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Sample records for answers cancer nanotechnology

  1. Cancer nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagdale Swati

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer nanotechnology is the latest trend in cancer therapy. It helps the pharmacist to formulate the product with maximum therapeutic value and minimum or negligible range side effects. Cancer is the disease in which the abnormal cells are quite similar to the normal cell with just minute functional or genetic change. Thus, it is very hard to target the abnormal cells by the conventional method of the drug delivery system. Nanotechnology is probably the only method that can be used for site-specific action without causing the side effects by killing the normal cells. This review article describes the possible way to exploit the nanotechnology to targeted drug therapy in cancer. The various methods used are: systemic delivery systems, passive targeting, active targeting, intracellular delivery, subcellular localization, and nanoparticle drugs. Different cancer detection techniques like carbon nanotubes, nanorods, and biosensors are also available. This review article gives an idea about the possible potential of nanotechnology in drug delivery, drug targeting, and the diagnosis of cancer.

  2. Emerging nanotechnologies for cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Sourabh; Steinmetz, Nicole F

    2016-05-01

    Founded on the growing insight into the complex cancer-immune system interactions, adjuvant immunotherapies are rapidly emerging and being adapted for the treatment of various human malignancies. Immune checkpoint inhibitors, for example, have already shown clinical success. Nevertheless, many approaches are not optimized, require frequent administration, are associated with systemic toxicities and only show modest efficacy as monotherapies. Nanotechnology can potentially enhance the efficacy of such immunotherapies by improving the delivery, retention and release of immunostimulatory agents and biologicals in targeted cell populations and tissues. This review presents the current status and emerging trends in such nanotechnology-based cancer immunotherapies including the role of nanoparticles as carriers of immunomodulators, nanoparticles-based cancer vaccines, and depots for sustained immunostimulation. Also highlighted are key translational challenges and opportunities in this rapidly growing field.

  3. Nanotechnology for Early Cancer Detection

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    Joon Won Park

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vast numbers of studies and developments in the nanotechnology area have been conducted and many nanomaterials have been utilized to detect cancers at early stages. Nanomaterials have unique physical, optical and electrical properties that have proven to be very useful in sensing. Quantum dots, gold nanoparticles, magnetic nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, gold nanowires and many other materials have been developed over the years, alongside the discovery of a wide range of biomarkers to lower the detection limit of cancer biomarkers. Proteins, antibody fragments, DNA fragments, and RNA fragments are the base of cancer biomarkers and have been used as targets in cancer detection and monitoring. It is highly anticipated that in the near future, we might be able to detect cancer at a very early stage, providing a much higher chance of treatment.

  4. Nanotechnology in the management of cervical cancer.

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    Chen, Jiezhong; Gu, Wenyi; Yang, Lei; Chen, Chen; Shao, Renfu; Xu, Kewei; Xu, Zhi Ping

    2015-03-01

    Cervical cancer is a major disease with high mortality. All cervical cancers are caused by infection with human papillomaviruses (HPV). Although preventive vaccines for cervical cancer are successful, treatment of cervical cancer is far less satisfactory because of multidrug resistance and side effects. In this review, we summarize the recent application of nanotechnology to the diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer as well as the development of HPV vaccines. Early detection of cervical cancer enables tumours to be efficiently removed by surgical procedures, leading to increased survival rate. The current method of detecting cervical cancer by Pap smear can only achieve 50% sensitivity, whereas nanotechnology has been used to detect HPVs with greatly improved sensitivity. In cervical cancer treatment, nanotechnology has been used for the delivery of anticancer drugs to increase treatment efficacy and decrease side effects. Nanodelivery of HPV preventive and therapeutic vaccines has also been investigated to increase vaccine efficacy. Overall, these developments suggest that nanoparticle-based vaccine may become the most effective way to prevent and treat cervical cancer, assisted or combined with some other nanotechnology-based therapy.

  5. Diagnosis of prostate cancer via nanotechnological approach.

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    Kang, Benedict J; Jeun, Minhong; Jang, Gun Hyuk; Song, Sang Hoon; Jeong, In Gab; Kim, Choung-Soo; Searson, Peter C; Lee, Kwan Hyi

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths among the Caucasian adult males in Europe and the USA. Currently available diagnostic strategies for patients with prostate cancer are invasive and unpleasant and have poor accuracy. Many patients have been overly or underly treated resulting in a controversy regarding the reliability of current conventional diagnostic approaches. This review discusses the state-of-the-art research in the development of novel noninvasive prostate cancer diagnostics using nanotechnology coupled with suggested diagnostic strategies for their clinical implication.

  6. Carbon nanotubes for in vivo cancer nanotechnology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The latest progress of using carbon nanotubes(CNTs) for in vivo cancer nanotechnology is reviewed.CNTs can be functionalized by either covalent or non-covalent chemistry to produce functional bioconjugates for many in vivo applications.In vivo behaviors and toxicology studies of CNTs are summarized,suggesting no significant toxicity of well functionalized CNTs to the treated mice.Owing to their unique chemical and physical properties,CNTs,especially single-walled carbon nanotubes(SWNTs),have been widely used for various modalities of in vivo cancer treatment and imaging.Future development of CNT-based nanomedicine may bring novel opportunities to cancer diagnosis and therapy.

  7. Drug targeting systems for cancer therapy: nanotechnological approach.

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    Tigli Aydin, R Seda

    2015-01-01

    Progress in cancer treatment remains challenging because of the great nature of tumor cells to be drug resistant. However, advances in the field of nanotechnology have enabled the delivery of drugs for cancer treatment by passively and actively targeting to tumor cells with nanoparticles. Dramatic improvements in nanotherapeutics, as applied to cancer, have rapidly accelerated clinical investigations. In this review, drug-targeting systems using nanotechnology and approved and clinically investigated nanoparticles for cancer therapy are discussed. In addition, the rationale for a nanotechnological approach to cancer therapy is emphasized because of its promising advances in the treatment of cancer patients.

  8. Application of nanotechnology in cancers prevention, early detection and treatment.

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    Patel, Shraddha P; Patel, Parshottambhai B; Parekh, Bhavesh B

    2014-01-01

    Use of nanotechnology in medical science is a rapidly developing area. New opportunities of diagnosis, imaging and therapy have developed due to recent rapid advancement by nanotechnology. The most common areas to be affected are diagnostic, imaging and targeted drug delivery in gastroenterology, oncology, cardiovascular medicine, obstetrics and gynecology. Mass screening with inexpensive imaging might be possible in the near future with the help of nanotechnology. This review paper provides an overview of causes of cancer and the application of nanotechnology in cancer prevention, detection and treatment.

  9. Applications of gold nanoparticles in cancer nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weibo Cai

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Weibo Cai1,2, Ting Gao3, Hao Hong1, Jiangtao Sun11Departments of Radiology and Medical Physics, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin – Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA; 2University of Wisconsin Paul P. Carbone Comprehensive Cancer Center, Madison, Wisconsin, USA; 3Tyco Electronics Corporation, 306 Constitution Drive, Menlo Park, California, USAAbstract: It has been almost 4 decades since the “war on cancer” was declared. It is now generally believed that personalized medicine is the future for cancer patient management. Possessing unprecedented potential for early detection, accurate diagnosis, and personalized treatment of cancer, nanoparticles have been extensively studied over the last decade. In this review, we will summarize the current state-of-the-art of gold nanoparticles in biomedical applications targeting cancer. Gold nanospheres, nanorods, nanoshells, nanocages, and surface enhanced Raman scattering nanoparticles will be discussed in detail regarding their uses in in vitro assays, ex vivo and in vivo imaging, cancer therapy, and drug delivery. Multifunctionality is the key feature of nanoparticle-based agents. Targeting ligands, imaging labels, therapeutic drugs, and other functionalities can all be integrated to allow for targeted molecular imaging and molecular therapy of cancer. Big strides have been made and many proof-of-principle studies have been successfully performed. The future looks brighter than ever yet many hurdles remain to be conquered. A multifunctional platform based on gold nanoparticles, with multiple receptor targeting, multimodality imaging, and multiple therapeutic entities, holds the promise for a “magic gold bullet” against cancer.Keywords: gold nanoparticles, cancer, nanotechnology, optical imaging, nanomedicine, molecular therapy

  10. Diagnosis of prostate cancer via nanotechnological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang BJ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Benedict J Kang,1,2,* Minhong Jeun,1,2,* Gun Hyuk Jang,1,2 Sang Hoon Song,3 In Gab Jeong,3 Choung-Soo Kim,3 Peter C Searson,4 Kwan Hyi Lee1,2 1KIST Biomedical Research Institute, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Korea University of Science and Technology (UST, 3Department of Urology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 4Institute for Nanobiotechnology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Prostate cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths among the Caucasian adult males in Europe and the USA. Currently available diagnostic strategies for patients with prostate cancer are invasive and unpleasant and have poor accuracy. Many patients have been overly or underly treated resulting in a controversy regarding the reliability of current conventional diagnostic approaches. This review discusses the state-of-the-art research in the development of novel noninvasive prostate cancer diagnostics using nanotechnology coupled with suggested diagnostic strategies for their clinical implication.Keywords: bioassay, nanomaterial, nanodevice, PSA, non-PSA biomarker, bodily fluid

  11. The Dartmouth Center for Cancer Nanotechnology Excellence: magnetic hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Ian; Fiering, Steve N; Griswold, Karl E; Hoopes, P Jack; Kekalo, Katerina; Ndong, Christian; Paulsen, Keith; Petryk, Alicea A; Pogue, Brian; Shubitidze, Fridon; Weaver, John

    2015-01-01

    The Dartmouth Center for Cancer Nanotechnology Excellence - one of nine funded by the National Cancer Institute as part of the Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer - focuses on the use of magnetic nanoparticles for cancer diagnostics and hyperthermia therapy. It brings together a diverse team of engineers and biomedical researchers with expertise in nanomaterials, molecular targeting, advanced biomedical imaging and translational in vivo studies. The goal of successfully treating cancer is being approached by developing nanoparticles, conjugating them with Fabs, hyperthermia treatment, immunotherapy and sensing treatment response.

  12. Overcoming multidrug resistance(MDR) in cancer by nanotechnology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The emerging nanotechnology-based drug delivery holds tremendous potential to deliver chemotherapeutic drugs for treatment of multidrug resistance(MDR) cancer.This drug delivery system could improve the pharmacokinetic behavior of antitumor drugs,deliver chemotherapeutic drugs to target sites,control release of drugs,and reduce the systemic toxicity of drugs in MDR cancer.This review addresses the use of nanotechnology to overcome MDR classified on the bases of the fundamental mechanisms of MDR and various approaches to deliver drugs for treatment of MDR cancer.

  13. Convergence of nanotechnology and cancer prevention: are we there yet?

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    Menter, David G; Patterson, Sherri L; Logsdon, Craig D; Kopetz, Scott; Sood, Anil K; Hawk, Ernest T

    2014-10-01

    Nanotechnology is emerging as a promising modality for cancer treatment; however, in the realm of cancer prevention, its full utility has yet to be determined. Here, we discuss the potential of integrating nanotechnology in cancer prevention to augment early diagnosis, precision targeting, and controlled release of chemopreventive agents, reduced toxicity, risk/response assessment, and personalized point-of-care monitoring. Cancer is a multistep, progressive disease; the functional and acquired characteristics of the early precancer phenotype are intrinsically different from those of a more advanced anaplastic or invasive malignancy. Therefore, applying nanotechnology to precancers is likely to be far more challenging than applying it to established disease. Frank cancers are more readily identifiable through imaging and biomarker and histopathologic assessment than their precancerous precursors. In addition, prevention subjects routinely have more rigorous intervention criteria than therapy subjects. Any nanopreventive agent developed to prevent sporadic cancers found in the general population must exhibit a very low risk of serious side effects. In contrast, a greater risk of side effects might be more acceptable in subjects at high risk for cancer. Using nanotechnology to prevent cancer is an aspirational goal, but clearly identifying the intermediate objectives and potential barriers is an essential first step in this exciting journey.

  14. Highlights of recent developments and trends in cancer nanotechnology research--view from NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer.

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    Hull, L C; Farrell, D; Grodzinski, P

    2014-01-01

    Although the incidence of cancer and cancer related deaths in the United States has decreased over the past two decades due to improvements in early detection and treatment, cancer still is responsible for a quarter of the deaths in this country. There is much room for improvement on the standard treatments currently available and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) has recognized the potential for nanotechnology and nanomaterials in this area. The NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer was formed in 2004 to support multidisciplinary researchers in the application of nanotechnology to cancer diagnosis and treatment. The researchers in the Alliance have been productive in generating innovative solutions to some of the central issues of cancer treatment including how to detect tumors earlier, how to target cancer cells specifically, and how to improve the therapeutic index of existing chemotherapies and radiotherapy treatments. Highly creative ideas are being pursued where novelty in nanomaterial development enables new modalities of detection or therapy. This review highlights some of the innovative materials approaches being pursued by researchers funded by the NCI Alliance. Their discoveries to improve the functionality of nanoparticles for medical applications includes the generation of new platforms, improvements in the manufacturing of nanoparticles and determining the underlying reasons for the movement of nanoparticles in the blood.

  15. Nanotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    Structuring matter on the nanometer range is much more that just making things smaller than in existing microscale devices. Rather the exploitation of phenomena that stem exclusively from the nanoscale dimensions of device elements holds the promise of new functionalities and applications in various fields as electronics, mechanics, optics or medicine. I will give a general introduction in the basics of nanotechnology, illustrated by existing and envisaged applications from which a strong impact on both science and our daily life is to be expected. I will also discuss the methodology and experimental techniques, as scanning probe microscopies and lithography.

  16. Nanotechnology for the delivery of phytochemicals in cancer therapy.

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    Xie, Jing; Yang, Zhaogang; Zhou, Chenguang; Zhu, Jing; Lee, Robert J; Teng, Lesheng

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize advances that have been made in the delivery of phytochemicals for cancer therapy by the use of nanotechnology. Over recent decades, much research effort has been invested in developing phytochemicals as cancer therapeutic agents. However, several impediments to their wide spread use as drugs still have to be overcome. Among these are low solubility, poor penetration into cells, high hepatic disposition, and narrow therapeutic index. Rapid clearance or uptake by normal tissues and wide tissue distribution result in low drug accumulation in the target tumor sites can result in undesired drug exposure in normal tissues. Association with or encapsulation in nanoscale drug carriers is a potential strategy to address these problems. This review discussed lessons learned on the use of nanotechnology for delivery of phytochemicals that been tested in clinical trials or are moving towards the clinic.

  17. DETECTION OF CANCER BIOMARKERS WITH NANOTECHNOLOGY

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    Lei Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Early detection of cancer biomarkers with high precision is critically important for cancer therapy. A variety of sensors based on different nanostructured materials have attracted intensive research interest due to their potential for highly sensitive and selective detection of cancer biomarkers. This review covers the use of a variety of nanostructured materials, including carbon nanotubes, silicon nanowires, gold nanoparticles and quantum dots, in the fabrication of sensors. Emphases are placed on how the detection systems work and what detection limits can be achieved. Some assays described in this review outperform established methods for cancer biomarker detection. It is highly promising that these sensors would soon move into commercial-scale production and find routine use in hospitals.

  18. Nanotechnology-based intelligent drug design for cancer metastasis treatment.

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    Gao, Yu; Xie, Jingjing; Chen, Haijun; Gu, Songen; Zhao, Rongli; Shao, Jingwei; Jia, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Traditional chemotherapy used today at clinics is mainly inherited from the thinking and designs made four decades ago when the Cancer War was declared. The potency of those chemotherapy drugs on in-vitro cancer cells is clearly demonstrated at even nanomolar levels. However, due to their non-specific effects in the body on normal tissues, these drugs cause toxicity, deteriorate patient's life quality, weaken the host immunosurveillance system, and result in an irreversible damage to human's own recovery power. Owing to their unique physical and biological properties, nanotechnology-based chemotherapies seem to have an ability to specifically and safely reach tumor foci with enhanced efficacy and low toxicity. Herein, we comprehensively examine the current nanotechnology-based pharmaceutical platforms and strategies for intelligent design of new nanomedicines based on targeted drug delivery system (TDDS) for cancer metastasis treatment, analyze the pros and cons of nanomedicines versus traditional chemotherapy, and evaluate the importance that nanomaterials can bring in to significantly improve cancer metastasis treatment.

  19. Biology of cancer: some questions to answer.

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    Chapekar, T

    2001-10-01

    Though great advances in cancer biology have taken place through these years, some fundamental questions are still to be explained. Some observations in this regard are discussed in the present paper. In the course of experimental studies on hormonal stimulation of target cells, it was observed that goat granulosa cells showed differential proliferative response to sustained stimulation by oLH and hCG in culture. oLH caused cells to proliferate whereas hCG failed to stimulate the cells though both the gonadotropins have common receptors on the target cell. Further studies might throw some light on the mechanism of signal transduction in cell biology and neoplasia. A question is also posed as to how to interpret thermodynamically the sustained growth of cancer vis-a-vis the host.

  20. Nanotechnology Method Comparison for Early Detection of Cancer

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    Wamakshi Bhati

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Since 1999, cancer has been the leading cause of death under the age of 85 years and the eradication of this disease has been the long sought-after goal of scientists and physicians. Cancer is a disease in which abnormal cells divide uncontrollably. These abnormal cells have the ability to invade and destroy normal body cells, which is life threatening. One of the most important factors in effective cancer treatment is the detection of cancerous tumour cells in an early stage. Nanotechnology brings new hope to the arena of cancer detection research, owing to nanoparticles’ unique physical and chemical properties, giving them the potential to be used in the detection and monitoring of cancer. One such approach is quantum dots based detection which is rapid, easy and economical enabling quick point-of-care screening of cancer markers. QDs have got unique properties which make them ideal for detecting tumours. On the other hand, Gold nanoparticles have been in the bio-imaging spotlight due to their special optical properties. Au-NPs with strong surface-plasmon-enhanced absorption and scattering have allowed them to emerge as powerful imaging labels and contrast agents. This paper includes the comparative study of both the methods. Compared with quantum dots, the gold-nanoparticles are more than 200 times brighter on a particle-to-particle basis, although they are about 60 times larger by volume. Thus, Gold nanoparticles in suspension, offers advantages compared with quantum dots in that the gold appears to be non-toxic and the particles produce a brighter, sharper signal.

  1. Unique roles of nanotechnology in medicine and cancer-II

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    F Alam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Applications of nanotechnology in medicine and cancer are becoming increasingly popular. Common nanomaterials and devices applicable in cancer medicine are classifiable as liposomes, polymeric-micelles, dendrimers, nano-cantilevers, carbon nanotubes, quantum dots, magnetic-nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs and certain miscellaneous nanoparticles. Here, we present review of the structure, function and utilities of the various approved, under trial and pretrial nanodevices applicable in the cancer care and medicine. The liposomes are phospholipid-vesicles made use in carrying drugs to the target site minimizing the bio-distribution toxicity and a number of such theranostics have been approved for clinical practice. Newly worked out liposomes and polymeric micelles are under the trail phases for nano-therapeutic utility. A multifunctional dendrimer conjugate with imaging, targeting and drug molecules of paclitaxel has been recently synthesized for cancer theranostic applications. Nano-cantilever based assays are likely going to replace the conventions methods of chemical pathological investigations. Carbon nanotubes are emerging for utility in regenerative and cancer medicine. Quantum dots hold great promise for the micro-metastasis and intra-operative tumor imaging. Important applications of magnetic nanoparticles are in the cardiac stents, photodynamic therapy and liver metastasis imaging. The AuNPs have been employed for cell imaging, computed tomography and cancer therapy. Besides these categories, miscellaneous other nanoparticles are being discovered for utility in the cancer diagnosis and disease management. However, the use of nanoparticles should be cautious since the toxic effects of nanoparticles are not well-known. The use of nanoparticles in the clinical practice and their toxicity profile require further extensive research.

  2. Nanotechnology; its significance in cancer and photodynamic therapy

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    Mohammad Reza Gaeeni

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, developments in nanotechnology have provided a new field in medicine called “Nanomedicine”. Nanomedicine has provided new tools for photodynamic therapy. Quantum dots (QDs are approximately spherical nanoparticles that have attracted broad attention and have been used in nanomedicine applications. QDs have high molar extinction coefficients and photoluminescence quantum yield, narrow emission spectra, broad absorption, large effective stokes shifts. QDs are more photostable and resistant to metabolic degradation. These photosensitizing properties can be used as photosensitizers for Photodynamic Therapy (PDT. PDT has been recommended for its unique characteristic, such as low side effect and more efficiency. Therefore, nanomedicine leads a promising future for targeted therapy in cancer tumor. Furthermore, QDs have recently been applied in PDT, which will be addressed in this review letter. Also this review letter evaluates key aspects of nano-particulate design and engineering, including the advantage of the nanometer scale size range, biological behavior, and safety profile.

  3. Review of "Cancer Nanotechnology: Methods and Protocols (Methods in Molecular Biology" by Stephen R. Grobmyer (Editor, Brij M. Moudgil (Editor

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    Steinmetz Nicole F

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cancer remains one of the leading causes of death. Research and resulting technologies have contributed to rising numbers of cancer survivors. Cancer nanotechnology is a novel and burgeoning field with the promise to open the door for the development of improved cancer therapies and detection methods. Cancer nanotechnology has the potential to become clinical reality.

  4. The Elimination of Corrosion . . . is Nanotechnology the Answer to the USAF’s #1 Aging Aircraft Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    capabilities across fields of science, engineering, and medicine . 45 AU/ACSC/AVRAM/AY09 13 Nanotechnology Background Advances in scientific instruments...interdisciplinary. It is not just chemistry, molecular biology, medicine , physics, engineering, information science and metrology; it is all of these fields at...Manchester, United Kingdom, 8-11 October 2001. 7. Berube, David M. Nano-Hype: The Truth Behind the Nanotechnology Buzz. Amherst, NY, Prometheus

  5. Nanotechnology in bladder cancer: current state of development and clinical practice.

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    Tomlinson, Ben; Lin, Tzu-yin; Dall'Era, Marc; Pan, Chong-Xian

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology is being developed for the diagnosis and treatment of both nonmyoinvasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) and invasive bladder cancer. The diagnostic applications of nanotechnology in NMIBC mainly focus on tumor identification during endoscopy to increase complete resection of bladder cancer while nanotechnology to capture malignant cells or their components continues to be developed. The therapeutic applications of nanotechnology in NMIBC are to reformulate biological and cytotoxic agents for intravesical instillation, combine both diagnostic and therapeutic application in one nanoformulation. In invasive and advanced bladder cancer, magnetic resonance imaging with supraparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles can improve the sensitivity and specificity in detecting small metastasis to lymph nodes. Nanoformulation of cytotoxic agents can potentially decrease the toxicity while increasing efficacy.

  6. Nanotechnology for delivery of gemcitabine to treat pancreatic cancer.

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    Birhanu, Gebremariam; Javar, Hamid Akbari; Seyedjafari, Ehsan; Zandi-Karimi, Ali

    2017-04-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the most deadly and quickly fatal human cancers with a 5-year mortality rate close to 100%. Its prognosis is very poor, mainly because of its hostile biological behavior and late onset of symptoms for clinical diagnosis; these bring limitations on therapeutic interventions. Factors contributing for the difficulties in treating PC include: high rate of drug resistance, fast metastasis to different organs, poor prognosis and relapse of the tumor after therapy. After being approved by US FDA 1997, Gemcitabine (Gem) is the first line and the gold standard drug for all stages of advanced PC till now. However, its efficacy is unsatisfactory, mainly due to; its chemical instability and poor cellular uptake, resulting in an extremely short half-life and low bioavailability. To solve this drawbacks and increase the therapeutic outcome important progress has been achieved in the field of nanotechnology and offers a promising and effective alternative. This review mainly focus on the most commonly investigated nanoparticle (NP) delivery systems of Gem for PC treatment and the latest progresses achieved. Novel nanocarriers with better tumor targeting efficiencies and maximum treatment outcome to treat this deadly due are given much attention.

  7. Center of nanotechnology for cancer diagnosis and treatment launched in Tianjin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ On 24 August, a center of nanotechnology for cancer diagnosis and treatment was officially inaugurated in Tianjin. The center was jointly established by the CAS Institute of High-energy Physics, the CAS affiliated National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, and the Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital.

  8. Application of nanotechnology in the treatment and diagnosis of gastrointestinal cancers: review of recent patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prados, Jose; Melguizo, Consolacion; Perazzoli, Gloria; Cabeza, Laura; Carrasco, Esther; Oliver, Jaime; Jiménez-Luna, Cristina; Leiva, Maria C; Ortiz, Raúl; Álvarez, Pablo J; Aranega, Antonia

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal cancers remain one of the main causes of death in developed countries. The main obstacles to combating these diseases are the limitations of current diagnostic techniques and the low stability, availability, and/or specificity of pharmacological treatment. In recent years, nanotechnology has revolutionized many fields of medicine, including oncology. The association of chemotherapeutic agents with nanoparticles offers improvement in the solubility and stability of antitumor agents, avoidance of drug degradation, and reductions in therapeutic dose and toxicity, increasing drug levels in tumor tissue and decreasing them in healthy tissue. The use of specific molecules that drive nanoparticles to the tumor tissue represents a major advance in therapeutic specificity. In addition, the use of nanotechnology in contrast agents has yielded improvements in the diagnosis and the follow-up of tumors. These nanotechnologies have all been applied in gastrointestinal cancer treatment, first in vitro, and subsequently in vivo, with promising results reported in some clinical trials. A large number of patents have been generated by nanotechnology research over recent years. The objective of this paper is to review patents on the clinical use of nanoparticles for gastrointestinal cancer diagnosis and therapy and to offer an overview of the impact of nanotechnology on the management of this disease.

  9. Recent insights in nanotechnology-based drugs and formulations designed for effective anti-cancer therapy.

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    Piktel, Ewelina; Niemirowicz, Katarzyna; Wątek, Marzena; Wollny, Tomasz; Deptuła, Piotr; Bucki, Robert

    2016-05-26

    The rapid development of nanotechnology provides alternative approaches to overcome several limitations of conventional anti-cancer therapy. Drug targeting using functionalized nanoparticles to advance their transport to the dedicated site, became a new standard in novel anti-cancer methods. In effect, the employment of nanoparticles during design of antineoplastic drugs helps to improve pharmacokinetic properties, with subsequent development of high specific, non-toxic and biocompatible anti-cancer agents. However, the physicochemical and biological diversity of nanomaterials and a broad spectrum of unique features influencing their biological action requires continuous research to assess their activity. Among numerous nanosystems designed to eradicate cancer cells, only a limited number of them entered the clinical trials. It is anticipated that progress in development of nanotechnology-based anti-cancer materials will provide modern, individualized anti-cancer therapies assuring decrease in morbidity and mortality from cancer diseases. In this review we discussed the implication of nanomaterials in design of new drugs for effective antineoplastic therapy and describe a variety of mechanisms and challenges for selective tumor targeting. We emphasized the recent advantages in the field of nanotechnology-based strategies to fight cancer and discussed their part in effective anti-cancer therapy and successful drug delivery.

  10. Potential Applications of Nanotechnology for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer

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    Joshua eMcCarroll

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite improvements in our understanding of pancreatic cancer and the emerging concept of personalized medicine for the treatment of this disease, it is still the fourth most common cause of cancer death in the western world. It is established that pancreatic cancer is a highly heterogeneous disease with a complex tumor microenvironment. Indeed the extensive stroma surrounding the cancer cells has been shown to be important in promoting tumor growth and metastases, as well as sequestering chemotherapeutic agents consequently decreasing delivery to the tumor cells. Nanotechnology has come to the forefront in the areas of medical diagnostics, imaging, and therapeutic drug delivery. This review will focus on the potential applications of nanotechnology for diagnosis, imaging, and delivery of therapeutic agents for the treatment of pancreatic cancer.

  11. Advanced Lung Cancer Screening: An Individualized Molecular Nanotechnology Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Bethesda, MD, USA2014. Available from: http://seer.cancer.gov/ csr /1975_2011/. 4. Siegel RL, Miller KD, Jemal A. Cancer statistics, 2016. CA: a cancer...Bioinformatics 2015. Available from: http:// genome.uscs.edu. 35. Brandes JC, Carraway H, Herman JG. Optimal primer design using the novel primer design...Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2011. http://seer.cancer.gov/ csr /1975_2011/. 2. Siegel RL, Miller KD, Jemal A. Cancer statistics, 2016. CA Cancer J

  12. Nanotechnology-based inhalation treatments for lung cancer: state of the art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Javed; Akhter, Sohail; Rizwanullah, Md; Amin, Saima; Rahman, Mahfoozur; Ahmad, Mohammad Zaki; Rizvi, Moshahid Alam; Kamal, Mohammad A; Ahmad, Farhan Jalees

    2015-01-01

    Considering the challenges associated with conventional chemotherapy, targeted and local delivery of chemotherapeutics via nanoparticle (NP) carriers to the lungs is an emerging area of interest. Recent studies and growing clinical application in cancer nanotechnology showed the huge potential of NPs as drug carriers in cancer therapy, including in lung carcinoma for diagnosis, imaging, and theranostics. Researchers have confirmed that nanotechnology-based inhalation chemotherapy is viable and more effective than conventional chemotherapy, with lesser side effects. Recently, many nanocarriers have been investigated, including liposomes, polymeric micelles, polymeric NPs, solid lipid NPs, and inorganic NPs for inhalation treatments of lung cancer. Yet, the toxicity of such nanomaterials to the lungs tissues and further distribution to other organs due to systemic absorption on inhalation delivery is a debatable concern. Here, prospect of NPs-based local lung cancer targeting through inhalation route as well as its associated challenges are discussed. PMID:26640374

  13. Nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems for treatment of oral cancer: a review

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    Calixto G

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Giovana Calixto, Jéssica Bernegossi, Bruno Fonseca-Santos, Marlus Chorilli School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Drugs and Pharmaceuticals, São Paulo State University (UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: Oral cancer (oral cavity and oropharynx is a common and aggressive cancer that invades local tissue, can cause metastasis, and has a high mortality rate. Conventional treatment strategies, such as surgery and chemoradiotherapy, have improved over the past few decades; however, they remain far from optimal. Currently, cancer research is focused on improving cancer diagnosis and treatment methods (oral cavity and oropharynx nanotechnology, which involves the design, characterization, production, and application of nanoscale drug delivery systems. In medicine, nanotechnologies, such as polymeric nanoparticles, solid lipid nanoparticles, nanostructured lipid carriers, gold nanoparticles, hydrogels, cyclodextrin complexes, and liquid crystals, are promising tools for diagnostic probes and therapeutic devices. The objective of this study is to present a systematic review of nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems for oral cancers. Keywords: targeted delivery, oral squamous cell carcinoma, oral cancer treatment

  14. From nanotechnology to nanomedicine: applications to cancer research.

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    Seigneuric, R; Markey, L; Nuyten, D S A; Dubernet, C; Evelo, C T A; Finot, E; Garrido, C

    2010-10-01

    Scientific advances have significantly improved the practice of medicine by providing objective and quantitative means for exploring the human body and disease states. These innovative technologies have already profoundly improved disease detection, imaging, treatment and patient follow-up. Today's analytical limits are at the nanoscale level (one-billionth of a meter) enabling a detailed exploration at the level of DNA, RNA, proteins and metabolites which are in fact nano-objects. This translational review aims at integrating some recent advances from micro- and nano-technologies with high potential for improving daily oncology practice.

  15. Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT): Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT): Questions and Answers On This ... E supplement. Should men take vitamin E or selenium supplements for cancer prevention? No. Scientists do not understand how these ...

  16. How can nanotechnology help membrane vesicle-based cancer immunotherapy development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xin; Zhu, Motao; Nie, Guangjun

    2013-01-01

    Exosomes are nanosized vesicles originating from endosomal compartments and secreted by most living cells. In the past decade, exosomes have emerged as potent tools for cancer immunotherapy due to their important roles in modulation of immune responses, and promising results have been achieved in exosome-based immunotherapy. The recent rapid progress of nanotechnology, especially on tailored design of nanocarriers for drug delivery based on both passive and active targeting strategies, sheds light on re-engineering native membrane vesicles for enhanced immune regulation and therapy. Applications of nanotechnology toolkits might provide new opportunity not only for value-added therapeutic or diagnostic strategies based on exosomes in cancer immunotherapy, but also new insights for biogenesis and biological relevance of membrane vesicles. This commentary focuses on the recent development and limitations of using exosomes in cancer immunotherapy and our perspectives on how nanomaterials with potential immune regulatory effects could be introduced into exosome-based immunotherapy.

  17. Skin Cancer and Its Treatment: Novel Treatment Approaches with Emphasis on Nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristjan Orthaber

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The life expectancy in the Western world is increasing for a long time, which is the courtesy of a higher life standard, a more thorough hygiene, and, of course, the progress of modern medicine. Nevertheless, one of the illnesses that still proves to be a great challenge regardless of the recent advancements in medicine is cancer. Skin cancer is, according to the World Health Organization, the most common malignancy for the white population. The beginning of the paper offers a brief overview of the latest available information concerning epidemiology, aetiology, diagnostics, and treatment options for skin cancer, whereas the rest of the article deals with modern approaches to skin cancer treatment, highlighting recent development of nanotechnology based treatment approaches. Among these, we focus especially on the newest nanotechnological approaches combined with chemotherapy, a field which specialises in target specificity, drug release control, and real time monitoring with the goal being to diminish unwanted side effects and their severity, achieving a cheaper treatment and a generally more efficient chemotherapy. The field of nanotechnology is a rapidly developing one, judging by already approved clinical studies or by new theranostic agents that combine both the therapeutic and diagnostic modalities.

  18. Perspectives of Nanotechnology in Minimally Invasive Therapy of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamin Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer, the most common type of cancer among women in the western world, affects approximately one out of every eight women over their lifetime. In recognition of the high invasiveness of surgical excision and severe side effects of chemical and radiation therapies, increasing efforts are made to seek minimally invasive modalities with fewer side effects. Nanoparticles (<100 nm in size have shown promising capabilities for delivering targeted therapeutic drugs to cancer cells and confining the treatment mainly within tumors. Additionally, some nanoparticles exhibit distinct properties, such as conversion of photonic energy into heat, and these properties enable eradication of cancer cells. In this review, current utilization of nanostructures for cancer therapy, especially in minimally invasive therapy, is summarized with a particular interest in breast cancer.

  19. Cancer nanotechnology: a new commercialization pipeline for diagnostics, imaging agents, and therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptak, Krzysztof; Farrell, Dorothy; Hinkal, George; Panaro, Nicholas J.; Hook, Sara; Grodzinski, Piotr

    2011-06-01

    Nanotechnology - the science and engineering of manipulating matter at the molecular scale to create devices with novel chemical, physical and biological properties - has the potential to radically change oncology. Research sponsored by the NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer has led to the development of nanomaterials as platforms of increasing complexity and devices of superior sensitivity, speed and multiplexing capability. Input from clinicians has guided researchers in the design of technologies to address specific needs in the areas of cancer therapy and therapeutic monitoring, in vivo imaging, and in vitro diagnostics. The promising output from the Alliance has led to many new companies being founded to commercialize their nanomedical product line. Furthermore, several of these technologies, which are discussed in this paper, have advanced to clinically testing.

  20. Nanotechnology-Based Drug Delivery Systems for Photodynamic Therapy of Cancer: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calixto, Giovana Maria Fioramonti; Bernegossi, Jéssica; de Freitas, Laura Marise; Fontana, Carla Raquel; Chorilli, Marlus

    2016-03-11

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising alternative approach for improved cancer treatment. In PDT, a photosensitizer (PS) is administered that can be activated by light of a specific wavelength, which causes selective damage to the tumor and its surrounding vasculature. The success of PDT is limited by the difficulty in administering photosensitizers (PSs) with low water solubility, which compromises the clinical use of several molecules. Incorporation of PSs in nanostructured drug delivery systems, such as polymeric nanoparticles (PNPs), solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs), nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs), gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), hydrogels, liposomes, liquid crystals, dendrimers, and cyclodextrin is a potential strategy to overcome this difficulty. Additionally, nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems may improve the transcytosis of a PS across epithelial and endothelial barriers and afford the simultaneous co-delivery of two or more drugs. Based on this, the application of nanotechnology in medicine may offer numerous exciting possibilities in cancer treatment and improve the efficacy of available therapeutics. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to review nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems for photodynamic therapy of cancer.

  1. Incorporating PARP Inhibition in Cancer Therapy: Key Questions, Expert Answers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristin Abair

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This engaging symposium focussed on the rationale and current evidence supporting the role for poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose polymerase (PARP inhibition in patients with cancer. The meeting opened with an overview of DNA repair and the biological basis for targeting this process in oncology, delivered by Prof Calvert. This was followed by a discussion from Prof Pujade-Lauraine that focussed on patient selection for PARP inhibition and the role for these agents in BRCA -mutated and BRCA -like cancers. Next, Prof Colombo presented a clinical scenario of BRCA -associated ovarian cancer and examined optimal treatment options in the first-line setting and for progressive disease. She also highlighted current clinical data and ongoing trials evaluating PARP inhibition in advanced ovarian cancer. Prof Tutt then discussed the potential role for PARP inhibitors in patients with breast cancer, focussing on a clinical scenario of triple-negative disease and emphasising current and investigational treatment options. Lastly, Prof Van Cutsem described emerging data and ongoing clinical studies evaluating PARP inhibition in the treatment of patients with pancreatic and gastric cancers, and how this could impact future clinical practice. The programme also included a PARP quiz, in which participants were polled at the beginning and conclusion of the symposium to examine their knowledge and practice patterns regarding the use of PARP inhibitors in oncology. The key highlights from these presentations and the PARP quiz are summarised herein.

  2. Development of a Nanotechnology Platform for Prostate Cancer Gene Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    symposium will be held at the Hilton Omaha, Nebraska’s only 4 diamond hotel , located at 1001 Cass Street and within easy walking distance of the Old...Accommodations are available at the Hilton Omaha at reduced conference rates. Alternate accommodations may also be found at several nearby hotels ...endosome membrane, and d) a nuclear localization signal (NLS) to actively translocate pDNA towards the nucleus of cancer cells. The gene delivery system

  3. Endocrine disorders in childhood cancer survivors: More answers, more questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clement, S.C.

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of pediatric malignancies has advanced substantially over the past several decades, resulting in a rapidly growing group of long-term childhood cancer survivors (CCS). Improved survival leads to an increasing number of individuals who may be at increased risk of substantial morbidity and e

  4. Nanotechnology: Future of Oncotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharpure, Kshipra M; Wu, Sherry Y; Li, Chun; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Sood, Anil K

    2015-07-15

    Recent advances in nanotechnology have established its importance in several areas including medicine. The myriad of applications in oncology range from detection and diagnosis to drug delivery and treatment. Although nanotechnology has attracted a lot of attention, the practical application of nanotechnology to clinical cancer care is still in its infancy. This review summarizes the role that nanotechnology has played in improving cancer therapy, its potential for affecting all aspects of cancer care, and the challenges that must be overcome to realize its full promise.

  5. Use of Nanotechnology to Develop Multi-Drug Inhibitors For Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, Raghavendra; Jones, Nathan R; Banerjee, Shubhadeep; Robertson, Gavin P

    2013-12-01

    Therapeutic agents that inhibit a single target often cannot combat a multifactorial disease such as cancer. Thus, multi-target inhibitors (MTIs) are needed to circumvent complications such as the development of resistance. There are two predominant types of MTIs, (a) single drug inhibitor (SDIs) that affect multiple pathways simultaneously, and (b) combinatorial agents or multi-drug inhibitors (MDIs) that inhibit multiple pathways. Single agent multi-target kinase inhibitors are amongst the most prominent class of compounds belonging to the former, whereas the latter includes many different classes of combinatorial agents that have been used to achieve synergistic efficacy against cancer. Safe delivery and accumulation at the tumor site is of paramount importance for MTIs because inhibition of multiple key signaling pathways has the potential to lead to systemic toxicity. For this reason, the development of drug delivery mechanisms using nanotechnology is preferable in order to ensure that the MDIs accumulate in the tumor vasculature, thereby increasing efficacy and minimizing off-target and systemic side effects. This review will discuss how nanotechnology can be used for the development of MTIs for cancer therapy and also it concludes with a discussion of the future of nanoparticle-based MTIs as well as the continuing obstacles being faced during the development of these unique agents.'

  6. Nanotechnology-based inhalation treatments for lung cancer: state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad J

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Javed Ahmad,1,* Sohail Akhter,2,3,* Md Rizwanullah,1 Saima Amin,1 Mahfoozur Rahman,4 Mohammad Zaki Ahmad,5 Moshahid Alam Rizvi,6 Mohammad A Kamal,7 Farhan Jalees Ahmad1,21Department of Pharmaceutics, 2Nanomedicine Research Lab, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India; 3Centre de Biophysique Moléculaire(CBM-CNRS UPR4301, University of Orléans, Orléans Cedex 2, France; 4Department of Pharmaceutics, Abhilashi College of Pharmacy, Mandi, HP, India; 5Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, Najran University, Saudi Arabia; 6Department of Biosciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, India; 7Metabolomics and Enzymology Unit, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Considering the challenges associated with conventional chemotherapy, targeted and local delivery of chemotherapeutics via nanoparticle (NP carriers to the lungs is an emerging area of interest. Recent studies and growing clinical application in cancer nanotechnology showed the huge potential of NPs as drug carriers in cancer therapy, including in lung carcinoma for diagnosis, imaging, and theranostics. Researchers have confirmed that nanotechnology-based inhalation chemotherapy is viable and more effective than conventional chemotherapy, with lesser side effects. Recently, many nanocarriers have been investigated, including liposomes, polymeric micelles, polymeric NPs, solid lipid NPs, and inorganic NPs for inhalation treatments of lung cancer. Yet, the toxicity of such nanomaterials to the lungs tissues and further distribution to other organs due to systemic absorption on inhalation delivery is a debatable concern. Here, prospect of NPs-based local lung cancer targeting through inhalation route as well as its associated challenges are discussed.Keywords: nanoparticles, lung cancer, inhalational chemotherapy, drug targeting, nanotoxicity

  7. Preclinical imaging and translational animal models of cancer for accelerated clinical implementation of nanotechnologies and macromolecular agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Souza, Raquel; Spence, Tara; Huang, Huang; Allen, Christine

    2015-12-10

    The majority of animal models of cancer have performed poorly in terms of predicting clinical performance of new therapeutics, which are most often first evaluated in patients with advanced, metastatic disease. The development and use of metastatic models of cancer may enhance clinical translatability of preclinical studies focused on the development of nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems and macromolecular therapeutics, potentially accelerating their clinical implementation. It is recognized that the development and use of such models are not without challenge. Preclinical imaging tools offer a solution by allowing temporal and spatial characterization of metastatic lesions. This paper provides a review of imaging methods applicable for evaluation of novel therapeutics in clinically relevant models of advanced cancer. An overview of currently utilized models of oncology in small animals is followed by image-based development and characterization of visceral metastatic cancer models. Examples of imaging tools employed for metastatic lesion detection, evaluation of anti-tumor and anti-metastatic potential and biodistribution of novel therapies, as well as the co-development and/or use of imageable surrogates of response, are also discussed. While the focus is on development of macromolecular and nanotechnology-based therapeutics, examples with small molecules are included in some cases to illustrate concepts and approaches that can be applied in the assessment of nanotechnologies or macromolecules.

  8. A Comparative Study of Two Folate-Conjugated Gold Nanoparticles for Cancer Nanotechnology Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansoori, G. Ali, E-mail: mansoori@uic.edu; Brandenburg, Kenneth S. [Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, 851 S. Morgan St. (MC 063), Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Shakeri-Zadeh, Ali [Department of Medical Physics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-11-18

    We report a comparative study of synthesis, characteristics and in vitro tests of two folate-conjugated gold nanoparticles (AuNP) differing in linkers and AuNP sizes for selective targeting of folate-receptor positive cancerous cells. The linkers chosen were 4-aminothiophenol (4Atp) and 6-mercapto-1-hexanol (MH) with nanoconjugate products named Folate-4Atp-AuNP and Folate-MH-AuNP. We report the folate-receptor tissue distribution and its endocytosis for targeted nanotechnology. Comparison of the two nanoconjugates’ syntheses and characterization is also reported, including materials and methods of synthesis, UV-visible absorption spectroscopic measurements, Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) measurements, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images and size distributions, X-ray diffraction data, elemental analyses and chemical stability comparison. In addition to the analytical characterization of the nanoconjugates, the cell lethality was measured in HeLa (high level of folate receptor expression) and MCF-7 (low level of folate receptor expression) cells. The nanoconjugates themselves, as well as the intense pulsed light (IPL) were not harmful to cell viability. However, upon stimulation of the folate targeted nanoconjugates with the IPL, ~98% cell killing was found in HeLa cells and only ~9% in MCF-7 cells after four hours incubation with the nanoconjugate. This demonstrates that folate targeting is effective in selecting for specific cell populations. Considering the various comparisons made, we conclude that Folate-4Atp-AuNP is superior to Folate-MH-AuNP for cancer therapy.

  9. Microfluidics & nanotechnology: Towards fully integrated analytical devices for the detection of cancer biomarkers

    KAUST Repository

    Perozziello, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we describe an innovative modular microfluidic platform allowing filtering, concentration and analysis of peptides from a complex mixture. The platform is composed of a microfluidic filtering device and a superhydrophobic surface integrating surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensors. The microfluidic device was used to filter specific peptides (MW 1553.73 D) derived from the BRCA1 protein, a tumor-suppressor molecule which plays a pivotal role in the development of breast cancers, from albumin (66.5 KD), the most represented protein in human plasma. The filtering process consisted of driving the complex mixture through a porous membrane having a cut-off of 12-14 kD by hydrodynamic flow. The filtered samples coming out of the microfluidic device were subsequently deposited on a superhydrophobic surface formed by micro pillars on top of which nanograins were fabricated. The nanograins coupled to a Raman spectroscopy instrument acted as a SERS sensor and allowed analysis of the filtered sample on top of the surface once it evaporated. By using the presented platform, we demonstrate being able to sort small peptides from bigger proteins and to detect them by using a label-free technique at a resolution down to 0.1 ng μL-1. The combination of microfluidics and nanotechnology to develop the presented microfluidic platform may give rise to a new generation of biosensors capable of detecting low concentration samples from complex mixtures without the need for any sample pretreatment or labelling. The developed devices could have future applications in the field of early diagnosis of severe illnesses, e.g. early cancer detection. This journal is

  10. A Comparative Study of Two Folate-Conjugated Gold Nanoparticles for Cancer Nanotechnology Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shakeri-Zadeh

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We report a comparative study of synthesis, characteristics and in vitro tests of two folate-conjugated gold nanoparticles (AuNP differing in linkers and AuNP sizes for selective targeting of folate-receptor positive cancerous cells. The linkers chosen were 4-aminothiophenol (4Atp and 6-mercapto-1-hexanol (MH with nanoconjugate products named Folate-4Atp-AuNP and Folate-MH-AuNP. We report the folate-receptor tissue distribution and its endocytosis for targeted nanotechnology. Comparison of the two nanoconjugates’ syntheses and characterization is also reported, including materials and methods of synthesis, UV-visible absorption spectroscopic measurements, Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR measurements, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM images and size distributions, X-ray diffraction data, elemental analyses and chemical stability comparison. In addition to the analytical characterization of the nanoconjugates, the cell lethality was measured in HeLa (high level of folate receptor expression and MCF-7 (low level of folate receptor expression cells. The nanoconjugates themselves, as well as the intense pulsed light (IPL were not harmful to cell viability. However, upon stimulation of the folate targeted nanoconjugates with the IPL, ~98% cell killing was found in HeLa cells and only ~9% in MCF-7 cells after four hours incubation with the nanoconjugate. This demonstrates that folate targeting is effective in selecting for specific cell populations. Considering the various comparisons made, we conclude that Folate-4Atp-AuNP is superior to Folate-MH-AuNP for cancer therapy.

  11. Therapeutic Potential of Delivering Arsenic Trioxide into HPV-Infected Cervical Cancer Cells Using Liposomal Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Li, Dong; Ghali, Lucy; Xia, Ruidong; Munoz, Leonardo P.; Garelick, Hemda; Bell, Celia; Wen, Xuesong

    2016-02-01

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) has been used successfully to treat acute promyelocytic leukaemia, and since this discovery, it has also been researched as a possible treatment for other haematological and solid cancers. Even though many positive results have been found in the laboratory, wider clinical use of ATO has been compromised by its toxicity at higher concentrations. The aim of this study was to explore an improved method for delivering ATO using liposomal nanotechnology to evaluate whether this could reduce drug toxicity and improve the efficacy of ATO in treating human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers. HeLa, C33a, and human keratinocytes were exposed to 5 μm of ATO in both free and liposomal forms for 48 h. The stability of the prepared samples was tested using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) to measure the intracellular arsenic concentrations after treatment. Fluorescent double-immunocytochemical staining was carried out to evaluate the protein expression levels of HPV-E6 oncogene and caspase-3. Cell apoptosis was analysed by flow cytometry. Results showed that liposomal ATO was more effective than free ATO in reducing protein levels of HPV-E6 and inducing cell apoptosis in HeLa cells. Moreover, lower toxicity was observed when liposomal-delivered ATO was used. This could be explained by lower intracellular concentrations of arsenic. The slowly accumulated intracellular ATO through liposomal delivery might act as a reservoir which releases ATO gradually to maintain its anti-HPV effects. To conclude, liposome-delivered ATO could protect cells from the direct toxic effects induced by higher concentrations of intracellular ATO. Different pathways may be involved in this process, depending on local architecture of the tissues and HPV status.

  12. Nanotechnology for Treating Cancer: Pitfalls and Bridges on the Path to Nanomedicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite their promise, only a few nano-formulated drugs are used in humans. The NCI Nanotechnology Characterization Lab helps companies and academic investigators maximize their chance of successful clinical use.

  13. Nanotechnology Innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malroy, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Nanotechnology is rapidly affecting all engineering disciplines as new products and applications are being found and brought to market. This session will present an overview of nanotechnology and let you learn about the advances in the field and how it could impact you. Some of the areas touched upon will be nanomaterials with their multifunctional capabilities, nanotechnology impact on energy systems, nanobiotechnology including nanomedicine, and nanotechnology relevant to space systems with a focus on ECLSS. Also, some important advances related to thermal systems will be presented as well as future predictions on nanotechnology.

  14. Systemic Delivery of Anti-miRNA for Suppression of Triple Negative Breast Cancer Utilizing RNA Nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Dan; Li, Hui; Shu, Yi; Xiong, Gaofeng; Carson, William E; Haque, Farzin; Xu, Ren; Guo, Peixuan

    2015-10-27

    MicroRNAs play important roles in regulating the gene expression and life cycle of cancer cells. In particular, miR-21, an oncogenic miRNA is a major player involved in tumor initiation, progression, invasion and metastasis in several cancers, including triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). However, delivery of therapeutic miRNA or anti-miRNA specifically into cancer cells in vivo without collateral damage to healthy cells remains challenging. We report here the application of RNA nanotechnology for specific and efficient delivery of anti-miR-21 to block the growth of TNBC in orthotopic mouse models. The 15 nm therapeutic RNA nanoparticles contains the 58-nucleotide (nt) phi29 pRNA-3WJ as a core, a 8-nt sequence complementary to the seed region of miR-21, and a 39-nt epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeting aptamer for internalizing RNA nanoparticles into cancer cells via receptor mediated endocytosis. The RNase resistant and thermodynamically stable RNA nanoparticles remained intact after systemic injection into mice and strongly bound to tumors with little or no accumulation in healthy organs 8 h postinjection, and subsequently repressed tumor growth at low doses. The observed specific cancer targeting and tumor regression is a result of several key attributes of RNA nanoparticles: anionic charge which disallows nonspecific passage across negatively charged cell membrane; "active" targeting using RNA aptamers which increases the homing of RNA nanoparticles to cancer cells; nanoscale size and shape which avoids rapid renal clearance and engulfment by lung macrophages and liver Kupffer cells; favorable biodistribution profiles with little accumulation in healthy organs, which minimizes nonspecific side effects; and favorable pharmacokinetic profiles with extended in vivo half-life. The results demonstrate the clinical potentials of RNA nanotechnology based platform to deliver miRNA based therapeutics for cancer treatment.

  15. Potential applications of curcumin and its novel synthetic analogs and nanotechnology-based formulations in cancer prevention and therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batra Surinder K

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Curcumin has attracted great attention in the therapeutic arsenal in clinical oncology due to its chemopreventive, antitumoral, radiosensibilizing and chemosensibilizing activities against various types of aggressive and recurrent cancers. These malignancies include leukemias, lymphomas, multiple myeloma, brain cancer, melanoma and skin, lung, prostate, breast, ovarian, liver, gastrointestinal, pancreatic and colorectal epithelial cancers. Curcumin mediates its anti-proliferative, anti-invasive and apoptotic effects on cancer cells, including cancer stem/progenitor cells and their progenies, through multiple molecular mechanisms. The oncogenic pathways inhibited by curcumin encompass the members of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR and erbB2, sonic hedgehog (SHH/GLIs and Wnt/β-catenin and downstream signaling elements such as Akt, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs. In counterbalance, the high metabolic instability and poor systemic bioavailability of curcumin limit its therapeutic efficacy in human. Of great therapeutic interest, the selective delivery of synthetic analogs or nanotechnology-based formulations of curcumin to tumors, alone or in combination with other anticancer drugs, may improve their chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic efficacies against cancer progression and relapse. Novel curcumin formulations may also be used to reverse drug resistance, eradicate the total cancer cell mass and improve the anticarcinogenic efficacy of the current anti-hormonal and chemotherapeutic treatments for patients with various aggressive and lethal cancers.

  16. Nanotechnology applications in thoracic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofferberth, Sophie C; Grinstaff, Mark W; Colson, Yolonda L

    2016-07-01

    Nanotechnology is an emerging, rapidly evolving field with the potential to significantly impact care across the full spectrum of cancer therapy. Of note, several recent nanotechnological advances show particular promise to improve outcomes for thoracic surgical patients. A variety of nanotechnologies are described that offer possible solutions to existing challenges encountered in the detection, diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer. Nanotechnology-based imaging platforms have the ability to improve the surgical care of patients with thoracic malignancies through technological advances in intraoperative tumour localization, lymph node mapping and accuracy of tumour resection. Moreover, nanotechnology is poised to revolutionize adjuvant lung cancer therapy. Common chemotherapeutic drugs, such as paclitaxel, docetaxel and doxorubicin, are being formulated using various nanotechnologies to improve drug delivery, whereas nanoparticle (NP)-based imaging technologies can monitor the tumour microenvironment and facilitate molecularly targeted lung cancer therapy. Although early nanotechnology-based delivery systems show promise, the next frontier in lung cancer therapy is the development of 'theranostic' multifunctional NPs capable of integrating diagnosis, drug monitoring, tumour targeting and controlled drug release into various unifying platforms. This article provides an overview of key existing and emerging nanotechnology platforms that may find clinical application in thoracic surgery in the near future.

  17. EDITORIAL: Nanotechnological selection Nanotechnological selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2013-01-01

    across the channel. The aim of achieving selectivity encompasses a huge range of fields in nanotechnology research, from sensing and medicine to nanoelectronics and self-assembly. As our understanding of how nanosystems behave deepens, so too does the hunger to improve our capabilities, allowing greater precision and control in manipulating these systems. Selectivity is far from trivial when shrinking to systems of nanoscale dimensions, but the range of opportunities it brings just keeps on growing. References [1] Gong X, Li J, Guo C, Xu K and Hui Y 2012 Molecular switch for tuning ions across nanopores by an external electric field Nanotechnology 24 025502 [2] Brannon-Peppas L and Blanchette J O 2004 Nanoparticle and targeted systems for cancer therapy Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev 56 1649-59 [3] Lukianova-Hleb E Y, Hanna E Y, Hafner J H and Lapotko D O 2010 Tunable plasmonic nanobubbles for cell theranostics Nanotechnology 21 085102 [4] Zhang T, Mubeen S, Myung N V and Deshusses M A 2008 Recent progress in carbon nanotube-based gas sensors Nanotechnology 19 332001 [5] Mangu R, Rajaputra S and Singh V P 2011 MWCNT-polymer composites as highly sensitive and selective room temperature gas sensors Nanotechnology 22 215502 [6]Meller A, Nivon L, Brandin E, Golovchenko J and Branton D 2000 Rapid nanopore discrimination between single polynucleotide molecules Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. 97 1079-84 [7] Asghar W, Ilyas A, Deshmukh R R, Sumitsawan S, Timmons R B and Iqbal S M 2011 Pulsed plasma polymerization for controlling shrinkage and surface composition of nanopores Nanotechnology 22 285304

  18. Astronomy and Cancer Research: X-Rays and Nanotechnology from Black Holes to Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Anil K.; Nahar, Sultana N.

    It seems highly unlikely that any connection is to be found between astronomy and medicine. But then it also appears to be obvious: X-rays. However, that is quite superficial because the nature of X-rays in the two disciplines is quite different. Nevertheless, we describe recent research on exactly that kind of link. Furthermore, the linkage lies in atomic physics, and via spectroscopy which is a vital tool in astronomy and may also be equally valuable in biomedical research. This review begins with the physics of black hole environments as viewed through X-ray spectroscopy. It is then shown that similar physics can be applied to spectroscopic imaging and therapeutics using heavy-element (high-Z) moieties designed to target cancerous tumors. X-ray irradiation of high-Z nanomaterials as radiosensitizing agents should be extremely efficient for therapy and diagnostics (theranostics). However, broadband radiation from conventional X-ray sources (such as CT scanners) results in vast and unnecessary radiation exposure. Monochromatic X-ray sources are expected to be considerably more efficient. We have developed a new and comprehensive methodology—Resonant Nano-Plasma Theranostics (RNPT)—that encompasses the use of monochromatic X-ray sources and high-Z nanoparticles. Ongoing research entails theoretical computations, numerical simulations, and in vitro and in vivo biomedical experiments. Stemming from basic theoretical studies of Kα resonant photoabsorption and fluorescence in all elements of the Periodic Table, we have established a comprehensive multi-disciplinary program involving researchers from physics, chemistry, astronomy, pathology, radiation oncology and radiology. Large-scale calculations necessary for theory and modeling are done at a variety of computational platforms at the Ohio Supercomputer Center. The final goal is the implementation of RNPT for clinical applications.

  19. Nanotechnology in health care

    CERN Document Server

    Sahoo, Sanjeeb K

    2012-01-01

    Nanomedicine: Emerging Field of Nanotechnology to Human HealthNanomedicines: Impacts in Ocular Delivery and TargetingImmuno-Nanosystems to CNS Pathologies: State of the Art PEGylated Zinc Protoporphyrin: A Micelle-Forming Polymeric Drug for Cancer TherapyORMOSIL Nanoparticles: Nanomedicine Approach for Drug/Gene Delivery to the BrainMagnetic Nanoparticles: A Versatile System for Therapeutic and Imaging SystemNanobiotechnology: A New Generation of Biomedicine Application of Nanotechnology-Based Drug Delivery and Targeting to LungsAptamers and Nanomedicine in C

  20. Toward automated classification of consumers' cancer-related questions with a new taxonomy of expected answer types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRoy, Susan; Jones, Sean; Kurmally, Adam

    2016-09-01

    This article examines methods for automated question classification applied to cancer-related questions that people have asked on the web. This work is part of a broader effort to provide automated question answering for health education. We created a new corpus of consumer-health questions related to cancer and a new taxonomy for those questions. We then compared the effectiveness of different statistical methods for developing classifiers, including weighted classification and resampling. Basic methods for building classifiers were limited by the high variability in the natural distribution of questions and typical refinement approaches of feature selection and merging categories achieved only small improvements to classifier accuracy. Best performance was achieved using weighted classification and resampling methods, the latter yielding an accuracy of F1 = 0.963. Thus, it would appear that statistical classifiers can be trained on natural data, but only if natural distributions of classes are smoothed. Such classifiers would be useful for automated question answering, for enriching web-based content, or assisting clinical professionals to answer questions.

  1. Lipid Nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mashaghi, Samaneh; Jadidi, Tayebeh; Koenderink, Gijsje; Mashaghi, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary field that covers a vast and diverse array of devices and machines derived from engineering, physics, materials science, chemistry and biology. These devices have found applications in biomedical sciences, such as targeted drug delivery, bio-imaging, sensing and

  2. Complement-mediated tumour growth: implications for cancer nanotechnology and nanomedicines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghimi, S. M.; Andresen, Thomas Lars

    2009-01-01

    The recent unexpected observation that complement activation helps turnout growth and progression has an important bearing on the future development of cancer nanomedicines for site-specific tumour targeting as these entities are capable of triggering complement. These issues are discussed...... and suggestions are provided for future design and development of safer and effective cancer nanomedicines....

  3. Nanotechnology in respiratory medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omlor, Albert Joachim; Nguyen, Juliane; Bals, Robert; Dinh, Quoc Thai

    2015-05-29

    Like two sides of the same coin, nanotechnology can be both boon and bane for respiratory medicine. Nanomaterials open new ways in diagnostics and treatment of lung diseases. Nanoparticle based drug delivery systems can help against diseases such as lung cancer, tuberculosis, and pulmonary fibrosis. Moreover, nanoparticles can be loaded with DNA and act as vectors for gene therapy in diseases like cystic fibrosis. Even lung diagnostics with computer tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) profits from new nanoparticle based contrast agents. However, the risks of nanotechnology also have to be taken into consideration as engineered nanomaterials resemble natural fine dusts and fibers, which are known to be harmful for the respiratory system in many cases. Recent studies have shown that nanoparticles in the respiratory tract can influence the immune system, can create oxidative stress and even cause genotoxicity. Another important aspect to assess the safety of nanotechnology based products is the absorption of nanoparticles. It was demonstrated that the amount of pulmonary nanoparticle uptake not only depends on physical and chemical nanoparticle characteristics but also on the health status of the organism. The huge diversity in nanotechnology could revolutionize medicine but makes safety assessment a challenging task.

  4. Review on early technology assessments of nanotechnologies in oncology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Retèl, Valesca P.; Hummel, Marjan J.M.; Harten, van Wim

    2009-01-01

    Nanotechnology is expected to play an increasingly important role in the diagnostics, prognostics, and management of targeted cancer treatments. While papers have described promising results for nanotechnology in experimental settings, the translation of fundamental research into clinical applicatio

  5. The Potential Role of Nanotechnology in Therapeutic Approaches for Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras G. Lacko

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Triple Negative Breast Cancer, TNBC, a highly aggressive and metastatic type of breast cancer, is characterized by loss of expression of the estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR, and a lack of overexpression of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2. It is a heterogeneous group of tumors with diverse histology, molecular uniqueness and response to treatment. Unfortunately, TNBC patients do not benefit from current anti-HER2 or hormone positive targeted breast cancer treatments; consequently, these patients rely primarily on chemotherapy. However, the 5-year survival rate for woman with metastatic TNBC is less than 30%. As a result of ineffective treatments, TNBC tumors often progress to metastatic lesions in the brain and lung. Brain metastases of invasive breast cancer are associated with 1 and 2 year survival rate of 20% and <2% respectively. Because the only current systemic treatment for TNBC is chemotherapy, alternative targeted therapies are urgently needed to improve the prognosis for TNBC patients. This review is focused on opportunities for developing new approaches for filling the current void in an effective treatment for TNBC patients.

  6. Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2010: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home News & Events Press Releases 2013 Press Releases Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, ... Other Information 27. Why is this the second Annual Report published in 2013? The first Annual Report published ...

  7. Evaluation of a nanotechnology-based carrier for delivery of curcumin in prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangapazham, Rajesh L; Puri, Anu; Tele, Shrikant; Blumenthal, Robert; Maheshwari, Radha K

    2008-05-01

    We have initiated studies to enhance targeted delivery of an anticancer agent, curcumin, for prostate cancer treatment by incorporating this agent into the liposomes (nanodelivery vehicles primarily composed of phospholipids) coated with prostate membrane specific antigen specific antibodies. We prepared curcumin-loaded liposomes of various lipid compositions by sonication at an average size of 100-150 nm. Un-entrapped curcumin was removed by size exclusion chromatography. Data show that curcumin preferentially partitioned into liposomes prepared from dimyristoyl phosphatidyl choline (DMPC) and cholesterol among the various compositions tested. The anti-proliferative activity of liposomal curcumin was studied using two human prostate cancer cell lines (LNCaP and C4-2B) by a tetrazolium dye-based (MTT) assay. Treatment of cells with liposomal curcumin (5-10 microM) for 24-48 h at 37 degrees C resulted in at least 70-80% inhibition of cellular proliferation without affecting their viability. On the other hand, free curcumin exhibited similar inhibition only at 10-fold higher doses (>50 microM). We also observed that LNCaP cells were relatively more sensitive to liposomal curcumin mediated block of cellular proliferation than C4-2B cells. We are currently developing liposome formulations with targeting ability to further improve the efficacy of curcumin in vivo.

  8. Potential role of naturally derived polyphenols and their nanotechnology delivery in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khushnud, Tasnima; Mousa, Shaker A

    2013-09-01

    Polyphenols are natural compounds found in plants, fruits, chocolate, and beverages such as tea and wine. To date, the majority of polyphenol research shows them to have anticancer activity in cell lines and animal models. Some human clinical trials also indicate possible anticancer benefits are associated with polyphenols. A problem with polyphenols is their short half-life and low bioavailability; thus the use of nanoparticles to enhance their delivery is a new research field. A Pubmed search was conducted to find in vitro, in vivo, and human clinical trials done within the past 10 years involving the use of polyphenols against different cancer types, and for studies done within the past 5 years on the use of nanoparticles to enhance polyphenol delivery. Based on the studies found, it is observed that polyphenols may be a potential alternative or additive therapy against cancer, and the use of nanoparticles to enhance their delivery to tumors is a promising approach. However, further human clinical trials are necessary to better understand the use of polyphenols as well as their nanoparticle-mediated delivery.

  9. EDITORIAL: Terahertz nanotechnology Terahertz nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna; Tonouchi, Masayoshi; Reno, John L.

    2013-05-01

    A useful synergy is being established between terahertz research and nanotechnology. High power sources [1-3] and detectors [4] in what was once considered the terahertz 'frequency gap' [5] in the electromagnetic spectrum have stimulated research with huge potential benefits in a range of industries including food, medicine and security, as well as fundamental physics and astrophysics. This special section, with guest editors Masayoshi Tonouchi and John Reno, gives a glimpse of the new horizons nanotechnology is broaching in terahertz research. While the wavelengths relevant to the terahertz domain range from hundreds of micrometres to millimetres, structures at the nanoscale reveal interesting low energy dynamics in this region. As a result terahertz spectroscopy techniques are becoming increasingly important in nanomaterial characterization, as demonstrated in this special section by colleagues at the University of Oxford in the UK and the Australian National University. They use terahertz spectroscopy to identify the best nanostructure parameters for specific applications [6]. The low energy dynamics in nanostructures also makes them valuable tools for terahertz detection [7]. In addition the much sought after terahertz detection over broadband frequency ranges has been demonstrated, providing versatility that has been greatly in demand, particularly in spectroscopy applications [8, 9]. Also in this special section, researchers in Germany and China tackle some of the coupling issues in terahertz time domain spectroscopy with an emitter specifically well suited for systems operated with an amplified fibre [3]. 'In medical imaging, the advantage of THz radiation is safety, because its energy is much lower than the ionization energy of biological molecules, in contrast to hazardous x-ray radiation,' explains Joo-Hiuk Son from the University of Seoul in Korea in his review [10]. As he also points out, the rotational and vibrational energies of water molecules are

  10. Nanotechnology-based approaches in anticancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabir, Nasimudeen R; Tabrez, Shams; Ashraf, Ghulam Md; Shakil, Shazi; Damanhouri, Ghazi A; Kamal, Mohammad A

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is a highly complex disease to understand, because it entails multiple cellular physiological systems. The most common cancer treatments are restricted to chemotherapy, radiation and surgery. Moreover, the early recognition and treatment of cancer remains a technological bottleneck. There is an urgent need to develop new and innovative technologies that could help to delineate tumor margins, identify residual tumor cells and micrometastases, and determine whether a tumor has been completely removed or not. Nanotechnology has witnessed significant progress in the past few decades, and its effect is widespread nowadays in every field. Nanoparticles can be modified in numerous ways to prolong circulation, enhance drug localization, increase drug efficacy, and potentially decrease chances of multidrug resistance by the use of nanotechnology. Recently, research in the field of cancer nanotechnology has made remarkable advances. The present review summarizes the application of various nanotechnology-based approaches towards the diagnostics and therapeutics of cancer.

  11. Overcoming drug efflux-based multidrug resistance in cancer with nanotechnology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Xue; Xing-Jie Liang

    2012-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR),which significantly decreases the efficacy of anticancer drugs and causes tumor recurrence,has been a major challenge in clinical cancer treatment with chemotherapeutic drugs for decades.Several mechanisms of overcoming drug resistance have been postulated.Well known Pglycoprotein (P-gp) and other drug efflux transporters are considered to be critical in pumping anticancer drugs out of cells and causing chemotherapy failure.Innovative theranostic (therapeutic and diagnostic)strategies with nanoparticles are rapidly evolving and are anticipated to offer opportunities to overcome these limits.In this review,we discuss the mechanisms of drug efflux-mediated resistance and the application of multiple nanoparticle-based platforms to overcome chemoresistance and improve therapeutic outcome.

  12. Early phase Technology Assessment of nanotechnology in oncology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Retèl, Valesca P.; Hummel, Marjan J.M.; Harten, van Willem H.

    2008-01-01

    To perform early Technology Assessment (TA) of nanotechnology in oncology. The possibilities of nanotechnology for detection (imaging), diagnosis and treatment of cancer are subject of different research programs where major investments are concerned. As a range of bio- nanotechnologies is expected

  13. EDITORIAL: Multitasking in nanotechnology Multitasking in nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2013-06-01

    of myocardial infarct: MR antibody imaging Radiology 182 381-5 [4] Kirui D K, Rey D A and Batt C A 2010 Gold hybrid nanoparticles for targeted phototherapy and cancer imaging Nanotechnology 21 105105 [5] Villanueva A, Cãete M, Roca A G, Calero M, Veintemillas-Verdaguer S, Serna C J, Del Puerto Morales M and Miranda R 2009 The influence of surface functionalization on the enhanced internalization of magnetic nanoparticles in cancer cells Nanotechnology 20 115103 [6]Theil Hansen L, Kühle A, Sørensen A H, Bohr J and Lindelof P E 1998 A technique for positioning nanoparticles using an atomic force microscope Nanotechnology 9 337-42 [7] Lu X, Yu M, Huang H and Ruoff R S 1999 Tailoring graphite with the goal of achieving single sheets Nanotechnology 10 269-72 [8] Baur C et al 1998 Nanoparticle manipulation by mechanical pushing: underlying phenomena and real-time monitoring Nanotechnology 9 360-4 [9] Ando T 2012 High-speed atomic force microscopy coming of age Nanotechnology 23 062001 [10] Romano G, Mantini G, Carlo A D, D'Amico A, Falconi C and Wang Z L 2011 Piezoelectric potential in vertically aligned nanowires for high output nanogenerators Nanotechnology 22 465401 [11] Yu A, Zhao Y, Jiang P and Wang Z L 2013 A nanogenerator as a self-powered sensor for measuring the vibration spectrum of a drum membrane Nanotechnology 24 055501 [12] When Art Meets Science: Exhibition of Artwork by Frédérique Swist http://www.at-bristol.org.uk/159.html

  14. EDITORIAL: Nanotechnology in vivo Nanotechnology in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-04-01

    Since the development of x-rays the ability to image inside our bodies has provided medicine with a potent diagnostic tool, as well as fascinating us with the eerie evidence of our mechanistic mortality. In December 2008 Osamu Shimomura, Martin Chalfie and Roger Y Tsien received a Nobel Prize for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein. The award recognised a new discovery that further facilitated our abilities to follow cellular activities and delve deeper into the workings of living organisms. Since the first observation of green fluorescent protein in jelly fish over thirty years ago, quantum dots have emerged as a potential alternative tool for imaging [1]. The advantages of quantum dots over organic dyes and fluorescent proteins include intense luminescence, high molar extinction coefficient, resistance to photobleaching, and broad excitation with narrow emission bands. However, one drawback for biological applications has been the layer of hydrophobic organic ligands often present at the surface as a result of the synthesis procedures. One solution to improve the solubility of quantum dots has been to conjugate them with a hydrophilic substance, as reported by Nie et al [2]. Chitosan is a hydrophilic, non-toxic, biocompatible and biodegradable substance and has been conjugated with quantum dots such as CdSe-ZnS [2] for bioassays and intracellular labelling. As well as luminescence, different nanoparticles present a variety of exceptional properties that render them useful in a range of bio applications, including MRI, drug delivery and cancer hyperthermia therapy. The ability to harness these various attributes in one system was reported by researchers in China, who incorporated magnetic nanoparticles, fluorescent quantum dots and pharmaceutical drugs into chitosan nanoparticles for multifunctional smart drug delivery systems [3]. More recently silicon quantum dots have emerged as a less cytotoxic alternative to CdSe for bio

  15. Green nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Geoff B.

    2011-10-01

    Nanotechnology, in particular nanophotonics, is proving essential to achieving green outcomes of sustainability and renewable energy at the scales needed. Coatings, composites and polymeric structures used in windows, roof and wall coatings, energy storage, insulation and other components in energy efficient buildings will increasingly involve nanostructure, as will solar cells. Nanostructures have the potential to revolutionize thermoelectric power and may one day provide efficient refrigerant free cooling. Nanomaterials enable optimization of optical, opto-electrical and thermal responses to this urgent task. Optical harmonization of material responses to environmental energy flows involves (i) large changes in spectral response over limited wavelength bands (ii) tailoring to environmental dynamics. The latter includes engineering angle of incidence dependencies and switchable (or chromogenic) responses. Nanomaterials can be made at sufficient scale and low enough cost to be both economic and to have a high impact on a short time scale. Issues to be addressed include human safety and property changes induced during manufacture, handling and outdoor use. Unexpected bonuses have arisen in this work, for example the savings and environmental benefits of cool roofs extend beyond the more obvious benefit of reduced heat flows from the roof into the building.

  16. Application of Nanotechnology in Therapy of Prostate Cancer%纳米技术在前列腺癌诊疗中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄星华; 谭国斌; 李冠奕; 吴上超; 周建华

    2016-01-01

    The application of nanotechnology in medicine is offering many exciting possibilities in healthcare, partic-ularly by targeted delivery of anticancer drugs and imaging contrast agents. Prostate cancer is the cause of the most com-mon malignant tumours and is the second leading cause of cancer death among American and European men. The inci-dence of prostate cancer increases in our country,because of the change of diet structure and life style.The nanoparticles could overcome the lack of specificity of conventional chemotherapeutic agents and the low of sensitivity of the early detection of precancerous. In this paper, the Application of nanotechnology in therapy of prostate cancer will be reviewed.%纳米技术在医学上的应用具有较好的发展前景,特别是在抗肿瘤药物的靶向给药和影像增强剂方面。前列腺癌是欧美男性最常见的恶性肿瘤,位于男性肿瘤死亡率的第二位。随着人口寿命延长、饮食结构和生活方式改变,我国前列腺癌发病率不断升高。纳米技术的发展有利于克服传统化疗药物特异性低和癌前病变早期检测低灵敏度等难题。本文主要对纳米技术在前列腺癌治疗中的应用进行综述。

  17. Is cancer a disease that can be cured? An answer based on a new classification of diseases

    CERN Document Server

    Richmond, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Is cancer a disease that can be cured or a degenerative disease which comes predominantly with old age? We give an answer based on a two-dimensional representation of diseases. These two dimensions are defined as follows. In mortality curves there is an age, namely a_c = 10 years, which plays a crucial role in the sense that the mortality rate decreases in the interval I1=(aa_c). The respective trends in I1 and I2 are the two parameters used in our classification of diseases. Within the framework of reliability analysis, I1 and I2 would be referred to as the "burn-in" and "wear-out" phases. This leads to define three broad groups of diseases. (AS1) Asymmetry with prevalence of I1. (AS2) Asymmetry with prevalence of I2. (S) Symmetry, with I1 and I2 both playing roles of comparable importance. Not surprisingly, among AS1-cases one finds all diseases due to congenital malformations. In the AS2-class one finds degenerative diseases, e.g. Alzheimer's disease. Among S-cases one finds most diseases due to external p...

  18. Nanovate commercializing disruptive nanotechnologies

    CERN Document Server

    Anis, Mohab; Sarhan, Wesam; Elsemary, Mona

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces readers from diverse backgrounds to the principles underlying nanotechnology, from devices to systems, while also describing in detail how businesses can use nanotechnology to redesign their products and processes, in order to have a clear edge over their competition. The authors include 75 case studies, describing in a highly-accessible manner, real nanotechnology innovations from 15 different industrial sectors. For each case study, the technology or business challenges faced by the company are highlighted, the type of nanotechnology adopted is defined, and the eventual economic and social impact is described. Introduces fundamentals of nanotechnology and its applications in a highly-accessible manner Includes 75 case studies of commercializing nanotechnology from 15 industrial sectors, including Automotive, Consumer Electronics, and Renewable Energy Enables nanotechnology experts to learn simple and important business concepts to facilitate the transfer of science to the market Introdu...

  19. Nanotechnology in dentistry: prevention, diagnosis, and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Neel, Ensanya Ali; Bozec, Laurent; Perez, Roman A; Kim, Hae-Won; Knowles, Jonathan C

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology has rapidly expanded into all areas of science; it offers significant alternative ways to solve scientific and medical questions and problems. In dentistry, nanotechnology has been exploited in the development of restorative materials with some significant success. This review discusses nanointerfaces that could compromise the longevity of dental restorations, and how nanotechnolgy has been employed to modify them for providing long-term successful restorations. It also focuses on some challenging areas in dentistry, eg, oral biofilm and cancers, and how nanotechnology overcomes these challenges. The recent advances in nanodentistry and innovations in oral health-related diagnostic, preventive, and therapeutic methods required to maintain and obtain perfect oral health, have been discussed. The recent advances in nanotechnology could hold promise in bringing a paradigm shift in dental field. Although there are numerous complex therapies being developed to treat many diseases, their clinical use requires careful consideration of the expense of synthesis and implementation.

  20. Young women and breast cancer: challenges and answers-report from the Sixth Annual International Symposium, Mexico, 20-21 October 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordera, David Barros Sierra; Marx, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Tómatelo a Pecho, Funsalud, the Harvard Global Equity Initiative, and the Mexican Ministry of Health led a group of institutions in organising the Sixth Annual International Symposium marking breast cancer awareness month in Mexico on 20-21 October 2014. This year's event, with the theme 'Young Women and Breast Cancer: Challenges and Answers', took place at the National Institute of Perinatology in Mexico City. This was the first time the symposium focused almost entirely on young women. The reasons for this emphasis were reported on by many national and global experts, who also presented evidence to show that breast cancer has become a leading cause of death among younger women in Mexico, and conveyed the benefits of early breast cancer detection and the need to create innovative solutions for care and survivorship support for this age group. Over the course of one-and-a-half days, the symposium covered a wide range of topics and perspectives, including the epidemiology, biology, and genetics of breast cancer; challenges; and innovative answers to early detection and the myriad of short- and long-term challenges faced by patients with breast cancer, such as some cutting-edge techniques used to preserve fertility in women undergoing chemotherapy. How the presence of local and global stakeholders will ensure the accountability of the multiple participants already immersed in the various areas of research and activities related to breast cancer. The voices of the Ministry of Health and of other institutions central to the Mexican health system show that there is a political will for work in this area, and there are the means to make a change happen.

  1. Nanotechnology and Social Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    The central claims defended in this article are the following: (a) The social and ethical challenges of nanotechnology can be fully identified only if both the characteristic features of nanotechnologies and the social contexts into which they are emerging are considered. (b) When this is done, a host of significant social context issues, or…

  2. Nanotechnology at KT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glarborg, Peter; Hassager, Ole; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this report is to provide the reader an overview of the research activities at the Department of Chemical Engineering in the area of "nanotechnology"......The objective of this report is to provide the reader an overview of the research activities at the Department of Chemical Engineering in the area of "nanotechnology"...

  3. Nanotechnologies for sustainable construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Mette Rica; Andersen, Maj Munch

    2009-01-01

    This chapter aims to highlight key aspects and recent trends in the development and application of nanotechnology to facilitate sustainable construction, use and demolition of buildings and infrastructure structures, ‘nanoconstruction’. Nanotechnology is not a technology but a very diverse...

  4. Nanotechnology in ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarbin, Marco A; Montemagno, Carlo; Leary, James F; Ritch, Robert

    2010-10-01

    Nanotechnology involves the creation and use of materials and devices at the size scale of intracellular structures and molecules, and involves systems and constructs in the order of nanotechnology as applied to nanomedicine (e.g., biomimicry and pseudointelligence). Some applications of nanotechnology to ophthalmology are described (including treatment of oxidative stress; measurement of intraocular pressure; theragnostics; use of nanoparticles to treat choroidal new vessels, prevent scarring after glaucoma surgery, and treat retinal degenerative disease with gene therapy; prosthetics; and regenerative nanomedicine). Nanotechnology will revolutionize our approach to current therapeutic challenges (e.g., drug delivery, postoperative scarring) and will enable us to address currently unsolvable problems (e.g., sight-restoring therapy for patients with retinal degenerative disease). Obstacles to the incorporation of nanotechnology remain, such as safe manufacturing techniques and unintended biological consequences of nanomaterial use. These obstacles are not insurmountable, and revolutionary treatments for ophthalmic diseases are expected to result from this burgeoning field.

  5. Nanotechnology in Urology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasimha, Sudhindra

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Nanotechnology has revolutionized our approach to medical diagnostics as well as therapeutics and has spanned an entirely new branch of research. This review addresses the potential applications of Nanotechnology in Urology. This article is based on the Dr. Sitharaman Best Essay award of the Urological Society of India for 2016. Methods: A PubMed search was performed for all relevant articles using the terms, “nanotechnology, nanoparticles, nanoshells, nanoscaffolds, and nanofibers.” Results: The developments in diagnostics include novel techniques of imaging of genitourinary malignancies, prostate-specific antigen measurement, early detection of mutations that are diagnostic for polycystic kidney disease. The potential applications of nanotechnology are in the targeted therapy of genitourinary malignancies, erectile dysfunction, overactive bladder, bladder reconstruction, construction of artificial kidneys and biodegradable stents as well as in robotic surgery. Conclusions: Nanotechnology is a rapidly emerging branch of research in urology with diverse and clinically significant applications in diagnostics as well as therapeutics. PMID:28197024

  6. Ethical issues in nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florczyk, Stephen J; Saha, Subrata

    2007-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a rapidly developing area in science involved with manipulating matter at the atomic or molecular level. Nanotechnology is typically defined at a scale on the order of less than approximately 100 nm. Matter possesses unique properties at these size levels that are neither Newtonian nor quantum, but between the two regimes.These unique properties have created significant interest and excitement, sparking numerous research investigations. Nanotechnology is a very broad field with many current and potential applications. Some important examples of applications include battlefield activated dynamic armor clothing for soldiers, additives to sunscreens, and diagnostic laboratories on a chip to monitor general personal health. Groundbreaking capabilities often raise new questions. Any new scientific or technological development has the usual concomitant associated ethical issues, specifically regarding containment and regulation. These ethical issues are more pronounced with nanotechnology due to the sharp divide between those who see its great potential and opponents who express fears. Nanotechnology supporters believe that it has the potential to transform our lives dramatically, while opponents of nanotechnology fear that self-replicating "nanobots" could escape from laboratories and reduce all life on earth to "gray goo. "These fears have swayed generally uninformed public opinions via the media and sensational entertainment. A critical discussion of ethical issues surrounding nanotechnology, including the interaction of nanotechnology with the body and the environment--nanobiotechnology--and regulation of nanotechnology, is presented. We advocate strong, uniform regulations for nanotechnology, but only the use of regulations as needed. The limited use of regulations prevents the regulations from becoming burdensome and inhibiting research in the field.

  7. EDITORIAL: Nanotechnology under the skin Nanotechnology under the skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2011-07-01

    Concerns over health and ecological implications as living organisms are increasingly exposed to nanoparticles are constantly raised. Yet the use of nanoscale structures in technology and medicine has already infiltrated daily life in countless ways. from cosmetics and sun cream to mobile phones. The potential of nanotechnology in medicine is particularly difficult to ignore and ranges from cancer treatment to immune system activation [1]. The reduced dimensions of nanostructures lend them to targeted diagnostic and therapeutic practices that enable treatment with greater accuracy and less discomfort. Striking a balance between over caution and recklessness can be tricky, and provides an additional drive to investigate and learn more about the science of the nanoscale. Alongside investigations to exploit nanoparticles in medicine and technology, there have been a substantial number of studies to investigate the possible effects on our health, as well as some studies on the environmental ramifications. Researchers in the US have investigated the effects on aquatic life of ZnO nanoparticles, which may pollute lakes and rivers through accidental release during fabrication or as wash out from consumer materials [2]. The study is focused on zebrafish during early development. Zhu et al observe that while there may be evidence that Zn2+ ions and ZnO nanoparticles have toxic effects on zebrafish embryos, these effects are apparently mitigated by a type of sediment formulated from the nanoparticles. The positive contribution of nanotechnology in cancer treatment is an area of particularly high research activity at present. Although traditional chemotherapeutic agents can be effective against the growth of cancerous cells, they can have a detrimental effect on the immune system, which is critical in combating cancer. Researchers in China studied the behaviour of C60(OH)20 nanoparticles in vivo and found that they play important roles in the anti-tumour process by activating

  8. Food nanotechnology - an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhon, Bhupinder S

    2010-05-04

    Food nanotechnology is an area of emerging interest and opens up a whole universe of new possibilities for the food industry. The basic categories of nanotechnology applications and functionalities currently in the development of food packaging include: the improvement of plastic materials barriers, the incorporation of active components that can deliver functional attributes beyond those of conventional active packaging, and the sensing and signaling of relevant information. Nano food packaging materials may extend food life, improve food safety, alert consumers that food is contaminated or spoiled, repair tears in packaging, and even release preservatives to extend the life of the food in the package. Nanotechnology applications in the food industry can be utilized to detect bacteria in packaging, or produce stronger flavors and color quality, and safety by increasing the barrier properties. Nanotechnology holds great promise to provide benefits not just within food products but also around food products. In fact, nanotechnology introduces new chances for innovation in the food industry at immense speed, but uncertainty and health concerns are also emerging. EU/WE/global legislation for the regulation of nanotechnology in food are meager. Moreover, current legislation appears unsuitable to nanotechnology specificity.

  9. Nanotechnology for missiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffin, Paul B.

    2004-07-01

    Nanotechnology development is progressing very rapidly. Several billions of dollars have been invested in nanoscience research since 2000. Pioneering nanotechnology research efforts have been primarily conducted at research institutions and centers. This paper identifies developments in nanoscience and technology that could provide significant advances in missile systems applications. Nanotechnology offers opportunities in the areas of advanced materials for coatings, including thin-film optical coatings, light-weight, strong armor and missile structural components, embedded computing, and "smart" structures; nano-particles for explosives, warheads, turbine engine systems, and propellants to enhance missile propulsion; nano-sensors for autonomous chemical detection; and nano-tube arrays for fuel storage and power generation. The Aviation and Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) is actively collaborating with academia, industry, and other Government agencies to accelerate the development and transition of nanotechnology to favorably impact Army Transformation. Currently, we are identifying near-term applications and quantifying requirements for nanotechnology use in Army missile systems, as well as monitoring and screening research and developmental efforts in the industrial community for military applications. Combining MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) and nanotechnology is the next step toward providing technical solutions for the Army"s transformation. Several research and development projects that are currently underway at AMRDEC in this technology area are discussed. A top-level roadmap of MEMS/nanotechnology development projects for aviation and missile applications is presented at the end.

  10. ACCELERATING NANO-TECHNOLOGICAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Stissing; Koch, Christian

    2007-01-01

    By viewing the construction industry as a technological innovation system (TIS) this paper discusses possible initiatives to accelerate nanotechnological innovations. The point of departure is a recent report on the application of nano-technology in the Danish construction industry, which concludes...... of the system are furthermore poorly equipped at identifying potentials within high-tech areas. In order to exploit the potentials of nano-technology it is thus argued that an alternative TIS needs to be established. Initiatives should identify and support “incubation rooms” or marked niches in order...

  11. Nanotechnology - The New Frontier of Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, R; Jaitawat, S S

    2006-07-01

    Molecular nanotechnology is destined to become the core technology in 21(st) century medicine. Nanotechnology mean, controlling biologically relevant structures with molecular precision. Nanomedicine is exploring how to use carbon buckyballs, dendrimers and other cleverly engineered nanoparticles in novel drugs to combat viruses, bacteria, cancer and delivery of drugs. Medical nanorobots will be of the size of a microbe, capable of self-replication, containing onboard sensors, computers, manipulators, pumps, pressure tanks and power supplies. Building such sophisticated molecular machine systems will require molecular manufacturing to using massively parallel assembly lines in nanofactories.

  12. Nanotechnology for telecommunications

    CERN Document Server

    Anwar, Sohail; Qazi, Salahuddin; Ilyas, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    With its unique promise to revolutionize science, engineering, technology, and other fields, nanotechnology continues to profoundly impact associated materials, components, and systems, particularly those used in telecommunications. These developments are leading to easier convergence of related technologies, massive storage data, compact storage devices, and higher-performance computing. Nanotechnology for Telecommunications presents vital technical scientific information to help readers grasp issues and challenges associated with nanoscale telecommunication system development and commerciali

  13. Chiral Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Dibyendu S. Bag; T.C. Shami; K.U. Bhasker Rao

    2008-01-01

    The paper reviews nanoscale science and technology of chiral molecules/macromolecules-under twosubtopics-chiral nanotechnology and nano-chiral technology. Chiral nanotechnology discusses thenanotechnology, where molecular chirality plays a role in the properties of materials, including molecularswitches, molecular motors, and other molecular devices; chiral supramolecules and self-assembled nanotubesand their functions are also highlighted. Nano-chiral technology  describes the nanoscale appr...

  14. Nanotechnology in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravana, Kumar R; Vijayalakshmi, R

    2006-01-01

    Nanotechnology is manipulating matter at nanometer level and the application of the same to medicine is called nanomedicine. Nanotechnology holds promise for advanced diagnostics, targeted drug delivery, and biosensors. In the long-term, medical nanorobots will allow instant pathogen diagnosis and extermination, individual cell surgery in vivo, and improvement of natural physiological function. Current research is focusing on fabrication of nanostructures, nanoactuators, and nanomotors, along with means to assemble them into larger systems, economically and in great numbers.

  15. Nanotechnology in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Saravana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is manipulating matter at nanometer level and the application of the same to medicine is called nanomedicine. Nanotechnology holds promise for advanced diagnostics, targeted drug delivery, and biosensors. In the long-term, medical nanorobots will allow instant pathogen diagnosis and extermination, individual cell surgery in vivo, and improvement of natural physiological function. Current research is focusing on fabrication of nanostructures, nanoactuators, and nanomotors, along with means to assemble them into larger systems, economically and in great numbers.

  16. Commercialization of nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, David W

    2009-01-01

    The emerging and potential commercial applications of nanotechnologies clearly have great potential to significantly advance and even potentially revolutionize various aspects of medical practice and medical product development. Nanotechnology is already touching upon many aspects of medicine, including drug delivery, diagnostic imaging, clinical diagnostics, nanomedicines, and the use of nanomaterials in medical devices. This technology is already having an impact; many products are on the market and a growing number is in the pipeline. Momentum is steadily building for the successful development of additional nanotech products to diagnose and treat disease; the most active areas of product development are drug delivery and in vivo imaging. Nanotechnology is also addressing many unmet needs in the pharmaceutical industry, including the reformulation of drugs to improve their bioavailability or toxicity profiles. The advancement of medical nanotechnology is expected to advance over at least three different generations or phases, beginning with the introduction of simple nanoparticulate and nanostructural improvements to current product and process types, then eventually moving on to nanoproducts and nanodevices that are limited only by the imagination and limits of the technology itself. This review looks at some recent developments in the commercialization of nanotechnology for various medical applications as well as general trends in the industry, and explores the nanotechnology industry that is involved in developing medical products and procedures with a view toward technology commercialization.

  17. What If I Don't Treat My PSA-Detected Prostate Cancer? Answers from Three Natural History Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gulati, Roman; Wever, Elisabeth M.; Tsodikov, Alex; Penson, David F.; Inoue, Lurdes Y. T.; Katcher, Jeffrey; Lee, Shih-Yuan; Heijnsdijk, Eveline A. M.; Draisma, Gerrit; de Koning, Harry J.; Etzioni, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Background: Making an informed decision about treating a prostate cancer detected after a routine prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test requires knowledge about disease natural history, such as the chances that it would have been clinically diagnosed in the absence of screening and that it would meta

  18. The causal roles of vitamin B12 and transcobalamin in prostate cancer: can Mendelian randomization analysis provide definitive answers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Simon M; Metcalfe, Chris; Palmer, Tom M; Refsum, Helga; Lewis, Sarah J; Smith, George Davey; Cox, Angela; Davis, Michael; Marsden, Gemma; Johnston, Carole; Lane, J Athene; Donovan, Jenny L; Neal, David E; Hamdy, Freddie C; Smith, A David; Martin, Richard M

    2011-01-01

    Circulating vitamin B12 (cobalamin/B12) and total transcobalamin (tTC) have been associated with increased and reduced risk, respectively, of prostate cancer. Mendelian randomization has the potential to determine whether these are causal associations. We estimated associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms in B12-related genes (MTR, MTRR, FUT2, TCN2, TCN1, CUBN, and MUT) with plasma concentrations of B12, tTC, holo-transcobalamin, holo-haptocorrin, folate, and homocysteine and with prostate cancer risk in a case-control study (913 cases, 895 controls) nested within the UK-wide population-based ProtecT study of prostate cancer in men age 45-69 years. Instrumental variable (IV) analysis was used to estimate odds ratios for effects of B12 and tTC on prostate cancer. We observed that B12 was lower in men with FUT2 204G>A (rs492602), CUBN 758C>T (rs1801222) and MUT 1595G>A (rs1141321) alleles (PtrendG (rs1801198) allele (PtrendA and CUBN 758C>T were selected as instruments for B12; TCN2 776C>G for tTC. Conventional and IV estimates for the association of loge(B12) with prostate cancer were: OR=1.17 (95% CI 0.90-1.51), P=0.2 and OR=0.60 (0.16-2.15), P=0.4, respectively. Conventional and IV estimates for the association of loge(tTC) with prostate cancer were: OR=0.81 (0.54-1.20), P=0.3 and OR=0.41 (0.13-1.32), P=0.1, respectively. Confidence intervals around the IV estimates in our study were too wide to allow robust inference. Sample size estimates based on our data indicated that Mendelian randomization in this context requires much larger studies or multiple genetic variants that explain all of the variance in the intermediate phenotype. PMID:22199995

  19. The causal roles of vitamin B12 and transcobalamin in prostate cancer: can Mendelian randomization analysis provide definitive answers?

    OpenAIRE

    Collin, Simon M.; Metcalfe, Chris; Palmer, Tom M; Refsum, Helga; Lewis, Sarah J; Smith, George Davey; Cox, Angela; Davis, Michael; Marsden, Gemma; Johnston, Carole; Lane, J Athene; Donovan, Jenny L; Neal, David E.; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Smith, A. David

    2011-01-01

    Circulating vitamin B12 (cobalamin/B12) and total transcobalamin (tTC) have been associated with increased and reduced risk, respectively, of prostate cancer. Mendelian randomization has the potential to determine whether these are causal associations. We estimated associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms in B12-related genes (MTR, MTRR, FUT2, TCN2, TCN1, CUBN, and MUT) with plasma concentrations of B12, tTC, holo-transcobalamin, holo-haptocorrin, folate, and homocysteine and with pros...

  20. Crystal structure and chemotherapeutic efficacy of the novel compound, gallium tetrachloride betaine, against breast cancer using nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Ahmed; Noaman, Eman; Kandil, Eman; Badawi, Abdelfattah; Mostafa, Nihal

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the antitumor efficacy of a novel synthesized compound, betaine gallium-tetrachloride (BTG), alone or combined with ZnO-nanoparticles (BTG + ZnO-NPs) on the incidence of 7, 12-dimethylbenz-anthrathene-induced mammary tumor in female rats. Crystal and molecular structure of the prepared BTG were identified using X-ray crystallography. In vitro study revealed BTG more cytotoxic than BTG + ZnO-NPs on human breast cancer (MCF-7) cell line. In vivo study demonstrated that the blood antioxidant status of tumor-bearing rats (DMBA group) was significantly lower than normal noticeable by a significant decrease in GSH content, GPx, SOD, and CAT activities associated with a significantly high MDA content. Both treatments have significantly elevated SOD and CAT activities with a concomitant decrease of MDA level compared to DMBA group. However, BTG + ZnO-NPs accentuated the decrease of GSH regarding DMBA group. The results showed also that both treatments significantly activate caspase-3 enzyme and apoptosis in mammary glands. Their administration to tumor-bearing rats was found to significantly reduce plasma iron and iron-binding capacity (TIBC) compared to DMBA group. Regarding liver function, both treatments significantly reduced the increase of ALT and AST activities compared to DMBA group. However, BTG + ZnO-NPs decreased albumin below normal level. Histopathological studies showed that normalization of tissue structures was higher in BTG than BTG + ZnO-NPs treatment. According to the results obtained, it is observed that the antitumor effect of BTG alone was as strong as BTG + ZnO-NPs and even more efficient in some aspects accordingly, a combination is not needed. Thus, the novel synthetic gallium derivatives may potentially present a new hope for the development of breast cancer therapeutics, which should attract further scientific and pharmaceutical interest.

  1. Targeted anticancer therapy: overexpressed receptors and nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Mohd Javed; Ahamed, Maqusood; Alhadlaq, Hisham A; Alrokayan, Salman A; Kumar, Sudhir

    2014-09-25

    Targeted delivery of anticancer drugs to cancer cells and tissues is a promising field due to its potential to spare unaffected cells and tissues, but it has been a major challenge to achieve success in these therapeutic approaches. Several innovative approaches to targeted drug delivery have been devised based on available knowledge in cancer biology and on technological advancements. To achieve the desired selectivity of drug delivery, nanotechnology has enabled researchers to design nanoparticles (NPs) to incorporate anticancer drugs and act as nanocarriers. Recently, many receptor molecules known to be overexpressed in cancer have been explored as docking sites for the targeting of anticancer drugs. In principle, anticancer drugs can be concentrated specifically in cancer cells and tissues by conjugating drug-containing nanocarriers with ligands against these receptors. Several mechanisms can be employed to induce triggered drug release in response to either endogenous trigger or exogenous trigger so that the anticancer drug is only released upon reaching and preferentially accumulating in the tumor tissue. This review focuses on overexpressed receptors exploited in targeting drugs to cancerous tissues and the tumor microenvironment. We briefly evaluate the structure and function of these receptor molecules, emphasizing the elegant mechanisms by which certain characteristics of cancer can be exploited in cancer treatment. After this discussion of receptors, we review their respective ligands and then the anticancer drugs delivered by nanotechnology in preclinical models of cancer. Ligand-functionalized nanocarriers have delivered significantly higher amounts of anticancer drugs in many in vitro and in vivo models of cancer compared to cancer models lacking such receptors or drug carrying nanocarriers devoid of ligand. This increased concentration of anticancer drug in the tumor site enabled by nanotechnology could have a major impact on the efficiency of cancer

  2. Nanotechnology in corneal neovascularization therapy--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Lilian; Loza, Raymond J; Han, Kyu-Yeon; Sunoqrot, Suhair; Cunningham, Christy; Purta, Patryk; Drake, James; Jain, Sandeep; Hong, Seungpyo; Chang, Jin-Hong

    2013-03-01

    Nanotechnology is an up-and-coming branch of science that studies and designs materials with at least one dimension sized from 1-100 nm. These nanomaterials have unique functions at the cellular, atomic, and molecular levels. The term "nanotechnology" was first coined in 1974. Since then, it has evolved dramatically and now consists of distinct and independent scientific fields. Nanotechnology is a highly studied topic of interest, as nanoparticles can be applied to various fields ranging from medicine and pharmacology, to chemistry and agriculture, to environmental science and consumer goods. The rapidly evolving field of nanomedicine incorporates nanotechnology with medical applications, seeking to give rise to new diagnostic means, treatments, and tools. Over the past two decades, numerous studies that underscore the successful fusion of nanotechnology with novel medical applications have emerged. This has given rise to promising new therapies for a variety of diseases, especially cancer. It is becoming abundantly clear that nanotechnology has found a place in the medical field by providing new and more efficient ways to deliver treatment. Ophthalmology can also stand to benefit significantly from the advances in nanotechnology research. As it relates to the eye, research in the nanomedicine field has been particularly focused on developing various treatments to prevent and/or reduce corneal neovascularization among other ophthalmologic disorders. This review article aims to provide an overview of corneal neovascularization, currently available treatments, and where nanotechnology comes into play.

  3. Nanotechnology in radiation oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Andrew Z; Tepper, Joel E

    2014-09-10

    Nanotechnology, the manipulation of matter on atomic and molecular scales, is a relatively new branch of science. It has already made a significant impact on clinical medicine, especially in oncology. Nanomaterial has several characteristics that are ideal for oncology applications, including preferential accumulation in tumors, low distribution in normal tissues, biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, and clearance, that differ from those of small molecules. Because these properties are also well suited for applications in radiation oncology, nanomaterials have been used in many different areas of radiation oncology for imaging and treatment planning, as well as for radiosensitization to improve the therapeutic ratio. In this article, we review the unique properties of nanomaterials that are favorable for oncology applications and examine the various applications of nanotechnology in radiation oncology. We also discuss the future directions of nanotechnology within the context of radiation oncology.

  4. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacha, G M; Varona, P

    2013-11-15

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines.

  5. Nanotechnology for chemical engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Salaheldeen Elnashaie, Said; Hashemipour Rafsanjani, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    The book describes the basic principles of transforming nano-technology into nano-engineering with a particular focus on chemical engineering fundamentals. This book provides vital information about differences between descriptive technology and quantitative engineering for students as well as working professionals in various fields of nanotechnology. Besides chemical engineering principles, the fundamentals of nanotechnology are also covered along with detailed explanation of several specific nanoscale processes from chemical engineering point of view. This information is presented in form of practical examples and case studies that help the engineers and researchers to integrate the processes which can meet the commercial production. It is worth mentioning here that, the main challenge in nanostructure and nanodevices production is nowadays related to the economic point of view. The uniqueness of this book is a balance between important insights into the synthetic methods of nano-structures and nanomaterial...

  6. Nanotechnology in the Security

    CERN Document Server

    Kruchinin, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    The topics discussed at the NATO Advanced Research Workshop "Nanotechnology in the Security Systems" included nanophysics,   nanotechnology,  nanomaterials, sensors, biosensors security systems, explosive  detection . There have been many significant advances in the past two years and some entirely new directions of research are just opening up. Recent advances in nanoscience have demonstrated that fundamentally new physical phenomena  are found when systems are reduced in size with  dimensions, comparable to the fundamental microscopic  length scales of the investigated material. Recent developments in nanotechnology and measurement techniques now allow experimental investigation of transport properties of nanodevices. This work will be of interest to researchers working in spintronics, molecular electronics and quantum information processing.

  7. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacha, G. M.; Varona, P.

    2013-11-01

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines.

  8. The track nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waheed, A. [British Institute of Technology and E-Commerce, London E7 9HZ (United Kingdom); Physics Department, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AF (United Kingdom); Forsyth, D., E-mail: dforsyth@bite.ac.u [British Institute of Technology and E-Commerce, London E7 9HZ (United Kingdom); Watts, A. [Department of Physics, UCL, London Centre of Nanotechnology (LCN), 17-19 Gordon Street, London WC1H OAH (United Kingdom); Saad, A.F. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Garyounis University, Benghazi (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya); Mitchell, G.R. [British Institute of Technology and E-Commerce, London E7 9HZ (United Kingdom); Physics Department, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AF (United Kingdom); Farmer, M. [British Institute of Technology and E-Commerce, London E7 9HZ (United Kingdom); Harris, P.J.F. [Physics Department, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AF (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    The discipline now called Solid State Nuclear Track Detection (SSNTD) dates back to 1958 and has its roots in the United Kingdom. Its strength stems chiefly from factors such as its simplicity, small geometry, permanent maintenance of the nuclear record and other diversified applications. A very important field with exciting applications reported recently in conjuction with the nuclear track technique is nanotechnology, which has applications in biology, chemistry, industry, medicare and health, information technology, biotechnology, and metallurgical and chemical technologies. Nanotechnology requires material design followed by the study of the quantum effects for final produced applications in sensors, medical diagnosis, information technology to name a few. We, in this article, present a review of past and present applications of SSNTD suggesting ways to apply the technique in nanotechnology, with special reference to development of nanostructure for applications utilising nanowires, nanofilters and sensors.

  9. Nanotechnology in Disease Diagnostic Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savaliya, Reema; Shah, Darshini; Singh, Ragini; Kumar, Ashutosh; Shankar, Rishi; Dhawan, Alok; Singh, Sanjay

    2015-06-25

    Currently the major research highlights of bioengineering and medical technology are directed towards development of improved diagnostic techniques to screen complex diseases. Screening requirements are for the identification of the cause of illnesses, monitoring the improvement or progression of the state of diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular or neurodegenerative diseases. Nanotechnology enables the manipulation of materials at nanoscale and has shown potential to enhance sensitivity, selectivity and lower the cost of a diagnosis. The causative biomolecules (DNA, proteins) can be detected by red-shifted absorbance of gold nanoparticles or alteration in the conductance of a nanowire or nanotubes, and deflection of a micro or nano-cantilever. Several types of nanomaterials such as metals, metal-oxides and quantum dots have shown ample advantages over traditional diagnosis, intracellular labeling and visualization of target cells/tissues. Nanotechnology has also opened several avenues which could be further developed to enable enhanced visualization of tissues, cells, DNA and proteins over a point-of-care device. Protein or gene chips created using nanomaterials could be further be integrated into a convenient nano-fluidic device for better disease diagnosis.

  10. Broadening nanotechnology's impact on development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beumer, K.

    2016-01-01

    Discussions about nanotechnology and development focus on applications that directly address the needs of the world’s poor. Nanotechnology can certainly make an impact in the fight against global poverty, but we need to broaden our imagination.

  11. Broadening nanotechnology's impact on development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beumer, Koen

    2016-05-01

    Discussions about nanotechnology and development focus on applications that directly address the needs of the world's poor. Nanotechnology can certainly make an impact in the fight against global poverty, but we need to broaden our imagination.

  12. Nanotechnology: Opportunities and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyyappan, Meyya

    2003-01-01

    Nanotechnology seeks to exploit novel physical, chemical, biological, mechanical, electrical, and other properties, which arise primarily due to the nanoscale nature of certain materials. A key example is carbon nanotubes (CNTs) which exhibit unique electrical and extraordinary mechanical properties and offer remarkable potential for revolutionary applications in electronics devices, computing, and data storage technology, sensors, composites, nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS), and as tip in scanning probe microscopy (SPM) for imaging and nanolithography. Thus the CNT synthesis, characterization, and applications touch upon all disciplines of science and engineering. This presentation will provide an overview and progress report on this and other major research candidates in Nanotechnology and address opportunities and challenges ahead.

  13. Understanding the nanotechnology revolution

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Edward L

    2012-01-01

    This is a unique introduction for general readers to the underlying concepts of nanotechnology, covering a wide spectrum ranging from biology to quantum computing. The material is presented in the simplest possible way, including a few mathematical equations, but not mathematical derivations. It also outlines as simply as possible the major contributions to modern technology of physics-based nanophysical devices, such as the atomic clock, global positioning systems, and magnetic resonance imaging. As a result, readers are able to establish a connection between nanotechnology and day-to-day

  14. Contextualising Nanotechnology in Chemistry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Christine; Hayden, Hugh

    2008-01-01

    In recent years nanotechnology has become part of the content of many undergraduate chemistry and physics degree courses. This paper deals with the role of contextualisation of nanotechnology in the delivery of the content, as nanotechnology is only now being slowly integrated into many chemistry degree courses in Ireland and elsewhere. An…

  15. Nanotechnology: From Feynman to Funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, K. Eric

    2004-01-01

    The revolutionary Feynman vision of a powerful and general nanotechnology, based on nanomachines that build with atom-by-atom control, promises great opportunities and, if abused, great dangers. This vision made nanotechnology a buzzword and launched the global nanotechnology race. Along the way, however, the meaning of the word has shifted. A…

  16. Nanotechnology in Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    An overview is given of the application of nanotechnology to agriculture. This is an active field of R&D, where a large number of findings and innovations have been reported. For example, in soil management, applications reported include nanofertilizers, soil binders, water retention aids, and nut...

  17. Nanotechnology - An emerging technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, D.

    2007-01-01

    The science of nanotechnology is still in its infancy. However, progress is being made in research and development of potential beneficial properties of nanomaterials that could play an integral part in the development of new and changing uses for mineral commodities. Nanotechnology is a kind of toolbox that allows industry to make nanomaterials and nanostructures with special properties. New nanotechnology applications of mineral commodities in their nanoscale form are being discovered, researched and developed. At the same time, there is continued research into environmental, human health and safety concerns that inherently arise from the development of a new technology. Except for a few nanomaterials (CNTs, copper, silver and zinc oxide), widespread applications are hampered by processing and suitable commercial-scale production techniques, high manufacturing costs, product price, and environmental, and human health and safety concerns. Whether nanotechnology causes a tidal wave of change or is a long-term evolutionary process of technology, new applications of familiar mineral commodities will be created. As research and development continues, the ability to manipulate matter at the nanoscale into increasingly sophisticated nanomaterials will improve and open up new possibilities for industry that will change the flow and use of mineral commodities and the materials and products that are used.

  18. Nanotechnology and the Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmoulin-Canselier, Sonia; Lacour, Stéphanie

    Law and nanotechnology form a vast subject. The aim here will be to examine them from the societal standpoint of nanoethics, if necessary without due reference to the work that has been undertaken. For while law differs from ethics, as we shall attempt to explain throughout this reflection, it must also be studied in its relationship with social realities.

  19. Trends in nanotechnology patents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsinchun; Roco, Mihail C.; Li, Xin; Lin, Yiling

    2008-03-01

    An analysis of 30 years of data on patent publications from the US Patent and Trademark Office, the European Patent Office and the Japan Patent Office confirms the dominance of companies and selected academic institutions from the US, Europe and Japan in the commercialization of nanotechnology.

  20. Nanotechnology for sustainable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, Elena [Molecular Nanotechnology Laboratory, University of Alicante, Carretera Alicante-San Vicente s/n, E-03690 Alicante (Spain); Rus, Guillermo; Garcia-Martinez, Javier [Dpt. Structural Mechanics, University of Granada, Politecnico de Fuentenueva, 18071 Granada (Spain)

    2009-12-15

    Nanotechnology is generating a lot of attention these days and therefore building great expectations not only in the academic community but also among investors, the governments, and industry. Its unique capability to fabricate new structures at atomic scale has already produced novel materials and devices with great potential applications in a wide number of fields. Among them, significant breakthroughs are especially required in the energy sector that will allow us to maintain our increasing appetite for energy, which increases both with the number of people that join the developed economies and with our demand per capita. This needs to be done in a way that includes the environment in the wealth production equation as we gather more evidences of the human impact on the climate, biodiversity and quality of the air, water and soil. This review article does not cover in detail all the specific contributions from nanotechnology to the various sustainable energies, but in a broader way, it collects the most recent advances of nanotechnology to sustainable energy production, storage and use. For this review paper, solar, hydrogen and new generation batteries and supercapacitors are described as the most significant examples of the contributions of nanotechnology in the energy sector. The aim of this review article is to present some significant contributions from many research groups who are mainly unconnected and are working from different viewpoints, to find solutions to one of the great challenges of our time, i.e., the production and use of energy, without compromising our environment, from one of the most exciting and multidisciplinary fields, nanotechnology. (author)

  1. Nanotechnology: Principles and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logothetidis, S.

    Nanotechnology is one of the leading scientific fields today since it combines knowledge from the fields of Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Medicine, Informatics, and Engineering. It is an emerging technological field with great potential to lead in great breakthroughs that can be applied in real life. Novel nano- and biomaterials, and nanodevices are fabricated and controlled by nanotechnology tools and techniques, which investigate and tune the properties, responses, and functions of living and non-living matter, at sizes below 100 nm. The application and use of nanomaterials in electronic and mechanical devices, in optical and magnetic components, quantum computing, tissue engineering, and other biotechnologies, with smallest features, widths well below 100 nm, are the economically most important parts of the nanotechnology nowadays and presumably in the near future. The number of nanoproducts is rapidly growing since more and more nanoengineered materials are reaching the global market The continuous revolution in nanotechnology will result in the fabrication of nanomaterials with properties and functionalities which are going to have positive changes in the lives of our citizens, be it in health, environment, electronics or any other field. In the energy generation challenge where the conventional fuel resources cannot remain the dominant energy source, taking into account the increasing consumption demand and the CO2 emissions alternative renewable energy sources based on new technologies have to be promoted. Innovative solar cell technologies that utilize nanostructured materials and composite systems such as organic photovoltaics offer great technological potential due to their attractive properties such as the potential of large-scale and low-cost roll-to-roll manufacturing processes The advances in nanomaterials necessitate parallel progress of the nanometrology tools and techniques to characterize and manipulate nanostructures. Revolutionary new approaches

  2. Exploiting developments in nanotechnology for the preferential delivery of platinum-based anti-cancer agents to tumours: targeting some of the hallmarks of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, James P; Ude, Ziga; Marmion, Celine J

    2016-01-01

    Platinum drugs as anti-cancer therapeutics are held in extremely high regard. Despite their success, there are drawbacks associated with their use; their dose-limiting toxicity, their limited activity against an array of common cancers and patient resistance to Pt-based therapeutic regimes. Current investigations in medicinal inorganic chemistry strive to offset these shortcomings through selective targeting of Pt drugs and/or the development of Pt drugs with new or multiple modes of action. A comprehensive overview showcasing how liposomes, nanocapsules, polymers, dendrimers, nanoparticles and nanotubes may be employed as vehicles to selectively deliver cytotoxic Pt payloads to tumour cells is provided.

  3. 76 FR 66932 - The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Announces the Initiation of a Public Private Industry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... promising opportunities based on nanotechnology from academic research to the clinical environment; 4... Initiation of a Public Private Industry Partnership on Translation of Nanotechnology in Cancer (TONIC) To Promote Translational Research and Development Opportunities of Nanotechnology-Based Cancer...

  4. EDITORIAL: Nanotechnology in motion Nanotechnology in motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2012-02-01

    development of the electron microscope, which aimed to exceed the resolving power of diffraction-limited optical microscopes. Since the diffraction limit is proportional to the incident wavelength, the shorter wavelength electron beam allows smaller features to be resolved than optical light. Ernst Ruska shared the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1986 for his work in developing the transmission electron microscope [5]. The technique continues to provide an invaluable tool in nanotechnology studies, as demonstrated recently by a collaboration of researchers in the US, Singapore and Korea used electron and atomic force microscopy in their investigation of the deposition of gold nanoparticles on graphene and the enhanced conductivity of the doped film [6]. The other half of the 1986 Nobel Prize was awarded jointly to Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer 'for their design of the scanning tunnelling microscope'. The scanning tunnelling microscope offered the first glimpses of atomic scale features, galvanizing research in nanoscale science and technology into a burst of fruitful activity that persists to this day. Instead of using the diffraction and scattering of beams to 'see' nanoscale structures, the atomic force microscope developed by Binnig, Quate and Gerber in the 1980s [1] determines the surface topology 'by touch'. The device uses nanoscale changes in the forces exerted on a tip as it scans the sample surface to generate an image. As might be expected, innovations on the original atomic force microscope have now been developed achieving ever greater sensitivities for imaging soft matter without destroying it. Recent work by collaborators at the University of Bristol and the University of Glasgow used a cigar-shaped nanoparticle held in optical tweezers as the scanning tip. The technique is not diffraction limited, imparts less force on samples than contact scanning probe microscopy techniques, and allows highly curved and strongly scattering samples to be imaged [7]. In this issue

  5. Stromal response to prostate cancer: nanotechnology-based detection of thioredoxin-interacting protein partners distinguishes prostate cancer associated stroma from that of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Elizabeth; Linehan, Jennifer; Babilonia, Gail; Imam, S Ashraf; Smith, David; Loera, Sofia; Wilson, Timothy; Smith, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Histological staining of reactive stroma has been shown to be a predictor of biochemical recurrence in prostate cancer, however, molecular markers of the stromal response to prostate cancer have not yet been fully delineated. The objective of this study was to determine whether or not the stromal biomarkers detected with a thioredoxin-targeted nanodevice could be used to distinguish the stroma associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia from that associated with PCA. In this regard, we recently demonstrated that a thioredoxin-targeted nanodevice selectively binds to reactive stroma in frozen prostate tumor tissue sections. To accomplish this, random frozen prostate tissue sections from each of 35 patients who underwent resection were incubated with the nanodevice and graded for fluorescent intensity. An adjacent section from each case was stained with Hematoxylin & Eosin to confirm the diagnosis. Select cases were stained with Masson's Trichrome or immunohistochemically using antibodies to thioredoxin reductase 1, thioredoxin reductase 2 or peroxiredoxin 1. Our results demonstrate that the graded intensity of nanodevice binding to the stroma associated with PCA was significantly higher (p = 0.0127) than that of benign prostatic hyperplasia using the t-test. Immunohistochemical staining of adjacent sections in representative cases showed that none of the two commonly studied thioredoxin interacting protein partners mirrored the fluorescence pattern seen with the nanodevice. However, thioredoxin reductase 2 protein was clearly shown to be a biomarker of prostate cancer-associated reactive stroma whose presence distinguishes the stroma associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia from that associated with prostate cancer. We conclude that the signal detected by the nanodevice, in contrast to individual targets detected with antibodies used in this study, originates from multiple thioredoxin interacting protein partners that distinguish the M2 neutrophil and

  6. Stromal response to prostate cancer: nanotechnology-based detection of thioredoxin-interacting protein partners distinguishes prostate cancer associated stroma from that of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Singer

    Full Text Available Histological staining of reactive stroma has been shown to be a predictor of biochemical recurrence in prostate cancer, however, molecular markers of the stromal response to prostate cancer have not yet been fully delineated. The objective of this study was to determine whether or not the stromal biomarkers detected with a thioredoxin-targeted nanodevice could be used to distinguish the stroma associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia from that associated with PCA. In this regard, we recently demonstrated that a thioredoxin-targeted nanodevice selectively binds to reactive stroma in frozen prostate tumor tissue sections. To accomplish this, random frozen prostate tissue sections from each of 35 patients who underwent resection were incubated with the nanodevice and graded for fluorescent intensity. An adjacent section from each case was stained with Hematoxylin & Eosin to confirm the diagnosis. Select cases were stained with Masson's Trichrome or immunohistochemically using antibodies to thioredoxin reductase 1, thioredoxin reductase 2 or peroxiredoxin 1. Our results demonstrate that the graded intensity of nanodevice binding to the stroma associated with PCA was significantly higher (p = 0.0127 than that of benign prostatic hyperplasia using the t-test. Immunohistochemical staining of adjacent sections in representative cases showed that none of the two commonly studied thioredoxin interacting protein partners mirrored the fluorescence pattern seen with the nanodevice. However, thioredoxin reductase 2 protein was clearly shown to be a biomarker of prostate cancer-associated reactive stroma whose presence distinguishes the stroma associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia from that associated with prostate cancer. We conclude that the signal detected by the nanodevice, in contrast to individual targets detected with antibodies used in this study, originates from multiple thioredoxin interacting protein partners that distinguish the M2

  7. Green Chemistry for Nanotechnology: Opportunities and Future Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preeti Nigam, Joshi, E-mail: ph.joshi@ncl.res.in [Combichem Bioresource Center, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune (India)

    2016-01-26

    Nanotechnology is a paradigm for emerging technologies and much talked about area of science. It is the technology of future and has revolutionized all fields of medicine, agriculture, environmental and electronics by providing abilities that would never have previously dreamt of. It is a unique platform of multidisciplinary approaches integrating diverse fields of engineering, biology, physics and chemistry. In recent years, nanotechnology has seen the fastest pace in its all aspects of synthesis methodologies and wide applications in all areas of medicine, agricultural, environmental, and electronics. It is the impact of nanotechnology approaches that new fields of nanomedicine, cancer nanotechnology, nanorobotics and nanoelectronics have been emerged and are flourishing with the advances in this expanding field. Nanotechnology holds the potential for pervasive and promising applications and getting significant attention and financial aids also. Although there are different definitions of nanotechnology, in broad prospective, nanotechnology can be described as designing or exploiting materials at nanometer dimensions (i.e., one dimension less than 100 nanometers). At nanoscale, substances have a larger surface area to volume ratio than conventional materials which is the prime reason behind their increased level of reactivity, improved and size tunable magnetic, optical and electrical properties and more toxicity also.

  8. Chiral Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibyendu S. Bag

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews nanoscale science and technology of chiral molecules/macromolecules-under twosubtopics-chiral nanotechnology and nano-chiral technology. Chiral nanotechnology discusses thenanotechnology, where molecular chirality plays a role in the properties of materials, including molecularswitches, molecular motors, and other molecular devices; chiral supramolecules and self-assembled nanotubesand their functions are also highlighted. Nano-chiral technology  describes the nanoscale approaches to chiraltechnology such as asymmetric synthesis and catalysis, chiral separation and detection, and enantiomericanalysis. Chiral sensors have also been included. The state-of-the-art chiral research at DMSRDE,Kanpur isalso presented.Defence Science Journal, 2008, 58(5, pp.626-635, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.58.1685

  9. Nanotechnologies a general introduction

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Ferrari, M; Li Bassi, A

    2007-01-01

    After a brief description of what is nanotechnology (a triple definition will be attempted) and of its importance for the society, this first lecture manly aims at showing how nanoscience makes various nanotechnologies possible. The surprising story of direct imaging and manipulation of atoms (scanning probe microscopies will be the specific subject of the third lecture by prof. Andrea Li Bassi) is told to naturally introduce the crucial role of quantum confinement and surface defects. The electronic and vibrational properties of nanostructures are then discussed to understand the connection between the deeply modified (with respect to the bulk) quantum spectra and the physico-chemical properties of nanoscopic objects. In this context the concept of superatom (and its generalizations) is stressed. The essential role of both size and size control is finally emphasized discussing some significant applications in the fields of materials, devices and medicine. To this last argument (nanomedicine) the second lectu...

  10. Risk of nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louda, Petr; Bakalova, Totka

    2014-05-01

    Nano-this and nano-that. These days it seems you need the prefix "nano" for products or applications if you want to be either very trendy or incredibly scary. This "nano-trend" has assumed "mega" proportions. Vague promises of a better life are met by equally vague, generalized fears about a worse future. These debates have some aspects in common: the subject is complex and not easy to explain; there is no consensus on risks and benefits. - A particular problem with nanotechnology lies in the huge gap between the public perception of what the hype promises and the scientific and commercial reality of what the technology actually delivers today and in the near future. There is nanoscience, which is the study of phenomena and manipulation of material at the nanoscale, in essence an extension of existing sciences into the nanoscale. Then there is nanotechnology, which is the design, characterization, production and application of structures, devices and systems by controlling shape and size at the nanoscale. Nanotechnology should really be called nanotechnologies: There is no single field of nanotechnology. The term broadly refers to such fields as biology, physics or chemistry, any scientific field really, or a combination thereof, that deals with the deliberate and controlled manufacturing of nanostructures. In addressing the health and environmental impact of nanotechnology we need to differentiate two types of nanostructures: (1) Nanocomposites, nanostructured surfaces and nanocomponents (electronic, optical, sensors etc.), where nanoscale particles are incorporated into a substance, material or device ("fixed" nanoparticles); and (2) "free" nanoparticles, where at some stage in production or use individual nanoparticles of a substance are present. There are four entry routes for nanoparticles into the body: they can be inhaled, swallowed, absorbed through skin or be deliberately injected during medical procedures. Once within the body they are highly mobile and

  11. Nanotechnology in dentistry: prevention, diagnosis, and therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abou Neel EA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ensanya Ali Abou Neel,1–3 Laurent Bozec,3 Roman A Perez,4,5 Hae-Won Kim,4–6 Jonathan C Knowles3,5 1Division of Biomaterials, Operative Dentistry Department, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 2Biomaterials Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt; 3UCL Eastman Dental Institute, Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, London, UK; 4Institute of Tissue Regenerative Engineering (ITREN, 5Department of Nanobiomedical Science and BK21 Plus NBM Global Research Center for Regenerative Medicine, 6Department of Biomaterials Science, College of Dentistry, Dankook University, Cheonan, Republic of Korea Abstract: Nanotechnology has rapidly expanded into all areas of science; it offers significant alternative ways to solve scientific and medical questions and problems. In dentistry, nanotechnology has been exploited in the development of restorative materials with some significant success. This review discusses nanointerfaces that could compromise the longevity of dental restorations, and how nanotechnolgy has been employed to modify them for providing long-term successful restorations. It also focuses on some challenging areas in dentistry, eg, oral biofilm and cancers, and how nanotechnology overcomes these challenges. The recent advances in nanodentistry and innovations in oral health-related diagnostic, preventive, and therapeutic methods required to maintain and obtain perfect oral health, have been discussed. The recent advances in nanotechnology could hold promise in bringing a paradigm shift in dental field. Although there are numerous complex therapies being developed to treat many diseases, their clinical use requires careful consideration of the expense of synthesis and implementation. Keywords: nanotechnology, nanointerfaces, biofilm-related oral diseases, tissue engineering, drug delivery, toxicity

  12. Organic Agriculture and Nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Jahanban, Leila; Davari, Mohammadreza

    2014-01-01

    Organic agriculture is a holistic production management system which promotes and enhances agro-ecosystem health, including biodiversity, biological cycles and soil biological activity. On the other hand, nanotechnology is a rapidly developing domain of research and practice, the terminology is in a state of flux and usage is evolving. Nano-applications are being applied across the entire agriculture and food sectors. In agriculture, for example, nano-pesticides and nano-sensors are changing ...

  13. Multifunctional Nanotechnology Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    resistive states being unsusceptible to trillions of nanosecond pulse readouts. In addition, a low positive temperature dependence (5.9e-4 1/C) results in...REPORT 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) JAN 2015 – JAN 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE MULTIFUNCTIONAL NANOTECHNOLOGY RESEARCH 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER IN- HOUSE ...is to provide a foundation for an affordable, ultra-dense, low -power computer system for processing spatio-temporal data on the fly. This includes

  14. Nanotechnology: A Policy Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    Evidence from Increased Plant Biomass, Fruit Yield and Phytomedicine Content in Bitter Melon,” BMC Biotechnology , PubMed, April 26, 2013, http...contrast to many previous emerging technologies—such as semiconductors, satellites, software, and biotechnology —the U.S. lead is narrower, and the...approximately $67.5 billion. Cientifica also concluded that the United States had fallen behind both Russia and China in nanotechnology R&D funding on a

  15. Nanostructures and Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natelson, Douglas

    2015-06-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction and overview; 2. Solid state physics in a nutshell; 3. Bulk materials; 4. Fabrication and characterization at the nanoscale; 5. Real solids: defects, interactions, confinement; 6. Charge transport and nanoelectronics; 7. Magnetism and magnetoelectronics; 8. Photonics; 9. Micro and nanomechanics; 10. Micro and nanofluidics; 11. Bionanotechnology: a very brief overview; 12. Nanotechnology and the future; Appendix: common quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics results; References; Index.

  16. Nanotechnology and vaccine development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Gyeong Kim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the progress of conventional vaccines, improvements are clearly required due to concerns about the weak immunogenicity of these vaccines, intrinsic instability in vivo, toxicity, and the need for multiple administrations. To overcome such problems, nanotechnology platforms have recently been incorporated into vaccine development. Nanocarrier-based delivery systems offer an opportunity to enhance the humoral and cellular immune responses. This advantage is attributable to the nanoscale particle size, which facilitates uptake by phagocytic cells, the gut-associated lymphoid tissue, and the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, leading to efficient antigen recognition and presentation. Modifying the surfaces of nanocarriers with a variety of targeting moieties permits the delivery of antigens to specific cell surface receptors, thereby stimulating specific and selective immune responses. In this review, we introduce recent advances in nanocarrier-based vaccine delivery systems, with a focus on the types of carriers, including liposomes, emulsions, polymer-based particles, and carbon-based nanomaterials. We describe the remaining challenges and possible breakthroughs, including the development of needle-free nanotechnologies and a fundamental understanding of the in vivo behavior and stability of the nanocarriers in nanotechnology-based delivery systems.

  17. Nanotechnology based devices and applications in medicine: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis A Martis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology has been the most explored and extensively studied area in recent times. Many devices which were earlier impossible to imagine, are being developed at a lightning speed with the application of nanotechnology. To overcome the challenges offered by the most dreaded diseases, such as cancer or any disease involving the central nervous system or other inaccessible areas of the human body, nanotechnology has been proved to be a boon in making the treatment more target specific and minimizing the toxicities. This review describes a handful of important devices and applications based on nanotechnology in medicine made in recent times. This article also describes in brief the regulatory concerns and the ethical issues pertaining to nanomedical devices.

  18. Bone Cancer: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Conducting Clinical Trials Statistical Tools and Data Terminology Resources NCI Data Catalog Cryo-EM NCI's Role ... Report (RPPR) Grant Closeout Grant Resources NCI Grants Management Legal Requirements NCI Grant Policies Grants Management Contacts ...

  19. Nanomedicine, nanotechnology in medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisseau, Patrick; Loubaton, Bertrand

    2011-09-01

    Nanomedicine is a relatively new field of science and technology. It looks sometimes ill defined and interpretations of that term may vary, especially between Europe and the United States. By interacting with biological molecules, therefore at nanoscale, nanotechnology opens up a vast field of research and application. Interactions between artificial molecular assemblies or nanodevices and biomolecules can be understood both in the extracellular medium and inside the human cells. Operating at nanoscale allows to exploit physical properties different from those observed at microscale such as the volume/surface ratio. The investigated diagnostic applications can be considered for in vitro as well as for in vivo diagnosis. In vitro, the synthesised particles and manipulation or detection devices allow for the recognition, capture, and concentration of biomolecules. In vivo, the synthetic molecular assemblies are mainly designed as a contrast agent for imaging. A second area exhibiting a strong development is "nanodrugs" where nanoparticles are designed for targeted drug delivery. The use of such carriers improves the drug biodistribution, targeting active molecules to diseased tissues while protecting healthy tissue. A third area of application is regenerative medicine where nanotechnology allows developing biocompatible materials which support growth of cells used in cell therapy. The application of nanotechnology to medicine raises new issues because of new uses they allow, for instance: Is the power of these new diagnostics manageable by the medical profession? What means treating a patient without any clinical signs? Nanomedicine can contribute to the development of a personalised medicine both for diagnosis and therapy. There exists in many countries existing regulatory frameworks addressing the basic rules of safety and effectiveness of nanotechnology based medicine, whether molecular assemblies or medical devices. However, there is a need to clarify or to

  20. Nanotechnology - Enabling Future Space Viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-18

    OFFICIAL USE ONLY – PENDING AWC PUBLIC AFFAIRS RELEASE nanotechnology will occur in the fields of medicine , protective clothing, energy, water...on Accelerating Change, 2008. 29 J. Storrs Hall, Nanofuture: What’s Next for Nanotechnology (Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2005), 30. 30 Garreau...Radical Evolution, 53, 58-9. 31 J. Storrs Hall, Nanofuture: What’s Next for Nanotechnology (Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2005), 17. 32Ibid

  1. Nanotechnology in paper electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna; Österbacka, Professor Ronald; Han, Jin-Woo, Dr

    2014-03-01

    devices. If 'writing is thinking on paper' [15], it seems researchers are finding yet more powerful means of putting their ideas on paper. References [1] Barquinha P, Martins R, Pereira L and Fortunato E 2012 Transparent Oxide Electronics: From Materials to Devices (Chichester: Wiley) [2] Zocco A T, You H, Hagen J A and Steckl A J 2014 Pentacene organic thin film transistors on flexible paper and glass substrates Nanotechnology 25 094005 [3] Pereira L, Gaspar D, Guerin D, Delattre A, Fortunato E and Martins R 2014 The influence of fibril composition and dimension on the performance of paper gated oxide transistors Nanotechnology 25 094007 [4] Wu G, Wan C, Zhou J, Zhu L and Wan Q 2014 Low-voltage protonic/electronic hybrid indium-zinc-oxide synaptic transistors on paper substrates Nanotechnology 25 094001 [5] Shin H, Yoon B, Park I S and Kim J-M 2014 An electrothermochromic paper display based on colorimetrically reversible polydiacetylenes Nanotechnology 25 094011 [6] Ihalainen P, Pettersson F, Pesonen M, Viitala T, Määttänen A, Österbacka R and Peltonen J 2014 An impedimetric study of DNA hybridization on paper supported inkjet-printed gold electrodes Nanotechnology 25 094009 [7] Wang Y, Shi Y, Zhao C X, Wong J I, Sun X W and Yang H Y 2014 Printed all-solid flexible microsupercapacitors: towards the general route for high energy storage device Nanotechnology 25 094010 [8] Andersson H A, Manuilskiy A, Haller S, Hummelgård M, Sidén J, Hummelgård C, Olin H and Nilsson H-E 2014 Assembling surface mounted components on ink-jet printed double sided paper circuit board Nanotechnology 25 094002 [9] Gaspar D, Fernandes S N, de Oliveira A G, Fernandes J G, Grey P, Pontes R V, Pereira L, Martins R, Godinho M H and Fortunato E 2014 Nanocrystalline cellulose applied simultaneously as gate dielectric and substrate on flexible field effect transistors Nanotechnology 25 094008 [10] Männl U, van den Berg C, Magunje B, Härting M, Britton D T, Jones S, Mvan Staden M J and Scriba M

  2. Nanotechnology for dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomsia, Antoni P; Lee, Janice S; Wegst, Ulrike G K; Saiz, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of nanotechnology, an opportunity exists for the engineering of new dental implant materials. Metallic dental implants have been successfully used for decades, but they have shortcomings related to osseointegration and mechanical properties that do not match those of bone. Absent the development of an entirely new class of materials, faster osseointegration of currently available dental implants can be accomplished by various surface modifications. To date, there is no consensus regarding the preferred method(s) of implant surface modification, and further development will be required before the ideal implant surface can be created, let alone become available for clinical use. Current approaches can generally be categorized into three areas: ceramic coatings, surface functionalization, and patterning on the micro- to nanoscale. The distinctions among these are imprecise, as some or all of these approaches can be combined to improve in vivo implant performance. These surface improvements have resulted in durable implants with a high percentage of success and long-term function. Nanotechnology has provided another set of opportunities for the manipulation of implant surfaces in its capacity to mimic the surface topography formed by extracellular matrix components of natural tissue. The possibilities introduced by nanotechnology now permit the tailoring of implant chemistry and structure with an unprecedented degree of control. For the first time, tools are available that can be used to manipulate the physicochemical environment and monitor key cellular events at the molecular level. These new tools and capabilities will result in faster bone formation, reduced healing time, and rapid recovery to function.

  3. Nanotechnology and human health

    CERN Document Server

    Malsch, Ineke

    2013-01-01

    Addressing medium- and long-term expectations for human health, this book reviews current scientific and technical developments in nanotechnology for biomedical, agrofood, and environmental applications. This collection of perspectives on the ethical, legal, and societal implications of bionanotechnology provides unique insight into contemporary technological developments. Readers with a technical background will benefit from the overview of the state-of-the-art research in their field, while readers with a social science background will benefit from the discussion of realistic prospects of na

  4. Responsible nanotechnology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forloni, Gianluigi

    2012-08-01

    Nanotechnologies have an increasing relevance in our life, numerous products already on the market are associated with this new technology. Although the chemical constituents of nanomaterials are often well known, the properties at the nano level are completely different from the bulk materials. Independently from the specific application the knowledge in this field involves different type of scientific competence. The accountability of the nanomaterial research imply the parallel development of innovative methodological approaches to assess and manage the risks associated to the exposure for humans and environmental to the nanomaterials for their entire life-cycle: production, application, use and waste discharge. The vast numbers of applications and the enormous amount of variables influencing the characteristics of the nanomaterials make particularly difficult the elaboration of appropriate nanotoxicological protocols. According to the official declarations exist an awareness of the public institutions in charge of the regulatory system, about the environmental, health and safety implications of nanotechnology, but the scientific information is insufficient to support appropriate mandatory rules. Public research programmers must play an important role in providing greater incentives and encouragement for nanotechnologies that support sustainable development to avoid endangering humanity's well being in the long-term. The existing imbalance in funds allocated to nanotech research needs to be corrected so that impact assessment and minimization and not only application come high in the agenda. Research funding should consider as a priority the elimination of knowledge gaps instead of promoting technological application only. With the creation of a public register collecting nanomaterials and new applications it is possible, starting from the information available, initiate a sustainable route, allowing the gradual development of a rational and informed approach to

  5. Bioengineered riboflavin in nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beztsinna, N; Solé, M; Taib, N; Bestel, I

    2016-02-01

    Riboflavin (RF) is an essential water-soluble vitamin with unique biological and physicochemical properties such as transporterspecific cell internalization, implication in redox reactions, fluorescence and photosensitizing. Due to these features RF attracted researchers in various fields from targeted drug delivery and tissue engineering to optoelectronics and biosensors. In this review we will give a brief reminder of RF chemistry, its optical, photosensitizing properties, RF transporter systems and its role in pathologies. We will point a special attention on the recent findings concerning RF applications in nanotechnologies such as RF functionalized nanoparticles, polymers, biomolecules, carbon nanotubes, hydrogels and implants for tissue engineering.

  6. Nanotechnology: The Incredible Invisible World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Amanda S.

    2011-01-01

    The concept of nanotechnology was first introduced in 1959 by Richard Feynman at a meeting of the American Physical Society. Nanotechnology opens the door to an exciting new science/technology/engineering field. The possibilities for the uses of this technology should inspire the imagination to think big. Many are already pursuing such feats…

  7. Nanotechnology overview: Opportunities and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanotechnology can be defined as the science of manipulating matter at the nanometer scale in order to discover new properties and possibly produce new products. For the past 30 years, a considerable amount of scientific interest and R&D funding devoted to nanotechnology has led to rapid developmen...

  8. Food nanotechnology – an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupinder S Sekhon

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Bhupinder S SekhonInstitute of Pharmacy and Department of Biotechnology, Punjab College of Technical Education, Jhande, Ludhiana, IndiaAbstract: Food nanotechnology is an area of emerging interest and opens up a whole universe of new possibilities for the food industry. The basic categories of nanotechnology applications and functionalities currently in the development of food packaging include: the improvement of plastic materials barriers, the incorporation of active components that can deliver functional attributes beyond those of conventional active packaging, and the sensing and signaling of relevant information. Nano food packaging materials may extend food life, improve food safety, alert consumers that food is contaminated or spoiled, repair tears in packaging, and even release preservatives to extend the life of the food in the package. Nanotechnology applications in the food industry can be utilized to detect bacteria in packaging, or produce stronger flavors and color quality, and safety by increasing the barrier properties. Nanotechnology holds great promise to provide benefits not just within food products but also around food products. In fact, nanotechnology introduces new chances for innovation in the food industry at immense speed, but uncertainty and health concerns are also emerging. EU/WE/global legislation for the regulation of nanotechnology in food are meager. Moreover, current legislation appears unsuitable to nanotechnology specificity.Keywords: nanotechnology, nanofood, food packaging, nanoparticles, nanoencapsulation

  9. Robotics, Ethics, and Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganascia, Jean-Gabriel

    It may seem out of character to find a chapter on robotics in a book about nanotechnology, and even more so a chapter on the application of ethics to robots. Indeed, as we shall see, the questions look quite different in these two fields, i.e., in robotics and nanoscience. In short, in the case of robots, we are dealing with artificial beings endowed with higher cognitive faculties, such as language, reasoning, action, and perception, whereas in the case of nano-objects, we are talking about invisible macromolecules which act, move, and duplicate unseen to us. In one case, we find ourselves confronted by a possibly evil double of ourselves, and in the other, a creeping and intangible nebula assails us from all sides. In one case, we are faced with an alter ego which, although unknown, is clearly perceptible, while in the other, an unspeakable ooze, the notorious grey goo, whose properties are both mysterious and sinister, enters and immerses us. This leads to a shift in the ethical problem situation: the notion of responsibility can no longer be worded in the same terms because, despite its otherness, the robot can always be located somewhere, while in the case of nanotechnologies, myriad nanometric objects permeate everywhere, disseminating uncontrollably.

  10. NANOTECHNOLOGY USE IN MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Reddy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Technology is shrinking quantity wise, increasing quality wise at a rather rapid rate. As a result, more and more advancements are taking place at the cellular, molecular and atomic level — at the nanoscale. NANOTECHNOLOGY: Is especially important to medicine because the medical field deals with things on the smallest of levels. Additionally, the small nano devices that are being developed right now can enter the body and treat and prevent diseases. NANOMEDICINE: Is the application of nanotechnology (the engineering of tiny machines for the prevention and treatment of disease in the human body. This evolving discipline has the potential to dramatically change medical science. NANOBOTS: Smallest of robots could be used to perform a number of functions inside the body and out. They could even be programmed to build other nanobots. NANOCOMPUTERS: To direct nanobots in their work, there are special computers. NANOTWEEZERS: devices are designed to manipulate nanostructures. Nanotweezers are usually constructed using nanotubes. NANOCHIP: Is an integrated circuit that is so small, in physical terms, that individual particles of matter play major roles

  11. Nanotechnologies in Latvia: Commercialisation Aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geipele I.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider the possibilities to apply the nanotechnology products of manufacturing industries in Latvia for further commercialisation. The purpose of the research is to find out the preliminary criteria for the system of engineering economic indicators for multifunctional nanocoating technologies. The article provides new findings and calculations for the local nanotechnology market research characterising the development of nanotechnology industry. The authors outline a scope of issues as to low activities rankings in Latvia on application of locally produced nanotechnologies towards efficiency of the resource use for nanocoating technologies. For the first time in Latvia, the authors make the case study research and summarise the latest performance indicators of the Latvian companies operating in the nanotechnology industry.

  12. Review on early technology assessments of nanotechnologies in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retèl, Valesca P; Hummel, Marjan J M; van Harten, Wim H

    2009-12-01

    Nanotechnology is expected to play an increasingly important role in the diagnostics, prognostics, and management of targeted cancer treatments. While papers have described promising results for nanotechnology in experimental settings, the translation of fundamental research into clinical applications has yet to be widely adopted. In future, policy makers will need to anticipate new developments for clinical implementation and introduce technology assessments. Here we present an overview of the literature on the technology assessments that have already been undertaken on early stage nanotechnology in cancer care, with particular emphasis placed on clinical efficacy, efficiency, logistics, patient-related features and technology dynamics. Owing to the current stage of development of most nanotechnologies, we found only a limited number of publications describing the application of either Health Technology Assessment (HTA) or Constructive Technology Assessment (CTA). In spite of the promising conclusions of most papers concerning the benefits of clinical implementation, actual clinically relevant applications were rarely encountered, and so far only a few publications report application of systematic forms of technology assessment. Most articles consider aspects of environmental safety, regulation and ethics, often mentioning the need to investigate such issues more thoroughly. Evaluation of financial and organizational aspects is often missing. In order to obtain a realistic perspective on the translation and implementation process there is a need for a broad and systematic evaluation of nanotechnologies at early stages of development. Assessment methods taking technology dynamics into account, such as Constructive Technology Assessment (CTA) should be considered for evaluation purposes.

  13. EDITORIAL: Trends in Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Antonio; Serena, Pedro A.; Saenz, Juan Jose; Welland, Mark; Reifenberger, Ron

    2004-04-01

    With effect from August 2004 the journal Nanotechnology will discontinue the `Letters to the Editor' section. The increase in publication speed achieved for all articles now means that letters have no advantage. Fully electronic publication processes including electronic submission, refereeing and proofing, ensure that all papers are processed with minimum delay and are published as soon as they are ready. The journal will continue to publish high-quality original research papers, reviews and tutorials, as well as papers on the ethical and societal implications of nanotechnology at the discretion of the Editorial Board. All submitted papers will undergo a pre-selection procedure for suitability by the Editors of the journal. If a paper is accepted for consideration by the journal it will be sent to independent experts in the field for peer review. To speed up the publication process, we encourage authors to suggest five independent experts in their field as potential referees and supply their title, name, affiliation and e-mail address. The Editors of the journal may use these names at their discretion. Authors may also request that certain people are not to be used as referees. Papers of special interest will be given the utmost priority and on acceptance will be publicized further through worldwide press releases and reviews on the Institute of Physics website and on nanotechweb.org. As a service to authors and to the international physics community, and as part of our commitment to give authors' work as much visibility as possible, all papers are freely available online for 30 days from their electronic publication date. This means open access for citations to everyone in the world. We will also send an electronic offprint of your published paper to ten colleagues of your choice, giving your article an increased chance of being cited quickly. In the meantime, we are pleased to announce an increase in the Impact Factor of the journal in 2003 to 2.304, which means

  14. Nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Baljit

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nanoparticles hold tremendous potential as an effective drug delivery system. In this review we discussed recent developments in nanotechnology for drug delivery. To overcome the problems of gene and drug delivery, nanotechnology has gained interest in recent years. Nanosystems with different compositions and biological properties have been extensively investigated for drug and gene delivery applications. To achieve efficient drug delivery it is important to understand the interactions of nanomaterials with the biological environment, targeting cell-surface receptors, drug release, multiple drug administration, stability of therapeutic agents and molecular mechanisms of cell signalling involved in pathobiology of the disease under consideration. Several anti-cancer drugs including paclitaxel, doxorubicin, 5-fluorouracil and dexamethasone have been successfully formulated using nanomaterials. Quantom dots, chitosan, Polylactic/glycolic acid (PLGA and PLGA-based nanoparticles have also been used for in vitro RNAi delivery. Brain cancer is one of the most difficult malignancies to detect and treat mainly because of the difficulty in getting imaging and therapeutic agents past the blood-brain barrier and into the brain. Anti-cancer drugs such as loperamide and doxorubicin bound to nanomaterials have been shown to cross the intact blood-brain barrier and released at therapeutic concentrations in the brain. The use of nanomaterials including peptide-based nanotubes to target the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF receptor and cell adhesion molecules like integrins, cadherins and selectins, is a new approach to control disease progression.

  15. The Frontiers of Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine (SIG MED).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Polin P.

    2000-01-01

    This abstract of a planned session on the future of medicine explains the use of nanotechnology in medicine to manipulate biomolecules that regulate life and death processes and to help improve health care delivery. Topics include nanodevices for drug delivery, cancer detection and cure, and repairing genes. (LRW)

  16. Nanotechnology applications in osteodistraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam E Singleton

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Most current strategies for bone regeneration have relatively satisfactory results. However, there are drawbacks and limitations associated with their use and availability, and even controversial reports about their efficacy and cost-effectiveness. The induction of new bone formation through distraction osteogenesis (DO is widespread clinical application in the treatment of bone defects, limb deformities, and fracture nonunions. However, a lengthy period of external fixation is usually needed to allow the new bone to consolidate, and complications such as refracture at the distraction gap often occur. Although various biomaterials have been used as injectable delivery systems in DO models, little has been reported on the use of nanobiomaterials as carrier materials for the sustained release of growth factors in bone regeneration. One area of focus in nanotechnology is the delivery of osteogenic factors in an attempt to modulate the formation of bone. This review article seeks to demonstrate the potential of nanobiomaterials to improve biological applications pertinent to osteodistraction.

  17. Nanostructures and nanotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Natelson, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on the fundamental principles of nanoscience and nanotechnology, this carefully developed textbook will equip students with a deep understanding of the nanoscale. • Each new topic is introduced with a concise summary of the relevant physical principles, emphasising universal commonalities between seemingly disparate areas, and encouraging students to develop an intuitive understanding of this diverse area of study • Accessible introductions to condensed matter physics and materials systems provide students from a broad range of scientific disciplines with all the necessary background • Theoretical concepts are linked to real-world applications, allowing students to connect theory and practice • Chapters are packed with problems to help students develop and retain their understanding, as well as engaging colour illustrations, and are accompanied by suggestions for additional reading. Containing enough material for a one- or two-semester course, this is an excellent resource for senior undergra...

  18. Nanoscience Nanotechnologies and Nanophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Dupas, Claire; Lahmani, Marcel

    2007-01-01

    Nanotechnologies and nanosciences are a fast-developing field of research, which sit at the point of convergence of several disciplines (physics, chemistry, biology, mechanics, etc.). This practically-oriented overview is designed to provide students and researchers with essential information on both the tools of manufacture and specific features of the nanometric scale, as well as applications within the most active fields (electronics, magnetism, information storage, biology). Specific applications and techniques covered include nanolithography, STM and AFM, nanowires and supramolecules, molecular electronics, optronics, and simulation. Each section of the book devotes considerable space to industrial applications and prospective developments. The carefully edited contributions are written by reserach workers and unirveisty instructors who are experts in their own fields and full up-to-date with the latest developments. Their uniform and self-contained nature permit users to access the most relevant chapter...

  19. Pharmacoresistant epilepsy and nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosillo-de la Torre, Argelia; Luna-Bárcenas, Gabriel; Orozco-Suárez, Sandra; Salgado-Ceballos, Hermelinda; García, Perla; Lazarowski, Alberto; Rocha, Luisa

    2014-06-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic neurological disorders. Furthermore, it is associated to diminished health-related quality of life and is thus considered a major public health problem. In spite of the large number of available and ongoing development of several new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), a high percentage of patients with epilepsy (35-40%) are resistant to pharmacotherapy. A hypothesis to explain pharmacoresistance in epilepsy suggests that overexpression of multidrug resistance proteins, such as P-glycoprotein, on the endothelium of the blood brain barrier represents a challenge for effective AED delivery and concentration levels in the brain. Proven therapeutic strategies to control pharmacoresistant epilepsy include epilepsy surgery and neuromodulation. Unfortunately, not all patients are candidates for these therapies. Nanotechnology represents an attractive strategy to overcome the limited brain access of AEDs in patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy. This manuscript presents a review of evidences supporting this idea.

  20. Framing effects on risk perception of nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Schütz, Holger; Wiedemann, Peter M.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract How do people judge nanotechnology risks that are completely unfamiliar to them? Drawing on results of previous studies on framing and risk perception, two hypotheses about potential influences on nanotechnology risk perception were examined in an experimental study: 1) Risk perception of nanotechnology is influenced by its benefit perception. 2) Risk perception of nanotechnology is ...

  1. Protein nanotechnology: what is it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrard, Juliet A

    2013-01-01

    Protein nanotechnology is an emerging field that is still defining itself. It embraces the intersection of protein science, which exists naturally at the nanoscale, and the burgeoning field of nanotechnology. In this opening chapter, a select review is given of some of the exciting nanostructures that have already been created using proteins, and the sorts of applications that protein engineers are reaching towards in the nanotechnology space. This provides an introduction to the rest of the volume, which provides inspirational case studies, along with tips and tools to manipulate proteins into new forms and architectures, beyond Nature's original intentions.

  2. PREFACE: Rusnanotech 2010 International Forum on Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazaryan, Konstantin

    2011-03-01

    Deputy Director, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, RussiaProf Vladimir Kvardakov, Corresponding Member of Russian Academy of SciencesExecutive Director, Kurchatov Center of Synchrotron Radiation and Nanotechnology, RussiaProf Edward Son, Corresponding member of Russian Academy of SciencesScientific Deputy Director, Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, RussiaProf Andrey GudkovSenior Vice President, Basic Science Chairman, Department of Cell Stress Biology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, USAProf Robert NemanichChair, Department of Physics, Arizona State University, USAProf Kandlikar SatishProfessor, Rochester Institute of Technology, USAProf Xiang ZhangUC Berkeley, Director of NSF Nano-scale Science and Engineering Center (NSEC), USAProf Andrei ZvyaginProfessor, Macquarie University, AustraliaProf Sergey KalyuzhnyDirector of the Scientific and Technological Expertise Department, RUSNANO, RussiaKonstantin Kazaryan, PhDExpert of the Scientific and Technological Expertise Department, RUSNANO, Russia, Program Committee SecretarySimeon ZhavoronkovHead of Nanotechnology Programs Development Office, Rusnanotech Forum Fund for the Nanotechnology Development, Russia Editors of the proceedings: Section "Nanoelectronics" - Corresponding Member of Russian Academy of Sciences, Professor Anatoly Dvurechenskii (Institute of Semiconductor Physics, RAS).Section "Nanophotonics" - Professor Vasily Klimov (Institute of Physics, RAS).Section "Nanodiagnostics" - Professor P Kashkarov (Russian Scientific Center, Kurchatov Institute).Section "Nanotechnology for power engineering" - Corresponding Member of Russian Academy of Sciences, Professor Eduard Son (Joint Institute for High Temperatures, RAS).Section "Catalysis and chemical industry" - Member of Russian Academy of Sciences, Professor Valentin Parmon (Institute of Catalysis SB RAS).Section "Nanomaterials" - E Obraztsova, PhD (Institute of Physics, RAS), Marat Gallamov Ph

  3. (Updated) Nanotechnology: Understanding the Tiny Particles That May Save a Life | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Nathalie Walker, Guest Writer Could nanotechnology—the study of tiny matter ranging in size from 1 to 200 nanometers—be the future of cancer treatment? Although it is a relatively new field in cancer research, nanotechnology is not new to everyday life. Have you ever thought about the tennis ball you’ve thrown with your dog at the park and wondered what it is made of? Nanotechnology is used to make the tennis ball stronger.

  4. Think small: nanotechnology for plastic surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Amir R; Brenner, Sara A

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce the topic of nanotechnology to plastic surgeons and to discuss its relevance to medicine in general and plastic surgery in particular. Nanotechnology will be defined, and some important historical milestones discussed. Common applications of nanotechnology in various medical and surgical subspecialties will be reviewed. Future applications of nanotechnology to plastic surgery will be examined. Finally, the critical field of nanotoxicology and the safe use of nanotechnology in medicine and plastic surgery will be addressed.

  5. Nanoethics: Ethics For, From, or With Nanotechnologies?

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The concern for ethics is a leitmotiv when dealing with nanotechnologies. However, the target of this concern is far from being obvious, and the word 'nanoethics' itself has no clear-cut definition. Indeed, nanoethics is usually said to be 'the ethics of nanotechnologies', but it is never specified whether this 'ethics of nanotechnologies' is 'an ethics for nanotechnologies' or 'an ethics from nanotechnologies'. This paper aims to show that these two characterizations of nanoethics (for/from)...

  6. How nanotechnology works in medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshpreet Kaur

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Nanomedicine is the medical application of nanotechnology. Nanomedicine ranges from the medical applications of nanomaterials, to nanoelectronic biosensors, and even possible future applications of molecular nanotechnology. Current problems for nanomedicine involve understanding the issues related to toxicity and environmental impact of nanoscale materials. Nanomedicine seeks to deliver a valuable set of research tools and clinically useful devices in the near future. The National Nanotechnology Initiative expects new commercial applications in the pharmaceutical industry that may include advanced drug delivery systems, new therapies, and in vivo imaging. At present international hospitals are working on projects to develop new medical devices with the help of nanotechnology to better serve the world. Neuro-electronic interfaces and other nanoelectronics-based sensors are another active goal of research. Nanosensors are used mainly include various medicinal purposes and as gateways to building other nanoproducts, such as computer chips that work at the nanoscale and nanorobots

  7. Food nanotechnology – an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Bhupinder S Sekhon

    2010-01-01

    Food nanotechnology is an area of emerging interest and opens up a whole universe of new possibilities for the food industry. The basic categories of nanotechnology applications and functionalities currently in the development of food packaging include: the improvement of plastic materials barriers, the incorporation of active components that can deliver functional attributes beyond those of conventional active packaging, and the sensing and signaling of relevant information. Nano food packag...

  8. Food nanotechnology – an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Bhupinder S Sekhon

    2010-01-01

    Bhupinder S SekhonInstitute of Pharmacy and Department of Biotechnology, Punjab College of Technical Education, Jhande, Ludhiana, IndiaAbstract: Food nanotechnology is an area of emerging interest and opens up a whole universe of new possibilities for the food industry. The basic categories of nanotechnology applications and functionalities currently in the development of food packaging include: the improvement of plastic materials barriers, the incorporation of active components that can del...

  9. NANOTECHNOLOGY: A BOON OR BANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Singh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology deals with the physical and chemical attributes of molecular scale structures, and they can be combined to form larger structures for human use. Because of this dimensional range, nanoparticles and structure get some unusual and novel properties. Nanotechnology deals with the study and analysis of these properties also. Indeed it is an emerging area of applied science and technology whose theme is the control of matter on the atomic and molecular scale generally 100nm or smaller. The impact of nanotechnology is expanding and nothing will remain untouched. Applications are enormous and limitless. Nanotechnology enables doing things better than in the conventional technology viz.•Economic development•Improving food security•Health Diagnosis, Monitoring and Scanning•Safe Drinking Water•Environmental pollution•Agriculture•Energy Storage, Production and ConservationAs a coin has two sides, nanotechnology also has a flip side. No doubt, nanotechnology will be incorporated into every facet of our lives, making things easier, faster and longer lasting. Potential dangers of technology that are being discussed in various forms includes•Possible increased inflammatory response in the body due to small size•Potential terrorist use•Social disruption from new products/ lifestyles•Risks of a “Grey Goo” (hypothetical end of the worldNow there is a critical need to fund researchers and engineers across disciplines and institutional boundaries in order to advance in the arena of nanotechnologies. There must be innovative partnerships that integrate research and education, accelerate applications and fully explore the implications of nanotechnology on our health, wealth and lives.

  10. Flexible Query Answering Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Flexible Query Answering Systems, FQAS 2013, held in Granada, Spain, in September 2013. The 59 full papers included in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions. The papers are ...

  11. The Answer Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Susan

    2000-01-01

    Discusses information retrieval systems and the need to have them adapt to user needs, integrate information in any format, reveal patterns and trends in information, and answer questions. Topics include statistics and probability; natural language processing; intelligent agents; concept mapping; machine-aided indexing; text mining; filtering;…

  12. NANOTECHNOLOGY IN TEXTILE INDUSTRY [REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RATIU Mariana

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nanoscience and nanotechnology are the study and application of extremely small things and can be used across all the other science fields, such as chemistry, biology, physics, materials science, and engineering. Nanotechnology overcomes the limitation of applying conventional methods to impart certain properties to textile materials. There is no doubt that in the next few years nanotechnology will penetrate into every area of the textile industry. Nanotextiles are nanoscale fibrous materials that can be fictionalized with a vast array of novel properties, including antibiotic activity, self-cleaning and the ability to increase reaction rates by providing large surface areas to potential reactants. These materials are used not only as cloth fabric, but as filter materials, wound-healing gauzes and antibacterial food packaging agents in food industry. World demand for nano-materials will rise more than two-and-a-half times to $5.5 billion in 2016 driven by a combination of increased market penetration of existing materials, and ongoing development of new materials and applications. In recent years was demonstrated that nanotechnology can be used to enhance textile attributes, such as fabric softness, durability and breathability, water repellency, fire retardancy, antimicrobial properties in fibers, yarns and fabrics. The development of smart nanotextiles has the potential to revolutionize the production of fibers, fabrics or nonwovens and functionality of our clothing and all types of textile products and applications. Nanotechnology is considered one of the most promising technologies for the 21st century. Today is said that if the IT is the wave of the present, the nanotechnology is the wave of the present, the nanotechnology is the wave of the future.

  13. Competition: the answers

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    The correct answers to the Staff Association Competition are: How many women delegates are there currently in the Staff Council? -14 Who is the current President of the Staff Association? - Alessandro Raimondo Which year was the Nursery School established by the Staff Association at CERN?  -1965 How many CERN clubs are supported by the Staff Association? -44 What is the supreme representative body of the Staff Association ? -The Staff Council   The winners will be informed by email.

  14. A Witty Answer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀军

    2005-01-01

    One hot summer day, a student in a sweat, fanning himself with a book, asked his teacher, "It's rather hot in the classroom. May I wear shorts while having classes, Sir?" "It doesn't matter whether you wear shorts or not, but I must let you know, when you enter the classroom, you must wear a pair of trousers," he teacher replied.A Witty Answer!河北@王秀军

  15. German innovation initiative for nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieke, Volker; Bachmann, Gerd

    2004-10-01

    In many areas of nanotechnology, Germany can count on a good knowledge basis due to its diverse activities in nanosciences. This knowledge basis, when paired with the production and sales structures needed for implementation and the internationally renowned German talent for system integration, should consequently lead to success in the marketplace. And this is exactly the field of application for the innovation initiative "Nanotechnologie erobert Märkte" (nanotechnology conquers markets) and for the new BMBF strategy in support of nanotechnology. Until now, aspects of nanotechnology have been advanced within the confines of their respective technical subject areas. However, the primary aim of incorporating them into an overall national strategy is to build on Germany's well-developed and internationally competitive research in science and technology to tap the potential of Germany's important industrial sectors for the application of nanotechnology through joint research projects (leading-edge innovations) that strategically target the value-added chain. This development is to be supported by government education policy to remedy a threatening shortage of skilled professionals. To realize that goal, forward-looking political policymaking must become oriented to a uniform concept of innovation, one that takes into consideration all facets of new technological advances that can contribute to a new culture of innovation in Germany. And that includes education and research policy as well as a climate that encourages and supports innovation in science, business and society.

  16. Nanotechnology: Role in dental biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhardwaj Sonia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofilms are surface- adherent populations of microorganisms consisting of cells, water and extracellular matrix material Nanotechnology is promising field of science which can guide our understanding of the role of interspecies interaction in the development of biofilm. Streptococcus mutans with other species of bacteria has been known to form dental biofilm. The correlation between genetically modified bacteria Streptococcus mutans and nanoscale morphology has been assessed using AFMi.e atomic force microscopy. Nanotechnology application includes 16 O/ 18 O reverse proteolytic labeling,use of quantum dots for labeling of bacterial cells, selective removal of cariogenic bacteria while preserving the normal oral flora and silver antimicrobial nanotechnology against pathogens associated with biofilms. The future comprises a mouthwash full of smart nanomachines which can allow the harmless flora of mouth to flourish in a healthy ecosystem

  17. Scope of nanotechnology in modern textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review article demonstrates the scope and applications of nanotechnology towards modification and development of advanced textile fibers, yarns and fabrics and their processing techniques. Basically, it summarizes the recent advances made in nanotechnology and its applications to cotton textil...

  18. Answers to modernity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Karen Bjerg

    2008-01-01

    - teacher, learner or curriculum planner positions - result in different strategies or 'answers to modernity'. The research has taken place as a study of e-learning and virtual teachhing of Danish as a second language for adults. The fact that relations in virtual learning are established between physically......In his book The consequences of modernity, the British sociologist Giddens predicts e-learning environments. He emphasises that 'modernity is inherently globalising' creating 'disembedded' social relations and tearing 'space away form place by fostering relations between "absent" others...

  19. Nanotechnologies, bioethics and human dignity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visciano, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    Nanoscale science, research, and technology present a complex set of circumstances. First of all, this field involves many different subjects, including biology, chemistry, physics, and environment sciences. Secondly, although scientists are working increasingly at a molecular level, nanotechnology is about much more than a reduction of scale. Indeed, nanoscience and Nanotechnologies offer an unprecedented ability to control and manipulate nature, offering hope for progress. Ethical perspectives vary considerably in this field, but commentators and researchers share a concern about a specific worrisome issue: the lack of appropriate ethical and legal principles and processes (associated with issues including health risks, human body manipulation, and private life violation), to guide nanotechnological R&D, commercialization, and final use. Some authors partially reject this concern by suggesting that Nanoscience and Nanotechnologies do not constitute an autonomous category, and that they are instead just the operative result of combining other traditional areas of study. However the nanotechnological debate brings up the semantic and content issues of bioethics and foments a contentious discussion emphasizing human dignity. Issues include enhancement versus therapeutic intervention, traceability versus privacy, and societal benefits versus risks. From these preliminary considerations, we will move on to discuss (I) the traditional, although still controversial, relationship between bioethics and human dignity, and (II) return to the subject of nanotechnology. We will discuss how today in Europe, although still indefinite, the principle of respect for human dignity is a welcomed contributor to "ethical vigilance" about the uncertain development of new nano-scale technologies. We will also note how U.S. strategy in this regard is simply lacking and appears only as a purely discursive "key issue in long term ".

  20. Early phase Technology Assessment of nanotechnology in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retèl, Valesca P; Hummel, Marjan J M; van Harten, Willem H

    2008-01-01

    To perform early Technology Assessment (TA) of nanotechnology in oncology. The possibilities of nanotechnology for detection (imaging), diagnosis and treatment of cancer are subject of different research programs where major investments are concerned. As a range of bio- nanotechnologies is expected to enter the oncology field it is relevant to consider the various aspects involved in especially early TA. This article provides two cases of early assessment of (predecessors of) nanotechnologies: Microarray Analysis and Photodynamic Therapy implementation, which methodology can be extrapolated to other nanotechnologies in oncology. Constructive Technology Assessment (CTA) is used for the introduction of technologies that are still in a dynamic phase of development or in an early stage of diffusion. The selection of studied aspects in CTA is based on: clinical aspects (safety, efficacy, and effectiveness), economic (cost-effectiveness), patient related (QoL, ethical/juridical and psychosocial), organizational aspects (diffusion and adoption) and scenario drafting. The features of the technology and the phase of implementation are decisive for choices and timing of the specific aspects to be studied. A framework was drafted to decide on the relevant aspects. In the first case, early implementation of Microarray Analysis; clinical effectiveness, logistics, patient centeredness and scenario drafting were given priority. Related to the diffusion-phase of Photodynamic Therapy however other aspects were evaluated, such as early cost-effectiveness analysis for possible reimbursement. Often CTA will result in a mixed method design. Especially scenario drafting is a powerful instrument to predict possible developments that can be anticipated upon in the assessment. CTA is appropriate for the study of early implementation of new technologies in oncology. In early TA small series often necessitate a mix of quantitative and qualitative methods. The features of nanotechnology

  1. Nanotechnology in medicine emerging applications

    CERN Document Server

    Koprowski, Gene

    2012-01-01

    This book will describe some of the most recent breakthroughs and promising developments in the search for improved diagnostics and therapies at the very small scales of living biological systems. While still very much a technology in the research and development stage, nanotechnology is already transforming today's medicine. This book, written by a general science author, provides a general overview of medical treatment potentials of nanotechnology in new, more effective drug delivery systems, in less invasive, ultra-small scale medical tools, and in new materials that can mimic or enhance na

  2. Stem cell tracking by nanotechnologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Chiara; Erratico, Silvia; Razini, Paola; Fiori, Fabrizio; Rustichelli, Franco; Torrente, Yvan; Belicchi, Marzia

    2010-03-12

    Advances in stem cell research have provided important understanding of the cell biology and offered great promise for developing new strategies for tissue regeneration. The beneficial effects of stem cell therapy depend also by the development of new approachs for the track of stem cells in living subjects over time after transplantation. Recent developments in the use of nanotechnologies have contributed to advance of the high-resolution in vivo imaging methods, including positron emission tomography (PET), single-photon emission tomography (SPECT), magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and X-Ray computed microtomography (microCT). This review examines the use of nanotechnologies for stem cell tracking.

  3. Stem Cell Tracking by Nanotechnologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzia Belicchi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Advances in stem cell research have provided important understanding of the cell biology and offered great promise for developing new strategies for tissue regeneration. The beneficial effects of stem cell therapy depend also by the development of new approachs for the track of stem cells in living subjects over time after transplantation. Recent developments in the use of nanotechnologies have contributed to advance of the high-resolution in vivo imaging methods, including positron emission tomography (PET, single-photon emission tomography (SPECT, magnetic resonance (MR imaging, and X-Ray computed microtomography (microCT. This review examines the use of nanotechnologies for stem cell tracking.

  4. DNA nanotechnology and fluorescence applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichthaerle, Thomas; Strauss, Maximilian T; Schueder, Florian; Woehrstein, Johannes B; Jungmann, Ralf

    2016-06-01

    Structural DNA nanotechnology allow researchers to use the unique molecular recognition properties of DNA strands to construct nanoscale objects with almost arbitrary complexity in two and three dimensions. Abstracted as molecular breadboards, DNA nanostructures enable nanometer-precise placement of guest molecules such as proteins, fluorophores, or nanoparticles. These assemblies can be used to study biological phenomena with unprecedented control over number, spacing, and molecular identity. Here, we give a general introduction to structural DNA nanotechnology and more specifically discuss applications of DNA nanostructures in the field of fluorescence and plasmonics.

  5. Russia's Policy and Standing in Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terekhov, Alexander I.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I consider the historical stages of development of nanotechnology in Russia as well as the political framework for this. It is shown that early federal nanotechnology programs in Russia date back to the 1990s and that since the mid-2000s, nanotechnology has attracted the increasing attention of government. I characterize the…

  6. Patent, Nanotechnology, and the Role of University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Sardjono

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available University has significant contribution tot the development of nanotechnology, The role of university can be implemented through the TTLO, particulary in an effort to build a bridge for bottom-up nanotechnology for commercial purposes. There will be an increasingly significant link betweent the patent system on the university role in the development of nanotechnology.

  7. Food Nanotechnology - Food Packaging Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astonishing growth in the market for nanofoods is predicted in the future, from the current market of $2.6 billion to $20.4 billion in 2010. The market for nanotechnology in food packaging alone is expected to reach $360 million in 2008. In large part, the impetus for this predicted growth is the ...

  8. Food Nanotechnology: Food Packaging Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astonishing growth in the market for nanofoods is predicted in the future, from the current market of $2.6 billion to $20.4 billion in 2010. The market for nanotechnology in food packaging alone is expected to reach $360 million in 2008. In large part the impetus for this predicted growth is the e...

  9. Soft nanotechnology: "structure" vs. "function".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitesides, George M; Lipomi, Darren J

    2009-01-01

    This paper offers a perspective on "soft nanotechnology"; that is, the branch of nanotechnology concerned with the synthesis and properties of organic and organometallic nanostructures, and with nanofabrication using techniques in which soft components play key roles. It begins with a brief history of soft nanotechnology. This history has followed a path involving a gradual shift from the promise of revolutionary electronics, nanorobotics, and other futuristic concepts, to the realization of evolutionary improvements in the technology for current challenges in information technology, medicine, and sustainability. Soft nanoscience is an area that is occupied principally by chemists, and is in many ways indistinguishable from "nanochemistry". The paper identifies the natural tendency of its practitioners--exemplified by the speakers at this Faraday Discussion--to focus on synthesis and structure, rather than on function and application, of nanostructures. Soft nanotechnology has the potential to apply to a wide variety of large-scale applied (information technology, healthcare cost reduction, sustainability, energy) and fundamental (molecular biochemistry, cell biology, charge transport in organic matter) problems.

  10. Nanotechnology for the developing world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Naschie, M. Saladin [Department of Physics, University of Alexandria (Egypt); Department of Astrophysics, Cairo University (Egypt); Department of Physics, Mansura University (Egypt)

    2006-11-15

    The letter discusses the indispensable importance of Nanotechnology for the scientific and economical revival of the developing world. Similar to the nuclear age, and maybe far more so, the nanoage will be something of a Hemingway line of demarcation between the have and the have nots.

  11. Applications of nanotechnology in biomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Chirilă

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanobiotechnology is a new field in research, constituting the interface between the life sciences and nanotechnology. In this field, the size of the working range is between 1 nm and 100 nm. This new domain it proposes the exploitation of quality biomolecules and processes involved in the development of materials or devices with definite activity in medicine. Therapeutic nanotechnology seeks to provide specific features that can reduce morbidity and mortality in humans and animals, of which the most important are: a minimal invasive therapy, high density functions and the concentration in very small volumes. The first origins of the concept of nano-medicine are from Feynman's, who had the visionary idea of the nanorobots and similar mechanisms that could be designed, constructed, and placed in the body to perform cellular repairs at the molecular level. With the priorities crystallization in the medicine domain of XX and especially of the XXI’s century, also nanomedicine gained the momentum. In this respect the review proposes to introduce the reader to this fascinating field. There are provided information about cancer’s nanotherapy, examples of systems, applications of DNA, magnetic separation and manipulation of cells and biomolecules, nanotechnology applications in tissue engineering and many more. Also there are presented applications of nanotechnology in tissue engineering and about nano-robots.

  12. EDITORIAL: Quantum phenomena in Nanotechnology Quantum phenomena in Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss, Daniel

    2009-10-01

    Twenty years ago the Institute of Physics launched the journal Nanotechnology from its publishing house based in the home town of Paul Dirac, a legendary figure in the development of quantum mechanics at the turn of the last century. At the beginning of the 20th century, the adoption of quantum mechanical descriptions of events transformed the existing deterministic world view. But in many ways it also revolutionised the progress of research itself. For the first time since the 17th century when Francis Bacon established inductive reasoning as the means of advancing science from fact to axiom to law, theory was progressing ahead of experiments instead of providing explanations for observations that had already been made. Dirac's postulation of antimatter through purely theoretical investigation before its observation is the archetypal example of theory leading the way for experiment. The progress of nanotechnology and the development of tools and techniques that enabled the investigation of systems at the nanoscale brought with them many fascinating observations of phenomena that could only be explained through quantum mechanics, first theoretically deduced decades previously. At the nanoscale, quantum confinement effects dominate the electrical and optical properties of systems. They also render new opportunities for manipulating the response of systems. For example, a better understanding of these systems has enabled the rapid development of quantum dots with precisely determined properties, which can be exploited in a range of applications from medical imaging and photovoltaic solar cells to quantum computation, a radically new information technology being currently developed in many labs worldwide. As the first ever academic journal in nanotechnology, {\\it Nanotechnology} has been the forum for papers detailing progress of the science through extremely exciting times. In the early years of the journal, the investigation of electron spin led to the formulation

  13. Machine Phase Fullerene Nanotechnology: 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globus, Al; Chancellor, Marisa K. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    NASA has used exotic materials for spacecraft and experimental aircraft to good effect for many decades. In spite of many advances, transportation to space still costs about $10,000 per pound. Drexler has proposed a hypothetical nanotechnology based on diamond and investigated the properties of such molecular systems. These studies and others suggest enormous potential for aerospace systems. Unfortunately, methods to realize diamonoid nanotechnology are at best highly speculative. Recent computational efforts at NASA Ames Research Center and computation and experiment elsewhere suggest that a nanotechnology of machine phase functionalized fullerenes may be synthetically relatively accessible and of great aerospace interest. Machine phase materials are (hypothetical) materials consisting entirely or in large part of microscopic machines. In a sense, most living matter fits this definition. To begin investigation of fullerene nanotechnology, we used molecular dynamics to study the properties of carbon nanotube based gears and gear/shaft configurations. Experiments on C60 and quantum calculations suggest that benzyne may react with carbon nanotubes to form gear teeth. Han has computationally demonstrated that molecular gears fashioned from (14,0) single-walled carbon nanotubes and benzyne teeth should operate well at 50-100 gigahertz. Results suggest that rotation can be converted to rotating or linear motion, and linear motion may be converted into rotation. Preliminary results suggest that these mechanical systems can be cooled by a helium atmosphere. Furthermore, Deepak has successfully simulated using helical electric fields generated by a laser to power fullerene gears once a positive and negative charge have been added to form a dipole. Even with mechanical motion, cooling, and power; creating a viable nanotechnology requires support structures, computer control, a system architecture, a variety of components, and some approach to manufacture. Additional

  14. Visual framing of nanotechnology in newspapers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Hvidtfelt

    discourse, very little research into to the visual communication of science in public has been carried out. Nanotechnology is an emerging scientific discipline that just recently has entered the public sphere. Surveys show that most Europeans and most Americans have very little knowledge about...... nanotechnology. Even so, there is a marked difference between Europeans who generally are cautious, it not skeptical about nanotechnology, and American who seem to have a much more positive attitude towards nanotechnology. Objective This paper surveys visual images used to communicate nanotechnology (and...... nanotechnology-related issues) in the printed press in Denmark from 1993 to 2006. Based on a representative sample of newspaper articles referring to nanotechnology, the survey categorizes and analyzes the images used. Studies have shown that to a high degree newspaper readers use images to navigate...

  15. Nanotechnological Basis for Advanced Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Reithmaier, Johann Peter; Kulisch, Wilhelm; Popov, Cyril; Petkov, Plamen

    2011-01-01

    Bringing together experts from 15 countries, this book is based on the lectures and contributions of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on “Nanotechnological Basis for Advanced Sensors” held in Sozopol, Bulgaria, 30 May - 11 June, 2010. It gives a broad overview on this topic, and includes articles on: techniques for preparation and characterization of sensor materials; different types of nanoscaled materials for sensor applications, addressing both their structure (nanoparticles, nanocomposites, nanostructured films, etc.) and chemical nature (carbon-based, oxides, glasses, etc.); and on advanced sensors that exploit nanoscience and nanotechnology. In addition, the volume represents an interdisciplinary approach with authors coming from diverse fields such as physics, chemistry, engineering, materials science and biology. A particular strength of the book is its combination of longer papers, introducing the basic knowledge on a certain topic, and brief contributions highlighting special types of sensors a...

  16. National Needs Drivers for Nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonas, G.; Picraux, S.T.

    2000-10-09

    Societal needs related to demographics, resources, and human behavior will drive technological advances over the next 20 years. Nanotechnology is anticipated to be an important enabler of these advances, and thus maybe anticipated to have significant influence on new systems approaches to solving societal problems as well as on extending current science and technology-based applications. To examine the potential implications of nanotechnology a societal needs-driven approach is taken. Thus the methodology is to present the definition of the problem, and then examine system concepts, technology issues, and promising future directions. We approach the problem definition from a national and global security perspective and identify three key areas involving the condition of the planet, the human condition, and global security. In anticipating societal issues in the context of revolutionary technologies, such as maybe enabled by nanoscience, the importance of working on the entire life cycle of any technological solution is stressed.

  17. Nanotechnology: a slightly different history

    CERN Document Server

    Schulz, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Many introductory articles and books about nanotechnology have been written to disseminate this apparently new technology, which investigate and manipulates matter at dimension of a billionth of a meter. However, these texts show in general a common feature: there is very little about the origins of this multidisciplinary field. If anything is mentioned at all, a few dates, facts and characters are reinforced, which under the scrutiny of a careful historical digging do not sustain as really founding landmarks of the field. Nevertheless, in spite of these flaws, such historical narratives bring up important elements to understand and contextualize this human endeavor, as well as the corresponding dissemination among the public: would nanotechnology be a cultural imperative?

  18. The effect of nanotechnology on education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viriyavejakul, Chantana

    2008-04-01

    The research objective was to study 1) the situation and readiness of the Thai education for the integration of nanotechnology and 2) to propose the plans, the strategies and guidelines for educational reform to adapt nanotechnology to the system. The data collection was done by 4 methods: 1) documentary study, 2) observation, 3) informal interviews, and 4) group discussion. The findings revealed that: 1. William Wresch's Theory (1997) was used in this research to study of the situation and readiness of the Thai education for the integration of nanotechnology. 1) Getting connected to nanotechnology by search engine websites, libraries, magazines, books, and discussions with experts. 2) Curriculum integration: nanotechnology should be integrated in many branches of engineering, such as industrial, computer, civil, chemical, electrical, mechanical, etc. 3) Resources for educators: nanotechnology knowledge should be spread in academic circles by publications and the Internet websites. 4) Training and professional resources for teachers: Teachers should be trained by experts in nanotechnology and researchers from the National Nanotechnology Center. This will help trainees get correct knowledge, comprehension, and awareness in order to apply to their professions and businesses in the future. 2. As for the plans, the strategies, and guidelines for educational reform to adapt nanotechnology to the present system, I analyzed the world nanotechnology situation that might have an effect on Thai society. The study is based on the National Plan to Develop Nanotechnology. The goal of this plan is to develop nanotechnology to be the national strategy within 10 years (2004-2013) and have it integrated into the Thai system. There are 4 parts in this plan: 1) nanomaterials, 2) nanoelectronics, 3) nanobiotechnology, and 4) human resources development. Data for human resource development should be worked with the present technology and use the country's resources to produce many

  19. Nanotechnology Safety Self-Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grogin, Phillip W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2016-03-29

    Nanoparticles are near-atomic scale structures between 1 and 100 nanometers (one billionth of a meter). Engineered nanoparticles are intentionally created and are used in research and development at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This course, Nanotechnology Safety Self-Study, presents an overview of the hazards, controls, and uncertainties associated with the use of unbound engineered nanoscale particles (UNP) in a laboratory environment.

  20. Stem Cell Tracking by Nanotechnologies

    OpenAIRE

    Marzia Belicchi; Yvan Torrente; Franco Rustichelli; Fabrizio Fiori; Paola Razini; Silvia Erratico; Chiara Villa

    2010-01-01

    Advances in stem cell research have provided important understanding of the cell biology and offered great promise for developing new strategies for tissue regeneration. The beneficial effects of stem cell therapy depend also by the development of new approachs for the track of stem cells in living subjects over time after transplantation. Recent developments in the use of nanotechnologies have contributed to advance of the high-resolution in vivo imaging methods, including positron emission ...

  1. Textbook of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Murty, B S; Raj, Baldev; Rath, B B; Murday, James

    2013-01-01

    This book is meant to serve as a textbook for beginners in the field of nanoscience and nanotechnology. It can also be used as additional reading in this multifaceted area. It covers the entire spectrum of nanoscience and technology: introduction, terminology, historical perspectives of this domain of science, unique and widely differing properties, advances in the various synthesis, consolidation and characterization techniques, applications of nanoscience and technology and emerging materials and technologies.

  2. Identification of high independent prognostic value of nanotechnology based circulating tumor cell enumeration in first-line chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Ran; Shao, Bin; Peng, Jia-Xi; Li, Hui-Ping; Yang, Yan-Lian; Kong, Wei-Yao; Song, Guo-Hong; Jiang, Han-Fang; Liang, Xu; Yan, Ying

    2017-04-01

    Enumeration of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) is a promising tool in the management of metastatic breast cancer (MBC). This study investigated the capturing efficiency and prognostic value of our previously reported peptide-based nanomagnetic CTC isolation system (Pep@MNPs). We counted CTCs in blood samples taken at baseline (n = 102) and later at patients' first clinical evaluation after starting firstline chemotherapy (n = 72) in a cohort of women treated for MBC. Their median follow-up was 16.3 months (range: 9.0-31.0 months). The CTC detection rate was 69.6 % for the baseline samples. Patients with ≤2 CTC/2 ml at baseline had longer median progression-free survival (PFS) than did those with >2 CTC/2 ml (17.0 months vs. 8.0 months; P = 0.002). Patients with ≤2 CTC/2 ml both at baseline and first clinical evaluation had longest PFS (18.2 months) among all patient groups (P = 0.004). Particularly, among patients with stable disease (SD; per imaging evaluation) our assay could identify those with longer PFS (P 2 CTC/2 ml at baseline were also significantly more likely to suffer liver metastasis (P = 0.010). This study confirmed the prognostic value of Pep@MNPs assays for MBC patients who undergo firstline chemotherapy, and offered extra stratification regarding PFS for patients with SD, and a possible indicator for patients at risk for liver metastasis.

  3. Improving Peptide Applications Using Nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanaswamy, Radhika; Wang, Tao; Torchilin, Vladimir P

    2016-01-01

    Peptides are being successfully used in various fields including therapy and drug delivery. With advancement in nanotechnology and targeted delivery carrier systems, suitable modification of peptides has enabled achievement of many desirable goals over-riding some of the major disadvantages associated with the delivery of peptides in vivo. Conjugation or physical encapsulation of peptides to various nanocarriers, such as liposomes, micelles and solid-lipid nanoparticles, has improved their in vivo performance multi-fold. The amenability of peptides to modification in chemistry and functionalization with suitable nanocarriers are very relevant aspects in their use and have led to the use of 'smart' nanoparticles with suitable linker chemistries that favor peptide targeting or release at the desired sites, minimizing off-target effects. This review focuses on how nanotechnology has been used to improve the number of peptide applications. The paper also focuses on the chemistry behind peptide conjugation to nanocarriers, the commonly employed linker chemistries and the several improvements that have already been achieved in the areas of peptide use with the help of nanotechnology.

  4. Applications of nanotechnology in dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLouise, Lisa A

    2012-03-01

    What are nanoparticles and why are they important in dermatology? These questions are addressed by highlighting recent developments in the nanotechnology field that have increased the potential for intentional and unintentional nanoparticle skin exposure. The role of environmental factors in the interaction of nanoparticles with skin and the potential mechanisms by which nanoparticles may influence skin response to environmental factors are discussed. Trends emerging from recent literature suggest that the positive benefit of engineered nanoparticles for use in cosmetics and as tools for understanding skin biology and curing skin disease outweigh potential toxicity concerns. Discoveries reported in this journal are highlighted. This review begins with a general introduction to the field of nanotechnology and nanomedicine. This is followed by a discussion of the current state of understanding of nanoparticle skin penetration and their use in three therapeutic applications. Challenges that must be overcome to derive clinical benefit from the application of nanotechnology to skin are discussed last, providing perspective on the significant opportunity that exists for future studies in investigative dermatology.

  5. Photonanomedicine: a convergence of photodynamic therapy and nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obaid, Girgis; Broekgaarden, Mans; Bulin, Anne-Laure; Huang, Huang-Chiao; Kuriakose, Jerrin; Liu, Joyce; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2016-06-01

    As clinical nanomedicine has emerged over the past two decades, phototherapeutic advancements using nanotechnology have also evolved and impacted disease management. Because of unique features attributable to the light activation process of molecules, photonanomedicine (PNM) holds significant promise as a personalized, image-guided therapeutic approach for cancer and non-cancer pathologies. The convergence of advanced photochemical therapies such as photodynamic therapy (PDT) and imaging modalities with sophisticated nanotechnologies is enabling the ongoing evolution of fundamental PNM formulations, such as Visudyne®, into progressive forward-looking platforms that integrate theranostics (therapeutics and diagnostics), molecular selectivity, the spatiotemporally controlled release of synergistic therapeutics, along with regulated, sustained drug dosing. Considering that the envisioned goal of these integrated platforms is proving to be realistic, this review will discuss how PNM has evolved over the years as a preclinical and clinical amalgamation of nanotechnology with PDT. The encouraging investigations that emphasize the potent synergy between photochemistry and nanotherapeutics, in addition to the growing realization of the value of these multi-faceted theranostic nanoplatforms, will assist in driving PNM formulations into mainstream oncological clinical practice as a necessary tool in the medical armamentarium.

  6. EDITORIAL: New developments for Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welland, Mark

    2007-01-01

    In this first issue of Nanotechnology for 2007 the journal has taken another step forward in its extraordinary growth and development of the past 5 years. The reader will notice two important changes that have been introduced primarily in response to the exponential rise in submissions to the journal: the contents have been restructured into sections and publication will now be weekly. These latest changes, however, are not the only ones that have been made to the journal and its service to authors and readers. A modern journal has many tools at its disposal that journals of even 10 years ago simply did not. Electronic submission and refereeing, web-based publication, author services such as free electronic reprints and an email alerting service, to name but a few. Published by a learned society, Nanotechnology has constantly responded to the needs of authors and readers alike drawing upon the extensive experience and tools of IOP Publishing. Nanotechnology is of course an exploding field and it is therefore perhaps unsurprising to see a growth in the number of submissions to the journal. However, an inspection of the data surrounding submissions over the past 4 years reveals a disproportionate growth in the success of the journal itself. In 2002 there were 419 submitted papers of which 208 were accepted and published in 6 issues. In 2005 we received 75% more submissions over 2002, had a reduced acceptance rate of 44% and published 12 issues. 2006 showed, in just one year, a growth over 2005 of greater than 50% in the number of submissions. This growth of course does present challenges. The paper issues of the journal have been increasing in mass, hence a move to weekly publishing, and the sheer number of papers means that finding an article on a specific topic can be difficult for readers and authors, hence the move to sections. Sections will also help the Editorial Board in ensuring that the journal has a balanced portfolio of papers reflecting the broad

  7. A review of nanotechnology with an emphasis on Nanoplex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupali Nanasaheb Kadam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of nanotechnology based on the development and fabrication of nanostructures is one approach that has been employed to overcome the challenges involved with conventional drug delivery systems. Formulating Nanoplex is the new trend in nanotechnology. A nanoplex is a complex formed by a drug nanoparticle with an oppositely charged polyelectrolyte. Both cationic and anionic drugs form complexes with oppositely charged polyelectrolytes. Compared with other nanostructures, the yield of Nanoplex is greater and the complexation efficiency is better. Nanoplex are also easier to prepare. Nanoplex formulation is characterized through the production yield, complexation efficiency, drug loading, particle size and zeta potential using scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and dialysis studies. Nanoplex have wide-ranging applications in different fields such as cancer therapy, gene drug delivery, drug delivery to the brain and protein and peptide drug delivery.

  8. Circulating Tumor Cells: From Theory to Nanotechnology-Based Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Yue; Li, Yuanyuan; Xing, Haiyan; Luo, Minghe; Li, Ziwei; Chen, Jianhong; Mo, Jingxin; Shi, Sanjun

    2017-01-01

    Cancer stem cells with stem-cell properties are regarded as tumor initiating cells. Sharing stem-cell properties, circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are responsible for the development of metastasis, which significant affects CTC analysis in clinical practice. Due to their extremely low occurrence in blood, however, it is challenging to enumerate and analyze CTCs. Nanotechnology is able to address the problems of insufficient capture efficiency and low purity of CTCs owing to the unique structural and functional properties of nanomaterials, showing strong promise for CTC isolation and detection. In this review, we discuss the role of stem-like CTCs in metastases, provide insight into recent progress in CTC isolation and detection approaches using various nanoplatforms, and highlight the role of nanotechnology in the advancement of CTC research.

  9. Circulating Tumor Cells: From Theory to Nanotechnology-Based Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Yue; Li, Yuanyuan; Xing, Haiyan; Luo, Minghe; Li, Ziwei; Chen, Jianhong; Mo, Jingxin; Shi, Sanjun

    2017-01-01

    Cancer stem cells with stem-cell properties are regarded as tumor initiating cells. Sharing stem-cell properties, circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are responsible for the development of metastasis, which significant affects CTC analysis in clinical practice. Due to their extremely low occurrence in blood, however, it is challenging to enumerate and analyze CTCs. Nanotechnology is able to address the problems of insufficient capture efficiency and low purity of CTCs owing to the unique structural and functional properties of nanomaterials, showing strong promise for CTC isolation and detection. In this review, we discuss the role of stem-like CTCs in metastases, provide insight into recent progress in CTC isolation and detection approaches using various nanoplatforms, and highlight the role of nanotechnology in the advancement of CTC research. PMID:28203204

  10. Getting an Answer Right

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W.

    1999-07-01

    really is.) Or we could ask students to make careful observations as an experiment is being carried out and then decide whether the proposed interpretation was correct. (If the only effect of burning a candle in a beaker inverted in a water bath is to use up the oxygen, then the water should rise slowly and steadily into the beaker as long as the candle burns; it does not.) Getting the right answer is not nearly as important as getting an answer right- exploring and experimenting to eliminate alternative hypotheses and finding the best-supported explanation. Diffusion and the fraction of oxygen in air can be studied with simple, inexpensive equipment, and it is easy for students to experiment with them. If we use them appropriately, these two subjects have great potential for enhancing students' skills in critical thinking and experimental design. Many other phenomena reported in these pages provide similar opportunities. Let's apply our ingenuity and effort to making the most of them. Literature Cited 1. Parsons, L. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 898. 2. Birk, J. P.; Lawson, A. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 914. 3. Mason, E. A.; Kronstadt, B. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 740. Kirk, A. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 745. 4. Davis, L. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 824. 5. Westbrook, S.; Marek, E. A. J. Res. Sci. Teach. 1991, 28, 649-660 6. Birk, J. P.; McGrath, L.; Gunter, S. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 804.

  11. Nanotechnology: The Next Challenge for Organics

    OpenAIRE

    Paull, John; Lyons, Kristen

    2008-01-01

    Nanotechnology is the fast growing science of the ultra small; it is creating engineered particles in the size range 1 to 100 nanometres. At this size, materials exhibit novel behaviours. Nanotechnology is a rapidly expanding multibillion dollar industry, with research being heavily promoted by governments, and especially the US. Nanoscale materials are already incorporated into more than 580 consumer products, including food, packaging, cosmetics, clothing and paint. Nanotechnology has been ...

  12. Nanotechnologies in food and meat processing

    OpenAIRE

    Lech Ozimek; Edward Pospiech; Suresh Narine

    2010-01-01

    This paper highlights the evolution of nanoscience and nanotechnologies from the global perspective and their potential application in food systems including meat processing. Nanotechnology has its roots in a talk delivered in 1959 by physicist Richard Feynman to the American Physical Society. Nanoscience refers to components properties at nanoscale and nanotechnology refers to process or processes used in the manufacture and/or biofabrication of new materials measured at nanoscale. Nanotechn...

  13. Inventory of nanotechnology companies in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appelbaum, Richard, E-mail: rich@global.ucsb.edu [University of California at Santa Barbara, MacArthur Foundation Chair in Sociology and Global & International Studies Co-PI, Center for Nanotechnology and Society, Social Science and Media Studies 2103 (United States); Zayago Lau, Edgar [Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute (CINVESTAV, Zacatenco)., Multidisciplinary Graduate Programs (Mexico); Foladori, Guillermo [Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas. Latin American Nanotechnology & Society Network (ReLANS), Unidad Académica en Estudios del Desarrollo (Mexico); Parker, Rachel [Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Research Programs (Canada); Vazquez, Laura Liliana Villa [Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas (Mexico); Belmont, Eduardo Robles [UNAM, Institute for Research in Applied Mathematics and Systems (IIMAS) (Mexico); Figueroa, Edgar Ramón Arteaga [Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas. Latin American Nanotechnology & Society Network (ReLANS), Unidad Académica en Estudios del Desarrollo (Mexico)

    2016-02-15

    This study presents an inventory of 139 nanotechnology companies in Mexico, identifying their geographic distribution, economic sector classification, and position in the nanotechnology value chain. We find that the principal economic sector of nanotechnology-engaged firms involves the manufacture of chemical products, which largely serve as means of production (primary or intermediate materials; instruments and equipment) for industrial processes. The methodology used in this analysis could be replicated in other countries without major modifications.

  14. EDITORIAL: Nanotechnology impact on sensors Nanotechnology impact on sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugger, Jürgen

    2009-10-01

    A sensor is a device that responds to a stimulus by generating a functional output induced by a change in some intrinsic properties. We are surrounded by sensors and sensing networks that monitor a multitude of parameters in view of enhancing our safety and quality of life. Sensors assist us in health care and diagnostics, they monitor our environment, our aeroplanes and automobiles, our mobile phones, game consoles and watches, and last but not least, many of our human body functions. Modern sensing systems have greatly benefited in recent decades from advances in microelectronics and microengineering, mainly in view of making sensors smaller, cheaper, more sensitive, more selective, and with a better signal-to-noise ratio, following classical scaling rules. So how about nanotechnology-enabled sensing? Nanoscale features have a great impact on many (though not all) sensing systems, in particular where the surface-to-volume ratio plays a fundamental role, such as in certain chemical and gas sensors. The high surface-to-volume ratios of nanoporous and nanostructured materials have led to their implementation in sensing systems since sensing research first began to engage with the nanotechnology. The surface plasmon resonances of nanostructures have also enriched the scope for developing novel sensing devices. On the other hand, sensors where bulk properties dominate, such as inertial sensors, are less likely to benefit from extreme scaling. Advances in thin film techniques and chemical synthesis have allowed material properties to be tailored to sensing requirements for enhanced performance. These bottom-up fabrication techniques enable parallel fabrication of ordered nanostructures, often in domain-like areas with molecular precision. At the same time the progress in top-down methods such as scanning probe lithography, nanoimprint lithography, soft-lithography and stencil lithography have also facilitated research into sensing and actuating nanotechnology. Although

  15. NANOTECHNOLOGY IN HERBAL MEDICINES AND COSMETICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alakh N Sahu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanophytomedicines are prepared from active phytoconstituents or standardized extracts. The world market for nanomedicine is estimated to reach $130.9 billion by the fiscal year 2016. Liposome nanoparticle (NP with entrapped doxorubicin has been reported to be 300 fold more effective because of better pharmacokinetic ability in treatment of Kaposi sarcoma. NP of paclitaxel is used in the treatment of breast cancer. It has increased water solubility, reduced toxicity and improved therapeutic index. Nanotized herbal drug containing active principles of veteh root, seawort, cassia twig and liquorice root is found to be effective in pulmonary, liver, bone, brain and skin cancer. The in-vivo pharmacokinetic parameters of polymeric nanoparticles containing curcumin reveal at least 9 fold increase in oral bioavailability when compared to curcumin administered with piperine as absorption enhancer. The green nanotechnology utilizes plant based phytochemicals in the overall synthesis and architecture of NP. Cumin and gum arabic are used for synthesis of gold NP that has reduced toxicity to living organism and environment. Bhasma used in Ayurveda is ancient but ultra modern nanomedicine prepared from metal. Swarna bhasma has particle size of 56 nm. NP in cosmetics has been used safely and effectively. NP ingredients like Zno and TiO2 have properties that provide greater degree of protection from sun. Liposome containing Aloe vera extract in size range less than 200 nm diameter has shown higher rate of cell proliferation and increased synthesis of collagenase in in vitro test using human skin fibroblast and epidermal keratinocytes.

  16. Answering Questions About Underage Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vea esta página en español Answering Questions About Underage Drinking This article is part of a series: We ... Teens’ Easy Access to Alcohol Answering Questions About Underage Drinking Alcohol Advertising Who Can Help Reduce Underage Drinking, ...

  17. Nanotechnology applications in urology: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Michael; Liu, James; Mandava, Sree Harsha; Callaghan, Cameron; John, Vijay; Lee, Benjamin R

    2014-11-01

    The objectives of this review are to discuss the current literature and summarise some of the promising areas with which nanotechnology may improve urological care. A Medline literature search was performed to elucidate all relevant studies of nanotechnology with specific attention to its application in urology. Urological applications of nanotechnology include its use in medical imaging, gene therapy, drug delivery, and photothermal ablation of tumours. In vitro and animal studies have shown initial encouraging results. Further study of nanotechnology for urological applications is warranted to bridge the gap between preclinical studies and translation into clinical practice, but nanomedicine has shown significant potential to improve urological patient care.

  18. The applications of nanotechnology in food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Ladan; Khosravi-Darani, Kianoush

    2011-09-01

    Nanotechnology has the potential of application in the food industry and processing as new tools for pathogen detection, disease treatment delivery systems, food packaging, and delivery of bioactive compounds to target sites. The application of nanotechnology in food systems will provide new methods to improve safety and the nutritional value of food products. This article will review the current advances of applications of nanotechnology in food science and technology. Also, it describes new current food laws for nanofood and novel articles in the field of risk assessment of using nanotechnology in the food industry.

  19. Nanotechnology, risk and the environment: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, William; Thompson, Paul B

    2008-03-01

    Nanotechnologies are already interacting with the environment. Scientists and engineers are manipulating matter at the nanoscale, and these nanoscale processes and products are being used by industry in commercially available products. These products are either applied directly to the environment or end up in the environment through indirect pathways. This review examines the state of current environmental risk assessment of nanotechnologies. Nanotechnology is described generally, then both the possible benefits of nanotechnology and the risks are reviewed in a traditional way. Subsequently, a philosophical criticism of the traditional way of looking at risks is offered.

  20. Current status of nanotechnology in urology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh K. Goyal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology has been investigated for its applications in medicine. The objective of this review was to summarize the current applications of nanotechnology in Urology. A systematic search of literature was performed and relevant articles were analyzed with specific reference to applications in Urology. Nanotechnology has applications in diagnostic urology like in uroimaging using nanoparticles and nanosensors. It has therapeutic applications in infections, malignancies, genetic disease using targeted drug delivery, gene transfers, nano device-based manipulations etc. Nanotechnology has many applications in Urology. More efforts are required to make these applications practically feasible and affordable. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(8.000: 3114-3120

  1. Question Answering for Collaborative Learning with Answer Quality Predictor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing advances of Internet Technologies in all application domains have changed life styles and interactions. With the rapid development of E-Learning, collaborative learning is an important for teaching, learning methods and strategies. Studies over the years shown that students had actively and more interactively involved in a classroom discussion to gain their knowledge. Students can ask their questions to the classroom discussion when they want to collaborate with others, asking one another for information, evaluating one another’s ideas. Therein, the activity allowing one question has many answer or information that should be selected. Every answer has a weighting and its very subjective to select it. In this paper, we introduce question answering for collaborative learning with answer quality predictor. By using answer quality predictor the quality of the information could be determined. Through the process of collaborative learning, the knowledge base will be enriched for future question answering. Further, not only the student could get answers form others but also provided by the system.

  2. Between uncertainty and individualism. Scientific ethos of adversity and nanotechnology in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Practising science in Peru means facing adversity. Due to the country’s recent economic growth and despite its weak institutions, there is a growing (yet insufficient) interest in raising the investment in science, technology and innovation activities. However, how are scientists and engineers overcoming these difficulties? To answer these questions, this research focuses in the study of the experts engaged in scientific practice through the analysis of a particular case: the nanotechnology e...

  3. An intelligent approach to nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2013-11-01

    Control counts for little without a guiding principle. Whether manipulating atoms with a scanning probe or controlling carrier concentration in thin film deposition, intelligent intervention is required to steer the process from aimless precision towards a finely optimized design. In this issue G M Sacha and P Varona describe how artificial intelligence approaches can help towards modelling and simulating nanosystems, increasing our grasp of the nuances of these systems and how to optimize them for specific applications [1]. More than a labour-saving technique their review also suggests how genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks can supersede existing capabilities to tackle some of the challenges in moving a range of nanotechnologies forward. Research has made giant strides in determining not just what system parameters enhance performance but how. Nanoparticle synthesis is a typical example, where the field has shifted from simple synthesis and observation to unearthing insights as to dominating factors that can be identified and enlisted to control the morphological and chemical properties of synthesized products. One example is the neat study on reaction media viscosity for silver nanocrystal synthesis, where Park, Im and Park in Korea demonstrated a level of size control that had previously proved hard to achieve [2]. Silver nanoparticles have many potential applications including catalysis [3], sensing [4] and surface enhanced Raman scattering [5]. In their study, Park and colleagues obtain size-controlled 30 nm silver nanocrystals in a viscosity controlled medium of 1,5-pentanediol and demonstrate their use as sacrificial cores for the fabrication of a low-refractive filler. Another nanomaterial that has barely seen an ebb in research activity over the past two decades is ZnO, with a legion of reports detailing how to produce ZnO in different nanoscale forms from rods [6], belts [7] and flowers [8] to highly ordered arrays of vertically aligned

  4. The Formation of Data on Nanotechnological Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleynik Olga Stepanovna

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the statistical monitoring of the main trends of nanotechnology development in Russia, as well as the review of the modern programs and documents devoted to urgent issues of nanotechnology development. The formation of system of statistical monitoring of nanotechnologies development in the Russian Federation includes the development of methodology and tools of statistical supervision over creation, commercialization, the use of nanotechnologies, and also the nanotechnological production. The authors carry out the analysis of the main directions and structure of co-funding of “The Program of nanotech industry development in the Russian Federation till 2015”. The sources of official statistical data on nanotechnologies in Russia are considered. The purpose of forming this essentially new direction of statistics consists in the creation of system of collecting, processing and submission of the regular, systematized and complex data which are adequately reflecting the state, the level of development and the prospects of nanotechnological sphere capacity which provide informational support to state policy and adoption of reasonable administrative decisions. The authors describe the system of statistical observations in the sphere of nanotechnologies. Today the statistics of nanotechnologies in Russia remains at the stage of formation and modernization according to the international standards, being supplemented every year with the new indicators which allow investigating different sides and tendencies of nanotech industry development. Nowadays the following aspects of the activity connected with nanotechnologies have already being studied by means of statistical methods: scientific research and developments; creation and use of nanotechnologies; demand for staff; production, including the innovative one.

  5. Nanotechnology in electrocatalysis for energy

    CERN Document Server

    Lavacchi, Alessandro; Vizza, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on nanotechnology in electrocatalysis for energy applications. In particular the book covers nanostructured electrocatalysts for low temperature fuel cells, low temperature electrolyzers and electrochemical valorization. The function of this book is to provide an introduction to basic principles of electrocatalysis, together with a review of the main classes of materials and electrode architectures. This book will illustrate the basic ideas behind material design and provide an introductory sketch of current research focuses. The easy-to-follow three part book focuses on majo

  6. Engines of Second Creation: Stories about Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shew, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    We are in a position today to appreciate the ambiguity of technologies: that they are good, and bad, and neutral and present challenges in different ways. Reading U.S. national nanotechnology documents and histories of nanotechnology, one finds that rhetoric idealizing progress without serious consideration of negative side-effects remains…

  7. Engaging Undergraduates through Interdisciplinary Research in Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonewardene, Anura U.; Offutt, Christine; Whitling, Jacqueline; Woodhouse, Donald

    2012-01-01

    To recruit and retain more students in all science disciplines at our small (5,000 student) public university, we implemented an interdisciplinary strategy focusing on nanotechnology and enhanced undergraduate research. Inherently interdisciplinary, the novelty of nanotechnology and its growing career potential appeal to students. To engage…

  8. Grand Challenges: Nanotechnology and the Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfra, Meghan McGlinn

    2013-01-01

    This article explores a multidisciplinary lesson on nanotechnology that can provide an effective means for teaching about both STEM and social studies topics. This approach encourages students to consider the "role that science and technology play in our lives and in our cultures." The extraordinary promise of nanotechnology, however, is…

  9. Nanotechnology based diagnostics for neurological disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurek, Nicholas S.; Chandra, Sathees B., E-mail: schandra@roosevelt.edu [Department of Biological, Chemical and Physical Sciences, Roosevelt University, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Nanotechnology involves probing and manipulating matter at the molecular level. Nanotechnology based molecular diagnostics have the potential to alleviate the suffering caused by many diseases, including neurological disorders, due to the unique properties of nanomaterials. Most neurological illnesses are multifactorial conditions and many of these are also classified as neurobehavioral disorders. Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington disease, cerebral ischemia, epilepsy, schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders like Rett syndrome are some examples of neurological disorders that could be better treated, diagnosed, prevented and possibly cured using nanotechnology. In order to improve the quality of life for disease afflicted people, a wide range of nanomaterials that include gold and silica nanoparticles, quantum dots and DNA along with countless other forms of nanotechnology have been investigated regarding their usefulness in advancing molecular diagnostics. Other small scaled materials like viruses and proteins also have potential for use as molecular diagnostic tools. Information obtained from nanotechnology based diagnostics can be stored and manipulated using bioinformatics software. More advanced nanotechnology based diagnostic procedures for the acquisition of even greater proteomic and genomic knowledge can then be developed along with better ways to fight various diseases. Nanotechnology also has numerous applications besides those related to biotechnology and medicine. In this article, we will discuss and analyze many novel nanotechnology based diagnostic techniques at our disposal today. (author)

  10. Nanotechnologies in food and meat processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lech Ozimek

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the evolution of nanoscience and nanotechnologies from the global perspective and their potential application in food systems including meat processing. Nanotechnology has its roots in a talk delivered in 1959 by physicist Richard Feynman to the American Physical Society. Nanoscience refers to components properties at nanoscale and nanotechnology refers to process or processes used in the manufacture and/or biofabrication of new materials measured at nanoscale. Nanotechnology offers a wide range of opportunities for the development of innovative products and applications in food system. Functional foods, nutraceuticals, bioactives, farmafoods, etc. are very recent example of it. Nanotechnology and nanomaterials are a natural part of food processing and conventional foods, because the characteristic properties of many foods rely on nanometer sized components. Some of the areas where nanotechnologies are set to make a difference in meat processing in near future relate to intelligent packaging of meat and meat products, meat derived bioactive peptides, pro- and pre-biotics inclusion in processed meat products, fat based nanoemulsions for antioxidant delivery, nanosensors and nanotracers for meat biosecurity tracing and nanostructured meat products with defined functions. New horizons for nanotechnology in meat science may be achieved by further research on nanoscale structures and methods to control interactions between single molecules. However, it shall be mentioned that nanotechnologies and nanomaterials are calling for their regulations and safety assessment as some of the materials are new and their safety never tested before.

  11. Consumer attitudes towards nanotechnology in food products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, Nigel D.; Fischer, Arnout R.H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – Nanotechnology is a technology that holds much promise for food production. It is, however not clear to what extent consumers will accept different types of nanotechnologies in food products. The purpose of this paper is to research consumer attitudes towards differing applications of f

  12. Computational Nanotechnology Molecular Electronics, Materials and Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This presentation covers research being performed on computational nanotechnology, carbon nanotubes and fullerenes at the NASA Ames Research Center. Topics cover include: nanomechanics of nanomaterials, nanotubes and composite materials, molecular electronics with nanotube junctions, kinky chemistry, and nanotechnology for solid-state quantum computers using fullerenes.

  13. Business Strategy for Nanotechnology based Products & Services

    OpenAIRE

    Sreeramana Aithal; Shubhrajyotsna Aithal

    2016-01-01

    The applications of nanotechnology in different identified areas provide lots of business opportunities. It includes Food, Medicine, Cleaner water, Better quality air, Electronics, Fuel Cells, Solar Cells, Batteries, Space Travels, Chemical sensors, Sporting goods, Fabrics, Cleaning products, Energy, Environment, Health, and Life span increase. The paper covers the applications, and benefits of nanotechnology innovations in different industries, possible business opportunities for ne...

  14. Pharmaceutical nanotechnology : unmet needs in drug delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crommelin, D.J.A.; Park, K.; Florence, A.

    2010-01-01

    Nanotechnology has been gaining interest within and outside the scientific community. Conferences addressing different aspects of this rapidly growing field are organized at many different places. In May 2009 the LTS Academy organized a two-day workshop to discuss the relevance of nanotechnology to

  15. Nanotechnology Education: Contemporary Content and Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Jeremy V.

    2009-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary field of research and development identified as a major priority in the United States. Progress in science and engineering at the nanoscale is critical for national security, prosperity of the economy, and enhancement of the quality of life. It is anticipated that nanotechnology will be a major transitional…

  16. What drives public acceptance of nanotechnology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currall, Steven C.; King, Eden B.; Lane, Neal; Madera, Juan; Turner, Stacey

    2006-12-01

    How do the risks and benefits of nanotechnology, as viewed by the public, compare with those associated with other technologies such as genetically modified organisms, stem cells, biotechnology and nuclear power? And when deciding to use a specific nanotechnology product, will consumers consider the risks, the benefits, or both? We report the first large-scale empirical analyses of these questions.

  17. HPV Vaccine - Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Media Resources News Newsletters Events Redirect for HPV Vaccine FAQ Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... to the address below. http://www.cdc.gov/hpv/parents/questions-answers.html File Formats Help: How ...

  18. Antibiotic Resistance Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on the Farm Get Smart About Antibiotics Week Antibiotic Resistance Questions and Answers Language: English Español (Spanish) ... a los antibióticos Questions about Bacteria, Viruses, and Antibiotics Q: What are bacteria and viruses? A: Bacteria ...

  19. Cooperative Answering of Fuzzy Queries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Narjes Hachani; Mohamed Ali Ben Hassine; Hanène Chettaoui; Habib Ounelli

    2009-01-01

    The majority of existing information systems deals with crisp data through crisp database systems. Traditional Database Management Systems (DBMS) have not taken into account imprecision so one can say there is some sort of lack of flexibility. The reason is that queries retrieve only elements which precisely match to the given Boolean query. That is, an element belongs to the result if the query is true for this element; otherwise, no answers are returned to the user. The aim of this paper is to present a cooperative approach to handling empty answers of fuzzy conjunctive queries by referring to the Formal Concept Analysis (FCA) theory and fuzzy logic. We present an architecture which combines FCA and databases. The processing of fuzzy queries allows detecting the minimal reasons of empty answers. We also use concept lattice in order to provide the user with the nearest answers in the case of a query failure.

  20. Nanotechnology applications in medicine and dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Jyoti

    2011-05-01

    Nanotechnology, or nanoscience, refers to the research and development of an applied science at the atomic, molecular, or macromolecular levels (i.e. molecular engineering, manufacturing). The prefix "nano" is defined as a unit of measurement in which the characteristic dimension is one billionth of a unit. Although the nanoscale is small in size, its potential is vast. As nanotechnology expands in other fields, clinicians, scientists, and manufacturers are working to discover the uses and advances in biomedical sciences. Applications of nanotechnology in medical and dental fields have only approached the horizon with opportunities and possibilities for the future that can only be limited by our imagination. This paper provides an early glimpse of nanotechnology applications in medicine and dentistry to illustrate their potentially far-reaching impacts on clinical practice. It also narrates the safety issues concerning nanotechnology applications.

  1. Taking a precautionary approach to nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dónal P. O’Mathúna

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is developing at a rapid pace. Concerns have been raised about the risks nanotechnology may carry for human health and the environment. The precautionary principle has developed within environmental ethics as a way to reduce the risk of harm with emerging technologies. It has been incorporated into a number of documents addressing nanotechnology risks, including the European Commission’s Code of Conduct for Responsible Nanosciences and Nanotechnologies Research. The central features of the precautionary principle are reviewed here. These include addressing situations of scientific uncertainty and serious or irreversible harm, developing a proportionate response, and having reasonable grounds for concern. These factors will be applied to carbon nanotubes to demonstrate how the precautionary principle can lead to practical guidelines during the development of nanotechnology.

  2. Food neophobia, nanotechnology and satisfaction with life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnettler, Berta; Crisóstomo, Gloria; Sepúlveda, José

    2013-01-01

    and with food-related life and also had the highest acceptance of packaging and foods produced with nanotechnology. The results suggest that the degree of food neophobia is associated with satisfaction with life and with food-related life, as well as with the acceptance of products with nanotechnological......This study investigates the relationship between food neophobia, satisfaction with life and food-related life, and acceptance of the use of nanotechnology in food production. Questionnaire data was collected from a sample of 400 supermarket shoppers in southern Chile. The questionnaire measured...... knowledge of nanotechnology and willingness to purchase food products involving nanotechnology, and included the SWLS (Satisfaction with Life Scale), SWFL (Satisfaction with Foodrelated Life) and FNS (Food Neophobia Scale) scales. Using cluster analysis, four consumer types were distinguished...

  3. Instance-Based Question Answering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    included factoid questions grouped around a set of target entities. For example, for the target entity “ Franz Kafka ”, associated questions included: “Where...from Franz Schubert. A year later he did on Dec 5th.”). Depending on the task, an answer extractor may identify very small, factoid candidates which...IWP): Paraphrase Ac- quisition and Applications, 2003. [55] A. Ittycheriah, M. Franz , and S. Roukos. Ibm’s statistical question answering system - trec

  4. Nanotechnology and human health: risks and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Anna Giulia; Gornati, Rosalba; Sabbioni, Enrico; Chiriva-Internati, Maurizio; Cobos, Everardo; Jenkins, Marjorie R; Bernardini, Giovanni

    2010-11-01

    Nanotechnology is expected to be promising in many fields of medical applications, mainly in cancer treatment. While a large number of very attractive exploitations open up for the clinics, regulatory agencies are very careful in admitting new nanomaterials for human use because of their potential toxicity. The very active research on new nanomaterials that are potentially useful in medicine has not been counterbalanced by an adequate knowledge of their pharmacokinetics and toxicity. The different nanocarriers used to transport and release the active molecules to the target tissues should be treated as additives, with potential side effects of themselves or by virtue of their dissolution or aggregation inside the body. Only recently has a systematic classification of nanomaterials been proposed, posing the basis for dedicated modeling at the nanoscale level. The use of in silico methods, such as nano-QSAR and PSAR, while highly desirable to expedite and rationalize the following stages of toxicological research, are not an alternative, but an introduction to mandatory experimental work.

  5. Food neophobia, nanotechnology and satisfaction with life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnettler, Berta; Crisóstomo, Gloria; Sepúlveda, José; Mora, Marcos; Lobos, Germán; Miranda, Horacio; Grunert, Klaus G

    2013-10-01

    This study investigates the relationship between food neophobia, satisfaction with life and food-related life, and acceptance of the use of nanotechnology in food production. Questionnaire data was collected from a sample of 400 supermarket shoppers in southern Chile. The questionnaire measured knowledge of nanotechnology and willingness to purchase food products involving nanotechnology, and included the SWLS (Satisfaction with Life Scale), SWFL (Satisfaction with Food-related Life) and FNS (Food Neophobia Scale) scales. Using cluster analysis, four consumer types were distinguished with significant differences in their scores on the SWLS, SWFL and FNS. The types differed in their knowledge of nanotechnology, willingness to purchase foods involving nanotechnology, age, socioeconomic level and lifestyle. The least food-neophobic type had the highest levels of satisfaction with life and with food-related life and also had the highest acceptance of packaging and foods produced with nanotechnology. The results suggest that the degree of food neophobia is associated with satisfaction with life and with food-related life, as well as with the acceptance of products with nanotechnological applications.

  6. Nanoscience and nanotechnology in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolles, William A.

    1994-12-01

    The subject of nanoscience and/or nanotechnology is of considerable interest as a rapidly expanding frontier of research. This report documents information gathered at 44 laboratories in Europe by the author over a six month period. Research activities in physics, electronics, materials, chemistry, and biotechnology are included. Fundamental advances in fabrication, characterization, and utilization of nanostructures are presented. Areas of greatest interest include nanostructures for electronic and optical materials and devices, sensors, and other applications envisioned. Research programs covered include lithography, materials, self-assembly, local probes, transport properties, quantum dots and wires, surface film behavior, some magnetic and optical behavior, including nonlinear spectroscopy, high frequency device behavior, and mechanical measurements at nanodimensions. A short description of the environment at each laboratory visited is included.

  7. Nanotechnologies applied to building sector.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Rossetti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the state of the art and the most important tendencies of one of the most promising sectors within the scenario of technological innovation in constructions: the application to materials and components of the nanotechnologies, a kind of technologies that modify at infinitesimal scale the physical, chemical and mechanical characteristics of materials in a way which is not with the traditional technologies. A sector that has seen in the last years an exponential increase of technical solutions and brevets, most of them being born in other industrial sectors and then transferred and suited for the construction industry, to improve the performances of the materials used in terms of maintenance and conservation, performances, energy saving, aesthetics.

  8. Nanotechnology for the energy challenge

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    With the daunting energy challenges faced by Mankind in the 21st century, revolutionary new technologies will be the key to a clean, secure and sustainable energy future. Nanostructures often have surprising and very useful capabilities and are thus paving the way for new methodologies in almost every kind of industry. This exceptional monograph provides an overview of the subject, and presents the current state of the art with regard to different aspects of sustainable production, efficient storage and low-impact use of energy. Comprised of eighteen chapters, the book is divided in three thematic parts: Part I Sustainable Energy Production covers the main developments of nanotechnology in clean energy production and conversion, including photovoltaics, hydrogen production, thermal-electrical energy conversion and fuel cells. Part II Efficient Energy Storage is concerned with the potential use of nanomaterials in more efficient energy storage systems such as advanced batteries, supercapacitors and hydrogen st...

  9. ULTRAFINE FLUORESCENT DIAMONDS IN NANOTECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanyuk M. I.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work is to summarize the literature data concerning ultrafine diamonds, namely their industrial production, as well as considerable photostability and biocompatibility that promote their use in modern visualization techniques. It is shown that due to the unique physical properties, they are promising materials for using in nanotechnology in the near future. Possibility of diverse surface modification, small size and large absorption surface are the basis for their use in different approaches for drug and gene delivery into a cell. The changes in the properties of nanodiamond surface modification methods of their creation, stabilization and applications are described. It can be said that fluorescent surface-modified nanodiamonds are a promising target in various research methods that would be widely used for labeling of living cells, as well as in the processes of genes and drugs delivery into a cell.

  10. Applications of Nanotechnology in Veterinary Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikrama Chakravarthi. P and Sri N. Balaji

    Full Text Available In the recent years the application of nanotechnology in human and veterinary medicine has shown a great progress. Scientists foresee that this progress in the field of nanotechnology could represent a major breakthrough in addressing some of the technical challenges faced by human and veterinary profession. While the great hopes of nanomedicine are disease detection and new pharmaceuticals for humans, veterinary applications of nanotechnology may become the proving ground for untried and more controversial techniques from nanocapsule vaccines to sex selection in breeding. Nanotechnology has the potential to impact not only the way we live, but also the way we practice veterinary medicine. Examples of potential applications in animal agriculture and veterinary medicine include disease diagnosis and treatment delivery systems, new tools for molecular and cellular breeding, the security of animal food products, modification of animal waste, pathogen detection, and many more. Existing research has demonstrated the feasibility of introducing nanoshells and nanotubes into animals to seek and destroy targeted cells. These building blocks of nanotechnology are expected to be integrated into systems over the next couple of decades on a commercial basis. This article describes some of the principal areas of nanotechnology currently being undertaken in the world of medicine.The main purposes of this article are to trigger the interest of discoveries of veterinary profession in the field of nanotechnology and to provide a glimpse at potential important targets for nanotechnology in the field of veterinary medicine. Also it is important to mention that because nanotechnology is at a very early stage of development, it may take several years to perform the necessary research and conduct clinical trials for obtaining meaningful results. This tool as it develops over the next several decades will have major implications in veterinary and animal science

  11. A social shaping perspective on nanotechnologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Christian; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    2005-01-01

    explores the potential of a social shaping of technology approach in the area of emerging nano-technologies and debate the methodological aspects based on an ongoing Danish foresight project concerned with environmental risks and opportunities in nanotechnologies. The focus is on the identification...... in areas where visions are manifold and applications and markets are non-existing or unclear. The emerging idea of 'nanotechnologies' is an example of this kind, where techno-economic networks are unstable or under construction and consequences are difficult, if not impossible to evaluate. The paper...

  12. Nanotechnologies for biomedical science and translational medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, James R

    2015-11-24

    In 2000 the United States launched the National Nanotechnology Initiative and, along with it, a well-defined set of goals for nanomedicine. This Perspective looks back at the progress made toward those goals, within the context of the changing landscape in biomedicine that has occurred over the past 15 years, and considers advances that are likely to occur during the next decade. In particular, nanotechnologies for health-related genomics and single-cell biology, inorganic and organic nanoparticles for biomedicine, and wearable nanotechnologies for wellness monitoring are briefly covered.

  13. Nanotechnology impact on the automotive industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kaufui V; Paddon, Patrick A

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology has been implemented widely in the automotive industry. This technology is particularly useful in coatings, fabrics, structural materials, fluids, lubricants, tires, and preliminary applications in smart glass/windows and video display systems. A special sub-class of improved materials, alternative energy, has also seen a boost from advances in nanotechnology, and continues to be an active research area. A correlation exists in the automotive industry between the areas with increased nanotechnology incorporation and those with increased profit margins via improvements and customer demands.

  14. [Nanotechnology in food production: advances and problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernikov, V M; Arianova, E A; Gmoshinskiĭ, I V; Khotimchenko, S A; Tutel'ian, V A

    2009-01-01

    Presented article is a review of the modern data on nanotechnology use in food manufacturing. There are discussed the basic scopes of nanotechnology application in food industry. One of the main problems arising in connection with introduction of nanotechnology in food, is an absence of reliable methods of identification and the control of nanoparticles is in structure of foodstuff including the control of their authenticity. Other problem is connected to necessity of an estimation of the risks connected to presence of potentially toxic nanoparticles in food. The analysis of foreign experience of researches in the given area allows to formulate methodological approaches to formation of domestic system of nanosafety.

  15. Colloid and interface chemistry for nanotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Kralchevsky, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Colloid and interface science dealt with nanoscale objects for nearly a century before the term nanotechnology was coined. An interdisciplinary field, it bridges the macroscopic world and the small world of atoms and molecules. Colloid and Interface Chemistry for Nanotechnology is a collection of manuscripts reflecting the activities of research teams that have been involved in the networking project Colloid and Interface Chemistry for Nanotechnology (2006-2011), Action D43, the European Science Foundation. The project was a part of the intergovernmental framework for Cooperation in Science an

  16. Sociocultural Meanings of Nanotechnology: Research Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, William Sims

    2004-06-01

    This article identifies six social-science research methodologies that will be useful for charting the sociocultural meaning of nanotechnology: web-based questionnaires, vignette experiments, analysis of web linkages, recommender systems, quantitative content analysis, and qualitative textual analysis. Data from a range of sources are used to illustrate how the methods can delineate the intellectual content and institutional structure of the emerging nanotechnology culture. Such methods will make it possible in future to test hypotheses such as that there are two competing definitions of nanotechnology - the technical-scientific and the science-fiction - that are influencing public perceptions by different routes and in different directions.

  17. Nanotechnology in biorobotics: opportunities and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricotti, Leonardo, E-mail: l.ricotti@sssup.it; Menciassi, Arianna [Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, The BioRobotics Institute (Italy)

    2015-02-15

    Nanotechnology recently opened a series of unexpected technological opportunities that drove the emergence of novel scientific and technological fields, which have the potential to dramatically change the lives of millions of citizens. Some of these opportunities have been already caught by researchers working in the different fields related to biorobotics, while other exciting possibilities still lie on the horizon. This article highlights how nanotechnology applications recently impacted the development of advanced solutions for actuation and sensing and the achievement of microrobots, nanorobots, and non-conventional larger robotic systems. The open challenges are described, together with the most promising research avenues involving nanotechnology.

  18. The handy astronomy answer book

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, PhD, Charles

    2013-01-01

    From planetary movements and the exploration of our solar system to black holes and dark matter, this comprehensive reference simplifies all aspects of astronomy with an approachable question-and-answer format. With chapters broken into various astronomical studies—including the universe, galaxies, planets, and space exploration—this fully updated resource is an ideal companion for students, teachers, and amateur astronomers, answering more than 1,00 questions, such as Is the universe infinite? What would happen to you if you fell onto a black hole? What are the basic concepts of Einstein''s s

  19. From Diagnosis to Treatment: Clinical Applications of Nanotechnology in Thoracic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digesu, Christopher S; Hofferberth, Sophie C; Grinstaff, Mark W; Colson, Yolonda L

    2016-05-01

    Nanotechnology is an emerging field with potential as an adjunct to cancer therapy, particularly thoracic surgery. Therapy can be delivered to tumors in a more targeted fashion, with less systemic toxicity. Nanoparticles may aid in diagnosis, preoperative characterization, and intraoperative localization of thoracic tumors and their lymphatics. Focused research into nanotechnology's ability to deliver both diagnostics and therapeutics has led to the development of nanotheranostics, which promises to improve the treatment of thoracic malignancies through enhanced tumor targeting, controlled drug delivery, and therapeutic monitoring. This article reviews nanoplatforms, their unique properties, and the potential for clinical application in thoracic surgery.

  20. Nanotechnology in food science: Functionality, applicability, and safety assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaojia He; Huey-Min Hwang

    2016-01-01

    Rapid development of nanotechnology is expected to transform many areas of food science and food industry with increasing investment and market share. In this article, current applications of nanotechnology in food systems are briefly reviewed. Functionality and applicability of food-related nanotechnology are highlighted in order to provide a comprehensive view on the development and safety assessment of nanotechnology in the food industry. While food nanotechnology offers great potential be...

  1. Microspheres and Nanotechnology for Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jóhannesson, Gauti; Stefánsson, Einar; Loftsson, Thorsteinn

    2016-01-01

    Ocular drug delivery to the posterior segment of the eye can be accomplished by invasive drug injections into different tissues of the eye and noninvasive topical treatment. Invasive treatment involves the risks of surgical trauma and infection, and conventional topical treatments are ineffective in delivering drugs to the posterior segment of the eye. In recent years, nanotechnology has become an ever-increasing part of ocular drug delivery. In the following, we briefly review microspheres and nanotechnology for drug delivery to the eye, including different forms of nanotechnology such as nanoparticles, microparticles, liposomes, microemulsions and micromachines. The permeation barriers and anatomical considerations linked to ocular drug delivery are discussed and a theoretical overview on drug delivery through biological membranes is given. Finally, in vitro, in vivo and human studies of x03B3;-cyclodextrin nanoparticle eyedrop suspensions are discussed as an example of nanotechnology used for drug delivery to the eye.

  2. MEMS and Nano-Technology Clean Room

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The MEMS and Nano-Technology Clean Room is a state-of-the-art, 800 square foot, Class 1000-capable facility used for development of micro and sub-micro scale sensors...

  3. Advances in Nanotechnology for Restorative Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohaib Khurshid

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Rationalizing has become a new trend in the world of science and technology. Nanotechnology has ascended to become one of the most favorable technologies, and one which will change the application of materials in different fields. The quality of dental biomaterials has been improved by the emergence of nanotechnology. This technology manufactures materials with much better properties or by improving the properties of existing materials. The science of nanotechnology has become the most popular area of research, currently covering a broad range of applications in dentistry. This review describes the basic concept of nanomaterials, recent innovations in nanomaterials and their applications in restorative dentistry. Advances in nanotechnologies are paving the future of dentistry, and there are a plenty of hopes placed on nanomaterials in terms of improving the health care of dental patients.

  4. Institutional profile: the London Centre for Nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, David; Bontoux, Thierry

    2009-12-01

    Located in the London neighborhoods of Bloomsbury and South Kensington, the London Centre for Nanotechnology is a UK-based multidisciplinary research center that operates at the forefront of science and technology. It is a joint venture between two of the world's leading institutions, UCL and Imperial College London, uniting their strong capabilities in the disciplines that underpin nanotechnology: engineering, the physical sciences and biomedicine. The London Centre for Nanotechnology has a unique operating model that accesses and focuses the combined skills of the Departments of Chemistry, Physics, Materials, Medicine, Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Biochemical Engineering and Earth Sciences across the two universities. It aims to provide the nanoscience and nanotechnology required to solve major problems in healthcare, information processing, energy and the environment.

  5. Origins of life: a route to nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowerby, S J; Holm, N G; Petersen, G B

    2001-06-01

    The origins of life and nanotechnology are two seemingly disparate areas of scientific investigation. However, the fundamental questions of life's beginnings and the applied construction of a Drexlerian nanotechnology both share a similar problem; how did and how can self-reproducing molecular machines originate? Here we draw attention to the coincidence between nanotechnology and origins research with particular attention paid to the spontaneous adsorption and scanning tunneling microscopy investigation of purine and pyrimidine bases self-organized into monolayers, adsorbed to the surfaces of crystalline solids. These molecules which encode biological information in nucleic acids, can form supramolecular architectures exhibiting enantiomorphism with the complexity to store and encode putative protobiological information. We conclude that the application of nanotechnology to the investigation of life's origins, and vice versa, could provide a viable route to an evolution-driven synthetic life.

  6. Timing Students' Answers in CAI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hativa, Nira; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of limiting response time for students' answers focuses on a study of Israeli elementary students that investigated the effects on their performance of increasing the response time in computer-assisted instruction (CAI) for arithmetic drill and practice. Effects on high- versus low-aptitude students, and younger versus older, are…

  7. Business Strategy for Nanotechnology based Products & Services

    OpenAIRE

    Aithal P. S.; Shubhrajyotsna Aithal

    2016-01-01

    The applications of nanotechnology in different identified areas provide lots of business opportunities. It includes Food, Medicine, Cleaner water, Better quality air, Electronics, Fuel Cells, Solar Cells, Batteries, Space Travels, Chemical sensors, Sporting goods, Fabrics, Cleaning products, Energy, Environment, Health, and Lifespan increase. The paper covers the applications, and benefits of nanotechnology innovations in different industries, possible business opportunities f...

  8. Question, answer, compare: a cross-category comparison of answers on question and answer websites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocepek, Melissa G.; Westbrook, Lynn

    2015-10-01

    Online information seekers make heavy use of websites that accept their natural language questions. This study compared the three types of such websites: social question and answer (Q&A), digital reference services, and ask-an-expert services. Questions reflecting daily life, research, and crisis situations were posed to high use websites of all three types. The resulting answers' characteristics were analyzed in terms of speed, transparency, formality, and intimacy. The results indicate that social Q&A websites excel in speed, ask-an-expert websites in intimacy, and digital reference services in transparency and formality.

  9. Nanotechnology and the need for risk governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renn, O.; Roco, M. C.

    2006-04-01

    After identifying the main characteristics and prospects of nanotechnology as an emerging technology, the paper presents the general risks associated with nanotechnology applications and the deficits of the risk governance process today, concluding with recommendations to governments, industry, international organizations and other stakeholders. The International Risk Governance Council (IRGC) has identified a governance gap between the requirements pertaining to the nano- rather than the micro-/macro- technologies. The novel attributes of nanotechnology demand different routes for risk-benefit assessment and risk management, and at present, nanotechnology innovation proceeds ahead of the policy and regulatory environment. In the shorter term, the governance gap is significant for those passive nanostructures that are currently in production and have high exposure rates; and is especially significant for the several `active' nanoscale structures and nanosystems that we can expect to be on the market in the near future. Active nanoscale structures and nanosystems have the potential to affect not only human health and the environment but also aspects of social lifestyle, human identity and cultural values. The main recommendations of the report deal with selected higher risk nanotechnology applications, short- and long-term issues, and global models for nanotechnology governance.

  10. Nanotechnology in dentistry: Current achievements and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramandeep Singh Gambhir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology offers advances particularly in each and every field of human activity such as electronics, industry, telecommunications, environmental science, etc., The field of nanotechnology has got remarkable potential that can bring considerable improvements to the human health, enhanced use of natural resources, and reduced environmental pollution. Since 1990s, nanotechnology has been exploited for potential medical and dental applications. Nanotechnology holds promise for advanced diagnostics, targeted drug delivery, and biosensors. Dentistry is undergoing yet another change to benefit mankind, this time by transforming itself to the nanodentistry. A variety of nanostructures such as nanorobots, nanospheres, nanofibers, nanorods, etc., have been studied for various applications in dentistry and medicine. Preventive dentistry has also utilized nanodentistry to develop the nanomaterials for inclusion in a variety of oral health-care products. However, due to insufficient evidence on potential hazards on human health and environment, nanotechnology has become a controversial issue. It is documented that nanomaterials can enter the human body through several routes and can pose a threat to human health by interacting with the DNA. The present article focuses on the current status and the future implications of nanotechnology in dentistry.

  11. Nanotechnology Based Environmentally Robust Primers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbee, T W Jr; Gash, A E; Satcher, J H Jr; Simpson, R L

    2003-03-18

    An initiator device structure consisting of an energetic metallic nano-laminate foil coated with a sol-gel derived energetic nano-composite has been demonstrated. The device structure consists of a precision sputter deposition synthesized nano-laminate energetic foil of non-toxic and non-hazardous metals along with a ceramic-based energetic sol-gel produced coating made up of non-toxic and non-hazardous components such as ferric oxide and aluminum metal. Both the nano-laminate and sol-gel technologies are versatile commercially viable processes that allow the ''engineering'' of properties such as mechanical sensitivity and energy output. The nano-laminate serves as the mechanically sensitive precision igniter and the energetic sol-gel functions as a low-cost, non-toxic, non-hazardous booster in the ignition train. In contrast to other energetic nanotechnologies these materials can now be safely manufactured at application required levels, are structurally robust, have reproducible and engineerable properties, and have excellent aging characteristics.

  12. 17 CFR 9.23 - Answering brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Answering brief. 9.23 Section... Appeals § 9.23 Answering brief. (a) Time for filing answering brief. Within thirty days after service of the appeal brief, the exchange must file with the Commission an answering brief. (b) Contents...

  13. Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer Non-Hodgkin lymphoma Ovarian cancer Pancreatic cancer Testicular cancer Thyroid cancer Uterine cancer Symptoms Symptoms of cancer ... tumor Obesity Pancreatic cancer Prostate cancer Stomach cancer Testicular cancer Throat or larynx cancer Thyroid cancer Patient Instructions ...

  14. New Hybrid Algorithm for Question Answering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaspreet Kaur

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available With technical advancement, Question Answering has emerged as the main area for the researchers. User is provided with specific answers instead of large number of documents or passages in question answering. Question answering proposes the solution to acquire efficient and exact answers to user question asked in natural language rather than language query. The major goal of this paper is to develop a hybrid algorithm for question answering. For this task different question answering systems for different languages were studied. After deep study, we are able to develop an algorithm that comprises the best features from excellent systems. An algorithm developed by us performs well.

  15. Factors influencing nanotechnology commercialization: an empirical analysis of nanotechnology firms in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheol-Ju; Lee, SuKap; Jhon, Myung S.; Shin, Juneseuk

    2013-02-01

    Nanotechnology is a representative emerging technology in an embryonic stage. Due to the continuous support provided by both the public and private sectors of many countries, nanotechnologies have increasingly been commercialized in a wide array of industries, but also produce many commercialization failures. Tackling this problem, we investigate key factors affecting the commercialization of nanotechnologies. Identifying key factors of nanotechnology commercialization through literature review and interview with CEOs, we collected data of 206 Korean nanotechnology-based companies, and analyzed the causal relationship between key factors and financial performance. Logistic and Tobit regression models are used. Overall, companies achieving successful commercialization hold some common characteristics including consistent exploratory R&D, governmental funding, and nano-instrument/energy/environment-related products. Also, the use of potentially toxic materials makes commercialization difficult even if the products are not toxic.

  16. Fundamental enabling issues in nanotechnology :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floro, Jerrold Anthony [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Foiles, Stephen Martin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hearne, Sean Joseph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hoyt, Jeffrey John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Seel, Steven Craig [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Webb III, Edmund Blackburn [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Morales, Alfredo Martin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Zimmerman, Jonathan A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2007-10-01

    To effectively integrate nanotechnology into functional devices, fundamental aspects of material behavior at the nanometer scale must be understood. Stresses generated during thin film growth strongly influence component lifetime and performance; stress has also been proposed as a mechanism for stabilizing supported nanoscale structures. Yet the intrinsic connections between the evolving morphology of supported nanostructures and stress generation are still a matter of debate. This report presents results from a combined experiment and modeling approach to study stress evolution during thin film growth. Fully atomistic simulations are presented predicting stress generation mechanisms and magnitudes during all growth stages, from island nucleation to coalescence and film thickening. Simulations are validated by electrodeposition growth experiments, which establish the dependence of microstructure and growth stresses on process conditions and deposition geometry. Sandia is one of the few facilities with the resources to combine experiments and modeling/theory in this close a fashion. Experiments predicted an ongoing coalescence process that generates signficant tensile stress. Data from deposition experiments also supports the existence of a kinetically limited compressive stress generation mechanism. Atomistic simulations explored island coalescence and deposition onto surfaces intersected by grain boundary structures to permit investigation of stress evolution during later growth stages, e.g. continual island coalescence and adatom incorporation into grain boundaries. The predictive capabilities of simulation permit direct determination of fundamental processes active in stress generation at the nanometer scale while connecting those processes, via new theory, to continuum models for much larger island and film structures. Our combined experiment and simulation results reveal the necessary materials science to tailor stress, and therefore performance, in

  17. Liposomes and nanotechnology in drug development: focus on oncotargets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozako T

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tomohiro Kozako,1 Naomichi Arima,2 Makoto Yoshimitsu,3 Shin-Ichro Honda,1 Shinji Soeda11Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka, Japan; 2Division of Hematology and Immunology, Center for Chronic Viral Diseases, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, Japan; 3Department of Hematology and Immunology, Kagoshima University Hospital, Kagoshima, JapanAbstract: Nanotechnology is the development of an engineered device at the atomic, molecular, and macromolecular level in the nanometer range. Advances in nanotechnology have proven beneficial in therapeutic fields such as drug-delivery and gene/protein delivery. Antigen delivery systems are important for inducing and modifying immune responses. In cellular immunity, cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs are important in the host defense against tumors. Key to the development of CTL-inducible vaccines is the ability to deliver antigens to antigen-presenting cells efficiently and to induce the subsequent activation of T cell-mediated immunity without adjuvants, as they can induce excessive inflammation leading to systemic febrile disease. Since expression and cloning methods for tumor-associated antigens have been reported, cancer vaccines that induce effective cell immunity may be promising therapeutic candidates, but Th2 cells are undesirable for use in cancer immunotherapy. Peptide vaccines have immunological and economic advantages as cancer vaccines because CTL epitope peptides from tumor-associated antigens have high antigen-specificity. However, cancer vaccines have had limited effectiveness in clinical responses due to the ability of cancer cells to “escape” from cancer immunity and a low efficiency of antigen-specific CTL induction due to immunogenic-free synthetic peptides. In contrast, carbohydrate-decorated particles such as carbohydrate-coated liposomes with encapsulated antigens might be more suitable as

  18. Significance of nanotechnology in medical sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaur Ajay

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology refers broadly to a field of applied science and technology whose unifying theme is the control of matter on the molecular level in scales smaller than 1 µm, normally 1-100 nm, and the fabrication of devices within that size range. Two main approaches are used in nanotechnology. In the "bottom-up" approach, materials and devices are built from molecular components, which assemble themselves chemically by principles of molecular recognition. In the "top-down" approach, nano-objects are constructed from larger entities without atomic-level control. In addition, as the need for the development of new medicines is pressing, and given the inherent nanoscale functions of the biological components of living cells, nanotechnology has been applied to diverse medical fields such as oncology, cardiovascular medicine, and in treatment of other chronic diseases. Indeed, nanotechnology is being used to refine discovery of biomarkers, molecular diagnostics, and drug discovery and drug delivery, which could be applicable to management of these patients. In this review, we will focus upon significance of nanotechnology in medical sciences, as well as the plausible side effects related to their use.

  19. Nanotechnology and the environment: A European perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.G. Rickerby et al

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential positive and negative effects of nanotechnology on the environment are discussed. Advances in nanotechnology may be able to provide more sensitive detection systems for air and water quality monitoring, allowing the simultaneous measurement of multiple parameters and real time response capability. Metal oxide nanocatalysts are being developed for the prevention of pollution due to industrial emissions and the photocatalytic properties of titanium dioxide nanoparticles can be exploited to create self-cleaning surfaces that reduce existing pollution. However, while nanotechnology might provide solutions for certain environmental problems, relatively little is known at present about the environmental impact of nanoparticles, though in some cases chemical composition, size and shape have been shown to contribute to toxicological effects. Nanotechnology can assist resource saving through the use of lightweight, high strength materials based on carbon nanotubes and metal oxide frameworks as hydrogen storage materials. Other energy related applications include nanostructured electrode materials for improving the performance of lithium ion batteries and nanoporous silicon and titanium dioxide in advanced photovoltaic cells. It is important to develop an efficient strategy for the recycling and recovery of nanomaterials and methods are needed to assess whether the potential benefits of nanotechnology outweigh the risks. Life cycle analysis will be a useful tool for assessing the true environmental impacts.

  20. Micro- and nanotechnologies in plankton research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Javeed Shaikh

    2015-05-01

    A better understanding of the vast range of plankton and their interactions with the marine environment would allow prediction of their large-scale impact on the marine ecosystem, and provide in-depth knowledge on pollution and climate change. Numerous technologies, especially lab-on-a-chip microsystems, are being used to this end. Marine biofouling is a global issue with significant economic consequences. Ecofriendly polymer nanotechnologies are being developed to combat marine biofouling. Furthermore, nanomaterials hold great potential for bioremediation and biofuel production. Excellent reviews covering focused topics in plankton research exist, with only a handful discussing both micro- and nanotechnologies. This work reviews both micro- and nanotechnologies applied to broad-ranging plankton research topics including flow cytometry, chemotaxis/toxicity assays, biofilm formation, marine antifouling/fouling-release surfaces and coatings, green energy, green nanomaterials, microalgae immobilization, and bioremediation. It is anticipated that developments in plankton research will see engineered exploitation of micro- and nanotechnologies. The current review is therefore intended to promote micro-/nanotechnology researchers to team up with limnologists/oceanographers, and develop novel strategies for understanding and green exploitation of the complex marine ecosystem.

  1. Integrating nanotechnology into school education: a review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghattas, Nadira I.; Carver, Jeffrey S.

    2012-11-01

    Background : In this era of rapid technical advancement, there are growing debates around the idea of nanotechnology, which are both timely and controversial. Nanotechnology materials are being utilized in our daily lives in many ways, often without consumer knowledge. Due to the explosion of nanotechnology applications, there is a necessity to update school science curricula by integrating nanotechnology-related concepts that are both relevant and meaningful to students. The integration of nanotechnology in school science curricula comes in response to nanoscientific development and our mission as educators to instill and arouse students' curiosity in learning about both what is and what will be more dominantly occupying the marketplace. Purpose : The purpose of this review was to set a baseline for the current work being conducted in moving nanotechnology-based activities into the school science setting. Design and methods: The review was implemented by searching LexisNexis Academic, EBSCOhost, Academic Search Complete, Education Search Complete as well as Google Scholar using search terms of nanotechnology, nanotechnology in schools, nanotechnology activities, history of nanotechnology, implications of nanotechnology, issues of nanotechnology and related combinations with nanotechnology as a consistent keyword. Returned articles were categorized by thematic content with primary and seminal work being given priority for inclusion. Conclusions : Current literature in the area of nanotechnology integration into school science curricula presented seven key categories of discussion: the origins of nanotechnology, challenges for educational implementation, currently available school activities, current consumer product applications, ethical issues, recommendations for educational policy, and implications of nanotechnology. There is limited availability of school-based activities. There are strong proponents for including nanotechnology in school science curricula

  2. National 5 maths with answers

    CERN Document Server

    Alcorn, David

    2013-01-01

    Teach lessons that suit the individual needs of your classroom with this SQA endorsed and flexibly structured resource that provides a suggested approach through all three units. This 'with answers' version textbook completely covers the latest National 5 syllabus. Each chapter includes summaries of key points and worked examples with explanatory notes showing how skills are applied. Section Reviews presented in non-calculator and calculator formats provide students with the opportunity to consolidate skills acquired over a number of chapters. There are plenty of exercises and invaluable exam

  3. Energy challenges. A European answer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berge, Hans ten [EURELECTRIC, Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-02-01

    The European electricity sector is facing four main challenges: a very challenging investment climate, relatively low electricity demand, the continued expansion of electricity from subsidised renewable energy sources, and the unexpected weakness of the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS). EURELECTRIC's answers to these challenges revolve around a more consistent framework with the ETS as the key driver of decarbonisation, the integration of renewables into the market and a less distortive approach to their development, a renewed focus on energy infrastructure as a means of completing the internal energy market, and an improved strategy for RD and D.

  4. Nanotechnology in dentistry: reduction to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ure, David; Harris, Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    The speed at which advances are being made in science has catapulted nanotechnology from its theoretical foundations straight into the real world. There are now many examples of commercially available products demonstrating that, in given situations, the technology really does work and that its scope for further application is wide. Healthcare, along with society as a whole, is facing a major revolution in the wake of ongoing technological developments in the field of nanotechnology. Dentistry as an individual healthcare discipline is not exempt, having already been targeted directly with novel 'nano-materials' at the same time as indirectly enjoying the benefits of nano-related advances in the electronics industry through the ongoing computerization of the modern practice. This article examines current practical applications of nanotechnology alongside proposed applications in the future and aims to demonstrate that, as well as a good deal of science fiction, there is some tangible science fact emerging from this novel multi-disciplinary science.

  5. Nutritional and Nanotechnological Modulators of Microglia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maysinger, Dusica; Zhang, Issan

    2016-01-01

    Microglia are the essential responders to alimentary, pharmacological, and nanotechnological immunomodulators. These neural cells play multiple roles as surveyors, sculptors, and guardians of essential parts of complex neural circuitries. Microglia can play dual roles in the central nervous system; they can be deleterious and/or protective. The immunomodulatory effects of alimentary components, gut microbiota, and nanotechnological products have been investigated in microglia at the single-cell level and in vivo using intravital imaging approaches, and different biochemical assays. This review highlights some of the emerging questions and topics from studies involving alimentation, microbiota, nanotechnological products, and associated problems in this area of research. Some of the advantages and limitations of in vitro and in vivo models used to study the neuromodulatory effects of these factors, as well as the merits and pitfalls of intravital imaging modalities employed are presented. PMID:27471505

  6. The changing face of dentistry: nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanaparthy R

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Rosaiah Kanaparthy1, Aruna Kanaparthy2 1Department of Periodontics, 2Conservative Dentistry, Peoples Dental Academy, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India Abstract: The human body comprises molecules; hence, the availability of molecular nanotechnology will permit dramatic progress to address medical problems and will use molecular knowledge to maintain and improve human health at the molecular scale. Nanomedicine could develop devices that are able to work inside the human body in order to identify the early presence of a disease, and to identify and quantify toxic molecules and tumor cells, for example. Nanodentistry will make possible the maintenance of comprehensive oral health by employing nanomaterials, including tissue engineering and, ultimately, dental nanorobots. This review is an attempt to highlight the possible applications of nanotechnology and the use of nanomaterials in dentistry. Keywords: nanotechnology, molecule, nanomedicine, nanodentistry, nanorobots

  7. Nanotechnology in dentistry: Present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Archana; Bhardwaj, Abhishek; Misuriya, Abhinav; Maroli, Sohani; Manjula, S; Singh, Arvind Kumar

    2014-02-01

    Nanotechnology is the manipulation of matter on the molecular and atomic levels. It has the potential to bring enormous changes into the fields of medicine and dentistry. A day may soon come when nanodentistry will succeed in maintaining near-perfect oral health through the aid of nanorobotics, nanomaterials and biotechnology. However, as with all developments, it may also pose a risk for misuse. Time, economical and technical resources, and human needs will determine the direction this revolutionizing development may take. This article reviews the current status and the potential clinical applications of nanotechnology, nanaomedicine and nanodentistry. How to cite the article: Bhardwaj A, Bhardwaj A, Misuriya A, Maroli S, Manjula S, Singh AK. Nanotechnology in dentistry: Present and future. J Int Oral Health 2013;6(1):121-6.

  8. Corporate social responsibility for nanotechnology oversight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzma, Jennifer; Kuzhabekova, Aliya

    2011-11-01

    Growing public concern and uncertainties surrounding emerging technologies suggest the need for socially-responsible behavior of companies in the development and implementation of oversight systems for them. In this paper, we argue that corporate social responsibility (CSR) is an important aspect of nanotechnology oversight given the role of trust in shaping public attitudes about nanotechnology and the lack of data about the health and environmental risks of nanoproducts. We argue that CSR is strengthened by the adoption of stakeholder-driven models and attention to moral principles in policies and programs. In this context, we examine drivers of CSR, contextual and leadership factors that influence CSR, and strategies for CSR. To illustrate these concepts, we discuss existing cases of CSR-like behavior in nanotechnology companies, and then provide examples of how companies producing nanomedicines can exhibit morally-driven CSR behavior.

  9. Applied Nanotechnology for Human Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yowell, Leonard L.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing nanotechnology for human space exploration is shown. The topics include: 1) NASA's Strategic Vision; 2) Exploration Architecture; 3) Future Exploration Mission Requirements Cannot be met with Conventional Materials; 4) Nanomaterials: Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes; 5) Applied Nanotechnology at JSC: Fundamentals to Applications; 6) Technology Readiness Levels (TRL); 7) Growth, Modeling, Diagnostics and Production; 8) Characterization: Purity, Dispersion and Consistency; 9) Processing; 10) Nanoelectronics: Enabling Technologies; 11) Applications for Human Space Exploration; 12) Exploration Life Support: Atmosphere Revitalization System; 13) Advanced and Exploration Life Support: Regenerable CO2 Removal; 14) Exploration Life Support: Water Recovery; 15) Advanced Life Support: Water Disinfection/Recovery; 16) Power and Energy: Supercapacitors and Fuel Cells; 17) Nanomaterials for EMI Shielding; 18) Active Radiation Dosimeter; 19) Advanced Thermal Protection System (TPS) Repair; 20) Thermal Radiation and Impact Protection (TRIPS); 21) Nanotechnology: Astronaut Health Management; 22) JSC Nanomaterials Group Collaborations.

  10. 2006-2007 Academic training programme: Nanotechnologies

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES Monday 11 June from 11:00 to 12:00 - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Nanotechnologies: a general introduction (1/3) C. Bottani / Nuclear Engineering Department, Polytechnic of Milano, IT After a brief description of what is nanotechnology (a triple definition will be attempted) and of its importance for the society, this first lecture mainly aims at showing how nanoscience makes various nanotechnologies possible. The surprising story of direct imaging and manipulation of atoms (scanning probe microscopies will be the specific subject of the third lecture by Prof. Andrea Li Bassi) is told to naturally introduce the crucial role of quantum confinement and surface defects. The electronic and vibrational properties of nanostructures are then discussed to understand the connection between the deeply modified (with respect to the bulk) quantum spectra and the physico-chemical properties of nanoscopic objects. In this context the concept of superatom (and its generalizations) is stressed. The essential ro...

  11. Nanotechnology in neurology: Genesis, current status, and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paurush Ambesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is a promising, novel field of technological development. There is great potential in research and clinical applications for neurological diseases. Here we chronicle the inception of nanotechnology, discuss its integration with neurology, and highlight the challenges in current application. Some of the problems involving practical use of neuronanotechnology are direct biological toxicity, visualization of the nanodevice, and the short life expectancy of nanomachinery. Neuron cell therapy is an upcoming field for the treatment of challenging problems in neurology. Peptide nanofibers based on amphiphilic molecules have been developed that can autoregulate their structure depending on the conditions of the surrounding milieu. Such frameworks are promising for serving as drug delivery systems or communication bridges between damaged neurons. For common disabling diseases such as Alzheimer′s disease (AD, Parkinson′s disease (PD, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, and multiple sclerosis (MS, recent developments have seen revolutionary nanotech-based novelties, which are discussed here in detail. Bioimaging integrated with nanoneuromedicine has opened up new doors for cancer and infection therapeutics.

  12. Ag nanoparticles sensitize IR-induced killing of cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruizhi Xu; Jun Ma; Xinchen Sun; Zhongping Chen; Xiaoli Jiang; Zhirui Guo; Lan Huang; Yang Li; Meng Wang; Changling Wang; Jiwei Liu; Xu Fan; Jiayu Gu; Xi Chen; Yu Zhang; Ning Gu

    2009-01-01

    @@ Dear Editor, Nanosized particulate systems combining better can-cer diagnosis with therapeutic effect are being designed based on the merging of nanotechnology with cellular and molecular techniques.

  13. Connecting Acids and Bases with Encapsulation... and Chemistry with Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criswell, Brett

    2007-01-01

    The features and the development of various new acids and bases activity sets that combines chemistry with nanotechnology are being described. These sets lead to the generation of many nanotechnology-based pharmaceuticals for the treatment of various diseases.

  14. NANOTECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS IN AGRICULTURE: AN UPDATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejpal Dhewa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although the scientific studies on the applications of nanotechnology in the agriculture are less than a decade old yet the prospects of nanotechnology in this field has been considerable. The rapid developments in the nanosciences have a great impact on agricultural practices and food manufacturing industries. Nanotechnology has an enormous potential to offer smarter, stronger, cost-effective packaging materials, biosensors for the rapid detection of the food pathogens, toxins and other contaminants or food adulterants. It is also plays an important role in developing a new generation of pesticides with the safest carriers, preservation and packaging of food and food additives, strengthening of natural fiber, removal of various contaminants from the soil and water bodies by using functionalized nanoparticles and improving the shelf-life of the vegetables, flowers and fruits. In spite of the above mentioned immense uses, the competency is being exhibited in some of success business models in developing nanotechnology based products. The safety and regulatory concerns of the application of nanotechnology for human beings, environments and ecosystems are required to be debated, particularly in the developing countries. There are few potential points of direct human exposure to nanomaterials along with the Agri-food chains (from the worker to the consumers, and the threat of the possibility of the nanoparticles reaching the non-targeted sites which can also pose health and environment problems. Keeping in mind all the above benefits and risks associated with nanotechnology, an effective risk management strategy should be followed in parallel to the technological developments or advancements. Moreover, a stable governance model system should be adopted during the entire process (from production to consumption of nanomaterials with continuous interactions and involvement of all the stakeholders.

  15. Nanotechnology Review: Molecular Electronics to Molecular Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Reviewing the status of current approaches and future projections, as already published in scientific journals and books, the talk will summarize the direction in which computational and experimental nanotechnologies are progressing. Examples of nanotechnological approaches to the concepts of design and simulation of carbon nanotube based molecular electronic and mechanical devices will be presented. The concepts of nanotube based gears and motors will be discussed. The above is a non-technical review talk which covers long term precompetitive basic research in already published material that has been presented before many US scientific meeting audiences.

  16. Historical overview of nanotechnology and nanotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaria, Annette

    2012-01-01

    Although scientists have been studying nanoscience phenomena for many decades, technological developments in the second half of the twentieth century provided valuable tools that permitted researchers to study and develop materials in the nanoscale size range and helped formalize nanotechnology as a scientific field. This chapter provides a brief history of the field of nanotechnology, with an emphasis on the development of nanotoxicology as a scientific field. A brief overview of the worldwide regulatory activities for nanomaterials is also presented. The future development and safe use of nanomaterials in a diverse range of consumer products will be interesting, intellectually challenging, exciting, and hopefully very beneficial for the society.

  17. Molecular Nanotechnology and Designs of Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Chancellor, Marisa K. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Reviewing the status of current approaches and future projections, as already published in the scientific journals and books, the talk will summarize the direction in which computational and experimental molecular nanotechnologies are progressing. Examples of nanotechnological approach to the concepts of design and simulation of atomically precise materials in a variety of interdisciplinary areas will be presented. The concepts of hypothetical molecular machines and assemblers as explained in Drexler's and Merckle's already published work and Han et. al's WWW distributed molecular gears will be explained.

  18. The changing face of dentistry: nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaparthy, Rosaiah; Kanaparthy, Aruna

    2011-01-01

    The human body comprises molecules; hence, the availability of molecular nanotechnology will permit dramatic progress to address medical problems and will use molecular knowledge to maintain and improve human health at the molecular scale. Nanomedicine could develop devices that are able to work inside the human body in order to identify the early presence of a disease, and to identify and quantify toxic molecules and tumor cells, for example. Nanodentistry will make possible the maintenance of comprehensive oral health by employing nanomaterials, including tissue engineering and, ultimately, dental nanorobots. This review is an attempt to highlight the possible applications of nanotechnology and the use of nanomaterials in dentistry.

  19. Applied Nanotechnology and Nanoscience in Orthopedic Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savvidou, Olga D; Bolia, Ioanna K; Chloros, George D; Goumenos, Stavros D; Sakellariou, Vasileios I; Galanis, Evanthia C; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J

    2016-09-01

    Nanomedicine is based on the fact that biological molecules behave similarly to nanomolecules, which have a size of less than 100 nm, and is now affecting most areas of orthopedics. In orthopedic oncology, most of the in vitro and in vivo studies have used osteosarcoma or Ewing sarcoma cell lineages. In this article, tumor imaging and treatment nanotechnology applications, including nanostructure delivery of chemotherapeutic agents, gene therapy, and the role of nano-selenium-coated implants, are outlined. Finally, the potential role of nanotechnology in addressing the challenges of drug and radiotherapy resistance is discussed. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(5):280-286.].

  20. RHETORICAL STRUCTURE OF ARGUMENTATIVE ANSWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Desiderato ANTONIO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to describe the rhetorical structure of the argumentative answer genre in a corpus formed by 15 compositions of the winter vestibular of Universidade Estadual de Maringá. The instrument of analysis used in the investigation was RST (Rhetorical Structure Theory. The initial statement was considered the central unit of the argumentative answer. Most of the writers held evidence relation between the central unit (nucleus and the expansion (satellite. Evidence relation is interpersonal and the aim of the writers is to convince their addressees (in this case the compositions evaluation committee that their point is correct. Within the initial statement, the relation with higher frequency was contrast. Our hypothesis is that the selection of texts of the test influenced the applicants to present positive and negative aspects of the internet. In the higher level of the expansion text span, list is the most frequent relation because the applicants present various arguments with the same status. Contrast was the second relation with highest frequency in this same level. Our hypothesis is that the selection of texts of the test influenced the applicants to present positive and negative aspects of the internet as it happened in the initial statement. Within the 15 compositions, 12 had a conclusion. This part was considered a satellite of the span formed by the initial statement and its expansion. The relation held was homonymous.

  1. Nanotechnology research in Turkey: A university-driven achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Berna Beyhan; M. Teoman Pamukçu

    2011-01-01

    We deal with nanotechnology research activities in Turkey. Based on publication data retrieved from ISI Web of SSCI database, the main actors and the main characteristics of nanotechnology research in Turkey are identified. Following a brief introduction to nanoscience and nanotechnology research, it goes on with a discussion on nanotechnology related science and technology policy efforts in developing countries and particularly in Turkey. Then using bibliometric methods and social network an...

  2. The changing information environment for nanotechnology: online audiences and content

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Ashley A.; Brossard, Dominique; Scheufele, Dietram A.

    2010-01-01

    The shift toward online communication in all realms, from print newspapers to broadcast television, has implications for how the general public consumes information about nanotechnology. The goal of this study is threefold: to investigate who is using online sources for information and news about science and nanotechnology, to examine what the general public is searching for online with regards to nanotechnology, and to analyze what they find in online content of nanotechnology. Using survey ...

  3. NCL Instrumentation - Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    The activities within the NCL represent a formal scientific interaction of three Federal agencies: National Cancer Institute and U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of the Department of Health and Human Services, and National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) of the Department of Commerce.

  4. Assay Cascades - Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    The activities within the NCL represent a formal scientific interaction of three Federal agencies: National Cancer Institute and U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of the Department of Health and Human Services, and National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) of the Department of Commerce.

  5. Integrating Nanotechnology into School Education: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghattas, Nadira I.; Carver, Jeffrey S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In this era of rapid technical advancement, there are growing debates around the idea of nanotechnology, which are both timely and controversial. Nanotechnology materials are being utilized in our daily lives in many ways, often without consumer knowledge. Due to the explosion of nanotechnology applications, there is a necessity to…

  6. Using a Deliberative Exercise to Foster Public Engagement in Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Angela R.; Anderson, Ashley A.; Yeo, Sara K.; Greenberg, Andrew E.; Brossard, Dominique; Moore, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology is an emerging technology poised to benefit society both technically and socially, but as with any new advance, there is potential risk. This paper describes a novel deliberative exercise involving nanotechnology that engages the public in debate regarding the funding of nanotechnology-related research while also discussing…

  7. Effect of Nanotechnology Instructions on Senior High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chow-Chin; Sung, Chia-Chi

    2011-01-01

    In this research, we cooperate with senior high school teachers to understand current nanotechnology model of senior high school nanotechnology curriculum in Taiwan. Then design senior high school nanotechnology (nano-tech) curriculum to teach 503 senior high school students. After teaching the nano-tech curriculum we use the "Nanotechnology…

  8. Nanotechnology and Public Interest Dialogue: Some International Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Diana M.; Hodge, Graeme A.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines nanotechnology within the context of the public interest. It notes that though nanotechnology research and development investment totalled US$9.6 billion in 2005, the public presently understands neither the implications nor how it might be best governed. The article maps a range of nanotechnology dialogue activities under…

  9. Russia's Policy and Standing in Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terekhov, Alexander I.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I consider the historical stages of development of nanotechnology in Russia as well as the political framework for this. It is shown that early federal nanotechnology programs in Russia date back to the 1990s and that since the mid-2000s, nanotechnology has attracted the increasing attention of government. I characterize the…

  10. 5th International Symposium on Nanotechnology in Construction

    CERN Document Server

    Shah, Surendra

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology has already demonstrated surprising potential for improving the performance of construction materials, and many of these recent developments were facilitated by NICOM symposia. The NICOM5 proceedings will cover the emerging opportunities and future use of nanotechnology in construction, and will illustrate the broad potential for application of nanotechnology to challenging problems involving materials and infrastructure.

  11. Nanotechnology, Big things from a Tiny World: a Review

    OpenAIRE

    Debnath Bhattacharyya; Shashank Singh; Niraj Satnalika; Ankesh Khandelwal; Seung-Hwan Jeon

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to look into the present aspects of “Nanotechnology”. This paper gives a brief description of what Nanotechnology is?? And its application in various fields viz. computing, medicine, food technology, Robotics, Solar cells etc. It also deals with the future perspectives of Nanotechnology, risks in advanced nanotechnology.

  12. Nanotechnology, Big things from a Tiny World: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debnath Bhattacharyya

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to look into the present aspects of “Nanotechnology”. This paper gives a brief description of what Nanotechnology is?? And its application in various fields viz. computing, medicine, food technology, Robotics, Solar cells etc. It also deals with the future perspectives of Nanotechnology, risks in advanced nanotechnology.

  13. Methodological bases of innovative training of specialists in nanotechnology field

    OpenAIRE

    FIGOVSKY Oleg Lvovich; SHAMELKHANOVA Nelya A.; AIDAROVA Saule B.

    2016-01-01

    The performance of innovative training system aimed at highly intellectual specialists in the area of nanotechnologies for Kazakhstan’s economy demands establishment and development of nanotechnological market in the country, teaching of innovative engineering combined with consistent research, integration of trained specialists with latest technologies and sciences at the international level. Methodological aspects of training competitive specialists for nanotechnological field are spe...

  14. The social and economic challenges of nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Stephen; Jones, Richard; Geldart, Alison

    2003-07-01

    Nanotechnology is being heralded as a new technological revolution, one so profound that it will touch all aspects of human society. Some believe that these influences will be overwhelmingly positive, while others see more sinister implications. This report assesses this debate in the light of our current knowledge of nanotechnology. Conceptions of nanotechnology are not always clear or indeed agreed upon. The domain of nanotechnology is defined in terms of a length scale - from one nanometre up to 100 nanometres, called the nanoscale - and by the appearance at these scales of novel physical properties. These derive from the importance at these scales of physical phenomena that are less obvious for larger objects, such as quantum mechanics, strong surface forces and Brownian motion. Nanotechnotogy will produce economic and social impacts on three broad timescales. Current applications are largely the result of incremental advances in already well-established branches of applied science, such as material science and colloid technology. Medium-term applications of nanotechnology will apply principles only now being established in the laboratory to overcome foreseeable barriers to continued technological progress. In the tong term, entirely new applications may emerge. Current applications for nanotechnology are dominated by tools for scientists, and by new materials that are structured on the nanoscale. Such materials are used in cosmetics, health and medicine and in a variety of manufactured goods. The electronics and information technology industries are also a prominent driver for these new technologies. Debate on the social implications of nanotechnotogy has largely focused not on the relatively mundane applications that have arrived so far, but on the longer-term possibilities of radical nanotechnology. This debate anticipates a degree of control over matter on the nanoscale that permits fabrication from a molecular level of virtually any material or structure

  15. 24 CFR 1720.610 - Answering brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Answering brief. 1720.610 Section... Proceedings Appeals § 1720.610 Answering brief. Within 20 days after service of an appeal brief upon a party, such party may file an answering brief conforming to the requirements of § 1720.620....

  16. 17 CFR 171.26 - Answering brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Answering brief. 171.26... Denial and Registration Actions § 171.26 Answering brief. (a) Time for filing answering brief. Within thirty days after service of the apeal brief, the National Futures Association shall file with...

  17. NCI investment in nanotechnology: achievements and challenges for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickherber, Anthony; Morris, Stephanie A; Grodzinski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology offers an exceptional and unique opportunity for developing a new generation of tools addressing persistent challenges to progress in cancer research and clinical care. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) recognizes this potential, which is why it invests roughly $150 M per year in nanobiotechnology training, research and development. By exploiting the various capacities of nanomaterials, the range of nanoscale vectors and probes potentially available suggests much is possible for precisely investigating, manipulating, and targeting the mechanisms of cancer across the full spectrum of research and clinical care. NCI has played a key role among federal R&D agencies in recognizing early the value of nanobiotechnology in medicine and committing to its development as well as providing training support for new investigators in the field. These investments have allowed many in the research community to pursue breakthrough capabilities that have already yielded broad benefits. Presented here is an overview of how NCI has made these investments with some consideration of how it will continue to work with this research community to pursue paradigm-changing innovations that offer relief from the burdens of cancer.

  18. Questions and Answers about BSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.B. Skillicorn

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Bulk Synchronous Parallelism (BSP is a parallel programming model that abstracts from low-level program structures in favour of supersteps. A superstep consists of a set of independent local computations, followed by a global communication phase and a barrier synchronisation. Structuring programs in this way enables their costs to be accurately determined from a few simple architectural parameters, namely the permeability of the communication network to uniformly-random traffic and the time to synchronise. Although permutation routing and barrier synch ronisations are widely regarded as inherently expensive, this is not the case. As a result, the structure imposed by BSP does not reduce performance, while bringing considerable benefits for application building. This paper answers the most common questions we are asked about BSP and justifies its claim to be a major step forward in parallel programming.

  19. To whom are we answerable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Julian Tudor

    1983-11-12

    In comments stimulated by Erica Bates' book Health System and Public Scrutiny: Australia, Britain, and the United States (New York: St. Martin's; 1983), the author discusses medicine's lack of responsiveness to criticism from patients and peers. Lay critics focus on observable medical behavior and seldom delve into the "heart of medicine," the clinical consultation. Because of centuries of an overcrowded market, the consultation has been designed to "mystify rather than educate, to disguise spontaneous improvement as the effect of treatment, and iatrogenic illness as the effect of disease." Before 1935 medicine was cheap and relatively harmless; however, now it is expensive and potentially destructive and therefore demands discriminate use. Unfortunately, the retention of brief consultations hinders accountability. If practitioners were answerable to their patients, a beginning could be made toward satisfying a demand for public scrutiny.

  20. Influence of nanotechnology on herbal drugs: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S H Ansari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicines have been widely used all over the world since ancient times and have been recognized by physicians and patients for their better therapeutic value as they have fewer adverse effects as compared with modern medicines. Phytotherapeutics need a scientific approach to deliver the components in a sustained manner to increase patient compliance and avoid repeated administration. This can be achieved by designing novel drug delivery systems (NDDS for herbal constituents. NDDSs not only reduce the repeated administration to overcome non-compliance, but also help to increase the therapeutic value by reducing toxicity and increasing the bioavailability. One such novel approach is nanotechnology. Nano-sized drug delivery systems of herbal drugs have a potential future for enhancing the activity and overcoming problems associated with plant medicines . Hence, integration of the nanocarriers as a NDDS in the traditional medicine system is essential to conflict more chronic diseases like asthma, diabetes, cancer, and others.

  1. Computational nanomedicine and nanotechnology lectures with computer practicums

    CERN Document Server

    Letfullin, Renat R

    2016-01-01

    This textbook, aimed at advanced undergraduate and graduate students, introduces the basic knowledge required for nanomedicine and nanotechnology, and emphasizes how the combined use of chemistry and light with nanoparticles can serve as treatments and therapies for cancer. This includes nanodevices, nanophototherapies, nanodrug design, and laser heating of nanoparticles and cell organelles. In addition, the book covers the emerging fields of nanophotonics and nanoplasmonics, which deal with nanoscale confinement of radiation and optical interactions on a scale much smaller than the wavelength of the light. The applications of nanophotonics and nanoplasmonics to biomedical research discussed in the book range from optical biosensing to photodynamic therapies. Cutting-edge and reflective of the multidisciplinary nature of nanomedicine, this book effectively combines knowledge and modeling from nanoscience, medicine, biotechnology, physics, optics, engineering, and pharmacy in an easily digestible format. Among...

  2. Nanoscience and Nanotechnology for the Middle Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wan

    2009-01-01

    Capturing students' interest in science at the junior levels is crucial to not only improving the uptake of science at senior levels but to promoting science literacy in all students in order to prepare them for a society that is very science and technologically driven. This paper presents nanotechnology as an emerging science that is both factual…

  3. 'Safe handling of nanotechnology' ten years on

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Andrew D.; Aitken, Robert J.

    2016-12-01

    In 2006, a group of scientists proposed five grand challenges to support the safe handling of nanotechnology. Ten years on, Andrew Maynard and Robert Aitken -- two of the original authors -- look at where we have come, and where we still need to go.

  4. Make Sense of Nanochemistry and Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrogi, Paola; Caselli, Monica; Montalti, Marco; Venturi, Margherita

    2008-01-01

    A class in a Scientific-Technological Lyceum (age 17) decided to produce a PowerPoint presentation to introduce nanochemistry and nanotechnology to the students in lower grades. Because the subject is very new, there was nothing in the School textbooks and, therefore, the students had to cooperate in order to find materials, to use ICT sources and…

  5. Surfaces in Precision Engineering, Microengineering and Nanotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Kunzmann, H.; Peggs, G. N.

    2003-01-01

    with precision engineering, microengineering and nanotechnology are presented, encompassing surfaces in computers, MEMS, biomedical systems, light and X-ray optics, as well as in chemical systems. Surface properties at micro and nanoscale are considered, including geometry as well as physical and chemical...

  6. Nanotechnology in cosmetics: Opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Silpa; Jose, Shoma; Sumod, U S; Sabitha, M

    2012-07-01

    Nanotechnology is the science of manipulating atoms and molecules in the nanoscale - 80,000 times smaller than the width of a human hair. The world market for products that contain nanomaterials is expected to reach $2.6 trillion by 2015. The use of nanotechnology has stretched across various streams of science, from electronics to medicine and has now found applications in the field of cosmetics by taking the name of nanocosmetics. This widespread influence of nanotechnology in the cosmetic industries is due to the enhanced properties attained by the particles at the nano level including color, transparency, solubility etc. The different types of nanomaterials employed in cosmetics include nanosomes, liposomes, fullerenes, solid lipid nanoparticles etc. Recently, concerns over the safety of such nanocosmetics are raised and have forced the cosmetic industries to limit the use of nanotechnology in cosmetics and for enforcing laws to undergo a full-fledged safety assessment before they enter into the market. In this review, emphasis is made on the types of nanomaterials used in cosmetics by the various cosmetic brands, the potential risks caused by them both to human life and also to the environment and what all regulations have been undertaken or can be taken to overcome them.

  7. Nanotechnology in cosmetics: Opportunities and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silpa Raj

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is the science of manipulating atoms and molecules in the nanoscale - 80,000 times smaller than the width of a human hair. The world market for products that contain nanomaterials is expected to reach $2.6 trillion by 2015. The use of nanotechnology has stretched across various streams of science, from electronics to medicine and has now found applications in the field of cosmetics by taking the name of nanocosmetics. This widespread influence of nanotechnology in the cosmetic industries is due to the enhanced properties attained by the particles at the nano level including color, transparency, solubility etc. The different types of nanomaterials employed in cosmetics include nanosomes, liposomes, fullerenes, solid lipid nanoparticles etc. Recently, concerns over the safety of such nanocosmetics are raised and have forced the cosmetic industries to limit the use of nanotechnology in cosmetics and for enforcing laws to undergo a full-fledged safety assessment before they enter into the market. In this review, emphasis is made on the types of nanomaterials used in cosmetics by the various cosmetic brands, the potential risks caused by them both to human life and also to the environment and what all regulations have been undertaken or can be taken to overcome them.

  8. Nanotechnology and Nanoscale Science: Educational challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. Gail; Blonder, Ron; Gardner, Grant E.; Albe, Virginie; Falvo, Michael; Chevrier, Joel

    2013-06-01

    Nanotechnology has been touted as the next 'industrial revolution' of our modern age. In order for successful research, development, and social discourses to take place in this field, education research is needed to inform the development of standards, course development, and workforce preparation. In addition, there is a growing need to educate citizens and students about risks, benefits, and social and ethical issues related to nanotechnology. This position paper describes the advancements that have been made in nanoscale science and nanotechnology, and the challenges that exist to educate students and the public about critical nanoscience concepts. This paper reviews the current research on nanotechnology education including curricula, educational programs, informal education, and teacher education. Furthermore, the unique risks, benefits and ethics of these unusual technological applications are described in relation to nanoeducation goals. Finally, we outline needed future research in the areas of nanoscience content, standards and curricula, nanoscience pedagogy, teacher education, and the risks, benefits, and social and ethical dimensions for education in this emerging field.

  9. Innovations in nanotechnology for water treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehrke I

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ilka Gehrke, Andreas Geiser, Annette Somborn-SchulzFraunhofer Institute for Environmental, Safety and Energy Technology UMSICHT, Oberhausen, GermanyAbstract: Important challenges in the global water situation, mainly resulting from worldwide population growth and climate change, require novel innovative water technologies in order to ensure a supply of drinking water and reduce global water pollution. Against this background, the adaptation of highly advanced nanotechnology to traditional process engineering offers new opportunities in technological developments for advanced water and wastewater technology processes. Here, an overview of recent advances in nanotechnologies for water and wastewater treatment processes is provided, including nanobased materials, such as nanoadsorbents, nanometals, nanomembranes, and photocatalysts. The beneficial properties of these materials as well as technical barriers when compared with conventional processes are reported. The state of commercialization is presented and an outlook on further research opportunities is given for each type of nanobased material and process. In addition to the promising technological enhancements, the limitations of nanotechnology for water applications, such as laws and regulations as well as potential health risks, are summarized. The legal framework according to nanoengineered materials and processes that are used for water and wastewater treatment is considered for European countries and for the USA.Keywords: nanotechnology, water technology, nanoadsorbents, nanometals, nanomembranes, photocatalysis

  10. Nanotechnology for sustainable development: retrospective and outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diallo, Mamadou S., E-mail: mdiallo@kaist.ac.kr [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Graduate School of Energy, Environment, Water and Sustainability (EEWS) (Korea, Republic of); Fromer, Neil A. [California Institute of Technology, Resnick Sustainability Institute (United States); Jhon, Myung S. [Carnegie Mellon University, Department of Chemical Engineering (United States)

    2013-11-15

    The world is facing great challenges in meeting rising demands for basic commodities (e.g., food, water and energy), finished goods (e.g., cell phones, cars and airplanes) and services (e.g., shelter, healthcare and employment) while reducing and minimizing the impact of human activities on Earth’s global environment and climate. Nanotechnology has emerged as a versatile platform that could provide efficient, cost-effective and environmentally acceptable solutions to the global sustainability challenges facing society. This special issue of the Journal of Nanoparticle Research is devoted to the utilization of nanotechnology to improve or achieve sustainable development. We highlight recent advances and discuss opportunities of utilizing nanotechnology to address global challenges in (1) water purification, (2) clean energy technologies, (3) greenhouse gases management, (4) materials supply and utilization, and (5) green manufacturing and chemistry. In addition to the technical challenges listed above, we also discuss societal perspectives and provide an outlook of the role of nanotechnology in the convergence of knowledge, technology and society for achieving sustainable development.

  11. Pharmacogenomics and Nanotechnology Toward Advancing Personalized Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizirianakis, Ioannis S.; Amanatiadou, Elsa P.

    The target of personalized medicine to achieve major benefits for all patients in terms of diagnosis and drug delivery can be facilitated by creating a sincere multidisciplinary information-based infrastructure in health care. To this end, nanotechnology, pharmacogenomics, and informatics can advance the utility of personalized medicine, enable clinical translation of genomic knowledge, empower healthcare environment, and finally improve clinical outcomes.

  12. Articulation: how societal goals matter in nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, C.

    2016-01-01

    Science policies try to steer scientists to conduct societally relevant research. This societal relevance is often expressed in large societal goals, such as addressing sustainability or helping with the problems that an ageing society might bring. Emerging technologies, like nanotechnology, are oft

  13. Nanotechnology for sustainable development: retrospective and outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, Mamadou S.; Fromer, Neil A.; Jhon, Myung S.

    2013-11-01

    The world is facing great challenges in meeting rising demands for basic commodities (e.g., food, water and energy), finished goods (e.g., cell phones, cars and airplanes) and services (e.g., shelter, healthcare and employment) while reducing and minimizing the impact of human activities on Earth's global environment and climate. Nanotechnology has emerged as a versatile platform that could provide efficient, cost-effective and environmentally acceptable solutions to the global sustainability challenges facing society. This special issue of the Journal of Nanoparticle Research is devoted to the utilization of nanotechnology to improve or achieve sustainable development. We highlight recent advances and discuss opportunities of utilizing nanotechnology to address global challenges in (1) water purification, (2) clean energy technologies, (3) greenhouse gases management, (4) materials supply and utilization, and (5) green manufacturing and chemistry. In addition to the technical challenges listed above, we also discuss societal perspectives and provide an outlook of the role of nanotechnology in the convergence of knowledge, technology and society for achieving sustainable development.

  14. Nanotechnology: Threats and Deterrent Opportunities by 2035

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-17

    103 Today’s on-line Columbia Encyclopedia is full of information on nanotechnology.104 Feyman said, “In the year 2000, when they look back at this...Accessed 16 February 2010. 105 Feyman , discussion, http://www.its.caltech.edu/~feynman/, accessed 31 January 2010.

  15. Encountering Nanotechnology in an Interactive Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murriello, Sandra E.; Knobel, Marcelo

    2008-01-01

    This article offers findings from a learning sciences-informed evaluation of a nanoscience and nanotechnology exhibition called Nano-Aventura (NanoAdventure), based on four interactive-collaborative games and two narrated videos. This traveling exhibition was developed in Brazil by the Museu Exploratorio de Ciencias for children and teenagers…

  16. Nanotechnology for sustainability: what does nanotechnology offer to address complex sustainability problems?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiek, Arnim, E-mail: arnim.wiek@asu.edu; Foley, Rider W. [Arizona State University, School of Sustainability (United States); Guston, David H. [Arizona State University, Center for Nanotechnology in Society, Consortium for Science, Policy and Outcomes (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Nanotechnology is widely associated with the promise of positively contributing to sustainability. However, this view often focuses on end-of-pipe applications, for instance, for water purification or energy efficiency, and relies on a narrow concept of sustainability. Approaching sustainability problems and solution options from a comprehensive and systemic perspective instead may yield quite different conclusions about the contribution of nanotechnology to sustainability. This study conceptualizes sustainability problems as complex constellations with several potential intervention points and amenable to different solution options. The study presents results from interdisciplinary workshops and literature reviews that appraise the contribution of the selected nanotechnologies to mitigate such problems. The study focuses exemplarily on the urban context to make the appraisals tangible and relevant. The solution potential of nanotechnology is explored not only for well-known urban sustainability problems such as water contamination and energy use but also for less obvious ones such as childhood obesity. Results indicate not only potentials but also limitations of nanotechnology's contribution to sustainability and can inform anticipatory governance of nanotechnology in general, and in the urban context in particular.

  17. Scientometrics Analysis of Nanotechnology in MEDLINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asgharzadeh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nanotechnology is the study and application of extremely small things and can be used across all the other science fields, such as chemistry, biology, physics, materials science, and engineering. An alternative method for considering the trend of research activities in countries is quantitative analysis of scientific output. The objective of current study is to analyze and visualize the trend of scientific output in the field of nanotechnology in MEDLINE during a period of 10 years 2001-2010. Method: The extraction of data was restricted to the data set that was indexed as a major main heading of “nanotechnology” in MEDLINE through 2001 – 2010. Data about patent applications was obtained from WIPO Statistics Database. Database of Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE was selected from Web of Science to obtain publications indexed under the topic of nanotechnology. Result: Analysis of data showed that the research activities in the field of nanotechnology have been increased steady through the period of study. The number of publications in 2010 was ~ 84 times greater than those in 2001. English language consisting of 98% of total publications was the most dominant language of publications. Based on Bradford’s scattering’s law the journal of “ Nanoscience and Nanotechnology“ distributing 12.8% of total publications was the most prolific journal. Conclusion: The USA contributing 39% of world’s publications in the field was the most productive country followed by China (10%, Germany (6%, Japan (6%, Korea (5% and UK (4%. The most majority of world’s publications (70% were produced by these six countries. The tremendous growth of publications was simultaneously with the rapid growth of patent application in the field of Micro-structural and nano-technology in WIPO.

  18. The structure and infrastructure of the global nanotechnology literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostoff, Ronald N., E-mail: kostofr@onr.navy.mil; Stump, Jesse A. [Office of Naval Research (United States); Johnson, Dustin [Northrop Grumman TASC (United States); Murday, James S. [Naval Research Laboratory, Chemistry Division, Code 6100 (United States); Lau, Clifford G.Y. [Institute for Defense Analyses (United States); Tolles, William M

    2006-08-15

    Text mining is the extraction of useful information from large volumes of text. A text mining analysis of the global open nanotechnology literature was performed. Records from the Science Citation Index (SCI)/Social SCI were analyzed to provide the infrastructure of the global nanotechnology literature (prolific authors/journals/institutions/countries, most cited authors/papers/journals) and the thematic structure (taxonomy) of the global nanotechnology literature, from a science perspective. Records from the Engineering Compendex (EC) were analyzed to provide a taxonomy from a technology perspective.The Far Eastern countries have expanded nanotechnology publication output dramatically in the past decade.The Peoples Republic of China ranks second to the USA (2004 results) in nanotechnology papers published in the SCI, and has increased its nanotechnology publication output by a factor of 21 in a decade.Of the six most prolific (publications) nanotechnology countries, the three from the Western group (USA, Germany, France) have about eight percent more nanotechnology publications (for 2004) than the three from the Far Eastern group (China, Japan, South Korea).While most of the high nanotechnology publication-producing countries are also high nanotechnology patent producers in the US Patent Office (as of 2003), China is a major exception. China ranks 20th as a nanotechnology patent-producing country in the US Patent Office.

  19. Factors affecting the perceptions of Iranian agricultural researchers towards nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Mahmood; Rezaei, Rohollah

    2011-07-01

    This descriptive survey research was undertaken to design appropriate programs for the creation of a positive perception of nanotechnology among their intended beneficiaries. In order to do that, the factors affecting positive perceptions were defined. A stratified random sample of 278 science board members was selected out of 984 researchers who were working in 22 National Agricultural Research Institutions (NARIs). Data were collected by using a mailed questionnaire. The descriptive results revealed that more than half of the respondents had "low" or "very low" familiarity with nanotechnology. Regression analysis indicated that the perceptions of Iranian NARI Science Board Members towards nanotechnology were explained by three variables: the level of their familiarity with emerging applications of nanotechnology in agriculture, the level of their familiarity with nanotechnology and their work experiences. The findings of this study can contribute to a better understanding of the present situation of the development of nanotechnology and the planning of appropriate programs for creating a positive perception of nanotechnology.

  20. Managing risk in nanotechnology topics in governance, assurance and transfer

    CERN Document Server

    McAlea, Eamonn; Mullins, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This book aims to address how nanotechnology risks are being addressed by scientists, particularly in the areas of human health and the environment and how these risks can be measured in financial terms for insurers and regulators. It provides a comprehensive overview of nanotechnology risk measurement and risk transfer methods, including a chapter outlining how Bayesian methods can be used. It also examines nanotechnology from a legal perspective, both current and potential future outcomes. The global market for nanotechnology products was valued at $22.9 billion in 2013 and increased to about $26 billion in 2014. This market is expected to reach about $64.2 billion by 2019, a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 19.8% from 2014 to 2019. Despite the increasing value of nanotechnologies and their widespread use, there is a significant gap between the enthusiasm of scientists and nanotechnology entrepreneurs working in the nanotechnology space and the insurance/regulatory sector. Scientists are scarcely aware...

  1. Control Banding and Nanotechnology Synergist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalk, D; Paik, S

    2009-12-15

    uncertainty, that attracted international NM experts to recommend this qualitative risk assessment approach for NM. However, since their CB recommendation was only in theory, we took on the challenge of developing a working toolkit, the CB Nanotool (see Zalk et al. 2009 and Paik et al. 2008), as a means to perform a risk assessment and protect researchers at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. While it's been acknowledged that engineered NM have potentially endless benefits for society, it became clear to us that the very properties that make nanotechnology so useful to industry could also make them dangerous to humans and the environment. Among the uncertainties and unknowns with NM are: the contribution of their physical structure to their toxicity, significant differences in their deposition and clearance in the lungs when compared to their parent material (PM), a lack of agreement on the appropriate indices for exposure to NM, and very little background information on exposure scenarios or populations at risk. Part of this lack of background information can be traced to the lack of risk assessments historically performed in the industry, with a recent survey indicating that 65% of companies working with NM are not doing any kind of NM-specific risk assessment as they focus on traditional PM methods for IH (Helland et al. 2009). The good news is that the amount of peer-reviewed publications that address environmental, health and safety aspects of NM has been increasing over the last few years; however, the percentage of these that address practical methods to reduce exposure and protect workers is orders of magnitude lower. Our intent in developing the CB Nanotool was to create a simplified approach that would protect workers while unraveling the mysteries of NM for experts and non-experts alike. Since such a large part of the toxicological effects of both the physical and chemical properties of NM were unknown, not to mention changing logarithmically as new

  2. HOW TO ANSWER CHILDREN QUESTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Brenifier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to disclose the possible philosophicalconversation with the child.Methods. The author uses general scientific research methods, including observation and interviews, philosophical analysis.Results and scientific novelty. The author reveals the essence of philosophical conversations with the child, calls the main reasons for the extinction of the children’s curiosity, illustrating examples of incorrect behavior of adults to communicate with children. It is recommended how to be responsible for children’s issues. The article discusses the main reasons for the extinction of the children’s curiosity by illustrating examples of an erroneous behaviour of adults in dealing with children. It is shown that if the teacher does not find a systematic way to engage children in the essential discussion, the children most likely will not learn how to contemplate seriously. The author gives detailed guidance how to answer children’s questions.Practical significance. The article may be of interest to parents, teachers, experts in the field of psychology of creativity, post-graduates and organizers of independent activity of students of higher education institutions.

  3. Nanotechnology in the real world: Redeveloping the nanomaterial consumer products inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Marina E; Kuiken, Todd; Vejerano, Eric P; McGinnis, Sean P; Hochella, Michael F; Rejeski, David; Hull, Matthew S

    2015-01-01

    To document the marketing and distribution of nano-enabled products into the commercial marketplace, the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars and the Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies created the Nanotechnology Consumer Products Inventory (CPI) in 2005. The objective of this present work is to redevelop the CPI by leading a research effort to increase the usefulness and reliability of this inventory. We created eight new descriptors for consumer products, including information pertaining to the nanomaterials contained in each product. The project was motivated by the recognition that a diverse group of stakeholders from academia, industry, and state/federal government had become highly dependent on the inventory as an important resource and bellweather of the pervasiveness of nanotechnology in society. We interviewed 68 nanotechnology experts to assess key information needs. Their answers guided inventory modifications by providing a clear conceptual framework best suited for user expectations. The revised inventory was released in October 2013. It currently lists 1814 consumer products from 622 companies in 32 countries. The Health and Fitness category contains the most products (762, or 42% of the total). Silver is the most frequently used nanomaterial (435 products, or 24%); however, 49% of the products (889) included in the CPI do not provide the composition of the nanomaterial used in them. About 29% of the CPI (528 products) contain nanomaterials suspended in a variety of liquid media and dermal contact is the most likely exposure scenario from their use. The majority (1288 products, or 71%) of the products do not present enough supporting information to corroborate the claim that nanomaterials are used. The modified CPI has enabled crowdsourcing capabilities, which allow users to suggest edits to any entry and permits researchers to upload new findings ranging from human and environmental exposure data to complete life cycle assessments. There

  4. Nanotechnology in the real world: Redeveloping the nanomaterial consumer products inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina E. Vance

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available To document the marketing and distribution of nano-enabled products into the commercial marketplace, the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars and the Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies created the Nanotechnology Consumer Products Inventory (CPI in 2005. The objective of this present work is to redevelop the CPI by leading a research effort to increase the usefulness and reliability of this inventory. We created eight new descriptors for consumer products, including information pertaining to the nanomaterials contained in each product. The project was motivated by the recognition that a diverse group of stakeholders from academia, industry, and state/federal government had become highly dependent on the inventory as an important resource and bellweather of the pervasiveness of nanotechnology in society. We interviewed 68 nanotechnology experts to assess key information needs. Their answers guided inventory modifications by providing a clear conceptual framework best suited for user expectations. The revised inventory was released in October 2013. It currently lists 1814 consumer products from 622 companies in 32 countries. The Health and Fitness category contains the most products (762, or 42% of the total. Silver is the most frequently used nanomaterial (435 products, or 24%; however, 49% of the products (889 included in the CPI do not provide the composition of the nanomaterial used in them. About 29% of the CPI (528 products contain nanomaterials suspended in a variety of liquid media and dermal contact is the most likely exposure scenario from their use. The majority (1288 products, or 71% of the products do not present enough supporting information to corroborate the claim that nanomaterials are used. The modified CPI has enabled crowdsourcing capabilities, which allow users to suggest edits to any entry and permits researchers to upload new findings ranging from human and environmental exposure data to complete life cycle

  5. Hodgkin lymphoma: answers take time!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedberg, Jonathan W

    2011-05-19

    In this issue of Blood, Straus and colleagues on behalf of the Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) present the outcome of a phase 2 trial of doxorubicin, vinblastine,and gemcitabine for patients with early-stage, non-bulky, Hodgkin lymphoma.The complete response rate and progression-free survival were inferior to comparable series, emphasizing the challenges of improving outcome in this highly curable population.

  6. Targeted Nanotechnology in Glioblastoma Multiforme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Talita; Han, Inbo; Wu, Liquan; Zeng, Xiang

    2017-01-01

    Gliomas, and in particular glioblastoma multiforme, are aggressive brain tumors characterized by a poor prognosis and high rates of recurrence. Current treatment strategies are based on open surgery, chemotherapy (temozolomide) and radiotherapy. However, none of these treatments, alone or in combination, are considered effective in managing this devastating disease, resulting in a median survival time of less than 15 months. The efficiency of chemotherapy is mainly compromised by the blood-brain barrier (BBB) that selectively inhibits drugs from infiltrating into the tumor mass. Cancer stem cells (CSCs), with their unique biology and their resistance to both radio- and chemotherapy, compound tumor aggressiveness and increase the chances of treatment failure. Therefore, more effective targeted therapeutic regimens are urgently required. In this article, some well-recognized biological features and biomarkers of this specific subgroup of tumor cells are profiled and new strategies and technologies in nanomedicine that explicitly target CSCs, after circumventing the BBB, are detailed. Major achievements in the development of nanotherapies, such as organic poly(propylene glycol) and poly(ethylene glycol) or inorganic (iron and gold) nanoparticles that can be conjugated to metal ions, liposomes, dendrimers and polymeric micelles, form the main scope of this summary. Moreover, novel biological strategies focused on manipulating gene expression (small interfering RNA and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats [CRISPR]/CRISPR associated protein 9 [Cas 9] technologies) for cancer therapy are also analyzed. The aim of this review is to analyze the gap between CSC biology and the development of targeted therapies. A better understanding of CSC properties could result in the development of precise nanotherapies to fulfill unmet clinical needs.

  7. Functionalized surfaces and nanostructures for nanotechnological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    1. Introduction Despite unprecedented government funding and public interest in nanotechnology, few can accurately define the scope, range or potential applications of this technology. One of the most pressing issues facing nanoscientists and technologists today is that of communicating with the non-scientific community. As a result of decades of speculation, a number of myths have grown up around the field, making it difficult for the general public, or indeed the business and financial communities, to understand what is a fundamental shift in the way we look at our interactions with the natural world. This article attempts to address some of these misconceptions, and explain why scientists, businesses and governments are spending large amounts of time and money on nanoscale research and development. 2. What is nanotechnology? Take a random selection of scientists, engineers, investors and the general public and ask them what nanotechnology is and you will receive a range of replies as broad as nanotechnology itself. For many scientists, it is nothing startlingly new; after all we have been working at the nanoscale for decades, through electron microscopy, scanning probe microscopies or simply growing and analysing thin films. For most other groups, however, nanotechnology means something far more ambitious, miniature submarines in the bloodstream, little cogs and gears made out of atoms, space elevators made of nanotubes, and the colonization of space. It is no wonder people often muddle up nanotechnology with science fiction. 3. What is the nanoscale? Although a metre is defined by the International Standards Organization as `the length of the path travelled by light in vacuum during a time interval of 1/299 792 458 of a second' and a nanometre is by definition 10- 9 of a metre, this does not help scientists to communicate the nanoscale to non-scientists. It is in human nature to relate sizes by reference to everyday objects, and the commonest definition of

  8. 3rd International Conference Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Yatsenko, Leonid

    2016-01-01

    This book presents some of the latest achievements in nanotechnology and nanomaterials from leading researchers in Ukraine, Europe, and beyond. It features contributions from participants in the 3rd International Science and Practice Conference Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials (NANO2015) held in Lviv, Ukraine on August 26-30, 2015. The International Conference was organized jointly by the Institute of Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, University of Tartu (Estonia), Ivan Franko National University of Lviv (Ukraine), University of Turin (Italy), Pierre and Marie Curie University (France), and European Profiles A.E. (Greece). Internationally recognized experts from a wide range of universities and research institutions share their knowledge and key results on topics ranging from nanooptics, nanoplasmonics, and interface studies to energy storage and biomedical applications. Presents cutting-edge advances in nanocomposites and carbon and silicon-based nanomaterials for a wide range of engine...

  9. Multidisciplinary Cognitive Content of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Milojević, Staša

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the cognitive evolution and disciplinary diversity of nanotechnology as expressed through the terminology used in titles of nano journal articles. The analysis is based on the NanoBank bibliographic database of 287,106 nano articles published between 1981 and 2004. We perform multifaceted analyses of title words, focusing on 100 most frequent terms. Hierarchical clustering of title terms reveals three distinct time periods of cognitive development of nano research: formative (1981-1990), early (1991-1998), and current (after 1998). Early period is characterized by the introduction of thin film deposition techniques, while the current period is characterized by the increased focus on carbon nanotube and nanoparticle research. We introduce a method to identify disciplinary components of nanotechnology. It shows that the nano research is being carried out in a number of diverse parent disciplines. Currently only 5% of articles are published in dedicated nano-only journals. We find that some...

  10. Nanotechnology for water treatment and purification

    CERN Document Server

    Apblett, Allen

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the latest progress in the application of nanotechnology for water treatment and purification. Leaders in the field present both the fundamental science and a comprehensive overview of the diverse range of tools and technologies that have been developed in this critical area. Expert chapters present the unique physicochemical and surface properties of nanoparticles and the advantages that these provide for engineering applications that ensure a supply of safe drinking water for our growing population. Application areas include generating fresh water from seawater, preventing contamination of the environment, and creating effective and efficient methods for remediation of polluted waters. The chapter authors are leading world-wide experts in the field with either academic or industrial experience, ensuring that this comprehensive volume presents the state-of-the-art in the integration of nanotechnology with water treatment and purification. Covers both wastewater and drinking water treatmen...

  11. Integrative filtration research and sustainable nanotechnology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Wang; Drew Thompson; David Y.H.Pui

    2013-01-01

    With the wide applications of nanomaterials in an array of industries,more concerns are being raised about the occupational health and safety of nanoparticles in the workplace,and implications of nanotechnology on the environment and living systems.Studies on environmental,health and safety (EHS) issues of nanomaterials play a significant role in public acceptance,and eventual sustainability,of nanotechnology.We present research results on three aspects of the EHS studies:characterization and measurement of nanoparticles,nanoparticle emission and exposure at workplaces,and control and abatement of nanoparticle release using filtration technology.Measurement of nanoparticle agglomerates using a newly developed instrument,the Universal Nanoparticle Analyzer,is discussed.Nanoparticle emission and exposure measurement results for carbon nanotubes in the manufacture of nanocomposites and for silicon nanoparticles in their production at a pilot scale facility are presented.Filtration of nanoparticles and nanoparticle agglomerates are also studied.

  12. Potential roles for diatomists in nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Richard; Parkinson, John

    2005-01-01

    Diatoms produce diverse three-dimensional structures that, due to their exponential rate of growth, may be of use in the manufacture of components for nanotechnology as an alternative to present linear lithographic techniques. Vapor replacement of the silicon permits the conversion of diatom silica valves and other structures to metal/ceramics, with no loss of structure. The literature on diatom nanotechnology is reviewed, along with suggestions on how diatomists might enhance this emerging technology. There is a need for a systematics based catalog of parts (via genomics technologies), improved diatom culture techniques, better understanding of the mechanisms of diatom morphogenesis and motility, and genetic manipulation, mutagenesis, and selection, as via the chemostat-like compustat. Given the self-motility of raphid diatoms, they could form the basis for industrially useful nanobots.

  13. Nanotechnology: “Revolutionary Developments in Future”

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    Introductory notes will be made on the definition, structures, phenomena, functions, synthesis, properties, and characterization at the nanoscale. Some indications on nanoMaterials research and markets in Europe will be given. The spectrum of structural and functional/smart nanomaterials: metallic and ceramic materials, coating, composites ….will be reviewed Key challenges for nanomaterials design and engineering will be highlighted. The range of applications for nanotechnologies will be sumarized: for nano-electronics (information and communication), health care, energy and transport, nuclear and accelerator technologies, security and safety etc NanoMaterials and Technologies are key in future accelerator engineering: construction, operation and experimentation. Nanotechnology in next generation industries is a must. Nanometrology and standardisation (materials and equipment) are also an important items. Environmental and health implications of nanomaterials science and technology: Some guidance and safe...

  14. The Social Relevance of Nanotechnology in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Zayago Lau

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The author explores the institutional and policy changes that have shaped nanotechnology development in Mexico. It illustrates how the science and technology platform has changed from a science push strategy (based on the Sabato´s Triangle to a marked driven (Triple Helix approach. Mexican public policy in NT, while not explicitly stated, is based on the Triple Helix model, and it is in this milieu that businesses, government and universities interact to transform the potential of this technology into an increase in competitiveness. However, there are important aspects that are ignored in the confluence of the socioeconomic dynamic of the country that might obscure the positive social impacts of nanotechnology.

  15. Atherosclerosis and Nanotechnology: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratz, Jeremy D; Chaddha, Ashish; Bhattacharjee, Somnath; Goonewardena, Sascha N

    2016-02-01

    Over the past several decades, tremendous advances have been made in the understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of coronary artery disease (CAD). However, with shifting demographics and evolving risk factors we now face new challenges that must be met in order to further advance are management of patients with CAD. In parallel with advances in our mechanistic appreciation of CAD and atherosclerosis, nanotechnology approaches have greatly expanded, offering the potential for significant improvements in our diagnostic and therapeutic management of CAD. To realize this potential we must go beyond to recognize new frontiers including knowledge gaps between understanding atherosclerosis to the translation of targeted molecular tools. This review highlights nanotechnology applications for imaging and therapeutic advancements in CAD.

  16. Nanotechnology for treating osteoporotic vertebral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chunxia; Wei, Donglei; Yang, Huilin; Chen, Tao; Yang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a serious public health problem affecting hundreds of millions of aged people worldwide, with severe consequences including vertebral fractures that are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. To augment or treat osteoporotic vertebral fractures, a number of surgical approaches including minimally invasive vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty have been developed. However, these approaches face problems and difficulties with efficacy and long-term stability. Recent advances and progress in nanotechnology are opening up new opportunities to improve the surgical procedures for treating osteoporotic vertebral fractures. This article reviews the improvements enabled by new nanomaterials and focuses on new injectable biomaterials like bone cements and surgical instruments for treating vertebral fractures. This article also provides an introduction to osteoporotic vertebral fractures and current clinical treatments, along with the rationale and efficacy of utilizing nanomaterials to modify and improve biomaterials or instruments. In addition, perspectives on future trends with injectable bone cements and surgical instruments enhanced by nanotechnology are provided.

  17. Introductory quantum mechanics for applied nanotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Dae Mann

    2015-01-01

    This introductory textbook covers fundamental quantum mechanics from an application perspective, considering optoelectronic devices, biological sensors and molecular imagers as well as solar cells and field effect transistors. The book provides a brief review of classical and statistical mechanics and electromagnetism, and then turns to the quantum treatment of atoms, molecules, and chemical bonds. Aiming at senior undergraduate and graduate students in nanotechnology related areas like physics, materials science, and engineering, the book could be used at schools that offer interdisciplinary but focused training for future workers in the semiconductor industry and for the increasing number of related nanotechnology firms, and even practicing people could use it when they need to learn related concepts. The author is Professor Dae Mann Kim from the Korea Institute for Advanced Study who has been teaching Quantum Mechanics to engineering, material science and physics students for over 25 years in USA and Asia.

  18. From Question Answering to Visual Exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McColgin, Dave W.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Turner, Alan E.

    2006-08-11

    Research in Question Answering has focused on the quality of information retrieval or extraction using the metrics of precision and recall to judge success; these metrics drive toward finding the specific best answer(s) and are best supportive of a lookup type of search. These do not address the opportunity that users? natural language questions present for exploratory interactions. In this paper, we present an integrated Question Answering environment that combines a visual analytics tool for unstructured text and a state-of-the-art query expansion tool designed to compliment the cognitive processes associated with an information analysts work flow. Analysts are seldom looking for factoid answers to simple questions; their information needs are much more complex in that they may be interested in patterns of answers over time, conflicting information, and even related non-answer data may be critical to learning about a problem or reaching prudent conclusions. In our visual analytics tool, questions result in a comprehensive answer space that allows users to explore the variety within the answers and spot related information in the rest of the data. The exploratory nature of the dialog between the user and this system requires tailored evaluation methods that better address the evolving user goals and counter cognitive biases inherent to exploratory search tasks.

  19. [Nanotechnologies: from information sciences to pharmacology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grognet, Jean-Marc

    2008-01-01

    The considerable breakthroughs of the physics during the last 30 years allowed us to conceive components, devices or materials at the nanoscale level and to manipulate them. Applications are already envisaged in the field of the medical and pharmaceutical sciences. These nanotechnologies will be applied to the biology as well as the diagnosis, the therapeutics and the functional rehabilitation (nanomedicine). Consequences in the pharmaceutical research and development are also possible in a near future.

  20. Bioethical Issues of Nanotechnology at a Glance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Aala

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is considered as an industrial revolution of the third millennium. Advances have a remarkable impact on differ¬ent fields such as medicine, engineering, economy and even politics. However, a wide range of ethical issues has been raised by this innovative science. Many authorities believe that these advancements could lead to irreversible dis¬asters if not lim¬ited by ethical guidelines. Involvement of developing countries in new fields of science could be as¬sociated with substan¬tial advantages. In this paper, we intend to review main ethical issues of nanotechnology, taking into account the surge of interests in this field and the ever-increasing advances of nanotechnology in Iran. The issue of safety, considering envi¬ronmental and ecological impacts of nanoparticles (smart dust, and standards of customer aware¬ness are important de¬bates. The ‘Grey-goo' scenario and the concerns about ‘post-humanism' are also discussed by bioethicists. There are further con¬cerns about justice, intellectual property rights, accountability, and the probability of military and security misuse.

  1. Nanotechnological Strategies for Biofabrication of Human Organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo A. Rezende

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is a rapidly emerging technology dealing with so-called nanomaterials which at least in one dimension have size smaller than 100 nm. One of the most potentially promising applications of nanotechnology is in the area of tissue engineering, including biofabrication of 3D human tissues and organs. This paper focused on demonstrating how nanomaterials with nanolevel size can contribute to development of 3D human tissues and organs which have macrolevel organization. Specific nanomaterials such as nanofibers and nanoparticles are discussed in the context of their application for biofabricating 3D human tissues and organs. Several examples of novel tissue and organ biofabrication technologies based on using novel nanomaterials are presented and their recent limitations are analyzed. A robotic device for fabrication of compliant composite electrospun vascular graft is described. The concept of self-assembling magnetic tissue spheroids as an intermediate structure between nano- and macrolevel organization and building blocks for biofabrication of complex 3D human tissues and organs is introduced. The design of in vivo robotic bioprinter based on this concept and magnetic levitation of tissue spheroids labeled with magnetic nanoparticles is presented. The challenges and future prospects of applying nanomaterials and nanotechnological strategies in organ biofabrication are outlined.

  2. Empowering citizens in international governance of nanotechnologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malsch, Ineke; Subramanian, Vrishali; Semenzin, Elena; Hristozov, Danail; Marcomini, Antonio; Mullins, Martin; Hester, Karena; McAlea, Eamonn; Murphy, Finbarr; Tofail, Syed A. M.

    2015-05-01

    The international dialogue on responsible governance of nanotechnologies engages a wide range of actors with conflicting as well as common interests. It is also characterised by a lack of evidence-based data on uncertain risks of in particular engineered nanomaterials. The present paper aims at deepening understanding of the collective decision making context at international level using the grounded theory approach as proposed by Glaser and Strauss in "The Discovery of Grounded Theory" (1967). This starts by discussing relevant concepts from different fields including sociological and political studies of international relations as well as political philosophy and ethics. This analysis of current trends in international law making is taken as starting point for exploring the role that a software decision support tool could play in multi-stakeholder global governance of nanotechnologies. These theoretical ideas are then compared with the current design of the SUN Decision Support System (SUNDS) under development in the European project on Sustainable Nanotechnologies (SUN, www.sun-fp7.eu). Through constant comparison, the ideas are also compared with requirements of different stakeholders as expressed during a user workshop. This allows for highlighting discussion points for further consideration.

  3. A review of water treatment membrane nanotechnologies

    KAUST Repository

    Pendergast, MaryTheresa M.

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology is being used to enhance conventional ceramic and polymeric water treatment membrane materials through various avenues. Among the numerous concepts proposed, the most promising to date include zeolitic and catalytic nanoparticle coated ceramic membranes, hybrid inorganic-organic nanocomposite membranes, and bio-inspired membranes such as hybrid protein-polymer biomimetic membranes, aligned nanotube membranes, and isoporous block copolymer membranes. A semi-quantitative ranking system was proposed considering projected performance enhancement (over state-of-the-art analogs) and state of commercial readiness. Performance enhancement was based on water permeability, solute selectivity, and operational robustness, while commercial readiness was based on known or anticipated material costs, scalability (for large scale water treatment applications), and compatibility with existing manufacturing infrastructure. Overall, bio-inspired membranes are farthest from commercial reality, but offer the most promise for performance enhancements; however, nanocomposite membranes offering significant performance enhancements are already commercially available. Zeolitic and catalytic membranes appear reasonably far from commercial reality and offer small to moderate performance enhancements. The ranking of each membrane nanotechnology is discussed along with the key commercialization hurdles for each membrane nanotechnology. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  4. Empowering citizens in international governance of nanotechnologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malsch, Ineke, E-mail: malschtechnovaluation@xs4all.nl, E-mail: postbus@malsch.demon.nl [Malsch TechnoValuation (Netherlands); Subramanian, Vrishali; Semenzin, Elena; Hristozov, Danail; Marcomini, Antonio [Ca’Foscari University of Venice, Department of Environmental Sciences, Informatics and Statistics (Italy); Mullins, Martin; Hester, Karena; McAlea, Eamonn; Murphy, Finbarr [University of Limerick, Department of Accounting and Finance, Kemmy Business School (Ireland); Tofail, Syed A. M. [University of Limerick, Department of Physics and Energy, and Materials and Surface Sciences Institute (MSSI) (Ireland)

    2015-05-15

    The international dialogue on responsible governance of nanotechnologies engages a wide range of actors with conflicting as well as common interests. It is also characterised by a lack of evidence-based data on uncertain risks of in particular engineered nanomaterials. The present paper aims at deepening understanding of the collective decision making context at international level using the grounded theory approach as proposed by Glaser and Strauss in “The Discovery of Grounded Theory” (1967). This starts by discussing relevant concepts from different fields including sociological and political studies of international relations as well as political philosophy and ethics. This analysis of current trends in international law making is taken as starting point for exploring the role that a software decision support tool could play in multi-stakeholder global governance of nanotechnologies. These theoretical ideas are then compared with the current design of the SUN Decision Support System (SUNDS) under development in the European project on Sustainable Nanotechnologies (SUN, www.sun-fp7.eu http://www.sun-fp7.eu ). Through constant comparison, the ideas are also compared with requirements of different stakeholders as expressed during a user workshop. This allows for highlighting discussion points for further consideration.

  5. Advancement of the Emerging Field of RNA Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The field of RNA nanotechnology has advanced rapidly during the past decade. A variety of programmable RNA nanoparticles with defined shape, size, and stoichiometry have been developed for diverse applications in nanobiotechnology. The rising popularity of RNA nanoparticles is due to a number of factors: (1) removing the concern of RNA degradation in vitro and in vivo by introducing chemical modification into nucleotides without significant alteration of the RNA property in folding and self-assembly; (2) confirming the concept that RNA displays very high thermodynamic stability and is suitable for in vivo trafficking and other applications; (3) obtaining the knowledge to tune the immunogenic properties of synthetic RNA constructs for in vivo applications; (4) increased understanding of the 4D structure and intermolecular interaction of RNA molecules; (5) developing methods to control shape, size, and stoichiometry of RNA nanoparticles; (6) increasing knowledge of regulation and processing functions of RNA in cells; (7) decreasing cost of RNA production by biological and chemical synthesis; and (8) proving the concept that RNA is a safe and specific therapeutic modality for cancer and other diseases with little or no accumulation in vital organs. Other applications of RNA nanotechnology, such as adapting them to construct 2D, 3D, and 4D structures for use in tissue engineering, biosensing, resistive biomemory, and potential computer logic gate modules, have stimulated the interest of the scientific community. This review aims to outline the current state of the art of RNA nanoparticles as programmable smart complexes and offers perspectives on the promising avenues of research in this fast-growing field. PMID:28045501

  6. Nanotechnology in agriculture: prospects and constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhopadhyay SS

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Siddhartha S Mukhopadhyay Electron Microscopy and Nanoscience Laboratory, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India Abstract: Attempts to apply nanotechnology in agriculture began with the growing realization that conventional farming technologies would neither be able to increase productivity any further nor restore ecosystems damaged by existing technologies back to their pristine state; in particular because the long-term effects of farming with “miracle seeds”, in conjunction with irrigation, fertilizers, and pesticides, have been questioned both at the scientific and policy levels, and must be gradually phased out. Nanotechnology in agriculture has gained momentum in the last decade with an abundance of public funding, but the pace of development is modest, even though many disciplines come under the umbrella of agriculture. This could be attributed to: a unique nature of farm production, which functions as an open system whereby energy and matter are exchanged freely; the scale of demand of input materials always being gigantic in contrast with industrial nanoproducts; an absence of control over the input nanomaterials in contrast with industrial nanoproducts (eg, the cell phone and because their fate has to be conceived on the geosphere (pedosphere-biosphere-hydrosphere-atmosphere continuum; the time lag of emerging technologies reaching the farmers' field, especially given that many emerging economies are unwilling to spend on innovation; and the lack of foresight resulting from agricultural education not having attracted a sufficient number of brilliant minds the world over, while personnel from kindred disciplines might lack an understanding of agricultural production systems. If these issues are taken care of, nanotechnologic intervention in farming has bright prospects for improving the efficiency of nutrient use through nanoformulations of fertilizers, breaking yield barriers through bionanotechnology, surveillance and

  7. Nanotechnology in food science: Functionality, applicability, and safety assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojia He

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Rapid development of nanotechnology is expected to transform many areas of food science and food industry with increasing investment and market share. In this article, current applications of nanotechnology in food systems are briefly reviewed. Functionality and applicability of food-related nanotechnology are highlighted in order to provide a comprehensive view on the development and safety assessment of nanotechnology in the food industry. While food nanotechnology offers great potential benefits, there are emerging concerns arising from its novel physicochemical properties. Therefore, the safety concerns and regulatory policies on its manufacturing, processing, packaging, and consumption are briefly addressed. At the end of this article, the perspectives of nanotechnology in active and intelligent packaging applications are highlighted.

  8. Editorial: Trends in Nanotechnology (TNT2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Antonio; Serena, Pedro A.; José Saenz, Juan; Reifenberger, Ron; Ordejón, Pablo

    2006-05-01

    This special issue of physica status solidi (a) presents representative contributions describing the main topics covered at the sixth Trends in Nanotechnology (TNT2005) International Conference, held in Oviedo (Spain), 29 August-2 September 2005.During the last years many international or national conferences have emerged in response to the growing awareness of the importance of nanotechnology as key issue for the future scientific and technological development. Among these, the conference series Trends in Nanotechnology has become one of the most important meeting points in the nanotechnology field: it provides fresh organisation ideas, brings together well known speakers, and promotes a suitable environment for discussions, exchanging ideas, enhancing scientific and personal relations among participants. TNT2005 was organised in a similar way to the five prior TNT conferences, with an impressive scientific programme including 40 Keynote lectures and two Nobel prizes, without parallel sessions, covering a wide spectrum of Nanotechnology research. In 2005, more than 360 scientists worldwide attended this event and contributed with more than 60 oral contributions and 250 posters, stimulating discussions about their most recent research.The aim of the conference was to focus on the applications of Nanotechnology and to bring together, in a scientific forum, various worldwide groups belonging to industry, universities and government institutions. TNT2005 was particularly effective at transmitting information and establishing contacts among workers in this field. Graduate students attending such conferences have understood the importance of interdisciplinary skills to afford their future research lines. 76 graduate students received a grant allowing them to present their work. 28 prizes to the best posters were awarded during this event. We would like to thank all the participants for their assistance, as well as the authors for their written contributions.TNT2005 is

  9. Nanotechnology-based strategies for the detection and quantification of microRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degliangeli, Federica; Pompa, Pier Paolo; Fiammengo, Roberto

    2014-07-28

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of gene expression, and many pathological conditions, including cancer, are characterized by altered miRNA expression levels. Therefore, accurate and sensitive quantification of miRNAs may result in correct disease diagnosis establishing these small noncoding RNA transcripts as valuable biomarkers. Aiming at overcoming some limitations of conventional quantification strategies, nanotechnology is currently providing numerous significant alternatives to miRNA sensing. In this review an up-to-date account of nanotechnology-based strategies for miRNA detection and quantification is given. The topics covered are: nanoparticle-based approaches in solution, sensing based on nanostructured surfaces, combined nanoparticle/surface sensing approaches, and single-molecule approaches.

  10. Questions and Answers About Nuclear Power Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet is designed to answer many of the questions that have arisen about nuclear power plants and the environment. It is organized into a question and answer format, with the questions taken from those most often asked by the public. Topics include regulation of nuclear power sources, potential dangers to people's health, whether nuclear…

  11. Introduction to nanotechnology in eco-efficient construction

    OpenAIRE

    Torgal, Fernando Pacheco

    2013-01-01

    This chapter provides a brief overview of some important aspects of nanotechnology starting with its earlier steps and how countries are trying to establish an advantageous position in this field. China deserves a special mention because it is already the second largest producer of nanotechnology papers after the United States. The need for nanotechnology in the construction sector is emphasized. An outline of the book is given.

  12. Research trends in nanotechnology studies across geo-economic areas

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the current temporal and spatial research trajectories in nanoscience and nanotechnology studies in order to display the worldwide patterns of research fields across main economic players. The results show the leadership of Europe and North America in nanotechnology research, although the role of China has been growing over time. Current nanotechnology studies have been growing in chemistry and medicine because of applications of nanomaterials mainly in...

  13. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology : an expert stakeholder analysis

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured i...

  14. The National Nanotechnology Initiative: Potential Impact on DoD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-13

    number. 1. REPORT DATE 19 MAR 2007 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The National Nanotechnology Initiative...THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 The National Nanotechnology Initiative: Potential Impact on...that may be technologically exploitable. Why is nanotechnology the current rage? First, beginning in 1980, the discovery and development of

  15. Nanotechnology in agri-food production: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Sekhon BS

    2014-01-01

    Bhupinder Singh SekhonInstitute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, PCTE Group of Institutes, Ludhiana, IndiaAbstract: Nanotechnology is one of the most important tools in modern agriculture, and agri-food nanotechnology is anticipated to become a driving economic force in the near future. Agri-food themes focus on sustainability and protection of agriculturally produced foods, including crops for human consumption and animal feeding. Nanotechnology provides new agrochemical agents and new delivery m...

  16. COMPARISON OF NANOTECHNOLOGY ACCEPTANCE IN TURKEY AND SWITZERLAND

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to replicate the study of Siegrist et al. [2007] and to present a comparison of nanotechnology acceptance in Turkey and Switzerland. The participants in our survey acknowledge the benefits of nanotechnology in achieving a preferred future (significance on the country's economy and on wealth creation, as well as quality of life) while reserving some sceptism on the institutions' responsibility in utilizing nanotechnology in the food domain.The most beneficial applicati...

  17. Applications of electrochemistry and nanotechnology in biology and medicine II

    CERN Document Server

    Eliaz, Noam

    2011-01-01

    The study of electrochemical nanotechnology has emerged as researchers apply electrochemistry to nanoscience and nanotechnology. These two related volumes in the Modern Aspects of Electrochemistry Series review recent developments and breakthroughs in the specific application of electrochemistry and nanotechnology to biology and medicine. Internationally renowned experts contribute chapters that address both fundamental and practical aspects of several key emerging technologies in biomedicine, such as the processing of new biomaterials, biofunctionalization of surfaces, characterization of bio

  18. Advances in nanotechnology for the management of coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, June-Wha; Wu, Joseph C

    2013-02-01

    Nanotechnology holds tremendous potential to advance the current treatment of coronary artery disease. Nanotechnology may assist medical therapies by providing a safe and efficacious delivery platform for a variety of drugs aimed at modulating lipid disorders, decreasing inflammation and angiogenesis within atherosclerotic plaques, and preventing plaque thrombosis. Nanotechnology may improve coronary stent applications by promoting endothelial recovery on a stent surface utilizing bio-mimetic nanofibrous scaffolds, and also by preventing in-stent restenosis using nanoparticle-based delivery of drugs that are decoupled from stents. Additionally, nanotechnology may enhance tissue-engineered graft materials for application in coronary artery bypass grafting by facilitating cellular infiltration and remodeling of a graft matrix.

  19. Inequality gaps in nanotechnology development in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Foladori

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology has been spurred by science, technology and innovation policies in most Latin American countries since the last decade. Public policies and funding have been accompanied by a common rhetoric, highlighting the potential of nanotechnology for increasing competitiveness and growth and providing the region with more efficient and innovative products. Based on an assessment of nanotechnology policies and capabilities in nine countries this article highlights three characteristics of nanotechnology in Latin America that might hinder its contribution to an equitable development within the region. The first characteristic is the conspicuous trend towards an intra-regional gap in capacity building as a result of the unequal historical development of science and technology among these countries and the large differences in equipment and financial resources devoted to nanotechnology.  The second characteristic is the strength of “international signals” vis-à-vis the national needs in the orientation of nanotechnology. On the one hand, nanotechnology is main and foremost oriented to achieve international competitiveness, which may lead its development to international market demands. On the other hand, nanotechnology research in Latin American countries has been configured within internationalized academic networks, which may influence local research agendas towards foreign research priorities. The third characteristic is the absence of research on potential impacts of nanotechnology on human health and the environment, as well as other societal implications, which may generate new forms of unequal distribution of benefits and risks.

  20. The Implementation of Innovation and Resource Allocation with Nanotechnology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    All natural and living systems are governed by atomic and molecular behavior at the nanoscale. Research is now seeking systematic approaches to create revolutionary new products and technologies by control of matter at the same scale.Nanotechnology is expected to have a profound impact on our society.The vision,research and development strategy,and timeline of the nanotechnology initiative are presented by using several recent scientific discoveries, innovations and results from industry. This article demonstrates the implications of innovation for nanotechnology development. To deal with the innovation, a theory of nanotechnology development must come to terms with the developmental, organisational, and strategic dimensions of innovative resource allocation.

  1. EDITORIAL: Ensuring sustainability with green nanotechnology Ensuring sustainability with green nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Stanislaus; Karn, Barbara

    2012-07-01

    Nanotechnology offers immense promise for developing new technologies that are more sustainable than current technologies. All major industrial sectors have felt nanotechnology's impact, mainly from the incorporation of nanomaterials into their products. For example, nanotechnology has improved the design and performance of products in areas as diverse as electronics, medicine and medical devices, food and agriculture, cosmetics, chemicals, materials, coatings, energy, as well as many others. Moreover, the revenues from nanotechnology-enabled products are not trivial. For instance, Lux Research maintains that commercial sales in both Europe and the USA will attain revenues of over 1 trillion from nano-enabled products by 2015. The manufacturing of the nanomaterials for these products uses many processes equivalent to chemical manufacturing processes. As a result, manufacturing nanomaterials can produce either harmful pollutants or adverse environmental impacts similar to those from chemical manufacturing. Unlike the chemical industry, however, those same processes are not ingrained in the manufacturing of nanomaterials, and the opportunity exists at the initial design stage to purposely account for and mitigate out potentially harmful environmental impacts. While prevention has not been a priority in current industries, it can become a main concern for the new and future industries that manufacture nanomaterials on a bulk commercial scale. This is where green nanotechnology comes in. Green nanotechnology involves deliberate efforts aimed at developing meaningful and reasonable protocols for generating products and their associated production processes in a benign fashion. The goal is a conscious minimization of risks associated with the products of nanoscience. The green products of nanotechnology are those that are used in either direct or indirect environmental applications. Direct environmental applications provide benefits such as monitoring using nano

  2. Differences between Expected Answers and the Answers Given by Computer Algebra Systems to School Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonisson, Eno

    2015-01-01

    Sometimes Computer Algebra Systems (CAS) offer an answer that is somewhat different from the answer that is probably expected by the student or teacher. These (somewhat unexpected) answers could serve as a catalyst for rich mathematical discussion. In this study, over 120 equations from school mathematics were solved using 8 different CAS. Many…

  3. 76 FR 62469 - National Science and Technology Council, Committee on Technology; 2011 National Nanotechnology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... Nanotechnology Initiative Environmental, Health, and Safety Strategy Webinar ACTION: Notice of webinar. SUMMARY: The National Nanotechnology Coordination Office (NNCO), on behalf of the Nanoscale Science...-7128, National Nanotechnology Coordination Office. E-mail: webinar@nnco.nano.gov . Ted Wackler,...

  4. Regenerative nanotechnology in oral and maxillofacial surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakib, Kaveh; Tan, Aaron; Soskic, Vukic; Seifalian, Alexander M

    2014-12-01

    Regenerative nanotechnology is at the forefront of medical research, and translational medicine is a challenge to both scientists and clinicians. Although there has been an exponential rise in the volume of research generated about it for both medical and surgical uses, key questions remain about its actual benefits. Nevertheless, some people think that therapeutics based on its principles may form the core of applied research for the future. Here we give an account of its current use in oral and maxillofacial surgery, and implications and challenges for the future.

  5. RNA self-assembly and RNA nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabow, Wade W; Jaeger, Luc

    2014-06-17

    CONSPECTUS: Nanotechnology's central goal involves the direct control of matter at the molecular nanometer scale to build nanofactories, nanomachines, and other devices for potential applications including electronics, alternative fuels, and medicine. In this regard, the nascent use of nucleic acids as a material to coordinate the precise arrangements of specific molecules marked an important milestone in the relatively recent history of nanotechnology. While DNA served as the pioneer building material in nucleic acid nanotechnology, RNA continues to emerge as viable alternative material with its own distinct advantages for nanoconstruction. Several complementary assembly strategies have been used to build a diverse set of RNA nanostructures having unique structural attributes and the ability to self-assemble in a highly programmable and controlled manner. Of the different strategies, the architectonics approach uniquely endeavors to understand integrated structural RNA architectures through the arrangement of their characteristic structural building blocks. Viewed through this lens, it becomes apparent that nature routinely uses thermodynamically stable, recurrent modular motifs from natural RNA molecules to generate unique and more complex programmable structures. With the design principles found in natural structures, a number of synthetic RNAs have been constructed. The synthetic nanostructures constructed to date have provided, in addition to affording essential insights into RNA design, important platforms to characterize and validate the structural self-folding and assembly properties of RNA modules or building blocks. Furthermore, RNA nanoparticles have shown great promise for applications in nanomedicine and RNA-based therapeutics. Nevertheless, the synthetic RNA architectures achieved thus far consist largely of static, rigid particles that are still far from matching the structural and functional complexity of natural responsive structural elements such

  6. Nanosciences and nanotechnology evolution or revolution?

    CERN Document Server

    Lahmani, Marcel; Dupas-Haeberlin, Claire; Hesto, Patrice

    2016-01-01

    This book provides information to the state of art of research in nanotechnology and nano medicine and risks of nano technology. It covers an interdisciplinary and very wide scope of the latest fundamental research status and industrial applications of nano technologies ranging from nano physics, nano chemistry to biotechnology and toxicology. It provides information to last legislation of nano usage and potential social impact too. The book contains also a reference list of major European research centers and associated universities offering licences and master of nano matter. For clarity and attractivity, the book has many illustrations and specific inserts to complete the understanding of the scientific texts.

  7. Micro and Nanotechnologies Enhanced Biomolecular Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tza-Huei Wang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This editorial summarizes some of the recent advances of micro and nanotechnology-based tools and devices for biomolecular detection. These include the incorporation of nanomaterials into a sensor surface or directly interfacing with molecular probes to enhance target detection via more rapid and sensitive responses, and the use of self-assembled organic/inorganic nanocomposites that inhibit exceptional spectroscopic properties to enable facile homogenous assays with efficient binding kinetics. Discussions also include some insight into microfluidic principles behind the development of an integrated sample preparation and biosensor platform toward a miniaturized and fully functional system for point of care applications.

  8. Nanotechnologies in Cuba: Popularization and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Castellanos, Carlos

    In Cuba, as in other countries, activities in the field of nanotechnology emerged from the converging development of research in materials physics and chemistry, microelectronics, supramolecular physics, microbiology and molecular biology. During the 1990s, theoretical and experimental work on semiconductor nanostructures gained in importance. Cuban physicists organized the Red CYTED (Network CYTED) to "study fabrication and characterization of semiconductor nanostructures for micro and optoelectronics" which functioned between 1998 and 2003 with the participation of eight Spanish-American countries. The network organized various courses and scientific meetings, edited a book and supported the scientific collaboration among the participant institutions.

  9. Soft matter nanotechnology from structure to function

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    Using the well-honed tools of nanotechnology, this book presents breakthrough results in soft matter research, benefitting from the synergies between the chemistry, physics, biology, materials science, and engineering communities. The team of international authors delves beyond mere structure-making and places the emphasis firmly on imparting functionality to soft nanomaterials with a focus on devices and applications. Alongside reviewing the current level of knowledge, they also put forward novel ideas to foster research and development in such expanding fields as nanobiotechnology and nanom

  10. Green nanotechnology of trends in future energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kelvii Wei

    2011-06-01

    It is well known that current fossil fuel usage is unsustainable and associated with greenhouse gas production. The amount of the world's primary energy supply provided by renewable energy technologies is required urgently. Therefore, the relevant technologies such as hydrogen fuel, solar cell, biotechnology based on nanotechnology and the relevant patents for exploiting the future energy for the friendly environment are reviewed. At the same time, it is pointed out that the significantly feasible world's eco-energy for the foreseeable future should not only be realized, but also methods for using the current energy and their by-products more efficiently should be found correspondingly to ensure the minimal environmental impact.

  11. Extracting Answer in QA System: Learning Based

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha Mishra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Converting questions to effective queries is crucial to open-domain question answering systems. In this paper, we present a web-based unsupervised learning approach for transforming a given natural-language question to an effective query. The method involves querying a search engine for web passages that contain the answer to the question, extracting patterns that characterize fine-grained classification for answers. Independent evaluation on a set of questions shows that the proposed approach outperforms a naive keyword based approach.

  12. Mobile Information Access with Spoken Query Answering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndsted, Tom; Larsen, Henrik Legind; Larsen, Lars Bo

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of information and service accessibility in mobile devices with limited resources. A solution is developed and tested through a prototype that applies state-of-the-art Distributed Speech Recognition (DSR) and knowledge-based Information Retrieval (IR) processing...... window focused over the part which most likely contains an answer to the query. The two systems are integrated into a full spoken query answering system. The prototype can answer queries and questions within the chosen football (soccer) test domain, but the system has the flexibility for being ported...

  13. Mathematics for common entrance three (extension) answers

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Serena

    2015-01-01

    This book contains answers to all exercises featured in the accompanying textbook Mathematics for Common Entrance Three (Extension) , which provides essential preparation for Level 3 of the ISEB 13+ Mathematics exam, as well as for CASE and other scholarship exams. - Clean, clear layout for easy marking. - Includes examples of high-scoring answers with diagrams and workings. Also available to purchase from the Galore Park website www.galorepark.co.uk :. - Mathematics for Common Entrance Three (Extension). - Mathematics for Common Entrance One. - Mathematics for Common Entrance One Answers. - M

  14. QUESTION ANSWERING SYSTEM DAN PENERAPANNYA PADA ALKITAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunawan Gunawan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Question answering system is a system that allows user to state his or her information need in the form of natural language question, and return short text excerpts or even phrases as an answer. The availability of a wide and various information source and improvements in the techniques of natural language processing, information extraction (wrapper, and information retrieval give a big effect on the development of question answering system, from just answering questions in a specific domain by consulting to structured information source such as database, and like in this research, answering any questions based on information stored in an unstructured text collection. A general architecture of question answering system based on text consists of six processing stages, i.e. question analysis, document collection preprocessing, candidate document selection, candidate document analysis, answer extraction, and response generation. Application of question answering system like AnswerBus, Mulder, and Webclopedia that are developed with its own characteristics has similar processing steps as in the general architecture. Answers returned by a question answering system need to be evaluated for performance measure. This research completed with a simple question answering system application using english Bible in World English Bible (WEB version as the source of information to answer some questions. Because specific domain is selected: Bible, questions that can be posed by user could ask about information in the Bible itself only. Question is also limited to three types of answers that can be supported by the application: person (who, location (where, and date (when. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Question answering system (QA system adalah sistem yang mengijinkan user menyatakan kebutuhan informasinya dalam bentuk natural language question (pertanyaan dalam bahasa alami, dan mengembalikan kutipan teks singkat atau bahkan frase sebagai jawaban. Ketersediaan

  15. Nanotechnology Awareness, Opinions and Risk Perceptions among Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Nurettin; Ekli, Emel

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates awareness, factual knowledge, opinions, and risk perceptions of students from Turkish middle schools with regard to nanotechnology in a very general sense. The study was carried out among 1,396 middle school 6th, 7th, and 8th grade students. The students' perceptions of and opinions about nanotechnology were elicited…

  16. Nanotechnology Awareness, Opinions and Risk Perceptions among Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Nurettin; Ekli, Emel

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates awareness, factual knowledge, opinions, and risk perceptions of students from Turkish middle schools with regard to nanotechnology in a very general sense. The study was carried out among 1,396 middle school 6th, 7th, and 8th grade students. The students' perceptions of and opinions about nanotechnology were…

  17. Review of decision analytic tools for sustainable nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subramanian, V.; Semenzin, E.; Hristozov, D.; Zondervan-van den Beuken, E.; Linkov, I.; Marcomini, A.

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology innovation is hampered by data gaps and knowledge limitations in evaluating the risks and impacts of nano-enabled products. ‘‘Sustainable nanotechnology’’ is a growing concept in the literature, which calls for a comprehensive evaluation of the risks and impacts of nanotechnology at a

  18. An Undergraduate Nanotechnology Engineering Laboratory Course on Atomic Force Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, D.; Fagan, R. D.; Hesjedal, T.

    2011-01-01

    The University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada, is home to North America's first undergraduate program in nanotechnology. As part of the Nanotechnology Engineering degree program, a scanning probe microscopy (SPM)-based laboratory has been developed for students in their fourth year. The one-term laboratory course "Nanoprobing and…

  19. Biotechnology, nanotechnology, and pharmacogenomics and pharmaceutical compounding, Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Loyd V

    2015-01-01

    The world of pharmaceuticals is changing rapidly as biotechnology continues to grow and nanotechnology appears on the horizon. Biotechnology is gaining in importance in extemporaneous pharmaceutical compounding, and nanotechnology and pharmacogenomics could drastically change the practice of pharmacy. This article discusses biotechnology and the factors to consider when compounding biotechnology drugs.

  20. Micro and nanotechnological tools for study of RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, Satoko

    2012-07-01

    Micro and nanotechnologies have originally contributed to engineering, especially in electronics. These technologies enable fabrication and assembly of materials at micrometer and nanometer scales and the manipulation of nano-objects. The power of these technologies has now been exploited in analyzes of biologically relevant molecules. In this review, the use of micro and nanotechnological tools in RNA research is described.

  1. Consumer attitudes towards nanotechnologies applied to food production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.; Gupta, N.; George, S.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Giles, E.L.; Coles, D.G.

    2014-01-01

    The literature on public perceptions of, and attitudes towards, nanotechnology used in the agrifood sector is reviewed. Research into consumer perceptions and attitudes has focused on general applications of nanotechnology, rather than within the agrifood sector. Perceptions of risk and benefit asso

  2. Nanotechnologies, engineered nanomaterials and occupational health and safety - A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savolainen, K.; Pylkkänen, L.; Norppa, H.; Falck, G.; Lindberg, H.; Tuomi, T.; Vippola, M.; Alenius, H.; Hämeri, K.; Koivisto, J.; Brouwer, D.; Mark, D.; Bard, D.; Berges, M.; Jankowska, E.; Posniak, M.; Farmer, P.; Singh, R.; Krombach, F.; Bihari, P.; Kasper, G.; Seipenbusch, M.

    2010-01-01

    The significance of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) and nanotechnologies grows rapidly. Nanotechnology applications may have a positive marked impact on many aspects of on human every day life, for example by providing means for the production of clean energy and pure drinking water. Hundreds of cons

  3. Standardisation in the field of nanotechnology: some issues of legitimacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Ellen-Marie

    2012-12-01

    Nanotechnology will allegedly have a revolutionary impact in a wide range of fields, but has also created novel concerns about health, safety and the environment (HSE). Nanotechnology regulation has nevertheless lagged behind nanotechnology development. In 2004 the International Organization for Standardization established a technical committee for producing nanotechnology standards for terminology, measurements, HSE issues and product specifications. These standards are meant to play a role in nanotechnology development, as well as in national and international nanotechnology regulation, and will therefore have consequences for consumers, workers and the environment. This paper gives an overview of the work in the technical committee on nanotechnology and discusses some challenges with regard to legitimacy in such work. The paper focuses particularly on stakeholder involvement and the potential problems of scientific robustness when standardising in such early stages of the scientific development. The intention of the paper is to raise some important issues rather than to draw strong conclusions. However, the paper will be concluded with some suggestions for improving legitimacy in the TC 229 and a call for increased public awareness about standardisation in the field of nanotechnology.

  4. Examining the Societal Impacts of Nanotechnology through Simulation: NANO SCENARIO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarmon, Leslie; Keating, Elizabeth; Toprac, Paul

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a university-sponsored experiential-based simulation, the NANO SCENARIO, to increase the public's awareness and affect attitudes on the societal implications of nanoscience and nanotechnology by bringing together diverse stakeholders' perspectives in a participatory learning environment. Nanotechnology has the potential for…

  5. Business Strategy for Nanotechnology based Products and Services

    OpenAIRE

    Aithal, Sreeramana; Aithal, Shubhrajyotsna

    2016-01-01

    The applications of nanotechnology in different identified areas provide lots of business opportunities. It includes Food, Medicine, Cleaner water, Better quality air, Electronics, Fuel Cells, Solar Cells, Batteries, Space Travels, Chemical sensors, Sporting goods, Fabrics, Cleaning products, Energy, Environment, Health, and Life span increase. The paper covers the applications, and benefits of nanotechnology innovations in different industries, possible business opportunities for new nanotec...

  6. Balanced Depth and Breadth in a New Interdisciplinary Nanotechnology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Lihong; Barakat, Nael

    2012-01-01

    The field of nanotechnology has outgrown the discovery phase into the application and even commercial production phases. Consequently, the need for a workforce capable of supporting this growth is more than ever. However, because of the different challenges associated with nanotechnology education, specific courses are required to be developed and…

  7. An Undergraduate Nanotechnology Engineering Laboratory Course on Atomic Force Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, D.; Fagan, R. D.; Hesjedal, T.

    2011-01-01

    The University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada, is home to North America's first undergraduate program in nanotechnology. As part of the Nanotechnology Engineering degree program, a scanning probe microscopy (SPM)-based laboratory has been developed for students in their fourth year. The one-term laboratory course "Nanoprobing and Lithography"…

  8. Perceptions and attitude effects on nanotechnology acceptance: an exploratory framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh Pillai, Rajani; Bezbaruah, Achintya N.

    2017-02-01

    Existing literature in people's attitude toward nanotechnology and acceptance of nanotechnology applications has generally investigated the impact of factors at the individual or context levels. While this vast body of research is very informative, a comprehensive understanding of how attitude toward nanotechnology are formed and factors influencing the acceptance of nanotechnology are elusive. This paper proposes an exploratory nanotechnology perception-attitude-acceptance framework (Nano-PAAF) to build a systematic understanding of the phenomenon. The framework proposes that perceptions of risks and benefits of nanotechnology are influenced by cognitive, affective, and sociocultural factors. The sociodemographic factors of consumers and contextual factors mitigate the influence of cognitive, affective, and sociocultural factors on the perception of risks and benefits. The perceived risks and benefits in turn influence people's attitude toward nanotechnology, which then influences acceptance of nanotechnology products. This framework will need further development over time to incorporate emerging knowledge and is expected to be useful for researchers, decision and policy makers, industry, and business entities.

  9. A Study of Engineering Freshmen Regarding Nanotechnology Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted under the grand scheme of nanotechnology education and was focused on examining the nanotechnology readiness of first-year engineering students. The study found that most students learned the term "nano" from popular science magazines or as a measurement unit; less than 5% of the students learned "nano" through…

  10. Nanotechnology in Mexico: Key Findings Based on OECD Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foladori, Guillermo; Arteaga Figueroa, Edgar; Záyago Lau, Edgar; Appelbaum, Richard; Robles-Belmont, Eduardo; Villa, Liliana; Parker, Rachel; Leos, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    This analysis of Mexico's nanotechnology policies utilizes indicators developed by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, which in 2008 conducted a pilot survey comparing the nanotechnology policies of 24 countries. In this paper, we apply the same questionnaire to the Mexican case, adding business information derived from the…

  11. An Epistemological Framework for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yawson, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    The need for a new literacy that will allow for meaningful participation in the rapidly evolving field of nanotechnology is very critical to national development. This need is important for nanotechnology to achieve its full potential. This paper describes and analyzes some contemporary philosophical interpretations of the concept of technological…

  12. Symmetry Breaking for Answer Set Programming

    CERN Document Server

    Drescher, Christian

    2010-01-01

    In the context of answer set programming, this work investigates symmetry detection and symmetry breaking to eliminate symmetric parts of the search space and, thereby, simplify the solution process. We contribute a reduction of symmetry detection to a graph automorphism problem which allows to extract symmetries of a logic program from the symmetries of the constructed coloured graph. We also propose an encoding of symmetry-breaking constraints in terms of permutation cycles and use only generators in this process which implicitly represent symmetries and always with exponential compression. These ideas are formulated as preprocessing and implemented in a completely automated flow that first detects symmetries from a given answer set program, adds symmetry-breaking constraints, and can be applied to any existing answer set solver. We demonstrate computational impact on benchmarks versus direct application of the solver. Furthermore, we explore symmetry breaking for answer set programming in two domains: firs...

  13. One Answer to "What Is Calculus?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilgalis, Thomas W.

    1979-01-01

    A number of questions are posed that can be answered with the aid of calculus. These include best value problems, best shape problems, problems involving integration, and growth and decay problems. (MP)

  14. Problems and Answers in Wave Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Ryabukho, Vladimir P

    2011-01-01

    Looking for a deeper understanding of electromagnetic wave propagation? Need a resource of practice problems to hone your skills? With 272 selected problems and answers, this study aid is a powerful supplement to the study of wave optics. This question-and-answer collection covers the basics of wave propagation, reflection, refraction, anisotropic media, interference, diffraction, and coherence, written by a mentor with decades of experience instructing students.

  15. Open-ended visual question answering

    OpenAIRE

    Masuda Mora, Issey

    2016-01-01

    Wearable cameras generate a large amount of photos which are, in many cases, useless or redundant. On the other hand, these devices are provide an excellent opportunity to create automatic questions and answers for reminiscence therapy. This is a follow up of the BSc thesis developed by Ricard Mestre during Fall 2014, and MSc thesis developed by Aniol Lidon. This thesis studies methods to solve Visual Question-Answering (VQA) tasks with a Deep Learning framework. As a preliminary step, we ...

  16. Nanotechnology Infrared Optics for Astronomy Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Howard A.; Frogel, Jay (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The program "Nanotechnology Infrared Optics for Astronomy Missions" will design and develop new, nanotechnology techniques for infrared optical devices suitable for use in NASA space missions. The proposal combines expertise from the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, the Naval Research Laboratory, the Goddard Space Flight Center, and the Physics Department at the Queen Mary and Westfield College in London, now relocated to the University of Cardiff, Cardiff, Wales. The method uses individually tailored metal grids and layered stacks of metal mesh grids, both inductive (freestanding) and capacitive (substrate-mounted), to produce various kinds of filters. The program has the following goals: 1) Model FIR filter properties using electric-circuit analogs and near-field, EM diffraction calculations. 2) Prototype fabrication of meshes on various substrates, with various materials, and of various dimensions. 3) Test filter prototypes and iterate with the modeling programs. 4) Travel to related sites, including trips to Washington, D.C. (location of NRL and GSFC), London (location of QMW), Cardiff, Wales, and Rome (location of ISO PMS project headquarters). 5) Produce ancillary science, including both publication of testing on mesh performance and infrared astronomical science.

  17. Trust as Glue in Nanotechnology Governance Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Am, Heidrun

    2011-04-01

    This paper reflects on the change of relations among participants in nanotechnology governance through their participation in governance processes such as stakeholder dialogues. I show that policymaking in practice-that is, the practice of coming and working together in such stakeholder dialogues-has the potential for two-fold performative effects: it can contribute to the development of trust and mutual responsibility on the part of the involved actors, and it may bring about effects on the formation of boundaries of what is sayable and thinkable in nanotechnology governance. Three vignettes about the work of the German NanoKommission indicate the development of new relations of trust, recognition and mutual responsibility among actors. It is concluded that governance in practice can assemble new collectives in which relations of trust are the glue holding the complex structure together. While such a consensus-based progress may be favourable for smooth technology development, it can be considered problematic if evaluated against the ideals of deliberative democracy, which often form the premises on which public engagement is based. Stakeholder forums were set in place with the intention of including various actors, but this is Janus-faced: if a dialogue becomes encapsulated in new governance networks, new exclusions can arise. For example, a policing of which information is released to a wider audience can occur.

  18. Entanglement of Imaging and Imagining of Nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruivenkamp, Martin; Rip, Arie

    2011-08-01

    Images, ranging from visualizations of the nanoscale to future visions, abound within and beyond the world of nanotechnology. Rather than the contrast between imaging, i.e. creating images that are understood as offering a view on what is out there, and imagining, i.e. creating images offering impressions of how the nanoscale could look like and images presenting visions of worlds that might be realized, it is the entanglement between imaging and imagining which is the key to understanding what images do. Three main arenas of entanglement of imag(in)ing and the tensions involved are discussed: production practices and use of visualizations of the nanoscale; imag(in)ing the future and the present; and entanglements of nanoscience and art. In these three arenas one sees struggles about which images might stand for nanotechnology, but also some stabilization of the entanglement of imag(in)ing, for example in established rules in the practices of visualizing the nanoscale. Three images have become iconic, through the combination of their wide reception and further circulation. All three, the IBM logo, the Foresight Institute's Nanogear image, and the so-called Nanolouse, depict actual or imagined technoscientific objects and are thus seen as representing technoscientific achievements - while marking out territory.

  19. Nanotechnology: A new era for photodetection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosio, M.; Ambrosio, A.; Ambrosone, G.; Campajola, L.; Cantele, G.; Carillo, V.; Coscia, U.; Iadonisi, G.; Ninno, D.; Maddalena, P.; Perillo, E.; Raulo, A.; Russo, P.; Trani, F.; Esposito, E.; Grossi, V.; Passacantando, M.; Santucci, S.; Allegrini, M.; Gucciardi, P. G.; Patanè, S.; Bobba, F.; Di Bartolomeo, A.; Giubileo, F.; Iemmo, L.; Scarfato, A.; Cucolo, A. M.

    2009-10-01

    Nowadays we live in the so-called "Silicon Era", in which devices based on the silicon technology permeate all aspects of our daily life. One can simply think how much silicon is in the everyday household objects, gadgets and appliances. The impact of silicon technology has been very relevant in photodetection as well. It enables designing large or very large-scale integration devices, in particular microchips and pixelled detectors like the Silicon Photo Multiplier made of micrometric channels grouped in mm 2 pixels. However, on the horizon, the recent development of nanotechnologies is opening a new direction in the design of sub-micron photodevices, owing to the capability to deal with individual molecules of compounds or to chemically grow various kinds of materials. Among them, carbon compounds appear to be the most promising materials being chemically very similar to silicon, abundant and easy to handle. In particular, carbon nanotubes (CNT) are a very intriguing new form of material, whose properties are being studied worldwide providing important results. The photoelectric effects observed on carbon nanotubes indicate the possibility to build photodetectors based on CNTs inducing many people to claim that we are at the beginning of a Post Silicon Era or of the Carbon Era. In this paper, we report on the most important achievements obtained on the application of nanotechnologies to photodetection and medical imaging, as well as to the development of radiation detectors for astro-particle physics experiments.

  20. Antimicrobial applications of nanotechnology: methods and literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seil JT

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Justin T Seil, Thomas J WebsterLaboratory for Nanomedicine Research, School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI, USAAbstract: The need for novel antibiotics comes from the relatively high incidence of bacterial infection and the growing resistance of bacteria to conventional antibiotics. Consequently, new methods for reducing bacteria activity (and associated infections are badly needed. Nanotechnology, the use of materials with dimensions on the atomic or molecular scale, has become increasingly utilized for medical applications and is of great interest as an approach to killing or reducing the activity of numerous microorganisms. While some natural antibacterial materials, such as zinc and silver, possess greater antibacterial properties as particle size is reduced into the nanometer regime (due to the increased surface to volume ratio of a given mass of particles, the physical structure of a nanoparticle itself and the way in which it interacts with and penetrates into bacteria appears to also provide unique bactericidal mechanisms. A variety of techniques to evaluate bacteria viability, each with unique advantages and disadvantages, has been established and must be understood in order to determine the effectiveness of nanoparticles (diameter ≤100 nm as antimicrobial agents. In addition to addressing those techniques, a review of select literature and a summary of bacteriostatic and bactericidal mechanisms are covered in this manuscript.Keywords: nanomaterial, nanoparticle, nanotechnology, bacteria, antibacterial, biofilm

  1. Nanotechnology for treating osteoporotic vertebral fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao C

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chunxia Gao,1,* Donglei Wei,1,* Huilin Yang,1 Tao Chen,2 Lei Yang1,3 1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Orthopaedic Institute, First Affiliated Hospital, 2Robotics and Microsystems Center, Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou, 3Laboratory of Nonlinear Mechanics, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Osteoporosis is a serious public health problem affecting hundreds of millions of aged people worldwide, with severe consequences including vertebral fractures that are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. To augment or treat osteoporotic vertebral fractures, a number of surgical approaches including minimally invasive vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty have been developed. However, these approaches face problems and difficulties with efficacy and long-term stability. Recent advances and progress in nanotechnology are opening up new opportunities to improve the surgical procedures for treating osteoporotic vertebral fractures. This article reviews the improvements enabled by new nanomaterials and focuses on new injectable biomaterials like bone cements and surgical instruments for treating vertebral fractures. This article also provides an introduction to osteoporotic vertebral fractures and current clinical treatments, along with the rationale and efficacy of utilizing nanomaterials to modify and improve biomaterials or instruments. In addition, perspectives on future trends with injectable bone cements and surgical instruments enhanced by nanotechnology are provided. Keywords: nanomaterials, osteoporosis, vertebral fracture, kyphoplasty, bone cement, pedicle screw, radiopacifier

  2. A Nanotechnology Enhancement to Moore's Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intel Moore observed an exponential doubling in the number of transistors in every 18 months through the size reduction of transistor components since 1965. In viewing of mobile computing with insatiate appetite, we explored the necessary enhancement by an increasingly maturing nanotechnology and facing the inevitable quantum-mechanical atomic and nuclei limits. Since we cannot break down the atomic size barrier, the fact implies a fundamental size limit at the atomic/nucleus scale. This means, no more simple 18-month doubling, but other forms of transistor doubling may happen at a different slope. We are particularly interested in the nano enhancement area. (i 3 Dimensions: If the progress in shrinking the in-plane dimensions is to slow down, vertical integration can help increasing the areal device transistor density. As the devices continue to shrink into the 20 to 30 nm range, the consideration of thermal properties and transport in such devices becomes increasingly important. (ii Quantum computing: The other types of transistor material are rapidly developed in laboratories worldwide, for example, Spintronics, Nanostorage, HP display Nanotechnology, which are modifying this Law. We shall consider the limitation of phonon engineering fundamental information unit “Qubyte” in quantum computing, Nano/Micro Electrical Mechanical System (NEMS, Carbon Nanotubes, single-layer Graphenes, single-strip Nano-Ribbons, and so forth.

  3. Application of Nanotechnology in Civil Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Sabihuddin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, use of nanotechnology in building materials on behalf of a range of civil engineering mechanism is discussed. In view of the fact that the use of nanotechnology controls the topic at the minute level, the properties of matter are sincerely affected. Strength, durability and other properties of materials are dramatically affected under a scale of nano meter(10-9m.This article as well reveals how the use of nano technology makes concrete more stronger, durable and more easily placed. Different types of nano materials used are discussed with its wide applications. The properties like self-sensing, self- rehabilitation, self-structural health monitoring, self-vibration damping, self-cleaning and self-healing are studied. Following this the analysis were carried out in ductile structural composites along with its improved properties, low repairs coatings, better properties of cementitious materials, reduction of the thermal transfer rate of fire retardant and insulation, various nanosensors, smart materials, intellectual construction technology.

  4. Nanotechnology: A new era for photodetection?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosio, M. [INFN Sezione di Napoli, Via Cintia 2, 80125 Napoli (Italy)], E-mail: ambrosio@na.infn.it; Ambrosio, A.; Ambrosone, G.; Campajola, L.; Cantele, G.; Carillo, V.; Coscia, U.; Iadonisi, G.; Ninno, D.; Maddalena, P.; Perillo, E.; Raulo, A.; Russo, P.; Trani, F. [INFN Sezione di Napoli, Via Cintia 2, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita ' Federico II' di Napoli (Italy); Esposito, E. [INFN Sezione di Napoli, Via Cintia 2, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' (Italy); Grossi, V.; Passacantando, M.; Santucci, S. [INFN Sezione di Napoli, Via Cintia 2, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita dell' Aquila (Italy); Allegrini, M. [INFN Sezione di Napoli, Via Cintia 2, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universia di Pisa (Italy); Gucciardi, P.G. [INFN Sezione di Napoli, Via Cintia 2, 80125 Napoli (Italy); CNR-IPCF Sezione di Messina (Italy)] (and others)

    2009-10-21

    Nowadays we live in the so-called 'Silicon Era', in which devices based on the silicon technology permeate all aspects of our daily life. One can simply think how much silicon is in the everyday household objects, gadgets and appliances. The impact of silicon technology has been very relevant in photodetection as well. It enables designing large or very large-scale integration devices, in particular microchips and pixelled detectors like the Silicon Photo Multiplier made of micrometric channels grouped in mm{sup 2} pixels. However, on the horizon, the recent development of nanotechnologies is opening a new direction in the design of sub-micron photodevices, owing to the capability to deal with individual molecules of compounds or to chemically grow various kinds of materials. Among them, carbon compounds appear to be the most promising materials being chemically very similar to silicon, abundant and easy to handle. In particular, carbon nanotubes (CNT) are a very intriguing new form of material, whose properties are being studied worldwide providing important results. The photoelectric effects observed on carbon nanotubes indicate the possibility to build photodetectors based on CNTs inducing many people to claim that we are at the beginning of a Post Silicon Era or of the Carbon Era. In this paper, we report on the most important achievements obtained on the application of nanotechnologies to photodetection and medical imaging, as well as to the development of radiation detectors for astro-particle physics experiments.

  5. Achievements and perspectives of nanotechnology in stomatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás de la Paz Suárez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of nanotechnologies has begun a new period, mainly in scientific investigations. It is reflected in the specialty of stomatology giving place to the emergence of a specific area of knowledge, which has putting forward a new term: nanodentistry. Because of its importance, a bibliographical review was carried out using the services available in Infomed and the specialized databases: Scielo, Mediclatina, Medline and PubMed were reviewed with the objective of updating the information about the advances obtained and the investigations that are developed about the use of nanotechnologies in dentistry. Its use is extended to all the specialties, mainly to the dental operations with the creation of dental materials with nanoparticles increasing the resistance, quality and aesthetics of restorations, as well as the implants with bio-compatible materials that favor the self-repair, avoiding the rejection. These advances revolutionize the way of diagnosing and treating the different buccal diseases and improving the life quality of the population.

  6. Nanomedicine and cancer therapies

    CERN Document Server

    Sebastian, Mathew; Elias, Eldho

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Nanotechnological-Based Systems for CancerIn vivo Spectroscopy for Detection and Treatment of GBM with NPt® ImplantationNanobiotechnology for Antibacterial Therapy and DiagnosisChitosan NanoparticlesSynthesis and Biomedical Application of Silver NanoparticlesRecent Advances in Cancer Therapy Using PhytochemicalsMitochondrial Dysfunction and Cancer: Modulation by Palladium-Lipoic Acid ComplexUnity of Mind and Body: The Concept of Life Purpose DominantThuja Occidentalis and Breast Cancer ChemopreventionAntioxidants and Com

  7. Nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics in plastic surgery: The next frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Aaron; Chawla, Reema; G, Natasha; Mahdibeiraghdar, Sara; Jeyaraj, Rebecca; Rajadas, Jayakumar; Hamblin, Michael R; Seifalian, Alexander M

    2016-01-01

    The rapid ascent of nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics as applied to medicine and surgery has seen an exponential rise in the scale of research generated in this field. This is evidenced not only by the sheer volume of papers dedicated to nanotechnology but also in a large number of new journals dedicated to nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics specifically to medicine and surgery. Aspects of nanotechnology that have already brought benefits to these areas include advanced drug delivery platforms, molecular imaging and materials engineering for surgical implants. Particular areas of interest include nerve regeneration, burns and wound care, artificial skin with nanoelectronic sensors and head and neck surgery. This study presents a review of nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics, with focus on its applications and implications in plastic surgery.

  8. Nanotechnology development in Denmark - Environmental opportunities and risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M.M.; Rasmussen, B.

    2006-01-01

    The present report represents the nanostudy part of a larger study entitled “Green Technology Foresight about Environmentally Friendly Products and Materials – Challenges from Nanotechnology, Biotechnology and ICT” (Jørgensen et al. 2006). The study wasmade for the Danish Environmental Protection...... (forthcoming in summer 2006). The analysis focuses not only on the environmental impact but even more on the dynamics involved in nanotechnology development ofwhich we currently know very little. Applying an innovation economic perspective focus is placed on analysing the direction of the nano search...... and technology development processes and how environmental issues enter into these. Hereby, the futuretrajectories of nanotechnology development is sought captured, indicating likely long-term perspectives of the Danish nanotechnology development. The content of the report is as follows: What is nanotechnology...

  9. Nanotechnology and its relationship to interventional radiology. Part I: imaging.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Power, Sarah

    2012-02-01

    Nanotechnology refers to the design, creation, and manipulation of structures on the nanometer scale. Interventional radiology stands to benefit greatly from advances in nanotechnology because much of the ongoing research is focused toward novel methods of imaging and delivery of therapy through minimally invasive means. Through the development of new techniques and therapies, nanotechnology has the potential to broaden the horizon of interventional radiology and ensure its continued success. This two-part review is intended to acquaint the interventionalist with the field of nanotechnology, and provide an overview of potential applications, while highlighting advances relevant to interventional radiology. Part I of the article deals with an introduction to some of the basic concepts of nanotechnology and outlines some of the potential imaging applications, concentrating mainly on advances in oncological and vascular imaging.

  10. Unique benefits of nanotechnology to drug delivery and diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Scott E

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology offers many potential benefits to medical research by making pharmaceuticals more efficacious and by decreasing their adverse side-effects. Preclinical characterization of nanoparticles intended for medical applications is complicated--due to the variety of materials used, their unique surface properties and multifunctional nature. This chapter serves as an introduction to the volume, giving a broad overview of applications of nanotechnology to medicine, and describes some of the beneficial aspects of nanotechnology-based drug delivery. We define nanotechnology and provide brief descriptions of the major classes of nanomaterials used for medical applications. The following two chapters discuss scientific and regulatory hurdles involved in the use of nanotechnology in medicine. The remaining bulk of the volume provides the reader with protocols that have been tested against clinically relevant nanoparticles and describes some of the nuances of nanoparticle types and necessary controls.

  11. Nanotechnology and its relationship to interventional radiology. Part I: imaging.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Power, Sarah

    2011-04-01

    Nanotechnology refers to the design, creation, and manipulation of structures on the nanometer scale. Interventional radiology stands to benefit greatly from advances in nanotechnology because much of the ongoing research is focused toward novel methods of imaging and delivery of therapy through minimally invasive means. Through the development of new techniques and therapies, nanotechnology has the potential to broaden the horizon of interventional radiology and ensure its continued success. This two-part review is intended to acquaint the interventionalist with the field of nanotechnology, and provide an overview of potential applications, while highlighting advances relevant to interventional radiology. Part I of the article deals with an introduction to some of the basic concepts of nanotechnology and outlines some of the potential imaging applications, concentrating mainly on advances in oncological and vascular imaging.

  12. Post-genomics nanotechnology is gaining momentum: nanoproteomics and applications in life sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobeissy, Firas H; Gulbakan, Basri; Alawieh, Ali; Karam, Pierre; Zhang, Zhiqun; Guingab-Cagmat, Joy D; Mondello, Stefania; Tan, Weihong; Anagli, John; Wang, Kevin

    2014-02-01

    The post-genomics era has brought about new Omics biotechnologies, such as proteomics and metabolomics, as well as their novel applications to personal genomics and the quantified self. These advances are now also catalyzing other and newer post-genomics innovations, leading to convergences between Omics and nanotechnology. In this work, we systematically contextualize and exemplify an emerging strand of post-genomics life sciences, namely, nanoproteomics and its applications in health and integrative biological systems. Nanotechnology has been utilized as a complementary component to revolutionize proteomics through different kinds of nanotechnology applications, including nanoporous structures, functionalized nanoparticles, quantum dots, and polymeric nanostructures. Those applications, though still in their infancy, have led to several highly sensitive diagnostics and new methods of drug delivery and targeted therapy for clinical use. The present article differs from previous analyses of nanoproteomics in that it offers an in-depth and comparative evaluation of the attendant biotechnology portfolio and their applications as seen through the lens of post-genomics life sciences and biomedicine. These include: (1) immunosensors for inflammatory, pathogenic, and autoimmune markers for infectious and autoimmune diseases, (2) amplified immunoassays for detection of cancer biomarkers, and (3) methods for targeted therapy and automatically adjusted drug delivery such as in experimental stroke and brain injury studies. As nanoproteomics becomes available both to the clinician at the bedside and the citizens who are increasingly interested in access to novel post-genomics diagnostics through initiatives such as the quantified self, we anticipate further breakthroughs in personalized and targeted medicine.

  13. Nanotechnology and Life Cycle Assessment. A systems approach to Nanotechnology and the environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klöpffer, Walter; Curran, Mary Ann; Frankl, Paolo

    , RTD.G4 “Nano S&T: Converging Science and Technologies.” Held in October 2006, the workshop involved international experts from the fields of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and nanotechnology. The main program of the workshop consisted of introductory lectures, group discussions and a final plenary...... efforts are needed to fully assess potential risks and environmental impacts of nanoproducts and materials (not just those related to LCA). There is a need for protocols and practical methodologies for toxicology studies, fate and transport studies and scaling approaches. · International cooperation...... frameworks and programs for the methodology development of LCA in the field of nanotechnology and with nanoproducts. · R&D activities, with special emphasis on multinational cooperation in fields related to health and environmental safety. · Use of LCA results to design adapted economic instruments. · Using...

  14. A longitudinal analysis of nanotechnology literature: 1976-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xin, E-mail: xinli@email.arizona.edu; Chen Hsinchun; Dang Yan; Lin Yiling; Larson, Catherine A. [University of Arizona, Artificial Intelligence Lab, Department of Management Information Systems, Eller College of Management (United States); Roco, Mihail C., E-mail: mroco@nsf.go [National Science Foundation (United States)

    2008-12-15

    Nanotechnology research and applications have experienced rapid growth in recent years. We assessed the status of nanotechnology research worldwide by applying bibliographic, content map, and citation network analysis to a data set of about 200,000 nanotechnology papers published in the Thomson Science Citation Index Expanded database (SCI) from 1976 to 2004. This longitudinal study shows a quasi-exponential growth of nanotechnology articles with an average annual growth rate of 20.7% after 1991. The United States had the largest contribution of nanotechnology research and China and Korea had the fastest growth rates. The largest institutional contributions were from the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Russian Academy of Sciences. The high-impact papers generally described tools, theories, technologies, perspectives, and overviews of nanotechnology. From the top 20 institutions, based on the average number of paper citations in 1976-2004, 17 were in the Unites States, 2 in France and 1 in Germany. Content map analysis identified the evolution of the major topics researched from 1976 to 2004, including investigative tools, physical phenomena, and experiment environments. Both the country citation network and the institution citation network had relatively high clustering, indicating the existence of citation communities in the two networks, and specific patterns in forming citation communities. The United States, Germany, Japan, and China were major citation centers in nanotechnology research with close inter-citation relationships.

  15. Nanotechnology risk perceptions and communication: emerging technologies, emerging challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidgeon, Nick; Harthorn, Barbara; Satterfield, Terre

    2011-11-01

    Nanotechnology involves the fabrication, manipulation, and control of materials at the atomic level and may also bring novel uncertainties and risks. Potential parallels with other controversial technologies mean there is a need to develop a comprehensive understanding of processes of public perception of nanotechnology uncertainties, risks, and benefits, alongside related communication issues. Study of perceptions, at so early a stage in the development trajectory of a technology, is probably unique in the risk perception and communication field. As such it also brings new methodological and conceptual challenges. These include: dealing with the inherent diversity of the nanotechnology field itself; the unfamiliar and intangible nature of the concept, with few analogies to anchor mental models or risk perceptions; and the ethical and value questions underlying many nanotechnology debates. Utilizing the lens of social amplification of risk, and drawing upon the various contributions to this special issue of Risk Analysis on Nanotechnology Risk Perceptions and Communication, nanotechnology may at present be an attenuated hazard. The generic idea of "upstream public engagement" for emerging technologies such as nanotechnology is also discussed, alongside its importance for future work with emerging technologies in the risk communication field.

  16. Occupational safety and health criteria for responsible development of nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, P. A.; Geraci, C. L.; Murashov, V.; Kuempel, E. D.; Zumwalde, R. D.; Castranova, V.; Hoover, M. D.; Hodson, L.; Martinez, K. F.

    2014-01-01

    Organizations around the world have called for the responsible development of nanotechnology. The goals of this approach are to emphasize the importance of considering and controlling the potential adverse impacts of nanotechnology in order to develop its capabilities and benefits. A primary area of concern is the potential adverse impact on workers, since they are the first people in society who are exposed to the potential hazards of nanotechnology. Occupational safety and health criteria for defining what constitutes responsible development of nanotechnology are needed. This article presents five criterion actions that should be practiced by decision-makers at the business and societal levels—if nanotechnology is to be developed responsibly. These include (1) anticipate, identify, and track potentially hazardous nanomaterials in the workplace; (2) assess workers' exposures to nanomaterials; (3) assess and communicate hazards and risks to workers; (4) manage occupational safety and health risks; and (5) foster the safe development of nanotechnology and realization of its societal and commercial benefits. All these criteria are necessary for responsible development to occur. Since it is early in the commercialization of nanotechnology, there are still many unknowns and concerns about nanomaterials. Therefore, it is prudent to treat them as potentially hazardous until sufficient toxicology, and exposure data are gathered for nanomaterial-specific hazard and risk assessments. In this emergent period, it is necessary to be clear about the extent of uncertainty and the need for prudent actions.

  17. The changing information environment for nanotechnology: online audiences and content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ashley A; Brossard, Dominique; Scheufele, Dietram A

    2010-05-01

    The shift toward online communication in all realms, from print newspapers to broadcast television, has implications for how the general public consumes information about nanotechnology. The goal of this study is threefold: to investigate who is using online sources for information and news about science and nanotechnology, to examine what the general public is searching for online with regards to nanotechnology, and to analyze what they find in online content of nanotechnology. Using survey data, we find those who report the Internet as their primary source of science and technology news are diverse in age, more knowledgeable about science and nanotechnology, highly educated, male, and more diverse racially than users of other media. In a comparison of demographic data on actual visits by online users to general news and science Web sites, science sites attracted more male, non-white users from the Western region of the United States than news sites did. News sites, on the other hand, attracted those with a slightly higher level of education. Our analysis of published estimates of keyword searches on nanotechnology reveals people are turning to the Internet to search for keyword searches related to the future, health, and applications of nanotechnology. A content analysis of online content reveals health content dominates overall. Comparisons of content in different types of sites-blogs, government, and general sites-are conducted. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11051-010-9860-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  18. The changing information environment for nanotechnology: online audiences and content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ashley A.; Brossard, Dominique; Scheufele, Dietram A.

    2010-05-01

    The shift toward online communication in all realms, from print newspapers to broadcast television, has implications for how the general public consumes information about nanotechnology. The goal of this study is threefold: to investigate who is using online sources for information and news about science and nanotechnology, to examine what the general public is searching for online with regards to nanotechnology, and to analyze what they find in online content of nanotechnology. Using survey data, we find those who report the Internet as their primary source of science and technology news are diverse in age, more knowledgeable about science and nanotechnology, highly educated, male, and more diverse racially than users of other media. In a comparison of demographic data on actual visits by online users to general news and science Web sites, science sites attracted more male, non-white users from the Western region of the United States than news sites did. News sites, on the other hand, attracted those with a slightly higher level of education. Our analysis of published estimates of keyword searches on nanotechnology reveals people are turning to the Internet to search for keyword searches related to the future, health, and applications of nanotechnology. A content analysis of online content reveals health content dominates overall. Comparisons of content in different types of sites—blogs, government, and general sites—are conducted.

  19. Citizenship Education to Nanotechnologies: Teaching Knowledge About Nanotechnologies and Educating for Responsible Citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Panissal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a research based on a project for citizenship education tonanotechnologies in a French high school which aims at teaching the specific characteristics of nanotechnologies, of their fields of application and of the controversies which are linked to them. At the junction of Socially Acute Questions didactics and of the cultural-historical Vygotskian theory, we analyze the knowledge at work in a debate on the promises and risks connected with nanotechnologies. The knowledge mobilized by the students (17- to 18 yearsold in their dialogical interactions can refer back to the archetypal narrativeswhose origin lies in men’s social and cultural history. Through the joint effect of cumulative talk and exploratory talk, the students co-construct the concepts linked to the Social Ethical Issues: risks and human enhancement. We show that the debate at school leads students to be able to construct reasoned opinion and to position themselves in their environment in a responsible way. This educational innovation appears to be relevant for combining the learning of academic and cultural contents with social competencies necessary for committed citizenship education in the field of nanotechnologies.

  20. Real Time Oil Reservoir Evaluation Using Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing (Inventor); Meyyappan, Meyya (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method and system for evaluating status and response of a mineral-producing field (e.g., oil and/or gas) by monitoring selected chemical and physical properties in or adjacent to a wellsite headspace. Nanotechnology sensors and other sensors are provided for one or more underground (fluid) mineral-producing wellsites to determine presence/absence of each of two or more target molecules in the fluid, relative humidity, temperature and/or fluid pressure adjacent to the wellsite and flow direction and flow velocity for the fluid. A nanosensor measures an electrical parameter value and estimates a corresponding environmental parameter value, such as water content or hydrocarbon content. The system is small enough to be located down-hole in each mineral-producing horizon for the wellsite.

  1. Nanoscience and nanotechnology of f elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felinto, Maria Claudia F.C. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: mfelinto@ipen.br; Brito, Hermi F. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: hefbrito@iq.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    Medicaments that are carried via blood flow to sick organs; an electronic equipment capable of evaluating quality of beverages twice more sensitive than the human palate; magnets inside plastic micro-spheres that could help remove oil stains from the sea. Products that seem to have been taken from science fiction films, things that could never be part of our grandfather's imagination, they are actually the marvels of one more technological revolution: the nanotechnology. In this context, lanthanides and actinides elements play a fundamental role due to their singular chemical and physical properties. They appear as fundamental materials in a large range of areas such as, new materials applied to fuel element, sensors, electronics, drugs and markers (radio isotope), probes etc. The aim of this work is to review the chemistry and physics properties of these elements approaching this new technology point of view, emphasizing their nuclear applications. (author)

  2. Nanotechnology: From Science Fiction to Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siochi, Mia

    2016-01-01

    Nanotechnology promises unconventional solutions to challenging problems because of expectations that matter can be manipulated at the atomic scale to yield properties that exceed those predicted for bulk materials. The excitement at this possibility has been fueled by significant investments in this technology area. This talk will focus on three examples of where advances are being made to exploit unique properties made possible by nanoscale features for aerospace applications. The first two topics will involve the development of carbon nanotubes for (a) lightweight structural applications and (b) net shape fabricated multifunctional components. The third topic will highlight lessons learned from the demonstration of the effect of nanoengineered surfaces on insect residue adhesion. In all three cases, the approaches used to mature these emerging technologies are based on the acceleration of technology development through multidisciplinary collaborations.

  3. NANOTECHNOLOGY IN FOOD PACKAGING - A CRITICAL REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Goyal

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology has an extremely high potential to benefit society through applications in food packaging. It can make the products cheaper and the production more efficient by producing less waste and using less energy. However, any new technology carries an ethical responsibility for wise application and the recognition that there are potential unforeseen risks that may come with the tremendous positive potential. The concept of nanocomposites represents a stimulating route for creating new and innovative materials, also in the area of natural polymers. The use of protective coatings and suitable packaging by the food industry has become a topic of great interest because of their potentiality for increasing the shelf life of many food products. Research and development of bio-nanocomposite materials for food applications such as packaging and other food contact surfaces is expected to grow in the next decade with the advent of new polymeric materials and composites with inorganic nano-particles.

  4. Star Trek replicators and diatom nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drum, Ryan W; Gordon, Richard

    2003-08-01

    Diatoms are single celled algae, the 10(5)-10(6) species of which create a wide variety of three-dimensional amorphous silica shells. If we could get them to produce useful structures, perhaps by compustat selection experiments (i.e. forced evolution of development or evodevo), their exponential growth in suspension cultures could compete with the lithography techniques of present day nanotechnology, which have limited 3D capabilities. Alternatively, their fine detail could be used for templates for MEMS (micro electro mechanical systems), or their silica deposition systems isolated for guiding silica deposition. A recent paper has demonstrated that silica can be replaced atom for atom without change of shape--a step towards the Star Trek replicator.

  5. "Physics-to-Market Challenges in Nanotechnology"

    Science.gov (United States)

    W., Dennis; Hamill

    2003-03-01

    Nanotechnologies, Inc., is a small start-up company using a high energy pulsed-plasma process for making metal and ceramic nanopowders controllable in size from 5 to 100 nanometers in diameter. The author will discuss the challenges faced by a team of physicists in moving a unique technology toward a commercial success. The author, a solid state physicist who also teaches a High-Tech Marketing course in the Business School at the University of Texas, will detail experiences and insights dealing with marketing technology based products when both the technology and the marketplace are experiencing dramatic and rapid change. Topics included from the small company perspective are; venture capital constraints, market segmentation and lead user identification, management of the gap between technology value demonstration and commercialization scaleup, strategic partner choices, core competencies, and vertical market application leverage.

  6. Nanotechnology approaches for ocular drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingguo Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Blindness is a major health concern worldwide that has a powerful impact on afflicted individuals and their families, and is associated with enormous socio-economical consequences. The Middle East is heavily impacted by blindness, and the problem there is augmented by an increasing incidence of diabetes in the population. An appropriate drug/gene delivery system that can sustain and deliver therapeutics to the target tissues and cells is a key need for ocular therapies. The application of nanotechnology in medicine is undergoing rapid progress, and the recent developments in nanomedicine-based therapeutic approaches may bring significant benefits to address the leading causes of blindness associated with cataract, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy and retinal degeneration. In this brief review, we highlight some promising nanomedicine-based therapeutic approaches for drug and gene delivery to the anterior and posterior segments.

  7. Biomolecular rods and tubes in nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Alexander M.

    2005-02-01

    Biomolecules are vitally important elements in nanoscale science and also in future nanotechnology. Their shape and their chemical and physical functionality can give them a big advantage over inorganic and organic substances. While this becomes most obvious in proteins and peptides, with their complicated, but easily controlled chemistry, other biomolecular substances such as DNA, lipids and carbohydrates can also be important. In this review, the emphasis is on one-dimensional molecules and on molecules that self-assemble into linear structures, and on their potential applications. An important aspect is that biomolecules can act as templates, i.e. their shape and chemical properties can be employed to arrange inorganic substances such as metals or metal compounds on the nanometre scale. In particular, rod- and tube-like nanostructures can show physical properties that are different from those of the bulk material, and thus these structures are likely to be a basis for new technology.

  8. Cellular nanotechnology: making biological interfaces smarter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Paula M

    2013-12-21

    Recently, there has been an outburst of research on engineered cell-material interfaces driven by nanotechnology and its tools and techniques. This tutorial review begins by providing a brief introduction to nanostructured materials, followed by an overview of the wealth of nanoscale fabrication and analysis tools available for their development. This background serves as the basis for a discussion of early breakthroughs and recent key developments in the endeavour to develop nanostructured materials as smart interfaces for fundamental cellular studies, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The review covers three major aspects of nanostructured interfaces - nanotopographical control, dynamic behaviour and intracellular manipulation and sensing - where efforts are continuously being made to further understand cell function and provide new ways to control cell behaviour. A critical reflection of the current status and future challenges are discussed as a conclusion to the review.

  9. Synergistic Interplay of Medicinal Chemistry and Formulation Strategies in Nanotechnology - From Drug Discovery to Nanocarrier Design and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunoqrot, Suhair; Hamed, Rania; Abdel-Halim, Heba; Tarawneh, Ola

    2016-12-22

    Over the last few decades, nanotechnology has given rise to promising new therapies and diagnostic tools for a wide range of diseases, especially cancer. The unique properties of nanocarriers such as liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, micelles, and bioconjugates have mainly been exploited to enhance drug solubility, dissolution, and bioavailability. The most important advantage offered by nanotechnology is the ability to specifically target organs, tissues, and individual cells, which ultimately reduces the systemic side effects and improves the therapeutic index of drug molecules. The contribution of medicinal chemistry to nanotechnology is evident in the abundance of new active molecules that are being discovered but are faced with tremendous delivery challenges by conventional formulation strategies. Additionally, medicinal chemistry plays a crucial role in all the steps involved in the preparation of nanocarriers, where structure-activity relationships of the drug molecule as well as the nanocarrier are harnessed to enhance the design, efficacy, and safety of nanoformulations. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the contributions of medicinal chemistry to nanotechnology, from supplying drug candidates and inspiring high-throughput nanocarrier design strategies, to structure-activity relationship elucidation and construction of computational models for better understanding of nanocarrier physicochemical properties and biological behavior. These two fields are undoubtedly interconnected and we will continue to see the fruits of that communion for years to come.

  10. Multidisciplinary cognitive content of nanoscience and nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milojević, Staša

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the cognitive evolution and disciplinary diversity of nanoscience/nanotechnology (nano research) as expressed through the terminology used in titles of nano journal articles. The analysis is based on the NanoBank bibliographic database of 287,106 nano articles published between 1981 and 2004. We perform multifaceted analyses of title words, focusing on 100 most frequent words or phrases (terms). Hierarchical clustering of title terms reveals three distinct time periods of cognitive development of nano research: formative (1981-1990), early (from 1991 to 1998), and current (after 1998). Early period is characterized by the introduction of thin film deposition techniques, while the current period is characterized by the increased focus on carbon nanotube and nanoparticle research. We introduce a method to identify disciplinary components of nanotechnology. It shows that the nano research is being carried out in a number of diverse parent disciplines. Currently, only 5% of articles are published in dedicated nano-only journals. We find that some 85% of nano research today is multidisciplinary. The case study of the diffusion of several nano-specific terms (e.g., "carbon nanotube") shows that concepts spread from the initially few disciplinary components to the majority of them in a time span of around a decade. Hierarchical clustering of disciplinary components reveals that the cognitive content of current nanoscience can be divided into nine clusters. Some clusters account for a large fraction of nano research and are identified with such parent disciplines as the condensed matter and applied physics, materials science, and analytical chemistry. Other clusters represent much smaller parts of nano research, but are as cognitively distinct. In the decreasing order of size, these fields are: polymer science, biotechnology, general chemistry, surface science, and pharmacology. Cognitive content of research published in nano-only journals is the

  11. Multidisciplinary cognitive content of nanoscience and nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milojevic, Stasa, E-mail: smilojev@indiana.edu [Indiana University, School of Library and Information Science (United States)

    2012-01-15

    This article examines the cognitive evolution and disciplinary diversity of nanoscience/nanotechnology (nano research) as expressed through the terminology used in titles of nano journal articles. The analysis is based on the NanoBank bibliographic database of 287,106 nano articles published between 1981 and 2004. We perform multifaceted analyses of title words, focusing on 100 most frequent words or phrases (terms). Hierarchical clustering of title terms reveals three distinct time periods of cognitive development of nano research: formative (1981-1990), early (from 1991 to 1998), and current (after 1998). Early period is characterized by the introduction of thin film deposition techniques, while the current period is characterized by the increased focus on carbon nanotube and nanoparticle research. We introduce a method to identify disciplinary components of nanotechnology. It shows that the nano research is being carried out in a number of diverse parent disciplines. Currently, only 5% of articles are published in dedicated nano-only journals. We find that some 85% of nano research today is multidisciplinary. The case study of the diffusion of several nano-specific terms (e.g., 'carbon nanotube') shows that concepts spread from the initially few disciplinary components to the majority of them in a time span of around a decade. Hierarchical clustering of disciplinary components reveals that the cognitive content of current nanoscience can be divided into nine clusters. Some clusters account for a large fraction of nano research and are identified with such parent disciplines as the condensed matter and applied physics, materials science, and analytical chemistry. Other clusters represent much smaller parts of nano research, but are as cognitively distinct. In the decreasing order of size, these fields are: polymer science, biotechnology, general chemistry, surface science, and pharmacology. Cognitive content of research published in nano-only journals

  12. New technical solutions in nanotechnology. Part 5.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVANOV Leonid Alexeevich

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The new technical solutions including inventions in the area of nanotechnology and nanomaterials are efficiently applied in communal and housing services as well as in construction and other joint fields. The invention «The method to produce hardening mortar (RU 2601885» refers to construction and can be used to stabilize the base of constructed or restored buildings and structures by means of injections. The technical result is the increased flowability of hardening mortar and, consequently, volume of the space filled with the mortar through ground gaps. The method to produce hardening mortar includes the following operations: mixing of Portland cement and water, introduction of nanoadditive and mortar treatment. The mix of nanodispersed silica dioxide particles of different specific surface is used as nanoadditive. The nanoadditive is introduced into water to obtain colloid solution of specified concentration, the solution is mechanically mixed and additionally it is treated by ultrasound. Then the colloid solution is agitated with required quantity of mixing water and later – with Portland cement. To significally increase the flowability of hardening mortar it is necessary to use colloid water solution of mixture of nanodispersed silica dioxide particles of different specific surface, with concentration about 20÷35 mas.%. The specialists may be also interested in the following nanotechnological inventions: the method to form crystal nanoporous oxide on the titanium-aluminium alloy (RU 2601904, nanoporous polymer foam with high porosity (RU 2561267, the method to introduce nanoadditives into polymers (RU 2585003, the method to process natural bitumen (RU 2600448, the method to produce nanosize powder stabilized zirconium dioxide (RU 2600400, raw mixture for production of foam concrete of autoclave hardening (RU 2600398, application of modified nanoparticles to timber to decrease emission of volatile organic compounds (RU 2600050, the

  13. Nanotechnology for the Environment and Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formoso, Patrizia; Muzzalupo, Rita; Tavano, Lorena; De Filpo, Giovanni; Nicoletta, Fiore Pasquale

    2016-01-01

    Nanotechnology encompasses the production and applications of physical, chemical, and biological systems at scales ranging from individual atoms or molecules to around 100 nanometres, as well as the integration of the resulting nanostructures into larger systems. Nanomaterials differ from bulk materials for their relatively larger surface-area-to-mass ratio, consequently they become more chemically reactive and can show different optical, magnetic and electrical behaviours. In recent years, engineered nanomaterials have gained a particular attention in some fields such as environmental protection (soil, air and water remediation/treatment) and medicine (bio-sensing, imaging, and drug delivery). Nanoparticles can be used to monitor in real-time some pollutants (including heavy metal ions, organic compounds, microbiological pathogens, etc.) present even at extremely low concentrations in different environments. The use of nanomaterials for waste remediation/treatment results in a technology more cost-effective and rapid than current conventional approaches thanks to their enhanced surface area, transport properties, and sequestration characteristics. In addition, the integration of molecular biology and medicine with nanotechnology has resulted in new active nanostructures able to interact with biological systems. Nanocarriers based on carbon nanotubes, fumed silica (SiO2), titanium dioxide (TiO2), and magnetite and maghemite (Fe3O4, and γ-Fe2O3) nanoparticles have a distinct advantage over other drug carriers as they can be opportunely designed to reach the desired targets. As a consequence, such nanostructures can represent an important platform for enhanced medical imaging and controlled drug delivery. Here, some applications of nanomaterials as water purifying agents and drug delivery systems are reported.

  14. Nanotechnology in agri-food production: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhon, Bhupinder Singh

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology is one of the most important tools in modern agriculture, and agri-food nanotechnology is anticipated to become a driving economic force in the near future. Agri-food themes focus on sustainability and protection of agriculturally produced foods, including crops for human consumption and animal feeding. Nanotechnology provides new agrochemical agents and new delivery mechanisms to improve crop productivity, and it promises to reduce pesticide use. Nanotechnology can boost agricultural production, and its applications include: 1) nanoformulations of agrochemicals for applying pesticides and fertilizers for crop improvement; 2) the application of nanosensors/nanobiosensors in crop protection for the identification of diseases and residues of agrochemicals; 3) nanodevices for the genetic manipulation of plants; 4) plant disease diagnostics; 5) animal health, animal breeding, poultry production; and 6) postharvest management. Precision farming techniques could be used to further improve crop yields but not damage soil and water, reduce nitrogen loss due to leaching and emissions, as well as enhance nutrients long-term incorporation by soil microorganisms. Nanotechnology uses include nanoparticle-mediated gene or DNA transfer in plants for the development of insect-resistant varieties, food processing and storage, nanofeed additives, and increased product shelf life. Nanotechnology promises to accelerate the development of biomass-to-fuels production technologies. Experts feel that the potential benefits of nanotechnology for agriculture, food, fisheries, and aquaculture need to be balanced against concerns for the soil, water, and environment and the occupational health of workers. Raising awareness of nanotechnology in the agri-food sector, including feed and food ingredients, intelligent packaging and quick-detection systems, is one of the keys to influencing consumer acceptance. On the basis of only a handful of toxicological studies, concerns have

  15. Reasoning about Actions with Temporal Answer Sets

    CERN Document Server

    Giordano, Laura; Dupré, Daniele Theseider

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we combine Answer Set Programming (ASP) with Dynamic Linear Time Temporal Logic (DLTL) to define a temporal logic programming language for reasoning about complex actions and infinite computations. DLTL extends propositional temporal logic of linear time with regular programs of propositional dynamic logic, which are used for indexing temporal modalities. The action language allows general DLTL formulas to be included in domain descriptions to constrain the space of possible extensions. We introduce a notion of Temporal Answer Set for domain descriptions, based on the usual notion of Answer Set. Also, we provide a translation of domain descriptions into standard ASP and we use Bounded Model Checking techniques for the verification of DLTL constraints.

  16. Introduction to Adolescent and Young Adult Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer researchers, advocates, and a cancer survivor introduce the topic of adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancers, covering distinct aspects of cancer in these patients and research questions to answer.

  17. Methodological bases of innovative training of specialists in nanotechnology field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FIGOVSKY Oleg Lvovich

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The performance of innovative training system aimed at highly intellectual specialists in the area of nanotechnologies for Kazakhstan’s economy demands establishment and development of nanotechnological market in the country, teaching of innovative engineering combined with consistent research, integration of trained specialists with latest technologies and sciences at the international level. Methodological aspects of training competitive specialists for nanotechnological field are specific. The paper presents methodological principles of innovative training of specialists for science-intensive industry that were realized according to grant given by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

  18. Nanotechnology in periodontology – The future, or just another hype?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlafer, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology allows manipulating matter at smaller and smaller level. Under appropriate conditions, molecules auto-assemble into nanometer-sized structures of higher order which exhibit chemical, physical and especially biological properties that differ from the bulk material. Custom-made nanom......Nanotechnology allows manipulating matter at smaller and smaller level. Under appropriate conditions, molecules auto-assemble into nanometer-sized structures of higher order which exhibit chemical, physical and especially biological properties that differ from the bulk material. Custom...... of nanotechnology and their application in a periodontal context, with a focus on biofilm control, site-specific drug release, and guided tissue regeneration....

  19. Time matters: Temporal harmony and dissonance in nanotechnology networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selin, Cynthia Lea

    2006-01-01

    the coding mediations that occur in the nanotechnology arena. The case of nanotechnology – due to its emergent properties, affinity with science fiction and inexhaustible promises – is taken up with an analytic exploration of network participants’ perspectives on time. Departing from empirical evidence...... within the nanotechnology arena, the focus is to explore the meanings and dilemmas implicated in disparate temporal horizons. Particular emphasis is placed on the effects of temporal diversity latent in discourses of the future as they relate to the formulation of a new technological domain....

  20. Product Surfaces in Precision Engineering, Micorengineering and Nanotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Kunzmann, H.; Peggs, G. N.

    2005-01-01

    This paper is and excerpt from a recently published CIRP Key-Note paper on surfaces in Precision Engineering, Micorengineering and Nanotechnology [1]. It is focussed on the relevance of surface metrology at the micrometric and nanometric length scales. The applied measurement technologies...... are strongly dependent from the functional requirements on those surfaces. Examples of surfaces obtained with precision engineering, microengineering and nanotechnology are mentioned, encompassing surfaces in computers, MEMS, biomedical systems, ligth and X-ray optics, as well as in chemical systems. Surface...... in surface metrology at micro and nanoscale are strongly required for future progress of Precision Engineering, Microengineering, and Nanotechnology; and their fundamental importance can not be overestimated....

  1. Consumer perceptions of nanotechnology applications in Italian wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Chiodo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines Italian consumer acceptance of nanotechnology applications in wine production, surveying wine consumers from the Abruzzo Region. Conjoint and post-hoc segmentation analysis establishes how consumers value different wine product attributes and place them within the context of applications of nanotechnology. Consumers appear relatively unfamiliar with nanotechnology applications, both generally and specifically to food. Although, an overall rejection of the concept of “nano wine” is evident, low acceptance scores disguise a somewhat more open attitude to specific applications of the technology. In particular, consumers appear more receptive to applications that enhance certain wine attributes. Practical implications are discussed.

  2. Wonder of nanotechnology quantum optoelectronic devices and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Razeghi, Manijeh; von Klitzing, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    When you look closely, Nature is nanotechnology at its finest. From a single cell, a factory all by itself, to complex systems, such as the nervous system or the human eye, each is composed of specialized nanostructures that exist to perform a specific function. This same beauty can be mirrored when we interact with the tiny physical world that is the realm of quantum mechanics.The Wonder of Nanotechnology: Quantum Optoelectronic Devices and Applications, edited by Manijeh Razeghi, Leo Esaki, and Klaus von Klitzing focuses on the application of nanotechnology to modern semiconductor optoelectr

  3. Introduction to nanotechnology: a short course for high school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markin, Alexey V.

    2016-04-01

    This report devoted to presenting results of development and implementation of a short course (4 hours) entitled "Introduction to Nanotechnology" that was specially designed for familiarizing high school students with nanomaterials and nanotechnology. The course contains introduction to nanotechnology, essential definitions, short overview of history, descriptions for various examples of nanomaterials and their classifications, performing demonstration experiments. All these parts of the course are briefly analyzed from pedagogical effectiveness point of view. Finally, results of course testing, problems and perspectives of nano-oriented education at high school are also discussed shortly.

  4. Introduction to nanotechnology: potential applications in physical medicine and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Assaf T; Lutz, Greg E; Boninger, Michael L; Cooper, Rory A

    2007-03-01

    Nanotechnology is a scientific movement that has the potential to transform the diagnosis and treatment of disease in the 21st century. The area of investigation is defined by the study, design, manipulation, manufacture, and control of materials or devices by physical or chemical means at resolutions on the order of one billionth of a meter. The potential for a wide range of clinical applications makes a basic understanding of nanotechnology important to physiatrists. This review presents an introduction to nanotechnology and discusses key developments in tissue engineering, drug delivery, imaging, diagnostics, surface texturing, and biointerfaces that could impact the practice of physiatry in the future.

  5. Science for common entrance physics : answers

    CERN Document Server

    Pickering, W R

    2015-01-01

    This book contains answers to all exercises featured in the accompanying textbook Science for Common Entrance: Physics , which covers every Level 1 and 2 topic in the ISEB 13+ Physics Common Entrance exam syllabus. - Clean, clear layout for easy marking. - Includes examples of high-scoring answers with diagrams and workings. - Suitable for ISEB 13+ Mathematics Common Entrance exams taken from Autumn 2017 onwards. Also available to purchase from the Galore Park website www.galorepark.co.uk :. - Science for Common Entrance: Physics. - Science for Common Entrance: Biology. - Science for Common En

  6. Natural Language Question Answering in Open Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Tufis

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available With the ever-growing volume of information on the web, the traditional search engines, returning hundreds or thousands of documents per query, become more and more demanding on the user patience in satisfying his/her information needs. Question Answering in Open Domains is a top research and development topic in current language technology. Unlike the standard search engines, based on the latest Information Retrieval (IR methods, open domain question-answering systems are expected to deliver not a list of documents that might be relevant for the user's query, but a sentence or a paragraph answering the question asked in natural language. This paper reports on the construction and testing of a Question Answering (QA system which builds on several web services developed at the Research Institute for Artificial Intelligence (ICIA/RACAI. The evaluation of the system has been independently done by the organizers of the ResPubliQA 2009 exercise and has been rated the best performing system with the highest improvement due to the natural language processing technology over a baseline state-of-the-art IR system. The system was trained on a specific corpus, but its functionality is independent on the linguistic register of the training data.

  7. 12 CFR 308.19 - Answer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and must admit, deny, or state that the party lacks sufficient information to admit or deny each allegation of fact. A statement of lack of information has the effect of a denial. Denials must fairly meet... the failure to file a timely answer, the administrative law judge shall file with the Board...

  8. Questions & Answers about...Marfan Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This fact sheet answers general questions about Marfan syndrome, a heritable condition that affects the connective tissue. It describes the characteristics of the disorder, the diagnostic process, and ways to manage symptoms. Characteristics include: (1) people with Marfan syndrome are typically very tall, slender, and loose jointed; (2) more than…

  9. Zika Virus and Complications: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... WHO Language عربي 中文 English Français Русский Español Zika virus and complications: Questions and answers Online Q& ... mosquitoes are present that can transmit the virus. Zika virus How do people catch Zika virus? Zika ...

  10. Answering Wh- Questions About Sentences and Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Murray

    1986-01-01

    Describes a study designed to identify the mental operations that contribute to people's ability to answer wh- questions, that is, questions which request information that plays a particular role in relation to some action or event. Wh- questions are signaled by interrogative pronouns and adverbs like who, what, when, and where. (SED)

  11. 20 CFR 901.37 - Answer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Answer. 901.37 Section 901.37 Employees' Benefits JOINT BOARD FOR THE ENROLLMENT OF ACTUARIES REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE PERFORMANCE OF ACTUARIAL SERVICES UNDER THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF 1974 Suspension or Termination of...

  12. Mathematics for common entrance one answers

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Serena

    2015-01-01

    Enables efficient assessment of pupils' performance at Levels 1 and 2 of the ISEB 13+ Common Entrance syllabus. Clear layout saves time marking work and identifies areas requiring further attention. Includes diagrams and working where necessary, to demonstrate how to present high-scoring answers in Level 1 and 2 exams

  13. Mathematics for common entrance two answers

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Serena

    2015-01-01

    Enables efficient assessment of pupils' performance at Levels 1 and 2 of the ISEB 13+ Common Entrance syllabus. Clear layout saves time marking work and identifies areas requiring further attention. Includes diagrams and working where necessary, to demonstrate how to present high-scoring answers in Level 1 and 2 exams.

  14. Test Theory Without an Answer Key.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelder, William H.; Romney, A. Kimball

    1988-01-01

    A general model is presented for homogeneous, dichotomous items when the answer key is unknown. The model is related to the two-class latent structure model with the roles of respondents and items interchanged. Iterative maximum likelihood estimates of parameters and Monte Carlo assessment of estimation methods are described. (TJH)

  15. 41 CFR 105-70.009 - Answer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Answer. 105-70.009 Section 105-70.009 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION Regional Offices-General Services Administration...

  16. Fouled Anchors: The CONSTELLATION Question Answered

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    1711804 87AU 73 89-1-3401 11. TITLE (kcn e S.cE) Caut,.cawn) Fouled Anchors: The Constellation Question Answered IL. PERSONA .. AUTHOPS) Wegner, Dana M...was familia , with the unaltered Constellation in Newport and, unknown to the Committee, had indeed visited the ship once in Baltimore (see p. 45). It is

  17. Question and Answer Guide to OCLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Sidney S. C.

    The purpose of this guide is to provide basic factual information about the Ohio College Library Center (OCLC), its data base, its operation, and its functions. It is intended for libraries which have not yet participated in OCLC, but would be useful as a reference guide in all libraries. Presented in question and answer form, the guide consists…

  18. Conscience in Childhood: Old Questions, New Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksan, Nazan; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2005-01-01

    Although conscience has been the focus of reflection for centuries, fundamental questions regarding its organization have not been fully answered. To address those questions, the authors applied structural equation modeling techniques to longitudinal data comprising multiple behavioral measures of children's conscience, obtained in parallel…

  19. Nanotechnology publications and citations by leading countries and blocs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youtie, Jan, E-mail: jan.youtie@innovate.gatech.ed [Enterprise Innovation Institute, Georgia Institute of Technology (United States); Shapira, Philip, E-mail: pshapira@gatech.ed [Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Public Policy (United States); Porter, Alan L., E-mail: aporter@isye.gatech.ed [Georgia Institute of Technology, Technology Policy and Assessment Center, School of Public Policy (United States)

    2008-08-15

    This article examines the relative positions with respect to nanotechnology research publications of the European Union (EU), the United States (US), Japan, Germany, China, and three Asian Tiger nations (South Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan). The analysis uses a dataset of nanotechnology publication records for the time period 1990 through 2006 (part year) extracted from the Science Citation Index obtained through the Web of Science and was developed through a two-stage modularized Boolean approach. The results show that although the EU and the US have the highest number of nanotechnology publications, China and other Asian countries are increasing their publications rapidly, taking an ever-larger proportion of the total. When viewed in terms of the quality-based measure of citations, Asian nanotechnology researchers also show growth in recent years. However, by such citation measures, the US still maintains a strongly dominant position, followed by the EU.

  20. The social responsibility of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology: an integral approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero-Diaz, Encarnacion; Simonet, Bartolome M.; Valcarcel, Miguel, E-mail: qa1vacam@uco.es [University of Cordoba, Department of Analytical Chemistry (Spain)

    2013-04-15

    The concept of social responsibility provides the ideal framework for raising awareness and arousing reflection on the social and environmental impact of nanoparticles in the range of 1-100 nm generated from research activities in nanoscience and production-related activities in nanotechnology. The model proposed here relates the essential aspects of these concepts by connecting the classical sequence Research-Development-Innovation (R and D and I) to nanoscience and nanotechnology (N and N) and social responsibility (SR). This paper identifies the stakeholders of the process and provides an extensive definition of Social Responsibility and related concepts. In addition, it describes the internal and external connotations of the implementation of SR at research centers and nanotechnological industries, and discusses the social implications of nanoscience and nanotechnology with provision for subjects such as nanoethics, nanotoxicity, and nanomedicine, which have emerged from the widespread use of nanomaterials by today's society.

  1. Biomimetic Nanotechnology: A Powerful Means to address Global Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Gebeshuber, Ille C

    2010-01-01

    Biomimetic nanotechnology is a prominent research area at the meeting place of life sciences with engineering and physics: it is a continuously growing field that deals with knowledge transfer from biology to nanotechnology. Biomimetic nanotechnology is a field that has the potential to substantially support successful mastering of major global challenges. The Millennium Project was commissioned by the United Nations Secretary-General in 2002 to develop a concrete action plan for the world to reverse the grinding poverty, hunger and disease affecting billions of people. It states 15 Global Challenges: sustainable development, water, population and resources, democratization, long-term perspectives, information technology, the rich-poor gap, health, capacity to decide, peace and conflict, status of women, transnational crime, energy, science and technology and global ethics. The possible contributions to master these challenges with the help of biomimetic nanotechnology will be discussed in detail.

  2. National Nanotechnology Initiative Investments by Agency and Program Component Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Science and Technology Policy, Executive Office of the President — Data represents National Nanotechnology Initiative investments by agency and program component area (PCA) from FY 2001 through FY 2010 (requested). While this data...

  3. Introduction to the Field of Nanotechnology Ethics and Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linton, J.D.; Walsh, S.

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnologies and nanoscience have generated an unprecedented global research and development race involving dozens of countries. The understanding of associated environmental, ethical, and societal implications lags far behind the science and technology. Consequently, it is critical to consider

  4. Nanotechnology- future prospect in recent medicine: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monalisa Jena

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Any damage at molecular or cellular level is the major culprit for disease & ill health. Nanotechnology, “the manufacturing technology of the 21st century," helps us economically build a broad range of complex molecular machines by manipulating matter on an atomic and molecular scale. Nanotech may be able to create many new materials and devices with at least one dimension sized from 1 to 100 nanometres with a vast range of applications, such as in medicine, electronics, biomaterials and energy production. Lots of new possibilities come into account in relation to use of nanotechnology in medicines. Nanotechnology in medicine involves applications of nanoparticles, also involves nano-robots to make repairs at the cellular levels. On the other hand, nanotechnology raises many of the same issues as any new technology, including concerns about the toxicity and environmental impact of nanomaterials. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(4.000: 353-359

  5. Cultural cognition of the risks and benefits of nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, Dan M.; Braman, Donald; Slovic, Paul; Gastil, John; Cohen, Geoffrey

    2009-02-01

    How is public opinion towards nanotechnology likely to evolve? The `familiarity hypothesis' holds that support for nanotechnology will likely grow as awareness of it expands. The basis of this conjecture is opinion polling, which finds that few members of the public claim to know much about nanotechnology, but that those who say they do are substantially more likely to believe its benefits outweigh its risks. Some researchers, however, have avoided endorsing the familiarity hypothesis, stressing that cognitive heuristics and biases could create anxiety as the public learns more about this novel science. We conducted an experimental study aimed at determining how members of the public would react to balanced information about nanotechnology risks and benefits. Finding no support for the familiarity hypothesis, the study instead yielded strong evidence that public attitudes are likely to be shaped by psychological dynamics associated with cultural cognition.

  6. Who owns the Atoms? Nanotechnology and Intellectual Property Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Javier Carrozza

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In Latin America, under the premise of enhancing economic competitiveness, there has been an exponential increase in investments in the development of nanotechnologies. In this context, the discussion about intellectual property rights with regards to nanotechnology is increasingly central to public debates. However, in comparison with the attention that this issue has attracted in both public and private contexts, there has been little academic analysis published on property rights and nanotechnology. This article problematizes the application of property rights in the development of nanotechnologies through a critical literature review of the existing literature on the topic. From this analysis, the key issue of the restrictions imposed on the application of patents on ‘first generation’ products is analyzed. This question pits those who claim rights to royalties to recoup R and D investments made to develop these technologies against those who argue for open access to science and technology.

  7. Nanotechnology publications and citations by leading countries and blocs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youtie, Jan; Shapira, Philip; Porter, Alan L.

    2008-08-01

    This article examines the relative positions with respect to nanotechnology research publications of the European Union (EU), the United States (US), Japan, Germany, China, and three Asian Tiger nations (South Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan). The analysis uses a dataset of nanotechnology publication records for the time period 1990 through 2006 (part year) extracted from the Science Citation Index obtained through the Web of Science and was developed through a two-stage modularized Boolean approach. The results show that although the EU and the US have the highest number of nanotechnology publications, China and other Asian countries are increasing their publications rapidly, taking an ever-larger proportion of the total. When viewed in terms of the quality-based measure of citations, Asian nanotechnology researchers also show growth in recent years. However, by such citation measures, the US still maintains a strongly dominant position, followed by the EU.

  8. Inequality gaps in nanotechnology development in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Foladori

    2013-06-01

    The third characteristic is the absence of research on potential impacts of nanotechnology on human health and the environment, as well as other societal implications, which may generate new forms of unequal distribution of benefits and risks.

  9. Policy and Concentration of Activities: The Case of Dutch Nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cunningham, S.; Werker, C.

    2012-01-01

    Geographical concentration of economic activities has been widely discussed. However, the insights into other kinds of concentration such as technological and organizational concentration have been scarce. Here, we analyze organizational, technological and geographical concentration of nanotechnolog

  10. Nanotechnology in Drug Delivery: Safety and Toxicity Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Keerti; Mehra, Neelesh Kumar; Jain, Narendra K

    2015-01-01

    Nanotoxicology deals with the new perception regarding nanotechnology i.e. risk and hazards associated with nanoscale materials. Although, nanotechnology is playing significant role in modern advancements from cell phones to medicines, yet it is necessary to consider their negative part as well that could be dangerous if not given proper attention. It is not certain that nanotechnology will essentially exert toxic effects since at present only few reports are available on their toxic effects and most of them are controversial. In this review we have summarized the advances in nanotechnology, their applications and, most importantly their safety issues that are often overlooked. However combined efforts are advocated to develop promising regulatory and ethical guidelines to control production, use and disposal of nanomaterials that will be safe to human health, environment and other living organisms.

  11. Nanotechnology for biology and medicine at the building block level

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, Gabriel A

    2011-01-01

    This text book will bring together a mix of both internationally known and established senior scientists along side up and coming (but already accomplished) junior scientists that have varying expertise in fundamental and applied nanotechnology to biology and medicine.

  12. Nanotechnology and U.S. Competitiveness: Issues and Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-15

    List of Figures Figure 1. Nanotechnology Papers in the Science Citation Index , by Region, 2000-2005...for CRS by Evaluametrics, Ltd. in December 2007. This analysis was performed using information from Thompson Scientific’s Science Citation Index , selecting...RoW CN+TW EU27 USA Figure 1. Nanotechnology Papers in the Science Citation Index , by Region, 2000-2005 CRS-15 40 Using the Potential Citation Index metric

  13. Nanotechnology Applications in Functional Foods; Opportunities and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Harjinder

    2016-01-01

    Increasing knowledge on the link between diet and human health has generated a lot of interest in the development of functional foods. However, several challenges, including discovering of beneficial compounds, establishing optimal intake levels, and developing adequate food delivering matrix and product formulations, need to be addressed. A number of new processes and materials derived from nanotechnology have the potential to provide new solutions in many of these fronts. Nanotechnology is ...

  14. What Counts as a 'Social and Ethical Issue' in Nanotechnology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce V. Lewenstein

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available As 'social and ethical issues' becomes a recurring phrase in the community paying attention to nanotechnology research, a crucial question becomes: what counts as a social and ethical issue? A typical list includes privacy, environmental health and safety, media hype, and other apparently unrelated issues. This article surveys those issues and suggests that concerns about fundamental concepts of ethics, such as fairness, justice, equity, and especially power, unite the various issues identified as 'social and ethical issues' in nanotechnology.

  15. Nanotechnology in the context of organic food processing

    OpenAIRE

    Lanzon, N.; Kahl, J.; Ploeger, A.

    2009-01-01

    Nanotechnology, the science of the ultra small, is up-and-coming as the technological platform for the next wave of development and transformation of agri-food systems. It is quickly moving from the laboratory onto supermarket shelves and our kitchen tables (Scrinis and Lyons, 2007). Therefore we investigated in a literature review and a comparison of the findings with the EU regulation of organic farming to what degree nanotechnology can be applied in organic food production. ...

  16. Gestion inter-organisationnelle des connaissances : le cas des nanotechnologies

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Martelo, Constanza,

    2013-01-01

    The thesis deals with knowledge management processes and associated practices in interorganizational contexts. With an insight of intellectual craftsmanship, we focus on the case study of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (NST) that involves a wide diversity of participant organizations and knowledge fields. By studying three specific contexts –a Colombian network of research groups, a European collaborative project, and a laboratory of materials belonging to a micro and nanotechnology cluster o...

  17. Nanoparticles, nanotechnology – potential environmental and occupational hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryka Langauer-Lewowicka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some information about current state of knowledge of the risk of engineered nanoparticles and nanotechnology for the environment and human health. The nanotechnology influences all industrial and public sectors including healthcare, agriculture, transport, energy, information and communication technologies. Both, the potential benefits and risks, associated with the application of engineered nanoparticles have been widely debated in recent years. The most important problem for the future research is the evaluation of the risk associated with nanomaterials exposure.

  18. Development of green nanotechnology and factors influencing it in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xin; Qiao, Guanghui

    2013-03-01

    The rise of nanotechnology brings an unprecedented change to us, but its uncertainty may also causes unforeseen hazards to human health and the environment. Many countries around the world are actively researching and developing green nanotechnology which is non-toxic, environmentally friendly for the interests of humanity, and this systematic project needs the collaboration and efforts of government, research institutions, enterprises and public groups.

  19. Nanotechnology and Secondary Science Teacher's Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Elena K.

    The recommendations of the United States President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology and the multi-agency National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) identified the need to prepare the workforce and specialists in the field of nanotechnology in order for the United States to continue to compete in the global marketplace. There is a lack of research reported in recent literature on the readiness of secondary science teachers to introduce higher level sciences---specifically nanotechnology---in their classes. The central research question of this study examined secondary science teachers' beliefs about teaching nanotechnology comfortably, effectively, and successfully. Bandura's self-efficacy theory provided the conceptual framework for this phenomenological study. A data analysis rubric was used to identify themes and patterns that emerged from detailed descriptions during in-depth interviews with 15 secondary science teachers. The analysis revealed the shared, lived experiences of teachers and their beliefs about their effectiveness and comfort in teaching higher-level sciences, specifically nanotechnology. The results of the study indicated that, with rare exceptions, secondary science teachers do not feel comfortable or effective, nor do they believe they have adequate training to teach nanotechnology concepts to their students. These teachers believed they were not prepared or trained in incorporating these higher level science concepts in the curriculum. Secondary science teachers' self-efficacy and personal beliefs of effectiveness in teaching nanotechnology can be an important component in achieving a positive social change by helping to familiarize high school students with nanotechnology and how it can benefit society and the future of science.

  20. Nano Day: Celebrating the Next Decade of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Cherie R; Fernandez, Laura E; Gogotsi, Yury; Hammond, Paula T; Hersam, Mark C; Nel, André E; Penner, Reginald M; Willson, C Grant; Weiss, Paul S

    2016-10-07

    Nanoscience and nanotechnology are poised to contribute to a wide range of fields, from health and medicine to electronics, energy, security, and more. These contributions come both directly in the form of new materials, interfaces, tools, and even properties as well as indirectly by connecting fields together. We celebrate how far we have come, and here, we look at what is to come over the next decade that will leverage the strong and growing base that we have built in nanoscience and nanotechnology.