoshenko, I. [Institute of Industrial Ecology of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2006-07-01

    Radon and radon progeny inhalation exposure are recognized to cause lung cancer. Only strong evidence of radon exposure health effects was results of epidemiological studies among underground miners. Any single epidemiological study among population failed to find reliable lung cancer risk due to indoor radon exposure. Indoor radon induced lung cancer risk models were developed exclusively basing on extrapolation of miners data. Meta analyses of indoor radon and lung cancer case control studies allowed only little improvements in approaches to radon induced lung cancer risk projections. Valuable data on characteristics of indoor radon health effects could be obtained after systematic analysis of pooled data from single residential radon studies. Two such analyses are recently published. Available new and previous data of epidemiological studies of workers and general population exposed to radon and other sources of ionizing radiation allow filling gaps in knowledge of lung cancer association with indoor radon exposure. The model of lung cancer induced by indoor radon exposure is suggested. The key point of this model is the assumption that excess relative risk depends on both sex and smoking habits of individual. This assumption based on data on occupational exposure by radon and plutonium and also on the data on external radiation exposure in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the data on external exposure in Mayak nuclear facility. For non-corrected data of pooled European and North American studies the increased sensitivity of females to radon exposure is observed. The mean value of ks for non-corrected data obtained from independent source is in very good agreement with the L.S.S. study and Mayak plutonium workers data. Analysis of corrected data of pooled studies showed little influence of sex on E.R.R. value. The most probable cause of such effect is the change of men/women and smokers/nonsmokers ratios in corrected data sets in North American study. More correct

  9. Chronic administration of the selective P2X3, P2X2/3 receptor antagonist, A-317491, transiently attenuates cancer-induced bone pain in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rikke Rie; Nasser, Arafat; Falk, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    The purinergic P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptors are in the peripheral nervous system almost exclusively confined to afferent sensory neurons, where they are found both at peripheral and central synapses. The P2X3 receptor is implicated in both neuropathic and inflammatory pain. However, the role of the ......X3 receptor in chronic cancer-induced bone pain is less known. Here we investigated the effect of systemic acute and chronic administration of the selective P2X3, P2X2/3 receptor antagonist (5-[[[(3-Phenoxyphenyl)methyl][(1S)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-naphthalenyl]amino]carbonyl]-1...

  10. Radiation-induced Genomic Instability and Radiation Sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varnum, Susan M.; Sowa, Marianne B.; Kim, Grace J.; Morgan, William F.

    2013-01-19

    The obvious relationships between reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammatory type responses and reactive chemokines and cytokines suggests a general stress response induced by ionizing radiation most likely leads to the non-targeted effects described after radiation exposure. We argue that true bystander effects do not occur in the radiation therapy clinic. But there is no question that effects outside the target volume do occur. These “out of field effects” are considered very low dose effects in the context of therapy. So what are the implications of non-targeted effects on radiation sensitivity? The primary goal of therapy is to eradicate the tumor. Given the genetic diversity of the human population, lifestyle and environment factors it is likely some combination of these will influence patient outcome. Non-targeted effects may contribute to a greater or lesser extent. But consider the potential situation involving a partial body exposure due to a radiation accident or radiological terrorism. Non-targeted effects suggest that the tissue at risk for demonstrating possible detrimental effects of radiation exposure might be greater than the volume actually irradiated.

  11. The Selective D3 Receptor Antagonist SB277011A Attenuates Morphine-Triggered Reactivation of Expression of Cocaine-Induced Conditioned Place Preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Onarae V.; Heidbreder, Christian A.; Gardner, Eliot L.; Schonhar, Charles D.; Ashby, Charles R.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effect of acute administration of the selective D3 receptor antagonist SB277011A on morphine-triggered reactivation of cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Repeated pairing of animals with 15 mg/kg i.p. of cocaine HCl or vehicle to cue-specific CPP chambers produced a significant CPP response compared to animals paired only with vehicle in both chambers. Expression of the CPP response to cocaine was then extinguished by repeatedly giving the animals vehicle injections in the cocaine-paired chambers. The magnitude of the CPP response after extinction was not significantly different from that of animals paired only with vehicle. Expression of the extinguished CPP response was reactivated by acute administration of 5 mg/kg i.p. of morphine but not by vehicle. Acute administration of 6 or 12 mg/kg i.p. (but not 3 mg/kg) of SB277011A significantly attenuated morphine-triggered reactivation of the cocaine-induced CPP. SB277011A itself (12 mg/kg i.p.) did not reactivate the extinguished CPP response. Overall, SB277011 decreases the incentive motivational actions of morphine. The present findings suggest that central D3 dopamine receptors are involved in relapse to cocaine-seeking behavior that a final common neural mechanism exists to mediate the incentive motivational effects of psychostimulants and opiates, and that selective dopamine D3 receptor antagonists constitute promising compounds for treating addiction. PMID:23404528

  12. The CRF₁ receptor antagonist SSR125543 prevents stress-induced long-lasting sleep disturbances in a mouse model of PTSD: comparison with paroxetine and d-cycloserine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philbert, Julie; Beeské, Sandra; Belzung, Catherine; Griebel, Guy

    2015-02-15

    The selective CRF₁ (corticotropin releasing factor type 1) receptor antagonist SSR125543 has been previously shown to attenuate the long-term behavioral and electrophysiological effects produced by traumatic stress exposure in mice. Sleep disturbances are one of the most commonly reported symptoms by people with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The present study aims at investigating whether SSR125543 (10 mg/kg/day/i.p. for 2 weeks) is able to attenuate sleep/wakefulness impairment induced by traumatic stress exposure in a model of PTSD in mice using electroencephalographic (EEG) analysis. Effects of SSR125543 were compared to those of the 5-HT reuptake inhibitor, paroxetine (10 mg/kg/day/i.p.), and the partial N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor agonist, d-cycloserine (10 mg/kg/day/i.p.), two compounds which have demonstrated clinical efficacy against PTSD. Baseline EEG recording was performed in the home cage for 6h prior to the application of two electric foot-shocks of 1.5 mA. Drugs were administered from day 1 post-stress to the day preceding the second EEG recording session, performed 14 days later. Results showed that at day 14 post-stress, shocked mice displayed sleep fragmentation as shown by an increase in the occurrence of both non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and wakefulness bouts. The duration of wakefulness, NREM and REM sleep were not significantly affected. The stress-induced effects were prevented by repeated administration of SSR125543, paroxetine and D-cycloserine. These findings confirm further that the CRF₁ receptor antagonist SSR125543 is able to attenuate the deleterious effects of traumatic stress exposure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of the novel histamine H₃ receptor antagonist ST1283 on voluntary alcohol consumption and ethanol-induced place preference in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahi, Amine; Sadek, Bassem; Schwed, Stephan J; Walter, Miriam; Stark, Holger

    2013-07-01

    Growing evidence supports a role for the central histaminergic system to have a modulatory influence on drug addiction in general and alcohol-use disorders in particular through histamine H3 receptors (H3R). In the present study, the effects of systemic injection of the newly synthesized H3R antagonist ST1283 on ethanol (EtOH) voluntary intake and EtOH-conditioned reward in mice have been investigated. Oral EtOH, saccharin, and quinine intake was assessed in a two-bottle choice paradigm using escalating concentrations of alcohol or tastant solutions. EtOH-induced place preference (CPP), EtOH-induced locomotor activity, and blood ethanol concentration (BEC) were also measured. Following administration of the H3R antagonist (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg, i.p.), there was a significant dose-dependent decrease in alcohol consumption and preference. Importantly, vehicle- and ST1283 (5 mg/kg)-treated mice showed similar consumption and preference to increasing concentration of both sweet and bitter tastes. More interestingly, systemic administration of ST1283 inhibited EtOH-CPP and EtOH-enhanced locomotion. This inhibition was blocked when mice were pretreated with the selective H3R agonist R-(alpha)-methyl-histamine (10 mg/kg). Finally, vehicle- and ST1283-treated mice had similar BECs. Our results show that ST1283 may decrease voluntary EtOH consumption and EtOH-CPP by altering its reinforcing effects, suggesting a novel role for histamine signaling in regulation of alcoholism. Lastly, the results add to the growing literature on H3R modulation in the pharmacotherapy of EtOH addiction.

  14. Milrinone-Induced Postconditioning Requires Activation of Mitochondrial Ca2+-sensitive Potassium (mBKCa) Channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behmenburg, Friederike; Trefz, Lara; Dorsch, Marianne; Ströthoff, Martin; Mathes, Alexander; Raupach, Annika; Heinen, André; Hollmann, Markus W.; Berger, Marc M.; Huhn, Ragnar

    2017-01-01

    Cardioprotection by postconditioning requires activation of mitochondrial large-conductance Ca2+-sensitive potassium (mBKCa) channels. The involvement of these channels in milrinone-induced postconditioning is unknown. The authors determined whether cardioprotection by milrinone-induced

  15. Inhibition of deprivation-induced food intake by GABA(A) antagonists: roles of the hypothalamic, endocrine and alimentary mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamatchi, Ganesan L; Rathanaswami, Palaniswami

    2012-07-01

    The role of gamma amino butyric acid A receptors/neurons of the hypothalamic, endocrine and alimentary systems in the food intake seen in hunger was studied in 20 h food-deprived rats. Food deprivation decreased blood glucose, serum insulin and produced hyperphagia. The hyperphagia was inhibited by subcutaneous or ventromedial hypothalamic administration of gamma amino butyric acid A antagonists picrotoxin or bicuculline. Although results of blood glucose was variable, insulin level was increased by picrotoxin or bicuculline. In contrast, lateral hypothalamic administration of these agents failed to reproduce the above changes. Subcutaneous administration of picrotoxin or bicuculline increased gastric content, decreased gastric motility and small bowel transit. In contrast, ventromedial or lateral hypothalamic administration of picrotoxin or bicuculline failed to alter the gastric content but decreased the small bowel transit. The results of alimentary studies suggest that gamma amino butyric acid neurons of both ventromedial and lateral hypothalamus selectively regulate small bowel transit but not the gastric content. It may be concluded that ventromedial hypothalamus plays a dominant role in the regulation of food intake and that picrotoxin or bicuculline inhibited food intake by inhibiting gamma amino butyric acid receptors of the ventromedial hypothalamus, increasing insulin level and decreasing the gut motility.

  16. Characterization of subtle brain abnormalities in a mouse model of Hedgehog pathway antagonist-induced cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipinski, Robert J; Holloway, Hunter T; O'Leary-Moore, Shonagh K; Ament, Jacob J; Pecevich, Stephen J; Cofer, Gary P; Budin, Francois; Everson, Joshua L; Johnson, G Allan; Sulik, Kathleen K

    2014-01-01

    Subtle behavioral and cognitive deficits have been documented in patient cohorts with orofacial clefts (OFCs). Recent neuroimaging studies argue that these traits are associated with structural brain abnormalities but have been limited to adolescent and adult populations where brain plasticity during infancy and childhood may be a confounding factor. Here, we employed high resolution magnetic resonance microscopy to examine primary brain morphology in a mouse model of OFCs. Transient in utero exposure to the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway antagonist cyclopamine resulted in a spectrum of facial dysmorphology, including unilateral and bilateral cleft lip and palate, cleft of the secondary palate only, and a non-cleft phenotype marked by midfacial hypoplasia. Relative to controls, cyclopamine-exposed fetuses exhibited volumetric differences in several brain regions, including hypoplasia of the pituitary gland and olfactory bulbs, hyperplasia of the forebrain septal region, and expansion of the third ventricle. However, in affected fetuses the corpus callosum was intact and normal division of the forebrain was observed. This argues that temporally-specific Hh signaling perturbation can result in typical appearing OFCs in the absence of holoprosencephaly--a condition classically associated with Hh pathway inhibition and frequently co-occurring with OFCs. Supporting the premise that some forms of OFCs co-occur with subtle brain malformations, these results provide a possible ontological basis for traits identified in clinical populations. They also argue in favor of future investigations into genetic and/or environmental modulation of the Hh pathway in the etiopathogenesis of orofacial clefting.

  17. Histologic and inflammatory lamellar changes in horses with oligofructose-induced laminitis treated with a CXCR1/2 antagonist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo R. de Lima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: With the hypothesis that blocking chemokine signaling can ameliorate acute laminitis, the aim was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of intravenous DF1681B, a selective antagonist for CXCR1 and CXCR2 (chemokine receptors, in an oligofructose equine laminitis model. To twelve mixed breed clinically healthy hoses with no previous history of hoof-related lameness was administered oligofructose (10g/kg given by nasogastric tube and divided into two groups: treated (intravenous DF1681B at 30mg/kg 6, 12, 18, and 24h after oligofructose and non-treated groups. Laminar biopsies were performed before and 12, 36, and 72h after administering oligofructose. Samples were stained with periodic acid-Schiff (PAS and scored from 0 to 6 according to epidermal cell and basal membrane changes. The IL-1β, IL-6, and CXCL1 RNA expressions were determined by RT-PCR. Parametric and non-parametric tests were used to compare times within each group (P<0.05. The PAS grades and IL-1β and IL-6 RNA expression increased in the non-treated group, but remained constant in the treated horses. In conclusion, DF1681B therapy reduced laminar inflammation and epidermal deterioration in treated horses. CXCR1/2 blockage should be considered therapeutically for equine acute laminitis.

  18. The nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside attenuates recognition memory deficits and social withdrawal produced by the NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine and induces anxiolytic-like behaviour in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevlopoulou, Aikaterini; Touzlatzi, Ntilara; Pitsikas, Nikolaos

    2016-03-01

    Experimental evidence indicates that the non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist ketamine impairs cognition and can mimic certain aspects of positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia in rodents. Nitric oxide (NO) is considered as an intracellular messenger in the brain, and its abnormalities have been linked to schizophrenia. The present study was designed to investigate the ability of the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) to counteract schizophrenia-like behavioural deficits produced by ketamine in rats. The ability of SNP to reverse ketamine-induced memory deficits and social withdrawal were assessed using the novel object recognition task (NORT) and the social interaction test, respectively. Furthermore, since anxiety disorders are noted to occur commonly in schizophrenics, the effects of SNP on anxiety-like behaviour were examined using the light/dark test. Locomotor activity was also assessed as an independent measure of the potential motoric effects of this NO donor. SNP (0.3 and 1 mg/kg) reversed ketamine (3 mg/kg)-induced short-term recognition memory deficits. SNP (1 mg/kg) counteracted the ketamine (8 mg/kg)-induced social isolation in the social interaction test. The anxiolytic-like effects in the light/dark test of SNP (1 mg/kg) cannot be attributed to changes in locomotor activity. Our findings illustrate a functional interaction between the nitrergic and glutamatergic system that may be of relevance for schizophrenia-like behavioural deficits. The data also suggest a role of NO in anxiety.

  19. Effects of the selective 5-HT7 receptor antagonist SB-269970 and amisulpride on ketamine-induced schizophrenia-like deficits in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Nikiforuk

    Full Text Available A wide body of evidence suggests that 5-HT7 receptors are implicated in a variety of central nervous system functions, including control of learning and memory processes. According to recent preclinical data, the selective blockade of these receptors may be a potential target for cognitive improvement in schizophrenia. The first aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the selective 5-HT7 receptor antagonist, SB-269970, and the antipsychotic drug with a high affinity for 5-HT7 receptors, amisulpride, on ketamine-induced deficits in attentional set-shifting and novel object recognition tasks in rats. Because the role of 5-HT7 receptor blockade in ameliorating positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia remains equivocal, the second aim of these experiments was to examine the effectiveness of SB-269970 and amisulpride in reversing ketamine-induced deficits in prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex and in social interaction test in rats. The study revealed that acute administration of SB-269970 (1 mg/kg or amisulpride (3 mg/kg ameliorated ketamine-induced cognitive inflexibility and novel object recognition deficit in rats. Both compounds were also effective in attenuating ketamine-evoked disruption of social interactions. In contrast, neither SB-269970 nor amisulpride affected ketamine-disrupted prepulse inhibition or 50 kHz USVs accompanying social behaviour. In conclusion, antagonism of 5-HT7 receptors may represent a useful pharmacological approach in the treatment of cognitive deficits and some negative symptoms of schizophrenia.

  20. Combined receptor antagonist stimulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis test identifies impaired negative feedback sensitivity to cortisol in obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Cecilia; Reynolds, Rebecca M; Simonyte, Kotryna; Olsson, Tommy; Walker, Brian R

    2009-04-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation may underlie disorders including obesity, depression, cognitive decline, and the metabolic syndrome. Conventional tests of HPA axis negative feedback rely on glucocorticoid receptor (GR) agonists such as dexamethasone but do not test feedback by endogenous cortisol, potentially mediated by both GR and mineralocorticoid receptors (MR). The objective of the study was to use a combination of GR (RU38486, mifepristone) and MR (spironolactone) antagonists to explore the poorly understood activation of the HPA axis that occurs in obesity. This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover study. The study was conducted at a clinical research facility. Participants included 15 lean (body mass index 22.0 +/- 1.6 kg/m(2)) and 16 overweight/obese (body mass index 30.1 +/- 3.5 kg/m(2)) men. Subjects attended on four occasions for blood and saliva sampling every 30 min between 1800 and 2200 h. At 1100 and 1600 h before visits, subjects took 200 mg spironolactone, 400 mg RU38486, 200 mg spironolactone + 400 mg RU38486, or placebo orally. Serum cortisol levels after drug or placebo were measured. Cortisol levels did not differ between lean and obese after placebo. Spironolactone and RU38486 alone had modest effects, increasing cortisol by less than 50% in both groups. However, combined spironolactone plus RU38486 elevated cortisol concentrations substantially, more so in lean than obese men [2.9- (0.3) vs. 2.2 (0.3)-fold elevation, P = 0.002]. Combined receptor antagonist stimulation of the HPA axis reveals redundancy of MR and GR in negative feedback in humans. Obese men have impaired responses to combined receptor antagonist stimulation, suggesting impaired negative feedback by endogenous cortisol. Such an approach may be useful to dissect abnormal HPA axis control in neuropsychiatric and other disorders.

  1. The sensitivity of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cell lines to histone deacetylase inhibitor-induced apoptosis is modulated by BCL-2 family protein activity.

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    Ryan C Thompson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL is a genetically heterogeneous disease and this variation can often be used to explain the response of individual patients to chemotherapy. One cancer therapeutic approach currently in clinical trials uses histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi's as monotherapy or in combination with other agents. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have used a variety of cell-based and molecular/biochemical assays to show that two pan-HDAC inhibitors, trichostatin A and vorinostat, induce apoptosis in seven of eight human DLBCL cell lines. Consistent with previous reports implicating the BCL-2 family in regulating HDACi-induced apoptosis, ectopic over-expression of anti-apoptotic proteins BCL-2 and BCL-XL or pro-apoptotic protein BIM in these cell lines conferred further resistance or sensitivity, respectively, to HDACi treatment. Additionally, BCL-2 family antgonist ABT-737 increased the sensitivity of several DLBCL cell lines to vorinostat-induced apoptosis, including one cell line (SUDHL6 that is resistant to vorinostat alone. Moreover, two variants of the HDACi-sensitive SUDHL4 cell line that have decreased sensitivity to vorinostat showed up-regulation of BCL-2 family anti-apoptotic proteins such as BCL-XL and MCL-1, as well as decreased sensitivity to ABT-737. These results suggest that the regulation and overall balance of anti- to pro-apoptotic BCL-2 family protein expression is important in defining the sensitivity of DLBCL to HDACi-induced apoptosis. However, the sensitivity of DLBCL cell lines to HDACi treatment does not correlate with expression of any individual BCL-2 family member. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These studies indicate that the sensitivity of DLBCL to treatment with HDACi's is dependent on the complex regulation of BCL-2 family members and that BCL-2 antagonists may enhance the response of a subset of DLBCL patients to HDACi treatment.

  2. Late acute humoral rejection in low-risk renal transplant recipients induced with an interleukin-2 receptor antagonist and maintained with standard therapy: preliminary communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, J; Contreras, L; Zehnder, C; Pinto, V; Elberg, M; Araneda, S; Herzog, C; Calabran, L; Aguiló, J; Ferrario, M; Buckel, E; Fierro, J A

    2011-01-01

    Low-risk renal transplant recipients treated with standard immunosuppressive therapy including interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) antagonist show a low incidence of early rejection episodes but few reports have examined the incidence and severity of late rejection processes. This study evaluated retrospectively cellular and antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) among 42 recipients selected because they showed low panel-reactive-antibodies, short cold ischemia time, no delayed graft function, and therapy including basiliximab (Simulect) induction. The mean observation time was 6.6 years. Sixty-seven percent of donors were deceased. Ten-year patient and death-censored graft survivals were 81% and 78%, respectively. Seven patients lost their kidneys due to nonimmunologic events. The seven recipients who experienced cellular rejection episodes during the first posttransplant year had them reversed with steroids. Five patients displayed late acute AMR causing functional deterioration in four cases including 1 graft loss. De novo sensitization occurred in 48% of recipients including patients without clinical rejection. In conclusion, long-term follow-up of kidney transplant recipients selected by a low immunologic risk showed a persistent risk of de novo sensitization evolving to acute AMR in 11% of cases. Although immunologic events were related to late immunosuppressive reduction, most graft losses were due to nonimmunologic factors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist MSX-3 on motivational disruptions of maternal behavior induced by dopamine antagonism in the early postpartum rat.

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    Pereira, Mariana; Farrar, Andrew M; Hockemeyer, Jörg; Müller, Christa E; Salamone, John D; Morrell, Joan I

    2011-01-01

    Mesolimbic dopamine (DA), particularly in the nucleus accumbens, importantly regulates activational aspects of maternal responsiveness. DA antagonism and accumbens DA depletions interfere with early postpartum maternal motivation by selectively affecting most forms of active maternal behaviors, while leaving nursing behavior relatively intact. Considerable evidence indicates that there is a functional interaction between DA D2 and adenosine A(2A) receptors in striatal areas, including the nucleus accumbens. This study was conducted to determine if adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonism could reverse the effects of DA receptor antagonism on early postpartum maternal behavior. The adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist MSX-3 (0.25-2.0 mg/kg, IP) was investigated for its ability to reverse the effects of the DA D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg, IP) on the maternal behavior of early postpartum female rats. Haloperidol severely impaired the expression of active maternal components, including retrieval and grouping the pups at the nest site, pup licking, and nest building. Co-administration of MSX-3 (0.25-2.0 mg/kg, IP) with haloperidol produced a dose-related attenuation of the haloperidol-induced behavioral deficits in early postpartum females. Doses of MSX-3 that effectively reversed the effects of haloperidol (0.5, 1.0 mg/kg), when administered in the absence of haloperidol, did not affect maternal responding or locomotor activity. Adenosine and DA systems interact to regulate early postpartum maternal responsiveness. This research may potentially contribute to the development of strategies for treatments of psychiatric disorders during the postpartum period, with particular emphasis in maintaining or restoring the mother-infant relationship.

  4. Rapid and Persistent Suppression of Feeding Behavior Induced by Sensitization Training in "Aplysia"

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    Acheampong, Ama; Kelly, Kathleen; Shields-Johnson, Maria; Hajovsky, Julie; Wainwright, Marcy; Mozzachiodi, Riccardo

    2012-01-01

    In "Aplysia," noxious stimuli induce sensitization of defensive responses. However, it remains largely unknown whether such stimuli also alter nondefensive behaviors. In this study, we examined the effects of noxious stimuli on feeding. Strong electric shocks, capable of inducing sensitization, also led to the suppression of feeding. The use of…

  5. Effect of the Toll-Like Receptor 4 Antagonist Eritoran on Retinochoroidal Inflammatory Damage in a Rat Model of Endotoxin-Induced Inflammation

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    Feyzahan Ekici

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We investigated the effect of eritoran, a Toll-like receptor 4 antagonist, on retinochoroidal inflammatory damage in an endotoxin-induced inflammatory rat model. Methods. Endotoxin-induced inflammatory model was obtained by intraperitoneal injection of 1.5 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Group 1 had control rats; in groups 2-3 LPS and 0.5 mg/kg sterile saline were injected; and in groups 4-5 LPS and 0.5 mg/kg eritoran were injected. Blood samples were taken and eyes were enucleated after 12 hours (h (groups 2 and 4 or 24 hours (Groups 3 and 5. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and malondialdehyde (MDA levels in the serum and retinochoroidal tissue and nuclear factor kappa-B (NFκB levels in retinochoroidal tissue were determined. Histopathological examination was performed and retinochoroidal changes were scored. Results. Eritoran treatment resulted in lower levels of TNF-α, MDA, and NFκB after 12 h which became significant after 24 h. Serum TNF-α and retinochoroidal tissue NFκB levels were similar to control animals at the 24th h of the study. Eritoran significantly reversed histopathological damage after 24 h. Conclusions. Eritoran treatment resulted in less inflammatory damage in terms of serum and retinochoroidal tissue parameters.

  6. The effect of betahistine, a histamine H1 receptor agonist/H3 antagonist, on olanzapine-induced weight gain in first-episode schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyurovsky, Michael; Pashinian, Artashes; Levi, Aya; Weizman, Ronit; Weizman, Abraham

    2005-03-01

    Histamine antagonism has been implicated in antipsychotic drug-induced weight gain. Betahistine, a histamine enhancer with H1 agonistic/H3 antagonistic properties (48 mg t.i.d.), was coadministered with olanzapine (10 mg/day) in three first-episode schizophrenia patients for 6 weeks. Body weight was measured at baseline and weekly thereafter. Clinical rating scales were completed at baseline and at week 6. All participants gained weight (mean weight gain 3.1+/-0.9 kg) and a similar pattern of weight gain was observed: an increase during the first 2 weeks and no additional weight gain (two patients) or minor weight loss (one patient) from weeks 3 to 6. None gained 7% of baseline weight, which is the cut-off for clinically significant weight gain. Betahistine was safe and well tolerated and did not interfere with the antipsychotic effect of olanzapine. Our findings justify a placebo-controlled evaluation of the putative weight-attenuating effect of betahistine in olanzapine-induced weight gain.

  7. The anti-inflammatory effect of montelukast, a cysteinyl leukotriene receptor-1 antagonist, against estradiol-induced nonbacterial inflammation in the rat prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Mahmoud M; Bosland, Maarten C

    2017-02-01

    There is no standard treatment of chronic nonbacterial prostatitis in humans. The current study was aimed to investigate the effect of montelukast, an antagonist of cysteinyl leukotriene receptor-1, against estrogen-induced, nonbacterial lateral lobe-specific prostate inflammation in rats. Male Wistar rats were randomized into five groups of six rats, including sham controls (group 1) and castrated rats (group 2), whereas nonbacterial prostatitis (NBP) was induced in groups 3-5 by castration followed by a daily subcutaneous injection of estradiol (0.25 mg/kg body weight) for 30 days. The rats were left otherwise untreated (group 3) or received a daily oral administration of montelukast (1 and 10 mg/kg body weight for groups 4 and 5, respectively) from the 17th day after castration for two consecutive weeks. Compared with sham controls, induction of NBP led to a significant increase in serum leukotriene B 4 (LTB4), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels, along with a significant upregulation in the transcript level of proinflammatory molecules (nuclear factor kappa beta [NF-κβ] and inducible nitric oxide synthase [iNOS]), chemokines (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 [MCP-1] and eotaxin), and E-selectin in the lateral prostate. Histological examination revealed intense inflammation in the prostate with leukocyte infiltration and acinar degeneration following estradiol treatment of castrated rats. Montelukast significantly suppressed the increase in serum and prostate proinflammatory mediators/chemokines expression and abolished the histologically inflammatory changes in the lateral prostate. These findings indicate that montelukast inhibits estradiol-induced NBP in a rat model through anti-inflammatory mechanisms, suggesting its future beneficial effect for the treatment of clinical chronic NBP.

  8. Orexin receptor antagonist-induced sleep does not impair the ability to wake in response to emotionally salient acoustic stimuli in dogs

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    Pamela L. Tannenbaum

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to awaken from sleep in response to important stimuli is a critical feature of normal sleep, as is maintaining sleep continuity in the presence of irrelevant background noise. Dual orexin receptor antagonists (DORAs effectively promote sleep across species by targeting the evolutionarily conserved wake-promoting orexin signaling pathway. This study in dogs investigated whether DORA-induced sleep preserved the ability to awaken appropriately to salient acoustic stimuli but remain asleep when exposed to irrelevant stimuli. Sleep and wake in response to DORAs, vehicle, GABA-A receptor modulators (diazepam, eszopiclone and zolpidem and antihistamine (diphenhydramine administration were evaluated in telemetry-implanted adult dogs with continuous electrocorticogram, electromyogram, electrooculogram, and activity recordings. DORAs induced sleep, but GABA-A modulators and antihistamine induced paradoxical hyperarousal. Thus, salience gating studies were conducted during DORA-22 (0.3, 1, and 5 mg/kg; day and night and vehicle nighttime sleep. The acoustic stimuli were either classically conditioned using food reward and positive attention (salient stimulus or presented randomly (neutral stimulus. Once conditioned, the tones were presented at sleep times corresponding to maximal DORA-22 exposure. In response to the salient stimuli, dogs woke completely from vehicle and orexin-antagonized sleep across all sleep stages but rarely awoke to neutral stimuli. Notably, acute pharmacological antagonism of orexin receptors paired with emotionally salient anticipation produced wake, not cataplexy, in a species where genetic (chronic loss of orexin receptor signaling leads to narcolepsy/cataplexy. DORA-induced sleep in this species thereby retains the desired capacity to awaken to emotionally salient acoustic stimuli while preserving uninterrupted sleep in response to irrelevant stimuli.

  9. Phosphodiesterase 2A Inhibitor TAK-915 Ameliorates Cognitive Impairments and Social Withdrawal in N-Methyl-d-Aspartate Receptor Antagonist-Induced Rat Models of Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Masato; Imada, Haruka; Shiraishi, Eri; Ito, Yuki; Suzuki, Noriko; Miyamoto, Maki; Taniguchi, Takahiko; Iwashita, Hiroki

    2018-04-01

    The pathophysiology of schizophrenia has been associated with glutamatergic dysfunction. Modulation of the glutamatergic signaling pathway, including N -methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, can provide a new therapeutic target for schizophrenia. Phosphodiesterase 2A (PDE2A) is highly expressed in the forebrain, and is a dual substrate enzyme that hydrolyzes both cAMP and cGMP, which play pivotal roles as intracellular second messengers downstream of NMDA receptors. Here we characterize the in vivo pharmacological profile of a selective and brain-penetrant PDE2A inhibitor, ( N -{(1 S )-1-[3-fluoro-4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl]-2-methoxyethyl}-7-methoxy-2-oxo-2,3-dihydropyrido[2,3- b ]pyrazine-4(1 H )-carboxamide) (TAK-915) as a novel treatment of schizophrenia. Oral administration of TAK-915 at 3 and 10 mg/kg significantly increased cGMP levels in the frontal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum of rats. TAK-915 at 10 mg/kg significantly upregulated the phosphorylation of α -amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-proprionic acid receptor subunit GluR1 in the rat hippocampus. TAK-915 at 3 and 10 mg/kg significantly attenuated episodic memory deficits induced by the NMDA receptor antagonist (+)-MK-801 hydrogen maleate (MK-801) in the rat passive avoidance test. TAK-915 at 10 mg/kg significantly attenuated working memory deficits induced by MK-801 in the rat radial arm maze test. Additionally, TAK-915 at 10 mg/kg prevented subchronic phencyclidine-induced social withdrawal in social interaction in rats. In contrast, TAK-915 did not produce antipsychotic-like activity; TAK-915 had little effect on MK-801- or methamphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion in rats. These results suggest that TAK-915 has a potential to ameliorate cognitive impairments and social withdrawal in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2018 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  10. An amino acid substitution inhibits specialist herbivore production of a competitive antagonist effector and recovers insect-induced plant defenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plants respond to insect herbivory through the production of biochemicals that function as either direct defenses or indirect defenses via the attraction of natural enemies. Curiously, attack by even closely related insect pests can result in distinctive levels of induced plant defenses. Despite the...

  11. An amino acid substitution inhibits specialist herbivore production of an antagonist effector and recovers insect-induced plant defenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plants respond to insect herbivory through the production of biochemicals that function as either direct defenses or indirect defenses via the attraction of natural enemies. Curiously, attack by even closely related insect pests can result in distinctive levels of induced plant defenses. Despite the...

  12. Gamma ray induced sensitization in CaSO4:Dy and competing trap model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagpal, J.S.; Kher, R.K.; Gangadharan, P.

    1979-01-01

    Gamma ray induced sensitization in CaSO 4 :Dy has been compared (by measurement of TL glow curves) for different temperatures during irradiation (25 0 , 120 0 and 250 0 C). Enhanced sensitization at elevated temperatures seems to support the competing trap model for supralinearity and sensitization in CaSO 4 :Dy. (author)

  13. Potent homocysteine-induced ERK phosphorylation in cultured neurons depends on self-sensitization via system Xc-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Li; Hu Xiaoling; Xue Zhanxia; Yang Jun; Wan Lishu; Ren Yan; Hertz, Leif; Peng Liang

    2010-01-01

    Homocysteine is increased during pathological conditions, endangering vascular and cognitive functions, and elevated homocysteine during pregnancy may be correlated with an increased incidence of schizophrenia in the offspring. This study showed that millimolar homocysteine concentrations in saline medium cause phosphorylation of extracellular-signal regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK 1/2 ) in cerebellar granule neurons, inhibitable by metabotropic but not ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists. These findings are analogous to observations by , that similar concentrations cause neuronal death. However, these concentrations are much higher than those occurring clinically during hyperhomocysteinemia. It is therefore important that a ∼ 10-fold increase in potency occurred in the presence of the glutamate precursor glutamine, when ERK 1/2 phosphorylation became inhibitable by NMDA or non-NMDA antagonists and dependent upon epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor transactivation. However, glutamate release to the medium was reduced, suggesting that reversal of the cystine/glutamate antiporter, system X c - could be involved in potentiation of the response by causing a localized release of initially accumulated homocysteine. In agreement with this hypothesis further enhancement of ERK 1/2 phosphorylation occurred in the additional presence of cystine. Pharmacological inhibition of system X c - prevented the effect of micromolar homocysteine concentrations, and U0126-mediated inhibition of ERK 1/2 phosphorylation enhanced homocysteine-induced death. In conclusion, homocysteine interacts with system X c - like quisqualate (Venkatraman et al. 1994), by 'self-sensitization' with initial accumulation and subsequent release in exchange with cystine and/or glutamate, establishing high local homocysteine concentrations, which activate adjacent ionotropic glutamate receptors and cause neurotoxicity.

  14. NETUPITANT, A POTENT AND HIGHLY SELECTIVE NK1 RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST, ALLEVIATES ACETIC ACID-INDUCED BLADDER OVERACTIVITY IN ANESTHETIZED GUINEA-PIGS

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    Stefano Palea

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Tachykinins potently contract the isolated urinary bladder from a number of animal species and play an important role in the regulation of the micturition reflex. On the guinea-pig isolated urinary bladder we examined the effects of a new potent and selective NK1 receptor antagonist (netupitant on the contractions induced by a selective NK1 receptor agonist, SP-methylester (SP-OMe. Moreover, the effects of netupitant and another selective NK1 antagonist (L-733,060 were studied in anesthetized guinea-pigs using two experimental models, the isovolumetric bladder contractions and a model of bladder overactivity induced by intravesical administration of acetic acid (AA. Methods and Results. Detrusor muscle strips were mounted in 5 mL organ baths and isometric contractions to cumulative concentrations of SP-OME were recorded before and after incubation with increasing concentrations of netupitant. In anesthetized female guinea-pigs, reflex bladder activity was examined under isovolumetric conditions with the bladder distended with saline or during cystometry using intravesical infusion of acetic acid (AA. After a 30 min stabilization period, netupitant (0.1-3 mg/kg, i.v. or L-733,060 (3-10 mg/kg, i.v. were administered. In the detrusor muscle, netupitant produced a concentration-dependent inhibition (mean pKB = 9.24 of the responses to SP-OMe. Under isovolumetric conditions, netupitant or L-733,060 reduced bladder contraction frequency in a dose-dependent manner, but neither drug changed bladder contraction amplitude. In the AA model, netupitant dose-dependently increased intercontraction interval (ICI but had no effect on the amplitude of micturition (AM. L-733,060 dose-dependently increased ICI also but this effect was paralleled by a significant reduction of AM. Conclusion. Netupitant decreases the frequency of reflex bladder contractions without altering their amplitude, suggesting that this drug targets the afferent limb of the

  15. Prophylaxis of Radiation-Induced Nausea and Vomiting Using 5-Hydroxytryptamine-3 Serotonin Receptor Antagonists: A Systematic Review of Randomized Trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvo, Nadia; Doble, Brett [Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Khan, Luluel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Amirthevasar, Gayathri [Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Dennis, Kristopher [Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Pasetka, Mark; DeAngelis, Carlo [Department of Oncology Pharmacy, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Tsao, May [Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Chow, Edward, E-mail: Edward.Chow@sunnybrook.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To systematically review the effectiveness and safety of 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 receptor antagonists (5-HT3 RAs) compared with other antiemetic medication or placebo for prophylaxis of radiation-induced nausea and vomiting. Methods and Materials: We searched the following electronic databases: MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical Trials, and Web of Science. We also hand-searched reference lists of included studies. Randomized, controlled trials that compared a 5-HT3 RA with another antiemetic medication or placebo for preventing radiation-induced nausea and vomiting were included. We excluded studies recruiting patients receiving concomitant chemotherapy. When appropriate, meta-analysis was conducted using Review Manager (v5) software. Relative risks were calculated using inverse variance as the statistical method under a random-effects model. We assessed the quality of evidence by outcome using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach. Results: Eligibility screening of 47 articles resulted in 9 included in the review. The overall methodologic quality was moderate. Meta-analysis of 5-HT3 RAs vs. placebo showed significant benefit for 5-HT3 RAs (relative risk [RR] 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.57-0.86 for emesis; RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.73-0.96 for nausea). Meta-analysis comparing 5-HT3 RAs vs. metoclopramide showed a significant benefit of the 5-HT3 RAs for emetic control (RR 0.27, 95% CI 0.15-0.47). Conclusion: 5-Hydroxytryptamine-3 RAs are superior to placebo and other antiemetics for prevention of emesis, but little benefit was identified for nausea prevention. 5-Hydroxytryptamine-3 RAs are suggested for prevention of emesis. Limited evidence was found regarding delayed emesis, adverse events, quality of life, or need for rescue medication. Future randomized, controlled trials should evaluate different 5-HT3 antiemetics and new agents with novel mechanisms of action such at the NK

  16. Prophylaxis of Radiation-Induced Nausea and Vomiting Using 5-Hydroxytryptamine-3 Serotonin Receptor Antagonists: A Systematic Review of Randomized Trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvo, Nadia; Doble, Brett; Khan, Luluel; Amirthevasar, Gayathri; Dennis, Kristopher; Pasetka, Mark; DeAngelis, Carlo; Tsao, May; Chow, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To systematically review the effectiveness and safety of 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 receptor antagonists (5-HT3 RAs) compared with other antiemetic medication or placebo for prophylaxis of radiation-induced nausea and vomiting. Methods and Materials: We searched the following electronic databases: MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical Trials, and Web of Science. We also hand-searched reference lists of included studies. Randomized, controlled trials that compared a 5-HT3 RA with another antiemetic medication or placebo for preventing radiation-induced nausea and vomiting were included. We excluded studies recruiting patients receiving concomitant chemotherapy. When appropriate, meta-analysis was conducted using Review Manager (v5) software. Relative risks were calculated using inverse variance as the statistical method under a random-effects model. We assessed the quality of evidence by outcome using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach. Results: Eligibility screening of 47 articles resulted in 9 included in the review. The overall methodologic quality was moderate. Meta-analysis of 5-HT3 RAs vs. placebo showed significant benefit for 5-HT3 RAs (relative risk [RR] 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.57–0.86 for emesis; RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.73–0.96 for nausea). Meta-analysis comparing 5-HT3 RAs vs. metoclopramide showed a significant benefit of the 5-HT3 RAs for emetic control (RR 0.27, 95% CI 0.15–0.47). Conclusion: 5-Hydroxytryptamine-3 RAs are superior to placebo and other antiemetics for prevention of emesis, but little benefit was identified for nausea prevention. 5-Hydroxytryptamine-3 RAs are suggested for prevention of emesis. Limited evidence was found regarding delayed emesis, adverse events, quality of life, or need for rescue medication. Future randomized, controlled trials should evaluate different 5-HT3 antiemetics and new agents with novel mechanisms of action such at

  17. Extreme Thermal Sensitivity and Pain-Induced Sensitization in a Fibromyalgia Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fong Wong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available During the course of a psychophysical study of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS, one of the subjects with a long history of headache and facial pain displayed an extraordinarily severe thermal allodynia. Her stimulus-response function for ratings of cutaneous heat pain revealed a sensitivity clearly beyond that of normal controls and most FMS subjects. Specially designed psychophysical methods showed that heat sensitivity sometimes increased dramatically within a series of stimuli. Prior exposure to moderate heat pain served as a trigger for allodynic ratings of series of normally neutral thermal stimulation. These observations document a case of breakthrough pain sensitivity with implications for mechanisms of FMS pain.

  18. The inhibition of cholera toxin-induced 5-HT release by the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, granisetron, in the rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turvill, J L; Connor, P; Farthing, M J G

    2000-01-01

    The secretagogue 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is implicated in the pathophysiology of cholera. 5-HT released from enterochromaffin cells after cholera toxin exposure is thought to activate non-neuronally (5-HT2 dependent) and neuronally (5-HT3 dependent) mediated water and electrolyte secretion. CT-secretion can be reduced by preventing the release of 5-HT. Enterochromaffin cells possess numerous receptors that, under basal conditions, modulate 5-HT release. These include basolateral 5-HT3 receptors, the activation of which is known to enhance 5-HT release. Until now, 5-HT3 receptor antagonists (e.g. granisetron) have been thought to inhibit cholera toxin-induced fluid secretion by blockading 5-HT3 receptors on secretory enteric neurones. Instead we postulated that they act by inhibiting cholera toxin-induced enterochromaffin cell degranulation. Isolated intestinal segments in anaesthetized male Wistar rats, pre-treated with granisetron 75 μg kg−1, lidoocaine 6 mg kg−1 or saline, were instilled with a supramaximal dose of cholera toxin or saline. Net fluid movement was determined by small intestinal perfusion or gravimetry and small intestinal and luminal fluid 5-HT levels were determined by HPLC with fluorimetric detection. Intraluminal 5-HT release was proportional to the reduction in tissue 5-HT levels and to the onset of water and electrolyte secretion, suggesting that luminal 5-HT levels reflect enterochromaffin cell activity. Both lidocaine and granisetron inhibited fluid secretion. However, granisetron alone, and proportionately, reduced 5-HT release. The simultaneous inhibition of 5-HT release and fluid secretion by granisetron suggests that 5-HT release from enterochromaffin cells is potentiated by endogenous 5-HT3 receptors. The accentuated 5-HT release promotes cholera toxin-induced fluid secretion. PMID:10882387

  19. The AT1 Receptor Antagonist, L-158,809, Prevents or Ameliorates Fractionated Whole-Brain Irradiation-Induced Cognitive Impairment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbins, Mike E.; Payne, Valerie B.S.; Tommasi, Ellen B.S.; Diz, Debra I.; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Brown, William R.; Wheeler, Kenneth T.; Olson, John; Zhao Weiling

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: We hypothesized that administration of the angiotensin type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonist, L-158,809, to young adult male rats would prevent or ameliorate fractionated whole-brain irradiation (WBI)-induced cognitive impairment. Materials and Methods: Groups of 80 young adult male Fischer 344 x Brown Norway (F344xBN) rats, 12-14 weeks old, received either: (1) fractionated WBI; 40 Gy of γ rays in 4 weeks, 2 fractions/week, (2) sham-irradiation; (3) WBI plus L-158,809 (20 mg/L drinking water) starting 3 days prior, during, and for 14, 28, or 54 weeks postirradiation; and (4) sham-irradiation plus L-158,809 for 14, 28, or 54 weeks postirradiation. An additional group of rats (n = 20) received L-158,809 before, during, and for 5 weeks postirradiation, after which they received normal drinking water up to 28 weeks postirradiation. Results: Administration of L-158,809 before, during, and for 28 or 54 weeks after fractionated WBI prevented or ameliorated the radiation-induced cognitive impairment observed 26 and 52 weeks postirradiation. Moreover, giving L-158,809 before, during, and for only 5 weeks postirradiation ameliorated the significant cognitive impairment observed 26 weeks postirradiation. These radiation-induced cognitive impairments occurred without any changes in brain metabolites or gross histologic changes assessed at 28 and 54 weeks postirradiation, respectively. Conclusions: Administering L-158,809 before, during, and after fractionated WBI can prevent or ameliorate the chronic, progressive, cognitive impairment observed in rats at 26 and 52 weeks postirradiation. These findings offer the promise of improving the quality of life for brain tumor patients

  20. The EP4 receptor antagonist, L-161,982, blocks prostaglandin E2-induced signal transduction and cell proliferation in HCA-7 colon cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherukuri, Durga Prasad; Chen, Xiao B.O.; Goulet, Anne-Christine; Young, Robert N.; Han, Yongxin; Heimark, Ronald L.; Regan, John W.; Meuillet, Emmanuelle; Nelson, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that elevated levels of prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) can increase intestinal epithelial cell proliferation, and thus play a role in colorectal tumorigenesis. PGE 2 exerts its effects through four G-protein-coupled PGE receptor (EP) subtypes, named the EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4. Increased phosphorylation of extracellular regulated kinases (ERK1/2) is required for PGE 2 to stimulate cell proliferation of human colon cancer cells. However, the EP receptor(s) that are involved in this process remain unknown. We provide evidence that L-161,982, a selective EP4 receptor antagonist, completely blocks PGE 2 -induced ERK phosphorylation and cell proliferation of HCA-7 cells. In order to identify downstream target genes of ERK1/2 signaling, we found that PGE 2 induces expression of early growth response gene-1 (EGR-1) downstream of ERK1/2 and regulates its expression at the level of transcription. PGE 2 treatment induces phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) at Ser133 residue and CRE-mediated luciferase activity in HCA-7 cells. Studies with dominant-negative CREB mutant (ACREB) provide clear evidence for the involvement of CREB in PGE 2 driven egr-1 transcription in HCA-7 cells. In conclusion, this study reveals that egr-1 is a target gene of PGE 2 in HCA-7 cells and is regulated via the newly identified EP4/ERK/CREB pathway. Finally our results support the notion that antagonizing EP4 receptors may provide a novel therapeutic approach to the treatment of colon cancer

  1. Comparison and Analysis of Delirium Induced by Histamine H2 Receptor Antagonists and Proton Pump Inhibitors in Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiro Fujii

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: H2 blockers have been reported to be responsible for drug-induced delirium. We compared the incidence of delirium between two groups of patients who were treated with H2 blockers (H2 group or proton pump inhibitors (PPI group for anastomotic ulcer prevention following surgical treatment of esophageal cancer. Method: The incidence and severity of delirium were retrospectively compared in patients of the H2 group (30 cases; age, 65.2 ± 8.1 years and the PPI group (30 cases; 65.2 ± 6.5 years. The diagnosis of delirium was based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV-Text Revision. Delirium severity was rated on the Delirium Rating Scale (DRS. Results: The incidence of delirium was significantly lower in the PPI group than in the H2 group (p = 0.047. In the 11 patients from the H2 group who developed delirium, discontinuation of H2 blockers resulted in a significant reduction in the DRS score (p = 0.009. In three patients for whom H2 blockers were discontinued, DRS scores decreased by 50% or more three days after discontinuation compared to the prediscontinuation score. Conclusions: These results suggested that switching antiulcer drugs from H2 blockers to PPIs reduced delirium and thus provided an appropriate coping method for drug-induced delirium from antiulcer drugs.

  2. Resonance-induced sensitivity enhancement method for conductivity sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Shih, Chi-yuan (Inventor); Li, Wei (Inventor); Zheng, Siyang (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Methods and systems for improving the sensitivity of a variety of conductivity sensing devices, in particular capacitively-coupled contactless conductivity detectors. A parallel inductor is added to the conductivity sensor. The sensor with the parallel inductor is operated at a resonant frequency of the equivalent circuit model. At the resonant frequency, parasitic capacitances that are either in series or in parallel with the conductance (and possibly a series resistance) is substantially removed from the equivalent circuit, leaving a purely resistive impedance. An appreciably higher sensor sensitivity results. Experimental verification shows that sensitivity improvements of the order of 10,000-fold are possible. Examples of detecting particulates with high precision by application of the apparatus and methods of operation are described.

  3. PAR-2 activation enhances weak acid-induced ATP release through TRPV1 and ASIC sensitization in human esophageal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liping; Oshima, Tadayuki; Shan, Jing; Sei, Hiroo; Tomita, Toshihiko; Ohda, Yoshio; Fukui, Hirokazu; Watari, Jiro; Miwa, Hiroto

    2015-10-15

    Esophageal visceral hypersensitivity has been proposed to be the pathogenesis of heartburn sensation in nonerosive reflux disease. Protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) is expressed in human esophageal epithelial cells and is believed to play a role in inflammation and sensation. PAR-2 activation may modulate these responses through adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release, which is involved in transduction of sensation and pain. The transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) and acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are both acid-sensitive nociceptors. However, the interaction among these molecules and the mechanisms of heartburn sensation are still not clear. We therefore examined whether ATP release in human esophageal epithelial cells in response to acid is modulated by TRPV1 and ASICs and whether PAR-2 activation influences the sensitivity of TRPV1 and ASICs. Weak acid (pH 5) stimulated the release of ATP from primary human esophageal epithelial cells (HEECs). This effect was significantly reduced after pretreatment with 5-iodoresiniferatoxin (IRTX), a TRPV1-specific antagonist, or with amiloride, a nonselective ASIC blocker. TRPV1 and ASIC3 small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection also decreased weak acid-induced ATP release. Pretreatment of HEECs with trypsin, tryptase, or a PAR-2 agonist enhanced weak acid-induced ATP release. Trypsin treatment led to the phosphorylation of TRPV1. Acid-induced ATP release enhancement by trypsin was partially blocked by IRTX, amiloride, or a PAR-2 antagonist. Conversely, acid-induced ATP release was augmented by PAR-2 activation through TRPV1 and ASICs. These findings suggested that the pathophysiology of heartburn sensation or esophageal hypersensitivity may be associated with the activation of PAR-2, TRPV1, and ASICs. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II production is a strong predictive marker for extrahepatic metastases in early hepatocellular carcinoma: a prospective evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Hyun-Mi; Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Yoon, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Yoon Jun; Heo, Dae Seog; Lee, Hyo-Suk

    2011-01-01

    Clinicians often experience extrahepatic metastases associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), even if no evidence of intrahepatic recurrence after treatment is observed. We investigated the pretreatment predictors of extrahepatic metastases in HCC patients. Patients diagnosed with HCC without evidence of extrahepatic metastases were prospectively enrolled. We evaluated the correlation between extrahepatic metastases and pretreatment clinical variables, including serum tumor markers. A total of 354 patients were included. Seventy-six patients (21%) had extrahepatic metastases during the observation period (median, 25.3 months; range, 0.6-51.3 months). Cox regression multivariate analysis showed that serum protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II) production levels, the intrahepatic tumor stage, platelet count, and portal vein thrombosis were independent risk factors for extrahepatic metastases. Patients with a PIVKA-II production ≥ 300 mAU/mL had a 2.7-fold (95% confidence interval; 1.5-4.8; P < 0.001) and 3.7-fold (95% confidence interval; 2.0-6.6; P < 0.001) increased risk for extrahepatic metastases after adjustment for stage, platelet count, alpha-fetoprotein ≥ 400 ng/mL, and portal vein thrombosis according to the AJCC and BCLC staging systems, respectively. PIVKA-II production levels might be a good candidate predictive marker for extrahepatic HCC metastases, especially in patients with smaller and/or fewer tumors in the liver with in stages regardless of serum alpha-fetoprotein

  5. Antagonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ induces cerebellar amyloid-β levels and motor dysfunction in APP/PS1 transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Jing; Sun, Bing; Chen, Kui; Fan, Li; Wang, Zhao

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidences show that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is involved in the modulation of the amyloid-β (Aβ) cascade causing Alzheimer's disease (AD) and treatment with PPARγ agonists protects against AD pathology. However, the function of PPARγ steady-state activity in Aβ cascade and AD pathology remains unclear. In this study, an antagonist of PPARγ, GW9662, was injected into the fourth ventricle of APP/PS1 transgenic mice to inhibit PPARγ activity in cerebellum. The results show that inhibition of PPARγ significantly induced Aβ levels in cerebellum and caused cerebellar motor dysfunction in APP/PS1 transgenic mice. Moreover, GW9662 treatment markedly decreased the cerebellar levels of insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE), which is responsible for the cellular degradation of Aβ. Since cerebellum is spared from significant Aβ accumulation and neurotoxicity in AD patients and animal models, these findings suggest a crucial role of PPARγ steady-state activity in protection of cerebellum against AD pathology.

  6. The selective orexin receptor 1 antagonist ACT-335827 in a rat model of diet-induced obesity associated with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Michel A; Sciarretta, Carla; Pasquali, Anne; Jenck, Francois

    2013-01-01

    The orexin system regulates feeding, nutrient metabolism and energy homeostasis. Acute pharmacological blockade of orexin receptor 1 (OXR-1) in rodents induces satiety and reduces normal and palatable food intake. Genetic OXR-1 deletion in mice improves hyperglycemia under high-fat (HF) diet conditions. Here we investigated the effects of chronic treatment with the novel selective OXR-1 antagonist ACT-335827 in a rat model of diet-induced obesity (DIO) associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Rats were fed either standard chow (SC) or a cafeteria (CAF) diet comprised of intermittent human snacks and a constant free choice between a HF/sweet (HF/S) diet and SC for 13 weeks. Thereafter the SC group was treated with vehicle (for 4 weeks) and the CAF group was divided into a vehicle and an ACT-335827 treatment group. Energy and water intake, food preference, and indicators of MetS (abdominal obesity, glucose homeostasis, plasma lipids, and blood pressure) were monitored. Hippocampus-dependent memory, which can be impaired by DIO, was assessed. CAF diet fed rats treated with ACT-335827 consumed less of the HF/S diet and more of the SC, but did not change their snack or total kcal intake compared to vehicle-treated rats. ACT-335827 increased water intake and the high-density lipoprotein associated cholesterol proportion of total circulating cholesterol. ACT-335827 slightly increased body weight gain (4% vs. controls) and feed efficiency in the absence of hyperphagia. These effects were not associated with significant changes in the elevated fasting glucose and triglyceride (TG) plasma levels, glucose intolerance, elevated blood pressure, and adiposity due to CAF diet consumption. Neither CAF diet consumption alone nor ACT-335827 affected memory. In conclusion, the main metabolic characteristics associated with DIO and MetS in rats remained unaffected by chronic ACT-335827 treatment, suggesting that pharmacological OXR-1 blockade has minimal impact in this model.

  7. The selective orexin receptor 1 antagonist ACT-335827 in a rat model of diet-induced obesity associated with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Alexander Steiner

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The orexin system regulates feeding, nutrient metabolism and energy homeostasis. Acute pharmacological blockade of orexin receptor 1 (OXR-1 in rodents induces satiety and reduces normal and palatable food intake. Genetic OXR-1 deletion in mice improves hyperglycemia under high-fat (HF diet conditions. Here we investigated the effects of chronic treatment with the novel selective OXR-1 antagonist ACT-335827 in a rat model of diet-induced obesity (DIO associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS. Rats were fed either standard chow (SC or a cafeteria (CAF diet comprised of intermittent human snacks and a constant free choice between a HF/sweet (HF/S diet and SC for 13 weeks. Thereafter the SC group was treated with vehicle (for 4 weeks and the CAF group was divided into a vehicle and an ACT-335827 treatment group. Energy and water intake, food preference, and indicators of MetS (abdominal obesity, glucose homeostasis, plasma lipids, and blood pressure were monitored. Hippocampus-dependent memory, which can be impaired by DIO, was assessed. CAF diet fed rats treated with ACT-335827 consumed less of the HF/S diet and more of the SC, but did not change their snack or total kcal intake compared to vehicle-treated rats. ACT-335827 increased water intake and the high-density lipoprotein associated cholesterol proportion of total circulating cholesterol. ACT-335827 slightly increased body weight gain (4% versus controls and feed efficiency in the absence of hyperphagia. These effects were not associated with significant changes in the elevated fasting glucose and triglyceride (TG plasma levels, glucose intolerance, elevated blood pressure, and adiposity due to CAF diet consumption. Neither CAF diet consumption alone nor ACT-335827 affected memory. In conclusion, the main metabolic characteristics associated with DIO and MetS in rats remained unaffected by chronic ACT-335827 treatment, suggesting that pharmacological OXR-1 blockade has minimal impact in this

  8. Evaluation of the cytotoxicity of dihydroxytryptamines and 5-hydroxytryptamine antagonists as cytotoxic agents in dimethylhydrazine-induced adenocarcinomata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1978-01-01

    The cytotoxicity of 5,6-dihydroxytryptamine (5,6-DHT), 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT), bromolysergic acid diethylamide (BOL), methysergide, and cyproheptadine, and also of 5,6-DHT together with either BOL, methysergide, or cyproheptadine in dimethylhydrazine-induced (DMH) carcinomata of rat colon was evaluated by estimating the percentage of necrotic cells in histological sections of tissues taken 15 h after injection of each of the drugs. In addition, the influence of methysergide and cyproheptadine on the tumour cell mitotic rate was estimated by means of a stathmokinetic technique. Both 5,6-DHT and 5,7-DHT were cytotoxic at each dose tested and for each of these agents the percentage of necrotic cells was directly correlated with the dose of drug used. BOL was not found to be cytotoxic to the colonic carcinomata, whereas both methysergide and cyproheptadine did cause detectable tumour cell necrosis. Methysergide was also found to accelerate tumour cell proliferation, whereas cyproheptadine did not. BOL competitively inhibited the cytotoxicity of 5,6-DHT and neither methysergide nor cyproheptadine potentiated the effect of 5,6 DHT.

  9. Excitatory amino acid receptor antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, T N; Frydenvang, Karla Andrea; Ebert, B

    1997-01-01

    We have previously shown that (RS)-2-amino-2-(5-tert-butyl-3-hydroxyisoxazol-4-yl)acetic acid (ATAA) is an antagonist at N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) and (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid (AMPA) receptors. We have now resolved ATAA via diastereomeric salt formation......)-phenylethylamine salt of N-BOC-(R)-ATAA. Like ATAA, neither (R)- nor (S)-ATAA significantly affected (IC50 > 100 microM) the receptor binding of tritiated AMPA, kainic acid, or (RS)-3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)propyl-1-phosphonic acid, the latter being a competitive NMDA antagonist. Electrophysiological experiments......, using the rat cortical wedge preparation, showed the NMDA antagonist effect as well as the AMPA antagonist effect of ATAA to reside exclusively in the (R)-enantiomer (Ki = 75 +/- 5 microM and 57 +/- 1 microM, respectively). Neither (R)- nor (S)-ATAA significantly reduced kainic acid-induced excitation...

  10. Effects of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist CP55,940 and antagonist SR141716A on d-amphetamine-induced behaviours in Cebus monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Morten V; Peacock, Linda; Werge, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Several clinical studies have shown that alterations in the cannabinoid system in the brain may be associated with schizophrenia. Although evidence points towards an antipsychotic potential for cannabinoid antagonists, experimental studies have shown inconsistent behavioural effects of cannabinoi...

  11. Comparative influence of propranolol and verapamil on glycemic control and histamine sensitivity associated with L-thyroxine-induced hyperthyroidism - an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Parloop A; Makwana, Dharmesh

    2008-02-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to study the comparative effectiveness of beta-adrenergic antagonist propranolol and calcium channel blocker verapamil on L-thyroxine-induced alteration on glycemic control and histamine sensitivity on rats and guinea pigs, respectively. Injection of L-thyroxine sodium every alternate day for 3 weeks in guinea pigs (75 microg/kg, i.p.) and rats (75 mg/kg, s.c.) produced a condition similar to thyrotoxicosis. Verapamil and propranolol administered daily in the third week along with L-thyroxine to two separate groups of hyperthyroid animals reversed thyroxine-induced loss in body weight, reduction in serum TSH levels, and rise in body temperature. Effect on glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity was studied on rats. Compared to normal rats, L-thyroxine-treated animals showed a state of hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, impaired glucose tolerance, and insulin resistance. Propranolol (10 mg/kg, i.p.) treatment significantly decreased fasting serum glucose levels without affecting serum insulin levels, AUC glucose, and K(ITT) values. Treatment with verapamil (5 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly reduced fasting serum glucose and insulin levels, AUC glucose, and significantly increased K(ITT) values. Effect of propranolol (15 mg/kg, orally) and verapamil (20 mg/kg, orally) treatment on histamine sensitivity was studied on L-thyroxine-treated guinea pigs. Compared to normal guinea pigs, L-thyroxine-treated guinea pigs showed an increased sensitivity to histamine-induced asphyxia. Verapamil treatment reversed this increased histamine sensitivity while propranolol aggravated it. In conclusion, compared to propranolol, verapamil has advantageous effects on glucose metabolism, insulin and histamine sensitivity and could therefore be a valuable addition as an adjunctive therapy option currently available for thyrotoxicosis associated with diabetes and/or anaphylaxis.

  12. Temperature sensitivity of the penicillin-induced autolysis mechanism in nongrowing cultures of Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Kusser, W; Ishiguro, E E

    1987-01-01

    The effect of incubation temperature on the ampicillin-induced autolysis of nongrowing Escherichia coli was determined. The autolysis mechanisms in amino acid-deprived relA mutant cells treated with chloramphenicol were temperature sensitive. This temperature-sensitive autolysis was demonstrated in three independent ways: turbidimetric determinations, viable cell counts, and solubilization of radiolabeled peptidoglycan.

  13. Combined treatment with a β3 -adrenergic receptor agonist and a muscarinic receptor antagonist inhibits detrusor overactivity induced by cold stress in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Tetsuya; Ogawa, Teruyuki; Minagawa, Tomonori; Nagai, Takashi; Suzuki, Toshiro; Saito, Tetsuichi; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Nakazawa, Masaki; Ishizuka, Osamu

    2017-04-01

    This study determined if combined treatment with the muscarinic receptor (MR) antagonist solifenacin and the β 3 -adrenergic receptor (AR) agonist mirabegron could inhibit detrusor overactivity induced by cold stress in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Thirty-two female 10-week-old SHRs were fed an 8% NaCl-supplemented diet for 4 weeks. Cystometric measurements of the unanesthetized, unrestricted rats were performed at room temperature (RT, 27 ± 2°C) for 20 min. The rats were then intravenously administered vehicle, 0.1 mg/kg solifenacin alone, 0.1 mg/kg mirabegron alone, or the combination of 0.1 mg/kg mirabegron and 0.1 mg/kg solifenacin (n = 8 each group). Five minutes later, the treated rats were exposed to low temperature (LT, 4 ± 2°C) for 40 min. Finally, the rats were returned to RT. After the cystometric investigations, the β 3 -ARs and M 3 -MRs expressed within the urinary bladders were analyzed. Just after transfer from RT to LT, vehicle-, solifenacin-, and mirabegron-treated SHRs exhibited detrusor overactivity that significantly decreased voiding interval and bladder capacity. However, treatment with the combination of solifenacin and mirabegron partially inhibited the cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity patterns. The decreases of voiding interval and bladder capacity in the combination-treated rats were significantly inhibited compared to other groups. Within the urinary bladders, there were no differences between expression levels of M 3 -MR and β 3 -AR mRNA. The tissue distribution of M 3 -MRs was similar to that of the β 3 -ARs. This study suggested that the combination of solifenacin and mirabegron act synergistically to inhibit the cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity in SHRs. Neurourol. Urodynam. 36:1026-1033, 2017. © 2016 The Authors. Neurourology and Urodynamics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors. Neurourology and Urodynamics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Attenuation of cold stress-induced exacerbation of cardiac and adipose tissue pathology and metabolic disorders in a rat model of metabolic syndrome by the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU486.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, K; Matsuura, N; Takeshita, Y; Ito, S; Sano, Y; Yamada, Y; Uchinaka, A; Murohara, T; Nagata, K

    2016-04-25

    Chronic stress affects the central nervous system as well as endocrine, metabolic and immune systems. However, the effects of cold stress on cardiovascular and metabolic disorders in metabolic syndrome (MetS) have remained unclear. We recently characterized DahlS.Z-Lepr(fa)/Lepr(fa) (DS/obese) rats, derived from a cross between Dahl salt-sensitive and Zucker rats, as a new animal model of MetS. We have now investigated the effects of chronic cold stress and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) blockade on cardiac and adipose tissue pathology as well as on metabolic parameters in this model. DS/obese rats were exposed to cold stress (immersion in ice-cold water to a depth of 1-2 cm for 2 h per day) with or without subcutaneous injection of the GR antagonist RU486 (2 mg kg(-1)day(-1)) for 4 weeks beginning at 9 weeks of age. Age-matched homozygous lean (DahlS.Z-Lepr(+)/Lepr(+)) littermates served as a control. Chronic cold stress exacerbated hypertension as well as left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, fibrosis and diastolic dysfunction in DS/obese rats in a manner sensitive to RU486 treatment. Cold stress with or without RU486 did not affect body weight or fat mass. In contrast, cold stress further increased cardiac oxidative stress as well as macrophage infiltration and proinflammatory gene expression in LV and visceral fat tissue, with all of these effects being attenuated by RU486. Cold stress also further increased GR and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 mRNA and protein abundance in LV and visceral adipose tissue, and these effects were again inhibited by RU486. In addition, RU486 ameliorated the stress-induced aggravation of dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in DS/obese rats. Our results implicate GR signaling in cold stress-induced exacerbation of cardiac and adipose tissue pathology as well as of abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism in a rat model of MetS.

  15. Contextual and behavioral control of antipsychotic sensitization induced by haloperidol and olanzapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Li, Ming

    2012-02-01

    Repeated administration of haloperidol (HAL) and olanzapine (OLZ) causes a progressively enhanced disruption of the conditioned avoidance response (CAR) and a progressively enhanced inhibition of phencyclidine (PCP)-induced hyperlocomotion in rats (termed antipsychotic sensitization). Both actions are thought to reflect intrinsic antipsychotic activity. The present study examined the extent to which antipsychotic-induced sensitization in one model (e.g. CAR) can be transferred or maintained in another (e.g. PCP hyperlocomotion) as a means of investigating the contextual and behavioral controls of antipsychotic sensitization. Well-trained male Sprague-Dawley rats were first repeatedly tested in the CAR or the PCP (3.2 mg/kg, subcutaneously) hyperlocomotion model under HAL or OLZ for 5 consecutive days. Then they were switched to the other model and tested for the expression of sensitization. Finally, all rats were switched back to the original model and retested for the expression of sensitization. Repeated HAL or OLZ treatment progressively disrupted avoidance responding and decreased PCP-induced hyperlocomotion, indicating a robust sensitization. When tested in a different model, rats previously treated with HAL or OLZ did not show a stronger inhibition of CAR-induced or PCP-induced hyperlocomotion than those treated with these drugs for the first time; however, they did show such an effect when tested in the original model in which they received repeated antipsychotic treatment. These findings suggest that the expression of antipsychotic sensitization is strongly influenced by the testing environment and/or selected behavioral response under certain experimental conditions. Distinct contextual cues and behavioral responses may develop an association with unconditional drug effects through a Pavlovian conditioning process. They may also serve as occasion setters to modulate the expression of sensitized responses. As antipsychotic sensitization mimics the clinical

  16. Prevention of drug priming- and cue-induced reinstatement of MDMA-seeking behaviors by the CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist AM251.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawata, Yoko; Kitaichi, Kiyoyuki; Yamamoto, Tsuneyuki

    2016-03-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), a methamphetamine (METH) derivative, exhibits METH-like actions at monoamine transporters and positive reinforcing effects in rodents and primates. The purposes of the present study were to determine whether cross-reinstatement would be observed between MDMA and METH and if the cannabinoid receptor, a receptor known to play critical roles in the brain reward system, could modulate MDMA craving. Rats were trained to press a lever for intravenous MDMA (0.3mg/infusion) or METH (0.02mg/infusion) infusions under a fixed ratio 1 schedule paired with drug-associated cues (light and tone). Following drug self-administration acquisition training, rats underwent extinction training (an infusion of saline). Reinstatement tests were performed once the extinction criteria were achieved. In MDMA-trained rats, the MDMA-priming injection (3.2mg/kg, i.p.) or re-exposure to MDMA-associated cues reinstated MDMA-seeking behavior. Additionally, a priming injection of METH (1.0mg/kg, i.p.) also reinstated MDMA-seeking behavior. In contrast, none of the MDMA doses reinstated METH-seeking behavior in the METH-trained rats. The CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist AM251 markedly attenuated the MDMA-seeking behaviors induced by MDMA-priming injection or re-exposure to MDMA-associated cues in a dose-dependent manner. These findings show that MDMA has obvious addictive potential for reinstating drug-seeking behavior and that METH can be an effective stimulus for reinstating MDMA-seeking behaviors. Furthermore, based on the attenuating effect of AM251 in the reinstatement of MDMA-seeking behaviors, drugs that suppress CB1 receptors may be used in treatment of MDMA dependence. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  17. Expression of an insulin/interleukin-1 receptor antagonist hybrid gene in insulin-producing cell lines (HIT-T15 and NIT-1) confers resistance against interleukin-1-induced nitric oxide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, N; Bendtzen, K; Welsh, M

    1995-01-01

    A hybrid gene consisting of the insulin gene enhancer/promoter region, the signal sequence, the insulin B- and C-chains, and the human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) gene was constructed. This hybrid gene was transfected together with the pSV2-neo construct into the insulin-producing cell lines HIT-T15 and NIT-1. One of the geneticin-selected clones, HITra2, expressed a 1.4-kb mRNA, which hybridized both to insulin and IL-1ra-cDNA in Northern blot analysis. Three proteins, with the mol wt 23, 17, and 14 kD, were immunoprecipitated with anti-IL-1ra antibodies from [35S]methionine-labeled HITra2 cells. Both at a low and at a high glucose concentration, 4-5 ng of IL-1ra/10(6) cells (ELISA) was released from these cells. On the other hand, a high glucose concentration evoked a three-fold increase in the release of insulin, suggesting that IL-1ra was released constitutively. Measured by nitrite production, transfected HIT, and NIT-1 cells exhibited a more than 10-fold decrease in IL-1 beta sensitivity. Since the conditioned culture media from the HITra2 cells exhibited an anti-IL-1 beta activity of only 0.5 U/ml, and mixed culture of HITra2 cells and isolated rat islets prevented IL-1 beta induced inhibition of insulin release, it is likely that IL-1ra acts locally at the cell surface. It is concluded that expression of a hybrid insulin/IL-1ra gene confers resistance to IL-1 and that this technique may be used to elucidate the role of IL-1 in autoimmune disorders such as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Images PMID:7706480

  18. Thrombin-receptor antagonist vorapaxar in acute coronary syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tricoci, Pierluigi; Huang, Zhen; Held, Claes

    2012-01-01

    Vorapaxar is a new oral protease-activated-receptor 1 (PAR-1) antagonist that inhibits thrombin-induced platelet activation.......Vorapaxar is a new oral protease-activated-receptor 1 (PAR-1) antagonist that inhibits thrombin-induced platelet activation....

  19. Contextual and behavioral control of antipsychotic sensitization induced by haloperidol and olanzapine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Li, Ming

    2011-01-01

    Repeated administration of haloperidol and olanzapine causes a progressively enhanced disruption of conditioned avoidance response (CAR) and a progressively enhanced inhibition of phencyclidine (PCP)-induced hyperlocomotion in rats (termed antipsychotic sensitization). Both actions are thought to reflect intrinsic antipsychotic activity. The present study examined to the extent to which antipsychotic-induced sensitization in one model (e.g. CAR) can be transferred or maintained in another (e.g. PCP hyperlocomotion) as a means of investigating the contextual and behavioral controls of antipsychotic sensitization. Well-trained male Sprague-Dawley rats were first repeatedly tested in the CAR or PCP (3.2 mg/kg, sc) hyperlocomotion model under haloperidol or olanzapine for five consecutive days. Then they were switched to the other model and tested for the expression of sensitization. Finally, all rats were switched back to the original model and retested for the expression of sensitization. Repeated haloperidol or olanzapine treatment progressively disrupted avoidance responding and decreased PCP-induced hyperlocomotion, indicating a robust sensitization. When tested in a different model, rats previously treated with haloperidol or olanzapine did not show a stronger inhibition of CAR or PCP-induced hyperlocomotion than those treated with these drugs for the first time; however, they did show such an effect when tested in the original model in which they received repeated antipsychotic treatment. These findings suggest that the expression of antipsychotic sensitization is strongly influenced by the testing environment and/or selected behavioral response under certain experimental conditions. Distinct contextual cues and behavioral responses may enter an association with unconditional drug effects via a Pavlovian conditioning process. They may also serve as occasion-setters to modulate the expression of sensitized responses. Because antipsychotic sensitization mimics

  20. Knockout of NMDA-receptors from parvalbumin interneurons sensitizes to schizophrenia-related deficits induced by MK-801

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bygrave, A M; Masiulis, S; Nicholson, E; Berkemann, M; Barkus, C; Sprengel, R; Harrison, P J; Kullmann, D M; Bannerman, D M; Kätzel, D

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that a functional deficit in NMDA-receptors (NMDARs) on parvalbumin (PV)-positive interneurons (PV-NMDARs) is central to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Supportive evidence come from examination of genetically modified mice where the obligatory NMDAR-subunit GluN1 (also known as NR1) has been deleted from PV interneurons by Cre-mediated knockout of the corresponding gene Grin1 (Grin1ΔPV mice). Notably, such PV-specific GluN1 ablation has been reported to blunt the induction of hyperlocomotion (a surrogate for psychosis) by pharmacological NMDAR blockade with the non-competitive antagonist MK-801. This suggests PV-NMDARs as the site of the psychosis-inducing action of MK-801. In contrast to this hypothesis, we show here that Grin1ΔPV mice are not protected against the effects of MK-801, but are in fact sensitized to many of them. Compared with control animals, Grin1ΔPVmice injected with MK-801 show increased stereotypy and pronounced catalepsy, which confound the locomotor readout. Furthermore, in Grin1ΔPVmice, MK-801 induced medial-prefrontal delta (4 Hz) oscillations, and impaired performance on tests of motor coordination, working memory and sucrose preference, even at lower doses than in wild-type controls. We also found that untreated Grin1ΔPVmice are largely normal across a wide range of cognitive functions, including attention, cognitive flexibility and various forms of short-term memory. Taken together these results argue against PV-specific NMDAR hypofunction as a key starting point of schizophrenia pathophysiology, but support a model where NMDAR hypofunction in multiple cell types contribute to the disease. PMID:27070406

  1. Sensitivity analysis of the noise-induced oscillatory multistability in Higgins model of glycolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryashko, Lev

    2018-03-01

    A phenomenon of the noise-induced oscillatory multistability in glycolysis is studied. As a basic deterministic skeleton, we consider the two-dimensional Higgins model. The noise-induced generation of mixed-mode stochastic oscillations is studied in various parametric zones. Probabilistic mechanisms of the stochastic excitability of equilibria and noise-induced splitting of randomly forced cycles are analysed by the stochastic sensitivity function technique. A parametric zone of supersensitive Canard-type cycles is localized and studied in detail. It is shown that the generation of mixed-mode stochastic oscillations is accompanied by the noise-induced transitions from order to chaos.

  2. A peptide antagonist of ErbB receptors, Inherbin3, induces neurite outgrowth from rat cerebellar granule neurons through ErbB1 inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Ruodan; Pankratova, Stanislava; Christiansen, Søren Hofman

    2013-01-01

    ErbB receptors not only function in cancer, but are also key developmental regulators in the nervous system. We previously identified an ErbB1 peptide antagonist, Inherbin3, that is capable of inhibiting tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we found that inhibition of ErbB1 kinase ac...

  3. Accelerated habit formation following amphetamine exposure is reversed by D1, but enhanced by D2, receptor antagonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew John Dudley Nelson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Repeated exposure to the psychostimulant amphetamine has been shown to disrupt goal-directed instrumental actions and promote the early and abnormal development of goal-insensitive habitual responding (Nelson and Killcross, 2006. To investigate the neuropharmacological specificity of this effect as well as restore goal-directed responding in animals with pre-training amphetamine exposure, animals were treated with the non-selective dopamine antagonist α-flupenthixol, the selective D1 antagonist SCH 23390 or the selective D2 antagonist eticlopride, prior to instrumental training (3 sessions. Subsequently, the reinforcer was paired with LiCL-induced gastric-malaise and animals were given a test of goal-sensitivity both in extinction and reacquisition. The effect of these dopaminergic antagonists on the sensitivity of lever press performance to outcome devaluation was assessed in animals with pre-training exposure to amphetamine (Experiments 1a-1c or in non-sensitized animals (Experiment 2. Both α-flupenthixol and SCH23390 reversed accelerated habit formation following amphetamine sensitization. However, eticlopride appeared to enhance this effect and render instrumental performance compulsive as these animals were unable to inhibit responding both in extinction and reacquisition, even though a consumption test confirmed they had acquired an aversion to the reinforcer. These findings demonstrate that amphetamine induced-disruption of goal-directed behaviour is mediated by activity at distinct dopamine receptor subtypes and may represent a putative model of the neurochemical processes involved in the loss of voluntary control over behaviour.

  4. Substance P spinal signaling induces glial activation and nociceptive sensitization after fracture

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Wen-Wu; Guo, Tian-Zhi; Shi, Xiaoyou; Sun, Yuan; Wei, Tzuping; Clark, David J; Kingery, Wade S

    2015-01-01

    Tibia fracture in rodents induces substance P (SP)-dependent keratinocyte activation and inflammatory changes in the hindlimb, similar to those seen in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). In animal pain models spinal glial cell activation results in nociceptive sensitization. This study tested the hypothesis that limb fracture triggers afferent C-fiber SP release in the dorsal horn, resulting in chronic glia activation and central sensitization. At 4 weeks after tibia fracture and casting ...

  5. The sensitivity of active and inactive chromatin to ionizing radiation-induced DNA strand breakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, S.-M.; Oleinick, N.L.

    1982-01-01

    The sensitivity of DNA in actively transcribing and inactive states has been compared with regard to γ-radiation-induced single-strand break (SSB) induction. The results indicate that chromatin organization is important in the determination of the sensitivity of cellular DNA toward γ-radiation: Not only the yield but also the rate of repair of SSB is greater in the actively transcribing genes than in the total nuclear DNA. (author)

  6. Amnesia induced by morphine in spatial memory retrieval inhibited in morphine-sensitized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmandfar, Maryam; Naghdi, Nasser; Karimian, Seyed Morteza; Kadivar, Mehdi; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2012-05-15

    The present study investigated the effect of morphine sensitization on the impairment of spatial memory retrieval induced by acute morphine in adult male rats. Spatial memory was assessed by 2-day Morris water maze task which included training and test day. On the training day, rats were trained by a single training session of 8 trials. On the test day, a probe trial consisting of 60s free swim period without a platform and the visible test were administered. Morphine sensitization was induced by subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of morphine, once daily for 3 days followed by 5 days without drug treatment before training. The results indicated that acute administration of morphine (7.5mg/kg, s.c.) before testing impaired spatial memory on the test day. Pre-test morphine-induced amnesia decreased in morphine-sensitized (15 and 20mg/kg, s.c.) rats. Improvement in spatial memory retrieval in morphine-sensitized rats was inhibited by once daily administration of naloxone (1 and 2mg/kg, s.c.) 30 min prior to the injection of morphine for three days. The results suggest that morphine sensitization reverses the impairment of spatial memory retrieval induced by acute morphine and it is implied that mu-opioid receptors may play an important role in this effect. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Sucrose and naltrexone prevent increased pain sensitivity and impaired long-term memory induced by repetitive neonatal noxious stimulation: Role of BDNF and β-endorphin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuseir, Khawla Q; Alzoubi, Karem H; Alhusban, Ahmed; Bawaane, Areej; Al-Azzani, Mohammed; Khabour, Omar F

    2017-10-01

    Pain in neonates is associated with short and long-term adverse outcomes. Data demonstrated that long-term consequences of untreated pain are linked to the plasticity of the neonate's brain. Sucrose is effective and safe for reducing painful procedures from single events. However, the mechanism of sucrose-induced analgesia is not fully understood. The role of the opioid system in this analgesia using the opioid receptor antagonist Naltrexone was investigated, plus the long-term effects on learning and memory formation during adulthood. Pain was induced in rat pups via needle pricks of the paws. Sucrose solution and/or naltrexone were administered before the pricks. All treatments started on day one of birth and continued for two weeks. At the end of 8weeks, behavioral studies were conducted to test spatial learning and memory using radial arm water maze (RAWM), and pain threshold via foot-withdrawal response to a hot plate. The hippocampus was dissected; levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and endorphins were assessed using ELISA. Acute repetitive neonatal pain increased pain sensitivity later in life, while naltrexone with sucrose decreased pain sensitivity. Naltrexone and/or sucrose prevented neonatal pain induced impairment of long-term memory, while neonatal pain decreased levels of BDNF in the hippocampus; this decrease was averted by sucrose and naltrexone. Sucrose with naltrexone significantly increased β-endorphin levels in noxiously stimulated rats. In conclusion, naltrexone and sucrose can reverse increased pain sensitivity and impaired long-term memory induced by acute repetitive neonatal pain probably by normalizing BDNF expression and increasing β-endorphin levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. High frequency electrical stimulation concurrently induces central sensitization and ipsilateral inhibitory pain modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, L; Drummond, P D

    2013-03-01

    In healthy humans, analgesia to blunt pressure develops in the ipsilateral forehead during various forms of limb pain. The aim of the current study was to determine whether this analgesic response is induced by ultraviolet B radiation (UVB), which evokes signs of peripheral sensitization, or by high-frequency electrical stimulation (HFS), which triggers signs of central sensitization. Before and after HFS and UVB conditioning, sensitivity to heat and to blunt and sharp stimuli was assessed at and adjacent to the treated site in the forearm. In addition, sensitivity to blunt pressure was measured bilaterally in the forehead. The effect of ipsilateral versus contralateral temple cooling on electrically evoked pain in the forearm was then examined, to determine whether HFS or UVB conditioning altered inhibitory pain modulation. UVB conditioning triggered signs of peripheral sensitization, whereas HFS conditioning triggered signs of central sensitization. Importantly, ipsilateral forehead analgesia developed after HFS but not UVB conditioning. In addition, decreases in electrically evoked pain at the HFS-treated site were greater during ipsilateral than contralateral temple cooling, whereas decreases at the UVB-treated site were similar during both procedures. HFS conditioning induced signs of central sensitization in the forearm and analgesia both in the ipsilateral forehead and the HFS-treated site. This ipsilateral analgesia was not due to peripheral sensitization or other non-specific effects, as it failed to develop after UVB conditioning. Thus, the supra-spinal mechanisms that evoke central sensitization might also trigger a hemilateral inhibitory pain modulation process. This inhibitory process could sharpen the boundaries of central sensitization or limit its spread. © 2012 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters.

  9. Evaluation of antagonistic fungi against charcoal rot of sunflower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro, sensitivity of Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid determined through inhibition zone technique to various antagonistic fungi viz., Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Trichoderma viride, Trichoderma harzianum and Penicillium capsulatum amended into PDA medium. All the antagonists reduced the colony ...

  10. A position sensitive parallel plate avalanche fission detector for use in particle induced fission coincidence measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plicht, J. van der

    1980-01-01

    A parallel plate avalanche detector developed for the detection of fission fragments in particle induced fission reactions is described. The active area is 6 × 10 cm2; it is position sensitive in one dimension with a resolution of 2.5 mm. The detector can withstand a count rate of 25000 fission

  11. Gingerol sensitizes TRAIL-induced apoptotic cell death of glioblastoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dae-Hee, E-mail: leedneo@gmail.com [Departments of Surgery and Pharmacology and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Kim, Dong-Wook [Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Cancer Biology, University of VA (United States); Jung, Chang-Hwa [Division of Metabolism and Functionality Research, Korea Food Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yong J. [Departments of Surgery and Pharmacology and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Park, Daeho, E-mail: daehopark@gist.ac.kr [School of Life Sciences, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most lethal and aggressive astrocytoma of primary brain tumors in adults. Although there are many clinical trials to induce the cell death of glioblastoma cells, most glioblastoma cells have been reported to be resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Here, we showed that gingerol as a major component of ginger can induce TRAIL-mediated apoptosis of glioblastoma. Gingerol increased death receptor (DR) 5 levels in a p53-dependent manner. Furthermore, gingerol decreased the expression level of anti-apoptotic proteins (survivin, c-FLIP, Bcl-2, and XIAP) and increased pro-apoptotic protein, Bax and truncate Bid, by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS). We also found that the sensitizing effects of gingerol in TRAIL-induced cell death were blocked by scavenging ROS or overexpressing anti-apoptotic protein (Bcl-2). Therefore, we showed the functions of gingerol as a sensitizing agent to induce cell death of TRAIL-resistant glioblastoma cells. This study gives rise to the possibility of applying gingerol as an anti-tumor agent that can be used for the purpose of combination treatment with TRAIL in TRAIL-resistant glioblastoma tumor therapy. - Highlights: • Most GBM cells have been reported to be resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. • Gingerol enhances the expression level of anti-apoptotic proteins by ROS. • Gingerol enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis through actions on the ROS–Bcl2 pathway.

  12. Gingerol sensitizes TRAIL-induced apoptotic cell death of glioblastoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dae-Hee; Kim, Dong-Wook; Jung, Chang-Hwa; Lee, Yong J.; Park, Daeho

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most lethal and aggressive astrocytoma of primary brain tumors in adults. Although there are many clinical trials to induce the cell death of glioblastoma cells, most glioblastoma cells have been reported to be resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Here, we showed that gingerol as a major component of ginger can induce TRAIL-mediated apoptosis of glioblastoma. Gingerol increased death receptor (DR) 5 levels in a p53-dependent manner. Furthermore, gingerol decreased the expression level of anti-apoptotic proteins (survivin, c-FLIP, Bcl-2, and XIAP) and increased pro-apoptotic protein, Bax and truncate Bid, by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS). We also found that the sensitizing effects of gingerol in TRAIL-induced cell death were blocked by scavenging ROS or overexpressing anti-apoptotic protein (Bcl-2). Therefore, we showed the functions of gingerol as a sensitizing agent to induce cell death of TRAIL-resistant glioblastoma cells. This study gives rise to the possibility of applying gingerol as an anti-tumor agent that can be used for the purpose of combination treatment with TRAIL in TRAIL-resistant glioblastoma tumor therapy. - Highlights: • Most GBM cells have been reported to be resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. • Gingerol enhances the expression level of anti-apoptotic proteins by ROS. • Gingerol enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis through actions on the ROS–Bcl2 pathway

  13. The pilosebaceous unit—a phthalate-induced pathway to skin sensitization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonsson, Carl, E-mail: carl.simonsson@chem.gu.se [Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Gothenburg, SE-412 96, Gothenburg (Sweden); Stenfeldt, Anna-Lena; Karlberg, Ann-Therese [Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Gothenburg, SE-412 96, Gothenburg (Sweden); Ericson, Marica B., E-mail: marica.ericson@physics.gu.se [Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg, SE-412 96, Gothenburg (Sweden); Jonsson, Charlotte A.M. [Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Gothenburg, SE-412 96, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2012-10-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is caused by low-molecular weight compounds called haptens. It has been shown that the potency of haptens can depend on the formulation in which they are applied on the skin. Specifically the sensitization potency of isothiocyanates, a group of haptens which can be released from e.g. adhesive tapes and neoprene materials, increases with the presence of phthalates; however, the underlying mechanisms are not clear. A better understanding of the mechanisms governing the potency of haptens is important, e.g. to improve the risk assessment and the formulation of chemicals in consumer products. In this study we have explored phthalate-induced effects on the sensitization potency, skin distribution, and reactivity of fluorescent model isothiocyanate haptens using non-invasive two-photon microscopy to provide new insights regarding vehicle effects in ACD. The data presented in this paper indicate that the sensitization potency of isothiocyanates increases when applied in combination with dibutylphthalate due to a specific uptake via the pilosebaceous units. The results highlight the importance of shunt pathways when evaluating the bioavailability of skin sensitizers. The findings also indicate that vehicle-dependent hapten reactivity towards stratum corneum proteins regulates the bioavailability, and thus the potency, of skin sensitizers. -- Highlights: ► Vehicle effects on sensitization potency were investigated in the LLNA. ► In vivo cutaneous absorption of contact sensitizers was visualized using TPM. ► Sensitizing potency of isothiocyanates depends on the presence of a phthalate. ► Phthalate induced cutaneous absorption via the pilosebaceous units. ► Vehicle-dependent reactivity regulates sensitization potency.

  14. The pilosebaceous unit—a phthalate-induced pathway to skin sensitization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonsson, Carl; Stenfeldt, Anna-Lena; Karlberg, Ann-Therese; Ericson, Marica B.; Jonsson, Charlotte A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is caused by low-molecular weight compounds called haptens. It has been shown that the potency of haptens can depend on the formulation in which they are applied on the skin. Specifically the sensitization potency of isothiocyanates, a group of haptens which can be released from e.g. adhesive tapes and neoprene materials, increases with the presence of phthalates; however, the underlying mechanisms are not clear. A better understanding of the mechanisms governing the potency of haptens is important, e.g. to improve the risk assessment and the formulation of chemicals in consumer products. In this study we have explored phthalate-induced effects on the sensitization potency, skin distribution, and reactivity of fluorescent model isothiocyanate haptens using non-invasive two-photon microscopy to provide new insights regarding vehicle effects in ACD. The data presented in this paper indicate that the sensitization potency of isothiocyanates increases when applied in combination with dibutylphthalate due to a specific uptake via the pilosebaceous units. The results highlight the importance of shunt pathways when evaluating the bioavailability of skin sensitizers. The findings also indicate that vehicle-dependent hapten reactivity towards stratum corneum proteins regulates the bioavailability, and thus the potency, of skin sensitizers. -- Highlights: ► Vehicle effects on sensitization potency were investigated in the LLNA. ► In vivo cutaneous absorption of contact sensitizers was visualized using TPM. ► Sensitizing potency of isothiocyanates depends on the presence of a phthalate. ► Phthalate induced cutaneous absorption via the pilosebaceous units. ► Vehicle-dependent reactivity regulates sensitization potency.

  15. Irigenin sensitizes TRAIL-induced apoptosis via enhancing pro-apoptotic molecules in gastric cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ying; Gao, Cheng-Cheng; Pan, Zhen-Guo; Zhou, Chuan-Wen

    2018-02-12

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) holds promising value for cancer therapy due to its capacity to induce apoptosis in cancer cells. Nevertheless, TRAIL therapy is greatly hampered by its resistance. Irigenin (Iri), isoflavonoids, can be isolated from the rhizome of Belamcanda chinensis, and has been shown anti-cancer properties. In this study, we explored if Iri could enhance TRAIL-regulated apoptosis in TRAIL resistant gastric cancer cells. Iri significantly potentiated TRAIL-triggered cytotoxicity. Iri alone and TRAIL alone showed no effective role in apoptosis induction, whereas combined treatment with Iri and TRAIL markedly induced apoptosis in cancer cells, as evidenced by the up-regulation of cleaved Caspase-8/-9/-3 and PARP. Additionally, the sensitization to TRAIL was along with the enhancement of pro-apoptotic proteins, including FAS-associated protein with death domain (FADD), death receptor 5 (DR5) and Bax. And suppressing FADD, DR5 and Bax by si RNA significantly reduced the apoptosis and enhanced the cell viability induced by the co-application of Iri and TRAIL. Moreover, the sensitization to TRAIL was accompanied by the decrease of Cellular-FLICE inhibitory protein (c-FLIP), Bcl-2 and Survivin. Additionally, Iri could sensitize TRAIL to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). Pre-treatment of N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), ROS scavenger, attenuated Iri plus TRAIL-induced apoptosis and improved cell viability. Finally, combination of Iri and TRAIL inhibited tumor growth in the xenograft model. Collectively, our present study gave new insights into the effects of Iri on potentiating TRAIL-sensitivity, and suggested that Iri could be a potential candidate for sensitizer of TRAIL-resistant cancer cell treatment. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Palmitoylethanolamide attenuates cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization and conditioned place preference in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrana-Infantes, Emma; Rosell Del Valle, Cristina; Ladrón de Guevara-Miranda, David; Galeano, Pablo; Castilla-Ortega, Estela; Rodríguez De Fonseca, Fernando; Blanco, Eduardo; Santín, Luis Javier

    2018-03-01

    Cocaine addiction is a chronically relapsing disorder characterized by compulsive drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviors. Previous studies have demonstrated that cocaine, as well as other drugs of abuse, alters the levels of lipid-based signaling molecules, such as N-acylethanolamines (NAEs). Moreover, brain levels of NAEs have shown sensitivity to cocaine self-administration and extinction training in rodents. Given this background, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of repeated or acute administration of palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), an endogenous NAE, on psychomotor sensitization and cocaine-induced contextual conditioning. To this end, the potential ability of repeated PEA administration (1 or 10 mg/kg, i.p.) to modulate the acquisition of cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization (BS) and conditioned place preference (CPP) was assessed in male C57BL/6J mice. In addition, the expression of cocaine-induced BS and CPP following acute PEA administration were also studied. Results showed that repeated administration of both doses of PEA were able to block the acquisition of cocaine-induced BS. Furthermore, acute administration of both doses of PEA was able to abolish the expression of BS, while the highest dose also abolished the expression of cocaine-induced CPP. Taken together, these results indicate that exogenous administration of PEA attenuated psychomotor sensitization, while the effect of PEA in cocaine-induced CPP depended on whether PEA was administered repeatedly or acutely. These findings could be relevant to understand the role that NAEs play in processes underlying the development and maintenance of cocaine addiction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Botulinum neurotoxin type-A when utilized in animals with trigeminal sensitization induced a antinociceptive effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elcio J Piovesan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose of the study was evaluate the possible antinociceptive effect of botulinum neurotoxin type-A (BoNT/A in an experimental model of trigeminal neuralgia. Method Neuropathic pain was induced by surgical constriction of the infraorbital nerve in rats. A control group underwent a sham procedure consisting of surgical exposure of the nerve. Subgroups of each group received either BoNT/A or isotonic saline solution. The clinical response was assessed with the -20°C test. Animals that underwent nerve constriction developed sensitization; the sham group did not. Results The sensitization was reversed by BoNT/A treatment evident 24 hours following application. Pronociceptive effect was observed in the sham group following BoNT/A. Conclusion BoNT/A has an antinociceptive effect in sensitized animals and a pronociceptive effect in non-sensitized animals.

  18. Comparison of the neuropsychological mechanisms of 2,6-diisopropylphenol and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist against electroconvulsive therapy-induced learning and memory impairment in depressed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Xue-Ning

    2015-09-01

    The present study aimed to examine the neurophysiological mechanisms of the 2,6-diisopropylphenol and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist against learning and memory impairment, induced by electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). A total of 48 adult depressed rats without olfactory bulbs were randomly divided into six experimental groups: i) saline; ii) 10 mg/kg MK‑801; iii) 10 mg/kg MK‑801 and a course of ECT; iv) 200 mg/kg 2,6‑diisopropylphenol; v) 200 mg/kg 2,6‑diisopropylphenol and a course of ECT; and vi) saline and a course of ECT. The learning and memory abilities of the rats were assessed using a Morris water maze 1 day after a course of ECT. The hippocampus was removed 1 day after assessment using the Morris water maze assessment. The content of glutamate in the hippocampus was detected using high‑performance liquid chromatography. The expression levels of p‑AT8Ser202 and GSK‑3β1H8 in the hippocampus were determined using immunohistochemical staining and western blot analysis. The results demonstrated that the 2,6‑diisopropylphenol NMDA receptor antagonist, MK‑801 and ECT induced learning and memory impairment in the depressed rats. The glutamate content was significantly upregulated by ECT, reduced by 2,6‑diisopropylphenol, and was unaffected by the NMDA receptor antagonist in the hippocampus of the depressed rats. Tau protein hyperphosphorylation in the hippocampus was upregulated by ECT, but was reduced by 2,6‑diisopropylphenol and the MK‑801 NMDA receptor antagonist. It was also demonstrated that 2,6‑diisopropylphenol prevented learning and memory impairment and reduced the hyperphosphorylation of the Tau protein, which was induced by eECT. GSK‑3β was found to be the key protein involved in this signaling pathway. The ECT reduced the learning and memory impairment, caused by hyperphosphorylation of the Tau protein, in the depressed rats by upregulating the glutamate content.

  19. mTOR inhibition sensitizes ONC201-induced anti-colorectal cancer cell activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhe-Zhu; Wang, Wei; Fang, Di-Long; Jin, Yong-Jun

    2016-09-30

    We here tested the anti-colorectal cancer (CRC) activity by a first-in-class small molecule TRAIL inducer ONC201. The potential effect of mTOR on ONC201's actions was also examined. ONC201 induced moderate cytotoxicity against CRC cell lines (HT-29, HCT-116 and DLD-1) and primary human CRC cells. Significantly, AZD-8055, a mTOR kinase inhibitor, sensitized ONC201-induced cytotoxicity in CRC cells. Meanwhile, ONC201-induced TRAIL/death receptor-5 (DR-5) expression, caspase-8 activation and CRC cell apoptosis were also potentiated with AZD-8055 co-treatment. Reversely, TRAIL sequestering antibody RIK-2 or the caspase-8 specific inhibitor z-IETD-fmk attenuated AZD-8055 plus ONC201-induced CRC cell death. Further, mTOR kinase-dead mutation (Asp-2338-Ala) or shRNA knockdown significantly sensitized ONC201's activity in CRC cells, leading to profound cell death and apoptosis. On the other hand, expression of a constitutively-active S6K1 (T389E) attenuated ONC201-induced CRC cell apoptosis. For the mechanism study, we showed that ONC201 blocked Akt, but only slightly inhibited mTOR in CRC cells. Co-treatment with AZD-8055 also concurrently blocked mTOR activation. These results suggest that mTOR could be a primary resistance factor of ONC201 in CRC cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. An Animal Model of Trichloroethylene-Induced Skin Sensitization in BALB/c Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Zhang, Jia-xiang; Li, Shu-long; Wang, Feng; Zha, Wan-sheng; Shen, Tong; Wu, Changhao; Zhu, Qi-xing

    2015-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a major occupational hazard and environmental contaminant that can cause multisystem disorders in the form of occupational medicamentosa-like dermatitis. Development of dermatitis involves several proinflammatory cytokines, but their role in TCE-mediated dermatitis has not been examined in a well-defined experimental model. In addition, few animal models of TCE sensitization are available, and the current guinea pig model has apparent limitations. This study aimed to establish a model of TCE-induced skin sensitization in BALB/c mice and to examine the role of several key inflammatory cytokines on TCE sensitization. The sensitization rate of dorsal painted group was 38.3%. Skin edema and erythema occurred in TCE-sensitized groups, as seen in 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) positive control. Trichloroethylene sensitization-positive (dermatitis [+]) group exhibited increased thickness of epidermis, inflammatory cell infiltration, swelling, and necrosis in dermis and around hair follicle, but ear painted group did not show these histological changes. The concentrations of serum proinflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, and interleukin (IL)-2 were significantly increased in 24, 48, and 72 hours dermatitis [+] groups treated with TCE and peaked at 72 hours. Deposition of TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-2 into the skin tissue was also revealed by immunohistochemistry. We have established a new animal model of skin sensitization induced by repeated TCE stimulations, and we provide the first evidence that key proinflammatory cytokines including TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-2 play an important role in the process of TCE sensitization. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Interferon-gamma sensitizes colonic epithelial cell lines to physiological and therapeutic inducers of colonocyte apoptosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, J

    2012-02-03

    Homeostasis in the colonic epithelium is achieved by a continuous cycle of proliferation and apoptosis, in which imbalances are associated with disease. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and colon cancer are associated with either excessive or insufficient apoptosis of colonic epithelial cells, respectively. By using two colonic epithelial cell lines, HT29 and SW620, we investigated how the epithelial cell\\'s sensitivity to apoptosis was regulated by the proinflammatory cytokine interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). We found that IFN-gamma sensitized HT29 cells, and to a lesser extent SW620, to diverse inducers of apoptosis of physiologic or therapeutic relevance to the colon. These apoptosis inducers included Fas (CD95\\/APO-1) ligand (FasL), short-chain fatty acids, and chemotherapeutic drugs. The extent of IFN-gamma-mediated apoptosis sensitization in these two cell lines correlated well with the degree of IFN-gamma-mediated upregulation of the proapoptotic protease caspase-1. Although IFN-gamma alone effectively sensitized HT29 cells to apoptosis, inclusion of the protein synthesis inhibitor cyclohexamide (CHX) during apoptotic challenge was necessary for maximal sensitization of SW620. The requirement of CHX to sensitize SW620 cells to apoptosis implies a need to inhibit translation of antiapoptotic proteins absent from HT29. In particular, the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 was strongly expressed in SW620 cells but absent from HT29. Our results indicate that IFN-gamma increases the sensitivity of colonic epithelial cells to diverse apoptotic stimuli in concert, via upregulation of caspase-1. Our findings implicate caspase-1 and Bcl-2 as important central points of control determining the general sensitivity of colonic epithelial cells to apoptosis.

  2. Akt interacts directly with Smad3 to regulate the sensitivity to TGF-beta induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conery, Andrew R; Cao, Yanna; Thompson, E Aubrey; Townsend, Courtney M; Ko, Tien C; Luo, Kunxin

    2004-04-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) induces both apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest in some cell lines, but only growth arrest in others. It is not clear how this differential response to TGF-beta is specified. Smad proteins are critical mediators of TGF-beta signalling. After stimulation by TGF-beta, Smad2 and Smad3 become phosphorylated by the activated TGF-beta receptor kinases, oligomerize with Smad4, translocate to the nucleus and regulate the expression of TGF-beta target genes. Here we report that the sensitivity to TGF-beta induced apoptosis is regulated by crosstalk between the Akt/PKB serine/threonine kinase and Smad3 through a mechanism that is independent of Akt kinase activity. Akt interacts directly with unphosphorylated Smad3 to sequester it outside the nucleus, preventing its phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. This results in inhibition of Smad3-mediated transcription and apoptosis. Furthermore, the ratio of Smad3 to Akt correlates with the sensitivity of cells to TGF-beta induced apoptosis. Alteration of this ratio changes the apoptotic, but not the growth-inhibitory, responses of cells to TGF-beta. These findings identify an important determinant of sensitivity to TGF-beta-induced apoptosis that involves crosstalk between the TGF-beta and phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI(3)K) pathways.

  3. Identifying airway sensitizers: cytokine mRNA profiles induced by various anhydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plitnick, L.M.; Loveless, S.E.; Ladics, G.S.; Holsapple, M.P.; Smialowicz, R.J.; Woolhiser, M.R.; Anderson, P.K.; Smith, C.; Selgrade, M.J.K.

    2003-01-01

    Exposure to low molecular weight (LMW) chemicals in the workplace has been linked to a variety of respiratory effects. Within the LMW chemicals, one of the major classes involved in these effects are the acid anhydrides. The immunological basis of respiratory hypersensitivity involves CD4+ cells. By virtue of their induction of cytokines typical of CD4+ T-helper type 2 (Th2) cells--interleukin (IL)-4, 10, and 13--respiratory sensitizers may be identified and differentiated from contact sensitizers which induce Th1 cytokines (IL-2 and IFN-γ). Our previous work suggested that the ribonuclease protection assay (RPA) was useful in identifying the respiratory sensitizer, trimellitic anhydride (TMA), based on quantitative differences in Th2 cytokine mRNA as compared to the contact sensitizer dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB). Therefore, the purpose of the studies described in this report was to expand the chemicals tested in the RPA. To this end, four acid anhydrides with known respiratory sensitization potential, TMA, maleic anhydride (MA), phthalic anhydride (PA) and hexahydrophthalic anhydride (HHPA), were tested. Although previously determined to induce immunologically equivalent responses in a local lymph node assay (LLNA), the initial dose chosen (2.5%) failed to induce Th2 cytokine mRNA expression. To determine if the lack of cytokine expression was related to dose, LLNAs were conducted at higher doses for each of the anhydrides. The highest doses evaluated (four- to six-fold higher than those used in the initial RPA) gave equivalent proliferative responses for the various anhydrides and were used for subsequent RPA testing. At these higher doses, significant increases in Th2 versus Th1 cytokine mRNA were observed for all anhydrides tested. These results suggest that the RPA has the potential to serve as a screen for the detection of LMW airway sensitizing chemicals. However, the basis for selecting immunologically equivalent doses may require some modification

  4. Role of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in the piracetam induced blockade of opioid effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehni, Ashish K; Singh, Nirmal; Jindal, Seema

    2007-12-01

    The present study has been designed to investigate the effect of piracetam on morphine/ buprenorphine-induced antinociception in rats and effect of piracetam on morphine or minoxidil induced relaxation in KCl-precontracted isolated rat aortic ring preparation. Nociceptive threshold was measured by the tail flick test in rats. The cumulative dose responses of morphine or minoxidil were recorded in KCl-precontracted isolated rat aortic ring preparation. Piracetam attenuated buprenorphine-induced antinociception in rats. Piracetam significantly reduced the morphine and minoxidil induced relaxation in KCl precontracted isolated rat aortic ring preparation suggesting that piracetam interferes with opioid receptor and ATP-sensitive potassium channel (KATP) opener mediated responses in vitro. Thus, it may be suggested that piracetam attenuates opioid effects by an opioid receptor-KATP channel linked mechanism.

  5. Sensitization of restraint-induced corticosterone secretion after chronic restraint in rats: Involvement of 5-HT7 receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Iglesias, Brenda B.; Mendoza-Garrido, María E.; Gutiérrez-Ospina, Gabriel; Rangel-Barajas, Claudia; Noyola-Díaz, Martha; Terrón, José A.

    2013-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) modulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to stress. We examined the effect of chronic restraint stress (CRS; 20 min/day) as compared to control (CTRL) conditions for 14 days, on: 1) restraint-induced ACTH and corticosterone (CORT) secretion in rats pretreated with vehicle or SB-656104 (a 5-HT7 receptor antagonist); 2) 5-HT7 receptor-like immunoreactivity (5-HT7-LI) and protein in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and adrenal glands (AG); 3) baseline levels of 5-HT and 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA), and 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio in PVN and AG; and 4) 5-HT-like immunoreactivity (5-HT-LI) in AG and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) protein in PVN and AG. On day 15, animals were subdivided into Treatment and No treatment groups. Treatment animals received an i.p. injection of vehicle or SB-656104; No Treatment animals received no injection. Sixty min later, Treatment animals were either decapitated with no further stress (0 min) or submitted to acute restraint (10, 30, 60 or 120 min); hormone serum levels were measured. No Treatment animals were employed for the rest of measurements. CRS decreased body weight gain and increased adrenal weight. In CTRL animals, acute restraint increased ACTH and CORT secretion in a time of restraint-dependent manner; both responses were inhibited by SB-656104. Exposure to CRS abolished ACTH but magnified CORT responses to restraint as compared to CTRL conditions; SB-656104 had no effect on ACTH levels but significantly inhibited sensitized CORT responses. In CTRL animals, 5-HT7-LI was detected in magnocellular and parvocellular subdivisions of PVN and sparsely in adrenal cortex. Exposure to CRS decreased 5-HT7-LI and protein in the PVN, but increased 5-HT7-LI in the adrenal cortex and protein in whole AG. Higher 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels were detected in PVN and AG from CRS animals but 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio increased in AG only. Finally, whereas 5-HT-LI was sparsely observed in the adrenal cortex

  6. Evidence for the concentration induced extinction of gas sensitivity in amorphous and nanostructured Te thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsiulyanu, D.; Mocreac, O.; Enachi, M.; Volodina, G.

    2013-01-01

    The extinction of sensitivity to nitrogen dioxide induced by high gas concentration have been observed in ultrathin tellurium films. The phenomenon becomes apparent in both continuous and nanostructured films shown by AFM, SEM and XRD analyses to be in amorphous state. Sensitivity of 30 nm thickness Te film decreases near linearly with concentration increase between 150 and 500 ppb of nitrogen dioxide. The results are explained in terms of formation of a nitrogen dioxide catalytic gate in which a molecule adsorbs (and desorbs) without reacting. (authors)

  7. Glutathione depletion prevents diet-induced obesity and enhances insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findeisen, Hannes M; Gizard, Florence; Zhao, Yue; Qing, Hua; Jones, Karrie L; Cohn, Dianne; Heywood, Elizabeth B; Bruemmer, Dennis

    2011-12-01

    Excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in adipose tissue has been implicated in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. However, emerging evidence suggests a physiologic role of ROS in cellular signaling and insulin sensitivity. In this study, we demonstrate that pharmacologic depletion of the antioxidant glutathione in mice prevents diet-induced obesity, increases energy expenditure and locomotor activity, and enhances insulin sensitivity. These observations support a beneficial role of ROS in glucose homeostasis and warrant further research to define the regulation of metabolism and energy balance by ROS.

  8. Paroxetine-induced reduction of sexual incentive motivation in female rats is not modified by 5-HT1B or 5-HT2C antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspersen, Helge; Agmo, Anders

    2012-03-01

    Clinical data show that paroxetine causes sexual dysfunction in a substantial proportion of women taking this compound. This work was conducted to determine whether chronic paroxetine reduces sexual incentive motivation in female rats and whether this compound can modify any aspect of paced mating. The role of the 5-HT(1B) and 5-HT(2C) receptors in any potential effects was also evaluated. Ovariectomized female rats were implanted with osmotic minipumps releasing 10 mg/kg per day of paroxetine or vehicle for 28 days. Tests for sexual incentive motivation and paced mating were performed just before implantation and at regular intervals thereafter. The females were primed with estradiol benzoate (25 μg/rat) and progesterone (1 mg/rat) before each of these tests. On days 25-27 of treatment, the females were injected with the 5-HT(1B) antagonist GR125,743 (5 mg/kg), the 5-HT(2C) antagonist SB206,553 (5 mg/kg) and vehicle in counterbalanced order. Preinjection time was 30 min. Paroxetine reduced sexual incentive motivation on day 20 of treatment without affecting any aspect of paced mating. None of the antagonists modified the inhibitory effect of paroxetine on sexual incentive motivation. In the group chronically treated with vehicle, SB206,553 reduced proceptive behaviors in the paced mating test. No other effect was obtained. The effects of paroxetine seen in female rats are similar to those observed in women, suggesting that disturbances of sexual incentive motivation in rats are predictive of sexual dysfunction in women. The 5-HT(1B) and 5-HT(2C) receptors do not seem to be of any importance for paroxetine's inhibitory effect.

  9. Group I mGluR antagonist rescues the deficit of D1-induced LTP in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Zhao-Hui

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fragile X syndrome (FXS is caused by the absence of the mRNA-binding protein Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP, encoded by the Fmr1 gene. Overactive signaling by group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor (Grp1 mGluR could contribute to slowed synaptic development and other symptoms of FXS. Our previous study has identified that facilitation of synaptic long-term potentiation (LTP by D1 receptor is impaired in Fmr1 knockout (KO mice. However, the contribution of Grp1 mGluR to the facilitation of synaptic plasticity by D1 receptor stimulation in the prefrontal cortex has been less extensively studied. Results Here we demonstrated that DL-AP3, a Grp1 mGluR antagonist, rescued LTP facilitation by D1 receptor agonist SKF81297 in Fmr1KO mice. Grp1 mGluR inhibition restored the GluR1-subtype AMPA receptors surface insertion by D1 activation in the cultured Fmr1KO neurons. Simultaneous treatment of Grp1 mGluR antagonist with D1 agonist recovered the D1 receptor signaling by reversing the subcellular redistribution of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2 in the Fmr1KO neurons. Treatment of SKF81297 alone failed to increase the phosphorylation of NR2B-containing N-methyl D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs at Tyr-1472 (p-NR2B-Tyr1472 in the cultures from KO mice. However, simultaneous treatment of DL-AP3 could rescue the level of p-NR2B-Tyr1472 by SKF81297 in the cultures from KO mice. Furthermore, behavioral tests indicated that simultaneous treatment of Grp1 mGluR antagonist with D1 agonist inhibited hyperactivity and improved the learning ability in the Fmr1KO mice. Conclusion The findings demonstrate that mGluR1 inhibition is a useful strategy to recover D1 receptor signaling in the Fmr1KO mice, and combination of Grp1 mGluR antagonist and D1 agonist is a potential drug therapy for the FXS.

  10. Fast and sensitive detection of indels induced by precise gene targeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhang; Steentoft, Catharina; Hauge, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    The nuclease-based gene editing tools are rapidly transforming capabilities for altering the genome of cells and organisms with great precision and in high throughput studies. A major limitation in application of precise gene editing lies in lack of sensitive and fast methods to detect...... and characterize the induced DNA changes. Precise gene editing induces double-stranded DNA breaks that are repaired by error-prone non-homologous end joining leading to introduction of insertions and deletions (indels) at the target site. These indels are often small and difficult and laborious to detect...

  11. Sensitivity to apomorphine-induced yawning and hypothermia in rats eating standard or high-fat chow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baladi, Michelle G; Thomas, Yvonne M; France, Charles P

    2012-07-01

    Feeding conditions modify sensitivity to indirect- and direct-acting dopamine receptor agonists as well as the development of sensitization to these drugs. This study examined whether feeding condition affects acute sensitivity to apomorphine-induced yawning or changes in sensitivity that occur over repeated drug administration. Quinpirole-induced yawning was also evaluated to see whether sensitization to apomorphine confers cross-sensitization to quinpirole. Drug-induced yawning was measured in different groups of male Sprague Dawley rats (n = 6/group) eating high (34.3%) fat or standard (5.7% fat) chow. Five weeks of eating high-fat chow rendered otherwise drug-naïve rats more sensitive to apomorphine- (0.01-1.0 mg/kg, i.p.) and quinpirole- (0.0032-0.32 mg/kg, i.p.) induced yawning, compared with rats eating standard chow. In other rats, tested weekly with apomorphine, sensitivity to apomorphine-induced yawning increased (sensitization) similarly in rats with free access to standard or high-fat chow; conditioning to the testing environment appeared to contribute to increased yawning in both groups of rats. Food restriction decreased sensitivity to apomorphine-induced yawning across five weekly tests. Rats with free access to standard or high-fat chow and sensitized to apomorphine were cross-sensitized to quinpirole-induced yawning. The hypothermic effects of apomorphine and quinpirole were not different regardless of drug history or feeding condition. Eating high-fat chow or restricting access to food alters sensitivity to direct-acting dopamine receptor agonists (apomorphine, quinpirole), although the relative contribution of drug history and dietary conditions to sensitivity changes appears to vary among agonists.

  12. Inhibition of autophagy induced by TSA sensitizes colon cancer cell to radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Gang; Wang, Yan; Pang, Xueli; Zhang, Bo

    2014-02-01

    Radiotherapy is one of the main treatments for clinical cancer therapy. However, its application was limited due to lack of radiosensitivity in some cancers. Trichostatin A (TSA) is a classic histone deacetylases inhibitor (HDACi) that specifically inhibits the biochemical functions of HDAC and is demonstrated to be an active anticancer drug. However, whether it could sensitize colon cancer to radiation is not clear. Our results showed that TSA enhanced the radiosensitivity of colon cancer cells as determined by CCK-8 and clonogenic survival assay. Moreover, apoptotic cell death induced by radiation was enhanced by TSA treatment. Additionally, TSA also induced autophagic response in colon cancer cells, while autophagy inhibition led to cell apoptosis and enhanced the radiosensitivity of colon cancer cells. Our data suggested that inhibition of cytoprotective autophagy sensitizes cancer cell to radiation, which might be further investigated for clinical cancer radiotherapy.

  13. Effects of ayahuasca on the development of ethanol-induced behavioral sensitization and on a post-sensitization treatment in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Lima, A J; Santos, R; Hollais, A W; Gerardi-Junior, C A; Baldaia, M A; Wuo-Silva, R; Yokoyama, T S; Costa, J L; Malpezzi-Marinho, E L A; Ribeiro-Barbosa, P C; Berro, L F; Frussa-Filho, R; Marinho, E A V

    2015-04-01

    Hallucinogenic drugs were used to treat alcoholic patients in the past, and recent developments in the study of hallucinogens led to a renewal of interest regarding the application of these drugs in the treatment of addiction. In this scenario, accumulating evidence suggests that the hallucinogenic brew ayahuasca (Aya) may have therapeutic effects on substance abuse problems. We investigated the effects of Aya on spontaneous locomotor activity and ethanol(Eth)-induced hyperlocomotion and subsequent locomotor sensitization by a two-injection protocol. Additionally, we tested the effect of Aya on an 8-day counter-sensitization protocol to modify sensitized responses induced by a repeated treatment with Eth (1.8g/kg) for 8 alternate days. Aya showed high sensitivity in preventing the development of Eth-induced behavioral sensitization, attenuating it at all doses (30, 100, 200, 300 or 500 mg/kg) without modifying spontaneous locomotor activity. At the highest doses (300 and 500 mg/kg), Aya also showed selectivity to both acute and sensitized Eth responses. Finally, a counter-sensitization strategy with 100 or 300 mg/kg of Aya for 8 consecutive days after the establishment of Eth-induced behavioral sensitization was effective in blocking its subsequent expression on an Eth challenge. We demonstrated that Aya not only inhibits early behaviors associated with the initiation and development of Eth addiction, but also showed effectiveness in reversing long-term drug effects expression, inhibiting the reinstatement of Eth-induced behavioral sensitization when administered in the Eth-associated environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cryptolepine, isolated from Sida acuta, sensitizes human gastric adenocarcinoma cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Firoj; Toume, Kazufumi; Ohtsuki, Takashi; Rahman, Mahmudur; Sadhu, Samir Kumar; Ishibashi, Masami

    2011-01-01

    Bioassay guided separation of Sida acuta whole plants led to the isolation of an alkaloid, cryptolepine (1), along with two kaempferol glycosides (2-3). Compound 1 showed strong activity in overcoming TRAIL-resistance in human gastric adenocarcinoma (AGS) cells at 1.25, 2.5 and 5 μm. Combined treatment of 1 and TRAIL sensitized AGS cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis at the aforementioned concentrations. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Differential effects of Rho-kinase inhibitor and angiotensin II type-1 receptor antagonist on the vascular function in hypertensive rats induced by chronic l-NAME treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bainian Chen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Little attention has been paid to the effect of Rho-kinase inhibitor on the vascular dysfunction of nitric oxide-deficient hypertension. We aimed to investigate whether the Rho-kinase inhibitor fasudil showed beneficial effect on the vascular dysfunction of the NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME treated rat, as well as to compare the differential effects of fasudil and angiotensin II receptor antagonist valsartan on vascular function. In the present study, both valsartan and fasudil exerted antihypertensive action on the l-NAME-treated rats, while only valsartan attenuated the cardiac hypertrophy. Treatment with valsartan showed improvement on vascular reactivity to norepinephrine, KCl and CaCl2, whereas fasudil therapy showed little effect on vasoconstriction. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation to acetylcholine was reduced in the NO-deficient group but was normalized by the fasudil therapy. The increased expression of RhoA and Rho-kinase (ROCK in the vasculature was corrected well to normal level by either valsartan or fasudil administration, which seemed to be at least partially responsible for the beneficial effect of the drug infusion. These findings suggest that the angiotensin II receptor antagonist interferes more with the contractile response than Rho-kinase inhibitor, whereas inhibition of Rho-kinase activity exhibits a better improvement on vasorelaxation than blockade of angiotensin II receptor.

  16. Foliar spray of sodium antagonistic essential mineral elements- a technique to induce salt tolerance in plants growing under saline environment (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, R.; Jabeen, R.

    2005-01-01

    Plants growing at saline substrate practice deficiencies in absorption of some essential mineral elements through roots due to presence of excessive sodium in rhizosphere. Sodium being antagonistic to other cations does not let them enter in roots and hence apart from its own toxicity in metabolism, the plants suffer with deficiencies of some mineral elements, which are necessary for growth. Potassium being essential mineral element is much effected due to this antagonistic behavior of sodium ion. Lagenaria siceraria (var. Loki) being a broad leaf vegetable was selected for these experiments. Plant growing at saline substrate was sprayed with specially prepared spray materials containing different dilutions of potassium nitrate. The anatomy of leaf with special reference to that of stomata was also studied to ensure absorption of required minerals. Growth of plants in terms of leaf area is being monitored at present. Some preliminary experiments show betterment in production of fruits in plants undergoing foliar spray. This hypothesis has opened a new chapter demanding series of experiments dealing with recipe of spray materials, mechanism of minerals uptake through stomata, participation of absorbed minerals in metabolic activities around palisade tissue probably by activating potassium dependent enzyme system which otherwise is blocked by replaced sodium, translocation of these minerals from leaves through petiole in rest of plants and overall effect of such spray on vegetative as well as reproductive growth in plants under saline environment. Some of this work is in progress. (author)

  17. TPA-inducible proteins may account for sensitivity to promotion of transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, K.; Smith, B.; Colburn, N.H.

    1986-01-01

    The preneoplastic JB6 mouse epidermal cell system includes cell lines sensitive (P + ) or resistant (P - ) to tumor promoter induced neoplastic transformation. The authors investigated whether a difference in TPA-inducible proteins may explain this differential sensitivity. The synthesis of a 39 Kd cytoplasmic protein (Major Excreted Protein) was TPA-inducible, but to a similar extent in both P + and P - cells. TPA stimulated phosphorylation but not synthesis of the previously described stress protein pp80 in both P + and P - cells from 1 to 5 hr after treatment. Pulse labelling of P + and P - cells with 35 S-methionine revealed a TPA dependent P + specific transient increase in the synthesis of 58Kd protein. Induction was observed at 1 hr, and returned to basal levels by 4 hr and 20 hr, in nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions, respectively. This protein is not phosphorylated in response to TPA treatment. P + cells differ from P - cells in one or more genes that specify sensitivity to promotion of transformation, designated pro genes. Antibodies to three peptides representing the pro-1 open reading frame were used in immunoprecipitation and Western blotting to isolate the pro-1 gene product. A 43 Kd protein was immunologically responsive to the pro-1 peptide antibodies, and showed an increased signal 40 min after TPA treatment. Since the predicted molecular weight of a pro-1 gene product is only 7 Kd, the possibility of a modification of the protein by poly(ADP-ribosylation) or glycosylation is being investigated

  18. High fat diet-fed obese rats are highly sensitive to doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, Mayurranjan S.; Donthamsetty, Shashikiran; White, Brent; Mehendale, Harihara M.

    2008-01-01

    Often, chemotherapy by doxorubicin (Adriamycin) is limited due to life threatening cardiotoxicity in patients during and posttherapy. Recently, we have shown that moderate diet restriction remarkably protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. This cardioprotection is accompanied by decreased cardiac oxidative stress and triglycerides and increased cardiac fatty-acid oxidation, ATP synthesis, and upregulated JAK/STAT3 pathway. In the current study, we investigated whether a physiological intervention by feeding 40% high fat diet (HFD), which induces obesity in male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-275 g), sensitizes to doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. A LD 10 dose (8 mg doxorubicin/kg, ip) administered on day 43 of the HFD feeding regimen led to higher cardiotoxicity, cardiac dysfunction, lipid peroxidation, and 80% mortality in the obese (OB) rats in the absence of any significant renal or hepatic toxicity. Doxorubicin toxicokinetics studies revealed no change in accumulation of doxorubicin and doxorubicinol (toxic metabolite) in the normal diet-fed (ND) and OB hearts. Mechanistic studies revealed that OB rats are sensitized due to: (1) higher oxyradical stress leading to upregulation of uncoupling proteins 2 and 3, (2) downregulation of cardiac peroxisome proliferators activated receptor-α, (3) decreased plasma adiponectin levels, (4) decreased cardiac fatty-acid oxidation (666.9 ± 14.0 nmol/min/g heart in ND versus 400.2 ± 11.8 nmol/min/g heart in OB), (5) decreased mitochondrial AMP-α2 protein kinase, and (6) 86% drop in cardiac ATP levels accompanied by decreased ATP/ADP ratio after doxorubicin administration. Decreased cardiac erythropoietin and increased SOCS3 further downregulated the cardioprotective JAK/STAT3 pathway. In conclusion, HFD-induced obese rats are highly sensitized to doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity by substantially downregulating cardiac mitochondrial ATP generation, increasing oxidative stress and downregulating the JAK/STAT3

  19. Biguanides sensitize leukemia cells to ABT-737-induced apoptosis by inhibiting mitochondrial electron transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez, Juliana; Pan, Rongqing; Lee, Jason T.C.; Enciso, Leonardo; Suarez, Marta; Duque, Jorge Eduardo; Jaramillo, Daniel; Lopez, Catalina; Morales, Ludis; Bornmann, William; Konopleva, Marina; Krystal, Gerald; Andreeff, Michael; Samudio, Ismael

    2016-01-01

    Metformin displays antileukemic effects partly due to activation of AMPK and subsequent inhibition of mTOR signaling. Nevertheless, Metformin also inhibits mitochondrial electron transport at complex I in an AMPK-independent manner, Here we report that Metformin and rotenone inhibit mitochondrial electron transport and increase triglyceride levels in leukemia cell lines, suggesting impairment of fatty acid oxidation (FAO). We also report that, like other FAO inhibitors, both agents and the related biguanide, Phenformin, increase sensitivity to apoptosis induction by the bcl-2 inhibitor ABT-737 supporting the notion that electron transport antagonizes activation of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway in leukemia cells. Both biguanides and rotenone induce superoxide generation in leukemia cells, indicating that oxidative damage may sensitize toABT-737 induced apoptosis. In addition, we demonstrate that Metformin sensitizes leukemia cells to the oligomerization of Bak, suggesting that the observed synergy with ABT-737 is mediated, at least in part, by enhanced outer mitochondrial membrane permeabilization. Notably, Phenformin was at least 10-fold more potent than Metformin in abrogating electron transport and increasing sensitivity to ABT-737, suggesting that this agent may be better suited for targeting hematological malignancies. Taken together, our results suggest that inhibition of mitochondrial metabolism by Metformin or Phenformin is associated with increased leukemia cell susceptibility to induction of intrinsic apoptosis, and provide a rationale for clinical studies exploring the efficacy of combining biguanides with the orally bioavailable derivative of ABT-737, Venetoclax. PMID:27283492

  20. Sensitization to Gliadin Induces Moderate Enteropathy and Insulitis in Nonobese Diabetic-DQ8 Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galipeau, Heather J.; Rulli, Nestor E.; Jury, Jennifer; Huang, Xianxi; Araya, Romina; Murray, Joseph A.; David, Chella S.; Chirdo, Fernando G.; McCoy, Kathy D.; Verdu, Elena F.

    2012-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is frequently diagnosed in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D), and T1D patients can exhibit Abs against tissue transglutaminase, the auto-antigen in CD. Thus, gliadin, the trigger in CD, has been suggested to have a role in T1D pathogenesis. The objective of this study was to investigate whether gliadin contributes to enteropathy and insulitis in NOD-DQ8 mice, an animal model that does not spontaneously develop T1D. Gliadin-sensitized NOD-DQ8 mice developed moderate enteropathy, intraepithelial lymphocytosis, and barrier dysfunction, but not insulitis. Administration of anti-CD25 mAbs before gliadin-sensitization induced partial depletion of CD25+Foxp3+ T cells and led to severe insulitis, but did not exacerbate mucosal dysfunction. CD4+ T cells isolated from pancreatic lymph nodes of mice that developed insulitis showed increased proliferation and proinflammatory cytokines after incubation with gliadin but not with BSA. CD4+ T cells isolated from nonsensitized controls did not response to gliadin or BSA. In conclusion, gliadin sensitization induced moderate enteropathy in NOD-DQ8 mice. However, insulitis development required gliadin-sensitization and partial systemic depletion of CD25+Foxp3+ T cells. This humanized murine model provides a mechanistic link to explain how the mucosal intolerance to a dietary protein can lead to insulitis in the presence of partial regulatory T cell deficiency. PMID:21911598

  1. Amphetamine-induced sensitization and reward uncertainty similarly enhance incentive salience for conditioned cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Mike J.F.; Anselme, Patrick; Suchomel, Kristen; Berridge, Kent C.

    2015-01-01

    Amphetamine and stress can sensitize mesolimbic dopamine-related systems. In Pavlovian autoshaping, repeated exposure to uncertainty of reward prediction can enhance motivated sign-tracking or attraction to a discrete reward-predicting cue (lever CS+), as well as produce cross-sensitization to amphetamine. However, it remains unknown how amphetamine-sensitization or repeated restraint stress interact with uncertainty in controlling CS+ incentive salience attribution reflected in sign-tracking. Here rats were tested in three successive phases. First, different groups underwent either induction of amphetamine sensitization or repeated restraint stress, or else were not sensitized or stressed as control groups (either saline injections only, or no stress or injection at all). All next received Pavlovian autoshaping training under either certainty conditions (100% CS-UCS association) or uncertainty conditions (50% CS-UCS association and uncertain reward magnitude). During training, rats were assessed for sign-tracking to the lever CS+ versus goal-tracking to the sucrose dish. Finally, all groups were tested for psychomotor sensitization of locomotion revealed by an amphetamine challenge. Our results confirm that reward uncertainty enhanced sign-tracking attraction toward the predictive CS+ lever, at the expense of goal-tracking. We also report that amphetamine sensitization promoted sign-tracking even in rats trained under CS-UCS certainty conditions, raising them to sign-tracking levels equivalent to the uncertainty group. Combining amphetamine sensitization and uncertainty conditions together did not add together to elevate sign-tracking further above the relatively high levels induced by either manipulation alone. In contrast, repeated restraint stress enhanced subsequent amphetamine-elicited locomotion, but did not enhance CS+ attraction. PMID:26076340

  2. Amphetamine-induced sensitization and reward uncertainty similarly enhance incentive salience for conditioned cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Mike J F; Anselme, Patrick; Suchomel, Kristen; Berridge, Kent C

    2015-08-01

    Amphetamine and stress can sensitize mesolimbic dopamine-related systems. In Pavlovian autoshaping, repeated exposure to uncertainty of reward prediction can enhance motivated sign-tracking or attraction to a discrete reward-predicting cue (lever-conditioned stimulus; CS+), as well as produce cross-sensitization to amphetamine. However, it remains unknown how amphetamine sensitization or repeated restraint stress interact with uncertainty in controlling CS+ incentive salience attribution reflected in sign-tracking. Here rats were tested in 3 successive phases. First, different groups underwent either induction of amphetamine sensitization or repeated restraint stress, or else were not sensitized or stressed as control groups (either saline injections only, or no stress or injection at all). All next received Pavlovian autoshaping training under either certainty conditions (100% CS-UCS association) or uncertainty conditions (50% CS-UCS association and uncertain reward magnitude). During training, rats were assessed for sign-tracking to the CS+ lever versus goal-tracking to the sucrose dish. Finally, all groups were tested for psychomotor sensitization of locomotion revealed by an amphetamine challenge. Our results confirm that reward uncertainty enhanced sign-tracking attraction toward the predictive CS+ lever, at the expense of goal-tracking. We also reported that amphetamine sensitization promoted sign-tracking even in rats trained under CS-UCS certainty conditions, raising them to sign-tracking levels equivalent to the uncertainty group. Combining amphetamine sensitization and uncertainty conditions did not add together to elevate sign-tracking further above the relatively high levels induced by either manipulation alone. In contrast, repeated restraint stress enhanced subsequent amphetamine-elicited locomotion, but did not enhance CS+ attraction. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Dual antagonists of integrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadrah, K; Dolenc, M Sollner

    2005-01-01

    The roles of integrins in pathologies have been studied intensively and only partially explained. This has resulted in the development of several nanomolar antagonists to certain integrins. In most cases, the aim was to produce compounds which are highly selective towards specific integrins. This paradigm has recently shifted a little. Targeting two or more integrins with one compound has become a very attractive concept, especially since it has become clear that several severe disorders, such as pathological angiogenesis, cannot be treated just with highly specific integrin antagonists. This review is aimed to elucidate some aspects regarding the design of drugs with dual activity towards integrins. Integrin structure and tissue distribution will first be described, in order to provide the basis for their functions in various pathologies which will follow. Inhibitors of several pairs of integrins will be described.

  4. Free radical scavenging reverses fructose-induced salt-sensitive hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenner ZP

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Zachary P Zenner, Kevin L Gordish, William H Beierwaltes Department of Internal Medicine, Hypertension and Vascular Research Division, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI, USA Abstract: We have previously reported that a moderate dietary supplementation of 20% fructose but not glucose leads to a salt-sensitive hypertension related to increased proximal sodium–hydrogen exchanger activity and increased renal sodium retention. We also found that while high salt increased renal nitric oxide formation, this was retarded in the presence of fructose intake. We hypothesized that at least part of the pathway leading to fructose-induced salt-sensitive hypertension could be due to fructose-induced formation of reactive oxygen species and inappropriate stimulation of renin secretion, all of which would contribute to an increase in blood pressure. We found that both 20% fructose intake and a high-salt diet stimulated 8-isoprostane excretion. The superoxide dismutase (SOD mimetic tempol significantly reduced this elevated excretion. Next, we placed rats on a high-salt diet (4% for 1 week in combination with normal rat chow or 20% fructose with or without chronic tempol administration. A fructose plus high-salt diet induced a rapid increase (15 mmHg in systolic blood pressure and reversed high salt suppression of plasma renin activity. Tempol treatment reversed the pressor response and restored high salt suppression of renin. We conclude that fructose-induced salt-sensitive hypertension is driven by increased renal reactive oxygen species formation associated with salt retention and an enhanced renin–angiotensin system. Keywords: reactive oxygen species, tempol, sodium, renin, oxidative stress

  5. GPER activation ameliorates aortic remodeling induced by salt-sensitive hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liu; Kashyap, Shreya; Murphy, Brennah; Hutson, Dillion D; Budish, Rebecca A; Trimmer, Emma H; Zimmerman, Margaret A; Trask, Aaron J; Miller, Kristin S; Chappell, Mark C; Lindsey, Sarah H

    2016-04-15

    The mRen2 female rat is an estrogen- and salt-sensitive model of hypertension that reflects the higher pressure and salt sensitivity associated with menopause. We previously showed that the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) mediates estrogenic effects in this model. The current study hypothesized that GPER protects against vascular injury during salt loading. Intact mRen2 female rats were fed a normal (NS; 0.5% Na(+)) or high-salt diet (HS; 4% Na(+)) for 10 wk, which significantly increased systolic blood pressure (149 ± 5 vs. 224 ± 8 mmHg;PTreatment with the selective GPER agonist G-1 for 2 wk did not alter salt-sensitive hypertension (216 ± 4 mmHg;P> 0.05) or ex vivo vascular responses to angiotensin II or phenylephrine (P> 0.05). However, G-1 significantly attenuated salt-induced aortic remodeling assessed by media-to-lumen ratio (NS: 0.43; HS+veh: 0.89; HS+G-1: 0.61;P< 0.05). Aortic thickening was not accompanied by changes in collagen, elastin, or medial proliferation. However, HS induced increases in medial layer glycosaminoglycans (0.07 vs. 0.42 mm(2);P< 0.001) and lipid peroxidation (0.11 vs. 0.51 mm(2);P< 0.01), both of which were reduced by G-1 (0.20 mm(2)and 0.23 mm(2); both P< 0.05). We conclude that GPER's beneficial actions in the aorta of salt-loaded mRen2 females occur independently of changes in blood pressure and vasoreactivity. GPER-induced attenuation of aortic remodeling was associated with a reduction in oxidative stress and decreased accumulation of glycosaminoglycans. Endogenous activation of GPER may protect females from salt- and pressure-induced vascular damage. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Structural determinants for antagonist pharmacology that distinguish the rho1 GABAC receptor from GABAA receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianliang; Xue, Fenqin; Chang, Yongchang

    2008-10-01

    GABA receptor (GABAR) types C (GABACR) and A (GABAAR) are both GABA-gated chloride channels that are distinguished by their distinct competitive antagonist properties. The structural mechanism underlying these distinct properties is not well understood. In this study, using previously identified binding residues as a guide, we made individual or combined mutations of nine binding residues in the rho1 GABACR subunit to their counterparts in the alpha1beta2gamma2 GABAAR or reverse mutations in alpha1 or beta2 subunits. The mutants were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and tested for sensitivities of GABA-induced currents to the GABAA and GABAC receptor antagonists. The results revealed that bicuculline insensitivity of the rho1 GABACR was mainly determined by Tyr106, Phe138 and Phe240 residues. Gabazine insensitivity of the rho1 GABACR was highly dependent on Tyr102, Tyr106, and Phe138. The sensitivity of the rho1 GABACR to 3-aminopropyl-phosphonic acid and its analog 3-aminopropyl-(methyl)phosphinic acid mainly depended on residues Tyr102, Val140, FYS240-242, and Phe138. Thus, the residues Tyr102, Tyr106, Phe138, and Phe240 in the rho1 GABACR are major determinants for its antagonist properties distinct from those in the GABAAR. In addition, Val140 in the GABACR contributes to 3-APA binding. In conclusion, we have identified the key structural elements underlying distinct antagonist properties for the GABACR. The mechanistic insights were further extended and discussed in the context of antagonists docking to the homology models of GABAA or GABAC receptors.

  7. Effect of genes controlling radiation sensitivity on chemically induced mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, L.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of 16 different genes (rad) conferring radiation sensitivity on chemically induced reversion in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was determined. The site of reversion used was a well-defined chain initiation mutant mapping in the structural gene coding for iso-1-cytochrome c. High doses of EMS and HNO 2 resulted in decreased reversion of cyc1-131 in rad6, rad9 and rad15 strains compared to the normal RAD + strains. In addition, rad52 greatly decreased EMS reversion of cyc1-131 but had no effect on HNO 2 -induced reversion; rad18, on the other hand, increased HNO 2 -induced reversion but did not alter EMS-induced reversion. When NQO was used as the mutagen, every rad gene tested, except for rad18, had an effect on reversion; rad6, rad9, rad15, rad17, rad18, rad22, rev1, rev2, and rev3 lowered NQO reversion while rad1, rad2, rad3, rad4, rad10, rad12, and rad16 increased it compared to the RAD + strain. The effect of rad genes on chemical mutagenesis is discussed in terms of their effect on uv mutagenesis. It is concluded that although the nature of the repair pathways may differ for uv- and chemically-induced mutations in yeast, a functional repair system is required for the induction of mutation by the chemical agents NQO, EMS, and HNO 2

  8. Oncostatin M induces heat hypersensitivity by gp130-dependent sensitization of TRPV1 in sensory neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langeslag Michiel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Oncostatin M (OSM is a member of the interleukin-6 cytokine family and regulates eg. gene activation, cell survival, proliferation and differentiation. OSM binds to a receptor complex consisting of the ubiquitously expressed signal transducer gp130 and the ligand binding OSM receptor subunit, which is expressed on a specific subset of primary afferent neurons. In the present study, the effect of OSM on heat nociception was investigated in nociceptor-specific gp130 knock-out (SNS-gp130-/- and gp130 floxed (gp130fl/fl mice. Subcutaneous injection of pathophysiologically relevant concentrations of OSM into the hind-paw of C57BL6J wild type mice significantly reduced paw withdrawal latencies to heat stimulation. In contrast to gp130fl/fl mice, OSM did not induce heat hypersensitivity in vivo in SNS-gp130-/- mice. OSM applied at the receptive fields of sensory neurons in in vitro skin-nerve preparations showed that OSM significantly increased the discharge rate during a standard ramp-shaped heat stimulus. The capsaicin- and heat-sensitive ion channel TRPV1, expressed on a subpopulation of nociceptive neurons, has been shown to play an important role in inflammation-induced heat hypersensitivity. Stimulation of cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons with OSM resulted in potentiation of capsaicin induced ionic currents. In line with these recordings, mice with a null mutation of the TRPV1 gene did not show any signs of OSM-induced heat hypersensitivity in vivo. The present data suggest that OSM induces thermal hypersensitivity by directly sensitizing nociceptors via OSMR-gp130 receptor mediated potentiation of TRPV1.

  9. Gastric myoelectric activity during cisplatin-induced acute and delayed emesis reveals a temporal impairment of slow waves in ferrets: effects not reversed by the GLP-1 receptor antagonist, exendin (9-39).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zengbing; Ngan, Man P; Lin, Ge; Yew, David T W; Fan, Xiaodan; Andrews, Paul L R; Rudd, John A

    2017-11-17

    Preclinical studies show that the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor antagonist, exendin (9-39), can reduce acute emesis induced by cisplatin. In the present study, we investigate the effect of exendin (9-39) (100 nmol/24 h, i.c.v), on cisplatin (5 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced acute and delayed emesis and changes indicative of 'nausea' in ferrets. Cisplatin induced 37.2 ± 2.3 and 59.0 ± 7.7 retches + vomits during the 0-24 (acute) and 24-72 h (delayed) periods, respectively. Cisplatin also increased ( P Advanced multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis revealed that the slow wave signal shape became more simplistic during delayed emesis. Cisplatin did not affect blood pressure (BP), but transiently increased heart rate, and decreased heart rate variability (HRV) during acute emesis; HRV spectral analysis indicated a shift to 'sympathetic dominance'. A hyperthermic response was seen during acute emesis, but hypothermia occurred during delayed emesis and there was also a decrease in HR. Exendin (9-39) did not improve feeding and drinking but reduced cisplatin-induced acute emesis by ~59 % ( P waves may represent a novel approach to treat the side effects of chemotherapy.

  10. Radiation-induced increases in sensitivity of cataleptic behavior to haloperidol: possible involvement of prostaglandins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, J.A.; Kandasamy, S.B.; Hunt, W.A.; Dalton, T.K.; Stevens, S.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of radiation exposure on haloperidol-induced catalepsy were examined in order to determine whether elevated prostaglandins, through an action on dopaminergic autoreceptors, could be involved in the radiation-induced increase in the potency of this neuroleptic. Cataleptic behavior was examined in animals irradiated with various doses of gamma photons (1-150 Gy) and pretreated with a subthreshold dose of haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg). This approach was chosen to maximize any synergistic effects of radiation and haloperidol. After irradiation with doses less than or equal to 30 Gy, the combined treatment of haloperidol and radiation produced catalepsy, whereas neither treatment alone had an effect. This observed catalepsy could be blocked with prior administration of indomethacin, a prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor. Animals exposed to doses of radiation less than or equal to 50 Gy and no haloperidol, however, displayed apparent catalepsy. This effect was also antagonized by indomethacin. Prostaglandins can induce catalepsy and when administered in subthreshold doses along with subthreshold doses of haloperidol, catalepsy was observed. In order to assess a possible action of prostaglandins and radiation on dopaminergic activity, the functioning of striatal dopaminergic autoreceptors was examined by determining the effects of varying concentrations of haloperidol on the K+-evoked release of dopamine from striatal slices obtained from parallel groups of animals treated as above. Results indicated that sensitivity to haloperidol increased (higher K+-evoked dopamine release) in slices from irradiated or prostaglandin-treated animals and that this increase in sensitivity was blocked by indomethacin

  11. Sensitization to UV-induced apoptosis by the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myoung Sook; Baek, Jin Hyen; Chakravarty, Devulapalli; Sidransky, David; Carrier, France

    2005-01-01

    UV-induced apoptosis is a protective mechanism that is primarily caused by DNA damage. Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) and 6-4 photoproducts are the main DNA adducts triggered by UV radiation. Because the formation of DNA lesions in the chromatin is modulated by the structure of the nucleosomes, we postulated that modification of chromatin compaction could affect the formation of the lesions and consequently apoptosis. To verify this possibility we treated human colon carcinoma RKO cells with the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) prior to exposure to UV radiation. Our data show that pre-treatment with TSA increased UV killing efficiency by more than threefold. This effect correlated with increased formation of CPDs and consequently apoptosis. On the other hand, TSA treatment after UV exposure rather than before had no more effect than UV radiation alone. This suggests that a primed (opened) chromatin status is required to sensitize the cells. Moreover, TSA sensitization to UV-induced apoptosis is p53 dependent. p53 and acetylation of the core histones may thus contribute to UV-induced apoptosis by modulating the formation of DNA lesions on chromatin

  12. Caveolin-1 sensitizes cisplatin-induced lung cancer cell apoptosis via superoxide anion-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongjit, Kanittha; Chanvorachote, Pithi

    2011-12-01

    Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) expression frequently found in lung cancer was linked with disease prognosis and progression. This study reveals for the first time that Cav-1 sensitizes cisplatin-induced lung carcinoma cell death by the mechanism involving oxidative stress modulation. We established stable Cav-1 overexpressed (H460/Cav-1) cells and investigated their cisplatin susceptibility in comparison with control-transfected cells and found that Cav-1 expression significantly enhanced cisplatin-mediated cell death. Results indicated that the different response to cisplatin between these cells was resulted from different level of superoxide anion induced by cisplatin. Inhibitory study revealed that superoxide anion inhibitor MnTBAP could inhibit cisplatin-mediated toxicity only in H460/Cav-1 cells while had no effect on H460 cells. Further, superoxide anion detected by DHE probe indicated that H460/Cav-1 cells generated significantly higher superoxide anion level in response to cisplatin than that of control cells. The role of Cav-1 in regulating cisplatin sensitivity was confirmed in shRNA-mediated Cav-1 down-regulated (H460/shCav-1) cells and the cells exhibited decreased cisplatin susceptibility and superoxide generation. In summary, these findings reveal novel aspects regarding role of Cav-1 in modulating oxidative stress induced by cisplatin, possibly providing new insights for cancer biology and cisplatin-based chemotherapy.

  13. Antagonist profile of ibodutant at the tachykinin NK2 receptor in guinea pig isolated bronchi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santicioli, Paolo; Meini, Stefania; Giuliani, Sandro; Lecci, Alessandro; Maggi, Carlo Alberto

    2013-10-24

    In this study we have characterized the pharmacological profile of the non-peptide tachykinin NK 2 receptor antagonist ibodutant (MEN15596) in guinea pig isolated main bronchi contractility. The antagonist potency of ibodutant was evaluated using the selective NK 2 receptor agonist [βAla 8 ]NKA(4-10)-mediated contractions of guinea pig isolated main bronchi. In this assay ibodutant (30, 100 and 300nM) induced a concentration-dependent rightward shift of the [βAla 8 ]NKA(4-10) concentration-response curves without affecting the maximal contractile effect. The analysis of the results yielded a Schild-plot linear regression with a slope not different from unity (0.95, 95% c.l. 0.65-1.25), thus indicating a surmountable behaviour. The calculated apparent antagonist potency as pK B value was 8.31±0.05. Ibodutant (0.3-100nM), produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of the nonadrenergic-noncholinergic (NANC) contractile response induced by electrical field stimulation (EFS) of intrinsic airway nerves in guinea pig isolated main bronchi. At the highest concentration tested (100nM) ibodutant almost abolished the EFS-induced bronchoconstriction (95±4% inhibition), the calculated IC 50 value was 2.98nM (95% c.l. 1.73-5.16nM). In bronchi from ovalbumin (OVA) sensitized guinea pigs ibodutant (100nM) did not affect the maximal contractile response to OVA, but completely prevented the slowing in the fading of the motor response induced by phosphoramidon pretreatment linked to the endogenous neurokinin A release. Altogether, the present study demonstrate that ibodutant is a potent NK 2 receptor antagonist in guinea pig airways. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy attenuates central sensitization induced by a thermal injury in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, V M; Borgen, A E; Jansen, E C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2 ) treatment has in animal experiments demonstrated antinociceptive effects. It was hypothesized that these effects would attenuate secondary hyperalgesia areas (SHAs), an expression of central sensitization, after a first-degree thermal injury in humans. METHODS...... was demonstrated. However, in the nine volunteers starting with the control session, a statistical significant attenuation of SHAs was demonstrated in the HBO2 session (P = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that HBO2 therapy in humans attenuates central sensitization induced by a thermal skin injury......, compared with control. These new and original findings in humans corroborate animal experimental data. The thermal injury model may give impetus to future human neurophysiological studies exploring the central effects of hyperbaric oxygen treatment....

  15. VEGF induces sensory and motor peripheral plasticity, alters bladder function, and promotes visceral sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malykhina, Anna P; Lei, Qi; Erickson, Chris S; Epstein, Miles L; Saban, Marcia R; Davis, Carole A; Saban, Ricardo

    2012-12-19

    This work tests the hypothesis that bladder instillation with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) modulates sensory and motor nerve plasticity, and, consequently, bladder function and visceral sensitivity.In addition to C57BL/6J, ChAT-cre mice were used for visualization of bladder cholinergic nerves. The direct effect of VEGF on the density of sensory nerves expressing the transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily 1 (TRPV1) and cholinergic nerves (ChAT) was studied one week after one or two intravesical instillations of the growth factor.To study the effects of VEGF on bladder function, mice were intravesically instilled with VEGF and urodynamic evaluation was assessed. VEGF-induced alteration in bladder dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons was performed on retrogradly labeled urinary bladder afferents by patch-clamp recording of voltage gated Na+ currents. Determination of VEGF-induced changes in sensitivity to abdominal mechanostimulation was performed by application of von Frey filaments. In addition to an overwhelming increase in TRPV1 immunoreactivity, VEGF instillation resulted in an increase in ChAT-directed expression of a fluorescent protein in several layers of the urinary bladder. Intravesical VEGF caused a profound change in the function of the urinary bladder: acute VEGF (1 week post VEGF treatment) reduced micturition pressure and longer treatment (2 weeks post-VEGF instillation) caused a substantial reduction in inter-micturition interval. In addition, intravesical VEGF resulted in an up-regulation of voltage gated Na(+) channels (VGSC) in bladder DRG neurons and enhanced abdominal sensitivity to mechanical stimulation. For the first time, evidence is presented indicating that VEGF instillation into the mouse bladder promotes a significant increase in peripheral nerve density together with alterations in bladder function and visceral sensitivity. The VEGF pathway is being proposed as a key modulator of neural plasticity in the pelvis and

  16. VEGF induces sensory and motor peripheral plasticity, alters bladder function, and promotes visceral sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malykhina Anna P

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This work tests the hypothesis that bladder instillation with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF modulates sensory and motor nerve plasticity, and, consequently, bladder function and visceral sensitivity. In addition to C57BL/6J, ChAT-cre mice were used for visualization of bladder cholinergic nerves. The direct effect of VEGF on the density of sensory nerves expressing the transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily 1 (TRPV1 and cholinergic nerves (ChAT was studied one week after one or two intravesical instillations of the growth factor. To study the effects of VEGF on bladder function, mice were intravesically instilled with VEGF and urodynamic evaluation was assessed. VEGF-induced alteration in bladder dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons was performed on retrogradly labeled urinary bladder afferents by patch-clamp recording of voltage gated Na+ currents. Determination of VEGF-induced changes in sensitivity to abdominal mechanostimulation was performed by application of von Frey filaments. Results In addition to an overwhelming increase in TRPV1 immunoreactivity, VEGF instillation resulted in an increase in ChAT-directed expression of a fluorescent protein in several layers of the urinary bladder. Intravesical VEGF caused a profound change in the function of the urinary bladder: acute VEGF (1 week post VEGF treatment reduced micturition pressure and longer treatment (2 weeks post-VEGF instillation caused a substantial reduction in inter-micturition interval. In addition, intravesical VEGF resulted in an up-regulation of voltage gated Na+ channels (VGSC in bladder DRG neurons and enhanced abdominal sensitivity to mechanical stimulation. Conclusions For the first time, evidence is presented indicating that VEGF instillation into the mouse bladder promotes a significant increase in peripheral nerve density together with alterations in bladder function and visceral sensitivity. The VEGF pathway is being proposed as a

  17. The cannabinoid receptor 2 agonist, β-caryophyllene, reduced voluntary alcohol intake and attenuated ethanol-induced place preference and sensitivity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mansouri, Shamma; Ojha, Shreesh; Al Maamari, Elyazia; Al Ameri, Mouza; Nurulain, Syed M; Bahi, Amine

    2014-09-01

    Several recent studies have suggested that brain CB2 cannabinoid receptors play a major role in alcohol reward. In fact, the implication of cannabinoid neurotransmission in the reinforcing effects of ethanol (EtOH) is becoming increasingly evident. The CB2 receptor agonist, β-caryophyllene (BCP) was used to investigate the role of the CB2 receptors in mediating alcohol intake and ethanol-induced conditioned place preference (EtOH-CPP) and sensitivity in mice. The effect of BCP on alcohol intake was evaluated using the standard two-bottle choice drinking method. The mice were presented with increasing EtOH concentrations and its consumption was measured daily. Consumption of saccharin and quinine solutions was measured following the EtOH preference tests. Finally, the effect of BCP on alcohol reward and sensitivity was tested using an unbiased EtOH-CPP and loss of righting-reflex (LORR) procedures, respectively. BCP dose-dependently decreased alcohol consumption and preference. Additionally, BCP-injected mice did not show any difference from vehicle mice in total fluid intake in a 24-hour paradigm nor in their intake of graded concentrations of saccharin or quinine, suggesting that the CB2 receptor activation did not alter taste function. More importantly, BCP inhibited EtOH-CPP acquisition and exacerbated LORR duration. Interestingly, these effects were abrogated when mice were pre-injected with a selective CB2 receptor antagonist, AM630. Overall, the CB2 receptor system appears to be involved in alcohol dependence and sensitivity and may represent a potential pharmacological target for the treatment of alcoholism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Thick film laser induced forward transfer for deposition of thermally and mechanically sensitive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kattamis, Nicholas T.; Purnick, Priscilla E.; Weiss, Ron; Arnold, Craig B.

    2007-01-01

    Laser forward transfer processes incorporating thin absorbing films can be used to deposit robust organic and inorganic materials but the deposition of more delicate materials has remained elusive due to contamination and stress induced during the transfer process. Here, we present the approach to high resolution patterning of sensitive materials by incorporating a thick film polymer absorbing layer that is able to dissipate shock energy through mechanical deformation. Multiple mechanisms for transfer as a function of incident laser energy are observed and we show viable and contamination-free deposition of living mammalian embryonic stem cells

  19. X-ray-induced chromosome aberrations in Down lymphocytes: an explanation of their increased sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    Unstimulated lymphocytes from individuals with Down Syndrome (trisomy 21) are more sensitive to the induction of dicentric and ring aberrations by X rays than normal lymphocytes. Several explanations involving the more rapid rejoining of X-ray--induced lesions in Down cells have been offered. It is shown here that the repair of the DNA damage converted into chromosome aberrations is more rapid in Down cells than normal cells. This more rapid repair results in a higher probability of producing chromosomes aberrations, and hence higher aberration frequencies in Down than normal cells

  20. X-ray-induced chromosome aberrations in Down lymphocytes: an explanation of their increased sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    Unstimulated lymphocytes from individuals with Down Syndrome (trisomy 21) are more sensitive to the induction of dicentric and ring aberrations by X rays than normal lymphocytes. Several explanations involving the more rapid rejoining of X-ray-induced lesions in Down cells have been offered. It is shown here that the repair of the DNA damage converted into chromosome aberrations is more rapid in Down cells than normal cells. This more rapid repair results in a higher probability of producing chromosome aberrations, and hence higher aberration frequencies in Down than normal cells

  1. Groomed jets in heavy-ion collisions: sensitivity to medium-induced bremsstrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehtar-Tani, Yacine [Institute of Nuclear Theory, University of Washington,Seattle, WA 98195-1550 (United States); Tywoniuk, Konrad [Theoretical Physics Department, CERN,1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2017-04-21

    We argue that contemporary jet substructure techniques might facilitate a more direct measurement of hard medium-induced gluon bremsstrahlung in heavy-ion collisions, and focus specifically on the “soft drop declustering” procedure that singles out the two leading jet substructures. Assuming coherent jet energy loss, we find an enhancement of the distribution of the energy fractions shared by the two substructures at small subjet energy caused by hard medium-induced gluon radiation. Departures from this approximation are discussed, in particular, the effects of colour decoherence and the contamination of the grooming procedure by soft background. Finally, we propose a complementary observable, that is the ratio of the two-pronged probability in Pb-Pb to proton-proton collisions and discuss its sensitivity to various energy loss mechanisms.

  2. TIMP-1 gene deficiency increases tumour cell sensitivity to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Marie Louise; Würts, S.Ø.; Rømer, Maria Unni Koefoed

    2006-01-01

    deficiency increases the response to chemotherapy considerably, confirming that TIMP-1 protects the cells from apoptosis. This is to our knowledge the first study investigating TIMP-1 and chemotherapy-induced apoptosis employing a powerful model system comprising TIMP-1 gene-deficient cells...... this hypothesis, we have established TIMP-1 gene-deficient and TIMP-1 wild-type fibrosarcoma cells from mouse lung tissue. We have characterised these cells with regard to TIMP-1 genotype, TIMP-1 expression, malignant transformation and sensitivity to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. We show that TIMP-1 gene...... and their genetically identical wild-type controls. For future studies, this cell system can be used to uncover the mechanisms and signalling pathways involved in the TIMP-1-mediated inhibition of apoptosis as well as to investigate the possibility of using TIMP-1 inhibitors to optimise the effect of conventional...

  3. A large area position-sensitive ionization chamber for heavy-ion-induced reaction studies

    CERN Document Server

    Pant, L M; Dinesh, B V; Thomas, R G; Saxena, A; Sawant, Y S; Choudhury, R K

    2002-01-01

    A large area position-sensitive ionization chamber with a wide dynamic range has been developed to measure the mass, charge and energy of the heavy ions and the fission fragments produced in heavy-ion-induced reactions. The split anode geometry of the detector makes it suitable for both particle identification and energy measurements for heavy ions and fission fragments. The detector has been tested with alpha particles from sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am- sup 2 sup 3 sup 9 Pu source, fission fragments from sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf and the heavy-ion beams from the 14UD Mumbai Pelletron accelerator facility. Using this detector, measurements on mass and total kinetic energy distributions in heavy-ion-induced fusion-fission reactions have been carried out for a wide range of excitation energies. Results on deep inelastic collisions and mass-energy correlations on different systems using this detector setup are discussed.

  4. Semianalytical Solution and Parameters Sensitivity Analysis of Shallow Shield Tunneling-Induced Ground Settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jifeng Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of boundary soil properties on tunneling-induced ground settlement is generally not considered in current analytic solutions, and the hypothesis of equal initial stress in vertical and horizontal makes the application of the above solutions limited. Based on the homogeneous half-plane hypothesis, by defining the boundary condition according to the ground loss pattern in shallow tunnel, and with the use of Mohr-Coulomb plastic yielding criteria and classic Lame and Kiersch elastic equations by separating the nonuniform stress field to uniform and single-direction stress field, a semiempirical solution for ground settlement induced by single shallow circular tunnel is presented and sensitivity to the ground parameters is analyzed. The methods of settlement control are offered by influence factors analysis of semiempirical solution. A case study in Beijing Metro tunnel shows that the semiempirical solution agrees well with the in situ measured results.

  5. Groomed jets in heavy-ion collisions: sensitivity to medium-induced bremsstrahlung

    CERN Document Server

    Mehtar-Tani, Yacine

    2017-04-21

    We argue that contemporary jet substructure techniques might facilitate a more direct measurement of hard medium-induced gluon bremsstrahlung in heavy-ion collisions, and focus specifically on the "soft drop declustering" procedure that singles out the two leading jet substructures. Assuming coherent jet energy loss, we find an enhancement of the distribution of the energy fractions shared by the two substructures at small subjet energy caused by hard medium-induced gluon radiation. Departures from this approximation are discussed, in particular, the effects of colour decoherence and the contamination of the grooming procedure by soft background. Finally, we propose a complementary observable, that is the ratio of the two-pronged probability in Pb-Pb to proton-proton collisions and discuss its sensitivity to various energy loss mechanisms.

  6. Groomed jets in heavy-ion collisions: sensitivity to medium-induced bremsstrahlung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehtar-Tani, Yacine; Tywoniuk, Konrad

    2017-04-01

    We argue that contemporary jet substructure techniques might facilitate a more direct measurement of hard medium-induced gluon bremsstrahlung in heavy-ion collisions, and focus specifically on the "soft drop declustering" procedure that singles out the two leading jet substructures. Assuming coherent jet energy loss, we find an enhancement of the distribution of the energy fractions shared by the two substructures at small subjet energy caused by hard medium-induced gluon radiation. Departures from this approximation are discussed, in particular, the effects of colour decoherence and the contamination of the grooming procedure by soft background. Finally, we propose a complementary observable, that is the ratio of the two-pronged probability in Pb-Pb to proton-proton collisions and discuss its sensitivity to various energy loss mechanisms.

  7. Groomed jets in heavy-ion collisions: sensitivity to medium-induced bremsstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehtar-Tani, Yacine; Tywoniuk, Konrad

    2017-01-01

    We argue that contemporary jet substructure techniques might facilitate a more direct measurement of hard medium-induced gluon bremsstrahlung in heavy-ion collisions, and focus specifically on the “soft drop declustering” procedure that singles out the two leading jet substructures. Assuming coherent jet energy loss, we find an enhancement of the distribution of the energy fractions shared by the two substructures at small subjet energy caused by hard medium-induced gluon radiation. Departures from this approximation are discussed, in particular, the effects of colour decoherence and the contamination of the grooming procedure by soft background. Finally, we propose a complementary observable, that is the ratio of the two-pronged probability in Pb-Pb to proton-proton collisions and discuss its sensitivity to various energy loss mechanisms.

  8. Memantine, an antagonist of the NMDA glutamate receptor, affects cell proliferation, differentiation and the intracellular cycle and induces apoptosis in Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Silva Damasceno

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Chagas' disease is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and affects approximately 10 million people in endemic areas of Mexico and Central and South America. Currently available chemotherapies are limited to two compounds: Nifurtimox and Benznidazole. Both drugs reduce the symptoms of the disease and mortality among infected individuals when used during the acute phase, but their efficacy during the chronic phase (during which the majority of cases are diagnosed remains controversial. Moreover, these drugs have several side effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Memantine, an antagonist of the glutamate receptor in the CNS of mammals, on the life cycle of T. cruzi. Memantine exhibited a trypanocidal effect, inhibiting the proliferation of epimastigotes (IC50 172.6 µM. Furthermore, this compound interfered with metacyclogenesis (approximately 30% reduction and affected the energy metabolism of the parasite. In addition, Memantine triggered mechanisms that led to the apoptosis-like cell death of epimastigotes, with extracellular exposure of phosphatidylserine, increased production of reactive oxygen species, decreased ATP levels, increased intracellular Ca(2+ and morphological changes. Moreover, Memantine interfered with the intracellular cycle of the parasite, specifically the amastigote stage (IC50 31 µM. Interestingly, the stages of the parasite life cycle that require more energy (epimastigote and amastigote were more affected as were the processes of differentiation and cell invasion.

  9. Radiation-induced bystander effects enhanced by elevated sodium chloride through sensitizing cells to bystander factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Lingyan; Han Wei; Chen Shaopeng; Zhao Ye; Jiang Erkang; Bao Lingzhi; Pei Bei; Yang Gen; Zhao Guoping; Wang Jun; Xu An; Wu Lijun

    2008-01-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE) have been demonstrated to occur widely in various cell lines. However, very little data is available on the genotoxic effects of RIBE combined with other factor(s). We reported previously that with a low dose of α-particle irradiation, the fraction of γ-H2AX foci-positive cells in non-irradiated bystander cells was significantly increased under elevated NaCl culture conditions. In this study, we further investigated the functional role of NaCl in the enhancement of RIBE using a specially designed co-culture system and micronucleus (MN) test. It was shown that the MN frequency was not increased significantly by elevated NaCl (9.0 g/L) alone or by medium exposure. However, with 1.0 cGy α-particle irradiation, the induced MN frequency increased significantly in both irradiated and non-irradiated bystander regions. Additional studies showed that elevated NaCl made the non-irradiated bystander cells more vulnerable to bystander factors. Furthermore, it was found that the induced MN frequency in cells both in irradiated and non-irradiated bystander regions was weakened when the hypertonic medium was changed to normotonic medium for 2 h before irradiation. Such observations were quite similar to the co-effect of NaCl and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), indicating that elevated NaCl might sensitize non-irradiated cells to bystander factors-induced oxidative stress

  10. Sensitivity of Spores of Eight Bacillus Cereus Strains to Pressure-Induced Germination by Moderate Hydrostatic Pressure, Time and Temperature

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kalchayanand, Norasak; Ray, Bibek; Dunne, C. P; Sikes, Anthony

    2005-01-01

    The spores of eight Bacillus cereus strains were pressurized at 138 to 483 MPa for 5 to 20 min at 25 to 70 C in order to determine the sensitive and the resistant strains to pressure-induced germination...

  11. γ-radiation induces cellular sensitivity and aberrant methylation in human tumor cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashok; Rai, Padmalatha S; Upadhya, Raghavendra; Vishwanatha; Prasada, K Shama; Rao, B S Satish; Satyamoorthy, Kapettu

    2011-11-01

    Ionizing radiation induces cellular damage through both direct and indirect mechanisms, which may include effects from epigenetic changes. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of ionizing radiation on DNA methylation patterns that may be associated with altered gene expression. Sixteen human tumor cell lines originating from various cancers were initially tested for radiation sensitivity by irradiating them with γ-radiation in vitro and subsequently, radiation sensitive and resistant cell lines were treated with different doses of a demethylating agent, 5-Aza-2'-Deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) and a chromatin modifier, Trichostatin-A (TSA). Survival of these cell lines was measured using 3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol- 2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) and clonogenic assays. The effect of radiation on global DNA methylation was measured using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The transcription response of methylated gene promoters, from cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (p16(INK4a)) and ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) genes, to radiation was measured using a luciferase reporter assay. γ-radiation resistant (SiHa and MDAMB453) and sensitive (SaOS2 and WM115) tumor cell lines were examined for the relationship between radiation sensitivity and DNA methylation. Treatment of cells with 5-aza-dC and TSA prior to irradiation enhanced DNA strand breaks, G2/M phase arrest, apoptosis and cell death. Exposure to γ-radiation led to global demethylation in a time-dependent manner in tumor cells in relation to resistance and sensitivity to radiation with concomitant activation of p16(INK4a) and ATM gene promoters. These results provide important information on alterations in DNA methylation as one of the determinants of radiation effects, which may be associated with altered gene expression. Our results may help in delineating the mechanisms of radiation resistance in tumor cells, which can influence diagnosis, prognosis and

  12. ERK inhibition sensitizes CZ415-induced anti-osteosarcoma activity in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Gang; Fan, Jin; Zhou, Wei; Ding, Qingfeng; Zhang, Jun; Wu, Xuan; Tang, Pengyu; Zhou, Hao; Wan, Bowen; Yin, Guoyong

    2017-10-10

    mTOR is a valuable oncotarget for osteosarcoma. The anti-osteosarcoma activity by a novel mTOR kinase inhibitor, CZ415, was evaluated. We demonstrated that CZ415 potently inhibited survival and proliferation of known osteosarcoma cell lines (U2OS, MG-63 and SaOs2), and primary human osteosarcoma cells. Further, CZ415 provoked apoptosis and disrupted cell cycle progression in osteosarcoma cells. CZ415 treatment in osteosarcoma cells concurrently blocked mTORC1 and mTORC2 activation. Intriguingly, ERK-MAPK activation could be a major resistance factor of CZ415. ERK inhibition (by MEK162/U0126) or knockdown (by targeted ERK1/2 shRNAs) dramatically sensitized CZ415-induced osteosarcoma cell apoptosis. In vivo , CZ415 oral administration efficiently inhibited U2OS tumor growth in mice. Its activity was further potentiated with co-administration of MEK162. Collectively, we demonstrate that ERK inhibition sensitizes CZ415-induced anti-osteosarcoma activity in vitro and in vivo . CZ415 could be further tested as a promising anti-osteosarcoma agent, alone or in combination of ERK inhibition.

  13. Eating high fat chow increases the sensitivity of rats to 8-OH-DPAT-induced lower lip retraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun-Xu; Ju, Shutian; Baladi, Michelle G; Koek, Wouter; France, Charles P

    2011-12-01

    Eating high fat food can alter sensitivity to drugs acting on dopamine systems; this study examined whether eating high fat food alters sensitivity to a drug acting on serotonin (5-HT) systems. Sensitivity to (+)-8-hydroxy-2-(dipropylamino) tetralin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT; 5-HT1A receptor agonist)-induced lower lip retraction was examined in separate groups (n=8-9) of rats with free access to standard (5.7% fat) or high fat (34.3% fat) chow; sensitivity to quinpirole (dopamine D3/D2 receptor agonist)-induced yawning was also examined. Rats eating high fat chow gained more body weight than rats eating standard chow and, after 6 weeks of eating high fat chow, they were more sensitive to 8-OH-DPAT (0.01-0.1 mg/kg)-induced lower lip retraction and quinpirole (0.0032-0.32 mg/kg)-induced yawning. These changes were not reversed when rats that previously ate high fat chow were switched to eating standard chow and sensitivity to 8-OH-DPAT and quinpirole increased when rats that previously ate standard chow ate high fat chow. These data extend previous results showing changes in sensitivity to drugs acting on dopamine systems in animals eating high fat chow to a drug acting at 5-HT1A receptors and they provide support for the notion that eating certain foods impacts sensitivity to drugs acting on monoamine systems.

  14. Increased amphetamine-induced locomotor activity, sensitization, and accumbal dopamine release in M5 muscarinic receptor knockout mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lene S; Miller, Anthony D; Lester, Deranda B

    2010-01-01

    showed that M(5) receptor knockout (M (5) (-/-) ) mice are less sensitive to the reinforcing properties of addictive drugs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Here, we investigate the role of M(5) receptors in the effects of amphetamine and cocaine on locomotor activity, locomotor sensitization, and dopamine release......-induced hyperactivity and dopamine release as well as amphetamine sensitization are enhanced in mice lacking the M(5) receptor. These results support the concept that the M(5) receptor modulates effects of addictive drugs....

  15. Stress-induced alterations in estradiol sensitivity increase risk for obesity in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michopoulos, Vasiliki

    2016-11-01

    The prevalence of obesity in the United States continues to rise, increasing individual vulnerability to an array of adverse health outcomes. One factor that has been implicated causally in the increased accumulation of fat and excess food intake is the activity of the limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (LHPA) axis in the face of relentless stressor exposure. However, translational and clinical research continues to understudy the effects sex and gonadal hormones and LHPA axis dysfunction in the etiology of obesity even though women continue to be at greater risk than men for stress-induced disorders, including depression, emotional feeding and obesity. The current review will emphasize the need for sex-specific evaluation of the relationship between stress exposure and LHPA axis activity on individual risk for obesity by summarizing data generated by animal models currently being leveraged to determine the etiology of stress-induced alterations in feeding behavior and metabolism. There exists a clear lack of translational models that have been used to study female-specific risk. One translational model of psychosocial stress exposure that has proven fruitful in elucidating potential mechanisms by which females are at increased risk for stress-induced adverse health outcomes is that of social subordination in socially housed female macaque monkeys. Data from subordinate female monkeys suggest that increased risk for emotional eating and the development of obesity in females may be due to LHPA axis-induced changes in the behavioral and physiological sensitivity of estradiol. The lack in understanding of the mechanisms underlying these alterations necessitate the need to account for the effects of sex and gonadal hormones in the rationale, design, implementation, analysis and interpretation of results in our studies of stress axis function in obesity. Doing so may lead to the identification of novel therapeutic targets with which to combat stress-induced obesity

  16. Strain rate sensitivity and evolution of dislocations and twins in a twinning-induced plasticity steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Z.Y.; Wang, X.; Huang, W.; Huang, M.X.

    2015-01-01

    The present work investigated the effect of strain rates (10 −3 to 10 3 s −1 ) on the deformation behaviour of a twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steel. The strain rate sensitivity was studied in terms of instantaneous strain rate sensitivity (ISRS) and strain rate sensitivity of work-hardening (SRSW). While ISRS concerns the instantaneous flow stress change upon strain rate jump, SRSW deals with the subsequent modification in microstructure evolution, i.e. change of work-hardening rate. The present TWIP steel demonstrates a positive ISRS which remains stable during deformation and a negative SRSW, i.e. lower work-hardening rate at higher strain rate. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments indicate that the negative SRSW should be attributed to the suppression of dislocations and deformation twins at high strain rate. This unexpected finding is different to conventional face-centred cubic (fcc) metals which generally show enhanced work-hardening rate at higher strain rate. A constitutive model which is strain rate- and temperature-dependent is developed to explain the stable ISRS and the negative SRSW. The modelling results reveal that the stable ISRS should be attributed to the thermally-activated dislocation motion dominated by interstitial carbon atoms and the negative SRSW should be due to the suppression of the dislocations and deformation twins caused by the adiabatic heating associated with high strain rate deformation

  17. Evaluation of radiation-induced sensitization using electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation technique for austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inazumi, T.; Bell, G.E.C.; Hishinuma, A.

    1990-01-01

    The electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (EPR) test technique was applied to the determination of sensitization in a neutron-irradiated (420 degree C, 10 dpa) titanium-modified austenitic stainless steel. Miniaturized specimens (3 mm diam by 0.25 mm thick) in solution-annealed and 25% cold-worked conditions were tested. The degree of sensitization (DOS) was calculated in terms of the reactivation charge (Pa). Results indicated the occurrence of radiation-induced sensitization when compared to control specimens thermally aged at the irradiation temperature. Post-EPR examination of the specimen surfaces showed etching across the face of each grain as well as at grain boundaries. This indicates that the Pa value normalized by the total grain boundary area, which is an accepted EPR-DOS criterion, cannot be directly used as an indicator of the DOS to determine the susceptibility of this irradiated material to intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). Further investigations are necessary to correlate the results in this study to the IGSCC susceptibility of the irradiated stainless steel. 26 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  18. Visible light induced photoelectrochemical biosensing based on oxygen-sensitive quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Wenjing; Bao Lei [State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, Department of Chemistry, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Lei Jianping, E-mail: jpl@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, Department of Chemistry, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Tu Wenwen [State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, Department of Chemistry, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Ju Huangxian, E-mail: hxju@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, Department of Chemistry, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2012-09-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The near-infrared QDs are synthesized in an aqueous solution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer QDs-based biosensor exhibits visible-light induced cathodic photocurrent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The oxygen dependency of the photocurrent is verified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A photoelectrochemical strategy is established by coupling with enzymatic reaction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photoelectrochemical sensor shows high upper detection limit, acceptable stability and accuracy. - Abstract: A visible light induced photoelectrochemical biosensing platform based on oxygen-sensitive near-infrared quantum dots (NIR QDs) was developed for detection of glucose. The NIR QDs were synthesized in an aqueous solution, and characterized with scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The as-prepared NIR QDs were employed to construct oxygen-sensitive photoelectrochemical biosensor on a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) electrode. The oxygen dependency of the photocurrent was investigated at as-prepared electrode, which demonstrated the signal of photocurrent is suppressed with the decreasing of oxygen. Coupling with the consumption of oxygen during enzymatic reaction, a photoelectrochemical strategy was proposed for the detection of substrate. Using glucose oxidase (GOx) as a model enzyme, that is, GOx was covalently attached to the surface of CdTe QDs, the resulting biosensor showed the sensitive response to glucose. Under the irradiation of visible light of a wavelength at 505 nm, the proposed photoelectrochemical method could detect glucose ranging from 0.1 mM to 11 mM with a detection limit of 0.04 mM. The photoelectrochemical biosensor showed a good performance with high upper detection limit, acceptable stability and accuracy, providing an alternative method for monitoring biomolecules and extending the application of near-infrared QDs.

  19. Sensitivity of proposed search for axion-induced magnetic field using optically pumped magnetometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, P.-H.; Duffy, L. D.; Kim, Y. J.; Savukov, I. M.

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the sensitivity of a search for the oscillating current induced by axion dark matter in an external magnetic field using optically pumped magnetometers. This experiment is based upon the LC circuit (circuit with inductor and capacitor) axion detection concept of Sikivie et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 131301 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.131301]. The modification of Maxwell's equations caused by the axion-photon coupling results in a minute magnetic field oscillating at a frequency equal to the axion mass, in the presence of an external magnetic field. The axion-induced magnetic field could be searched for using a LC circuit amplifier with an optically pumped magnetometer, the most sensitive cryogen-free magnetic-field sensor, in a room-temperature experiment, avoiding the need for a complicated and expensive cryogenic system. We discuss how an existing magnetic resonance imaging experiment can be modified to search for axions in a previously unexplored part of the parameter space. Our existing detection setup, optimized for magnetic resonance imagining, is already sensitive to an axion-photon coupling of 10-7 GeV-1 for an axion mass near 3 ×10-10 eV , which is already limited by astrophysical processes and solar axion searches. We show that realistic modifications, and optimization of the experiment for axion detection, can probe the axion-photon coupling up to 4 orders of magnitude beyond the current best limit, for axion masses between 10-11 and 10-7 eV .

  20. Terbium fluorescence as a sensitive, inexpensive probe for UV-induced damage in nucleic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Yazbi, Amira F.; Loppnow, Glen R.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Simple, inexpensive, mix-and-read assay for positive detection of DNA damage. •Recognition of undamaged DNA via hybridization to a hairpin probe. •Terbium(III) fluorescence reports the amount of damage by binding to ssDNA. •Tb/hairpin is a highly selective and sensitive fluorescent probe for DNA damage. -- Abstract: Much effort has been focused on developing methods for detecting damaged nucleic acids. However, almost all of the proposed methods consist of multi-step procedures, are limited, require expensive instruments, or suffer from a high level of interferences. In this paper, we present a novel simple, inexpensive, mix-and-read assay that is generally applicable to nucleic acid damage and uses the enhanced luminescence due to energy transfer from nucleic acids to terbium(III) (Tb 3+ ). Single-stranded oligonucleotides greatly enhance the Tb 3+ emission, but duplex DNA does not. With the use of a DNA hairpin probe complementary to the oligonucleotide of interest, the Tb 3+ /hairpin probe is applied to detect ultraviolet (UV)-induced DNA damage. The hairpin probe hybridizes only with the undamaged DNA. However, the damaged DNA remains single-stranded and enhances the intrinsic fluorescence of Tb 3+ , producing a detectable signal directly proportional to the amount of DNA damage. This allows the Tb 3+ /hairpin probe to be used for sensitive quantification of UV-induced DNA damage. The Tb 3+ /hairpin probe showed superior selectivity to DNA damage compared to conventional molecular beacons probes (MBs) and its sensitivity is more than 2.5 times higher than MBs with a limit of detection of 4.36 ± 1.2 nM. In addition, this probe is easier to synthesize and more than eight times cheaper than MBs, which makes its use recommended for high-throughput, quantitative analysis of DNA damage

  1. Manipulation of pH induced sensitivity of a fluorescent probe in presence of silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kacmaz, Sibel; Ertekin, Kadriye; Oter, Ozlem; Hizliateş, Cevher Gundogdu; Ergun, Yavuz; Celik, Erdal

    2015-01-01

    In this study, pH induced spectral response of the newly synthesized carbazole derivative (9-butyl-bis-3-(4-(dimethylamino) phenyl) allylidene)-9H-carbazole-3,6-diamine) has been declared. We utilized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) along with ionic liquid as additives for manipulation of the spectral response. Plasticized ethyl cellulose (EC) was used as matrix material. Fibers and porous films were produced by electrospinning technique. The emission intensity at 631 nm has been followed as the analytical signal. Utilization of silver nanoparticles in electrospun polymeric fibers for pH sensing purposes resulted with many advantages such as tuned sensitivity, linear calibration plot for larger pH ranges, increased surface area and enhancement in all sensor dynamics. Additionally, we performed manipulation of the pKa within the same matrix exploiting the silver NPs. Characteristics of the pH induced response for the offered composition was superior with respect to the previously reported ones. When stored at the ambient air of the laboratory there was no significant drift in the signal intensity after 16 months. Our sensitivity and stability tests are still in progress. - Highlights: • A carbozole derivative was used for the first time for sensing of pH along with silver nanoparticles. • The sensor slides fabricated in form of nanofibers. • The Ag containing and Ag-free slides were produced by electrospinning technique. • pH Sensitivity of the dye was compared for both; Ag containing and Ag-free forms. • We performed manipulation of the pKa within the same matrix exploiting the silver NPs.

  2. Manipulation of pH induced sensitivity of a fluorescent probe in presence of silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kacmaz, Sibel [Giresun University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Food Engineering, 28200 Giresun (Turkey); Ertekin, Kadriye [University of Dokuz Eylul, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Chemistry, 35160 Izmir (Turkey); University of Dokuz Eylul, Center for Fabrication and Application of Electronic Materials (EMUM), 35160 Izmir (Turkey); Oter, Ozlem; Hizliateş, Cevher Gundogdu; Ergun, Yavuz [University of Dokuz Eylul, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Chemistry, 35160 Izmir (Turkey); Celik, Erdal [University of Dokuz Eylul, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, 35160 Izmir (Turkey); University of Dokuz Eylul, Center for Fabrication and Application of Electronic Materials (EMUM), 35160 Izmir (Turkey)

    2015-12-15

    In this study, pH induced spectral response of the newly synthesized carbazole derivative (9-butyl-bis-3-(4-(dimethylamino) phenyl) allylidene)-9H-carbazole-3,6-diamine) has been declared. We utilized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) along with ionic liquid as additives for manipulation of the spectral response. Plasticized ethyl cellulose (EC) was used as matrix material. Fibers and porous films were produced by electrospinning technique. The emission intensity at 631 nm has been followed as the analytical signal. Utilization of silver nanoparticles in electrospun polymeric fibers for pH sensing purposes resulted with many advantages such as tuned sensitivity, linear calibration plot for larger pH ranges, increased surface area and enhancement in all sensor dynamics. Additionally, we performed manipulation of the pKa within the same matrix exploiting the silver NPs. Characteristics of the pH induced response for the offered composition was superior with respect to the previously reported ones. When stored at the ambient air of the laboratory there was no significant drift in the signal intensity after 16 months. Our sensitivity and stability tests are still in progress. - Highlights: • A carbozole derivative was used for the first time for sensing of pH along with silver nanoparticles. • The sensor slides fabricated in form of nanofibers. • The Ag containing and Ag-free slides were produced by electrospinning technique. • pH Sensitivity of the dye was compared for both; Ag containing and Ag-free forms. • We performed manipulation of the pKa within the same matrix exploiting the silver NPs.

  3. Folic acid deficiency increases chromosomal instability, chromosome 21 aneuploidy and sensitivity to radiation-induced micronuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beetstra, Sasja; Thomas, Philip; Salisbury, Carolyn; Turner, Julie; Fenech, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Folic acid deficiency can lead to uracil incorporation into DNA, hypomethylation of DNA, inefficient DNA repair and increase chromosome malsegregation and breakage. Because ionising radiation increases demand for efficient DNA repair and also causes chromosome breaks we hypothesised that folic acid deficiency may increase sensitivity to radiation-induced chromosome breakage. We tested this hypothesis by using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay in 10 day WIL2-NS cell cultures at four different folic acid concentrations (0.2, 2, 20, and 200 nM) that span the 'normal' physiological range in humans. The study showed a significant dose-dependent increase in frequency of binucleated cells with micronuclei and/or nucleoplasmic bridges with decreasing folic acid concentration (P < 0.0001, P = 0.028, respectively). These biomarkers of chromosomal instability were also increased in cells irradiated (1.5 Gy γ-rays) on day 9 relative to un-irradiated controls (P < 0.05). Folic acid deficiency and γ-irradiation were shown to have a significant interactive effect on frequency of cells containing micronuclei (two-way ANOVA, interaction P 0.0039) such that the frequency of radiation-induced micronucleated cells (i.e. after subtracting base-line frequency of un-irradiated controls) increased with decreasing folic acid concentration (P-trend < 0.0001). Aneuploidy of chromosome 21, apoptosis and necrosis were increased by folic acid deficiency but not by ionising radiation. The results of this study show that folate status has an important impact on chromosomal stability and is an important modifying factor of cellular sensitivity to radiation-induced genome damage

  4. Rapamycin sensitizes T-ALL cells to dexamethasone-induced apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu Dezhi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glucocorticoid (GC resistance is frequently seen in acute lymphoblastic leukemia of T-cell lineage (T-ALL. In this study we investigate the potential and mechanism of using rapamycin to restore the sensitivity of GC-resistant T-ALL cells to dexamethasone (Dex treatment. Methods Cell proliferation was detected by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl- 2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS analysis was used to analyze apoptosis and cell cycles. Western blot analysis was performed to test the expression of the downstream effector proteins of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR, the cell cycle regulatory proteins, and apoptosis associated proteins. Results 10 nM rapamycin markedly increased GC sensitivity in GC-resistant T-ALL cells and this effect was mediated, at least in part, by inhibition of mTOR signaling pathway. Cell cycle arrest was associated with modulation of G1-S phase regulators. Both rapamycin and Dex can induce up-regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK inhibitors of p21 and p27 and co-treatment of rapamycin with Dex resulted in a synergistic induction of their expressions. Rapamycin did not obviously affect the expression of cyclin A, whereas Dex induced cyclin A expression. Rapamycin prevented Dex-induced expression of cyclin A. Rapamycin had a stronger inhibition of cyclin D1 expression than Dex. Rapamycin enhanced GC-induced apoptosis and this was not achieved by modulation of glucocorticoid receptor (GR expression, but synergistically up-regulation of pro-apoptotic proteins like caspase-3, Bax, and Bim, and down-regulation of anti-apoptotic protein of Mcl-1. Conclusion Our data suggests that rapamycin can effectively reverse GC resistance in T-ALL and this effect is achieved by inducing cell cycles arrested at G0/G1 phase and activating the intrinsic apoptotic program. Therefore, combination of mTOR inhibitor rapamycin with GC containing protocol might be an attracting

  5. Sensitive elemental detection using microwave-assisted laser-induced breakdown imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Adeel; Sun, Zhiwei; Wall, Matthew; Alwahabi, Zeyad T.

    2017-10-01

    This study reports a sensitive spectroscopic method for quantitative elemental detection by manipulating the temporal and spatial parameters of laser-induced plasma. The method was tested for indium detection in solid samples, in which laser ablation was used to generate a tiny plasma. The lifetime of the laser-induced plasma can be extended to hundreds of microseconds using microwave injection to remobilize the electrons. In this novel method, temporal integrated signal of indium emission was significantly enhanced. Meanwhile, the projected detectable area of the excited indium atoms was also significantly improved using an interference-, instead of diffraction-, based technique, achieved by directly imaging microwave-enhanced plasma through a novel narrow-bandpass filter, exactly centered at the indium emission line. Quantitative laser-induce breakdown spectroscopy was also recorded simultaneously with the new imaging method. The intensities recorded from both methods exhibit very good mutual linear relationship. The detection intensity was improved to 14-folds because of the combined improvements in the plasma lifetime and the area of detection.

  6. Blockade of the ERK pathway markedly sensitizes tumor cells to HDAC inhibitor-induced cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Kei-ichi; Minoda, Ai; Kishikawa, Futaba; Kohno, Michiaki

    2006-01-01

    Constitutive activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway is associated with the neoplastic phenotype of a large number of human tumor cells. Although specific blockade of the ERK pathway by treating such tumor cells with potent mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase (MEK) inhibitors completely suppresses their proliferation, it by itself shows only a modest effect on the induction of apoptotic cell death. However, these MEK inhibitors markedly enhance the efficacy of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors to induce apoptotic cell death: such an enhanced cell death is observed only in tumor cells in which the ERK pathway is constitutively activated. Co-administration of MEK inhibitor markedly sensitizes tumor cells to HDAC inhibitor-induced generation of reactive oxygen species, which appears to mediate the enhanced cell death induced by the combination of these agents. These results suggest that the combination of MEK inhibitors and HDAC inhibitors provides an efficient chemotherapeutic strategy for the treatment of tumor cells in which the ERK pathway is constitutively activated

  7. Wheat-Dependent Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis Sensitized with Hydrolyzed Wheat Protein in Soap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Chinuki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA is a specific form of wheat allergy typically induced by exercise after ingestion of wheat products. Wheat ω-5 gliadin is a major allergen associated with conventional WDEIA, and detection of serum immunoglobulin E (IgE specific to recombinant ω-5 gliadin is a reliable method for its diagnosis. Recently, an increased incidence of a new subtype of WDEIA, which is likely to be sensitized via a percutaneous and/or rhinoconjunctival route to hydrolyzed wheat protein (HWP, has been observed. All of the patients with this new subtype had used the same brand of soap, which contained HWP. Approximately half of these patients developed contact allergy several months later and subsequently developed WDEIA. In each of these patients, contact allergy with soap exposure preceded food ingestion-induced reactions. Other patients directly developed generalized symptoms upon ingestion of wheat products. The predominant observed symptom of the new WDEIA subtype was angioedema of the eyelids; a number of patients developed anaphylaxis. This new subtype of WDEIA has little serum ω-5 gliadin-specific serum IgE.

  8. High salt diet induces metabolic alterations in multiple biological processes of Dahl salt-sensitive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanjun; Liu, Xiangyang; Zhang, Chen; Wang, Zhengjun

    2018-06-01

    High salt induced renal disease is a condition resulting from the interactions of genetic and dietary factors causing multiple complications. To understand the metabolic alterations associated with renal disease, we comprehensively analyzed the metabonomic changes induced by high salt intake in Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats using GC-MS technology and biochemical analyses. Physiological features, serum chemistry, and histopathological data were obtained as complementary information. Our results showed that high salt (HS) intake for 16 weeks caused significant metabolic alterations in both the renal medulla and cortex involving a variety pathways involved in the metabolism of organic acids, amino acids, fatty acids, and purines. In addition, HS enhanced glycolysis (hexokinase, phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase) and amino acid metabolism and suppressed the TCA (citrate synthase and aconitase) cycle. Finally, HS intake caused up-regulation of the pentose phosphate pathway (glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase), the ratio of NADPH/NADP + , NADPH oxidase activity and ROS production, suggesting that increased oxidative stress was associated with an altered PPP pathway. The metabolic pathways identified may serve as potential targets for the treatment of renal damage. Our findings provide comprehensive biochemical details about the metabolic responses to a high salt diet, which may contribute to the understanding of renal disease and salt-induced hypertension in SS rats. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Total adiponectin and adiponectin multimeric complexes in relation to weight loss-induced improvements in insulin sensitivity in obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polak, J.; Kovacova, Z.; Holst, C.

    2008-01-01

    , and LMW). The HMW form was suggested to be closely associated with insulin sensitivity. This study investigated whether diet-induced changes in insulin sensitivity were associated with changes in adiponectin multimeric complexes. SUBJECTS: Twenty obese women with highest and twenty obese women with lowest...... diet induced changes in insulin sensitivity (responders and non-responders respectively), matched for weight loss (body mass index (BMI)=34.5 (s.d. 2.9) resp. 36.5 kg/m(2) (s.d. 4.0) for responders and non-responders), were selected from 292 women who underwent a 10-week low-caloric diet (LCD; 600 kcal...

  10. Comparative sensitivity of human and rat neural cultures to chemical-induced inhibition of neurite outgrowth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrill, Joshua A.; Freudenrich, Theresa M.; Robinette, Brian L.; Mundy, William R., E-mail: mundy.william@epa.gov

    2011-11-15

    cultures were more sensitive to neurite outgrowth inhibitors, they also had a lower dynamic range for detecting chemical-induced neurite outgrowth inhibition and greater variability from culture-to-culture as compared to rat primary cortical cultures.

  11. Haloperidol attenuates Methylphenidate and Modafinil induced behavioural sensitization and cognitive enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Nausheen; Choudhary, Kulsoom

    2018-06-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that repeated psychostimulant administration produces behavioural sensitization and cognitive tolerance. Brain dopaminergic system and the involvement of dopamine D 2 -receptors are considered to be important in psychostimulant-induced sensitization. Study designed to compared the motor activity by using familiar and novel enviroments and cognitive effects by water maze and passive avoidance test after long term administration of methylphenidate(at the dose 0.6 mg/kg/day, 2.5 mg/kg/day and 10 mg/kg/day) and modafinil (50 mg/kg/day, 64 mg/kg/day and 75 mg/kg/day) in rats. The effects of challenge dose of haloperidol (at the dose of 1 mg/kg i.p.) has monitored to visualize any subsensitization or supersensitization of D 2 receptors. We found that motor activity and cognitive performance was increased in all doses and sensitization effect was more pronounced after 13 days of drug administration were greater at high than low and medium doses.Challenge dose of haloperidol attenuate motor activity in familiar and novel environment and impaired cognition in water maze and passive avoidance test in all treated rats. The effect of Haloperidol in high dose treated rats were however somewhat greater than low and medium dose treated rats following methylphenidate and modafinil administration. Increased response of haloperidol in methylphenidate treated rats can be explained in term of supersensitization of D 2 receptors which is greater in high dose treated rats. The results show that the role of D 2 receptors to develop side effects such as behavioural sensitization and cognitive tolerance by the long term administration of psychostimulants is of sufficient importance and helpful in understanding the mechanisms underlying the undesirable effects of psychostimulants.

  12. Effect of low-level laser therapy on tooth sensitivity induced by in-office bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavi, Horieh; Arjmand, Nooshin; Ahrari, Farzaneh; Zakeri, Majid; Maleknejad, Fatemeh

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on tooth sensitivity induced by in-office bleaching. Sixty-six patients enrolled in this randomized clinical trial. Following the in-office procedure with 40% hydrogen peroxide, the participants were randomly divided into three groups. The patients in group 1 received irradiation from a low-level red laser (LLRL; 660 nm, 200 mW, 15 s, 12 J/cm(2)), whereas participants in group 2 were subjected to a low-level infrared laser (LLIL; 810 nm) under similar conditions as in group 1. In group 3 (placebo), the laser treatment was the same as that in groups 1 and 2, but without energy output. The degree of tooth sensitivity was recorded at 1, 24, and 48 h after bleaching using a visual analog scale (VAS). The change in tooth shade was measured 30 days after tooth whitening. The intensity of tooth sensitivity was not significantly different between groups at 1 h after bleaching (p > 0.05). At 24 h after therapy, pain level was significantly lower in the LLIL group compared to the LLRL and placebo groups (p bleaching, VAS scores in the LLIL and LLRL groups were comparable to each other (p > 0.05) and both were significantly lower than that of the placebo group (p  0.05). LLLT with an infrared diode laser could be recommended as a suitable strategy to reduce the intensity of tooth sensitivity after in-office bleaching.

  13. Comparative sensitivity of human and rat neural cultures to chemical-induced inhibition of neurite outgrowth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrill, Joshua A.; Freudenrich, Theresa M.; Robinette, Brian L.; Mundy, William R.

    2011-01-01

    cultures were more sensitive to neurite outgrowth inhibitors, they also had a lower dynamic range for detecting chemical-induced neurite outgrowth inhibition and greater variability from culture-to-culture as compared to rat primary cortical cultures.

  14. Canine tracheal epithelial cells are more sensitive than rat tracheal epithelial cells to transforming growth factor beta induced growth inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbs, A.F.; Hahn, F.F.; Kelly, G.; Thomassen, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) markedly inhibited growth of canine tracheal epithelial (CTE) cells. Reduced responsiveness to TGFβ-induced growth inhibition accompanied neoplastic progression of these cells from primary to transformed to neoplastic. This was similar to the relationship between neoplastic progression and increased resistance to TGFβ-induced growth inhibition seen for rat tracheal epithelial (RTE) cells. The canine cells were more sensitive than rat cells to TGFβ-induced growth inhibition at all stages in the neoplastic process. (author)

  15. Clopidogrel, a P2Y12 receptor antagonist, potentiates the inflammatory response in a rat model of peptidoglycan polysaccharide-induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Analia E; Mada, Sripal R; Rico, Mario C; Dela Cadena, Raul A; Kunapuli, Satya P

    2011-01-01

    The P2Y12 receptor plays a crucial role in the regulation of platelet activation by several agonists, which is irreversibly antagonized by the active metabolite of clopidogrel, a widely used anti-thrombotic drug. In this study, we investigated whether reduction of platelet reactivity leads to reduced inflammatory responses using a rat model of erosive arthritis. We evaluated the effect of clopidogrel on inflammation in Lewis rats in a peptidoglycan polysaccharide (PG-PS)-induced arthritis model with four groups of rats: 1) untreated, 2) clopidogrel-treated, 3) PG-PS-induced, and 4) PG-PS-induced and clopidogrel-treated. There were significant differences between the PG-PS+clopidogrel group when compared to the PG-PS group including: increased joint diameter and clinical manifestations of inflammation, elevated plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1 beta, interferon (IFN) gamma, and IL-6), an elevated neutrophil blood count and an increased circulating platelet count. Plasma levels of IL-10 were significantly lower in the PG-PS+clopidogrel group compared to the PG-PS group. Plasma levels of platelet factor 4 (PF4) were elevated in both the PG-PS and the PG-PS+clopidogrel groups, however PF4 levels showed no difference upon clopidogrel treatment, suggesting that the pro- inflammatory effect of clopidogrel may be due to its action on cells other than platelets. Histology indicated an increase in leukocyte infiltration at the inflammatory area of the joint, increased pannus formation, blood vessel proliferation, subsynovial fibrosis and cartilage erosion upon treatment with clopidogrel in PG-PS-induced arthritis animals. In summary, animals treated with clopidogrel showed a pro-inflammatory effect in the PG-PS-induced arthritis animal model, which might not be mediated by platelets. Elucidation of the mechanism of clopidogrel-induced cell responses is important to understand the role of the P2Y12 receptor in inflammation.

  16. Changes of hypertonic saline-induced masseter muscle pain characteristics, by an infusion of the serotonin receptor type 3 antagonist granisetron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christidis, Nikolaos; Ioannidou, Kiriaki; Milosevic, Milena; Segerdahl, Märta; Ernberg, Malin

    2008-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether granisetron reduces masseter muscle pain and allodynia induced by hypertonic saline. Fifteen healthy women and 15 age-matched healthy men participated in this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded study. They first received bilateral injections of hypertonic saline into the masseter muscles (internal control). The evoked pain intensity and the pressure-pain threshold (PPT) were recorded during 30 minutes. Granisetron was then injected on one side and placebo (normal saline) on the contralateral side. Two minutes thereafter, the hypertonic saline injections were repeated. Pain and PPT were again recorded. The first injection of hypertonic saline induced pain of similar intensity, duration, and pain area on both sides, but with larger pain area in the women (P = .017). The PPT did not change significantly. The second injection of hypertonic saline induced considerably less pain (62.5%), of shorter duration (44.1%), and of smaller area (77.4%) on the side pretreated with granisetron (P = .005). The PPT was increased on the granisetron side in the men (P = .002). The results of this study show that local injection of a single dose of granisetron attenuates masseter muscle pain induced by hypertonic saline. This article presents the changes of hypertonic saline-induced masseter muscle pain characteristics by infusion of granisetron. It appears that the pain-inducing effect in this experimental pain model is partly due to activation of 5-HT3-receptors. Hence, the results indicate that granisetron might offer a new treatment approach for localized myofascial pain.

  17. Clopidogrel, a P2Y12 receptor antagonist, potentiates the inflammatory response in a rat model of peptidoglycan polysaccharide-induced arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analia E Garcia

    Full Text Available The P2Y12 receptor plays a crucial role in the regulation of platelet activation by several agonists, which is irreversibly antagonized by the active metabolite of clopidogrel, a widely used anti-thrombotic drug. In this study, we investigated whether reduction of platelet reactivity leads to reduced inflammatory responses using a rat model of erosive arthritis. We evaluated the effect of clopidogrel on inflammation in Lewis rats in a peptidoglycan polysaccharide (PG-PS-induced arthritis model with four groups of rats: 1 untreated, 2 clopidogrel-treated, 3 PG-PS-induced, and 4 PG-PS-induced and clopidogrel-treated. There were significant differences between the PG-PS+clopidogrel group when compared to the PG-PS group including: increased joint diameter and clinical manifestations of inflammation, elevated plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1 beta, interferon (IFN gamma, and IL-6, an elevated neutrophil blood count and an increased circulating platelet count. Plasma levels of IL-10 were significantly lower in the PG-PS+clopidogrel group compared to the PG-PS group. Plasma levels of platelet factor 4 (PF4 were elevated in both the PG-PS and the PG-PS+clopidogrel groups, however PF4 levels showed no difference upon clopidogrel treatment, suggesting that the pro- inflammatory effect of clopidogrel may be due to its action on cells other than platelets. Histology indicated an increase in leukocyte infiltration at the inflammatory area of the joint, increased pannus formation, blood vessel proliferation, subsynovial fibrosis and cartilage erosion upon treatment with clopidogrel in PG-PS-induced arthritis animals. In summary, animals treated with clopidogrel showed a pro-inflammatory effect in the PG-PS-induced arthritis animal model, which might not be mediated by platelets. Elucidation of the mechanism of clopidogrel-induced cell responses is important to understand the role of the P2Y12 receptor in inflammation.

  18. Ultra-sensitive high performance liquid chromatography-laser-induced fluorescence based proteomics for clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Ajeetkumar; Bhat, Sujatha; Pai, Keerthilatha M; Rai, Lavanya; Kartha, V B; Chidangil, Santhosh

    2015-09-08

    An ultra-sensitive high performance liquid chromatography-laser induced fluorescence (HPLC-LIF) based technique has been developed by our group at Manipal, for screening, early detection, and staging for various cancers, using protein profiling of clinical samples like, body fluids, cellular specimens, and biopsy-tissue. More than 300 protein profiles of different clinical samples (serum, saliva, cellular samples and tissue homogenates) from volunteers (normal, and different pre-malignant/malignant conditions) were recorded using this set-up. The protein profiles were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) to achieve objective detection and classification of malignant, premalignant and healthy conditions with high sensitivity and specificity. The HPLC-LIF protein profiling combined with PCA, as a routine method for screening, diagnosis, and staging of cervical cancer and oral cancer, is discussed in this paper. In recent years, proteomics techniques have advanced tremendously in life sciences and medical sciences for the detection and identification of proteins in body fluids, tissue homogenates and cellular samples to understand biochemical mechanisms leading to different diseases. Some of the methods include techniques like high performance liquid chromatography, 2D-gel electrophoresis, MALDI-TOF-MS, SELDI-TOF-MS, CE-MS and LC-MS techniques. We have developed an ultra-sensitive high performance liquid chromatography-laser induced fluorescence (HPLC-LIF) based technique, for screening, early detection, and staging for various cancers, using protein profiling of clinical samples like, body fluids, cellular specimens, and biopsy-tissue. More than 300 protein profiles of different clinical samples (serum, saliva, cellular samples and tissue homogenates) from healthy and volunteers with different malignant conditions were recorded by using this set-up. The protein profile data were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) for objective

  19. Chronic exposure to MDMA (Ecstasy elicits behavioral sensitization in rats but fails to induce cross-sensitization to other psychostimulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swann Alan C

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recreational use of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy among adolescents and young adults has become increasingly prevalent in recent years. While evidence suggests that the long-term consequences of MDMA use include neurodegeneration to serotonergic and, possibly, dopaminergic pathways, little is known about susceptibility, such as behavioral sensitization, to MDMA. Methods The objectives of this study were to examine the dose-response characteristics of acute and chronic MDMA administration in rats and to determine whether MDMA elicits behavioral sensitization and whether it cross-sensitizes with amphetamine and methylphenidate. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three MDMA dosage groups (2.5 mg/kg, 5.0 mg/kg, and 10.0 mg/kg and a saline control group (N = 9/group. All three MDMA groups were treated for six consecutive days, followed by a 5-day washout, and subsequently re-challenged with their respective doses of MDMA (day 13. Rats were then given an additional 25-day washout period, and re-challenged (day 38 with similar MDMA doses as before followed by either 0.6 mg/kg amphetamine or 2.5 mg/kg methylphenidate on the next day (day 39. Open-field locomotor activity was recorded using a computerized automated activity monitoring system. Results Acute injection of 2.5 mg/kg MDMA showed no significant difference in locomotor activity from rats given saline (control group, while animals receiving acute 5.0 mg/kg or 10.0 mg/kg MDMA showed significant increases in locomotor activity. Rats treated chronically with 5.0 mg/kg and 10.0 mg/kg MDMA doses exhibited an augmented response, i.e., behavioral sensitization, on experimental day 13 in at least one locomotor index. On experimental day 38, all three MDMA groups demonstrated sensitization to MDMA in at least one locomotor index. Amphetamine and methylphenidate administration to MDMA-sensitized animals did not elicit any significant change

  20. Radiation-induced bystander effects enhanced by elevated sodium chloride through sensitizing cells to bystander factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Lingyan; Han Wei; Chen Shaopeng; Zhao Ye; Jiang Erkang; Bao Lingzhi; Pei Bei; Yang Gen; Zhao Guoping; Wang Jun; Xu An [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei 230031, Anhui (China); Wu Lijun [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei 230031, Anhui (China)], E-mail: ljw@ipp.ac.cn

    2008-09-26

    Radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE) have been demonstrated to occur widely in various cell lines. However, very little data is available on the genotoxic effects of RIBE combined with other factor(s). We reported previously that with a low dose of {alpha}-particle irradiation, the fraction of {gamma}-H2AX foci-positive cells in non-irradiated bystander cells was significantly increased under elevated NaCl culture conditions. In this study, we further investigated the functional role of NaCl in the enhancement of RIBE using a specially designed co-culture system and micronucleus (MN) test. It was shown that the MN frequency was not increased significantly by elevated NaCl (9.0 g/L) alone or by medium exposure. However, with 1.0 cGy {alpha}-particle irradiation, the induced MN frequency increased significantly in both irradiated and non-irradiated bystander regions. Additional studies showed that elevated NaCl made the non-irradiated bystander cells more vulnerable to bystander factors. Furthermore, it was found that the induced MN frequency in cells both in irradiated and non-irradiated bystander regions was weakened when the hypertonic medium was changed to normotonic medium for 2 h before irradiation. Such observations were quite similar to the co-effect of NaCl and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), indicating that elevated NaCl might sensitize non-irradiated cells to bystander factors-induced oxidative stress.

  1. NMDA antagonist, but not nNOS inhibitor, requires AMPA receptors in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) to induce antidepressant-like effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, V. S.; Wegener, Gregers; Joca, S. R.

    2013-01-01

    of the glutamatergic and nitrergic systems of the vmPFC on the behavioral consequences induced by forced swimming (FS), an animal model of depression. Male Wistar rats (230-260g) with guide cannulas aimed at the prelimbic (PL) region of vmPFC were submitted to a 15min session of FS and, 24h later, they were submitted...

  2. Effects of calcium antagonists on isolated bovine cerebral arteries: inhibition of constriction and calcium-45 uptake induced by potassium or serotonin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendling, W.W.; Harakal, C.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanisms by which organic calcium channel blockers inhibit cerebral vasoconstriction. Isolated bovine middle cerebral arteries were cut into rings to measure contractility or into strips to measure radioactive calcium ( 45 Ca) influx and efflux. Calcium channel blockers (10(-5) M verapamil or 3.3 X 10(-7) M nifedipine) and calcium-deficient solutions all produced near-maximal inhibition of both potassium- and serotonin-induced constriction. In calcium-deficient solutions containing potassium or serotonin, verapamil and nifedipine each blocked subsequent calcium-induced constriction in a competitive manner. Potassium and serotonin significantly increased 45 Ca uptake into cerebral artery strips during 5 minutes of 45 Ca loading; for potassium 45 Ca uptake increased from 62 to 188 nmol/g, and for serotonin from 65 to 102 nmol/g. Verapamil or nifedipine had no effect on basal 45 Ca uptake but significantly blocked the increase in 45 Ca uptake induced by potassium or serotonin. Potassium, and to a lesser extent serotonin, each induced a brief increase in the rate of 45 Ca efflux into calcium-deficient solutions. Verapamil or nifedipine had no effect on basal or potassium-stimulated 45 Ca efflux. The results demonstrate that verapamil and nifedipine block 45 Ca uptake through both potential-operated (potassium) and receptor-operated (serotonin) channels in bovine middle cerebral arteries

  3. H2S-induced HCO3- secretion in the rat stomach--involvement of nitric oxide, prostaglandins, and capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Koji; Ise, Fumitaka; Takahashi, Kento; Aihara, Eitaro; Hayashi, Shusaku

    2015-04-30

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is known to be an important gaseous mediator that affects various functions under physiological and pathological conditions. We examined the effects of NaHS, a H2S donor, on HCO3(-) secretion in rat stomachs and investigated the mechanism involved in this response. Under urethane anesthesia, rat stomachs were mounted on an ex vivo chamber and perfused with saline. Acid secretion had been inhibited by omeprazole. The secretion of HCO3(-) was measured at pH 7.0 using a pH-stat method and by the addition of 10 mM HCl. NaHS (0.5-10 mM) was perfused in the stomach for 5 min. Indomethacin or L-NAME was administered s.c. before NaHS treatment, while glibenclamide (a KATP channel blocker), ONO-8711 (an EP1 antagonist), or propargylglycine (a cystathionine γ-lyase inhibitor) was given i.p. before. The mucosal perfusion of NaHS dose-dependently increased the secretion of HCO3(-), and this effect was significantly attenuated by indomethacin, L-NAME, and sensory deafferentation, but not by glibenclamide or ONO-8711. The luminal output of nitric oxide, but not the mucosal production of prostaglandin E2, was increased by the perfusion of NaHS. Mucosal acidification stimulated HCO3(-) secretion, and this response was inhibited by sensory deafferentation, indomethacin, L-NAME, and ONO-8711, but not by propargylglycine. These results suggested that H2S increased HCO3(-) secretion in the stomach, and this effect was mediated by capsaicin-sensitive afferent neurons and dependent on nitric oxide and prostaglandins, but not ATP-sensitive K(+) channels. Further study is needed to define the role of endogenous H2S in the mechanism underlying acid-induced gastric HCO3(-) secretion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A cell-permeable dominant-negative survivin protein induces apoptosis and sensitizes prostate cancer cells to TNF-α therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanwar Jagat R

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Survivin is a member of the inhibitor-of-apoptosis (IAP family which is widely expressed by many different cancers. Overexpression of survivin is associated with drug resistance in cancer cells, and reduced patient survival after chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Agents that antagonize the function of survivin hold promise for treating many forms of cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a cell-permeable dominant-negative survivin protein would demonstrate bioactivity against prostate and cervical cancer cells grown in three dimensional culture. Results A dominant-negative survivin (C84A protein fused to the cell penetrating peptide poly-arginine (R9 was expressed in E. coli and purified by affinity chromatography. Western blot analysis revealed that dNSurR9-C84A penetrated into 3D-cultured HeLa and DU145 cancer cells, and a cell viability assay revealed it induced cancer cell death. It increased the activities of caspase-9 and caspase-3, and rendered DU145 cells sensitive to TNF-α via by a mechanism involving activation of caspase-8. Conclusions The results demonstrate that antagonism of survivin function triggers the apoptosis of prostate and cervical cancer cells grown in 3D culture. It renders cancer cells sensitive to the proapoptotic affects of TNF-α, suggesting that survivin blocks the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Combination of the biologically active dNSurR9-C84A protein or other survivin antagonists with TNF-α therapy warrants consideration as an approach to cancer therapy.

  5. ErbB4 Overexpression as an Antagonist of ErbB2/HER2/Neu Induced Human Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    advantage and evade therapeutic eradication. Death decisions within mammalian cells are primarily regulated by the interplay between proapoptotic and...BH3 domains either sensitize or activate mitochondrial apoptosis, serving as prototype cancer therapeutics . Cancer Cell 2002;2:183–92. 28. Bouillet P...Agricultural University, P. R. China, BS, Horticulture Positions and Honors 2005.5-Present Postdoctoral Fellow, Department of Molecular and Cellular

  6. The presence of a membrane-bound progesterone receptor sensitizes the estradiol-induced effect on the proliferation of human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Hans; Yang, Yang; Seeger, Harald; Fehm, Tanja; Cahill, Michael A; Tong, Xiaowen; Ruan, Xiangyan; Mueck, Alfred O

    2011-08-01

    Breast cancer risk is still an important topic regarding hormone therapy as well as oral contraception. Evidence that progestogens may play a crucial role is accumulating. Progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1) expressed in breast cancer may be important in tumorigenesis and thus may increase breast cancer risk. The aim of this project was to investigate the influence of different estradiol (E2) concentrations and the addition of two progestogens on MCF-7 breast cancer cells overexpressing PGRMC1. MCF-7 cells were stably transfected with PGRMC1 expression plasmid (MCF-7/PGRMC1-3HA [WT-12]). To test the effects of E2 and progestogens on cell proliferation, MCF-7 and WT-12 cells were stimulated with different concentrations of E2 (10 and 10 M) alone and in combination with progesterone and medroxyprogesterone acetate (each 10 M). E2 elicited a concentration-dependent proliferative effect on both cell lines, which was much more pronounced in WT-12 cells (50% vs 200%). This effect could be completely abrogated by the addition of the E2 antagonist fulvestrant. Addition of progesterone had no influence on the E2-induced effect, whereas medroxy-progesterone acetate enhanced the E2-induced effect at a low E2 concentration, which was, again, more pronounced in the WT-12 cells. The figures were between 20% and 40% in MCF-7 and between 60% and 250% in WT-12 cells. Overexpression of PGRMC1 sensitizes the proliferative response of the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line to estradiol. The effect of progestogens on breast cancer tumorigenesis may depend on the specific progestogen used for hormone therapy or oral contraception.

  7. Serotonin‐induced bistability of turtle motoneurones caused by a nifedipine‐sensitive calcium plateau potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, J.; Kiehn, O.

    1989-01-01

    1. The effect of serotonin on the firing properties of motoneurones was studied in transverse sections of the adult turtle spinal cord in vitro with intracellular recording techniques. 2. In normal medium, turtle motoneurones adapt from an initial high frequency to a low steady firing during...... of the frequency jump was shortened as the amplitude of the activation pulse was increased. From a positive holding potential the after‐depolarization exceeded spike threshold and its duration increased with an increase in steady bias current. The effect of serotonin on turtle motoneurones could be blocked....... It is concluded that serotonin induces a Ca2+‐dependent and nifedipine‐sensitive plateau potential in turtle motoneurones primarily by reducing a K+‐current responsible for the slow after‐hyperpolarization....

  8. Fascaplysin sensitizes cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis through upregulating DR5 expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Chen, Haimin; Yan, Xiaojun; Zheng, Yanling

    2013-05-01

    This study investigated the molecular mechanism of anti-tumor effect of fascaplysin, a nitrogenous red pigment firstly isolated from a marine sponge. Microarray analysis show that the TNF and TNF receptor superfamily in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and human hepatocarcinoma cells (BEL-7402) were significantly regulated by fascaplysin. Western Blot results reveal that fascaplysin increased the expression of cleaved caspase-9, active caspase-3, and decreased the level of procaspase-8 and Bid. Flow cytometry and cytotoxicity tests indicate that fascaplysin sensitized cells to tumor necrosis-related apoptosisinducing ligand-(TRAIL) induced apoptosis, which was markedly blocked by TRAIL R2/Fc chimera, a dominant negative form of TRAIL receptor DR5. Therefore, our results demonstrate that fascaplysin promotes apoptosis through the activation of TRAIL signaling pathway by upregulating DR5 expression.

  9. Naloxone : actions of an antagonist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorp, Eveline Louise Arianna van

    2009-01-01

    The opioid antagonist naloxone has a special place in pharmacology – it has no intrinsic action of its own, but it is able to save lives in the case of life threatening side-effects caused by other drugs. Naloxone is an antagonist for all opioid receptors, but most specifically for the μ-opioid

  10. Phenformin-Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction Sensitizes Hepatocellular Carcinoma for Dual Inhibition of mTOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Sonia Rosa; Ge, Xuemei; Mercer, Carol A; Hernández-Alvarez, María Isabel; Thomas, Hala Elnakat; Hernández-Losa, Javier; Ramón Y Cajal, Santiago; Zorzano, Antonio; Thomas, George; Kozma, Sara C

    2018-04-24

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) ranks second in cancer mortality and has limited therapeutic options. We recently described the synergistic effect of allosteric and ATP-site competitive inhibitors against the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) for the treatment of HCC. However, such inhibitors induce glycemia and increase mitochondrial efficiency. Here we determined whether the mitochondrial complex I inhibitor Phenformin could reverse both side effects, impose an energetic-stress on cancer cells and suppress the growth of HCC. Human HCC cell lines were used in vitro to access the signaling and energetic impact of mTOR inhibitors and Phenformin, either alone or in combination. Next, the therapeutic utility of these drugs alone or in combination was investigated pre-clinically in human orthotopic tumors implanted in mice, by analyzing their impact on the tumor burden and overall survival. We found Phenformin caused mitochondrial dysfunction and fragmentation, inducing a compensatory shift to glycolysis. In contrast, dual inhibition of mTOR impaired cell growth and glycolysis, while increasing mitochondrial fusion and efficiency. In a mouse model of human HCC, dual inhibition of mTOR, together with Phenformin, was highly efficacious in controlling tumor burden. However, more striking, pretreatment with Phenformin sensitized tumors to dual inhibition of mTOR, leading to a dramatic improvement in survival. Treatment of HCC cells in vitro with the biguanide Phenformin causes a metabolic shift to glycolysis, mitochondrial dysfunction and fragmentation, and dramatically sensitizes orthotopic liver tumors to dual inhibition of mTOR. We therefore propose this therapeutic approach should be tested clinically in HCC. Copyright ©2018, American Association for Cancer Research.

  11. The GHR-R antagonist JMV 2959 neither induces malaise nor alters the malaise property of LiCl in the adult male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Juan A; Fehrentz, Jean-Alain; Martinez, Jean; Ben Haj Salah, Khoubaib; Wellman, Paul J

    2018-01-01

    The orexigenic peptide ghrelin (GHR) interacts with ghrelin receptors (GHR-Rs) to modulate brain reinforcement and feeding circuits. Pharmacological inactivation of GHR-Rs via administration of the drug JMV 2959 attenuates the rewarding/reinforcing effects of several drugs of abuse including alcohol, morphine, amphetamine and nicotine. One view of these results is that inactivation of GHR-Rs taps into brain reinforcement/feeding circuits acted upon by drugs of abuse. An alternate explanation is that JMV 2959 may induce malaise, which in turn may limit reinforcement as well as food ingestion. This is a variable of interest given that nicotine alone can induce malaise which may be enhanced by JMV 2959. In the present study, we assessed the capacity of JMV 2959 to produce malaise using a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) task. Adult male rats were allowed to consume a 0.1% sodium saccharin solution and then injected IP with either vehicle, 0.4mg/kg nicotine, 3mg/kg JMV 2959, a combination of 0.4mg/kg nicotine and 3mg/kg JMV 2959, or 32mg/kg lithium chloride (a positive control known to support induction of CTA). Lithium chloride produced a robust avoidance of the saccharin solution in subsequent 2 bottle (water and saccharin) tests, whereas JMV 2959 alone did not induce CTA. The combination of JMV 2959 and nicotine induced a moderate degree of CTA that was similar to that produced by nicotine alone. These results suggest that JMV 2959 is unlikely to limit either reinforcement or food ingestion via induction of malaise. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Highly sensitive SnO2 sensor via reactive laser-induced transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palla Papavlu, Alexandra; Mattle, Thomas; Temmel, Sandra; Lehmann, Ulrike; Hintennach, Andreas; Grisel, Alain; Wokaun, Alexander; Lippert, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Gas sensors based on tin oxide (SnO2) and palladium doped SnO2 (Pd:SnO2) active materials are fabricated by a laser printing method, i.e. reactive laser-induced forward transfer (rLIFT). Thin films from tin based metal-complex precursors are prepared by spin coating and then laser transferred with high resolution onto sensor structures. The devices fabricated by rLIFT exhibit low ppm sensitivity towards ethanol and methane as well as good stability with respect to air, moisture, and time. Promising results are obtained by applying rLIFT to transfer metal-complex precursors onto uncoated commercial gas sensors. We could show that rLIFT onto commercial sensors is possible if the sensor structures are reinforced prior to printing. The rLIFT fabricated sensors show up to 4 times higher sensitivities then the commercial sensors (with inkjet printed SnO2). In addition, the selectivity towards CH4 of the Pd:SnO2 sensors is significantly enhanced compared to the pure SnO2 sensors. Our results indicate that the reactive laser transfer technique applied here represents an important technical step for the realization of improved gas detection systems with wide-ranging applications in environmental and health monitoring control.

  13. [Emission spectrum temperature sensitivity of Mg4FGeO6 : mn induced by laser].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng; Liu, Jing-Ru; Shao, Jun; Hu, Zhi-Yun; Tao, Bo; Huang, Mei-Sheng

    2013-08-01

    In order to develop a new sort of thermally sensitive phosphor coating, the emission spectrum thermally sensitivity of Mg4FGeO6 : Mn induced by laser was studied. The spectrum measurement system with heating function was set up, and the emission spectrum of Mg4FGeO6 : Mn at various temperatures were measured. Absorption spectrum was measured, and the mechanism of formation of the structure of double peak was analyzed with the perturbation theory of crystal lattice. The group of peaks around 630 nm is represented by the transitions 4F"2 to 4A2, whereas the group of peaks around 660 nm is due to the transitions 4F'2 to 4A2. The occupancy of both excited states 4F'2 and 4F"2 is in thermal equilibrium. Thus increasing temperature causes the intensity of the emission in the group around 630 nm to increase at the expense of the emission intensity of the group around 660 nm. The various spectral regions in emission differ with temperature, which could be used to support the intensity-ratio measurement method. The intensity-ratio change curve as a function of temperature was fitted, which shows that the range of temperature measurement is between room temperature and 800 K.

  14. Lansoprazole induces sensitivity to suboptimal doses of paclitaxel in human melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzarito, Tommaso; Venturi, Giulietta; Cesolini, Albino; Fais, Stefano

    2015-01-28

    Tumor acidity is now considered an important determinant of drug-resistance and tumor progression, and anti-acidic approaches, such as Proton Pump inhibitors (PPIs), have demonstrated promising antitumor and chemo-sensitizing efficacy. The main purpose of the present study was to evaluate the possible PPI-induced sensitization of human melanoma cells to Paclitaxel (PTX). Our results show that PTX and the PPI Lansoprazole (LAN) combination was extremely efficient against metastatic melanoma cells, as compared to the single treatments, both in vitro and in vivo. We also showed that acidity plays an important role on the anti-tumor activity of these drugs, being detrimental for PTX activity, while crucial for the synergistic effect of PTX following pretreatment with LAN, due to its nature of pro-drug needing protonation for a full activation. We obtained straightforward results in a human melanoma xenograft model combining well tolerated LAN doses with suboptimal and poorly toxic doses of PTX. With this study we provide a clear evidence that the PPI LAN may be included in new combined therapy of human melanoma together with low doses of PTX. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sodium Chloride Crystal-Induced SERS Platform for Controlled Highly Sensitive Detection of Illicit Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Borong; Li, Pan; Zhou, Binbin; Tang, Xianghu; Li, Shaofei; Yang, Liangbao

    2018-04-03

    A sodium chloride crystal-driven spontaneous 'hot spot' structure was demonstrated as a SERS-active platform, to get reproducible SERS signals, and eliminate the need for mapping large areas, in comparison with solution phase testing. During the process of solvent evaporation, the crystals produced induced silver aggregates to assemble around themselves. The micro-scale crystals can also act as a template to obtain an optical position, such that the assembled hot area is conveniently located during SERS measurements. More importantly, the chloride ions added in colloids can also replace the citrate and on the surface of the silver sol, and further decrease the background interference. High quality SERS spectra from heroin, methamphetamine (MAMP), and cocaine have been obtained on the crystal-driven hot spot structure with high sensitivity and credible reproducibility. This approach can not only bring the nanoparticles to form plasmonic hot spots in a controlled way, and thus provide high sensitivity, but also potentially be explored as an active substrate for label-free detection of other illicit drugs or additives. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Influence of TRPV1 on diabetes-induced alterations in thermal pain sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauza Mary E

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A common complication associated with diabetes is painful or painless diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN. The mechanisms and determinants responsible for these peripheral neuropathies are poorly understood. Using both streptozotocin (STZ-induced and transgene-mediated murine models of type 1 diabetes (T1D, we demonstrate that Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1 expression varies with the neuropathic phenotype. We have found that both STZ- and transgene-mediated T1D are associated with two distinct phases of thermal pain sensitivity that parallel changes in TRPV1 as determined by paw withdrawal latency (PWL. An early phase of hyperalgesia and a late phase of hypoalgesia are evident. TRPV1-mediated whole cell currents are larger and smaller in dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons collected from hyperalgesic and hypoalgesic mice. Resiniferatoxin (RTX binding, a measure of TRPV1 expression is increased and decreased in DRG and paw skin of hyperalgesic and hypoalgesic mice, respectively. Immunohistochemical labeling of spinal cord lamina I and II, dorsal root ganglion (DRG, and paw skin from hyperalgesic and hypoalgesic mice reveal increased and decreased TRPV1 expression, respectively. A role for TRPV1 in thermal DPN is further suggested by the failure of STZ treatment to influence thermal nociception in TRPV1 deficient mice. These findings demonstrate that altered TRPV1 expression and function contribute to diabetes-induced changes in thermal perception.

  17. Resveratrol-Sensitized UVA Induced Apoptosis in Human Keratinocytes through Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress and Pore Opening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Jean Z; Jandova, Jana; Janda, Jaroslav; Vleugels, Frank R; Elliott, David; Sligh, James E

    2012-01-01

    Resveratrol (3, 5, 4′-trihydroxy- trans- stilbene), a polyphenol compound, is derived from natural products such as the skin of red grapes, blueberries and cranberries. Resveratrol not only exhibits antioxidant, cardioprotection, and anti-aging properties, but can also inhibit cancer cell growth and induce apoptosis. It has been shown that resveratrol inhibits the activation of Nf-kB and subsequently down regulates the expression of Nf-kB regulated genes such as interleukin-2 and Bcl-2, leading to cell cycle arrest and increased apoptosis in multiple myeloma cells. In the skin, resveratrol has been reported to sensitize keratinocytes to UVA induced apoptosis. However, the effect of resveratrol on opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore has not been previously examined. Our data show that UVA (14J/cm2) along with resveratrol causes massive oxidative stress in mitochondria. As a consequence of oxidative stress, the mitochondrial membrane potential decreases which results in opening of the mitochondrial pores ultimately leading to apoptosis in human keratinocytes. These results may have clinical implications for development of future chemotherapeutic treatment for tumors of the skin. PMID:22673012

  18. TRAIL-induced cleavage and inactivation of SPAK sensitizes cells to apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polek, Tara C.; Talpaz, Moshe; Spivak-Kroizman, Taly R.

    2006-01-01

    Ste20-related proline-alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) has been linked to various cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, and ion transport regulation. Recently, we showed that SPAK mediates signaling by the TNF receptor, RELT. The presence of a caspase cleavage site in SPAK prompted us to study its involvement in apoptotic signaling induced by another TNF member, TRAIL. We show that TRAIL stimulated caspase 3-like proteases that cleaved SPAK at two distinct sites. Cleavage had little effect on the activity of SPAK but removed its substrate-binding domain. In addition, TRAIL reduced the activity of SPAK in HeLa cells in a caspase-independent manner. Thus, TRAIL inhibited SPAK by two mechanisms: activation of caspases, which removed its substrate-binding domain, and caspase-independent down-regulation of SPAK activity. Furthermore, reducing the amount of SPAK by siRNA increased the sensitivity of HeLa cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Thus, TRAIL down-regulation of SPAK is an important event that enhances its apoptotic effects

  19. Carbon adaptation influence the antagonistic ability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-24

    Oct 24, 2011 ... INTRODUCTION. The use of antagonistic bacteria to control soil-borne ... plant was used to evaluate the antifungal activities of antagonistic bacteria. ..... antagonistic bacteria and cloning of its phenazine carboxylic acid genes.

  20. A single social defeat induces short-lasting behavioral sensitization to amphetamine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, JG; Wasilewski, M; van der Vegt, BJ; Buwalda, B; Koolhaas, Jacob

    2005-01-01

    Repeated, intermittent exposure to psychostimulants or stressors results in long-lasting, progressive sensitization of the behavioral effects of a subsequent amphetamine (AMPH) challenge. Although behavioral sensitization has also been observed following a single drug pretreatment, the sensitizing

  1. Transcranial Random Noise Stimulation-induced plasticity is NMDA-receptor independent but sodium-channel blocker and benzodiazepines sensitive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila eChaieb

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Application of transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS between 0.1 and 640 Hz of the primary motor cortex (M1 for 10 minutes induces a persistent excitability increase lasting for at least 60 minutes. However, the mechanism of tRNS-induced cortical excitability alterations is not yet fully understood. Objective: The main aim of this study was to get first efficacy data with regard to the possible neuronal effect of tRNS. Methods: Single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS was used to measure levels of cortical excitability before and after combined application of tRNS at an intensity of 1mA for 10mins stimulation duration and a pharmacological agent (or sham on 8 healthy male participants. Results: The sodium channel blocker carbamazepine showed a tendency towards inhibiting MEPs 5-60 mins poststimulation. The GABAA agonist lorazepam suppressed tRNS-induced cortical excitability increases at 0-20 and 60 min time points. The partial NMDA receptor agonist D-cycloserine, the NMDA receptor antagonist dextromethorphan and the D2/D3 receptor agonist ropinirole had no significant effects on the excitability increases seen with tRNS.Conclusions: In contrast to transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS, aftereffects of tRNS are seem to be not NMDA receptor dependent and can be suppressed by benzodiazepines suggesting that tDCS and tRNS depend upon different mechanisms.

  2. Pharmacological analysis of calcium antagonist receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, I.J.

    1987-01-01

    This work focuses on two aspects of the action of calcium antagonist drugs, namely, the interaction of drugs with receptors for verapamil-like calcium antagonists, and the interactions of drugs with voltage-sensitive calcium fluxes in rat brain synaptosomes. From binding studies I have found that the ligand of choice for labeling the verapamil receptor is (-)[ 3 H]desmethoxy-verapamil. This drug labels potently, reversibly and stereoselectively two receptors in membranes prepared from rat brain and rabbit skeletal muscle tissues. In equilibrium studies dihydropyridine calcium antagonists interact in a non-competitive fashion, while many non-DHPs are apparently competitive. In-depth kinetic studies in skeletal muscle membranes indicate that the two receptors are linked in a negative heterotropic fashion, and that low-affinity binding of (-) [ 3 H]desmethoxy-verapamil may be to the diltiazem receptor. However, these studies were not able to distinguish between the hypothesis that diltiazem binds to spatially separate, allosterically coupled receptors, and the hypothesis that diltiazem binds to a subsite of the verapamil receptor

  3. Cohort Removal Induces Changes in Body Temperature, Pain Sensitivity, and Anxiety-Like Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao, Keizo; Shoji, Hirotaka; Hattori, Satoko; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Mouse behavior is analyzed to elucidate the effects of various experimental manipulations, including gene mutation and drug administration. When the effect of a factor of interest is assessed, other factors, such as age, sex, temperature, apparatus, and housing, are controlled in experiments by matching, counterbalancing, and/or randomizing. One such factor that has not attracted much attention is the effect of sequential removal of animals from a common cage (cohort removal). Here we evaluated the effects of cohort removal on rectal temperature, pain sensitivity, and anxiety-like behavior by analyzing the combined data of a large number of C57BL/6J mice that we collected using a comprehensive behavioral test battery. Rectal temperature increased in a stepwise manner according to the position of sequential removal from the cage, consistent with previous reports. In the hot plate test, the mice that were removed first from the cage had a significantly longer latency to show the first paw response than the mice removed later. In the elevated plus maze, the mice removed first spent significantly less time on the open arms compared to the mice removed later. The results of the present study demonstrated that cohort removal induces changes in body temperature, pain sensitivity, and anxiety-like behavior in mice. Cohort removal also increased the plasma corticosterone concentration in mice. Thus, the ordinal position in the sequence of removal from the cage should be carefully counterbalanced between groups when the effect of experimental manipulations, including gene manipulation and drug administration, are examined using behavioral tests. PMID:27375443

  4. Cohort removal induces changes in body temperature, pain sensitivity, and anxiety-like behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keizo eTakao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mouse behavior is analyzed to elucidate the effects of various experimental manipulations, including gene mutation and drug administration. When the effect of a factor of interest is assessed, other factors, such as age, sex, temperature, apparatus, and housing, are controlled in experiments by matching, counterbalancing, and/or randomizing. One such factor that has not attracted much attention is the effect of sequential removal of animals from a common cage (cohort removal. Here we evaluated the effects of cohort removal on rectal temperature, pain sensitivity, and anxiety-like behavior by analyzing the combined data of a large number of C57BL/6J mice that we collected using a comprehensive behavioral test battery. Rectal temperature increased in a stepwise manner according to the position of sequential removal from the cage, consistent with previous reports. In the hot plate test, the mice that were removed first from the cage had a significantly longer latency to show the first paw response than the mice removed later. In the elevated plus maze, the mice removed first spent significantly less time on the open arms compared to the mice removed later. The results of the present study demonstrated that cohort removal induces changes in body temperature, pain sensitivity, and anxiety-like behavior in mice. Cohort removal also increased the plasma corticosterone concentration in mice. Thus, the ordinal position in the sequence of removal from the cage should be carefully counterbalanced between groups when the effect of experimental manipulations, including gene manipulation and drug administration, are examined using behavioral tests.

  5. An α4β1 integrin antagonist decreases airway inflammation in ovalbumin-exposed mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Nicholas J.; Liu, Ruiwu; O’Roark, Erin M.; Huang, Wenzhe; Peng, Li; Lam, Kit S.

    2008-01-01

    Inhibition of the α4 subunit of both the α4β1 and α4β7 integrins has shown promise in decreasing airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness in various animal models. We hypothesized that a novel, high-affinity α4β1 antagonist (LLP2A) would decrease the migration of eosinophils to the lung and ameliorate the airway hyperresponsiveness in a mouse model of ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation. To test this hypothesis, we administered LLP2A, or scrambled LLP2A (a negative control), prior to exposure of sensitized BALB/c mice to ovalbumin aerosol. We can partially prevent, or reverse, the airway inflammatory response, but not airways hyperresponsiveness, by treatment of mice with LLP2A, a synthetic peptidomimetic α4β1 antagonist LLP2A. Specifically engineered, PEGylated (PEG) formulations of this antagonist further reduce the airway inflammatory response to ovalbumin lbumin, presumably by improving the circulating half-life of the drug. PMID:19103195

  6. Novel TRAIL sensitizer Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis in Huh7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ji-Yong; Cho, Hyun-Soo; Lee, Jeong-Ju; Lee, Hyo-Jung; Jun, Soo Young; Lee, Jae-Hye; Song, Hyuk-Hwan; Choi, SangHo; Saloura, Vassiliki; Park, Choon Gil; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Kim, Nam-Soon

    2016-04-01

    TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand) is a promising anti-cancer drug target that selectively induces apoptosis in cancer cells. However, many cancer cells are resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Therefore, reversing TRAIL resistance is an important step for the development of effective TRAIL-based anti-cancer therapies. We previously reported that knockdown of the TOR signaling pathway regulator-like (TIPRL) protein caused TRAIL-induced apoptosis by activation of the MKK7-c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) pathway through disruption of the MKK7-TIPRL interaction. Here, we identified Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg (TO) as a novel TRAIL sensitizer from a set of 500 natural products using an ELISA system and validated its activity by GST pull-down analysis. Furthermore, combination treatment of Huh7 cells with TRAIL and TO resulted in TRAIL-induced apoptosis mediated through inhibition of the MKK7-TIPRL interaction and subsequent activation of MKK7-JNK phosphorylation. Interestingly, HPLC analysis identified chicoric acid as a major component of the TO extract, and combination treatment with chicoric acid and TRAIL induced TRAIL-induced cell apoptosis via JNK activation due to inhibition of the MKK7-TIPRL interaction. Our results suggest that TO plays an important role in TRAIL-induced apoptosis, and further functional studies are warranted to confirm the importance of TO as a novel TRAIL sensitizer for cancer therapy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Capsaicin sensitizes TRAIL-induced apoptosis through Sp1-mediated DR5 up-regulation: Involvement of Ca2+ influx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Dong-Oh; Kang, Chang-Hee; Kang, Sang-Hyuck; Choi, Yung-Hyun; Hyun, Jin-Won; Chang, Weon-Young; Kang, Hee-Kyoung; Koh, Young-Sang; Maeng, Young-Hee; Kim, Young-Ree; Kim, Gi-Young

    2012-01-01

    Although tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis in various malignant cells, several cancers including human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) exhibit potent resistance to TRAIL-induced cell death. The aim of this study is to evaluate the anti-cancer potential of capsaicin in TRAIL-induced cancer cell death. As indicated by assays that measure phosphatidylserine exposure, mitochondrial activity and activation of caspases, capsaicin potentiated TRAIL-resistant cells to lead to cell death. In addition, we found that capsaicin induces the cell surface expression of TRAIL receptor DR5, but not DR4 through the activation Sp1 on its promoter region. Furthermore, we investigated that capsaicin-induced DR5 expression and apoptosis are inhibited by calcium chelator or inhibitors for calmodulin-dependent protein kinase. Taken together, our data suggest that capsaicin sensitizes TRAIL-mediated HCC cell apoptosis by DR5 up-regulation via calcium influx-dependent Sp1 activation. Highlights: ► Capsaicin sensitizes TRAIL-induced apoptosis through activation of caspases. ► Capsaicin induces expression of DR5 through Sp1 activation. ► Capsaicin activates calcium signaling pathway.

  8. Temporal correlations between sensitivity to radiation-induced mitotic delay and the S phase of the sea urchin egg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rustad, R.C.; Viswanathan, G.; Antonellis, B.C.

    1979-01-01

    Separate samples of eggs from the sea urchin Arbacia punctulata were gamma irradiated (4kR) at different times after fertilisation and division delay measured. The results demonstrated a characteristic post-fertilisation pattern of a rise in sensitivity to radiation-induced mitotic delay, followed by a biphasic decrease in sensitivity to a refractory period. Measurements of the cumulative incorporation of 3 H-TdR showed that the first period of decreasing radiation sensitivity was closely associated with the bulk synthesis of DNA (S phase). (U.K.)

  9. A role for b-cell-depleting agents in treating psoriatic skin lesions induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha antagonists: A case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ancuta Codrina Mihaela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite recent advances in understanding the pathological pathways, clinical pattern and management opportunities for new-onset psoriasis as a paradoxical adverse event in patients receiving TNF inhibitors for their immune-mediated disorder, there is a subset of patients who are either partial responders or non-responders, whatever the therapeutic scenario. We present the case of new-onset psoriasis and severe alopecia development in a case study of long-standing rheumatoid arthritis (RA treated with adalimumab (ADA and leflunomide. Since skin lesions and alopecia are resistant to the classic protocol (topical treatment, ADA discontinuation and RA becomes highly active, rituximab (RTX was started. Dramatic improvement in joint disease, total remission of alopecia and partial remission of pustular psoriasis were described after the first RTX cycle. Although B-cell-depleting agents result in controversial effects on psoriatic skin lesions, this is the first case of ADA-induced psoriasis and alopecia that improved under RTX, suggesting a possible role in treating such a patient population.

  10. Inducing Cold-Sensitivity in the Frigophilic Fly Drosophila montana by RNAi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe M Vigoder

    Full Text Available Cold acclimation is a critical physiological adaptation for coping with seasonal cold. By increasing their cold tolerance individuals can remain active for longer at the onset of winter and can recover more quickly from a cold shock. In insects, despite many physiological studies, little is known about the genetic basis of cold acclimation. Recently, transcriptomic analyses in Drosophila virilis and D. montana revealed candidate genes for cold acclimation by identifying genes upregulated during exposure to cold. Here, we test the role of myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase (Inos, in cold tolerance in D. montana using an RNAi approach. D. montana has a circumpolar distribution and overwinters as an adult in northern latitudes with extreme cold. We assessed cold tolerance of dsRNA knock-down flies using two metrics: chill-coma recovery time (CCRT and mortality rate after cold acclimation. Injection of dsRNAInos did not alter CCRT, either overall or in interaction with the cold treatment, however it did induced cold-specific mortality, with high levels of mortality observed in injected flies acclimated at 5°C but not at 19°C. Overall, injection with dsRNAInos induced a temperature-sensitive mortality rate of over 60% in this normally cold-tolerant species. qPCR analysis confirmed that dsRNA injection successfully reduced gene expression of Inos. Thus, our results demonstrate the involvement of Inos in increasing cold tolerance in D. montana. The potential mechanisms involved by which Inos increases cold tolerance are also discussed.

  11. Drosophila Insulin receptor regulates the persistence of injury-induced nociceptive sensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Atit A.

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Diabetes-associated nociceptive hypersensitivity affects diabetic patients with hard-to-treat chronic pain. Because multiple tissues are affected by systemic alterations in insulin signaling, the functional locus of insulin signaling in diabetes-associated hypersensitivity remains obscure. Here, we used Drosophila nociception/nociceptive sensitization assays to investigate the role of Insulin receptor (Insulin-like receptor, InR) in nociceptive hypersensitivity. InR mutant larvae exhibited mostly normal baseline thermal nociception (absence of injury) and normal acute thermal hypersensitivity following UV-induced injury. However, their acute thermal hypersensitivity persists and fails to return to baseline, unlike in controls. Remarkably, injury-induced persistent hypersensitivity is also observed in larvae that exhibit either type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Cell type-specific genetic analysis indicates that InR function is required in multidendritic sensory neurons including nociceptive class IV neurons. In these same nociceptive sensory neurons, only modest changes in dendritic morphology were observed in the InRRNAi-expressing and diabetic larvae. At the cellular level, InR-deficient nociceptive sensory neurons show elevated calcium responses after injury. Sensory neuron-specific expression of InR rescues the persistent thermal hypersensitivity of InR mutants and constitutive activation of InR in sensory neurons ameliorates the hypersensitivity observed with a type 2-like diabetic state. Our results suggest that a sensory neuron-specific function of InR regulates the persistence of injury-associated hypersensitivity. It is likely that this new system will be an informative genetically tractable model of diabetes-associated hypersensitivity. PMID:29752280

  12. SIRT1 sensitizes hepatocellular carcinoma cells expressing hepatitis B virus X protein to oxidative stress-induced apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srisuttee, Ratakorn; Koh, Sang Seok; Malilas, Waraporn; Moon, Jeong; Cho, Il-Rae; Jhun, Byung Hak; Horio, Yoshiyuki; Chung, Young-Hwa

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Up-regulation of SIRT1 protein and activity sensitizes Hep3B-HBX cells to oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. ► Nuclear localization of SIRT1 is not required for oxidation-induced apoptosis. ► Ectopic expression and enhanced activity of SIRT1 attenuate JNK phosphorylation. ► Inhibition of SIRT1 activity restores resistance to oxidation-induced apoptosis through JNK activation. -- Abstract: We previously showed that SIRT1 deacetylase inhibits proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cells expressing hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein (HBX), by destabilization of β-catenin. Here, we report another role for SIRT1 in HBX-mediated resistance to oxidative stress. Ectopic expression and enhanced activity of SIRT1 sensitize Hep3B cells stably expressing HBX to oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. SIRT1 mutant analysis showed that nuclear localization of SIRT1 is not required for sensitization of oxidation-mediated apoptosis. Furthermore, ectopic expression of SIRT1 and treatment with resveratrol (a SIRT1 activator) attenuated JNK phosphorylation, which is a prerequisite for resistance to oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. Conversely, suppression of SIRT1 activity with nicotinamide inhibited the effect of resveratrol on JNK phosphorylation, leading to restoration of resistance to oxidation-induced apoptosis. Taken together, these results suggest that up-regulation of SIRT1 under oxidative stress may be a therapeutic strategy for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma cells related to HBV through inhibition of JNK activation.

  13. ANTAGONISTIC POTENTIAL OF FLUORESCENT Pseudomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    GROWTH OF TOMATO CHALLENGED WITH PHTOPATHOGENS ... This study focused on the antagonistic potential of fluorescent Pseudomonas in vitro, and its inoculation effect on growth .... the 5 days old culture in starch agar with Lugol's.

  14. Acute total sleep deprivation potentiates amphetamine-induced locomotor-stimulant effects and behavioral sensitization in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Luis P; Fukushiro, Daniela F; Hollais, André W; Mári-Kawamoto, Elisa; Costa, Jacqueline M; Berro, Laís F; Aramini, Tatiana C F; Wuo-Silva, Raphael; Andersen, Monica L; Tufik, Sergio; Frussa-Filho, Roberto

    2014-02-01

    It has been demonstrated that a prolonged period (48 h) of paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) potentiates amphetamine (AMP)-induced behavioral sensitization, an animal model of addiction-related neuroadaptations. In the present study, we examined the effects of an acute short-term deprivation of total sleep (TSD) (6h) on AMP-induced behavioral sensitization in mice and compared them to the effects of short-term PSD (6 h). Three-month-old male C57BL/6J mice underwent TSD (experiment 1-gentle handling method) or PSD (experiment 2-multiple platforms method) for 6 h. Immediately after the sleep deprivation period, mice were tested in the open field for 10 min under the effects of saline or 2.0 mg/kg AMP. Seven days later, to assess behavioral sensitization, all of the mice received a challenge injection of 2.0 mg/kg AMP and were tested in the open field for 10 min. Total, peripheral, and central locomotion, and grooming duration were measured. TSD, but not PSD, potentiated the hyperlocomotion induced by an acute injection of AMP and this effect was due to an increased locomotion in the central squares of the apparatus. Similarly, TSD facilitated the development of AMP-induced sensitization, but only in the central locomotion parameter. The data indicate that an acute period of TSD may exacerbate the behavioral effects of AMP in mice. Because sleep architecture is composed of paradoxical and slow wave sleep, and 6-h PSD had no effects on AMP-induced hyperlocomotion or sensitization, our data suggest that the deprivation of slow wave sleep plays a critical role in the mechanisms that underlie the potentiating effects of TSD on both the acute and sensitized addiction-related responses to AMP. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Parenteral medium-chain triglyceride-induced neutrophil activation is not mediated by a Pertussis Toxin sensitive receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versleijen, Michelle W J; van Esterik, Joantine C J; Roelofs, Hennie M J; van Emst-de Vries, Sjenet E; Willems, Peter H G M; Wanten, Geert J A

    2009-02-01

    Lipid-induced immune modulation might contribute to the increased infection rate that is observed in patients using parenteral nutrition. We previously showed that emulsions containing medium-chain triglycerides (LCT/MCTs or pure MCTs), but not pure long-chain triglycerides (LCTs), impair neutrophil functions, modulate cell-signaling and induce neutrophil activation in vitro. It has recently been shown that medium-chain fatty acids are ligands for GPR84, a pertussis toxin (PT)-sensitive G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). This finding urged us to investigate whether MCT-induced neutrophil activation is mediated by PT-sensitive GPCRs. Neutrophils isolated from blood of healthy volunteers were pre-incubated with PT (0.5-1 microg/mL, 1.5 h) and analyzed for the effect of this pre-incubation on LCT/MCT (2.5 mmol/L)-dependent modulation of serum-treated zymosan (STZ)-induced intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization and on LCT/MCT (5 mmol/L)-induced expression of cell surface adhesion (CD11b) and degranulation (CD66b) markers and oxygen radical (ROS) production. PT did not inhibit the effects of LCT/MCT on the STZ-induced increase in cytosolic free Ca(2+) concentration. LCT/MCT increased ROS production to 146% of unstimulated cells. However, pre-incubation with PT did not inhibit the LCT/MCT-induced ROS production. Furthermore, the LCT/MCT-induced increase in CD11b and CD66b expression (196% and 235% of unstimulated cells, respectively) was not inhibited by pre-incubation with PT. LCT/MCT-induced neutrophil activation does not involve the action of a PT-sensitive G-protein-coupled receptor.

  16. Increased skeletal muscle capillarization enhances insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Laub, Lasse; Vedel, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Increased skeletal muscle capillarization is associated with improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. However, a possible causal relationship has not previously been identified. We therefore investigated whether increased skeletal muscle capillarization increases insulin sensitivity....... Skeletal muscle specific angiogenesis was induced by adding the α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist Prazosin to the drinking water of Sprague Dawley rats (n=33) while 34 rats served as controls. Insulin sensitivity was measured ≥40 h after termination of the 3-week Prazosin treatment, which ensured...... that Prazosin was cleared from the blood stream. Whole-body insulin sensitivity was measured in conscious, unrestrained rats by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Tissue specific insulin sensitivity was assessed by administration of 2-deoxy-[(3)H]-Glucose during the plateau phase of the clamp. Whole...

  17. Quantitative and sensitive analysis of CN molecules using laser induced low pressure He plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardede, Marincan [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Pelita Harapan, 1100 M.H. Thamrin Boulevard, Lippo Village, Tangerang 15811 (Indonesia); Hedwig, Rinda [Department of Computer Engineering, Bina Nusantara University, 9 K.H. Syahdan, Jakarta 14810 (Indonesia); Abdulmadjid, Syahrun Nur; Lahna, Kurnia; Idris, Nasrullah; Ramli, Muliadi [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Syiah Kuala University, Darussalam, Banda Aceh 23111, NAD (Indonesia); Jobiliong, Eric [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Pelita Harapan, 1100 M.H. Thamrin Boulevard, Lippo Village, Tangerang 15811 (Indonesia); Suyanto, Hery [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Udayana University, Kampus Bukit Jimbaran, Denpasar 80361, Bali (Indonesia); Marpaung, Alion Mangasi [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Jakarta State University, 10 Rawamangun, Jakarta 13220 (Indonesia); Suliyanti, Maria Margaretha [Research Center for Physics, Indonesia Institute of Sciences, Kawasan Puspiptek, Serpong, Tangerang Selatan, 15314 Banten (Indonesia); Tjia, May On [Physics of Magnetism and Photonics Group, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bandung Institute of Technology, 10 Ganesha, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40/80 Srengseng Raya, Jakarta 11630 (Indonesia); Lie, Tjung Jie; Lie, Zener Sukra; Kurniawan, Davy Putra; Kurniawan, Koo Hendrik, E-mail: kurnia18@cbn.net.id [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40/80 Srengseng Raya, Jakarta 11630 (Indonesia); Kagawa, Kiichiro [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40/80 Srengseng Raya, Jakarta 11630 (Indonesia); Fukui Science Education Academy, Takagi Chuou 2 choume, Fukui 910-0804 (Japan)

    2015-03-21

    We report the results of experimental study on CN 388.3 nm and C I 247.8 nm emission characteristics using 40 mJ laser irradiation with He and N{sub 2} ambient gases. The results obtained with N{sub 2} ambient gas show undesirable interference effect between the native CN emission and the emission of CN molecules arising from the recombination of native C ablated from the sample with the N dissociated from the ambient gas. This problem is overcome by the use of He ambient gas at low pressure of 2 kPa, which also offers the additional advantages of cleaner and stronger emission lines. The result of applying this favorable experimental condition to emission spectrochemical measurement of milk sample having various protein concentrations is shown to yield a close to linear calibration curve with near zero extrapolated intercept. Additionally, a low detection limit of 5 μg/g is found in this experiment, making it potentially applicable for quantitative and sensitive CN analysis. The visibility of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy with low pressure He gas is also demonstrated by the result of its application to spectrochemical analysis of fossil samples. Furthermore, with the use of CO{sub 2} ambient gas at 600 Pa mimicking the Mars atmosphere, this technique also shows promising applications to exploration in Mars.

  18. Effect of melatonin on methamphetamine- and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity and methamphetamine-induced behavioral sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itzhak, Y; Martin, J L; Black, M D; Ali, S F

    1998-06-01

    Methamphetamine (METH)- and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity is thought to be associated with the formation of free radicals. Since evidence suggests that melatonin may act as a free radical scavenger and antioxidant, the present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of melatonin on METH- and MPTP-induced neurotoxicity. In addition, the effect of melatonin on METH-induced locomotor sensitization was investigated. The administration of METH (5 mg kg(-1) x 3) or MPTP (20 mg kg(-1) x 3) to Swiss Webster mice resulted in 45-57% depletion in the content of striatal dopamine and its metabolites, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid, and 57-59% depletion in dopamine transporter binding sites. The administration of melatonin (10 mg kg(-1)) before each of the three injections of the neurotoxic agents (on day 1), and thereafter for two additional days, afforded a full protection against METH-induced depletion of dopamine and its metabolites and dopamine transporter binding sites. In addition, melatonin significantly diminished METH-induced hyperthermia. However, the treatment with melatonin had no significant effect on MPTP-induced depletion of the dopaminergic markers tested. In the set of behavioral experiments, we found that the administration of 1 mg kg(-1) METH to Swiss Webster mice for 5 days resulted in marked locomotor sensitization to a subsequent challenge injection of METH, as well as context-dependent sensitization (conditioning). The pretreatment with melatonin (10 mg kg(-1)) prevented neither the sensitized response to METH nor the development of conditioned locomotion. Results of the present study indicate that melatonin has a differential effect on the dopaminergic neurotoxicity produced by METH and MPTP. Since it is postulated that METH-induced hyperthermia is related to its neurotoxic effect, while regulation of body temperature is unrelated to MPTP-induced neurotoxicity or METH-induced

  19. Insulin receptor substrate 1 expression enhances the sensitivity of 32D cells to chemotherapy-induced cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, Holly A.; Carey, Gregory B.; Keegan, Achsah D.

    2012-01-01

    The adapters IRS1 and IRS2 link growth factor receptors to downstream signaling pathways that regulate proliferation and survival. Both suppress factor-withdrawal-induced apoptosis and have been implicated in cancer progression. However, recent studies suggest IRS1 and IRS2 mediate differential functions in cancer pathogenesis. IRS1 promoted breast cancer proliferation, while IRS2 promoted metastasis. The role of IRS1 and IRS2 in controlling cell responses to chemotherapy is unknown. To determine the role of IRS1 and IRS2 in the sensitivity of cells to chemotherapy, we treated 32D cells lacking or expressing IRS proteins with various concentrations of chemotherapeutic agents. We found that expression of IRS1, in contrast to IRS2, enhanced the sensitivity of 32D cells to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. When IRS2 was expressed with IRS1, the cells no longer showed enhanced sensitivity. Expression of IRS1 did not alter the expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins; however, 32D-IRS1 cells expressed higher levels of Annexin A2. In 32D-IRS1 cells, IRS1 and Annexin A2 were both located in cytoplasmic and membrane fractions. We also found that IRS1 coprecipitated with Annexin A2, while IRS2 did not. Decreasing Annexin A2 levels reduced 32D-IRS1 cell sensitivity to chemotherapy. These results suggest IRS1 enhances sensitivity to chemotherapy in part through Annexin A2. -- Highlights: ► IRS1 enhanced the sensitivity of 32D cells to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. ► This sensitivity is abrogated by the expression of IRS2. ► Expressing IRS1 in 32D cells increased levels of Annexin A2. ► Both IRS1 and Annexin A2 were located in cytoplasmic and membrane fractions. ► Decreasing Annexin A2 in 32D-IRS1 cells abated their sensitivity to chemotherapy.

  20. Interindividual differences in stress sensitivity: basal and stress-induced cortisol levels differentially predict neural vigilance processing under stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henckens, Marloes J A G; Klumpers, Floris; Everaerd, Daphne; Kooijman, Sabine C; van Wingen, Guido A; Fernández, Guillén

    2016-04-01

    Stress exposure is known to precipitate psychological disorders. However, large differences exist in how individuals respond to stressful situations. A major marker for stress sensitivity is hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis function. Here, we studied how interindividual variance in both basal cortisol levels and stress-induced cortisol responses predicts differences in neural vigilance processing during stress exposure. Implementing a randomized, counterbalanced, crossover design, 120 healthy male participants were exposed to a stress-induction and control procedure, followed by an emotional perception task (viewing fearful and happy faces) during fMRI scanning. Stress sensitivity was assessed using physiological (salivary cortisol levels) and psychological measures (trait questionnaires). High stress-induced cortisol responses were associated with increased stress sensitivity as assessed by psychological questionnaires, a stronger stress-induced increase in medial temporal activity and greater differential amygdala responses to fearful as opposed to happy faces under control conditions. In contrast, high basal cortisol levels were related to relative stress resilience as reflected by higher extraversion scores, a lower stress-induced increase in amygdala activity and enhanced differential processing of fearful compared with happy faces under stress. These findings seem to reflect a critical role for HPA-axis signaling in stress coping; higher basal levels indicate stress resilience, whereas higher cortisol responsivity to stress might facilitate recovery in those individuals prone to react sensitively to stress. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Characterization of Causative Allergens for Wheat-Dependent Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis Sensitized with Hydrolyzed Wheat Proteins in Facial Soap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoharu Yokooji

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: : HWP-WDEIA patients could be sensitized to HWP containing a PEEPFP sequence, and WDEIA symptoms after WP ingestion could partly be induced by γ-gliadin. These findings could be useful to help develop tools for diagnosis and desensitization therapy for HWP-WDEIA.

  2. Comparison between sensitivity of a viscometric method and sensitivity of the alkaline elution assay for the determination of DNA damage induced by dimethylsulfate in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, S; Balbi, C; Taningher, M; Abelmoschi, M L; Pala, M; Parodi, G; Santi, L

    1982-03-01

    DNA damage induced by dimethylsulfate (DMS) was measured with a new oscillating crucible viscometer, having a U-shaped circular channel. Rat liver nuclei were treated in vitro. Viscosity was measured by lysing nuclei in an aklaline lysing solution (pH 12.5; 25 degrees C). Nuclei were lysed immediately in the viscometer and released DNA started to uncoil. In control samples the viscosity increased very slowly with time, reaching a maximum only after about 8 h. A progressively more rapid increase in viscosity was seen with increasing concentrations of DMS. The time of DNA disentanglement was sensitive to about 30 times less breaks than the alkaline elution assay.

  3. Critical features of acute stress-induced cross-sensitization identified through the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belda, Xavier; Nadal, Roser; Armario, Antonio

    2016-08-11

    Stress-induced sensitization represents a process whereby prior exposure to severe stressors leaves animals or humans in a hyper-responsive state to further stressors. Indeed, this phenomenon is assumed to be the basis of certain stress-associated pathologies, including post-traumatic stress disorder and psychosis. One biological system particularly prone to sensitization is the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the prototypic stress system. It is well established that under certain conditions, prior exposure of animals to acute and chronic (triggering) stressors enhances HPA responses to novel (heterotypic) stressors on subsequent days (e.g. raised plasma ACTH and corticosterone levels). However, such changes remain somewhat controversial and thus, the present study aimed to identify the critical characteristics of the triggering and challenging stressors that affect acute stress-induced HPA cross-sensitization in adult rats. We found that HPA cross-sensitization is markedly influenced by the intensity of the triggering stressor, whereas the length of exposure mainly affects its persistence. Importantly, HPA sensitization is more evident with mild than strong challenging stressors, and it may remain unnoticed if exposure to the challenging stressor is prolonged beyond 15 min. We speculate that heterotypic HPA sensitization might have developed to optimize biologically adaptive responses to further brief stressors.

  4. Characterization of early events involved in human dendritic cell maturation induced by sensitizers: Cross talk between MAPK signalling pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trompezinski, Sandra; Migdal, Camille; Tailhardat, Magalie; Le Varlet, Beatrice; Courtellemont, Pascal; Haftek, Marek; Serres, Mireille

    2008-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs), efficient-antigen presenting cells play an important role in initiating and regulating immune responses. DC maturation following exposure to nickel or DNCB induced an up-regulation of phenotypic markers and inflammatory cytokine secretion. Early intracellular mechanisms involved in DC maturation required to be precise. To address this purpose, DCs derived from human monocytes were treated with sensitizers (nickel, DNCB or thimerosal) in comparison with an irritant (SDS). Our data confirming the up-regulation of CD86, CD54 and cytokine secretion (IL-8 and TNFα) induced by sensitizers but not by SDS, signalling transduction involved in DC maturation was investigated using these chemicals. Kinase activity measurement was assessed using two new sensitive procedures (Face TM and CBA) requiring few cells. SDS did not induce changes in signalling pathways whereas NiSO 4 , DNCB and thimerosal markedly activated p38 MAPK and JNK, in contrast Erk1/2 phosphorylation was completely inhibited by DNCB or thimerosal and only activated by nickel. A pre-treatment with p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB203580) suppressed Erk1/2 inhibition induced by DNCB or thimerosal demonstrating a direct interaction between p38 MAPK and Erk1/2. A pre-treatment with an antioxidant, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) markedly reduced Erk1/2 inhibition and p38 MAPK phosphorylation induced by DNCB and thimerosal, suggesting a direct activation of p38 MAPK via an oxidative stress and a regulation of MAPK signalling pathways depending on chemicals. Because of a high sensitivity of kinase activity measurements, these procedures will be suitable for weak or moderate sensitizer screening

  5. Differential response of nNOS knockout mice to MDMA ("ecstasy")- and methamphetamine-induced psychomotor sensitization and neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itzhak, Yossef; Anderson, Karen L; Ali, Syed F

    2004-10-01

    It has been shown that mice deficient in neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) gene are resistant to cocaine-induced psychomotor sensitization and methamphetamine (METH)-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity. The present study was undertaken to investigate the hypothesis that nNOS has a major role in dopamine (DA)- but not serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT)-mediated effects of psychostimulants. The response of nNOS knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice to the psychomotor-stimulating and neurotoxic effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; "Ecstasy") and METH were investigated. Repeated administration of MDMA for 5 days resulted in psychomotor sensitization in both WT and nNOS KO mice, while repeated administration of METH caused psychomotor sensitization in WT but not in KO mice. Sensitization to both MDMA and METH was persistent for 40 days in WT mice, but not in nNOS KO mice. These findings suggest that the induction of psychomotor sensitization to MDMA and METH is NO independent and NO dependent, respectively, while the persistence of sensitization to both drugs is NO dependent. For the neurochemical studies, a high dose of MDMA caused marked depletion of 5-HT in several brain regions of both WT and KO mice, suggesting that the absence of the nNOS gene did not afford protection against MDMA-induced depletion of 5-HT. Striatal dopaminergic neurotoxicity caused by high doses of MDMA and METH in WT mice was partially prevented in KO mice administered with MDMA, but it was fully precluded in KO mice administered with METH. The differential response of nNOS KO mice to the behavioral and neurotoxic effects of MDMA and METH suggests that the nNOS gene is required for the expression and persistence of DA-mediated effects of METH and MDMA, while 5-HT-mediated effects of MDMA (induction of sensitization and 5-HT depletion) are not dependent on nNOS.

  6. Dendritic cells' death induced by contact sensitizers is controlled by Nrf2 and depends on glutathione levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Ali, Zeina [UMR996 - Inflammation, Chemokines and Immunopathology-, INSERM, Univ Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 92296 Châtenay-Malabry (France); Deloménie, Claudine [IFR141 IPSIT, Univ Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, Châtenay-Malabry (France); Botton, Jérémie [INSERM, UMR1153 Epidemiology and Biostatistics Sorbonne Paris Cité Center (CRESS), Team (France); Pallardy, Marc [UMR996 - Inflammation, Chemokines and Immunopathology-, INSERM, Univ Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 92296 Châtenay-Malabry (France); Kerdine-Römer, Saadia, E-mail: saadia.kerdine-romer@u-psud.fr [UMR996 - Inflammation, Chemokines and Immunopathology-, INSERM, Univ Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 92296 Châtenay-Malabry (France)

    2017-05-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are known to play a major role during contact allergy induced by contact sensitizers (CS). Our previous studies showed that Nrf2 was induced in DC and controlled allergic skin inflammation in mice in response to chemicals. In this work, we raised the question of the role of Nrf2 in response to a stress provoked by chemical sensitizers in DC. We used two well-described chemical sensitizers, dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and cinnamaldehyde (CinA), known to have different chemical reactivity and mechanism of action. First, we performed a RT-qPCR array showing that CinA was a higher inducer of immune and detoxification genes compared to DNCB. Interestingly, in the absence of Nrf2, gene expression was dramatically affected in response to DNCB but was slightly affected in response to CinA. These observations prompted us to study DC's cell death in response to both chemicals. DNCB and CinA increased apoptotic cells and decreased living cells in the absence of Nrf2. The characterization of DC apoptosis induced by both CS involved the mitochondrial-dependent caspase pathway and was regulated via Nrf2 in response to both chemicals. Oxidative stress induced by DNCB, and leading to cell death, was regulated by Nrf2. Unlike CinA, DNCB treatment provoked a significant reduction of intracellular GSH levels and up-regulated bcl-2 gene expression, under the control of Nrf2. This work underlies that chemical reactivity may control Nrf2-dependent gene expression leading to different cytoprotective mechanisms in DC. - Highlights: • Nrf2 controls cell death induced by contact sensitizers in dendritic cells. • DNCB reduced GSH levels and up-regulated bcl-2 gene expression unlike CinA. • Chemical reactivity controls Nrf2-dependent genes having protective effect in DC.

  7. Chromatin structure influence the sensitivity of DNA to ionizing radiation induced DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Chromatin acts as a natural hindrance in DNA-damage recognition, repair and recovery. Histone and their variants undergo differential post-translational modification(s) and regulate chromatin structure to facilitate DNA damage response (DDR). During the presentation we will discuss the importance of chromatin organization and histone modification(s) during IR-induced DNA damage response in human liver cells. Our data shows G1-phase specific decrease of H3 serine10 phosphorylation in response to DNA damage is coupled with chromatin compaction in repair phase of DDR. The loss of H3Ser10P during DNA damage shows an inverse correlation with gain of γH2AX from a same mono-nucleosome in a dose-dependent manner. The loss of H3Ser10P is a universal phenomenon as it is independent of origin of cell lines and nature of genotoxic agents in G1 phase cells. The reversible reduction of H3Ser10P is mediated by opposing activities of phosphatase, MKP1 and kinase, MSK1 of the MAP kinase pathway. The present study suggests distinct reversible histone marks are associated with G1-phase of cell cycle and plays a critical role in chromatin organization which may facilitate differential sensitivity against radiation. Thus, the study raises the possibility of combinatorial modulation of H3Ser10P and histone acetylation with specific inhibitors to target the radio-resistant cancer cells in G1-phase and thus may serve as promising targets for cancer therapy. (author)

  8. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 regulates heat and cold pain sensitivity and persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanngiesser, Maike; Mair, Norbert; Lim, Hee-Young; Zschiebsch, Katja; Blees, Johanna; Häussler, Annett; Brüne, Bernhard; Ferreiròs, Nerea; Kress, Michaela; Tegeder, Irmgard

    2014-06-01

    The present study assessed the functions of the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) in sensory neurons in models of acute, inflammatory, ischemic, and neuropathic pain. The alpha subunit, HIF1α, was specifically deleted in neurons of the dorsal root ganglia by mating HIF1α(fl/fl) mice with SNScre mice. SNS-HIF1α(-/-) mice were more sensitive to noxious heat and cold pain stimulation than were HIF1α(fl/fl) control mice. They also showed heightened first-phase nociceptive responses in the formalin and capsaicin tests with increased numbers of cFos-positive neurons in the dorsal horn, and intensified hyperalgesia in early phases after paw inflammation and hind limb ischemia/reperfusion. The behavioral cold and heat pain hypersensitivity was explained by increased calcium fluxes after transient receptor potential channel activation in primary sensory neurons of SNS-HIF1α(-/-) mice and lowered electrical activation thresholds of sensory fibers. SNS-HIF1α(-/-) mice however, developed less neuropathic pain after sciatic nerve injury, which was associated with an abrogation of HIF1-mediated gene up-regulation. The results suggest that HIF1α is protective in terms of acute heat and cold pain but in case of ongoing activation in injured neurons, it may promote the development of neuropathic pain. The duality of HIF1 in pain regulation may have an impact on the side effects of drugs targeting HIF1, which are being developed, for example, as anticancer agents. Specifically, in patients with cancer neuropathy, however, temporary HIF1 inhibition might provide a welcome combination of growth and pain reduction.

  9. Conserved features of cancer cells define their sensitivity to HAMLET-induced death; c-Myc and glycolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, P; Aits, S; Puthia, M K; Urbano, A; Northen, T; Powers, S; Bowen, B; Chao, Y; Reindl, W; Lee, D Y; Sullivan, N L; Zhang, J; Trulsson, M; Yang, H; Watson, J D; Svanborg, C

    2011-12-01

    HAMLET is the first member of a new family of tumoricidal protein-lipid complexes that kill cancer cells broadly, while sparing healthy, differentiated cells. Many and diverse tumor cell types are sensitive to the lethal effect, suggesting that HAMLET identifies and activates conserved death pathways in cancer cells. Here, we investigated the molecular basis for the difference in sensitivity between cancer cells and healthy cells. Using a combination of small-hairpin RNA (shRNA) inhibition, proteomic and metabolomic technology, we identified the c-Myc oncogene as one essential determinant of HAMLET sensitivity. Increased c-Myc expression levels promoted sensitivity to HAMLET and shRNA knockdown of c-Myc suppressed the lethal response, suggesting that oncogenic transformation with c-Myc creates a HAMLET-sensitive phenotype. Furthermore, HAMLET sensitivity was modified by the glycolytic state of tumor cells. Glucose deprivation sensitized tumor cells to HAMLET-induced cell death and in the shRNA screen, hexokinase 1 (HK1), 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-biphosphatase 1 and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α modified HAMLET sensitivity. HK1 was shown to bind HAMLET in a protein array containing ∼8000 targets, and HK activity decreased within 15 min of HAMLET treatment, before morphological signs of tumor cell death. In parallel, HAMLET triggered rapid metabolic paralysis in carcinoma cells. Tumor cells were also shown to contain large amounts of oleic acid and its derivatives already after 15 min. The results identify HAMLET as a novel anti-cancer agent that kills tumor cells by exploiting unifying features of cancer cells such as oncogene addiction or the Warburg effect.

  10. Highly sensitive analysis of boron and lithium in aqueous solution using dual-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Hyoung; Han, Sol-Chan; Kim, Tae-Hyeong; Yun, Jong-Il

    2011-12-15

    We have applied a dual-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (DP-LIBS) to sensitively detect concentrations of boron and lithium in aqueous solution. Sequential laser pulses from two separate Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers at 532 nm wavelength have been employed to generate laser-induced plasma on a water jet. For achieving sensitive elemental detection, the optimal timing between two laser pulses was investigated. The optimum time delay between two laser pulses for the B atomic emission lines was found to be less than 3 μs and approximately 10 μs for the Li atomic emission line. Under these optimized conditions, the detection limit was attained in the range of 0.8 ppm for boron and 0.8 ppb for lithium. In particular, the sensitivity for detecting boron by excitation of laminar liquid jet was found to be excellent by nearly 2 orders of magnitude compared with 80 ppm reported in the literature. These sensitivities of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy are very practical for the online elemental analysis of boric acid and lithium hydroxide serving as neutron absorber and pH controller in the primary coolant water of pressurized water reactors, respectively.

  11. Gamma radiation induced sensitization and photo-transfer in Mg2SiO4:Tb TLD phosphor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakshmanan, A.R.; Vohra, K.G.

    1979-01-01

    Mg 2 SiO 4 :Tb TLD phosphor was found to show enhanced TL sensitivity to both gamma and UV radiations after high pre-gamma exposures (>100 R) and a post-annealing treatment at 300 0 C for 1 h. Maximum sensitization factors of 2.8 and 55 were obtained at the pre-expsoure levels of 5.2x10 1 C/kg and 1.3x10 3 C/kg for gamma and UV test radiations respectively. The near constancy of the intensity of the residual TL (RTL) peak at 500 0 C for the sensitized sample with increasing test-gamma exposures has ruled out the re-trapping model proposed earlier for the gamma radiation induced sensitization in this phosphor. The Tsub(max) for the sensitized phosphor was found to occur at a higher temperature compared to that for the virgin phosphor. The dependence of sensitization on RTL was explained qualitatively on the basis of competition between sensitization traps (having higher energy than the dosimetry traps) and RTL traps while capturing the charge carriers generated during the test-gamma exposure. The sensitization observed in this phosphor to UV test radiation was found to be a consequence of the photo-transfer of charge carriers from deep (RTL) traps to the shallow (dosimetry) traps. The reduction in RTL peak (500 0 C) intensity of the sensitized sample with increasing test-UV exposure has demonstrated the photo-transfer mechanism in this phosphor. The TL response of the virgin Mg 2 SiO 4 :Tb phosphor was found to be supralinear to both gamma and UV radiations. The TL response of the sensitized phosphor was found to be linear to gamma radiation and sublinear to UV radiation. (Auth.)

  12. Insulin sensitizers prevent fine particulate matter-induced vascular insulin resistance and changes in endothelial progenitor cell homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberzettl, Petra; McCracken, James P; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Conklin, Daniel J

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to fine particular matter (PM2.5) increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and Type 2 diabetes. Because blood vessels are sensitive targets of air pollutant exposure, we examined the effects of concentrated ambient PM2.5 (CAP) on vascular insulin sensitivity and circulating levels of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), which reflect cardiovascular health. We found that CAP exposure for 9 days decreased insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in the aorta of mice maintained on control diet. This change was accompanied by the induction of IL-1β and increases in the abundance of cleaved IL-18 and p10 subunit of Casp-1, consistent with the activation of the inflammasome pathway. CAP exposure also suppressed circulating levels of EPCs (Flk-1(+)/Sca-1(+) cells), while enhancing the bone marrow abundance of these cells. Although similar changes in vascular insulin signaling and EPC levels were observed in mice fed high-fat diet, CAP exposure did not exacerbate diet-induced changes in vascular insulin resistance or EPC homeostasis. Treatment with an insulin sensitizer, metformin or rosiglitazone, prevented CAP-induced vascular insulin resistance and NF-κB and inflammasome activation and restored peripheral blood and bone marrow EPC levels. These findings suggest that PM2.5 exposure induces diet-independent vascular insulin resistance and inflammation and prevents EPC mobilization, and that this EPC mobilization defect could be mediated by vascular insulin resistance. Impaired vascular insulin sensitivity may be an important mechanism underlying PM2.5-induced vascular injury, and pharmacological sensitization to insulin action could potentially prevent deficits in vascular repair and mitigate vascular inflammation due to exposure to elevated levels of ambient air pollution. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Sensitivity to sodium arsenite in human melanoma cells depends upon susceptibility to arsenite-induced mitotic arrest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeely, Samuel C.; Belshoff, Alex C.; Taylor, B. Frazier; Fan, Teresa W-M.; McCabe, Michael J.; Pinhas, Allan R.

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic induces clinical remission in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia and has potential for treatment of other cancers. The current study examines factors influencing sensitivity to arsenic using human malignant melanoma cell lines. A375 and SK-Mel-2 cells were sensitive to clinically achievable concentrations of arsenite, whereas SK-Mel-3 and SK-Mel-28 cells required supratherapeutic levels for toxicity. Inhibition of glutathione synthesis, glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity, and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) transporter function attenuated arsenite resistance, consistent with studies suggesting that arsenite is extruded from the cell as a glutathione conjugate by MRP-1. However, MRP-1 was not overexpressed in resistant lines and GST-π was only slightly elevated. ICP-MS analysis indicated that arsenite-resistant SK-Mel-28 cells did not accumulate less arsenic than arsenite-sensitive A375 cells, suggesting that resistance was not attributable to reduced arsenic accumulation but rather to intrinsic properties of resistant cell lines. The mode of arsenite-induced cell death was apoptosis. Arsenite-induced apoptosis is associated with cell cycle alterations. Cell cycle analysis revealed arsenite-sensitive cells arrested in mitosis whereas arsenite-resistant cells did not, suggesting that induction of mitotic arrest occurs at lower intracellular arsenic concentrations. Higher intracellular arsenic levels induced cell cycle arrest in the S-phase and G 2 -phase in SK-Mel-3 and SK-Mel-28 cells, respectively. The lack of arsenite-induced mitotic arrest in resistant cell lines was associated with a weakened spindle checkpoint resulting from reduced expression of spindle checkpoint protein BUBR1. These data suggest that arsenite has potential for treatment of solid tumors but a functional spindle checkpoint is a prerequisite for a positive response to its clinical application

  14. Novel targets for sensitizing breast cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis with siRNA delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Bindu; Bahadur Kc, Remant; Uludağ, Hasan

    2018-02-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis in variety of cancer cells without affecting most normal cells, which makes it a promising agent for cancer therapy. However, TRAIL therapy is clinically not effective due to resistance induction. To identify novel regulators of TRAIL that can aid in therapy, protein targets whose silencing sensitized breast cancer cells against TRAIL were screened with an siRNA library against 446 human apoptosis-related proteins in MDA-231 cells. Using a cationic lipopolymer (PEI-αLA) for delivery of library members, 16 siRNAs were identified that sensitized the TRAIL-induced death in MDA-231 cells. The siRNAs targeting BCL2L12 and SOD1 were further evaluated based on the novelty and their ability to sensitize TRAIL induced cell death. Silencing both targets sensitized TRAIL-mediated cell death in MDA-231 cells as well as TRAIL resistant breast cancer cells, MCF-7. Combination of TRAIL and siRNA silencing BCL2L12 had no effect in normal human umbilical vein cells and human bone marrow stromal cell. The silencing of BCL2L12 and SOD1 enhanced TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in MDA-231 cells via synergistically activating capsase-3 activity. Hence, here we report siRNAs targeting BCL2L12 and SOD1 as a novel regulator of TRAIL-induced cell death in breast cancer cells, providing a new approach for enhancing TRAIL therapy for breast cancer. The combination of siRNA targeting BCL2L12 and TRAIL can be a highly effective synergistic pair in breast cancer cells with minimal effect on the non-transformed cells. © 2017 UICC.

  15. Caffeine enhances and accelerates the expression of sensitization induced by coca paste indicating its relevance as a main adulterant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, José P; Galvalisi, Martín; López-Hill, Ximena; Meikle, María N; Abin-Carriquiry, Juan A; Scorza, Cecilia

    2015-08-01

    Caffeine is an active adulterant found in several drugs of abuse including coca paste (CP). We had previously demonstrated that caffeine potentiated the acute stimulant effect induced by CP seized samples. The role of caffeine in the expression of sensitization elicited by a CP seized sample (CP1) was here evaluated. CP1 (equivalent dose of 10 mg/kg of cocaine), cocaine (pure, 10 mg/kg), a combination of cocaine 10 mg/kg plus caffeine 2.5 mg/kg (CP1-surrogate) and saline (control) were intraperitoneally injected in male rats under two different sensitization schedules. Ambulatory locomotion was recorded in 58 animals. After five daily CP1 injections and 5 days of withdrawal, CP1-challenged animals displayed a more robust sensitization than cocaine-treated animals. When a 3 injections-regime of CP1-surrogate or cocaine was assayed, only CP1-surrogate was able to elicit sensitization. Caffeine enhances and accelerates the CP1-induced sensitization. Results may shed light on the fast and high dependence observed in CP users. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  16. Insulin receptor substrate 1 expression enhances the sensitivity of 32D cells to chemotherapy-induced cell death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Holly A.; Carey, Gregory B.; Keegan, Achsah D.

    2012-01-01

    The adaptors IRS1 and IRS2 link growth factor receptors to downstream signaling pathways that regulate proliferation and survival. Both suppress factor-withdrawal-induced apoptosis and have been implicated in cancer progression. However, recent studies suggest IRS1 and IRS2 mediate differential functions in cancer pathogenesis. IRS1 promoted breast cancer proliferation, while IRS2 promoted metastasis. The role of IRS1 and IRS2 in controlling cell responses to chemotherapy is unknown. To determine the role of IRS1 and IRS2 in the sensitivity of cells to chemotherapy, we treated 32D cells lacking or expressing IRS proteins with various concentrations of chemotherapeutic agents. We found that expression of IRS1, in contrast to IRS2, enhanced the sensitivity of 32D cells to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. When IRS2 was expressed with IRS1, the cells no longer showed enhanced sensitivity. Expression of IRS1 did not alter the expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins; however, 32D-IRS1 cells expressed higher levels of Annexin A2. In 32D-IRS1 cells, IRS1 and Annexin A2 were both located in cytoplasmic and membrane fractions. We also found that IRS1 coprecipitated with Annexin A2, while IRS2 did not. Decreasing Annexin A2 levels reduced 32D-IRS1 cell sensitivity to chemotherapy. These results suggest IRS1 enhances sensitivity to chemotherapy in part through Annexin A2. PMID:22652453

  17. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Fusion Protein-Induced Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) Signaling Is Inhibited by the TLR4 Antagonists Rhodobacter sphaeroides Lipopolysaccharide and Eritoran (E5564) and Requires Direct Interaction with MD-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rallabhandi, Prasad; Phillips, Rachel L.; Boukhvalova, Marina S.; Pletneva, Lioubov M.; Shirey, Kari Ann; Gioannini, Theresa L.; Weiss, Jerrold P.; Chow, Jesse C.; Hawkins, Lynn D.; Vogel, Stefanie N.; Blanco, Jorge C. G.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of infant mortality worldwide. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a signaling receptor for structurally diverse microbe-associated molecular patterns, is activated by the RSV fusion (F) protein and by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in a CD14-dependent manner. TLR4 signaling by LPS also requires the presence of an additional protein, MD-2. Thus, it is possible that F protein-mediated TLR4 activation relies on MD-2 as well, although this hypothesis has not been formally tested. LPS-free RSV F protein was found to activate NF-κB in HEK293T transfectants that express wild-type (WT) TLR4 and CD14, but only when MD-2 was coexpressed. These findings were confirmed by measuring F-protein-induced interleukin 1β (IL-1β) mRNA in WT versus MD-2−/− macrophages, where MD-2−/− macrophages failed to show IL-1β expression upon F-protein treatment, in contrast to the WT. Both Rhodobacter sphaeroides LPS and synthetic E5564 (eritoran), LPS antagonists that inhibit TLR4 signaling by binding a hydrophobic pocket in MD-2, significantly reduced RSV F-protein-mediated TLR4 activity in HEK293T-TLR4–CD14–MD-2 transfectants in a dose-dependent manner, while TLR4-independent NF-κB activation by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was unaffected. In vitro coimmunoprecipitation studies confirmed a physical interaction between native RSV F protein and MD-2. Further, we demonstrated that the N-terminal domain of the F1 segment of RSV F protein interacts with MD-2. These data provide new insights into the importance of MD-2 in RSV F-protein-mediated TLR4 activation. Thus, targeting the interaction between MD-2 and RSV F protein may potentially lead to novel therapeutic approaches to help control RSV-induced inflammation and pathology. PMID:22872782

  18. The Effect of Sympathetic Antagonists on the Antidepressant Action ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alprazolam is an anti-anxiety drug shown to be effective in the treatment of depression. In this study, the effect of sympathetic receptor antagonists on alprazolam–induced antidepressant action was studied using a mouse model of forced swimming behavioral despair. The interaction of three sympathetic receptor ...

  19. Sympatho-inhibitory properties of various AT1 receptor antagonists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balt, Jippe C.; Mathy, Marie-Jeanne; Pfaffendorf, Martin; van Zwieten, Peter A.

    2002-01-01

    It is well known that angiotensin II (Ang II) can facilitate the effects of sympathetic neurotransmission. In the present study, using various experimental models, we investigated the inhibitory effects of several Ang II subtype 1 receptor (AT1) antagonists on this Ang II-induced facilitation. We

  20. Bronchoprotection with a leukotriene receptor antagonist in asthmatic preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Nielsen, K G

    2000-01-01

    We hypothesized that a leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRA) could provide bronchoprotection against the cold, dry air-induced response in asthmatic preschool children. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, we examined the effect of the specific LTRA montelukast at 5...

  1. SIRT1 sensitizes hepatocellular carcinoma cells expressing hepatitis B virus X protein to oxidative stress-induced apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srisuttee, Ratakorn [WCU, Department of Cogno-Mechatronics Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Sang Seok [Immunotherapy Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, University of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Functional Genomics, University of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Malilas, Waraporn; Moon, Jeong; Cho, Il-Rae [WCU, Department of Cogno-Mechatronics Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Jhun, Byung Hak [Department of Applied Nanoscience, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Horio, Yoshiyuki [Department of Pharmacology, Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo 060-8556 (Japan); Chung, Young-Hwa, E-mail: younghc@pusan.ac.kr [WCU, Department of Cogno-Mechatronics Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Up-regulation of SIRT1 protein and activity sensitizes Hep3B-HBX cells to oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nuclear localization of SIRT1 is not required for oxidation-induced apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ectopic expression and enhanced activity of SIRT1 attenuate JNK phosphorylation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of SIRT1 activity restores resistance to oxidation-induced apoptosis through JNK activation. -- Abstract: We previously showed that SIRT1 deacetylase inhibits proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cells expressing hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein (HBX), by destabilization of {beta}-catenin. Here, we report another role for SIRT1 in HBX-mediated resistance to oxidative stress. Ectopic expression and enhanced activity of SIRT1 sensitize Hep3B cells stably expressing HBX to oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. SIRT1 mutant analysis showed that nuclear localization of SIRT1 is not required for sensitization of oxidation-mediated apoptosis. Furthermore, ectopic expression of SIRT1 and treatment with resveratrol (a SIRT1 activator) attenuated JNK phosphorylation, which is a prerequisite for resistance to oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. Conversely, suppression of SIRT1 activity with nicotinamide inhibited the effect of resveratrol on JNK phosphorylation, leading to restoration of resistance to oxidation-induced apoptosis. Taken together, these results suggest that up-regulation of SIRT1 under oxidative stress may be a therapeutic strategy for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma cells related to HBV through inhibition of JNK activation.

  2. The Attractiveness of Opposites: Agonists and Antagonists.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, Tony

    2015-02-02

    ABSTRACT Opioid-induced bowel dysfunction, of which constipation is the most common aspect, is a major limiting factor in the use of opioids for pain management. The availability of an oral, long-acting formulation of oxycodone and naloxone represents a highly significant development in pain management. The combination of an opioid analgesic with an opioid antagonist offers reliable pain control with a significant reduction in the burden of opioid-induced constipation. This report is adapted from paineurope 2014; Issue 3, ©Haymarket Medical Publications Ltd, and is presented with permission. paineurope is provided as a service to pain management by Mundipharma International, LTD and is distributed free of charge to healthcare professionals in Europe. Archival issues can be accessed via the website: http:\\/\\/www.paineurope.com at which European health professionals can register online to receive copies of the quarterly publication.

  3. Wen-Luo-Tong Prevents Glial Activation and Nociceptive Sensitization in a Rat Model of Oxaliplatin-Induced Neuropathic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Bo; Jia, Liqun; Pan, Lin; Song, Aiping; Wang, Yuanyuan; Tan, Huangying; Xiang, Qing; Yu, Lili; Ke, Dandan

    2016-01-01

    One of the main dose-limiting complications of the chemotherapeutic agent oxaliplatin (OXL) is painful neuropathy. Glial activation and nociceptive sensitization may be responsible for the mechanism of neuropathic pain. The Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Wen-luo-tong (WLT) has been widely used in China to treat chemotherapy induced neuropathic pain. However, there is no study on the effects of WLT on spinal glial activation induced by OXL. In this study, a rat model of OXL-induced chronic neuropathic pain was established and WLT was administrated. Pain behavioral tests and morphometric examination of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) were conducted. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunostaining was performed, glial activation was evaluated, and the excitatory neurotransmitter substance P (SP) and glial-derived proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were analyzed. WLT treatment alleviated OXL-induced mechanical allodynia and mechanical hyperalgesia. Changes in the somatic, nuclear, and nucleolar areas of neurons in DRG were prevented. In the spinal dorsal horn, hypertrophy and activation of GFAP-positive astrocytes were averted, and the level of GFAP mRNA decreased significantly. Additionally, TNF-α mRNA and protein levels decreased. Collectively, these results indicate that WLT reversed both glial activation in the spinal dorsal horn and nociceptive sensitization during OXL-induced chronic neuropathic pain in rats.

  4. Increased pain sensitivity but normal function of exercise induced analgesia in hip and knee osteoarthritis - treatment effects of neuromuscular exercise and total joint replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosek, E; Roos, Ewa M.; Ageberg, E

    2013-01-01

    To assess exercise induced analgesia (EIA) and pain sensitivity in hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA) and to study the effects of neuromuscular exercise and surgery on these parameters.......To assess exercise induced analgesia (EIA) and pain sensitivity in hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA) and to study the effects of neuromuscular exercise and surgery on these parameters....

  5. Selective Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR-II Antagonist Reduces Body Weight Gain in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Asagami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that mifepristone can prevent and reverse weight gain in animals and human subjects taking antipsychotic medications. This proof-of-concept study tested whether a more potent and selective glucocorticoid receptor antagonist could block dietary-induced weight gain and increase insulin sensitivity in mice. Ten-week-old, male, C57BL/6J mice were fed a diet containing 60% fat calories and water supplemented with 11% sucrose for 4 weeks. Groups (=8 received one of the following: CORT 108297 (80 mg/kg QD, CORT 108297 (40 mg/kg BID, mifepristone (30 mg/kg BID, rosiglitazone (10 mg/kg QD, or vehicle. Compared to mice receiving a high-fat, high-sugar diet plus vehicle, mice receiving a high-fat, high-sugar diet plus either mifepristone or CORT 108297 gained significantly less weight. At the end of the four week treatment period, mice receiving CORT 108297 40 mg/kg BID or CORT 108297 80 mg/kg QD also had significantly lower steady plasma glucose than mice receiving vehicle. However, steady state plasma glucose after treatment was not highly correlated with reduced weight gain, suggesting that the effect of the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist on insulin sensitivity may be independent of its mitigating effect on weight gain.

  6. Background odour induces adaptation and sensitization of olfactory receptors in the antennae of houseflies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelling, F.J; Ialenti, F.; den Otter, C.J

    The presence of background odour was found to have a small but significant effect on the sensitivity of the antennal olfactory system of houseflies, Musca domestica Linnaeus (Diptera: Muscidae), to new pulses of odour. We show that cross-adaptation and cross-sensitization between a background odour

  7. Stress-induced sensitization: the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belda, Xavier; Fuentes, Silvia; Daviu, Nuria; Nadal, Roser; Armario, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to certain acute and chronic stressors results in an immediate behavioral and physiological response to the situation followed by a period of days when cross-sensitization to further novel stressors is observed. Cross-sensitization affects to different behavioral and physiological systems, more particularly to the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. It appears that the nature of the initial (triggering) stressor plays a major role, HPA cross-sensitization being more widely observed with systemic or high-intensity emotional stressors. Less important appears to be the nature of the novel (challenging) stressor, although HPA cross-sensitization is better observed with short duration (5-15 min) challenging stressors. In some studies with acute immune stressors, HPA sensitization appears to develop over time (incubation), but most results indicate a strong initial sensitization that progressively declines over the days. Sensitization can affect other physiological system (i.e. plasma catecholamines, brain monoamines), but it is not a general phenomenon. When studied concurrently, behavioral sensitization appears to persist longer than that of the HPA axis, a finding of interest regarding long-term consequences of traumatic stress. In many cases, behavioral and physiological consequences of prior stress can only be observed following imposition of a new stressor, suggesting long-term latent effects of the initial exposure.

  8. Connecting Model Species to Nature: Predator-Induced Long-Term Sensitization in "Aplysia Californica"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Maria J.; Watkins, Amanda J.; Wakabayashi, Jordann; Buechler, Jennifer; Pepino, Christine; Brown, Michelle; Wright, William G.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research on sensitization in "Aplysia" was based entirely on unnatural noxious stimuli, usually electric shock, until our laboratory found that a natural noxious stimulus, a single sublethal lobster attack, causes short-term sensitization. We here extend that finding by demonstrating that multiple lobster attacks induce…

  9. Thermodynamic modeling of transcription: sensitivity analysis differentiates biological mechanism from mathematical model-induced effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresch, Jacqueline M; Liu, Xiaozhou; Arnosti, David N; Ay, Ahmet

    2010-10-24

    Quantitative models of gene expression generate parameter values that can shed light on biological features such as transcription factor activity, cooperativity, and local effects of repressors. An important element in such investigations is sensitivity analysis, which determines how strongly a model's output reacts to variations in parameter values. Parameters of low sensitivity may not be accurately estimated, leading to unwarranted conclusions. Low sensitivity may reflect the nature of the biological data, or it may be a result of the model structure. Here, we focus on the analysis of thermodynamic models, which have been used extensively to analyze gene transcription. Extracted parameter values have been interpreted biologically, but until now little attention has been given to parameter sensitivity in this context. We apply local and global sensitivity analyses to two recent transcriptional models to determine the sensitivity of individual parameters. We show that in one case, values for repressor efficiencies are very sensitive, while values for protein cooperativities are not, and provide insights on why these differential sensitivities stem from both biological effects and the structure of the applied models. In a second case, we demonstrate that parameters that were thought to prove the system's dependence on activator-activator cooperativity are relatively insensitive. We show that there are numerous parameter sets that do not satisfy the relationships proferred as the optimal solutions, indicating that structural differences between the two types of transcriptional enhancers analyzed may not be as simple as altered activator cooperativity. Our results emphasize the need for sensitivity analysis to examine model construction and forms of biological data used for modeling transcriptional processes, in order to determine the significance of estimated parameter values for thermodynamic models. Knowledge of parameter sensitivities can provide the necessary

  10. Stat1 activation attenuates IL-6 induced Stat3 activity but does not alter apoptosis sensitivity in multiple myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimberg Lina Y

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple myeloma (MM is at present an incurable malignancy, characterized by apoptosis-resistant tumor cells. Interferon (IFN treatment sensitizes MM cells to Fas-induced apoptosis and is associated with an increased activation of Signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat1. The role of Stat1 in MM has not been elucidated, but Stat1 has in several studies been ascribed a pro-apoptotic role. Conversely, IL-6 induction of Stat3 is known to confer resistance to apoptosis in MM. Methods To delineate the role of Stat1 in IFN mediated sensitization to apoptosis, sub-lines of the U-266-1970 MM cell line with a stable expression of the active mutant Stat1C were utilized. The influence of Stat1C constitutive transcriptional activation on endogenous Stat3 expression and activation, and the expression of apoptosis-related genes were analyzed. To determine whether Stat1 alone would be an important determinant in sensitizing MM cells to apoptosis, the U-266-1970-Stat1C cell line and control cells were exposed to high throughput compound screening (HTS. Results To explore the role of Stat1 in IFN mediated apoptosis sensitization of MM, we established sublines of the MM cell line U-266-1970 constitutively expressing the active mutant Stat1C. We found that constitutive nuclear localization and transcriptional activity of Stat1 was associated with an attenuation of IL-6-induced Stat3 activation and up-regulation of mRNA for the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein family genes Harakiri, the short form of Mcl-1 and Noxa. However, Stat1 activation alone was not sufficient to sensitize cells to Fas-induced apoptosis. In a screening of > 3000 compounds including bortezomib, dexamethasone, etoposide, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA, geldanamycin (17-AAG, doxorubicin and thalidomide, we found that the drug response and IC50 in cells constitutively expressing active Stat1 was mainly unaltered. Conclusion We conclude that Stat1 alters IL-6

  11. Stat1 activation attenuates IL-6 induced Stat3 activity but does not alter apoptosis sensitivity in multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimberg, Lina Y; Nilsson, Kenneth; Öberg, Fredrik; Wiklund, Helena Jernberg; Dimberg, Anna; Ivarsson, Karolina; Fryknäs, Mårten; Rickardson, Linda; Tobin, Gerard; Ekman, Simon; Larsson, Rolf; Gullberg, Urban

    2012-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is at present an incurable malignancy, characterized by apoptosis-resistant tumor cells. Interferon (IFN) treatment sensitizes MM cells to Fas-induced apoptosis and is associated with an increased activation of Signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat)1. The role of Stat1 in MM has not been elucidated, but Stat1 has in several studies been ascribed a pro-apoptotic role. Conversely, IL-6 induction of Stat3 is known to confer resistance to apoptosis in MM. To delineate the role of Stat1 in IFN mediated sensitization to apoptosis, sub-lines of the U-266-1970 MM cell line with a stable expression of the active mutant Stat1C were utilized. The influence of Stat1C constitutive transcriptional activation on endogenous Stat3 expression and activation, and the expression of apoptosis-related genes were analyzed. To determine whether Stat1 alone would be an important determinant in sensitizing MM cells to apoptosis, the U-266-1970-Stat1C cell line and control cells were exposed to high throughput compound screening (HTS). To explore the role of Stat1 in IFN mediated apoptosis sensitization of MM, we established sublines of the MM cell line U-266-1970 constitutively expressing the active mutant Stat1C. We found that constitutive nuclear localization and transcriptional activity of Stat1 was associated with an attenuation of IL-6-induced Stat3 activation and up-regulation of mRNA for the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein family genes Harakiri, the short form of Mcl-1 and Noxa. However, Stat1 activation alone was not sufficient to sensitize cells to Fas-induced apoptosis. In a screening of > 3000 compounds including bortezomib, dexamethasone, etoposide, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), geldanamycin (17-AAG), doxorubicin and thalidomide, we found that the drug response and IC50 in cells constitutively expressing active Stat1 was mainly unaltered. We conclude that Stat1 alters IL-6 induced Stat3 activity and the expression of pro

  12. Parallel screening of FDA-approved antineoplastic drugs for identifying sensitizers of TRAIL-induced apoptosis in cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, David J; Parsons, Christine E; Han, Haiyong; Jayaraman, Arul; Rege, Kaushal

    2011-01-01

    Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Related Apoptosis Inducing Ligand (TRAIL) and agonistic antibodies to death receptor 4 and 5 are promising candidates for cancer therapy due to their ability to induce apoptosis selectively in a variety of human cancer cells, while demonstrating little cytotoxicity in normal cells. Although TRAIL and agonistic antibodies to DR4 and DR5 are considered safe and promising candidates in cancer therapy, many malignant cells are resistant to DR-mediated, TRAIL-induced apoptosis. In the current work, we screened a small library of fifty-five FDA and foreign-approved anti-neoplastic drugs in order to identify candidates that sensitized resistant prostate and pancreatic cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. FDA-approved drugs were screened for their ability to sensitize TRAIL resistant prostate cancer cells to TRAIL using an MTT assay for cell viability. Analysis of variance was used to identify drugs that exhibited synergy with TRAIL. Drugs demonstrating the highest synergy were selected as leads and tested in different prostate and pancreatic cancer cell lines, and one immortalized human pancreatic epithelial cell line. Sequential and simultaneous dosing modalities were investigated and the annexin V/propidium iodide assay, in concert with fluorescence microscopy, was employed to visualize cells undergoing apoptosis. Fourteen drugs were identified as having synergy with TRAIL, including those whose TRAIL sensitization activities were previously unknown in either prostate or pancreatic cancer cells or both. Five leads were tested in additional cancer cell lines of which, doxorubicin, mitoxantrone, and mithramycin demonstrated synergy in all lines. In particular, mitoxantrone and mithramycin demonstrated significant synergy with TRAIL and led to reduction of cancer cell viability at concentrations lower than 1 μM. At these low concentrations, mitoxantrone demonstrated selectivity toward malignant cells over normal pancreatic epithelial cells

  13. Parallel screening of FDA-approved antineoplastic drugs for identifying sensitizers of TRAIL-induced apoptosis in cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor David J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Related Apoptosis Inducing Ligand (TRAIL and agonistic antibodies to death receptor 4 and 5 are promising candidates for cancer therapy due to their ability to induce apoptosis selectively in a variety of human cancer cells, while demonstrating little cytotoxicity in normal cells. Although TRAIL and agonistic antibodies to DR4 and DR5 are considered safe and promising candidates in cancer therapy, many malignant cells are resistant to DR-mediated, TRAIL-induced apoptosis. In the current work, we screened a small library of fifty-five FDA and foreign-approved anti-neoplastic drugs in order to identify candidates that sensitized resistant prostate and pancreatic cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Methods FDA-approved drugs were screened for their ability to sensitize TRAIL resistant prostate cancer cells to TRAIL using an MTT assay for cell viability. Analysis of variance was used to identify drugs that exhibited synergy with TRAIL. Drugs demonstrating the highest synergy were selected as leads and tested in different prostate and pancreatic cancer cell lines, and one immortalized human pancreatic epithelial cell line. Sequential and simultaneous dosing modalities were investigated and the annexin V/propidium iodide assay, in concert with fluorescence microscopy, was employed to visualize cells undergoing apoptosis. Results Fourteen drugs were identified as having synergy with TRAIL, including those whose TRAIL sensitization activities were previously unknown in either prostate or pancreatic cancer cells or both. Five leads were tested in additional cancer cell lines of which, doxorubicin, mitoxantrone, and mithramycin demonstrated synergy in all lines. In particular, mitoxantrone and mithramycin demonstrated significant synergy with TRAIL and led to reduction of cancer cell viability at concentrations lower than 1 μM. At these low concentrations, mitoxantrone demonstrated selectivity toward

  14. JNK inhibition sensitizes tumor cells to radiation-induced premature senescence via Bcl-2/ROS/DDR signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Seon; Lee, Je Jung

    2009-01-01

    Premature senescence is considered as a cellular defense mechanism to prevent tumorigenesis. Although recent evidences demonstrate that c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is involved in the senescence process, the target and exact mechanism of JNK signaling in the regulation of cell proliferation has yet to be defined. In this study, we investigated the role of JNK in premature senescence and demonstrated JNK inhibition sensitized tumor cells to radiation-induced premature senescence

  15. α-Hispanolol sensitizes hepatocellular carcinoma cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis via death receptor up-regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mota, Alba, E-mail: amota@iib.uam.es [Unidad de Terapias Farmacológicas, Área de Genética Humana, Instituto de Investigación de Enfermedades Raras (IIER), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Jiménez-Garcia, Lidia, E-mail: ljimenez@isciii.es [Unidad de Terapias Farmacológicas, Área de Genética Humana, Instituto de Investigación de Enfermedades Raras (IIER), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Herránz, Sandra, E-mail: sherranz@isciii.es [Unidad de Terapias Farmacológicas, Área de Genética Humana, Instituto de Investigación de Enfermedades Raras (IIER), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Heras, Beatriz de las, E-mail: lasheras@ucm.es [Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), Madrid (Spain); Hortelano, Sonsoles, E-mail: shortelano@isciii.es [Unidad de Terapias Farmacológicas, Área de Genética Humana, Instituto de Investigación de Enfermedades Raras (IIER), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-08-01

    Hispanolone derivatives have been previously described as anti-inflammatory and antitumoral agents. However, their effects on overcoming Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) resistance remain to be elucidated. In this study, we analyzed the cytotoxic effects of the synthetic hispanolone derivative α-hispanolol (α-H) in several tumor cell lines, and we evaluated the induction of apoptosis, as well as the TRAIL-sensitizing potential of α-H in the hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2. Our data show that α-H decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner in HeLa, MDA-MB231, U87 and HepG2 cell lines, with a more prominent effect in HepG2 cells. Interestingly, α-H had no effect on non-tumoral cells. α-H induced activation of caspase-8 and caspase-9 and also increased levels of the proapoptotic protein Bax, decreasing antiapoptotic proteins (Bcl-2, X-IAP and IAP-1) in HepG2 cells. Specific inhibition of caspase-8 abrogated the cascade of caspase activation, suggesting that the extrinsic pathway has a critical role in the apoptotic events induced by α-H. Furthermore, combined treatment of α-H with TRAIL enhanced apoptosis in HepG2 cells, activating caspase-8 and caspase-9. This correlated with up-regulation of both the TRAIL death receptor DR4 and DR5. DR4 or DR5 neutralizing antibodies abolished the effect of α-H on TRAIL-induced apoptosis, suggesting that sensitization was mediated through the death receptor pathway. Our results demonstrate that α-H induced apoptosis in the human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 through activation of caspases and induction of the death receptor pathway. In addition, we describe a novel function of α-H as a sensitizer on TRAIL-induced apoptotic cell death in HepG2 cells. - Highlights: • α-Hispanolol induced apoptosis in the human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2. • α-Hispanolol induced activation of caspases and the death receptor pathway. • α-Hispanolol enhanced

  16. α-Hispanolol sensitizes hepatocellular carcinoma cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis via death receptor up-regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mota, Alba; Jiménez-Garcia, Lidia; Herránz, Sandra; Heras, Beatriz de las; Hortelano, Sonsoles

    2015-01-01

    Hispanolone derivatives have been previously described as anti-inflammatory and antitumoral agents. However, their effects on overcoming Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) resistance remain to be elucidated. In this study, we analyzed the cytotoxic effects of the synthetic hispanolone derivative α-hispanolol (α-H) in several tumor cell lines, and we evaluated the induction of apoptosis, as well as the TRAIL-sensitizing potential of α-H in the hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2. Our data show that α-H decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner in HeLa, MDA-MB231, U87 and HepG2 cell lines, with a more prominent effect in HepG2 cells. Interestingly, α-H had no effect on non-tumoral cells. α-H induced activation of caspase-8 and caspase-9 and also increased levels of the proapoptotic protein Bax, decreasing antiapoptotic proteins (Bcl-2, X-IAP and IAP-1) in HepG2 cells. Specific inhibition of caspase-8 abrogated the cascade of caspase activation, suggesting that the extrinsic pathway has a critical role in the apoptotic events induced by α-H. Furthermore, combined treatment of α-H with TRAIL enhanced apoptosis in HepG2 cells, activating caspase-8 and caspase-9. This correlated with up-regulation of both the TRAIL death receptor DR4 and DR5. DR4 or DR5 neutralizing antibodies abolished the effect of α-H on TRAIL-induced apoptosis, suggesting that sensitization was mediated through the death receptor pathway. Our results demonstrate that α-H induced apoptosis in the human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 through activation of caspases and induction of the death receptor pathway. In addition, we describe a novel function of α-H as a sensitizer on TRAIL-induced apoptotic cell death in HepG2 cells. - Highlights: • α-Hispanolol induced apoptosis in the human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2. • α-Hispanolol induced activation of caspases and the death receptor pathway. • α-Hispanolol enhanced

  17. Methylglyoxal-bis(guanylhydrazone), a polyamine analogue, sensitized γ-radiation-induced cell death in HL-60 leukemia cells Sensitizing effect of MGBG on γ-radiation-induced cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Sik; Lee, Jin; Chung, Hai Won; Choi, Han; Paik, Sang Gi; Kim, In Gyu

    2006-09-01

    Methylglyoxal-bis(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG), a polyamine analogue, has been known to inhibit the biosynthesis of polyamines, which are important in cell proliferation. We showed that MGBG treatment significantly affected γ-radiation-induced cell cycle transition (G(1)/G(0)→S→G(2)/M) and thus γ-radiation-induced cell death. As determined by micronuclei and comet assay, we showed that it sensitized the cytotoxic effect induced by γ-radiation. One of the reasons is that polyamine depletion by MGBG treatment did not effectively protect against the chemical (OH) or physical damage to DNA caused by γ-radiation. Through in vitro experiment, we confirmed that DNA strand breaks induced by γ-radiation was prevented more effectively in the presence of polyamines (spermine and spermidine) than in the absence of polyamines. MGBG also blocks the cell cycle transition caused by γ-radiation (G(2) arrest), which helps protect cells by allowing time for DNA repair before entry into mitosis or apoptosis, via the down regulation of cyclin D1, which mediates the transition from G(1) to S phase of cell cycle, and ataxia telangiectasia mutated, which is involved in the DNA sensing, repair and cell cycle check point. Therefore, the abrogation of G(2) arrest sensitizes cells to the effect of γ-radiation. As a result, γ-radiation-induced cell death increased by about 2.5-3.0-fold in cells treated with MGBG. However, exogenous spermidine supplement partially relieved this γ-radiation-induced cytotoxicity and cell death. These findings suggest a potentially therapeutic strategy for increasing the cytotoxic efficacy of γ-radiation.

  18. Rapid induction of dopamine sensitization in the nucleus accumbens shell induced by a single injection of cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Bryan F; Bryan, Myranda A; Popov, Pavlo; Robinson, Terry E; Aragona, Brandon J

    2017-05-01

    Repeated intermittent exposure to cocaine results in the neurochemical sensitization of dopamine (DA) transmission within the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Indeed, the excitability of DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) is enhanced within hours of initial psychostimulant exposure. However, it is not known if this is accompanied by a comparably rapid change in the ability of cocaine to increase extracellular DA concentrations in the ventral striatum. To address this question we used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) in awake-behaving rats to measure DA responses in the NAc shell following an initial intravenous cocaine injection, and then again 2-h later. Both injections quickly elevated DA levels in the NAc shell, but the second cocaine infusion produced a greater effect than the first, indicating sensitization. This suggests that a single injection of cocaine induces sensitization-related plasticity very rapidly within the mesolimbic DA system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Evidence for a high and a low sensitivity receptor site for radiation-induced vomiting in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, R.K.; Hugenholtz, H.; Kucharczyk, J.

    1987-01-01

    Ablation of the area postrema (AP) has been shown to prevent radiation-induced vomiting in the dog (induced by 6-8 By /sup 60/Co γ). In other species (cat, monkey) a higher dose of radiation is necessary to elicit emesis and visceral deafferentation has been more effective than AP ablation in preventing vomiting. The AP and the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV), an important visceral afferent terminus, are anatomically adjacent structures in the medulla oblongata. Aggressive AP ablation could affect the DMV. The author's removed the AP in 6 dogs. Previous work showed this surgery prevented vomiting following exposure to 6-8 Gy. To prove the lesion did not invade the underlying DMV, the animals were given a hypertonic saline gavage, to elicit vomiting via visceral receptors. Animals were later submitted to 15-20 Gy. Those with proved visceral afferent connections vomited. They conclude that the AP is the most sensitive site for the stimulation of radiation-induced vomiting and that a less sensitive visceral site also exists. Differences in the relative sensitivities of these 2 systems may account for published species differences

  20. JNK-induced MCP-1 production in spinal cord astrocytes contributes to central sensitization and neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yong-Jing; Zhang, Ling; Samad, Omar Abdel; Suter, Marc R; Yasuhiko, Kawasaki; Xu, Zhen-Zhong; Park, Jong-Yeon; Lind, Anne-Li; Ma, Qiufu; Ji, Ru-Rong

    2009-04-01

    Our previous study showed that activation of c-jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) in spinal astrocytes plays an important role in neuropathic pain sensitization. We further investigated how JNK regulates neuropathic pain. In cultured astrocytes, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) transiently activated JNK via TNF receptor-1. Cytokine array indicated that the chemokine CCL2/MCP-1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) was strongly induced by the TNF-alpha/JNK pathway. MCP-1 upregulation by TNF-alpha was dose dependently inhibited by the JNK inhibitors SP600125 (anthra[1,9-cd]pyrazol-6(2H)-one) and D-JNKI-1. Spinal injection of TNF-alpha produced JNK-dependent pain hypersensitivity and MCP-1 upregulation in the spinal cord. Furthermore, spinal nerve ligation (SNL) induced persistent neuropathic pain and MCP-1 upregulation in the spinal cord, and both were suppressed by D-JNKI-1. Remarkably, MCP-1 was primarily induced in spinal cord astrocytes after SNL. Spinal administration of MCP-1 neutralizing antibody attenuated neuropathic pain. Conversely, spinal application of MCP-1 induced heat hyperalgesia and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase in superficial spinal cord dorsal horn neurons, indicative of central sensitization (hyperactivity of dorsal horn neurons). Patch-clamp recordings in lamina II neurons of isolated spinal cord slices showed that MCP-1 not only enhanced spontaneous EPSCs but also potentiated NMDA- and AMPA-induced currents. Finally, the MCP-1 receptor CCR2 was expressed in neurons and some non-neuronal cells in the spinal cord. Together, we have revealed a previously unknown mechanism of MCP-1 induction and action. MCP-1 induction in astrocytes after JNK activation contributes to central sensitization and neuropathic pain facilitation by enhancing excitatory synaptic transmission. Inhibition of the JNK/MCP-1 pathway may provide a new therapy for neuropathic pain management.

  1. Sensitization by wortmannin of heat- or X-ray induced cell death in cultured Chinese hamster V79 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Masanori; Suzuki, Norio; Matsumoto, Yoshihisa; Hirano, Kazuya; Umeda, Noriko; Sakai, Kazuo

    2000-01-01

    Here we found that wortmannin sensitized Chinese hamster V79 cells to hyperthermic treatment at 44.0 deg C as determined either by colony formation assay or by dye exclusion assay. Wortmannin enhanced heat-induced cell death accompanying cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARP). Additionally, the induction of heat shock protein HSP70 was suppressed and delayed in wortmannin-treated cells. Heat sensitizing effect of wortmannin was obvious at more than 5 or 10 μM of final concentrations, while radiosensitization was apparent at 5 μM. Requirement for high concentration of wortmannin, i.e., order of μM, suggests a possible role of certain protein kinases, such as DNA-PK and/or ATM among PI3-kinase family. The sensitization was minimal when wortmannin was added at the end of heat treatment. This was similar to the case of X-ray. Since heat-induced cell death and PARP cleavage preceded HSP70 induction phenomenon, the sensitization to the hyperthermic treatment was considered mainly caused by enhanced apoptotic cell death rather than secondary to suppression or delay by wortmannin of HSP70 induction. Further, in the present system radiosensitization by wortmannin was also at least partly mediated through enhancement of apoptotic cell death. (author)

  2. An ancestral haplotype of the human PERIOD2 gene associates with reduced sensitivity to light-induced melatonin suppression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokiho Akiyama

    Full Text Available Humans show various responses to the environmental stimulus in individual levels as "physiological variations." However, it has been unclear if these are caused by genetic variations. In this study, we examined the association between the physiological variation of response to light-stimulus and genetic polymorphisms. We collected physiological data from 43 subjects, including light-induced melatonin suppression, and performed haplotype analyses on the clock genes, PER2 and PER3, exhibiting geographical differentiation of allele frequencies. Among the haplotypes of PER3, no significant difference in light sensitivity was found. However, three common haplotypes of PER2 accounted for more than 96% of the chromosomes in subjects, and 1 of those 3 had a significantly low-sensitive response to light-stimulus (P < 0.05. The homozygote of the low-sensitive PER2 haplotype showed significantly lower percentages of melatonin suppression (P < 0.05, and the heterozygotes of the haplotypes varied their ratios, indicating that the physiological variation for light-sensitivity is evidently related to the PER2 polymorphism. Compared with global haplotype frequencies, the haplotype with a low-sensitive response was more frequent in Africans than in non-Africans, and came to the root in the phylogenetic tree, suggesting that the low light-sensitive haplotype is the ancestral type, whereas the other haplotypes with high sensitivity to light are the derived types. Hence, we speculate that the high light-sensitive haplotypes have spread throughout the world after the Out-of-Africa migration of modern humans.

  3. Conserved features of cancer cells define their sensitivity of HAMLET-induced death; c-Myc and glycolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Petter; Puthia, Manoj Kumar; Aits, Sonja; Urbano, Alexander; Northen, Trent; Powers, Scott; Bowen, Ben; Chao, Yinxia; Reindl, Wolfgang; Lee, Do Yup; Sullivan, Nancy Liu; Zhang, Jianping; Trulsson, Maria; Yang, Henry; Watson, James; Svanborg, Catharina

    2014-01-01

    HAMLET is the first member of a new family of tumoricidal protein-lipid complexes that kill cancer cells broadly, while sparing healthy, differentiated cells. Many and diverse tumor cell types are sensitive to the lethal effect, suggesting that HAMLET identifies and activates conserved death pathways in cancer cells. Here we investigated the molecular basis for the difference in sensitivity between cancer cells and healthy cells. Using a combination of small hairpin RNA inhibition, proteomic and metabolomic technology we identified the c-Myc oncogene as one essential determinant of HAMLET sensitivity. Increased c-Myc expression levels promoted the sensitivity to HAMLET and shRNA knockdown of c-Myc suppressed the lethal response, suggesting that oncogenic transformation with c-Myc creates a HAMLET-sensitive phenotype. Furthermore, the HAMLET sensitivity was modified by the glycolytic state of the tumor cells. Glucose deprivation sensitized tumor cells to HAMLET-induced cell death and in the shRNA screen Hexokinase 1, PFKFB1 and HIF1α modified HAMLET sensitivity. Hexokinase 1 was shown to bind HAMLET in a protein array containing approximately 8000 targets and Hexokinase activity decreased within 15 minutes of HAMLET treatment, prior to morphological signs of tumor cell death. In parallel, HAMLET triggered rapid metabolic paralysis in carcinoma cells. The glycolytic machinery was modified and glycolysis was shifted towards the pentose phosphate pathway. Tumor cells were also shown to contain large amounts of oleic acid and its derivatives already after 15 minutes. The results identify HAMLET as a novel anti-cancer agent that kills tumor cells by exploiting unifying features of cancer cells such as oncogene-addiction or the Warburg effect. PMID:21643007

  4. Withanolide E sensitizes renal carcinoma cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis by increasing cFLIP degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrich, C J; Brooks, A D; Erickson, K L; Thomas, C L; Bokesch, H R; Tewary, P; Thompson, C R; Pompei, R J; Gustafson, K R; McMahon, J B; Sayers, T J

    2015-02-26

    Withanolide E, a steroidal lactone from Physalis peruviana, was found to be highly active for sensitizing renal carcinoma cells and a number of other human cancer cells to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-mediated apoptosis. Withanolide E, the most potent and least toxic of five TRAIL-sensitizing withanolides identified, enhanced death receptor-mediated apoptotic signaling by a rapid decline in the levels of cFLIP proteins. Other mechanisms by which TRAIL sensitizers have been reported to work: generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), changes in pro-and antiapoptotic protein expression, death receptor upregulation, activation of intrinsic (mitochondrial) apoptotic pathways, ER stress, and proteasomal inhibition proved to be irrelevant to withanolide E activity. Loss of cFLIP proteins was not due to changes in expression, but rather destabilization and/or aggregation, suggesting impairment of chaperone proteins leading to degradation. Indeed, withanolide E treatment altered the stability of a number of HSP90 client proteins, but with greater apparent specificity than the well-known HSP90 inhibitor geldanamycin. As cFLIP has been reported to be an HSP90 client, this provides a potentially novel mechanism for sensitizing cells to TRAIL. Sensitization of human renal carcinoma cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis by withanolide E and its lack of toxicity were confirmed in animal studies. Owing to its novel activity, withanolide E is a promising reagent for the analysis of mechanisms of TRAIL resistance, for understanding HSP90 function, and for further therapeutic development. In marked contrast to bortezomib, among the best currently available TRAIL sensitizers, withanolide E's more specific mechanism of action suggests minimal toxic side effects.

  5. The influence of radiolytic sensitizers in natural rubber latex vulcanization induced by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guedes, S.M.L.; Souza, A. de

    1991-01-01

    This work made on radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex process by gamma rays from 60 Co source and electron beam of 1.5 MeV, 25 m A by Dynamitron, instead of classic process using sulfur. The experiment was carried out to study the influence of sensitizers (C Cl 4 and n-butyl acrylate) and was reported the vulcanization dose for each sensitizers, related to maximum tensile strength. The results show the possibility to introduce the volatile sensitizer (n-butyl acrylate) instead of C Cl 4 (toxic) in industry applications. (author)

  6. Glutathione regulation of redox-sensitive signals in tumor necrosis factor-α-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsou, T.-C.; Yeh, S.C.; Tsai, F.-Y.; Chen, J.-W.; Chiang, H.-C.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the regulatory role of glutathione in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction as evaluated by using vascular endothelial adhesion molecule expression and monocyte-endothelial monolayer binding. Since TNF-α induces various biological effects on vascular cells, TNF-α dosage could be a determinant factor directing vascular cells into different biological fates. Based on the adhesion molecule expression patterns responding to different TNF-α concentrations, we adopted the lower TNF-α (0.2 ng/ml) to rule out the possible involvement of other TNF-α-induced biological effects. Inhibition of glutathione synthesis by L-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO) resulted in down-regulations of the TNF-α-induced adhesion molecule expression and monocyte-endothelial monolayer binding. BSO attenuated the TNF-α-induced nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) activation, however, with no detectable effect on AP-1 and its related mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Deletion of an AP-1 binding site in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) promoter totally abolished its constitutive promoter activity and its responsiveness to TNF-α. Inhibition of ERK, JNK, or NF-κB attenuates TNF-α-induced ICAM-1 promoter activation and monocyte-endothelial monolayer binding. Our study indicates that TNF-α induces adhesion molecule expression and monocyte-endothelial monolayer binding mainly via activation of NF-κB in a glutathione-sensitive manner. We also demonstrated that intracellular glutathione does not modulate the activation of MAPKs and/or their downstream AP-1 induced by lower TNF-α. Although AP-1 activation by the lower TNF-α was not detected in our systems, we could not rule out the possible involvement of transiently activated MAPKs/AP-1 in the regulation of TNF-α-induced adhesion molecule expression

  7. Inhibition of hypoxia inducible factor 1 and topoisomerase with acriflavine sensitizes perihilar cholangiocarcinomas to photodynamic therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijer, Ruud; Broekgaarden, Mans; Krekorian, Massis; Alles, Lindy K.; van Wijk, Albert C.; Mackaaij, Claire; Verheij, Joanne; van der Wal, Allard C.; van Gulik, Thomas M.; Storm, Gert; Heger, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) induces tumor cell death by oxidative stress and hypoxia but also survival signaling through activation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). Since perihilar cholangiocarcinomas are relatively recalcitrant to PDT, the aims were to (1) determine the expression levels of

  8. Inhibition of hypoxia inducible factor 1 and topoisomerase with acriflavine sensitizes perihilar cholangiocarcinomas to photodynamic therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijer, R.; Broekgaarden, M.; Krekorian, M.; Alles, L.K.; van Wijk, A.C; Mackaaij, C.; Verheij, J.; van der Wal, A.C.; van Gullik, T.M.; Storm, Gerrit; Heger, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) induces tumor cell death by oxidative stress and hypoxia but also survival signaling through activation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). Since perihilar cholangiocarcinomas are relatively recalcitrant to PDT, the aims were to (1) determine the expression

  9. Antiallergic effects of H1-receptor antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroody, F M; Naclerio, R M

    2000-01-01

    The primary mechanism of antihistamine action in the treatment of allergic diseases is believed to be competitive antagonism of histamine binding to cellular receptors (specifically, the H1-receptors), which are present on nerve endings, smooth muscles, and glandular cells. This notion is supported by the fact that structurally unrelated drugs antagonize the H1-receptor and provide clinical benefit. However, H1-receptor antagonism may not be their sole mechanism of action in treating allergic rhinitis. On the basis of in vitro and animal experiments, drugs classified as H1-receptor antagonists have long been recognized to have additional pharmacological properties. Most first-generation H1-antihistamines have anticholinergic, sedative, local anaesthetic, and anti-5-HT effects, which might favourably affect the symptoms of the allergic response but also contribute to side-effects. These additional properties are not uniformly distributed among drugs classified as H1-receptor antagonists. Azatadine, for example, inhibits in vitro IgE-mediated histamine and leukotriene (LT) release from mast cells and basophils. In human challenge models, terfenadine, azatadine, and loratadine reduce IgE-mediated histamine release. Cetirizine reduces eosinophilic infiltration at the site of antigen challenge in the skin, but not the nose. In a nasal antigen challenge model, cetirizine pretreatment did not affect the levels of histamine and prostaglandin D2 recovered in postchallenge lavages, whereas the levels of albumin, N-tosyl-L-arginine methyl ester (TAME) esterase activity, and LTs were reduced. Terfenadine, cetirizine, and loratadine blocked allergen-induced hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. In view of the complexity of the pathophysiology of allergy, a number of H1 antagonists with additional properties are currently under development for allergic diseases. Mizolastine, a new H1-receptor antagonist, has been shown to have additional actions that should help reduce the

  10. Blebbistatin, a myosin II inhibitor, suppresses Ca(2+)-induced and "sensitized"-contraction of skinned tracheal muscles from guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumoto, Masatoshi; Watanabe, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    Blebbistatin, a potent inhibitor of myosin II, has inhibiting effects on Ca(2+)-induced contraction and contractile filament organization without affecting the Ca(2+)-sensitivity to the force and phosphorylation level of myosin regulatory light chain (MLC20) in skinned (cell membrane permeabilized) taenia cecum from the guinea pig (Watanabe et al., Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2010; 298: C1118-26). In the present study, we investigated blebbistatin effects on the contractile force of skinned tracheal muscle, in which myosin filaments organization is more labile than that in the taenia cecum. Blebbistatin at 10 μM or higher suppressed Ca(2+)-induced tension development at any given Ca(2+) concentration, but had little effects on the Ca(2+)- induced myosin light chain phosphorylation. Also blebbistatin at 10 μM and higher significantly suppressed GTP-γS-induced "sensitized" force development. Since the force inhibiting effects of blebbistatin on the skinned trachea were much stronger than those in skinned taenia cecum, blebbistatin might directly affect myosin filaments organization.

  11. Effect of GABA receptor agonists or antagonists injected spinally on the blood glucose level in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Kang, Yu-Jung; Kim, Sung-Su; Kim, Chea-Ha; Kim, Su-Jin; Jung, Jun-Sub; Ryu, Ohk-Hyun; Choi, Moon-Gi; Suh, Hong-Won

    2013-05-01

    The possible roles of gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) receptors located in the spinal cord for the regulation of the blood glucose level were studied in ICR mice. We found in the present study that intrathecal (i.t.) injection with baclofen (a GABAB receptor agonist; 1-10 μg/5 μl) or bicuculline (a GABAA receptor antagonist; 1-10 μg/5 μl) caused an elevation of the blood glucose level in a dose-dependent manner. The hyperglycemic effect induced by baclofen was more pronounced than that induced by bicuculline. However, muscimol (a GABAA receptor agonist; 1-5 μg/5 μl) or phaclofen (a GABAB receptor antagonist; 5-10 μg/5 μl) administered i.t. did not affect the blood glucose level. Baclofen-induced elevation of the blood glucose was dose-dependently attenuated by phaclofen. Furthermore, i.t. pretreatment with pertussis toxin (PTX; 0.05 or 0.1 μg/5 μl) for 6 days dose-dependently reduced the hyperglycemic effect induced by baclofen. Our results suggest that GABAB receptors located in the spinal cord play important roles for the elevation of the blood glucose level. Spinally located PTX-sensitive G-proteins appear to be involved in hyperglycemic effect induced by baclofen. Furthermore, inactivation of GABAA receptors located in the spinal cord appears to be responsible for tonic up-regulation of the blood glucose level.

  12. Enhanced cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization and intrinsic excitability of NAc medium spiny neurons in adult but not adolescent rats susceptible to diet-induced obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oginsky, Max F.; Maust, Joel D.; Corthell, John T.; Ferrario, Carrie R.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Basal and diet-induced differences in mesolimbic function, particularly within the nucleus accumbens (NAc), may contribute to human obesity; these differences may be more pronounced in susceptible populations. Objectives We determined whether there are differences in cocaine-induced behavioral plasticity in rats that are susceptible vs. resistant to diet-induced obesity, and basal differences in the striatal neuron function in adult and adolescent obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats. Methods Susceptible and resistant outbred rats were identified based on “junk-food” diet-induced obesity. Then, the induction and expression of cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization, which is mediated by enhanced striatal function and is associated with increased motivation for rewards and reward-paired cues, were evaluated. Basal differences in mesolimbic function were examined in selectively bred obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats (P70-80 and P30-40) using both cocaine induced locomotion and whole-cell patch clamping approaches in NAc core medium spiny neurons (MSNs). Results In rats that became obese after eating “junk-food”, the expression of locomotor sensitization was enhanced compared to non-obese rats, with similarly strong responses to 7.5 and 15 mg/kg cocaine. Without diet manipulation, obesity-prone rats were hyper-responsive to the acute locomotor-activating effects of cocaine, and the intrinsic excitability of NAc core MSNs was enhanced by ~60% at positive and negative potentials. These differences were present in adult, but not adolescent rats. Post-synaptic glutamatergic transmission was similar between groups. Conclusions Mesolimbic systems, particularly NAc MSNs, are hyper-responsive in obesity-prone individuals; and interactions between predisposition and experience influence neurobehavioral plasticity in ways that may promote weight gain and hamper weight loss in susceptible rats. PMID:26612617

  13. Palonosetron versus other 5-HT₃ receptor antagonists for prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients with hematologic malignancies treated with emetogenic chemotherapy in a hospital outpatient setting in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craver, Chris; Gayle, Julie; Balu, Sanjeev; Buchner, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the rate of uncontrolled chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) after initiating antiemetic prophylaxis with palonosetron versus other 5-HT₃ receptor antagonists (RAs) in patients diagnosed with hematologic malignancies (lymphoma and leukemia) and receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC) or moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC) in a hospital outpatient setting. Patients aged ≥ 18 years and diagnosed with hematologic malignancies initiating HEC or MEC and antiemetic prophylaxis with palonosetron (Group 1) and other 5-HT₃ RAs (Group 2) for the first time in a hospital outpatient setting between 4/1/2007 and 3/31/2009 were identified from the Premier Perspective Database. Within each cycle, CINV events were identified (in the hospital outpatient, inpatient, and emergency room settings) through ICD-9 codes for nausea, vomiting, and/or volume depletion (from each CT administration day 1 until the end of the CT cycle), or use of rescue medications (day 2 until the end of the CT cycle). Negative binomial distribution generalized linear multivariate regression model estimating the CINV event rate on CT, specific CT cycles, and cancer diagnosis (leukemia/lymphoma)-matched groups in the follow-up period (first of 8 cycles or 6 months) was developed. Of 971 identified patients, 211 initiated palonosetron (Group 1). Group 1 patients comprised of more females [50.2 vs. 41.4%; p = 0.0226], Whites [74.4 vs. 70.4%, and Hispanics [7.6 vs. 6.3%; all races p = 0.0105], received more HEC treatments [89.6 vs. 84.2%; all CT types p = 0.0129], and had more lymphoma diagnosed patients [89.6 vs. 76.3%; all cancer types p = 0.0033] at baseline. After controlling for differences in several demographic and clinical variables, the regression model predicted a 20.4% decrease in CINV event rate per CT cycle for Group 1 versus Group 2 patients. Study limitations include potential lack of generalizability, absence of data on certain

  14. Isoflurane Anesthesia Interferes with the Expression of Cocaine-Induced Sensitization in Female Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Siegal, Nora; Dow-Edwards, Diana

    2009-01-01

    Repeated cocaine administration results in a progressive sensitization of behavior which typically occurs more readily in female rats than in males. Our recent studies of rats undergoing surgical procedures revealed that following anesthesia, females sensitized less than males receiving identical repeated cocaine injections. Since isoflurane acts primarily by increasing the effects of the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) and reducing the effects of the excitatory amino ...

  15. Voluntary exercise improves insulin sensitivity and adipose tissue inflammation in diet-induced obese mice

    OpenAIRE

    Bradley, Richard L.; Jeon, Justin Y.; Liu, Fen-Fen; Maratos-Flier, Eleftheria

    2008-01-01

    Exercise promotes weight loss and improves insulin sensitivity. However, the molecular mechanisms mediating its beneficial effects are not fully understood. Obesity correlates with increased production of inflammatory cytokines, which in turn, contributes to systemic insulin resistance. To test the hypothesis that exercise mitigates this inflammatory response, thereby improving insulin sensitivity, we developed a model of voluntary exercise in mice made obese by feeding of a high fat/high suc...

  16. Opiate sensitization induces FosB/ΔFosB expression in prefrontal cortical, striatal and amygdala brain regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary B Kaplan

    Full Text Available Sensitization to the effects of drugs of abuse and associated stimuli contributes to drug craving, compulsive drug use, and relapse in addiction. Repeated opiate exposure produces behavioral sensitization that is hypothesized to result from neural plasticity in specific limbic, striatal and cortical systems. ΔFosB and FosB are members of the Fos family of transcription factors that are implicated in neural plasticity in addiction. This study examined the effects of intermittent morphine treatment, associated with motor sensitization, on FosB/ΔFosB levels using quantitative immunohistochemistry. Motor sensitization was tested in C57BL/6 mice that received six intermittent pre-treatments (on days 1, 3, 5, 8, 10, 12 with either subcutaneous morphine (10 mg/kg or saline followed by a challenge injection of morphine or saline on day 16. Mice receiving repeated morphine injections demonstrated significant increases in locomotor activity on days 8, 10, and 12 of treatment (vs. day 1, consistent with development of locomotor sensitization. A morphine challenge on day 16 significantly increased locomotor activity of saline pre-treated mice and produced even larger increases in motor activity in the morphine pre-treated mice, consistent with the expression of opiate sensitization. Intermittent morphine pre-treatment on these six pre-treatment days produced a significant induction of FosB/ΔFosB, measured on day 16, in multiple brain regions including prelimbic (PL and infralimbic (IL cortex, nucleus accumbens (NAc core, dorsomedial caudate-putamen (CPU, basolateral amygdala (BLA and central nucleus of the amygdala (CNA but not in a motor cortex control region. Opiate induced sensitization may develop via Fos/ΔFosB plasticity in motivational pathways (NAc, motor outputs (CPU, and associative learning (PL, IL, BLA and stress pathways (CNA.

  17. Cannabinoid 2 Receptor Agonist Improves Systemic Sensitivity to Insulin in High-Fat Diet/Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuyuan Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The endocannabinoid signalling (ECS system has been known to regulate glucose homeostasis. Previous studies have suggested that the cannabinoid 2 (CB2 receptor may play a regulatory role on insulin secretion, immune modulation and insulin resistance. Given that diabetes and insulin resistance are attributable to elevated inflammatory tone, we investigated the role of CB2 receptor on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in high-fat diet (HFD/streptozotocin (STZ-induced mice. Methods: Diabetes was induced in male ICR mice by HFD/STZ and exposed to a CB2 receptor agonist, SER601, for 2- or 4-weeks via subcutaneous implantation of osmotic minipumps. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests were performed at the end of treatment. Islets were isolated for assessment of β-cell function. Pancreases and skeletal muscles were also obtained for histological analyses. Results: Despite a lack of impact on glucose tolerance, substantial improvement on insulin sensitivity was observed in SER601-treated mice, which could partly be attributed to improved islet β-cell function, shown as increased glucose-induced insulin secretion and insulin content. No changes on islet macrophage infiltration or skeletal muscle fat deposition were detectable from SER601-treated mice. However, a major decrease in body weight was recorded at the end of 4-week SER601 exposure, accompanied by a lack of epididymal adipose mass in SER601-treated mice. Conclusion: Our data suggest a lipolytic role of SER601 in HFD/STZ-induced diabetic mice, which results in significant improvement of systemic insulin sensitivity. Thus, the CB2 receptor may be considered a promising target for therapeutic development against insulin resistance and obesity-related diabetes.

  18. The Mechanism by Which Safflower Yellow Decreases Body Fat Mass and Improves Insulin Sensitivity in HFD-induced Obese Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijuan eZhu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesSafflower yellow (SY is the main effective ingredient of Carthamus tinctorius L. It has been reported that SY plays an important role in anti-inflammation, anti-platelet aggregation and inhibiting thrombus formation. In present study, we try to investigate the effects of SY on body weight, body fat mass, insulin sensitivity in high fat diet (HFD-induced obese mice. MethodsHFD-induced obese male ICR mice were intraperitoneally injected with SY (120 mg kg-1 daily. Eight weeks later, intraperitoneal insulin tolerance test (IPITT and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT were performed, and body weight, body fat mass, serum insulin levels were measured. The expression of glucose and lipid metabolic related genes in white adipose tissue (WAT were determined by RT-qPCR and western blot technologies.ResultsThe administration obese mice with SY significantly reduced the body fat mass of HFD-induced obese mice (P<0.05. IPITT test showed that the insulin sensitivity of SY treated obese mice were evidently improved. The mRNA levels of insulin signaling pathway related genes including insulin receptor substrate 1(IRS1, PKB protein kinase (AKT, glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β and forkhead box protein O1(FOXO1 in mesenteric WAT of SY treated mice were significantly increased to 1.9, 2.8, 3.3 and 5.9 folds of that in HFD-induced control obese mice, respectively (P<0.05. The protein levels of AKT and GSK3β were also significantly increased to 3.0 and 5.2 folds of that in HFD-induced control obese mice, respectively (P<0.05. Meanwhile, both the mRNA and protein levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorgamma coactivator 1α (PGC1α in inguinal subcutaneous WAT of SY group were notably increased to 2.5 and 3.0 folds of that in HFD-induced control obese mice (P<0.05.ConclusionsSY significantly reduce the body fat mass, fasting blood glucose and increase insulin sensitivity of HFD-induced obese mice. The possible mechanism is to

  19. Eating high-fat chow increases the sensitivity of rats to quinpirole-induced discriminative stimulus effects and yawning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baladi, Michelle G; France, Charles P

    2010-10-01

    Discriminative stimulus effects of direct acting dopamine receptor agonists (e.g. quinpirole) appear to be mediated by D3 receptors in free-feeding rats. Free access to high-fat chow increases sensitivity to quinpirole-induced yawning, and this study examined whether eating high-fat chow increases sensitivity to the discriminative stimulus effects of quinpirole. Five rats discriminated between 0.032 mg/kg quinpirole and vehicle while responding under a continuous reinforcement schedule of stimulus shock termination. When rats had free access to high-fat chow (discrimination training was suspended), the quinpirole discrimination dose-response curve shifted leftward, possibly indicating enhanced sensitivity at D3 receptors. In the same rats, both the ascending (mediated by D3 receptors) and descending (mediated by D2 receptors) limbs of the dose-response curve for quinpirole-induced yawning shifted leftward. When rats had free access to a standard chow (discrimination training was suspended), the quinpirole discrimination and yawning dose-response curves did not change. Together with published data showing that the discriminative stimulus effects of quinpirole in free-feeding rats are mediated by D3 receptors and the insensitivity of this effect of quinpirole to food restriction (shown to increase sensitivity to D2 but not D3-mediated effects), these results suggest that the leftward shift of the discrimination dose-response curve when rats eat high-fat chow is likely because of enhanced sensitivity at D3 receptors. Thus, eating high-fat food enhances drug effects in a manner that might impact clinical effects of drugs or vulnerability to drug abuse.

  20. Eating high fat chow increases the sensitivity of rats to quinpirole-induced discriminative stimulus effects and yawning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baladi, Michelle G; France, Charles P

    2010-01-01

    Discriminative stimulus effects of directly-acting dopamine receptor agonists (e.g. quinpirole) appear to be mediated by D3 receptors in free-feeding rats. Free access to high fat chow increases sensitivity to quinpirole-induced yawning and the current study examined whether eating high fat chow increases sensitivity to the discriminative stimulus effects of quinpirole. Five rats discriminated between 0.032 mg/kg quinpirole and vehicle while responding under a continuous reinforcement schedule of stimulus shock termination. When rats had free access to high fat chow (discrimination training was suspended), the quinpirole discrimination dose-response curve shifted leftward, possibly indicating enhanced sensitivity at D3 receptors. In the same rats, both the ascending (mediated by D3 receptors) and descending (mediated by D2 receptors) limbs of the dose- response curve for quinpirole-induced yawning shifted leftward. When rats had free access to a standard chow (discrimination training was suspended), the quinpirole discrimination and yawning dose-response curves did not change. Together with published data showing that the discriminative stimulus effects of quinpirole in free- feeding rats are mediated by D3 receptors and the insensitivity of this effect of quinpirole to food restriction (shown to increase sensitivity to D2 but not D3-mediated effects), these results suggest that the leftward shift of the discrimination dose-response curve when rats eat high fat chow is likely due to enhanced sensitivity at D3 receptors. Thus, eating high fat food enhances drug effects in a manner that might impact clinical effects of drugs or vulnerability to drug abuse. PMID:20729718

  1. Testing environment shape differentially modulates baseline and nicotine-induced changes in behavior: Sex differences, hypoactivity, and behavioral sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illenberger, J M; Mactutus, C F; Booze, R M; Harrod, S B

    2018-02-01

    In those who use nicotine, the likelihood of dependence, negative health consequences, and failed treatment outcomes differ as a function of gender. Women may be more sensitive to learning processes driven by repeated nicotine exposure that influence conditioned approach and craving. Sex differences in nicotine's influence over overt behaviors (i.e. hypoactivity or behavioral sensitization) can be examined using passive drug administration models in male and female rats. Following repeated intravenous (IV) nicotine injections, behavioral sensitization is enhanced in female rats compared to males. Nonetheless, characteristics of the testing environment also mediate rodent behavior following drug administration. The current experiment used a within-subjects design to determine if nicotine-induced changes in horizontal activity, center entries, and rearing displayed by male and female rats is detected when behavior was recorded in round vs. square chambers. Behaviors were recorded from each group (males-round: n=19; males-square: n=18; females-square: n=19; and females-round: n=19) immediately following IV injection of saline, acute nicotine, and repeated nicotine (0.05mg/kg/injection). Prior to nicotine treatment, sex differences were apparent only in round chambers. Following nicotine administration, the order of magnitude for the chamber that provided enhanced detection of hypoactivity or sensitization was contingent upon both the dependent measure under examination and the animal's biological sex. As such, round and square testing chambers provide different, and sometimes contradictory, accounts of how male and female rats respond to nicotine treatment. It is possible that a central mechanism such as stress or cue sensitivity is impacted by both drug exposure and environment to drive the sex differences observed in the current experiment. Until these complex relations are better understood, experiments considering sex differences in drug responses should balance

  2. MIBE acts as antagonist ligand of both estrogen receptor α and GPER in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappano, Rosamaria; Santolla, Maria Francesca; Pupo, Marco; Sinicropi, Maria Stefania; Caruso, Anna; Rosano, Camillo; Maggiolini, Marcello

    2012-01-17

    The multiple biological responses to estrogens are mainly mediated by the classical estrogen receptors ERα and ERβ, which act as ligand-activated transcription factors. ERα exerts a main role in the development of breast cancer; therefore, the ER antagonist tamoxifen has been widely used although its effectiveness is limited by de novo and acquired resistance. Recently, GPR30/GPER, a member of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family, has been implicated in mediating the effects of estrogens in various normal and cancer cells. In particular, GPER triggered gene expression and proliferative responses induced by estrogens and even ER antagonists in hormone-sensitive tumor cells. Likewise, additional ER ligands showed the ability to bind to GPER eliciting promiscuous and, in some cases, opposite actions through the two receptors. We synthesized a novel compound (ethyl 3-[5-(2-ethoxycarbonyl-1-methylvinyloxy)-1-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl]but-2-enoate), referred to as MIBE, and investigated its properties elicited through ERα and GPER in breast cancer cells. Molecular modeling, binding experiments and functional assays were performed in order to evaluate the biological action exerted by MIBE through ERα and GPER in MCF7 and SkBr3 breast cancer cells. MIBE displayed the ability to act as an antagonist ligand for ERα and GPER as it elicited inhibitory effects on gene transcription and growth effects by binding to both receptors in breast cancer cells. Moreover, GPER was required for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and ERK activation by EGF as ascertained by using MIBE and performing gene silencing experiments. Our findings provide novel insights on the functional cross-talk between GPER and EGFR signaling. Furthermore, the exclusive antagonistic activity exerted by MIBE on ERα and GPER could represent an innovative pharmacological approach targeting breast carcinomas which express one or both receptors at the beginning and/or during tumor

  3. Effects of radio sensitizers in the vulcanization of natural rubber latex induced by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, A. de; Canavel, V.; Araujo, S.C. de; Guedes, S.M.L.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of C Cl 4 and n-butyl acrylate as a sensitizer for radiation vulcanization of 60% DRC natural rubber latex with gamma rays, was studied relating tensile strength of vulcanized latex. The vulcanization dose is 200 kGy for natural rubber latex and it decreases to 40 kGy and to 9 kGy in the presence of C Cl 4 / potassium laureate and n-butyl acrylate / t-butyl hydroperoxide, respectively. The H 2 O 2 as a co-sensitizer does not change the efficiency of the combination of these sensitizers. The IV spectra show the formation of C=O after the irradiation as consequence of oxidation reactions. (author)

  4. Moderate and severe perinatal asphyxia induces differential effects on cocaine sensitization in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, Pablo; Romero, Juan Ignacio; Luque-Rojas, María Jesús; Suárez, Juan; Holubiec, Mariana Inés; Bisagno, Verónica; Santín, Luis Javier; De Fonseca, Fernando Rodríguez; Capani, Francisco; Blanco, Eduardo

    2013-09-01

    Perinatal asphyxia (PA) increases the likelihood of suffering from dopamine-related disorders, such as ADHD and schizophrenia. Since dopaminergic transmission plays a major role in cocaine sensitization, the purpose of this study was to determine whether PA could be associated with altered behavioral sensitization to cocaine. To this end, adult rats born vaginally (CTL), by caesarean section (C+), or by C+ with 15 min (PA15, moderate PA) or 19 min (PA19, severe PA) of global anoxia were repeatedly administered with cocaine (i.p., 15 mg/kg) and then challenged with cocaine (i.p., 15 mg/kg) after a 5-day withdrawal period. In addition, c-Fos, FosB/ΔFosB, DAT, and TH expression were assessed in dorsal (CPu) and ventral (NAcc) striatum. Results indicated that PA15 rats exhibited an increased locomotor sensitization to cocaine, while PA19 rats displayed an abnormal acquisition of locomotor sensitization and did not express a sensitized response to cocaine. c-Fos expression in NAcc, but not in CPu, was associated with these alterations in cocaine sensitization. FosB/ΔFosB expression was increased in all groups and regions after repeated cocaine administration, although it reached lower expression levels in PA19 rats. In CTL, C+, and PA15, but not in PA19 rats, the expression of TH in NAcc was reduced in groups repeatedly treated with cocaine, independently of the challenge test. Furthermore, this reduction was more pronounced in PA15 rats. DAT expression remained unaltered in all groups and regions studied. These results suggest that moderate PA may increase the vulnerability to drug abuse and in particular to cocaine addiction. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Pancreatic beta-cell lipotoxicity induced by overexpression of hormone-sensitive lipase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winzell, Maria Sörhede; Svensson, Håkan; Enerbäck, Sven

    2003-01-01

    Lipid perturbations associated with triglyceride overstorage in beta-cells impair insulin secretion, a process termed lipotoxicity. To assess the role of hormone-sensitive lipase, which is expressed and enzymatically active in beta-cells, in the development of lipotoxicity, we generated transgenic...... mice overexpressing hormone-sensitive lipase specifically in beta-cells. Transgenic mice developed glucose intolerance and severely blunted glucose-stimulated insulin secretion when challenged with a high-fat diet. As expected, both lipase activity and forskolin-stimulated lipolysis was increased...

  6. Sensitivity to Sunburn Is Associated with Susceptibility to Ultraviolet Radiation–Induced Suppression of Cutaneous Cell–Mediated Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Deirdre A.; Young, Antony R.; McGregor, Jane M.; Seed, Paul T.; Potten, Christopher S.; Walker, Susan L.

    2000-01-01

    Skin cancer incidence is highest in white-skinned people. Within this group, skin types I/II (sun sensitive/tan poorly) are at greater risk than skin types III/IV (sun tolerant/tan well). Studies in mice demonstrate that ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced suppression of cell-mediated immune function plays an important role in the development of skin cancer and induces a susceptibility to infectious disease. A similar role is suspected in humans, but we lack quantitative human data to make risk assessments of ambient solar exposure on human health. This study demonstrates that ambient levels of solar UVR, typically experienced within 1 h of exposure to noonday summer sunlight, can suppress contact hypersensitivity (CHS) responses in healthy white-skinned humans in vivo (n = 93). There was a linear relationship between increase in erythema and suppression of CHS (P sunburn (two minimal erythema doses [2 MED]) was sufficient to suppress CHS in all volunteers by 93%. However, a single suberythemal exposure of either 0.25 or 0.5 MED suppressed CHS responses by 50 and 80%, respectively, in skin types I/II, whereas 1 MED only suppressed CHS by 40% in skin types III/IV. The two- to threefold greater sensitivity of skin types I/II for a given level of sunburn may play a role in their greater sensitivity to skin cancer. PMID:10662801

  7. Sensitivity of Induced Seismic Sequences to Rate-and-State Frictional Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Kayla A.; Richards-Dinger, Keith B.; Dieterich, James H.

    2017-12-01

    It is well established that subsurface injection of fluids increases pore fluid pressures that may lead to shear failure along a preexisting fault surface. Concern among oil and gas, geothermal, and carbon storage operators has risen dramatically over the past decade due to the increase in the number and magnitude of induced earthquakes. Efforts to mitigate the risk associated with injection-induced earthquakes include modeling of the interaction between fluids and earthquake faults. Here we investigate this relationship with simulations that couple a geomechanical reservoir model and RSQSim, a physics-based earthquake simulator. RSQSim employs rate- and state-dependent friction (RSF) that enables the investigation of the time-dependent nature of earthquake sequences. We explore the effect of two RSF parameters and normal stress on the spatiotemporal characteristics of injection-induced seismicity. We perform >200 simulations to systematically investigate the effect of these model components on the evolution of induced seismicity sequences and compare the spatiotemporal characteristics of our synthetic catalogs to observations of induced earthquakes. We find that the RSF parameters control the ability of seismicity to migrate away from the injection well, the total number and maximum magnitude of induced events. Additionally, the RSF parameters control the occurrence/absence of premonitory events. Lastly, we find that earthquake stress drops can be modulated by the normal stress and/or the RSF parameters. Insight gained from this study can aid in further development of models that address best practice protocols for injection operations, site-specific models of injection-induced earthquakes, and probabilistic hazard and risk assessments.

  8. Skeletal Muscle Angiogenesis and Its Relation to Insulin Sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindqvist, Anna Maria Charlotte K

    mediator of angiogenesis) are reduced in insulin resistant individuals. Exercise training can improve skeletal muscle capillarization and the angiogenic potential and physical activity has also been proven to enhance muscle insulin sensitivity. Increased skeletal muscle capillarization is associated......) or by overexpression of VEGF-A in the tibialis anterior muscle (transfection; study II) and the effect of the increased muscle capillarization on muscle insulin sensitivity was examined. In study I skeletal muscle specific angiogenesis was induced by administering an α1-adrenergic antagonist (prazosin) to healthy...

  9. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Induced Radiation Sensitization Effects on Human Cancer Cells after Photon and Hadron Radiation Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariungerel Gerelchuluun

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA is a histone deacetylase inhibitor, which has been widely utilized throughout the cancer research field. SAHA-induced radiosensitization in normal human fibroblasts AG1522 and lung carcinoma cells A549 were evaluated with a combination of γ-rays, proton, and carbon ion exposure. Growth delay was observed in both cell lines during SAHA treatment; 2 μM SAHA treatment decreased clonogenicity and induced cell cycle block in G1 phase but 0.2 μM SAHA treatment did not show either of them. Low LET (Linear Energy Transfer irradiated A549 cells showed radiosensitization effects on cell killing in cycling and G1 phase with 0.2 or 2 μM SAHA pretreatment. In contrast, minimal sensitization was observed in normal human cells after low and high LET radiation exposure. The potentially lethal damage repair was not affected by SAHA treatment. SAHA treatment reduced the rate of γ-H2AX foci disappearance and suppressed RAD51 and RPA (Replication Protein A focus formation. Suppression of DNA double strand break repair by SAHA did not result in the differences of SAHA-induced radiosensitization between human cancer cells and normal cells. In conclusion, our results suggest SAHA treatment will sensitize cancer cells to low and high LET radiation with minimum effects to normal cells.

  10. The amphetamine sensitization model of schizophrenia symptoms and its effect on schedule-induced polydipsia in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawken, Emily R; Beninger, Richard J

    2014-05-01

    Amphetamine enhances dopamine (DA) transmission and induces psychotic states or exacerbates psychosis in at-risk individuals. Amphetamine sensitization of the DA system has been proposed as a rodent model of schizophrenia-like symptoms. In humans, excessive nonphysiologic drinking or primary polydipsia is significantly associated with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. In rodents, nonphysiologic drinking can be induced by intermittent presentation of food in the presence of a drinking spout to a hungry animal; this phenomenon is termed, "schedule-induced polydipsia" (SIP). This study aims to determine the effects of amphetamine sensitization on SIP. We injected rats with amphetamine (1.5 mg/kg) daily for 5 days. Following 4 weeks of withdrawal, animals were food restricted and exposed to the SIP protocol (noncontingent fixed-time 1-min food schedule) for daily 2-h sessions for 24 days. Results showed that previously amphetamine-injected animals drank more in the SIP protocol and drank more than controls when the intermittent food presentation schedule was removed. These findings suggest that hyperdopaminergia associated with schizophrenia may contribute to the development of polydipsia in this population. Whether animals that develop SIP have DA dysfunction or aberrant activity of other circuits that modulate DA activity has yet to be clearly defined.

  11. [Rosuvastatin improves insulin sensitivity in overweight rats induced by high fat diet. Role of SIRT1 in adipose tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero-Muñoz, María; Martín-Fernández, Beatriz; Ballesteros, Sandra; Cachofeiro, Victoria; Lahera, Vicente; de Las Heras, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    To study the effects of rosuvastatin on insulin resistance in overweight rats induced by high fat diet, as well as potential mediators. We used male Wistar rats fed with a standard diet (CT) or high fat diet (33.5% fat) (HFD); half of the animals HFD were treated with rosuvastatin (15mg/kg/day) (HFD+Rosu) for 7 weeks. HFD rats showed increased body, epididymal and lumbar adipose tissue weights. Treatment with Rosu did not modify body weight or the weight of the adipose packages in HFD rat. Plasma glucose and insulin levels and HOMA index were higher in HFD rats, and rosuvastatin treatment reduced them. Leptin/adiponectin ratio in plasma and lumbar adipose tissue were higher in HDF rats, and were reduced by rosuvastatin. SIRT-1, PPAR-γ and GLUT-4 protein expression in lumbar adipose tissue were lower in HFD rats and Rosu normalized expression of the three mediators. Rosuvastatin ameliorates insulin sensitivity induced by HFD in rats. This effect is mediated by several mechanisms including reduction of leptin and enhancement of SIRT-1, PPAR-γ and GLUT-4 expression in white adipose tissue. SIRT1 could be considered a major mediator of the beneficial effects of rosuvastatin on insulin sensitivity in overweight rats induced by diet. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  12. Pretreatment with mixed-function oxidase inducers increases the sensitivity of the hepatocyte/DNA repair assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaddock, J.G.; Heflich, R.H.; McMillan, D.C.; Hinson, J.A.; Casciano, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    A recent National Toxicology Program evaluation indicates that the rat hepatocyte/DNA repair assay has a high false-negative rate and that it is insensitive to some genotoxic hepatocarcinogens as well as other species and organ-specific carcinogens. In this study, the authors examined whether the sensitivity of the hepatocyte/DNA repair assay might be increased through animal pretreatment with various hepatic mixed-function oxidase inducers, i.e., Aroclor 1254, phenobarbital, and 3,3',4,4'-tetrachloroazobenzene (TCAB). The effects on unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS), a measured of DNA damage and repair, were studied in cultures exposed to known and/or potential carcinogens that had been evaluated as negative or questionable or that produced conflicting results with hepatocytes isolated from uninduced animals. 4,4'-Oxydianiline, 1-nitropy-rene, and TCAB produced concentration-dependent increases in UDS in hepatocytes from rats pretreated with Aroclor 1254. 4,4'-Oxydianiline and TCAB also induced a dose-dependent increase in DNA repair in hepatocytes from rats pretreated with phenobarbital, whereas 1-nitropyrene was negative. These data indicate that the limited sensitivity to chemical carcinogens displayed by the hepatocyte/DNA repair assay may be increased by using hepatocytes isolated from animals exposed to hepatic mixed-function oxidase inducers

  13. Pretreatment with mixed-function oxidase inducers increases the sensitivity of the hepatocyte/DNA repair assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaddock, J.G.; Heflich, R.H.; McMillan, D.C.; Hinson, J.A.; Casciano, D.A. (National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AK (USA) Univ. of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock (USA))

    1989-01-01

    A recent National Toxicology Program evaluation indicates that the rat hepatocyte/DNA repair assay has a high false-negative rate and that it is insensitive to some genotoxic hepatocarcinogens as well as other species and organ-specific carcinogens. In this study, the authors examined whether the sensitivity of the hepatocyte/DNA repair assay might be increased through animal pretreatment with various hepatic mixed-function oxidase inducers, i.e., Aroclor 1254, phenobarbital, and 3,3{prime},4,4{prime}-tetrachloroazobenzene (TCAB). The effects on unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS), a measured of DNA damage and repair, were studied in cultures exposed to known and/or potential carcinogens that had been evaluated as negative or questionable or that produced conflicting results with hepatocytes isolated from uninduced animals. 4,4{prime}-Oxydianiline, 1-nitropy-rene, and TCAB produced concentration-dependent increases in UDS in hepatocytes from rats pretreated with Aroclor 1254. 4,4{prime}-Oxydianiline and TCAB also induced a dose-dependent increase in DNA repair in hepatocytes from rats pretreated with phenobarbital, whereas 1-nitropyrene was negative. These data indicate that the limited sensitivity to chemical carcinogens displayed by the hepatocyte/DNA repair assay may be increased by using hepatocytes isolated from animals exposed to hepatic mixed-function oxidase inducers.

  14. Chromatin condensation and differential sensitivity of mammalian and insect cells to DNA strand breaks induced by bleomycin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Larraza, Daniel M. [IMBICE, C.C. 403, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)]. E-mail: danielop@imbice.org.ar; Padron, Juan [IMBICE, C.C. 403, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Ronci, Natalia E. [IMBICE, C.C. 403, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Vidal Rioja, Lidia A. [IMBICE, C.C. 403, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2006-08-30

    Bleomycin (BLM) induces DNA damage in living cells. In this report we analyzed the role of chromatin compactness in the differential response of mosquito (ATC-15) and mammalian (CHO) cells to DNA strand breaks induced by BLM. We used cells unexposed and exposed to sodium butyrate (NaB), which induces chromatin decondensation. By nucleoid sedimentation assay and digestions of nuclei with DNAse I, untreated mosquito cells (no BLM; no NaB) were shown to have more chromatin condensation than untreated CHO cells. By alkaline unwinding ATC-15 cells treated with NaB showed more BLM-induced DNA strand breaks than NaB-untreated CHO cells. The time-course of BLM-induced DNA damage to nuclear DNA was similar for NaB-untreated mammalian and insect cells, but with mosquito cells showing less DNA strand breaks, both at physiological temperatures and at 4 {sup o}C. However, when DNA repair was inhibited by low temperatures and chromatin was decondensed by NaB treatments, differences in BLM-induced DNA damage between these cells lines were no longer observed. In both cell lines, NaB did not affect BLM action on cell growth and viability. On the other hand, the low sensitivity of ATC-15 cells to BLM was reflected in their better growth efficiency. These cells exhibited a satisfactory growth at BLM doses that produced a permanent arrest of growth in CHO cells. The data suggest that mosquito cells might have linker DNAs shorter than those of mammalian cells, which would result in the observed both greater chromatin condensation and greater resistance to DNA damage induced by BLM as compared to CHO cells.

  15. Chromatin condensation and differential sensitivity of mammalian and insect cells to DNA strand breaks induced by bleomycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Larraza, Daniel M.; Padron, Juan; Ronci, Natalia E.; Vidal Rioja, Lidia A.

    2006-01-01

    Bleomycin (BLM) induces DNA damage in living cells. In this report we analyzed the role of chromatin compactness in the differential response of mosquito (ATC-15) and mammalian (CHO) cells to DNA strand breaks induced by BLM. We used cells unexposed and exposed to sodium butyrate (NaB), which induces chromatin decondensation. By nucleoid sedimentation assay and digestions of nuclei with DNAse I, untreated mosquito cells (no BLM; no NaB) were shown to have more chromatin condensation than untreated CHO cells. By alkaline unwinding ATC-15 cells treated with NaB showed more BLM-induced DNA strand breaks than NaB-untreated CHO cells. The time-course of BLM-induced DNA damage to nuclear DNA was similar for NaB-untreated mammalian and insect cells, but with mosquito cells showing less DNA strand breaks, both at physiological temperatures and at 4 o C. However, when DNA repair was inhibited by low temperatures and chromatin was decondensed by NaB treatments, differences in BLM-induced DNA damage between these cells lines were no longer observed. In both cell lines, NaB did not affect BLM action on cell growth and viability. On the other hand, the low sensitivity of ATC-15 cells to BLM was reflected in their better growth efficiency. These cells exhibited a satisfactory growth at BLM doses that produced a permanent arrest of growth in CHO cells. The data suggest that mosquito cells might have linker DNAs shorter than those of mammalian cells, which would result in the observed both greater chromatin condensation and greater resistance to DNA damage induced by BLM as compared to CHO cells

  16. Monocrotophos induces the expression and activity of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in pre-sensitized cultured human brain cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay K Tripathi

    Full Text Available The expression and metabolic profile of cytochrome P450s (CYPs is largely missing in human brain due to non-availability of brain tissue. We attempted to address the issue by using human brain neuronal (SH-SY5Y and glial (U373-MG cells. The expression and activity of CYP1A1, 2B6 and 2E1 were carried out in the cells exposed to CYP inducers viz., 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC, cyclophosphamide (CPA, ethanol and known neurotoxicant- monocrotophos (MCP, a widely used organophosphorous pesticide. Both the cells show significant induction in the expression and CYP-specific activity against classical inducers and MCP. The induction level of CYPs was comparatively lower in MCP exposed cells than cells exposed to classical inducers. Pre-exposure (12 h of cells to classical inducers significantly added the MCP induced CYPs expression and activity. The findings were concurrent with protein ligand docking studies, which show a significant modulatory capacity of MCP by strong interaction with CYP regulators-CAR, PXR and AHR. Similarly, the known CYP inducers- 3-MC, CPA and ethanol have also shown significantly high docking scores with all the three studied CYP regulators. The expression of CYPs in neuronal and glial cells has suggested their possible association with the endogenous physiology of the brain. The findings also suggest the xenobiotic metabolizing capabilities of these cells against MCP, if received a pre-sensitization to trigger the xenobiotic metabolizing machinery. MCP induced CYP-specific activity in neuronal cells could help in explaining its effect on neurotransmission, as these CYPs are known to involve in the synthesis/transport of the neurotransmitters. The induction of CYPs in glial cells is also of significance as these cells are thought to be involved in protecting the neurons from environmental insults and safeguard them from toxicity. The data provide better understanding of the metabolizing capability of the human brain cells against

  17. 3-Bromopyruvate induces necrotic cell death in sensitive melanoma cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, J.-Z.; Xin, H. [Oncology Institute, Cardinal Bernardin Cancer Center, Loyola University of Chicago Medical Center (United States); Nickoloff, B.J., E-mail: bnickol@lumc.edu [Oncology Institute, Cardinal Bernardin Cancer Center, Loyola University of Chicago Medical Center (United States)

    2010-05-28

    Clinicians successfully utilize high uptake of radiolabeled glucose via PET scanning to localize metastases in melanoma patients. To take advantage of this altered metabolome, 3-bromopyruvate (BrPA) was used to overcome the notorious resistance of melanoma to cell death. Using four melanoma cell lines, BrPA triggered caspase independent necrosis in two lines, whilst the other two lines were resistant to killing. Mechanistically, sensitive cells differed from resistant cells by; constitutively lower levels of glutathione, reduction of glutathione by BrPA only in sensitive cells; increased superoxide anion reactive oxygen species, loss of outer mitochondrial membrane permeability, and rapid ATP depletion. Sensitive cell killing was blocked by N-acetylcysteine or glutathione. When glutathione levels were reduced in resistant cell lines, they became sensitive to killing by BrPA. Taken together, these results identify a metabolic-based Achilles' heel in melanoma cells to be exploited by use of BrPA. Future pre-clinical and clinical trials are warranted to translate these results into improved patient care for individuals suffering from metastatic melanoma.

  18. 3-Bromopyruvate induces necrotic cell death in sensitive melanoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, J-Z; Xin, H; Nickoloff, B J

    2010-05-28

    Clinicians successfully utilize high uptake of radiolabeled glucose via PET scanning to localize metastases in melanoma patients. To take advantage of this altered metabolome, 3-bromopyruvate (BrPA) was used to overcome the notorious resistance of melanoma to cell death. Using four melanoma cell lines, BrPA triggered caspase independent necrosis in two lines, whilst the other two lines were resistant to killing. Mechanistically, sensitive cells differed from resistant cells by; constitutively lower levels of glutathione, reduction of glutathione by BrPA only in sensitive cells; increased superoxide anion reactive oxygen species, loss of outer mitochondrial membrane permeability, and rapid ATP depletion. Sensitive cell killing was blocked by N-acetylcysteine or glutathione. When glutathione levels were reduced in resistant cell lines, they became sensitive to killing by BrPA. Taken together, these results identify a metabolic-based Achilles' heel in melanoma cells to be exploited by use of BrPA. Future pre-clinical and clinical trials are warranted to translate these results into improved patient care for individuals suffering from metastatic melanoma. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. 3-Bromopyruvate induces necrotic cell death in sensitive melanoma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, J.-Z.; Xin, H.; Nickoloff, B.J.

    2010-01-01

    Clinicians successfully utilize high uptake of radiolabeled glucose via PET scanning to localize metastases in melanoma patients. To take advantage of this altered metabolome, 3-bromopyruvate (BrPA) was used to overcome the notorious resistance of melanoma to cell death. Using four melanoma cell lines, BrPA triggered caspase independent necrosis in two lines, whilst the other two lines were resistant to killing. Mechanistically, sensitive cells differed from resistant cells by; constitutively lower levels of glutathione, reduction of glutathione by BrPA only in sensitive cells; increased superoxide anion reactive oxygen species, loss of outer mitochondrial membrane permeability, and rapid ATP depletion. Sensitive cell killing was blocked by N-acetylcysteine or glutathione. When glutathione levels were reduced in resistant cell lines, they became sensitive to killing by BrPA. Taken together, these results identify a metabolic-based Achilles' heel in melanoma cells to be exploited by use of BrPA. Future pre-clinical and clinical trials are warranted to translate these results into improved patient care for individuals suffering from metastatic melanoma.

  20. Biodegradable Polymers Induce CD54 on THP-1 Cells in Skin Sensitization Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yeon Suk; Kato, Reiko; Tsuchiya, Toshie

    2011-01-01

    Currently, nonanimal methods of skin sensitization testing for various chemicals, biodegradable polymers, and biomaterials are being developed in the hope of eliminating the use of animals. The human cell line activation test (h-CLAT) is a skin sensitization assessment that mimics the functions of dendritic cells (DCs). DCs are specialized antigen-presenting cells, and they interact with T cells and B cells to initiate immune responses. Phenotypic changes in DCs, such as the production of CD86 and CD54 and internalization of MHC class II molecules, have become focal points of the skin sensitization test. In this study, we used h-CLAT to assess the effects of biodegradable polymers. The results showed that several biodegradable polymers increased the expression of CD54, and the relative skin sensitizing abilities of biodegradable polymers were PLLG (75 : 25) < PLLC (40 : 60) < PLGA (50 : 50) < PCG (50 : 50). These results may contribute to the creation of new guidelines for the use of biodegradable polymers in scaffolds or allergenic hazards.

  1. Biodegradable Polymers Induce CD54 on THP-1 Cells in Skin Sensitization Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon Suk Jung

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, nonanimal methods of skin sensitization testing for various chemicals, biodegradable polymers, and biomaterials are being developed in the hope of eliminating the use of animals. The human cell line activation test (h-CLAT is a skin sensitization assessment that mimics the functions of dendritic cells (DCs. DCs are specialized antigen-presenting cells, and they interact with T cells and B cells to initiate immune responses. Phenotypic changes in DCs, such as the production of CD86 and CD54 and internalization of MHC class II molecules, have become focal points of the skin sensitization test. In this study, we used h-CLAT to assess the effects of biodegradable polymers. The results showed that several biodegradable polymers increased the expression of CD54, and the relative skin sensitizing abilities of biodegradable polymers were PLLG (75 : 25 < PLLC (40 : 60 < PLGA (50 : 50 < PCG (50 : 50. These results may contribute to the creation of new guidelines for the use of biodegradable polymers in scaffolds or allergenic hazards.

  2. Vasopressin induces phosphorylation of the thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter in the distal convoluted tubule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Nis Borbye; Hofmeister, Marlene Vind; Rosenbaek, Lena L

    2010-01-01

    The thiazide-sensitive Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC) is important for renal electrolyte balance and its phosphorylation causes an increase in its transport activity and cellular localization. Here, we generated phospho-specific antibodies against two conserved N-terminal phosphorylation sites...

  3. Contractions induce phosphorylation of the AMPK site Ser565 in hormone-sensitive lipase in muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donsmark, Morten; Langfort, Jozef; Holm, Cecilia

    2004-01-01

    Intramyocellular triglyceride is an important energy store which is related to insulin resistance. Mobilization of fatty acids from this pool is probably regulated by hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), which has recently been shown to exist in muscle and to be activated by epinephrine via PKA...

  4. Repeated patch testing to nickel during childhood do not induce nickel sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard Christiansen, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previously, patch test reactivity to nickel sulphate in a cohort of unselected infants tested repeatedly at 3-72 months of age has been reported. A reproducible positive reaction at 12 and 18 months was selected as a sign of nickel sensitivity, provided a patch test with an empty Finn...

  5. Sensitivity of cells to apoptosis induced by iron deprivation can be reversibly changed by iron availability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koc, Michal; Naďová, Zuzana; Kovář, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 6 (2006), s. 551-561 ISSN 0960-7722 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB5052401 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : apoptosis * iron deprivation * changed cell sensitivity to apoptosis by iron availability Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.492, year: 2006

  6. The attractive Achilles heel of germ cell tumours : an inherent sensitivity to apoptosis-inducing stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierings, DCJ; de Vries, EGE; Vellenga, E; de Jong, S

    Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs) are extremely sensitive to cisplatin-containing chemotherapy. The rapid time course of apoptosis induction after exposure to cisplatin suggests that TGCT cells are primed to undergo programmed cell death as an inherent property of the cell of origin. In fact,

  7. Maternal insulin sensitivity is associated with oral glucose-induced changes in fetal brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Katarzyna; Schleger, Franziska; Ketterer, Caroline; Fritsche, Louise; Kiefer-Schmidt, Isabelle; Hennige, Anita; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Preissl, Hubert; Fritsche, Andreas

    2014-06-01

    Fetal programming plays an important role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether maternal metabolic changes during OGTT influence fetal brain activity. Thirteen healthy pregnant women underwent an OGTT (75 g). Insulin sensitivity was determined by glucose and insulin measurements at 0, 60 and 120 min. At each time point, fetal auditory evoked fields were recorded with a fetal magnetoencephalographic device and response latencies were determined. Maternal insulin increased from a fasting level of 67 ± 25 pmol/l (mean ± SD) to 918 ± 492 pmol/l 60 min after glucose ingestion and glucose levels increased from 4.4 ± 0.3 to 7.4 ± 1.1 mmol/l. Over the same time period, fetal response latencies decreased from 297 ± 99 to 235 ± 84 ms (p = 0.01) and then remained stable until 120 min (235 ± 84 vs 251 ± 91 ms, p = 0.39). There was a negative correlation between maternal insulin sensitivity and fetal response latencies 60 min after glucose ingestion (r = 0.68, p = 0.02). After a median split of the group based on maternal insulin sensitivity, fetuses of insulin-resistant mothers showed a slower response to auditory stimuli (283 ± 79 ms) than those of insulin-sensitive mothers (178 ± 46 ms, p = 0.03). Lower maternal insulin sensitivity is associated with slower fetal brain responses. These findings provide the first evidence of a direct effect of maternal metabolism on fetal brain activity and suggest that central insulin resistance may be programmed during fetal development.

  8. Rainfall-induced fecal indicator organisms transport from manured fields: model sensitivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Gonzalo; Pachepsky, Yakov A; Whelan, Gene; Yakirevich, Alexander M; Guber, Andrey; Gish, Timothy J

    2014-02-01

    Microbial quality of surface waters attracts attention due to food- and waterborne disease outbreaks. Fecal indicator organisms (FIOs) are commonly used for the microbial pollution level evaluation. Models predicting the fate and transport of FIOs are required to design and evaluate best management practices that reduce the microbial pollution in ecosystems and water sources and thus help to predict the risk of food and waterborne diseases. In this study we performed a sensitivity analysis for the KINEROS/STWIR model developed to predict the FIOs transport out of manured fields to other fields and water bodies in order to identify input variables that control the transport uncertainty. The distributions of model input parameters were set to encompass values found from three-year experiments at the USDA-ARS OPE3 experimental site in Beltsville and publicly available information. Sobol' indices and complementary regression trees were used to perform the global sensitivity analysis of the model and to explore the interactions between model input parameters on the proportion of FIO removed from fields. Regression trees provided a useful visualization of the differences in sensitivity of the model output in different parts of the input variable domain. Environmental controls such as soil saturation, rainfall duration and rainfall intensity had the largest influence in the model behavior, whereas soil and manure properties ranked lower. The field length had only moderate effect on the model output sensitivity to the model inputs. Among the manure-related properties the parameter determining the shape of the FIO release kinetic curve had the largest influence on the removal of FIOs from the fields. That underscored the need to better characterize the FIO release kinetics. Since the most sensitive model inputs are available in soil and weather databases or can be obtained using soil water models, results indicate the opportunity of obtaining large-scale estimates of FIO

  9. Increased sensitivity of DNA damage response-deficient cells to stimulated microgravity-induced DNA lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Li

    Full Text Available Microgravity is a major stress factor that astronauts have to face in space. In the past, the effects of microgravity on genomic DNA damage were studied, and it seems that the effect on genomic DNA depends on cell types and the length of exposure time to microgravity or simulated microgravity (SMG. In this study we used mouse embryonic stem (MES and mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF cells to assess the effects of SMG on DNA lesions. To acquire the insight into potential mechanisms by which cells resist and/or adapt to SMG, we also included Rad9-deleted MES and Mdc1-deleted MEF cells in addition to wild type cells in this study. We observed significant SMG-induced DNA double strand breaks (DSBs in Rad9-/- MES and Mdc1-/- MEF cells but not in their corresponding wild type cells. A similar pattern of DNA single strand break or modifications was also observed in Rad9-/- MES. As the exposure to SMG was prolonged, Rad9-/- MES cells adapted to the SMG disturbance by reducing the induced DNA lesions. The induced DNA lesions in Rad9-/- MES were due to SMG-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS. Interestingly, Mdc1-/- MEF cells were only partially adapted to the SMG disturbance. That is, the induced DNA lesions were reduced over time, but did not return to the control level while ROS returned to a control level. In addition, ROS was only partially responsible for the induced DNA lesions in Mdc1-/- MEF cells. Taken together, these data suggest that SMG is a weak genomic DNA stress and can aggravate genomic instability in cells with DNA damage response (DDR defects.

  10. Sensitivity to oxazolone induced dermatitis is transferable with gut microbiota in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariassen, Line Fisker; Krych, Lukasz; Engkilde, Kare

    2017-01-01

    Atopic Dermatitis (AD) has been associated with gut microbiota (GM) dysbiosis in humans, indicating a causative role of GM in AD etiology. Furthermore, the GM strongly correlates to essential disease parameters in the well-known oxazolone-induced mouse model of AD. Here, we demonstrate that it is......Atopic Dermatitis (AD) has been associated with gut microbiota (GM) dysbiosis in humans, indicating a causative role of GM in AD etiology. Furthermore, the GM strongly correlates to essential disease parameters in the well-known oxazolone-induced mouse model of AD. Here, we demonstrate...

  11. Leishmania donovani isolates with antimony-resistant but not -sensitive phenotype inhibit sodium antimony gluconate-induced dendritic cell activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar Haldar

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The inability of sodium antimony gluconate (SAG-unresponsive kala-azar patients to clear Leishmania donovani (LD infection despite SAG therapy is partly due to an ill-defined immune-dysfunction. Since dendritic cells (DCs typically initiate anti-leishmanial immunity, a role for DCs in aberrant LD clearance was investigated. Accordingly, regulation of SAG-induced activation of murine DCs following infection with LD isolates exhibiting two distinct phenotypes such as antimony-resistant (Sb(RLD and antimony-sensitive (Sb(SLD was compared in vitro. Unlike Sb(SLD, infection of DCs with Sb(RLD induced more IL-10 production and inhibited SAG-induced secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules and leishmanicidal effects. Sb(RLD inhibited these effects of SAG by blocking activation of PI3K/AKT and NF-kappaB pathways. In contrast, Sb(SLD failed to block activation of SAG (20 microg/ml-induced PI3K/AKT pathway; which continued to stimulate NF-kappaB signaling, induce leishmanicidal effects and promote DC activation. Notably, prolonged incubation of DCs with Sb(SLD also inhibited SAG (20 microg/ml-induced activation of PI3K/AKT and NF-kappaB pathways and leishmanicidal effects, which was restored by increasing the dose of SAG to 40 microg/ml. In contrast, Sb(RLD inhibited these SAG-induced events regardless of duration of DC exposure to Sb(RLD or dose of SAG. Interestingly, the inhibitory effects of isogenic Sb(SLD expressing ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporter MRPA on SAG-induced leishmanicidal effects mimicked that of Sb(RLD to some extent, although antimony resistance in clinical LD isolates is known to be multifactorial. Furthermore, NF-kappaB was found to transcriptionally regulate expression of murine gammaglutamylcysteine synthetase heavy-chain (mgammaGCS(hc gene, presumably an important regulator of antimony resistance. Importantly, Sb(RLD but not Sb(SLD blocked SAG-induced mgammaGCS expression in DCs by

  12. Olodaterol Attenuates Citric Acid-Induced Cough in Naïve and Ovalbumin-Sensitized and Challenged Guinea Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wex, Eva; Bouyssou, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Excessive coughing is a common feature of airway diseases. Different G-protein coupled receptors, including β2-adrenergic receptors (β2-AR), have been implicated in the molecular mechanisms underlying the cough reflex. However, the potential antitussive property of β2-AR agonists in patients with respiratory disease is a matter of ongoing debate. The aim of our study was to test the efficacy of the long-acting β2-AR agonist olodaterol with regard to its antitussive property in a pre-clinical model of citric acid-induced cough in guinea pigs and to compare the results to different clinically relevant β2-AR agonists. In our study β2-AR agonists were intratracheally administered, as dry powder, into the lungs of naïve or ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pigs 15 minutes prior to induction of cough by exposure to citric acid. Cough events were counted over 15 minutes during the citric acid exposure. Olodaterol dose-dependently inhibited the number of cough events in naïve and even more potently and with a greater maximal efficacy in ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pigs (p citric acid-induced cough in naïve and ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pigs. This is in agreement with pre-clinical and clinical studies showing antitussive efficacy of β2-AR agonists. Indacaterol increased the number of coughs in this model, which concurs with clinical data where a transient cough has been observed after indacaterol inhalation. While the antitussive properties of β2-AR agonists can be explained by their ability to lead to the cAMP-induced hyperpolarization of the neuron membrane thereby inhibiting sensory nerve activation and the cough reflex, the mechanism underlying the pro-tussive property of indacaterol is not known. PMID:25781609

  13. Characterization of causative allergens for wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis sensitized with hydrolyzed wheat proteins in facial soap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokooji, Tomoharu; Kurihara, Saki; Murakami, Tomoko; Chinuki, Yuko; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Morita, Eishin; Harada, Susumu; Ishii, Kaori; Hiragun, Makiko; Hide, Michihiro; Matsuo, Hiroaki

    2013-12-01

    In Japan, hydrolyzed wheat proteins (HWP) have been reported to cause wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA) by transcutaneous sensitization using HWP-containing soap. Patients develop allergic reactions not only with soap use, but also with exercise after the intake of wheat protein (WP). ω5-Gliadin and HMW-glutenin were identified as major allergens in conventional WP-WDEIA patients. However, the allergens in HWP-WDEIA have yet to be elucidated. Sera were obtained from 22 patients with HWP-sensitized WDEIA. The allergenic activities of HWP and six recombinant wheat gluten proteins, including α/β-, γ-, ω1,2- and ω5-gliadin and low- and high molecular weight (HMW)-glutenins, were characterized by immunoblot analysis and histamine releasing test. IgE-binding epitopes were identified using arrays of overlapping peptides synthesized on SPOTs membrane. Immunoblot analysis showed that IgE antibodies (Abs) from HWP-WDEIA bound to α/β-, γ- and ω1,2-gliadin. Recombinant γ-gliadin induced significant histamine release from basophils in eight of 11 patients with HWP-WDEIA. An IgE-binding epitope "QPQQPFPQ" was identified within the primary sequence of γ-gliadin, and the deamidated peptide containing the "PEEPFP" sequence bound with IgE Abs more strongly compared to the native epitope-peptide. The epitope-peptide inhibited IgE-binding to HWP, indicating that the specific IgE to HWP cross-reacts with γ-gliadin. HWP-WDEIA patients could be sensitized to HWP containing a PEEPFP sequence, and WDEIA symptoms after WP ingestion could partly be induced by γ-gliadin. These findings could be useful to help develop tools for diagnosis and desensitization therapy for HWP-WDEIA.

  14. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibition sensitizes human induced pluripotent stem cells to thiol-containing antioxidants induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Chengyi; Xu, Robert; Koleti, Meghana; Zoldan, Janet

    2017-08-01

    Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) is an extensively used strategy to activate Wnt pathway for pluripotent stem cell (PSC) differentiation. However, the effects of such inhibition on PSCs, besides upregulating the Wnt pathway, have rarely been investigated despite that GSK3 is broadly involved in other cellular activities such as insulin signaling and cell growth/survival regulation. Here we describe a previously unknown synergistic effect between GSK3 inhibition (e.g., Chir99021 and LY2090314) and various normally non-toxic thiol-containing antioxidants (e.g., N-acetylcysteine, NAC) on the induction of apoptosis in human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Neither Chir99021 nor the antioxidants individually induced significant apoptosis, whereas their combined treatment resulted in rapid and extensive apoptosis, with substantial caspase 3 activity observed within 3h and over 90% decrease in cell viability after 24h. We confirmed the generality of this phenomenon with multiple independent iPSCs lines, various thiol-based antioxidants and distinct GSK3 inhibitors. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that rapamycin treatment could substantially reduce cell death, suggesting the critical role of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Akt dysregulation was also found to partially contribute to cell apoptosis but was not the primary cause. Further, this coordinated proapoptotic effect was not detected in mouse ESCs but was present in another human cells line: a breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231). Given the wide use of GSK3 inhibition in biomedical research: from iPSC differentiation to cancer intervention and the treatment of neuronal diseases, researchers can potentially take advantage of or avoid this synergistic effect for improved experimental or clinical outcome. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Suppression of NRF2–ARE activity sensitizes chemotherapeutic agent-induced cytotoxicity in human acute monocytic leukemia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Hui; Wang, Huihui; Xue, Peng; Hou, Yongyong; Dong, Jian; Zhou, Tong; Qu, Weidong; Peng, Shuangqing; Li, Jin; Carmichael, Paul L.; Nelson, Bud; Clewell, Rebecca; Zhang, Qiang; Andersen, Melvin E.; Pi, Jingbo

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2), a master regulator of the antioxidant response element (ARE)-dependent transcription, plays a pivotal role in chemical detoxification in normal and tumor cells. Consistent with previous findings that NRF2–ARE contributes to chemotherapeutic resistance of cancer cells, we found that stable knockdown of NRF2 by lentiviral shRNA in human acute monocytic leukemia (AML) THP-1 cells enhanced the cytotoxicity of several chemotherapeutic agents, including arsenic trioxide (As 2 O 3 ), etoposide and doxorubicin. Using an ARE-luciferase reporter expressed in several human and mouse cells, we identified a set of compounds, including isonicotinic acid amides, isoniazid and ethionamide, that inhibited NRF2–ARE activity. Treatment of THP-1 cells with ethionamide, for instance, significantly reduced mRNA expression of multiple ARE-driven genes under either basal or As 2 O 3 -challenged conditions. As determined by cell viability and cell cycle, suppression of NRF2–ARE by ethionamide also significantly enhanced susceptibility of THP-1 and U937 cells to As 2 O 3 -induced cytotoxicity. In THP-1 cells, the sensitizing effect of ethionamide on As 2 O 3 -induced cytotoxicity was highly dependent on NRF2. To our knowledge, the present study is the first to demonstrate that ethionamide suppresses NRF2–ARE signaling and disrupts the transcriptional network of the antioxidant response in AML cells, leading to sensitization to chemotherapeutic agents. - Highlights: • Identification of novel inhibitors of ARE-dependent transcription • Suppression of NRF2–ARE sensitizes THP-1 cells to chemotherapy. • Ethionamide suppresses ARE-dependent transcriptional activity. • Ethionamide and isoniazid increase the cytotoxicity of As 2 O 3 in AML cells. • Sensitization of THP-1 cells to As 2 O 3 toxicity by ethionamide is NRF2-dependent.

  16. Cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization decreases the expression of endocannabinoid signaling-related proteins in the mouse hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Eduardo; Galeano, Pablo; Palomino, Ana; Pavón, Francisco J; Rivera, Patricia; Serrano, Antonia; Alen, Francisco; Rubio, Leticia; Vargas, Antonio; Castilla-Ortega, Estela; Decara, Juan; Bilbao, Ainhoa; de Fonseca, Fernando Rodríguez; Suárez, Juan

    2016-03-01

    In the reward mesocorticolimbic circuits, the glutamatergic and endocannabinoid systems are implicated in neurobiological mechanisms underlying cocaine addiction. However, the involvement of both systems in the hippocampus, a critical region to process relational information relevant for encoding drug-associated memories, in cocaine-related behaviors remains unknown. In the present work, we studied whether the hippocampal gene/protein expression of relevant glutamate signaling components, including glutamate-synthesizing enzymes and metabotropic and ionotropic receptors, and the hippocampal gene/protein expression of cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor and endocannabinoid metabolic enzymes were altered following acute and/or repeated cocaine administration resulting in conditioned locomotion and locomotor sensitization. Results showed that acute cocaine administration induced an overall down-regulation of glutamate-related gene expression and, specifically, a low phosphorylation level of GluA1. In contrast, locomotor sensitization to cocaine produced an up-regulation of several glutamate receptor-related genes and, specifically, an increased protein expression of the GluN1 receptor subunit. Regarding the endocannabinoid system, acute and repeated cocaine administration were associated with an increased gene/protein expression of CB1 receptors and a decreased gene/protein expression of the endocannabinoid-synthesis enzymes N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine D (NAPE-PLD) and diacylglycerol lipase alpha (DAGLα). These changes resulted in an overall decrease in endocannabinoid synthesis/degradation ratios, especially NAPE-PLD/fatty acid amide hydrolase and DAGLα/monoacylglycerol lipase, suggesting a reduced endocannabinoid production associated with a compensatory up-regulation of CB1 receptor. Overall, these findings suggest that repeated cocaine administration resulting in locomotor sensitization induces a down-regulation of the endocannabinoid signaling that could

  17. Distribution of ultraviolet-induced DNA repair synthesis in nuclease sensitive and resistant regions of human chromatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smerdon, M.J.; Tlsty, T.D.; Lieberman, M.W.

    1978-01-01

    The distribution of ultraviolet radiation (uv) induced DNA repair synthesis within chromatin was examined in cultured human diploid fibroblasts (IMR-90). Measurement of the time course of repair synthesis yielded two distinct phases: An initial rapid phase (fast repair) which occurs during the first 2 to 3 h after damage and a slower phase (slow repair) associated with a tenfold decrease in the rate of nucleotide incorporation, which persists for at least 35 h after damage. Staphylococcal nuclease digests of nuclei from cells damaged with uv and labeled during the fast-repair phase revealed a marked preference of fast-repair synthesis for the nuclease-sensitive regions. A new method was developed to analyze the digestion data and showed that approximately 50% of the nucleotides incorporated during the fast-repair phase are located in staphylococcal nuclease-sensitive regions, which comprise about 30% of the genome. Calculations from these data indicate that in the staphylococcal nuclease-sensitive regions the number of newly inserted nucleotides per unit DNA is about twice that of resistant regions. These results were supported by electrophoresis studies which demonstrated a decreased representation of fast-repair synthesis in core particle DNA. In contrast, the distribution within chromatin of nucleotides incorporated during the slow-repair phase was found to be much more homogeneous with about 30% of the repair sites located in 25% of the genome. Digestion studieswith DNase I indicated a slight preference of repair synthesis for regions sensitive to this enzyme; however, no marked difference between the distributions of fast- and slow-repair synthesis was observed. This study provides evidence that the structural constraints placed upon DNA in chromatin also place constraints upon uv-induced DNA repair synthesis in human cells

  18. Sensitivity of fibroblast growth factor 23 measurements in tumor-induced osteomalacia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imel, E.A.; Peacock, M.; Pitukcheewanont, P.; Heller, H.J.; Ward, LM; Shulman, D.; Kassem, M.; Rackoff, P.; Zimering, M.; Dalkin, A.; Drobny, E.; Colussi, G.; Shaker, J.L.; Hoogendoorn, E.H.; Hui, S.L.; Econs, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    CONTEXT: Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a paraneoplastic syndrome of hypophosphatemia, decreased renal phosphate reabsorption, normal or low serum 1,25-dihydryxyvitamin-D concentration, myopathy, and osteomalacia. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a phosphaturic protein overexpressed in

  19. Sensitivity of fibroblast growth factor 23 measurements in tumor-induced osteomalacia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imel, Erik A; Peacock, Munro; Pitukcheewanont, Pisit

    2006-01-01

    Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a paraneoplastic syndrome of hypophosphatemia, decreased renal phosphate reabsorption, normal or low serum 1,25-dihydryxyvitamin-D concentration, myopathy, and osteomalacia. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a phosphaturic protein overexpressed in tumors t...

  20. The circadian rhythm for the number and sensitivity of radiation-induced apoptosis in the crypts of mouse small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijiri, K.; Potten, C.S.

    1990-01-01

    Survival curves were constructed from dose-incidence curves for apoptosis in the crypts of mouse small intestine, using the number of apoptotic cells after high doses (N M ) as maximum cell population size. The mean lethal doses (D 0 ) for the dose range 0-0.5 Gy were calculated for each time of day. A circadian rhythm in both D 0 and N M values was detected, indicating that both the number and sensitivity of radiation-induced apoptosis were changing throughout the day. (author)