WorldWideScience

Sample records for answer critical questions

  1. Question answering and interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Séjourné, Kévin

    2009-01-01

    The question answering systems monolingual or multilingual allow to look in a large collection of documents (of journalistic type for example), or on Web an answer specified to a question. However, there is no possible interaction after the answer: we cannot ask for a precision, modify the question. Now often the answer cannot be directly brought ( too indistinct question), or is not completely satisfactory for the user. The subject of the thesis consists in spreading these works so as to all...

  2. Seasonal Influenza Questions & Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medscape Podcasts Public Service Announcements (PSAs) Virus Images Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Seasonal Influenza, More Information Questions & Answers Language: English Español ...

  3. CAT questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document, prepared in February 1993, addresses the most common questions asked by APS Collaborative Access Teams (CATs). The answers represent the best judgment on the part of the APS at this time. In some cases, details are provided in separate documents to be supplied by the APS. Some of the answers are brief because details are not yet available. The questions are separated into five categories representing different aspects of CAT interactions with the APS: (1) Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), (2) CAT Beamline Review and Construction, (3) CAT Beamline Safety, (4) CAT Beamline Operations, and (5) Miscellaneous. The APS plans to generate similar documents as needed to both address new questions and clarify answers to present questions

  4. Transportation questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document summarizes the transport and handling of radioactive materials in a ''question'' and ''answer'' form. It explains what is radioactive material, how it is shipped, and in case there is a spill, who is responsible for it. It also provides safeguard measures for radioactive materials. (TC)

  5. Cultures in Community Question Answering

    OpenAIRE

    Kayes, Imrul; Kourtellis, Nicolas; Quercia, Daniele; Iamnitchi, Adriana; Bonchi, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    CQA services are collaborative platforms where users ask and answer questions. We investigate the influence of national culture on people's online questioning and answering behavior. For this, we analyzed a sample of 200 thousand users in Yahoo Answers from 67 countries. We measure empirically a set of cultural metrics defined in Geert Hofstede's cultural dimensions and Robert Levine's Pace of Life and show that behavioral cultural differences exist in community question answering platforms. ...

  6. Campylobacter Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... / Topics / Food Safety Education / ... Q and Answers Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B1090 Web Content ...

  7. Cooperative Question Answering Semantic Web

    OpenAIRE

    Melo, Dora; Rodrigues, Irene Pimenta; Nogueira, Vitor

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose a Cooperative Question Answering System that takes as input queries expressed in natural language and is able to return a cooperative answer obtained from resources in the Semantic Web, more specifically DBpedia represented in OWL/RDF as knowledge base and WordNet to build similar questions. Our system resorts to ontologies not only for reasoning but also to find answers and is independent of prior knowledge of the semantic resources by the user. The natural language ...

  8. Questions and Answers about Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find People About NINDS Questions and Answers About Stroke What is a stroke? A stroke occurs when blood flow to the ... need to function. What are the types of strokes? A stroke can occur in two ways. In ...

  9. HPV Vaccine - Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Media Resources News Newsletters Events Redirect for HPV Vaccine FAQ Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... to the address below. http://www.cdc.gov/hpv/parents/questions-answers.html File Formats Help: How ...

  10. APPROCHES FOR QUESTION ANSWERING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VANITHA GUDA

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Question Answering (QA system is a man machine communication device. The basic idea of QA systems in Natural Language Processing (NLP is to provide correct responses to the questions in a human like manner giving short and accurate answers. This paper presents a survey of various types of QA systems. These QA systems are classified as WEBBASED QA system, Information Retrieval or Information Extraction(IR/IEBASED QA system, RESTRICTED DOMAIN QA (RDQA system and RULE BASED QA system. The paper further investigates a comparative study of these models for different type of questioners which led to a breakthrough for new directions of research in this area.

  11. From Question Answering to Visual Exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McColgin, Dave W.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Turner, Alan E.

    2006-08-11

    Research in Question Answering has focused on the quality of information retrieval or extraction using the metrics of precision and recall to judge success; these metrics drive toward finding the specific best answer(s) and are best supportive of a lookup type of search. These do not address the opportunity that users? natural language questions present for exploratory interactions. In this paper, we present an integrated Question Answering environment that combines a visual analytics tool for unstructured text and a state-of-the-art query expansion tool designed to compliment the cognitive processes associated with an information analysts work flow. Analysts are seldom looking for factoid answers to simple questions; their information needs are much more complex in that they may be interested in patterns of answers over time, conflicting information, and even related non-answer data may be critical to learning about a problem or reaching prudent conclusions. In our visual analytics tool, questions result in a comprehensive answer space that allows users to explore the variety within the answers and spot related information in the rest of the data. The exploratory nature of the dialog between the user and this system requires tailored evaluation methods that better address the evolving user goals and counter cognitive biases inherent to exploratory search tasks.

  12. Education Answers That Vouchers Question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroufe, Gerald E.

    This speech explains education voucher programs and responds to criticisms of such programs. The education voucher system is described as one that questions traditional structures and methods while it equalizes opportunities to purchase education, fosters federally funded and controlled alternative school settings and programs, and gives parents…

  13. Climate Change Facts: Answers to Common Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Basics Climate Change Facts: Answers to Common Questions Climate Change Facts: Answers to Common Questions This page ... All Responses Is there a scientific consensus on climate change? The major scientific agencies of the United ...

  14. Evaluating Multilingual Question Answering Systems at CLEF

    OpenAIRE

    Forner, Pamela; Giampiccolo, Danilo; Magnini, Bernardo; Peñas, Anselmo; Rodrigo, Álvaro; Sutcliffe, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The paper offers an overview of the key issues raised during the seven years’ activity of the Multilingual Question Answering Track at the Cross Language Evaluation Forum (CLEF). The general aim of the Multilingual Question Answering Track has been to

  15. Answering Key Fuel Cycle Questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Given the range of fuel cycle goals and criteria, and the wide range of fuel cycle options, how can the set of options eventually be narrowed in a transparent and justifiable fashion? It is impractical to develop all options. We suggest an approach that starts by considering a range of goals for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) and then posits seven questions, such as whether Cs and Sr isotopes should be separated from spent fuel and, if so, what should be done with them. For each question, we consider which of the goals may be relevant to eventually providing answers. The AFCI program has both ''outcome'' and ''process'' goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geologic repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are rea diness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties

  16. Searching for a question and an answer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Le Roux

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This article focusses on Eckart Otto’s theory of the Pentateuch, his contribution to Pro Pent (the “Project for the study of the Pentateuch” and his influence on our understanding of the first five books of the Hebrew Bible. There was something in his thinking that appealed to many South African scholars; an appeal that softened down the harsh criticism and blunted the sharp edges of Pentateuch study of the past two centuries. And this was accomplished by turning the focus to the theological and ethical issues, which were the driving forces behind the formation of the Pentateuch. Put differently: to show the Pentateuch as an answer to a question and Pentateuch criticism as a constant search for the questions to which the Pentateuch is answer.

  17. FVQA: Fact-based Visual Question Answering

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Peng; Wu, Qi; Shen, Chunhua; Hengel, Anton van den; Dick, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Visual Question Answering (VQA) has attracted a lot of attention in both Computer Vision and Natural Language Processing communities, not least because it off?ers insight into the relationships between two important sources of information. Current datasets, and the models built upon them, have focused on questions which are answerable by direct analysis of the question and image alone. The set of such questions that require no external information to answer is interesting, but very limited. I...

  18. Question, answer, compare: a cross-category comparison of answers on question and answer websites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocepek, Melissa G.; Westbrook, Lynn

    2015-10-01

    Online information seekers make heavy use of websites that accept their natural language questions. This study compared the three types of such websites: social question and answer (Q&A), digital reference services, and ask-an-expert services. Questions reflecting daily life, research, and crisis situations were posed to high use websites of all three types. The resulting answers' characteristics were analyzed in terms of speed, transparency, formality, and intimacy. The results indicate that social Q&A websites excel in speed, ask-an-expert websites in intimacy, and digital reference services in transparency and formality.

  19. Questions and Answers About Nuclear Power Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet is designed to answer many of the questions that have arisen about nuclear power plants and the environment. It is organized into a question and answer format, with the questions taken from those most often asked by the public. Topics include regulation of nuclear power sources, potential dangers to people's health, whether nuclear…

  20. Question Answering for Collaborative Learning with Answer Quality Predictor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing advances of Internet Technologies in all application domains have changed life styles and interactions. With the rapid development of E-Learning, collaborative learning is an important for teaching, learning methods and strategies. Studies over the years shown that students had actively and more interactively involved in a classroom discussion to gain their knowledge. Students can ask their questions to the classroom discussion when they want to collaborate with others, asking one another for information, evaluating one another’s ideas. Therein, the activity allowing one question has many answer or information that should be selected. Every answer has a weighting and its very subjective to select it. In this paper, we introduce question answering for collaborative learning with answer quality predictor. By using answer quality predictor the quality of the information could be determined. Through the process of collaborative learning, the knowledge base will be enriched for future question answering. Further, not only the student could get answers form others but also provided by the system.

  1. A Framework for automatic generation of answers to conceptual questions in Frequently Asked Question (FAQ) based Question Answering System

    OpenAIRE

    Saurabh Pal; Sudipta Bhattacharya; Indrani Datta; Arindam Chakravorty

    2012-01-01

    Question Answering System [QAS] generates answer to various questions imposed by users. The QAS uses documents or knowledge base for extracting the answers to factoid questions and conceptual questions. Use of Frequently Asked Question (FAQ) base gives a satisfying results to QAS, but the limitation with FAQ base system is in the preparation of Question and Answer set as most of the questions are not predetermined.QAS using FAQ base fails if no semantically related questions are found in base...

  2. QUESTION ANSWERING SYSTEM DAN PENERAPANNYA PADA ALKITAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunawan Gunawan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Question answering system is a system that allows user to state his or her information need in the form of natural language question, and return short text excerpts or even phrases as an answer. The availability of a wide and various information source and improvements in the techniques of natural language processing, information extraction (wrapper, and information retrieval give a big effect on the development of question answering system, from just answering questions in a specific domain by consulting to structured information source such as database, and like in this research, answering any questions based on information stored in an unstructured text collection. A general architecture of question answering system based on text consists of six processing stages, i.e. question analysis, document collection preprocessing, candidate document selection, candidate document analysis, answer extraction, and response generation. Application of question answering system like AnswerBus, Mulder, and Webclopedia that are developed with its own characteristics has similar processing steps as in the general architecture. Answers returned by a question answering system need to be evaluated for performance measure. This research completed with a simple question answering system application using english Bible in World English Bible (WEB version as the source of information to answer some questions. Because specific domain is selected: Bible, questions that can be posed by user could ask about information in the Bible itself only. Question is also limited to three types of answers that can be supported by the application: person (who, location (where, and date (when. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Question answering system (QA system adalah sistem yang mengijinkan user menyatakan kebutuhan informasinya dalam bentuk natural language question (pertanyaan dalam bahasa alami, dan mengembalikan kutipan teks singkat atau bahkan frase sebagai jawaban. Ketersediaan

  3. Olympics: Questions & Answers on the Major Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbon, Alan

    This book presents background information on the major Olympic events with a question-answer format. Events considered include track and field, swimming, diving, boxing, weightlifting, the equestrian events, and gymnastics. Line drawings illustrate the text. (MM)

  4. Zika Virus and Complications: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feed Youtube Twitter Facebook Google + iTunes Play Store Zika virus and complications: Questions and answers Online Q& ... a cause of microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Zika virus Updated! How do people catch Zika virus? ...

  5. A framework for integrating and synthesizing data to ask and answer science questions in the Critical Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristol, S.

    2014-12-01

    In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) published a science strategy that resulted in an organizational pivot toward more focused attention on societal challenges and our ability to predict changes and study mitigation and resilience. The strategy described a number of global dynamics including climate and resource-related critical zone (CZ) impacts and emphasized the need for data integration as a significant underpinning for all of the science questions raised in the report. Organizational changes that came about as a result of the science strategy sparked a new entity called Core Science Systems, which has set as its mission the creation of a Modular Science Framework designed to seamlessly organize and integrate all data, information, and knowledge from the CZ. A part of this grand challenge is directly within the purview of the USGS mission and our science programs, while the data integration framework itself is part of a much larger global scientific cyberinfrastructure. This talk describes current research and development in pursuit of the USGS Modular Science Framework and how the work is being conducted in the context of the broader earth system sciences. Communities of practice under the banner of the Earth Science Information Partners are fostering working relationships vital to cohesion and interoperability between contributing institutions. The National Science Foundation's EarthCube and Cyberinfrastructure for the 21st Century initiatives are providing some of the necessary building blocks through foundational informatics and data science research. The U.S. Group on Earth Observations is providing leadership and coordination across agencies who operate earth observation systems. The White House Big Data Initiative is providing long term research and development vision to set the stage for sustainable, long term infrastructure across government data agencies. The end result will be a major building block of CZ science.

  6. Deep Question Answering for protein annotation

    OpenAIRE

    Gobeill, Julien; Gaudinat, Arnaud; Pasche, Emilie; Vishnyakova, Dina; Gaudet, Pascale; Bairoch, Amos Marc; Ruch, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical professionals have access to a huge amount of literature, but when they use a search engine, they often have to deal with too many documents to efficiently find the appropriate information in a reasonable time. In this perspective, question-answering (QA) engines are designed to display answers, which were automatically extracted from the retrieved documents. Standard QA engines in literature process a user question, then retrieve relevant documents and finally extract some possibl...

  7. Ten questions and answers about superconductivity

    OpenAIRE

    De Cao, Tian

    2010-01-01

    This work answers the basic questions of superconductivity in a question-and-answer format. We extend a basic hypothesis to various superconductors. This hypothesis is that superconductivity requires that the pairing gap locates around the Fermi level. On the basis of this hypothesis our calculations give the so-called three factor theory with which some key problems of the high temperature superconductivity are explained.

  8. Deep Question Answering for protein annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobeill, Julien; Gaudinat, Arnaud; Pasche, Emilie; Vishnyakova, Dina; Gaudet, Pascale; Bairoch, Amos; Ruch, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical professionals have access to a huge amount of literature, but when they use a search engine, they often have to deal with too many documents to efficiently find the appropriate information in a reasonable time. In this perspective, question-answering (QA) engines are designed to display answers, which were automatically extracted from the retrieved documents. Standard QA engines in literature process a user question, then retrieve relevant documents and finally extract some possible answers out of these documents using various named-entity recognition processes. In our study, we try to answer complex genomics questions, which can be adequately answered only using Gene Ontology (GO) concepts. Such complex answers cannot be found using state-of-the-art dictionary- and redundancy-based QA engines. We compare the effectiveness of two dictionary-based classifiers for extracting correct GO answers from a large set of 100 retrieved abstracts per question. In the same way, we also investigate the power of GOCat, a GO supervised classifier. GOCat exploits the GOA database to propose GO concepts that were annotated by curators for similar abstracts. This approach is called deep QA, as it adds an original classification step, and exploits curated biological data to infer answers, which are not explicitly mentioned in the retrieved documents. We show that for complex answers such as protein functional descriptions, the redundancy phenomenon has a limited effect. Similarly usual dictionary-based approaches are relatively ineffective. In contrast, we demonstrate how existing curated data, beyond information extraction, can be exploited by a supervised classifier, such as GOCat, to massively improve both the quantity and the quality of the answers with a +100% improvement for both recall and precision. Database URL: http://eagl.unige.ch/DeepQA4PA/. PMID:26384372

  9. Automatic Question Answering from Web Documents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xin; HU Dawei; LI Huan; HAO Tianyong; CHEN Enhong; LIU Wenyin

    2007-01-01

    A passage retrieval strategy for web-based question answering (QA) systems is proposed in our QA system. It firstly analyzes the question based on semantic patterns to obtain its syntactic and semantic information and then form initial queries. The queries are used to retrieve documents from the World Wide Web (WWW) using the Google search engine. The queries are then rewritten to form queries for passage retrieval in order to improve the precision. The relations between keywords in the question are employed in our query rewrite method. The experimental result on the question set of the TREC-2003 passage task shows that our system performs well for factoid questions.

  10. Questions & Answers about...Marfan Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This fact sheet answers general questions about Marfan syndrome, a heritable condition that affects the connective tissue. It describes the characteristics of the disorder, the diagnostic process, and ways to manage symptoms. Characteristics include: (1) people with Marfan syndrome are typically very tall, slender, and loose jointed; (2) more than…

  11. Fuel reprocessing: Citizens' questions and experts' answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In connection with the intention of DWK to erect a fuel reprocessing plant in the Oberpfalz, citizens have asked a great number of questions which are of interest to the general public. They have been collected, grouped into subject categories and answered by experts. (orig./HSCH)

  12. Natural Language Question Answering in Open Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Tufis

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available With the ever-growing volume of information on the web, the traditional search engines, returning hundreds or thousands of documents per query, become more and more demanding on the user patience in satisfying his/her information needs. Question Answering in Open Domains is a top research and development topic in current language technology. Unlike the standard search engines, based on the latest Information Retrieval (IR methods, open domain question-answering systems are expected to deliver not a list of documents that might be relevant for the user's query, but a sentence or a paragraph answering the question asked in natural language. This paper reports on the construction and testing of a Question Answering (QA system which builds on several web services developed at the Research Institute for Artificial Intelligence (ICIA/RACAI. The evaluation of the system has been independently done by the organizers of the ResPubliQA 2009 exercise and has been rated the best performing system with the highest improvement due to the natural language processing technology over a baseline state-of-the-art IR system. The system was trained on a specific corpus, but its functionality is independent on the linguistic register of the training data.

  13. APLIKASI QUESTION ANSWERING SYSTEM DENGAN METODE RULE-BASED QUESTION ANSWERING SYSTEM PADA ALKITAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Handojo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Bible as the holy book of Christians who are very close to the religious life and as a moral guide for Christians. So the Bible become a necessity when a christians want to search for for specific data or information. But sometimes to find the answer to a question people sometimes having a trouble, because people did not know how to find the answer that they are looking for at the verses in the Bible that’s relatively large of amount. Therefore an application that have an ability to provide answers from the Bible verses that have the possibility of answers to questions raised by the user is needed. Where users can enter questions using keyword when, where, why, whom and what. Question Answering System Application will operate on a digital Bible in Indonesian language by using Rule-Based Question Answering System and created using Visual Basic 6.0 and Microsoft Access 2003 database. Based on application testing that made, the aplication has been able to find answers to the questions that asked according to the keywords. Meanwhile, based on testing with the questionnaire, the application obtained an average percentage of 77.2% from the respondents.

  14. Functional symptoms in neurology: questions and answers

    OpenAIRE

    Reuber, M; Mitchell, A; Howlett, S; Crimlisk, H; Grunewald, R

    2005-01-01

    Between 10 and 30% of patients seen by neurologists have symptoms for which there is no current pathophysiological explanation. The objective of this review is to answer questions many neurologists have about disorders characterised by unexplained symptoms (functional disorders) by conducting a multidisciplinary review based on published reports and clinical experience. Current concepts explain functional symptoms as resulting from auto-suggestion, innate coping styles, disorders of volition ...

  15. Management of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) questions & answers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This {open_quotes}Management of PCBs Questions and Answers{close_quotes} has been developed from a presentation given by Dr. John Smith of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the transcribed question and answer session which followed the presentation. Dr. Smith was featured at the first DOE complex-wide PCB Focus Group meeting held in San Francisco, California in December 1992. The meeting was attended by representatives from field elements who were actively involved in the management of PCBs. The meeting served as a forum for the exchange of information and discussion of PCB management issues. This document has been prepared as one of several guidance documents developed by the Department of Energy Office of Environmental Policy and Assistance (EH-41) (formerly the Office of Environmental Guidance, EH-23) to assist DOE elements in their PCB management programs. This document is organized into three parts: (1) an introduction describing the conception and development of this document, (2) a summary of Dr. Smith`s presentation, and (3) the question and answer session.

  16. Sustainable Questions: Determining the Expiration Date of Answers

    OpenAIRE

    Goede, de, E.D.; Schuth, A; Rijke, de, M.

    2012-01-01

    Community question answering platforms have large repositories of already answered questions. Reusing these answers for new questions is tempting. However, not all stored answers will still be relevant. In this study, we define a new and challenging problem concerning the sustainability of questions and answers, and present metrics aimed at distinguishing between sustainable and unsustain- able questions. We find that an intuitive approach to sustainability of questions is not sufficient, but...

  17. Questions and answers on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highly developed technologies, such as the nuclear power plant technology, have met with an increasing interest on the part of the general public during the last few years. As it is our duty to meet this demand for information and to supply the general public with objective and complete information on technical details, this series of brochures has been started. The present fourth and revised issue of 'Questions and answers on nuclear energy' explains the subjects in even greater detail and has been enlarged by an additional chapter on 'Waste disposal and waste management.' (orig.)

  18. Did Darwin really answer Paley's question?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunnander, Björn

    2013-09-01

    It is commonly thought that natural selection explains the rise of adaptive complexity. Razeto-Barry and Frick (2011) have recently argued in favour of this view, dubbing it the Creative View. I argue that the Creative View is mistaken if it claims that natural selection serves to answer Paley's question. This is shown by a case that brings out the contrastive structure inherent in this demand for explanation. There is, however, a rather trivial sense in which specific environmental conditions are crucial for the rise of specific adaptations, but this is hardly what opponents of the Creative View are denying. PMID:23591048

  19. IMPROVISATION OF SEEKER SATISFACTION IN YAHOO! COMMUNITY QUESTION ANSWERING PORTAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Latha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One popular Community question answering (CQA site, Yahoo! Answers, had attracted 120 million users worldwide, and had 400 million answers to questions available. A typical characteristic of such sites is that they allow anyone to post or answer any questions on any subject. Question Answering Community has emerged as popular, and often effective, means of information seeking on the web. By posting questions, for other participants to answer, information seekers can obtain specific answers to their questions. However, CQA is not always effective: in some cases, a user may obtain a perfect answer within minutes, and in others it may require hours and sometimes days until a satisfactory answer is contributed. We investigate the problem of predicting information seeker satisfaction in yahoo collaborative question answering communities, where we attempt to predict whether a question author will be satisfied with the answers submitted by the community participants. Our experimental results, obtained from a large scale evaluation over thousands of real questions and user ratings, demonstrate the feasibility of modeling and predicting asker satisfaction. We complement our results with a thorough investigation of the interactions and information seeking patterns in question answering communities that correlate with information seeker satisfaction. We also explore automatic ranking, creating abstract from retrieved answers, and history updation, which aims to provide users with what they want or need without explicitly ask them for user satisfaction. Our system could be useful for a variety of applications, such as answer selection, user feedback analysis, and ranking.

  20. Answers at your fingertips: Access to the Internet influences willingness to answer questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Amanda M; McLean, David; Risko, Evan F

    2015-12-01

    Recent technological advances have given rise to an information-gathering tool unparalleled by any in human history-the Internet. Understanding how access to such a powerful informational tool influences how we think represents an important question for psychological science. In the present investigation we examined the impact of access to the Internet on the metacognitive processes that govern our decisions about what we "know" and "don't know." Results demonstrated that access to the Internet influenced individuals' willingness to volunteer answers, which led to fewer correct answers overall but greater accuracy when an answer was offered. Critically, access to the Internet also influenced feeling-of-knowing, and this accounted for some (but not all) of the effect on willingness to volunteer answers. These findings demonstrate that access to the Internet can influence metacognitive processes, and contribute novel insights into the operation of the transactive memory system formed by people and the Internet. PMID:26340105

  1. Web Based Application for Hindi Question Answering System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Stalin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Question answering system helps user to find the exact answer of the question in natural language. It seems that question answering system is considered as a very important step in information retrieval and extracting the exact answer. This paper summarizes a web application to extract answers from Hindi text for a given question. It is based on understanding the meaning of the question and performs parsing on it to extract the answers. If the Query is based on Hind text then the total answers based on query are displayed and if the answer is not present in the Hindi text then the system ask the answer from Google. The experimental results are included in this paper and are satisfactory.

  2. Organizational Learning: Some Basic Questions and Answers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Mihelčič

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The term “organizational learning” raises a broad range of questions, specifically with regard to its contents. Following the thoughts of eminent philosophers, such as Aristotle and Confucius, the contribution of scientists in any research field to the corpus of human knowledge should also be based on the proper governing of the use of language. Therefore it is, first, of serious importance to be aware that organizational learning is just one dimension or element of the learning organization and not vice versa; second, a good comprehension of basic categories related to the organizational side of (formal social units’ functioning is an imperative part of organizational learning process. In writing this paper, the author started from his experiences acquired in his role as a lecturer on the subject “Theory of Organization”, in which the goal of lecturing was explained to students as gaining knowledge about cooperation and competition of people in the entities of rational production of goods. To generalize the presented questions and answers regarding the use of term “organization” in the field of management, certain similarities and comparisons were sought and found in other fields of science and, more generally, in life itself. After more detailed explanations of other relevant categories for the organizational learning process, the process itself is defined by its goals and steps where the overlapping of the learning process with the organizational change process and the process of increasing organizational capital is shown. Finally, it is also emphasized that the idea of improving internal relationships – as the substance of organization – between employees in a formal social unit through organizational learning could and should be exploited in external relationships between formal social units.

  3. Finding Question-Answer Pairs from Online Forums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cong, Gao; Wang, Long; Lin, Chin-Yew;

    2008-01-01

    Online forums contain a huge amount of valuable user generated content. In this paper we address the problem of extracting question-answer pairs from forums. Question-answer pairs extracted from forums can be used to help Question Answering services (e.g. Yahoo! Answers) among other applications....... We propose a sequential patterns based classification method to detect questions in a forum thread, and a graph based propagation method to detect answers for questions in the same thread. Experimental results show that our techniques are very promising....

  4. Word Embedding based Correlation Model for Question/Answer Matching

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Yikang; Rong, Wenge; Jiang, Nan; Peng, Baolin; Tang, Jie; Xiong, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    With the development of community based question answering (Q\\&A) services, a large scale of Q\\&A archives have been accumulated and are an important information and knowledge resource on the web. Question and answer matching has been attached much importance to for its ability to reuse knowledge stored in these systems: it can be useful in enhancing user experience with recurrent questions. In this paper, we try to improve the matching accuracy by overcoming the lexical gap between question ...

  5. Marking sense of students' answers to multiple-choice questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufresne, Robert J.; Leonard, William J.; Gerace, William J.

    2002-03-01

    A detailed example is used to illustrate the difficulties making sense of students' answers to multiple-choice questions. We explore how correct answers can be false indicators of student knowledge and understanding. We caution against excessive reliance on multiple-choice questions for instructional decisions.

  6. Answering Young Children's Questions about Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Gladys

    Intended for use by parents and teachers of preschool age children, this short booklet provides some guidelines to follow when introducing sex education to young children. It discusses issues such as where to begin, how to encourage the child to ask questions about sex, how to handle sex-related problems, child molestation, nudity and the family,…

  7. Learning to Answer Questions From Image Using Convolutional Neural Network

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Lin; Lu, Zhengdong; Li, Hang

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose to employ the convolutional neural network (CNN) for the image question answering (QA). Our proposed CNN provides an end-to-end framework with convolutional architectures for learning not only the image and question representations, but also their inter-modal interactions to produce the answer. More specifically, our model consists of three CNNs: one image CNN to encode the image content, one sentence CNN to compose the words of the question, and one multimodal convo...

  8. Organizational Learning: Some Basic Questions and Answers

    OpenAIRE

    Miran Mihelčič

    2014-01-01

    The term “organizational learning” raises a broad range of questions, specifically with regard to its contents. Following the thoughts of eminent philosophers, such as Aristotle and Confucius, the contribution of scientists in any research field to the corpus of human knowledge should also be based on the proper governing of the use of language. Therefore it is, first, of serious importance to be aware that organizational learning is just one dimension or element of the learning organization ...

  9. Medical Marijuana: More Questions than Answers

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Kevin P.

    2014-01-01

    With 23 states and the District of Columbia having enacted medical marijuana laws as of August 2014, it is important that psychiatrists be able to address questions about medical marijuana from patients, families, and other health care professionals. The author discusses the limited medical literature on synthetic cannabinoids and medical marijuana. The synthetic cannabinoids dronabinol and nabilone are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for nausea and vomiting associa...

  10. Audel questions and answers for electrician's examinations

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Paul

    2011-01-01

    An essential resource for passing electrician's examinations To pass your state and local licensing exams, you need knowledge and confidence. This comprehensive review guide gives you plenty of both. It's packed with sample questions to help you focus your efforts, review material on all aspects of the 2011 National Electrical Code (NEC), the lowdown on business competency requirements, and tips for studying and test-taking that will help you conquer anxiety ahead.Learn the definitions, specifications, and regulations of the 2011 NEC Acquire test-taking skills with example

  11. Ontologies and adaptivity in dialogue for question answering

    CERN Document Server

    Sonntag, D

    2010-01-01

    Question answering (QA) has become one of the fastest growing topics in computational linguistics and information access. To advance research in the area of dialogue-based question answering, we propose a combination of methods from different scientific fields (i.e., Information Retrieval, Dialogue Systems, Semantic Web, and Machine Learning). This book sheds light on adaptable dialogue-based question answering. We demonstrate the technical and computational feasibility of the proposed ideas, the introspective methods in particular, by beginning with an extensive introduction to the dialogical

  12. Telephone operator change: your questions answered

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2015-01-01

    CERN will be changing mobile telephone operators on 24 June. As the community prepares for the summer switchover, everyone has questions. What brought on the change? Why are we losing our old phone numbers? What kind of improvements will we see? "Just as with every contract at CERN, we issue calls for tenders every few years to ensure we are still receiving the best possible service," explains Tony Cass, from the Communication Systems group within the IT department. "As we came to the end of our contract with Sunrise, we put out a call for tenders, which was won by Swisscom. Not only is their pricing more competitive, they will also be providing better service conditions." The scope of these new service conditions is multifaceted: there will be improvements to the redundancy and reliability of the network as well as modern 4G network coverage in the LHC tunnel. "People will also see their mobile phone bills decrease," says Tony. "This will esp...

  13. Finding answers to definition questions on the web

    OpenAIRE

    Figueroa Amenábar, Alejandro Gastón

    2010-01-01

    Fundamentally, question answering systems are designed for automatically responding to queries posed by users in natural language. The first step in the answering process is query analysis, and its goal is to classify the query in concert with a set of pre-specified types. Traditionally, these classes include: factoid, definition, and list. Systems thereafter chose the answering method in congruence with the class recognised in this early phase. In short, this thesis focuses exclusively on st...

  14. A Question Answering System based on Conceptual Graph Formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloum, Wael

    2009-11-01

    This paper proposes a new text-based question answering system. It models knowledge in documents and questions with conceptual graph formalism (CGF). To prepare knowledge to be modeled, natural language processing is applied to the text using OpenNLP, and then syntactic and semantic information is realized using VerbNet and WordNet. We handle different types of questions, especially questions constructed with wh- pronouns, and questions constructed with "how", and we propose a model to represent them in CGF so that their target is realized and marked. Each question's type has different conceptual graph (CG) representations; thus, for each question, many CGs are generated using formulas. Some of these formulas are introduced here. The projection operator is used to compare a question's CG to a sentence's CG, and then the exact answer is extracted from the part of the sentence's CG that has been projected under the question target's concept.

  15. Questions and answers based on revised 10 CFR Part 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NUREG/CR-6204 is a collection of questions and answers that were originally issued in seven sets and which pertain to revised 10 CFR Part 20. The questions came from both outside and within the NRC. The answers were compiled and provided by NRC staff within the offices of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, Nuclear Regulatory Research, the Office of State Programs, and the five regional offices. Although all of the questions and answers have been reviewed by attorneys in the NRC Office of the General Counsel, they do not constitute official legal interpretations relevant to revised 10 CFR Part 20. The questions and answers do, however, reflect NRC staff decisions and technical options on aspects of the revised 10 CFR Part 20 regulatory requirements. This NUREG is being made available to encourage communication among the public, industry, and NRC staff concerning the major revisions of the NRC's standards for protection against radiation

  16. Questions and Answers about Ebola, Pets, and Other Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Questions and Answers about Ebola, Pets, and Other Animals Language: English Español Français Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir How are animals involved in Ebola outbreaks? Because the natural reservoir ...

  17. Questions and answers based on revised 10 CFR Part 20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, T.; Stafford, R.S.; Lu, P.Y. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Carter, D. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1994-05-01

    NUREG/CR-6204 is a collection of questions and answers that were originally issued in seven sets and which pertain to revised 10 CFR Part 20. The questions came from both outside and within the NRC. The answers were compiled and provided by NRC staff within the offices of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, Nuclear Regulatory Research, the Office of State Programs, and the five regional offices. Although all of the questions and answers have been reviewed by attorneys in the NRC Office of the General Counsel, they do not constitute official legal interpretations relevant to revised 10 CFR Part 20. The questions and answers do, however, reflect NRC staff decisions and technical options on aspects of the revised 10 CFR Part 20 regulatory requirements. This NUREG is being made available to encourage communication among the public, industry, and NRC staff concerning the major revisions of the NRC`s standards for protection against radiation.

  18. The Senso Question Answering System at QA@CLEF 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Saias, José; Quaresma, Paulo

    2008-01-01

    This article has the Working Notes about the Universidade de Évora's participation in QA@CLEF2008 (http://www.clef-campaign.org/), based on the Senso question answer system and the Portuguese monolingual task.

  19. The MiPACQ Clinical Question Answering System

    OpenAIRE

    Cairns, Brian L.; Nielsen, Rodney D; Masanz, James J.; Martin, James H.; Palmer, Martha S.; Ward, Wayne H.; Savova, Guergana K

    2011-01-01

    The Multi-source Integrated Platform for Answering Clinical Questions (MiPACQ) is a QA pipeline that integrates a variety of information retrieval and natural language processing systems into an extensible question answering system. We present the system’s architecture and an evaluation of MiPACQ on a human-annotated evaluation dataset based on the Medpedia health and medical encyclopedia. Compared with our baseline information retrieval system, the MiPACQ rule-based system demonstrates 84% i...

  20. Question Answering on Freebase via Relation Extraction and Textual Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Kun; Reddy, Siva; Feng, Yansong; Huang, Songfang; Zhao, Dongyan

    2016-01-01

    Existing knowledge-based question answering systems often rely on small annotated training data. While shallow methods like relation extraction are robust to data scarcity, they are less expressive than the deep meaning representation methods like semantic parsing, thereby failing at answering questions involving multiple constraints. Here we alleviate this problem by empowering a relation extraction method with additional evidence from Wikipedia. We first present a neural network based relat...

  1. Learning to rank for why-question answering

    OpenAIRE

    Verberne, S.; Halteren, H. van; Theijssen, D.; Raaijmakers, S.A.; Boves, L.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate a number of machine learning techniques for the task of ranking answers to why-questions. We use TF-IDF together with a set of 36 linguistically motivated features that characterize questions and answers. We experiment with a number of machine learning techniques (among which several classifiers and regression techniques, Ranking SVM and SVMmap) in various settings. The purpose of the experiments is to assess how the different machine learning approaches can cope wi...

  2. Semantic Question Answering System over Linked Data using Relational Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Hakimov, Sherzod; Tunc, Hakan; Akimaliev, Marlen; Dogdu, Erdogan

    2013-01-01

    Question answering is the task of answering questions in naturallanguage. Linked Data project and Semantic Web communitymade it possible for us to query structured knowledge bases likeDBpedia and YAGO. Only expert users, however, with theknowledge of RDF and ontology definitions can build correctSPARQL queries for querying knowledge bases formally. In thispaper, we present a method for mapping natural languagequestions to ontology-based structured queries to retrieve directanswers from open k...

  3. Approaches to Exploring Category Information for Question Retrieval in Community Question-Answer Archives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Xin; Cong, Gao; Cui, Bin;

    2012-01-01

    Community Question Answering (CQA) is a popular type of service where users ask questions and where answers are obtained from other users or from historical question-answer pairs. CQA archives contain large volumes of questions organized into a hierarchy of categories. As an essential function of...... CQA services, question retrieval in a CQA archive aims to retrieve historical question-answer pairs that are relevant to a query question. This article presents several new approaches to exploiting the category information of questions for improving the performance of question retrieval, and it...... applies these approaches to existing question retrieval models, including a state-of-the-art question retrieval model. Experiments conducted on real CQA data demonstrate that the proposed techniques are effective and efficient and are capable of outperforming a variety of baseline methods significantly...

  4. Towards a medical question-answering system: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquemart, Pierre; Zweigenbaum, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    Question-answering (QA) systems, as have been presented and evaluated in several TREC conferences, are the next generation of search engines. They combine 'traditional' Information Retrieval (IR) with Natural Language Processing (NLP) and Knowledge Engineering techniques to provide shorter, more precise answers to natural language questions. We study here the feasibility of such a system for French in the health care domain. In this purpose, we collected a corpus of student questions in oral surgery. We examined two enabling conditions: on the IR side, how to select the right keywords in a question to identify relevant material on the Web for answering this question, a prerequisite for success; and on the NLP side, whether the contents of the questions fit the conceptual model of an existing QA prototype, a favorable condition for rapid implementation. A manual Web search enabled us to devise automatable principles for building IR queries for these questions. Besides, we could design a semantic model, using UMLS Semantic Network relations, which is consistent with our prototype and covers 90% of the questions. However, the high specialization of the domain and the clinical orientation of the questions, joined with the more limited resources online in the French language, may restrain the quantity of Web material available for answering these questions. PMID:14664030

  5. Improving passage retrieval in question answering using NLP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiedemann, J; Bento, C; Cardoso, A; Dias, G

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an approach for the integration of linguistic information in passage retrieval in an open-source question answering system for Dutch. Annotation produced by the wide-coverage dependency parser Alpino is stored in multiple index layers to be matched with natural language question

  6. Ten questions on Group Field Theory (and their tentative answers)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We provide a short and non-technical summary of our current knowledge and some possible perspectives on the group field theory formalism for quantum gravity, in the form of a (partial) FAQ (with answers). Some of the questions and answers relate to aspects of the formalism that concern loop quantum gravity. This summary also aims at giving a brief, rough guide to the recent literature on group field theory (and tensor models).

  7. Means of Question-Answer Interaction for Collaborative Development Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Sosnin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The key problem of successful developing of the software intensive system (SIS is adequate conceptual interactions of stakeholders at the early stages of designing. Nowadays the success of development is extremely low. It can be increased with using artificial intelligence (AI means including models of reasoning supported by the human-computer interaction in collaborative development activity. In this paper, a number of question-answer means for modeling reasoning are suggested. Such kind of means is defined and implemented in order to get effects of integrating the collective reasoning for their positive influence on the intellectual activity of designers. Question-answer means are arranged as a specialized processor opening the possibility to question-answer programming of the tasks on the conceptual stage of designing. Suggested and investigated means can be used for solving any complicated task.

  8. Development of Yes/No Arabic Question Answering System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafa N Bdour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Developing Question Answering systems has been one of the important research issues because it requires insights from a variety of disciplines, including, Artificial Intelligence, Information Retrieval, Information Extraction, Natural Language Processing, and Psychology. In this paper we realize a formal model for a lightweight semantic–based open domain yes/no Arabic question answering system based on paragraph retrieval (with variable length. We propose a constrained semantic representation. Using an explicit unification framework based on semantic similarities and query expansion (synonyms and antonyms. This frequently improves the precision of the system. Employing the passage retrieval system achieves a better precision by retrieving more paragraphs that contain relevant answers to the question; It significantly reduces the amount of text to be processed by the system.

  9. Infectious Mononucleosis in Active Patients: Definitive Answers to Common Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auwaerter, Paul G.

    2002-01-01

    Describes infectious mononucleosis (IM), examining viral transmission and infection, clinical features, diagnosis, and management. Focuses on answers to several commonly asked questions about IM in sport (e.g., when it is safe to resume sports after IM, how often fatigue or depression are related to earlier bouts of IM, and how often IM is…

  10. Clinical Research Trials and You: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of clinical research is to develop knowledge that improves human health or increases understanding of human biology. People who ... answer any questions from my insurance company or health plan? Will there be any travel or child care costs that I need to ...

  11. Nuclear Power and the Environment--Questions and Answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campana, Robert J.; Langer, Sidney

    This booklet has been developed to help the layman understand and evaluate the various efforts being undertaken to utilize nuclear power for the benefit of mankind. The question and answer format is utilized. Among the topics discussed are: Our Needs for Electricity; Sources of Radiation; Radiation from Nuclear Power Plants; Biological Effects of…

  12. Crohn's disease: Clinical-surgical questions and imaging answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crohn's disease is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) characterized by a relapsing clinical pattern that typically affects people during their adult and economically productive lives. Affected patients require clinical follow-up because of the periodic flare-up of the disease and of the risk of long-term complications. Extensive diagnostic procedures, medical and surgical treatments are often needed over a lifetime. The challenge posed by the management of IBD is better faced by a multidisciplinary team that includes health care providers with complementary diagnostic or therapeutic skills. The team is expected to provide the best practice to manage IBD by defining a realistic 'diagnostic and therapeutic pathway' for the patients to follow based on the locally available professional, structural and technological resources. For such a 'pathway' the correct questions and answers are essential. Sometimes it is not easy to make sense out of these questions. To ask a right question is not simple. Of course, different surgeons and gastroenterologists ask different questions. If radiologists want to choose the right imaging method, they must know these questions. There exist a simple equation: good question = correct imaging method = right answer.

  13. Handling Ambiguity Problems of Natural Language Interface for Question Answering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Alharbi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Natural language question (NLQ processing module is considered a fundamental component in the natural language interface of a Question Answering (QA system, and its quality impacts the performance of the overall QA system. The most difficult problem in developing a QA system is so hard to find an exact answer to the NLQ. One of the most challenging problems in returning answers is how to resolve lexical semantic ambiguity in the NLQs. Lexical semantic ambiguity may occurs when a user's NLQ contains words that have more than one meaning. As a result, QA system performance can be negatively affected by these ambiguous words. In this research, we aim to resolve this problem by introducing CKCO (Context Knowledge Concepts Ontology approach. This approach integrates context knowledge and concepts ontology of a domain, into a shallow natural language processing (SNLP technique. Concepts knowledge is modeled using ontology, while context knowledge contains a set of words with their senses obtained from WordNet Domain and a group of words within the proposed domain serve as context labels, and it is determined based on neighborhood words in the NLQ. We applied CKCO approach to a university QA domain for new students to examine the impact of WSD in retrieving correct answers. Experimental results show that the CKCO approach together with other components of our QA system yield a result which is 83.4% for precision. We focus on the ambiguity of nouns in the NLQ.

  14. Answering questions after initial study guides attention during restudy

    OpenAIRE

    Dirkx, Kim; Thoma, Gun-Brit; Kester, Liesbeth; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Though the testing-effect can be boosted by including a restudy phase after answering test questions, we do not know precisely why it does so. One possible explanation is being tested here. The present study measured attention allocation during initial reading and rereading with a remote eye tracker to gain information on the cognitive processes during restudy, with and without prior testing. The results show that at the final study moment, students in the study-test-condition attended longer...

  15. Passage retrieval for question answering using sliding windows

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid, M.A.; Verberne, S.

    2008-01-01

    The information retrieval (IR) community has investigated many different techniques to retrieve passages from large collections of documents for question answering (QA). In this paper, we specifically examine and quantitatively compare the impact of passage retrieval for QA using sliding windows and disjoint windows. We consider two different data sets, the TREC 2002-2003 QA data set, and 93 whyquestions against INEX Wikipedia. We discovered that, compared to disjoint windows, using sliding w...

  16. Discussion note : Did Darwin really answer Paley's question?

    OpenAIRE

    Brunnander, Björn

    2013-01-01

    It is commonly thought that natural selection explains the rise of adaptive complexity. Razeto-Barry and Frick (2011) have recently argued in favour of this view, dubbing it the Creative View. I argue that the Creative View is mistaken if it claims that natural selection serves to answer Paley’s question. This is shown by a case that brings out the contrastive structure inherent in this demand for explanation. There is, however, a rather trivial sense in which specific environmental condition...

  17. Dialogue in mathematics classrooms: Beyond question-and- answer methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Brodie

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores different kinds of interaction observed in South African mathematics classrooms in order to unpack the notion of participation in mathematics learning. It argues that conventional question-and-answer methods do not promote the kind of interaction that the new South African curriculum calls for. It presents more appropriate kinds of interactions, where teachers maintain high task demands, respond to genuine learner questions and support conversations among learners. The paper argues that combinations of different kinds of interaction are  most likely to support learner participation and mathematical thinking in classrooms.

  18. Question Processing and Clustering in INDOC: A Biomedical Question Answering System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankush Mittal

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The exponential growth in the volume of publications in the biomedical domain has made it impossible for an individual to keep pace with the advances. Even though evidence-based medicine has gained wide acceptance, the physicians are unable to access the relevant information in the required time, leaving most of the questions unanswered. This accentuates the need for fast and accurate biomedical question answering systems. In this paper we introduce INDOC—a biomedical question answering system based on novel ideas of indexing and extracting the answer to the questions posed. INDOC displays the results in clusters to help the user arrive the most relevant set of documents quickly. Evaluation was done against the standard OHSUMED test collection. Our system achieves high accuracy and minimizes user effort.

  19. Question Processing and Clustering in INDOC: A Biomedical Question Answering System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sondhi Parikshit

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The exponential growth in the volume of publications in the biomedical domain has made it impossible for an individual to keep pace with the advances. Even though evidence-based medicine has gained wide acceptance, the physicians are unable to access the relevant information in the required time, leaving most of the questions unanswered. This accentuates the need for fast and accurate biomedical question answering systems. In this paper we introduce INDOC—a biomedical question answering system based on novel ideas of indexing and extracting the answer to the questions posed. INDOC displays the results in clusters to help the user arrive the most relevant set of documents quickly. Evaluation was done against the standard OHSUMED test collection. Our system achieves high accuracy and minimizes user effort.

  20. Question Answering System for an Effective Collaborative Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Kohei Arai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing advances of Internet Technologies in all application domains have changed life styles and interactions. With the rapid development of E-Learning, collaborative learning is an important for teaching, learning methods and strategies. Interaction between the students also student with the teacher is important for student to gain knowledge. Based on the four basic teaching styles formal authority, demonstrator or personal model, facilitator and delegator, today combined between facilitator and delegator style is responsible for student learning. It is student centered and the teacher as facilitates the material and activities, but learning becomes part of valuable and effective when they collaborate with each other, and as the teacher who will delegates and facilitates the responsibility of learning to the students. In this paper, we introduce an effective question answering Q&A system for collaborative learning, which can act not just like a virtual teacher, but also virtual discussion for student. With the proposed system, brings a new Q&A system, student can attach their question when they want collaborate using collaborative learning capitalize on one another’s resources and skills. Students can ask their questions to the group when they want to collaborate with others, asking one another for information, evaluating one another’s ideas, then each of the answer will compare with encyclopedia data base. In this research, the Q&A system for the Senior High School in Indonesia, in this subject of Information Communication Technology implemented. From the the 40 question and 120 answer, the result is 90,48% precision 50% recall.

  1. Radiation damage to biological macromolecules: some answers and more questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research into radiation damage in macromolecular crystallography has matured over the last few years, resulting in a better understanding of both the processes and timescales involved. In turn this is now allowing practical recommendations for the optimization of crystal dose lifetime to be suggested. Some long-standing questions have been answered by recent investigations, and from these answers new challenges arise and areas of investigation can be proposed. Six papers published in this volume give an indication of some of the current directions of this field and also that of single-particle cryo-microscopy, and the brief summary below places them into the overall framework of ongoing research into macromolecular crystallography radiation damage. (authors)

  2. Management of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) questions ampersand answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This open-quotes Management of PCBs Questions and Answersclose quotes has been developed from a presentation given by Dr. John Smith of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the transcribed question and answer session which followed the presentation. Dr. Smith was featured at the first DOE complex-wide PCB Focus Group meeting held in San Francisco, California in December 1992. The meeting was attended by representatives from field elements who were actively involved in the management of PCBs. The meeting served as a forum for the exchange of information and discussion of PCB management issues. This document has been prepared as one of several guidance documents developed by the Department of Energy Office of Environmental Policy and Assistance (EH-41) (formerly the Office of Environmental Guidance, EH-23) to assist DOE elements in their PCB management programs. This document is organized into three parts: (1) an introduction describing the conception and development of this document, (2) a summary of Dr. Smith's presentation, and (3) the question and answer session

  3. Your Statistical Consultant Answers to Your Data Analysis Questions

    CERN Document Server

    Newton, Dr Rae R

    1999-01-01

    Do you ever feel at a loss on how to proceed with a particular set of data? Your Statistical Consultant can provide the answer. This comprehensive guide introduces, describes, and makes recommendations regarding difficult statistical problems and techniques. The authors discuss common problems by addressing frequently asked questions; provide a conceptual overview of topics and techniques; give accounts of such new-found topics as the debate over statistical significance, effect sizes and meta-analysis; and highlight and explain key terms and points.

  4. NUFACT11 round table discussion questions and answers

    CERN Document Server

    Blondel, A

    2013-01-01

    This presents the response to questions formulated by a round table discussion panel to the NUFACT11 participants. The main points made were as follows. Neutrino mass is physics beyond the Standard Model, it presents a very deep puzzle to solve, with the answers to several fundamental questions as potential reward. Precision measurement of oscillation parameters is one essential way to access information needed to solve this puzzle and there is a relatively clear (but not easy) way forward. Large θ(13) makes the appearance signals larger, but does not allow to relax the requirements on high beam intensity and large detector masses, it creates a difficult challenge on systematic errors, which will require dedicated ancillary experiments. Of particular interest is a low intensity muon storage ring for required cross-section measurements. There exist already extended bottom-up international collaboration in both physics and R&D experiments. All three main regions have plans for upgraded super-beams and asso...

  5. Cross-domain question classification in community question answering via kernel mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Lei; Hu, Zuoliang; Yang, Bin; Li, Yiyang; Chen, Jun

    2015-10-01

    An increasingly popular method for retrieving information is via the community question answering (CQA) systems such as Yahoo! Answers and Baidu Knows. In CQA, question classification plays an important role to find the answers. However, the labeled training examples for statistical question classifier are fairly expensive to obtain, as they require the experienced human efforts. Meanwhile, unlabeled data are readily available. This paper employs the method of domain adaptation via kernel mapping to solve this problem. In detail, the kernel approach is utilized to map the target-domain data and the source-domain data into a common space, where the question classifiers are trained under the closer conditional probabilities. The kernel mapping function is constructed by domain knowledge. Therefore, domain knowledge could be transferred from the labeled examples in the source domain to the unlabeled ones in the targeted domain. The statistical training model can be improved by using a large number of unlabeled data. Meanwhile, the Hadoop Platform is used to construct the mapping mechanism to reduce the time complexity. Map/Reduce enable kernel mapping for domain adaptation in parallel in the Hadoop Platform. Experimental results show that the accuracy of question classification could be improved by the method of kernel mapping. Furthermore, the parallel method in the Hadoop Platform could effective schedule the computing resources to reduce the running time.

  6. Retrievability - A too simple answer to a difficult question?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Near to Stockholm in October, 1999, KASAM and IAEA held a joint seminar on Retrievability. There were some 40 participants from about ten countries. Consensus was not the objective, moreover, the discussions were conducted in a friendly spirit of respect and wish to understand different opinions. The retrievability option was incorporated into into broader concepts by a stepwise procedure designed to allow the possibility of steps being reversed, thereby reducing the dramatic difference between open and closed repositories. Each step would give you time to consider and best if the repository concept so far was up to expectations. Retrievability is not a simple answer, but it helps to make this question less complicated. (author)

  7. The question answer system based on natural language understanding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Qing-lin; FAN Xiao-zhong

    2007-01-01

    Automatic Question Answer System(QAS) is a kind of high-powered software system based on Internet. Its key technology is the interrelated technology based on natural language understanding, including the construction of knowledge base and corpus, the Word Segmentation and POS Tagging of text, the Grammatical Analysis and Semantic Analysis of sentences etc. This thesis dissertated mainly the denotation of knowledge-information based on semantic network in QAS, the stochastic syntax-parse model named LSF of knowledge-information in QAS, the structure and constitution of QAS. And the LSF model's parameters were exercised, which proved that they were feasible. At the same time, through "the limited-domain QAS" which was exploited for banks by us, these technologies were proved effective and propagable.

  8. Instructor-Aided Asynchronous Question Answering System for Online Education and Distance Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Dunwei; Cuzzola, John; Brown, Lorna; Kinshuk

    2012-01-01

    Question answering systems have frequently been explored for educational use. However, their value was somewhat limited due to the quality of the answers returned to the student. Recent question answering (QA) research has started to incorporate deep natural language processing (NLP) in order to improve these answers. However, current NLP…

  9. ABC-CNN: An Attention Based Convolutional Neural Network for Visual Question Answering

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Kan; Wang, Jiang; Chen, Liang-Chieh; Gao, Haoyuan; Xu, Wei; Nevatia, Ram

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel attention based deep learning architecture for visual question answering task (VQA). Given an image and an image related natural language question, VQA generates the natural language answer for the question. Generating the correct answers requires the model's attention to focus on the regions corresponding to the question, because different questions inquire about the attributes of different image regions. We introduce an attention based configurable convolutional neural ne...

  10. NUFACT11 Round Table Discussion — Questions and Answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presents the response to questions formulated by a round table discussion panel to the NUFACT11 participants. The main points made were as follows. Neutrino mass is physics beyond the Standard Model; it presents a very deep puzzle to solve, with the answers to several fundamental questions as potential reward. Precision measurement of oscillation parameters is one essential way to access information needed to solve this puzzle and there is a relatively clear (but not easy) way forward. Large θ13 makes the appearance signals larger, but does not allow to relax the requirements on high beam intensity and large detector masses; it creates a difficult challenge on systematic errors, which will require dedicated ancillary experiments. Of particular interest is a low intensity muon storage ring for required cross-section measurements. There exist already extended bottom-up international collaboration in both physics and R and D experiments. All three main regions have plans for upgraded super-beams and associated detectors, with a variety of (mostly) complementary baselines, proceeding in an incremental way. The ultimate precision and verification of the neutrino mixing picture requires new types of neutrino beams based on storage rings. For low energy neutrinos, the beta-beam is a possible (but substantial) intermediate step. The Neutrino Factory offers the best precision and best sensitivity to deviations from the standard picture. Coordinated international R and D is pursued. International collaboration at the top level would be beneficial in acknowledging the process, so as make sure that intermediate steps are effectively building up in complementary fashion towards the ultimate goals.

  11. Questioning and critical thinking in liberal studies

    OpenAIRE

    Hang, Wing-sum; 幸穎沁

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines the relations between questioning and critical thinking in Liberal Studies. In particular, it introduces the use of Questioning Cycle to investigate the effectiveness of questioning in cultivating students’ critical thinking skills and dispositions. By identifying difficulties and constrains in teaching critical thinking, it is hope to offer insights to improving questioning skills, in hope of developing questioning as an effective teaching strategy in Liberal Studi...

  12. [Dental care in pregnancy. Ten questions and answers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patcas, Raphael; Schmidlin, Patrick R; Zimmermann, Roland; Gnoinski, Wanda

    2012-01-01

    Dental care of pregnant patients is a demanding task. On one hand, clinicians are facing patients with an altered physiology that may cause a greater need for treatment. On the other hand, pregnancy in itself as well as the unborn child involves potential contraindications to dental interventions. It is therefore essential that dentists be knowledgeable of the ramifications pregnancy has on medical findings and therapy. Also, clinicians must be able to conduct their treatment based on well-grounded data to avoid any harm to the pregnant woman and her unborn child. This article focuses on facts specifically relevant to clinicians. Based on most current scientific data, we aim to answer the following ten questions: 1. What are the physiological changes during pregnancy? 2. What is the adequate lying position for a pregnant patient? 3. Is there a pregnancy-related gingivitis? 4. What is the association between periodontitis, pregnancy and preterm birth? 5. Are there oral manifestations of pregnancy-related therapies? 6. Are caries and erosions inevitable during pregnancy? 7. Should the intake of fluoride be advocated? 8. Is it permissible to x-ray pregnant patients? 9. Is orthodontics contraindicated during pregnancy and 10. Which medication should be administered with caution? PMID:23023311

  13. Breast milk stem cells: four questions looking for an answer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavino Faa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The finding of stem/progenitor cells in the maternal milk and the discovery of their multilineage potential, associated with some evidence regarding the ability of maternal cells to cross the gastrointestinal barrier and integrate into the organs of the breastfed neonate, has opened an intriguing debate, regarding the strict relationship between mother and son in the postnatal period. In particular, thanks to the discovery of the presence in high quantities of mammary stem cells, a new vision of maternal milk is emerging, in which breastfeeding appears as an unique occasion for reinforcing the physiological development of the newborn, putting all the formulas at a different level of relevance for the neonate. In this contribution the authors try to give an answer to the following 4 questions:is there heterogeneity and a hierarchy among breast milk stem cells?can stem cells present in breast milk enter into the newborn organism?can breast milk stem cells integrate in the neonatal organs and differentiate toward different tissues, including neurons and neuroglia?could metabolomics be useful for the study of stem cells in the human milk? Proceedings of the 2nd International Course on Perinatal Pathology (part of the 11th International Workshop on Neonatology · October 26th-31st, 2015 · Cagliari (Italy · October 31st, 2015 · Stem cells: present and future Guest Editors: Gavino Faa, Vassilios Fanos, Antonio Giordano

  14. TrustQ: a category reputation based question and answer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuhua; Shen, Haiying

    2014-06-01

    Question and Answering (Q/A) systems aggregate the collected intelligence of all users to provide satisfying answers for questions. A well-developed Q/A system should provide high question response rate, low response delay and good answer quality. Previous works use reputation systems to achieve the goals. However, these reputation systems evaluate a user with an overall rating for all questions the user has answered regardless of the question categories, thus the reputation score cannot accurately reflect the user's ability to answer a question in a specific category. In this paper, we propose TtustQ, a category reputation based Q/A System. TtustQ evaluates users' willingness and capability to answer questions in different categories. Considering a user has different willingness to answer questions from different users, TtustQ lets each node evaluate the reputation of other nodes answering its own questions. User a calculates user b's final reputation by considering both user a's direct rating and the indirect ratings on user b from other nodes. The reputation values facilitate forwarding a question to potential answerers, which improves the question response rate, response delay and answer quality. Our trace-driven simulation on PeerSim demonstrates the effectiveness of TtustQ in providing good user experience in terms of response rate and latency, and the answer quality.

  15. Managing the Documentation Maze Answers to Questions You Didn't Even Know to Ask

    CERN Document Server

    Gough, Janet

    2010-01-01

    This book deals with a topic of critical importance for compliance with record-keeping regulations in pharmaceutical and medical device industries. It presents more than 750 questions and answers about documentation management, whether electronic or paper-based. It defines, through a Q&A approach, what document management actually is, and why it should be a core discipline in the industry. Questions and responses also address electronic system selection and validation, system security, user accountability, and audit trails, as well as standard operating procedures for supporting document syste

  16. Anaphora in question-answer sessions in university ELF contexts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Wulstan Christiansen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - Identity chains (Hasan 1984 ˗ strings of co-referential noun phrases ˗ constitute a lesser researched area in the field of ELF, as has the more general area of cohesion (but see Hüttner 2009, Christiansen 2011. Following on the work on anaphora of such scholars as Reinhart (1983 and Cornish (1999, and on cohesion (e.g. Halliday and Hasan 1976, Halliday 2004, Christiansen (2009a/b, 2011 focuses on the link between text cohesion and discourse coherence. The interactive perspective of discourse (seen as the process of which text is the product: see Widdowson 1984: 100 is especially relevant to an ELF context of spontaneous spoken interaction. As Guido (2008 evidences, different inter-cultural concerns constitute a crucial dimension to the complex multi-code interaction. Consequently, the diverse ways in which speakers from different L1 backgrounds employ anaphors and construct identity chains are key elements in the co-construction of a dialogic text. In this case study, six extracts of transcripts taken from the VOICE corpus (2011 of conference question and answer sessions set in multicultural contexts are analysed qualitatively. The different ways that participants construct identity chains (e.g. whether they use full forms of various kinds or anaphoric pro-forms are classified. The analysis focuses on both how individual anaphors are resolved and how relations between anaphors and antecedent triggers are encoded, and how identity chains are constructed and organized individually. The objective is to identify which kinds of noun phrase (various subtypes of full and pro-forms are used by diverse groups of EFL speakers both in relation to their own contributions and to those of other speakers (with a threefold distinction made between the same turn of the same speaker, a different turn of the same speaker, and a different turn by a different speaker.

  17. Answers to Your Questions about Transgender Individuals and Gender Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Questions for a Better Understanding of Sexual Orientation & Homosexuality for more information on sexual orientation). The degree ... questions for a better understanding of sexual orientation & homosexuality. Retrieved from http: / / www. apa. org/ topics/ lgbt/ ...

  18. Creative industries, its critics, and some answers

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart Cunningham

    2011-01-01

    Arguments as to just what should be included under the definition of «creative industries» have limited their acceptance and the adoption of suitable policies. There are opposing analyses and statistical categories, such as the copyright industry, the content industry, the cultural industry, the digital content industry, the arts and entertainment industry, etc. that make it difficult to gather accurate, reliable, timely data on this mega-sector. Another major criticism is that «creative» wor...

  19. Answers to Essential Questions about Standards, Assessments, Grading, & Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guskey, Thomas R.; Jung, Lee Ann

    2013-01-01

    How do assessments for learning differ from assessments of learning? What is the purpose of grading? After nearly two decades of immersion in standards-based curriculua and instruction, our nation's educators are often still confounded by the (admittedly complex) landscape of standards, assessment, and reporting. In "Answers to Essential…

  20. Switching Answers on Multiple-Choice Questions: Shrewdness or Shibboleth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Nicholas F.

    1983-01-01

    Because of a belief that the alternatives they had chosen initially were probably correct, most subjects were reluctant to change answers, and, consequently, did so only when they were highly confident in the change. Results were that more than half the changes were correct. (RM)

  1. The art of data analysis how to answer almost any question using basic statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Jarman, Kristin H

    2013-01-01

    A friendly and accessible approach to applying statistics in the real worldWith an emphasis on critical thinking, The Art of Data Analysis: How to Answer Almost Any Question Using Basic Statistics presents fun and unique examples, guides readers through the entire data collection and analysis process, and introduces basic statistical concepts along the way.Leaving proofs and complicated mathematics behind, the author portrays the more engaging side of statistics and emphasizes its role as a problem-solving tool.  In addition, light-hearted case studies

  2. The Answering Process for Multiple-Choice Questions in Collaborative Learning: A Mathematical Learning Model Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Nishi, Shinnosuke; Muramatsu, Yuta; Yasutake, Koichi; Yamakawa, Osamu; Tagawa, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a mathematical model for collaborative learning and the answering process for multiple-choice questions. The collaborative learning model is inspired by the Ising spin model and the model for answering multiple-choice questions is based on their difficulty level. An intensive simulation study predicts the possibility of…

  3. Answering the Critics of School Administration, 2nd Ed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protheroe, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    All too often, the public perception of school administration is that it is a large bureaucracy diverting critical resources from instruction. According to "Answering the Critics of School Administration: What Are the Facts? Second Edition," by Nancy Protheroe, the data show otherwise. Six common misperceptions of school administration are…

  4. True Knowledge: Open-Domain Question Answering Using Structured Knowledge and Inference

    OpenAIRE

    Tunstall-Pedoe, William; True Knowledge Ltd

    2010-01-01

    This article gives a detailed description of True Knowledge: a commercial, open-domain question answering platform. The system combines a large and growing structured knowledge base of common sense, factual and lexical knowledge; a natural language translation system that turns user questions into internal language-independent queries and an inference system that can answer those queries using both directly represented and inferred knowledge. The system is live and answers millions of questio...

  5. Can Emergency Medicine Residents Reliably Use the Internet to Answer Clinical Questions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June Abbas

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The study objective was to determine the accuracy of answers to clinical questions by emergency medicine (EM residents conducting Internet searches by using Google. Emergency physicians commonly turn to outside resources to answer clinical questions that arise in the emergency department (ED. Internet access in the ED has supplanted textbooks for references because it is perceived as being more up to date. Although Google is the most widely used general Internet search engine, it is not medically oriented and merely provides links to other sources. Users must judge the reliability of the information obtained on the links. We frequently observed EM faculty and residents using Google rather than medicine-specific databases to seek answers to clinical questions. Methods: Two EM faculties developed a clinically oriented test for residents to take without the use of any outside aid. They were instructed to answer each question only if they were confident enough of their answer to implement it in a patient-care situation. Questions marked as unsure or answered incorrectly were used to construct a second test for each subject. On the second test, they were instructed to use Google as a resource to find links that contained answers. Results: Thirty-three residents participated. The means for the initial test were 32% correct, 28% incorrect, and 40% unsure. On the Google test, the mean for correct answers was 59%; 33% of answers were incorrect and 8% were unsure. Conclusion: EM residents’ ability to answer clinical questions correctly by using Web sites from Google searches was poor. More concerning was that unsure answers decreased, whereas incorrect answers increased. The Internet appears to have given the residents a false sense of security in their answers. Innovations, such as Internet access in the ED, should be studied carefully before being accepted as reliable tools for teaching clinical decision making. [West J Emerg Med. 2011

  6. Workplace violence in victim surveys. : Same questions but different answers

    OpenAIRE

    Wikman, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    An analysis based on a comparison of three Swedish victim surveys examines violence at work on the basis of the questions on exposure to threats and violence. The questions that are included are very similar in all three of surveys: Statistics Sweden’s surveys of The Swedish population’s living conditions (ULF), Swedish Work Environment Authority’s survey The Work environment and Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention’s survey The Swedish Crime Survey (NTU). However the prevalence’s ar...

  7. Theorizing the Entrepreneurial University: Open Questions and Possible Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiris, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts to address theoretical questions regarding the transition towards an entrepreneurial university and the changes associated with this process, namely the increased commodification, the competitive quest for private funding and the introduction of business management practices. The important theoretical advances made in the…

  8. Question Answering in a Natural Language Understanding System Based on Object-Oriented Semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Ostapov, Yuriy

    2011-01-01

    Algorithms of question answering in a computer system oriented on input and logical processing of text information are presented. A knowledge domain under consideration is social behavior of a person. A database of the system includes an internal representation of natural language sentences and supplemental information. The answer {\\it Yes} or {\\it No} is formed for a general question. A special question containing an interrogative word or group of interrogative words permits to find a subjec...

  9. Joint model of topics, expertises, activities and trends for question answering Web applications

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Zide; Gandon, Fabien; Faron Zucker, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Users in question-answer sites generate huge amounts of high quality and highly reusable information. This information can be categorized by topics but since users' interests change with time, it's important to uncover the temporal patterns and trends in their activity to detect their current expertize. These temporal variations remained unexplored in question-answer sites while detecting them enables us to improve tasks such as: question routing, expert recommending and community life-cycle ...

  10. Good question, nice answer, but why without happiness?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Ott (Jan Cornelis)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn their book "How much is enough?" Robert and Edward Skidelsky observe that philosophers and societies have always been critical about greed and insatiability. The pursuit of money and possessions was always subordinated to higher ideals, which were associated with views on ‘the good

  11. Hypernatremia and intracranial pressure: more questions than answers

    OpenAIRE

    Griesdale, Donald EG; Sekhon, Mypinder S; Henderson, William R.

    2013-01-01

    The observational literature suggests that hypernatremia is associated with worse outcomes in patients with traumatic brain injury. In a previous issue of Critical Care, Wells and colleagues add to this literature by failing to show an association between hypernatremia and reduced intracranial pressure. However, we must bear in mind many limitations of observational methods before eliminating hyperosmolar therapy from our armamentarium.

  12. Comparison of Question Answering Systems Based on Ontology and Semantic Web in Different Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Duraiswamy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Question Answering (QA system is taking an important role in current search engine optimization concept. Natural language processing technique is mostly implemented in QA system for asking user’s question and several steps are also followed for conversion of questions to query form for getting an exact answer. Approach: This paper surveys different types of question answering system based on ontology and semantic web model with different query format. For comparison, the types of input, query processing method, input and output format of each system and the performance metrics with its limitations are analyzed and discussed. Our question answering for automatic learning system architecture is used to overcome the difficulties raised from the different QA models. Results: The semantic search methodology is implemented by using RDF graph in the application of data structure domain and the performance is also analyzed. Answers are retrieved from ontology using Semantic Search approach and question-to-query algorithm is evaluated in our system for analyzing performance evaluation. Conclusion: Performance of question answering system of getting exact result can be improved by using semantic search methodology for retrieving answers from ontology model. Our system successfully implements this technique and the system is also used in intelligent manner for automatic learning method.

  13. Answers to Health Questions: Internet Search Results Versus Online Health Community Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeesch, Amber; Given, Barbara; Huh, Jina

    2016-01-01

    Background About 6 million people search for health information on the Internet each day in the United States. Both patients and caregivers search for information about prescribed courses of treatments, unanswered questions after a visit to their providers, or diet and exercise regimens. Past literature has indicated potential challenges around quality in health information available on the Internet. However, diverse information exists on the Internet—ranging from government-initiated webpages to personal blog pages. Yet we do not fully understand the strengths and weaknesses of different types of information available on the Internet. Objective The objective of this research was to investigate the strengths and challenges of various types of health information available online and to suggest what information sources best fit various question types. Methods We collected questions posted to and the responses they received from an online diabetes community and classified them according to Rothwell’s classification of question types (fact, policy, or value questions). We selected 60 questions (20 each of fact, policy, and value) and the replies the questions received from the community. We then searched for responses to the same questions using a search engine and recorded the Results Community responses answered more questions than did search results overall. Search results were most effective in answering value questions and least effective in answering policy questions. Community responses answered questions across question types at an equivalent rate, but most answered policy questions and the least answered fact questions. Value questions were most answered by community responses, but some of these answers provided by the community were incorrect. Fact question search results were the most clinically valid. Conclusions The Internet is a prevalent source of health information for people. The information quality people encounter online can have a large impact

  14. Good question, nice answer, but why without happiness?

    OpenAIRE

    Ott, Jan Cornelis

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn their book "How much is enough?" Robert and Edward Skidelsky observe that philosophers and societies have always been critical about greed and insatiability. The pursuit of money and possessions was always subordinated to higher ideals, which were associated with views on ‘the good life’. This subordination led to standards about appropriateness and enoughness. This morality is gone. Dominant economic thinking accepts greed and insatiability as guiding principles. The needs of ...

  15. Cultural differences in answering physics questions: Could they arise from the difference between reasoning expected in answering exam questions in those cultures?

    CERN Document Server

    Raduta, C; Raduta, Cristian; Aubrecht, Gordon

    2005-01-01

    In many ways, the American learning system is unique in its reliance on testing using multiple-choice questions. Learning in physics, as well as in any other subject, is a context-dependent process. In this paper, I consider a broader problem of where differences in understanding arise; often styles of answering questions arise from the way the questions are posed. I speculate on the long-run effects a multiple-choice based learning system might have on the reasoning structure of the student compared to one based on more open-ended questions. I present some differences in answer styles observed between two populations of students, US students (mostly exposed to multiple-choice type exams), and Romanian students (mostly exposed to open-end type exams). Finally, I suggest some possible ways of checking whether my predictions have any validity.

  16. Workplace Safety: you've answered the right questions!

    CERN Multimedia

    The Safety Unit (BE Department)

    2011-01-01

    The World Day for Safety and Health at Work was a great success. A big thank you to everyone who took part and took the time to ask themselves the "right questions".   A large number of questionnaires were completed and we were happy to note that many among you had taken the opportunity to give serious thought to your own health and safety on a daily basis. In a few days' time, information on the hazards most frequently identified over the course of that day – and the methods of coping with them – will be posted on the BE Safety Unit's website. If you have any questions, please do not hesitate to contact us. The 15 winners of the tombola are: 1st prize (a FNAC gift voucher) Jean-Benoit Fouillat 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th prizes (a bottle of champagne): Maud Scheubel Pierre Juteau Sebastien Ceuterickx Joao Simoes From 6th to 15th prize (a box of chocolates): Antonio Mongelluzzo Francesco Castronuovo Christophe Boucly Marta Csatari Jacky Tonoli Remy Noulib...

  17. Impact of Question-Answering Tasks on Search Processes and Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdan, Raquel; Vidal-Abarca, Eduardo; Martinez, Tomas; Gilabert, Ramiro; Gil, Laura

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effect of (a) high- and low-level questions and (b) reading the text before the questions asked on performance, delayed text recall, and deep text comprehension, as well as on specific text-inspection patterns. Participants were 37 undergraduate students who answered either high- or low-level questions using the software…

  18. Efficiently and Effectively Answering Why-Not Questions based on Provenance Polynomials

    OpenAIRE

    Bidoit, Nicole; Herschel, Melanie; Tzompanaki, Katerina

    2015-01-01

    The problem of answering Why-Not questions consists in explaining why the result of a querydoes not contain some expected data, i.e., missing answers. To solve this problem, we resort to identifyingwhere in the query, data relevant to the missing answer were lost. Existing algorithms producing suchquery-based explanations rely on a query tree representation, potentially leading to different or partialexplanations. This significantly impairs on the effectiveness of computed explanations. Here ...

  19. Platelet Transfusion and Thrombosis: More Questions than Answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Amy E; Refaai, Majed A; Blumberg, Neil

    2016-03-01

    Platelets perform a vital role in hemostasis and their role in inflammation is becoming increasingly evident. Blood transfusion is the most common procedure performed in hospitals and platelet transfusions comprise a significant proportion. Over the past few decades, retrospective studies and randomized clinical trials have demonstrated that blood transfusion is more harmful than previously thought and is associated with numerous complications, such as transfusion-associated lung injury, transfusion-associated cardiac overload, transfusion-associated immune modulation, and infectious diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus, and hepatitis B virus. Recent data suggest an association between platelet transfusion and thrombosis. This review will highlight the mechanistic issues that may be relevant to the epidemiologic associations of platelet transfusion with thrombosis and mortality in critically ill patients. PMID:26716501

  20. Numerical analytic continuation: Answers to well-posed questions

    CERN Document Server

    Goulko, Olga; Pollet, Lode; Prokof'ev, Nikolay; Svistunov, Boris

    2016-01-01

    We formulate the problem of numerical analytic continuation in a way that lets us draw meaningful conclusions about properties of the spectral function based solely on the input data. Apart from ensuring consistency with the input data (within their error bars) and the {\\it a priori} and {\\it a posteriori} (conditional) constraints, it is crucial to reliably characterize the accuracy---or even ambiguity---of the output. We explain how these challenges can be met with two approaches: stochastic optimization with consistent constraints and the modified maximum entropy method. We perform illustrative tests for spectra with a double-peak structure, where we critically examine which spectral properties are accessible and which ones are lost. For an important practical example, we apply our protocol to the Fermi polaron problem.

  1. Difficult Questions and Ambivalent Answers on Genetic Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Wiszmeg

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A qualitative pilot study on the attitudes of some citizens in southern Sweden toward predictive genetic testing – and a quantitative nation wide opinion poll targeting the same issues, was initiated by the Cultural Scientific Research Team of BAGADILICO. The latter is an international biomedical research environment on neurological disease at Lund University. The data of the two studies crystallized through analysis into themes around which the informants’ personal negotiations of opinions and emotions in relation to the topic centred: Concept of Risk,‘Relations and Moral Multi-layers, Worry, Agency and Autonomy, Authority, and Rationality versus Emotion. The studies indicate that even groups of people that beforehand are non-engaged in the issue, harbour complex and ambivalent emotions and opinions toward questions like this. A certain kind of situation bound pragmatism that with difficulty could be shown by quantitative methods alone emerges. This confirms our belief that methodological consideration of combining quantitative and qualitative methods is crucial for gaining a more complex representation of attitudes, as well as for problematizing the idea of a unified public open to inquiry.

  2. The Senso Question Answering approach to Portuguese QA@CLEF-2007

    OpenAIRE

    Saias, José; Quaresma, Paulo

    2007-01-01

    This article has the Working Notes about the Universidade de Évora's participation in QA@CLEF2007 (http://www.clef-campaign.org/), based on the Senso question answer system and the Portuguese monolingual task.

  3. Study on abnormal amphibians on National Wildlife Refuges: Questions and answers

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document answers questions related to a 10year abnormal amphibian study conducted on U.S. National Wildlife Refuges. Topics include: why the study was...

  4. Know Hepatitis B Questions and Answers for Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Campaign About our Partner Spread the Word Know Hepatitis B Questions and Answers Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Overview Transmission Symptoms Testing Treatment Overview What is Hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is a liver disease. It ...

  5. Question and Answer Guide for Starting and Growing Your Small Business

    OpenAIRE

    Tate, Scott; Tyler-Mackey, Crystal

    2013-01-01

    This guide answers questions about starting and growing your small business including entrepreneurship, the business plan, legal structure and regulations, financing your business, business opportunities and types of business, and finally agencies and resources.

  6. Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT): Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT): Questions and Answers ... of prostate cancer mean to men who take vitamin E but who were not SELECT participants? The ...

  7. Question Answering in a Natural Language Understanding System Based on Object-Oriented Semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Ostapov, Yuriy

    2011-01-01

    Algorithms of question answering in a computer system oriented on input and logical processing of text information are presented. A knowledge domain under consideration is social behavior of a person. A database of the system includes an internal representation of natural language sentences and supplemental information. The answer {\\it Yes} or {\\it No} is formed for a general question. A special question containing an interrogative word or group of interrogative words permits to find a subject, object, place, time, cause, purpose and way of action or event. Answer generation is based on identification algorithms of persons, organizations, machines, things, places, and times. Proposed algorithms of question answering can be realized in information systems closely connected with text processing (criminology, operation of business, medicine, document systems).

  8. A Semi-supervised learning approach to enhance health care Community-based Question Answering: A case study in alcoholism

    OpenAIRE

    Wongchaisuwat, Papis; Klabjan, Diego; Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha R

    2016-01-01

    Community-based Question Answering (CQA) sites play an important role in addressing health information needs. However, a significant number of posted questions remain unanswered. Automatically answering the posted questions can provide a useful source of information for online health communities. In this study, we developed an algorithm to automatically answer health-related questions based on past questions and answers (QA). We also aimed to understand information embedded within online heal...

  9. Answers to questions about updated estimates of occupational radiation doses at Three Mile Island, Unit 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-12-01

    The purpose of this question and answer report is to provide a clear, easy-to-understand explanation of revised radiation dose estimates which workers are likely to receive over the course of the cleanup at Three Mile Island, Unit 2, and of the possible health consequences to workers of these new estimates. We will focus primarily on occupational dose, although pertinent questions about public health and safety will also be answered.

  10. Answers to questions about updated estimates of occupational radiation doses at Three Mile Island, Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this question and answer report is to provide a clear, easy-to-understand explanation of revised radiation dose estimates which workers are likely to receive over the course of the cleanup at Three Mile Island, Unit 2, and of the possible health consequences to workers of these new estimates. We will focus primarily on occupational dose, although pertinent questions about public health and safety will also be answered

  11. Can Emergency Medicine Residents Reliably Use the Internet to Answer Clinical Questions?

    OpenAIRE

    June Abbas; Diane G. Schwartz; Shravanti Halpern; Ronald Moscati; Richard Krause

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The study objective was to determine the accuracy of answers to clinical questions by emergency medicine (EM) residents conducting Internet searches by using Google. Emergency physicians commonly turn to outside resources to answer clinical questions that arise in the emergency department (ED). Internet access in the ED has supplanted textbooks for references because it is perceived as being more up to date. Although Google is the most widely used general Internet search engine,...

  12. A novel approach for agent ontology and its application in question answering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Qing-lin

    2009-01-01

    The information integration method of semantic web based on agent ontology (SWAO method) was put forward aiming at the problems in current network environment, which integrates, analyzes and processes enormous web information and extracts answers on the basis of semantics. With SWAO method as the clue, the following technologies were studied: the method of concept extraction based on semantic term mining, agent ontology construction method on account of multi-points and the answer extraction in view of semantic inference. Meanwhile, the structural model of the question answering system applying ontology was presented, which adopts OWL language to describe domain knowledge from where QA system infers and extracts answers by Jena inference engine. In the system testing, the precision rate reaches 86%, and the recalling rate is 93%. The experimental results prove that it is feasible to use the method to develop a question answering system, which is valuable for further study in more depth.

  13. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in Alzheimer's disease: key questions and partial answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calon, F

    2011-08-01

    The current rise in the prevalence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is unfortunately not matched by new treatment options. In the last 10 years, epidemiological, preclinical and clinical data have enlightened the possible preventive action of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) in AD and other diseases. While the contribution of recent studies to our general knowledge is priceless, many important new questions have been raised. In the present review, we aim at addressing some of these timely interrogations. First, the transport of n-3 PUFA across the blood-brain barrier is underscored based on preclinical data. Second, the relative contribution of two neuroactive n-3 PUFA found in fish oil, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 n-3) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3), remains unclear and is reviewed. Third, clinical trials on neurodegenerative diseases consistently remind us that treating early is critical, and this is likely to be the case with n-3 PUFA in AD as well. Fourth, we draw attention to the possibility that the current knowledge translation approach to make health recommendations might have to be adapted to non-patentable endogenous compounds like n-3 PUFA. We propose that answers to these critical questions will be instrumental toward a rational use of n-3 PUFA in AD. PMID:21605051

  14. Answers to frequently asked questions about cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This question-and-answer report provides answers in nontechnical language to frequently asked questions about the status of cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. The answers update information first prepared in 1981, shortly after the cleanup got under way. Since then, a variety of important developments in the cleanup has occurred. The information in the report should be read in conjunction with NUREG 1060, a discussion of increased occupational exposure estimates for the cleanup. The questions and answers in this report cover purpose and community involvement, decontamination of water and reactor, fuel removal, radwaste transport, environmental impact, social and economic effects, worker exposures and safety, radiation monitoring, potential for accidents, and schedule and funding

  15. A cognitive evaluation of four online search engines for answering definitional questions posed by physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong; Kaufman, David

    2007-01-01

    The Internet is having a profound impact on physicians' medical decision making. One recent survey of 277 physicians showed that 72% of physicians regularly used the Internet to research medical information and 51% admitted that information from web sites influenced their clinical decisions. This paper describes the first cognitive evaluation of four state-of-the-art Internet search engines: Google (i.e., Google and Scholar.Google), MedQA, Onelook, and PubMed for answering definitional questions (i.e., questions with the format of "What is X?") posed by physicians. Onelook is a portal for online definitions, and MedQA is a question answering system that automatically generates short texts to answer specific biomedical questions. Our evaluation criteria include quality of answer, ease of use, time spent, and number of actions taken. Our results show that MedQA outperforms Onelook and PubMed in most of the criteria, and that MedQA surpasses Google in time spent and number of actions, two important efficiency criteria. Our results show that Google is the best system for quality of answer and ease of use. We conclude that Google is an effective search engine for medical definitions, and that MedQA exceeds the other search engines in that it provides users direct answers to their questions; while the users of the other search engines have to visit several sites before finding all of the pertinent information. PMID:17990503

  16. Analysing a reading strategy based on the elaboration of questions and the pair of answers and questions

    OpenAIRE

    Wilmo Ernesto Francisco Junior

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a reading activity developed with chemistry students. The main aim was to analyse the reflections produced after reading three articles about experimentation. This study was performed with 17 chemistry students from a federal university. The reading strategy involved writing productions. Questions and the pair of questions and answers elaborated from articles were analysed, as well as the contribution of the socialization of knowledge by means of discussions and a debate....

  17. 78 FR 16765 - Community Reinvestment Act; Interagency Questions and Answers Regarding Community Reinvestment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... Project Manager, (202) 452-2302, Division of Consumer and Community Affairs, Board of Governors of the... of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council (FFIEC) in 1996 (61 FR 54647), and were last revised on March 11, 2010 (2010 Questions and Answers) (75 FR 11642). The Questions and...

  18. Effects of visual and aural communication of categorical response options on answers to survey questions

    OpenAIRE

    Lynn, Peter; Hope, Steven; Jäckle, Annette; Campanelli, Pamela; Nicolaas, Gerry

    2012-01-01

    Whether questions and answers are transmitted between interviewer and respondent by visual or aural communication can affect the responses given. We hypothesise that communication channel can affect either the respondent's understanding of the question or the tendency to satisfice. These effects may be mediated by the cognitive ability and motivation of the respondent and by the type and difficulty of the question. We test our hypotheses using data from a large-scale controlled experiment. We...

  19. Have the Answers to Common Legal Questions Concerning Nutrition Support Changed Over the Past Decade? 10 Questions for 10 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrocas, Albert; Cohen, Michael L

    2016-06-01

    Clinical nutrition specialists (CNSs) are often confronted with technological, ethical, and legal questions, that is, what can be done technologically, what should be done ethically, and what must be done legally, which conflict at times. The conflict represents a "troubling trichotomy" as discussed in the lead article of this issue of Nutrition in Clinical Practice (NCP). During Clinical Nutrition Week in 2006, a symposium covering these 3 topics was presented, and later that year, an article covering the same topic was published in NCP In this article, we revisit several legal questions/issues that were raised 10 years ago and discuss current answers and approaches. Some of the answers remain unchanged. Other answers have been modified by additional legislation, court decisions, or regulations. In addition, new questions/issues have arisen. Some of the most common questions regarding nutrition support involve the following: liability, informed consent, medical decisional incapacity vs legal competence, advance directive specificity, surrogate decision making, physician orders for life-sustaining treatment and electronic medical orders for life-sustaining treatment, legal definition of death, patient vs family decision making, the noncompliant patient, and elder abuse obligations. In the current healthcare environment, these questions and issues are best addressed via a transdisciplinary team that focuses on function rather than form. The CNS can play a pivotal role in dealing with these challenges by applying the acronym ACT: being Accountable and Communicating with all stakeholders while actively participating as an integral part of the transdisciplinary Team. PMID:27113077

  20. Conceptual design of question-answer processing method for operator educational system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is necessary to develop an interface with easy communication for the practical use of an operator educational system. This paper describes the concept of the 'answer output processing method' which makes the communication easy using the characteristics of the operator educational system. The main features of the method are as follows: (1) The prototype of the operator educational system is provided with educational materials which are expressed in terms of cause and effect relationships of events. Answer generating functions are introduced to infer the relationships easily during the question-answer process. (2) It is easy to provide the materials of the educational unit optimally adapted to the degree of achievement which is already included in the prototype and is also easy to change the level of the materials based on the questionary history which is newly introduced for recording the question-answer performed everywhere in the learning process. (author)

  1. What causes the patterns in students' incorrect answers to physics questions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckler, Andrew

    2011-04-01

    Science education researchers agree on one thing: the empirical finding that students often answer questions about simple physical phenomena in ways that are not only specific and contrary to the scientific view, but also remarkably similar to answers of other students. What causes these answering patterns? Most efforts focus on students' explicit reasoning, yet it still remains an open question to what extent implicit, automatic learning processes play a role. We provide evidence that such automatic cognitive mechanisms likely play an important role in student responses to science questions. For example, we find that students often choose to base their answer on the dimensions of a problem that are processed the fastest (even if the dimension is incorrect), and forcing a few-second delay can improve their performance. This suggests that respondents are capable of answering correctly, but instead they tend to answer quickly. We also provide evidence suggesting that repetitive training can shift attention to more relevant dimensions in a problem and increase performance, possibly because processing time is decreased.

  2. SMS for Question-Answering in the m-Learning Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Balasundaram

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging technologies are leading to the development of several new opportunities to guide and enhance learning that were unimaginable a few years ago. The move towards adopting mobile learning technologies is fast growing in both academic and industrial sectors. Mobile learning uses portable devices linked to a commercial public network, including different types of mobile phones and handheld computers. For mobile users, as well in all mobile applications, SMS messaging is found to be the most useful and convenient way of communication technology. In case of mobile learning, there are only limited forms for conducting tests using true/false method, multiple choice selection method etc. Answering short questions is a better way of testing the students to get more details about a particular entity. The practice of messaging can be thought of highly useful for answering such short-answer questions. The case where answers are to be given as short messages to the assessors, evaluating them may not be that much easier when compared to other simple types of tests. This paper focuses on using SMS for answering 'short words-answers' types of questions and evaluating them using simple matching process, providing enough feedback.

  3. Analysis of short-answer question styles versus gender in pre-clinical veterinary education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Neil

    2011-01-01

    One large study in medical education has reported that the choice of question format (or question content) could introduce a gender bias, with men outperforming women on questions with a true-false component or that required knowledge of anatomy or physiology. The purpose of our study was to ascertain whether this finding is also true in veterinary medical education. Two veterinary student cohorts were analyzed across four different modules over a three-year period (804 questions in total). The results of the study show that the women's and men's performance did not differ in any of the question types analyzed across any module or year. When students' (both women and men) overall average performance on different question types was compared with their performance on standard multiple-choice questions (MCQs), performance levels increased when students were asked to answer MCQs that contained an image-based prop (IMCQ) such as a photograph, X-ray image, or diagram. In contrast, students' performance was consistently lower when answering assertion-reason questions (ARQs), and this performance could not be explained by the demographic makeup of the two cohorts analyzed. When comparing standard MCQs with MCQs that contained a true-false question stem, no specific trend in the data could be determined. In conclusion, this study suggests that the short-answer question style does not bias against one gender in veterinary medical education, but that overall students do perform differently according to question type and, in particular, less well when ARQs are used in examinations. PMID:21805937

  4. Improving comprehension of science content: Generating self-explanation questions and creating explanatory answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clelland, Peggie L.

    The emphasis on learning in content area classrooms is heavily dependent on remembering facts and memorizing definitions. Because of this, students often achieve shallow levels of comprehension and are deficient in the skills necessary to achieve deeper comprehension. Teaching students to generate self-explanation questions and answers related to teacher lectures and from reading text can improve comprehension. Students who attempt to explain what the content means understand it better and at a deeper level. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of teaching students to ask self-explanation questions as a means for improving comprehension. Eighth-grade students from three heterogeneous science classrooms participated in one of the treatment or comparison groups. The first treatment group was taught to generate self-explanation questions while the second treatment group was taught to generate self-explanation questions and to create explanatory answers using a rubric. The comparison group received their regular science instruction. Self-explanation question/answer participants scored significantly higher than the regular instruction group more often than the self-explanation question only group, on memory and essay measures. Analyses were performed with MANCOVA on all three groups' scores as a set. ANCOVA was used to determine if differences existed between groups on each of the dependent variables, and Bonferonni's post-hoc contrasts were used to determine where differences existed among treatment and comparison groups. Results revealed that students who were taught to generate self-explanation questions and/or to create explanatory answers outperformed the regular instruction students on some of the memory and essay measures. Additionally, teaching students a self-explanation strategy resulted in improved ability to respond to essay questions two weeks following the conclusion of the study compared to students who received regular instruction.

  5. Home Education Reason and Research: Common Questions and Research-Based Answers about Homeschooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Brian D.

    2009-01-01

    This is a brief review of research on a variety of topics related to home education and answers the most common questions asked regarding Homeschooling. Examples of the topics addressed are: the teaching parent's education level, academic achievement of students, population growth, philosophy, government (state) regulation and homeschool…

  6. Entropy - Some Cosmological Questions Answered by Model of Expansive Nondecelerative Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Sukenik

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The paper summarizes the background of Expansive Nondecelerative Universe model and its potential to offer answers to some open cosmological questions related to entropy. Three problems are faced in more detail, namely that of Hawkings phenomenon of black holes evaporation, maximum entropy of the Universe during its evolution, and time evolution of specific entropy.

  7. Developing Independence in a Capstone Course: Helping Students Ask and Answer Their Own Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camenga, Kristin A.

    2013-01-01

    We discuss a mathematics capstone course designed to help students grow in mathematical independence. We describe how the course is structured to support this goal and the major assignments: a course wiki, a group expository project, and an individual problem to solve and extend. Students learn to ask and answer their own questions, helping them…

  8. 75 FR 11641 - Community Reinvestment Act; Interagency Questions and Answers Regarding Community Reinvestment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... an intermediate small institution that is not subject to HMDA reporting have home mortgage loans...), which provide guidance for use by agency personnel, financial institutions, and the public. The Questions and Answers were first published under the auspices of the Federal Financial...

  9. Frequently Asked Questions about ADHD and the Answers from the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loechler, Kathy

    1999-01-01

    Identifies useful Internet sites about attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the results of searching these sites to answer common questions concerning incidence of ADHD, basic information about Ritalin drug therapy, educational placement of students with ADHD, sources of information about special needs, and what parents can do at…

  10. Do-It-Yourself Learning Games: Software That Lets You Pick the Questions--and Answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hively, Wells

    1984-01-01

    Reviews user-adaptable learning games that can be customized for any subject, including Tic Tac Show and the Game Show from Computer Advanced Ideas, which are question-answer learning programs based on game shows, and Master Match from Computer Advanced Ideas and Square Pairs from Scholastic Inc., which are based on the card game Concentration.…

  11. 76 FR 64175 - Loans in Areas Having Special Flood Hazards; Interagency Questions and Answers Regarding Flood...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... Insurance Manual, which requires flood insurance protection for the life of the loan and states that renewal... Insurance'' (Interagency Questions and Answers), which were published on July 21, 2009 (74 FR 35914). Based... these requirements by issuing a joint final rule in the summer of 1996. See 61 FR 45684 (August 29,...

  12. Let's Talk About Food. Answers to your Questions About Foods and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Philip L., Ed.; Selvey, Nancy, Ed.

    This book on the subject of nutrition is written in the form of often-asked questions and detailed, informative answers. In ten chapters the following range of nutrition topics is covered: (1) meaning of RDA, nutrition labeling, calorie tables, nutrient density; (2) adequate diet, pregnancy, physical fitness, vitamins, diet for athletes, baby…

  13. 75 FR 59322 - Notice of Availability of Answers to Frequently Asked Questions Regarding Buy America & FRA's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... Buy America & FRA's High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail Program AGENCY: Federal Railroad...'s High Speed Intercity ] Passenger Rail Program. The Answers to Frequently Asked Questions can be... to support intercity passenger rail service (Sec. 301), high-speed corridor development (Sec....

  14. 77 FR 74671 - Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding Food Facility Registration (Fifth Edition)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding Food...: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance for industry..., 2003, FDA issued an interim final rule (68 FR 58894) to implement amendments to the FD&C Act made...

  15. Preparing for the Flu During the 2009-10 School Year: Questions and Answers for Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This brochure provides answers to the following questions: (1) Why do school districts, schools, teachers, parents, and communities need to plan for the continuation of learning for students during flu season this year? (2) How should districts and schools go about planning to continue students' education when they are at home because of H1N1?…

  16. Are Our Kids All Right? Answers to the Tough Questions about Child Care Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynerman, Susan B.

    Examining over 20 years of research findings, including the most recent research on child care and child development, this book attempts to answer the three most important questions parents have about day care: Is day care harmful? Are babies damaged by the fact that their mothers work? and, Are working parents, by being absent during most of the…

  17. The Effects of Self-Explanation and Reading Questions and Answers on Learning Computer Programming Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    The current study explored the differential effects of two learning strategies, self-explanation and reading questions and answers, on students' test performance in the computer programming language JavaScript. Students' perceptions toward the two strategies as to their effectiveness in learning JavaScript was also explored by examining students'…

  18. Creating and using real-world evidence to answer questions about clinical effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon de Lusignan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available New forms of evidence are needed to complement evidence generated from randomised controlled trials (RCTs. Real-World Evidence (RWE is a potential new form of evidence, but remains undefined.This paper sets to fill that gap by defining RWE as the output from a rigorous research process which: (1 includes a clear a priori statement of a hypothesis to be tested or research question to be answered; (2 defines the data sources that will be used and critically appraises their strengths and weaknesses; and (3 applies appropriate methods, including advanced analytics. These elements should be set out in advance of the study commencing, ideally in a published protocol.The strengths of RWE studies are that they are more inclusive than RCTs and can enable an evidence base to be developed around real-world effectiveness and to start to address the complications of managing other real-world problems such as multimorbidity. Computerised medical record systems and big data provide a rich source of data for RWE studies.However, guidance is needed to help assess the rigour of RWE studies so that the strength of recommendations based on their output can be determined. Additionally, RWE advanced analytics methods need better categorisation and validation.We predict that the core role of RCTs will shift towards assessing safety and achieving regulatory compliance. RWE studies, notwithstanding their limitations, may become established as the best vehicle to assess efficacy. 

  19. A Memetic-Based Approach for Web-Based Question Answering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Khodadi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we proposed an evolutionary approach for answering open-domain factoid questions, which include searching among sentences that are candidate for the final answer with Memetic Algorithm (MA, and using lexical and syntactic features for calculating fitness of the sentences. Our main purpose is making a search engine with accurate answering ability, or a web-based Question Answering (QA system. The Text Retrieval Conference (TREC QA Tracks data are used to develop and evaluate the approach. The answering process begins with retrieving related documents from a search engine. Then, MA searches among all the sentences of these documents and finds the best one. Finally, one or more words will be extracted based on our hand-made patterns. The results of different approaches for local search, mutation, and crossover, and also different values for number of reproduction and retrieved documents are investigated in the empirical study section. The results are promising with sufficient retrieved documents, and we have obtained a threshold value for this variable. Using MA instead of examining all the sentences is a trade-off between lowering the process time and sacrificing the accuracy, but the results show that the Mametic-based approach is more efficient.

  20. Is world trade law a barrier to saving our climate? Questions and answers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernasconi-Osterwalder, N.; Norpoth, J.

    2009-09-15

    The present 'Questions and Answers' provide an overview of the various climate-related measures and policies that fall under the scope of the WTO (World Trade Organization) and offers an initial assessment of their WTO-compatibility. Is the WTO blocking progress in the fight against climate change? This was the question at the origin of this legal analysis. With this paper and its simple question and answer format, we hope to dispel some myths and shed some light on the reality of world trade rules in their relation with climate-friendly measures. In the end, we hope to encourage policy-makers in Europe and around the world not to see the WTO as an insurmountable barrier and not to use it as an excuse against strong action on climate change.

  1. Is world trade law a barrier to saving our climate? Questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present 'Questions and Answers' provide an overview of the various climate-related measures and policies that fall under the scope of the WTO (World Trade Organization) and offers an initial assessment of their WTO-compatibility. Is the WTO blocking progress in the fight against climate change? This was the question at the origin of this legal analysis. With this paper and its simple question and answer format, we hope to dispel some myths and shed some light on the reality of world trade rules in their relation with climate-friendly measures. In the end, we hope to encourage policy-makers in Europe and around the world not to see the WTO as an insurmountable barrier and not to use it as an excuse against strong action on climate change.

  2. The Effectiveness of Direct Instruction in Teaching Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder to Answer "Wh-" Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadette, Jessica N; Wilson, Cynthia L; Brady, Michael P; Dukes, Charles; Bennett, Kyle D

    2016-09-01

    Research on the effects of Direct Instruction (DI) among students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has only recently emerged. A benefit of DI is that it can be implemented with groups of students, which makes it potentially a cost effective method of instruction for some skills. In this study, we examined the effects of DI on teaching secondary students with ASD to answer three "wh-" questions. Using a multiple probe design across behaviors, results indicated the participants mastered two of the three "wh-" question types and made progress with the remaining question type. These results are discussed along with implications for educators instructing students with ASD. PMID:27312714

  3. Energy efficiency standards for eight consumer products: public meeting clarification, questions and answers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-08-01

    Eighteen corporations and manufacturers provided answers to many questions posed at a public meeting on energy efficiency standards for eight consumer products. Questions on the regulations concerning the manufacturing standards, performance standards, and testing standards are included. Questions were posed about air conditioners, refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, stoves (ranges), ovens, clothes dryers, oil fired burners, water heaters, furnaces, etc. A presentation containing information pertaining to the values of average annual energy consumption per unit used by DOE in its analysis leading to proposed energy efficiency standards for nine types of consumer products is included. (MCW)

  4. Enzyme replacement therapy for Fabry disease: some answers but more questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Alfadhel

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Majid Alfadhel1, Sandra Sirrs21Division of Biochemical Diseases, Department of Paediatrics, BC Children’s and Women’s Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 2Adult Metabolic Diseases Clinic, Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Vancouver Hospital and Health Sciences Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, CanadaAbstract: Fabry disease (FD is a multisystem, X-linked disorder of glycosphingolipid metabolism caused by enzyme deficiency of α-galactosidase A. Affected patients have symptoms including acroparesthesias, angiokeratomas, and hypohidrosis. More serious manifestations include debilitating pain and gastrointestinal symptoms, proteinuria and gradual deterioration of renal function leading to end-stage renal disease, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and stroke. Heterozygous females may have symptoms as severe as males with the classic phenotype. Before 2001, treatment of patients with FD was supportive. The successful development of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT has been a great advancement in the treatment of patients with FD and can stabilize renal function and cardiac size, as well as improve pain and quality of life of patients with FD. In this review, we have provided a critical appraisal of the literature on the effects of ERT for FD. This analysis shows that data available on the treatment of FD are often derived from studies which are not controlled, rely on surrogate markers, and are of insufficient power to detect differences on hard clinical endpoints. Further studies of higher quality are needed to answer the questions that remain concerning the efficacy of ERT for FD.Keywords: Fabry disease, agalsidase α, agalsidase β, Replagal, Fabrazyme, critical appraisal, evidence-based medicine

  5. Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-11-01

    Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the electric and magnetic fields (EMF) produced by power lines and other electrical devices cause health effects. The purpose of this pamphlet is to answer some common questions that the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. (BPA is the Pacific Northwest`s Federal electric power marketing agency.) First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are described. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns raised by these studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this pamphlet.

  6. Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-05-01

    Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the electric and magnetic fields (EMF) produced by power lines and other electrical devices cause health effects. The purpose of this booklet is to answer some common questions that the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are debed. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns about potential health effects of power lines. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this booklet.

  7. A Medical Consultation Service on Facebook: Descriptive Analysis of Questions Answered

    OpenAIRE

    Helve, Otto

    2014-01-01

    Background Social media is used increasingly by the general public to access health information. However, a lack of models for health information distribution limits the presence of publicly funded services on social media sites. Objective The goal of the study was to present a model for delivering child health information to parents through a social media site. Methods A Facebook site was launched for 11 months based on a question-and-answer service produced by a pediatrician and open to Fac...

  8. General technical comments on climate change - comment 1: Answers to five questions posed at the conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt is made to answer the following five questions: (1) what are the projections of global average temperature increase? (2) What are the prospects for projecting regional climate change? (3) Do the climate models produce outlooks for a group of climate variables closely related to sociatal impacts? (4) What is the feasibility and what are the costs of proposed geoengineering options for responding to climate change? (5) What climate variables co-vary with global average temperature

  9. Smartphone use to answer clinical questions: a descriptive study of APNs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowsky, Adelia

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the use of smartphones by Alabama Advanced Practice Nurses to find information to address clinical questions and seeks to describe the types of questions answered using smartphones; barriers to information seeking; apps and online resources perceived as most helpful; and training/resource needs. Information collected in this study can be used by libraries that serve nursing students to develop training and resources to assist both nursing students and practicing nurses to become more efficient and effective information seekers. PMID:25927507

  10. Dataset and Neural Recurrent Sequence Labeling Model for Open-Domain Factoid Question Answering

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Peng; Li, Wei; He, Zhengyan; WANG, Xuguang; Cao, Ying; Zhou, Jie; Xu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    While question answering (QA) with neural network, i.e. neural QA, has achieved promising results in recent years, lacking of large scale real-word QA dataset is still a challenge for developing and evaluating neural QA system. To alleviate this problem, we propose a large scale human annotated real-world QA dataset WebQA with more than 42k questions and 556k evidences. As existing neural QA methods resolve QA either as sequence generation or classification/ranking problem, they face challeng...

  11. PMP practice makes perfect over 1000 PMP practice questions and answers

    CERN Document Server

    Estrella, John A; Zahran, Sami

    2011-01-01

    A unique learning resource to prepare for the PMP certification exam Without sufficient practice and preparation for taking the Project Management Institute's (PMI's) PMP certification exam, you won't be able to actually put your skills into practice in the real world! To help you achieve your goal of passing the exam, this two-part prep book covers all elements of the brand-new Project Management Professional exam. A team of experts presents you with a solid overview of the exam as well as hundreds of questions, detailed answers, and explanations. In addition, each question is accompa

  12. Towards answering the "so what" question in marine renewables environmental impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degraer, Steven; Birchenough, Silvana N. R.; Braeckman, Ulrike; Coolen, Joop W. P.; Dannheim, Jennifer; De Mesel, Ilse; Grégoire, Marilaure; Kerckhof, Francis; Lacroix, Geneviève; Lindeboom, Han; Moens, Tom; Soetaert, Karline; Vanaverbeke, Jan; Van Hoey, Gert

    2016-04-01

    Marine renewable energy (MRE) projects are increasingly occupying the European North-Atlantic coasts and this is clearly observed in the North Sea. Given the expected impacts on the marine environment, each individual project is accompanied by a legally mandatory, environmental monitoring programme. These programmes are focused on the resultant effects on ecosystem component structure (e.g. species composition, numbers and densities) of single industrial projects. To date, there is a tendency to further narrow down to only a selection of ecosystem components (e.g. marine mammals and birds). While a wide knowledge-based understanding of structural impacts on (a selection of) ecosystem components exists, this evidence is largely lacking when undertaking impact assessments at the ecosystem functioning level (e.g. trophic interactions, dispersal and nutrient cycling). This critical knowledge gap compromises a scientifically-underpinned answer to the "so what" question of environmental impacts, i.e. whether the observed impacts are considered to be good or bad, or acceptable or unacceptable. The importance of ecosystem functioning is further acknowledged in the descriptors 4 and 6 of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (EU MSFD) and is at the heart of a sustainable use and management of our marine resources. There hence is a fundamental need to focus on ecosystem functioning at the spatial scales at which marine ecosystems function when assessing MRE impacts. Here, we make a plea for an increased investment in a large (spatial) scale impact assessment of MRE projects focused on ecosystem functioning. This presentation will cover a selection of examples from North Sea MRE monitoring programmes, where the current knowledge has limited conclusions on the "so what" question. We will demonstrate how an ecosystem functioning-focused approach at an appropriate spatial scale could advance our current understanding, whilst assessing these issues. These examples will cover

  13. Comparing the Use of an Online Expert Health Network against Common Information Sources to Answer Health Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenderink, Annet F; van Dijk, Frank JH; Hulshof, Carel TJ

    2012-01-01

    Background Many workers have questions about occupational safety and health (OSH). It is unknown whether workers are able to find correct, evidence-based answers to OSH questions when they use common information sources, such as websites, or whether they would benefit from using an easily accessible, free-of-charge online network of OSH experts providing advice. Objective To assess the rate of correct, evidence-based answers to OSH questions in a group of workers who used an online network of OSH experts (intervention group) compared with a group of workers who used common information sources (control group). Methods In a quasi-experimental study, workers in the intervention and control groups were randomly offered 2 questions from a pool of 16 standardized OSH questions. Both questions were sent by mail to all participants, who had 3 weeks to answer them. The intervention group was instructed to use only the online network ArboAntwoord, a network of about 80 OSH experts, to solve the questions. The control group was instructed that they could use all information sources available to them. To assess answer correctness as the main study outcome, 16 standardized correct model answers were constructed with the help of reviewers who performed literature searches. Subsequently, the answers provided by all participants in the intervention (n = 94 answers) and control groups (n = 124 answers) were blinded and compared with the correct model answers on the degree of correctness. Results Of the 94 answers given by participants in the intervention group, 58 were correct (62%), compared with 24 of the 124 answers (19%) in the control group, who mainly used informational websites found via Google. The difference between the 2 groups was significant (rate difference = 43%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 30%–54%). Additional analysis showed that the rate of correct main conclusions of the answers was 85 of 94 answers (90%) in the intervention group and 75 of 124 answers (61%) in

  14. Social Question and Answer Services versus Library Virtual Reference: Evaluation and Comparison from the Users' Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yin; Deng, Shengli

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In recent years, the introduction of social question and answer services and other Internet tools have expanded the ways in which people have their questions answered. There has been speculation and debate over whether such services and other Internet tools are replacing library virtual reference services. Method: Most previous…

  15. Answers to frequently asked questions about cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. Public information report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document presents answers to frequently asked questions about plans for cleanup and decontamination activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. Answers to the questions asked are based on information in the NRC 'Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement related to decontamination and disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from March 28, 1979, accident, Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 2' NUREG-0683

  16. Industrial Control System Cyber Security: Questions And Answers Relevant To Nuclear Facilities, Safeguards And Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Typical questions surrounding industrial control system (ICS) cyber security always lead back to: What could a cyber attack do to my system(s) and; how much should I worry about it? These two leading questions represent only a fraction of questions asked when discussing cyber security as it applies to any program, company, business, or organization. The intent of this paper is to open a dialog of important pertinent questions and answers that managers of nuclear facilities engaged in nuclear facility security and safeguards should examine, i.e., what questions should be asked; and how do the answers affect an organization's ability to effectively safeguard and secure nuclear material. When a cyber intrusion is reported, what does that mean? Can an intrusion be detected or go un-noticed? Are nuclear security or safeguards systems potentially vulnerable? What about the digital systems employed in process monitoring, and international safeguards? Organizations expend considerable efforts to ensure that their facilities can maintain continuity of operations against physical threats. However, cyber threats particularly on ICSs may not be well known or understood, and often do not receive adequate attention. With the disclosure of the Stuxnet virus that has recently attacked nuclear infrastructure, many organizations have recognized the need for an urgent interest in cyber attacks and defenses against them. Several questions arise including discussions about the insider threat, adequate cyber protections, program readiness, encryption, and many more. These questions, among others, are discussed so as to raise the awareness and shed light on ways to protect nuclear facilities and materials against such attacks.

  17. QArabPro: A Rule Based Question Answering System for Reading Comprehension Tests in Arabic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Akour

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Extensive research efforts in the area of Natural Language Processing (NLP were focused on developing reading comprehension Question Answering systems (QA for Latin based languages such as, English, French and German. Approach: However, little effort was directed towards the development of such systems for bidirectional languages such as Arabic, Urdu and Farsi. In general, QA systems are more sophisticated and more complex than Search Engines (SE because they seek a specific and somewhat exact answer to the query. Results: Existing Arabic QA system including the most recent described excluded one or both types of questions (How and Why from their work because of the difficulty of handling these questions. In this study, we present a new approach and a new questionanswering system (QArabPro for reading comprehension texts in Arabic. The overall accuracy of our system is 84%. Conclusion/Recommendations: These results are promising compared to existing systems. Our system handles all types of questions including (How and why.

  18. A comparative analysis of major Chinese and English online question-answering communities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Dan; LIU; Yuan; HE; Daqing

    2010-01-01

    This paper compares 12 representative Chinese and English online questionanswering communities(Q&A communities)based on their basic functions,interactive modes,and customized services.An empirical experiment from a comparative perspective was also conducted on them by using 12 questions representing for four types of questions,which are assigned evenly to three different subject fields so as to examine the task performance of these 12 selected online Q&A communities.Our goal was to evaluate those online Q&A communities in terms of their quality and efficiency for answering questions posed to them.It was hoped that our empirical research would yield greater understanding and insights to the working intricacy of these online Q&A communities and hence their possible further improvement.

  19. Can simply answering research questions change behaviour? Systematic review and meta analyses of brief alcohol intervention trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim McCambridge

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Participant reports of their own behaviour are critical for the provision and evaluation of behavioural interventions. Recent developments in brief alcohol intervention trials provide an opportunity to evaluate longstanding concerns that answering questions on behaviour as part of research assessments may inadvertently influence it and produce bias. The study objective was to evaluate the size and nature of effects observed in randomized manipulations of the effects of answering questions on drinking behaviour in brief intervention trials. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Multiple methods were used to identify primary studies. Between-group differences in total weekly alcohol consumption, quantity per drinking day and AUDIT scores were evaluated in random effects meta-analyses. Ten trials were included in this review, of which two did not provide findings for quantitative study, in which three outcomes were evaluated. Between-group differences were of the magnitude of 13.7 (-0.17 to 27.6 grams of alcohol per week (approximately 1.5 U.K. units or 1 standard U.S. drink and 1 point (0.1 to 1.9 in AUDIT score. There was no difference in quantity per drinking day. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Answering questions on drinking in brief intervention trials appears to alter subsequent self-reported behaviour. This potentially generates bias by exposing non-intervention control groups to an integral component of the intervention. The effects of brief alcohol interventions may thus have been consistently under-estimated. These findings are relevant to evaluations of any interventions to alter behaviours which involve participant self-report.

  20. Selection, Generalization, and Theories of Cause in Qualitative Physics Education Research: Answers to the Hard-Hitting Questions Asked by Skeptical Quantitative Researchers

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, Amy D; Scherr, Rachel E

    2013-01-01

    Qualitative research incorporates distinct methods for selecting data for analysis, generalizing results, and making causal claims. Unanswered questions about these methods may constrain researchers more familiar with quantitative methods from participating in or critically engaging with qualitative research. We use results from interviews with physics education researchers, a synthesis of the literature on research methodologies, and published examples of qualitative and quantitative research to answer hard-hitting questions that quantitative researchers may pose.

  1. A quick guide to API 510 certified pressure vessel inspector syllabus example questions and worked answers

    CERN Document Server

    Matthews, Clifford

    2010-01-01

    The API Individual Certification Programs (ICPs) are well established worldwide in the oil, gas, and petroleum industries. This Quick Guide is unique in providing simple, accessible and well-structured guidance for anyone studying the API 510 Certified Pressure Vessel Inspector syllabus by summarizing and helping them through the syllabus and providing multiple example questions and worked answers.Technical standards are referenced from the API 'body of knowledge' for the examination, i.e. API 510 Pressure vessel inspection, alteration, rerating; API 572 Pressure vessel inspection; API

  2. Getting Ready for the "School of the Future": Key Questions and Tentative Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Michela; Pozzi, Francesca

    This paper explores some key aspects of "today's school", as opposed to those that have characterized "yesterday's school", with the final aim of shedding light on "tomorrow's school". In this direction, the paper puts forward tentative answers to some key questions related to the new characteristics and roles of teachers and students (main actors of the learning process) and the new features/ potentialities of contemporary educational tools which, in turn, require the enactment of innovative pedagogical approaches and educational methods. The emerging picture of the present learning landscape helps in figuring out a future situation where learning possibilities are substantially increased.

  3. Can you play cricket on Mars? and other scientific questions answered

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Sir Patrick

    2011-01-01

    All those nagging questions you have about the universe are answered here, like 'Is there a dark side to the moon? What happens when a comet hits the sun? Do the Martian canals have any water in them? Is the moon hot inside? What would happen if the sun were to collide with a black hole? Mars has polar ice caps: could polar bears live on Mars? if I could go back to the time of the dinosaurs, would the sky look the same as it does today?' and many more.

  4. A Study of Question & Answer Behavior in EFL Teaching-On the Basis of Cooperative Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Bei-bei

    2015-01-01

    As an Chinese saying goes that“Nothing can be accomplished without norms or standards”. Thus People always fol⁃low Cooperative Principle to produce successful conversations in daily life and the EFL teaching is of no exception. Teachers and students cooperate with each other in classroom while they sometimes flout the principle deliberately. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct research on interactions in classroom, especially question & answer behaviors to see how teachers and students observe the Cooperative Principle and analyze underlying causes of their intentional flouting .

  5. Begging the Question: Is Critical Thinking Biased?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, Kal

    1995-01-01

    Discusses whether critical thinking is biased, examining what is meant by critical thinking and bias and what the consequences are for addressing bias in different ways. The paper responds to the three previous papers in the critical thinking symposium in this issue of the journal. (SM)

  6. Teaching Critical Questions about Argumentation through the Revising Process: Effects of Strategy Instruction on College Students' Argumentative Essays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yi; Ferretti, Ralph P.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of self-regulated strategy development revising instruction for college students that targeted the use of argumentation schemes and critical questions were assessed in three conditions. In the first condition, students were taught to revise their essays by asking and answering critical questions about the "argument from consequences"…

  7. Generating Exact- and Ranked Partially-Matched Answers to Questions in Advertisements

    CERN Document Server

    Qumsiyeh, Rani; Ng, Yiu-Kai

    2011-01-01

    Taking advantage of the Web, many advertisements (ads for short) websites, which aspire to increase client's transactions and thus profits, offer searching tools which allow users to (i) post keyword queries to capture their information needs or (ii) invoke form-based interfaces to create queries by selecting search options, such as a price range, filled-in entries, check boxes, or drop-down menus. These search mechanisms, however, are inadequate, since they cannot be used to specify a natural-language query with rich syntactic and semantic content, which can only be handled by a question answering (QA) system. Furthermore, existing ads websites are incapable of evaluating arbitrary Boolean queries or retrieving partiallymatched answers that might be of interest to the user whenever a user's search yields only a few or no results at all. In solving these problems, we present a QA system for ads, called CQAds, which (i) allows users to post a natural-language question Q for retrieving relevant ads, if they exi...

  8. Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-06-01

    Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the EMF (electric and magnetic fields) produced by power lines and other electrical devices affect our health. Although no adverse health effects of electric power EMF have been confirmed, there is continued scientific uncertainty about this issue. Research on EMF is ongoing throughout the world. The purpose of this booklet is to answer some common questions that the BPA (Bonneville Power Administration) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are debed. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns about potential health effects of power lines. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this booklet.

  9. Second Life for Electric Vehicle Batteries: Answering Questions on Battery Degradation and Value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, J. S.; Wood, E.; Pesaran, A.

    2015-05-04

    Battery second use – putting used plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) batteries into secondary service following their automotive tenure – has been proposed as a means to decrease the cost of PEVs while providing low cost energy storage to other fields (e.g. electric utility markets). To understand the value of used automotive batteries, however, we must first answer several key questions related to National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed a methodology and the requisite tools to answer these questions, including NREL’s Battery Lifetime Simulation Tool (BLAST). Herein we introduce these methods and tools, and demonstrate their application. We have found that capacity fade from automotive use has a much larger impact on second use value than resistance growth. Where capacity loss is driven by calendar effects more than cycling effects, average battery temperature during automotive service – which is often driven by climate – is found to be the single factor with the largest effect on remaining value. Installing hardware and software capabilities onboard the vehicle that can both infer remaining battery capacity from in-situ measurements, as well as track average battery temperature over time, will thereby facilitate the second use of automotive batteries.

  10. Answering the right question - integration of InSAR with other datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, Rachel; McCormack, Harry; Burren, Richard

    2014-05-01

    The capabilities of satellite Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) are well known, and utilized across a wide range of academic and commercial applications. However there is a tendency, particularly in commercial applications, for users to ask 'What can we study with InSAR?'. When establishing a new technique this approach is important, but InSAR has been possible for 20 years now and, even accounting for new and innovative algorithms, this ground has been thoroughly explored. Too many studies conclude 'We show the ground is moving here, by this much', and mention the wider context as an afterthought. The focus needs to shift towards first asking the right questions - in fields as diverse as hazard awareness, resource optimization, financial considerations and pure scientific enquiry - and then working out how to achieve the best possible answers. Depending on the question, InSAR (and ground deformation more generally) may provide a large or small contribution to the overall solution, and there are usually benefits to integrating a number of techniques to capitalize on the complementary capabilities and provide the most useful measurements. However, there is still a gap between measurements and answers, and unlocking the value of the data relies heavily on appropriate visualization, integrated analysis, communication between technique and application experts, and appropriate use of modelling. We present a number of application examples, and demonstrate how their usefulness can be transformed by moving from a focus on data to answers - integrating complementary geodetic, geophysical and geological datasets and geophysical modeling with appropriate visualization, to enable comprehensive solution-focused interpretation. It will also discuss how forthcoming developments are likely to further advance realisation of the full potential satellite InSAR holds.

  11. DI@UE in CLEF2012: question answering approach to the multiple choice QA4MRE challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Saias, José; Quaresma, Paulo

    2012-01-01

    In the 2012 edition of CLEF, the DI@UE team has signed up for Question Answering for Machine Reading Evaluation (QA4MRE) main task. For each question, our system tries to guess which of the five hypotheses is the more plausible response, taking into account the reading test content and the documents from the background collection on the question topic. For each question, the system applies Named Entity Recognition, Question Classification, Document and Passage Retrieval. The criter...

  12. Globalization, Offshoring, and Multinational Companies: What Are the Questions, and How Well Are We Doing in Answering Them?

    OpenAIRE

    Ralph Kozlow

    2006-01-01

    This paper identifies key questions that are being asked about globalization and MNC’s and then reviews the types of statistics that are required to answer those questions. The paper goes on to assess whether the statistics collected by the Bureau of Economic Analysis are adequate to address those questions.

  13. Topologies on groups determined by sequences: Answers to several questions of I.Protasov and E.Zelenyuk

    CERN Document Server

    Banakh, Taras

    2010-01-01

    We answer several questions of I.Protasov and E.Zelenyuk concerning topologies on groups determined by T-sequences. A special attention is paid to studying the operation of supremum of two group topologies.

  14. Who Has the Right Answer? Differential Cultural Emphasis in Question/Answer Structures and the Case of Hmong Students at a Northern California High School

    OpenAIRE

    Findlay, Michael Shaw

    1995-01-01

    Observed speech and interactive behavior of American Hmong students who were attending a northern California high school indicate that Hmong student responses to teacher generated questions were often influenced by culturally based predispositions. In answering certain types of content related questions, these students relied on underlying cultural emphases (pervasive culture specific themes) which were sometimes different from those generally held by Anglo American students and teachers at t...

  15. Towards Answering Biological Questions with Experimental Evidence: Automatically Identifying Text that Summarize Image Content in Full-Text Articles

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Hong

    2006-01-01

    Images (i.e., figures) are important experimental evidence that are typically reported in bioscience full-text articles. Biologists need to access images to validate research facts and to formulate or to test novel research hypotheses. We propose to build a biological question answering system that provides experimental evidences as answers in response to biological questions. As a first step, we develop natural language processing techniques to identify sentences that summarize image content.

  16. A cost-consequences analysis of a primary care librarian question and answering service.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie McGowan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cost consequences analysis was completed from randomized controlled trial (RCT data for the Just-in-time (JIT librarian consultation service in primary care that ran from October 2005 to April 2006. The service was aimed at providing answers to clinical questions arising during the clinical encounter while the patient waits. Cost saving and cost avoidance were also analyzed. The data comes from eighty-eight primary care providers in the Ottawa area working in Family Health Networks (FHNs and Family Health Groups (FHGs. METHODS: We conducted a cost consequences analysis based on data from the JIT project. We also estimated the potential economic benefit of JIT librarian consultation service to the health care system. RESULTS: The results show that the cost per question for the JIT service was $38.20. The cost could be as low as $5.70 per question for a regular service. Nationally, if this service was implemented and if family physicians saw additional patients when the JIT service saved them time, up to 61,100 extra patients could be seen annually. A conservative estimate of the cost savings and cost avoidance per question for JIT was $11.55. CONCLUSIONS: The cost per question, if the librarian service was used at full capacity, is quite low. Financial savings to the health care system might exceed the cost of the service. Saving physician's time during their day could potentially lead to better access to family physicians by patients. Implementing a librarian consultation service can happen quickly as the time required to train professional librarians to do this service is short.

  17. Answers to Common Questions About the Use and Safety of CT Scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollough, Cynthia H; Bushberg, Jerrold T; Fletcher, Joel G; Eckel, Laurence J

    2015-10-01

    Articles in the scientific literature and lay press over the past several years have implied that computed tomography (CT) may cause cancer and that physicians and patients must exercise caution in its use. Although there is broad agreement on the latter point--unnecessary medical tests of any type should always be avoided--there is considerable controversy surrounding the question of whether, or to what extent, CT scans can lead to future cancers. Although the doses used in CT are higher than those used in conventional radiographic examinations, they are still 10 to 100 times lower than the dose levels that have been reported to increase the risk of cancer. Despite the fact that at the low doses associated with a CT scan the risk either is too low to be convincingly demonstrated or does not exist, the magnitude of the concern among patients and some medical professionals that CT scans increase cancer risk remains unreasonably high. In this article, common questions about CT scanning and radiation are answered to provide physicians with accurate information on which to base their medical decisions and respond to patient questions. PMID:26434964

  18. Why the changing American economy calls for twenty-first century learning: answers to educators' questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Frank; Murnane, Richard J

    2006-01-01

    While struggling with the current pressures of educational reform, some educators will ask whether their efforts make economic sense. Questioning the future makeup of the nation's workforce, many wonder how the educational system should be tempered to better prepare today's youth. This chapter answers educators' and parents' questions around the effect of fluctuations in the American economy on the future of education. The authors offer reassurance that good jobs will always be available, but warn that those jobs will require a new level of skills: expert thinking and complex communication. Schools need to go beyond their current curriculum and prepare students to use reading, math, and communication skills to build a deeper and more thoughtful understanding of subject matter. To explain the implications of the nation's changing economy on jobs, technology, and therefore education, the authors address a range of vital questions. Citing occupational distribution data, the chapter explores the supply and range of jobs in the future, as well as why changes in the U.S. job distribution have taken place. As much of the explanation for the shift in job distribution over the past several decades is due to the computerization of the workforce, the authors discuss how computers will affect the future composition of the workforce. The chapter also addresses the consequences of educational improvement on earnings distribution. The authors conclude that beyond workforce preparedness, students need to learn how to be contributing members of a democracy. PMID:17017257

  19. Turn-taking: A case study of early gesture and word use in answering WHERE and WHICH questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eve Vivienne Clark

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available When young children answer questions, they do so more slowly than adults and appear to have difficulty finding the appropriate words. Because children leave gaps before they respond, it is possible that they could answer faster with gestures than with words. In this case study of one child from age 1;4 to 3;5, we compare gestural and verbal responses to adult Where and Which questions, which can be answered with gestures and/or words. After extracting all adult Where and Which questions and child answers from longitudinal videotaped sessions, we examined the timing from the end of each question to the start of the response, and compared the timing for gestures and words. Child responses could take the form of a gesture or word(s; the latter could be words repeated from the adult question or new words retrieved by the child. Or responses could be complex: a gesture + word repeat, gesture + new word, or word repeat + new word.Gestures were the fastest overall, followed successively by word-repeats, then new-word responses. This ordering, with gestures ahead of words, suggests that the child knows what to answer but needs more time to retrieve any relevant words. In short, word retrieval and articulation appear to be bottlenecks in the timing of responses: both add to the planning required in answering a question.

  20. The ContactFinder agent: Answering bulletin board questions with referrals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krulwich, B.; Burkey, C. [Center for Strategic Technology Research, Northbrook, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    ContactFinder is an intelligent agent whose approach to assisting users is valuable and innovative in the following four ways. First, ContactFinder operates proactively in reading and responding to messages on electronic bulletin boards rather than acting in response to user queries. Second, ContactFinder assists users by referring them to other people who can help them, rather than attempting to find information that directly answers the user`s specific question. Third, ContactFinder categorizes messages and extracts their topic areas using a set of heuristics that are very efficient and demonstrably highly effective. Fourth, ContactFinder posts its referrals back to the bulletin boards rather than simply communicating with specific users, to increase the information density and connectivity of the system. This paper discusses these aspects of the system and demonstrates their effectiveness in over six months of use on a large-scale internal bulletin board.

  1. Did you know? A question and answer dialogue for the orofacial myologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Robert M; Role, Ellen B

    2009-11-01

    This article addresses selected concepts and procedures related to orofacial myology in a question and answer format. Topics include tongue-tip placement for swallowing; a masseter-contraction swallow; temporary anchorage devices utilized in orthodontic treatment; relapse following orthodontic treatment; some advantages and disadvantages of fixed and removable orthodontic appliances; the extraction of teeth in orthodontic treatment; posterior and anterior crossbite considerations; and the importance of recasting the emphasis and focus of myofunctional therapy to orofacial rest posture therapy. In addition, this article promotes projects that orofacial myologists and orthodontists can mutually undertake to assist in advancing the data base regarding orofacial myofunctional disorders, thereby serving to enhance the reputation and value of orofacial myofunctional therapy within the dental profession. PMID:20572434

  2. Which climate for tomorrow - 15 questions and answers in order not end under water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors address the climate issue by answering a set of 15 questions. Why are climate and meteorology not really the same? Has climate already changed in the past? What is the anthropocene? Is mankind responsible of global warming? What is the role of the IPCC? What are tomorrow's economic impacts? What will be the weather in France during the X XI century? Can we attribute natural disasters to climate change? How is the World presently struggling against climate change? How to do without fossil energies? Is geo-engineering a solution? Shall we have to change our way of life? Will economy recover? Are we going towards a sixth extinction? Will there be always more climate refugees? Finally, the authors discuss the perspectives drawn after the COP21, and propose 10 initiatives to struggle against climate change

  3. Dense Plasma Focus: A question in search of answers, a technology in search of applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diagnostic information accumulated over four decades of research suggests a directionality of toroidal motion for energetic ions responsible for fusion neutron production in the Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) and existence of an axial component of magnetic field even under conditions of azimuthal symmetry. This is at variance with the traditional view of Dense Plasma Focus as a purely irrotational compressive flow. The difficulty in understanding the experimental situation from a theoretical standpoint arises from polarity of the observed solenoidal state: three independent experiments confirm existence of a fixed polarity of the axial magnetic field or related azimuthal current. Since the equations governing plasma dynamics do not have a built-in direction, the fixed polarity must be related with initial conditions: the plasma dynamics must interact with an external physical vector in order to generate a solenoidal state of fixed polarity. Only four such external physical vectors can be identified: the earth's magnetic field, earth's angular momentum, direction of current flow and the direction of the plasma accelerator. How interaction of plasma dynamics with these fields can generate observed solenoidal state is a question still in search of answers; this paper outlines one possible answer. The importance of this question goes beyond scientific curiosity into technological uses of the energetic ions and the high-power-density plasma environment. However, commercial utilization of such technologies faces reliability concerns, which can be met only by first-principles integrated design of globally-optimized industrial-quality DPF hardware. Issues involved in the emergence of the Dense Plasma Focus as a technology platform for commercial applications in the not-too-distant future are discussed. (author)

  4. Questions and answers in chronic urticaria: where do we stand and where do we go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, M; Church, M K; Marsland, A M; Sussman, G; Siebenhaar, F; Vestergaard, C; Broom, B

    2016-07-01

    This supplement reports proceedings of the second international Global Urticaria Forum, which was held in Berlin, Germany in November 2015. In 2011, a report of the GA(2) LEN task force on urticaria outlined important and unanswered questions in chronic urticaria (CU). These included, but were not limited to, questions on the epidemiology and course of chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) [also called chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU)], the resources allocated for the diagnosis and treatment of CSU, whether patients with angioedema as an isolated symptom can be regarded as a subgroup of CSU, and the efficacy and long-term safety of therapies. Many of these questions have been addressed by recent studies. Some of the answers obtained raise new questions. Here, we summarize some of the key insights on CU obtained over recent years, and we discuss old and new unmet needs and how to address them with future studies. We need to analyze the influence of recent advances in understanding of the burden of CU on patients and society, disease management and the CU patient journey. Our increased understanding of urticarial pathophysiology and consideration of the patient as a whole will need to be translated to better treatment algorithms and protocols. Actions to address these challenges include the 5th International Consensus Meeting on Urticaria, which will take place later this year. The formation of a global network of Urticaria Centers of Reference and Excellence over the next few years has also been proposed, with the aim of providing consistent excellence in urticaria management and a clear referral route, furthering knowledge of urticaria through additional research and educating/promoting awareness of urticaria. PMID:27286498

  5. A retrospective comparative study of multiple choice questions versus short answer questions as assessment tool in evaluating the performance of the students in medical pharmacology

    OpenAIRE

    Yogeeta Sushant C. Walke; Amey S. Kamat; Sushama A. Bhounsule

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim was to assess the effectiveness of multiple choice versus short answer questions (SAQs) as assessment tools for evaluating performance of 2nd MBBS students. Methods: The study was observational, retrospective study of written pen and paper type assessment that utilized a sample of 100 2nd year medical students. Study consisted of two parts; part I was multiple-choice questions (MCQs) based on endocrine system where four options were given for a question and the single b...

  6. Evolutionary explanations in medical and health profession courses: are you answering your students' "why" questions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malyango Avelin A

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical and pre-professional health students ask questions about human health that can be answered in two ways, by giving proximate and evolutionary explanations. Proximate explanations, most common in textbooks and classes, describe the immediate scientifically known biological mechanisms of anatomical characteristics or physiological processes. These explanations are necessary but insufficient. They can be complemented with evolutionary explanations that describe the evolutionary processes and principles that have resulted in human biology we study today. The main goal of the science of Darwinian Medicine is to investigate human disease, disorders, and medical complications from an evolutionary perspective. Discussion This paper contrasts the differences between these two types of explanations by describing principles of natural selection that underlie medical questions. Thus, why is human birth complicated? Why does sickle cell anemia exist? Why do we show symptoms like fever, diarrhea, and coughing when we have infection? Why do we suffer from ubiquitous age-related diseases like arteriosclerosis, Alzheimer's and others? Why are chronic diseases like type II diabetes and obesity so prevalent in modern society? Why hasn't natural selection eliminated the genes that cause common genetic diseases like hemochromatosis, cystic fibrosis, Tay sachs, PKU and others? Summary In giving students evolutionary explanations professors should underscore principles of natural selection, since these can be generalized for the analysis of many medical questions. From a research perspective, natural selection seems central to leading hypotheses of obesity and type II diabetes and might very well explain the occurrence of certain common genetic diseases like cystic fibrosis, hemochromatosis, Tay sachs, Fragile X syndrome, G6PD and others because of their compensating advantages. Furthermore, armed with evolutionary explanations, health care

  7. France's answers to question and comments received from other contracting parties on its 1. report for the JC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Joint Convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management is supplementing the Convention on Nuclear Safety. It was approved by France on February 22, 2000 and it entered into force on June 18, 2001. France has received 211 questions, coming from 19 Contracting Parties, on its first report and has provided written answers to each one. These answers were gathered in a single document, which lists them along the articles of the Convention. France has presented these answers on November 5, 2003, at the review meeting of the contracting Parties of the Convention and has decided to make them available to the public, however without mention of the countries that had asked them. The 211 questions received on the first report for the Joint Convention are listed along the sections suggested by the guidelines for the answers to the articles of the convention, sorted by the related page number of the French report and, within each section, grouped by issues raised. The written answers to each question have been coordinated by the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN), but have been provided either by the regulators or by the operators (or even both) depending on the related issue. In the case where various questions are related to a same issue but are referred to different articles of the Conventions, they have been referred to the most relevant article in order to have the same issue dealt with in a single location in the present answers report. The answer to each question is provided immediately under the related question

  8. The Worldwide Governance Indicators Project : Answering the Critics

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufmann, Daniel; Kraay, Aart; Mastruzzi, Massimo

    2007-01-01

    The Worldwide Governance Indicators, reporting estimates of six dimensions of governance for over 200 countries between 1996 and 2005, have become widely used among policymakers and academics. They have also attracted some explicit written criticisms. In this short paper the authors synthesize 11 critiques offered by four recent papers. They then refute them as either conceptually incorrec...

  9. A study of advanced training technology: Emerging answers to tough questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This study reports the result of an extensive nationwide review of military, private sector, and other federal agencies and organizations that are implementing a wide variety of advanced training technologies. This report classifies the general categories of advanced training technologies found and provides an overview of each, including specific types and examples. In addition, the research findings present an organizational model for training development linking overall organizational maturity to readiness to implement specific kinds of advanced training technologies. It also presents proposed methods for selecting media, describes the organizations and the data gathered, and provides a summary of implementation success at each organization. This study is organized as a set of five topics. Each topic raises a number of important questions and provides complete or emerging answers. For organizations who have made advanced training selections, this study is a resource to benchmark their success with other organizations who have made similar selections. For new or developing training organizations, this study will help plan their future technology selections by comparing their level of organizational maturity to the documented experiences of similar organizations.

  10. Ten common questions (and their answers) about off-label drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittich, Christopher M; Burkle, Christopher M; Lanier, William L

    2012-10-01

    The term off-label drug use (OLDU) is used extensively in the medical literature, continuing medical education exercises, and the media. Yet, we propose that many health care professionals have an underappreciation of its definition, prevalence, and implications. This article introduces and answers 10 questions regarding OLDU in an effort to clarify the practice's meaning, breadth of application, acceptance, and liabilities. Off-label drug use involves prescribing medications for indications, or using a dosage or dosage form, that have not been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Since the Food and Drug Administration does not regulate the practice of medicine, OLDU has become common. It occurs in every specialty of medicine, but it may be more common in areas of medicine in which the patient population is less likely to be included in clinical trials (eg, pediatric, pregnant, or psychiatric patients). Pharmaceutical companies are not allowed to promote their medications for an off-label use, which has lead to several large settlements for illegal marketing. To limit liability, physicians should prescribe medications only for indications that they believe are in the best interest of the patient. In addition, health care professionals should educate themselves about OLDU to weigh the risks and benefits and provide the best possible care for their patients. PMID:22877654

  11. Probing decisive answers to dark energy questions from cosmic complementarity and lensing tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Ishak, M

    2005-01-01

    We study future constraints on dark energy parameters determined from several combinations of CMB experiments, supernova data, and weak lensing surveys with and without tomography. In this analysis, we look in particular for combinations that will bring the uncertainties to a level of precision tight enough (a few percent) to answer decisively some of the dark energy questions. We probe the dark energy using two variants of its equation of state, and its energy density.We consider a set of 13 cosmological and systematic parameters, and assume reasonable priors on the lensing and supernova systematics. We consider various lensing surveys: a wide survey with f_{sky}=0.7, and with 2 (WLT2) and 5 (WLT5) tomographic bins; a deep survey with 10 bins (WLT10). The constraints found from Planck, 2000 supernovae with z_max=0.8, and WLT2 are: {sigma(w_0)=0.086, sigma(w_1)=0.069}, {sigma(w_0)=0.088, sigma(w_a)=0.11}, and {sigma(E_1)=0.029, sigma(E_2)=0.065}. With 5 bins, we find {sigma(w_0)=0.04, sigma(w_1)=0.034}, {sigm...

  12. Counseling in fetal medicine: evidence-based answers to clinical questions on morbidly adherent placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Antonio, F; Palacios-Jaraquemada, J; Lim, P S; Forlani, F; Lanzone, A; Timor-Tritsch, I; Cali, G

    2016-03-01

    Although the incidence of morbidly adherent placenta (MAP) has risen progressively in the last two decades, there remains uncertainty about the diagnosis and management of this condition. The aim of this review is to provide up-to-date and evidence-based answers to common clinical questions regarding the diagnosis and management of MAP. Different risk factors have been associated with MAP; however, previous Cesarean section and placenta previa are the most frequently associated. Ultrasound is the primary method for diagnosing MAP and has a good overall diagnostic accuracy for its detection. When considering the different ultrasound signs of MAP, color Doppler seems to provide the best diagnostic performance. Magnetic resonance imaging has the same accuracy in diagnosing MAP as does ultrasound examination; its use should be considered when a resective procedure, such as hysterectomy, is planned as it can provide detailed information about the topography of placental invasion and predict difficulties that may arise in surgery. The optimal gestational age for delivery in pregnancies with MAP is yet to be established; planning surgery between 35 and 36 weeks of gestation provides the best balance between fetal maturity and the risk of unexpected episodes of heavy bleeding, which are more likely to occur with delivery after this timepoint, especially in severe cases of MAP. The optimal surgical approach to MAP depends on multiple factors, including availability of an experienced team, specific surgical skills and hospital resources. Copyright © 2015 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26195324

  13. Perspectives from the Avian Phylogenomics Project: Questions that Can Be Answered with Sequencing All Genomes of a Vertebrate Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Erich D

    2016-01-01

    The rapid pace of advances in genome technology, with concomitant reductions in cost, makes it feasible that one day in our lifetime we will have available extant genomes of entire classes of species, including vertebrates. I recently helped cocoordinate the large-scale Avian Phylogenomics Project, which collected and sequenced genomes of 48 bird species representing most currently classified orders to address a range of questions in phylogenomics and comparative genomics. The consortium was able to answer questions not previously possible with just a few genomes. This success spurred on the creation of a project to sequence the genomes of at least one individual of all extant ∼10,500 bird species. The initiation of this project has led us to consider what questions now impossible to answer could be answered with all genomes, and could drive new questions now unimaginable. These include the generation of a highly resolved family tree of extant species, genome-wide association studies across species to identify genetic substrates of many complex traits, redefinition of species and the species concept, reconstruction of the genomes of common ancestors, and generation of new computational tools to address these questions. Here I present visions for the future by posing and answering questions regarding what scientists could potentially do with available genomes of an entire vertebrate class. PMID:26884102

  14. Toward automated classification of consumers' cancer-related questions with a new taxonomy of expected answer types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRoy, Susan; Jones, Sean; Kurmally, Adam

    2016-09-01

    This article examines methods for automated question classification applied to cancer-related questions that people have asked on the web. This work is part of a broader effort to provide automated question answering for health education. We created a new corpus of consumer-health questions related to cancer and a new taxonomy for those questions. We then compared the effectiveness of different statistical methods for developing classifiers, including weighted classification and resampling. Basic methods for building classifiers were limited by the high variability in the natural distribution of questions and typical refinement approaches of feature selection and merging categories achieved only small improvements to classifier accuracy. Best performance was achieved using weighted classification and resampling methods, the latter yielding an accuracy of F1 = 0.963. Thus, it would appear that statistical classifiers can be trained on natural data, but only if natural distributions of classes are smoothed. Such classifiers would be useful for automated question answering, for enriching web-based content, or assisting clinical professionals to answer questions. PMID:25759063

  15. Examining the Impact of Question Surface Features on Students' Answers to Constructed-Response Questions on Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Michele; Haudek, Kevin C.; Prevost, Luanna; Urban-Lurain, Mark; Merrill, John

    2015-01-01

    One challenge in science education assessment is that students often focus on surface features of questions rather than the underlying scientific principles. We investigated how student written responses to constructed-response questions about photosynthesis vary based on two surface features of the question: the species of plant and the order of…

  16. Geophysical Summer Field Camp: Answering questions about the subsurface for the local community

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, K.; Batzle, M.; Liberty, L.; Raynolds, R.

    2008-12-01

    Summer Geophysics Field Camp is part of the core requirement for undergraduate Geophysics majors at Boise State University (CSM), as well as at Colorado School of Mines (CSM). We have found it to be most effectively taught when the target of the camp involves answering questions, which impact society. For example, currently the CSM/BSU geophysics summer camp focuses on ground water resources and geothermal potential in the Upper Arkansas River Basin, a part of the Rio Grande Rift system in Chaffee County, Colorado. A prime goal is to train students how to combine diverse sources of information into a unified interpretation: Students examine lithologies and structures on the periphery of the basin. Cross sections are constructed to predict the geophysical signature. Geophysical tools then are used to ascertain the gross structure and examine subsurface conditions in greater detail. These tools include surveying, regional gravity, deep and shallow seismic surveys, magnetics, DC resistivity, Ground Penetrating Radar, electromagnetics, hydrochemistry, and karaoke. While BSU and CSM own a considerable amount of geophysical hardware, our field camps are only possible because of extensive support by corporations and governmental agencies. In addition, the Society of Exploration Geohysics (SEG) Foundation provides financial support, Chaffee County assists with housing costs, and local land owners provide open access. In turn, the field camp results aid the community of Chaffee County in assessing their water resources for long term growth planning, as well as understanding the geothermal potential for hydroelectric power generation. BSU is currently exploring with the SEG Foundation under the Geophysicists Without Borders program to apply this model of combined education and social outreach in the form a geophysics camp for Southeast Asia, where we propose to study geohazards,geoarcheology and groundwater issues.

  17. Topology of Innovation Spaces in the Knowledge Networks Emerging through Questions-And-Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andjelković, Miroslav; Tadić, Bosiljka; Mitrović Dankulov, Marija; Rajković, Milan; Melnik, Roderick

    2016-01-01

    The communication processes of knowledge creation represent a particular class of human dynamics where the expertise of individuals plays a substantial role, thus offering a unique possibility to study the structure of knowledge networks from online data. Here, we use the empirical evidence from questions-and-answers in mathematics to analyse the emergence of the network of knowledge contents (or tags) as the individual experts use them in the process. After removing extra edges from the network-associated graph, we apply the methods of algebraic topology of graphs to examine the structure of higher-order combinatorial spaces in networks for four consecutive time intervals. We find that the ranking distributions of the suitably scaled topological dimensions of nodes fall into a unique curve for all time intervals and filtering levels, suggesting a robust architecture of knowledge networks. Moreover, these networks preserve the logical structure of knowledge within emergent communities of nodes, labeled according to a standard mathematical classification scheme. Further, we investigate the appearance of new contents over time and their innovative combinations, which expand the knowledge network. In each network, we identify an innovation channel as a subgraph of triangles and larger simplices to which new tags attach. Our results show that the increasing topological complexity of the innovation channels contributes to network’s architecture over different time periods, and is consistent with temporal correlations of the occurrence of new tags. The methodology applies to a wide class of data with the suitable temporal resolution and clearly identified knowledge-content units. PMID:27171149

  18. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 734 - Questions and Answers-Technology and Software Subject to the EAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... Release of information by instruction in catalog courses and associated teaching laboratories of academic...? Answer: No. Question C(6): We teach proprietary courses on design and manufacture of high-performance... proprietary business does not qualify as an “academic institution” within the meaning of § 734.9 of this...

  19. E-Assessment for Learning? The Potential of Short-Answer Free-Text Questions with Tailored Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Sally; Mitchell, Tom

    2009-01-01

    A natural language based system has been used to author and mark short-answer free-text assessment tasks. Students attempt the questions online and are given tailored and relatively detailed feedback on incorrect and incomplete responses, and have the opportunity to repeat the task immediately so as to learn from the feedback provided. The answer…

  20. 26 CFR 1.404(k)-1T - Questions and answers relating to the deductibility of certain dividend distributions. (Temporary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... deductibility of certain dividend distributions. (Temporary) 1.404(k)-1T Section 1.404(k)-1T Internal Revenue... Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.404(k)-1T Questions and answers relating to the deductibility of certain dividend distributions. (Temporary) Q-1: What does section 404(k) provide? A-1:...

  1. "Remember to Hand out Medals": Peer Rating and Expertise in a Question-and-Answer Study Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponti, Marisa

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on an exploratory study of giving medals as part of a peer rating system in a question-and-answer (Q&A) study group on Python, a programming language. There are no professional teachers tutoring learners. The study aimed to understand whether and how medals, awarded to responses in a peer-based learning environment, can…

  2. An online network tool for quality information to answer questions about occupational safety and health: usability and applicability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Dijk Frank JH

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common information facilities do not always provide the quality information needed to answer questions on health or health-related issues, such as Occupational Safety and Health (OSH matters. Barriers may be the accessibility, quantity and readability of information. Online Question & Answer (Q&A network tools, which link questioners directly to experts can overcome some of these barriers. When designing and testing online tools, assessing the usability and applicability is essential. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to assess the usability and applicability of a new online Q&A network tool for answers on OSH questions. Methods We applied a cross-sectional usability test design. Eight occupational health experts and twelve potential questioners from the working population (workers were purposively selected to include a variety of computer- and internet-experiences. During the test, participants were first observed while executing eight tasks that entailed important features of the tool. In addition, they were interviewed. Through task observations and interviews we assessed applicability, usability (effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction and facilitators and barriers in use. Results Most features were usable, though several could be improved. Most tasks were executed effectively. Some tasks, for example searching stored questions in categories, were not executed efficiently and participants were less satisfied with the corresponding features. Participants' recommendations led to improvements. The tool was found mostly applicable for additional information, to observe new OSH trends and to improve contact between OSH experts and workers. Hosting and support by a trustworthy professional organization, effective implementation campaigns, timely answering and anonymity were seen as important use requirements. Conclusions This network tool is a promising new strategy for offering company workers high quality information

  3. Towards a Virtual Teaching Assistant to Answer Questions Asked by Students in Introductory Computer Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiner, Cecily

    2009-01-01

    Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This dissertation analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the…

  4. 76 FR 41157 - Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Final Rule, Prevention of Salmonella...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    .... Background In the Federal Register of July 9, 2009 (74 FR 33030), FDA issued a final rule requiring shell egg... Answers Regarding the Final Rule, Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production... Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production, Storage, and Transportation'' (the draft...

  5. 77 FR 50372 - Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Final Rule, Prevention of Salmonella...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ..., 2009 (74 FR 33030), we issued a final rule requiring shell egg producers to implement measures to... the Federal Register of July 13, 2011 (76 FR 41157), we made available a draft guidance entitled... Answers Regarding the Final Rule, Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During...

  6. If reform of science education is the answer - what were the questions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    At most Danish universities dramatic changes of the natural science programmes are under way. These changes are carried out both in response to external forces, and to internal ones, such as the need to rethink curriculum and pedagogy. But while the answer - structural reforms - is clear, the maj...

  7. 分布式自动答疑系统%Automatic Question-Answering System Based on Distributed Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李园伟; 宁可为; 王炜

    2012-01-01

    作为远程教育中的重要组成部分,自动答疑系统允许用户以自然语言进行提问,并返回一个简洁、准确的答案.在HADOOP框架下,采用改进的编辑距离算法对汉语句子的相似度进行计算能够使自动答疑系统更加快捷以及智能化.%As an important component of distance education, automatic question-answering system allows users to ask questions in natural language, it can return a concise and accurate answers.Based on Hadoop framework, using an improved edited distance algorithm to calculate the similarity of Chinese sentences can make the system more efficient and more intelligent.

  8. Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, 1974. Public Law 93-247 (S. 1191): Questions and Answers, Analysis, and Text of the Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Public Welfare.

    This booklet contains questions and answers concerning the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, an analysis of the Act by the Congressional Research Service, and a copy of the actual text. The question and answer section provides information about the rationale for the Act, the amount of money available for its implementation, as well as its…

  9. Answers to Your Questions for a Better Understanding of Sexual Orientation and Homosexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Questions For a Better Understanding of Sexual Orientation & Homosexuality S ince 1975, the American Psychological Association has called ... learn to cope with the social stigma against homosexuality, this pattern of prejudice can have serious negative ...

  10. Learning from Chatting: How Our Virtual Reference Questions Are Giving Us Answers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna Rourke

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective ‐ This research compares two types of online reference services and attempts to determine whether the same sorts of questions are being asked; which questions are being asked most often; and whether patron and staff behaviour is consistent or different in the two types of online reference sessions. Patron satisfaction with the two types of online reference services is also examined.Methods ‐ The researchers reviewed over 1400 online reference transcripts, including 744 from Docutek virtual reference (VR transactions and 683 from MSN chat reference (IM transactions. The questions were classified according to categories of reference questions based on recurring questions discovered during the review. Each transaction was also categorized as ʺinformalʺ or ʺformalʺ based on patron language and behaviour, and general observations were made about the interactions between patrons and librarians. In addition, results from 223 user surveys were examined to determine patron satisfaction with online reference services and to determine which type of service patrons preferred.Results ‐ The analysis suggests that patrons are using VR and IM services differently. In general, VR questions tend to be more research intensive and formal, while IM questions are less focused on academic research and informal. Library staff and patrons appear to alter their behaviour depending upon which online environment they are in. User surveys demonstrated that patrons are generally satisfied with either type of online reference assistance.Conclusion ‐ Both types of online reference service are meeting the needs of patrons. They are being used for different purposes and in different ways, so it may be worthwhile for libraries to consider offering both VR and IM reference. The relationship building that appears to take place more naturally in IM interactions demonstrates the benefits of librarians being more approachable with patrons in order to provide a

  11. Answering the Questions of Rape Prevention Research: A Response to Tharp et al. (2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foubert, John D.

    2011-01-01

    Rape prevention programmers and researchers have long struggled to select the most appropriate theoretical models to frame their work. Questions abound regarding appropriate standards of evidence for success of program interventions. The present article provides an alternative point of view to the one put forward by seven staff members from the…

  12. Stem cell therapy for cardiovascular disease : answering basic questions regarding cell behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogt, Koen Elzert Adriaan van der

    2010-01-01

    Stem cell therapy has raised enthusiasm as a potential treatment for cardiovascular diseases. However, questions remain about the in vivo behavior of the cells after transplantation and the mechanism of action with which the cells could potentially alleviate disease symptoms. The objective of the re

  13. Questions in the Answers to Primary School Educational Reconstruction in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Samuel

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review current issues in pre- and primary school reform and to pose questions on the long-term implications of present day solutions. Such an exercise will open up discussion on the probable effects of educational policy decisions with a view to minimize negative effects brought on by new policies. Because data…

  14. 75 FR 29350 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Reportable Food Registry as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ... 2007'' and gave interested parties an opportunity to submit comments by July 27, 2009 (74 FR 27803... FR 46434). This draft guidance is the second edition of that guidance entitled ``Questions and... Registry is to provide a ``reliable mechanism to track patterns of adulteration in food would...

  15. OAI, Google scholar and wikepedia are the answers, but what is the question?

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    Some of the questions raised are: 1. what types of presenting knowledge matter these days - and why? 2. for what type of communities (learning communities, communities focused on innovation) do they matter? What can be learned from the way science works within the rich spectrum of disciplines with respect to providing information: is the scientific method more debate-related or more focused on reproduction of experiments and how could OAI (dataproviders / services) play a role in these different approaches? 3. What is to be expected from different online collaborative – supposedly free - services and what general remarks can be made about their interoperability and functionality? 4. What are the quality assuring mechanisms in different communities and how can we translate these principles to further research or mere fruitful information exchange? I believe these are questions that should be raised to see also more clearly the impact of OAI. Within the Dutch context we have some experience with OAI via the D...

  16. Readers with Autism Can Produce Inferences, but they Cannot Answer Inferential Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirado, Maria J; Saldaña, David

    2016-03-01

    Readers with autism (ASD), poor comprehension (PC), and typical development (TD) took part in three reading experiments requiring the production of inferences. In Experiments 1 and 2 reading times for target phrases-placed immediately after text implicitly indicating the emotion of a protagonist or after a number of filler sentences, respectively--were used as measures of inferencing. In Experiment 3, participants were explicitly asked to identify the protagonist's emotion. There were no significant differences among groups in Experiment 1. Compared to TD readers, the PC group performed poorly in Experiments 2 and 3. ASD readers performed worse than PC participants only in the explicit-question task. Although ASD readers can produce inferences, they respond to questions about them with difficulty. PMID:26547920

  17. Answers to Health Questions: Internet Search Results Versus Online Health Community Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Kanthawala, Shaheen; Vermeesch, Amber; Given, Barbara; Huh, Jina

    2016-01-01

    Background About 6 million people search for health information on the Internet each day in the United States. Both patients and caregivers search for information about prescribed courses of treatments, unanswered questions after a visit to their providers, or diet and exercise regimens. Past literature has indicated potential challenges around quality in health information available on the Internet. However, diverse information exists on the Internet—ranging from government-initiated webpage...

  18. Practical Approach to Knowledge-based Question Answering with Natural Language Understanding and Advanced Reasoning

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Wilson

    2007-01-01

    This research hypothesized that a practical approach in the form of a solution framework known as Natural Language Understanding and Reasoning for Intelligence (NaLURI), which combines full-discourse natural language understanding, powerful representation formalism capable of exploiting ontological information and reasoning approach with advanced features, will solve the following problems without compromising practicality factors: 1) restriction on the nature of question and response, and 2) limitation to scale across domains and to real-life natural language text.

  19. Do calendrical savants use calculation to answer date questions? A functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    OpenAIRE

    Cowan, Richard; Frith, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Calendrical savants can name the weekdays for dates from different years with remarkable speed and accuracy. Whether calculation rather than just memory is involved is disputed. Grounds for doubting whether they can calculate are reviewed and criteria for attributing date calculation skills to them are discussed. At least some calendrical savants possess date calculation skills. A behavioural characteristic observed in many calendrical savants is increased response time for questions about mo...

  20. Epigenetic mechanisms affecting regulation of energy balance: many questions, few answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extensive human and animal model data show that nutrition and other environmental influences during critical periods of embryonic, fetal, and early postnatal life can affect the development of body weight regulatory pathways, with permanent consequences for risk of obesity. Epigenetic processes are ...

  1. Carbon Materials for Lithium Sulfur Batteries-Ten Critical Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchardt, Lars; Oschatz, Martin; Kaskel, Stefan

    2016-05-23

    Lithium-sulfur batteries are among the most promising electrochemical energy storage devices of the near future. Especially the low price and abundant availability of sulfur as the cathode material and the high theoretical capacity in comparison to state-of-the art lithium-ion technologies are attractive features. Despite significant research achievements that have been made over the last years, fundamental (electro-) chemical questions still remain unanswered. This review addresses ten crucial questions associated with lithium-sulfur batteries and critically evaluates current research with respect to them. The sulfur-carbon composite cathode is a particular focus, but its complex interplay with other hardware components in the cell, such as the electrolyte and the anode, necessitates a critical discussion of other cell components. Modern in situ characterisation methods are ideally suited to illuminate the role of each component. This article does not pretend to summarise all recently published data, but instead is a critical overview over lithium-sulfur batteries based on recent research findings. PMID:27001631

  2. The need for a lunar base - Answering basic questions about planetary science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. J.

    1985-01-01

    After assessing the state of current understanding of the planetological characteristics of the moon, attention is given to numerous questions that have arisen about the history of the moon and to prospective methods for their investigation through lunar exploration. One such exploratory mission will be that of the unmanned Lunar Geoscience Observer; the greatest prospects for important discoveries, however, are foreseen in manned lunar exploration. More sophisticated instruments and preliminary analyses are noted to be possible in manned exploration, although the possibility of contamination of samples is greater.

  3. Critical questions in development of targeted nanoparticle therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsmeyer, Richard

    2016-06-01

    major barrier to the exploration of nanoparticles is because they are so complex. The very design flexibility that makes the nanoparticle approach attractive also makes it challenging. Fortunately, continuing progress in experimental tools has greatly improved the ability to study biology and potential interventions at a nanoscale. Thus, it is increasingly possible to answer detailed questions about how nanoparticles can and should work. However, a detailed understanding at the mechanistic level is only the beginning. Any new medicine must not only work at the molecular level, but must also be manufactured reproducibly at scale and proven in the clinic. New materials will require new methods at all scales. The purpose of this short article is to focus on a set of questions that are being asked in the large biopharmaceutical companies and that must be answered if targeted nanoparticles are to become the medicines of the 21st century. PMID:27047683

  4. Critical questions in development of targeted nanoparticle therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsmeyer, Richard

    2016-01-01

    the major barrier to the exploration of nanoparticles is because they are so complex. The very design flexibility that makes the nanoparticle approach attractive also makes it challenging. Fortunately, continuing progress in experimental tools has greatly improved the ability to study biology and potential interventions at a nanoscale. Thus, it is increasingly possible to answer detailed questions about how nanoparticles can and should work. However, a detailed understanding at the mechanistic level is only the beginning. Any new medicine must not only work at the molecular level, but must also be manufactured reproducibly at scale and proven in the clinic. New materials will require new methods at all scales. The purpose of this short article is to focus on a set of questions that are being asked in the large biopharmaceutical companies and that must be answered if targeted nanoparticles are to become the medicines of the 21st century. PMID:27047683

  5. Answers to questions at public meetings regarding implementation of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 55 on operators' licenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents questions and answers based on the transcripts of four public meetings (and from written questions submitted after the meetings) conducted from April 9 to April 20, 1987 by the staff of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The meetings discussed implementation of the Commission's final rule governing Operators' Licenses and Conforming Amendments (10 CFR Parts 55 and 50). The rule became effective May 26, 1987 and is intended to clarify the regulations for issuing licenses to operators and senior operators; revise the requirements and scope of written examinations and operating tests for operators and senior operators, require a simulation facility; clarify procedures for administering requalification examinations; and describe the form and content for operator license applications

  6. Percolation Beyond $Z^d$, Many Questions And a Few Answers

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamini, Itai; Schramm, Oded

    1996-01-01

    A comprehensive study of percolation in a more general context than the usual $Z^d$ setting is proposed, with particular focus on Cayley graphs, almost transitive graphs, and planar graphs. Results concerning uniqueness of infinite clusters and inequalities for the critical value $p_c$ are given, and a simple planar example exhibiting uniqueness and non-uniqueness for different $p>p_c$ is analyzed. Numerous varied conjectures and problems are proposed, with the hope of setting goals for futur...

  7. Adapting to climate change in the Mediterranean: Some questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Circe (Climate change and impact research: the Mediterranean environment (www.circeproject. eu), an EC -funded 4-year research project, aims at developing for the first time a comprehensive assessment of climate change impacts in the Mediterranean area. CIRCE's rational does not take climate impacts as direct consequences of climate changes: the causal relationship is much more complex since a given climate change leads to very contrasted impacts according to existing policies as well as to socio-economic and political responses. This paper freely draws on some findings from CIRCE 's first stakeholders meeting, organised by IDDRI in October 2007. A high level, focused dialogue among a small group of selected participants, this meeting was articulated around two key questions: 1 - Business models, sector-wide transitions and socio-economic irreversibilities: is there room for manoeuvre? 2 - Succeeding where we failed: can the climate challenge be turned into an opportunity? These questions were examined with regard to three sectors (agriculture, energy and tourism) and two themes (ecosystems protection and urban and regional planning). Important cross-cutting issues for the Mediterranean such as water management, regional security, international migrations, etc., were dealt with in the discussions along the two days. (author)

  8. Genetic effects of ionizing radiation – some questions with no answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are a lot of questions about genetic effects of ionizing radiation, the main one is does ionizing radiation induce mutations in humans? There is no direct evidence that exposure of parents to radiation leads to excess heritable disease in offspring. What is the difference between human and other species in which radiation induced mutations are easily registered? During evolution germ cell selection ex vivo has been changed to a selection in vivo and we cannot observe such selection of radiation damaged cells in human. Low radiation doses – are they harmful or beneficial? The “hormesis” phenomenon as well as radioadaptive response proves positive effects of low radiation dose. Can analysis of chromosomal aberration rate in lymphocytes be used for dosimetry? Many uncontrolled factors may be responsible for significant mistakes of this method. Why did evolution preserve the bystander effect? This paper is discussion one and its goal is to pay attention on some effects of ionizing radiation. - Highlights: ► There are a lot of questions about genetic effects of ionizing radiation. ► Does ionizing radiation induce mutations in human? ► During evolution germ cell selection ex vivo has been changed to a selection in vivo. ► Radioadaptive response proves positive effects of low radiation doses. ► Many uncontrolled factors may be responsible for significant biodosimetry mistakes.

  9. How well do websites concerning children's anxiety answer parents' questions about treatment choices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Kristin A; Walker, John R; Walsh, Kate

    2015-10-01

    The goals of this study were to evaluate the quality of information concerning anxiety disorders in children that is available on the Internet and to evaluate changes in the quality of website information over time. The authors identified websites addressing child anxiety disorders (N = 26) using a Google search and recommendations from an expert in child anxiety. Each website was evaluated on the extent to which it addressed questions that parents consider important, the quality of information, and the reading level. All websites provided adequate information describing treatment options; however, fewer websites had information addressing many questions that are important to parents, including the duration of treatment, what happens when treatment stops, and the benefits and risks of various treatments. Many websites provided inadequate information on pharmacological treatment. Most websites were of moderate quality and had more difficult reading levels than is recommended. Five years after the initial assessment, authors re-analyzed the websites in order to investigate changes in content over time. The content of only six websites had been updated since the original analysis, the majority of which improved on the three aforementioned areas of evaluation. Websites could be strengthened by providing important information that would support parent decision-making. PMID:24830663

  10. Do calendrical savants use calculation to answer date questions? A functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Richard; Frith, Chris

    2009-05-27

    Calendrical savants can name the weekdays for dates from different years with remarkable speed and accuracy. Whether calculation rather than just memory is involved is disputed. Grounds for doubting whether they can calculate are reviewed and criteria for attributing date calculation skills to them are discussed. At least some calendrical savants possess date calculation skills. A behavioural characteristic observed in many calendrical savants is increased response time for questions about more remote years. This may be because more remote years require more calculation or because closer years are more practised. An experiment is reported that used functional magnetic resonance imaging to attempt to discriminate between these explanations. Only two savants could be scanned and excessive head movement corrupted one savant's mental arithmetic data. Nevertheless, there was increased parietal activation during both mental arithmetic and date questions and this region showed increased activity with more remote dates. These results suggest that the calendrical skills observed in savants result from intensive practice with calculations used in solving mental arithmetic problems. The mystery is not how they solve these problems, but why. PMID:19528025

  11. Dark Matter and Dark Energy: The Critical Questions

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Michael S.

    2002-01-01

    Stars account for only about 0.5% of the content of the Universe; the bulk of the Universe is optically dark. The dark side of the Universe is comprised of: at least 0.1% light neutrinos; 3.5% +/- 1% baryons; 29% +/- 4% cold dark matter; and 66% +/- 6% dark energy. Now that we have characterized the dark side of the Universe, the challenge is to understand it. The critical questions are: (1) What form do the dark baryons take? (2) What is (are) the constituent(s) of the cold dark matter? (3) ...

  12. Public meeting on radiation safety for industrial radiographerss: remarks, questions and answers at five NRC regional meetings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past several years thenumber of radiation overexposures experienced in the radiography industry has been higher than for any other single group of NRC licensees. To inform radiography licensees of NRC's concern fo these recurring overexposure incidents, NRC staff representatives met with licensees in a series of five regional meetings. At these meetings the staff presented prepared remarks and answered questions on NRC regulations and operations. The main purposes of the meetings were to express NRC's concern for the high incidence of overexposures, and to open a line of communication between the NRC and radiography licensees in an effort to achieve the common goal of improved radiation safety. The remarks presented by the staff and subjects discussed at these meetings included: the purpose, scope, findings and goals of the NRC inspection program; ways and means of incorporating safety into radiography operations; and case histories of overexposure incidents, with highlights of the causes and possible preventions. At each of the regional meetings the staff received a request for a copy of the prepared remarks and a consolidation of the questions and answers that were discussed. This document includes that information, and a copy is being provided to each organizaion or firm attending the regional meetings. Requests for other copies should be made in accordance with the directions printed inside the front cover of this document

  13. The role of AQP4 in neuromyelitis optica: More answers, more questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin; Ransom, Bruce R; Ma, Jian-Fang

    2016-09-15

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a recurrent inflammatory disease that preferentially targets the optic nerves and spinal cord. The presence of antibodies to the water channel protein aquaporin-4 (AQP4), expressed almost exclusively in astrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS), is a reliable biomarker for NMO. These antibodies, NMO-IgG, may be responsible for the sequential cascade of immune events, including IgG/IgM deposition, infiltration of granulocytes and complement-mediated cytotoxicity (i.e. astrocyte loss) and demyelination. This review summarizes current thinking about the role of NMO-IgG in the pathogenesis of this condition. New insights were also generated along with important additional questions. PMID:27609277

  14. Is the Oedipus complex still the cornerstone of psychoanalysis? Three obstacles to answering the question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, B

    1991-01-01

    Current controversies about the centrality of the Oedipus complex in psychoanalysis are difficult to resolve unless we address three obstacles in the way of rational examination. The first is that the Oedipus complex, Freud's "shibboleth" of psychoanalysis, is politically controversial. Second is the great difficulty in agreeing upon the definition and boundaries of the Oedipus complex, especially the necessary complexities introduced with the negative Oedipus complex, female sexuality, the nature of the preoedipal, and counteroedipal fantasies and actions. The third obstacle involves basic questions of psychoanalytic epistemology: our criteria for evidence to prove or disprove any particular proposition. I conclude that the awareness of these difficulties signifies a certain maturation in our thinking and that the complexity introduced by these obstacles can in time provide the groundwork for a set of formulations that is richer and closer to the complexities and ambiguities of the clinical situation. PMID:1939991

  15. Human enteric pathogens in produce: un-answered ecological questions with direct implications for food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teplitski, Max; Barak, Jeri D; Schneider, Keith R

    2009-04-01

    Recent outbreaks of gastroenteritis linked to the consumption of fresh produce raise questions about the mechanisms by which human pathogens colonize plants and persist within marketable produce. Neither Salmonella nor Escherichia coli appear to produce enzymes that degrade plant cell walls, therefore it is not yet certain how these bacteria enter plant tissues and spread within them. Similar to plant-associated bacteria, enterics use cellulose and aggregative fimbriae for their attachment to plant surfaces. Salmonella can be an effective plant endophyte, even though it is capable of triggering plant defenses. Plant-associated microbiota contributes to the fitness and translocation of these human pathogens within plant hosts, although interactions and mechanisms of communication between plant-associated microbiota and enteric pathogens are not yet characterized. PMID:19349159

  16. Depleted uranium: all the questions about DU and Gulf War syndrome are not yet answered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertell, Rosalie

    2006-01-01

    For 15 years, the debate about depleted uranium (DU) and its detrimental effects on the health of veterans of the Gulf War of 1991, on the Iraqi people and military (and subsequently on the people of Kosovo, Afghanistan, and Iraq during the second war) has remained unresolved. Meanwhile, the number of Gulf War veterans who have developed the so-called Gulf War syndrome has risen to about one-third of the 800,000 U.S. forces deployed, and unknown proportions of those involved in the subsequent wars. Uncounted civilians and personnel of other nations that fought in Iraq and other wars since 1991 have also been afflicted. The veterans have suffered from multiple serious physiological disorders and have received little or no official recognition, medical relief, or compensation. We need to take another look at this issue, using a holistic and interactive model for the toxic matrix of exposures, identifying the major roadblocks to resolving the scientific questions, and finding appropriate medical and political responses. This commentary is such an attempt. PMID:16981628

  17. Alternative approaches to the definition and identification of learning disabilities: some questions and answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jack M; Coulter, W Alan; Reschly, Daniel J; Vaughn, Sharon

    2004-12-01

    Recent consensus reports concur in suggesting major changes in the federal regulatory approach to the identification of learning disabilities (LD). These reports recommend abandoning the IQ-discrepancy model and the use of IQ tests for identification, and also recommend incorporation of response to instruction (RTI) as one of the identification criteria. These changes are also recommended to states in the current reauthorization of the U.S. Individuals with Disabilities in Education Act (IDEA). While not mandatory, states that follow these recommendations will experience major changes in identification and treatment of students served under the LD category. This paper reviews the basis for these recommendations, summarizing four recent consensus group reports on special education that concur in suggesting these changes. Seventeen commonly asked questions about these changes are presented, with responses. In order to ensure adequate instruction for students with LD, it is essential that identification practices focus on assessments that are directly related to instruction, that any services for students who are struggling prioritize intervention over eligibility, and that special education be permitted to focus more on results and outcomes and less on eligibility and process. Identification models that incorporate RTI represent a shift in special education toward the goals of better achievement and behavioral outcomes for students identified with LD, as well as those students at risk for LD. PMID:15741940

  18. Killing or letting die? Proposal of a (somewhat) new answer to a perennial question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, Reinhard

    2016-06-01

    There is as yet no widely agreed-upon solution to the standard textbook problem whether actively shutting off a life-sustaining medical device, e.g. a respirator, and thus bringing about a patient's death amounts to active killing or just to an omission of further treatment. Apart from a range of astutely contrived case examples and respective particular solutions proposed in the literature, there seems to be no consensus on the normative principles such solutions should be grounded in, not even on the need for such principles beyond sheer intuition. The present paper attempts to develop a normative approach based on fundamental principles of law. From this perspective, what is decisive for the question of 'killing or letting die' in such cases is not that death ensues from a behaviour that is active and relevantly causative, but rather, whether or not the agent in performing the deadly act transgresses the boundaries of the domain of his or her sole normative authority, and thereby intervenes in the protected sphere of another. Unless he or she does so, their behaviour cannot be classified as active commission regardless of the amount of causal activity it may display and regardless of its potentially harmful consequences. This conception is spelled out in detail and tested in a range of case examples, as are several of its corollaries that deviate from standard type solutions. PMID:27030480

  19. Biblical principles as an answer to the African people�s questioning of witchcraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David K. Semenya

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Witchcraft is still an enormous and serious issue in African culture. The media, including the entertainment component (e.g. African Magic programmes on satellite television, portray witchcraft as an issue that needs to be addressed. Witchcraft has in a sense been integrated into the system and context of the Nigerian community because most of the programming originates from this country. The same can be said of the South African milieu. It would be remarkable to read a tabloid such as the Daily Sun without at least one reference to witchcraft. Between 1994 and 1996 several hundred people were killed in the Limpopo Province on suspicion of witchcraft, to which the response from the Christian sector was diverse and varied. De Vries (2010:35 argues that Christians believe that upon becoming a member of this faith, witchcraft is powerless; yet there are indeed Christians who consider bewitchment possible, despite a belief in God. This being the case, the question that arises is, �What does the Bible teach in this regard�? The most compelling evidence for the existence of witchcraft is its mention in both the Old Testament (OT and the New Testament (NT. Although all Christians read the same Bible, the interpretation of its teachings on witchcraft differ greatly. This article has attempted to identify, from a historical-grammatical exegetical point of view, a number of biblical principles on witchcraft that could be set as guidelines for addressing witchcraft-related matters and to obtain a clearer picture on Scripture�s teachings regarding witchcraft. (This topic has also been explored from a meta-theoretical perspective in a follow-up article.

  20. “Remember to Hand Out Medals”: Peer Rating and Expertise in a Question-and-Answer Study Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Ponti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on an exploratory study of giving medals as part of a peer rating system in a question-and-answer (Q&A study group on Python, a programming language. There are no professional teachers tutoring learners. The study aimed to understand whether and how medals, awarded to responses in a peer-based learning environment, can work as a mechanism to assess the value of those responses when traditional markers of expertise are not always clearly defined and identifiable. Employing a mixed-method approach, the analysis examined (a the content of the answers that were awarded medals and their perceived immediate value and (b the nature of the networked relationships resulting from participants’ interactions. The findings suggest that the peer rating system makes visible what the participants find immediately valuable and allocates a form of recognition that extends the “legitimation code”, which refers to the credentials that make someone competent and worthy of recognition.

  1. Is obesity a risk factor for low back pain? An example of using the evidence to answer a clinical question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirtz Timothy A

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity as a causal factor for low back pain has been controversial with no definitive answer to this date. The objective of this study was to determine whether obesity is associated with low back pain. In addition this paper aims to provide a step-by-step guide for chiropractors and osteopaths on how to ask and answer a clinical question using the literature. Methods A literature review using the MEDLINE search engine using the keywords "obesity", "low back pain", "body mass index" "BMI" and "osteoarthritis" from years 1990 to 2004 was utilised. The method employed is similar to that utilised by evidence-based practice advocates. Results The available data at this time is controversial with no clear-cut evidence connecting low back pain with obesity. Conclusion There is a lack of a clear dose-response relationship between body mass index (BMI and low back pain. Further, studies on the relationship between obesity and related lumbar osteoarthritis, knee pain, and disc herniation are also problematic.There is little doubt that future studies with controlled variables are needed to determine the existence of an unambiguous link, if any.

  2. Five critical questions of scale for the coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaney, D. P.; Humborg, C.; Emeis, K.; Kannen, A.; Silvert, W.; Tett, P.; Pastres, R.; Solidoro, C.; Yamamuro, M.; Hénocque, Y.; Nicholls, R.

    2012-01-01

    Social and ecological systems around the world are becoming increasingly globalized. From the standpoint of understanding coastal ecosystem behavior, system boundaries are not sufficient to define causes of change. A flutter in the stock market in Tokyo or Hong Kong can affect salmon producers in Norway or farmers in Togo. The globalization of opportunistic species and the disempowerment of people trying to manage their own affairs on a local scale seem to coincide with the globalization of trade. Human-accelerated environmental change, including climate change, can exacerbate this sense of disenfranchisement. The structure and functioning of coastal ecosystems have been developed over thousands of years subject to environmental forces and constraints imposed mainly on local scales. However, phenomena that transcend these conventional scales have emerged with the explosion of human population, and especially with the rise of modern global culture. Here, we examine five broad questions of scale in the coastal zone: How big are coastal ecosystems and why should we care? Temporal scales of change in coastal waters and watersheds: Can we detect shifting baselines due to economic development and other drivers? Are footprints more important than boundaries? What makes a decision big? The tyranny of small decisions in coastal regions. Scales of complexity in coastal waters: the simple, the complicated or the complex? These questions do not have straightforward answers. There is no single "scale" for coastal ecosystems; their multiscale nature complicates our understanding and management of them. Coastal ecosystems depend on their watersheds as well as spatially-diffuse "footprints" associated with modern trade and material flows. Change occurs both rapidly and slowly on human time scales, and observing and responding to changes in coastal environments is a fundamental challenge. Apparently small human decisions collectively have potentially enormous consequences for

  3. The physics and engineering aspects of radiology.. Textbook with questions and answers. 2. enl. and rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have chosen the form of questions and answers derived from practice in order to present and explain the fundamental physics and engineering aspects of radiology. The second, completely revised edition of the textbook has been updated so as to include recent legislation and the guidelines for specialized medical education and training for specialists in diagnostic radiology. One new chapters added deals with the diagnostic method of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and the chapters on computed tomography (CT), digital radiography and ultrasonography have been enlarged to include recent developments. The text is accompanied by illustrations that are easy to remember, showing the typical aspects and information, and the chapter containing and discussing diagnostic images has likewise been enlarged by representative CT and MRI images. The book is intended for readers preparing for their examination as specialists, for participants of courses in radiological protection, radiological medical technicians or medical students, and may also serve as a refresher course. (orig./CB)

  4. Social Presence Approach Within the Question and Answering eLearning Model:An Experiment with a Multi-Agent System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Avila

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The model of Questions Answering (Q&A for eLearning is based on collaborative learning through questions that are posed by students and their answers to that questions which are given by peers, in contrast with the classical model in which students ask questions to the teacher only. In this proposal we extend the Q&A model including the social presence concept and a quantitative measure of it is proposed; besides it is considered the evolution of the resulting Q&A social network after the inclusion of the social presence and taking into account the feedback on questions posed by students and answered by peers. The social network behaviorwas simulated using a Multi-Agent System to compare the proposed social presence model with the classical and the Q&A models.

  5. Answer This Simple Question

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. Elspeth S.

    2011-01-01

    In this essay, the author discusses her journey from her first year of the PhD program at USC, and the work she is doing now for a company that builds infrastructure in Afghanistan. She explores the ways in which studies for her 1985 PhD in Rhetoric, Linguistics and Literature did and did not prepare her for the work she does now. Her memoir…

  6. Pneumococcus: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patients infected with resistant organisms requires expensive alternative antimicrobial agents and may result in prolonged hospital stays. The increased difficulty of treating this serious bacterial infection makes prevention through vaccination even more important. ...

  7. Questions and Answers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡金生

    2002-01-01

    @@ How to Differentiate and Treat Bi-syndrome by Acupuncture and Moxibustion?Bi-syndrome is the syndrome due to invasion of the exogenous pathogenic factors of wind, cold and dampness, which obstruct the channels and collaterals, leading to stagnated flow of qi and blood, characterized by such clinical manifestations as aching pain, numbness, heaviness, limited flexion and extension of the muscles, tendons and joints, or swelling and burning heat of the joints. This syndrome includes rheumatic arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, osseous arthritis, and various neuralgia. The endogenous causative factors for the occurrence of Bi-syndrome are insufficiency of yang-qi, essence and blood, while the exogenous causative factors are the pathogenic wind, cold, and dampness. At the initial stage of the disease, the excessiveness of pathogen usually prevails, and the disease tends to be located in the limbs, skin and muscles, and channels and collaterals; while at the chronic stage, there often exists deficiency of the vital-qi or deficiency and excess intermixed, and the disease tends to be located deeper in the tendons and bones or in the zang-fu organs.

  8. Questions and Answers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    读者:长春师范学院 刘韦伯我有两道这样的题目: 1. The synthetic vitamins are _those naturally present in our food.A. identical for B. identical ofC. identical to D. identical with

  9. Tetanus: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... possible complications from tetanus? Laryngospasm (spasm of the vocal cords) is a compli- cation that can lead ... once a person develops Page 1 of 4 Technical content reviewed by the Centers for Disease Control ...

  10. Salmonella Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... / Topics / Food Safety Education / ... Q and A Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B1090 Web Content ...

  11. Rubella: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the recommended schedule. Although people with AIDS or HIV infection with signs of serious immunosuppression should not be given MMR, people with HIV infection without who do not have laboratory evidence ...

  12. Questions and Answers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    读者:qianqiong@163.com《新视野大学英语2》第一单元中的Section A部分,其最后一段中有这样一句话:In the US,however,it is taken as a sign of skillfulness or being competent to solve a problem,or fulfill a job successfully,with speed.不知道这句话是什么结构,怎样理解它的意思?

  13. Sepsis Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as well as ANY of the symptoms below: Shivering, fever, or very cold Extreme pain or discomfort ... severe infection, look for signs and symptoms like: shivering, fever, or very cold, extreme pain or discomfort, ...

  14. Rabies: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rabies virus or potentially rabid bats, raccoons, skunks, cats, dogs, or other species at risk for having rabies • ... length of stay. Contact with all animals, including dogs and cats, should be avoided when traveling abroad. Immunization Action ...

  15. Perchlorate Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... issue of the scientific journal Analytical Chemistry (Analytical Chemistry. 2004, 76, 5518-5522). What is FDA's Total Diet Study? FDA's Total Diet Study (TDS) is the Agency's ongoing market basket survey in which 285 core foods (TDS foods) in the U.S. food supply are ...

  16. So much more than just a list: exploring the nature of critical questioning in undergraduate sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa-de-Jesus, Helena; Moreira, Aurora; Lopes, Betina; Watts, Mike

    2014-05-01

    Background: Critical thinking is one of the very highest orders of cognitive abilities and a key competency in higher education. Asking questions is an important component of rich learning experiences, structurally embedded in the operations of critical thinking. Our clear sense is that critical thinking and, within that, critical questioning, is heavily context dependent, in the sense that is applied, used by critical learners in a contextualised way. Purpose: Our research deals with enhancing science undergraduates' critical questioning. We are interested in understanding and describing the nature and development of students' critical questioning. The purpose is to conceptualise critical questioning as a competency, into three domains - knowledge, skills and attitudes/dispositions. We have no interest in a taxonomic category of context-free question-types called 'critical questions'. In contrast, our view is that 'being a critical questioner' trades heavily on context. Sources of evidence: Four cases are considered as illuminative of the dimensions of science undergraduates' critical questioning. Data were collected in natural learning environments through non-participant observation, audio-taping teacher-students interactions and semi-structured interviews. Students' written material resulting from diverse learning tasks was also collected. Main argument: Our supposition is that one vehicle for achieving university students as critical thinkers is to enable them not just to ask critical questions, but to be critical questioners. We relate critical questioning to three domains: (1) context, (2) competency and (3) delivery, and propose a model based on illuminating examples of the in-classroom action. Conclusions: The dimensions of the competency-context-delivery model provide a framework for describing successful student critical questioning, showing that students' capacity to be critical can be developed. It is possible, in our view, to generate critical

  17. France's answers to question and comments received from other contracting parties on its 1. report for the JC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-10-01

    The Joint Convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management is supplementing the Convention on Nuclear Safety. It was approved by France on February 22, 2000 and it entered into force on June 18, 2001. France has received 211 questions, coming from 19 Contracting Parties, on its first report and has provided written answers to each one. These answers were gathered in a single document, which lists them along the articles of the Convention. France has presented these answers on November 5, 2003, at the review meeting of the contracting Parties of the Convention and has decided to make them available to the public, however without mention of the countries that had asked them. The 211 questions received on the first report for the Joint Convention are listed along the sections suggested by the guidelines for the answers to the articles of the convention, sorted by the related page number of the French report and, within each section, grouped by issues raised. The written answers to each question have been coordinated by the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN), but have been provided either by the regulators or by the operators (or even both) depending on the related issue. In the case where various questions are related to a same issue but are referred to different articles of the Conventions, they have been referred to the most relevant article in order to have the same issue dealt with in a single location in the present answers report. The answer to each question is provided immediately under the related question.

  18. NPP Grafenrheinfeld. No thank you. Questions and answers concerning the oldest operating crack susceptible reactor in the federal republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The brochure discusses questions on the NPP Grafenrheinfeld. concerning the following issues: reactor type, operating company, nuclear fuel, licensing, radioactive waste management, susceptibility to damage, stress test results, critical arguments concerning the reactor pressure vessel steel and the containment, cracks in the primary circuit, safety in case of an aircraft crash, possibility of a severe accident, consequences of a severe accident, medical emergency plan, public information for an emergency case, shutdown at the end of 2015, necessity of a new power plant for energy security?

  19. Conflicting paradigms in radiation protection: 20 Questions with answers from the regulator, the health physicist, the scientist, and the lawyers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George Orwell's open-quotes doublethinkclose quotes should be generalized to open-quotes polythinkclose quotes to describe the multiplicity of views that radiation protection professionals must simultaneously accommodate. The paradigms, that is, organizing principles and beliefs, that (1) regulators, (2) operational health physicists, (3) scientists, (4) lawyers for the defendant, and (5) lawyers for the plaintiff use in their approaches to radiation protection are presented. What we believe as scientists often conflicts with what we do for purposes of radiation protection. What we need to do merely to protect humankind and the environment from harmful effects of radiation is far less than what we must do to satisfy the regulator, whose paradigm has checklists, score-keeping, and penalties. In the hands of lawyers, our work must overcome different challenges. Even if the paradigms of the operational health physicist, the scientist, and the regulator match, the odds against the lawyers paradigms also matching are astronomical. The differing paradigms are illustrated by example questions and answers. It is important for educators, trainers, and health physicists to recognize and separate the score-keeping, practice, science, and legal issues in health physics

  20. Left or Right Hemisphere? A Novel Answer to the Old Question of Lateralization by Introducing IRL (Individualistic Relativistic Lateralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Birjandi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Although lateralization for language functions gives the sheer authority of language centers and control to the left hemisphere, there is a strong debate among the specialists regarding which hemisphere has the responsibility for language. There is not a complete meeting ground among the scholars on the roles of each hemisphere in language processes either. The recent studies including the advanced technologies such as neuroimaging, Positron-emission Tomography (PET and functional MRI come up with contradictory findings that do not support the long time claim of left hemisphere dominance. Generally, this paper aims at finding a novel answer to the old question of lateralization in language acquisition. More particularly, first it attempts to review the latest researches to see the role of left and right hemispheres in language processes. Second, it introduces a novel version of lateralization as IRL (Individualistic Relativistic Lateralization that rejects the notion of "left-brain only” and “right-brain only” person and functioning and accordingly rejects also the absolute generalizeable perspective to lateralization and localization.

  1. Conflicting paradigms in radiation protection: 20 Questions with answers from the regulator, the health physicist, the scientist, and the lawyers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, D.J.; Stansbury, P.S. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Porter, S.W. Jr. [Porter Consultants, Inc., Ardmore, PA (United States)

    1995-01-01

    George Orwell`s {open_quotes}doublethink{close_quotes} should be generalized to {open_quotes}polythink{close_quotes} to describe the multiplicity of views that radiation protection professionals must simultaneously accommodate. The paradigms, that is, organizing principles and beliefs, that (1) regulators, (2) operational health physicists, (3) scientists, (4) lawyers for the defendant, and (5) lawyers for the plaintiff use in their approaches to radiation protection are presented. What we believe as scientists often conflicts with what we do for purposes of radiation protection. What we need to do merely to protect humankind and the environment from harmful effects of radiation is far less than what we must do to satisfy the regulator, whose paradigm has checklists, score-keeping, and penalties. In the hands of lawyers, our work must overcome different challenges. Even if the paradigms of the operational health physicist, the scientist, and the regulator match, the odds against the lawyers paradigms also matching are astronomical. The differing paradigms are illustrated by example questions and answers. It is important for educators, trainers, and health physicists to recognize and separate the score-keeping, practice, science, and legal issues in health physics.

  2. The case for multimodal analysis of atypical interaction: questions, answers and gaze in play involving a child with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muskett, Tom; Body, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Conversation analysis (CA) continues to accrue interest within clinical linguistics as a methodology that can enable elucidation of structural and sequential orderliness in interactions involving participants who produce ostensibly disordered communication behaviours. However, it can be challenging to apply CA to re-examine clinical phenomena that have initially been defined in terms of linguistics, as a logical starting point for analysis may be to focus primarily on the organisation of language ("talk") in such interactions. In this article, we argue that CA's methodological power can only be fully exploited in this research context when a multimodal analytic orientation is adopted, where due consideration is given to participants' co-ordinated use of multiple semiotic resources including, but not limited to, talk (e.g., gaze, embodied action, object use and so forth). To evidence this argument, a two-layered analysis of unusual question-answer sequences in a play episode involving a child with autism is presented. It is thereby demonstrated that only when the scope of enquiry is broadened to include gaze and other embodied action can an account be generated of orderliness within these sequences. This finding has important implications for CA's application as a research methodology within clinical linguistics. PMID:24067142

  3. A HYBRID METHOD USING LEXICON-BASED APPROACH AND NAIVE BAYES CLASSIFIER FOR ARABIC OPINION QUESTION ANSWERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Khalifa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Opinion Question Answering (Opinion QA is the task of enabling users to explore others opinions toward a particular service of product in order to make decisions. Arabic Opinion QA is more challenging due to its complex morphology compared to other languages and has many varieties dialects. On the other hand, there are insignificant research efforts and resources available that focus on Opinion QA in Arabic. This study aims to address the difficulties of Arabic opinion QA by proposing a hybrid method of lexicon-based approach and classification using Naïve Bayes classifier. The proposed method contains pre-processing phases such as, transformation, normalization and tokenization and exploiting auxiliary information (thesaurus. The lexicon-based approach is executed by replacing some words with its synonyms using the domain dictionary. The classification task is performed by Naïve Bayes classifier to classify the opinions based on the positive or negative sentiment polarity. The proposed method has been evaluated using the common information retrieval metrics i.e., Precision, Recall and F-measure. For comparison, three classifiers have been applied which are Naïve Bayes (NB, Support Vector Machine (SVM and K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN. The experimental results have demonstrated that NB outperforms SVM and KNN by achieving 91% accuracy.

  4. Another kind of 'BOLD Response': answering multiple-choice questions via online decoded single-trial brain signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorger, Bettina; Dahmen, Brigitte; Reithler, Joel; Gosseries, Olivia; Maudoux, Audrey; Laureys, Steven; Goebel, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    The term 'locked-in'syndrome (LIS) describes a medical condition in which persons concerned are severely paralyzed and at the same time fully conscious and awake. The resulting anarthria makes it impossible for these patients to naturally communicate, which results in diagnostic as well as serious practical and ethical problems. Therefore, developing alternative, muscle-independent communication means is of prime importance. Such communication means can be realized via brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) circumventing the muscular system by using brain signals associated with preserved cognitive, sensory, and emotional brain functions. Primarily, BCIs based on electrophysiological measures have been developed and applied with remarkable success. Recently, also blood flow-based neuroimaging methods, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), have been explored in this context. After reviewing recent literature on the development of especially hemodynamically based BCIs, we introduce a highly reliable and easy-to-apply communication procedure that enables untrained participants to motor-independently and relatively effortlessly answer multiple-choice questions based on intentionally generated single-trial fMRI signals that can be decoded online. Our technique takes advantage of the participants' capability to voluntarily influence certain spatio-temporal aspects of the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal: source location (by using different mental tasks), signal onset and offset. We show that healthy participants are capable of hemodynamically encoding at least four distinct information units on a single-trial level without extensive pretraining and with little effort. Moreover, real-time data analysis based on simple multi-filter correlations allows for automated answer decoding with a high accuracy (94.9%) demonstrating the robustness of the presented method. Following our 'proof of concept', the

  5. Can free-electron lasers answer critical questions in ultraviolet photobiology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, John C.

    2000-04-01

    This paper will evaluate the potential of ultraviolet free electron lasers, and particularly the soon to be available UV-FEL at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility for such experiments.

  6. Field-Based Teacher Research: How Teachers and Scientists Working Together Answers Questions about Turtle Nesting Ecology while Enhancing Teachers' Inquiry Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, J. M.; Jungblut, D.; Catena, A. N.; Rubenstein, D. I.

    2013-12-01

    Providing rigorous academic supplement to a professional development program for teachers, QUEST is a fusion of Drexel University's environmental science research department with Princeton University's Program in Teacher Preparation. Completed in the summers of 2012 (in partnership with Earthwatch) and 2013 in Barnegat Bay, New Jersey, QUEST's terrapin field research program enhances K-12 teachers' ecological knowledge, develops inquiry-based thinking in the classroom, and builds citizen science engagement. With a focus on quality question development and data analysis to answer questions, teachers are coached in developing, implementing, and presenting independent research projects on diamondback terrapin nesting ecology. As a result, teachers participating in QUEST's week long program bring a realistic example of science in action into their classrooms, helping to develop their own students' critical thinking skills. For teachers, this program provides training towards educating students on how to do real and imaginative science - subsequently sending students to university better prepared to engage in their own independent research. An essential component of the collaboration through QUEST, in addition to the teacher's experience during and after the summer institute, is the research data collected which supplements that of the Principal Investigator. In 2012, by documenting terrapin nest site predators, teachers gained valuable scientific experience, while Drexel acquired important ecological data which would have not been able to be collected otherwise. In 2013, teachers helped answer important questions about terrapin nesting success post Superstorm Sandy. In fact, the 2013 QUEST teachers are the first to visualize the frighteningly increased erosion of a primary terrapin nesting site due to Sandy; showing how most terrapin nests now lie in the bay, instead of safe on shore. Teachers comment that interacting with scientists in the field, and contributing to

  7. Answers to remaining questions on bubbler condenser - Activity Report of the OECD NEA Bubbler-Condenser Steering Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Russian design VVER-440 (type 213) pressurised water reactors are fitted with a pressure-suppression containment structure, called bubbler-condenser, having the function to reduce the pressure of the entire containment in case of a design basis accident (DBA), such as a loss of coolant accident (LOCA). This device consists of a tower of typically 12 floors communicating with the reactor containment building. Each floor is flooded with a pool of cold water (at room temperature) and includes gap-cap inlet openings. In the unlikely case of a LOCA, the steam from the primary circuit of the reactor and air enter the bubbler condenser tower and are forced by the gap-cap system to bubble into the cold water present at each floor of the bubbler-condenser. This causes the steam to condense, thus maintaining both temperature and pressure within containment below given limits during the entire course of a postulated design basis accident The bubbler-condenser was designed to withstand design basis accident conditions and to maintain its integrity in order to fulfil its safety function. Nevertheless, particularly for design basis accidents, detailed analyses identified the need to improve the modelling of accidents and to extend the knowledge of integral and separated effects. There was also a need to produce qualified experimental data in order to strengthen the basis for computer codes validation. During the 1990's, a number of investigations, including analyses and experiments by the utilities, as well as EU PHARE projects and related OECD NEA Expert Group activities, have been performed in order to fully ascertain the capabilities of the VVER-440/213 bubbler-condenser. These investigations consisted among others of experiments intended to simulate large break LOCA conditions and provided adequate answers to the most important issues related to the bubbler-condenser function. However, certain questions still remained open and needed further assessment. In response to a

  8. The assessment of critical thinking skills in anatomy and physiology students who practice writing higher order multiple choice questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jason

    Critical thinking is a complex abstraction that defies homogeneous interpretation. This means that no operational definition is universal and no critical thinking measurement tool is all encompassing. Instructors will likely find evidence based strategies to facilitate thinking skills only as numerous research efforts from multiple disciplines accumulate. This study focuses on a question writing exercise designed to help anatomy and physiology students. Students were asked to design multiple choice questions that combined course concepts in new and novel ways. Instructions and examples were provided on how to construct these questions and student attempts were sorted into levels one through three of Bloom's Cognitive Taxonomy (Bloom et al. 1956). Students submitted their question designs weekly and received individual feedback as to how they might improve. Eight course examinations were created to contain questions that modeled the Bloom's Cognitive Taxonomy levels that students were attempting. Students were assessed on their course examination performance as well as performance on a discipline independent critical thinking test called the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST). The performance of students in this study was compared to students from two previous years that took the same course but did not have the question writing activity. Results suggest that students do not improve their ability to answer critical thinking multiple choices questions when they practice the task of creating such problems. The effect of class level on critical thinking is examined and it appears that the longer a student has attended college the better the performance on both discipline specific and discipline independent critical thinking questions. The data were also used to analyze students who improved their course examination grades in the second semester of this course. There is a pattern to suggest that students who improve their performance on course examinations

  9. 29 CFR Appendix to Part 1604 - Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555, 92 Stat. 2076 (1978)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... complications have arisen from an abortion. Some questions and answers about the Pregnancy Discrimination Act... woman because she has had an abortion? A. No. An employer cannot discriminate in its employment practices against a woman who has had an abortion. 35. Q. Is an employer required to provide fringe...

  10. Individual and Collaborative Technology-Mediated Learning Using Question & Answer Online Discussion Forums--Perceptions of Public Health Learners in Dubai, UAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awofeso, Niyi; Hassan, Moustafa; Hamidi, Samer

    2016-01-01

    This case study provides evidence-based suggestions for the use of Question and Answer discussion forums for improving quality and assessment of online learning. General online discussion forums are accessible at any time to all subscribers, making it possible for some learners to update, concur with or paraphrase discussions posted earlier by…

  11. Relationship between VacA Toxin and Host Cell Autophagy in Helicobacter pylori Infection of the Human Stomach: A Few Answers, Many Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Ricci

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the stomach of about half the global population and represents the greatest risk factor for gastric malignancy. The relevance of H. pylori for gastric cancer development is equivalent to that of tobacco smoking for lung cancer. VacA toxin seems to play a pivotal role in the overall strategy of H. pylori towards achieving persistent gastric colonization. This strategy appears to involve the modulation of host cell autophagy. After an overview of autophagy and its role in infection and carcinogenesis, I critically review current knowledge about the action of VacA on host cell autophagy during H. pylori infection of the human stomach. Although VacA is a key player in modulation of H. pylori-induced autophagy, a few discrepancies in the data are also evident and many questions remain to be answered. We are thus still far from a definitive understanding of the molecular mechanisms through which VacA affects autophagy and the consequences of this toxin action on the overall pathogenic activity of H. pylori.

  12. Implementation of a collective count in multi-family flats. Questions of law and answers; Installation einer Sammelzaehlung in Mehrfamilienhaeusern. Rechtsfragen und Antworten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauch, Karsten [WSW Netz GmbH, Wuppertal (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    The consumption of electrical energy in multi-family flats is recorded using specifically associated measuring equipments. In order to cover the asset costs as well as maintenance costs, the network operator calculates the charges for the provision of his permanently owed services. The need for this measurement concept increasingly is questioned in practice. The desire for an installation of a collective count while simultaneously allocating of only one energy metering point raises legal questions. The author of the contribution under consideration attempts to answer these questions.

  13. The sun as hot water source. Answers to questions on the solar water heater; Le soleil source d'eau chaude. Les reponses a vos questions sur le chauffe-eau solaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This guide answers to the main questions concerning a water heating system for domestic use. It aims to help the people who want to buy a solar water heater, to better estimate the advantages and the limits, in providing information on the operating and the use. (A.L.B.)

  14. 移动互联平台自动答疑模式之分析%Analysis of Mobile Internet Platform Automatic Question-answering Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭毅; 涂婧璐

    2015-01-01

    In all schools to promote quality education in the process of teaching reform, questions and answers after class is an es⁃sential part of teaching content. With the popularity of Internet applications, network platform answering questions has become a necessary complement to classroom teaching. Now,network Q&A at present most of the limit of environment and answering the timeliness and other issues, so that the students' interest in learning was affected by. Our solution is to network the traditional way to answer questions is applied to mobile Internet devices, it can complete the function of automatic answer question. It makes the Q&A without time and space environmental constraints, thus expanding the students' learning space. This will greatly stimulate and promote students' interest in learning.%在各学校推进以素质教育为主的教学改革过程中,课后问答是教学环节必不可少的内容,随着互联网的普及应用,网络答疑已成为课堂教学的必要补充。目前的网络答疑大多受环境及答疑时效性等问题限制,使学生学习兴趣受到影响。我们把传统的网络答疑方式应用到手机等移动设备上,完成提问的自动答复,使之不受时空等约束,扩展学生的学习空间,将极大的激发学习兴趣。

  15. Critically Questioning the Discourse of Transformative Learning Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucukaydin, Ilhan; Cranton, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors critically examine the way discourse enters into and becomes embedded in transformative learning theory, especially from the extrarational or depth psychology perspective. The authors begin by providing an overview of how transformative learning theory has developed in diverse directions, including the extrarational…

  16. Two Questions about Critical-Thinking Tests in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Roger

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author argues first, that critical-thinking skills do exist independent of disciplinary thinking skills and are not compromised by interaction effects with the major; and second, that standardized tests (e.g., the Collegiate Learning Assessment, or CLA, which is his example throughout the article) are the best way to measure…

  17. Reference Librarians use Electronic Sources Six Times More than Print Sources to Answer Patrons' Questions. A review of: Bradford, Jane T., Barbara Costello, and Robert Lenholt. “Reference Service in the Digital Age: An Analysis of Sources Used to Answer Reference Questions.” The Journal of Academic Librarianship 31.3 (May 2005: 263-72.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorie A. Kloda

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To test the hypothesis that electronic sources are used by librarians more often than print sources to answer questions at the reference desk. Design – Use study. Setting – Small, private university in the United States. Subjects – Five full-time and two part‐time librarians working at the reference desk for four months (two months in the fall of 2002, and two months in the spring of 2003. Methods – The study recorded every question asked by library patrons during the two study periods, with the exception of non‐library related directional questions and hardware problems. For each question recorded, librarians, while working solo at the reference desk, paraphrased the question and recorded the source(s used to answer each question. Although questions were recorded regardless of source – in person, via email, or by telephone – the medium in which each question was asked and answered was not recorded. For the first half of the study period (fall 2002 semester, librarians kept manual records that were subsequently transcribed into a spreadsheet by a student assistant. In the second half of the study period (spring 2003 semester, the librarians entered data directly into a spreadsheet. The study’s data monitor (who was also a study participant was responsible for ensuring the integrity of the data and for assigning a category to each source. The source category ‘librarian’ was problematic in that it was unclear whether or not the actual source of the answer was the librarian or a source located by the librarian. After the first half of the study, the procedure was changed to require that a reference librarian was to label a source used to answer a question as ‘librarian’ only if the answer came from a librarian’s own knowledge, and if it did not require consultation of an outside source. Categories were generated on the fly, as the data monitor reviewed the recorded questions and sources. By the end of the

  18. [The nurse answers for health in social inequalities: the development of the nursing critical paradigm.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocco, Gennaro; Stievano, Alessandro

    2007-01-01

    Until the early Eighties, critical social theory as a philosophical orientation informing nursing science, theory development and practice did not exist. Interest on this topic began to arise only after the mid-Eighties. In fact, nursing scholars questioned the validity of empiricism as the historical foundation for nursing science and the limitations of interpretivism in strengthening nursing knowledge, and thus started to focus on the lack of epistemological perspectives in nursing, giving particular prominence to the peculiar social, political, historical and economic conditions involving those who needed nursing care. The theoretical reflection began to develop, like the empirical paradigm, the post-positivist paradigm and, later, the interpretative paradigm, expanded thanks to the early works by Martha Rogers and Rosemarie Rizzo Parse, were seen as unable to address issues related to power inequities, structural constraints and oppression suffered by vulnerable groups such as the homeless, mental health individuals, people affected by HIV+ and other infectious diseases, unemployed, etc.. Empiricism and interpretative paradigms did not manage to bridge the gap between theory and praxis, and a new theoretical and philosophical approach gradually gained ground. This paradigm, based on critical social theory, was developed by distinguished scholars and intellectuals, such as Max Horkheimer, Theodor Adorno, Herbert Marcuse of the Frankfurt School in the Thirties, and, in recent years, by Giddens, Bourdieu, Foucault, Habermas. On this social field the first works of Allen, Thompson, Stevens, Campbell and Bunting, Kendall, allowed to work out a new paradigmatic nursing approach that would have predicted the employment of the critical theory for particular nursing aspects, as a conceptual framework for nursing education, as a paradigm to carry out participatory action-research and for the development of the discipline. The purpose of this article was to describe this

  19. Collaborative Chat Reference Service Effectiveness Varies by Question Type for Public Library Patrons. A review of: Kwon, Nahyun. ʺPublic Library Patronsʹ Use of Collaborative Chat Reference Service: The Effectiveness of Question Answering by Question Type.ʺ Library & Information Science Research 29.1 (Mar. 2007: 70‐91.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Hall

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To assess the effectiveness of a collaborative chat reference service in answering different types of question. Specifically, the study compares the degree of answer completion and the level of user satisfaction for simple factual questions vs. more in‐depth subject‐based reference questions, and for ‘local’ (pertaining to a particular library and non‐local questions.Design – Content analysis of 415 transcripts of reference transactions, which were also compared to corresponding user satisfaction survey results.Setting – An online collaborative reference service offered by a large public library system (33 branch and regional locations. This service is part of the Metropolitan Cooperative Library System: a virtual reference consortium of U.S. libraries (public, academic, special, and corporate that provides 24/7 service.Subjects – Reference librarians from around the U.S. (49 different libraries, and users logging into the service via the public library system’s portal (primarily patrons of the 49 libraries. Method – Content analysis was used to evaluate virtual reference transcripts recorded between January and June, 2004. Reliability was enhanced through triangulation, with researchers comparing the content analysis of each transcript against the results of a voluntary exit survey. Of 1,387 transactions that occurred during the period of study, 420 users completed the survey and these formed the basis of the study, apart from 5 transactions that were omitted because the questions were incomprehensible. Questions were examined and assigned to five categories: “simple, factual questions; subject‐based research questions; resource access questions; circulation‐related questions; and local library information inquiries” (80‐81. Answers were classed as either “completely answered, partially answered or unanswered, referred, and problematic endings” (82. Lastly, user satisfaction was surveyed on three

  20. Comparison between the Effect of Lecture and Question - answer Methods on Learning Outcome and Satisfaction of Physiology Course among Medical and Pharmacy Students

    OpenAIRE

    Dareuosh Shackebaei; Mina Davari; Mansour Rezaei; Soheila Reshadat; Mahvash Hesari

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Considering the efficiency of active teaching methods, current study is designed to compare the effect of lecture and question-answer methods on learning outcome and satisfaction of physiology course among medical and pharmacy students.Methods: In this semi-experimental study, medical and pharmacy students which have been registered in physiology course, divided randomly into two groups. Some topics of physiology with the same content were taught for both groups. The difference ...

  1. Remarks presented (questions/answers discussed) at public regional meetings to discuss regulations (10 CFR Part 21) for reporting of defects and noncompliance, July 12--26, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In enacting the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, Congress included Section 206 which requires the reporting of defects and noncompliances directly to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This congressional action required that the NRC promulgate rules and regulations, as necessary, to assure appropriate implementation of Section 206. In response to this mandate, the NRC drafted a new regulation. Following a period of public comment and revision, the regulation identified as 10 CFR Part 21, Reporting Defects and Noncompliance, was published in a Federal Register Notice on June 6, 1977. To assist NRC licensees and other firms and organizations covered by the new Part 21 regulation, public regional meetings were conducted by staff representatives to explain the rule. At these meetings the staff presented prepared remarks and answered questions on the meaning and application of the rule. Staff remarks contained in the original publication of this document were also provided to those in attendance. At each meeting the staff received a request for the questions and answers discussed by the staff to be made available for use as guidance by the nuclear industry covered by the rule. It was announced that a consolidation of the staff position question/answer guidance would be made available to each organization or firm attending these meetings and for others where a request is made in accordance with the directions printed insidethe front cover of the document. The staff will be guided in its implementation and enforcement of Part 21 by the positions set forth in the document. The revision of NUREG-0302 includes the following three parts relating to 10 CFR Part 21: (1) remarks presented by staff representatives; (2) Federal Register Notice material; and (3) a consolidation of questions and answers from the public regional meetings

  2. The use of SMIRP for the rapid design and implementation of pedagogical constructs: Case study of a question-answer-reference framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Boecker,

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of SMIRP, a web-based collaborative tool, for an application in an undergraduate and a graduate class is described. SMIRP was used to rapidly construct a collaborative space where students could work on their assignment, request assistance and view their grades. The pedagogical construct was based on a question-answer-reference model where students were required to answer a series of questions based only on the material present in references they selected from the open literature. The answers and grades of all students were visible to all students in real time, although pseudonyms were used to respect student privacy. Email alerts were provided to the teacher, teaching assistants and in the second class also to the students and a librarian. Based on the analysis of log files, overall student performance in the class was found to correlate positively with curiosity and negatively with procrastination. Student expectations of turnaround times for grades and general queries were also analyzed and compared to actual performance. At the end of both classes a questionnaire module was created and an analysis of student satisfaction and preferences is reported. The successful implementation of SMIRP in these two classes supports the contention that this collaborative tool is flexible enough for the rapid design and implementation of relatively complex pedagogical constructs, with the possibility of obtaining detailed metrics.

  3. I didn't know oxygen could boil! What preservice and inservice elementary teachers' answers to `simple' science questions reveals about their subject matter knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice*, Diana C.

    2005-09-01

    In this descriptive study, the science subject matter knowledge of preservice and inservice elementary teachers was examined and compared. Over an eight-year period, answers to 13 science questions, including 10 from the US National Science Foundation's Survey of Public Attitudes Toward and Understanding of Science and Technology, were collected from a total of 414 preservice and 67 inservice teachers during first-day discussions in elementary science methods courses. Both groups outperformed average citizens on the 10 survey questions. However, three other questions used to introduce discussion of why students may find learning science difficult revealed lack of conceptual understanding of basic physical and biological phenomena commonly found in most elementary science curricula. Results and implications are discussed in the context of increasing expectations for subject matter competence demanded of ‘highly qualified teachers’ under provisions of the 2001 US Elementary and Secondary Education Act (‘No Child Left Behind Act’).

  4. Questions and answers for boiler operation technique; 5. enl. and rev. ed.; Fragen und Antworten zur Kesselbetriebstechnik. Ein Lehrbuch fuer Teilnehmer an Ausbildungslehrgaengen fuer Kesselwaerter und fuer Studierende

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayr, F. [ed.; Gritsch, T.; Hoehenberger, L.; Kisskalt, H.; Linke, W.; Stumpf, H.

    1998-10-01

    The question and answer method continues to be the best of learning. The person in the firm who has to deal with boilers must have reliable knowledge available, for safety reasons. Therefore TUeV employees developed the book `Questions and answers for boiler operation technique`. It is a sensible supplement to the `Handbook of boiler operation technique`. One suspects that the authors hold boiler maintenance courses and know everyday operation as experts. The 832 questions and answers developed by them are taken from practice. They quickly lead the reader to central areas of knowledge. The book is divided into twelve chapters, which deal with the following subjects: Units and basic physical terms, heat technology, types of boilers and boiler plant for the low, medium and high temperature range, safety and additional equipment for boiler operation, firing, feedwater and boiler water, environmental protection, maintenance of boiler plant, faults on boiler plant, boiler operation, damage, repairs, legal and other regulations. (orig.) [Deutsch] Nach wie vor gilt das Frage- und Antwortspiel als die beste Lernmethode. Der Mann im Betrieb, der mit Kesseln umzugehen hat, muss schon aus Sicherheitsgruenden ueber ein verlaesslich abrufbereites Wissen verfuegen. Deshalb entwickelten Mitarbeiter des TUeV das Buch `Fragen und Antworten zur Kesselbetriebstechnik`. Es ist die sinnvolle Ergaenzung zu dem `Handbuch der Kesselbetriebstechnik`. Man spuert, dass die Autoren selbst Kesselwaerterlehrgaenge halten und als Sachverstaendige den Betriebsalltag kennen. Die von ihnen entwickelten 832 Fragen und Antworten sind aus der Praxis entnommen. Sie fuehren den Leser schnell auf die zentralen Wissensbereiche. Das Buch gliedert sich in zwoelf Kapitel, die folgende Themen behandeln: Masseinheiten und physikalische Grundbegriffe; Waermetechnik; Kesselbauarten und Kesselanlagen fuer den Nieder-, Mittel- und Hochtemperaturbereich; sicherheitstechnische und zusaetzliche Ausruestung fuer den

  5. Questions and answers for boiler operation technique; 4. rev. and enl. ed.; Fragen und Antworten zur Kesselbetriebstechnik. Ein Lehrbuch fuer Teilnehmer an Ausbildungslehrgaengen fuer Kesselwaerter und fuer Studierende

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayr, F. [ed.; Gritsch, T.; Hoehenberger, L.; Kisskalt, H.; Linke, W.

    1995-12-31

    The question and answer method continues to be the best of learning. The person in the firm who has to deal with boilers must have reliable knowledge available, for safety reasons. Therefore TUeV employees developed the book `Questions and answers for boiler operation technique`. It is a sensible supplement to the `Handbook of boiler operation technique`. One suspects that the authors hold boiler maintenance courses and know everyday operation as experts. The 829 questions and answers developed by them are taken from practice. They quickly lead the reader to central areas of knowledge. The book is divided into twelve chapters, which deal with the following subjects: Units and basic physical terms, heat technology, types of boilers and boiler plant for the low, medium and high temperature range, safety and additional equipment for boiler operation, firing, feedwater and boiler water, environmental protection, maintenance of boiler plant, faults on boiler plant, boiler operation, damage, repairs, legal and other regulations. (orig.) [Deutsch] Nach wie vor gilt das Frage- und Antwortspiel als die beste Lernmethode. Der Mann im Betrieb, der mit Kesseln umzugehen hat, muss schon aus Sicherheitsgruenden ueber ein verlaesslich abrufbereites Wissen verfuegen. Deshalb entwickelten Mitarbeiter des TUeV das Buch `Fragen und Antworten zur Kesselbetriebstechnik`. Es ist die sinnvolle Ergaenzung zu dem `Handbuch der Kesselbetriebstechnik`. Man spuert, dass die Autoren selbst Kesselwaerterlehrgaenge halten und als Sachverstaendige den Betriebsalltag kennen. Die von ihnen entwickelten 829 Fragen und Antworten sind aus der Praxis entnommen. Sie fuehren den Leser schnell auf die zentralen Wissensbereiche. Das Buch gliedert sich in zwoelf Kapitel, die folgende Themen behandeln: Masseinheiten und physikalische Grundbegriffe; Waermetechnik; Kesselbauarten und Kesselanlagen fuer den Nieder-, Mittel- und Hochtemperaturbereich; sicherheitstechnische und zusaetzliche Ausruestung fuer den

  6. Survey of higher education students answering to the math questions based on different levels of cognitive technical Guilan Bloom

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Hedayatpanah

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, an effort to improve the learning process, instead of using modern techniques and traditional methods in active learning is essential. Among these active methods, problem solving has been considered as a new approach for promoting the learning process. In this regard, it has been attempted to remedy some of the shortcomings of the design test questions are examined in Bloom's cognitive levels.This study aims to evaluate student performance in math based on Bloom's taxonomy, based on...

  7. If Ethics in Psychiatry is the Answer - What was the Question? Exploring Social Space and the Role of Clinical Chaplaincy

    OpenAIRE

    Helen Kohlen

    2014-01-01

    Over the last twenty years, ethics has been expanding in health care and chaplains comprise one of the key groups that provide ethics consultation services in the German arena of psychiatry. Like all professional actors in the practical arena, chaplains perform their role. Performance happens in relation to others who occupy positions that allow more or less exercise of power. This architecture of relational positioning and territory constitutes the social space. The question is, whether ethi...

  8. Information Quality on Yahoo! Answers

    OpenAIRE

    Fichman, Pnina

    2013-01-01

    Along with the proliferation of the social web, question and answer (QA) sites attract millions of users around the globe. On these sites, users ask questions while others provide answers. These QA sites vary by their scope, size, and quality of answers; the most popular QA site is Yahoo! Answers. This chapter aims to examine the quality of information produced by the crowd on Yahoo! Answers, assuming that given enough eyeballs all questions can get good answers. Findings illustrate a process...

  9. Can animal and in vitro studies give new, relevant answers to questions concerning mammographic screening for human breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First, we recommend that no further animal population carcinogenesis studies aimed at quantifying the risk per rad be initiated at this time. This strong recommendation is based on: (1) the fact that human breast radiation-carcinogenesis data already exist from several studies, and quantitative estimates of risk that can be made from these data are directly relevant to the mammography situtation; (2) the serious questions about the validity of direct extrapolation from the current rodent models that have the necessary base-line data already established; and (3) the difficulty and expense involved in conducting a large rodent experiment with fractionated low-dose protocols comparable to X-ray mammography. Second, in contrast to the animal population studies, we do recommend that the Breast Cancer Task Force seriously consider funding new studies to evaluate the cellular and molecular events relating to carcinogenesis. These specifically should be focused on the intriguing evidence suggesting that (1) the risk per rad may actually be higher at fractionated low doses than at higher doses, and (2) women at higher risk from other factors (e.g., age, genetic, hormonal) may actually be at a higher risk for X-irradiation carcinogenesis than are women at low risk to the other factors. The studies recommended above are obviously aimed at the basic mechanism of X-ray carcinogenesis and cocarcinogenesis, and the results would most likely have direct application to X-ray carcinogenesis in general as well as radiation-induced breast cancer per se

  10. Finding a needle in the haystack: performing an in-depth literature search to answer a clinical question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George GS

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Gwen S George, Laurie Anne Ferguson, Patricia F PearceLoyola University New Orleans, School of Nursing, New Orleans, LA, USAAbstract: Evidence-based practice requires clinicians to review current literature for evidence-based information that demonstrates solutions for clinical problems. The daunting process of navigating extensive electronic publication sources, including citation databases, guidelines, and clinical proceedings, can feel much like finding a needle in the proverbial haystack. Knowing where to get information and strategically maneuvering search terms, Boolean operators, and available delimiters requires investment in learning how they work and then skillful deployment. Time spent in learning the systems is gained back by executing a well-honed search that yields citations that are appropriate for the clinical problem. Search terms and use of effective investigative tools focus the search and produce a comprehensive listing of references. The purpose of this article was to detail the steps in completing a comprehensive literature search when focused on a clinical question. Location of pertinent literature, the multiple characteristics of citation databases and instruction on how to use them, as well as how to manage the located citations are included.Keywords: search techniques, evidence-based practice, graduate nursing education

  11. Feature description with SIFT, SURF, BRIEF, BRISK, or FREAK? A general question answered for bone age assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashif, Muhammad; Deserno, Thomas M; Haak, Daniel; Jonas, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Solving problems in medical image processing is either generic (being applicable to many problems) or specific (optimized for a certain task). For example, bone age assessment (BAA) on hand radiographs is a frequent but cumbersome task for radiologists. For this problem, many specific solutions have been proposed. However, general-purpose feature descriptors are used in many computer vision applications. Hence, the aim of this study is (i) to compare the five leading keypoint descriptors on BAA, and, in doing so, (ii) presenting a generic approach for a specific task. Two methods for keypoint selection were applied: sparse and dense feature points. For each type, SIFT, SURF, BRIEF, BRISK, and FREAK feature descriptors were extracted within the epiphyseal regions of interest (eROI). Classification was performed using a support vector machine. Reference data (1101 radiographs) of the University of Southern California was used for 5-fold cross-validation. The data was grouped into 30 classes representing the bone age range of 0-18 years. With a mean error of 0.605 years, dense SIFT gave best results and outperforms all published methods. The accuracy was 98.36% within the range of 2 years. Dense SIFT represents a generic method for a specific question. PMID:26623943

  12. Deep boreholes. An alternative for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel? Report from KASAM's question-and-answer session on 14-15 March 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 14-15 March 2007, KASAM held a hearing for the purpose of thoroughly examining deep boreholes as a method for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Some of the questions that were raised were: What are the technical, geological and hydrological premises and possibilities? What are the risks from different viewpoints and what values underlie different views of the potential and suitability of deep boreholes? This report is a summary of the seminar. KASAM has made a selection of contributions and questions from the debate that took place on the basis of their relevance to the purpose of the seminar. The report generally follows the chronological lecture-and debate format of the seminar, but has been edited according to different issues rather than according to when different persons spoke. Chapter 2 describes a number of premises and criteria in the Environmental Code's and the Nuclear Activities Act's requirements on alternatives reporting. The chapter also contains a description of what the deep borehole concept entails and a discussion of the geoscientific premises. In addition, the chapter describes how different values can influence the choice of final disposal method. Chapters 3-6 describe and discuss technology and long-term safety, the viewpoints of the supervisory authorities on deep boreholes and safety philosophy via lectures followed by questions by KASAM's questioners and the audience. On the evening of 14 March, representatives of the seven parliamentary parties discussed their preparations and standpoints for an upcoming national debate on the final disposal of nuclear waste. This discussion is also reproduced in the report as Chapter 7. The main points from a concluding panel debate and discussion are presented in Chapter 8. In conclusion, Chapter 9 contains some reflections on various arguments proffered during the question-and-answer session, questions on which agreement seems to exist, and where there are differences of opinion. Speakers

  13. Varied Search Protocols Lead to Clinically Relevant Results. A review of: Patel, Manesh R., Connie M. Schardt, Linda L. Sanders, and Sheri A. Keitz. “Randomized Trial for Answers to Clinical Questions: Evaluating a Pre‐Appraised Versus a MEDLINE Search Protocol.” Journal of the Medical Library Association 94.4 (2006: 382‐6.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcy L. Brown

    2008-03-01

    , judged the applicability and internal validity of the answers.Results – In total, 120 questions were searched using protocol A and 133 using protocol B; 104 answers were found by the protocol A group and 117 by the protocol B group. In protocol A, 97 answers were found in MEDLINE (80.8% and six answers were found in pre‐appraised resources(5.0%. In protocol B, 85 answers were foundin pre‐appraised resources (64.6% and 31 were found in MEDLINE (23.3%. UpToDate was the major resource for answers in protocol B. A statistically greater number of answers were found in less than five minutes in protocol B (pConclusion – The study demonstrates that to find answers to as many clinical questions as possible, “residents and clinicians need access to both pre-appraised resources and MEDLINE” (385. Pre-appraised resources were faster to search, but their coverage was not as comprehensive. MEDLINE is comprehensive, but takes more time to search effectively and requires that the clinician or student have some knowledge of critical appraisal in order to judge relevance and applicability of found articles. Protocol B may be difficult to implement in many institutions because of the high cost of pre-appraised resources.

  14. Ebola virus: questions, answers, and more questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brizendine, Kyle D

    2014-12-01

    Ebola virus causes a hemorrhagic fever with a high case-fatality rate. Treatment remains supportive although a variety of specific treatments are still in the early stages of investigation. This report reviews the clinical virology of Ebola virus, the reported proposed treatments, and the current outbreak. PMID:25452350

  15. Corrosion at the head-neck interface of current designs of modular femoral components: essential questions and answers relating to corrosion in modular head-neck junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, K; Panagiotidou, A P; Khan, M; Blunn, G; Haddad, F S

    2016-05-01

    There is increasing global awareness of adverse reactions to metal debris and elevated serum metal ion concentrations following the use of second generation metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasties. The high incidence of these complications can be largely attributed to corrosion at the head-neck interface. Severe corrosion of the taper is identified most commonly in association with larger diameter femoral heads. However, there is emerging evidence of varying levels of corrosion observed in retrieved components with smaller diameter femoral heads. This same mechanism of galvanic and mechanically-assisted crevice corrosion has been observed in metal-on-polyethylene and ceramic components, suggesting an inherent biomechanical problem with current designs of the head-neck interface. We provide a review of the fundamental questions and answers clinicians and researchers must understand regarding corrosion of the taper, and its relevance to current orthopaedic practice. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:579-84. PMID:27143725

  16. "Do You Remember": Confronting Post-9/11 Censorship through Critical Questioning and Poetic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staples, Jeanine M.

    2008-01-01

    Jeanine M. Staples led a group of students, ages fourteen to eighteen, in developing a critical stance about words and images found in 9/11 media. Through questions, comments, and declarations toward these texts, the students labeled as "disengaged" actively participated in constructing a collaborative poem to confront repressive thinking.…

  17. Using Higher Order Thinking Questions to Foster Critical Thinking: A Classroom Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Jerrold E.; Francis, Alisha L.

    2012-01-01

    To determine if quizzes containing higher order thinking questions are related to critical thinking and test performance when utilised in conjunction with an immersion approach to instruction and effort-based grading, sections of an "Educational Psychology" course were assigned to one of three quizzing conditions. Quizzes contained factual…

  18. Hepatitis A: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in many travel destinations, even when using luxury tourist accommodations. Page 1 of 4 Technical content reviewed ... chronic liver disease or other chronic medical conditions planning to travel in 2 weeks or less should ...

  19. Questions and Answers about Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... does it work in early treatment? A: Shared decision making means individuals and their health care providers work together to find the best ... more information about how to work with your health care provider, visit the SAMHSA ... decision making. Q: What is Supported Employment/Education (SEE) and ...

  20. Questions and Answers about TB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... American Community Summit Background Slideset Children Correctional Facilities Homelessness International Travelers Pregnancy Health Disparities Laboratory Information Model Performance Evaluation Program (MPEP) Drug Susceptibility Testing The Uses of Nucleic Acid Amplification ...

  1. Donating Blood Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Communication, Outreach and Development Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Building 71 Room 3103 Silver Spring, MD 20993-0002 More in Donating Blood Resources for You Consumers (Biologics) Healthcare Providers (Biologics) Industry (Biologics) About the Center for ...

  2. Generic Drugs: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... branded counterparts, they are typically sold at substantial discounts from the branded price. According to the Congressional ... for 20 years. The patent, which protects the company that made the drug first, doesn't allow ...

  3. Folic Acid Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A : Birth defects of the brain and spine ( anencephaly and spina bifida ) happen in the first few ... Women who had one pregnancy affected by a neural tube defect might have another. You may need to take ...

  4. Mifeprex (Mifepristone) Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... agree to other responsibilities, such as dispensing the Medication Guide and reporting any adverse events to the sponsor. 7. Can health care providers other than doctors dispense mifepristone? Some states allow physicians to supervise other ...

  5. Antibiotic Resistance Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... submit data supporting the efficacy and safety of antibacterial soaps and body washes. This proposed rule does not affect hand sanitizers, wipes, or antibacterial products used in healthcare settings. For more information, ...

  6. Chernobyl. Answers to your questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifteen years after the Chernobyl accident, this document takes stock on the existing information and enhance the elements which can be set with certainty. The accident is recalled and the environmental and biological effects are presented. (A.L.B.)

  7. Answering Questions About Underage Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at my house, so my kids and their friends aren't out driving? A. It's not your ... Studies have shown that parents have a significant influence on youth decisions about alcohol consumption. Around 80% ...

  8. CAD in questions/answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generalization of breast screening programs requires an efficient double reading of the mammograms, which allows reduction of false-negative rate, but might be difficult to organize. CAD (Computed Assisted Diagnosis) is dramatically improving and is able to detect suspicious mammographic lesions, either suspicious microcalcifications, masses or architectural distorsions. CAD mammography might complete or substitute to 'human' double reading. The aim of this review is to describe major CAD systems commercially available, working of CAD and to present principal results of CAD mammography. Specially, place of CAD within breast screening program, according to the results of recent prospective studies will be discussed

  9. Bone Cancer: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to determine the level of an enzyme called alkaline phosphatase. A large amount of this enzyme is present ... of abnormal bone tissue. Because high levels of alkaline phosphatase are normal in growing children and adolescents, this ...

  10. Questions & Answers for TEI Newcomers

    OpenAIRE

    Romary, Laurent

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides an introduction to the Text Encoding Initia-tive (TEI), focused at bringing in newcomers who have to deal with a digital document project and are looking at the capacity that the TEI environment may have to fulfil his needs. To this end, we avoid a strictly technical presentation of the TEI and concentrate on the actual issues that such projects face, with parallel made on the situation within two institutions. While a quick walkthrough the TEI technical framework is provi...

  11. Answering the endocrine test questions.

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, C W

    1999-01-01

    Evidence suggesting that certain chemicals may bind to endogenous hormone receptors and disturb normal endocrine functioning, thereby increasing the risk of reproductive problems and cancer in humans, has led to international efforts to screen chemicals for endocrine activity and potential health effects. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has recommended that some 87,000 commercial chemicals for which there currently are inadequate toxicity data be evaluated. In December 1998, th...

  12. Answers to Questions: Nuclear Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

    Electricity is an increasingly important part of our everyday lives. Its versatility allows one to heat, cool, and light homes; cook meals; watch television; listen to music; power computers; make medical diagnosis and treatment; explore the vastness of space; and study the tiniest molecules. Nuclear energy, second to coal, surpasses natural gas,…

  13. Rethinking Drinking: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and suggestions, including a worksheet where you can script your ‘no’ to practice for a situation in ... or 4.2% versus 5.0% alcohol by volume, on average. Check the alcohol content of your ...

  14. Deep boreholes. An alternative for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel? Report from KASAM's question-and-answer session on 14-15 March 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-03-15

    On 14-15 March 2007, KASAM held a hearing for the purpose of thoroughly examining deep boreholes as a method for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Some of the questions that were raised were: What are the technical, geological and hydrological premises and possibilities? What are the risks from different viewpoints and what values underlie different views of the potential and suitability of deep boreholes? This report is a summary of the seminar. KASAM has made a selection of contributions and questions from the debate that took place on the basis of their relevance to the purpose of the seminar. The report generally follows the chronological lecture-and debate format of the seminar, but has been edited according to different issues rather than according to when different persons spoke. Chapter 2 describes a number of premises and criteria in the Environmental Code's and the Nuclear Activities Act's requirements on alternatives reporting. The chapter also contains a description of what the deep borehole concept entails and a discussion of the geoscientific premises. In addition, the chapter describes how different values can influence the choice of final disposal method. Chapters 3-6 describe and discuss technology and long-term safety, the viewpoints of the supervisory authorities on deep boreholes and safety philosophy via lectures followed by questions by KASAM's questioners and the audience. On the evening of 14 March, representatives of the seven parliamentary parties discussed their preparations and standpoints for an upcoming national debate on the final disposal of nuclear waste. This discussion is also reproduced in the report as Chapter 7. The main points from a concluding panel debate and discussion are presented in Chapter 8. In conclusion, Chapter 9 contains some reflections on various arguments proffered during the question-and-answer session, questions on which agreement seems to exist, and where there are differences of

  15. Residents and Medical Students Correctly Answer Clinical Questions More Often with Google and UpToDate than With PubMed or Ovid MEDLINE. A Review of: Thiele, R. H., Poiro, N. C., Scalzo, D. C., & Nemergut, E. C. (2010. Speed, accuracy, and confidence in Google, Ovid, PubMed, and UpToDate: Results of a randomised trial. Postgraduate Medical Journal, 86(1018, 459-465. doi:10.1136/pgmj.2010.098053

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Arndt

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine which search tool (Google, UpToDate, PubMed or Ovid-MEDLINE produces more accurate answers for residents, medical students, and attending physicians searching on clinical questions in anesthesiology and critical care. Searcher confidence in the answers and speed with which answers were found were also examined.Design – Randomized study without a control group.Setting – Large university medical center.Subjects –Subjects included 15 fourth year medical students (third and fourth year, 35 residents, and 4 attending physicians volunteered and completed the study. One additional attending withdrew halfway through the study. The authors were unsuccessful in recruiting an equal number of subjects from each group.Methods – A set of eight anesthesia and critical care questions was developed, based on their commonality and importance in clinical practice and their answerability. Four search tools were employed: Google, UpToDate, PubMed, and Ovid MEDLINE. In part I, subjects were given a random set of four of the questions to answer with the search tool(s of their choice, but could use only one search tool per question. In part II, several weeks later, the same subjects were randomly assigned a search tool with which to answer all 8 questions. The authors state that “for data analysis, PubMed was arbitrarily chosen to be the “reference standard.”” Statistical analysis was used to identify significant differences between PubMed and the other search tools.Main Results – Part I: Subjects choosing a search tool were more likely to find a correct answer with Google or UpToDate. There were no statistically significant differences in confidence with answers between any of the search tools and PubMed.Part II: Though subjects were assigned a search tool, some questions were repeated from part I. For repeated questions, Ovid users (compared to PubMed users were significantly less likely to find the correct answer for

  16. Offene Fragen vs. Multiple-Choice-Fragen im 1. Abschnitt des Medizinstudiums: Untersuchung am Beispiel von Topographischer Anatomie [Open-answer questions vs. multiple-choice questions for undergraduate medical exams: a case study in topographical anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oppitz, Matthias

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available [english] Multiple choice questions (MCQ have become the basis of state medical examinations in Germany since 1970. Single answer questions (SAQ have become a convenient alternative for undergraduate testing in medicine. Our aim was to study the best use of both types of questions by comparison of examination results. In a retrospective study, examination results of 351 second year students of medicine were selected from written exams that contained both MCQ and SAQ, and evaluated by statistical analysis. Rank correlation coefficients according to Spearman and F-ratio were calculated from the paired data of rates of correct answers from MCQ and SAQ. The reliability of selected exam questions was estimated by comparing results from answers to comparable questions from consecutive years. The effect of learning was evaluated by comparing results from exams before the start of the class with results obtained during the course. Statistical evaluation revealed that the mean rate of correct answers was 0.84 (ratio right answers / total number for SAQ, and significantly differed from the answer rate of 0.71 for MCQ. The difference was more pronounced in the subgroup of low performance students. The rate of correct answers of selected SAQ and MCQ were sufficiently reliable in consecutive examinations. There was a clear correlation between rate of successfully solved SAQ in entrance exams and in consecutive examination results. Parameters that were included in statistical calculation (Age, sex, language as controls did not influence the difference between SAQ and MCQ. In conclusion, the results suggest that SAQ had the same level of discrimination when compared to MCQ, although their level of difficulty was lower than MCQ. They had a sufficient level of reliability, and were easier to modify for re-use in further examinations. Examinations that consist solely of MCQ are difficult to compose, and can hardly be re-used. The combination of SAQ and MCQ in

  17. Answers to the questions about food irradiation. Concerning results of animal experiments in the specified integrated research. Data carrying a problem in human health were obtained?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experts of Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)/ International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)/ World Health Organization (WHO) committee obtained their conclusion in 1980 that food irradiated with <10 kGy of radiation is safe for human health, which is now globally approved. However, in Japan, there have been still opposite opinions based on the doubt in the title on the safety of irradiated food. In this paper, the author answers those questions as he was a member to arrange the Research in the title for food irradiation. Described are data presentation and explanation about results of toxicity studies of diets added with irradiated materials of: weight reductions in rat ovary by irradiated potato (ip) in chronic studies, and in mouse testicle and ovary of F3 generation from the ancestor mice kept on diet with irradiated onion (io); bone malformation in mice by io; and reduction of body weight gain in female rats by ip and increase of mortality of male rats by ip. These are analyzed on the aspects of radiation dose-response, sustained tendency of results throughout the living period or generation, and apparent abnormality by other factors; and normal variation due to individual difference is pointed out to contribute to these findings. The safety test of irradiated food has been conducted valid not only in animal experiments but also other tests like genotoxicity and analysis of radiation-degraded products. (R.T.)

  18. Additional materials on the safety assessment for the 24 CANFLEX-NU bundle demonstration irradiation at Wolsong-1 generating station as the answers on the KINS's second questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the additional materials on the Safety Assessment for the 24 CANFLEX-NU Bundle Demonstration Irradiation at Wolsong-1 Generating Station, which is the answers on the KINS's first questions as a result of the review of the Safety Assessment report. The additional materials cover : 1) Subjects on CANFLEX-NU fuel channel and the selection criteria, 2) Subjects on the evaluation of the discharge fuel with respect to the purpose of the DI, 3) Subjects on the planning of report of the DI results, 4) Subjects on the integrity evaluation of the CANFLEX-NU fuel bundles in the reactor, 5) Subjects on the thermal-hydraulic compatibility of the CANFLEX-NU fuel with the existing 37-element bundles, 6) Subjects on the Input variables of CATHENA code used in the safety analyses, 7) Subjects on the loss of forced circulation, 8) Subjects on the CANFLEX-NU fuel element power under condition of non-LOCA, 9) Subjects on the loss of reactivity control, 10) Subjects on the LOCA. The additional materials are made on the basis of the Safety Assessment for the 24 CANFLEX-NU Bundle Demonstration Irradiation at Wolsong-1 Generating Station(H. C. Suk et. al, KAERI/TR-1864/2001, 2001.6) and Operational Procedure of the Wolsong-1 Generating Station, and so on

  19. Joint Convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management. Third review meeting. Questions asked to France and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management, referred to as the 'Joint Convention', is the result of international discussions that followed the adoption of the Convention on Nuclear Safety, in 1994. France signed the Joint Convention at the General Conference of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) held on 29 September 1997, the very first day the Joint Convention was opened for signature. She approved it on 22 February 2000 and filed the corresponding instruments with the IAEA on 27 April 2000. The Joint Convention entered into force on 18 June 2001. For many years, France has been taking an active part in the pursuit of international actions to reinforce nuclear safety and considers the Joint Convention to be a key step in that direction. The fields covered by the Joint Convention have long been part of the French approach to nuclear safety. For his third report, France presented a document reflecting the viewpoints of the various stakeholders (regulatory authorities and operators). Thus, for each of the chapters in which the regulatory authority is not the only party to express its point of view, a three-stage structure was adopted: first of all a description by the regulatory authority of the regulations, followed by a presentation by the operators of the steps taken to meet the regulations and finally, an analysis by the regulatory authority of the steps taken by the operators. This third report was distributed in October 2008 to all Contracting Parties who asked 213 questions on the French report. France answered each of them in the present document

  20. Answers to questions on National report of the Slovak Republic compiled according to the terms of the joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management. April 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this publication detail answers to questions on National report of the Slovak Republic compiled according to the terms of the joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management of April 2011 are published.

  1. Answers to questions on National report of the Slovak Republic compiled according to the terms of the joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management. April 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this publication detail answers to questions on National report of the Slovak Republic compiled according to the terms of the joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management of April 2014 are published.

  2. Answers to questions on National report of the Slovak Republic compiled according to the terms of the joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management. April 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this publication detail answers to questions on National report of the Slovak Republic compiled according to the terms of the joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management of April 2009 are published

  3. Strategies on How to Ask Questions for Questioners and Reply for Speakers in a Question-and-answer Period in the English Speech Contest%英语演讲比赛问答环节提问与应答策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢克勤; 张莉莉

    2013-01-01

      英语演讲比赛中的问答环节在演讲研究中很少见,在实践中是教师和选手的薄弱环节。因此,有必要结合外研社杯英语演讲比赛和21世纪杯英语演讲比赛评委提问和选手回答的实例,按照加拉赫—阿什纳分类系统归纳整理常见问题,并探讨教师提问和学生应答的策略。%The study about question-and-answer period in the English speech contest is rare, which is also a weak link for the competitors and the questioners in practice. Therefore, it is necessary to analyse the common problems combining examples in a question-and-answer period in the FLTRP Cup English speech contest and 21st Century Cup English speech contest according to Gallaher-Aschner’s classification system. On that basis, some strategies are probed further into for questioners and speakers.

  4. The antinomy of political reason. Some deliberations on Kant’s “Answering the Question: What is Enlightenment?”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soboleva M.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses Kant’s work “Answering the Question: What is Enlightenment?” It is shown that Kant’s enlightenment is a political project. The author focuses on the philosophical prerequisites and the essence of this project and analyses the difference between the “public” and “private” use of reason. The article emphasises the major significance of this difference for developing the ideal of enlightenment in the field of politics. It is suggested that this ideal be seen in the evolutionary development of society based on the transformation of public consciousness. Kant’s view that the key discourse for social development consists in a comprehensive critique of social reality by a citizen capable of self-determination is considered against the background of Rousseau’s ideas, who defended the right of people to revolution. The reconstruction of Kant’s position is followed by a discussion of possible theoretical problems relating to the implementation of this project. It is stressed that the project can function only when the interests of government and citizen coincides. Russian history is addressed to illustrate that even “common interests” of the ruler and the citizen leave room for a conflict between them. The author analyses Kant’s paradox stating an inversely proportional connection between the level of civil liberties and that of spiritual freedom. The article proposes a hypothesis about the dissident movement as a possible political form of implementing this paradox. This dilemma helps to formulate the idea of antinomy of political reason, as well as develop its solution based on the notion of clear conscience. The author analyses the notion of clear conscience and uses example to illustrate that an adequate understanding thereof requires considering Kant’s practical philosophy. It is concluded that, unlike the Copernican system of theoretical reason, Kant’s system of practical reasons remains

  5. Answers to questions on National Report of the Slovak Republic. Compiled according to the terms of the joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management. October 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovakia is pleased to present to the State Parties of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management the Answers to questions received on the National Report of the Slovak Republic compiled according to the terms of the Joint Convention (April 2003). Slovakia is ready to provide additional explanations to these Answers during the 1st Review Meeting. In the Annexes the 254/1994 Coll. LL. Act of the National Council of the Slovak Republic of 25 August 1994 on State Fund of Decommissioning of Nuclear Installations and Handling of Spent Nuclear Fuels and Nuclear Wastes is included

  6. Answers to questions on National Report of the Slovak Republic. Compiled according to the terms of the joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management. April 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovakia is pleased to present to the State Parties of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management the Answers to questions received on the National Report of the Slovak Republic compiled according to the terms of the Joint Convention (2005). Slovakia is ready to provide additional explanations to these Answers during the 2nd Review Meeting. In the Annexes the 541/2004 Coll. LL. Act of 9 September 2004 on Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy (Atomic Act) and on Alternations and Amendments to Some Acts

  7. Fermi questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffard, Karen

    1999-05-01

    This column contains problems and solutions for the general category of questions known as "Fermi" questions. Forcing the students to use their ability to estimate, giving answers in terms of order-of-magnitude, is not only a challenge for a competition, but a teaching strategy to use in the classroom to develop self-confidence and the ability to analyze answers as to whether or not they make sense, as opposed to relying on the "precision" of a calculator value.

  8. Conflicts in Learning to Care for Critically Ill Newborns: "It Makes Me Question My Own Morals".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, Renee D; Geller, Gail; Donohue, Pamela K

    2015-09-01

    Caring for critically ill and dying patients often triggers both professional and personal growth for physician trainees. In pediatrics, the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is among the most distressing settings for trainees. We used longitudinal narrative writing to gain insight into how physician trainees are challenged by and make sense of repetitive, ongoing conflicts experienced as part of caring for very sick and dying babies. The study took place in a 45-bed, university-based NICU in an urban setting in the United States. From November 2009 to June 2010 we enrolled pediatric residents and neonatology fellows at the beginning of their NICU rotations. Participants were asked to engage in individual, longitudinal narrative writing about their "experience in the NICU." Thematic narrative analysis was performed. Thirty-seven physician trainees participated in the study. The mean number of narratives per trainee was 12; a total of 441 narratives were available for analysis. Conflict was the most pervasive theme in the narratives. Trainees experienced conflicts with families and conflicts with other clinicians. Trainees also described multiple conflicts of identity as members of the neonatology team, as members of the medical profession, as members of their own families, and as members of society. Physician trainees experience significant conflict and distress while learning to care for critically ill and dying infants. These conflicts often led them to question their own morals and their role in the medical profession. Physician trainees should be educated to expect various types of distress during intensive care rotations, encouraged to identify their own sources of distress, and supported in mitigating their effects. PMID:25656132

  9. Finding the Patient’s Voice Using Big Data: Analysis of Users’ Health-Related Concerns in the ChaCha Question-and-Answer Service (2009–2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopf, Amelia; Groves, Doyle; Carpenter, Janet S; Furrey, Christopher; Krishnan, Anand; Miller, Wendy R; Otte, Julie L; Palakal, Mathew; Wiehe, Sarah; Wilson, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Background The development of effective health care and public health interventions requires a comprehensive understanding of the perceptions, concerns, and stated needs of health care consumers and the public at large. Big datasets from social media and question-and-answer services provide insight into the public’s health concerns and priorities without the financial, temporal, and spatial encumbrances of more traditional community-engagement methods and may prove a useful starting point for public-engagement health research (infodemiology). Objective The objective of our study was to describe user characteristics and health-related queries of the ChaCha question-and-answer platform, and discuss how these data may be used to better understand the perceptions, concerns, and stated needs of health care consumers and the public at large. Methods We conducted a retrospective automated textual analysis of anonymous user-generated queries submitted to ChaCha between January 2009 and November 2012. A total of 2.004 billion queries were read, of which 3.50% (70,083,796/2,004,243,249) were missing 1 or more data fields, leaving 1.934 billion complete lines of data for these analyses. Results Males and females submitted roughly equal numbers of health queries, but content differed by sex. Questions from females predominantly focused on pregnancy, menstruation, and vaginal health. Questions from males predominantly focused on body image, drug use, and sexuality. Adolescents aged 12–19 years submitted more queries than any other age group. Their queries were largely centered on sexual and reproductive health, and pregnancy in particular. Conclusions The private nature of the ChaCha service provided a perfect environment for maximum frankness among users, especially among adolescents posing sensitive health questions. Adolescents’ sexual health queries reveal knowledge gaps with serious, lifelong consequences. The nature of questions to the service provides opportunities

  10. Do Workshops in Evidence-Based Practice Equip Participants to Identify and Answer Questions Requiring Consideration of Clinical Research? A Diagnostic Skill Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyer, Peter C,; Naqvi, Zoon; Dayan, Peter S.; Celentano, James J.; Eskin, Barnet; Graham, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) requires practitioners to identify and formulate questions in response to patient encounters, and to seek, select, and appraise applicable clinical research. A standardized workshop format serves as the model for training of medical educators in these skills. We developed an evaluation exercise to assess the ability…

  11. Five Hundred Questions Kids Ask about Sex and Some of the Answers: Sex Education for Parents, Teachers and Young People Themselves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, Frances

    This book is based on the premise that sexual expression is a way for people to show affection and love for one another. The book is divided into six chapters that cover topics related to sexuality and growing up. The sections in each chapter contain questions that preteens and teenagers typically ask and provide clear, unambiguous, and…

  12. E-assessment for learning? Exploring the potential of computer-marked assessment and computer-generated feedback, from short-answer questions to assessment analytics.

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Sally

    2014-01-01

    This submission draws on research from twelve publications, all addressing some aspect of the broad research question: “Can interactive computer-marked assessment improve the effectiveness of assessment for learning?” The work starts from a consideration of the conditions under which assessment of any sort is predicted to best support learning, and reviews the broader literature of assessment and feedback before considering the potential of computer-based assessment, focusing on relativ...

  13. Critical Thinking and the Question of Critique: Some Lessons from Deconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesta, Gert J. J.; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.

    2001-01-01

    Provides some philosophical groundwork for contemporary debates about the idea of critical thinking. Discusses three styles of critique: critical dogmatism, transcendental critique (Karl-Otto Apel), and deconstruction (Jacques Derrida). Argues that while transcendental critique is able to solve some of the problems of the dogmatic approach to…

  14. Evaluating the Efficacy of Questioning Strategies in Lecture-Based Classroom Environments: Are We Asking the Right Questions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, L. R.; Lovelace, M. D.

    2013-01-01

    Classroom questions represent a potentially powerful tool for interacting with students and stimulating critical thinking. However, the efficacy of the question-and-answer approach to teaching is influenced by many factors, such as the type and cognitive level of questions asked as well as students' response time. To examine these factors and…

  15. The Answer Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Susan

    2000-01-01

    Discusses information retrieval systems and the need to have them adapt to user needs, integrate information in any format, reveal patterns and trends in information, and answer questions. Topics include statistics and probability; natural language processing; intelligent agents; concept mapping; machine-aided indexing; text mining; filtering;…

  16. Multiple Choice Questions Can Be Designed or Revised to Challenge Learners' Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tractenberg, Rochelle E.; Gushta, Matthew M.; Mulroney, Susan E.; Weissinger, Peggy A.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple choice (MC) questions from a graduate physiology course were evaluated by cognitive-psychology (but not physiology) experts, and analyzed statistically, in order to test the independence of content expertise and cognitive complexity ratings of MC items. Integration of higher order thinking into MC exams is important, but widely known to…

  17. Radical Questioning on the Long Walk to Freedom: Nelson Mandela and the Practice of Critical Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookfield, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Nelson Mandela's autobiography "The Long Walk to Freedom" describes how an iconic political activist and freedom fighter reflected on, and sometimes modified, four core assumptions at the heart of his struggle to overturn the White supremacist, minority hegemony and create a free South Africa. Critical reflection's focus is on understanding the…

  18. Perceptions of the use of questioning to enhance critical thinking skills in English first additional language classrooms at FET colleges : a quantitative study / Nicolene Volschenk

    OpenAIRE

    Volschenk, Nicolene

    2013-01-01

    Students on all levels of education need to be able to think critically. This study investigated to what extent and how do lecturers at FET colleges in the Fezile Dabi District enhance their students‟ critical thinking skills by means of questioning in EFAL classrooms. A literature study was conducted in order to highlight the importance of critical thinking and which questioning types, strategies/techniques and tactics should be used for the effective enhancement of critical thinking skills ...

  19. The Design and Implementation of Course Question Answering System Based on Strust2 Framework%基于Struts2框架的课程答疑系统的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑名敏; 孔令美

    2015-01-01

    [Abstract ] Course question answering is not only a process of classroom teaching but also an important part of web-based course. How to carry out question answering efficiently in web-based course has been an important problem for web-based course building. This paper introduces the design and implementation of the course question answering system based on Struts2 framework. The system uses the technologies such as HTML, DIV, CSS,Ajax,JavaScript,JSP etc., to realize the user login and register, key-word searching, files uploading, access controlling, dynamic navigation content and other functions. The system uses MySQL data-base to manage the courses, content and user information. It overcomes the shortcomings of time and place limitations in classroom teaching, making convenience for the online communication between teachers and students.%课程答疑不仅仅是课堂教学上一个不可缺少的环节,同时也是网络教学中重要的一部分。如何在网络课程教学中开展高效率的课程答疑已经成为网络教学中一个重要的问题。本文介绍了基于Struts2框架的课程答疑系统的设计与实现。系统采用HTML,DIV, CSS,Ajax,JavaScript,JSP等相关技术进行编程,实现了用户的登陆、注册、关键字搜索、文件的上传、权限控制、动态导航内容等功能;使用MySQL数据库进行管理,实现了管理员对课程、内容和用户信息的管理功能。该系统有效克服了课堂教学时答疑受时间、地点限制的弊端,便于师生之间进行在线互动。

  20. Critical questions in materials science and engineering for successful development of fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is the general conclusion of all national programs that the development of high-performance reduced-activation structural materials is essential for the successful development of fusion power. In this paper, the experience gleaned from previous programs to develop materials for high temperature structural applications is used to identify and discuss some of the most critical issues that must be addressed in the development of candidate materials for fusion structural applications. Critical issues discussed include radiation-induced solute segregation and implications on phase stability in the development of high-performance alloys/ceramics; the effects of very large amounts of helium on mechanical properties and the implications for alloy design/development; development of high temperature design methodology and incorporation of radiation effects into this methodology; the effects of radiation damage on flow localization, and the implications and approach to control the phenomena; and considerations of mass transfer and corrosion in complex fusion systems

  1. "If you have the flu symptoms, your asymptomatic spouse may better answer the willingness-to-pay question". Evidence from a double-bounded dichotomous choice model with heterogeneous anchoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzinger, Michaël; Carrat, Fabrice; Luchini, Stéphane

    2009-07-01

    The small sample size of contingent valuation (CV) surveys conducted in patients may have limited the use of the single-bounded (SB) dichotomous choice format which is recommended in environmental economics. In this paper, we explore two ways to increase the statistical efficiency of the SB format: (1) by the inclusion of proxies in addition to patients; (2) by the addition of a follow-up dichotomous question, i.e. the double-bounded (DB) dichotomous choice format. We found that patients (n=223) and spouses (n=64) answering on behalf of the patient had on average a similar willingness-to-pay for earlier alleviation of flu symptoms. However, a patient was significantly more likely to anchor his/her answer on the first bid as compared to a spouse. Finally, our original DB model with shift effect and heterogeneous anchoring reconciled the discrepancies found in willingness-to-pay statistics between SB and DB models in keeping with increased statistical efficiency. PMID:19362383

  2. Refrigeration plant technology by questions and answers. Work and exercise book with tasks and solutions. Vol. 2. Special knowledge. 4. rev. ed.; Kaelteanlagentechnik in Fragen und Antworten. Arbeits- und Uebungsbuch mit Aufgaben und Loesungen. Bd. 2. Fachwissen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Planck, Erhard; Schmidt, Dieter (eds.)

    2009-08-15

    The qualified refrigeration plant constructor must have an expert theoretical knowledge in many fields, e.g. metal technology, mechanics and flow mechanics, thermo dynamics, process technology, electronics and control technology, chemistry and environmental protection. This book covers the field of refrigeration plant technology (refrigeration technology, electronics and control technology) by questions and answers and is oriented at the educational plan for the apprenticeship as refrigeration plant constructor. Volume 2, special knowledge, covers the themes: (1) Coolant cycle process in lg p,h diagram; (2) Main components of a refrigeration plant; (3) Other components in coolant cycle processes; (4) Control of refrigeration plants; (5) Assembly, set-up, maintenance and disposal; (5) Safety regulations; (6) Application of refrigeration; (7) Further processes of cold generation; (8) Technical communication; (9) Air conditioning engineering; (10) Regulation of refrigeration; (11) Standardized circuit diagrams.

  3. Oral Mucosal Disorders: Problems and Questions What are the Critical Points?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tülin Mansur

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Oral mucosal disorders comprise more than 200 pathological conditions or diseases, grouped in different categories including genetic, inflammatory, infectious and neoplastic. In this report the key points in diagnosis and treatment of oral mucosal disorders are briefly underlined, and indications, precautions, and contraindications are pointed out. In addition, some clues are given to the dermatologists for management of common symptoms of oral disorders, such as pain, dry mouth and halitosis, which greatly disrupt the quality of life. Moreover, the frequently encountered problems in daily practice including contact stomatitis, effects of dental prostheses, dental materials, and topical agents on oral mucosa, and the critical points in surgical interventions of oral disorders are reviewed.

  4. Persistent Offenders in the North West of England, 1880-1940: Some Critical Research Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Cox, Steve Farrall and Barry Godfrey

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the concept of the persistent offender as a group within society, and the presumed impact of that discrete group upon society via a case study of offending in Crewe between 1880 and 1940. The findings of persistent offending in Crewe challenge the assumptions and prejudices of the period, about the links between unemployment and crime and the extent to which crime was an enduring ‘career’. There were no ‘hardened’ persistent offenders in the sample of the type envisaged by contemporary comment, though the role of drink in offending was sustained; and there was no clear ‘type’ of offender either. Examination of the life histories of a selection of offenders is shown to raise a number of interdisciplinary questions, challenging the assumptions of criminologists and legal scholars in relation to the role of legislation in the management of criminality, including the concept (of interest also to historians that reformation of the criminal was more achievable in the past than it is in the over-regulated present.

  5. What Is Critical about Sociology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buechler, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Critical thinking is often presented as a generic technique. This article develops an alternative that links critique more closely to the sociological perspective. I suggest three answers to the above question: that the sociological perspective is critical for comprehending complex issues, that all sociology is implicitly critical by virtue of its…

  6. Frequently Asked Questions and Answers on Smallpox

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for at least 3,000 years and was one of the world’s most feared diseases until it was eradicated by a collaborative global vaccination programme led by the World Health ... which killed one person and caused a limited outbreak. Smallpox was ...

  7. Answering questions about archived, annotated meetings

    OpenAIRE

    Ailomaa, Marita

    2009-01-01

    Retrieving information from archived meetings is a new domain of information retrieval that has received increasing attention in the past few years. Search in spontaneous spoken conversations has been recognized as more difficult than text-based document retrieval because meeting discussions contain two levels of information: the content itself, i.e. what topics are discussed, but also the argumentation process, i.e. what conflicts are resolved and what decisions are made. To capture the rich...

  8. National Lung Screening Trial: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and benefits, show which ones provide the greatest benefits for a specified level of harm. Are there radiation exposure risks associated with repeat CT scans? The radiation exposures from the screening done in ...

  9. Pediatric imaging. Rapid fire questions and answers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quattromani, F.; Lampe, R. (eds.) [Texas Tech Univ. Health Sciences Center, School of Medicine, Lubbock, TX (United States); Handal, G.A. [Texas Tech Univ. Health Sciences Center, School of Medicine, El Paso, TX (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The book contains the following contributions: Airway, head, neck; allergy, immunology rheumatology; pediatric cardiac imaging; child abuse; chromosomal abnormalities; conscious sedation; contrast agents and radiation protection; pediatric gastrointestinal imaging; genetic disorders in infants and children; pediatric genitourinary imaging; pediatric hematology, oncology imaging; pediatric intenrventional radiology; metabolic and vitamin disorders; muscoskeletal disorders (osteoradiology); neonatology imaging; pediatric neuroimaging; imaging of the respiratory tract in infants and children; vascular anomalies.

  10. Climate warming: answering some basic questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illustrated by many graphs, drawings, figures and tables, this long publication offers a detailed overview of the physical aspects of climatic change (definition of the greenhouse effect, explanation and assessment of warming, relationship and differences between greenhouse effect and ozone depletion, between climate change and greenhouse effect induced by human activity, and between meteorology and climate) and states some generalities on greenhouse effect gases. The author then discusses prospective issues on climatic change (notion of average temperature, role and liability of climate models, evolutions of temperatures and precipitations in different places, influence of greenhouse gas reduction), the various risks associated with climatic change (changes of sea currents, impact on ecosystems, diseases, ozone depletion, geographical differences, threat from methane hydrate). After a presentation of the carbon cycle, the next chapters are discussing the scientific discourses, the assessment of greenhouse effect in our everyday life, the impact of possible collective and individual actions, the relationship between greenhouse effect and economy, and strategic choices in France on airports and on nuclear energy

  11. Fifteen Questions and Answers about Elder Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of domestic violence or abuse • Mental illness, dependency, family dysfunction • Economic pressures, personal stress • Longstanding personality traits (bad temper, hypercritical, tendency to blame others ...

  12. Proof as Answer to the Question Why.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyfus, Tommy; Hadas, Nurit

    1996-01-01

    Shows how an empirical approach to geometry using computer-based dynamic geometry software can create didactic situations in which students require proofs. Reports classroom experiences that show where students felt the need for proof in order to explain phenomena or to convince themselves of counterintuitive results. (Author/MKR)

  13. Model Answers to Lipid Membrane Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, O. G.

    2011-01-01

    Ever since it was discovered that biological membranes have a core of a bimolecular sheet of lipid molecules, lipid bilayers have been a model laboratory for investigating physicochemical and functional properties of biological membranes. Experimental and theoretical models help the experimental ...

  14. Randomness through computation some answers, more questions

    CERN Document Server

    Zenil, Hector

    2011-01-01

    This review volume consists of an indispensable set of chapters written by leading scholars, scientists and researchers in the field of Randomness, including related subfields specially but not limited to the strong developed connections to the Computability and Recursion Theory. Highly respected, indeed renowned in their areas of specialization, many of these contributors are the founders of their fields. The scope of ""Randomness Through Computation"" is novel. Each contributor shares his personal views and anecdotes on the various reasons and motivations which led him to the study of the su

  15. Is the Answer to this Question No?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Martin Mose

    2007-01-01

    Der gives eksempler på imperativer og spørgsmål af selvrefererende og selvmodsigende art. Det påpeges at, ekistensen af sådanne paradokser er interessant, da disse typer sætninger ikke har sandhedsværdi. Udgivelsesdato: September...

  16. Finding new answers to old questions

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Last month, the NA63 collaboration presented its annual update at the 107th meeting of the SPS and PS experiments committee (SPSC). Among the many results presented were new insights into arenas of experimental quantum electrodynamics – including some that will have theorists heading back to the blackboard.   NA63 Collaboration members at work on the positron-production experiment. Image: NA63. Based at CERN’s SPS North Area, the NA63 experiment uses high-energy beams for crystalline studies of various electromagnetic processes. “This year has been very productive for us, both in terms of data gathering and data analysis,” says Ulrik Uggerhoj, NA63 collaboration spokesperson. “We’ve released results based on previous runs, assembled and tested an entirely new experimental set-up, and have also gathered enough data to keep us occupied during the 2013 shutdown.” In September, the collaboration announced a new result that con...

  17. Working within the Law: Copyright Questions Answered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Susan S.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses copyright issues: what can be copyrighted, rights of copyright holders, avoiding copyright infringement, using copyrighted works, and addresses for more information concerning copyright laws. (CT)

  18. Answering Curious Questions about Artificial Intelligence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wiedermann, Jiří

    Cham: Springer, 2015 - (Romportl, J.; Zackova, E.; Kelemen, J.), s. 187-199. (Topics in Intelligent Engineering and Informatics. 9). ISBN 978-3-319-09667-4. ISSN 2193-9411. [Artificial Dreams. International Conference. Pilsen (CZ), 05.11.2012-06.11.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/10/1333 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : cognitive systems * computational models * non-uniform evolving automaton Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  19. Coccolithophore biomineralization: New questions, new answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownlee, Colin; Wheeler, Glen L; Taylor, Alison R

    2015-10-01

    Coccolithophores are unicellular phytoplankton that are characterized by the presence intricately formed calcite scales (coccoliths) on their surfaces. In most cases coccolith formation is an entirely intracellular process - crystal growth is confined within a Golgi-derived vesicle. A wide range of coccolith morphologies can be found amongst the different coccolithophore groups. This review discusses the cellular factors that regulate coccolith production, from the roles of organic components, endomembrane organization and cytoskeleton to the mechanisms of delivery of substrates to the calcifying compartment. New findings are also providing important information on how the delivery of substrates to the calcification site is co-ordinated with the removal of H(+) that are a bi-product of the calcification reaction. While there appear to be a number of species-specific features of the structural and biochemical components underlying coccolith formation, the fluxes of Ca(2+) and a HCO3(-) required to support coccolith formation appear to involve spatially organized recruitment of conserved transport processes. PMID:26498037

  20. Questions and Answers about High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Pressure Page Content What is high blood pressure? Blood pressure is the force of blood against the ... do I know if I have high blood pressure? High blood pressure is often called "the silent killer" because ...

  1. Questions and Answers about Marfan Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... maintaining a healthy lifestyle, no vitamin or dietary supplement has been shown to help slow, cure, or prevent Marfan syndrome. For most people with Marfan syndrome, engaging in moderate aerobic exercise is important for promoting skeletal and cardiovascular ...

  2. Pediatric imaging. Rapid fire questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book contains the following contributions: Airway, head, neck; allergy, immunology rheumatology; pediatric cardiac imaging; child abuse; chromosomal abnormalities; conscious sedation; contrast agents and radiation protection; pediatric gastrointestinal imaging; genetic disorders in infants and children; pediatric genitourinary imaging; pediatric hematology, oncology imaging; pediatric intenrventional radiology; metabolic and vitamin disorders; muscoskeletal disorders (osteoradiology); neonatology imaging; pediatric neuroimaging; imaging of the respiratory tract in infants and children; vascular anomalies

  3. Questions and Answers about High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Training & Career Development Grant programs for students, postdocs, and faculty Research at NIDDK Labs, faculty, and ... you have high blood pressure. How can I control or prevent high blood pressure? High blood pressure ...

  4. Questions and Answers: Apple Juice and Arsenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), may also be a health concern. Are apple and other fruit juices safe to drink? The FDA has been ... this, the FDA is considering how any possible health risk from these two forms of ... arsenic in fruit juice? The FDA has proposed an “action level” ...

  5. Lipstick and Lead: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pearl 300 Coffee Bean 09110 1.18 145 Victoria’s Secret Limited Brands Sheer Gloss Stick d Vulnerable X139 1.18 146 Fashion Fair Johnson Publishing Company Lipstick 8091 Crystal Crimson B3 1.17 147 ...

  6. Small Particle May Answer Large Physics Questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazi, A

    2005-09-20

    In one of those interesting intersections of particle physics, astrophysics, and cosmology, scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the University of California at Berkeley (UCB), the University of Florida (UF), and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) have joined together to try to pin down an elusive particle. This particle, called the axion, if it is found to exist and is not just a hypothesis, would be a long-sought relic from the first fractional second of the birth of the universe and one of the most weakly interacting particles known. Experimental verification of the existence of the axion would not only help ''balance the budget'' for the missing mass of the universe but also clear up one of the thorniest issues in particle physics.

  7. Questions and Answers about Sex (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... behaviors. To what extent can parents depend on schools to teach sex education? Parents should begin the sex education process long before it starts in school. The introduction of formal sexual education in the ...

  8. Cryosurgery in Cancer Treatment: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... any complications or side effects? What are the advantages of cryosurgery? What are the disadvantages of cryosurgery? ... or to distant parts of the body. Some advantages of cryosurgery are that the procedure can be ...

  9. Questions and Answers on Unapproved Chelation Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it Email Print The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) advises consumers to be wary of so-called “chelation” products that are marketed over-the-counter (OTC) to prevent or treat diseases. Companies are marketing unapproved OTC chelation therapy products to ...

  10. Questions and Answers: Zika and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Symptoms Testing for Zika Treatment Areas with Zika All Countries & Territories Country Classification Case Counts in the US What to Do Advice for People Living In or Traveling to Florida US Maps Cases in Pregnant Women Pregnancy Outcomes ...

  11. NPP Grafenrheinfeld. No thank you. Questions and answers concerning the oldest operating crack susceptible reactor in the federal republic; AKW Grafenrheinfeld. Nein danke. Fragen und Antworten zum aeltesten noch laufenden und rissanfaelligsten Reaktor der Republik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darge, Tobias

    2014-03-15

    The brochure discusses questions on the NPP Grafenrheinfeld. concerning the following issues: reactor type, operating company, nuclear fuel, licensing, radioactive waste management, susceptibility to damage, stress test results, critical arguments concerning the reactor pressure vessel steel and the containment, cracks in the primary circuit, safety in case of an aircraft crash, possibility of a severe accident, consequences of a severe accident, medical emergency plan, public information for an emergency case, shutdown at the end of 2015, necessity of a new power plant for energy security?.

  12. 隐含语义索引在吉林省农业知识问答系统中的应用%Application of Latent Semantic Index in Agricultural Knowledge Question Answering System of Jilin Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖艳华; 王青蓝; 毕业莉; 万发仁

    2011-01-01

    为了解决现有农业知识问答系统功能及业务流程中存在的一些问题,将隐含语义索引技术应用于吉林省农业知识问答系统中.该技术可以增强或消减词语在文档中语义的影响力,使文档之间的语义关系更为明晰,在一定程度上实现了自然语言检索,消除了词语同义性和多叉性所造成的影响,从而取得更好的检索效果.%The latent semantic index technology was applied to solve some problems with the existing function and in the professional process in agricultural knowledge question answering system. This technology could enhance or reduce the infiuence of words on the semantic in the document and it also could make the semantic relationships more clear, thereby realized the natural language search to a certain extent. The interference from identity and poly semantics was eliminated and better search results obtained.

  13. Doing Science and Asking Questions II: An Exercise That Generates Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt Middlecamp, Catherine; Nickel, Anne-Marie L.

    2005-08-01

    Given the importance of questions in science, it is critical that students learn to ask questions as well as learning to answer them. This paper describes a classroom exercise to help students better ask their own questions. It has been classroom-tested in multiple formats and has also been used for curriculum development workshops for faculty. This exercise in creating questions can be easily customized to suit different instructional contexts; some variations are outlined. More broadly, this paper also discusses the pedagogical significance of questioning, raising four salient points: (1) learners are more likely to have a personal interest in the questions they raise; (2) questions can serve as entry points for issues relating to ethnicity and gender; (3) questions give control to the person who asks them; and (4) questions can challenge existing structures, categories, and norms.

  14. The handy astronomy answer book

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, PhD, Charles

    2013-01-01

    From planetary movements and the exploration of our solar system to black holes and dark matter, this comprehensive reference simplifies all aspects of astronomy with an approachable question-and-answer format. With chapters broken into various astronomical studies—including the universe, galaxies, planets, and space exploration—this fully updated resource is an ideal companion for students, teachers, and amateur astronomers, answering more than 1,00 questions, such as Is the universe infinite? What would happen to you if you fell onto a black hole? What are the basic concepts of Einstein''s s

  15. Scrutiny of Critical Thinking Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atabaki, Ali Mohammad Siahi; Keshtiaray, Narges; Yarmohammadian, Mohammad H.

    2015-01-01

    Learning critical thinking skills are the goal of educational systems so the term "critical thinking" (CT) is frequently found in educational policy documents. Despite this frequency, however, precise understandings among teachers of what CT really means do not exit. The present study is designed to answer the following question. We can…

  16. Joint Convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management. France's answers to questions and comments received from other Contracting Parties on its second report for the JC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management, referred to as the 'Joint Convention', is the result of international discussions that followed the adoption of the Convention on Nuclear Safety, in 1994. France signed the Joint Convention at the General Conference of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) held on 29 September 1997, the very first day the Joint Convention was opened for signature. She approved it on 22 February 2000 and filed the corresponding instruments with the IAEA on 27 April 2000. The Joint Convention entered into force on 18 June 2001. For many years, France has been taking an active part in the pursuit of international actions to reinforce nuclear safety and considers the Joint Convention to be a key step in that direction. The fields covered by the Joint Convention have long been part of the French approach to nuclear safety. For his second report, France presented a document reflecting the viewpoints of the various stakeholders (regulatory authorities and operators). Thus, for each of the chapters in which the regulatory authority is not the only party to express its point of view, a three-stage structure was adopted: first of all a description by the regulatory authority of the regulations, followed by a presentation by the operators of the steps taken to meet the regulations and finally, an analysis by the regulatory authority of the steps taken by the operators. France received questions and comments from the other contracting parties of the joint convention and answered them in the present document

  17. Unsolved Mysteries of the Human Mammary Gland: Defining and Redefining the Critical Questions from the Lactation Consultant's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasco, Lisa Ann

    2014-12-01

    Despite advances in knowledge about human lactation, clinicians face many problems when advising mothers who are experiencing breastfeeding difficulties that do not respond to normal management strategies. Primary insufficient milk production is now being acknowledged, but incidence rates have not been well studied. Many women have known histories of infertility, polycystic ovary syndrome, obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance, thyroid dysfunction, hyperandrogenism or other hormonal imbalances, while others have no obvious risk factors. Some present with obviously abnormal breasts that are pubescent, tuberous/tubular or asymmetric in shape, raising the question of insufficient mammary gland tissue. Other women have breasts that appear within normal limits yet do not lactate normally. Endocrine disruptors may underlie some of these cases but their impact on human milk production has not been well explored. Similarly, any problem with prolactin such as a deficiency in serum prolactin or receptor number, receptor resistance, or poor bioavailability or bioactivity could underlie some cases of insufficient lactation, yet these possibilities are rarely investigated. A weak or suppressed milk ejection reflex, often assumed to be psychosomatic, could be related to thyroid dysfunction or caused by downstream post-receptor pathway problems. In the absence of sufficient data regarding these situations, desperate mothers may turn to non-evidence-based remedies, sometimes at considerable cost and unknown risk. Research targeted to these clinical dilemmas is critical in order to develop evidence-based strategies and increase breastfeeding duration and success rates. PMID:26084427

  18. Answer Ranking with Discourse Structure Feature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    For the complex questions of Chinese question answering system, we propose an answer extraction method with discourse structure feature combination. This method uses the relevance of questions and answers to learn to rank the answers. Firstly, the method analyses questions to generate the query string, and then submits the query string to search engines to retrieve relevant documents. Sec- ondly, the method makes retrieved documents seg- mentation and identifies the most relevant candidate answers, in addition, it uses the rhetorical relations of rhetorical structure theory to analyze the relationship to determine the inherent relationship between para- graphs or sentences and generate the answer candi- date paragraphs or sentences. Thirdly, we construct the answer ranking model,, and extract five feature groups and adopt Ranking Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithm to train ranking model. Finally, it re-ranks the answers with the training model and fred the optimal answers. Experiments show that the proposed method combined with discourse structure features can effectively improve the answer extrac- ting accuracy and the quality of non-factoid an- swers. The Mean Reciprocal Rank (MRR) of the an- swer extraction reaches 69.53%.

  19. “Are you happy?”,who can answer this question?%“你,幸福吗?”问倒了谁--从社会救助谈开去

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓萌

    2013-01-01

      “你幸福吗?”是为数不多的、经由主流媒体产生的2012年度“热词”,但其热度的背后应贯穿我们冷静的思考。本文选择从社会救助角度切入,主要从个人家庭、社会建设、政府建设、政权合法性等方面论述社会救助的重要性,从资格获取、资金使用和所涉人员观念转变上论述社会救助的复杂性,最终导出社会救助本然的国家责任伦理本位、社会参与格局和基于政治体制改革后府民关系的初步设想,呼吁落实宣传口号于切实的治理行为。本文并不囿限于“幸福”或者社会救助的概念作讨论,转而向更深层次的体制、制度做了初步挖掘,观点多属个人之见,不免偏狭愚陋,只求探讨和商榷。%Abstract“Are you happy?”is well-known by Chinese people in 2012 through an interview launched by CCTV, because this“simple”question followed so many funny or significant answers. As an expression of the popular sentiment, we must analysis its causes and effects. Social assistance is my paper’s point-cut, mainly talk about its importance in the construction about the personal life, people’s government and the whole society, as well as the obtain of the political legitimacy. Followed by its significance, I list three factors to explain its complexity, they are the obtain of the right, use of the collected money, the change of the mind between both sides. After that, I draw a conclusion that social assistance is the government’s natural responsibility, needs a good pattern of social participation, and may be conductive to build a harmonious relationship between the mass and the power holders. What’s more important is any beautiful propaganda must depend on solid and credible effects to benefit people. This paper is more like an academic essay, hopes to give some individual views for more sounds and viewpoints.

  20. Are All Wrong FCI Answers Equivalent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedic, Helena; Rosenfield, Steven; Lasry, Nathaniel

    2010-10-01

    The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) has been efficiently used to assess conceptual learning in mechanics. Each FCI question has one Newtonian answer and four wrong answers (distracters). Researchers and practitioners most frequently use measures of total score to assess learning. Yet, are all wrong answers equivalent? We conducted Latent Markov Chain Modeling (LMCM) analyses of all choices (right and wrong) on a subset of four FCI questions. LMCM assesses whether there are groups of students sharing similar patterns of responses. We infer that students sharing similar patterns also share similar reasoning. Our results show seven reasoning-groups. LMCM also computes probabilities of transition from one reasoning-group to another after instruction. Examining transitions between groups, we note a clear hierarchy. Groups at the top of the hierarchy are comprised of students that use Newtonian thinking more consistently but also choose certain wrong answers more frequently; suggesting that not all wrong answers are equivalent.

  1. What is a Question?

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin H. Knuth

    2004-01-01

    A given question can be defined in terms of the set of statements or assertions that answer it. Application of logical inference to these sets of assertions allows one to derive the logic of inquiry among questions. There are interesting symmetries between the logics of inference and inquiry; where probability describes the degree to which a premise implies an assertion, there exists an analogous measure that describes the bearing or relevance that a question has on an outstanding issue. Thes...

  2. "I could answer all your questions in Polish... but in Norwegian?" : an empirical, quantitiave study about test-based versus teacher-based assessment of language skills among minority-language students

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the power of teacher-based and test-based assessment methods of second-language skills among minority-language students. The research problem of the present study is as follows: In which way do teacher-based and test-based language assessment methods mirror the variation in second-language skills of minority-language students? The research problem has been broken into four research questions. The research questions guided this study. ...

  3. To donate or not donate, that is the question: an analysis of the critical factors of blood donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Jefferson Rodrigues; Sousa, Caissa Veloso E; Matos, Eliane Bragança de; Rezende, Leonardo Benedito Oliveira; Bueno, Natália Xavier; Dias, Álvaro Machado

    2016-08-01

    Currently, in Brazil, 1.78% of the population area blood donors, a level lower than the ideal one that, according to WHO, should be between 3% and 5% of the population. Following this scenario, the current study has a general goal of identifying and analyzing the main critical factors of the process of blood donation in the city of Belo Horizonte, MG, under the perception of donors, potential donors and non donors. A qualitative research approach was conducted, through twenty-four semi-structured interviews. The results highlight the lack of information in the various stages of the blood donation system. During the stages of donor recruitment and awareness, communication actions convey to society incomplete information about the donation process, discouraging future actions of donation. On the other hand, a lack of appreciation of the donation experience and the construction of social values associated with the donor prevent the multiplication of social behaviors for donation. The results of this study, found from theoretical framework outlined in this study, highlight the causes or critical factors that impede changes in behavior, incremental or radical, proposed by social marketing. PMID:27557020

  4. Annotated Answer Set Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Straccia, Umberto

    2005-01-01

    We present Annotated Answer Set Programming, that extends the ex pressive power of disjunctive logic programming with annotation terms, taken from the generalized annotated logic programming framework.

  5. Subjective Confidence in One's Answers: The Consensuality Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koriat, Asher

    2008-01-01

    In answering general-information questions, a within-person confidence-accuracy (C-A) correlation is typically observed, suggesting that people can monitor the correctness of their knowledge. However, because the correct answer is generally the consensual answer--the one endorsed by most participants--confidence judgment may actually monitor the…

  6. Teen Diabetes Quiz Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood glucose as planned with your health care team. Answer: D Eating a balance of foods that contain carbohydrates (carbs for short), ... may get too high. Ask your health care team to help you plan how many carbs to eat each ... in balance. Answer: E Being active is an important part ...

  7. Questions and information systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lauer, Thomas W; Graesser, Arthur C

    2013-01-01

    The design and functioning of an information system improve to the extent that the system can handle the questions people ask. Surprisingly, however, researchers in the cognitive, computer, and information sciences have not thoroughly examined the multitude of relationships between information systems and questions -- both question asking and answering. The purpose of this book is to explicitly examine these relationships. Chapter contributors believe that questions play a central role in the analysis, design, and use of different kinds of natural or artificial information systems such as huma

  8. Answer Extraction System Based on Latent Dirichlet Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. S. Ali

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Question Answering (QA task is still an active area of research in information retrieval. A variety of methods which have been proposed in the literature during the last few decades to solve this task have achieved mixed success. However, such methods developed in the Arabic language are scarce and do not have a good performance record. This is due to the challenges of Arabic language. QA based on Frequently Asked Questions is an important branch of QA in which a question is answered based on pre-answered ones. In this paper, the aim is to build a question answering system that responds to a user inquiry based on pre-answered questions. The proposed approach is based on Latent Dirichlet Allocation. Firstly, the dataset, pairs of questions and associated answers, will be grouped into several clusters of related documents. Next, when a new question to be answered is posed to the system, it,therefore, starts to assign this question to its appropriate cluster, then, use a similarity measure to get the top ten closest possible answers. Preliminary results show that the proposed method is achieving a good level of performance.

  9. Quantitative T-wave alternans analysis for sudden cardiac death risk assessment and guiding therapy: answered and unanswered questions: For: Proceedings of ICE2015 Comandatuba, Brazil, Sudden Death Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrier, Richard L; Sroubek, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    This review addresses current questions regarding use of T-wave alternans to stratify risk for sudden cardiac death. Both of the currently available commercial methodologies, namely, the frequency-domain spectral method and the time-domain modified moving average (MMA) method, are supported by guideline statements, cleared by the US FDA, and covered by the US Center for Medicare and Medicaid services. Similar numbers of patients have been enrolled in predictive studies; odds ratios generated by the two methods are similar including in a head-to-head study. However, in two prospective studies, prediction by TWA with the spectral method was negative, likely due to withdrawal of beta-blockade before the test with later resumption, while all studies with MMA have achieved prediction when the commercial software was used appropriately. Questions currently undergoing investigation include TWA's potential to guide ICD implantation, to track changes in risk during cardiac disease progression, and to evaluate the adequacy of medical therapy. PMID:26987616

  10. [Questions by adolescents about dieting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, A

    1989-12-15

    In recent years there has been increasing concern and involvement of Israeli adolescents with dieting. An increase in the incidence of obesity has been emphasized by the mass media. This has been marked by an increase in the number of questions on dieting sent anonymously by 12 to 14 year-olds to a column in a popular youth magazine about adolescent sexuality. These letters include requests for diets to prevent obesity in general and fatness of certain parts of the body in particular, such as the thighs or buttocks; questions as to side-effects of diets already started, particularly amenorrhea; and questions about the onset of bulimia and anorexia nervosa, expressing fear of the consequences. This study gives examples of the questions and the answers, and indicates the professions of those to whom the applicants were referred for further diagnosis and treatment. Newer techniques of health education with regard to adolescent dieting are urgently needed so that the health staff can promote insight and indicate the need for treatment at as early a stage as possible. The use of mass media in a suitable manner is critical, given the increase in diet-advertising. PMID:2620891

  11. “Horses for Courses”; Comment on “Translating Evidence Into Healthcare Policy and Practice: Single Versus Multi-Faceted Implementation Strategies – Is There a Simple Answer to a Complex Question?”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce E. Wilkinson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This commentary considers the vexed question of whether or not we should be spending time and resources on using multifaceted interventions to undertake implementation of evidence in healthcare. A review of systematic reviews has suggested that simple interventions may be just as effective as those taking a multifaceted approach. Taking cognisance of the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS framework this commentary takes account of the evidence, context and facilitation factors in undertaking implementation. It concludes that a ‘horses for courses’ approach is necessary meaning that the specific implementation approach should be selected to fit the implementation task in hand whether it be a single or multifaceted approach and reviewed on an individual basis.

  12. More Fermi questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffard, Karen

    1999-09-01

    "Fermi" questions are a popular component of most Physics Olympics meets. Asking students to make a reasonable assumption about a problem and give answers in terms of order of magnitude is not only a great challenge for a competition, but is also a valued teaching strategy in the classroom.

  13. Interview Questions with Bentham Scientific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, John C.

    2013-01-01

    John Mather answers questions for an interview for the Bentham Science Newsletter. He covers topics ranging from his childhood, his professional career and his thoughts on research, technology and today's scientists and engineers.

  14. Nanodesign: some basic questions

    CERN Document Server

    Schommers, Wolfram

    2013-01-01

    There is no doubt that nanoscience will be the dominant direction for technology in this century, and that this science will influence our lives to a large extent as well as open completely new perspectives on all scientific and technological disciplines. To be able to produce optimal nanosystems with tailor-made properties, it is necessary to analyze and construct such systems in advance by adequate theoretical and computational methods. Since we work in nanoscience and nanotechnology at the ultimate level, we have to apply the basic laws of physics. What methods and tools are relevant here? The book gives an answer to this question. The background of the theoretical methods and tools is critically discussed, and also the world view on which these physical laws are based. Such a debate is not only of academic interest but is of highly general concern, and this is because we constantly move in nanoscience and nanotechnology between two extreme poles, between infinite life and total destruction . On the one ...

  15. Harvesting Collective Intelligence: Temporal Behavior in Yahoo Answers

    CERN Document Server

    Aperjis, Christina; Wu, Fang

    2010-01-01

    When harvesting collective intelligence, a user wishes to maximize the accuracy and value of the acquired information without spending too much time collecting it. We empirically study how people behave when facing these conflicting objectives using data from Yahoo Answers, a community driven question-and-answer site. We take two complementary approaches. We first study how users behave when trying to maximize the amount of the acquired information, while minimizing the waiting time. We identify and quantify how question authors at Yahoo Answers trade off the number of answers they receive and the cost of waiting. We find that users are willing to wait more to obtain an additional answer when they have only received a small number of answers; this implies decreasing marginal returns in the amount of collected information. We also estimate the user's utility function from the data. Our second approach focuses on how users assess the qualities of the individual answers without explicitly considering the cost of...

  16. Response times to conceptual questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasry, Nathaniel; Watkins, Jessica; Mazur, Eric; Ibrahim, Ahmed

    2013-09-01

    We measured the time taken by students to respond to individual Force Concept Inventory (FCI) questions. We examine response time differences between correct and incorrect answers, both before and after instruction. We also determine the relation between response time and expressed confidence. Our data reveal three results of interest. First, response times are longer for incorrect answers than for correct ones, indicating that distractors are not automatic choices. Second, response times increase after instruction for both correct and incorrect answers, supporting the notion that instruction changes students' approach to conceptual questions. Third, response times are inversely related to students' expressed confidence; the lower their confidence, the longer it takes to respond.

  17. Mathematics year 5 answers

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Serena; Poggo, Tammy

    2014-01-01

    Features the complete set of answers to the exercises in Mathematics Year 5, to save you time marking work and enable you to identify areas requiring further attention. The book includes diagrams and workings where necessary, to ensure pupils understand how to present their answers. Also available from Galore Park www.galorepark.co.uk :. - Mathematics Year 5. - Mathematics Year 6. - 11+ Maths Practice Exercises. - 11+ Maths Revision Guide. - 10-Minute Maths Tests Workbook Age 8-10. - 10-Minute Maths Tests Workbook Age 9-11. - Mental Arithmetic Workbook Age 8-10. - Mental Arithmetic Workbook Ag

  18. ANSWER: Painful lesions.

    OpenAIRE

    Kini, Usha; Amit Kumar C JAIN

    2013-01-01

    (Refer to page 181)Answer: Pyoderma gangrenosumPyoderma gangrenosum is defined as an idiopathic ulcerative chronic inflammatory skin disease of unknown aetiology. (1) It occurs more commonly in adults and may be associated with systemic diseases such as ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, hepatitis, rheumatoid arthritis and malignancy. (2) Typically, the histopathology show ulcerations, fibrinous exudate and chronic inflammatory infiltrates(Panel).

  19. How criticality affects student's creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine

    2010-01-01

    Complex Systems) as a case study. Interviews with students are used to shed light on creative teaching and learning. It is shown that creativity can be taught by teaching creatively. I conclude that creativity and criticality are not entirely different ways of thinking and both are important in academia......In this chapter, I analyse if there is an inherent paradox between creativity and criticality. With critical thinking being among the core values in higher education, can we then also foster creative thinking? In answering this question, I use the masters degree LAICS (Leadership And Innovation in...

  20. Yahoo! Answers as a Space for Informal Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana Dettori

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Online social spaces, where users can exchange information, opinions and resources, have achieved wide popularity and are gaining attention in many research fields, including education. Their actual potential support to learning, however, still requires investigation, especially because portals can widely differ as concerns purpose and internal structure. This paper aims to contribute in this respect, by concentrating on question answering, a kind of social space not yet widely discussed in education. We analyzed a small corpus of posts from the Languages section of Yahoo! Answers Italy, checking if the questions reveal some inclination to learning or just the desire to obtain a service and if the answers provided by the community members can be considered as reliable sources of knowledge. Our analysis highlights the presence of a variety of question/answer types, from mere information exchange or help for task completion, up to language-related questions prompting valuable short lessons. The quality of answers may widely vary as concerns pertinence, correctness and richness of supporting elements. We found a high number of purely task-oriented questions and answers, but also a higher number of learning-oriented questions and correct, informative answers. This suggests that this kind of social space actually has valuable potential for informal learning.

  1. Colorectal cancer in the young, many questions, few answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deen, Kemal I; Silva, Hiroshi; Deen, Raeed; Chandrasinghe, Pramodh C

    2016-06-15

    At a time where the incidence of colorectal cancer, a disease predominantly of developed nations, is showing a decline in those 50 years of age and older, data from the West is showing a rising incidence of this cancer in young individuals. Central to this has been the 75% increase in rectal cancer incidence in the last four decades. Furthermore, predictive data based on mathematical modelling indicates a 124 percent rise in the incidence of rectal cancer by the year 2030 - a statistic that calls for collective global thought and action. While predominance of colorectal cancer (CRC) is likely to be in that part of the large bowel distal to the splenic flexure, which makes flexible sigmoidoscopic examination an ideal screening tool, the cost and benefit of mass screening in young people remain unknown. In countries where the incidence of young CRC is as high as 35% to 50%, the available data do not seem to indicate that the disease in young people is one of high red meat consuming nations only. Improvement in our understanding of genetic pathways in the aetiology of CRC, chiefly of the MSI, CIN and CIMP pathway, supports the notion that up to 30% of CRC is genetic, and may reflect a familial trait or environmentally induced changes. However, a number of other germline and somatic mutations, some of which remain unidentified, may play a role in the genesis of this cancer and stand in the way of a clear understanding of CRC in the young. Clinically, a proportion of young persons with CRC die early after curative surgery, presumably from aggressive tumour biology, compared with the majority in whom survival after operation will remain unchanged for five years or greater. The challenge in the future will be to determine, by genetic fingerprinting or otherwise, those at risk of developing CRC and the determinants of survival in those who develop CRC. Ultimately, prevention and early detection, just like for those over 50 years with CRC, will determine the outcome of CRC in young persons. At present, aside from those with an established familial tendency, there is no consensus on screening young persons who may be at risk. However, increasing awareness of this cancer in the young and the established benefit of prevention in older persons, must be a message that should be communicated with medical students, primary health care personnel and first contact doctors. The latter constitutes a formidable challenge. PMID:27326317

  2. Answering questions about library impact on student learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Rodriguez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available image by wordshore on Flickr This essay reports on a project which evaluated the Understanding Library Impacts (ULI protocol, a suite of instruments for detecting and communicating library impact on student learning. The project was a dissertation study conducted with undergraduates enrolled in upper-level and capstone history classes at six U.S. colleges and universities in [...

  3. Technology is the answer, but what was the question?

    OpenAIRE

    Unterrainer, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Whatever we do and wherever we are, we are surrounded by a multiplicity of technologies and the last decades showed an exponential application of ´new technologies´. Who for instance would want to miss our smartphones? It is a bizarre discrepancy: a slum dweller in India does not have access to proper sanitation and drinking water but he has better communication tools than the president of the USA 20 years ago. With one single tool we enjoy almost unlimited communication, direct access to the...

  4. Rats answer an unexpected question after incidental encoding

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Wenyi; Hohmann, Andrea G.; Crysta, Jonathon D.

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental aspect of episodic memory is that retrieval of information can occur when encoding is incidental and memory assessment is unexpected [1–4]. These features are difficult to model in animals because behavioral training likely gives rise to well-learned expectations about the sequence of events. Thus, the possibility remains that animals may solve an episodic-memory test by using well-learned semantic rules without remembering the episode at memory assessment. Here we show that rat...

  5. A Question Answer System for Math Word Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Liguda, Christian; Pfeiffer, Thies; Messerschmidt, Hartmut

    2011-01-01

    Solving word problems is an important part in school education in primary as well as in high school. Although, the equations that are given by a word problem could be solved by most computer algebra programs without problems, there are just few systems that are able to solve word problems. In this paper we present the ongoing work on a system, that is able to solve word problems from german primary school math books.

  6. Colorectal cancer in the young, many questions, few answers

    OpenAIRE

    Deen, Kemal I; Silva, Hiroshi; Deen, Raeed; Chandrasinghe, Pramodh C

    2016-01-01

    At a time where the incidence of colorectal cancer, a disease predominantly of developed nations, is showing a decline in those 50 years of age and older, data from the West is showing a rising incidence of this cancer in young individuals. Central to this has been the 75% increase in rectal cancer incidence in the last four decades. Furthermore, predictive data based on mathematical modelling indicates a 124 percent rise in the incidence of rectal cancer by the year 2030 - a statistic that c...

  7. 100 questions and 100 answers for university TLO management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contents of this book are what is university TLO?, how to form the organization, what are the related regulations? what programs for development of skill for TLO members do it have? which service is provided to TLO research worker or laboratory? what regulations are related on national research and development business? what is the reason that we use patent information or research and development? what is the difference between jobs invention and free invention? what is priority system? what is laying-open of application and what is technology marketing?

  8. Fluid and Blood Therapy in Trauma - More Questions Than Answers

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Mary Korula

    2003-01-01

    Tissue injury results in SIR, release of mediators leading to increase in vascular permeability and tissue edema. On top of this, a concurrent haemorrhage causes further reduction in intravenous volume. The initial fluid redistribution that occurs following trauma is related more to the degree of tissue trauma and ischemia than to blood loss per se. With mild hypovolemia, blood in the venous capacitance vessels is mobilised to ensure adequate venous return.

  9. Questions and Answers for Transplant Candidates about Kidney Allocation Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the benefit of patients through education, technology and policy development. www.unos.org/social 700 North 4th Street, Richmond, VA 23219 www.unos.org Copyright © 2016 United Network for Organ Sharing 103 4.15

  10. Metric Unfolding Revisited: Straight Answers to Basic Questions

    OpenAIRE

    Nakanishi, Masao; Cooper, Lee G

    2003-01-01

    Marketing researchers commonly interpret joint-space solutions as if the distances between the points from different sets are meaningful. This is our practice despite appropriate warnings from the authors of joint-space methods that the origin (or metric) of the row objects is not the same as the origin (or metric) of the column objects ? making inter-set distances meaningless. We develop a method of metric unfolding where, given only the inter-set judgments, we still retrieve a joint space i...

  11. An intelligent question: answering system for natural language

    OpenAIRE

    Yamani, Ahmed A. S.

    1998-01-01

    As applications of information storage and retrieval systems are becoming more widespread, there is an increased need to be able to communicate with these systems in a natural way. Natural Language applications in the 1990s, as well as in the foreseeable future, have more demanding requirements. Current Natural Language Processing approaches alone have proven to be insufficient as they lack to obtain linguistic understanding. A more suitable approach would be to adopt Computational Linguistic...

  12. Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia: Questions and Answers for School Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, M. Joan

    1984-01-01

    School personnel can have a vital role in the early detection and treatment of anorexia nervosa and bulimia by understanding certain signs and symptoms. This article provides specific information about early detection, approaches to use when confronting the student, and methods to facilitate treatment. (Author/DF)

  13. Photovoltaic and economy. Answers to the 10 most important questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An economic calculation of the planned PV plant is not an easy task due to various influencing factors. In most cases, the date or the year interested in which the plant is operating in the black. However if one wishes, at least roughly to estimate the efficiency of a PV system, so you have to deal with a whole range of factors that determine the profitability sustainably. Here are the 10 most important aspects are explained.

  14. If technology is the answer, what is the question?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagh, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    Hvis teknologi er svaret, hvad er så spørgsmålet? Det var et af de centrale spørgsmål, der blev stillet på Urban Age Electric City-konferencen i London i december 2012. Ricky Burdetts arbejde fokuserer på den type spørgsmål med udgangspunkt i en dybfølt interesse for sammenhængen mellem de sociale...

  15. Ferroelectric memories: A possible answer to the hardened nonvolatile question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferroelectric memory cells have been fabricated using a process compatible with semiconductor VLSI (Very Large-Scale Integration) manufacturing techniques which are basically nonvolatile and radiation hard. The memory can be made NDRO (Nondestructive Readout) for strategic systems using several techniques; the most practical is probably a rapid read/restore in combination with EDAC software. This memory can replace plated wire and will have substantial advantages in cost, weight, size, power and speed. It provides a practical cost-competitive solution to the need for nonvolatile RAM in all hardened tactical, avionic, and space systems

  16. Brain Mechanisms and Reading Remediation: More Questions Than Answers

    OpenAIRE

    Kristen Pammer

    2014-01-01

    Dyslexia is generally diagnosed in childhood and is characterised by poor literacy skills with associated phonological and perceptual problems. Compensated dyslexic readers are adult readers who have a documented history of childhood dyslexia but as adults can read and comprehend written text well. Uncompensated dyslexic readers are adults who similarly have a documented history of reading impairment but remain functionally reading-impaired all their lives. There is little understanding of th...

  17. Coping with Financial Crises: Latin American Answers to European Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A.Cavallo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Europe faces challenges reminiscent of Latin American financial crises, namely unsustainable sovereign spreads, banking system distress, sudden stops in capital flows and growth rate collapse. The failure of recent liquidity support to normalize the situation suggests the need to refocus the policy debate on fundamentals: structural reform for growth and, where needed, restructuring to resolve banking crises and the debt overhang.  Latin America’s experience yields relevant policy lessons for Europe on all these fronts, tempered only by the slight exception that sharp real devaluation, which was key to spearheading recovery in Latin America, is unfeasible in the eurozone. Struggling eurozone countries are caught between a rock and a hard place, as the currency union imposes strict policy constraints while the reintroduction of national currencies under conditions of crisis would be catastrophic. Nevertheless, contemporary Europe stands a better chance of recovery because, in contrast with the Latin America experience, the European Union possesses greater avenues for international cooperation. With respect to financial support, a resourceful European Central Bank able to avoid chaotic adjustment by brute force is a decisive advantage of Europe relative to Latin America, which only had access to the weaker and less reliable IMF. Arguably, the limited nature of external support strongly contributed to the depth of Latin America’s great collapses. European cooperation can explore and exhaust alternatives to a euro exit to the benefit of all union members and, if dissolution becomes unavoidable, ensure amicable support to ease the transition. The path to success remains uncharted, however, and implementation of the necessary regional mechanisms will require innovation and political will. If the available means of cooperation are not used effectively, crisis countries in Europe may fare worse than those in Latin America.

  18. Application of Knowledge Management: Pressing questions and practical answers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FROMM-LEWIS,MICHELLE

    2000-02-11

    Sandia National Laboratory are working on ways to increase production using Knowledge Management. Knowledge Management is: finding ways to create, identify, capture, and distribute organizational knowledge to the people who need it; to help information and knowledge flow to the right people at the right time so they can act more efficiently and effectively; recognizing, documenting and distributing explicit knowledge (explicit knowledge is quantifiable and definable, it makes up reports, manuals, instructional materials, etc.) and tacit knowledge (tacit knowledge is doing and performing, it is a combination of experience, hunches, intuition, emotions, and beliefs) in order to improve organizational performance and a systematic approach to find, understand and use knowledge to create value.

  19. Put It in Writing: Questions and Answers on Advance Directives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at any time. Any alterations and any written revocation should be signed and dated, and copies should ... the National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization (NHPCO) offers free, state-specific advance directives and advice for ...

  20. Bootstrapping named entity resources for adaptive question answering systems

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Sánchez, César de

    2010-01-01

    Los Sistemas de Búsqueda de Respuestas (SBR) amplían las capacidades de un buscador de información tradicional con la capacidad de encontrar respuestas precisas a las preguntas del usuario. El objetivo principal es facilitar el acceso a la información y disminuir el tiempo y el esfuerzo que el usuario debe emplear para encontrar una información concreta en una lista de documentos relevantes. En esta investigación se han abordado dos trabajos relacionados con los SBR. La primera parte presenta...

  1. Questions but precious few answers in renewable energy review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article focuses on the slow progress towards the new and strong drive for renewables promised in the UK Labour Party's manifesto, and the tentative proposal for 10% contribution of renewables by the year 2020. Onshore wind power and the planning system, key roles for offshore wind and biomass energy, growth in wave and solar power projects, increased funding for renewable energy research and development, the cost of delivering the 10% contribution of renewables, embedded power generation, and exemptions from the climate levy are discussed. The form that the stimulation of the market for renewable energy sources will take after the Non-Fossil-Fuel Obligation (NFFO) lapses, and the possibility of further NFFO orders are considered. (UK)

  2. Incorporating PARP Inhibition in Cancer Therapy: Key Questions, Expert Answers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristin Abair

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This engaging symposium focussed on the rationale and current evidence supporting the role for poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose polymerase (PARP inhibition in patients with cancer. The meeting opened with an overview of DNA repair and the biological basis for targeting this process in oncology, delivered by Prof Calvert. This was followed by a discussion from Prof Pujade-Lauraine that focussed on patient selection for PARP inhibition and the role for these agents in BRCA -mutated and BRCA -like cancers. Next, Prof Colombo presented a clinical scenario of BRCA -associated ovarian cancer and examined optimal treatment options in the first-line setting and for progressive disease. She also highlighted current clinical data and ongoing trials evaluating PARP inhibition in advanced ovarian cancer. Prof Tutt then discussed the potential role for PARP inhibitors in patients with breast cancer, focussing on a clinical scenario of triple-negative disease and emphasising current and investigational treatment options. Lastly, Prof Van Cutsem described emerging data and ongoing clinical studies evaluating PARP inhibition in the treatment of patients with pancreatic and gastric cancers, and how this could impact future clinical practice. The programme also included a PARP quiz, in which participants were polled at the beginning and conclusion of the symposium to examine their knowledge and practice patterns regarding the use of PARP inhibitors in oncology. The key highlights from these presentations and the PARP quiz are summarised herein.

  3. Siemens power generation - answers to questions on power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The company Siemens AG is the world electrotechnical concern with place of business in Germany. The company Siemens s. r. o. Bratislava represents activities of the concern in Slovakia and was established in 1993 as a subsidiary firm of Siemens AG Germany. Its principal activities are sales, design, services and other activities within all areas of electronics, electrical engineering, as well as power engineering including industrial systems. Power engineering projects of the concern Siemens such as nuclear power plants Jaslovske Bohunice and Mochovce, steam gas-cycle Bratislava, reconstruction of the Refuse Incinerating Plant in Bratislava belong to the major projects in Slovakia. In the area of nuclear power engineering Siemens Power Generati-on is developing its activities in co-operation with the company Framatome ANP, which is the joint venture of companies AREVA and Siemens. An example of their active co-operation is the order on construction of the nuclear power plant in Finland, which was delivered to the consortium Framatome ANP and Siemens in December last year. Their task is to build a nuclear power plant in the town Olkiluoto in western part of Finland on the base of European Pressurised-water Reactor (EPR). This type of a reactor represents a great technology within the up-to-date nuclear power engineering development. The power plant under construction is designed for the planned output 1600 MW. The plant is planned to be put in commercial operation in 2009. In the next part fossil power engineering as well as natural gas power engineering of Siemens AG are described

  4. Recurrent Macroscopic Hematuria and Abdominal Pain: Questions and Answers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azar NICKAVAR

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A 6.5 yr old girl was admitted with a category of clinical signs and symptoms including recurrent gross hematuria, ab-dominal pain, and fever. After different examinations including genetic analysis, the disease was diagnosed as Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF. It is suggested to consider FMF as a rare cause of recurrent gross hematuria, which is re-sponsive to colchicine treatment.

  5. AED (Automated External Defibrillator) Programs: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... live. What is an AED ? The automated external defibrillator ( AED ) is a computerized medical device. An AED ... AED or another defibrillation device (semiautomatic or manual defibrillator). The AHA also supports placing AEDs in targeted ...

  6. Biocompatible peritoneal dialysis solutions: many questions but few answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Peter G; Jain, Arsh K; Yohanna, Sechelle

    2013-11-01

    The clinical value of biocompatible peritoneal dialysis solutions is uncertain because of inconsistent findings in randomized controlled trials. A systematic review by Cho et al. examining 20 such trials suggests a beneficial effect on residual renal function. However, the finding is not robust and may relate to decreased ultrafiltration causing hypervolemia. Future prescribing of these biocompatible solutions will probably continue to be driven by opinion, marketing, and cost considerations rather than by evidence-based medicine. PMID:24172730

  7. Newborn Screening (NBS): Answers to Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PACKETS FOR ADDITIONAL NEWBORN SCREENING TESTS PACKETS FOR PARENTS: FREE ADDITONAL NEWBORN SCREENING PACKETS What is Newborn Screening (NBS)? NBS ... Packets for Additional Newborn Screening Tests Packets for Parents: Free Additional ... Initial Positive Screens FAQs Disorder Descriptions ...

  8. Answers to science questions from the "stop faking it!" guy

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2009-01-01

    This valuable and entertaining compendium of Bill Robertson's popular Science 101 columns, from NSTA member journal Science and Children, proves you don't have to be a science geek to understand basic scientific concepts. The author of the best-selling Stop Faking It! series explains everything from quarks to photosynthesis, telescopes to the expanding universe, and atomic clocks to curveballs all with his trademark wit and irreverence. The 33 short columns, plus a new introduction, provide an introductory science course of sorts, covering topics in life science, Earth and space science, physical science, technology, and more perfect for K-8 teachers, homeschoolers, or parents who just want to boost their science know-how. Easily understood prose and lively illustrations by cartoonist Brian Diskin make this volume an engaging and, more important, readable course you can pass with flying colors.

  9. Endocrine disorders in childhood cancer survivors: More answers, more questions

    OpenAIRE

    Clement, S.C.

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of pediatric malignancies has advanced substantially over the past several decades, resulting in a rapidly growing group of long-term childhood cancer survivors (CCS). Improved survival leads to an increasing number of individuals who may be at increased risk of substantial morbidity and even mortality as a direct or indirect consequence of their prior cancer therapy. Moreover, many CCS face lifelong health-related challenges after curative treatment of a childhood malignancy. Aroun...

  10. Questions and Answers about Treating Arterial Stenosis and Preventing Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... experienced surgeon, carotid endarterectomy is a very effective stroke prevention therapy for patients with carotid stenosis-related symptoms and ... of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke or any other ... Advice on the treatment or care of an individual patient should be ...

  11. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis: More questions and some answers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morcos, S.K.; Thomsen, Henrik S.

    2008-01-01

    -macrocyclic chelate Gd-DOTA and the least stable agents are the non-ionic linear chelates gadodiamide and gadoversetamide. The stability of Gd-CA seems to be an important factor in the pathogenesis of NSF. Gd-CA of low stability are likely to undergo transmetallation and release free Gd ions that may deposit in......-ionic preparations are also less stable in comparison to the ionic ones, as the binding between Gd3+ and the negatively charged carboxyl groups is stronger than that with amides or alcohol in the non-ionic preparations. According to stability constants and kinetic measurements, the most stable Gd-CA is the ionic...... tissues and attract circulating fibrocytes to initiate the process of fibrosis. There have been no cases of NSF reported in the peer-reviewed literature after the exclusive use of the stable macrocyclic Gd-CA. This minireview covers the clinical and pathological features of NSF and updates the current...

  12. Brain Mechanisms and Reading Remediation: More Questions Than Answers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Pammer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyslexia is generally diagnosed in childhood and is characterised by poor literacy skills with associated phonological and perceptual problems. Compensated dyslexic readers are adult readers who have a documented history of childhood dyslexia but as adults can read and comprehend written text well. Uncompensated dyslexic readers are adults who similarly have a documented history of reading impairment but remain functionally reading-impaired all their lives. There is little understanding of the neurophysiological basis for how or why some children become compensated, while others do not, and there is little knowledge about neurophysiological changes that occur with remedial programs for reading disability. This paper will review research looking at reading remediation, particularly in the context of the underlying neurophysiology.

  13. Plane answers to complex questions the theory of linear models

    CERN Document Server

    Christensen, Ronald

    1987-01-01

    This book was written to rigorously illustrate the practical application of the projective approach to linear models. To some, this may seem contradictory. I contend that it is possible to be both rigorous and illustrative and that it is possible to use the projective approach in practical applications. Therefore, unlike many other books on linear models, the use of projections and sub­ spaces does not stop after the general theory. They are used wherever I could figure out how to do it. Solving normal equations and using calculus (outside of maximum likelihood theory) are anathema to me. This is because I do not believe that they contribute to the understanding of linear models. I have similar feelings about the use of side conditions. Such topics are mentioned when appropriate and thenceforward avoided like the plague. On the other side of the coin, I just as strenuously reject teaching linear models with a coordinate free approach. Although Joe Eaton assures me that the issues in complicated problems freq...

  14. Technology is the answer, but what was the question?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unterrainer, Walter

    2016-01-01

    and profit of more and more features like for medical checks or even life saving devices. On the other hand and without suffering from paranoia, the potentials for permanent control of our location, of who we are communicating with, what we write and talk, of our shopping behaviour or of other...

  15. Answers to Science Questions from the "Stop Faking It!" Guy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, William C.

    2009-01-01

    This valuable and entertaining compendium of Bill Robertson's popular "Science 101" columns, from NSTA member journal "Science and Children," proves you don't have to be a science geek to understand basic scientific concepts. The author of the best-selling "Stop Faking It!" series explains everything from quarks to photosynthesis, telescopes to…

  16. Tourism in Bela Crkva: Fresh answers to the old questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Marko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses several tourists’ attraction/manifestations in Bela Crkva, Banat, and the relationship between the events, local community and wider social influences. The paper focuses especially on the three events: Hunting Besi - a traditional fishing of the mythological catfish in the city’s lake, that has started in the 19080’s; Flower carnival- a renewed tourist manifestation, started in the 1990’s, originated from the religious ceremonies in the 19th century; and Bela Crkva in apples, a tourist and industrial manifestation, started in the first decade of the 21st century. These manifestations have started successively, covering the periods of pre-transition, “war-transition” during the fall of the former Yugoslavia and the contemporary transitional processes in Serbia. The organizational design of these events indicate that the participants of various backgrounds have tried to discontinue the socialist heritage in the domain of sustainable economy, and in this way, to post new measures for a different kind of distribution of the social authority. Hence, the tourism in Bela Crkva, at least in the past decades, has become one of the instruments for the community sustainable development in various social and economic environments, but also one of the pillars for reconstruction and new ways of defining of the layered identity. An analysis of societal change is thus possible, through researching tourist models: these changes are reflected in symbolic communicative exchange, included in these manifestations.

  17. Answering biological questions: querying a systems biology database for nutrigenomics

    OpenAIRE

    Evelo, Chris T.; van Bochove, Kees; Saito, Jahn-Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    The requirement of systems biology for connecting different levels of biological research leads directly to a need for integrating vast amounts of diverse information in general and of omics data in particular. The nutritional phenotype database addresses this challenge for nutrigenomics. A particularly urgent objective in coping with the data avalanche is making biologically meaningful information accessible to the researcher. This contribution describes how we intend to meet this objective ...

  18. Questions and Answers on Autoimmunity and Autoimmune Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dermatomyositis . What are some of the treatments for autoimmune diseases? Of first importance in treating any autoimmune disease ... being researched. What is the family connection in autoimmune diseases? The ability to develop an autoimmune disease is ...

  19. Chromosomally integrated human herpesvirus 6: questions and answers

    OpenAIRE

    Pellett, Philip E.; Ablashi, Dharam V.; Ambros, Peter F.; Agut, Henri; Caserta, Mary T.; Descamps, Vincent; Flamand, Louis; Gautheret-Dejean, Agnès; Hall, Caroline B.; Kamble, Rammurti T.; Kuehl, Uwe; Lassner, Dirk; Lautenschlager, Irmeli; Loomis, Kristin S.; Luppi, Mario

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Chromosomally integrated human herpesvirus 6 (ciHHV-6) is a condition in which the complete HHV-6 genome is integrated into the host germ line genome and is vertically transmitted in a Mendelian manner. The condition is found in less than 1% of controls in the USA and UK, but has been found at a somewhat higher prevalence in transplant recipients and other patient populations in several small studies. HHV-6 levels in whole blood that exceed 5.5 log10 copies/ml are strongly suggestive ...

  20. Vertical hepatitis C virus transmission:Main questions and answers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Grazia; Tosone; Alberto; Enrico; Maraolo; Silvia; Mascolo; Giulia; Palmiero; Orsola; Tambaro; Raffaele; Orlando

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus(HCV) affects about 3% of the world’s population and peaks in subjects aged over 40 years. Its prevalence in pregnant women is low(1%-2%) in most western countries but drastically increases in women in developing countries or with high risk behav-iors for blood-transmitted infections. Here we review clinical, prognostic and therapeutic aspects of HCV in-fection in pregnant women and their offspring infected through vertical transmission. Pregnancy-related im-mune weakness does not seem to affect the course of acute hepatitis C but can affect the progression of chronic hepatitis C. In fact, postpartum immune res-toration can exacerbate hepatic inflammation, thereby worsening the liver disease, particularly in patients with liver cirrhosis. HCV infection increases the risk of gestational diabetes in patients with excessive weight gain, premature rupture of membrane and caesarean delivery. Only 3%-5% of infants born to HCV-positive mothers have been infected by intrauterine or perinatal transmission. Maternal viral load, human immunode-ficiency virus coinfection, prolonged rupture of mem-branes, fetal exposure to maternal infected blood con-sequent to vaginal or perineal lacerations and invasive monitoring of fetus increase the risk of viral transmis-sion. Cesarean delivery and breastfeeding increases the transmission risk in HCV/human immunodeficiency virus coinfected women. The consensus is not to offer antivi-ral therapy to HCV-infected pregnant women because it is based on ribavirin(pregnancy category X) because of its embryocidal and teratogenic effects in animal spe-cies. In vertically infected children, chronic C hepatitis is often associated with minimal or mild liver disease and progression to liver cirrhosis and hepatocarcinoma is lower than in adults. Infected children may be treated after the second year of life, given the adverse effects of current antiviral agents.

  1. Questions and Answers: Runny Nose (with Green or Yellow Mucus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recommendations Pediatric Treatment Recommendations Inpatient Healthcare Professionals Community Pharmacists Continuing Education & Curriculum Opportunities Weighing in on Antibiotic Resistance Improving Prescribing Outpatient Antibiotic Stewardship Interventions That Work Systematic Reviews ...

  2. The Utilization of Wireless Handheld Computers with MEDLINE is an Effective Mechanism for Answering Clinical Questions at the Point of Care. A Review of: Hauser, Susan E., Dina Demner-Fushman, Joshua L. Jacobs, Susanne M. Humphrey, Glenn Ford, and George R. Thoma. “Using Wireless Handheld Computers to Seek Information at the Point of Care: An Evaluation by Clinicians.” Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 14.6 (Nov./Dec. 2007): 807-15.

    OpenAIRE

    Martha Ingrid Preddie

    2008-01-01

    Objective – To assess the effectiveness of wireless handheld computers (HHCs) for information retrieval in clinical environments and the role of MEDLINE in answering clinical questions at the point of care. Design – A prospective single-cohort study.Setting – Teaching rounds in the intensive care units and general medicine wards in two hospitals associated with a university’s school of medicine in the United States. Subjects – Five internal medicine residents with training in evidence-bas...

  3. Beyond model answers: learners' perceptions of self-assessment materials in e-learning applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Handley

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of feedback as an aid to self-assessment is widely acknowledged. A common form of feedback that is used widely in e-learning is the use of model answers. However, model answers are deficient in many respects. In particular, the notion of a ‘model' answer implies the existence of a single correct answer applicable across multiple contexts with no scope for permissible variation. This reductive assumption is rarely the case with complex problems that are supposed to test students' higher-order learning. Nevertheless, the challenge remains of how to support students as they assess their own performance using model answers and other forms of non-verificational ‘feedback'. To explore this challenge, the research investigated a management development e-learning application and investigated the effectiveness of model answers that followed problem-based questions. The research was exploratory, using semi-structured interviews with 29 adult learners employed in a global organisation. Given interviewees' generally negative perceptions of the model-answers, they were asked to describe their ideal form of self-assessment materials, and to evaluate nine alternative designs. The results suggest that, as support for higher-order learning, self-assessment materials that merely present an idealised model answer are inadequate. As alternatives, learners preferred materials that helped them understand what behaviours to avoid (and not just ‘do', how to think through the problem (i.e. critical thinking skills, and the key issues that provide a framework for thinking. These findings have broader relevance within higher education, particularly in postgraduate programmes for business students where the importance of prior business experience is emphasised and the profile of students is similar to that of the participants in this research.

  4. Insensitivity and Oversensitivity to Answer Diagnosticity in Hypothesis Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Rusconi, P; McKenzie, CRM

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments examined how people perceive the diagnosticity of different answers ("yes" and "no") to the same question. We manipulated whether the "yes" and the "no" answers conveyed the same amount of information or not, as well as the presentation format of the probabilities of the features inquired about. In Experiment 1, participants were presented with only the percentages of occurrence of the features, which most straightforwardly apply to the diagnosticity of "yes" answers. In Exper...

  5. ANSWER: A bear paw.

    OpenAIRE

    Ian BICKLE

    2012-01-01

    (Refer to page 186)Answer: Bear Paw sign of Xanthogranulomatous PyelonephritisThe contrast enhanced (portal venous phase)CT of the abdomen showed a global enlargement of the right kidney. There are multiplelow attenuation areas in the renal parenchyma, in a ‘hydronephrotic type manner’, but with no true hydronephrosis. This is due to a renal calculus lying in a contracted pelvis with dilated calyces that contain inflammatory debris. A rim of normal renal tissue enhancesperipherally. The appea...

  6. Competition: the answers

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    The correct answers to the Staff Association Competition are: How many women delegates are there currently in the Staff Council? -14 Who is the current President of the Staff Association? - Alessandro Raimondo Which year was the Nursery School established by the Staff Association at CERN?  -1965 How many CERN clubs are supported by the Staff Association? -44 What is the supreme representative body of the Staff Association ? -The Staff Council   The winners will be informed by email.

  7. What is a Question?

    CERN Document Server

    Knuth, K H

    2002-01-01

    A given question can be defined in terms of the set of statements or assertions that answer it. Application of logical inference to these sets of assertions allows one to derive the logic of inquiry among questions. There are interesting symmetries between the logics of inference and inquiry; where probability describes the degree to which a premise implies an assertion, there exists an analogous measure that describes the bearing or relevance that a question has on an outstanding issue. These have been extended to suggest that the logic of inquiry results in functional relationships analogous to, although more general than, those found in information theory. Employing lattice theory, I examine in greater detail the structure of the space of assertions and questions demonstrating that the symmetries between the logical relations in each of the spaces derive directly from the lattice structure. Furthermore, I show that while symmetries between the spaces exist, the two lattices are not isomorphic. The lattice ...

  8. Questions and Answers for Noncustodial Fathers: A Question and Answer Resource on Paternity Establishment and Child Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggess, Jacquelyn

    This document is designed to help men faced with the legal issues of paternity establishment and the child support system understand the processes and get an overview of the system. Because the laws of the individual states vary, the document is written in general terms and often indicates the circumstances under which the state law or policy will…

  9. Teaching Critical Thinking without (Much) Writing: Multiple-Choice and Metacognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Molly H.

    2016-01-01

    In this essay, I explore an exam format that pairs multiple-choice questions with required rationales. In a space adjacent to each multiple-choice question, students explain why or how they arrived at the answer they selected. This exercise builds the critical thinking skill known as metacognition, thinking about thinking, into an exam that also…

  10. Questioning Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Michelle

    1999-01-01

    Questions are so much a part of the classroom routine and they should stimulate learning and thinking. Introduces the Questioning and Understanding to Improve Learning and Thinking (QUILT) method which incorporates Bloom's Taxonomy and wait time. (ASK)

  11. Arts and Techniques of Questioning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管楠

    2012-01-01

      Most learners learn English from teachers in classrooms, therefore, classroom instruction is very important. However, teachers’questioning plays a very significant part in classroom teaching. It is not only an important part of classroom interaction but also an effective way of learning second language as wel. On the one hand, it is through question and answer exchange that teachers interactwithstudents.Onthe other hand, it isalsothroughinteractionwiththeirteachersand peers that ESLlearners learn the target language. Teachers’ aims of questioning, question types, teachers’modification of questions, the wait-time, the feedback and the assessment providedby teacherswil affectclassroom interaction.

  12. Engineering a Testbank of Engineering Questions

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, HC; White, SA; Dickens, KP

    2002-01-01

    e3an is a collaborative UK project developing a network of expertise in assessment issues within electrical and electronic engineering. A major focus is the development of a testbank of peer-reviewed questions for diagnostic, formative and summative assessment. The resulting testbank will contain thousands of well-constructed and tested questions and answers. Question types include objective, numeric, short answer and examination. Initially a set of metadata descriptors were specified classif...

  13. "Both Answers Make Sense!"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Elise

    2014-01-01

    Formulas, problem types, keywords, and tricky techniques can certainly be valuable tools for successful counters. However, they can easily become substitutes for critical thinking about counting problems and for deep consideration of the set of outcomes. Formulas and techniques should serve as tools for students as they think critically about…

  14. What is a Question?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, Kevin H.

    2003-03-01

    A given question can be defined in terms of the set of statements or assertions that answer it. Application of logical inference to these sets of assertions allows one to derive the logic of inquiry among questions. There are interesting symmetries between the logics of inference and inquiry; where probability describes the degree to which a premise implies an assertion, there exists an analogous measure that describes the bearing or relevance that a question has on an outstanding issue. These have been extended to suggest that the logic of inquiry results in functional relationships analogous to, although more general than, those found in information theory. Employing lattice theory, I examine in greater detail the structure of the space of assertions and questions demonstrating that the symmetries between the logical relations in each of the spaces derive directly from the lattice structure. Furthermore, I show that while symmetries between the spaces exist, the two lattices are not isomorphic. The lattice of assertions is described by a Boolean lattice 2N, whereas the lattice of assuredly real questions is shown to be a sublattice of the free distributive lattice FD(N) = 22N. Thus there does not exist a one-to-one mapping of assertions to questions, there is no reflection symmetry between the two spaces, and questions in general do not possess complements. Last, with these lattice structures in mind, I discuss the relationship between probability, relevance, and entropy.

  15. Safety Day Prize Competition: results and answers

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2014-01-01

    The three winners of the Safety Day Prize Competition are...   • 1st Prize: Fernando LEITE PEREIRA – smoke detector • 2nd Prize: Thomas DE BORTOLI – water filter jug • 3rd Prize: Matti KALLIOKOSKI – safety goggles Please see the image below for the answers to the questionnaire. If you have any questions regarding the Safety Day, please contact: safety.communication@cern.ch. And again, thank you to all the participants!

  16. The Utilization of Wireless Handheld Computers with MEDLINE is an Effective Mechanism for Answering Clinical Questions at the Point of Care. A Review of: Hauser, Susan E., Dina Demner-Fushman, Joshua L. Jacobs, Susanne M. Humphrey, Glenn Ford, and George R. Thoma. “Using Wireless Handheld Computers to Seek Information at the Point of Care: An Evaluation by Clinicians.” Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 14.6 (Nov./Dec. 2007: 807-15.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Ingrid Preddie

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To assess the effectiveness of wireless handheld computers (HHCs for information retrieval in clinical environments and the role of MEDLINE in answering clinical questions at the point of care. Design – A prospective single-cohort study.Setting – Teaching rounds in the intensive care units and general medicine wards in two hospitals associated with a university’s school of medicine in the United States. Subjects – Five internal medicine residents with training in evidence-based practice.Methods – While accompanying medical teams on teaching rounds for approximately four consecutive weeks, each resident used MD on Tap (an application for handheld computers on a TreoTM 650 PDA/cell phone to find answers in real time, to questions that were raised by members of the medical teams. Using a special version of MD on Tap, each resident initialized a UserID. Serving as evaluators, the residents described and categorized clinical scenarios and recognized questions. They also formulated search terms, searched MEDLINE and identified citations determined to be useful for answering the questions. An intermediate server collected details of all MEDLINE search query transactions, including system response time, the user (based on UserIDs, citations selected for viewing, the saving of citations to HHC memory, as well as use of the Linkout and Notes features. In addition evaluators submitted daily summaries. These summaries included information on the scenarios, clinical questions, evidence-based methodology (EBM category, the team member who was the source of the question, the PubMed Identifiers (PMIDs of relevant citations, and comments. At the end of the data collection period, each evaluator submitted a summary report consisting of a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of his experience using MEDLINE via the handheld device to find relevant evidence based information at the point of care. The report also focused on the usefulness

  17. Answers to modernity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Karen Bjerg

    2008-01-01

    , locationally distant'. Based on a case study and interviews with e-learning teachers and learner participants in a virtual classroom setting and on extracts of the curriculum developed for the particular e-learning course, the aim of the paper is to discuss how different positions in an e-learning triangle......In his book The consequences of modernity, the British sociologist Giddens predicts e-learning environments. He emphasises that 'modernity is inherently globalising' creating 'disembedded' social relations and tearing 'space away form place by fostering relations between "absent" others...... - teacher, learner or curriculum planner positions - result in different strategies or 'answers to modernity'. The research has taken place as a study of e-learning and virtual teachhing of Danish as a second language for adults. The fact that relations in virtual learning are established between physically...

  18. Techniques to measure quantum criticality in cold atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe how rescaling experimental data obtained from cold atom density profiles can reveal signatures of quantum criticality. We identify a number of important questions which can be answered by analyzing experimental data in this manner. We show that such experiments can distinguish different universality classes and that the signatures are robust against temperature, noise, and finite system size.

  19. Critical thinking in physics education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadidi, Farahnaz

    2016-07-01

    We agree that training the next generation of leaders of the society, who have the ability to think critically and form a better judgment is an important goal. It is a long-standing concern of Educators and a long-term desire of teachers to establish a method in order to teach to think critically. To this end, many questions arise on three central aspects: the definition, the evaluation and the design of the course: What is Critical Thinking? How can we define Critical Thinking? How can we evaluate Critical Thinking? Therefore, we want to implement Critical Thinking in physics education. How can we teach for Critical Thinking in physics? What should the course syllabus and materials be? We present examples from classical physics and give perspectives for astro-particle physics. The main aim of this paper is to answer the questions and provide teachers with the opportunity to change their classroom to an active one, in which students are encouraged to ask questions and learn to reach a good judgment. Key words: Critical Thinking, evaluation, judgment, design of the course.

  20. "Three Questions"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Justus

    2010-01-01

    Long before the author answered the call to become a rabbi, he brought his passion to teach to the waterfront--that special place where the waters of a river or lake meet the dry land. Today, the author still imagines himself learning and teaching others how to swim, not in the water, but in the flows of global culture, to use the language of this…

  1. Why teach literature and medicine? Answers from three decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Anne Hudson

    2013-12-01

    In this essay, I look back at some of the earliest attempts by the first generation of literature-and-medicine scholars to answer the question: Why teach literature and medicine? Reviewing the development of the field in its early years, I examine statements by practitioners to see whether their answers have held up over time and to consider how the rationales they articulated have expanded or changed in the following years and why. Greater emphasis on literary criticism, narrative ethics, narrative theory, and reflective writing has influenced current work in the field in ways that could not have been foreseen in the 1970s. The extraordinary growth of interest and work in the field nationally and, especially since 1996, internationally has included practitioners in many additional areas such as disability studies, film studies, therapeutic writing, and trauma studies. Along with the emergence of narrative medicine, this diverse community of scholars and practitioners-affiliated more through their use of narrative methodologies than the teaching of literature-makes the perennial challenge of evaluation and assessment even more complicated. PMID:23996053

  2. Questions Cooperative Directors Should Be Asking Management

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Bruce L.; Henehan, Brian M.

    2002-01-01

    The most important responsibility of cooperative directors is to JUDICIOUSLY ASK THE RIGHT QUESTIONS OF MANAGEMENT. It has been suggested that some directors do not know all of the correct questions to ask of management, or how. The purpose of this paper is fourfold: 1) To briefly describe how directors should pose questions to management, 2) To provide an extensive list of questions directors should know the answers to, 3) To outline a generic format for asking general questions and 4) To as...

  3. Quora.com: Another Place for Users to Ask Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovadia, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Quora (www.quora.com) is a contemporary, web-based take on reference. Users post questions within Quora and other users answer the questions. Users can vote for and against answers (or not vote at all). It is users asking questions of friends and strangers and then sorting through the results. If the model sounds familiar, it's because it is.…

  4. Question Waves: A multicast query routing algorithm for social search

    OpenAIRE

    Trias Mansilla, Albert; Rosa, Josep Lluís de la

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes Question Waves, an algorithm that can be applied to social search protocols, such as Asknext or Sixearch. In this model, the queries are propagated through the social network, with faster propagation through more trustable acquaintances. Question Waves uses local information to make decisions and obtain an answer ranking. With Question Waves, the answers that arrive first are the most likely to be relevant, and we computed the correlation of answer relevance with the orde...

  5. Thymectomy: Common Questions Patients Ask about Thymectomies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The following are some of the most common questions asked when a thymectomy is being considered for adult and younger patients with autoimmune myasthenia gravis (MG). The answers supplied below are presented in ...

  6. Questions about Research That Makes a Difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, John

    1991-01-01

    Answers the following questions about transformative research: (1) is the concept needed? (2) does it represent a new methodology? (3) how does it relate to social movements? and (4) is it limited to postindustrial societies? (SK)

  7. Cooperative answers in database systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaasterland, Terry; Godfrey, Parke; Minker, Jack; Novik, Lev

    1993-01-01

    A major concern of researchers who seek to improve human-computer communication involves how to move beyond literal interpretations of queries to a level of responsiveness that takes the user's misconceptions, expectations, desires, and interests into consideration. At Maryland, we are investigating how to better meet a user's needs within the framework of the cooperative answering system of Gal and Minker. We have been exploring how to use semantic information about the database to formulate coherent and informative answers. The work has two main thrusts: (1) the construction of a logic formula which embodies the content of a cooperative answer; and (2) the presentation of the logic formula to the user in a natural language form. The information that is available in a deductive database system for building cooperative answers includes integrity constraints, user constraints, the search tree for answers to the query, and false presuppositions that are present in the query. The basic cooperative answering theory of Gal and Minker forms the foundation of a cooperative answering system that integrates the new construction and presentation methods. This paper provides an overview of the cooperative answering strategies used in the CARMIN cooperative answering system, an ongoing research effort at Maryland. Section 2 gives some useful background definitions. Section 3 describes techniques for collecting cooperative logical formulae. Section 4 discusses which natural language generation techniques are useful for presenting the logic formula in natural language text. Section 5 presents a diagram of the system.

  8. God in Question: Questioning as a Prerequisite for Theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kočí

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There are questions that are so important that it is a pity to spoil them with answers. No doubt, the question of God is one of them. Contrary to many presuppositions, theology is not capable of providing us with the final answers in this respect. On the contrary, theology professed as fides quaerens intellectum is an ongoing struggle with questions. Modernity interrupted this paradigm of theological questioning. Theology was withdrawn from the realm of understanding and shifted to the realm of explanation. Modernity brought the univocalization of God. Nonetheless, the attempts to tackle the question of God lead to hegemonic narratives about God. Such narratives are rightly criticized in a postmodern context for their totalizing pretensions. The problem of postmodern criticism is its one-sided emphasis on the apophatic dimension of theological discourse. I propose that theology can go a step further beyond postmodernity. In order to do so, I deal with the Czech philosopher Jan Patočka, who provides an opportunity to rethink God from the perspective of questioning in a new way. Patočka’s insistence on problematicity is the main reading key of his work. In this line of though, I interpret Patočka’s student Tomáš Halík and his thesis about the necessity to take the metaphor of an unknown God into account. I argue that theology must avoid the temptation to remove God from the question and make a well-known God of him. The time has come for theologians to turn their answers back into questions and dwell with them. Bůh jako otázka: Tázání jako předpoklad teologie Některé otázky jsou tak důležité, že je škoda kazit je odpověďmi. Není pochyb, že otázka po Bohu je jednou z nich. Navzdory mnoha předpokladům, ani teologie není schopna poskytnout v tomto ohledu konečné odpovědi. Teologie pojatá jako fides quaerens intellectum je nepřetržitý nekončící zápas s otázkami. Moderna narušila toto paradigma teologick

  9. Critical Transitions in Social Network Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuehn, Christian; Martens, Erik Andreas; Romero, Daniel M

    2014-01-01

    priori unknown events in society are present in social networks is an exciting open problem, to which at present only highly speculative answers can be given. Here, we instead provide a first step towards tackling a simpler question by focusing on a priori known events and analyse a social media data set...... a priori known events are preceded by variance and autocorrelation growth. Our findings thus clearly establish the necessary starting point to further investigate the relationship between abstract mathematical theory and various classes of critical transitions in social networks....... with a focus on classical variance and autocorrelation warning signs. Our results thus pertain to one absolutely fundamental question: Can the stochastic warning signs known from other areas also be detected in large-scale social media data? We answer this question affirmatively as we find that several...

  10. Chernobyl. Answers to your questions; Tchernobyl. Des reponses a vos questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Fifteen years after the Chernobyl accident, this document takes stock on the existing information and enhance the elements which can be set with certainty. The accident is recalled and the environmental and biological effects are presented. (A.L.B.)

  11. Accuracy of Answers Provided by Digital/Face-to-Face Reference Services in Japanese Public Libraries and Q & A Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Keita; To, Haruna; Hara, Atsuyuki

    2011-01-01

    We asked the same 60 questions using DRS (digital reference services) in Japanese public libraries, face-to-face reference services and Q & A (question and answer) sites. It was found that: (1) The correct answer ratio of DRS is higher than that of Q & A sites; (2) DRS takes longer to provide answers as compared to Q & A sites; and (3) The correct…

  12. The Topological Structure of Question Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Nawaz, Shahid

    2010-01-01

    A question is identified with a topology on a given set of irreducible assertions. It is shown that there are three types of a question. Type-I question generates sub-question, type-II question has a definite answer and type-III question is irrelevant. We suggest that the most intelligent machine asks type-II questions. We also claim that a truly intelligent machine cannot be desireless. This work may prove useful in machine learning and may open up new ways to understand mind.

  13. On the question of how Web 2.0 features support critical map reading. GI_Forum|GI_Forum 2016, Volume 1 – open:spatial:interfaces|

    OpenAIRE

    Hoyer, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Web 2.0 technologies enable users to produce and distribute their own content. The variety of motives for taking part in these communication processes leads to considerable differences in levels of quality. While social media contexts have developed features for evaluating contributions, user-generated maps frequently do not offer tools to question or examine the origin and elements of user-generated content. This paper discusses the effects of the integration of Web 2.0 features with web map...

  14. An Online Partner for Holocaust Remembrance Education: Students Approaching the Yahoo! Answers Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Alon; Litvak Hirsch, Tal

    2015-01-01

    Holocaust education has gained increased importance in recent decades and attention has latterly been directed to the role of the Internet within the field. Of major importance within the virtual space are Question and Answer communities. We investigated the interactions taking place within the Yahoo! Answers community following questions posted…

  15. Disfluencies and gaze aversion in unreliable responses to survey questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schober, Michael F.; Conrad, Frederick G.; Dijkstra, Wil; Ongena, Yfke P.

    2012-01-01

    When survey respondents answer survey questions, they can also produce "paradata" (Couper 2000, 2008): behavioral evidence about their response process. The study reported here demonstrates that two kinds of respondent paradata - fluency of speech and gaze direction during answers - identify answers

  16. Questions and Answers on the Belgian Model of Integral End-of-Life Care:Experiment Prototype%临终关怀与安乐死的整合:比利时模式的实验与回答

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jan L. Bernheim; Wim Distelmans; Arsène Mullie; Michael A. Ashby; 于磊(译)

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzed the Belgian model of integral end‐of‐life care by way of answering to a series of questions posed by Journal of Bioethical Inquiry consulting editor Michael Ashby to the Belgian authors .The complementary and synergistic relationship between palliative care and euthanasia in Belgium were discussed .In what has become known as the Belgian model of integral end‐of‐life care ,euthanasia is an available option ,also at the end of a palliative care pathway .The legal regulation of euthanasia in 2002 was preceded and followed by a considerable expansion of palliative care services .It is argued that this synergistic development was made possible by public confidence in the health care system and widespread progressive social attitudes that gave rise to a high level of community support for both palliative care and euthanasia .It still exhibits several imperfections ,for which some solutions are being developed .%通过《生命伦理学探究杂志》顾问编辑Michael Ashby提出的一系列问题对比利时临终照护模式的构成进行分析。分析了关于比利时姑息治疗与安乐死之间互补及协同关系。在比利时模式的整合临终护理中,安乐死是姑息治疗途径的终点。安乐死合法化制定于2002年,而后,众多姑息治疗服务兴起。随着公众对卫生保健机构信心的提升和社会态度的广泛进步,对姑息治疗和安乐死的支持水平明显提高,这将使二者的协同发展成为可能。虽然目前比利时模式仍表现出一些缺陷,但一些解决方案正在制定过程中。

  17. Questions and Answers on the Belgian Model of Integral End-of-Life Care:Experiment Prototype%临终关怀与安乐死的整合:比利时模式的实验与回答

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jan L. Bernheim; Wim Distelmans; Arsène Mullie; Michael A. Ashby; 于磊(译)

    2014-01-01

    通过《生命伦理学探究杂志》顾问编辑Michael Ashby提出的一系列问题对比利时临终照护模式的构成进行分析。分析了关于比利时姑息治疗与安乐死之间互补及协同关系。在比利时模式的整合临终护理中,安乐死是姑息治疗途径的终点。安乐死合法化制定于2002年,而后,众多姑息治疗服务兴起。随着公众对卫生保健机构信心的提升和社会态度的广泛进步,对姑息治疗和安乐死的支持水平明显提高,这将使二者的协同发展成为可能。虽然目前比利时模式仍表现出一些缺陷,但一些解决方案正在制定过程中。%This article analyzed the Belgian model of integral end‐of‐life care by way of answering to a series of questions posed by Journal of Bioethical Inquiry consulting editor Michael Ashby to the Belgian authors .The complementary and synergistic relationship between palliative care and euthanasia in Belgium were discussed .In what has become known as the Belgian model of integral end‐of‐life care ,euthanasia is an available option ,also at the end of a palliative care pathway .The legal regulation of euthanasia in 2002 was preceded and followed by a considerable expansion of palliative care services .It is argued that this synergistic development was made possible by public confidence in the health care system and widespread progressive social attitudes that gave rise to a high level of community support for both palliative care and euthanasia .It still exhibits several imperfections ,for which some solutions are being developed .

  18. How Deep is the Critical Zone: A Scientific Question with Potential Impact For Decision-makers in Areas of Shale-Gas Development and Hydraulic Fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, S. L.

    2014-12-01

    Citizens living in areas of shale-gas development such as the Marcellus gas play in Pennsylvania and surrounding states are cognizant of the possibility that drilling and production of natural gas -- including hydraulic fracturing -- may have environmental impacts on their water. The Critical Zone is defined as the zone from vegetation canopy to the lower limits of groundwater. This definition is nebulous in terms of the lower limit, and yet, defining the bottom of the Critical Zone is important if citizens are to embrace shale-gas development. This is because, although no peer-reviewed study has been presented that documents a case where hydraulic fracturing or formation fluids have migrated upwards from fracturing depths to drinking water resources, a few cases of such leakage have been alleged. On the other hand, many cases of methane migration into aquifers have been documented to occur and some have been attributed to shale-gas development. The Critical Zone science community has a role to play in understanding such contamination problems, how they unfold, and how they should be ameliorated. For example, one big effort of the Critical Zone science community is to promote sharing of data describing the environment. This data effort has been extended to provide data for citizens to understand water quality by a team known as the Shale Network. As scientists learn to publish data online, these efforts must also be made accessible to non-scientists. As citizens access the data, the demand for data will grow and all branches of government will eventually respond by providing more accessible data that will help the public and policy-makers make decisions.

  19. Using graded questions to increase timely reading of assigned material

    OpenAIRE

    Uskul, Ayse K.; Eaton, J

    2005-01-01

    We assigned students in a personality psychology class graded long-answer questions in an attempt to increase their likelihood of reading assigned class material in a timely manner. We evaluated the effectiveness of this technique by examining exam scores and student evaluations. Students performed significantly better on the exam questions that were related to the topics covered by the long-answer questions than they did on exam questions related to other topics. Students also reported havin...

  20. Expressiveness of Communication in Answer Set Programming

    CERN Document Server

    Bauters, Kim; Schockaert, Steven; Vermeir, Dirk; De Cock, Martine

    2011-01-01

    Answer set programming (ASP) is a form of declarative programming that allows to succinctly formulate and efficiently solve complex problems. An intuitive extension of this formalism is communicating ASP, in which multiple ASP programs collaborate to solve the problem at hand. However, the expressiveness of communicating ASP has not been thoroughly studied. In this paper, we present a systematic study of the additional expressiveness offered by allowing ASP programs to communicate. First, we consider a simple form of communication where programs are only allowed to ask questions to each other. For the most part, we deliberately only consider simple programs, i.e. programs for which computing the answer sets is in P. We find that the problem of deciding whether a literal is in some answer set of a communicating ASP program using simple communication is NP-hard. In other words: we move up a step in the polynomial hierarchy due to the ability of these simple ASP programs to communicate and collaborate. Second, w...