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Sample records for anserina hnwd non-self

  1. Overlapping Podospora anserina transcriptional responses to bacterial and fungal non self indicate a multilayered innate immune response

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    Marina eLamacchia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recognition and response to non self is essential to development and survival of all organisms. It can occur between individuals of the same species or between different organisms. Fungi are established models for conspecific non self recognition in the form of vegetative incompatibility (VI, a genetically controlled process initiating a programmed cell death (PCD leading to the rejection of a fusion cell between genetically different isolates of the same species. In Podospora anserina VI is controlled by members of the hnwd gene family encoding for proteins analogous to NOD Like Receptors (NLR immune receptors in eukaryotes. It was hypothesized that the hnwd controlled VI reaction was derived from the fungal innate immune response. Here we analyze the P. anserina transcriptional responses to two bacterial species, Serratia fonticola to which P. anserina survives and S. marcescens to which P. anserina succumbs, and compare these to the transcriptional response induced under VI conditions. Transcriptional responses to both bacteria largely overlap, however the number of genes regulated and magnitude of regulation is more important when P. anserina survives. Transcriptional responses to bacteria also overlap with the VI reaction for both up or down regulated gene sets. Genes up regulated tend to be clustered in the genome, and display limited phylogenetic distribution. In all three responses we observed genes related to autophagy to be up-regulated. Autophagy contributes to the fungal survival in all three conditions. Genes encoding for secondary metabolites and histidine kinase signaling are also up regulated in all three conditions. Transcriptional responses also display differences. Genes involved in response to oxidative stress, or encoding small secreted proteins are essentially expressed in response to bacteria, while genes encoding NLR proteins are expressed during VI. Most functions encoded in response to bacteria favor survival of the

  2. Overlapping Podospora anserina Transcriptional Responses to Bacterial and Fungal Non Self Indicate a Multilayered Innate Immune Response.

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    Lamacchia, Marina; Dyrka, Witold; Breton, Annick; Saupe, Sven J; Paoletti, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Recognition and response to non self is essential to development and survival of all organisms. It can occur between individuals of the same species or between different organisms. Fungi are established models for conspecific non self recognition in the form of vegetative incompatibility (VI), a genetically controlled process initiating a programmed cell death (PCD) leading to the rejection of a fusion cell between genetically different isolates of the same species. In Podospora anserina VI is controlled by members of the hnwd gene family encoding for proteins analogous to NOD Like Receptors (NLR) immune receptors in eukaryotes. It was hypothesized that the hnwd controlled VI reaction was derived from the fungal innate immune response. Here we analyze the P. anserina transcriptional responses to two bacterial species, Serratia fonticola to which P. anserina survives and S. marcescens to which P. anserina succumbs, and compare these to the transcriptional response induced under VI conditions. Transcriptional responses to both bacteria largely overlap, however the number of genes regulated and magnitude of regulation is more important when P. anserina survives. Transcriptional responses to bacteria also overlap with the VI reaction for both up or down regulated gene sets. Genes up regulated tend to be clustered in the genome, and display limited phylogenetic distribution. In all three responses we observed genes related to autophagy to be up-regulated. Autophagy contributes to the fungal survival in all three conditions. Genes encoding for secondary metabolites and histidine kinase signaling are also up regulated in all three conditions. Transcriptional responses also display differences. Genes involved in response to oxidative stress, or encoding small secreted proteins are essentially expressed in response to bacteria, while genes encoding NLR proteins are expressed during VI. Most functions encoded in response to bacteria favor survival of the fungus while most

  3. Genomic conflicts in Podospora anserina = Genomische conflicten in Podospora anserina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaag, van der M.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis deals with genomic conflicts raised by selfish elements in the ascomycete fungus Podospora anserina .Genomic conflicts arise when the effects of the selfish elements are opposite to the interests of the other parts of the

  4. Calorie restriction in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Diepeningen, Anne D; Slakhorst, S Marijke; Koopmanschap, A Bertha; Ikink, Gerjon J; Debets, Alfons J M; Hoekstra, Rolf F

    Calorie restriction (CR) is a regimen of reduced food intake that, although the underlying mechanism is unknown, in many organisms leads to life span extension. Podospora anserina is one of the few known ageing filamentous fungi and the ageing process and concomitant degeneration of mitochondria

  5. Anserina Bursitis—A Treatable Cause of Knee Pain in Patients with Degenerative Arthritis

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    Brookler, Morton I.; Mongan, Edward S.

    1973-01-01

    The anserina bursa is located on the medial surface of the tibia deep to the tendons of the sartorius, gracilis, and semimembranosus muscles and superficial to the insertion of the tibial collateral ligament. Knee pain, a palpable swelling of the bursa, and tenderness over the medial anterior aspect of the tibia just below the knee are the hallmarks of anserina bursitis. In a three-year period, 24 patients with anserina bursitis were seen in a rheumatology clinic. All but one were women, 18 were obese, and only four were under 50 years old. Knee x-ray studies showed degenerative arthritis in 20 of the 24 patients. In ten, varus knee deformities were present, while three had valgus deformities. Ultrasound or local steroid injections gave dramatic relief in all but one patient. PMID:4731586

  6. A síndrome anserina Anserine syndrome

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    Milton Helfenstein Jr

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Dor no joelho é uma condição comum na clínica diária e a patologia anserina, também conhecida como pata de ganso, tem sido considerada uma das principais causas. O diagnóstico tem sido realizado de maneira eminentemente clínica, o que tem gerado equívocos. Os pacientes queixam-se tipicamente de dor na parte medial do joelho, com sensibilidade na porção ínferomedial. Estudos de imagem têm sido realizados para esclarecer se tais pacientes possuem bursite, tendinite ou ambos os distúrbios na região conhecida como pata de ganso. Entretanto, o defeito estrutural responsável pelos sintomas permanece desconhecido, motivo pelo qual preferimos intitular como "Síndrome Anserina". O diabetes mellitus é um fator predisponente bem reconhecido. O sobrepeso e a osteoartrite de joelho parecem ser fatores adicionais de risco, contudo, seus papéis na gênese da moléstia ainda não são bem entendidos. O tratamento atual inclui anti-inflamatório, fisioterapia e infiltração de corticoide, com evolução muito variável, que oscila entre 10 dias e 36 meses. A falta de conhecimento sobre a etiofisiopatologia e dados epidemiológicos exige futuros estudos para esse frequente e intrigante distúrbio.Knee pain is a common complaint in clinical practice, and pes anserinus tendino-bursitis syndrome (PATB has been frequently diagnosed based only on clinical features that may cause equivocal interpretations. Patients complain of characteristic spontaneous medial knee pain with tenderness in the inferomedial aspect of the joint. Studies with different imaging modalities have been undertaken during the last years to identify whether these patients suffer from bursitis, tendinitis, or both. Nevertheless, little is known regarding the structural defect responsible for this disturbance. Due to these problems and some controversies, we suggest the term "anserine syndrome" for this condition. Diabetes Mellitus is a known predisposing factor for this syndrome

  7. PaCATB, a secreted catalase protecting Podospora anserina against exogenous oxidative stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zintel, Sandra; Bernhardt, Dominik; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina

    2011-01-01

    A differential mass spectrometry analysis of secreted proteins from juvenile and senescentPodospora anserina cultures revealed age-related differences in protein profiles. Among other proteins with decreased abundance in the secretome of senescent cultures a catalase, termed PaCATB, was identified...

  8. Sexual transmission of the [Het-s] prion leads to meiotic drive in Podospora anserina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalstra, H.J.P.; Swart, K.; Debets, A.J.M.; Saupe, S.J.; Hoekstra, R.F.

    2003-01-01

    In the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina, two phenomena are associated with polymorphism at the het-s locus, vegetative incompatibility and ascospore abortion. Two het-s alleles occur naturally, het-s and het-S. The het-s encoded protein is a prion propagating as a self-perpetuating amyloid

  9. Spore-killing meiotic drive factors in a natural population of the fungus Podospora anserina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaag, van der M.; Debets, A.J.M.; Oosterhof, J.; Slakhorst, S.M.; Thijssen, J.A.G.M.; Hoekstra, R.F.

    2000-01-01

    In fungi, meiotic drive is observed as spore killing. In the secondarily homothallic ascomycete Podospora anserina it is characterized by the abortion of two of the four spores in the ascus. We have identified seven different types of meiotic drive elements (Spore killers). Among 99 isolates from

  10. Acylated proteins in Borrelia hermsii, Borrelia parkeri, Borrelia anserina, and Borrelia coriaceae.

    OpenAIRE

    Sambri, V; Stefanelli, C; Rossoni, C; La Placa, M; Cevenini, R

    1993-01-01

    Borrelia hermsii, Borrelia parkeri, Borrelia anserina, and Borrelia coriaceae produced several lipoproteins identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography of bacteria grown in [3H]palmitate. Five major acylated proteins were demonstrated by sequential alkaline and acid hydrolysis. High-pressure liquid chromatography of isolated proteins confirmed that covalently bound radioactivity was represented by fatty acids.

  11. NON-SELF-ADJOINT GRAPHS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hussein, A.; Krejčiřík, David; Siegl, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 367, č. 4 (2015), s. 2921-2957 ISSN 0002-9947 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP203/11/0701 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Laplacians on metric graphs * non-self-adjoint boundary conditions * similarity transforms to self-adjoint operators * Riesz basis Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.196, year: 2015

  12. A potential impact of DNA repair on ageing and lifespan in the ageing model organism Podospora anserina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soerensen, Mette; Gredilla, Ricardo; Müller-Ohldach, Mathis

    2009-01-01

    The free radical theory of ageing states that ROS play a key role in age-related decrease in mitochondrial function via the damage of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), proteins and lipids. In the sexually reproducing ascomycete Podospora anserina ageing is, as in other eukaryotes, associated with mtDNA ...

  13. Mitochondrial pAL2-1 plasmid homologs are senescence factors in Podospora anserina independent of intrinsic senescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Diepeningen, Anne D; Debets, Alfons J M; Slakhorst, S Marijke; Hoekstra, Rolf F

    Since the first description of a linear mitochondrial plasmid in Podospora anserina, pAL2-1, and homologous plasmids have gone from being considered beneficial longevity plasmids, via neutral genetic elements, toward mutator plasmids causing senescence. The plasmid has an invertron structure, with

  14. Mitochondrial pAL2-1 plasmid homologs are senescence factors in Podospora anserina independent of intrinsic senescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepeningen, van A.D.; Debets, A.J.M.; Slakhorst-Wandel, S.M.; Hoekstra, R.F.

    2008-01-01

    Since the first description of a linear mitochondrial plasmid in Podospora anserina, pAL2-1, and homologous plasmids have gone from being considered beneficial longevity plasmids, via neutral genetic elements, toward mutator plasmids causing senescence. The plasmid has an invertron structure, with

  15. A genome-wide longitudinal transcriptome analysis of the aging model Podospora anserina.

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    Oliver Philipp

    Full Text Available Aging of biological systems is controlled by various processes which have a potential impact on gene expression. Here we report a genome-wide transcriptome analysis of the fungal aging model Podospora anserina. Total RNA of three individuals of defined age were pooled and analyzed by SuperSAGE (serial analysis of gene expression. A bioinformatics analysis identified different molecular pathways to be affected during aging. While the abundance of transcripts linked to ribosomes and to the proteasome quality control system were found to decrease during aging, those associated with autophagy increase, suggesting that autophagy may act as a compensatory quality control pathway. Transcript profiles associated with the energy metabolism including mitochondrial functions were identified to fluctuate during aging. Comparison of wild-type transcripts, which are continuously down-regulated during aging, with those down-regulated in the long-lived, copper-uptake mutant grisea, validated the relevance of age-related changes in cellular copper metabolism. Overall, we (i present a unique age-related data set of a longitudinal study of the experimental aging model P. anserina which represents a reference resource for future investigations in a variety of organisms, (ii suggest autophagy to be a key quality control pathway that becomes active once other pathways fail, and (iii present testable predictions for subsequent experimental investigations.

  16. Wood Utilization Is Dependent on Catalase Activities in the Filamentous Fungus Podospora anserina

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    Bourdais, Anne; Bidard, Frederique; Zickler, Denise; Berteaux-Lecellier, Veronique; Silar, Philippe; Espagne, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Catalases are enzymes that play critical roles in protecting cells against the toxic effects of hydrogen peroxide. They are implicated in various physiological and pathological conditions but some of their functions remain unclear. In order to decipher the role(s) of catalases during the life cycle of Podospora anserina, we analyzed the role of the four monofunctional catalases and one bifunctional catalase-peroxidase genes present in its genome. The five genes were deleted and the phenotypes of each single and all multiple mutants were investigated. Intriguingly, although the genes are differently expressed during the life cycle, catalase activity is dispensable during both vegetative growth and sexual reproduction in laboratory conditions. Catalases are also not essential for cellulose or fatty acid assimilation. In contrast, they are strictly required for efficient utilization of more complex biomass like wood shavings by allowing growth in the presence of lignin. The secreted CATB and cytosolic CAT2 are the major catalases implicated in peroxide resistance, while CAT2 is the major player during complex biomass assimilation. Our results suggest that P. anserina produces external H2O2 to assimilate complex biomass and that catalases are necessary to protect the cells during this process. In addition, the phenotypes of strains lacking only one catalase gene suggest that a decrease of catalase activity improves the capacity of the fungus to degrade complex biomass. PMID:22558065

  17. Cyclophilin D links programmed cell death and organismal aging in Podospora anserina.

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    Brust, Diana; Daum, Bertram; Breunig, Christine; Hamann, Andrea; Kühlbrandt, Werner; Osiewacz, Heinz D

    2010-10-01

    Cyclophilin D (CYPD) is a mitochondrial peptidyl prolyl-cis,trans-isomerase involved in opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). CYPD abundance increases during aging in mammalian tissues and in the aging model organism Podospora anserina. Here, we show that treatment of the P. anserina wild-type with low concentrations of the cyclophilin inhibitor cyclosporin A (CSA) extends lifespan. Transgenic strains overexpressing PaCypD are characterized by reduced stress tolerance, suffer from pronounced mitochondrial dysfunction and are characterized by accelerated aging and induction of cell death. Treatment with CSA leads to correction of mitochondrial function and lifespan to that of the wild-type. In contrast, PaCypD deletion strains are not affected by CSA within the investigated concentration range and show increased resistance against inducers of oxidative stress and cell death. Our data provide a mechanistic link between programmed cell death (PCD) and organismal aging and bear implications for the potential use of CSA to intervene into biologic aging. © 2010 The Authors Aging Cell © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

  18. Alterações nos parâmetros hematológicos de Gallus gallus domesticus experimentalmente infectados por Borrelia anserina Alterations in hematological parameters of Gallus gallus domesticus experimentally infected with Borrelia anserina

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    Raquel S. Lisbôa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Borreliose aviária é uma doença septicêmica aguda, cosmopolita, que acomete diferentes espécies aviárias, sendo causada por Borrelia anserina Sakharoff, 1891. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar as alterações hematológicas em Gallus gallus domesticus experimentalmente infectados por B. anserina via vetor Argas (Persicargas miniatus. Um total de 27 aves da espécie G. g. domesticus com 67 dias de vida, foram divididas em três grupos inteiramente casualizados contendo nove animais cada. Um grupo foi exposto a carrapatos infectados por B. anserina (Grupo 1; outro a carrapatos livres deste agente (Grupo 2; além de um grupo não exposto aos carrapatos (Grupo 3. Realizaram-se esfregaços sangüíneos diariamente, a partir do primeiro dia de exposição ao vetor, até o 25º dia pós-exposição (DPE. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas 3 dias antes da exposição aos carrapatos, e 3, 8 e 18 dias pós-exposição (DPE, para a realização dos hemogramas. O exame dos esfregaços das aves do Grupo 1 revelou grande número de espiroquetas. Os esfregaços sangüíneos dos Grupos 2 e 3 mantiveram-se negativos durante todo o período experimental. De acordo com os resultados das avaliações hematológicas, as aves do Grupo 1 apresentaram um quadro de anemia normocítica normocrômica em oito DPE, além de leucocitose com heterofilia e monocitose que cursaram paralelamente ao período de espiroquetemia. Concluiu-se que a infecção por B. anserina determinou nas aves do Grupo 1 alterações hematológicas compatíveis com uma infecção bacteriana de moderada gravidade, evoluindo para auto-cura, nas condições experimentais estabelecidas neste trabalho.Avian spirochaetosis is a cosmopolite acute septicemic disease of many avian species, caused by Borrelia anserina Sakharoff, 1891. The present study assesses the estimate of the hematological alterations of Gallus gallus domesticus experimentally infected with B. anserina by vector Argas

  19. Meiotic development initiation in the fungus Podospora anserina requires the peroxisome receptor export machinery.

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    Suaste-Olmos, Fernando; Zirión-Martínez, Claudia; Takano-Rojas, Harumi; Peraza-Reyes, Leonardo

    2018-04-01

    Peroxisomes are versatile organelles essential for diverse developmental processes. One such process is the meiotic development of Podospora anserina. In this fungus, absence of the docking peroxin PEX13, the RING-finger complex peroxins, or the PTS2 co-receptor PEX20 blocks sexual development before meiocyte formation. However, this defect is not seen in the absence of the receptors PEX5 and PEX7, or of the docking peroxins PEX14 and PEX14/17. Here we describe the function of the remaining uncharacterized P. anserina peroxins predictably involved in peroxisome matrix protein import. We show that PEX8, as well as the peroxins potentially mediating receptor monoubiquitination (PEX4 and PEX22) and membrane dislocation (PEX1, PEX6 and PEX26) are indeed implicated in peroxisome matrix protein import in this fungus. However, we observed that elimination of PEX4 and PEX22 affects to different extent the import of distinct PEX5 cargoes, suggesting differential ubiquitination-complex requirements for the import of distinct proteins. In addition, we found that elimination of PEX1, PEX6 or PEX26 results in loss of peroxisomes, suggesting that these peroxins restrain peroxisome removal in specific physiological conditions. Finally, we demonstrate that all analyzed peroxins are required for meiocyte formation, and that PEX20 function in this process depends on its potential monoubiquitination target cysteine. Our results suggest that meiotic induction relies on a peroxisome import pathway, which is not dependent on PEX5 or PEX7 but that is driven by an additional cycling receptor. These findings uncover a collection of peroxins implicated in modulating peroxisome activity to facilitate a critical developmental cell fate decision. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Age-related cellular copper dynamics in the fungal ageing model Podospora anserina and in ageing human fibroblasts.

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    Christian Q Scheckhuber

    Full Text Available In previous investigations an impact of cellular copper homeostasis on ageing of the ascomycete Podospora anserina has been demonstrated. Here we provide new data indicating that mitochondria play a major role in this process. Determination of copper in the cytosolic fraction using total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy analysis and eGfp reporter gene studies indicate an age-related increase of cytosolic copper levels. We show that components of the mitochondrial matrix (i.e. eGFP targeted to mitochondria become released from the organelle during ageing. Decreasing the accessibility of mitochondrial copper in P. anserina via targeting a copper metallothionein to the mitochondrial matrix was found to result in a switch from a copper-dependent cytochrome-c oxidase to a copper-independent alternative oxidase type of respiration and results in lifespan extension. In addition, we demonstrate that increased copper concentrations in the culture medium lead to the appearance of senescence biomarkers in human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs. Significantly, expression of copper-regulated genes is induced during in vitro ageing in medium devoid of excess copper suggesting that cytosolic copper levels also increase during senescence of HDFs. These data suggest that the identified molecular pathway of age-dependent copper dynamics may not be restricted to P. anserina but may be conserved from lower eukaryotes to humans.

  1. Age-Related Cellular Copper Dynamics in the Fungal Ageing Model Podospora anserina and in Ageing Human Fibroblasts

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    Scheckhuber, Christian Q.; Grief, Jürgen; Boilan, Emmanuelle; Luce, Karin; Debacq-Chainiaux, Florence; Rittmeyer, Claudia; Gredilla, Ricardo; Kolbesen, Bernd O.; Toussaint, Olivier; Osiewacz, Heinz D.

    2009-01-01

    In previous investigations an impact of cellular copper homeostasis on ageing of the ascomycete Podospora anserina has been demonstrated. Here we provide new data indicating that mitochondria play a major role in this process. Determination of copper in the cytosolic fraction using total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy analysis and eGfp reporter gene studies indicate an age-related increase of cytosolic copper levels. We show that components of the mitochondrial matrix (i.e. eGFP targeted to mitochondria) become released from the organelle during ageing. Decreasing the accessibility of mitochondrial copper in P. anserina via targeting a copper metallothionein to the mitochondrial matrix was found to result in a switch from a copper-dependent cytochrome-c oxidase to a copper-independent alternative oxidase type of respiration and results in lifespan extension. In addition, we demonstrate that increased copper concentrations in the culture medium lead to the appearance of senescence biomarkers in human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs). Significantly, expression of copper-regulated genes is induced during in vitro ageing in medium devoid of excess copper suggesting that cytosolic copper levels also increase during senescence of HDFs. These data suggest that the identified molecular pathway of age-dependent copper dynamics may not be restricted to P. anserina but may be conserved from lower eukaryotes to humans. PMID:19305496

  2. Inositol-phosphate signaling as mediator for growth and sexual reproduction in Podospora anserina.

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    Xie, Ning; Ruprich-Robert, Gwenaël; Chapeland-Leclerc, Florence; Coppin, Evelyne; Lalucque, Hervé; Brun, Sylvain; Debuchy, Robert; Silar, Philippe

    2017-09-01

    The molecular pathways involved in the development of multicellular fruiting bodies in fungi are still not well known. Especially, the interplay between the mycelium, the female tissues and the zygotic tissues of the fruiting bodies is poorly documented. Here, we describe PM154, a new strain of the model ascomycetes Podospora anserina able to mate with itself and that enabled the easy recovery of new mutants affected in fruiting body development. By complete genome sequencing of spod1, one of the new mutants, we identified an inositol phosphate polykinase gene as essential, especially for fruiting body development. A factor present in the wild type and diffusible in mutant hyphae was able to induce the development of the maternal tissues of the fruiting body in spod1, but failed to promote complete development of the zygotic ones. Addition of myo-inositol in the growth medium was able to increase the number of developing fruiting bodies in the wild type, but not in spod1. Overall, the data indicated that inositol and inositol polyphosphates were involved in promoting fruiting body maturation, but also in regulating the number of fruiting bodies that developed after fertilization. The same effect of inositol was seen in two other fungi, Sordaria macrospora and Chaetomium globosum. Key role of the inositol polyphosphate pathway during fruiting body maturation appears thus conserved during the evolution of Sordariales fungi. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of paraquat-induced oxidative stress on gene expression and aging of the filamentous ascomycete Podospora anserina

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    Matthias Wiemer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aging of biological systems is influenced by various factors, conditions and processes. Among others, processes allowing organisms to deal with various types of stress are of key importance. In particular, oxidative stress as the result of the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS at the mitochondrial respiratory chain and the accumulation of ROS-induced molecular damage has been strongly linked to aging. Here we view the impact of ROS from a different angle: their role in the control of gene expression. We report a genome-wide transcriptome analysis of the fungal aging model Podospora anserina grown on medium containing paraquat (PQ. This treatment leads to an increased cellular generation and release of H2O2, a reduced growth rate, and a decrease in lifespan. The combined challenge by PQ and copper has a synergistic negative effect on growth and lifespan. The data from the transcriptome analysis of the wild type cultivated under PQ-stress and their comparison to those of a longitudinal aging study as well as of a copper-uptake longevity mutant of P. anserina revealed that PQ-stress leads to the up-regulation of transcripts coding for components involved in mitochondrial remodeling. PQ also affects the expression of copper-regulated genes suggesting an increase of cytoplasmic copper levels as it has been demonstrated earlier to occur during aging of P. anserina and during senescence of human fibroblasts. This effect may result from the induction of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore via PQ-induced ROS, leading to programmed cell death as part of an evolutionary conserved mechanism involved in biological aging and lifespan control.

  4. The mitochondrial plasmid pAL2-1 reduces calorie restriction mediated life span extension in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, M.F.P.M.; Boer, de H.J.; Debets, A.J.M.; Hoekstra, R.F.

    2004-01-01

    Calorie restriction is the only life span extending regimen known that applies to all aging organisms. Although most fungi do not appear to senesce, all natural isolates of the modular filamentous fungus Podospora anserina have a limited life span. In this paper, we show that calorie restriction

  5. Nonmendelian inheritance of the HET-s prion or HET-s prion domains determines the het-S spore killing system in Podospora anserina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalstra, H.J.P.; Zee, van der R.I.; Swart, K.; Hoekstra, R.F.; Saupe, S.J.; Debets, A.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Two alleles of the het-s/S locus occur naturally in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina, het-s and het-S. The het-s encoded protein can form a prion that propagates a self-perpetuating amyloid aggregate, resulting in two phenotypes for the het-s strains. The prion-infected [Het-s] shows an

  6. Manganese rescues adverse effects on lifespan and development in Podospora anserina challenged by excess hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Carolin; Osiewacz, Heinz D

    2015-03-01

    For biological systems, balancing cellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is of great importance because ROS are both, essential for cellular signaling and dangerous in causing molecular damage. Cellular ROS abundance is controlled by a delicate network of molecular pathways. Within this network, superoxide dismutases (SODs) are active in disproportion of the superoxide anion leading to the formation of hydrogen peroxide. The fungal aging model Podospora anserina encodes at least three SODs. One of these is the mitochondrial PaSOD3 isoform containing manganese as a cofactor. Previous work resulted in the selection of strains in which PaSod3 is strongly overexpressed. These strains display impairments in growth and lifespan. A computational model suggests a series of events to occur in Sod3 overexpressing strains leading to adverse effects due to elevated hydrogen peroxide levels. In an attempt to validate this model and to obtain more detailed information about the cellular responses involved in ROS balancing, we further investigated the PaSod3 overexpressing strains. Here we show that hydrogen peroxide levels are indeed strongly increased in the mutant strain. Surprisingly, this phenotype can be rescued by the addition of manganese to the growth medium. Strikingly, while we obtained no evidence for an antioxidant effect of manganese, we found that the metal is required for induction of components of the ROS scavenging network and lowers the hydrogen peroxide level of the mutant. A similar effect of manganese on lifespan reversion was obtained in wild-type strains challenged with exogenous hydrogen peroxide. It appears that manganese is limited under high hydrogen peroxide and suggests that a manganese-dependent activity leads to the induction of ROS scavenging components. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Systematic gene deletions evidences that laccases are involved in several stages of wood degradation in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina.

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    Xie, Ning; Chapeland-Leclerc, Florence; Silar, Philippe; Ruprich-Robert, Gwenaël

    2014-01-01

    Transformation of plant biomass into biofuels may supply environmentally friendly alternative biological sources of energy. Laccases are supposed to be involved in the lysis of lignin, a prerequisite step for efficient breakdown of cellulose into fermentable sugars. The role in development and plant biomass degradation of the nine canonical laccases belonging to three different subfamilies and one related multicopper oxidase of the Ascomycota fungus Podospora anserina was investigated by targeted gene deletion. The 10 genes were inactivated singly, and multiple mutants were constructed by genetic crosses. lac6(Δ), lac8(Δ) and mco(Δ) mutants were significantly reduced in their ability to grow on lignin-containing materials, but also on cellulose and plastic. Furthermore, lac8(Δ), lac7(Δ), mco(Δ) and lac6(Δ) mutants were defective towards resistance to phenolic substrates and H2 O2 , which may also impact lignocellulose breakdown. Double and multiple mutants were generally more affected than single mutants, evidencing redundancy of function among laccases. Our study provides the first genetic evidences that laccases are major actors of wood utilization in a fungus and that they have multiple roles during this process apart from participation in lignin lysis. © 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Regulation of Aerobic Energy Metabolism in Podospora anserina by Two Paralogous Genes Encoding Structurally Different c-Subunits of ATP Synthase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole H Sellem

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Most of the ATP in living cells is produced by an F-type ATP synthase. This enzyme uses the energy of a transmembrane electrochemical proton gradient to synthesize ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate. Proton movements across the membrane domain (FO of the ATP synthase drive the rotation of a ring of 8-15 c-subunits, which induces conformational changes in the catalytic part (F1 of the enzyme that ultimately promote ATP synthesis. Two paralogous nuclear genes, called Atp9-5 and Atp9-7, encode structurally different c-subunits in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina. We have in this study identified differences in the expression pattern for the two genes that correlate with the mitotic activity of cells in vegetative mycelia: Atp9-7 is transcriptionally active in non-proliferating (stationary cells while Atp9-5 is expressed in the cells at the extremity (apex of filaments that divide and are responsible for mycelium growth. When active, the Atp9-5 gene sustains a much higher rate of c-subunit synthesis than Atp9-7. We further show that the ATP9-7 and ATP9-5 proteins have antagonist effects on the longevity of P. anserina. Finally, we provide evidence that the ATP9-5 protein sustains a higher rate of mitochondrial ATP synthesis and yield in ATP molecules per electron transferred to oxygen than the c-subunit encoded by Atp9-7. These findings reveal that the c-subunit genes play a key role in the modulation of ATP synthase production and activity along the life cycle of P. anserina. Such a degree of sophistication for regulating aerobic energy metabolism has not been described before.

  9. Identification and characterization of PaMTH1, a putative O-methyltransferase accumulating during senescence of Podospora anserina cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Averbeck, N B; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard; Mann, M

    2000-01-01

    A differential protein display screen resulted in the identification of a 27-kDa protein which strongly accumulates during the senescence of Podospora anserina cultures grown under standard conditions. After partial determination of the amino-acid sequence by mass-spectrometry analysis of trypsin...... by a discontinuous gene, PaMth1, capable of coding for 240 amino acids. The first three amino-terminal residues appear to be removed post-translationally. The deduced amino-acid sequence shows significant homology to S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)-dependent methyltransferases. We hypothesize that the 27-kDa protein, Pa...

  10. Non-self-averaging nucleation rate due to quenched disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sear, Richard P

    2012-01-01

    We study the nucleation of a new thermodynamic phase in the presence of quenched disorder. The quenched disorder is a generic model of both impurities and disordered porous media; both are known to have large effects on nucleation. We find that the nucleation rate is non-self-averaging. This is in a simple Ising model with clusters of quenched spins. We also show that non-self-averaging behaviour is straightforward to detect in experiments, and may be rather common. (fast track communication)

  11. Non-self-adjoint hamiltonians defined by Riesz bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagarello, F., E-mail: fabio.bagarello@unipa.it [Dipartimento di Energia, Ingegneria dell' Informazione e Modelli Matematici, Facoltà di Ingegneria, Università di Palermo, I-90128 Palermo, Italy and INFN, Università di Torino, Torino (Italy); Inoue, A., E-mail: a-inoue@fukuoka-u.ac.jp [Department of Applied Mathematics, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka 814-0180 (Japan); Trapani, C., E-mail: camillo.trapani@unipa.it [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Università di Palermo, I-90123 Palermo (Italy)

    2014-03-15

    We discuss some features of non-self-adjoint Hamiltonians with real discrete simple spectrum under the assumption that the eigenvectors form a Riesz basis of Hilbert space. Among other things, we give conditions under which these Hamiltonians can be factorized in terms of generalized lowering and raising operators.

  12. Alterações bioquímicas, anatômicas e histopatológicas em fígado de Gallus gallus Linnaeus, 1758 experimentalmente infectados por Borrelia anserina Sakharoff, 1891

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio B. Cepeda

    Full Text Available Resumo: A espiroquetose aviária é uma enfermidade septicêmica de curso agudo, cosmopolita, que acomete diversas espécies aviárias, causada por Borrelia anserina e transmitida pelo carrapato Argas miniatus. O experimento teve como objetivos avaliar as alterações bioquímicas e anátomo-histopatológicas no fígado de Gallus gallus, causadas pela infecção experimental por B. anserina. Quarenta aves da espécie G. gallus foram divididas em quatro grupos inteiramente casualizados com 10 animais cada: G1 - inoculado com soro infectado com B. anserina; G2 - inoculado com soro fisiológico a 0,9%; G3 - exposto a ninfas de terceiro ínstar de A. miniatus infectados por B. anserina; G4 - exposto a ninfas de terceiro ínstar de A. miniatus livres de B. anserina. As aves dos Grupos 1 e 3 manifestaram no 3º e 6º dias pós-inoculação (DPI respectivamente, sintomatologia característica da doença como inapetência, perda de peso, sonolência, diarreia esverdeada, mucosas hipocoradas, penas arrepiadas e hipertermia. Os níveis de ALT do Grupo 1 mostraram-se significativamente mais elevados apenas no 12ºDPI e 24ºDPI em relação ao seu grupo controle (Grupo 2 e no Grupo 3 esses níveis se mantiveram elevados até o 20º DPI em comparação ao seu grupo controle (Grupo 4. Os níveis da enzima AST pouco oscilaram nos grupos experimentais, embora tenham sido encontradas elevações no 12ºDPI nos Grupos 1 e 3. Os fígados das aves dos Grupos 1 e 3 apresentaram à necropsia, moderada hepatomegalia, congestão, superfície irregular e coloração vermelha a cianótica; constataram-se ainda pequenos pontos esbranquiçados na superfície. A histopatologia do fígado revelou congestão, infiltrados inflamatórios mononucleares, focos de necrose fibrinoide, dilatação dos sinusoides e vacuolização de hepatócitos. A coloração de Warthin-Starry revelou, nos fígados das aves dos Grupos 1 e 3, a presença de espiroquetas compatíveis com B. anserina

  13. Numerical signatures of non-self-adjointness in quantum Hamiltonians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruf, M; Mueller, C [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Grobe, R, E-mail: matthias.ruf@mpi-hd.mpg.de, E-mail: carsten.mueller@mpi-hd.mpg.de, E-mail: grobe@phy.ilstu.edu [Intense Laser Physics Theory Unit and Department of Physics, Illinois State University, Normal, IL 61790-4560 (United States)

    2011-08-26

    Non-self-adjoint quantum mechanical operators do not necessarily possess eigenvalues. Finite N x N matrix representations of these operators, however, can be hermitian and therefore have a finite set of N real eigenvalues. Using the momentum operator, the kinetic energy operator, and the relativistic Hamiltonian of the Coulomb problem for the Klein-Gordon equation as examples, we examine analytically and also numerically the properties of the spectrum and eigenvectors in finite dimensional Hilbert spaces. We study the limit of N {yields} {infinity} for which some eigenvalues cease to exist as the corresponding operators are not self-adjoint. (paper)

  14. A homologue of the yeast SHE4 gene is essential for the transition between the syncytial and cellular stages during sexual reproduction of the fungus Podospora anserina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berteaux-Lecellier, V; Zickler, D; Debuchy, R; Panvier-Adoutte, A; Thompson-Coffe, C; Picard, M

    1998-01-01

    The Podospora anserina cro1 gene was identified as a gene required for sexual sporulation. Crosses homozygous for the cro1-1 mutation yield fruiting bodies which produce few asci due to the formation of giant plurinucleate cells instead of dikaryotic cells after fertilization. This defect does not impair karyogamy, but meioses of the resultant polyploid nuclei are most often abortive. Cytological studies suggest that the primary defect of the mutant is its inability to form septa between the daughter nuclei after each mitosis, a step specific for normal dikaryotic cell divisions. The cro1-1 mutant would thus be unable to leave the syncytial vegetative state while abiding by the meiotic programme. cro1-1 also shows defects in ascospore germination and growth rate. GFP-tagging of the CRO1 protein reveals that it is a cytosolic protein mainly expressed at the beginning of the dikaryotic stage and at the time of ascospore maturation. The CRO1 protein exhibits significant similarity to the SHE4 protein, which is required for asymmetric mating-type switching in budding yeast cells. Thus, a gene involved in asymmetric cell divisions in a unicellular organism plays a key role at the transition between the syncytial (vegetative) state and the cellular (sexual) state in a filamentous fungus. PMID:9482722

  15. Collaborative non-self recognition system in S-RNase-based self-incompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Ken-ichi; Entani, Tetsuyuki; Takara, Akie; Wang, Ning; Fields, Allison M; Hua, Zhihua; Toyoda, Mamiko; Kawashima, Shin-ichi; Ando, Toshio; Isogai, Akira; Kao, Teh-hui; Takayama, Seiji

    2010-11-05

    Self-incompatibility in flowering plants prevents inbreeding and promotes outcrossing to generate genetic diversity. In Solanaceae, a multiallelic gene, S-locus F-box (SLF), was previously shown to encode the pollen determinant in self-incompatibility. It was postulated that an SLF allelic product specifically detoxifies its non-self S-ribonucleases (S-RNases), allelic products of the pistil determinant, inside pollen tubes via the ubiquitin-26S-proteasome system, thereby allowing compatible pollinations. However, it remained puzzling how SLF, with much lower allelic sequence diversity than S-RNase, might have the capacity to recognize a large repertoire of non-self S-RNases. We used in vivo functional assays and protein interaction assays to show that in Petunia, at least three types of divergent SLF proteins function as the pollen determinant, each recognizing a subset of non-self S-RNases. Our findings reveal a collaborative non-self recognition system in plants.

  16. DMPD: Infectious non-self recognition in invertebrates: lessons from Drosophila andother insect models. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15476918 Infectious non-self recognition in invertebrates: lessons from Drosophila ...fectious non-self recognition in invertebrates: lessons from Drosophila andother insect models. PubmedID 154...76918 Title Infectious non-self recognition in invertebrates: lessons from Drosop

  17. Spectral analysis of non-self-adjoint Jacobi operator associated with Jacobian elliptic functions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Siegl, Petr; Štampach, F.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 4 (2017), s. 901-928 ISSN 1846-3886 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA13-11058S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Non-self-adjoint Jacobi operator * Weyl m-function * Jacobian elliptic functions Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.440, year: 2016

  18. Non-self-similar cracking in unidirectional metal-matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajesh, G.; Dharani, L.R.

    1993-01-01

    Experimental investigations on the fracture behavior of unidirectional Metal Matrix Composites (MMC) show the presence of extensive matrix damage and non-self-similar cracking of fibers near the notch tip. These failures are primarily observed in the interior layers of an MMC, presenting experimental difficulties in studying them. Hence an investigation of the matrix damage and fiber fracture near the notch tip is necessary to determine the stress concentration at the notch tip. The classical shear lag (CLSL) assumption has been used in the present study to investigate longitudinal matrix damage and nonself-similar cracking of fibers at the notch tip of an MMC. It is seen that non-self-similar cracking of fibers reduces the stress concentration at the notch tip considerably and the effect of matrix damage is negligible after a large number of fibers have broken beyond the notch tip in a non-self-similar manner. Finally, an effort has been made to include non-self-similar fiber fracture and matrix damage to model the fracture behavior of a unidirectional boron/aluminum composite for two different matrices viz. a 6061-0 fully annealed aluminum matrix and a heat treated 6061-T6 aluminum matrix. Results have been drawn for several characteristics pertaining to the shear stiffnesses and the shear yield stresses of the two matrices and compared with the available experimental results

  19. Virus-mediated suppression of host non-self recognition facilitates horizontal transmission of heterologous viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songsong Wu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Non-self recognition is a common phenomenon among organisms; it often leads to innate immunity to prevent the invasion of parasites and maintain the genetic polymorphism of organisms. Fungal vegetative incompatibility is a type of non-self recognition which often induces programmed cell death (PCD and restricts the spread of molecular parasites. It is not clearly known whether virus infection could attenuate non-self recognition among host individuals to facilitate its spread. Here, we report that a hypovirulence-associated mycoreovirus, named Sclerotinia sclerotiorum mycoreovirus 4 (SsMYRV4, could suppress host non-self recognition and facilitate horizontal transmission of heterologous viruses. We found that cell death in intermingled colony regions between SsMYRV4-infected Sclerotinia sclerotiorum strain and other tested vegetatively incompatible strains was markedly reduced and inhibition barrage lines were not clearly observed. Vegetative incompatibility, which involves Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins signaling pathway, is controlled by specific loci termed het (heterokaryon incompatibility loci. Reactive oxygen species (ROS plays a key role in vegetative incompatibility-mediated PCD. The expression of G protein subunit genes, het genes, and ROS-related genes were significantly down-regulated, and cellular production of ROS was suppressed in the presence of SsMYRV4. Furthermore, SsMYRV4-infected strain could easily accept other viruses through hyphal contact and these viruses could be efficiently transmitted from SsMYRV4-infected strain to other vegetatively incompatible individuals. Thus, we concluded that SsMYRV4 is capable of suppressing host non-self recognition and facilitating heterologous viruses transmission among host individuals. These findings may enhance our understanding of virus ecology, and provide a potential strategy to utilize hypovirulence-associated mycoviruses to control fungal diseases.

  20. Processing of self versus non-self in Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Louise Bond

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite considerable evidence for abnormalities of self-awareness in Alzheimer’s disease (AD, the cognitive mechanisms of altered self-processing in AD have not been fully defined. Here we addressed this issue in a detailed analysis of self/non-self-processing in three patients with AD. We designed a novel neuropsychological battery comprising tests of tactile body schema coding, attribution of tactile events to self versus external agents, and memory for self- versus non-self-generated vocal information, administered in conjunction with a daily life measure of self/non-self-processing (the Interpersonal Reactivity Index. Three male AD patients (aged 54 to 68 years; one with a pathogenic mutation in the Presenilin 1 gene, one with a pathogenic mutation in the Amyloid Precursor Protein gene, and one with a CSF protein profile supporting underlying AD pathology were studied in relation to a group of eight healthy older male individuals (aged 58 to 74 years. Compared to healthy controls, all patients had relatively intact tactile body schema processing. In contrast, all patients showed impaired memory for words previously presented using the patient’s own voice whereas memory for words presented in other voices was less consistently affected. Two patients showed increased levels of emotional contagion and reduced perspective taking on the Interpersonal Reactivity Index. Our findings suggest that AD may be associated with deficient self /non-self differentiation over time despite a relatively intact body image: this profile of altered self-processing contrasts with the deficit of tactile body schema previously described in frontotemporal dementia associated with C9orf72 mutations. We present these findings as a preliminary rationale to direct future systematic study in larger patient cohorts.

  1. On the discrete spectrum of non-self-adjoint Schroedinger differential equation with an operator coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayramoglu, Mehmet; Tasci, Fatih; Zeynalov, Djafar

    2004-01-01

    We study the discrete part of spectrum of a singular non-self-adjoint second-order differential equation on a semiaxis with an operator coefficient. Its boundedness is proved. The result is applied to the Schroedinger boundary value problem -Δu+q(x)u=λ 2 u, u vertical bar ∂D =0, with a complex potential q(x) in an angular domain

  2. Production of Singlet Oxygen in a Non-Self-Sustained Discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'eva, A.N.; Klopovskii, K.S.; Kovalev, A.S.; Lopaev, D.V.; Mankelevich, Yu.A.; Popov, N.A.; Rakhimov, A.T.; Rakhimova, T.V.

    2005-01-01

    The production of O 2 (a 1 Δ g ) singlet oxygen in non-self-sustained discharges in pure oxygen and mixtures of oxygen with noble gases (Ar or He) was studied experimentally. It is shown that the energy efficiency of O 2 (a 1 Δ g ) production can be optimized with respect to the reduced electric field E/N. It is shown that the optimal E/N values correspond to electron temperatures of 1.2-1.4 eV. At these E/N values, a decrease in the oxygen percentage in the mixture leads to an increase in the excitation rate of singlet oxygen because of the increase in the specific energy deposition per O 2 molecule. The onset of discharge instabilities not only greatly reduces the energy efficiency of singlet oxygen production but also makes it impossible to achieve high energy deposition in a non-self-sustained discharge. A model of a non-self-sustained discharge in pure oxygen is developed. It is shown that good agreement between the experimental and computed results for a discharge in oxygen over a wide range of reduced electric fields can be achieved only by taking into account the ion component of the discharge current. The cross section for the electron-impact excitation of O 2 (a 1 Δ g ) and the kinetic scheme of the discharge processes with the participation of singlet oxygen are verified by comparing the experimental and computed data on the energy efficiency of the production of O 2 (a 1 Δ g ) and the dynamics of its concentration. It is shown that, in the dynamics of O 2 (a 1 Δ g ) molecules in the discharge afterglow, an important role is played by their deexcitation in a three-body reaction with the participation of O( 3 P) atoms. At high energy depositions in a non-self-sustained discharge, this reaction can reduce the maximal attainable concentration of singlet oxygen. The effect of a hydrogen additive to an Ar : O 2 mixture is analyzed based on the results obtained using the model developed. It is shown that, for actual electron beam current densities, a

  3. Non-self-sustained discharge with hollow anode for plasma-based surface treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misiruk Ivan O.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses plasma methods for surface modification using the non-self-sustained glow discharge with a hollow anode. This discharge is characterised by low voltage and high values of electron and ion currents. It can be easily excited in vacuum-arc installations that are widely used for coatings deposition. It is shown that such type of discharge may be effectively used for ion pumping, film deposition, ion etching, diffusion saturation of metallic materials, fusion and brazing of metals, and for combined application of above mentioned technologies in a single vacuum cycle.

  4. Unconditional bases of subspaces related to non-self-adjoint perturbations of self-adjoint operators

    OpenAIRE

    Motovilov, A. K.; Shkalikov, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    Assume that $T$ is a self-adjoint operator on a Hilbert space $\\mathcal{H}$ and that the spectrum of $T$ is confined in the union $\\bigcup_{j\\in J}\\Delta_j$, $J\\subseteq\\mathbb{Z}$, of segments $\\Delta_j=[\\alpha_j, \\beta_j]\\subset\\mathbb{R}$ such that $\\alpha_{j+1}>\\beta_j$ and $$ \\inf_{j} \\left(\\alpha_{j+1}-\\beta_j\\right) = d > 0. $$ If $B$ is a bounded (in general non-self-adjoint) perturbation of $T$ with $\\|B\\|=:b

  5. Performance assessment of non-self-regulating controllers in a cogeneration power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, Rachelle; Cooper, Douglas J.

    2009-01-01

    This work details a novel method for assessing the performance of a PI (proportional-integral) feedback controller when the process displays non-self-regulating dynamic behavior. By applying an intuitive process control-based pattern recognition method to the autocorrelation function of the process measurement signal, the controller's disturbance rejection performance can automatically be categorized. Stochastic data collected over days or weeks is analyzed to compute an index descriptive of current controller performance. If the control response has drifted from a user-defined target value, the analysis further provides a guide for tuning adjustments to restore desired performance. Significant aspects of this approach are that no plant disruption or process knowledge is required for evaluation. Classic examples of non-self-regulating behavior include certain liquid level control loops and pressure control loops which are prevalent in cogeneration power plants. In this work, we detail how the performance assessment method was used to improve performance of such controllers in the University of Connecticut's power plant.

  6. Non-self-sustained electric discharge in oxygen gas mixtures: singlet delta oxygen production

    CERN Document Server

    Ionin, A A; Kotkov, A A; Kochetov, I V; Napartovich, A P; Seleznev, L V; Sinitsyn, D V; Hager, G D

    2003-01-01

    The possibility of obtaining a high specific input energy in an electron-beam sustained discharge ignited in oxygen gas mixtures O sub 2 : Ar : CO (or H sub 2) at the total gas pressures of 10-100 Torr was experimentally demonstrated. The specific input energy per molecular component exceeded approx 6 kJ l sup - sup 1 atm sup - sup 1 (150 kJ mol sup - sup 1) as a small amount of carbon monoxide was added into a gas mixture of oxygen and argon. It was theoretically demonstrated that one might expect to obtain a singlet delta oxygen yield of 25% exceeding its threshold value needed for an oxygen-iodine laser operation at room temperature, when maintaining a non-self-sustained discharge in oxygen gas mixtures with molecular additives CO, H sub 2 or D sub 2. The efficiency of singlet delta oxygen production can be as high as 40%.

  7. Quantifying cardiometabolic risk using modifiable non-self-reported risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Miguel; Li, Yi; Pencina, Michael J; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Berkman, Lisa F; Buxton, Orfeu M

    2014-08-01

    Sensitive general cardiometabolic risk assessment tools of modifiable risk factors would be helpful and practical in a range of primary prevention interventions or for preventive health maintenance. To develop and validate a cumulative general cardiometabolic risk score that focuses on non-self-reported modifiable risk factors such as glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and BMI so as to be sensitive to small changes across a span of major modifiable risk factors, which may not individually cross clinical cut-off points for risk categories. We prospectively followed 2,359 cardiovascular disease (CVD)-free subjects from the Framingham offspring cohort over a 14-year follow-up. Baseline (fifth offspring examination cycle) included HbA1c and cholesterol measurements. Gender-specific Cox proportional hazards models were considered to evaluate the effects of non-self-reported modifiable risk factors (blood pressure, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, smoking, BMI, and HbA1c) on general CVD risk. We constructed 10-year general cardiometabolic risk score functions and evaluated its predictive performance in 2012-2013. HbA1c was significantly related to general CVD risk. The proposed cardiometabolic general CVD risk model showed good predictive performance as determined by cross-validated discrimination (male C-index=0.703, 95% CI=0.668, 0.734; female C-index=0.762, 95% CI=0.726, 0.801) and calibration (lack-of-fit chi-square=9.05 [p=0.338] and 12.54 [p=0.128] for men and women, respectively). This study presents a risk factor algorithm that provides a convenient and informative way to quantify cardiometabolic risk on the basis of modifiable risk factors that can motivate an individual's commitment to prevention and intervention. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A simple data acquisition system based on arduino platform for non-self-sustained gas discharge plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misiruk, I.O.; Garkusha, I.E.; Timoshenko, O.I.; Taran, V.S.

    2016-01-01

    A simple data acquisition system based on Arduino Nano platform is developed. Bluetooth wireless protocol is used for data transmission. Android OS application for data visualization and recording is developed. The system was success-fully applied for acquiring data of Langmuir probe measurements in the non-self-sustained discharge with a hollow anode.

  9. Theoretical Investigation of the Bistability Effect in Non-Self-Sustained Discharges in Kr and Ar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyatko, N.A.; Napartovich, A.P.

    2004-01-01

    The electron energy distribution function and the related plasma parameters in non-self-sustained discharges in Kr and Ar are studied theoretically. The investigations are carried out by numerically solving the corresponding Boltzmann equation for the electron energy distribution function with allowance for electron-electron collisions. The electron energy distribution and electron density are calculated self-consistently as functions of the intensity q of the source of secondary electrons and the magnitude of the reduced electric field E/N. The main goal of the investigations was to determine the conditions under which the plasma exhibits bistable parameters. Calculations show that, for discharges in Kr, there is a certain range of q and E/N values in which the Boltzmann equation has two different stable solutions. For an Ar plasma, such a bistability effect was not found: over the parameter range under consideration, the Boltzmann equation has a unique solution. Various plasma parameters (such as the effective electron temperature, electron drift velocity, and electron current density) are calculated for different discharge conditions, including those corresponding to the bistability effect

  10. The nonlinear ambipolar drift and periodic structure of non-self-sustained discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dem'yanov, A.V.; Mazalov, D.A.; Napartovich, A.P.

    1995-01-01

    Gas discharge is well known to be strongly nonlinear self-organizing system. The diverse nonlinear structures, observed at different conditions (arc, stationary and non-stationary strata, hot spot patterns on the electrodes and so on), are usually explained by the theory taking into account the processes of diffusion and thermoconductivity. In plasma of high pressure discharge these processes become negligible within the characteristic intervals. At these conditions electron drift becomes the main process. Owing to the continuity of full current and plasma quasineutrality there appear effective flows of convective type with the rate depending on the concentration of charged particles. It is this reason that is responsible for the observed structure of the non-moving luminous layers in non-self-sustained discharge in 10%H 2 +Ar mixture under p≥l atm. The present report shows the results of detail experimental and theoretical study of this phenomenon. The experiments have been carried out on the setup with the discharge gap of about 1 cm or of much greater size. Mach-Zender interferometer and an image-converter intensifier operating as a strip or framing camera. The experiments have been carried out under the pressure 1-3 atm. They show that the stationary layers sequentially appear one after another along the direction from the cathode to the anode. Interferometry shows that there is a gas density modulation corresponding to the periodical structure of fringes. The picture of Fig.1 is a typical interferogram, and that of Fig.2 is a gas density distribution restored from it

  11. Singlet oxygen generation in a high pressure non-self-sustained electric discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, Adam; Norberg, Seth; Shawcross, Paul; Lempert, Walter R; Rich, J William; Adamovich, Igor V

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents results of singlet oxygen generation experiments in a high-pressure, non-self-sustained crossed discharge. The discharge consists of a high-voltage, short pulse duration, high repetition rate pulsed discharge, which produces ionization in the flow, and a low-voltage dc discharge which sustains current in a decaying plasma between the pulses. The sustainer voltage can be independently varied to maximize the energy input into electron impact excitation of singlet delta oxygen (SDO). The results demonstrate operation of a stable and diffuse crossed discharge in O 2 -He mixtures at static pressures of at least up to P 0 = 380 Torr and sustainer discharge powers of at least up to 1200 W, achieved at P 0 = 120 Torr. The reduced electric field in the positive column of the sustainer discharge varies from E/N = 0.3 x 10 -16 to 0.65 X 10 -16 V cm 2 , which is significantly lower than E/N in self-sustained discharges and close to the theoretically predicted optimum value for O 2 (a 1 Δ) excitation. Measurements of visible emission spectra O 2 (b 1 Σ → X 3 Σ) in the discharge afterglow show the O 2 (b 1 Σ) concentration to increase with the sustainer discharge power and to decrease as the O 2 fraction in the flow is increased. Rotational temperatures inferred from these spectra in 10% O 2 -90% He flows at P 0 = 120 Torr and mass flow rates of m-dot = 2.2 are 365-465 K. SDO yield at these conditions, 1.7% to 4.4%, was inferred from the integrated intensity of the (0, 0) band of the O 2 (a 1 Δ → X 3 Σ) infrared emission spectra calibrated using a blackbody source. The yield remains nearly constant in the discharge afterglow, up to at least 15 cm distance from the discharge. Kinetic modelling calculations using a quasi-one-dimensional nonequilibrium pulser-sustainer discharge model coupled with the Boltzmann equation for plasma electrons predict gas temperature rise in the discharge in satisfactory agreement with the experimental measurements

  12. The non-self-propelled hydropower vessel for electrical energy providing of Arctic and Far East hard-to-reach areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borisova L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The floating tidal unceasing action power plant design based on the non-self-propelled vessel has been proposed. To produce electric energy the renewable energy of wind and tidal waves has been used

  13. Hubbard-U corrected Hamiltonians for non-self-consistent random-phase approximation total-energy calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patrick, Christopher; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2016-01-01

    In non-self-consistent calculations of the total energy within the random-phase approximation (RPA) for electronic correlation, it is necessary to choose a single-particle Hamiltonian whose solutions are used to construct the electronic density and noninteracting response function. Here we...... in the underlying electronic structure. We further demonstrate that the non-selfconsistent RPA total energies of these materials have minima at nonzero U. Our RPA calculations find the rutile phase of TiO2 to be more stable than anatase independent of U, a result which is consistent with experiments...

  14. Collective synchronization of self/non-self discrimination in T cell activation, across multiple spatio-temporal scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altan-Bonnet, Gregoire

    The immune system is a collection of cells whose function is to eradicate pathogenic infections and malignant tumors while protecting healthy tissues. Recent work has delineated key molecular and cellular mechanisms associated with the ability to discriminate self from non-self agents. For example, structural studies have quantified the biophysical characteristics of antigenic molecules (those prone to trigger lymphocyte activation and a subsequent immune response). However, such molecular mechanisms were found to be highly unreliable at the individual cellular level. We will present recent efforts to build experimentally validated computational models of the immune responses at the collective cell level. Such models have become critical to delineate how higher-level integration through nonlinear amplification in signal transduction, dynamic feedback in lymphocyte differentiation and cell-to-cell communication allows the immune system to enforce reliable self/non-self discrimination at the organism level. In particular, we will present recent results demonstrating how T cells tune their antigen discrimination according to cytokine cues, and how competition for cytokine within polyclonal populations of cells shape the repertoire of responding clones. Additionally, we will present recent theoretical and experimental results demonstrating how competition between diffusion and consumption of cytokines determine the range of cell-cell communications within lymphoid organs. Finally, we will discuss how biochemically explicit models, combined with quantitative experimental validation, unravel the relevance of new feedbacks for immune regulations across multiple spatial and temporal scales.

  15. Interplay between Narrative and Bodily Self in Access to Consciousness: No Difference between Self- and Non-self Attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Jean-Paul; Blanke, Olaf; Serino, Andrea; Salomon, Roy

    2017-01-01

    The construct of the "self" is conceived as being fundamental in promoting survival. As such, extensive studies have documented preferential processing of self-relevant stimuli. For example, attributes that relate to the self are better encoded and retrieved, and are more readily consciously perceived. The preferential processing of self-relevant information, however, appears to be especially true for physical (e.g., faces), as opposed to psychological (e.g., traits), conceptions of the self. Here, we test whether semantic attributes that participants judge as self-relevant are further processed unconsciously than attributes that were not judged as self-relevant. In Experiment 1, a continuous flash suppression paradigm was employed with "self" and "non-self" attribute words being presented subliminally, and we asked participants to categorize unseen words as either self-related or not. In a second experiment, we attempted to boost putative preferential self-processing by relation to its physical conception, that is, one's own body. To this aim, we repeated Experiment 1 while administrating acoustic stimuli either close or far from the body, i.e., within or outside peripersonal space. Results of both Experiment 1 and 2 demonstrate no difference in breaking suppression for self and non-self words. Additionally, we found that while participants were able to process the physical location of the unseen words (above or below fixation) they were not able to categorize these as self-relevant or not. Finally, results showed that sounds presented in the extra-personal space elicited a more stringent response criterion for "self" in the process of categorizing unseen visual stimuli. This shift in criterion as a consequence of sound location was restricted to the self, as no such effect was observed in the categorization of attributes occurring above or below fixation. Overall, our findings seem to indicate that subliminally presented stimuli are not semantically processed, at

  16. Comparison of Vaccine-Induced Effector CD8 T Cell Responses Directed against Self- and Non-Self-Tumor Antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sara R; Sørensen, Maria R; Buus, Søren

    2013-01-01

    It is generally accepted that CD8 T cells play a major role in tumor control, yet vaccination aimed at eliciting potent CD8 T cell responses are rarely efficient in clinical trials. To try and understand why this is so, we have generated potent adenoviral vectors encoding the endogenous tumor Ags...... (TA) tyrosinase-related protein-2 (TRP-2) and glycoprotein 100 (GP100) tethered to the invariant chain (Ii). Using these vectors, we sought to characterize the self-TA-specific CD8 T cell response and compare it to that induced against non-self-Ags expressed from a similar vector platform...... construct expressing a foreign (viral) TA induced efficient tumor control. Analyzing the self-TA-specific CD8 T cells, we observed that these could be activated to produce IFN-γ and TNF-α. In addition, surface expression of phenotypic markers and inhibitory receptors, as well as in vivo cytotoxicity...

  17. Kinetic discrimination of self/non-self RNA by the ATPase activity of RIG-I and MDA5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louber, Jade; Brunel, Joanna; Uchikawa, Emiko; Cusack, Stephen; Gerlier, Denis

    2015-07-28

    The cytoplasmic RIG-like receptors are responsible for the early detection of viruses and other intracellular microbes by activating the innate immune response mediated by type I interferons (IFNs). RIG-I and MDA5 detect virus-specific RNA motifs with short 5'-tri/diphosphorylated, blunt-end double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and >0.5-2 kb long dsRNA as canonical agonists, respectively. However, in vitro, they can bind to many RNA species, while in cells there is an activation threshold. As SF2 helicase/ATPase family members, ATP hydrolysis is dependent on co-operative RNA and ATP binding. Whereas simultaneous ATP and cognate RNA binding is sufficient to activate RIG-I by releasing autoinhibition of the signaling domains, the physiological role of the ATPase activity of RIG-I and MDA5 remains controversial. A cross-analysis of a rationally designed panel of RNA binding and ATPase mutants and truncated receptors, using type I IFN promoter activation as readout, allows us to refine our understanding of the structure-function relationships of RIG-I and MDA5. RNA activation of RIG-I depends on multiple critical RNA binding sites in its helicase domain as confirmed by functional evidence using novel mutations. We found that RIG-I or MDA5 mutants with low ATP hydrolysis activity exhibit constitutive activity but this was fully reverted when associated with mutations preventing RNA binding to the helicase domain. We propose that the turnover kinetics of the ATPase domain enables the discrimination of self/non-self RNA by both RIG-I and MDA5. Non-cognate, possibly self, RNA binding would lead to fast ATP turnover and RNA disassociation and thus insufficient time for the caspase activation and recruitment domains (CARDs) to promote downstream signaling, whereas tighter cognate RNA binding provides a longer time window for downstream events to be engaged. The exquisite fine-tuning of RIG-I and MDA5 RNA-dependent ATPase activity coupled to CARD release allows a robust IFN response

  18. IRG and GBP host resistance factors target aberrant, "non-self" vacuoles characterized by the missing of "self" IRGM proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, Arun K; Saka, Hector A; Piro, Anthony S; Dunn, Joe Dan; Henry, Stanley C; Taylor, Gregory A; Frickel, Eva M; Valdivia, Raphael H; Coers, Jörn

    2013-01-01

    Interferon-inducible GTPases of the Immunity Related GTPase (IRG) and Guanylate Binding Protein (GBP) families provide resistance to intracellular pathogenic microbes. IRGs and GBPs stably associate with pathogen-containing vacuoles (PVs) and elicit immune pathways directed at the targeted vacuoles. Targeting of Interferon-inducible GTPases to PVs requires the formation of higher-order protein oligomers, a process negatively regulated by a subclass of IRG proteins called IRGMs. We found that the paralogous IRGM proteins Irgm1 and Irgm3 fail to robustly associate with "non-self" PVs containing either the bacterial pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis or the protozoan pathogen Toxoplasma gondii. Instead, Irgm1 and Irgm3 reside on "self" organelles including lipid droplets (LDs). Whereas IRGM-positive LDs are guarded against the stable association with other IRGs and GBPs, we demonstrate that IRGM-stripped LDs become high affinity binding substrates for IRG and GBP proteins. These data reveal that intracellular immune recognition of organelle-like structures by IRG and GBP proteins is partly dictated by the missing of "self" IRGM proteins from these structures.

  19. When your cap matters: structural insights into self vs non-self recognition of 5' RNA by immunomodulatory host proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, Daisy W.; Amarasinghe, Gaya K.

    2016-02-23

    Cytosolic recognition of viral RNA is important for host innate immune responses. Differential recognition of self vs non-self RNA is a considerable challenge as the inability to differentiate may trigger aberrant immune responses. Recent work identified the composition of the RNA 5', including the 5' cap and its methylation state, as an important determinant of recognition by the host. Recent studies have advanced our understanding of the modified 5' RNA recognition and viral antagonism of RNA receptors. Here, we will discuss RIG-I and IFIT proteins as examples of host proteins that detect dsRNA and ssRNA, respectively.

  20. Generation of uniform low-temperature plasma in a pulsed non-self-sustained glow discharge with a large-area hollow cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmadeev, Yu. H.; Denisov, V. V.; Koval, N. N.; Kovalsky, S. S.; Lopatin, I. V.; Schanin, P. M.; Yakovlev, V. V.

    2017-01-01

    Generation of plasma in a pulsed non-self-sustained glow discharge with a hollow cathode with an area of ≥2 m2 at gas pressures of 0.4-1 Pa was studied experimentally. At an auxiliary arc-discharge current of 100 A and a main discharge voltage of 240 V, a pulse-periodic glow discharge with a current amplitude of 370 A, pulse duration of 340 μs, and repetition rate of 1 kHz was obtained. The possibility of creating a uniform gas-discharge plasma with a density of up to 1012 cm-3 and an electron temperature of 1 eV in a volume of >0.2 m3 was demonstrated. Such plasma can be efficiently used to treat material surfaces and generate pulsed ion beams with a current density of up to 15 mA/cm2.

  1. Generation of uniform low-temperature plasma in a pulsed non-self-sustained glow discharge with a large-area hollow cathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhmadeev, Yu. H.; Denisov, V. V., E-mail: volodyadenisov@yandex.ru; Koval, N. N.; Kovalsky, S. S.; Lopatin, I. V.; Schanin, P. M.; Yakovlev, V. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of High-Current Electronics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    Generation of plasma in a pulsed non-self-sustained glow discharge with a hollow cathode with an area of ≥2 m{sup 2} at gas pressures of 0.4–1 Pa was studied experimentally. At an auxiliary arc-discharge current of 100 A and a main discharge voltage of 240 V, a pulse-periodic glow discharge with a current amplitude of 370 A, pulse duration of 340 μs, and repetition rate of 1 kHz was obtained. The possibility of creating a uniform gas-discharge plasma with a density of up to 10{sup 12} cm{sup −3} and an electron temperature of 1 eV in a volume of >0.2 m{sup 3} was demonstrated. Such plasma can be efficiently used to treat material surfaces and generate pulsed ion beams with a current density of up to 15 mA/cm{sup 2}.

  2. Exact Solution for Non-Self-Similar Wave-Interaction Problem during Two-Phase Four-Component Flow in Porous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Borazjani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Analytical solutions for one-dimensional two-phase multicomponent flows in porous media describe processes of enhanced oil recovery, environmental flows of waste disposal, and contaminant propagation in subterranean reservoirs and water management in aquifers. We derive the exact solution for 3×3 hyperbolic system of conservation laws that corresponds to two-phase four-component flow in porous media where sorption of the third component depends on its own concentration in water and also on the fourth component concentration. Using the potential function as an independent variable instead of time allows splitting the initial system to 2×2 system for concentrations and one scalar hyperbolic equation for phase saturation, which allows for full integration of non-self-similar problem with wave interactions.

  3. Sequence divergence and loss-of-function phenotypes of S locus F-box brothers genes are consistent with non-self recognition by multiple pollen determinants in self-incompatibility of Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakui, Hiroyuki; Kato, Masaki; Ushijima, Koichiro; Kitaguchi, Miyoko; Kato, Shu; Sassa, Hidenori

    2011-12-01

    The S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (SI) of Rosaceae, Solanaceae, and Plantaginaceae is controlled by at least two tightly linked genes located at the complex S locus; the highly polymorphic S-RNase for pistil specificity and the F-box gene (SFB/SLF) for pollen. Self-incompatibility in Prunus (Rosaceae) is considered to represent a 'self recognition by a single factor' system, because loss-of-function of SFB is associated with self-compatibility, and allelic divergence of SFB is high and comparable to that of S-RNase. In contrast, Petunia (Solanaceae) exhibits 'non-self recognition by multiple factors'. However, the distribution of 'self recognition' and 'non-self recognition' SI systems in different taxa is not clear. In addition, in 'non-self recognition' systems, a loss-of-function phenotype of pollen S is unknown. Here we analyze the divergence of SFBB genes, the multiple pollen S candidates, of a rosaceous plant Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) and show that intrahaplotypic divergence is high and comparable to the allelic diversity of S-RNase while interhaplotypic divergence is very low. Next, we analyzed loss-of-function of the SFBB1 type gene. Genetic analysis showed that pollen with the mutant haplotype S(4sm) lacking SFBB1-S(4) is rejected by pistils with an otherwise compatible S(1) while it is accepted by other non-self pistils. We found that the S(5) haplotype encodes a truncated SFBB1 protein, even though S(5) pollen is accepted normally by pistils with S(1) and other non-self haplotypes. These findings suggest that Japanese pear has a 'non-self recognition by multiple factors' SI system, although it is a species of Rosaceae to which Prunus also belongs. © 2011 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Discriminating Self and Non-Self by RNA: Roles for RNA Structure, Misfolding, and Modification in Regulating the Innate Immune Sensor PKR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    CONSPECTUS Pathogens are recognized by the innate immune system in part via their unique and complex RNA signatures. A key sensor in human innate immunity is the RNA-activated protein kinase PKR, which has two double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) binding motifs (dsRBMs) at its N-terminus. Early studies described PKR as being activated potently by long stretches of perfect dsRNA, a signature typical of viruses. More recently, we and others have found that PKR is also activated by RNAs having structural defects such as bulges and internal loops. This article describes advances in our understanding of the ability of PKR to detect diverse foreign RNAs and how that recognition plays significant roles in discriminating self from non-self. The experiments discussed employ a wide range of techniques including activation assays, native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), protein footprinting, and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). We discuss how misfolding and dimerization of RNA lead to activation of PKR. We also present recent findings on the activation of PKR by varied bacterial functional RNAs including ribozymes and riboswitches, which are among the few structured RNAs known to interact with PKR in a site-specific manner. Molecular models for how these structured RNAs activate PKR are provided. Studies by SAXS revealed that PKR straightens bent RNAs. Most external and internal RNA cellular modifications introduced in vitro and found naturally, such as the m7G cap and m6A group, abrogate activation of PKR, but other modifications, such as 5’-ppp and 2’-fluoro groups, are immunostimulatory and potential anticancer agents. Genome-wide studies of RNA folding in vitro and in vivo have provided fresh insights into general differences in RNA structure amongst bacteria, viruses, and human. These studies suggest that in vivo, cellular human RNAs are less folded than once thought, unwound by helicases, destabilized by m6A modifications, and often bound up with proteins

  5. Decontamination of the activation product based on a legal revision of the cyclotron vault room on the non-self-shield compact medical cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komiya, Isao; Umezu, Yoshiyuki; Fujibuchi, Toshiou; Nakamura, Kazumasa; Baba, Shingo; Honda, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    The non-self-shield compact medical cyclotron and the cyclotron vault room were in operation for 27 years. They have now been decommissioned. We efficiently implemented a technique to identify an activation product in the cyclotron vault room. Firstly, the distribution of radioactive concentrations in the concrete of the cyclotron vault room was estimated by calculation from the record of the cyclotron operation. Secondly, the comparison of calculated results with an actual measurement was performed using a NaI scintillation survey meter and a high-purity germanium detector. The calculated values were overestimated as compared to the values measured using the Nal scintillation survey meter and the high-purity germanium detector. However, it could limit the decontamination area. By simulating the activation range, we were able to minimize the concrete core sampling. Finally, the appropriate range of radioactivated area in the cyclotron vault room was decontaminated based on the results of the calculation. After decontamination, the radioactive concentration was below the detection limit value in all areas inside the cyclotron vault room. By these procedures, the decommissioning process of the cyclotron vault room was more efficiently performed. (author)

  6. F-Type Lectins: A Highly Diversified Family of Fucose-Binding Proteins with a Unique Sequence Motif and Structural Fold, Involved in Self/Non-Self-Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo R. Vasta

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The F-type lectin (FTL family is one of the most recent to be identified and structurally characterized. Members of the FTL family are characterized by a fucose recognition domain [F-type lectin domain (FTLD] that displays a novel jellyroll fold (“F-type” fold and unique carbohydrate- and calcium-binding sequence motifs. This novel lectin family comprises widely distributed proteins exhibiting single, double, or greater multiples of the FTLD, either tandemly arrayed or combined with other structurally and functionally distinct domains, yielding lectin subunits of pleiotropic properties even within a single species. Furthermore, the extraordinary variability of FTL sequences (isoforms that are expressed in a single individual has revealed genetic mechanisms of diversification in ligand recognition that are unique to FTLs. Functions of FTLs in self/non-self-recognition include innate immunity, fertilization, microbial adhesion, and pathogenesis, among others. In addition, although the F-type fold is distinctive for FTLs, a structure-based search revealed apparently unrelated proteins with minor sequence similarity to FTLs that displayed the FTLD fold. In general, the phylogenetic analysis of FTLD sequences from viruses to mammals reveals clades that are consistent with the currently accepted taxonomy of extant species. However, the surprisingly discontinuous distribution of FTLDs within each taxonomic category suggests not only an extensive structural/functional diversification of the FTLs along evolutionary lineages but also that this intriguing lectin family has been subject to frequent gene duplication, secondary loss, lateral transfer, and functional co-option.

  7. Selective reversible deuteriation of oligodeoxynucleotides: simplification of two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser effect NMR spectra assignment of a non-self-complementary dodecamer duplex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brush, C.K.; Stone, M.P.; Harris, T.M.

    1988-01-01

    Oligodeoxynucleotides are reversibly deuteriated at the purine C8 and cytosine C5 positions with deuterioammonium bisulfite at pD 7.8. The exchange reaction is complete after 48 h at 65 0 C. When an oligomer deuteriated under these conditions is analyzed by 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, the purine H8 and cytosine H5 proton signals are selectively removed from the spectrum. A non-self-complementary oligodeoxynucleotide that has been deuteriated in this manner may be annealed with its complement and the resulting heteroduplex analyzed by two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser enhancement (NOESY) spectroscopy. The intense cytosine H5-H6 cross-peaks are also removed from the spectrum of the deuteriated strand, which further simplifies interpretation since these strong cross-peaks often interfere with less intense NOE cross-peaks arising from dipolar coupling between purine H8 or pyrimidine H6 and deoxyribose anomeric protons. The resulting spectral simplification allows unambiguous assignments to be made on NOEs that otherwise may be difficult to distinguish. The deuteriation procedure is demonstrated with the sequence d(CGTTATAATGCG)-d(CGCATTATAACG), which has previously been assigned by traditional NOESY methods. Although the assignment of this dodecadeoxynucleotide may be completed without deuteriation, several NOEs must be assigned indirectly because of degeneracies in the chemical shift of the purine H8 protons. This methodology should have wide applicability to NMR spectral interpretation of oligodeoxynucleotides, particularly to oligonucleotides of 12 bases or longer

  8. Mitochondrial recombination increases with age in Podospora anserina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Diepeningen, Anne D; Goedbloed, Daniël J; Slakhorst, S Marijke; Koopmanschap, A Bertha; Maas, Marc F P M; Hoekstra, Rolf F; Debets, Alfons J M

    With uniparental inheritance of mitochondria, there seems little reason for homologous recombination in mitochondria, but the machinery for mitochondrial recombination is quite well-conserved in many eukaryote species. In fungi and yeasts heteroplasmons may be formed when strains fuse and transfer

  9. Parasitization of Lacanobia oleracea (Lepidoptera) by the ectoparasitic wasp, Eulophus pennicornis, suppresses haemocyte-mediated recognition of non-self and phagocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, E H.; Edwards, J P.

    2000-01-01

    Although many endoparasitic wasps suppress the haemocyte-mediated immune defences of their insect hosts, the effects of ectoparasitoids are virtually unknown. In view of this, a study has been made of the ectoparasitic wasp, Eulophus pennicornis, and its host, the tomato moth, Lacanobia oleracea. For unparasitized insects, in vitro assays indicated that less than 3.0% of L. oleracea haemocytes on a monolayer formed rosettes with yeast cells or fresh rabbit erythrocytes (rbc), and virtually no phagocytosis of these particles occurred. In addition, although fixed rbc formed rosettes with 51.21% of haemocytes, only about 3.0% of the haemocytes ingested one or more of these particles. In contrast to this, B. cereus and E. coli were readily phagocytosed by 14.75% and 53.70% of haemocytes, respectively. These results indicate that L. oleracea haemocytes can recognise different types of non-self particles and demonstrate that ingestion does not necessarily follow attachment. When rosetting and phagocytosis assays were performed with fixed rbc and FITC-labelled E. coli, and haemocytes from starved L. oleracea, PBS injected L. oleracea, and experimentally envenomated insects on day five of treatment, there was no significant difference in the percentage of rosetting or phagocytosis occurring. When haemocytes from parasitized insects on day five of treatment were utilised, however, rosetting and phagocytosis were reduced by 31.41% and 34.94%, respectively. Thus, the effects of parasitization and experimental envenomation are not the same. In addition, suppression of host haemocyte-mediated recognition and phagocytosis was not a secondary effect of nutritional deprivation and was not due to ectoparasitoid venom components, rather it was a direct result of parasitization of L. oleracea by E. pennicornis. The putative nature and source of the immunosuppressive factor(s) involved is discussed with reference to those produced by endoparasitic wasps.

  10. Comparative analysis of genetic incompatibility in Aspergillus niger and Podospora anserina

    OpenAIRE

    Pal, K.

    2007-01-01

    Reproduction is of crucial importance for living organisms, from bacteria to humans. Except for mammals and birds, both sexual and asexual reproduction is known almost at every level of thephylogenetictree. A special case of asexual reproduction in filamentous fungi is the so calledparasexualcycle, whenhyphaeof different individuals fuse and the genetic material of different origin can be mixed. The black mouldAspergillusniger is a versatile organism used in industry and sometimes found as op...

  11. Comparative analysis of genetic incompatibility in Aspergillus niger and Podospora anserina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pal, K.

    2007-01-01

    Reproduction is of crucial importance for living organisms, from bacteria to humans. Except for mammals and birds, both sexual and asexual reproduction is known almost at every level of thephylogenetictree. A special case of asexual reproduction in filamentous fungi is the

  12. UV and gamma-ray sensitivity of meiosis-deficient mutants in Podospora anserina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonet, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    Two mutants, mei1 and mei2, were isolated by screening for deficiencies occurring in the meiotic process. The sensitivity of mei1 and mei2 mutant strains to UV irradiation showed a significant increase as compared with that of the wild-type stock, hwhereas the sensitivity to γ-rays remained unchanged. The double-mutant strains were no more sensitive than each single mutant. The data indicate that both mei1 and mei2 loci are probably involved in the same pathway of excision-repair of UV-induced lesions

  13. Natural variation of heterokaryon incompatibility gene het-c in Podospora anserina reveals diversifying selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaans, Eric; Debets, Alfons J M; Aanen, Duur K; van Diepeningen, Anne D; Saupe, Sven J; Paoletti, Mathieu

    In filamentous fungi, allorecognition takes the form of heterokaryon incompatibility, a cell death reaction triggered when genetically distinct hyphae fuse. Heterokaryon incompatibility is controlled by specific loci termed het-loci. In this article, we analyzed the natural variation in one such

  14. Natural Variation of Heterokaryon Incompatibility Gene het-c in Podospora anserina Reveals Diversifying Selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaans, E.; Debets, A.J.M.; Aanen, D.K.; Diepeningen, van A.D.; Saupe, S.J.; Paoletti, M.

    2014-01-01

    In filamentous fungi, allorecognition takes the form of heterokaryon incompatibility, a cell death reaction triggered when genetically distinct hyphae fuse. Heterokaryon incompatibility is controlled by specific loci termed het-loci. In this article, we analyzed the natural variation in one such

  15. On a non-self adjoint eigenfunction expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Naylor

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a formula of inversion for an integral transform similar to that associated with the names of Kontorovich and Lebedev. The kernel involves the Hankel function Hu(1(kr, in which r varies over a truncated infinite interval a≤r0 and the parameter k is complex. This kind of transform is useful in the investigation of functions that satisfy the Helmholtz equation and the condition of radiation.

  16. Non-self-adjoint Schrödinger operators with nonlocal one-point interactions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuzhel, S.; Znojil, Miloslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 4 (2017), s. 923-944 ISSN 1735-8787 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-22945S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : 1-dimensional Schrodinger operator * nonlocal one-point interactions * boundary triplet Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics OBOR OECD: Atomic, molecular and chemical physics (physics of atoms and molecules including collision, interaction with radiation, magnetic resonances, Mössbauer effect) Impact factor: 0.833, year: 2016

  17. An anomalous non-self-similar infiltration and fractional diffusion equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimov, D. N.; Kondratieva, V. A.; Sinkevich, O. A.

    2010-08-01

    Problems of anomalous infiltration in porous media are considered. As follows from the analysis of experimental data, modification of the infiltration equation is necessary. A fractional diffusion equation with variable order of the time-derivative operator for describing the liquid infiltration in porous media is proposed. The physical meaning of this fractional equation is explained. This equation provides good agreement with existing experimental data for both the subdiffusion and the superdiffusion. The treatment of experimental data for the absorption of water in a fired-clay brick and for water infiltration in cement mortar using this fractional equation of diffusion is presented. Various formulae, which can be useful for applications, have been developed.

  18. Nonlinear response arising from non self-similar crack growth in finite thickness plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sih, G.C.; Chen, C.

    1982-07-01

    Described in this report is a three-dimensional finite element procedure for finding the stresses in a finite thickness plate with a through crack. The Mode I loading is increased incrementally such that crack growth occurs in segments. The individual crack profiles are assumed to coincide with the locations of minimum strain energy density, (dW/dV)/sub min/. Its shape is found to change during growth. Each successive crack growth increment will increase even though the rising load increment is kept constant. Three different plate thickness to half crack length ratios were analyzed. An average critical crack ligament distance r/sub c/ = 0.172 in (0.437 cm) being independent of crack and specimen size was obtained. This corresponds to an analytically predicted fracture toughness S/sub c/ = r/sub c/ (dW/dV)/sub c/ = 15.489 lb/in (2708.825 N/m) for A533B steel at -10 0 F. Data at low temperature were used in order to confine crack growth within the linear elastic range

  19. The Non-Self-Embedding Property for Generalized Fuzzy Context-Free Grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asveld, P.R.J.

    1996-01-01

    A fuzzy context-free $K$-grammar is a fuzzy context-free grammar with a countable rather than a finite number of rules satisfying the following condition: for each symbol $\\alpha$, the set containing all right-hand sides of rules with left-hand side equal to $\\alpha$ forms a fuzzy language that

  20. The Non-Self-Embedding Property for Generalized Fuzzy Context-free Grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asveld, P.R.J.

    1999-01-01

    A fuzzy context-free $K$-grammar is a fuzzy context-free grammar with a countable rather than a finite number of rules satisfying the following condition: for each symbol $\\alpha$, the set containing all right-hand sides of rules with left-hand side equal to $\\alpha$ forms a fuzzy language that

  1. Stabilization of non-self-spreading hotspots in current- and voltage-biased superconducting NbN microstrips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, S; Piraux, L; Michotte, S; Lucot, D; Mailly, D

    2009-01-01

    Electrical transport measurements were performed on superconducting NbN multicontact microstrips in order to investigate non-equilibrium dissipative states in type-II nanostructures. Current-biased and voltage-biased approaches point out the ability to stabilize a normal phase that grows discontinuously, in opposition to the usual self-spreading hotspot propagation. Results obtained by applying a dc voltage to two segments in series support this idea of a peculiar hotspot expansion. This last voltage-biasing configuration, which involves five contacts, could be used in the future to distinguish more easily between hotspot discontinuous growth and phase-slippage mechanisms.

  2. Design and analysis of modified Smith predictors for self-regulating and non-self regulating processes with dead time

    CERN Document Server

    Saravanakumar, G; Nayak, C G

    2007-01-01

    A modification of Smith predictor for controlling the higher order processes with integral action ad long dead-time is proposed in this paper. The controller used in this Smith predictor is an Integral-Proportional Derivative controller, where the Integrator is in the forward path and the Proportional and Derivative control are in the feedback, acting on the feedback signal. The main objective of this paper is to design a Dead Time Compensator(DTC), which has minimum tuning parameters, simple controller tuning, robust performance of tuning formulae and to obtain a critically damped system which is as fast as possible in its setpoint and load disturbance rejection performance. The controller in this paper is tuned by an adaptive method. This paper also presents a survey of various dead time compensators and their performance analysis.

  3. Effects of Social Desirability Bias on Self-Report and Non Self-Report Assessments During Smoking Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ratings; Peabody , 1962), acquiescence bias (tendency to agree; Lentz, 1938), and social desirability response bias (Bernreuter, 1933; Vernon, 1934...dimensions. Journal of Psychology, 132(4), 401-406. Davis, T. C., Crouch, M. A., Long, S. W., Jackson, R. H., Bates, P., George , R. B., & Bairnsfather, L...Stemmler, G. (2003). Substance and bias in social desirability responding. Personality and Individual Differences, 35, 263-275. Peabody , D. (1962). Two

  4. DMPD: Innate sensing of self and non-self RNAs by Toll-like receptors. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sml) Open .csml file with CIOPlayer Open .csml file with CIOPlayer - ※CIO Playerのご利用上の注意 Open .csml file with CIO Open .csml file with CIO - ※CIOのご利用上の注意 ...

  5. MISS-Prot: web server for self/non-self discrimination of protein residue networks in parasites; theory and experiments in Fasciola peptides and Anisakis allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Díaz, Humberto; Muíño, Laura; Anadón, Ana M; Romaris, Fernanda; Prado-Prado, Francisco J; Munteanu, Cristian R; Dorado, Julián; Sierra, Alejandro Pazos; Mezo, Mercedes; González-Warleta, Marta; Gárate, Teresa; Ubeira, Florencio M

    2011-06-01

    Infections caused by human parasites (HPs) affect the poorest 500 million people worldwide but chemotherapy has become expensive, toxic, and/or less effective due to drug resistance. On the other hand, many 3D structures in Protein Data Bank (PDB) remain without function annotation. We need theoretical models to quickly predict biologically relevant Parasite Self Proteins (PSP), which are expressed differentially in a given parasite and are dissimilar to proteins expressed in other parasites and have a high probability to become new vaccines (unique sequence) or drug targets (unique 3D structure). We present herein a model for PSPs in eight different HPs (Ascaris, Entamoeba, Fasciola, Giardia, Leishmania, Plasmodium, Trypanosoma, and Toxoplasma) with 90% accuracy for 15 341 training and validation cases. The model combines protein residue networks, Markov Chain Models (MCM) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). The input parameters are the spectral moments of the Markov transition matrix for electrostatic interactions associated with the protein residue complex network calculated with the MARCH-INSIDE software. We implemented this model in a new web-server called MISS-Prot (MARCH-INSIDE Scores for Self-Proteins). MISS-Prot was programmed using PHP/HTML/Python and MARCH-INSIDE routines and is freely available at: . This server is easy to use by non-experts in Bioinformatics who can carry out automatic online upload and prediction with 3D structures deposited at PDB (mode 1). We can also study outcomes of Peptide Mass Fingerprinting (PMFs) and MS/MS for query proteins with unknown 3D structures (mode 2). We illustrated the use of MISS-Prot in experimental and/or theoretical studies of peptides from Fasciola hepatica cathepsin proteases or present on 10 Anisakis simplex allergens (Ani s 1 to Ani s 10). In doing so, we combined electrophoresis (1DE), MALDI-TOF Mass Spectroscopy, and MASCOT to seek sequences, Molecular Mechanics + Molecular Dynamics (MM/MD) to generate 3D structures and MISS-Prot to predict PSP scores. MISS-Prot also allows the prediction of PSP proteins in 16 additional species including parasite hosts, fungi pathogens, disease transmission vectors, and biotechnologically relevant organisms.

  6. A Comparison of Invalidating Family Environment Characteristics between University Students Engaging in Self-Injurious Thoughts & Actions and Non-Self-Injuring University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jodi; Bureau, Jean-Francois; Cloutier, Paula; Lafontaine, Marie-France

    2011-01-01

    Individuals experiencing non-suicidal self-injurious (NSSI) thoughts only are greatly overlooked by current research. This investigation aimed at determining how three groups of university students differed in their reported quality of childhood relationships with parents, and histories of physical and sexual abuses. These groups included students…

  7. Some Integral Type Fixed Point Theorems for Non-Self-Mappings Satisfying Generalized (ψ,φ-Weak Contractive Conditions in Symmetric Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan Amin Kutbi

    2014-01-01

    weakly compatible mappings in symmetric spaces satisfying generalized (ψ,φ-contractive conditions employing the common limit range property. We furnish some interesting examples which support our main theorems. Our results generalize and extend some recent results contained in Imdad et al. (2013 to symmetric spaces. Consequently, a host of metrical common fixed theorems are generalized and improved. In the process, we also derive a fixed point theorem for four finite families of mappings which can be utilized to derive common fixed point theorems involving any number of finite mappings.

  8. Self/non-self recognition mechanisms in sexual reproduction: new insight into the self-incompatibility system shared by flowering plants and hermaphroditic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Hitoshi; Morita, Masaya; Iwano, Megumi

    2014-08-01

    Sexual reproduction is an essential process for generating a genetic variety in the next generation. However, most flowering plants and hermaphroditic animals potentially allow self-fertilization. Approximately 60% of angiosperms possess a self-incompatibility (SI) system to avoid inbreeding. The SI system functions at a process of interaction between pollen (or pollen tube) and the pistil. These SI-responsible factors (S-determinants) in pollen and the pistil are encoded by highly polymorphic multiallelic genes in the S-locus, which are tightly linked making a single haplotype. Different taxonomic families utilize different types of S-determinant proteins. In contrast to the plant system, the mechanisms of SI in simultaneously hermaphroditic animals are largely unknown. Among them, promising candidates for SI in ascidians (primitive chordates) were recently identified. The SI system in the ascidian Cionaintestinalis was found to be very similar to those in flowering plants: The products of sperm- and egg-side multiallelic SI genes, which are tight linked and highly polymorphic, appear to be responsible for the SI system as revealed by genetic analysis. These findings led us to speculate that the SI systems in plants and animals evolved in a manner of convergent evolution. Here, we review the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms of the SI system in flowering plants, particularly Brassicacea, and in ascidians from the viewpoint of common mechanisms shared by plants and animals. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Dissolution Dynamic Nuclear Polarization of Non-Self-Glassing Agents: Spectroscopy and Relaxation of Hyperpolarized [1-13C]Acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flori, Alessandra; Liserani, Matteo; Bowen, Sean

    2015-01-01

    The intrinsic physicochemical properties of the sample formulation are the key factors for efficient hyperpolarization through dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (dissolution-DNP). We provide a comprehensive characterization of the DNP process for Na-[1-13C]acetate selected as a model for non...

  10. Development of Safe and Non-Self-Immunogenic Mucosal Adjuvant by Recombinant Fusion of Cholera Toxin A1 Subunit with Protein Transduction Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung-Shik Shim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Potential use of cholera toxin (CT as a mucosal vaccine adjuvant has been documented in a variety of animal models. However, native CT is highly toxic to be used as a mucosal adjuvant in humans. Here, we demonstrate a new approach to generate a mucosal adjuvant by replacing the B subunit of CT with HIV-1 Tat protein transduction domain (PTD, which efficiently delivers fusion proteins into the cell cytoplasm by unspecific binding to cell surface. We compared the adjuvanticity and toxicity of Tat PTD-CTA1-Tat PTD (TCTA1T with those of CT. Our results indicate that intranasal (i.n. delivery of ovalbumin (OVA with TCTA1T significantly augments the OVA-specific systemic and mucosal antibody responses to levels comparable to those seen with CT adjuvant. Moreover, in vivo cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity elicited by TCTA1T was significantly higher than that elicited by a mutant TCTA1T (TmCTA1T lacking ADP-ribosyltransferase function. In addition, coadministration of influenza M2 protein with TCTA1T conferred near complete protection against lethal influenza virus challenge. Importantly, TCTA1T, in contrast to CT, did not induce serum IgG antibody responses to itself and was shown to be nontoxic. These results suggest that TCTA1T may be a safe and effective adjuvant when given by mucosal routes.

  11. A T Helper Cell 2 (Th2) Immune Response against Non-self Antigens Modifies the Cytokine Profile of Autoimmune T Cells and Protects against Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, Marika; Bloom, Barry R.

    1997-01-01

    Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS), and the most commonly used experimental model for multiple sclerosis. It is mediated by autoreactive T cell clones exhibiting a T helper cell (Th) 1 cytokine profile. Nonencephalitogenic T lymphocytes specific for self or exogenous antigens have been found to suppress encephalitogenic T cell responses and to protect against autoimmune disease. The mechanisms by which exogenous antigens modulate autoimmunity are not fully understood. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that a Th2-type immune response against an exogenous, nonself antigen, keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), by releasing IL-4 in the microenvironment, could shift the cytokine profile of encephalitogenic T cells from an inflammatory Th1 to a protective Th2 type. SJL/J mice were preimmunized with the KLH in incomplete Freund's adjuvant to induce a population of Th2 memory cells that would be expected to release Th2 cytokines when activated by the specific antigen at the time of EAE induction. Four weeks later, mice received an encephalitogenic challenge containing guinea pig myelin in complete Freund's adjuvant with or without KLH. All KLH primed animals not receiving the exogenous antigen at the time of EAE induction developed a severe clinical disease indistinguishable from control mice not KLH primed. In contrast, animals preimmunized and challenged with the encephalitogenic inoculum containing KLH showed either no, or markedly reduced, clinical signs. Enzyme-linked immunospot analysis demonstrated that KLH-specific T cells in the primed mice were producing IL-4 characteristic of Th2 cells. In the KLH-primed and restimulated mice, the cytokine profile of the autoreactive, myelin basic protein–specific T cells was shifted from an inflammatory Th1 towards a protective Th2 type. We infer that the presence of IL-4 secreted by KLH-specific memory Th2 cells in the lymphoid system microenvironment in which the autoreactive T cells were engaged by the encephalitogenic stimulus were able to bias their cytokine profile towards a protective Th2 phenotype. This interpretation is supported by the observation that the protective effect of preimmunization with KLH was overcome by rm– IL-12, which inhibited the production of IL-4 by the Th1 cells and biased the autoimmune response to a predominantly Th1 type. Since IL-4 mRNA could not be detected by reverse transcriptase PCR in the CNS, the protective effect was inferred to be mediated by Th2 cells in the lymphoid system, and not the target organ. We conclude that exogenous, nonself antigens that can induce Th2 responses, can modify the cytokine environment sufficiently to alter the cytokine phenotype of inflammatory, autoreactive T cell clones, and ultimately, to provide significant protection against EAE and possibly other T cell–mediated autoimmune diseases. PMID:9120396

  12. A T helper cell 2 (Th2) immune response against non-self antigens modifies the cytokine profile of autoimmune T cells and protects against experimental allergic encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, M; Bloom, B R

    1997-03-03

    Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS), and the most commonly used experimental model for multiple sclerosis. It is mediated by autoreactive T cell clones exhibiting a T helper cell (Th) 1 cytokine profile. Nonencephalitogenic T lymphocytes specific for self or exogenous antigens have been found to suppress encephalitogenic T cell responses and to protect against autoimmune disease. The mechanisms by which exogenous antigens modulate autoimmunity are not fully understood. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that a Th2-type immune response against an exogenous, nonself antigen, keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), by releasing IL-4 in the microenvironment, could shift the cytokine profile of encephalitogenic T cells from an inflammatory Th1 to a protective Th2 type. SJL/J mice were preimmunized with the KLH in incomplete Freund's adjuvant to induce a population of Th2 memory cells that would be expected to release Th2 cytokines when activated by the specific antigen at the time of EAE induction. Four weeks later, mice received an encephalitogenic challenge containing guinea pig myelin in complete Freund's adjuvant with or without KLH. All KLH primed animals not receiving the exogenous antigen at the time of EAE induction developed a severe clinical disease indistinguishable from control mice not KLH primed. In contrast, animals preimmunized and challenged with the encephalitogenic inoculum containing KLH showed either no, or markedly reduced, clinical signs. Enzyme-linked immunospot analysis demonstrated that KLH-specific T cells in the primed mice were producing IL-4 characteristic of Th2 cells. In the KLH-primed and restimulated mice, the cytokine profile of the autoreactive, myelin basic protein-specific T cells was shifted from an inflammatory Th1 towards a protective Th2 type. We infer that the presence of IL-4 secreted by KLH-specific memory Th2 cells in the lymphoid system microenvironment in which the autoreactive T cells were engaged by the encephalitogenic stimulus were able to bias their cytokine profile towards a protective Th2 phenotype. This interpretation is supported by the observation that the protective effect of preimmunization with KLH was overcome by rm-IL-12, which inhibited the production of IL-4 by the Th1 cells and biased the autoimmune response to a predominantly Th1 type. Since IL-4 mRNA could not be detected by reverse transcriptase PCR in the CNS, the protective effect was inferred to be mediated by Th2 cells in the lymphoid system, and not the target organ. We conclude that exogenous, nonself antigens that can induce Th2 responses, can modify the cytokine environment sufficiently to alter the cytokine phenotype of inflammatory, autoreactive T cell clones, and ultimately, to provide significant protection against EAE and possibly other T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases.

  13. DMPD: RIG-I: tri-ing to discriminate between self and non-self RNA. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e (.html) CSML File (.csml) Open .csml file with CIOPlayer Open .csml file with CIOPlayer - ※CIO Playerのご利用上の注意 Open .csml file with CIO Open .csml file with CIO - ※CIOのご利用上の注意 ...

  14. The Effects of Self-Disclosure and Non Self-Disclosure of Stuttering on Listeners' Perceptions of a Person Who Stutters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, E. Charles; Gabel, Rodney M.; Daniels, Derek E.; Kawai, Nori

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine listener perceptions of an adult male person who stutters (PWS) who did or did not disclose his stuttering. Ninety adults who do not stutter individually viewed one of three videotaped monologues produced by a male speaker with severe stuttering. In one monologue, 30 listeners heard the speaker disclose…

  15. Exact Solution for Non-Self-Similar Wave-Interaction Problem during Two-Phase Four-Component Flow in Porous Media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borazjani, S.; Bedrikovetsky, P.; Farajzadeh, R.

    2014-01-01

    Analytical solutions for one-dimensional two-phase multicomponent flows in porous media describe processes of enhanced oil recovery, environmental flows of waste disposal, and contaminant propagation in subterranean reservoirs and water management in aquifers. We derive the exact solution for 3x3

  16. Genomic clustering and homology between HET-S and the NWD2 STAND protein in various fungal genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asen Daskalov

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prions are infectious proteins propagating as self-perpetuating amyloid polymers. The [Het-s] prion of Podospora anserina is involved in a cell death process associated with non-self recognition. The prion forming domain (PFD of HET-s adopts a β-solenoid amyloid structure characterized by the two fold repetition of an elementary triangular motif. [Het-s] induces cell death when interacting with HET-S, an allelic variant of HET-s. When templated by [Het-s], HET-S undergoes a trans-conformation, relocates to the cell membrane and induces toxicity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, comparing HET-s homologs from different species, we devise a consensus for the HET-s elementary triangular motif. We use this motif to screen genomic databases and find a match to the N-terminus of NWD2, a STAND protein, encoded by the gene immediately adjacent to het-S. STAND proteins are signal transducing ATPases which undergo ligand-induced oligomerisation. Homology modelling predicts that the NWD2 N-terminal region adopts a HET-s-like fold. We propose that upon NWD2 oligomerisation, these N-terminal extensions adopt the β-solenoid fold and template HET-S to adopt the amyloid fold and trigger toxicity. We extend this model to a putative prion, the σ infectious element in Nectria haematococca, because the s locus controlling propagation of σ also encodes a STAND protein and displays analogous features. Comparative genomic analyses indicate evolutionary conservation of these STAND/prion-like gene pairs, identify a number of novel prion candidates and define, in addition to the HET-s PFD motif, two distinct, novel putative PFD-like motifs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We suggest the existence, in the fungal kingdom, of a widespread and evolutionarily conserved mode of signal transduction based on the transmission of an amyloid-fold from a NOD-like STAND receptor protein to an effector protein.

  17. Potential larvicidal effects of Tephrosia vogelii leaf extract on Culex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    human and avian malaria, human and animal filariases, rickettsial infections such as Borrelia anserina in fowl .... swimming away from the light were confirmed as dead. Abbots formula (Table 3). Abbots formula takes .... activity in the mosquito larvae need to be carried out. Acknowledgements. We would like to express our ...

  18. Methylated DNA in Borrelia species.

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, C A; Johnson, R C

    1990-01-01

    The DNA of Borrelia species was examined for the presence of methylated GATC sequences. The relapsing-fever Borrelia sp., B. coriaceae, and only 3 of 22 strains of B. burgdorferi contained adenine methylation systems. B. anserina lacked an adenine methylation system. Fundamental differences in DNA methylation exist among members of the genus Borrelia.

  19. Forced selection of a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variant that uses a non-self tRNA primer for reverse transcription: Involvement of viral RNA sequences and the reverse transcriptase enzyme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, Truus E. M.; Beerens, Nancy; Berkhout, Ben

    2004-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 uses the tRNA(3)(Lys) molecule as a selective primer for reverse transcription. This primer specificity is imposed by sequence complementarity between the tRNA primer and two motifs in the viral RNA genome: the primer-binding site (PBS) and the primer activation

  20. A differential genome-wide transcriptome analysis: impact of cellular copper on complex biological processes like aging and development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Servos

    Full Text Available The regulation of cellular copper homeostasis is crucial in biology. Impairments lead to severe dysfunctions and are known to affect aging and development. Previously, a loss-of-function mutation in the gene encoding the copper-sensing and copper-regulated transcription factor GRISEA of the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina was reported to lead to cellular copper depletion and a pleiotropic phenotype with hypopigmentation of the mycelium and the ascospores, affected fertility and increased lifespan by approximately 60% when compared to the wild type. This phenotype is linked to a switch from a copper-dependent standard to an alternative respiration leading to both a reduced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and of adenosine triphosphate (ATP. We performed a genome-wide comparative transcriptome analysis of a wild-type strain and the copper-depleted grisea mutant. We unambiguously assigned 9,700 sequences of the transcriptome in both strains to the more than 10,600 predicted and annotated open reading frames of the P. anserina genome indicating 90% coverage of the transcriptome. 4,752 of the transcripts differed significantly in abundance with 1,156 transcripts differing at least 3-fold. Selected genes were investigated by qRT-PCR analyses. Apart from this general characterization we analyzed the data with special emphasis on molecular pathways related to the grisea mutation taking advantage of the available complete genomic sequence of P. anserina. This analysis verified but also corrected conclusions from earlier data obtained by single gene analysis, identified new candidates of factors as part of the cellular copper homeostasis system including target genes of transcription factor GRISEA, and provides a rich reference source of quantitative data for further in detail investigations. Overall, the present study demonstrates the importance of systems biology approaches also in cases were mutations in single genes are analyzed to

  1. A mitochondrial mutator plasmid that causes senescence under dietary restricted conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoekstra Rolf F

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calorie or dietary restriction extends life span in a wide range of organisms including the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina. Under dietary restricted conditions, P. anserina isolates are several-fold longer lived. This is however not the case in isolates that carry one of the pAL2-1 homologous mitochondrial plasmids. Results We show that the pAL2-1 homologues act as 'insertional mutators' of the mitochondrial genome, which may explain their negative effect on life span extension. Sequencing revealed at least fourteen unique plasmid integration sites, of which twelve were located within the mitochondrial genome and two within copies of the plasmid itself. The plasmids were able to integrate in their entirety, via a non-homologous mode of recombination. Some of the integrated plasmid copies were truncated, which probably resulted from secondary, post-integrative, recombination processes. Integration sites were predominantly located within and surrounding the region containing the mitochondrial rDNA loci. Conclusion We propose a model for the mechanism of integration, based on innate modes of mtDNA recombination, and discuss its possible link with the plasmid's negative effect on dietary restriction mediated life span extension.

  2. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U11295-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 382126 |pid:none) Kluyveromyces lactis strain NRRL... 120 1e-25 BC122690_1( BC122690 |pid:none) Bos taurus transcription term...ns RNA polymerase II ter... 119 2e-25 (Q9UNY4) RecName: Full=Transcription termination factor 2; ... 119 ...345( CU633901 |pid:none) Podospora anserina genomic DNA c... 116 2e-24 (Q5NC05) RecName: Full=Transcription term...|pid:none) Mus musculus transcription termina... 115 2e-24 AL596125_1( AL596125 |pid:none) Mouse DNA sequenc...se (hZF... 115 4e-24 ( P34739 ) RecName: Full=Transcription termination factor 2;

  3. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15690-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available niger contig An06c009... 71 2e-10 M61213_1( M61213 |pid:none) Human neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) m... 69 ...7e-10 M38107_1( M38107 |pid:none) Human neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) ... 69 7e-10 U17690_2( U17690 |pid:none) Human neurofibromato...r neurofibromi... 69 7e-10 M60915_2( M60915 |pid:none) Human neurofibromatosis pr...-07 CU928179_147( CU928179 |pid:none) Zygosaccharomyces rouxii strain ... 61 3e-07 U17690_1( U17690 |pid:none) Human neurofibromatosi...none) Podospora anserina genomic DNA ch... 60 5e-07 I78852( I78852 ;A48116;I52261) neurofibromatosis protein

  4. The relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia miyamotoi is cultivable in a modified Kelly-Pettenkofer medium, and is resistant to human complement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagemakers, Alex; Oei, Anneke; Fikrig, Michelle M; Miellet, Willem R; Hovius, Joppe W

    2014-09-04

    Borrelia miyamotoi is a relapsing fever spirochete found in Ixodes ticks in North America, Europe, and Asia, and has recently been found to be invasive in humans. Cultivation of this spirochete has not yet been described, but is important for patient diagnostics and scientific purposes. Host specificity of Borrelia species is dependent on resistance to host complement (serum resistance), and since B. miyamotoi has been identified as a human pathogen we were interested whether B. miyamotoi is resistant to human complement. We inoculated B. miyamotoi strains LB-2001 and HT31 in modified-Kelly-Pettenkofer medium with 10% fetal calf serum (MKP-F), and used standard non-laborious Borrelia culture methods to culture the spirochetes. Next, we assessed serum sensitivity by a direct killing assay and a growth inhibition assay. We were able to passage B. miyamotoi over 10 times using a standard culture method in MKP-F medium, and found B. miyamotoi to be resistant to human complement. In contrast to B. miyamotoi, Borrelia anserina--a relapsing fever spirochete unrelated to human infection--was serum sensitive. Using a variation on MKP medium we were able to culture B. miyamotoi, opening the door to in vitro research into this spirochete. In addition, we describe that B. miyamotoi is resistant to human complement, which might play an important role in pathogenesis. We have also found B. anserina to be sensitive to human complement, which might explain why it is not related to human infection. Summarizing, we describe a novel culture method for B. miyamotoi and show it is resistant to human complement.

  5. Wild food plants and fungi used in the mycophilous Tibetan community of Zhagana (Tewo County, Gansu, China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jin; Kang, Yongxiang; Ji, Xiaolian; Guo, Quanping; Jacques, Guillaume; Pietras, Marcin; Łuczaj, Nasim; Li, Dengwu; Łuczaj, Łukasz

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate knowledge and use of wild food plants and fungi in a highland valley in the Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Region on the north-eastern edges of the Tibetan Plateau. Field research was carried out in four neighbouring villages in a mountain valley of the Diebu (Tewo) county, surrounded by spruce forests. The study consisted of 30 interviews with single informants, or group interviews (altogether 63 informants). Apart from collecting voucher specimens, we also identified fungi using DNA barcoding. We recorded the use of 54 species of vascular plants. We also recorded the use of 22 mushroom taxa, which made up the largest category of wild foods. Fruits formed the largest category of food plants, with 21 species, larger than the wild greens category, which consisted of 20 species eaten after boiling or frying and 7 as raw snacks. We also recorded the alimentary use of 10 species of edible flowers and 3 species with underground edible organs. On average, 20.8 edible taxa were listed per interview (median - 21). The most listed category of wild foods was green vegetables (mean - 7.5 species, median - 8 species), but fruits and mushrooms were listed nearly as frequently (mean - 6.3, median - 6 and mean - 5.8, - median 6 respectively). Other category lists were very short, e.g., flowers (mean - 1.3, median - 1) and underground edible parts (mean - 0.7, median - 1). Wild vegetables are usually boiled and/or fried and served as side-dishes, or their green parts are eaten as snacks during mountain treks (e.g., peeled rhubarb shoots). Wild fruits are mainly collected by children and eaten raw, they are not stored for further use. The most widely used wild staple foods are Potetilla anserina roots, an important ceremonial food served on such occasions as New Year or at funerals. They are boiled and served with sugar and butter. The most important famine plants remembered by people are the aerial bulbils of Persicaria vivipara. Flowers are used

  6. Origins and evolution of the HET-s prion-forming protein: searching for other amyloid-forming solenoids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deena M A Gendoo

    Full Text Available The HET-s prion-forming domain from the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina is gaining considerable interest since it yielded the first well-defined atomic structure of a functional amyloid fibril. This structure has been identified as a left-handed beta solenoid with a triangular hydrophobic core. To delineate the origins of the HET-s prion-forming protein and to discover other amyloid-forming proteins, we searched for all homologs of the HET-s protein in a database of protein domains and fungal genomes, using a combined application of HMM, psi-blast and pGenThreader techniques, and performed a comparative evolutionary analysis of the N-terminal alpha-helical domain and the C-terminal prion-forming domain of HET-s. By assessing the tandem evolution of both domains, we observed that the prion-forming domain is restricted to Sordariomycetes, with a marginal additional sequence homolog in Arthroderma otae as a likely case of horizontal transfer. This suggests innovation and rapid evolution of the solenoid fold in the Sordariomycetes clade. In contrast, the N-terminal domain evolves at a slower rate (in Sordariomycetes and spans many diverse clades of fungi. We performed a full three-dimensional protein threading analysis on all identified HET-s homologs against the HET-s solenoid fold, and present detailed structural annotations for identified structural homologs to the prion-forming domain. An analysis of the physicochemical characteristics in our set of structural models indicates that the HET-s solenoid shape can be readily adopted in these homologs, but that they are all less optimized for fibril formation than the P. anserina HET-s sequence itself, due chiefly to the presence of fewer asparagine ladders and salt bridges. Our combined structural and evolutionary analysis suggests that the HET-s shape has "limited scope" for amyloidosis across the wider protein universe, compared to the 'generic' left-handed beta helix. We discuss the

  7. Improving Aspergillus carbonarius crude enzymes for lignocellulose hydrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gustav Hammerich

    of cellulases applied as well, as it was found that supplementing Ta_LPMO to Celluclast 1.5 L and Novozym 188 gave an increased efficiency of 25.9 %. Finally it was analyzed whether the same P. anserina LPMO and the CDH from N. crassa would show an improvement of the crude enzymes when heterologously expressed....... Six different media were composed, all based on lignocellulosic waste as substrate. With regards to highest glucose release achieved in wheat straw hydrolysis by crude enzyme application, the most optimal medium was garden and park waste (GPW) supplemented by two nitrogen sources (GPW/N). The nitrogen...... for the supplementation of T. aurantiacus LPMO, both at the high concentration of 4.21 mg/g and at the low concentration of 0.21 mg/g. The glucose release rose from 5.92 to 7.2 or 7.3 g/L. This corresponds to an improvement of the cellulose conversion by 6.8 %. The activity of the LPMO was not enhanced by addition of CDH...

  8. Cloning and molecular characterization of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-encoding gene and cDNA from the plant pathogenic fungus Glomerella cingulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, M D; Rikkerink, E H; Solon, S L; Crowhurst, R N

    1992-12-01

    The glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (gpdA) has been identified from a genomic DNA library prepared from the plant pathogenic fungus Glomerella cingulata. Nucleotide sequence data revealed that this gene codes for a putative 338-amino-acid protein encoded by two exons of 129 and 885 bp, separated by an intron 216 bp long. The 5' leader sequence is also spliced by an intron of 156 bp. A cDNA clone was prepared using the polymerase chain reaction, the sequence of which was used to confirm the presence of the intron in the coding sequence and the splicing of the 5' leader sequence. The transcriptional start point (tsp) was mapped at -253 nt from the site of the initiation of translation by primer extension and is adjacent to a 42-bp pyrimidine-rich region. The general structure of the 5' flanking region shows similarities to gpdA from Aspergillus nidulans. The putative protein product is 71-86% identical at the aa level to GPDs from Aspergillus nidulans, Cryphonectria parasitica, Curvularia lunata, Podospora anserina and Ustilago maydis.

  9. A minimum protocol for randomised homeopathic drug proving as basis for further research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Jean Pierre; Jong, Mats; Hildingsson, Ingegerd; Jong, Miek C

    2014-01-01

    In order to further improve the methodology and quality of data collection in homeopathic drug provings (HDP), there is a need for a minimum standardised HDP protocol. The objective of the present study was to test the feasibility of this type of protocol. The study protocol embraced a multi-centre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with 2 parallel groups. It was approved by an ethics review committee. During the pre-approval phase, discordances between the regulatory and homeopathic requirements for the protocol were checked and solutions found. The study medication was Potentilla anserina. 6 participants received verum and 4 placebo. The resulting symptom list will be published elsewhere. The procedure was accepted by all participants. Three important issues were addressed: the requirement to keep all participants blinded; the adverse events reporting to regulatory authorities; and the necessity of a placebo control group. Other issues that need further investigations were identified, e.g. sample size, observation period and dosage regimen. A minimum protocol of a HDP is feasible. All important design elements of HDP could be solved in discussions with the respective regulatory authorities, and participating homeopaths accepted the procedure. © 2014 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  10. Communities of endophytic sebacinales associated with roots of herbaceous plants in agricultural and grassland ecosystems are dominated by Serendipita herbamans sp. nov.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Riess

    Full Text Available Endophytic fungi are known to be commonly associated with herbaceous plants, however, there are few studies focusing on their occurrence and distribution in plant roots from ecosystems with different land uses. To explore the phylogenetic diversity and community structure of Sebacinales endophytes from agricultural and grassland habitats under different land uses, we analysed the roots of herbaceous plants using strain isolation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and co-cultivation experiments. A new sebacinoid strain named Serendipita herbamans belonging to Sebacinales group B was isolated from the roots of Bistorta vivipara, which is characterized by colourless monilioid cells (chlamydospores that become yellow with age. This species was very common and widely distributed in association with a broad spectrum of herbaceous plant families in diverse habitats, independent of land use type. Ultrastructurally, the presence of S. herbamans was detected in the cortical cells of Plantago media, Potentilla anserina and Triticum aestivum. In addition, 13 few frequent molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs or species were found across agricultural and grassland habitats, which did not exhibit a distinctive phylogenetic structure. Laboratory-based assays indicate that S. herbamans has the ability to colonize fine roots and stimulate plant growth. Although endophytic Sebacinales are widely distributed across agricultural and grassland habitats, TEM and nested PCR analyses reinforce the observation that these microorganisms are present in low quantity in plant roots, with no evidence of host specificity.

  11. A systems biological analysis links ROS metabolism to mitochondrial protein quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowald, Axel; Hamann, Andrea; Zintel, Sandra; Ullrich, Sebastian; Klipp, Edda; Osiewacz, Heinz D

    2012-05-01

    The analyses of previously generated Podospora anserina strains in which the mitochondrial superoxide dismutase, PaSOD3, is increased in abundance, revealed unexpected results, which, at first glance, are contradictory to the 'free radical theory of aging' (FRTA). To re-analyze these results, we performed additional experiments and developed a mathematical model consisting of a set of differential equations describing the time course of various ROS (reactive oxygen species), components of the cellular antioxidant system (PaSOD3 and mitochondrial peroxiredoxin, PaPRX1), and PaCLPP, a mitochondrial matrix protease involved in protein quality control. Incorporating these components we could identify a positive feed-back loop and demonstrate that the role of superoxide as the primary ROS responsible for age-related molecular damage is more complicated than originally stated by the FRTA. Our study is a first step towards the integration of the various pathways known to be involved in the control of biological aging. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Moments of inertia in a semiclassical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benchein, K.

    1993-01-01

    Semiclassical calculations have been performed for 31 nuclei. As a result of preliminary non-fully self-consistent calculations, the moments of inertia in investigated nuclei abd spin degrees of freedom are found

  13. Comparison of CTL reactivity in the spleen and draining lymph nodes after immunization with peptides pulsed on dendritic cells or mixed with Freund's incomplete adjuvant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Ming-Jun; Nissen, Mogens Holst; Buus, Søren

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare CTL reactivity in the spleen and the draining lymph nodes (LN) from C57BL/6 mice after immunization with self and non-self peptides pulsed on autologous dendritic cells (DC) or mixed with Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FIA). METHODS: Peptides showing high to low binding...... in the draining LN, whereas non-self peptides mixed with FIA generated the strongest response in the spleen. CONCLUSIONS: DC-based immunization with non-self and self peptides is more efficient than immunization based on peptides mixed with FIA. DC-based immunization focuses the CTL response towards the spleen....... Immunization based on FIA focuses the response against self peptides towards the draining LN and non-self peptides towards the spleen....

  14. to view fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MADHU

    evolution with host through selection pressure (Alcami and Koszinowski 2000). At the antigen presentation level, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) gene products are important factors in intercellular recognition and self- and non-self-.

  15. Internal electromagnetic pulse produced by the prompt-γ photons in the rectanglar cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Taichun; Wang Yuzhi

    1986-01-01

    The internal electromagnetic pulses produced by the prompt-γ photons were calculated by self-consistent and non-self-consistent method respectively in the rectanglar cavity of the matel. The computational results were analyzed. Under the condition that the electric field is weak and the cavity is small, the results obtained by the self-consistent method is in agreement with the results by the non-self-consistent

  16. Role of human gut microbiota metabolism in the anti-inflammatory effect of traditionally used ellagitannin-rich plant materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwowarski, Jakub P; Granica, Sebastian; Zwierzyńska, Marta; Stefańska, Joanna; Schopohl, Patrick; Melzig, Matthias F; Kiss, Anna K

    2014-08-08

    Ellagitannin-rich plant materials are widely used in traditional medicine as effective, internally used anti-inflammatory agents. Due to the not well-established bioavailability of ellagitannins, the mechanisms of observed therapeutic effects following oral administration still remain unclear. The aim of the study was to evaluate if selected ellagitannin-rich plant materials could be the source of bioavailable gut microbiota metabolites, i.e. urolithins, together with determination of the anti-inflammatory activity of the metabolites produced on the THP-1 cell line derived macrophages model. The formation of urolithins was determined by ex vivo incubation of human fecal samples with aqueous extracts from selected plant materials. The anti-inflammatory activity study of metabolites was determined on PMA differentiated, IFN-γ and LPS stimulated, human THP-1 cell line-derived macrophages. The formation of urolithin A, B and C by human gut microbiota was established for aqueous extracts from Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim. herb (Ph. Eur.), Geranium pratense L. herb, Geranium robertianum L. herb, Geum urbanum L. root and rhizome, Lythrum salicaria L. herb (Ph. Eur.), Potentilla anserina L. herb, Potentilla erecta (L.) Raeusch rhizome (Ph. Eur.), Quercus robur L. bark (Ph. Eur.), Rubus idaeus L. leaf, Rubus fruticosus L. and pure ellagitannin vescalagin. Significant inhibition of TNF-α production was determined for all urolithins, while for the most potent urolithin A inhibition was observed at nanomolar concentrations (at 0.625 μM 29.2±6.4% of inhibition). Urolithin C was the only compound inhibiting IL-6 production (at 0.625 μM 13.9±2.2% of inhibition). The data obtained clearly indicate that in the case of peroral use of the examined ellagitannin-rich plant materials the bioactivity of gut microbiota metabolites, i.e. urolithins, has to be taken under consideration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The complete mitochondrial genome of bean goose (Anser fabalis and implications for anseriformes taxonomy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Liu

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial DNA plays an important role in living organisms, and has been used as a powerful molecular marker in a variety of evolutionary studies. In this study, we determined the complete mtDNA of Bean goose (Anser fabalis, which is 16,688 bp long and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs and a control region. The arrangement is similar to that of typical Anseriform species. All protein-coding genes, except for Cyt b, ND5, COI, and COII, start with an ATG codon. The ATG start codon is also generally observed in the 12 other Anseriform species, including 2 Anser species, with sequenced mitochondrial genomes. TAA is the most frequent stop codon, one of three-TAA, TAG, and T- -commonly observed in Anseriformes. All tRNAs could be folded into canonical cloverleaf secondary structures except for tRNA(Ser(AGY and tRNA(Leu(CUN, which are missing the dihydrouridine (DHU arm. The control region of Bean goose mtDNA, with some conserved sequence boxes, such as F, E, D, and C, identified in its central domain. Phylogenetic analysis of complete mtDNA data for 13 Anseriform species supports the classification of them into four major branches: Anatinae, Anserinae, Dendrocygninae and Anseranatidae. Phylogenetic analyses were also conducted on 36 Anseriform birds using combined Cyt b, ND2, and COI sequences. The results clearly support the genus Somateria as an independent lineage classified in its own tribe, the Somaterini. Recovered topologies from both complete mtDNA and combined DNA sequences strongly indicate that Dendrocygninae is an independent subfamily within the family Anatidae and Anseranatidae represents an independent family. Based on the results of this study, we conclude that combining ND2, Cyt b, and COI sequence data is a workable solution at present for resolving phylogenetic relationships among Anseriform species in the absence of sufficient complete mtDNA data.

  18. Did you or I say pretty, rude or brief? An ERP study of the effects of speaker's identity on emotional word processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Ana P; Rezaii, Neguine; Nestor, Paul G; Rauber, Andréia; Spencer, Kevin M; Niznikiewicz, Margaret

    2016-02-01

    During speech comprehension, multiple cues need to be integrated at a millisecond speed, including semantic information, as well as voice identity and affect cues. A processing advantage has been demonstrated for self-related stimuli when compared with non-self stimuli, and for emotional relative to neutral stimuli. However, very few studies investigated self-other speech discrimination and, in particular, how emotional valence and voice identity interactively modulate speech processing. In the present study we probed how the processing of words' semantic valence is modulated by speaker's identity (self vs. non-self voice). Sixteen healthy subjects listened to 420 prerecorded adjectives differing in voice identity (self vs. non-self) and semantic valence (neutral, positive and negative), while electroencephalographic data were recorded. Participants were instructed to decide whether the speech they heard was their own (self-speech condition), someone else's (non-self speech), or if they were unsure. The ERP results demonstrated interactive effects of speaker's identity and emotional valence on both early (N1, P2) and late (Late Positive Potential - LPP) processing stages: compared with non-self speech, self-speech with neutral valence elicited more negative N1 amplitude, self-speech with positive valence elicited more positive P2 amplitude, and self-speech with both positive and negative valence elicited more positive LPP. ERP differences between self and non-self speech occurred in spite of similar accuracy in the recognition of both types of stimuli. Together, these findings suggest that emotion and speaker's identity interact during speech processing, in line with observations of partially dependent processing of speech and speaker information. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Molecular cloning and expression of a Toll receptor in the giant tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, J.A.J.; Cornelissen, F.; Cijsouw, T.; Hermsen, G.J.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Stet, R.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Invertebrates rely completely for their protection against pathogens on the innate immune system. This non-self-recognition is activated by microbial cell wall components with unique conserved molecular patterns. Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) are recognised by pattern recognition

  20. PT-Symmetric Laplace-Beltrami Operator in the Strip on a Sphere

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Siegl, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 1 (2012), s. 5-6 ISSN 0378-620X Grant - others:European Science Foundation , ESF(XE) EW09-104 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Laplace-Beltrami operator on a sphere * PT-symmetry * non-self-adjoint boundary conditions * real spectrum Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.713, year: 2012

  1. Carbohydrate self-recognition mediates marine sponge cellular adhesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Haseley, S.R.; Vermeer, H.J.; Kamerling, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Sponges (Porifera), the simplest and earliest multicellular organisms, are thought to have evolved from their unicellular ancestors about 1 billion years ago by developing cell-recognition and adhesion mechanisms to discriminate against 'non-self.' Consequently, they are used as models for

  2. Defensive function of persecutory delusion and discrepancy between explicit and implicit self-esteem in schizophrenia: study using the Brief Implicit Association Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Mitsuo; Hayakawa, Tomomi; Okamura, Aiko; Kohigashi, Mutsumi; Fukui, Kenji; Narumoto, Jin

    2015-01-01

    If delusions serve as a defense mechanism in schizophrenia patients with paranoia, then they should show normal or high explicit self-esteem and low implicit self-esteem. However, the results of previous studies are inconsistent. One possible explanation for this inconsistency is that there are two types of paranoia, "bad me" (self-blaming) paranoia and "poor me" (non-self-blaming) paranoia. We thus examined implicit and explicit self-esteem and self-blaming tendency in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. We hypothesized that patients with paranoia would show lower implicit self-esteem and only those with non-self-blaming paranoia would experience a discrepancy between explicit and implicit self-esteem. Participants consisted of patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder recruited from a day hospital (N=71). Participants were assessed for psychotic symptoms, using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), and self-blaming tendency, using the brief COPE. We also assessed explicit self-esteem, using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), implicit self-esteem, using Brief Implicit Association Test (BIAT), and discrepancy between explicit and implicit self-esteem. Contrary to our hypothesis, implicit self-esteem in paranoia and nonparanoia showed no statistical difference. As expected, only patients with non-self-blaming paranoia experienced a discrepancy between explicit and implicit self-esteem; other groups showed no such discrepancy. These results suggest that persecutory delusion plays a defensive role in non-self-blaming paranoia.

  3. Untitled

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The body loses its ability to differentiate self from non self, and an immune reaction is mounted against self — an autoimmune reaction with resulting. inflammation. Erosion of the subchon- dral bone follows with joint and tendon damage. The illness usually presents with stiffness and swelling of joints in a polyarticular and ...

  4. Clinical study on the primary stability of two dental implant systems with resonance frequency analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabel, Annette; Köhler, Steffen Gerhard; Schmidt-Westhausen, Andrea Maria

    2007-09-01

    Primary stability has a major impact on the long-term success of dental implants. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation of resonance frequency analysis (RFA) and insertion torque of self-tapping and non-self-tapping implants and their respective differences in primary stability. A group of 263 patients were treated with a total of 602 conically formed dental implants: 408 non-self-tapping Ankylos and 194 self-tapping Camlog. The maximum insertion torque during implant placement was recorded. Resonance frequency, measured as the implant stability quotient (ISQ), was assessed once immediately after insertion and twice 3 months later. Torque values of the non-self-tapping implants were significantly higher than those in the self-tapping group (p = 0.023). RFA did not show differences between the 2 groups (p = 0.956), but a correlation between ISQ values after implantation and 3 months after implant placement was measured (r = 0.712). Within the implant systems, no correlation between insertion torque and resonance frequency values could be determined (r = 0.305). Our study indicates that the ISQ values obtained from different implant systems are not comparable. The RFA does not appear suitable for the evaluation of implant stability when used as a single method. Higher insertion torque of the non-self-tapping implants appeared to confirm higher clinical primary stability.

  5. 76 FR 4920 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... colorectal cancer as well as a few other cancers for treatment. Cancer is the second leading cause of death... stage of development. Market: Cancer is the second leading cause of death in United States. An estimated... polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) localization: self-versus non-self-priming. Cell Cycle 2008 Jan;7(2):141-145...

  6. Motivational profiles in physical education and their relation to the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Murcia, Juan Antonio; Cervelló Gimeno, Eduardo; Hernández, Elisa Huéscar; Pedreño, Noelia Belan-do; Rodríguez Marín, Jesús Jesus

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish motivational profiles for doing physical activity according to the variables from the theory of planned action in a sample of 698 students aged 14 to 16. The instruments used were the Questionnaire of Behavioral Regulation in Sport (BRQ-R) and the Questionnaire of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TCP). Cluster analysis revealed two motivational profiles: a "self-determined "profile with high scores in intrinsic motivation and low scores in extrinsic motivation and amotivation, and a "non self- determined "profile with low scores in intrinsic motivation and high scores in extrinsic motivation and amotivation. Positive significant differences in attitudes, norms, and intent to control were found for the self-determined profile related to "non self-determined "profile. Key PointsA "self-determined "profile was found with higher scores for the four types of intrinsic motivations (general, knowledge, stimulation and achievement) and identified regulation than for introjected and external regulation.A "non self-determined "profile was found with higher scores for external, introjected regulation and amotivation than for the four types of intrinsic motivation (general, knowledge, stimulation and achievement).In the context of the "non self-determined profile "we could encourage programs that adapt to these needs in such a way that they contribute to increasing the rates of doing physical activity in the population.

  7. [Analysis of the academic level and impact of ophthalmological periodicals in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-quan; Mao, Wen-ming; Zheng, Jun-hai; Qu, Jia

    2009-04-01

    To analyse the whole level and impact of ophthalmological periodicals in China. It was studied by using bibliometrics analysis method. According to the data of CAJCCR in 2002 to 2007 and Chinese Citation Database in 2001 to 2007. The impact factor (IF), non-self-citing impact factor, total cited frequency, cited articles, immediacy index, rate of fund papers, web immediacy download rate, average value of h index were analysed and the non-self-citing rate, h(2)/n, high cited articles were calculated. In addition, the results of cited by cole databases at home and abroad. The average value of IF and cited frequency of 13 kinds of ophthalmological periodicals were 0.3940 and 657 respectively in 2001 to 2006, which were higher than that of D part of CAJCCR. The periodicals which the five indexes of IF, non-self-citing impact factor, total cited frequency, the non-self-citing rate, immediacy index, rate of fund papers, web immediacy download rate, average value of h index and h(2)/n, high cited articles were Top 5 and cited by five or more than five kinds of the cole databases at home and abroad were Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology, Chinese Journal of Ocular Fundus Diseases, Practical Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology and Chinese Journal of Optometry & Ophthalmology. Most of indexes of Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology were the first. There are big difference between the 13 kinds of ophthalmological periodicals. The qualities of some ophthalmological periodicals should be improved.

  8. A study of an inverse problem for finite range potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coudray, C.

    1978-01-01

    The spectrum of non-self adjoint operators associated in scattering theory to complex potentials is first studied. Then a work done is summarized: a transformation mapping the results of the inverse problem for a fixed l=0 value of the angular momentum onto similar results at fixed energy concerning a finite range potential has been generalized to complex potentials

  9. Gene duplication and genetic exchange drive the evolution of S-RNase-based self-incompatibility in Petunia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Ken-Ichi; Paape, Timothy; Hatakeyama, Masaomi; Entani, Tetsuyuki; Takara, Akie; Kajihara, Kie; Tsukahara, Mai; Shimizu-Inatsugi, Rie; Shimizu, Kentaro K; Takayama, Seiji

    2015-01-08

    Self-incompatibility (SI) systems in flowering plants distinguish self- and non-self pollen to prevent inbreeding. While other SI systems rely on the self-recognition between specific male- and female-determinants, the Solanaceae family has a non-self recognition system resulting in the detoxification of female-determinants of S-ribonucleases (S-RNases), expressed in pistils, by multiple male-determinants of S-locus F-box proteins (SLFs), expressed in pollen. It is not known how many SLF components of this non-self recognition system there are in Solanaceae species, or how they evolved. We identified 16-20 SLFs in each S-haplotype in SI Petunia, from a total of 168 SLF sequences using large-scale next-generation sequencing and genomic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. We predicted the target S-RNases of SLFs by assuming that a particular S-allele must not have a conserved SLF that recognizes its own S-RNase, and validated these predictions by transformation experiments. A simple mathematical model confirmed that 16-20 SLF sequences would be adequate to recognize the vast majority of target S-RNases. We found evidence of gene conversion events, which we suggest are essential to the constitution of a non-self recognition system and also contribute to self-compatible mutations.

  10. 46 CFR 199.10 - Applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... accommodations or work stations on board. 2 Indicates section where primary lifesaving system requirements are... apply to non-self-propelled vessels without accommodations or work stations on board. Unless otherwise... material on all floating appliances, lifejackets and immersion suits. Except for the requirements of §§ 199...

  11. Elimination of Coast Guard plan review for non-critical engineering systems and cargo barges

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-21

    The purpose of this Circular is to publish policy that provides for the elimination of Coast Guard review and approval of certain engineering system drawings for all vessels as well as structural drawings for Coast Guard inspected non-self propelled ...

  12. A symmetrized quasi-diffusion method for solving multidimensional transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miften, M.M.; Larsen, E.W.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors propose a 'symmetrized' QD (SQD) method in which the non-self-adjoint QD diffusion problem is replaced by two self-adjoint diffusion problems. These problems are more easily discretized and more efficiently solved than in the standard QD method. They also give SQD calculational results for transport problems in x-y geometry

  13. 46 CFR 199.640 - Alternatives for cargo vessels in a specified service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 199.640(g) or 199.640(h). 199.271: Lifebuoy quantity No Alternative 199.640(i) 199.640(i) 199.640(i... specified in table 199.640(i) of this section; or (2) If the vessel is non self-propelled, one lifebuoy on...

  14. 46 CFR 153.216 - Shower and eyewash fountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... at all times and meets paragraph (c) of this section. (c) The shower and eyewash fountains required... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shower and eyewash fountains. 153.216 Section 153.216... Vessel Requirements § 153.216 Shower and eyewash fountains. (a) Each non-self-propelled ship must have a...

  15. PT-Symmetric Waveguides and the Lack of Variational Techniques

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejčiřík, David

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 1 (2012), s. 1-2 ISSN 0378-620X Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Robin Laplacian * non-self-adjoint boundary conditions * complex symmetric operator * PT-symmetry * waveguides * discrete and essential spectra Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.713, year: 2012

  16. 46 CFR 68.55 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... involved in, the formulation, determination, or direction of any activity or function concerning the use... of the same arrangement; (3) In the case of a towing vessel associated with a non-self-propelled tank... business of which is located in the United States. ...

  17. Non-accretive Schrodinger operators and exponential decay of their eigenfunctions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejčiřík, David; Raymond, N.; Royer, J.; Siegl, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 221, č. 2 (2017), s. 779-802 ISSN 0021-2172 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-06818S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : non-self-adjoint electromagnetic Schrodinger operators * Dirichlet realisation * Agmon-type exponential decay Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.796, year: 2016

  18. Theoretical immunology : Proceedings of a one-day symposium held april 1989

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, R.J. de; Ballieux, R.E.; Hogeweg, P.

    1989-01-01

    The immune system is a genuine example of an information processing system. Information in the immune system is present in the form of antigens (self and non-self) and receptor molecules. These are information-bearing structures that interact upon complementary matching. Embedded in a

  19. Clinical, biomarker, and genetic predictors of specific types of atrial fibrillation in a community-based cohort : Data of the PREVEND study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hobbelt, Anne H.; Siland, Joylene E.; Geelhoed, Bastiaan; Van der Harst, Pim; Hillege, Hans L.; Van Gelder, Isabelle C.; Rienstra, Michiel

    2017-01-01

    Aims Atrial fibrillation (AF) may present variously in time, and AF may progress from self-terminating to non-self-terminating AF, and is associated with impaired prognosis. However, predictors of AF types are largely unexplored. We investigate the clinical, biomarker, and genetic predictors of

  20. Induced disease resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterse, Corné; van Wees, Saskia

    2015-01-01

    During the co-evolutionary arms race between plants and pathogens, plants evolved a sophisticated defense system to ward off their enemies. In this plant immune system, plant receptor proteins recognize non-self molecules of microbial origin, which leads to the activation of a basal level of disease

  1. Phylogenetic patterns of tragedy of commons in intraspecific root competition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smyčka, J.; Herben, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 417, 1-2 (2017), s. 87-97 ISSN 0032-079X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-19245S Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : evolutionary game theory * self/non-self-recognition * phenotypic plasticity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 3.052, year: 2016

  2. Introduction to operator space theory

    CERN Document Server

    Pisier, Gilles

    2003-01-01

    An introduction to the theory of operator spaces, emphasising examples that illustrate the theory and applications to C*-algebras, and applications to non self-adjoint operator algebras, and similarity problems. Postgraduate and professional mathematicians interested in functional analysis, operator algebras and theoretical physics will find the book has much to offer.

  3. Eicosanoid-mediated immunity in insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicosanoid is a collective term for oxygenated metabolites of C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids. As seen in mammals, eicosanoids play crucial roles in mediating various physiological processes, including immune responses, in insects. Upon microbial pathogen infection, non-self recognition signals are ...

  4. Implementation of the project for the construction and operation of a nuclear heat and power plant on the basis of a floating power unit with KLT-40C reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polushkin, A.K.; Kuzin, E.A.; Vorobiov, V.M.; Klykov, D.M.; Panov, J.K.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the results of research and development on floating nuclear power plant (FNPP) for electricity and heat production for remote locations and small island or coastal communities. Evaluations of construction period, social and economic factors as well as safety and operational issues of the non-self-propelled barge-mounted NPP is given. (author)

  5. Self-Determination as a Moderator of Demands and Control: Implications for Employee Strain and Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Stacey L.; Jimmieson, Nerina L.; Amiot, Catherine E.

    2010-01-01

    Does job control act as a stress-buffer when employees' type and level of work self-determination is taken into account? It was anticipated that job control would only be stress-buffering for employees high in self-determined and low in non-self-determined work motivation. In contrast, job control would be stress-exacerbating for employees who…

  6. Biorthogonal vectors, sesquilinear forms, and some physical operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagarello, F.; Inoue, H.; Trapani, C.

    2018-03-01

    Continuing the analysis undertaken in previous articles, we discuss some features of non-self-adjoint operators and sesquilinear forms which are defined starting from two biorthogonal families of vectors, like the so-called generalized Riesz systems, enjoying certain properties. In particular, we discuss what happens when they forms two D -quasi-bases.

  7. Effects of Meditation on Anxiety and Chemical Dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Martin R.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Studied a non-self-selected sample of chemically dependent people instructed in meditation techniques. Differences established upon training termination were no longer evident in the instructed group after six months. Subjects who reported continuing at least minimal meditative practices, however, showed differences in social adjustment, work…

  8. Root System of Singular Perturbations of the Harmonic Oscillator Type Operators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mityagin, B.; Siegl, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 2 (2016), s. 147-167 ISSN 0377-9017 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : non-self-adjoint operators * harmonic oscillator * Riesz basis * quadratic forms * singular petentials Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.671, year: 2016

  9. Generalized Heisenberg algebra and (non linear) pseudo-bosons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagarello, F.; Curado, E. M. F.; Gazeau, J. P.

    2018-04-01

    We propose a deformed version of the generalized Heisenberg algebra by using techniques borrowed from the theory of pseudo-bosons. In particular, this analysis is relevant when non self-adjoint Hamiltonians are needed to describe a given physical system. We also discuss relations with nonlinear pseudo-bosons. Several examples are discussed.

  10. Self-Injurious Behavior and Suicide Attempts among Indonesian College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresno, Fiona; Ito, Yoshimi; Mearns, Jack

    2012-01-01

    This study reports the prevalence of self-injurious behavior and suicide attempts among college students in Indonesia and examines risk factors distinguishing between 3 groups: self-injury with suicide attempt, non-suicidal self-injury, and non-self-injury. Self-report questionnaires measuring self-injury and suicide attempts, negative mood…

  11. Self-discrimination in vine tendrils of different plant families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Miori; Ohsaki, Haruna; Fukano, Yuuya; Yamawo, Akira

    2018-03-13

    Previous study reported a novel type of self-discrimination in the tendrils of the vine Cayratia japonica (Vitaceae). However, whether self-discrimination in tendrils is common in vine plant species has not been elucidated. Here, we investigated whether tendrils of Momordica charantia var. pavel (Cucurbitaceae), Cucumis sativus (Cucurbitaceae) and Passiflora caerulea (Passifloraceae) can discriminate self and non-self plants. We also investigated whether the tendrils of M. charantia and C. sativus can discriminate differences in cultivars to determine the discrimination ability for genetic similarity. We found that tendrils of the M. charantia and P. caerulea were more likely to coil around non-self plant than self plants, but not in C. sativus. Our findings support the common occurrence of self-discrimination in tendrils in different plant taxa, although some species lacked it. Furthermore, tendrils of M. charantia more rapidly coil around different cultivars than around same cultivars. The tendrils of M. charantia may can discriminate differences in cultivars.

  12. Computational study of plasma-solid interaction in DC glow discharge in argon plasma at medium pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havlickova, E; Bartos, P; Hrach, R

    2007-01-01

    In the presented contribution two groups of techniques of computational physics-fluid modelling and non self-consistent particle technique were used to study plasma-solid interaction in argon plasma. We focused both on the physical processes taking place in the sheath at various pressures and on the problems of computational physics. The attention was given to preparation of two-dimensional fluid models with realistic assumptions about physical processes taking place in plasma during the plasma-solid interaction, further to improvement of the non self-consistent technique of particle modelling, where the external electric field was obtained either from the fluid model or directly from the trajectories of charged particles and finally to efficiency of individual algorithms

  13. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells: I. Phenotype and physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Thomas Lindebo; Nielsen, Janne; Claesson, Mogens H

    2004-01-01

    The immune system protects us against foreign pathogens. However, if fine discrimination between self and non-self is not carried out properly, immunological attacks against self may be launched leading to autoimmune diseases, estimated to afflict up to 5% of the population. During the last decad...... are discussed. Finally, we address the possibility that Treg cells may play a central role in immune homeostasis, regulating not only autoimmune responses, but also immune responses toward foreign antigens.......The immune system protects us against foreign pathogens. However, if fine discrimination between self and non-self is not carried out properly, immunological attacks against self may be launched leading to autoimmune diseases, estimated to afflict up to 5% of the population. During the last decade...

  14. MOTIVATIONAL PROFILES IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND THEIR RELATION TO THE THEORY OF PLANNED BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Moreno-Murcia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to establish motivational profiles for doing physical activity according to the variables from the theory of planned action in a sample of 698 students aged 14 to 16. The instruments used were the Questionnaire of Behavioral Regulation in Sport (BRQ-R and the Questionnaire of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TCP. Cluster analysis revealed two motivational profiles: a "self-determined" profile with high scores in intrinsic motivation and low scores in extrinsic motivation and amotivation, and a "non self- determined" profile with low scores in intrinsic motivation and high scores in extrinsic motivation and amotivation. Positive significant differences in attitudes, norms, and intent to control were found for the self-determined profile related to "non self-determined" profile

  15. Dirichlet-to-Neumann maps, abstract Weyl-Titchmarsh M-functions, and a generalized index of unbounded meromorphic operator-valued functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrndt, Jussi; Gesztesy, Fritz; Holden, Helge; Nichols, Roger

    2016-09-01

    We introduce a generalized index for certain meromorphic, unbounded, operator-valued functions. The class of functions is chosen such that energy parameter dependent Dirichlet-to-Neumann maps associated to uniformly elliptic partial differential operators, particularly, non-self-adjoint Schrödinger operators, on bounded Lipschitz domains, and abstract operator-valued Weyl-Titchmarsh M-functions and Donoghue-type M-functions corresponding to closed extensions of symmetric operators belong to it. The principal purpose of this paper is to prove index formulas that relate the difference of the algebraic multiplicities of the discrete eigenvalues of Robin realizations of non-self-adjoint Schrödinger operators, and more abstract pairs of closed operators in Hilbert spaces with the generalized index of the corresponding energy dependent Dirichlet-to-Neumann maps and abstract Weyl-Titchmarsh M-functions, respectively.

  16. DSB Task Force on Cyber Supply Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Duncan, October 28, 2016 (12:51 p.m.), “ScreenOS vulnerability affects Juniper firewalls,” InfoSec Handlers Diary Blog , [December 18, 2015...vulnerability. See Google Project Zero blog , available at: https://googleprojectzero.blogspot.com/2015/03/exploiting-dram-rowhammer-bug- to-gain.html...FOR SELF- VERSUS NON-SELF DETERMINATIONS By definition, support for reflection entails having an interface for learning a system’s state and its

  17. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells: II. Origin, disease models and clinical aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Janne; Holm, Thomas Lindebo; Claesson, Mogens H

    2004-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases afflict approximately 5% of the population and reflect a failure in the immune system to discriminate between self and non-self resulting in the breakdown of self-tolerance. Regulatory CD4+CD25+ T cells (Treg cells) have been shown to play an important role in the maintenance ...... in disease models such as autoimmune gastritis and inflammatory bowel disease. Finally, we will consider some aspects of the therapeutic potential of Treg cells....

  18. Thick-Restart Lanczos Method for Electronic Structure Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Horst D.; Wang, L.-W.; Wu, Kesheng

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes two recent innovations related to the classic Lanczos method for eigenvalue problems, namely the thick-restart technique and dynamic restarting schemes. Combining these two new techniques we are able to implement an efficient eigenvalue problem solver. This paper will demonstrate its effectiveness on one particular class of problems for which this method is well suited: linear eigenvalue problems generated from non-self-consistent electronic structure calculations

  19. Defensive function of persecutory delusion and discrepancy between explicit and implicit self-esteem in schizophrenia: study using the Brief Implicit Association Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura M

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mitsuo Nakamura,1 Tomomi Hayakawa,2 Aiko Okamura,3 Mutsumi Kohigashi,4 Kenji Fukui,1 Jin Narumoto1 1Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan; 2Gojouyama Hospital, Nara, Japan; 3Yashio Hospital, Saitama, Japan; 4Department of Psychiatry, Kyoto Second Red Cross Hospital, Kyoto, Japan Background: If delusions serve as a defense mechanism in schizophrenia patients with paranoia, then they should show normal or high explicit self-esteem and low implicit self-esteem. However, the results of previous studies are inconsistent. One possible explanation for this inconsistency is that there are two types of paranoia, “bad me” (self-blaming paranoia and “poor me” (non-self-blaming paranoia. We thus examined implicit and explicit self-esteem and self-blaming tendency in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. We hypothesized that patients with paranoia would show lower implicit self-esteem and only those with non-self-blaming paranoia would experience a discrepancy between explicit and implicit self-esteem. Methods: Participants consisted of patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder recruited from a day hospital (N=71. Participants were assessed for psychotic symptoms, using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS, and self-blaming tendency, using the brief COPE. We also assessed explicit self-esteem, using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES, implicit self-esteem, using Brief Implicit Association Test (BIAT, and discrepancy between explicit and implicit self-esteem. Results: Contrary to our hypothesis, implicit self-esteem in paranoia and nonparanoia showed no statistical difference. As expected, only patients with non-self-blaming paranoia experienced a discrepancy between explicit and implicit self-esteem; other groups showed no such discrepancy. Conclusion: These results suggest that persecutory delusion plays a defensive role in non-self

  20. Bound states in waveguides with complex Robin boundary conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Radek

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 96, 3-4 (2016), s. 251-281 ISSN 0921-7134 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-06818S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : non-self-adjointness * waveguide * Robin boundary conditions * spectral analysis * essential spectrum * weak coupling * Birman-Schwinger principle * reality of the spectrum Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.933, year: 2016

  1. Asymptotic spectral analysis in colliding leaky quantum layers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kondej, S.; Krejčiřík, David

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 446, č. 2 (2017), s. 1328-1355 ISSN 0022-247X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-06818S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : quantum layers * leaky graphs * Delta interaction supported on hypersurfaces * Norm-resolvent convergence * non-self-adjoint interaction Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 1.064, year: 2016

  2. Best Proximity Point Results for Some Contractive Mappings in Uniform Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Olisama

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the concept of Jav-distance (an analogue of b-metric, ϕp-proximal contraction, and ϕp-proximal cyclic contraction for non-self-mappings in Hausdorff uniform spaces. We investigate the existence and uniqueness of best proximity points for these modified contractive mappings. The results obtained extended and generalised some fixed and best proximity points results in literature. Examples are given to validate the main results.

  3. Binding properties of the regulatory domains in Manduca sexta hemolymph proteinase-14, an initiation enzyme of the prophenoloxidase activation system

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yang; Jiang, Haobo

    2009-01-01

    Pathogen recognition and rapid initiation of defense responses are essential for the survival of host insects. In Manduca sexta, hemolymph proteinase-14 precursor (proHP14) senses non-self presence and triggers a branched serine proteinase pathway which leads to prophenoloxidase activation and melanin formation around the invading organisms. To understand functions of individual domains in HP14, we have produced a series of HP14 domains and truncation mutants and studied their interactions wi...

  4. Type I-E CRISPR-Cas Systems Discriminate Target from Non-Target DNA through Base Pairing-Independent PAM Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datsenko, Kirill A.; Jackson, Ryan N.; Wiedenheft, Blake; Severinov, Konstantin; Brouns, Stan J. J.

    2013-01-01

    Discriminating self and non-self is a universal requirement of immune systems. Adaptive immune systems in prokaryotes are centered around repetitive loci called CRISPRs (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat), into which invader DNA fragments are incorporated. CRISPR transcripts are processed into small RNAs that guide CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins to invading nucleic acids by complementary base pairing. However, to avoid autoimmunity it is essential that these RNA-guides exclusively target invading DNA and not complementary DNA sequences (i.e., self-sequences) located in the host's own CRISPR locus. Previous work on the Type III-A CRISPR system from Staphylococcus epidermidis has demonstrated that a portion of the CRISPR RNA-guide sequence is involved in self versus non-self discrimination. This self-avoidance mechanism relies on sensing base pairing between the RNA-guide and sequences flanking the target DNA. To determine if the RNA-guide participates in self versus non-self discrimination in the Type I-E system from Escherichia coli we altered base pairing potential between the RNA-guide and the flanks of DNA targets. Here we demonstrate that Type I-E systems discriminate self from non-self through a base pairing-independent mechanism that strictly relies on the recognition of four unchangeable PAM sequences. In addition, this work reveals that the first base pair between the guide RNA and the PAM nucleotide immediately flanking the target sequence can be disrupted without affecting the interference phenotype. Remarkably, this indicates that base pairing at this position is not involved in foreign DNA recognition. Results in this paper reveal that the Type I-E mechanism of avoiding self sequences and preventing autoimmunity is fundamentally different from that employed by Type III-A systems. We propose the exclusive targeting of PAM-flanked sequences to be termed a target versus non-target discrimination mechanism. PMID:24039596

  5. Classification of nanopolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larena, A; Tur, A [Department of Chemical Industrial Engineering and Environment, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, E.T.S. Ingenieros Industriales, C/ Jose Gutierrez Abascal, Madrid (Spain); Baranauskas, V [Faculdade de Engenharia Eletrica e Computacao, Departamento de Semicondutores, Instrumentos e Fotonica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, UNICAMP, Av. Albert Einstein N.400, 13 083-852 Campinas SP Brasil (Brazil)], E-mail: alarena@etsii.upm.es

    2008-03-15

    Nanopolymers with different structures, shapes, and functional forms have recently been prepared using several techniques. Nanopolymers are the most promising basic building blocks for mounting complex and simple hierarchical nanosystems. The applications of nanopolymers are extremely broad and polymer-based nanotechnologies are fast emerging. We propose a nanopolymer classification scheme based on self-assembled structures, non self-assembled structures, and on the number of dimensions in the nanometer range (nD)

  6. Sturm–Schrödinger equations: Formula for metric

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    non-preserving) re-presentation of Hilbert space is to be formed by the same vector space V(S) ≡ V(F) and by a ... Using such a notation we shall assume the solvability of the non-self-adjoint doublet of the Sturm–Schrödinger ... will be assumed self-adjoint in the corresponding abstract physical Hilbert space. H(P). In a way ...

  7. 23RD International Conference on Phenomena in Ionized Gases, Volume 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    W is derived from the etchants in semiconductor etching processes and it is also relationship between the peak time of each arrival time used as...is n=n0 + Sno , where no is the uniform plasma possible that y in >> v background (for non-self-maintained discharges -the increment form suggests...simple way to Va> Vi) , Sno is the initial plasma perturbation. suppress the discussed instability by utilizing a’ ~microwave with the broad band to

  8. Characterization of metallo-beta-lactamase VIM-27, an A57S mutant of VIM-1 associated with Klebsiella pneumoniae ST147.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagiannitsis, C C; Kotsakis, S D; Petinaki, E; Vatopoulos, A C; Tzelepi, E; Miriagou, V; Tzouvelekis, L S

    2011-07-01

    VIM-27 metallo-β-lactamase, an Ala(57) → Ser variant of VIM-1, was identified in three Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates belonging to sequence type 147. bla(VIM-27) was part of a class 1 integron carried by non-self-transferable plasmids. Kinetic parameters and MIC determinations indicated that VIM-27 hydrolyzed most β-lactams, especially imipenem and cefoxitin, less effectively than VIM-1.

  9. The phase diagram of crystalline surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anagnostopoulos, K.N.; Bowick, M.J.; Catterall, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    We report the status of a high-statistics Monte Carlo simulation of non-self-avoiding crystalline surfaces with extrinsic curvature on lattices of size up to 128 2 nodes. We impose free boundary conditions. The free energy is a gaussian spring tethering potential together with a normal-normal bending energy. Particular emphasis is given to the behavior of the model in the cold phase where we measure the decay of the normal-normal correlation function

  10. Leader self-sacrifice and leadership effectiveness: The moderating role of leader prototypicality

    OpenAIRE

    van Knippenberg, B.M.; van Knippenberg, D.

    2005-01-01

    Self-sacrificing behavior of the leader and the extent to which the leader is representative of the group (i.e., group prototypical) are proposed to interact to influence leadership effectiveness. The authors expected self-sacrificing leaders to be considered more effective and to be able to push subordinates to a higher performance level than non-self-sacrificing leaders, and these effects were expected to be more pronounced for less prototypical leaders than for more prototypical leaders. T...

  11. Immunomodulation of Nanoparticles in Nanomedicine Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Jiao, Qing; Li, Liwen; Mu, Qingxin; Zhang, Qiu

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have promising applications in medicine. Immune system is an important protective system to defend organisms from non-self matters. NPs interact with the immune system and modulate its function, leading to immunosuppression or immunostimulation. These modulating effects may bring benefits or danger. Compositions, sizes, and surface chemistry, and so forth, affect these immunomodulations. Here we give an overview of the relationship between the physicochemical properties of...

  12. Extracellular self-DNA as a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) that triggers self-specific immunity induction in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran-Flores, Dalia; Heil, Martin

    2017-10-16

    Mammals sense self or non-self extracellular or extranuclear DNA fragments (hereinafter collectively termed eDNA) as indicators of injury or infection and respond with immunity. We hypothesised that eDNA acts as a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) also in plants and that it contributes to self versus non-self discrimination. Treating plants and suspension-cultured cells of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) with fragmented self eDNA (obtained from other plants of the same species) induced early, immunity-related signalling responses such as H 2 O 2 generation and MAPK activation, decreased the infection by a bacterial pathogen (Pseudomonas syringae) and increased an indirect defence to herbivores (extrafloral nectar secretion). By contrast, non-self DNA (obtained from lima bean, Phaseolus lunatus, and Acacia farnesiana) had significantly lower or no detectable effects. Only fragments below a size of 700 bp were active, and treating the eDNA preparation DNAse abolished its inducing effects, whereas treatment with RNAse or proteinase had no detectable effect. These findings indicate that DNA fragments, rather than small RNAs, single nucleotides or proteins, accounted for the observed effects. We suggest that eDNA functions a DAMP in plants and that plants discriminate self from non-self at a species-specific level. The immune systems of plants and mammals share multiple central elements, but further work will be required to understand the mechanisms and the selective benefits of an immunity response that is triggered by eDNA in a species-specific manner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Self-consistent GW0 results for the electron gas: Fixed screened potential W0 within the random-phase approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    von Barth, U.; Holm, B.

    1996-01-01

    With the aim of properly understanding the basis for and the utility of many-body perturbation theory as applied to extended metallic systems, we have calculated the electronic self-energy of the homogeneous electron gas within the GW approximation. The calculation has been carried out in a self-consistent way; i.e., the one-electron Green function obtained from Dyson close-quote s equation is the same as that used to calculate the self-energy. The self-consistency is restricted in the sense that the screened interaction W is kept fixed and equal to that of the random-phase approximation for the gas. We have found that the final results are marginally affected by the broadening of the quasiparticles, and that their self-consistent energies are still close to their free-electron counterparts as they are in non-self-consistent calculations. The reduction in strength of the quasiparticles and the development of satellite structure (plasmons) gives, however, a markedly smaller dynamical self-energy leading to, e.g., a smaller reduction in the quasiparticle strength as compared to non-self-consistent results. The relatively bad description of plasmon structure within the non-self-consistent GW approximation is marginally improved. A first attempt at including W in the self-consistency cycle leads to an even broader and structureless satellite spectrum in disagreement with experiment. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  14. Source memory that encoding was self-referential: the influence of stimulus characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, Kelly A; Mitchell, Karen J; Johnson, Marcia K

    2017-10-01

    Decades of research suggest that encoding information with respect to the self improves memory (self-reference effect, SRE) for items (item SRE). The current study focused on how processing information in reference to the self affects source memory for whether an item was self-referentially processed (a source SRE). Participants self-referentially or non-self-referentially encoded words (Experiment 1) or pictures (Experiment 2) that varied in valence (positive, negative, neutral). Relative to non-self-referential processing, self-referential processing enhanced item recognition for all stimulus types (an item SRE), but it only enhanced source memory for positive words (a source SRE). In fact, source memory for negative and neutral pictures was worse for items processed self-referentially than non-self-referentially. Together, the results suggest that item SRE and source SRE (e.g., remembering an item was encoded self-referentially) are not necessarily the same across stimulus types (e.g., words, pictures; positive, negative). While an item SRE may depend on the overall likelihood the item generates any association, the enhancing effects of self-referential processing on source memory for self-referential encoding may depend on how embedded a stimulus becomes in one's self-schema, and that depends, in part, on the stimulus' valence and format. Self-relevance ratings during encoding provide converging evidence for this interpretation.

  15. Self-determination, control, and reactions to changes in workload: a work simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Stacey L; Jimmieson, Nerina L; Amiot, Catherine E

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this experimental study is to capture the dynamic temporal processes that occur in changing work settings and to test how work control and individuals' motivational predispositions interact to predict reactions to these changes. To this aim, we examine the moderating effects of global self-determined and non-self-determined motivation, at different levels of work control, on participants' adaptation and stress reactivity to changes in workload during four trials of an inbox activity. Workload was increased or decreased at Trial 3, and adaptation to this change was examined via fluctuations in anxiety, coping, motivation, and performance. In support of the hypotheses, results revealed that, for non-self-determined individuals, low work control was stress-buffering and high work control was stress-exacerbating when predicting anxiety and intrinsic motivation. In contrast, for self-determined individuals, high work control facilitated the adaptive use of planning coping in response to a change in workload. Overall, this pattern of results demonstrates that, while high work control was anxiety-provoking and demotivating for non-self-determined individuals, self-determined individuals used high work control to implement an adaptive antecedent-focused emotion regulation strategy (i.e., planning coping) to meet situational demands. Other interactive effects of global motivation emerged on anxiety, active coping, and task performance. These results and their practical implications are discussed.

  16. In vitro and in vivo corrosion evaluation of nickel-chromium- and copper-aluminum-based alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benatti, O F; Miranda, W G; Muench, A

    2000-09-01

    The low resistance to corrosion is the major problem related to the use of copper-aluminum alloys. This in vitro and in vivo study evaluated the corrosion of 2 copper-aluminum alloys (Cu-Al and Cu-Al-Zn) compared with a nickel-chromium alloy. For the in vitro test, specimens were immersed in the following 3 corrosion solutions: artificial saliva, 0.9% sodium chloride, and 1.0% sodium sulfide. For the in vivo test, specimens were embedded in complete dentures, so that one surface was left exposed. The 3 testing sites were (1) close to the oral mucosa (partial self-cleaning site), (2) surface exposed to the oral cavity (self-cleaning site), and (3) specimen bottom surface exposed to the saliva by means of a tunnel-shaped perforation (non-self-cleaning site). Almost no corrosion occurred with the nickel-chromium alloy, for either the in vitro or in vivo test. On the other hand, the 2 copper-aluminum-based alloys exhibited high corrosion in the sulfide solution. These same alloys also underwent high corrosion in non-self-cleaning sites for the in vivo test, although minimal attack was observed in self-cleaning sites. The nickel-chromium alloy presented high resistance to corrosion. Both copper-aluminum alloys showed considerable corrosion in the sulfide solution and clinically in the non-self-cleaning site. However, in self-cleaning sites these 2 alloys did not show substantial corrosion.

  17. The 2nd International Conference on Agricultural and Biological Sciences (ABS 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Pei

    2016-10-01

    Salvia of Labiatae in China Xiaojuan Li, Ning Xu, Guofu Zhou, Ming Wan, Qi Lin, Fanyun Meng, Jianxiu Li 15 Three pulling resistance models of pioneer plant in landslide area Yichang Chen, Koayung Yu, Chunpin Chang 16 The comparison of physiological and biochemical mechanisms of Reaumuria soongorica and Salsola passerine in different growth pattern Zijuan Zhou, Peixi Su, Rui Shi, Tingting Xie 17 Resources use efficiency of the cosmopolitan plant Potentilla anserina L. in different alpine habitats in China Rui Shi, Peixi Su, Zijuan Zhou 18 Cloning of PPDK gene from Red Amaranand transformation of Alfalfa Xuelan Liu, Yan Zhang, Xiangfa Wei 19 Variation and cluster analysis of morphological characters and nutrient content of Chucrasia tabularis seed Chong Wu, Yanlei Yin, Lijuan Feng, Xuemei Yang, Fei Wang 20 Effect of the planting density of the areca nut on the growth of intercropped Vanilla Hua Wang, Huifa Zhuang, Zihui Zhu, Hui Wang

  18. Aging as Evolution-Facilitating Program and a Biochemical Approach to Switch It Off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skulachev, Vladimir P.

    decelerates the development of three types of accelerated aging (progeria) and also of normal aging, and this effect is especially demonstrative at early stages of aging. The same pattern is shown in invertebrates (Drosophila and Daphnia), and fungus (Podospora anserina). In mammals, the effect of SkQs on aging is accompanied by inhibition of development of such age-related diseases as osteoporosis, involution of thymus, cataract, retinopathy, etc. SkQ1 manifests a strong therapeutic action on some already pronounced retinopathies, in particular, congenital retinal dysplasia. With drops containing 250 nM SkQ1, vision is recovered in 66 of 96 animals (dogs, cats and horses) who became blind because of retinopathy. SkQ1-containing drops instilled into eyes prevent the loss of sight in rabbits suffering from experimental uveitis and restore vision to animals that had already become blind due to this pathology. A favorable effect is also achieved in experimental glaucoma in rabbits. Moreover, the pretreatment of rats with 0.2 nM SkQ1 significantly decreases the H2O2-induced arrhythmia of the isolated heart. SkQ1 strongly reduces the damaged area in myocardial infarction or stroke and prevents the death of animals from kidney infarction. In p53-/- mice, SkQ1 decreases the ROS level in the spleen cells and inhibits appearance of lymphomas which are the main cause of death of such animals. As a result, the lifespan increases. SkQs look like promising drugs to treat aging and age-related diseases.

  19. Energy efficient security in MANETs: a comparison of cryptographic and artificial immune systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazhar, N.

    2010-01-01

    MANET is characterized by a set of mobile nodes in an inherently insecure environment, having limited battery capacities. Provisioning of energy efficient security in MANETs is, therefore, an open problem for which a number of solutions have been proposed. In this paper, we present an overview and comparison of the MANET security at routing layer by using the cryptographic and Artificial Immune System (AIS) approaches. The BeeAdHoc protocol, which is a Bio-inspired MANET routing protocol based on the foraging principles of honey bee colony, is taken as case study. We carry out an analysis of the three security frameworks that we have proposed earlier for securing BeeAdHoc protocol; one based on asymmetric key encryption, i.e BeeSec, and the other two using the AIS approach, i.e BeeAIS based on self non-self discrimination from adaptive immune system and BeeAIS-DC based on Dendritic Cell (DC) behavior from innate immune system. We extensively evaluate the performance of the three protocols through network simulations in ns-2 and compare with BeeAdHoc, the base protocol, as well as with state-of-the-art MANET routing protocols DSR and AODV. Our results clearly indicate that AIS based systems provide security at much lower cost to energy as compared with the cryptographic systems. Moreover, the use of dendritic cells and danger signals instead of the classical self non-self discrimination allows to detect the non-self antigens with greater accuracy. Based on the results of this investigation, we also propose a composite AIS model for BeeAdHoc security by combining the concepts from both the adaptive and the innate immune systems by modelling the attributes and behavior of the B-cells and DCs. (author)

  20. Drug-related problems associated with self-medication and medication guided by prescription: A pharmacy-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Abinash; Pradhan, Supriya; Mohapatra, Gurukrushna; Mohapatra, Jigyansa

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to identify and compare the nature of the drug-related problems (DRPs) associated with self-medication and non-self-medication (drug use guided by a prescription). The cross-sectional, observational study was conducted on 1100 adult participants at a convenience sample of six retail private pharmacy counters. The data collection form was based on the Pharmaceutical Care Network Europe version 6.2 classification for DRPs. Descriptive statistics was used to represent the prevalence of DRPs. Chi-square test was used to find out the association between the type of medication and DRPs. Odds ratio (OR) with confidence interval (CI) was computed to find the factors determining the occurrence of DRPs. P self-medication was 18.72%. The prevalence of DRPs was 17.36%. In the self-medication group, the prevalence of DRPs was high (40.78%) as compared to the non-self-medication group (11.97%). DRP related to inappropriate drug dosing was observed in 44.83% and 40.45% subjects in self-medication and non-self-medication group, respectively ( P self-medication group were about 5 times likely to have a DRP (OR: 5.06, CI: 3.59-7.14, P Self-medication is associated with a higher risk of various DRPs. Since retail pharmacy outlet is often the first point of contact between the patient and the health care system in a developing country, interventions like drug information activities at the retail pharmacy is likely to bring down the DRPs associated with self-medication.

  1. Experimental test of the non-reproducibility of cross sections in dissipative reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Dong Yu Chuan; Tian Wen Dong; Li Song Lin; Li Zhi Chang; Lu Xiu Qin; Zhao Kui; Fu Chang Bo; Liu Jian Cheng; Jiang Hua; Hu Gui Qing

    2002-01-01

    Two independent measurements of cross sections for the sup 1 sup 9 F + sup 9 sup 3 Nb dissipative heavy ion collisions have been performed at incident energies from 100 to 108 MeV in steps of 250 keV. In the two measurements, two independently prepared targets were used. All other experimental conditions were identical in both experiments. The data indicate that non-reproducibility of the non-self-averaging oscillation is yielded in the two measurements. This supports the recent theoretical predictions of spontaneous coherence, slow phase randomization and extreme sensitivity in highly excited complex quantum systems

  2. Self-consistent GW calculations of electronic transport in thiol- and amine-linked molecular junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strange, M.; Rostgaard, Carsten; Hakkinen, H.

    2011-01-01

    of benzenedithiol and benzenediamine is one-fifth that predicted by standard density functional theory (DFT), in very good agreement with experiments. In contrast, the widely studied benzenedithiolate structure is found to have a significantly higher conductance due to the unsaturated sulfur bonds. These findings...... (exchange) on the molecule and dynamical screening at the metal-molecule interface. The main effect of the GW self-energy is to renormalize the level positions; however, its influence on the shape of molecular resonances also affects the conductance. Non-self-consistent G(0)W(0) calculations, starting from...

  3. Formação e caracterização óptica de filmes automontados de POMA/PPV Formation and optical characterization of POMA/PPV self-assembly films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo M. Melo

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A study is presented of the formation and optical properties of polymeric heterostructures from poly(p-phenylene vinylene (PPV and poly(o-methoxyaniline (POMA produced via the self-assembly technique. POMA layers were obtained in a non self-limiting process from its emeraldine salt, semiconducting form in HCl solution. Thermal conversion of PPV was performed at low temperatures with the substitution of the counter-ion Cl in the PPV precursor by a long sulfonic chain, the dodecylbenzenesulfonate (DBS ion. The optical properties of PPV films converted in this way are not affected by POMA, which can be used as transparent electrode of PPV luminescent devices.

  4. Efficient electronic structure methods applied to metal nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ask Hjorth

    of efficient approaches to density functional theory and the application of these methods to metal nanoparticles. We describe the formalism and implementation of localized atom-centered basis sets within the projector augmented wave method. Basis sets allow for a dramatic increase in performance compared...... and jumps in Fermi level near magic numbers can lead to alkali-like or halogen-like behaviour when main-group atoms adsorb onto gold clusters. A non-self-consistent NewnsAnderson model is used to more closely study the chemisorption of main-group atoms on magic-number Au clusters. The behaviour at magic...

  5. Controlling the Plasma Flow in the Miniaturized Cylindrical Hall Thruster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, A.; Raitses, Y.; Fisch, N.J.

    2008-01-01

    A substantial narrowing of the plume of the cylindrical Hall thruster (CHT) was observed upon the enhancement of the electron emission from the hollow cathode discharge, which implies the possibility for the thruster efficiency increase due to the ion beam focusing. It is demonstrated that the miniaturized CHT can be operated in the non-self-sustained regime, with the discharge current limited by the cathode electron emission. The thruster operation in this mode greatly expands the range of the plasma and discharge parameters normally accessible for the CHT.

  6. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells: II. Origin, disease models and clinical aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Janne; Holm, Thomas Lindebo; Claesson, Mogens H

    2004-01-01

    of immune homeostasis and self-tolerance by counteracting the development and effector functions of potentially autoreactive T cells. We have in the previous APMIS review described the phenotype and physiology of Treg cells. The present overview deals with the thymic origin of Treg cells and their role......Autoimmune diseases afflict approximately 5% of the population and reflect a failure in the immune system to discriminate between self and non-self resulting in the breakdown of self-tolerance. Regulatory CD4+CD25+ T cells (Treg cells) have been shown to play an important role in the maintenance...

  7. Sovereignity, statehood and self-determination in international law - The Kosovo case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiro Paço

    2016-01-01

    The IL principle of Self-determination will be on the focus of this article to considering it as one of the way to archive the creation of new IL entity. Self-determination is a more recent principle then the others but its history, theory and practice is immense. The origin of the term and idea also is in discussion and debating among historian and lawyer. The term have been used simultaneously in the same period (end of WW I by the US President Wilson and the USSR Premier Lenin referring to the right of the non self-governed territory like colony and occupied regions.

  8. On the role of the normalization factors kappa_n and of the pseudo-metric P in crypto-Hermitian quantum models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Znojil, Miloslav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 4, - (2009), 001/1-001/9 ISSN 1815-0659 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06002; GA ČR GA202/07/1307 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : PT-symmetry * non-self-adjoint pseudo-metric * crypto-hermiticity Subject RIV: BE - The oretical Physics Impact factor: 0.789, year: 2009 http://www.emis.de/journals/SIGMA/2008/001/sigma08-001.pdf

  9. Effect of toroidal plasma flow and flow shear on global MHD modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, M.S.; Greene, J.M.; Jensen, T.H.; Miller, R.L.; Bondeson, A.; Johnson, R.W.; Mauel, M.E.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of a subsonic toroidal flow on the linear magnetohydrodynamic stability of a tokamak plasma surrounded by an external resistive wall is studied. A complex non-self-adjoint eigenvalue problem for the stability of general kink and tearing modes is formulated, solved numerically, and applied to high β tokamaks. Results indicate that toroidal plasma flow, in conjunction with dissipation in the plasma, can open a window of stability for the position of the external wall. In this window, stable plasma beta values can significantly exceed those predicted by the Troyon scaling law with no wall. Computations utilizing experimental data indicate good agreement with observations

  10. On the spectrum of a periodic operator with a small localized perturbation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisov, D I; Gadyl'shin, R R

    2008-01-01

    The paper deals with the spectrum of a periodic self-adjoint differential operator on the real axis perturbed by a small localized non-self-adjoint operator. We show that the continuous spectrum does not depend on the perturbation, the residual spectrum is empty, and the point spectrum has no finite accumulation points. We study the problem of the existence of eigenvalues embedded in the continuous spectrum, obtain necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of eigenvalues, construct asymptotic expansions of the eigenvalues and corresponding eigenfunctions and consider some examples

  11. Natural Killer Cells in the Orchestration of Chronic Inflammatory Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Parisi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation, altered immune cell phenotype, and functions are key features shared by diverse chronic diseases, including cardiovascular, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cancer. Natural killer cells are innate lymphoid cells primarily involved in the immune system response to non-self-components but their plasticity is largely influenced by the pathological microenvironment. Altered NK phenotype and function have been reported in several pathological conditions, basically related to impaired or enhanced toxicity. Here we reviewed and discussed the role of NKs in selected, different, and “distant” chronic diseases, cancer, diabetes, periodontitis, and atherosclerosis, placing NK cells as crucial orchestrator of these pathologic conditions.

  12. LAS CLÁUSULAS SELF - EXECUTING DE LOS CONVENIOS DE LA ORGANIZACIÓN INTERNACIONAL DEL TRABAJO EN MATERIA DE DERECHO LABORAL COLECTIVO (CONVENIOS 87 Y 98)

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Rafael Ostau de Lafont de León; Leidy Ángela Niño Chavarro

    2013-01-01

    El artículo hace referencia a la aplicabilidad interna de los Convenios de la Organización Inter- nacional de Trabajo (OIT) en cuanto a la condición de que sus cláusulas deben de ser claras y precisas para que los operadores judiciales puedan darle aplicabilidad directa en la solución de conflictos. La tesis apunta a que las cláusulas self executing y non self executing, cuando se trata de convenios sobre Derechos Humanos, pueden ser aplicables directamente por el ope- rador judicial sin tene...

  13. Theoretical foundations of functional data analysis, with an introduction to linear operators

    CERN Document Server

    Hsing, Tailen

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical Foundations of Functional Data Analysis, with an Introduction to Linear Operators provides a uniquely broad compendium of the key mathematical concepts and results that are relevant for the theoretical development of functional data analysis (FDA).The self-contained treatment of selected topics of functional analysis and operator theory includes reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces, singular value decomposition of compact operators on Hilbert spaces and perturbation theory for both self-adjoint and non self-adjoint operators. The probabilistic foundation for FDA is described from the

  14. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules: their common characteristics and relations with diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Başak Yalçın

    2013-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules or human leukocyte antigens (HLA) are the cell surface molecules responsible from antigen presentation and activation of T cells. At the same time MHC molecules determine direction of T cell response. Unlike T cells, antigen specificity of MHC molecules is not high and they can not differenciate self and non-self antigens from each other. MHC molecules are classified as MHC I (HLA- A, B, C) and MHC II (HLA-DP, DR, DQ) molecules which are struct...

  15. Local stabilizer codes in three dimensions without string logical operators

    OpenAIRE

    Haah, Jeongwan

    2011-01-01

    We suggest concrete models for self-correcting quantum memory by reporting examples of local stabilizer codes in 3D that have no string logical operators. Previously known local stabilizer codes in 3D all have string-like logical operators, which make the codes non-self-correcting. We introduce a notion of "logical string segments" to avoid difficulties in defining one dimensional objects in discrete lattices. We prove that every string-like logical operator of our code can be deformed to a d...

  16. Immunomodulation of Nanoparticles in Nanomedicine Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Jiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles (NPs have promising applications in medicine. Immune system is an important protective system to defend organisms from non-self matters. NPs interact with the immune system and modulate its function, leading to immunosuppression or immunostimulation. These modulating effects may bring benefits or danger. Compositions, sizes, and surface chemistry, and so forth, affect these immunomodulations. Here we give an overview of the relationship between the physicochemical properties of NPs, which are candidates to be applied in medicine, and their immunomodulation properties.

  17. Insulation co-ordination in high-voltage electric power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Diesendorf, W

    2015-01-01

    Insulation Co-ordination in High-Voltage Electric Power Systems deals with the methods of insulation needed in different circumstances. The book covers topics such as overvoltages and lightning surges; disruptive discharge and withstand voltages; self-restoring and non-self-restoring insulation; lightning overvoltages on transmission lines; and the attenuation and distortion of lightning surges. Also covered in the book are topics such as the switching surge designs of transmission lines, as well as the insulation coordination of high-voltage stations. The text is recommended for electrical en

  18. Macrophage heterogeneity in lymphoid tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Haan, Joke M M; Martinez-Pomares, Luisa

    2013-09-01

    Macrophages in lymphoid organs exhibit a wide variety of phenotypes and functions. These cells excel in the removal of apoptotic cells that arise during the generation of immune cells and are thereby essential for the prevention of auto-immune responses. In addition to this macrophages in the secondary lymphoid organs form an important barrier for spreading of infections by phagocytosis of pathogens and the activation of both innate and adaptive immune responses. Thus, the remarkable ability of macrophages to phagocytose and handle a wide range of self and non-self material and to produce immunomediators is effectively exploited within lymphoid organs to regulate immune activation.

  19. Stationary Josephson effect in a weak-link between nonunitary triplet superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashedi, G; Kolesnichenko, Yu.A.

    2005-01-01

    A stationary Josephson effect in a weak-link between misorientated nonunitary triplet superconductors is investigated theoretically. The non-self-consistent quasiclassical Eilenberger equation for this system has been solved analytically. As an application of this analytical calculation, the current-phase diagrams are plotted for the junction between two nonunitary bipolar f-wave superconducting banks. A spontaneous current parallel to the interface between superconductors has been observed. Also, the effect of misorientation between crystals on the Josephson and spontaneous currents is studied. Such experimental investigations of the current-phase diagrams can be used to test the pairing symmetry in the above-mentioned superconductors

  20. The role of shame in emotional eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Mek; Qian, Mingyi

    2016-12-01

    Two studies were conducted to examine the role of shame in emotional eating. In the first study, 250 women (mean age: 29.95±8.78years; body mass index: 22.46±5.76) reported their experiences of one negative self-conscious emotion (shame), two negative non-self-conscious emotions (anxiety, depression), and emotional eating. With anxiety and depression controlled for, shame predicted depressive, anxious, angry, and positive emotional eating. In the second study, negative non-self-conscious (anxiety) and self-conscious emotions (shame) were induced in participants. Five types of snack were used in the study. Emotional eating was measured by determining participants' binge impulse, actual food intake, and pleasure in eating the five types of snack. Ninety-one female participants were randomly assigned to either an anxiety-with-shame (n=45; mean age: 22.46±3.22years; body mass index: 20.57±5.42) or anxiety group (mean age: 21.89±2.97years; body mass index: 21.21±5.58). Participants in the anxiety-with-shame group reported a greater binge impulse relative to those in the anxiety group. Actual food intake and pleasure in eating the five snacks did not differ significantly between the two groups. Implications of these findings were discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of upper limb disability, manual dexterity and fine motor skill on general self-efficacy in institutionalized elderly with osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Mármol, Jose Manuel; Ortega-Valdivieso, María Azucena; Cano-Deltell, Enrique Elías; Peralta-Ramírez, María Isabel; García-Ríos, M Carmen; Aguilar-Ferrándiz, María Encarnación

    2016-01-01

    Descriptive, cross-sectional. The impact of upper limb (UL) disability, dexterity and fine motor skill on self-efficacy in older adults with osteoarthritis (OA) is not well known yet. To evaluate the self-efficacy and its relationship with UL function/disability in institutionalized OA. Institutionalized adults (n = 45) over the age of 65 years with OA were evaluated in a single session, to determine pinch strength, active range of motion of the hand and UL disability and functionality. They were classified as self-efficacious or not based on their general self-efficacy level. The influence on self-efficacy on upper limb function was statistically analyzed using bivariate and multivariate regression analyses. Self-effective older adults showed significantly lower scores in disability and higher scores in pinch strength, dexterity and motion of thumb than those who were classified as non-self-effective. Self-efficacy was associated with pinch strength (p ≤ 0.038), disability (p self-efficacy. Older adults classified as non-self-effective have higher UL disability and less pinch strength, manual dexterity and thumb motion than those who are self-effective, suggesting a relationship between impairment and perceived ability. Copyright © 2016 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Electronic structure of the actinide dioxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, P.J.

    1980-03-01

    The electronic properties of the fluorite structured actinide dioxides have been investigated using the linear muffin tin orbital method in the atomic sphere approximation. CaF 2 with the same structure was also studied because of the relative simplicity of its electronic structure and the greater amount of experimental data available. Band structures were calculated both non self consistently and self consistently. In the non self consistent calculations the effect of changing the approximation to the exchange-correlation potential and the starting atomic configurations was examined. Using the concepts of canonical bands the effects of hybridization were investigated. In particular the 5f electrons included in the band picture were found to mix more strongly into the valence band than indicated by experiment. On this basis the 5f electrons were not included in self consistent calculations which in the density functional formalism are capable of yielding ground state properties. Because of the non participation of the f electrons in the bonding UO 2 only was considered as representative of the actinide dioxides. For comparison CaF 2 was also examined. Using Pettifor's pressure formula to determine the equilibrium condition the lattice constants were calculated to be 0.5% and 5% respectively below the experimental values. (author)

  3. Adolescent nonsuicidal self-injury: the effects of personality traits, family relationships and maltreatment on the presence and severity of behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pierro, Rossella; Sarno, Irene; Perego, Sara; Gallucci, Marcello; Madeddu, Fabio

    2012-09-01

    Personality traits, family environment and maltreatment episodes are often associated with nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI); however, research on these associations has shown mixed results. The aim of the present study was to clarify the effects of these factors on the presence and the severity of NSSI among a sample of Italian students who attended secondary schools (N = 267, mean age = 17.03 SD = 0.866). The results showed that personality traits, family environment and maltreatment differently predicted the presence and the severity of NSSI. Self-injurers were more impulsive and aggressive than non-self-injurers and reported poorer relationship quality with their mothers and more sexual and physical abuse episodes than non-self-injurers. Conversely, the frequency of NSSI behaviours was predicted by the presence of less impulsiveness, more anxiety and aggressiveness, poorer relationship quality with both parents and a lower degree of identification with the father. Finally, more frequent self-injurers also reported more sexual abuses and neglect episodes than less frequent self-injurers.

  4. Visual ergonomic evaluations on four different designs of LED traffic signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Chun; Huang, Ting-Yuan; Lee, Tsung-Xian; Sun, Ching-Cherng

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the legibility and visual comfort of LED traffic signs, an ergonomic experiment is performed on four custom-designed LED traffic signs, including three self-luminous ones as LED lightbox, LED backlight and regional LED backlight, and one non-self-luminous sign with external LED lighting. The four signs are hanged side-by-side and evaluated by observers through questionnaires. The signage dimension is one-sixth of the real freeway traffic signs, and the observation distance is 25 m. The luminance of three self-luminous signs is 216 cd/m2. The illuminance of external LED lighting is 400 lux on the traffic sign. The ambient illuminance is 2.8 and 6.0 lux in two rounds. The results show that self-luminous traffic signs provide superior legibility, visual comfort and user preference than the non-self-luminous one. Among the three self-luminous signs, regional LED backlight is most susceptible to the ambient illumination. LED lightbox has significantly better preference score than LED backlight under darker ambient lighting. Only LED lightbox has significantly better visual comfort than external LED lighting in the brighter environment. Based on the four LED traffic signs evaluated in this study, we suggest LED lightbox as the prior choice. Further investigations on the effect of ambient illumination and other designs of self-luminous traffic signs are in progress.

  5. The immune system, natural autoantibodies and general homeostasis in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletaev, A; Boura, P

    2011-10-01

    It is generally accepted that the destination of the immune system is not only to discriminate between self and non-self but also to mount responses against non-self. During the last decades, it became evident that weak self-reactivity is a necessary condition for immune homeostasis. Natural self reactivity and the internal image created by autoantibodies, participate greatly to the maintenance of homeostasis. Under conditions of increased or altered antigenic pressure, the homeostatic status is disrupted and the organism becomes vulnerable to the emergence of diseases. "Immunculus" is the self-reactive and interconnected entity of the immune system, provided by a complicated network of natural autoantibobies of different specificity, as a mosaic picture. Quantitative changes in each part of the image are related to variations of expression of relative antigens. The immune system takes in account image information from the continuous screening of the antigenic status and compares between presented state and the desired (optimal) one. Substantial and prolonged deviations from the optimal state, triggers the induction of compensatory and reparative processes, aiming to restore molecular and functional homeostasis. So, natural autoimmunity through the ability of natural a-Abs to induce mechanisms of natural and acquired immunity, aims to prevent pathogenic processes and maintain or restore health status.

  6. Why do women engage in fat talk? Examining fat talk using Self-Determination Theory as an explanatory framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guertin, Camille; Barbeau, Kheana; Pelletier, Luc; Martinelli, Gabrielle

    2017-03-01

    This study used Self-Determination Theory to examine the motivational processes involved in individuals' engagement in fat talk and its association with unhealthy eating behaviors. Female undergraduate students (N=453) completed an online questionnaire, which assessed general and contextual motivation, importance placed on goals, fat talk, and unhealthy eating behaviors. Structural equation modeling revealed that being generally non-self-determined and placing more importance on extrinsic goals, such as thinness, was associated with fat talk. Fat talk was further associated with non-self-determined motivation for eating regulation, which in turn was associated with unhealthy eating. General self-determination and placing more importance on intrinsic goals, such as health, were not associated with fat talk, but instead, were associated with more adaptive forms of eating regulation and diet quality. Findings further current knowledge on the respective roles of motivation and goals on the engagement in fat talk, and its consequences on eating regulation and behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The scare tactic: do fear appeals predict motivation and exam scores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putwain, David; Remedios, Richard

    2014-12-01

    Prior to high-stakes exams, teachers use persuasive messages that highlight to students the possible consequences of failure. Such messages are known as fear appeals. This study examined whether fear appeals relate to self- and non-self-determined motivation and academic performance. Data were collected in 3 waves. Self-report data pertaining to perceived fear appeals were collected in the first wave, self-report data pertaining to self-determined motivation were collected in the second wave, and exam scores were collected in the third wave. An increased frequency of fear appeals and the appraisal of fear appeals as threatening predicted lower self-determined motivation but were largely unrelated to non-self-determined motivation. An increased frequency of fear appeals and the appraisal of fear appeals as threatening predicted lower examination performance that was partly mediated by lower self-determined motivation. These findings support a position derived from self-worth theory that the negative consequences of fear appeals arise from their focus on avoiding failure rather than their focus on extrinsic consequences. We suggest that teachers and instructors need to be aware how seemingly motivational statements can unwittingly promote lower self-determined motivation. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Impact detection using ultrasonic waves based on artificial immune system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Keisuke; Mita, Akira

    2009-03-01

    This paper presents a structural health monitoring system for judging structural condition of metallic plates by analyzing ultrasonic waves. Many critical accidents of structures like buildings and aircrafts are caused by small structural errors; cracks and loosened bolts etc. This is a reason why we need to detect little errors at an early stage. Moreover, to improve precision and to reduce cost for damage detection, it is necessary to build and update the database corresponding to environmental change. This study focuses our attention on the automatable structures, specifically, applying artificial immune system (AIS) algorithm to determine the structure safe or not. The AIS is a novelty computational detection algorithm inspired from biological defense system, which discriminates between self and non-self to reject nonself cells. Here, self is defined to be normal data patterns and non-self is abnormal data patterns. Furthermore, it is not only pattern recognition but also it has a storage function. In this study, a number of impact resistance experiments of duralumin plates, with normal structural condition and abnormal structural condition, are examined and ultrasonic waves are acquired by AE sensors on the surface of the aluminum plates. By accumulating several feature vectors of ultrasonic waves, a judging method, which can determine an abnormal wave as nonself, inspired from immune system is created. The results of the experiments show good performance of this method.

  9. Weight Distributions for Turbo Codes Using Random and Nonrandom Permutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinar, S.; Divsalar, D.

    1995-04-01

    This article takes a preliminary look at the weight distributions achievable for turbo codes using random, nonrandom, and semirandom permutations. Due to the recursiveness of the encoders, it is important to distinguish between self-terminating and non-self-terminating input sequences. The non-self-terminating sequences have little effect on decoder performance, because they accumulate high encoded weight until they are artificially terminated at the end of the block. From probabilistic arguments based on selecting the permutations randomly, it is concluded that the self-terminating weight-2 data sequences are the most important consideration in the design of the constituent codes; higher-weight self-terminating sequences have successively decreasing importance. Also, increasing the number of codes and, correspondingly, the number of permutations makes it more and more likely that the bad input sequences will be broken up by one or more of the permuters. It is possible to design nonrandom permutations that ensure that the minimum distance due to weight-2 input sequences grows roughly as p 2N, where N is the block length. However, these nonrandom permutations amplify the bad effects of higher-weight inputs, and as a result they are inferior in performance to randomly selected permutations. But there are "semirandom" permutations that perform nearly as well as the designed nonrandom permutations with respect to weight-2 input sequences and are not as susceptible to being foiled by higher-weight inputs.

  10. Complex multicellular functions at a unicellular eukaryote level: Learning, memory, and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csaba, György

    2017-06-01

    According to experimental data, eukaryote unicellulars are able to learn, have immunity and memory. Learning is carried out in a very primitive form, and the memory is not neural but an epigenetic one. However, this epigenetic memory, which is well justified by the presence and manifestation of hormonal imprinting, is strong and permanent in the life of cell and also in its progenies. This memory is epigenetically executed by the alteration and fixation of methylation pattern of genes without changes in base sequences. The immunity of unicellulars is based on self/non-self discrimination, which leads to the destruction of non-self invaders and utilization of them as nourishment (by phagocytosis). The tools of learning, memory, and immunity of unicellulars are uniformly found in plasma membrane receptors, which formed under the effect of dynamic receptor pattern generation, suggested by Koch et al., and this is the basis of hormonal imprinting, by which the encounter between a chemical substance and the cell is specifically memorized. The receptors and imprinting are also used in the later steps of evolution up to mammals (including man) in each mentioned functions. This means that learning, memory, and immunity can be deduced to a unicellular eukaryote level.

  11. LAS CLÁUSULAS SELF - EXECUTING DE LOS CONVENIOS DE LA ORGANIZACIÓN INTERNACIONAL DEL TRABAJO EN MATERIA DE DERECHO LABORAL COLECTIVO (CONVENIOS 87 Y 98

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rafael Ostau de Lafont de León

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo hace referencia a la aplicabilidad interna de los Convenios de la Organización Inter- nacional de Trabajo (OIT en cuanto a la condición de que sus cláusulas deben de ser claras y precisas para que los operadores judiciales puedan darle aplicabilidad directa en la solución de conflictos. La tesis apunta a que las cláusulas self executing y non self executing, cuando se trata de convenios sobre Derechos Humanos, pueden ser aplicables directamente por el ope- rador judicial sin tener en cuenta los criterios de auto ejecución. El interrogante que se plantea en el presente caso consiste en que si los convenios en materia de derechos laboral colectivo contemplan cláusulas non self executing o, en caso de que las contemplen por ser convenios sobre derechos humanos, ¿estos convenios podrían ser de aplicación auto ejecutiva?

  12. Alternative theories: Pregnancy and immune tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonney, Elizabeth A

    2017-09-01

    For some time, reproductive immunologists have worked to understand the balance between maternal tolerance of the fetus, maternal health, and fetal protection which leads to successful pregnancy in mammalian species. We have always understood the potential importance of multiple factors, including nutrition, genetics, anatomy, hormonal regulation, environmental insult and many others. Yet, we still struggle to combine our knowledge of these factors and immunology to finally understand complex diseases of pregnancy, such as preeclampsia. Data, and potentially other factors (e.g. politics, economics), support the work to fit pregnancy into classical immune theory driven by the concept of self-non-self-discrimination. However, based on data, many classical theorists call pregnancy "a special case." This review is a first-pass suggestion to attempt to view three models of immune system activation and tolerance as potential alternatives to classical self-non-self-discrimination and to propose a theoretical framework to view them in the context of pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A Negative Selection Algorithm Based on Hierarchical Clustering of Self Set and its Application in Anomaly Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Chen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A negative selection algorithm based on the hierarchical clustering of self set HC-RNSA is introduced in this paper. Several strategies are applied to improve the algorithm performance. First, the self data set is replaced by the self cluster centers to compare with the detector candidates in each cluster level. As the number of self clusters is much less than the self set size, the detector generation efficiency is improved. Second, during the detector generation process, the detector candidates are restricted to the lower coverage space to reduce detector redundancy. In the article, the problem that the distances between antigens coverage to a constant value in the high dimensional space is analyzed, accordingly the Principle Component Analysis (PCA method is used to reduce the data dimension, and the fractional distance function is employed to enhance the distinctiveness between the self and non-self antigens. The detector generation procedure is terminated when the expected non-self coverage is reached. The theory analysis and experimental results demonstrate that the detection rate of HC-RNSA is higher than that of the traditional negative selection algorithms while the false alarm rate and time cost are reduced.

  14. One-hundred-three compound band-structure benchmark of post-self-consistent spin-orbit coupling treatments in density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhn, William P.; Blum, Volker

    2017-08-01

    We quantify the accuracy of different non-self-consistent and self-consistent spin-orbit coupling (SOC) treatments in Kohn-Sham and hybrid density functional theory by providing a band-structure benchmark set for the valence and low-lying conduction energy bands of 103 inorganic compounds, covering chemical elements up to polonium. Reference energy band structures for the PBE density functional are obtained using the full-potential (linearized) augmented plane wave code wien2k, employing its self-consistent treatment of SOC including Dirac-type p1 /2 orbitals in the basis set. We use this benchmark set to benchmark a computationally simpler, non-self-consistent all-electron treatment of SOC based on scalar-relativistic orbitals and numeric atom-centered orbital basis functions. For elements up to Z ≈50 , both treatments agree virtually exactly. For the heaviest elements considered (Tl, Pb, Bi, Po), the band-structure changes due to SOC are captured with a relative deviation of 11% or less. For different density functionals (PBE versus the hybrid HSE06), we show that the effect of spin-orbit coupling is usually similar but can be dissimilar if the qualitative features of the predicted underlying scalar-relativistic band structures do not agree. All band structures considered in this work are available online via the NOMAD repository to aid in future benchmark studies and methods development.

  15. Innate immune recognition of double-stranded RNA triggers increased expression of NKG2D ligands after virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteso, Gloria; Guerra, Susana; Valés-Gómez, Mar; Reyburn, Hugh T

    2017-12-15

    Self/non-self-discrimination by the innate immune system relies on germline-encoded, non-rearranging receptors expressed by innate immune cells recognizing conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns. The natural killer group 2D (NKG2D) receptor is a potent immune-activating receptor that binds human genome-encoded ligands, whose expression is negligible in normal tissues, but increased in stress and disease conditions for reasons that are incompletely understood. Here it is not clear how the immune system reconciles receptor binding of self-proteins with self/non-self-discrimination to avoid autoreactivity. We now report that increased expression of NKG2D ligands after virus infection depends on interferon response factors activated by the detection of viral double-stranded RNA by pattern-recognition receptors (RIG-I/MDA-5) and that NKG2D ligand up-regulation can be blocked by the expression of viral dsRNA-binding proteins. Thus, innate immunity-mediated recognition of viral nucleic acids triggers the infected cell to release interferon for NK cell recruitment and to express NKG2D ligands to become more visible to the immune system. Finally, the observation that NKG2D-ligand induction is a consequence of signaling by pattern-recognition receptors that have been selected over evolutionary time to be highly pathogen-specific explains how the risks of autoreactivity in this system are minimized. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Electrostatic potentials of the S-locus F-box proteins contribute to the pollen S specificity in self-incompatibility in Petunia hybrida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junhui; Zhang, Yue; Song, Yanzhai; Zhang, Hui; Fan, Jiangbo; Li, Qun; Zhang, Dongfen; Xue, Yongbiao

    2017-01-01

    Self-incompatibility (SI) is a self/non-self discrimination system found widely in angiosperms and, in many species, is controlled by a single polymorphic S-locus. In the Solanaceae, Rosaceae and Plantaginaceae, the S-locus encodes a single S-RNase and a cluster of S-locus F-box (SLF) proteins to control the pistil and pollen expression of SI, respectively. Previous studies have shown that their cytosolic interactions determine their recognition specificity, but the physical force between their interactions remains unclear. In this study, we show that the electrostatic potentials of SLF contribute to the pollen S specificity through a physical mechanism of 'like charges repel and unlike charges attract' between SLFs and S-RNases in Petunia hybrida. Strikingly, the alteration of a single C-terminal amino acid of SLF reversed its surface electrostatic potentials and subsequently the pollen S specificity. Collectively, our results reveal that the electrostatic potentials act as a major physical force between cytosolic SLFs and S-RNases, providing a mechanistic insight into the self/non-self discrimination between cytosolic proteins in angiosperms. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. How T lymphocytes see antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Arup K.

    2009-03-01

    Complex organisms, like humans, have an adaptive immune system that enables us to do battle with diverse pathogens. This flexible system can also go awry, and many diseases are the direct consequence of the adaptive immune system failing to discriminate between markers of self and non-self. The orchestrators of adaptive immunity are a class of cells called T lymphocytes (T cells). T cells recognize minute numbers of molecular signatures of pathogens, and T cell recognition of these molecular markers of non-self is both specific and degenerate. The specific (yet, cross-reactive), diverse, and self-tolerant T cell repertoire is designed in the thymus. I will describe how an approach that brings together theoretical and computational studies (rooted in statistical physics) with experiments (carried out by key collaborators) has allowed us to shed light on the mechanistic principles underlying how T cells respond to pathogens in a digital fashion (``on'' or ``off''), and how this molecular machinery coupled with frustration (a la spin glasses) plays a key role in designing the special properties of the T cell repertoire during development in the thymus.

  18. SCFSLF-mediated cytosolic degradation of S-RNase is required for cross-pollen compatibility in S-RNase-based self-incompatibility in Petunia hybrida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongbiao eXue

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Many flowering plants adopt self-incompatibility (SI to maintain their genetic diversity. In species of Solanaceae, Plantaginaceae and Rosaceae, SI is genetically controlled by a single S-locus with multiple haplotypes. The S-locus has been shown to encode S-RNases expressed in pistil and multiple SLF (S-locus F-box proteins in pollen controlling the female and male specificity of SI, respectively. S-RNases appear to function as a cytotoxin to reject self-pollen. In addition, SLFs have been shown to form SCF (SKP1/Cullin1/F-box complexes to serve as putative E3 ubiquitin ligase to interact with S-RNases. Previously, two different mechanisms, the S-RNase degradation and the S-RNase compartmentalization, have been proposed as the restriction mechanisms of S-RNase cytotoxicity allowing compatible pollination. In this study, we have provided several lines of evidence in support of the S-RNase degradation mechanism by a combination of cellular, biochemical and molecular biology approaches. First, both immunogold labeling and subcellular fractionation assays showed that two key pollen SI factors, PhSLF-S3L and PhSSK1 (SLF-interacting SKP1-like1 from Petunia hybrida, a Solanaceous species, are co-localized in cytosols of both pollen grains and tubes. Second, PhS3L-RNases are mainly detected in the cytosols of both self and non-self pollen tubes after pollination. Third, we found that both PhS3-RNases and PhS3L-RNases directly interact with PhSLF-S3L by yeast two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation assays. Fourth, S-RNases are specifically degraded in compatible pollen tubes by non-self SLF action. Taken together, our results demonstrate that SCFSLF-mediated non-self S-RNase degradation occurs in the cytosol of pollen tube through the ubiquitin/26S proteasome system serving as the major mechanism to neutralize S-RNase cytotoxicity during compatible pollination in P. hybrida.

  19. Possible role of histamine in pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases: implications for immunotherapy with histamine-2 receptor antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Hammer, J H

    1992-01-01

    The immunosuppressive chemical drugs cyclosporine A (CsA) and methotrexate (Mx) have recently been shown to be of benefit in several different diseases of autoimmune origin. Cellular immune responses may play a major role in autoimmunity as autoreactive T lymphocytes appear to recognize...... autoantigens and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II restriction molecules presented by non-immune, aberrant cells, subsequently leading to damage on healthy tissues. Psoriasis is suggested to be an autoimmune disease and in severe, uncontrollable psoriasis CsA and Mx are of value in reducing...... the possibility, that histamine is one of the molecules involved in pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. T cell mediated regulation and suppression of autoreactive T cells seem to be ineffective in controlling the enhanced immune reaction in patients where the discrimination between self and non-self is changed...

  20. La figura dell’antropologo, le necessità di assistenza familiare e la costruzione di una “casa della salute”. Progetto di ricerca e sensibilizzazione nel quartiere Savena di Bologna - The role of the anthropologist, the needs of family caring and the creation of the “health house”. Research and awareness project in Savena district - Bologna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Palmese

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The author presents her research and awareness project about family caring initiated in the Savena District, Bologna. Through this experience, the author has had the opportunity to disclose the development of non-self-sufficiency among the elderly creating the so-called “health house” within the home. Using this expression, she specifies the alteration of the physical space and the combination of life stories and expectations of three subjects who dwell in this space: the elderly, relatives and family assistant (“badante”. Outside the house, however, economic and political interests are increasing. The anthropologist has to be fully aware of these power dynamics and, above all, has to develop an educational and mediation activity in order to create more possibilities of expression for the individuals involved in the care relationship.

  1. Self-consistency and coherent effects in nonlinear resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, I.; Franchetti, G.; Qiang, J.; Ryne, R. D.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of space charge on emittance growth is studied in simulations of a coasting beam exposed to a strong octupolar perturbation in an otherwise linear lattice, and under stationary parameters. We explore the importance of self-consistency by comparing results with a non-self-consistent model, where the space charge electric field is kept 'frozen-in' to its initial values. For Gaussian distribution functions we find that the 'frozen-in' model results in a good approximation of the self-consistent model, hence coherent response is practically absent and the emittance growth is self-limiting due to space charge de-tuning. For KV or waterbag distributions, instead, strong coherent response is found, which we explain in terms of absence of Landau damping

  2. Therapeutic Targets for Management of Periodontitis and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sima, Corneliu; Van Dyke, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    The increasing incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and chronic periodontitis (CP) worldwide imposes a rethinking of individualized therapy for patients with both conditions. Central to bidirectional links between DM and CP is deregulated systemic inflammation and dysfunctional immune responses to altered-self and non-self. Control of blood glucose levels and metabolic imbalances associated with hyperglycemia in DM, and disruption of pathogenic subgingival biofilms in CP are currently the main therapeutic approaches for these conditions. Mounting evidence suggests the need to integrate immune modulatory therapeutics in treatment regimens that address the unresolved inflammation associated with DM and CP. The current review discusses the pathogenesis of DM and CP with emphasis on deregulated inflammation, current therapeutic approaches and the novel pro-resolution lipid mediators derived from n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. PMID:26881443

  3. Cyclodextrin-Based [1]Rotaxanes on Gold Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Zhao

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Transformation of mechanically interlocked molecules (e.g., rotaxanes and catenanes into nanoscale materials or devices is an important step towards their real applications. In our current work, an azobenzene-modified β-cyclodextrin (β-CD derivative that can form a self-inclusion complex in aqueous solution was prepared. The self-included β-CD derivative was then functionalized onto a gold nanoparticle (AuNP surface via a ligand-exchange reaction in aqueous solution, leading to the formation of AuNP-[1]rotaxane hybrids. Corresponding non-self-included β-CD derivative functionalized AuNPs were also developed in a DMF/H2O mixture solution for control experiments. These hybrids were fully characterized by UV-vis and circular dichroism spectroscopies, together with transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The competitive binding behavior of the hybrids with an adamantane dimer was investigated.

  4. Phase diagram for interacting Bose gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morawetz, K.; Maennel, M.; Schreiber, M.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a modified form of the inversion method in terms of a self-energy expansion to access the phase diagram of the Bose-Einstein transition. The dependence of the critical temperature on the interaction parameter is calculated. This is discussed with the help of a condition for Bose-Einstein condensation in interacting systems which follows from the pole of the T matrix in the same way as from the divergence of the medium-dependent scattering length. A many-body approximation consisting of screened ladder diagrams is proposed, which describes the Monte Carlo data more appropriately. The specific results are that a non-self-consistent T matrix leads to a linear coefficient in leading order of 4.7, the screened ladder approximation to 2.3, and the self-consistent T matrix due to the effective mass to a coefficient of 1.3 close to the Monte Carlo data

  5. Possible role of histamine in pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases: implications for immunotherapy with histamine-2 receptor antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Hammer, J H

    1992-01-01

    The immunosuppressive chemical drugs cyclosporine A (CsA) and methotrexate (Mx) have recently been shown to be of benefit in several different diseases of autoimmune origin. Cellular immune responses may play a major role in autoimmunity as autoreactive T lymphocytes appear to recognize autoantig......The immunosuppressive chemical drugs cyclosporine A (CsA) and methotrexate (Mx) have recently been shown to be of benefit in several different diseases of autoimmune origin. Cellular immune responses may play a major role in autoimmunity as autoreactive T lymphocytes appear to recognize...... the possibility, that histamine is one of the molecules involved in pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. T cell mediated regulation and suppression of autoreactive T cells seem to be ineffective in controlling the enhanced immune reaction in patients where the discrimination between self and non-self is changed...

  6. ENERGY CONCEPT ALIVE. NEW APPROACH IN THE FIGHT AGAINST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Shchukin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available New approach to the problem of struggle with malignant tumors based on the suggested by the authors energetic concept of living matter considering a human organism as an open non-self-organizing biological system that is the part of organism of a higher level of organization - Biosphere, and that is under full control of geophysical factors - first of all electromagnetic field of the Earth and composition of atmospheric air is set forth. The mentioned factors fatefully determine length of life - specific and individual - of any living organism, including human being. On the basis of the set forth approach a new means of prevention and removal from the human organism of malignant tumors was suggested.

  7. Rating scales measuring the severity of psychotic depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, S. D.; Rothschild, A. J.; Flint, A. J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Unipolar psychotic depression (PD) is a severe and debilitating syndrome, which requires intensive monitoring. The objective of this study was to provide an overview of the rating scales used to assess illness severity in PD. METHOD: Selective review of publications reporting results...... on non-self-rated, symptom-based rating scales utilized to measure symptom severity in PD. The clinical and psychometric validity of the identified rating scales was reviewed. RESULTS: A total of 14 rating scales meeting the predefined criteria were included in the review. These scales grouped...... into the following categories: (i) rating scales predominantly covering depressive symptoms, (ii) rating scales predominantly covering psychotic symptoms, (iii) rating scales covering delusions, and (iv) rating scales covering PD. For the vast majority of the scales, the clinical and psychometric validity had...

  8. Linear Model-Based Predictive Control of the LHC 1.8 K Cryogenic Loop

    CERN Document Server

    Blanco-Viñuela, E; De Prada-Moraga, C

    1999-01-01

    The LHC accelerator will employ 1800 superconducting magnets (for guidance and focusing of the particle beams) in a pressurized superfluid helium bath at 1.9 K. This temperature is a severely constrained control parameter in order to avoid the transition from the superconducting to the normal state. Cryogenic processes are difficult to regulate due to their highly non-linear physical parameters (heat capacity, thermal conductance, etc.) and undesirable peculiarities like non self-regulating process, inverse response and variable dead time. To reduce the requirements on either temperature sensor or cryogenic system performance, various control strategies have been investigated on a reduced-scale LHC prototype built at CERN (String Test). Model Based Predictive Control (MBPC) is a regulation algorithm based on the explicit use of a process model to forecast the plant output over a certain prediction horizon. This predicted controlled variable is used in an on-line optimization procedure that minimizes an approp...

  9. The brain's default mode network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raichle, Marcus E

    2015-07-08

    The brain's default mode network consists of discrete, bilateral and symmetrical cortical areas, in the medial and lateral parietal, medial prefrontal, and medial and lateral temporal cortices of the human, nonhuman primate, cat, and rodent brains. Its discovery was an unexpected consequence of brain-imaging studies first performed with positron emission tomography in which various novel, attention-demanding, and non-self-referential tasks were compared with quiet repose either with eyes closed or with simple visual fixation. The default mode network consistently decreases its activity when compared with activity during these relaxed nontask states. The discovery of the default mode network reignited a longstanding interest in the significance of the brain's ongoing or intrinsic activity. Presently, studies of the brain's intrinsic activity, popularly referred to as resting-state studies, have come to play a major role in studies of the human brain in health and disease. The brain's default mode network plays a central role in this work.

  10. Convergence theorems for mappings which are asymptotically nonexpansive in the intermediate sense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidume, C.E.; Shahzad, Naseer; Zegeye, Habtu

    2003-08-01

    Suppose K is a nonempty closed convex nonexpansive retract of a real uniformly convex Banach space E with P as a nonexpansive retraction. Let T : K → E be a non-self mapping which is asymptotically nonexpansive in the intermediate sense with F(T) := {x is an element of K : Tx x} ≠ 0. A demiclosed principle for T is proved. Moreover, if T is completely continuous, an iterative sequence {x n } is constructed which converges strongly to some x* is an element of F(T). If T is not assumed to be completely continuous but the dual E* of E is assumed to have the Kadec-Klee property, then {x n } converges weakly to some x* is an element of F(T). The operator P which plays a central role in our proofs is, in this case, the Banach space analogue of the proximity map in Hilbert spaces. (author)

  11. Secondary prevention of epidemic gastric cancer in the model of Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzi, Marco; Saraggi, Deborah; Fassan, Matteo; Megraud, Francis; Di Mario, Francesco; Rugge, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Irrespective of its etiology, long-standing, non-self-limiting gastric inflammation (mostly in Helicobacter pylori-associated cases) is the cancerization ground on which epidemic (intestinal-type) gastric carcinoma (GC) can develop. The natural history of invasive gastric adenocarcinoma encompasses gastritis, atrophic mucosal changes, and intraepithelial neoplasia (IEN). The topography, the extent and the severity of the atrophic changes significantly correlate with the risk of developing both IEN and GC. In recent years, both noninvasive (serological) tests and invasive (endoscopy/biopsy) procedures have been proposed to stratify patients according to different classes of GC risk. As a consequence, different patient-tailored GC secondary prevention strategies have been put forward. This review summarizes the histological features of H. pylori-related gastritis and the natural history of the disease. Histological and serological strategies to assess GC risk as well as the clinical management of atrophic gastritis patients are also discussed. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Occupational noise exposure, psychosocial working conditions and the risk of tinnitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther Frederiksen, Thomas; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Stokholm, Zara Ann

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of occupational noise (current and cumulative doses) and psychosocial work factors (psychological demands and decision latitude) on tinnitus occurrence among workers, using objective and non-self-reported exposure measures to prevent...... conditions) and tinnitus were analyzed with logistic regression. RESULTS: We found no statistically significant associations between either current [OR 0.95 (95% CI 0.89; 1.01)] or cumulative [OR 0.93 (95% CI 0.81; 1.06)] occupational noise exposure and tinnitus. Likewise, results for psychosocial working...... conditions showed no statistically significant association between work place decision latitude [OR 1.06 (95% CI 0.94; 1.13)] or psychological demands [OR 1.07 (95% CI 0.90; 1.26)] and tinnitus. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that current Danish occupational noise levels (in combination with relevant noise...

  13. Endothelial cells promote the proliferation of lymphocytes partly through the Wnt pathway via LEF-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shu-Hong; Nan, Ke-Jun; Wang, Yao-Chun

    2009-01-01

    The function of T cells and B cells is to recognize specific 'non-self' antigens, during a process known as antigen presentation. Once they have identified an invader, the cells generate specific responses that are tailored to maximally eliminate specific pathogens or pathogen-infected cells. Endothelial cells (ECs) can trigger the activation of T cells through their class I and class II MHC molecules. In this study, we examined the effect of ECs on the proliferation of lymphocytes. We report that the proliferation of T and B cells can be improved by interaction with ECs. LEF-1 is one of the main molecular mediators in this process, and the inhibition of LEF-1 induces apoptosis. These results suggest that LEF-1 modulates positively the proliferation of lymphocytes induced by their interaction with ECs.

  14. The plea bargain as a criminal policy instrument: the tension about the fundamental guarantees of the defendant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Thomas Aires

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present research intends to analyze the plea bargaining based on its political-criminal foundation, in order to achieve the tension it maintains in relation to certain fundamental guarantees of the defendant, especially the one who signs the agreement. On this occasion, there will be substantially a contraposition between the legal procedure of collaboration and the principles of the adversary, ample defense, presumption of innocence, and non-self-incrimination. The application of the plea bargain proves extremely controversial not only in the common sense, often conveyed by the media, but mainly in the technical perspective, especially in relation to the scientific debate, which reflects the complexity of the proposed theme. For an effective approach to the theme, the work uses the deductive, historical-evolutionary and dialectical methods, being the bibliographical research the technique fundamentally used.

  15. Doctors admitted to a Physicians' Health Program: a comparison of self-referrals versus directed referrals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braquehais, María Dolores; Valero, Sergi; Bel, Miquel Jordi; Navarro, María Cecilia; Matalí, Josep Lluís; Nasillo, Viviana; Padrós, Jaume; Arteman, Antoni; Bruguera, Eugeni; Casas, Miquel

    2014-07-02

    To compare the profile of doctors with mental disorders admitted to a Physicians' Health Program (PHP) depending on their type of referral. Retrospective chart review. We analysed 1545 medical records of doctors admitted to the Barcelona PHP (PAIMM) from 1 February 1998 to 31 December 2012. Most doctors (83.2%) were self-referred to the programme. Patients non-self-referred were older ([Formula: see text]=55 vs [Formula: see text]=49.6 years; t=6.96, pdoctors' personal traits but also by each programme's design and how it is perceived by service users. Our findings should be taken into account when designing treatment and preventive interventions for this professional group. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Doctors admitted to a Physicians’ Health Program: a comparison of self-referrals versus directed referrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braquehais, María Dolores; Valero, Sergi; Bel, Miquel Jordi; Navarro, María Cecilia; Matalí, Josep Lluís; Nasillo, Viviana; Padrós, Jaume; Arteman, Antoni; Bruguera, Eugeni; Casas, Miquel

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the profile of doctors with mental disorders admitted to a Physicians’ Health Program (PHP) depending on their type of referral. Design Retrospective chart review. Method We analysed 1545 medical records of doctors admitted to the Barcelona PHP (PAIMM) from 1 February 1998 to 31 December 2012. Results Most doctors (83.2%) were self-referred to the programme. Patients non-self-referred were older (=55 vs =49.6 years; t=6.96, pdoctors’ personal traits but also by each programme's design and how it is perceived by service users. Our findings should be taken into account when designing treatment and preventive interventions for this professional group. PMID:24993767

  17. Dynamic features of combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim, A. K.

    1985-01-01

    The dynamic features of combustion are discussed for four important cases: ignition, inflammation, explosion, and detonation. Ignition, the initiation of a self-sustained exothermic process, is considered in the simplest case of a closed thermodynamic system and its stochastic distribution. Inflammation, the initiation and propagation of self-sustained flames, is presented for turbulent flow. Explosion, the dynamic effects caused by the deposition of exothermic energy in a compressible medium, is illustrated by self-similar blast waves with energy deposition at the front and the adiabatic non-self-similar wave. Detonation, the most comprehensive illustration of all the dynamic effects of combustion, is discussed with a phenomenological account of the development and structure of the wave.

  18. Positron lifetime calculation for the elements of the periodic table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campillo Robles, J M; Ogando, E; Plazaola, F

    2007-04-30

    Theoretical positron lifetime values have been calculated systematically for most of the elements of the periodic table. Self-consistent and non-self-consistent schemes have been used for the calculation of the electronic structure in the solid, as well as different parametrizations for the positron enhancement factor and correlation energy. The results obtained have been studied and compared with experimental data, confirming the theoretical trends. As is known, positron lifetimes in bulk show a periodic behaviour with atomic number. These calculations also confirm that monovacancy lifetimes follow the same behaviour. The effects of enhancement factors used in calculations have been commented upon. Finally, we have analysed the effects that f and d electrons have on positron lifetimes.

  19. Calculation of positron characteristics for elements of the periodic table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campillo Robles, J M; Ogando, E; Plazaola, F

    2011-01-01

    Positron characteristics have been calculated in bulk and monovacancies for most of the elements of the periodic table. Self-consistent and non-self-consistent schemes have been used for the calculation of the electronic structure in the solid, and different parametrizations for the positron enhancement factor and correlation energy. As it is known, positron lifetimes in bulk show a periodic behaviour with atomic number. These calculations also confirm that monovacancy lifetimes follow the same behaviour. The results obtained have been compared with selected experimental lifetime data, which confirms the calculated theoretical trends. Positron binding energies to a monovacancy have been calculated also for most of the elements of the periodic table. The binding energy shows a periodic behaviour with atomic number too.

  20. Positron lifetime calculation for the elements of the periodic table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robles, J M Campillo; Ogando, E; Plazaola, F

    2007-01-01

    Theoretical positron lifetime values have been calculated systematically for most of the elements of the periodic table. Self-consistent and non-self-consistent schemes have been used for the calculation of the electronic structure in the solid, as well as different parametrizations for the positron enhancement factor and correlation energy. The results obtained have been studied and compared with experimental data, confirming the theoretical trends. As is known, positron lifetimes in bulk show a periodic behaviour with atomic number. These calculations also confirm that monovacancy lifetimes follow the same behaviour. The effects of enhancement factors used in calculations have been commented upon. Finally, we have analysed the effects that f and d electrons have on positron lifetimes

  1. Cytosolic nucleic acid sensors and innate immune regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ori, Daisuke; Murase, Motoya; Kawai, Taro

    2017-03-04

    During viral and bacterial infections, pathogen-derived cytosolic nucleic acids are recognized by the intracellular RNA sensors retinoic acid-inducible gene I and melanoma-differentiated gene 5 and intracellular DNA sensors, including cyclic-di-GMP-AMP synthase, absent in melanoma 2, interferon (IFN)-gamma inducible protein 16, polymerase III, and so on. Binding of intracellular nucleic acids to these sensors activates downstream signaling cascades, resulting in the production of type I IFNs and pro-inflammatory cytokines to induce appropriate systematic immune responses. While these sensors also recognize endogenous nucleic acids and activate immune responses, they can discriminate between self- and non-self-nucleic acids. However, dysfunction of these sensors or failure of regulatory mechanisms causes aberrant activation of immune response and autoimmune disorders. In this review, we focus on how intracellular immune sensors recognize exogenous nucleic acids and activate the innate immune system, and furthermore, how autoimmune diseases result from dysfunction of these sensors.

  2. Method of preparing and applying single stranded DNA probes to double stranded target DNAs in situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, J.W.; Pinkel, D.

    1991-07-02

    A method is provided for producing single stranded non-self-complementary nucleic acid probes, and for treating target DNA for use therewith. The probe is constructed by treating DNA with a restriction enzyme and an exonuclease to form template/primers for a DNA polymerase. The digested strand is resynthesized in the presence of labeled nucleoside triphosphate precursor. Labeled single stranded fragments are separated from the resynthesized fragments to form the probe. Target DNA is treated with the same restriction enzyme used to construct the probe, and is treated with an exonuclease before application of the probe. The method significantly increases the efficiency and specificity of hybridization mixtures by increasing effective probe concentration by eliminating self-hybridization between both probe and target DNAs, and by reducing the amount of target DNA available for mismatched hybridizations. No Drawings

  3. Solvation phenomena in association theories with applications to oil & gas and chemical industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Folas, Georgios; Muro Sunè, Nuria

    2008-01-01

    the scientific point of view, solvation phenomena are also very significant because they are present in different types of mixtures and not just those containing two self-associating compounds e.g. water with alcohols or glycols. Mixtures with only one self-associating compound and in some cases even mixtures...... with two non self-associating compounds may exhibit solvation specifically due to hydrogen bonding or more generally due to Lewis acid-Lewis base interactions. As examples can be mentioned mixtures with polar compounds (water, glycols...) and aromatic hydrocarbons and aqueous ether or ester solutions......Association theories e.g. those belonging to the SAFT family account explicitly for self- and cross-association (solvation) phenomena. Such phenomena are of great practical importance as they affect, often dramatically, the phase behaviour of many mixtures of industrial relevance. From...

  4. Modelling of associating mixtures for applications in the oil & gas and chemical industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Folas, Georgios; Muro Sunè, Nuria

    2007-01-01

    Thermodynamic properties and phase equilibria of associating mixtures cannot often be satisfactorily modelled using conventional models such as cubic equations of state. CPA (cubic-plus-association) is an equation of state (EoS), which combines the SRK EoS with the association term of SAFT. For non......-polar (non self-associating) compounds it reduces to SRK. The model was first published in 1996 and since then it has been developed and applied with success to binary systems containing water-alkanes and alcohol/glycol/acid-alkanes (both VLE and LLE) as well as ternary and multicomponent (V)LLE for water......-alcohol (glycol)-alkanes and certain acid and amine-containing mixtures. Recent results include glycol-aromatic hydrocarbons including multiphase, multicomponent equilibria and gas hydrate calculations in combination with the van der Waals-Platteeuw model. This article will outline some new applications...

  5. Novel assay to measure the plasmid mobilizing potential of mixed microbial communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klümper, Uli; Droumpali, Ariadni; Dechesne, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    Mobilizable plasmids lack necessary genes for complete conjugation and are therefore non-self-transmissible. Instead, they rely on the conjugation system of conjugal plasmids to be horizontally transferred to new recipients. While community permissiveness, the fraction of a mixed microbial...... community for RP4 (at 1.16x10-4 transconjugants per recipient (T/R)) was similar to that previously measured for soil microbial communities. RSF1010 was mobilized by the model community at a frequency of 1.16x10-5 T/R, only one order of magnitude lower than its permissiveness to RP4. This mobilization...... frequency is unexpectedly high considering that (i) mobilization requires the presence of mobilizing conjugal plasmids within the permissive fraction of the recipients; (ii) in pure culture experiments with P. putida retromobilization of RSF1010 through RP4 only took place in approximately half...

  6. Scalar field fluctuations in the early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enqvist, K.; Ng, K.W.; Olive, K.A.

    1988-01-01

    We compute the quantum fluctuations of a non-self-interacting but unstable scalar field of arbitrary mass during the period of inflation. Instead of treating the scalar field in a static De Sitter space, we begin with a scalar field in the Friedmann universe just before the start of inflation, and work out the dynamics of the growing quantum fluctuation of the field after it has entered into the inflationary epoch. We use the physically sensible method of Vilenkin to regularize the theory. We find that in all but two special cases the fluctuations produced are different from those in a static De Sitter space, and the effect of the finite width of the scalar field limits the growth of fluctuations. (orig.)

  7. A test of self-determination theory with wheelchair basketball players with and without disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perreault, Stephane; Vallarand, Robert J

    2007-10-01

    Guided by Self-Determination Theory (SDT), the present study examined the sport motivation and coping skills of male and female wheelchair basketball players with and without disability (N = 72). In line with SDT, results showed that intrinsic and extrinsic motivation as well as amotivation was found to be present in this sample of wheelchair basketball players. Results also demonstrated that the participants surveyed in the present study scored higher on self-determined types of motivation than non self-determined types of motivation, thus replicating past research with athletes without disability. Furthermore, wheelchair basketball players with and without disability did not differ significantly with respect to sport motivation and coping skills, suggesting that they are more alike than dissimilar. Finally, results revealed that self-determined motivation is associated with enhanced psychological functioning.

  8. Bound-state formation for thermal relic dark matter and unitarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harling, Benedict von; Petraki, Kalliopi

    2014-01-01

    We show that the relic abundance of thermal dark matter annihilating via a long-range interaction, is significantly affected by the formation and decay of dark matter bound states in the early universe, if the dark matter mass is above a few TeV . We determine the coupling required to obtain the observed dark matter density, taking into account both the direct 2-to-2 annihilations and the formation of bound states, and provide an analytical fit. We argue that the unitarity limit on the inelastic cross-section is realized only if dark matter annihilates via a long-range interaction, and we determine the upper bound on the mass of thermal-relic dark matter to be about 197 (139) TeV for (non)-self-conjugate dark matter

  9. Therapeutic targeting of the innate immune system in domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Tracey J; Werling, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Since first being described in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, the knowledge regarding Toll-like receptors (TLRs) has transformed our understanding of immunology. TLRs are a family of conserved pattern recognition receptors (PRR) that recognise specific microbial-associated molecular patterns and allow the cell to distinguish between self and non-self materials. The very property of the TLRs, to link innate and adaptive immunity, offers a novel opportunity to develop vaccines that engage TLR signalling. The presence of TLR ligands as adjuvants in conjunction with a vaccine is shown to increase the efficacy and response to the immunisation with a particular antigen. Here, we focus on the findings pertaining to TLR ligands as adjuvants and discuss the importance of these studies in the development of an optimal vaccine in farm and companion animals.

  10. Reducing Misanthropic Memory Through Self-Awareness: Reducing Bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Mark D

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the influence of self-awareness on misanthropic recall. Misanthropic recall is the tendency to recall more negative behaviors dispositionally attributed and positive behaviors situationally attributed than negative behaviors situationally attributed and positive behaviors dispositionally attributed. It was hypothesized that when one is self-aware, more systematic information processing would occur, thereby reducing misanthropic memory and influencing attitudinal judgments. The first experiment used a mirror and the second experiment used a live video to induce self-awareness. Participants were asked to form an impression of a group. The results of both experiments replicated the previously found pattern of misanthropic memory for non-self-aware participants (Ybarra & Stephan, 1996), and revealed less misanthropic recall bias in self-aware participants.

  11. Macrophage Clearance of Apoptotic Cells: A Critical Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamon Gordon

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As the body continues to grow and age, it becomes essential to maintain a balance between living and dying cells. Macrophages and dendritic cells play a central role in discriminating among viable, apoptotic, and necrotic cells, as selective and efficient phagocytes, without inducing inappropriate inflammation or immune responses. A great deal has been learnt concerning clearance receptors for modified and non-self-ligands on potential targets, mediating their eventual uptake, disposal, and replacement. In this essay, we assess current understanding of the phagocytic recognition of apoptotic cells within their tissue environment; we conclude that efferocytosis constitutes a more complex process than simply removal of corpses, with regulatory interactions between the target and effector cells, which determine the outcome of this homeostatic process.

  12. Free energy distribution function of a random Ising ferromagnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dotsenko, Victor; Klumov, Boris

    2012-01-01

    We study the free energy distribution function of a weakly disordered Ising ferromagnet in terms of the D-dimensional random temperature Ginzburg–Landau Hamiltonian. It is shown that besides the usual Gaussian 'body' this distribution function exhibits non-Gaussian tails both in the paramagnetic and in the ferromagnetic phases. Explicit asymptotic expressions for these tails are derived. It is demonstrated that the tails are strongly asymmetric: the left tail (for large negative values of the free energy) is much slower than the right one (for large positive values of the free energy). It is argued that at the critical point the free energy of the random Ising ferromagnet in dimensions D < 4 is described by a non-trivial universal distribution function which is non-self-averaging

  13. Specific inflammatory response of Anemonia sulcata (Cnidaria) after bacterial injection causes tissue reaction and enzymatic activity alteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapani, M R; Parisi, M G; Parrinello, D; Sanfratello, M A; Benenati, G; Palla, F; Cammarata, M

    2016-03-01

    The evolution of multicellular organisms was marked by adaptations to protect against pathogens. The mechanisms for discriminating the ''self'' from ''non-self" have evolved into a long history of cellular and molecular strategies, from damage repair to the co-evolution of host-pathogen interactions. We investigated the inflammatory response in Anemonia sulcata (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) following injection of substances that varied in type and dimension, and observed clear, strong and specific reactions, especially after injection of Escherichia coli and Vibrio alginolyticus. Moreover, we analyzed enzymatic activity of protease, phosphatase and esterase, showing how the injection of different bacterial strains alters the expression of these enzymes and suggesting a correlation between the appearance of the inflammatory reaction and the modification of enzymatic activities. Our study shows for the first time, a specific reaction and enzymatic responses following injection of bacteria in a cnidarian. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Quantum-mechanical pseudo-hamiltonians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blank, J.; Havlicek, M.; Exner, P.

    1980-01-01

    The question of incorporating the phenomenological description of a quantum-mechanical system via non-self-adjoint Hamiltonian Hsub(p) into the standard formalism of the quantum theory is discussed using the theory of minimal unitary dilations of contractive semigroups. It is shown that this problem can be satisfactorily solved if the approximative character of the phenomenological description is taken into account. The notions of approximative description and of pseudo-Hamiltonian Hsub(p) are strictly defined, the definitions being motivated by the requirements of physical adequacy and applicability of the unitary dilations theory. A criterion for an abstract closed densely defined operator Hsub(p) to be pseudo-Hamiltonian is formulated. Various sufficient conditions are then obtained for the physically interesting case of Schroedinger operators on Lsup(2)(Rsup(n)) with complex potentials

  15. Tubular phase of self-avoiding anisotropic crystalline membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowick, M.; Travesset, A.

    1999-01-01

    We analyze the tubular phase of self-avoiding anisotropic crystalline membranes. A careful analysis using renormalization group arguments together with symmetry requirements motivates the simplest form of the large-distance free energy describing fluctuations of tubular configurations. The non-self-avoiding limit of the model is shown to be exactly solvable. For the full self-avoiding model we compute the critical exponents using an var-epsilon expansion about the upper critical embedding dimension for general internal dimension D and embedding dimension d. We then exhibit various methods for reliably extrapolating to the physical point (D=2,d=3). Our most accurate estimates are ν=0.62 for the Flory exponent and ζ=0.80 for the roughness exponent. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  16. Adaptation in CRISPR-Cas Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Samuel H; Richter, Hagen; Charpentier, Emmanuelle; Qimron, Udi

    2016-03-17

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins constitute an adaptive immune system in prokaryotes. The system preserves memories of prior infections by integrating short segments of foreign DNA, termed spacers, into the CRISPR array in a process termed adaptation. During the past 3 years, significant progress has been made on the genetic requirements and molecular mechanisms of adaptation. Here we review these recent advances, with a focus on the experimental approaches that have been developed, the insights they generated, and a proposed mechanism for self- versus non-self-discrimination during the process of spacer selection. We further describe the regulation of adaptation and the protein players involved in this fascinating process that allows bacteria and archaea to harbor adaptive immunity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Dynamic composite elastic medium theory. Part II. Three-dimensional media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaelin, B.; Johnson, L.R.

    1998-01-01

    Non-self-consistent and self-consistent methods of estimating velocity and attenuation of P waves and S waves at all frequencies for heterogeneous media with three-dimensional inclusions are formulated using the scattering functions of the individual inclusions. The methods are the generalization of methods for one-dimensional media presented in the first paper of this series. The specific case of spherical inclusions is calculated with the exact scattering function and compared with several low frequency approximations. The self-consistent estimates are consistent with Berryman close-quote s low frequency approximation. We present spectra and wave forms of materials with solid and liquid inclusions in a solid matrix. The results show that the exact scattering functions are required to adequately describe wave propagation at all frequencies. The analysis of liquid inclusions demonstrates that viscous damping may become important only if scattering attenuation due to spherical pores is small

  18. Interacting fields of arbitrary spin and N > 4 supersymmetric self-dual Yang-Mills equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devchand, Ch.; Ogievetsky, V.

    1996-06-01

    We show that the self-dual Yang-Mills equations afford supersymmetrization to systems of equations invariant under global N-extended super-Poincare transformations for arbitrary values of N, without the limitation (N ≤ 4) applicable to standard non-self-dual Yang-Mills theories. These systems of equations provide novel classically consistent interactions for vector supermultiplets containing fields of spin up to N-2/2. The equations of motion of the component fields of spin greater than 1/2 are interacting variants of the first-order Dirac-Fierz equations for zero rest-mass fields of arbitrary spin. The interactions are governed by conserved currents which are constructed by an iterative procedure. In (arbitrarily extended) chiral superspace, the equations of motion for the (arbitrarily large) self-dual supermultiplet are shown to be completely equivalent to the set of algebraic supercurvature defining the self-dual superconnection. (author). 25 refs

  19. Synchronization and collective motion of globally coupled Brownian particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevilla, Francisco J; Heiblum-Robles, Alexandro; Dossetti, Victor

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we study a system of passive Brownian (non-self-propelled) particles in two dimensions, interacting only through a social-like force (velocity alignment in this case) that resembles Kuramoto's coupling among phase oscillators. We show that the kinematical stationary states of the system go from a phase in thermal equilibrium with no net flux of particles, to far-from-equilibrium phases exhibiting collective motion by increasing the coupling among particles. The mechanism that leads to the instability of the equilibrium phase relies on the competition between two time scales, namely, the mean collision time of the Brownian particles in a thermal bath and the time it takes for a particle to orient its direction of motion along the direction of motion of the group. Our results show a clear connection between collective motion and the Kuramoto model for synchronization, in our case, for the direction of motion of the particles. (paper)

  20. Recent Advances in Aptamers Targeting Immune System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Piao-Ping

    2017-02-01

    The immune system plays important role in protecting the organism by recognizing non-self molecules from pathogen such as bacteria, parasitic worms, and viruses. When the balance of the host defense system is disturbed, immunodeficiency, autoimmunity, and inflammation occur. Nucleic acid aptamers are short single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) or RNA ligands that interact with complementary molecules with high specificity and affinity. Aptamers that target the molecules involved in immune system to modulate their function have great potential to be explored as new diagnostic and therapeutic agents for immune disorders. This review summarizes recent advances in the development of aptamers targeting immune system. The selection of aptamers with superior chemical and biological characteristics will facilitate their application in the diagnosis and treatment of immune disorders.

  1. Instanton solutions from Abelian sinh-Gordon and Tzitzeica vortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contatto, Felipe; Dorigoni, Daniele

    2015-12-01

    We study the Abelian Higgs vortex solutions to the sinh-Gordon equation and the elliptic Tzitzeica equation. Starting from these particular vortices, we construct solutions to the Taubes equation with higher vortex number, on surfaces with conical singularities. We then, analyse more general properties of vortices on such singular surfaces and propose a method to obtain vortices on conifolds from vortices on surfaces of revolution. We apply our method to construct explicit vortex solutions on the Poincaré disk with a conical singularity in the centre, to which we refer as the "hyperbolic cone". We uplift the Abelian sinh-Gordon and Tzitzeica vortex solutions to four dimensions and construct cylindrically symmetric, self-dual Yang-Mills instantons on a non-self-dual (nor anti-self-dual) 4-dimensional Kähler manifold with non-vanishing scalar curvature. The instantons we construct in this way cannot be obtained via a twistorial approach.

  2. IL-2 and IL-15 dependent thymic development of Foxp3-expressing regulatory T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apert, Cécile; Romagnoli, Paola; van Meerwijk, Joost P M

    2018-04-01

    Immunosuppressive regulatory T lymphocytes (Treg) expressing the transcription factor Foxp3 play a vital role in the maintenance of tolerance of the immune-system to self and innocuous non-self. Most Treg that are critical for the maintenance of tolerance to self, develop as an independent T-cell lineage from common T cell precursors in the thymus. In this organ, their differentiation requires signals from the T cell receptor for antigen, from co-stimulatory molecules, as well as from cytokine-receptors. Here we focus on the cytokines implicated in thymic development of Treg, with a particular emphasis on the roles of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-15. The more recently appreciated involvement of TGF-β in thymic Treg development is also briefly discussed. Finally, we discuss how cytokine-dependence of Treg development allows for temporal, quantitative, and potentially qualitative modulation of this process.

  3. Problems in the theory of point explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobeinikov, V. P.

    The book is concerned with the development of the theory of point explosions, which is relevant to the study of such phenomena as the initiation of detonation, high-power explosions, electric discharges, cosmic explosions, laser blasts, and hypersonic aerodynamics. The discussion covers the principal equations and the statement of problems; linearized non-self-similar one-dimensional problems; spherical, cylindrical, and plane explosions with allowance for counterpressure under conditions of constant initial density; explosions in a combustible mixture of gases; and point explosions in inhomogeneous media with nonsymmetric energy release. Attention is also given to point explosions in an electrically conducting gas with allowance for the effect of the magnetic field and to the propagation of perturbations from solar flares.

  4. A Bio-Inspired Approach to Alarm Malware Attacks in Mobile Handsets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Taejin; Park, Taejoon

    With proliferation of smart handsets capable of mobile Internet, the severity of malware attacks targeting such handsets is rapidly increasing, thereby requiring effective countermeasure for them. However, existing signature-based solutions are not suitable for resource-poor handsets due to the excessive run-time overhead of matching against ever-increasing malware pattern database as well as the limitation of detecting well-known malware only. To overcome these drawbacks, we present a bio-inspired approach to discriminate malware (non-self) from normal programs (self) by replicating the processes of biological immune system. Our proposed approach achieves superior performance in terms of detecting 83.7% of new malware or their variants and scalable storage requirement that grows very slowly with inclusion of new malware, making it attractive for use with mobile handsets.

  5. To sense or not to sense viral RNA--essentials of coronavirus innate immune evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindler, Eveline; Thiel, Volker

    2014-08-01

    An essential function of innate immunity is to distinguish self from non-self and receptors have evolved to specifically recognize viral components and initiate the expression of antiviral proteins to restrict viral replication. Coronaviruses are RNA viruses that replicate in the host cytoplasm and evade innate immune sensing in most cell types, either passively by hiding their viral signatures and limiting exposure to sensors or actively, by encoding viral antagonists to counteract the effects of interferons. Since many cytoplasmic viruses exploit similar mechanisms of innate immune evasion, mechanistic insight into the direct interplay between viral RNA, viral RNA-processing enzymes, cellular sensors and antiviral proteins will be highly relevant to develop novel antiviral targets and to restrict important animal and human infections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Turbulence and self-consistent fields in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesme, D.; DuBois, D.

    1981-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the role of self-consistency of the electric field in 1-D plasma turbulence. We first show that in the non-self consistent electric field problem excellent agreement is found between numerical experiments and quasilinear theory whenever the imposed electric field Fourier components have random phase. A discrepancy is exhibited between quasilinear prediction and numerical simulations in the self-consistent electric field case. This discrepancy is explained by the creation of a long correlation time of the electric field resulting from a strong wave-particle interaction. A comparison is made between quasilinear and renormalized propagator theories, and the Dupree Clump theory. These three theories are found to be self-contradictory in the regime of strong wave-particle interaction because they make an a priori quasigaussian assumption for the electric field

  7. Sphingolipids and epoxidized lipid metabolites in the control of gut immunosurveillance and allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun eKunisawa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal immune system ingeniously balances the distinct responses of elimination and tolerance of non-self-substances for the creation and maintenance of homeostatic environments. Accumulating evidence has recently shown that various lipids, including dietary one, are involved in the regulation of intestinal immunity and are associated with biophylaxis and immune disorders. Recent advances in the lipidomics allow the identification of novel pathways of lipid metabolism and lipid metabolites for the control of intestinal immunity. In this paper, we describe the effects and functions of lipids, especially sphingolipids and new lipid metabolites originated from dietary oil on the immunomodulation and on the development and pathogenesis of allergic diseases in the intestine.

  8. The generalized second law and the black hole evaporation in an empty space as a nonequilibrium process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saida, Hiromi

    2006-01-01

    When a black hole is in an empty space in which there is no matter field except that of the Hawking radiation (Hawking field), then the black hole evaporates and the entropy of the black hole decreases. The generalized second law guarantees the increase of the total entropy of the whole system which consists of the black hole and the Hawking field. That is, the increase of the entropy of the Hawking field is faster than the decrease of the black hole entropy. In a naive sense, one may expect that the entropy increase of the Hawking field is due to the self-interaction among the composite particles of the Hawking field, and that the self-relaxation of the Hawking field results in the entropy increase. Then, when one considers a non-self-interacting matter field as the Hawking field, it is obvious that self-relaxation does not take place, and one may think that the total entropy does not increase. However, using nonequilibrium thermodynamics which has been developed recently, we find for the non-self-interacting Hawking field that the rate of entropy increase of the Hawking field (the entropy emission rate by the black hole) grows faster than the rate of entropy decrease of the black hole during the black hole evaporation in empty space. The origin of the entropy increase of the Hawking field is the increase of the black hole temperature. Hence an understanding of the generalized second law in the context of nonequilibrium thermodynamics is suggested; even if the self-relaxation of the Hawking field does not take place, the temperature increase of the black hole during the evaporation process causes the entropy increase of the Hawking field to result in the increase of the total entropy

  9. Immunity-Based Accommodation of Aircraft Subsystem Failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togayev, Adil

    This thesis presents the design, development, and flight-simulation testing of an artificial immune system (AIS) based approach for accommodation of different aircraft subsystem failures. Failure accommodation is considered as part of a complex integrated AIS scheme that contains four major components: failure detection, identification, evaluation, and accommodation. The accommodation part consists of providing compensatory commands to the aircraft under specific abnormal conditions based on previous experience. In this research effort, the possibility of building an AIS allowing the extraction of pilot commands is investigated. The proposed approach is based on structuring the self (nominal conditions) and the non-self (abnormal conditions) within the AIS paradigm, as sets of artificial memory cells (mimicking behavior of T-cells, B-cells, and antibodies) consisting of measurement strings, over pre-defined time windows. Each string is a set of features values at each sample time of the flight including pilot inputs, system states, and other variables. The accommodation algorithm relies on identifying the memory cell that is the most similar to the in-coming measurements. Once the best match is found, control commands corresponding to this match will be extracted from the memory and used for control purposes. The proposed methodology is illustrated through simulation of simple maneuvers at nominal flight conditions, different actuators, and sensor failure conditions. Data for development and demonstration have been collected from West Virginia University 6-degrees-of-freedom motion-based flight simulator. The aircraft model used for this research represents a supersonic fighter which includes model following adaptive control laws based on non-linear dynamic inversion and artificial neural network augmentation. The simulation results demonstrate the possibility of extracting pilot compensatory commands from the self/non-self structure and the capability of the AIS

  10. Immunity in Protochordates: The Tunicate Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Franchi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tunicates are the closest relatives of vertebrates, and their peculiar phylogenetic position explains the increasing interest toward tunicate immunobiology. They are filter-feeding organisms, and this greatly influences their defense strategies. The majority of the studies on tunicate immunity were carried out in ascidians. The tunic acts as a first barrier against pathogens and parasites. In addition, the oral siphon and the pharynx represent two major, highly vascularized, immune organs, where circulating hemocytes can sense non-self material and trigger immune responses that, usually, lead to inflammation and phagocytosis. Inflammation involves the recruitment of circulating cytotoxic, phenoloxidase (PO-containing cells in the infected area, where they degranulate as a consequence of non-self recognition and release cytokines, complement factors, and the enzyme PO. The latter, acting on polyphenol substrata, produces cytotoxic quinones, which polymerize to melanin, and reactive oxygen species, which induce oxidative stress. Both the alternative and the lectin pathways of complement activation converge to activate C3: C3a and C3b are involved in the recruitment of hemocytes and in the opsonization of foreign materials, respectively. The interaction of circulating professional phagocytes with potentially pathogenic foreign material can be direct or mediated by opsonins, either complement dependent or complement independent. Together with cytotoxic cells, phagocytes are active in the encapsulation of large materials. Cells involved in immune responses, collectively called immunocytes, represent a large fraction of hemocytes, and the presence of a cross talk between cytotoxic cells and phagocytes, mediated by secreted humoral factors, was reported. Lectins play a pivotal role as pattern-recognition receptors and opsonizing agents. In addition, variable region-containing chitin-binding proteins, identified in the solitary ascidian Ciona

  11. Dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuator for flow control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opaits, Dmitry Florievich

    Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) and magnetohydrodynamic phenomena are being widely studied for aerodynamic applications. The major effects of these phenomena are heating of the gas, body force generation, and enthalpy addition or extraction, [1, 2, 3]. In particular, asymmetric dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuators are known to be effective EHD device in aerodynamic control, [4, 5]. Experiments have demonstrated their effectiveness in separation control, acoustic noise reduction, and other aeronautic applications. In contrast to conventional DBD actuators driven by sinusoidal voltages, we proposed and used a voltage profile consisting of nanosecond pulses superimposed on dc bias voltage. This produces what is essentially a non-self-sustained discharge: the plasma is generated by repetitive short pulses, and the pushing of the gas occurs primarily due to the bias voltage. The advantage of this non-self-sustained discharge is that the parameters of ionizing pulses and the driving bias voltage can be varied independently, which adds flexibility to control and optimization of the actuators performance. Experimental studies were conducted of a flow induced in a quiescent room air by a single DBD actuator. A new approach for non-intrusive diagnostics of plasma actuator induced flows in quiescent gas was proposed, consisting of three elements coupled together: the Schlieren technique, burst mode of plasma actuator operation, and 2-D numerical fluid modeling. During the experiments, it was found that DBD performance is severely limited by surface charge accumulation on the dielectric. Several ways to mitigate the surface charge were found: using a reversing DC bias potential, three-electrode configuration, slightly conductive dielectrics, and semi conductive coatings. Force balance measurements proved the effectiveness of the suggested configurations and advantages of the new voltage profile (pulses+bias) over the traditional sinusoidal one at relatively low

  12. Isolation and characterization of multiple F-box genes linked to the S9- and S10-RNase in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Kazuma; Moriya, Shigeki; Haji, Takashi; Abe, Kazuyuki

    2013-06-01

    Using 11 consensus primer pairs designed from S-linked F-box genes of apple and Japanese pear, 10 new F-box genes (MdFBX21 to 30) were isolated from the apple cultivar 'Spartan' (S(9)S(10)). MdFBX21 to 23 and MdFBX24 to 30 were completely linked to the S(9) -RNase and S(10-)RNase, respectively, and showed pollen-specific expression and S-haplotype-specific polymorphisms. Therefore, these 10 F-box genes are good candidates for the pollen determinant of self-incompatibility in apple. Phylogenetic analysis and comparison of deduced amino acid sequences of MdFBX21 to 30 with those of 25 S-linked F-box genes previously isolated from apple showed that a deduced amino acid identity of greater than 88.0 % can be used as the tentative criterion to classify F-box genes into one type. Using this criterion, 31 of 35 F-box genes of apple were classified into 11 types (SFBB1-11). All types included F-box genes derived from S(3-) and S(9-)haplotypes, and seven types included F-box genes derived from S(3-), S(9-), and S(10-)haplotypes. Moreover, comparison of nucleotide sequences of S-RNases and multiple F-box genes among S(3-), S(9-), and S(10-)haplotypes suggested that F-box genes within each type showed high nucleotide identity regardless of the identity of the S-RNase. The large number of F-box genes as candidates for the pollen determinant and the high degree of conservation within each type are consistent with the collaborative non-self-recognition model reported for Petunia. These findings support that the collaborative non-self-recognition system also exists in apple.

  13. Connection between Einstein equations, nonlinear sigma models, and self-dual Yang-Mills theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, N.; Whiting, B.

    1986-01-01

    The authors analyze the connection between nonlinear sigma models self-dual Yang-Mills theory, and general relativity (self-dual and non-self-dual, with and without killing vectors), both at the level of the equations and at the level of the different type of solutions (solitons and calorons) of these theories. They give a manifestly gauge invariant formulation of the self-dual gravitational field analogous to that given by Yang for the self-dual Yang-Mills field. This formulation connects in a direct and explicit way the self-dual Yang-Mills and the general relativity equations. They give the ''R gauge'' parametrization of the self-dual gravitational field (which corresponds to modified Yang's-type and Ernst equations) and analyze the correspondence between their different types of solutions. No assumption about the existence of symmetries in the space-time is needed. For the general case (non-self-dual), they show that the Einstein equations contain an O nonlinear sigma model. This connection with the sigma model holds irrespective of the presence of symmetries in the space-time. They found a new class of solutions of Einstein equations depending on holomorphic and antiholomorphic functions and we relate some subclasses of these solutions to solutions of simpler nonlinear field equations that are well known in other branches of physics, like sigma models, SineGordon, and Liouville equations. They include gravitational plane wave solutions. They analyze the response of different accelerated quantum detector models, compare them to the case when the detectors are linterial in an ordinary Planckian gas at a given temperature, and discuss the anisotropy of the detected response for Rindler observers

  14. Temporal structure of consciousness and minimal self in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brice eMartin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the minimal self refers to the consciousness of oneself as an immediate subject of experience. According to recent studies, disturbances of the minimal self may be a core feature of schizophrenia. They are emphasized in classical psychiatry literature and in phenomenological work. Impaired minimal self experience may be defined as a distortion of one’s first-person experiential perspective as, for example, an ‘altered presence’ during which the sense of the experienced self (‘mineness’ is subtly affected, or ‘altered sense of demarcation’, i.e. a difficulty discriminating the self from the non-self. Little is known, however, about the cognitive basis of these disturbances. In fact, recent work indicates that disorders of the self are not correlated with cognitive impairments commonly found in schizophrenia such as working-memory and attention disorders. In addition, a major difficulty with exploring the minimal self experimentally lies in its definition as being non self-reflexive, and distinct from the verbalized, explicit awareness of an ‘I’.In this paper we shall discuss the possibility that disturbances of the minimal self observed in patients with schizophrenia are related to alterations in time processing. We shall review the literature on schizophrenia and time processing that lends support to this possibility. In particular we shall discuss the involvement of temporal integration windows on different time scales (implicit time processing as well as duration perception disturbances (explicit time processing in disorders of the minimal self. We argue that a better understanding of the relationship between time and the minimal self as well of issues of embodiment require research that looks more specifically at implicit time processing. Some methodological issues will be discussed.

  15. Modulation of COUP-TF expression in a cnidarian by ectopic Wnt signalling and allorecognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Duffy

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available COUP transcription factors are required for the regulation of gene expression underlying development, differentiation, and homeostasis. They have an evolutionarily conserved function, being a known marker for neurogenesis from cnidarians to vertebrates. A homologue of this gene was shown previously to be a neuronal and nematocyte differentiation marker in Hydra. However, COUP-TFs had not previously been studied in a colonial cnidarian.We cloned a COUP-TF homologue from the colonial marine cnidarian Hydractinia echinata. Expression of the gene was analysed during normal development, allorecognition events and ectopic Wnt activation, using in situ hybridisation and quantitative PCR. During normal Hydractinia development, the gene was first expressed in post-gastrula stages. It was undetectable in larvae, and its mRNA was present again in putative differentiating neurons and nematocytes in post-metamorphic stages. Global activation of canonical Wnt signalling in adult animals resulted in the upregulation of COUP-TF. We also monitored a strong COUP-TF upregulation in stolons undergoing allogeneic interactions. COUP-TF mRNA was most concentrated in the tissues that contacted allogeneic, non-self tissues, and decreased in a gradient away from the contact area. Interestingly, the gene was transiently upregulated during initial contact of self stolons, but dissipated rapidly following self recognition, while in non-self contacts high expression levels were maintained.We conclude that COUP-TF is likely involved in neuronal/nematocyte differentiation in a variety of contexts. This has now been shown to include allorecognition, where COUP-TF is thought to have been co-opted to mediate allorejection by recruiting stinging cells that are the effectors of cytotoxic rejection of allogeneic tissue. Our findings that Wnt activation upregulates COUP-TF expression suggests that Wnts' role in neuronal differentiation could be mediated through COUP-TF.

  16. Risk factors for nonsuicidal self-injury in Japanese college students: the moderating role of mood regulation expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresno, Fiona; Ito, Yoshimi; Mearns, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Self-injurious behavior is increasing among college students, and is common in both psychiatric and nonclinical populations. People's engaging in self-injury is associated with childhood maltreatment, poor negative mood regulation expectancies, and depression. During times of distress, maltreated children without healthy coping strategies tend to have impairment in mood regulation, which contributes to engaging in self-injury. This study investigated differences between nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and non-self-injury groups in history of childhood maltreatment, negative mood regulation expectancies, and depression in a sample of Japanese college students. We also assessed risk factors for self-injurious behavior, including mood regulation expectancies as a moderator of the relationship between childhood maltreatment and NSSI. Participants were 313 undergraduate students, who completed anonymous self-report questionnaires-Deliberate Self-Harm Inventory, Child Abuse and Trauma Scale, Negative Mood Regulation Scale, and short version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale. Ten percent (n = 31) of all participants had injured themselves. Consistent with past literature, participants with self-injury history reported more severe childhood maltreatment, poorer mood regulation expectancies, and more depression, compared to non-self-injurers. Frequency of NSSI positively correlated with childhood maltreatment and depression, and negatively correlated with negative mood regulation expectancies. Regression analysis revealed that stronger expectancies for negative mood regulation interacted with maltreatment to predict self-injury: More maltreatment was associated with more self-injury, particularly among those with weaker expectancies. Results suggested childhood maltreatment, low expectancies for negative mood regulation, and depression predicted self-injury. Consistent with our moderation hypothesis, strong expectancies for negative mood regulation

  17. Variation, sex, and social cooperation: molecular population genetics of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum.

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    Jonathan M Flowers

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Dictyostelium discoideum is a eukaryotic microbial model system for multicellular development, cell-cell signaling, and social behavior. Key models of social evolution require an understanding of genetic relationships between individuals across the genome or possibly at specific genes, but the nature of variation within D. discoideum is largely unknown. We re-sequenced 137 gene fragments in wild North American strains of D. discoideum and examined the levels and patterns of nucleotide variation in this social microbial species. We observe surprisingly low levels of nucleotide variation in D. discoideum across these strains, with a mean nucleotide diversity (pi of 0.08%, and no strong population stratification among North American strains. We also do not find any clear relationship between nucleotide divergence between strains and levels of social dominance and kin discrimination. Kin discrimination experiments, however, show that strains collected from the same location show greater ability to distinguish self from non-self than do strains from different geographic areas. This suggests that a greater ability to recognize self versus non-self may arise among strains that are more likely to encounter each other in nature, which would lead to preferential formation of fruiting bodies with clonemates and may prevent the evolution of cheating behaviors within D. discoideum populations. Finally, despite the fact that sex has rarely been observed in this species, we document a rapid decay of linkage disequilibrium between SNPs, the presence of recombinant genotypes among natural strains, and high estimates of the population recombination parameter rho. The SNP data indicate that recombination is widespread within D. discoideum and that sex as a form of social interaction is likely to be an important aspect of the life cycle.

  18. Clinicopathologic findings following intra-articular injection of autologous and allogeneic placentally derived equine mesenchymal stem cells in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrade, Danielle D; Owens, Sean D; Galuppo, Larry D; Vidal, Martin A; Ferraro, Gregory L; Librach, Fred; Buerchler, Sabine; Friedman, Michael S; Walker, Naomi J; Borjesson, Dori L

    2011-04-01

    The development of an allogeneic mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) product to treat equine disorders would be useful; however, there are limited in vivo safety data for horses. We hypothesized that the injection of self (autologous) and non-self (related allogeneic or allogeneic) MSC would not elicit significant alterations in physical examination, gait or synovial fluid parameters when injected into the joints of healthy horses. Sixteen healthy horses were used in this study. Group 1 consisted of foals (n = 6), group 2 consisted of their dams (n = 5) and group 3 consisted of half-siblings (n = 5) to group 1 foals. Prior to injection, MSC were phenotyped. Placentally derived MSC were injected into contralateral joints and MSC diluent was injected into a separate joint (control). An examination, including lameness evaluation and synovial fluid analysis, was performed at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h post-injection. MSC were major histocompatibility complex (MHC) I positive, MHC II negative and CD86 negative. Injection of allogeneic MSC did not elicit a systemic response. Local responses such as joint swelling or lameness were minimal and variable. Intra-articular MSC injection elicited marked inflammation within the synovial fluid (as measured by nucleated cell count, neutrophil number and total protein concentration). However, there were no significant differences between the degree and type of inflammation elicited by self and non-self-MSC. The healthy equine joint responds similarly to a single intra-articular injection of autologous and allogeneic MSC. This pre-clinical safety study is an important first step in the development of equine allogeneic stem cell therapies.

  19. Bacterial Autoimmunity Due to a Restriction-Modification System.

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    Pleška, Maroš; Qian, Long; Okura, Reiko; Bergmiller, Tobias; Wakamoto, Yuichi; Kussell, Edo; Guet, Călin C

    2016-02-08

    Restriction-modification (RM) systems represent a minimal and ubiquitous biological system of self/non-self discrimination in prokaryotes [1], which protects hosts from exogenous DNA [2]. The mechanism is based on the balance between methyltransferase (M) and cognate restriction endonuclease (R). M tags endogenous DNA as self by methylating short specific DNA sequences called restriction sites, whereas R recognizes unmethylated restriction sites as non-self and introduces a double-stranded DNA break [3]. Restriction sites are significantly underrepresented in prokaryotic genomes [4-7], suggesting that the discrimination mechanism is imperfect and occasionally leads to autoimmunity due to self-DNA cleavage (self-restriction) [8]. Furthermore, RM systems can promote DNA recombination [9] and contribute to genetic variation in microbial populations, thus facilitating adaptive evolution [10]. However, cleavage of self-DNA by RM systems as elements shaping prokaryotic genomes has not been directly detected, and its cause, frequency, and outcome are unknown. We quantify self-restriction caused by two RM systems of Escherichia coli and find that, in agreement with levels of restriction site avoidance, EcoRI, but not EcoRV, cleaves self-DNA at a measurable rate. Self-restriction is a stochastic process, which temporarily induces the SOS response, and is followed by DNA repair, maintaining cell viability. We find that RM systems with higher restriction efficiency against bacteriophage infections exhibit a higher rate of self-restriction, and that this rate can be further increased by stochastic imbalance between R and M. Our results identify molecular noise in RM systems as a factor shaping prokaryotic genomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Accretion disk viscosity and internal waves in disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Min

    1992-01-01

    Recently, Vishniac, Jin and Diamond suggested that internal waves in accretion disks play a critical role in generating magnetic fields, and consequently are indirectly responsible for angular momentum transfer in thin, conducting, and non-self-gravitational disk systems. A project in which we will construct a quantitative model of the internal wave spectrum in accretion disks is started. It includes two aspects of work. The physical properties of the waves in a thin, non-self-gravitational, and non-magnetized accretion disk with realistic vertical structure is cataloged and examined. Besides the low frequency internal waves discovered by Vishniac and Diamond, it was found that sound waves with low frequency and low axisymmetry (with small absolute value of m) are capable of a driving dynamo because they are (1) well confined in a layer with thickness 2(absolute value of m)H where H is the disk scale height; (2) highly dispersive so they may survive the strong dissipation caused by the coherent nonlinear interaction their high frequency partners experience; and (3) elliptically polarized because they are confined in the z-direction. As a first step towards constructing a quantitative theory of this dynamo effect, a framework of calculating resonant nonlinear interaction among waves in disk is established. We are developing a numerical code which will compute the steady spectrum of the wave field in this framework. For simplicity, we only include the low frequency internal waves suggested by Vishniac and Diamond in the present stage. In the vicinity of the static state, the time step whose length is determined by the evolution of the modes with the largest amplitudes is too large for the modes with smaller amplitudes and overshooting occurs. Through nonlinear coupling, this overshooting is amplified and appears as a numerical instability affecting the evolution of the large amplitude modes. Shorter time steps may delay the appearance of the instability but not cure

  1. The fester locus in Botryllus schlosseri experiences selection

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    Nydam Marie L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allorecognition, the ability of an organism to distinguish self from non-self, occurs throughout the entire tree of life. Despite the prevalence and importance of allorecognition systems, the genetic basis of allorecognition has rarely been characterized outside the well-known MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex in vertebrates and SI (Self-Incompatibility in plants. Where loci have been identified, their evolutionary history is an open question. We have previously identified the genes involved in self/non-self recognition in the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri, and we can now begin to investigate their evolution. In B. schlosseri, colonies sharing 1 or more alleles of a gene called FuHC (Fusion Histocompatibility will fuse. Protein products of a locus called fester, located ~300 kb from FuHC, have been shown to play multiple roles in the histocompatibility reaction, as activating and/or inhibitory receptors. We test whether the proteins encoded by this locus are evolving neutrally or are experiencing balancing, directional, or purifying selection. Results Nearly all of the variation in the fester locus resides within populations. The 13 housekeeping genes (12 nuclear genes and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I have substantially more structure among populations within groups and among groups than fester. All polymorphism statistics (Tajima's D, Fu and Li's D* and F* are significantly negative for the East Coast A-type alleles, and Fu and Li's F* statistic is significantly negative for the West Coast A-type alleles. These results are likely due to selection rather than demography, given that 10 of the housekeeping loci have no populations with significant values for any of the polymorphism statistics. The majority of codons in the fester proteins have ω values 95% posterior probability of ω values > 1. Conclusion Fester proteins are evolving non-neutrally. The polymorphism statistics are consistent with either

  2. Do swingers self-identify as swingers when attending STI services for testing? A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spauwen, Laura W L; Niekamp, Anne-Marie; Hoebe, Christian J P A; Dukers-Muijrers, Nicole H T M

    2018-01-30

    Swingers, that is, members of a heterosexual couple who, as a couple, had sex with other couples and/or singles within the swinger's subculture, are a hidden population with substantial rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and high-risk sexual behaviour. Information on swingers' self-identification to be a swinger, their risk perception and attitudes about STI testing and safe sex will help to reveal swingers who are hidden while in care, to address them with targeted strategies. We used data from a convenience sample of 289 swingers from our Dutch STI clinic patient registry between 2009 and 2012 (median age 45 years; 49% women; STI positivity 13%, no condom in vaginal sex: 57%). Participants filled in a self-administered questionnaire on sexual behaviour and answered statements about self-identification, risk perception and attitudes about STI testing and safe sex. Of all participating registered swingers, 56% self-identified as a swinger. Safe sex was reportedly deemed important (77%). Overall, 72%, 62% and 56% reported that STI testing, partner notification and condom use is the norm in the swinger community. The latter was reported more often by self-identified swingers compared with non-self-identified swingers. Self-identified swingers further swinged more often, had more partners and more often swinged at home parties than non-self-identified swingers. About half of STI clinic attending swingers whose sexual behaviour agrees with the definition of swinging are neutral/do not identify themselves to be a swinger. As many STI clinics internationally not specifically ask clients about their swinging behaviour, swingers may be a missed target population in care. Implementation of routine questions addressing behaviour (thus not only asking whether someone is a swinger) in STI clinics is feasible and facilitated by swingers' positive norm towards STI prevention and testing. Implementing routine swinger questions contribute to effective STI services

  3. Institutionalized elderly people and malnutrition: research on the patients of a nursing home

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    Francesco Rondoni

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM is a common finding in hospitalized or institutionalized elderly people. In the literature, PEM is not mentioned as being related to individual ability of the patient to feed him or herself correctly. This study analyzed the 56 patients of a nursing home divided into two groups: self-sufficient and non self-sufficient regarding feeding. Levels of serum albumin, transferrin, prealbumin and hemoglobin (Hb were examined and compared to body mass index (BMI calculated with bioelectrical impedance analysis. Fifty-three percent of patients were self-sufficient, while 47% were not self-sufficient for feeding of which 83.3% were women and 16.7% men. Levels below the average range were 49.1% for lymphocyte count, 52.9% for serum albumin, 13.7% for serum transferrin and 52.9% for serum prealbumin. No significant differences were found in terms of patient age, while the mean values of the parameters examined in the two groups, self-sufficient and not, were lower in the patients who were not self-sufficient, even if statistical significance was not reached. Serum albumin was in inverse proportion to age (P<0.05 and 46.1% of individuals with low levels of transferrin also showed low levels of Hb. Anemia was in direct proportion (P<0.05 to age. Measurement of BMI showed values below 22.5 (cut off for risk for malnutrition in 33.4% of the subjects examined. Of the three hematochemical parameters, analysis of a possible relationship with BMI showed only a significant and directly proportional correlation with prealbumin (P<0.05%. These data should be considered in the context of an epidemiological research study carried out in a conditioned and limited environment, where PEM, detected using hematochemical parameters, amounted to 50% of the patients, whereas BMI identified only approximately one-third of patients at risk of malnutrition. There were no statistically significant differences between men and women. Mean values of the

  4. Improved metabolic health alters host metabolism in parallel with changes in systemic xeno-metabolites of gut origin.

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    Caitlin Campbell

    Full Text Available Novel plasma metabolite patterns reflective of improved metabolic health (insulin sensitivity, fitness, reduced body weight were identified before and after a 14-17 wk weight loss and exercise intervention in sedentary, obese insulin-resistant women. To control for potential confounding effects of diet- or microbiome-derived molecules on the systemic metabolome, sampling was during a tightly-controlled feeding test week paradigm. Pairwise and multivariate analysis revealed intervention- and insulin-sensitivity associated: (1 Changes in plasma xeno-metabolites ("non-self" metabolites of dietary or gut microbial origin following an oral glucose tolerance test (e.g. higher post-OGTT propane-1,2,3-tricarboxylate [tricarballylic acid] or in the overnight-fasted state (e.g., lower γ-tocopherol; (2 Increased indices of saturated very long chain fatty acid elongation capacity; (3 Increased post-OGTT α-ketoglutaric acid (α-KG, fasting α-KG inversely correlated with Matsuda index, and altered patterns of malate, pyruvate and glutamine hypothesized to stem from improved mitochondrial efficiency and more robust oxidation of glucose. The results support a working model in which improved metabolic health modifies host metabolism in parallel with altering systemic exposure to xeno-metabolites. This highlights that interpretations regarding the origins of peripheral blood or urinary "signatures" of insulin resistance and metabolic health must consider the potentially important contribution of gut-derived metabolites toward the host's metabolome.

  5. Type II CRISPR/Cas9 approach in the oncological therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagioni, A; Chillà, A; Andreucci, E; Laurenzana, A; Margheri, F; Peppicelli, S; Del Rosso, M; Fibbi, G

    2017-06-15

    CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) is a prokaryotic adaptable immune mechanism used by many bacteria and archaea to protect themselves from foreign nucleic acids. This complex system can recognize and cut non-self DNA in order to provide the prokaryotic organisms a strong defense against foreign viral or plasmid attacks and make the cell immune from further assaults. Today, it has been adapted to be used in vitro and in vivo in eukaryotic cells to perform a complete and highly selective gene knockout or a specific gene editing. The ease of use and the low cost are only two features that have made it very popular among the scientific community and the possibility to be used as a clinical treatment in several genetic derived pathologies has rapidly spread its fame worldwide. However, CRISPR is still not fully understood and many efforts need to be done in order to make it a real power tool for the human clinical treatment especially for oncological patients. Indeed, since cancer originates from non-lethal genetic disorders, CRISPR discovery fuels the hope to strike tumors on their roots. More than 4000 papers regarding CRISPR were published in the last ten years and only few of them take in count the possible applications in oncology. The purpose of this review is to clarify many problematics on the CRISPR usage and highlight its potential in oncological therapy.

  6. Embedded Mean-Field Theory with Block-Orthogonalized Partitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Feizhi; Manby, Frederick R; Miller, Thomas F

    2017-04-11

    Embedded mean-field theory (EMFT) provides a simple, flexible framework for describing subsystems at different levels of mean-field theory. Subsystems are defined by partitioning a one-particle basis set, with a natural choice being the atomic orbital (AO) basis. Although generally well behaved, EMFT with AO partitioning can exhibit unphysical collapse of the self-consistent solution. To avoid this issue, we introduce subsystem partitioning of a block-orthogonalized (BO) basis set; this eliminates the unphysical collapse without significantly increasing computational cost. We also investigate a non-self-consistent implementation of EMFT, in which the density matrix is obtained using BO partitioning and the final energy evaluated using AO partitioning; this density-corrected EMFT approach is found to yield more accurate energies than BO partitioning while also avoiding issues of the unphysical collapse. Using these refined implementations of EMFT, previously proposed descriptions of the exact-exchange coupling between subsystems are compared: although the EX1 coupling scheme is slightly more accurate than EX0, the small improvement does not merit its substantially greater computational cost.

  7. Placental immune editing switch (PIES): learning about immunomodulatory pathways from a unique case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronchud, Miguel H; Tresserra, Francesc; Xu, Wenjie; Warren, Sarah; Cusido, Maite; Zantop, Bernat; Zenclussen, Ana Claudia; Cesano, Alessandra

    2016-12-13

    The hypothesis of this work is that, in order to escape the natural immune surveillance mechanisms, cancer cells and the surrounding microenvironment might express ectopically genes that are physiologically present in the placenta to mediate fetal immune-tolerance. These natural "placental immune-editing switch" mechanisms (PIES) may represent the result of millions of years of mammalian evolution developed to allow materno-fetal tolerance. Here, we introduce genes of the immune regulatory pathways that are either similarly over- or under-expressed in tumor vs normal tissue. Our analysis was carried out in primary breast cancer with metastatic homolateral axillary lymph nodes as well as placenta tissue (both uterine decidual tissue and term placenta tissue) from a pregnant woman. Gene expression profiling of paired non-self and self tissues (i.e. placenta/uterus; breast cancer/normal breast tissue; metastatic lymphnode/normal lymphnode tissue) was performed using the PanCancer Immune gene panel, a 770 Nanostring gene expression panel. Our findings reveal overlapping in specific immune gene expression in placenta and cancer tissue, suggesting that these genes might play an important role in maintaining immune tolerance both physiologically (in the placenta) and pathologically (in the cancer setting).

  8. Magnetorotational Instability: Nonmodal Growth and the Relationship of Global Modes to the Shearing Box

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J Squire, A Bhattacharjee [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2014-07-01

    We study the magnetorotational instability (MRI) (Balbus & Hawley 1998) using non-modal stability techniques.Despite the spectral instability of many forms of the MRI, this proves to be a natural method of analysis that is well-suited to deal with the non-self-adjoint nature of the linear MRI equations. We find that the fastest growing linear MRI structures on both local and global domains can look very diff erent to the eigenmodes, invariably resembling waves shearing with the background flow (shear waves). In addition, such structures can grow many times faster than the least stable eigenmode over long time periods, and be localized in a completely di fferent region of space. These ideas lead – for both axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric modes – to a natural connection between the global MRI and the local shearing box approximation. By illustrating that the fastest growing global structure is well described by the ordinary diff erential equations (ODEs) governing a single shear wave, we find that the shearing box is a very sensible approximation for the linear MRI, contrary to many previous claims. Since the shear wave ODEs are most naturally understood using non-modal analysis techniques, we conclude by analyzing local MRI growth over finite time-scales using these methods. The strong growth over a wide range of wave-numbers suggests that non-modal linear physics could be of fundamental importance in MRI turbulence (Squire & Bhattacharjee 2014).

  9. Non-suicidal self-injury and eating pathology in high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Shana; Heath, Nancy L; Toste, Jessica R

    2009-01-01

    Although past research has explored self-injurious behaviors and disordered eating among adults in clinical settings, little research has been conducted examining nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and eating pathology in community samples of adolescents. Four hundred and 40 students were screened for the presence of NSSI; a prevalence rate of 13.9% was found. Those who indicated that they engaged in NSSI (n = 59) and a comparison group of non-self-injurers (n = 57) completed the Eating Disorders Inventory. Results indicate that students who engage in NSSI display significantly more eating pathology than their non-NSSI peers, including poor interoceptive awareness; difficulties with impulse regulation; an increased sense of ineffectiveness, distrust, and social insecurity; and increased bulimic tendencies and body dissatisfaction. Relationships were found between increased lifetime frequency of NSSI behaviors and poor impulse control and deficits in affective regulation. In addition, adolescents who had stopped self-injuring reported comparable rates of eating pathology as did adolescents who continued to self-injure. The theoretical connection between NSSI and eating pathology are discussed with reference to enhancing knowledge regarding the characteristics of NSSI.

  10. Kilohertz QPOs in low-mass X-ray binaries as oscillation modes of tori around neutron stars - I

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Avellar, Marcio G. B.; Porth, Oliver; Younsi, Ziri; Rezzolla, Luciano

    2018-03-01

    There have been many efforts to explain the dynamical mechanisms behind the phenomenology of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) seen in the X-ray light curves of low-mass X-ray binaries. Up to now, none of the models can successfully explain all the frequencies observed in the power spectral density of the light curves. After performing several general-relativistic hydrodynamic simulations of non-self-gravitating axisymmetric thick tori with constant specific angular momentum oscillating around a neutron star such as the one associated with the low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1636 - 53, we find that the oscillation modes give rise to QPOs similar to those seen in the observational data. In particular, when matching pairs of kilohertz QPOs from the numerical simulations with those observed, certain combinations reproduce well the observations, provided we take a mass for the neutron star that is smaller than what is generally assumed. At the same time, we find that tori with constant specific angular momentum cannot match the entire range of frequencies observed for 4U 1636-53 due to physical constraints set on their size. Finally, we show that our results are consistent with the observed shifts in QPO frequency that could accompany state transitions of the accretion disc.

  11. Translation in Qualitative Social Research: The Possible Impossible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolff-Michael Roth

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In an increasingly globalized world of research, communicating with scholars in the same language and culture and with scholars from other cultures and linguistic background is a sine qua non in/of all sciences, including those using qualitative social research. The nature of language is at least latently recognized especially by those scholars who communicate with their peers in a non-native language, such as English, which has become de facto the scientific lingua franca. Although many are aware of the difficulties of rendering something a scholar wants to say in another language, the nature of language as a non-self-identical process is hardly if ever articulated. Instead, the metaphysical idea of the same "meanings" that can be rendered in multiple languages by means of translation—literally, "carried across"—is endemic to the scientific culture. In the very definition of science (e.g., in the description of research methods, experiments must operate the same (must be reproducible wherever and by whomever these are conducted. In this contribution to the debate concerning translation, conducted in the context of the FQS debate "Quality of Qualitative Research," I articulate theoretical and pragmatic dimensions on the topic, drawing on empirical investigations, literary works, and philosophical investigations to explicate how translation is both theoretically impossible and pervasively achieved in/as everyday praxis. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1302132

  12. Galectin-3 in autoimmunity and autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Felipe L; Gatto, Mariele; Bassi, Nicola; Luisetto, Roberto; Ghirardello, Anna; Punzi, Leonardo; Doria, Andrea

    2015-08-01

    Galectin-3 (gal-3) is a β-galactoside-binding lectin, which regulates cell-cell and extracellular interactions during self/non-self-antigen recognition and cellular activation, proliferation, differentiation, migration and apoptosis. It plays a significant role in cellular and tissue pathophysiology by organizing niches that drive inflammation and immune responses. Gal-3 has some therapeutic potential in several diseases, including chronic inflammatory disorders, cancer and autoimmune diseases. Gal-3 exerts a broad spectrum of functions which differs according to its intra- or extracellular localization. Recombinant gal-3 strategy has been used to identify potential mode of action of gal-3; however, exogenous gal-3 may not reproduce the functions of the endogenous gal-3. Notably, gal-3 induces monocyte-macrophage differentiation, interferes with dendritic cell fate decision, regulates apoptosis on T lymphocytes and inhibits B-lymphocyte differentiation into immunoglobulin secreting plasma cells. Considering the influence of these cell populations in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases, gal-3 seems to play a role in development of autoimmunity. Gal-3 has been suggested as a potential therapeutic agent in patients affected with some autoimmune disorders. However, the precise role of gal-3 in driving the inflammatory process in autoimmune or immune-mediated disorders remains elusive. Here, we reviewed the involvement of gal-3 in cellular and tissue events during autoimmune and immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. © 2015 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  13. Examination of Exhaustive Cloning Attempts Reveals that C. elegans piRNAs, Transposons, and Repeat Sequences are Efficiently Cloned in Yeast, but not in Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Or eSagy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Genome sequencing requires insertion of random fragments of the sequenced organism’s DNA into a unicellular host, most often E. coli bacteria. This manipulation was found in the past to be analogous to naturally occurring horizontal gene transfer, and moreover has proved valuable to understanding toxicity of foreign genetic elements to E. coli. Sequencing of the C. elegans genome was similarly achieved via DNA transformation into E. coli. However, numerous attempts have proven a significant percentage of the genome unclonable using bacteria, although clonable via yeast. We examined the genomic segments that were not in bacteria but in yeast, and observed that, in line with previous hypotheses, such sequences are more repetitive on average compared with the entire C. elegans genome. In addition, we found that these gap-sequences encode significantly more for DNA transposons. Surprisingly, we discovered that although the vast majority of the C. elegans genome is in bacteria (77.5%, almost all the thousands of sequences that encode for PIWI-interacting small RNAs, or 21U-RNAs (91.6% were only in yeast. These results might help understanding why most piRNAs in C.elegans are physically clustered on particular loci on chromosome IV. In worms and in a large number of other organisms, piRNAs serve to distinguish Self from Non-Self sequences, and thus to protect the integrity of the genome against foreign genetic elements, such as transposons. We discuss the possible implications of these discoveries

  14. A model for the performance of a vertical tube condenser in the presence of noncondensable gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guentay, A.D.S.

    1995-09-01

    Some proposed vertical tube condensers are designed to operate at high noncondensable fractions, which warrants a simple model to predict their performance. Models developed thus far are usually non self-contained as they require the specification of the wall temperature to predict the local condensation rate. The present model attempts to fill this gap by addressing the secondary side heat transfer as well. Starting with momentum balance which includes the effect of interfacial shear stress, a Nusselt-type algebraic equation is derived for the film thickness as a function of flow and geometry parameters. The heat and mass transfer analogy relations are then invoked to deduce the condensation rate of steam onto the tube wall. Lastly, the heat transfer to the secondary side is modelled to include cooling by forced, free or mixed convection flows. The model is used for parametric simulations to determine the impact on the condenser performance of important factors such as the inlet gas fraction, the mixture inlet flowrate, the total pressure, and the molecular weight of the noncondensable gas. The model performed simulations of some experiments with pure steam and air-steam mixtures flowing down a vertical tube. The model predicts the data quite well.

  15. First Results from BISTRO: A SCUBA-2 Polarimeter Survey of the Gould Belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward-Thompson, Derek; Pattle, Kate; Kirk, Jason M. [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Bastien, Pierre; Coudé, Simon [Centre de recherche en astrophysique du Québec and département de physique, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128, Succ. Centre-ville, Montréal, QC, H3C 3J7 (Canada); Furuya, Ray S. [Tokushima University, Minami Jousanajima-machi 1-1, Tokushima 770-8502 (Japan); Kwon, Woojin; Choi, Minho; Hoang, Thiem [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34055 (Korea, Republic of); Lai, Shih-Ping [Institute of Astronomy and Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Qiu, Keping [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, 163 Xianlin Avenue, Nanjing 210023 (China); Berry, David; Friberg, Per; Graves, Sarah F. [East Asian Observatory, 660 N. A‘ohōkū Place, University Park, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Francesco, James Di; Johnstone, Doug [NRC Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Franzmann, Erica [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T2N2 (Canada); Greaves, Jane S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, The Parade, Cardiff, CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Houde, Martin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London N6A 3K7 (Canada); Koch, Patrick M., E-mail: dward-thompson@uclan.ac.uk, E-mail: kmpattle@uclan.ac.uk, E-mail: jmkirk@uclan.ac.uk, E-mail: spseyres@uclan.ac.uk [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); and others

    2017-06-10

    We present the first results from the B-fields In STar-forming Region Observations (BISTRO) survey, using the Sub-millimetre Common-User Bolometer Array 2 camera, with its associated polarimeter (POL-2), on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope in Hawaii. We discuss the survey’s aims and objectives. We describe the rationale behind the survey, and the questions that the survey will aim to answer. The most important of these is the role of magnetic fields in the star formation process on the scale of individual filaments and cores in dense regions. We describe the data acquisition and reduction processes for POL-2, demonstrating both repeatability and consistency with previous data. We present a first-look analysis of the first results from the BISTRO survey in the OMC 1 region. We see that the magnetic field lies approximately perpendicular to the famous “integral filament” in the densest regions of that filament. Furthermore, we see an “hourglass” magnetic field morphology extending beyond the densest region of the integral filament into the less-dense surrounding material, and discuss possible causes for this. We also discuss the more complex morphology seen along the Orion Bar region. We examine the morphology of the field along the lower-density northeastern filament. We find consistency with previous theoretical models that predict magnetic fields lying parallel to low-density, non-self-gravitating filaments, and perpendicular to higher-density, self-gravitating filaments.

  16. Accurate Electron Affinities and Orbital Energies of Anions from a Nonempirically Tuned Range-Separated Density Functional Theory Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lindsey N; Oviedo, M Belén; Wong, Bryan M

    2017-04-11

    The treatment of atomic anions with Kohn-Sham density functional theory (DFT) has long been controversial because the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy, E HOMO , is often calculated to be positive with most approximate density functionals. We assess the accuracy of orbital energies and electron affinities for all three rows of elements in the periodic table (H-Ar) using a variety of theoretical approaches and customized basis sets. Among all of the theoretical methods studied here, we find that a nonempirically tuned range-separated approach (constructed to satisfy DFT-Koopmans' theorem for the anionic electron system) provides the best accuracy for a variety of basis sets, even for small basis sets where most functionals typically fail. Previous approaches to solve this conundrum of positive E HOMO values have utilized non-self-consistent methods; however, electronic properties, such as electronic couplings/gradients (which require a self-consistent potential and energy), become ill-defined with these approaches. In contrast, the nonempirically tuned range-separated procedure used here yields well-defined electronic couplings/gradients and correct E HOMO values because both the potential and resulting electronic energy are computed self-consistently. Orbital energies and electron affinities are further analyzed in the context of the electronic energy as a function of electronic number (including fractional numbers of electrons) to provide a stringent assessment of self-interaction errors for these complex anion systems.

  17. Analysis and characterization of graphene-on-substrate devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdebes, Dionisis

    The purpose of this MS Thesis is the analysis and characterization of graphene on substrate structures prepared at the Birck Nanotechnology Center-Purdue University/IBM Watson Research Center-N.Y., and characterized under low-field transport conditions. First, a literature survey is conducted, both in theoretical and experimental work on graphene transport phenomena, and the open issues are reported. Next, the theory of low-field transport in graphene is reviewed within a Landauer framework. Experimental results of back-gated graphene-on-substrate devices, prepared by the Appenzeller group, are then presented, followed by an extraction of an energy/temperature dependent backscattering mean free path as the main characterization parameter. A key conclusion is the critical role of contacts in two-probe measurements. In this framework, a non-self-consistent Non Equilibrium Green's Function method is employed for the calculation of the odd and even metal-graphene ballistic interfacial resistance. A good agreement with the relevant experimental work is observed.

  18. Innerarity and Immunology: Difference and Identity in selves, bodies and communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Bula

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Innerarity’s Ethics of Hospitality highlights a tension in both communities and individuals between embracing difference and protecting identity, while recognizing that difference is constitutive of identity (the fear that dominates contemporary society is above all a fear of difference, of contamination. This dynamical relation between difference and identity can be seen in the workings of the human immune system, as explained by Chilean biologist and philosopher Francisco Varela: the immune system is a process of perpetual construction of bodily identity through self-referential cognition and distinction between self and non-self. This similarity allows for interesting analogies: for example, a society torn apart by xenophobia and chauvinism can be seen as analogous to a body ravaged by an autoimmune disease such as lupus. With the working hypothesis that the similarities respond to what Stafford Beer calls “systemic invariance”,   this paper explores the similarities between the activity of the immune system and the relation between identity and difference in the work of Innerarity.

  19. Complement factor H in host defense and immune evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, Raffaella; Clark, Simon J; Inforzato, Antonio; Day, Anthony J

    2017-05-01

    Complement is the major humoral component of the innate immune system. It recognizes pathogen- and damage-associated molecular patterns, and initiates the immune response in coordination with innate and adaptive immunity. When activated, the complement system unleashes powerful cytotoxic and inflammatory mechanisms, and thus its tight control is crucial to prevent damage to host tissues and allow restoration of immune homeostasis. Factor H is the major soluble inhibitor of complement, where its binding to self markers (i.e., particular glycan structures) prevents complement activation and amplification on host surfaces. Not surprisingly, mutations and polymorphisms that affect recognition of self by factor H are associated with diseases of complement dysregulation, such as age-related macular degeneration and atypical haemolytic uremic syndrome. In addition, pathogens (i.e., non-self) and cancer cells (i.e., altered-self) can hijack factor H to evade the immune response. Here we review recent (and not so recent) literature on the structure and function of factor H, including the emerging roles of this protein in the pathophysiology of infectious diseases and cancer.

  20. Diet-Induced Dysbiosis of the Intestinal Microbiota and the Effects on Immunity and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deanna L. Gibson

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal (GI microbiota is the collection of microbes which reside in the GI tract and represents the largest source of non-self antigens in the human body. The GI tract functions as a major immunological organ as it must maintain tolerance to commensal and dietary antigens while remaining responsive to pathogenic stimuli. If this balance is disrupted, inappropriate inflammatory processes can result, leading to host cell damage and/or autoimmunity. Evidence suggests that the composition of the intestinal microbiota can influence susceptibility to chronic disease of the intestinal tract including ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, celiac disease and irritable bowel syndrome, as well as more systemic diseases such as obesity, type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Interestingly, a considerable shift in diet has coincided with increased incidence of many of these inflammatory diseases. It was originally believed that the composition of the intestinal microbiota was relatively stable from early childhood; however, recent evidence suggests that diet can cause dysbiosis, an alteration in the composition of the microbiota, which could lead to aberrant immune responses. The role of the microbiota and the potential for diet-induced dysbiosis in inflammatory conditions of the GI tract and systemic diseases will be discussed.

  1. A P7 Phage-Like Plasmid Carrying mcr-1 in an ST15 Klebsiella pneumoniae Clinical Isolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weilong Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical strain, named SCKP83, was isolated and found to be resistant to colistin thanks to the presence plasmid-borne colistin resistant gene mcr-1. The strain was subjected to whole genome sequencing and conjugation experiments. The subsequent analysis indicated that the strain belongs to ST15 and the capsular type K41. In SCKP83, mcr-1 was carried by a 97.4-kb non-self-transmissible plasmid, a 90.9-kb region of which was predicted as an intact phage. This phage was 47.79% GC content, encoded 105 proteins and contained three tRNAs. mcr-1 was located downstream of two copies of the insertion sequence ISApl1 (one complete and one truncated and was inserted in the ant1 gene, which encodes a putative antirepressor for antagonizing C1 repression, in this phage. The phage is highly similar to phage P7 (77% coverage and 98% identity from Escherichia coli. Several similar mcr-1-carrying plasmids have been found in E. coli at various locations in China, suggesting that these phage-like plasmids have circulated in China. The findings in this study suggest that the P7 phage-like plasmids are not restricted to E. coli and may represent new vehicles to mediate the inter-species spread of mcr-1.

  2. Characterization of Ixodes ricinus Fibrinogen-Related Proteins (Ixoderins Discloses Their Function in the Tick Innate Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Honig Mondekova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ticks are important vectors of serious human and animal disease-causing organisms, but their innate immunity can fight invading pathogens and may have the ability to reduce or block transmission to mammalian hosts. Lectins, sugar-binding proteins, can distinguish between self and non-self-oligosaccharide motifs on pathogen surfaces. Although tick hemolymph possesses strong lectin activity, and several lectins have already been isolated and characterized, little is known about the implementation of these molecules in tick immunity. Here, we have described and functionally characterized fibrinogen-related protein (FReP lectins in Ixodes ticks. We have shown that the FReP family contains at least 27 genes (ixoderins, ixo that could, based on phylogenetic and expression analyses, be divided into three groups with differing degrees of expansion. By using RNA interference-mediated gene silencing (RNAi we demonstrated that IXO-A was the main lectin in tick hemolymph. Further, we found that ixoderins were important for phagocytosis of Gram-negative bacteria and yeasts by tick hemocytes and that their expression was upregulated upon injection of microbes, wounding, or after blood feeding. However, although the tick hemocytes could swiftly phagocytose Borrelia afzelii spirochetes, their transmission and burst of infection in mice was not altered. Our results demonstrate that tick ixoderins are crucial immune proteins that work as opsonins in the tick hemolymph, targeting microbes for phagocytosis or lysis.

  3. An Efficient ERP-Based Brain-Computer Interface Using Random Set Presentation and Face Familiarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Klaus-Robert; Lee, Seong-Whan

    2014-01-01

    Event-related potential (ERP)-based P300 spellers are commonly used in the field of brain-computer interfaces as an alternative channel of communication for people with severe neuro-muscular diseases. This study introduces a novel P300 based brain-computer interface (BCI) stimulus paradigm using a random set presentation pattern and exploiting the effects of face familiarity. The effect of face familiarity is widely studied in the cognitive neurosciences and has recently been addressed for the purpose of BCI. In this study we compare P300-based BCI performances of a conventional row-column (RC)-based paradigm with our approach that combines a random set presentation paradigm with (non-) self-face stimuli. Our experimental results indicate stronger deflections of the ERPs in response to face stimuli, which are further enhanced when using the self-face images, and thereby improving P300-based spelling performance. This lead to a significant reduction of stimulus sequences required for correct character classification. These findings demonstrate a promising new approach for improving the speed and thus fluency of BCI-enhanced communication with the widely used P300-based BCI setup. PMID:25384045

  4. Rating scales measuring the severity of psychotic depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østergaard, S D; Rothschild, A J; Flint, A J; Mulsant, B H; Whyte, E M; Leadholm, A K; Bech, P; Meyers, B S

    2015-11-01

    Unipolar psychotic depression (PD) is a severe and debilitating syndrome, which requires intensive monitoring. The objective of this study was to provide an overview of the rating scales used to assess illness severity in PD. Selective review of publications reporting results on non-self-rated, symptom-based rating scales utilized to measure symptom severity in PD. The clinical and psychometric validity of the identified rating scales was reviewed. A total of 14 rating scales meeting the predefined criteria were included in the review. These scales grouped into the following categories: (i) rating scales predominantly covering depressive symptoms, (ii) rating scales predominantly covering psychotic symptoms, (iii) rating scales covering delusions, and (iv) rating scales covering PD. For the vast majority of the scales, the clinical and psychometric validity had not been tested empirically. The only exception from this general tendency was the 11-item Psychotic Depression Assessment Scale (PDAS), which was developed specifically to assess the severity of PD. In PD, the PDAS represents the only empirically derived rating scale for the measurement of overall severity of illness. The PDAS should be considered in future studies of PD and in clinical practice. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Negative Emotion Weakens the Degree of Self-reference Effect: Evidence from ERPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Fan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the influence of negative emotion on the degree of self-reference effect using event-related potentials (ERPs. We presented emotional pictures and self-referential stimuli (stimuli that accelerate and improve processing and improve memory of information related to an individual’s self-concept in sequence. Participants judged the color of the target stimulus (self-referential stimuli. ERP results showed that the target stimuli elicited larger P2 amplitudes under neutral conditions than under negative emotional conditions. Under neutral conditions, N2 amplitudes for highly self-relevant names (target stimulus were smaller than those for any other names. Under negative emotional conditions, highly and moderately self-referential stimuli activated smaller N2 amplitudes. P3 amplitudes activated by self-referential processing under negative emotional conditions were smaller than neutral conditions. In the left and central sites, highly self-relevant names activated larger P3 amplitudes than any other names. But in the central sites, moderately self-relevant names activated larger P3 amplitudes than non-self-relevant names. The findings indicate that negative emotional processing could weaken the degree of self-reference effect.

  6. Toll-like receptors and their role in animal reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannaki, T R; Shanmugam, M; Verma, P C

    2011-05-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are evolutionarily conserved innate immune receptors that recognize pathogen specific molecular pattern (PAMPs) in an efficient, non-self-reactive manner and initiate specific immune signaling that culminates in triggering antigen-specific adaptive responses. Different TLR genes in domestic animal species have been characterized and accumulating evidence from recent studies indicates an extended role for TLR signaling in reproductive physiology. In females, TLRs have been implicated in the regulation of ovulation, fertilization, gestation and parturition, as well as in pathological conditions such as endometritis and mastitis. In males, TLRs play a role in steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis. Use of TLR agonists has also been shown to be effective in the treatment of certain reproductive tract infections. Moreover, gene polymorphisms in TLRs have been associated with mastitis providing evidence that TLRs can potentially be exploited as markers in future breeding programs. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive treatise on role of TLRs in male and female reproductive physiology and associated pathology in domestic livestock. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. A low-cost real color picker based on Arduino.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudo, Juan Enrique; Pardo, Pedro J; Sánchez, Héctor; Pérez, Ángel Luis; Suero, María Isabel

    2014-07-07

    Color measurements have traditionally been linked to expensive and difficult to handle equipment. The set of mathematical transformations that are needed to transfer a color that we observe in any object that doesn't emit its own light (which is usually called a color-object) so that it can be displayed on a computer screen or printed on paper is not at all trivial. This usually requires a thorough knowledge of color spaces, colorimetric transformations and color management systems. The TCS3414CS color sensor (I2C Sensor Color Grove), a system for capturing, processing and color management that allows the colors of any non-self-luminous object using a low-cost hardware based on Arduino, is presented in this paper. Specific software has been developed in Matlab and a study of the linearity of chromatic channels and accuracy of color measurements for this device has been undertaken. All used scripts (Arduino and Matlab) are attached as supplementary material. The results show acceptable accuracy values that, although obviously do not reach the levels obtained with the other scientific instruments, for the price difference they present a good low cost option.

  8. [Construction of RNA-containing virus-like nanoparticles expression vector with cysteine residues on surface and fluorescent decoration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yang-Jian; Liang, Ji-Xuan; Li, Qing-Ge

    2005-08-01

    Site-directed mutagenesis was performed at the codon 15 of the MS2 bacteriophage coat protein gene,which had been cloned to the virus-like particles expression vector containing non-self RNA fragment. The produced expression vector,termed pARSC, was transformed to E. coli DH5alpha. The positive clones were selected and proliferated. The harvested cells were treated with sonication and the supernatant was then subjected to linear sucrose density gradients centrifugation (15% to 60%) at 32000 r/min for 4 h at 4 degrees C. The virus-like particles, VLP-Cy, were collected at 35% sucrose density. The particles were examined by transmission electron microscopy and the spherical viral particles of approximately 27 nm in diameter were found. The thiolated VLP-Cy was then chemically modified with fluorescein -5'-maleimide. The covalent fluorescent labeling was confirmed by absorption analysis, SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy. This is the first report of preparation of RNA-containing natural fluorescent nanoparticles. The study highlight the versatility of MS2 bacteriophage capsids as building blocks for functional nanomaterials construction for a variety of application purposes.

  9. The Effect of Orthopedic Advertising and Self-Promotion on a Naïve Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohney, Stephen; Lee, Daniel J; Elfar, John C

    2016-01-01

    There has been a marked increase in the number of physicians marketing themselves directly to patients and consumers. However, it is unclear how different promotional styles affect patients' perceptions of their physicians. We hypothesized that self-promoting orthopedic surgeons enjoy a more positive impact on nonphysician patients as compared to non-self-promoting surgeons, as well as a corresponding negative impact on their peer-surgeons. Surgeon websites were selected from the 5 largest population centers in the United States. Subjects with varying degrees of familiarity with orthopedic surgery evaluated Internet profiles of surgeons on a forced choice Likert scale to measure the amount of self-promotion. The naïve subjects judged self-promoting surgeons more favorably than the orthopedic surgeons. In contrast, board-certified orthopedic surgeons viewed self-promoting surgeons more negatively than did their nonphysician counterparts. In summary, the present study revealed that the potential for self-promotion to unduly influence potential patients is real and should be a considerable concern to surgeons, patients, and the profession.

  10. Seaweed polysaccharides and derived oligosaccharides stimulate defense responses and protection against pathogens in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Jeannette; Castro, Jorge; Gonzalez, Alberto; Moenne, Alejandra

    2011-12-01

    Plants interact with the environment by sensing "non-self" molecules called elicitors derived from pathogens or other sources. These molecules bind to specific receptors located in the plasma membrane and trigger defense responses leading to protection against pathogens. In particular, it has been shown that cell wall and storage polysaccharides from green, brown and red seaweeds (marine macroalgae) corresponding to ulvans, alginates, fucans, laminarin and carrageenans can trigger defense responses in plants enhancing protection against pathogens. In addition, oligosaccharides obtained by depolymerization of seaweed polysaccharides also induce protection against viral, fungal and bacterial infections in plants. In particular, most seaweed polysaccharides and derived oligosaccharides trigger an initial oxidative burst at local level and the activation of salicylic (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and/or ethylene signaling pathways at systemic level. The activation of these signaling pathways leads to an increased expression of genes encoding: (i) Pathogenesis-Related (PR) proteins with antifungal and antibacterial activities; (ii) defense enzymes such as pheylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and lipoxygenase (LOX) which determine accumulation of phenylpropanoid compounds (PPCs) and oxylipins with antiviral, antifugal and antibacterial activities and iii) enzymes involved in synthesis of terpenes, terpenoids and/or alkaloids having antimicrobial activities. Thus, seaweed polysaccharides and their derived oligosaccharides induced the accumulation of proteins and compounds with antimicrobial activities that determine, at least in part, the enhanced protection against pathogens in plants.

  11. Can the flyby anomaly be attributed to earth-bound dark matter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, Stephen L.

    2009-01-01

    We make preliminary estimates to assess whether the recently reported flyby anomaly can be attributed to dark matter interactions. We consider both elastic and exothermic inelastic scattering from dark matter constituents; for isotropic dark matter velocity distributions, the former decrease, while the latter increase, the final flyby velocity. The fact that the observed flyby velocity anomaly shows examples with both positive and negative signs, requires the dominance of different dark matter scattering processes along different flyby trajectories. The magnitude of the observed anomalies requires dark matter densities many orders of magnitude greater than the galactic halo density. Such a large density could result from an accumulation cascade, in which the solar system-bound dark matter density is much higher than the galactic halo density, and the earth-bound density is much higher than the solar system-bound density. We discuss a number of strong constraints on the hypothesis of a dark matter explanation for the flyby anomaly. These require dark matter to be non-self-annihilating, with the dark matter scattering cross section on nucleons much larger, and the dark matter mass much lighter, than usually assumed.

  12. Sensing Properties of a Novel Temperature Sensor Based on Field Assisted Thermal Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Pan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The existing temperature sensors using carbon nanotubes (CNTs are limited by low sensitivity, complicated processes, or dependence on microscopy to observe the experimental results. Here we report the fabrication and successful testing of an ionization temperature sensor featuring non-self-sustaining discharge. The sharp tips of nanotubes generate high electric fields at relatively low voltages, lowering the work function of electrons emitted by CNTs, and thereby enabling the safe operation of such sensors. Due to the temperature effect on the electron emission of CNTs, the collecting current exhibited an exponential increase with temperature rising from 20 °C to 100 °C. Additionally, a higher temperature coefficient of 0.04 K−1 was obtained at 24 V voltage applied on the extracting electrode, higher than the values of other reported CNT-based temperature sensors. The triple-electrode ionization temperature sensor is easy to fabricate and converts the temperature change directly into an electrical signal. It shows a high temperature coefficient and good application potential.

  13. Structure and Specificity of a Binary Tandem Domain F-Lectin from Striped Bass (Morone saxatilis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchet, M.; Odom, E; Vasta, J; Amzel, M

    2010-01-01

    The plasma of the striped bass Morone saxatilis contains a fucose-specific lectin (MsaFBP32) that consists of two F-type carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs) in tandem. The crystal structure of the complex of MsaFBP32 with l-fucose reported here shows a cylindrical 81-A-long and 60-A-wide trimer divided into two globular halves: one containing N-terminal CRDs (N-CRDs) and the other containing C-terminal CRDs (C-CRDs). The resulting binding surfaces at the opposite ends of the cylindrical trimer have the potential to cross-link cell surface or humoral carbohydrate ligands. The N-CRDs and C-CRDs of MsaFBP32 exhibit significant structural differences, suggesting that they recognize different glycans. Analysis of the carbohydrate binding sites provides the structural basis for the observed specificity of MsaFBP32 for simple carbohydrates and suggests that the N-CRD recognizes more complex fucosylated oligosaccharides and with a relatively higher avidity than the C-CRD. Modeling of MsaFBP32 complexed with fucosylated glycans that are widely distributed in prokaryotes and eukaryotes rationalizes the observation that binary tandem CRD F-type lectins function as opsonins by cross-linking 'non-self' carbohydrate ligands and 'self' carbohydrate ligands, such as sugar structures displayed by microbial pathogens and glycans on the surface of phagocytic cells from the host.

  14. Sensing Properties of a Novel Temperature Sensor Based on Field Assisted Thermal Emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhigang; Zhang, Yong; Cheng, Zhenzhen; Tong, Jiaming; Chen, Qiyu; Zhang, Jianpeng; Zhang, Jiaxiang; Li, Xin; Li, Yunjia

    2017-02-27

    The existing temperature sensors using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are limited by low sensitivity, complicated processes, or dependence on microscopy to observe the experimental results. Here we report the fabrication and successful testing of an ionization temperature sensor featuring non-self-sustaining discharge. The sharp tips of nanotubes generate high electric fields at relatively low voltages, lowering the work function of electrons emitted by CNTs, and thereby enabling the safe operation of such sensors. Due to the temperature effect on the electron emission of CNTs, the collecting current exhibited an exponential increase with temperature rising from 20 °C to 100 °C. Additionally, a higher temperature coefficient of 0.04 K -1 was obtained at 24 V voltage applied on the extracting electrode, higher than the values of other reported CNT-based temperature sensors. The triple-electrode ionization temperature sensor is easy to fabricate and converts the temperature change directly into an electrical signal. It shows a high temperature coefficient and good application potential.

  15. "Who owns your poop?": insights regarding the intersection of human microbiome research and the ELSI aspects of biobanking and related studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Doherty Kieran C

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the social, ethical, and legal implications of biobanking and large scale data sharing are already complicated enough, they may be further compounded by research on the human microbiome. Discussion The human microbiome is the entire complement of microorganisms that exists in and on every human body. Currently most biobanks focus primarily on human tissues and/or associated data (e.g. health records. Accordingly, most discussions in the social sciences and humanities on these issues are focused (appropriately so on the implications of biobanks and sharing data derived from human tissues. However, rapid advances in human microbiome research involve collecting large amounts of data on microorganisms that exist in symbiotic relationships with the human body. Currently it is not clear whether these microorganisms should be considered part of or separate from the human body. Arguments can be made for both, but ultimately it seems that the dichotomy of human versus non-human and self versus non-self inevitably breaks down in this context. This situation has the potential to add further complications to debates on biobanking. Summary In this paper, we revisit some of the core problem areas of privacy, consent, ownership, return of results, governance, and benefit sharing, and consider how they might be impacted upon by human microbiome research. Some of the issues discussed also have relevance to other forms of microbial research. Discussion of these themes is guided by conceptual analysis of microbiome research and interviews with leading Canadian scientists in the field.

  16. Origin in Acinetobacter gyllenbergii and dissemination of aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme AAC(6′)-Ih

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Eun-Jeong; Goussard, Sylvie; Nemec, Alexandr; Lambert, Thierry; Courvalin, Patrice; Grillot-Courvalin, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aac(6′)-Ih gene encoding aminoglycoside 6′-N-acetyltransferase type I subtype h [AAC(6′)-Ih] is plasmid-borne in Acinetobacter baumannii where it confers high-level amikacin resistance, but its origin remains unknown. We searched for the gene in the genomes of a collection of 133 Acinetobacter spp. and studied its species specificity, expression and dissemination. Methods Gene copy number was determined by quantitative PCR, expression by quantitative RT–PCR, MIC by microdilution and transfer by plasmid mobilization. Results The aac(6′)-Ih gene was present in the chromosome of the two Acinetobacter gyllenbergii of the collection and was detected in all seven A. gyllenbergii clinical isolates. They had indistinguishable flanking regions indicating that the gene was intrinsic to this species. A. baumannii PISAba23 promoters were provided by insertion of ISAba23, which disrupted the Pnative promoter in A. gyllenbergii. Both types of promoters were similarly potent in Escherichia coli and A. baumannii. Aminoglycoside MICs for A. baumannii harbouring pIP1858 were higher than for A. gyllenbergii due to gene dosage. The non-self-transferable plasmid could be mobilized to other A. baumannii cells by the broad host range plasmid RP4. Conclusions We have found the origin of aac(6′)-Ih in A. gyllenbergii, a species isolated, although rarely, in humans, and documented that dissemination of this gene is restricted to the Acinetobacter genus. PMID:26645270

  17. Immunogenicity of epitope vaccines targeting different B cell antigenic determinants of human α-synuclein: feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghochikyan, Anahit; Petrushina, Irina; Davtyan, Hayk; Hovakimyan, Armine; Saing, Tommy; Davtyan, Arpine; Cribbs, David H; Agadjanyan, Michael G

    2014-02-07

    Immunotherapeutic approaches reducing α-synuclein deposits may provide therapeutic benefit for Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB). Immunization with full-length human α-synuclein (hα-Syn) protein in a Parkinson's disease mouse model decreased the accumulation of the aggregated forms of this protein in neurons and reduced neurodegeneration. To enhance the immunogenicity of candidate vaccines and to avoid the risk of autoreactive anti-hα-Syn T-helper (Th) cell responses, we generated three peptide-based epitope vaccines composed of different B-cell epitopes of hα-Syn fused with a "non-self" Th epitope from tetanus toxin (P30). Immunization of mice with these epitope vaccines produced high titers of anti-hα-Syn antibodies that bound to Lewy bodies (LBs) and Lewy neurites (LNs) in brain tissue from DLB cases and induced robust Th cell responses to P30, but not to hα-Syn. Further development of these first generation epitope vaccines may facilitate induction of anti-hα-Syn immunotherapy without producing potentially harmful autoreactive Th cell responses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Microbiota and representations of the human body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodet, Betty

    2016-11-01

    Although the presence of an intestinal flora has been known for a long time, the discovery of the role of gut microbiota in human health and disease has been widely recognized as one of the most important advances in the recent years. Chronic diseases may result from dysbiosis, i.e. a disruption of the balance within the bacterial population hosted by the human body. These developments open new prospects in terms of prevention and treatment, including the design of adapted diets, the development of functional foods and fecal transplantation. These discoveries have profoundly altered our view of microbes, of health and disease, of self and non-self, as well as our representations of the body and its relationship with its ecosystem. Gut microbiota is now generally considered as an organ in its own right. A model of the "microbiotic person" thus arises, in which the human organism is defined as an ecosystem, a chimeric superorganism with a double genome, both human and microbial. Thought should be given to the way in which these new paradigms modify lay perceptions of the human body. © 2016 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  19. Accelerating Rate Calorimetry Tests of Lithium-Ion Cells Before and After Storage Degradation at High Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendoza-Hernandez Omar Samuel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the behavior of Li-ion cells during thermal runaway is critical to evaluate the safety of these energy storage devices under outstanding conditions. Li-ion cells possess a high energy density and are used to store and supply energy to many aerospace applications. Incidents related to the overheating or thermal runaway of these cells can cause catastrophic damages that could end up costly space missions; therefore, thermal studies of Li-ion cells are very important for ensuring safety and reliability of space missions. This work evaluates the thermal behavior of Li-ion cells before and after storage degradation at high temperature using accelerating rate calorimeter (ARC equipment to analyze the thermal behavior of Li-ion cells under adiabatic conditions. Onset temperature points of self-heating and thermal runaway reactions are obtained. The onset points are used to identify non-self-heating, self-heating and thermal runaway regions as a function of state of charge. The results obtained can be useful to develop accurate thermo-electrochemical models of Li-ion cells.

  20. The Power of Affirming Group Values: Group Affirmation Buffers the Self-Esteem of Women Exposed to Blatant Sexism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer-Rodgers, Julie; Major, Brenda; Forster, Daniel; Peng, Kaiping

    2016-01-01

    Extending the group affirmation literature to the domain of prejudice, this study investigated whether group affirmation buffers the self-esteem of women exposed to blatant sexism. In accordance with Self-Affirmation Theory (Steele, 1988) and group affirmation research (Sherman et al., 2007), we hypothesized that when one aspect of the collective self is threatened (gender identity), self-esteem can be maintained via the affirmation of an alternative aspect of the collective self. In a 2×2 between-participants design, female students were randomly assigned to read about discrimination directed toward women or a non-self-relevant disadvantaged group (the Inuit). All then participated in a (fictitious) second study, in which half completed a group affirmation manipulation (wrote about the top three values of a self-defining group) and half completed a control writing exercise. The self-esteem of women who were threatened by sexism, but group affirmed, was protected from the negative effects of perceiving sexism. PMID:27867318

  1. Immuno-suppressive effects of aqueous extract of soapnut Sapindus emarginatus on the larvae and pupae of vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koodalingam, Arunagirinathan; Mullainadhan, Periasamy; Arumugam, Munusamy

    2013-06-01

    We recently reported the presence of potent anti-mosquito activity in aqueous kernel extract of the soapnut, Sapindus emarginatus, and demonstrated its impact on marker enzymes in larvae and pupae of the vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti. As a sequel to these findings, the present study elucidates immunotoxicity of this extract with respect to hemocyte-mediated cellular immune responses in fourth instar larvae and pupae as well as cuticular melanization reaction in the larvae of A. aegypti. The exposure of these two developmental stages of the mosquito to the soapnut extract at a lethal threshold concentration neither affected hemocyte viability tested up to 3h in vitro nor did it influence the hemocyte count. By contrast, exposure of the mosquito larvae and pupae to this extract significantly reduced the ability of their hemocytes to bind yeast cells, an important early event in the process of non-self recognition by immune cells. Consequently, the phagocytic activity of these hemocytes against yeast cells was also found to be adversely affected upon exposure of larvae and pupae to the extract. Besides, a perceptible initial delay in melanization reaction at the injured site of the cuticle in the extract-exposed larvae was observed. All these findings demonstrate, for the first time, the immuno-suppressive potential of a botanical biocide in the vector mosquito. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Occupational noise exposure, psychosocial working conditions and the risk of tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, Thomas Winther; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Stokholm, Zara Ann; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard; Hansen, Åse Marie; Lund, Søren Peter; Kristiansen, Jesper; Vestergaard, Jesper Medom; Bonde, Jens Peter; Kolstad, Henrik Albert

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of occupational noise (current and cumulative doses) and psychosocial work factors (psychological demands and decision latitude) on tinnitus occurrence among workers, using objective and non-self-reported exposure measures to prevent reporting bias. In a cross-sectional study, we analyzed data from a Danish survey from 2009 to 2010 that included 534 workers from children day care units and 10 manufacturing trades. Associations between risk factors (current noise exposure, cumulative noise exposure and psychosocial working conditions) and tinnitus were analyzed with logistic regression. We found no statistically significant associations between either current [OR 0.95 (95% CI 0.89; 1.01)] or cumulative [OR 0.93 (95% CI 0.81; 1.06)] occupational noise exposure and tinnitus. Likewise, results for psychosocial working conditions showed no statistically significant association between work place decision latitude [OR 1.06 (95% CI 0.94; 1.13)] or psychological demands [OR 1.07 (95% CI 0.90; 1.26)] and tinnitus. Our results suggest that current Danish occupational noise levels (in combination with relevant noise protection) are not associated with tinnitus. Also, results indicated that the psychosocial working conditions we observed in this cohort of mainly industrial workers were not associated with tinnitus. Therefore, psychosocial working conditions comparable to those observed in this study are probably not relevant to take into account in the evaluation of workers presenting with tinnitus.

  3. Silver-Mediated Base Pairs in DNA Incorporating Purines, 7-Deazapurines, and 8-Aza-7-deazapurines: Impact of Reduced Nucleobase Binding Sites and an Altered Glycosylation Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hang; Leonard, Peter; Guo, Xiurong; Yang, Haozhe; Seela, Frank

    2017-04-24

    Formation of silver-mediated DNA was studied with oligonucleotides incorporating 8-aza-7-deazapurine, 7-deazapurine, and purine nucleosides. The investigation was performed on non-self-complementary duplexes with one or two modifications and self-complementary duplexes with an alternating dA-dT motif. Homo base pairs as well as base pair mismatches of dA analogues with dC and Watson-Crick pairs with dT were studied by stoichiometric silver ion titration and T m measurements. N 8 -Glycosylated 8-aza-7-deazaadenine forms silver-ion-mediated base pairs capturing two silver ions (low silver content) whereas regularly glycosylated 8-aza-7-deazapurine, 7-deazapurine (c 7 A d ), and dA do not form comparable structures. Stable silver-mediated "dA-dC" base pair mismatches were detected for all nucleosides. Two silver ions per base pair are bound by 8-aza-7-deazapurine whereas c 7 A d binds only one silver ion. The situation is different when the equivalents of silver ions were increased to the number of total base pairs. Surprisingly, in 12-mer duplexes as well as in related 25-mer duplexes every base pair consumed one silver ion. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. The E3 Ubiquitin Ligase TRIM40 Attenuates Antiviral Immune Responses by Targeting MDA5 and RIG-I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyuan Zhao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs, including melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5 and RIG-I, are crucial for host recognition of non-self RNAs, especially viral RNA. Thus, the expression and activation of RLRs play fundamental roles in eliminating the invading RNA viruses and maintaining immune homeostasis. However, how RLR expression is tightly regulated remains to be further investigated. In this study, we identified a major histocompatibility complex (MHC-encoded gene, tripartite interaction motif 40 (TRIM40, as a suppressor of RLR signaling by directly targeting MDA5 and RIG-I. TRIM40 binds to MDA5 and RIG-I and promotes their K27- and K48-linked polyubiquitination via its E3 ligase activity, leading to their proteasomal degradation. TRIM40 deficiency enhances RLR-triggered signaling. Consequently, TRIM40 deficiency greatly enhances antiviral immune responses and decreases viral replication in vivo. Thus, we demonstrate that TRIM40 limits RLR-triggered innate activation, suggesting TRIM40 as a potential therapeutic target for the control of viral infection.

  5. Working capacity after a subarachnoid haemorrhage: A six-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerlind, Emma; Persson, Hanna C; Sunnerhagen, Katharina S

    2017-11-21

    Subarachnoid haemorrhage can lead to long-term disabilities. It is a major health issue for the patient and can affect work capacity. The aim of this study was to investigate working capacity after subarachnoid haemorrhage from a long-term perspective, using data from national sick leave records. In addition, factors associated with working capacity were analysed. A retrospective cohort study. A consecutive total sample of 38 working-age participants with first-ever subarachnoid haemorrhage was included. Working capacity of the 30 participants not on early retirement prior to the subarachnoid haemorrhage was analysed. Working capacity was defined as no longer being registered on sick leave or early retirement in the Social Insurance Agency and not being age retired or deceased. Regain of working capacity continued until 2.5 years post-subarachnoid haemorrhage and 73% of the participants were deemed to have working capacity. Functional independence at discharge from hospital, and higher responsiveness at admittance were the main factors associated with an earlier regain of working capacity. Nearly three-quarters of subjects were deemed to have working capacity within 2.5 years post-subarachnoid haemorrhage with a non-self-reported outcome. This information will help to individualize rehabilitation for affected persons.

  6. Killing two birds with one stone: Trans-kingdom suppression of PAMP/MAMP-induced immunity by T3E from enteropathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic eBrunner

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Within the past decade, remarkable similarities between the molecular organization of animal and plant systems for non-self discrimination were revealed. Obvious parallels exist between the molecular structures of the receptors mediating the recognition of pathogen- or microbe-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs/MAMPs with plant pattern recognition receptors (PRRs strikingly resembling mammalian Toll-like receptors. Mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase cascades, leading to the transcriptional activation of immunity-associated genes, illustrate the conservation of whole molecular building blocks of PAMP/MAMP-induced signaling. Enteropathogenic Salmonella and Escherichia coli use a type three secretion system (T3SS to inject effector proteins into the mammalian host cell to subvert defense mechanisms and promote gut infection. Lately, disease occurrence was increasingly associated with bacteria-contaminated fruits and vegetables and common themes have emerged with regard to whether and how effectors target innate immune responses in a trans-kingdom manner. We propose that numerous Salmonella or E. coli effectors may be active in planta and tend to target central components (hubs of immune signaling pathways.

  7. Using cluster analysis to examine the combinations of motivation regulations of physical education students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich-French, Sarah; Cox, Anne

    2009-06-01

    According to self-determination theory, motivation is multidimensional, with motivation regulations lying along a continuum of self-determination (Ryan & Deci, 2007). Accounting for the different types of motivation in physical activity research presents a challenge. This study used cluster analysis to identify motivation regulation profiles and examined their utility by testing profile differences in relative levels of self-determination (i.e., self-determination index), and theoretical antecedents (i.e., competence, autonomy, relatedness) and consequences (i.e., enjoyment, worry, effort, value, physical activity) of physical education motivation. Students (N= 386) in 6th- through 8th-grade physical education classes completed questionnaires of the variables listed above. Five profiles emerged, including average (n = 81), motivated (n = 82), self-determined (n = 91), low motivation (n = 73), and external (n = 59). Group difference analyses showed that students with greater levels of self-determined forms of motivation, regardless of non-self-determined motivation levels, reported the most adaptive physical education experiences.

  8. Pandora's Box and Non-Selfdual Topological Excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unsal, Mithat

    2010-01-01

    In the last few years, we have realized the existence of a new class of topological excitations, which are rather distinct from the platonic world of monopoles, monopole-instantons and instantons. All of the latter arise as solutions of the Prasad-Sommerfield type first order differential (self-duality) equations and have been extensively discussed in the context of confinement and chiral symmetry breaking for the last 30 years. However, new calculable deformations of asymptotically free chiral and vector-like gauge theories give us a new picture of these physical phenomena. Most often, the excitations which lead to confinement are not solutions to PS-type equations, they are non-selfdual and they are often bizarre. They are referred to as magnetic bions, triplets, and quintets, due to their composite nature. Bizarre as they are, combined with large-N volume independence, these novel non-self-dual excitations may also provide hope that at least some non-abelian gauge theories may be solvable.

  9. Recombinant perlucin nucleates the growth of calcium carbonate crystals: molecular cloning and characterization of perlucin from disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Lee, Youn-Ho; Lee, Jehee

    2008-02-01

    Perlucin is well known as an important functional protein regulating pearl formation and shell biomineralization. In this study, we cloned the perlucin gene from the abalone Haliotis discus discus cDNA library. The full-length cDNA of the abalone H. discus discus perlucin gene consisted of 1038 bp nucleotides, encoding a putative signal peptide of 22 amino acids and a mature protein of 129 amino acids, which shared 55% identity with the homologous protein in greenlip abalone. The mature protein coding sequence was inserted into pMal-c2X expression vector and it expressed the recombinant protein in E. coli (Rosetta-gammi DE3). The maltose binding protein (MBP) fusion perlucin successfully promoted calcium carbonate precipitation and directed calcite crystal morphological modification. The successful expression of active recombinant perlucin suggested that recombinant perlucin gene transfer has the capability by color modification to improve the pearl's value. In the view of molecular structure, perlucin was a typical C-type lectin, which contained one highly conserved carbohydrate recognition domain. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results showed that perlucin gene was expressed not only in the mantle, but also in the gill and digestive tract. Further characterization of perlucin in abalone non-self recognition and disease resistance is promising and anticipated.

  10. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in aquatic animals: signaling pathways, expressions and immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauta, Pradipta R; Samanta, Mrinal; Dash, Hirak R; Nayak, Bismita; Das, Surajit

    2014-01-01

    The innate system's recognition of non-self and danger signals is mediated by a limited number of germ-line encoded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that recognize pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are single, non-catalytic, membrane-spanning PRRs present in invertebrates and vertebrates. They act by specifically recognizing PAMPs of a variety of microbes and activate signaling cascades to induce innate immunity. A large number of TLRs have been identified in various aquatic animals of phyla Cnidaria, Annelida, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata and Chordata. TLRs of aquatic and warm-blooded higher animals exhibit some distinctive features due to their diverse evolutionary lineages. However, majority of them share conserve signaling pathways in pathogen recognition and innate immunity. Functional analysis of novel TLRs in aquatic animals is very important in understanding the comparative immunology between warm-blooded and aquatic animals. In additions to innate immunity, recent reports have highlighted the additional roles of TLRs in adaptive immunity. Therefore, vaccines against many critical diseases of aquatic animals may be made more effective by supplementing TLR activators which will stimulate dendritic cells. This article describes updated information of TLRs in aquatic animals and their structural and functional relationship with warm-blooded animals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Analogies in the evolution of individual and social immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Sylvia; Sixt, Michael

    2009-01-12

    We compare anti-parasite defences at the level of multicellular organisms and insect societies, and find that selection by parasites at these two organisational levels is often very similar and has created a number of parallel evolutionary solutions in the host's immune response. The defence mechanisms of both individuals and insect colonies start with border defences to prevent parasite intake and are followed by soma defences that prevent the establishment and spread of the parasite between the body's cells or the social insect workers. Lastly, germ line defences are employed to inhibit infection of the reproductive tissue of organisms or the reproductive individuals in colonies. We further find sophisticated self/non-self-recognition systems operating at both levels, which appear to be vital in maintaining the integrity of the body or colony as a reproductive entity. We then expand on the regulation of immune responses and end with a contemplation of how evolution may shape the different immune components, both within and between levels. The aim of this review is to highlight common evolutionary principles acting in disease defence at the level of both individual organisms and societies, thereby linking the fields of physiological and ecological immunology.

  12. Investigations into the carbonic anhydrase inhibition of COS-releasing donor core motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiger, Andrea K; Zhao, Yu; Choi, Won Jin; Crammond, Alder; Tillotson, McKinna R; Pluth, Michael D

    2018-03-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) releasing scaffolds are gaining popularity as hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) donors through exploitation of the carbonic anhydrase (CA)-mediated hydrolysis of COS to H 2 S. The majority of compounds in this emerging class of donors undergo triggerable decomposition (often referred to as self-immolation) to release COS, and a handful of different COS-releasing structures have been reported. One benefit of this donation strategy is that numerous caged COS-containing core motifs are possible and are poised for development into self-immolative COS/H 2 S donors. Because the intermediate release of COS en route to H 2 S donation requires CA, it is important that the COS donor motifs do not inhibit CA directly. In this work, we investigate the cytotoxicity and CA inhibition properties of different caged COS donor cores, as well as caged CO 2 and CS 2 motifs and non-self-immolative control compounds. None of the compounds investigated exhibited significant cytotoxicity or enhanced cell proliferation at concentrations up to 100 μM in A549 cells, but we identified four core structures that function as CA inhibitors, thus providing a roadmap for the future development of self-immolative COS/H 2 S donor motifs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Time Series Discord Detection in Medical Data using a Parallel Relational Database [PowerPoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodbridge, Diane; Wilson, Andrew T.; Rintoul, Mark Daniel; Goldstein, Richard H.

    2015-11-01

    Recent advances in sensor technology have made continuous real-time health monitoring available in both hospital and non-hospital settings. Since data collected from high frequency medical sensors includes a huge amount of data, storing and processing continuous medical data is an emerging big data area. Especially detecting anomaly in real time is important for patients’ emergency detection and prevention. A time series discord indicates a subsequence that has the maximum difference to the rest of the time series subsequences, meaning that it has abnormal or unusual data trends. In this study, we implemented two versions of time series discord detection algorithms on a high performance parallel database management system (DBMS) and applied them to 240 Hz waveform data collected from 9,723 patients. The initial brute force version of the discord detection algorithm takes each possible subsequence and calculates a distance to the nearest non-self match to find the biggest discords in time series. For the heuristic version of the algorithm, a combination of an array and a trie structure was applied to order time series data for enhancing time efficiency. The study results showed efficient data loading, decoding and discord searches in a large amount of data, benefiting from the time series discord detection algorithm and the architectural characteristics of the parallel DBMS including data compression, data pipe-lining, and task scheduling.

  14. Mach reflection of a ZND detonation wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Ning, J.; Lee, J. H. S.

    2015-05-01

    The Mach reflection of a ZND detonation wave on a wedge is investigated numerically. A two-step chain-branching reaction model is used giving a thermally neutral induction zone followed by a chemical reaction zone for the detonation wave. The presence of a finite reaction zone thickness renders the Mach reflection process non-self-similar. The variation of the height of the Mach stem with distance of propagation does not correspond to a straight curve from the wedge apex as governed by self-similar three-shock theory. However, the present results indicate that in the near field around the wedge apex, and in the far field where the reaction zone thickness is small compared to the distance of travel of the Mach stem, the behavior appears to be self-similar. This corresponds to the so-called frozen and equilibrium limit pointed out by Hornung and Sanderman for strong discontinuity shock waves and by Shepherd et al. for cellular detonations. The critical wedge angle for the transition from regular to Mach reflection is found to correspond to the value determined by self-similar three-shock theory, but not by reactive three-shock theory for a discontinuous detonation front.

  15. Interleukin-1 as a Common Denominator from Autoinflammatory to Autoimmune Disorders: Premises, Perils, and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopalco, Giuseppe; Cantarini, Luca; Vitale, Antonio; Iannone, Florenzo; Anelli, Maria Grazia; Andreozzi, Laura; Lapadula, Giovanni; Galeazzi, Mauro; Rigante, Donato

    2015-01-01

    A complex web of dynamic relationships between innate and adaptive immunity is now evident for many autoinflammatory and autoimmune disorders, the first deriving from abnormal activation of innate immune system without any conventional danger triggers and the latter from self-/non-self-discrimination loss of tolerance, and systemic inflammation. Due to clinical and pathophysiologic similarities giving a crucial role to the multifunctional cytokine interleukin-1, the concept of autoinflammation has been expanded to include nonhereditary collagen-like diseases, idiopathic inflammatory diseases, and metabolic diseases. As more patients are reported to have clinical features of autoinflammation and autoimmunity, the boundary between these two pathologic ends is becoming blurred. An overview of monogenic autoinflammatory disorders, PFAPA syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, type 2 diabetes mellitus, uveitis, pericarditis, Behçet's disease, gout, Sjögren's syndrome, interstitial lung diseases, and Still's disease is presented to highlight the fundamental points that interleukin-1 displays in the cryptic interplay between innate and adaptive immune systems. PMID:25784780

  16. Evolution of innate immunity: clues from invertebrates via fish to mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt eBuchmann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Host responses against invading pathogens are basic physiological reactions of all living organisms. Since appearance of the first eukaryotic cells a series of defence mechanisms have evolved in order to secure cellular integrity, homeostasis and survival of the host. Invertebrates, ranging from protozoans to metazoans, possess cellular receptors which bind to foreign elements and differentiate self from non-self. This ability is in multicellular animals associated with presence of phagocytes, bearing different names (amoebocytes, haemocytes, coelomocytes in various groups including animal sponges, worms, cnidarians, molluscs, crustaceans, chelicerates, insects and echinoderms (sea stars and urchins. Basically these cells have a macrophage like appearance and function and the repair and/or fight functions associated with these cells are prominent even at the earliest evolutionary stage. The cells possess Pathogen Recognition Receptors (PRRs recognizing Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPS which are well conserved molecular structures expressed by various pathogens (virus, bacteria, fungi, protozoans, helminths. Scavenger receptors, Toll-like receptors (TLRs and Nod-like receptors (NLRs are prominent representatives within this group of host receptors. Following receptor-ligand binding signal transduction initiates a complex cascade of cellular reactions which lead to production of one or more of a wide array of effector molecules. Cytokines take part in this orchestration of responses even in lower invertebrates which eventually may result in elimination or inactivation of the intruder. The evolutionary processes associated with these reactions are discussed.

  17. HLA Type Inference via Haplotypes Identical by Descent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setty, Manu N.; Gusev, Alexander; Pe'Er, Itsik

    The Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) genes play a major role in adaptive immune response and are used to differentiate self antigens from non self ones. HLA genes are hyper variable with nearly every locus harboring over a dozen alleles. This variation plays an important role in susceptibility to multiple autoimmune diseases and needs to be matched on for organ transplantation. Unfortunately, HLA typing by serological methods is time consuming and expensive compared to high throughput Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) data. We present a new computational method to infer per-locus HLA types using shared segments Identical By Descent (IBD), inferred from SNP genotype data. IBD information is modeled as graph where shared haplotypes are explored among clusters of individuals with known and unknown HLA types to identify the latter. We analyze performance of the method in a previously typed subset of the HapMap population, achieving accuracy of 96% in HLA-A, 94% in HLA-B, 95% in HLA-C, 77% in HLA-DR1, 93% in HLA-DQA1 and 90% in HLA-DQB1 genes. We compare our method to a tag SNP based approach and demonstrate higher sensitivity and specificity. Our method demonstrates the power of using shared haplotype segments for large-scale imputation at the HLA locus.

  18. The burden of distress and related coping processes in family caregivers of patients with Alzheimer's disease living in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raggi, Alberto; Tasca, Domenica; Panerai, Simonetta; Neri, Walter; Ferri, Raffaele

    2015-11-15

    Many patients with dementia live in the community and depend on a family member for assistance. Taking care of non-self-sufficient people such as those with dementia causes distress. This study concerns factors contributing to feelings of burden and consequent coping strategies adopted by family caregivers of patients with Alzheimer's disease living in the community. The severity of the caregiver burden (Caregiver Burden Inventory and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Caregiver Distress Scale) was evaluated in relation to the cognitive, behavioral, functional, mood, motor and comorbidity status in 73 consecutive patients with Alzheimer's disease. The type of coping processes (Coping Orientation to Problem Experienced), and psychosocial and medical variables of caregivers were also investigated and correlated with the degree of their distress. The amount of burden for caregivers, was found to be positively correlated with several measures of cognitive, psychological, behavioral, and motor impairment of the patients. The severity of caregiver distress was correlated with specific coping strategies, such as seeking for social support, using avoidance behaviors and focusing on problems. Finally, caregivers needing higher levels of familial and/or social support had also higher levels of distress. Higher cognitive, psychological, behavioral, and motor impairment of patients with Alzheimer's disease are associated with increasing levels of burden and distress in their caregivers, who need to adopt adequate coping strategies and to seek for familial and social support. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Optimization of therapeutic proteins to delete T-cell epitopes while maintaining beneficial residue interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Andrew S; Griswold, Karl E; Bailey-Kellogg, Chris

    2011-04-01

    Exogenous enzymes, signaling peptides, and other classes of nonhuman proteins represent a potentially massive but largely untapped pool of biotherapeutic agents. Adapting a foreign protein for therapeutic use poses numerous design challenges. We focus here on one significant problem: modifying the protein to mitigate the immune response mounted against "non-self" proteins, while not adversely affecting the protein's stability or therapeutic activity. In order to propose such variants suitable for experimental evaluation, this paper develops a computational method to select sets of mutations predicted to delete immunogenic T-cell epitopes, as evaluated by a 9-mer potential, while simultaneously maintaining important residues and residue interactions, as evaluated by one- and two-body potentials. While this design problem is NP-hard, we develop an integer programming approach that works very well in practice. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach by developing plans for biotherapeutic proteins that, in previous studies, have been partially deimmunized via extensive experimental characterization and modification of limited segments. In contrast, our global optimization technique considers an entire protein and accounts for all residues, residue interactions, and epitopes in proposing candidates worth subjecting to experimental evaluation.

  20. Self-consistent nonlinear transmission line model of standing wave effects in a capacitive discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabert, P.; Raimbault, J.L.; Rax, J.M.; Lieberman, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    It has been shown previously [Lieberman et al., Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 11, 283 (2002)], using a non-self-consistent model based on solutions of Maxwell's equations, that several electromagnetic effects may compromise capacitive discharge uniformity. Among these, the standing wave effect dominates at low and moderate electron densities when the driving frequency is significantly greater than the usual 13.56 MHz. In the present work, two different global discharge models have been coupled to a transmission line model and used to obtain the self-consistent characteristics of the standing wave effect. An analytical solution for the wavelength λ was derived for the lossless case and compared to the numerical results. For typical plasma etching conditions (pressure 10-100 mTorr), a good approximation of the wavelength is λ/λ 0 ≅40 V 0 1/10 l -1/2 f -2/5 , where λ 0 is the wavelength in vacuum, V 0 is the rf voltage magnitude in volts at the discharge center, l is the electrode spacing in meters, and f the driving frequency in hertz

  1. The Power of Affirming Group Values: Group Affirmation Buffers the Self-Esteem of Women Exposed to Blatant Sexism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer-Rodgers, Julie; Major, Brenda; Forster, Daniel; Peng, Kaiping

    2016-01-01

    Extending the group affirmation literature to the domain of prejudice, this study investigated whether group affirmation buffers the self-esteem of women exposed to blatant sexism. In accordance with Self-Affirmation Theory (Steele, 1988) and group affirmation research (Sherman et al., 2007), we hypothesized that when one aspect of the collective self is threatened (gender identity), self-esteem can be maintained via the affirmation of an alternative aspect of the collective self. In a 2×2 between-participants design, female students were randomly assigned to read about discrimination directed toward women or a non-self-relevant disadvantaged group (the Inuit). All then participated in a (fictitious) second study, in which half completed a group affirmation manipulation (wrote about the top three values of a self-defining group) and half completed a control writing exercise. The self-esteem of women who were threatened by sexism, but group affirmed, was protected from the negative effects of perceiving sexism.

  2. Growth initiation processes for GaAs and AlGaAs in CBE

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, D

    2002-01-01

    'in-growth' reconstruction to stabilise. However unlike for TMGa, GaAs growth with TEGa proceeds by a non-self limiting growth mode and TEGa rapidly dissociates. The result of this is that TEGa decomposes on top of other TEGa molecules, or their fragments and due to the high flux rate this leads to a 'stacking-up' of Ga on the surface. The presence of excess Ga provides a rapid increase of surface reflectance and then its subsequent decay as the excess Ga is incorporated by the increasing As content of the surface. The average growth rate during the transient period is equal to that of subsequent 'post-transient' period. However it is not certain as to whether the growth rate is constant throughout the transient period. The aim of this work was to investigate the nature of the transient period found in reflectance anisotropy (RA) measurements of high III:V BEP ratio growth of gallium arsenide (GaAs) and aluminium gallium arsenide (AIGaAs) by chemical beam epitaxy (CBE). Growth at substrate temperatures betwee...

  3. On EMDR: eye movements during retrieval reduce subjective vividness and objective memory accessibility during future recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hout, Marcel A; Bartelski, Nicola; Engelhard, Iris M

    2013-01-01

    In eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), a treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), patients make eye movements (EM) during trauma recall. Earlier experimental studies found that EM during recall reduces memory vividness during future recalls, and this was taken as laboratory support for the underlying mechanism of EMDR. However, reduced vividness was assessed with self-reports that may be affected by demand characteristics. We tested whether recall+EM also reduces memory vividness on a behavioural reaction time (RT) task. Undergraduates (N=32) encoded two pictures, recalled them, and rated their vividness. In the EM group, one of the pictures was recalled again while making EM. In the no-EM group one of the pictures was recalled without EM. Then fragments from both the recalled and non-recalled pictures, and new fragments were presented and participants rated whether these were (or were not) seen before. Both pictures were rated again for vividness. In the EM group, self-rated vividness of the recalled+EM picture decreased, relative to the non-recalled picture. In the no-EM group there was no difference between the recalled versus non-recalled picture. The RT task showed the same pattern. Reduction of memory vividness due to recall+EM is also evident from non-self-report data.

  4. A Pollen Coat–Inducible Autoinhibited Ca2+-ATPase Expressed in Stigmatic Papilla Cells Is Required for Compatible Pollination in the Brassicaceae[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwano, Megumi; Igarashi, Motoko; Tarutani, Yoshiaki; Kaothien-Nakayama, Pulla; Nakayama, Hideki; Moriyama, Hideki; Yakabe, Ryo; Entani, Tetsuyuki; Shimosato-Asano, Hiroko; Ueki, Masao; Tamiya, Gen; Takayama, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    In the Brassicaceae, intraspecific non-self pollen (compatible pollen) can germinate and grow into stigmatic papilla cells, while self-pollen or interspecific pollen is rejected at this stage. However, the mechanisms underlying this selective acceptance of compatible pollen remain unclear. Here, using a cell-impermeant calcium indicator, we showed that the compatible pollen coat contains signaling molecules that stimulate Ca2+ export from the papilla cells. Transcriptome analyses of stigmas suggested that autoinhibited Ca2+-ATPase13 (ACA13) was induced after both compatible pollination and compatible pollen coat treatment. A complementation test using a yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain lacking major Ca2+ transport systems suggested that ACA13 indeed functions as an autoinhibited Ca2+ transporter. ACA13 transcription increased in papilla cells and in transmitting tracts after pollination. ACA13 protein localized to the plasma membrane and to vesicles near the Golgi body and accumulated at the pollen tube penetration site after pollination. The stigma of a T-DNA insertion line of ACA13 exhibited reduced Ca2+ export, as well as defects in compatible pollen germination and seed production. These findings suggest that stigmatic ACA13 functions in the export of Ca2+ to the compatible pollen tube, which promotes successful fertilization. PMID:24569769

  5. Interactive quantum chemistry: a divide-and-conquer ASED-MO method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosson, Mäel; Richard, Caroline; Plet, Antoine; Grudinin, Sergei; Redon, Stephane

    2012-03-15

    We present interactive quantum chemistry simulation at the atom superposition and electron delocalization molecular orbital (ASED-MO) level of theory. Our method is based on the divide-and-conquer (D&C) approach, which we show is accurate and efficient for this non-self-consistent semiempirical theory. The method has a linear complexity in the number of atoms, scales well with the number of cores, and has a small prefactor. The time cost is completely controllable, as all steps are performed with direct algorithms, i.e., no iterative schemes are used. We discuss the errors induced by the D&C approach, first empirically on a few examples, and then via a theoretical study of two toy models that can be analytically solved for any number of atoms. Thanks to the precision and speed of the D&C approach, we are able to demonstrate interactive quantum chemistry simulations for systems up to a few hundred atoms on a current multicore desktop computer. When drawing and editing molecular systems, interactive simulations provide immediate, intuitive feedback on chemical structures. As the number of cores on personal computers increases, and larger and larger systems can be dealt with, we believe such interactive simulations-even at lower levels of theory-should thus prove most useful to effectively understand, design and prototype molecules, devices and materials. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Magnetorotational instability: nonmodal growth and the relationship of global modes to the shearing box

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Squire, J.; Bhattacharjee, A. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences and Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States)

    2014-12-10

    We study magnetorotational instability (MRI) using nonmodal stability techniques. Despite the spectral instability of many forms of MRI, this proves to be a natural method of analysis that is well-suited to deal with the non-self-adjoint nature of the linear MRI equations. We find that the fastest growing linear MRI structures on both local and global domains can look very different from the eigenmodes, invariably resembling waves shearing with the background flow (shear waves). In addition, such structures can grow many times faster than the least stable eigenmode over long time periods, and be localized in a completely different region of space. These ideas lead—for both axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric modes—to a natural connection between the global MRI and the local shearing box approximation. By illustrating that the fastest growing global structure is well described by the ordinary differential equations (ODEs) governing a single shear wave, we find that the shearing box is a very sensible approximation for the linear MRI, contrary to many previous claims. Since the shear wave ODEs are most naturally understood using nonmodal analysis techniques, we conclude by analyzing local MRI growth over finite timescales using these methods. The strong growth over a wide range of wave-numbers suggests that nonmodal linear physics could be of fundamental importance in MRI turbulence.

  7. Herpesvirus microRNAs for use in gene therapy immune-evasion strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bots, S T F; Hoeben, R C

    2017-07-01

    Transplantation of allogeneic cells as well as of genetically corrected autologous cells are potent approaches to restore cellular functions in patients suffering from genetic diseases. The recipient's immune responses against non-self-antigens may compromise the survival of the grafted cells. Recipients of the graft may therefore require lifelong treatment with immunosuppressive drugs. An alternative approach to reduce graft rejection could involve the use of immune-evasion molecules. Expression of such molecules in cells of the graft may subvert recognition by the host's immune system. Viruses in particular are masters of exploitation and modulation of their hosts immune response. The Herpesviridae family provides a proof of concept for this as these viruses are capable to establish latency and a lifelong persistence in the infected hosts. While several viral proteins involved in immune evasion have been characterized, the Herpesviridae also encode a multitude of viral microRNA (miRNAs). Several of these miRNAs have been demonstrated to reduce the sensitivity of the infected cells to the destructive action of the host's immune cells. In this review, the miRNAs of some common herpesviruses that are associated with immune modulation will be discussed with a focus on their potential use in strategies aiming at generating non-immunogenic cells for transplantation.

  8. Stem-cell-triggered immunity through CLV3p-FLS2 signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Horim; Chah, Ok-Kyong; Sheen, Jen

    2011-05-19

    Stem cells in the shoot apical meristem (SAM) of plants are the self-renewable reservoir for leaf, stem and flower organogenesis. In nature, disease-free plants can be regenerated from SAM despite infections elsewhere, which underlies a horticultural practice for decades. However, the molecular basis of the SAM immunity remains unclear. Here we show that the CLAVATA3 peptide (CLV3p), expressed and secreted from stem cells and functioning as a key regulator of stem-cell homeostasis in the SAM of Arabidopsis, can trigger immune signalling and pathogen resistance via the flagellin receptor kinase FLS2 (refs 5, 6). CLV3p-FLS2 signalling acts independently from the stem-cell signalling pathway mediated through CLV1 and CLV2 receptors, and is uncoupled from FLS2-mediated growth suppression. Endogenous CLV3p perception in the SAM by a pattern recognition receptor for bacterial flagellin, FLS2, breaks the previously defined self and non-self discrimination in innate immunity. The dual perception of CLV3p illustrates co-evolution of plant peptide and receptor kinase signalling for both development and immunity. The enhanced immunity in SAM or germ lines may represent a common strategy towards immortal fate in plants and animals.

  9. A sense of embodiment is reflected in people's signature size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhip Rawal

    Full Text Available The size of a person's signature may reveal implicit information about how the self is perceived although this has not been closely examined.We conducted three experiments to test whether increases in signature size can be induced. Specifically, the aim of these experiments was to test whether changes in signature size reflect a person's current implicit sense of embodiment. Experiment 1 showed that an implicit affect task (positive subliminal evaluative conditioning led to increases in signature size relative to an affectively neutral task, showing that implicit affective cues alter signature size. Experiments 2 and 3 demonstrated increases in signature size following experiential self-focus on sensory and affective stimuli relative to both conceptual self-focus and external (non-self-focus in both healthy participants and patients with anorexia nervosa, a disorder associated with self-evaluation and a sense of disembodiment. In all three experiments, increases in signature size were unrelated to changes in self-reported mood and larger than manipulation unrelated variations.Together, these findings suggest that a person's sense of embodiment is reflected in their signature size.

  10. Self-consistent calculation of particle-hole diagrams on the Matsubara frequency: FLEX approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Nunez, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    We implement the numerical method of summing Green function diagrams on the Matsubara frequency axis for the fluctuation exchange (FLEX) approximation. Our method has previously been applied to the attractive Hubbard model for low density. Here we apply our numerical algorithm to the Hubbard model close to half filling (ρ=0.40), and for T/t = 0.03, in order to study the dynamics of one- and two-particle Green functions. For the values of the chosen parameters we see the formation of three branches which we associate with the a two-peak structure in the imaginary part of the self-energy. We have compared our fully self-consistent FLEX solutions with a lower order approximation where the internal Green functions are approximated by free Green functions. These two approaches the fully self consistent and the non-self consistent ones give different results for the parameters considered here. However, they have similar global results for small densities. (author)

  11. Placental immune editing switch (PIES): learning about immunomodulatory pathways from a unique case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronchud, Miguel H.; Tresserra, Francesc; Xu, Wenjie; Warren, Sarah; Cusido, Maite; Zantop, Bernat; Zenclussen, Ana Claudia; Cesano, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    The hypothesis of this work is that, in order to escape the natural immune surveillance mechanisms, cancer cells and the surrounding microenvironment might express ectopically genes that are physiologically present in the placenta to mediate fetal immune-tolerance. These natural “placental immune-editing switch” mechanisms (PIES) may represent the result of millions of years of mammalian evolution developed to allow materno-fetal tolerance. Here, we introduce genes of the immune regulatory pathways that are either similarly over- or under-expressed in tumor vs normal tissue. Our analysis was carried out in primary breast cancer with metastatic homolateral axillary lymph nodes as well as placenta tissue (both uterine decidual tissue and term placenta tissue) from a pregnant woman. Gene expression profiling of paired non-self and self tissues (i.e. placenta/uterus; breast cancer/normal breast tissue; metastatic lymphnode/normal lymphnode tissue) was performed using the PanCancer Immune gene panel, a 770 Nanostring gene expression panel. Our findings reveal overlapping in specific immune gene expression in placenta and cancer tissue, suggesting that these genes might play an important role in maintaining immune tolerance both physiologically (in the placenta) and pathologically (in the cancer setting). PMID:27852037

  12. Analysis System for Self-Efficacy Training (ASSET). Assessing treatment fidelity of self-management interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinken, Katarzyna M; Cradock, Sue; Skinner, T Chas

    2008-08-01

    The paper presents the development of a coding tool for self-efficacy orientated interventions in diabetes self-management programmes (Analysis System for Self-Efficacy Training, ASSET) and explores its construct validity and clinical utility. Based on four sources of self-efficacy (i.e., mastery experience, role modelling, verbal persuasion and physiological and affective states), published self-efficacy based interventions for diabetes care were analysed in order to identify specific verbal behavioural techniques. Video-recorded facilitating behaviours were evaluated using ASSET. The reliability between four coders was high (K=0.71). ASSET enabled assessment of both self-efficacy based techniques and participants' response to those techniques. Individual patterns of delivery and shifts over time across facilitators were found. In the presented intervention we observed that self-efficacy utterances were followed by longer patient verbal responses than non-self-efficacy utterances. These detailed analyses with ASSET provide rich data and give the researcher an insight into the underlying mechanism of the intervention process. By providing a detailed description of self-efficacy strategies ASSET can be used by health care professionals to guide reflective practice and support training programmes.

  13. First Results from BISTRO: A SCUBA-2 Polarimeter Survey of the Gould Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward-Thompson, Derek; Pattle, Kate; Bastien, Pierre; Furuya, Ray S.; Kwon, Woojin; Lai, Shih-Ping; Qiu, Keping; Berry, David; Choi, Minho; Coudé, Simon; Di Francesco, James; Hoang, Thiem; Franzmann, Erica; Friberg, Per; Graves, Sarah F.; Greaves, Jane S.; Houde, Martin; Johnstone, Doug; Kirk, Jason M.; Koch, Patrick M.; Kwon, Jungmi; Lee, Chang Won; Li, Di; Matthews, Brenda C.; Mottram, Joseph C.; Parsons, Harriet; Pon, Andy; Rao, Ramprasad; Rawlings, Mark; Shinnaga, Hiroko; Sadavoy, Sarah; van Loo, Sven; Aso, Yusuke; Byun, Do-Young; Eswaraiah, Chakali; Chen, Huei-Ru; Chen, Mike C.-Y.; Chen, Wen Ping; Ching, Tao-Chung; Cho, Jungyeon; Chrysostomou, Antonio; Chung, Eun Jung; Doi, Yasuo; Drabek-Maunder, Emily; Eyres, Stewart P. S.; Fiege, Jason; Friesen, Rachel K.; Fuller, Gary; Gledhill, Tim; Griffin, Matt J.; Gu, Qilao; Hasegawa, Tetsuo; Hatchell, Jennifer; Hayashi, Saeko S.; Holland, Wayne; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro; Iwasaki, Kazunari; Jeong, Il-Gyo; Kang, Ji-hyun; Kang, Miju; Kang, Sung-ju; Kawabata, Koji S.; Kemper, Francisca; Kim, Gwanjeong; Kim, Jongsoo; Kim, Kee-Tae; Kim, Kyoung Hee; Kim, Mi-Ryang; Kim, Shinyoung; Lacaille, Kevin M.; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Lee, Sang-Sung; Li, Dalei; Li, Hua-bai; Liu, Hong-Li; Liu, Junhao; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Liu, Tie; Lyo, A.-Ran; Mairs, Steve; Matsumura, Masafumi; Moriarty-Schieven, Gerald H.; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Nakanishi, Hiroyuki; Ohashi, Nagayoshi; Onaka, Takashi; Peretto, Nicolas; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Qian, Lei; Retter, Brendan; Richer, John; Rigby, Andrew; Robitaille, Jean-François; Savini, Giorgio; Scaife, Anna M. M.; Soam, Archana; Tamura, Motohide; Tang, Ya-Wen; Tomisaka, Kohji; Wang, Hongchi; Wang, Jia-Wei; Whitworth, Anthony P.; Yen, Hsi-Wei; Yoo, Hyunju; Yuan, Jinghua; Zhang, Chuan-Peng; Zhang, Guoyin; Zhou, Jianjun; Zhu, Lei; André, Philippe; Dowell, C. Darren; Falle, Sam; Tsukamoto, Yusuke

    2017-06-01

    We present the first results from the B-fields In STar-forming Region Observations (BISTRO) survey, using the Sub-millimetre Common-User Bolometer Array 2 camera, with its associated polarimeter (POL-2), on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope in Hawaii. We discuss the survey’s aims and objectives. We describe the rationale behind the survey, and the questions that the survey will aim to answer. The most important of these is the role of magnetic fields in the star formation process on the scale of individual filaments and cores in dense regions. We describe the data acquisition and reduction processes for POL-2, demonstrating both repeatability and consistency with previous data. We present a first-look analysis of the first results from the BISTRO survey in the OMC 1 region. We see that the magnetic field lies approximately perpendicular to the famous “integral filament” in the densest regions of that filament. Furthermore, we see an “hourglass” magnetic field morphology extending beyond the densest region of the integral filament into the less-dense surrounding material, and discuss possible causes for this. We also discuss the more complex morphology seen along the Orion Bar region. We examine the morphology of the field along the lower-density northeastern filament. We find consistency with previous theoretical models that predict magnetic fields lying parallel to low-density, non-self-gravitating filaments, and perpendicular to higher-density, self-gravitating filaments.

  14. Origin and function of cartilage stem/progenitor cells in osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yangzi; Tuan, Rocky S

    2015-04-01

    Articular cartilage is a physiologically non-self-renewing avascular tissue with a singular cell type, the chondrocyte, which functions as the load-bearing surface of the arthrodial joint. Injury to cartilage often progresses spatiotemporally from the articular surface to the subchondral bone, leading to development of degenerative joint diseases such as osteoarthritis (OA). Although lacking intrinsic reparative ability, articular cartilage has been shown to contain a population of stem cells or progenitor cells, similar to those found in many other adult tissues, that are thought to be involved in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. These so-called cartilage-derived stem/progenitor cells (CSPCs) have been observed in human, equine and bovine articular cartilage, and have been identified, isolated and characterized on the basis of expression of stem-cell-related surface markers, clonogenicity and multilineage differentiation ability. However, the origin and functions of CSPCs are incompletely understood. We review here the current status of CSPC research and discuss the possible origin of these cells, what role they might have in cartilage repair, and their therapeutic potential in OA.

  15. Immune phenomena in echinoderms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gliński, Z; Jarosz, J

    2000-01-01

    Advances in biochemistry and molecular biology have made it possible to identify a number of mechanisms active in the immune phenomena of echinoderms. It is obvious that echinoderms have the ability to distinguish between different foreign objects (pathologically changed tissues, microorganisms, parasites, grafts) and to express variable effector mechanisms which are elicited specifically and repeatably after a variety of non-self challenges. The molecular and biochemical basis for the expression of these variable defense mechanisms and the specific signals which elicit one type of effector mechanism are not, however, yet well known. The high capacity of coelomocytes to phagocytose, entrap and encapsulate invading microorganisms is a valid immune cell-mediated mechanism of echinoderms. The entrapped bacteria, discharged cellular materials and disintegrating granular cells are compacted and provoke the cellular encapsulation reaction. Moreover, humoral-based reactions form an integral part of the echinoderm defense system against microbial invaders. Factors such as lysozyme, perforins (hemolysins) vitellogenin and lectins are normal constituents of hemolymph, while cytokines are synthesized by echinoderms in response to infection.

  16. An Organismal Model for Gene Regulatory Networks in the Gut-Associated Immune Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Katherine M; Rast, Jonathan P

    2017-01-01

    The gut epithelium is an ancient site of complex communication between the animal immune system and the microbial world. While elements of self-non-self receptors and effector mechanisms differ greatly among animal phyla, some aspects of recognition, regulation, and response are broadly conserved. A gene regulatory network (GRN) approach provides a means to investigate the nature of this conservation and divergence even as more peripheral functional details remain incompletely understood. The sea urchin embryo is an unparalleled experimental model for detangling the GRNs that govern embryonic development. By applying this theoretical framework to the free swimming, feeding larval stage of the purple sea urchin, it is possible to delineate the conserved regulatory circuitry that regulates the gut-associated immune response. This model provides a morphologically simple system in which to efficiently unravel regulatory connections that are phylogenetically relevant to immunity in vertebrates. Here, we review the organism-wide cellular and transcriptional immune response of the sea urchin larva. A large set of transcription factors and signal systems, including epithelial expression of interleukin 17 (IL17), are important mediators in the activation of the early gut-associated response. Many of these have homologs that are active in vertebrate immunity, while others are ancient in animals but absent in vertebrates or specific to echinoderms. This larval model provides a means to experimentally characterize immune function encoded in the sea urchin genome and the regulatory interconnections that control immune response and resolution across the tissues of the organism.

  17. Do portrayals of women in action convey another ideal that women with little self-determination feel obligated to live up to? Viewing effects on body image evaluations and eating behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mask, Lisa; Blanchard, Céline M; Baker, Amanda

    2014-12-01

    Theoretical and empirical research suggests that valuing the body in terms of its functionality and physical competence (rather than its appearance) may improve women's relationships with their body and food. We tested this proposition by investigating women's responses to contrasting portrayals of the female body as a function of viewers' general motivation (SD: self-determined vs NSD: non self-determined). A sample of undergraduate women (N = 91) was randomly assigned to view a "body-as-process" video, a "body-as-object" video, and a neutral video. Afterwards, participants completed measures of appearance and competence self-appraisals and were then offered three varieties of chocolate bars to sample and evaluate. Their actual intake (g) along with motives to exert self-control (identified vs introjected) were assessed. Negative viewing effects were obtained for both the "body-as-process" and the "body-as-object" videos and these effects were exacerbated by participants' motivation. Women with a NSD motivation evaluated their appearance and competence more negatively post-exposure. They also endorsed more guilt-related reasons (introjected motives) to exert control over their consumption of chocolate which predicted diminished intake. These findings suggest that portrayals of female athleticism and physical competence may represent another ideal that women with a NSD motivation feel obligated to live up to. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Lineage tracing of lamellocytes demonstrates Drosophila macrophage plasticity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Stofanko

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Leukocyte-like cells called hemocytes have key functions in Drosophila innate immunity. Three hemocyte types occur: plasmatocytes, crystal cells, and lamellocytes. In the absence of qimmune challenge, plasmatocytes are the predominant hemocyte type detected, while crystal cells and lamellocytes are rare. However, upon infestation by parasitic wasps, or in melanotic mutant strains, large numbers of lamellocytes differentiate and encapsulate material recognized as "non-self". Current models speculate that lamellocytes, plasmatocytes and crystal cells are distinct lineages that arise from a common prohemocyte progenitor. We show here that over-expression of the CoREST-interacting transcription factor Chn in plasmatocytes induces lamellocyte differentiation, both in circulation and in lymph glands. Lamellocyte increases are accompanied by the extinction of plasmatocyte markers suggesting that plasmatocytes are transformed into lamellocytes. Consistent with this, timed induction of Chn over-expression induces rapid lamellocyte differentiation within 18 hours. We detect double-positive intermediates between plasmatocytes and lamellocytes, and show that isolated plasmatocytes can be triggered to differentiate into lamellocytes in vitro, either in response to Chn over-expression, or following activation of the JAK/STAT pathway. Finally, we have marked plasmatocytes and show by lineage tracing that these differentiate into lamellocytes in response to the Drosophila parasite model Leptopilina boulardi. Taken together, our data suggest that lamellocytes arise from plasmatocytes and that plasmatocytes may be inherently plastic, possessing the ability to differentiate further into lamellocytes upon appropriate challenge.

  19. Simulations of the Solar System's Early Dynamical Evolution with a Self-gravitating Planetesimal Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Siteng; Batygin, Konstantin

    2017-12-01

    Over the course of the last decade, the Nice model has dramatically changed our view of the solar system’s formation and early evolution. Within the context of this model, a transient period of planet–planet scattering is triggered by gravitational interactions between the giant planets and a massive primordial planetesimal disk, leading to a successful reproduction of the solar system’s present-day architecture. In typical realizations of the Nice model, self-gravity of the planetesimal disk is routinely neglected, as it poses a computational bottleneck to the calculations. Recent analyses have shown, however, that a self-gravitating disk can exhibit behavior that is dynamically distinct, and this disparity may have significant implications for the solar system’s evolutionary path. In this work, we explore this discrepancy utilizing a large suite of Nice model simulations with and without a self-gravitating planetesimal disk, taking advantage of the inherently parallel nature of graphic processing units. Our simulations demonstrate that self-consistent modeling of particle interactions does not lead to significantly different final planetary orbits from those obtained within conventional simulations. Moreover, self-gravitating calculations show similar planetesimal evolution to non-self-gravitating numerical experiments after dynamical instability is triggered, suggesting that the orbital clustering observed in the distant Kuiper Belt is unlikely to have a self-gravitational origin.

  20. Role of plant growth-promoting Ochrobactrum sp. MC22 on triclocarban degradation and toxicity mitigation to legume plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipahutar, Merry Krisdawati; Vangnai, Alisa S

    2017-05-05

    Triclocarban (TCC) is an emerging and persistent pollutant once released into environment. In this study, TCC-degrading Ochrobactrum sp. MC22, was isolated and characterized. This is the first report on plant-growth promoting bacterium with versatile capability of TCC degradation under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The aerobic degradation of TCC occurred completely of which the kinetic analysis revealed a non-self-inhibitive substrate effect, and broad-concentration-range degradation efficiency (ranging from 0.16-30mgL -1 ). Anaerobic TCC degradation was feasible, but was significantly enhanced up to 40-50% when ferric, or acetate was provided as electron donor, or acceptor, respectively. TCC biodegradation under both conditions was proposed to initially occur through hydrolysis leading to transient accumulation of chloroanilines, which could be completely metabolized and detoxified. With concern on TCC adverse effect to plants, role of MC22 on toxicity mitigation was investigated using two legume plants: Vigna radiata and Glycine max (L.) Merr. Upon TCC exposure, damage of both plant structures, especially root system was observed, but was substantially mitigated by MC22 bioaugmentation. This study not only provides thorough TCC degradation characteristic and kinetics of MC22, but also suggests a potential role of this bacterial strain for a rhizoremediation in crop area with TCC contamination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Ternary WD40 repeat-containing protein complexes: evolution, composition and roles in plant immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimi C. Miller

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants, like mammals, rely on their innate immune system to perceive and discriminate among the majority of their microbial pathogens. Unlike mammals, plants respond to this molecular dialogue by unleashing a complex chemical arsenal of defense metabolites to resist or evade pathogen infection. In basal or non-host resistance, plants utilize signal transduction pathways to detect non-self, damaged-self and altered-self-associated molecular patterns and translate these danger signals into largely inducible chemical defenses. The WD40 repeat (WDR-containing proteins Gβ and TTG1 are constituents of two independent ternary protein complexes functioning at opposite ends of a plant immune signaling pathway. Gβ and TTG1 are also encoded by single-copy genes that are ubiquitous in higher plants, implying the limited diversity and functional conservation of their respective complexes. In this review, we summarize what is currently known about the evolutionary history of these WDR-containing ternary complexes, their repertoire and combinatorial interactions, and their downstream effectors and pathways in plant defense.

  2. Differentiation of type 1 T regulatory cells (Tr1) by tolerogenic DC-10 requires the IL-10-dependent ILT4/HLA-G pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregori, Silvia; Tomasoni, Daniela; Pacciani, Valentina; Scirpoli, Miriam; Battaglia, Manuela; Magnani, Chiara Francesca; Hauben, Ehud; Roncarolo, Maria-Grazia

    2010-08-12

    Type 1 T regulatory (Tr1) cells suppress immune responses in vivo and in vitro and play a key role in maintaining tolerance to self- and non-self-antigens. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is the crucial driving factor for Tr1 cell differentiation, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this induction remain unknown. We identified and characterized a subset of IL-10-producing human dendritic cells (DCs), termed DC-10, which are present in vivo and can be induced in vitro in the presence of IL-10. DC-10 are CD14(+), CD16(+), CD11c(+), CD11b(+), HLA-DR(+), CD83(+), CD1a(-), CD1c(-), express the Ig-like transcripts (ILTs) ILT2, ILT3, ILT4, and HLA-G antigen, display high levels of CD40 and CD86, and up-regulate CD80 after differentiation in vitro. DC-10 isolated from peripheral blood or generated in vitro are potent inducers of antigen-specific IL-10-producing Tr1 cells. Induction of Tr1 cells by DC-10 is IL-10-dependent and requires the ILT4/HLA-G signaling pathway. Our data indicate that DC-10 represents a novel subset of tolerogenic DCs, which secrete high levels of IL-10, express ILT4 and HLA-G, and have the specific function to induce Tr1 cells.

  3. Changes in intestinal tight junction permeability associated with industrial food additives explain the rising incidence of autoimmune disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Aaron; Matthias, Torsten

    2015-06-01

    The incidence of autoimmune diseases is increasing along with the expansion of industrial food processing and food additive consumption. The intestinal epithelial barrier, with its intercellular tight junction, controls the equilibrium between tolerance and immunity to non-self-antigens. As a result, particular attention is being placed on the role of tight junction dysfunction in the pathogenesis of AD. Tight junction leakage is enhanced by many luminal components, commonly used industrial food additives being some of them. Glucose, salt, emulsifiers, organic solvents, gluten, microbial transglutaminase, and nanoparticles are extensively and increasingly used by the food industry, claim the manufacturers, to improve the qualities of food. However, all of the aforementioned additives increase intestinal permeability by breaching the integrity of tight junction paracellular transfer. In fact, tight junction dysfunction is common in multiple autoimmune diseases and the central part played by the tight junction in autoimmune diseases pathogenesis is extensively described. It is hypothesized that commonly used industrial food additives abrogate human epithelial barrier function, thus, increasing intestinal permeability through the opened tight junction, resulting in entry of foreign immunogenic antigens and activation of the autoimmune cascade. Future research on food additives exposure-intestinal permeability-autoimmunity interplay will enhance our knowledge of the common mechanisms associated with autoimmune progression. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. A web resource for mining HLA associations with adverse drug reactions: HLA-ADR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghattaoraya, Gurpreet S; Dundar, Yenal; González-Galarza, Faviel F; Maia, Maria Helena Thomaz; Santos, Eduardo José Melo; da Silva, Andréa Luciana Soares; McCabe, Antony; Middleton, Derek; Alfirevic, Ana; Dickson, Rumona; Jones, Andrew R

    2016-01-01

    Human leukocyte antigens (HLA) are an important family of genes involved in the immune system. Their primary function is to allow the host immune system to be able to distinguish between self and non-self peptides-e.g. derived from invading pathogens. However, these genes have also been implicated in immune-mediated adverse drug reactions (ADRs), presenting a problem to patients, clinicians and pharmaceutical companies. We have previously developed the Allele Frequency Net Database (AFND) that captures the allelic and haplotype frequencies for these HLA genes across many healthy populations from around the world. Here, we report the development and release of the HLA-ADR database that captures data from publications where HLA alleles and haplotypes have been associated with ADRs (e.g. Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis and drug-induced liver injury). HLA-ADR was created by using data obtained through systematic review of the literature and semi-automated literature mining. The database also draws on data already present in AFND allowing users to compare and analyze allele frequencies in both ADR patients and healthy populations. The HLA-ADR database provides clinicians and researchers with a centralized resource from which to investigate immune-mediated ADRs.Database URL: http://www.allelefrequencies.net/hla-adr/. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. Imagine-Self Perspective-Taking and Rational Self-Interested Behavior in a Simple Experimental Normal-Form Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Karbowski

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore the link between imagine-self perspective-taking and rational self-interested behavior in experimental normal-form games. Drawing on the concept of sympathy developed by Adam Smith and further literature on perspective-taking in games, we hypothesize that introduction of imagine-self perspective-taking by decision-makers promotes rational self-interested behavior in a simple experimental normal-form game. In our study, we examined behavior of 404 undergraduate students in the two-person game, in which the participant can suffer a monetary loss only if she plays her Nash equilibrium strategy and the opponent plays her dominated strategy. Results suggest that the threat of suffering monetary losses effectively discourages the participants from choosing Nash equilibrium strategy. In general, players may take into account that opponents choose dominated strategies due to specific not self-interested motivations or errors. However, adopting imagine-self perspective by the participants leads to more Nash equilibrium choices, perhaps by alleviating participants’ attributions of susceptibility to errors or non-self-interested motivation to the opponents.

  6. The earliest sense of self and others: Merleau-Ponty and recent developmental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Shaun; Meltzoff, Andrew N

    1996-03-01

    Recent studies in developmental psychology have found evidence to suggest that there exists an innate system that accounts for the possibilities of early infant imitation and the existence of phantom limbs in cases of congenital absence of limbs. These results challenge traditional assumptions about the status and development of the body schema and body image, and about the nature of the translation process between perceptual experience and motor ability. Merleau-Ponty, who was greatly influenced by his study of developmental psychology, and whose phenomenology of perception was closely tied to the concept of the body schema, accepted these traditional assumptions. They also informed his philosophical conclusions concerning the experience of self and others. We re-examine issues involved in understanding self and others in light of the more recent research in developmental psychology. More specifically our re-examination challenges a number of Merleau-Ponty's conclusions and suggests, in contrast, that the newborn infant is capable of a rudimentary differentiation between self and non-self.

  7. Cytokine Networks between Innate Lymphoid Cells and Myeloid Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Mortha

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs are an essential component of the innate immune system in vertebrates. They are developmentally rooted in the lymphoid lineage and can diverge into at least three transcriptionally distinct lineages. ILCs seed both lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues and are locally self-maintained in tissue-resident pools. Tissue-resident ILCs execute important effector functions making them key regulator in tissue homeostasis, repair, remodeling, microbial defense, and anti-tumor immunity. Similar to T lymphocytes, ILCs possess only few sensory elements for the recognition of non-self and thus depend on extrinsic cellular sensory elements residing within the tissue. Myeloid cells, including mononuclear phagocytes (MNPs, are key sentinels of the tissue and are able to translate environmental cues into an effector profile that instructs lymphocyte responses. The adaptation of myeloid cells to the tissue state thus influences the effector program of ILCs and serves as an example of how environmental signals are integrated into the function of ILCs via a tissue-resident immune cell cross talks. This review summarizes our current knowledge on the role of myeloid cells in regulating ILC functions and discusses how feedback communication between ILCs and myeloid cells contribute to stabilize immune homeostasis in order to maintain the healthy state of an organ.

  8. Modified geodetic brane cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordero, Rubén; Cruz, Miguel; Molgado, Alberto; Rojas, Efraín

    2012-01-01

    We explore the cosmological implications provided by the geodetic brane gravity action corrected by an extrinsic curvature brane term, describing a codimension-1 brane embedded in a 5D fixed Minkowski spacetime. In the geodetic brane gravity action, we accommodate the correction term through a linear term in the extrinsic curvature swept out by the brane. We study the resulting geodetic-type equation of motion. Within a Friedmann–Robertson–Walker metric, we obtain a generalized Friedmann equation describing the associated cosmological evolution. We observe that, when the radiation-like energy contribution from the extra dimension is vanishing, this effective model leads to a self-(non-self)-accelerated expansion of the brane-like universe in dependence on the nature of the concomitant parameter β associated with the correction, which resembles an analogous behaviour in the DGP brane cosmology. Several possibilities in the description for the cosmic evolution of this model are embodied and characterized by the involved density parameters related in turn to the cosmological constant, the geometry characterizing the model, the introduced β parameter as well as the dark-like energy and the matter content on the brane. (paper)

  9. Subthreshold self-sustained discharge initiated by a microwave beam in a large volume of high-pressure gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artem’ev, K. V.; Batanov, G. M.; Berezhetskaya, N. K.; Davydov, A. M.; Kossyi, I. A.; Nefedov, V. I.; Sarksyan, K. A.; Kharchev, N. K.

    2017-10-01

    The presented results are based on the experimental studies of generating a long plasma column in gas (or gas mixtures) at atmospheric pressure both in free space and in a closed chamber. The microwave generator GYROTRON was used as an energy source. Its parameters were as follows: the microwave pulse power was in the range of 200 ≤ P ≤ 600 kW, the wavelength was λ ≈ 0.4 cm, and the pulse duration was in the range of 0.5 ≤ τi ≤ 20 ms. Under strong subthreshold conditions, a plasma column with a length of up to L ≤ 50 cm was created using a microwave beam that was formed using a quasi-optical mirror system. The discharge initiation system had an original design. Based on the discharge structure, expansion dynamics and typical discharge plasma parameters, this discharge can be attributed to the type of microwave discharges that are known as self/non-self-sustained discharges. The discharge properties and advantages of using this discharge as a basis of a plasma-chemical reactor are discussed.

  10. Tight-binding density functional theory: an approximate Kohn-Sham DFT scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, G

    2007-07-05

    The DFTB method is an approximate KS-DFT scheme with an LCAO representation of the KS orbitals, which can be derived within a variational treatment of an approximate KS energy functional. But it may also be related to cellular Wigner-Seitz methods and to the Harris functional. It is an approximate method, but it avoids any empirical parametrization by calculating the Hamiltonian and overlap matrices out of DFT-derived local orbitals (atomic orbitals, AO's). The method includes ab initio concepts in relating the Kohn-Sham orbitals of the atomic configuration to a minimal basis of the localized atomic valence orbitals of the atoms. Consistent with this approximation, the Hamiltonian matrix elements can strictly be restricted to a two-center representation. Taking advantage of the compensation of the so-called "double counting terms" and the nuclear repulsion energy in the DFT total energy expression, the energy may be approximated as a sum of the occupied KS single-particle energies and a repulsive energy, which can be obtained from DFT calculations in properly chosen reference systems. This relates the method to common standard "tight-binding" (TB) schemes, as they are well-known in solid-state physics. This approach defines the density-functional tight-binding (DFTB) method in its original (non-self-consistent) version.

  11. Pentraxins in innate immunity: lessons from PTX3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deban, Livija; Jaillon, Sebastien; Garlanda, Cecilia; Bottazzi, Barbara; Mantovani, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The innate immune system constitutes the first line of defence against microorganisms and plays a primordial role in the activation and regulation of adaptive immunity. The innate immune system is composed of a cellular arm and a humoral arm. Components of the humoral arm include members of the complement cascade and soluble pattern recognition molecules (PRMs). These fluid-phase PRMs represent the functional ancestors of antibodies and play a crucial role in the discrimination between self, non-self and modified-self. Moreover, evidence has been presented that these soluble PRMs participate in the regulation of inflammatory responses and interact with the cellular arm of the innate immune system. Pentraxins consist of a set of multimeric soluble proteins and represent the prototypic components of humoral innate immunity. Based on the primary structure of the protomer, pentraxins are divided into two groups: short pentraxins and long pentraxins. The short pentraxins C-reactive protein and serum amyloid P-component are produced by the liver and represent the main acute phase proteins in human and mouse, respectively. The long pentraxin PTX3 is produced by innate immunity cells (e.g. PMN, macrophages, dendritic cells), interacts with several ligands and plays an essential role in innate immunity, tuning inflammation and matrix deposition. PTX3 provides a paradigm for the mode of action of humoral innate immunity.

  12. Fluid phase recognition molecules in neutrophil-dependent immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaillon, Sébastien; Ponzetta, Andrea; Magrini, Elena; Barajon, Isabella; Barbagallo, Marialuisa; Garlanda, Cecilia; Mantovani, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The innate immune system comprises both a cellular and a humoral arm. Neutrophils are key effector cells of the immune and inflammatory responses and have emerged as a major source of humoral pattern recognition molecules (PRMs). These molecules, which include collectins, ficolins, and pentraxins, are specialised in the discrimination of self versus non-self and modified-self and share basic multifunctional properties including recognition and opsonisation of pathogens and apoptotic cells, activation and regulation of the complement cascade and tuning of inflammation. Neutrophils act as a reservoir of ready-made soluble PRMs, such as the long pentraxin PTX3, the peptidoglycan recognition protein PGRP-S, properdin and M-ficolin, which are stored in neutrophil granules and are involved in neutrophil effector functions. In addition, other soluble PRMs, such as members of the collectin family, are not expressed in neutrophils but can modulate neutrophil-dependent immune responses. Therefore, soluble PRMs are an essential part of the innate immune response and retain antibody-like effector functions. Here, we will review the expression and general function of soluble PRMs, focusing our attention on molecules involved in neutrophil effector functions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Dendritic cells engineered to express defined allo-HLA peptide complexes induce antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells efficiently killing tumour cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stronen, E; Abrahamsen, I W; Gaudernack, G

    2009-01-01

    presented by a non-self human leucocyte antigen (HLA) molecule and transferred to cancer patients expressing that HLA molecule. Obtaining allo-restricted CTL of high-avidity and low cross-reactivity has, however, proven difficult. Here, we show that dendritic cells transfected with mRNA encoding HLA-A*0201......, efficiently present externally loaded peptides from the antigen, Melan-A/MART-1 to T cells from HLA-A*0201-negative donors. CD8(+) T cells binding HLA-A*0201/MART-1 pentamers were detected already after 12 days of co-culture in 11/11 donors. The majority of cells from pentamer(+) cell lines were CTL...... and efficiently killed HLA-A*0201(+) melanoma cells, whilst sparing HLA-A*0201(+) B-cells. Allo-restricted CTL specific for peptides from the leukaemia-associated antigens CD33 and CD19 were obtained with comparable efficiency. Collectively, the results show that dendritic cells engineered to express defined allo-HLA...

  14. Pandora's Box and Non-Selfdual Topological Excitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unsal, Mithat; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2010-06-07

    In the last few years, we have realized the existence of a new class of topological excitations, which are rather distinct from the platonic world of monopoles, monopole-instantons and instantons. All of the latter arise as solutions of the Prasad-Sommerfield type first order differential (self-duality) equations and have been extensively discussed in the context of confinement and chiral symmetry breaking for the last 30 years. However, new calculable deformations of asymptotically free chiral and vector-like gauge theories give us a new picture of these physical phenomena. Most often, the excitations which lead to confinement are not solutions to PS-type equations, they are non-selfdual and they are often bizarre. They are referred to as magnetic bions, triplets, and quintets, due to their composite nature. Bizarre as they are, combined with large-N volume independence, these novel non-self-dual excitations may also provide hope that at least some non-abelian gauge theories may be solvable.

  15. Allergen recognition by innate immune cells: critical role of dendritic and epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian eSalazar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Allergy is an exacerbated response of the immune system against non-self-proteins called allergens and is typically characterized by biased type-2 T helper cell and deleterious IgE mediated immune responses. The allergic cascade starts with the recognition of allergens by antigen presenting cells, mainly dendritic cells, culminating in mast cell sensitization and triggering. Dendritic cells have been demonstrated to play a crucial role in orchestrating allergic diseases. Using different C-type lectin receptors dendritic cells are able to recognize and internalize a number of allergens from diverse sources leading to sensitization. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence highlighting the role of epithelial cells in triggering and modulating immune responses to allergens. As well as providing a physical barrier, epithelial cells can interact with allergens and influence dendritic cells behaviour through the release of a number of Th2 promoting cytokines. In this review we will summarise current understanding of how allergens are recognised by dendritic cells and epithelial cells and what are the consequences of such interaction in the context of allergic sensitisation and downstream events leading to allergic inflammation. Better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of allergen recognition and associated signalling pathways could enable developing more effective therapeutic strategies that target the initial steps of allergic sensitisation hence hindering development or progression of allergic diseases.

  16. Imbalance of default mode and regulatory networks during externally focused processing in depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belleau, Emily L.; Taubitz, Lauren E.

    2015-01-01

    Attentional control difficulties likely underlie rumination, a core cognitive vulnerability in major depressive disorder (MDD). Abnormalities in the default mode, executive and salience networks are implicated in both rumination and attentional control difficulties in MDD. In the current study, individuals with MDD (n = 16) and healthy controls (n = 16) completed tasks designed to elicit self-focused (ruminative) and externally-focused thinking during fMRI scanning. The MDD group showed greater default mode network connectivity and less executive and salience network connectivity during the external-focus condition. Contrary to our predictions, there were no differences in connectivity between the groups during the self-focus condition. Thus, it appears that when directed to engage in self-referential thinking, both depressed and non-depressed individuals similarly recruit networks supporting this process. In contrast, when instructed to engage in non-self-focused thought, non-depressed individuals show a pattern of network connectivity indicative of minimized self-referential processing, whereas depressed individuals fail to reallocate neural resources in a manner consistent with effective down regulation of self-focused thought. This is consistent with difficulties in regulating self-focused thinking in order to engage in more goal-directed behavior that is seen in individuals with MDD. PMID:25274576

  17. Cost-Effective Encryption-Based Autonomous Routing Protocol for Efficient and Secure Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Kashif; Derhab, Abdelouahid; Orgun, Mehmet A.; Al-Muhtadi, Jalal; Rodrigues, Joel J. P. C.; Khalil, Mohammed Sayim; Ali Ahmed, Adel

    2016-01-01

    The deployment of intelligent remote surveillance systems depends on wireless sensor networks (WSNs) composed of various miniature resource-constrained wireless sensor nodes. The development of routing protocols for WSNs is a major challenge because of their severe resource constraints, ad hoc topology and dynamic nature. Among those proposed routing protocols, the biology-inspired self-organized secure autonomous routing protocol (BIOSARP) involves an artificial immune system (AIS) that requires a certain amount of time to build up knowledge of neighboring nodes. The AIS algorithm uses this knowledge to distinguish between self and non-self neighboring nodes. The knowledge-building phase is a critical period in the WSN lifespan and requires active security measures. This paper proposes an enhanced BIOSARP (E-BIOSARP) that incorporates a random key encryption mechanism in a cost-effective manner to provide active security measures in WSNs. A detailed description of E-BIOSARP is presented, followed by an extensive security and performance analysis to demonstrate its efficiency. A scenario with E-BIOSARP is implemented in network simulator 2 (ns-2) and is populated with malicious nodes for analysis. Furthermore, E-BIOSARP is compared with state-of-the-art secure routing protocols in terms of processing time, delivery ratio, energy consumption, and packet overhead. The findings show that the proposed mechanism can efficiently protect WSNs from selective forwarding, brute-force or exhaustive key search, spoofing, eavesdropping, replaying or altering of routing information, cloning, acknowledgment spoofing, HELLO flood attacks, and Sybil attacks. PMID:27043572

  18. Anticommensal Responses Are Associated with Regulatory T Cell Defect in Autoimmune Polyendocrinopathy-Candidiasis-Ectodermal Dystrophy Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetemäki, Iivo; Jarva, Hanna; Kluger, Nicolas; Baldauf, Hanna-Mari; Laakso, Sini; Bratland, Eirik; Husebye, Eystein S; Kisand, Kai; Ranki, Annamari; Peterson, Pärt; Arstila, T Petteri

    2016-04-01

    Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) is a monogenic autoimmune disease caused by mutations in the AIRE gene. Although mainly an endocrine disease, a substantial fraction of patients have gastrointestinal manifestations. In this study, we have examined the role of anticommensal responses and their regulation. APECED patients had increased levels of Abs against Saccharomyces cerevisiae (p APECED. The correlation was strongest in the activated CD45RO(+) population (ρ = -0.706; p APECED patients also had decreased numbers of FOXP3(+) cells in gut biopsies. These results show that APECED patients develop early and sustained responses to gut microbial Ags in a pattern reminiscent of Crohn's disease. This abnormal immune recognition of gut commensals is linked to a systemic Treg defect, which is also reflected as a local decrease of gut-associated Treg. To our knowledge, these data are the first to show dysregulated responses to non-self commensal Ags in APECED and indicate that AIRE contributes to the regulation of gut homeostasis, at least indirectly. The data also raise the possibility of persistent microbial stimulation as a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of APECED. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  19. Designs and Techniques That Improve the Pullout Strength of Pedicle Screws in Osteoporotic Vertebrae: Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Thomas M.; Laun, Jake; Gonzalez-Blohm, Sabrina A.; Doulgeris, James J.; Lee, William E.; Vrionis, Frank D.

    2014-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a medical condition affecting men and women of different age groups and populations. The compromised bone quality caused by this disease represents an important challenge when a surgical procedure (e.g., spinal fusion) is needed after failure of conservative treatments. Different pedicle screw designs and instrumentation techniques have been explored to enhance spinal device fixation in bone of compromised quality. These include alterations of screw thread design, optimization of pilot hole size for non-self-tapping screws, modification of the implant's trajectory, and bone cement augmentation. While the true benefits and limitations of any procedure may not be realized until they are observed in a clinical setting, axial pullout tests, due in large part to their reproducibility and ease of execution, are commonly used to estimate the device's effectiveness by quantifying the change in force required to remove the screw from the body. The objective of this investigation is to provide an overview of the different pedicle screw designs and the associated surgical techniques either currently utilized or proposed to improve pullout strength in osteoporotic patients. Mechanical comparisons as well as potential advantages and disadvantages of each consideration are provided herein. PMID:24724097

  20. Designs and Techniques That Improve the Pullout Strength of Pedicle Screws in Osteoporotic Vertebrae: Current Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Shea

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a medical condition affecting men and women of different age groups and populations. The compromised bone quality caused by this disease represents an important challenge when a surgical procedure (e.g., spinal fusion is needed after failure of conservative treatments. Different pedicle screw designs and instrumentation techniques have been explored to enhance spinal device fixation in bone of compromised quality. These include alterations of screw thread design, optimization of pilot hole size for non-self-tapping screws, modification of the implant’s trajectory, and bone cement augmentation. While the true benefits and limitations of any procedure may not be realized until they are observed in a clinical setting, axial pullout tests, due in large part to their reproducibility and ease of execution, are commonly used to estimate the device’s effectiveness by quantifying the change in force required to remove the screw from the body. The objective of this investigation is to provide an overview of the different pedicle screw designs and the associated surgical techniques either currently utilized or proposed to improve pullout strength in osteoporotic patients. Mechanical comparisons as well as potential advantages and disadvantages of each consideration are provided herein.

  1. Designs and techniques that improve the pullout strength of pedicle screws in osteoporotic vertebrae: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Thomas M; Laun, Jake; Gonzalez-Blohm, Sabrina A; Doulgeris, James J; Lee, William E; Aghayev, Kamran; Vrionis, Frank D

    2014-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a medical condition affecting men and women of different age groups and populations. The compromised bone quality caused by this disease represents an important challenge when a surgical procedure (e.g., spinal fusion) is needed after failure of conservative treatments. Different pedicle screw designs and instrumentation techniques have been explored to enhance spinal device fixation in bone of compromised quality. These include alterations of screw thread design, optimization of pilot hole size for non-self-tapping screws, modification of the implant's trajectory, and bone cement augmentation. While the true benefits and limitations of any procedure may not be realized until they are observed in a clinical setting, axial pullout tests, due in large part to their reproducibility and ease of execution, are commonly used to estimate the device's effectiveness by quantifying the change in force required to remove the screw from the body. The objective of this investigation is to provide an overview of the different pedicle screw designs and the associated surgical techniques either currently utilized or proposed to improve pullout strength in osteoporotic patients. Mechanical comparisons as well as potential advantages and disadvantages of each consideration are provided herein.

  2. Keeping track of the growing number of biological functions of chitin and its interaction partners in biomedical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Bjørn EV; Stougaard, Jens; Spaink, Herman P

    2015-01-01

    Chitin is a vital polysaccharide component of protective structures in many eukaryotic organisms but seems absent in vertebrates. Chitin or chitin oligomers are therefore prime candidates for non-self-molecules, which are recognized and degraded by the vertebrate immune system. Despite the absence of polymeric chitin in vertebrates, chitinases and chitinase-like proteins (CLPs) are well conserved in vertebrate species. In many studies, these proteins have been found to be involved in immune regulation and in mediating the degradation of chitinous external protective structures of invading pathogens. Several important aspects of chitin immunostimulation have recently been uncovered, advancing our understanding of the complex regulatory mechanisms that chitin mediates. Likewise, the last few years have seen large advances in our understanding of the mechanisms and molecular interactions of chitinases and CLPs in relation to immune response regulation. It is becoming increasingly clear that their function in this context is not exclusive to chitin producing pathogens, but includes bacterial infections and cancer signaling as well. Here we provide an overview of the immune signaling properties of chitin and other closely related biomolecules. We also review the latest literature on chitinases and CLPs of the GH18 family. Finally, we examine the existing literature on zebrafish chitinases, and propose the use of zebrafish as a versatile model to complement the existing murine models. This could especially be of benefit to the exploration of the function of chitinases in infectious diseases using high-throughput approaches and pharmaceutical interventions. PMID:25595947

  3. Radiation Belt Data-Assimilation Using Self-Consistent Storm-Time Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, M. G.; Koller, J.; Chen, Y.; Zaharia, S.; Jordanova, V.; Reeves, G. D.

    2008-12-01

    The lack of suitably realistic magnetic field models for use in radiation belt data assimilation remains a critical unresolved problem in space weather specification and prediction. Although the high-energy radiation belt particles themselves do not significantly alter the magnetic fields in which they drift, the lower-energy ring current populations do. And the deviation (especially during storms) of the real magnetic field from that computed even with the best of the presently available empirical models can be very large. To overcome this problem, the LANL DREAM code has been modified to use magnetic fields that are self-consistently maintained in force balance with the plasma. We compare second and third adiabatic invariants computed from the self-consistent fields to those obtained with empirical B-field models, and we utilize a phase-space density matching technique in order to test the various field models. Finally, the PSD at constant mu and K in a data-assimilation model obtained with the self-consistent and non-self-consistent magnetic field models will be compared.

  4. 1991 Annual report on scientific programs: A broad research program on the sciences of complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    1991 was continued rapid growth for the Santa Fe Institute (SFI) as it broadened its interdisciplinary research into the organization, evolution and operation of complex systems and sought deeply the principles underlying their dynamic behavior. Research on complex systems--the focus of work at SFI--involves an extraordinary range of topics normally studied in seemingly disparate fields. Natural systems displaying complex behavior range upwards from proteins and DNA through cells and evolutionary systems to human societies. Research models exhibiting complexity include nonlinear equations, spin glasses, cellular automata, genetic algorithms, classifier systems, and an array of other computational models. Some of the major questions facing complex systems researchers are: (1) explaining how complexity arises from the nonlinear interaction of simples components, (2) describing the mechanisms underlying high-level aggregate behavior of complex systems (such as the overt behavior of an organism, the flow of energy in an ecology, the GNP of an economy), and (3) creating a theoretical framework to enable predictions about the likely behavior of such systems in various conditions. The importance of understanding such systems in enormous: many of the most serious challenges facing humanity--e.g., environmental sustainability, economic stability, the control of disease--as well as many of the hardest scientific questions--e.g., protein folding, the distinction between self and non-self in the immune system, the nature of intelligence, the origin of life--require deep understanding of complex systems.

  5. 1991 Annual report on scientific programs: A broad research program on the sciences of complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    1991 was continued rapid growth for the Santa Fe Institute (SFI) as it broadened its interdisciplinary research into the organization, evolution and operation of complex systems and sought deeply the principles underlying their dynamic behavior. Research on complex systems--the focus of work at SFI--involves an extraordinary range of topics normally studied in seemingly disparate fields. Natural systems displaying complex behavior range upwards from proteins and DNA through cells and evolutionary systems to human societies. Research models exhibiting complexity include nonlinear equations, spin glasses, cellular automata, genetic algorithms, classifier systems, and an array of other computational models. Some of the major questions facing complex systems researchers are: (1) explaining how complexity arises from the nonlinear interaction of simples components, (2) describing the mechanisms underlying high-level aggregate behavior of complex systems (such as the overt behavior of an organism, the flow of energy in an ecology, the GNP of an economy), and (3) creating a theoretical framework to enable predictions about the likely behavior of such systems in various conditions. The importance of understanding such systems in enormous: many of the most serious challenges facing humanity--e.g., environmental sustainability, economic stability, the control of disease--as well as many of the hardest scientific questions--e.g., protein folding, the distinction between self and non-self in the immune system, the nature of intelligence, the origin of life--require deep understanding of complex systems.

  6. Cognitive dissonance induction in everyday life: An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Jan; Byrne, Mark; Kehoe, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study explored the neural substrates of cognitive dissonance during dissonance "induction." A novel task was developed based on the results of a separate item selection study (n = 125). Items were designed to generate dissonance by prompting participants to reflect on everyday personal experiences that were inconsistent with values they had expressed support for. One experimental condition (dissonance) and three control conditions (justification, consonance, and non-self-related inconsistency) were used for comparison. Items of all four types were presented to each participant (n = 14) in a randomized design. The fMRI analysis used a whole-brain approach focusing on the moments dissonance was induced. Results showed that in comparison with the control conditions the dissonance experience led to higher levels of activation in several brain regions. Specifically dissonance was associated with increased neural activation in key brain regions including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), anterior insula, inferior frontal gyrus, and precuneus. This supports current perspectives that emphasize the role of anterior cingulate and insula in dissonance processing. Less extensive activation in the prefrontal cortex than in some previous studies is consistent with this study's emphasis on dissonance induction, rather than reduction. This article also contains a short review and comparison with other fMRI studies of cognitive dissonance.

  7. FLO1 is a variable green beard gene that drives biofilm-like cooperation in budding yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smukalla, Scott; Caldara, Marina; Pochet, Nathalie; Beauvais, Anne; Guadagnini, Stephanie; Yan, Chen; Vinces, Marcelo D.; Jansen, An; Prevost, Marie Christine; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Fink, Gerald R.; Foster, Kevin R.; Verstrepen, Kevin J.

    2008-01-01

    Summary The budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has emerged as an archetype of eukaryotic cell biology. Here we show that S. cerevisiae is also a model for the evolution of cooperative behavior by revisiting flocculation, a self-adherence phenotype lacking in most laboratory strains. Expression of the gene FLO1 in the laboratory strain S288C restores flocculation, an altered physiological state, reminiscent of bacterial biofilms. Flocculation protects the FLO1-expressing cells from multiple stresses, including antimicrobials and ethanol. Furthermore, FLO1+ cells avoid exploitation by non-expressing flo1 cells by self/non-self recognition: FLO1+ cells preferentially stick to one another, regardless of genetic relatedness across the rest of the genome. Flocculation, therefore, is driven by one of a few known “green beard genes”, which direct cooperation towards other carriers of the same gene. Moreover, FLO1 is highly variable among strains both in expression and in sequence, suggesting that flocculation in S. cerevisiae is a dynamic, rapidly-evolving social trait. PMID:19013280

  8. MAJOR HYSTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX: STRUKTUR, FUNGSI, HUBUNGAN DENGAN PENYAKIT DAN PEMANFAATAN DALAM RESPON IMUN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basundari Sri Utama

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Respon imun terhadap antigen asing dapat terjadi karena kemampuan dari organisme untuk membedakan "non self" dengan "self", sehingga dapat terhindar dari efek patogen dari antigen yang masuk. Hal ini terjadi karena kemampuan polimorfisme dari komponen molekul yang terdapat pada permukaan sel presentan pada saat proses respon imun terjadi. Komponen molekul tersebut disebut MHC (Major Hystocompatibility Complex pada tikus diberi kode H-2 atau HLA (Human Leucocyt Antifen pada manusia. Pengkode genetik MHC pada tikus terletak pada kromosom 17, pada manusia terletak pada kromosom 6. MHC tersebar pada hampir semua permukaan sel tubuh. Pada tikus MHC kelas 1 terdapat sel-sel yang berinti, platelet dan sel darah merah. Pada manusia terdapat pada sel-sel yang berinti dan platelet. MHC pada tikus terutama terdapat pada sel B, makrofag, sel epithel, sel limfosit T. Pada manusia terutama terdapat pada sel B dan makrofag. Fungsi MHC kelas I diantaranya adalah reaksi penolakan jaringan, stimulasi produksi antibodi, proses interaksi antigen dengan sel T. MHC kelas II diperlukan dalam proses presentasi antigen. Pengetahuan tentang MHC/HLA seseorang, dapat dipakai untuk memperkirakan risiko seseorang mendapatkan penyakit yang bersifat herediter atau kelainan imunologik. Dengan mengetahui bahwa MHC/HLA hanya dapat mengikat peptida, hal ini dapat dimanfaatkan untuk pencegahan reaksi alergi.

  9. On the minimum core mass for giant planet formation at wide separations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piso, Ana-Maria A.; Youdin, Andrew N.

    2014-01-01

    In the core accretion hypothesis, giant planets form by gas accretion onto solid protoplanetary cores. The minimum (or critical) core mass to form a gas giant is typically quoted as 10 M ⊕ . The actual value depends on several factors: the location in the protoplanetary disk, atmospheric opacity, and the accretion rate of solids. Motivated by ongoing direct imaging searches for giant planets, this study investigates core mass requirements in the outer disk. To determine the fastest allowed rates of gas accretion, we consider solid cores that no longer accrete planetesimals, as this would heat the gaseous envelope. Our spherical, two-layer atmospheric cooling model includes an inner convective region and an outer radiative zone that matches onto the disk. We determine the minimum core mass for a giant planet to form within a typical disk lifetime of 3 Myr. The minimum core mass declines with disk radius, from ∼8.5 M ⊕ at 5 AU to ∼3.5 M ⊕ at 100 AU, with standard interstellar grain opacities. Lower temperatures in the outer disk explain this trend, while variations in disk density are less influential. At all distances, a lower dust opacity or higher mean molecular weight reduces the critical core mass. Our non-self-gravitating, analytic cooling model reveals that self-gravity significantly affects early atmospheric evolution, starting when the atmosphere is only ∼10% as massive as the core.

  10. BACTERIAL OUTER MEMBRANE VESICLES AND VACCINE APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo eAcevedo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Vaccines based on outer membrane vesicles (OMV were developed more than 20 years ago against Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B. These nano-sized structures exhibit remarkable potential for immunomodulation of immune responses and delivery of self meningococcal antigens or unrelated antigens incorporated into the vesicle structure. This paper reviews different applications in OMV Research and Development (R&D and provides examples of OMV developed and evaluated at the Finlay Institute in Cuba. A Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP process was developed at the Finlay Institute to produce OMV from N. meningitidis serogroup B (dOMVB using detergent extraction. Subsequently, OMV from N. meningitidis, serogroup A (dOMVA, serogroup W (dOMVW and serogroup X (dOMVX were obtained using this process. More recently, the extraction process has also been applied effectively for obtaining OMV on a research scale from Vibrio cholerae (dOMVC, Bordetella pertussis (dOMVBP, Mycobacterium smegmatis (dOMVSM and BCG (dOMVBCG. The immunogenicity of the OMV have been evaluated for specific antibody induction, and together with functional bactericidal and challenge assays in mice have shown their protective potential. dOMVB has been evaluated with non-self neisserial antigens, including with a herpes virus type 2 glycoprotein, ovalbumin and allergens. In conclusion, OMV are proving to be more versatile than first conceived and remain an important technology for development of vaccine candidates.

  11. The Physical Origin of Long Gas Depletion Times in Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semenov, Vadim A.; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; Gnedin, Nickolay Y., E-mail: semenov@uchicago.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2017-08-20

    We present a model that explains why galaxies form stars on a timescale significantly longer than the timescales of processes governing the evolution of interstellar gas. We show that gas evolves from a non-star-forming to a star-forming state on a relatively short timescale, and thus the rate of this evolution does not limit the star formation rate (SFR). Instead, the SFR is limited because only a small fraction of star-forming gas is converted into stars before star-forming regions are dispersed by feedback and dynamical processes. Thus, gas cycles into and out of a star-forming state multiple times, which results in a long timescale on which galaxies convert gas into stars. Our model does not rely on the assumption of equilibrium and can be used to interpret trends of depletion times with the properties of observed galaxies and the parameters of star formation and feedback recipes in simulations. In particular, the model explains how feedback self-regulates the SFR in simulations and makes it insensitive to the local star formation efficiency. We illustrate our model using the results of an isolated L {sub *}-sized galaxy simulation that reproduces the observed Kennicutt–Schmidt relation for both molecular and atomic gas. Interestingly, the relation for molecular gas is almost linear on kiloparsec scales, although a nonlinear relation is adopted in simulation cells. We discuss how a linear relation emerges from non-self-similar scaling of the gas density PDF with the average gas surface density.

  12. In situ analysis of anastomosis in representative genera of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purin, Sonia; Morton, Joseph B

    2011-08-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) form obligate symbiotic associations with plants. As a result, the role of hyphal interactions in the establishment and maintenance of common mycorrhizal networks is poorly understood because of constraints on methods for in situ analysis. We designed a rhizohyphatron that allows the examination of intact mycelia growing from whole mycorrhizal plants. Plants preinoculated with spores were cultivated in a compartment with a connecting tube from which hyphae extend through a fine nylon mesh onto agar-coated slides. Species selected from each of the five AMF genera were used to assess and characterize the anastomosis behavior in the rhizohyphatron. Hyphal networks of Paraglomus occultum, Ambispora leptoticha, Scutellospora heterogama, and Gigaspora gigantea growing on the agar-coated slides showed no evidence of hyphal fusion. In contrast, anastomosis occurred in the hyphal networks of Glomus clarum and Glomus intraradices at an average frequency of less than 15% for both species. The rhizohyphatron developed in this study will provide knowledge of the biology and genetics of self/non-self recognition in AMF and help to better understand Glomeromycotan life history strategies.

  13. Killing–Yano tensor and supersymmetry of the self-dual Plebański–Demiański solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozawa, Masato; Houri, Tsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    We explore various aspects of the self-dual Plebański–Demiański (PD) family in the Euclidean Einstein–Maxwell-Λ system. The Killing–Yano tensor which was recently found by Yasui and one of the present authors allows us to prove that the self-dual PD metric can be brought into the self-dual Carter metric by an orientation-reversing coordinate transformation. We show that the self-dual PD solution admits two independent Killing spinors in the framework of N = 2 minimal gauged supergravity, whereas the non-self-dual solution admits only a single Killing spinor. This can be demonstrated by casting the self-dual PD metric into two distinct Przanowski–Tod forms. As a by-product, a new example of the three-dimensional Einstein–Weyl space is presented. We also prove that the self-dual PD metric falls into two different Calderbank–Pedersen families, which are determined by a single function subjected to a linear equation on the two-dimensional hyperbolic space. Furthermore, we consider the hyper-Kähler case for which the metric falls into the Gibbons–Hawking class. We find that the condition for the nonexistence of the Dirac–Misner string enforces the solution with a nonvanishing acceleration parameter to the Eguchi–Hanson space. (paper)

  14. An efficient ERP-based brain-computer interface using random set presentation and face familiarity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seul-Ki Yeom

    Full Text Available Event-related potential (ERP-based P300 spellers are commonly used in the field of brain-computer interfaces as an alternative channel of communication for people with severe neuro-muscular diseases. This study introduces a novel P300 based brain-computer interface (BCI stimulus paradigm using a random set presentation pattern and exploiting the effects of face familiarity. The effect of face familiarity is widely studied in the cognitive neurosciences and has recently been addressed for the purpose of BCI. In this study we compare P300-based BCI performances of a conventional row-column (RC-based paradigm with our approach that combines a random set presentation paradigm with (non- self-face stimuli. Our experimental results indicate stronger deflections of the ERPs in response to face stimuli, which are further enhanced when using the self-face images, and thereby improving P300-based spelling performance. This lead to a significant reduction of stimulus sequences required for correct character classification. These findings demonstrate a promising new approach for improving the speed and thus fluency of BCI-enhanced communication with the widely used P300-based BCI setup.

  15. Host regulation by the ectophagous parasitoid wasp Bracon nigricans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becchimanzi, Andrea; Avolio, Maddalena; Di Lelio, Ilaria; Marinelli, Adriana; Varricchio, Paola; Grimaldi, Annalisa; de Eguileor, Magda; Pennacchio, Francesco; Caccia, Silvia

    2017-08-01

    The host regulation process has been widely investigated in endophagous parasitoid wasps, which in most cases finely interact with living hosts (i.e. koinobiont parasitoids). In contrast, only very limited information is available for ectophagous parasitoids that permanently paralyze and rapidly suppress their victims (i.e. idiobiont parasitoids). Here we try to fill this research gap by investigating the host regulation by Bracon nigricans, an ectophagous idiobiont wasp species. Parasitism, mainly by venom action, is able to redirect host metabolism in order to enhance its nutritional suitability for the developing parasitoid larvae and to provide the required metabolic support to host tissues. The observed alterations of the host titers of haemolymph proteins, carbohydrates and acylglycerols are associated with a parasitoid-induced mobilization of nutrients stored in the fat body. This tissue undergoes a controlled degradation mediated by a close surface interaction with haemocytes, where a cathepsin L activity is localized, as demonstrated by immunolocalization, biochemical and transcriptional data. B. nigricans parasitism does not markedly influence the survival of haemocytes, even though a persistent suppression of the immune competence is observed in parasitized hosts, which show a reduced capacity to encapsulate and melanize non-self objects. These immune alterations likely allow a more efficient food uptake and use by the ectophagous larvae. The obtained results indicate that the host regulation process in basal lineages of parasitic Hymenoptera is more complex than expected and shares functional similarities with adaptive strategies occurring in derived koinobiont species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Self-cleaning Foliar Surfaces Characterization using RIMAPS Technique and Variogram Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosi, Pablo E.

    2002-01-01

    Along the last ten years many important studies about characterization of self-cleaning foliar surfaces have been done and focused new interest on this kind of surfaces.These studies were possible due to the development of a novel preparation technique for this biological material that let us observe the delicate structures of a foliar surface under scanning electron microscope (S.E.M.).This technique consists of replacing the natural water of the specimen by glycerol. Digital S.E.M. images from both self-cleaning and non-self-cleaning foliar surfaces were obtained and analyzed using RIMAPS technique and Variograms method. Our results revealed the existence of a common and exclusive geometrical pattern that is found in species which present self-cleaning foliar surfaces.This pattern combines at least nine different directions.The results from the Variograms method showed that the stomata play a key role in the determination of foliar surface roughness. In addition, spectra from RIMAPS technique constitute a fingerprint of a foliar surface so they can be used to find evolutionary relationships among species.Further studies will provide more detailed information to fully elucidate the self-cleaning pattern, so it might be possible to reproduce it on an artificial surface and make it self-cleaning

  17. Scaling laws and fluctuations in the statistics of word frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Martin; Altmann, Eduardo G.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we combine statistical analysis of written texts and simple stochastic models to explain the appearance of scaling laws in the statistics of word frequencies. The average vocabulary of an ensemble of fixed-length texts is known to scale sublinearly with the total number of words (Heaps’ law). Analyzing the fluctuations around this average in three large databases (Google-ngram, English Wikipedia, and a collection of scientific articles), we find that the standard deviation scales linearly with the average (Taylor's law), in contrast to the prediction of decaying fluctuations obtained using simple sampling arguments. We explain both scaling laws (Heaps’ and Taylor) by modeling the usage of words using a Poisson process with a fat-tailed distribution of word frequencies (Zipf's law) and topic-dependent frequencies of individual words (as in topic models). Considering topical variations lead to quenched averages, turn the vocabulary size a non-self-averaging quantity, and explain the empirical observations. For the numerous practical applications relying on estimations of vocabulary size, our results show that uncertainties remain large even for long texts. We show how to account for these uncertainties in measurements of lexical richness of texts with different lengths.

  18. Cost-Effective Encryption-Based Autonomous Routing Protocol for Efficient and Secure Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Kashif; Derhab, Abdelouahid; Orgun, Mehmet A; Al-Muhtadi, Jalal; Rodrigues, Joel J P C; Khalil, Mohammed Sayim; Ali Ahmed, Adel

    2016-03-31

    The deployment of intelligent remote surveillance systems depends on wireless sensor networks (WSNs) composed of various miniature resource-constrained wireless sensor nodes. The development of routing protocols for WSNs is a major challenge because of their severe resource constraints, ad hoc topology and dynamic nature. Among those proposed routing protocols, the biology-inspired self-organized secure autonomous routing protocol (BIOSARP) involves an artificial immune system (AIS) that requires a certain amount of time to build up knowledge of neighboring nodes. The AIS algorithm uses this knowledge to distinguish between self and non-self neighboring nodes. The knowledge-building phase is a critical period in the WSN lifespan and requires active security measures. This paper proposes an enhanced BIOSARP (E-BIOSARP) that incorporates a random key encryption mechanism in a cost-effective manner to provide active security measures in WSNs. A detailed description of E-BIOSARP is presented, followed by an extensive security and performance analysis to demonstrate its efficiency. A scenario with E-BIOSARP is implemented in network simulator 2 (ns-2) and is populated with malicious nodes for analysis. Furthermore, E-BIOSARP is compared with state-of-the-art secure routing protocols in terms of processing time, delivery ratio, energy consumption, and packet overhead. The findings show that the proposed mechanism can efficiently protect WSNs from selective forwarding, brute-force or exhaustive key search, spoofing, eavesdropping, replaying or altering of routing information, cloning, acknowledgment spoofing, HELLO flood attacks, and Sybil attacks.

  19. An Organismal Model for Gene Regulatory Networks in the Gut-Associated Immune Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine M. Buckley

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The gut epithelium is an ancient site of complex communication between the animal immune system and the microbial world. While elements of self-non-self receptors and effector mechanisms differ greatly among animal phyla, some aspects of recognition, regulation, and response are broadly conserved. A gene regulatory network (GRN approach provides a means to investigate the nature of this conservation and divergence even as more peripheral functional details remain incompletely understood. The sea urchin embryo is an unparalleled experimental model for detangling the GRNs that govern embryonic development. By applying this theoretical framework to the free swimming, feeding larval stage of the purple sea urchin, it is possible to delineate the conserved regulatory circuitry that regulates the gut-associated immune response. This model provides a morphologically simple system in which to efficiently unravel regulatory connections that are phylogenetically relevant to immunity in vertebrates. Here, we review the organism-wide cellular and transcriptional immune response of the sea urchin larva. A large set of transcription factors and signal systems, including epithelial expression of interleukin 17 (IL17, are important mediators in the activation of the early gut-associated response. Many of these have homologs that are active in vertebrate immunity, while others are ancient in animals but absent in vertebrates or specific to echinoderms. This larval model provides a means to experimentally characterize immune function encoded in the sea urchin genome and the regulatory interconnections that control immune response and resolution across the tissues of the organism.

  20. Time Series Discord Detection in Medical Data using a Parallel Relational Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodbridge, Diane; Rintoul, Mark Daniel; Wilson, Andrew T.; Goldstein, Richard

    2015-10-01

    Recent advances in sensor technology have made continuous real-time health monitoring available in both hospital and non-hospital settings. Since data collected from high frequency medical sensors includes a huge amount of data, storing and processing continuous medical data is an emerging big data area. Especially detecting anomaly in real time is important for patients’ emergency detection and prevention. A time series discord indicates a subsequence that has the maximum difference to the rest of the time series subsequences, meaning that it has abnormal or unusual data trends. In this study, we implemented two versions of time series discord detection algorithms on a high performance parallel database management system (DBMS) and applied them to 240 Hz waveform data collected from 9,723 patients. The initial brute force version of the discord detection algorithm takes each possible subsequence and calculates a distance to the nearest non-self match to find the biggest discords in time series. For the heuristic version of the algorithm, a combination of an array and a trie structure was applied to order time series data for enhancing time efficiency. The study results showed efficient data loading, decoding and discord searches in a large amount of data, benefiting from the time series discord detection algorithm and the architectural characteristics of the parallel DBMS including data compression, data pipe-lining, and task scheduling.

  1. Role of prethymic cells in acquisition of self-tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besedovsky, H O; del Rey, A; Sorkin, E

    1979-12-01

    The sequential character of T-lymphocyte development as it pertains to the stage at which self-tolerance is acquired was investigated. Three phases were studied, defined here as prethymic, intrathymic, and postthymic as determined by the timing of thymus implantation. The model utilized was the temporal pattern of skin graft rejection in thymusless BALB/c nude mice implanted with allogeneic, C57BL/6J, or syngeneic thymuses before or after skin grafting; in some instances, F(1) hybrid spleen cells were also given to newborns or young adults. These experiments in nude mice showed that, (a) self-tolerance could be established despite the absence of the host's own haplotype in the implanted thymus; (b) recently emigrated postthymic cells could already discriminate self from non-self; (c) specific neonatal tolerance could be induced in nudes by inoculation of F(1) hybrid cells; (d) nudes showed a higher capacity for induction of neonatal tolerance than did normal littermates. These findings indicate that the process of self-tolerance in the T cell's lineage begins during the prethymic state early in ontogeny.

  2. Chitin and chitinase: Role in pathogenicity, allergenicity and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Seema; Goyal, Arun

    2017-04-01

    Chitin, a polysaccharide with particular abundance in fungi, nematodes and arthropods is immunogenic. It acts as a threat to other organisms, to tackle which they have been endowed with chitinase enzyme. Even if this enzyme is not present in all organisms, they possess proteins having chitin-binding domain(s) (ChtBD). Many lethal viruses like Ebola, and HCV (Hepatitis C virus) have these domains to manipulate their carriers and target organisms. In keeping with the basic rule of survival, the self-origin (own body component) chitins and chitinases are protective, but that of non-self origin (from other organisms) are detrimental to health. The exogenous chitins and chitinases provoke human innate immunity to generate a deluge of inflammatory cytokines, which injure organs (leading to asthma, atopic dermatitis etc.), and in persistent situations lead to death (multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythromatosus (SLE), cancer, etc.). Unfortunately, chitin-chitinase-stimulated hypersensitivity is a common cause of occupational allergy. On the other hand, chitin, and its deacetylated derivative chitosan are increasingly proving useful in pharmaceutical, agriculture, and biocontrol applications. This critical review discusses the complex nexus of chitin and chitinase and assesses both their pathogenic as well as utilitarian aspects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Linking autoimmunity to the origin of the adaptive immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayersdorf, Robert; Fruscalzo, Arrigo; Catania, Francesco

    2018-01-01

    In jawed vertebrates, the adaptive immune system (AIS) cooperates with the innate immune system (IIS) to protect hosts from infections. Although targeting non-self-components, the AIS also generates self-reactive antibodies which, when inadequately counter-selected, can give rise to autoimmune diseases (ADs). ADs are on the rise in western countries. Why haven't ADs been eliminated during the evolution of a ∼500 million-year old system? And why have they become more frequent in recent decades? Self-recognition is an attribute of the phylogenetically more ancient IIS and empirical data compellingly show that some self-reactive antibodies, which are classifiable as elements of the IIS rather then the AIS, may protect from (rather than cause) ADs. Here, we propose that the IIS's self-recognition system originally fathered the AIS and, as a consequence of this relationship, its activity is dampened in hygienic environments. Rather than a mere breakdown or failure of the mechanisms of self-tolerance, ADs might thus arise from architectural constraints.

  4. "Who owns your poop?": insights regarding the intersection of human microbiome research and the ELSI aspects of biobanking and related studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Alice K; O'Doherty, Kieran C

    2011-10-07

    While the social, ethical, and legal implications of biobanking and large scale data sharing are already complicated enough, they may be further compounded by research on the human microbiome. The human microbiome is the entire complement of microorganisms that exists in and on every human body. Currently most biobanks focus primarily on human tissues and/or associated data (e.g. health records). Accordingly, most discussions in the social sciences and humanities on these issues are focused (appropriately so) on the implications of biobanks and sharing data derived from human tissues. However, rapid advances in human microbiome research involve collecting large amounts of data on microorganisms that exist in symbiotic relationships with the human body. Currently it is not clear whether these microorganisms should be considered part of or separate from the human body. Arguments can be made for both, but ultimately it seems that the dichotomy of human versus non-human and self versus non-self inevitably breaks down in this context. This situation has the potential to add further complications to debates on biobanking. In this paper, we revisit some of the core problem areas of privacy, consent, ownership, return of results, governance, and benefit sharing, and consider how they might be impacted upon by human microbiome research. Some of the issues discussed also have relevance to other forms of microbial research. Discussion of these themes is guided by conceptual analysis of microbiome research and interviews with leading Canadian scientists in the field.

  5. Zonulin and its regulation of intestinal barrier function: the biological door to inflammation, autoimmunity, and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasano, Alessio

    2011-01-01

    The primary functions of the gastrointestinal tract have traditionally been perceived to be limited to the digestion and absorption of nutrients and to electrolytes and water homeostasis. A more attentive analysis of the anatomic and functional arrangement of the gastrointestinal tract, however, suggests that another extremely important function of this organ is its ability to regulate the trafficking of macromolecules between the environment and the host through a barrier mechanism. Together with the gut-associated lymphoid tissue and the neuroendocrine network, the intestinal epithelial barrier, with its intercellular tight junctions, controls the equilibrium between tolerance and immunity to non-self antigens. Zonulin is the only physiological modulator of intercellular tight junctions described so far that is involved in trafficking of macromolecules and, therefore, in tolerance/immune response balance. When the finely tuned zonulin pathway is deregulated in genetically susceptible individuals, both intestinal and extraintestinal autoimmune, inflammatory, and neoplastic disorders can occur. This new paradigm subverts traditional theories underlying the development of these diseases and suggests that these processes can be arrested if the interplay between genes and environmental triggers is prevented by reestablishing the zonulin-dependent intestinal barrier function. This review is timely given the increased interest in the role of a "leaky gut" in the pathogenesis of several pathological conditions targeting both the intestine and extraintestinal organs.

  6. Zonulin upregulation is associated with increased gut permeability in subjects with type 1 diabetes and their relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapone, Anna; de Magistris, Laura; Pietzak, Michelle; Clemente, Maria G; Tripathi, Amit; Cucca, Francesco; Lampis, Rosanna; Kryszak, Deborah; Cartenì, Maria; Generoso, Maddalena; Iafusco, Dario; Prisco, Francesco; Laghi, Francesca; Riegler, Gabriele; Carratu, Romano; Counts, Debra; Fasano, Alessio

    2006-05-01

    Zonulin, a protein that modulates intestinal permeability, is upregulated in several autoimmune diseases and is involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diabetes in the BB/Wor animal model of the disease. To verify the association between serum zonulin levels and in vivo intestinal permeability in patients with type 1 diabetes, both parameters were investigated in different stages of the autoimmune process. Forty-two percent (141 of 339) of the patients had abnormal serum zonulin levels, as compared with age-matched control subjects. The increased zonulin levels correlated with increased intestinal permeability in vivo and changes in claudin-1, claudin-2, and myosin IXB genes expression, while no changes were detected in ZO1 and occludin genes expression. When tested in serum samples collected during the pre-type 1 diabetes phase, elevated serum zonulin was detected in 70% of subjects and preceded by 3.5 +/- 0.9 years the onset of the disease in those patients who went on to develop type 1 diabetes. Combined, these results suggest that zonulin upregulation is associated with increased intestinal permeability in a subgroup of type 1 diabetic patients. Zonulin upregulation seems to precede the onset of the disease, providing a possible link between increased intestinal permeability, environmental exposure to non-self antigens, and the development of autoimmunity in genetically susceptible individuals.

  7. Leaky gut and autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasano, Alessio

    2012-02-01

    Autoimmune diseases are characterized by tissue damage and loss of function due to an immune response that is directed against specific organs. This review is focused on the role of impaired intestinal barrier function on autoimmune pathogenesis. Together with the gut-associated lymphoid tissue and the neuroendocrine network, the intestinal epithelial barrier, with its intercellular tight junctions, controls the equilibrium between tolerance and immunity to non-self antigens. Zonulin is the only physiologic modulator of intercellular tight junctions described so far that is involved in trafficking of macromolecules and, therefore, in tolerance/immune response balance. When the zonulin pathway is deregulated in genetically susceptible individuals, autoimmune disorders can occur. This new paradigm subverts traditional theories underlying the development of these diseases and suggests that these processes can be arrested if the interplay between genes and environmental triggers is prevented by re-establishing the zonulin-dependent intestinal barrier function. Both animal models and recent clinical evidence support this new paradigm and provide the rationale for innovative approaches to prevent and treat autoimmune diseases.

  8. Mounting of erratic histoincompatible responses in hermatypic corals: a multi-year interval comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amar, K-O; Rinkevich, B

    2010-02-15

    Studies on allorecognition in the phylum Cnidaria have disclosed complex arrays of effector mechanisms, specificity and competency to distinguish precisely between self and non-self attributes, and have revealed the existence of allogeneic maturity. Here we studied allo-responses between young Stylophora pistillata colonies by following 517 allogeneic interactions between naturally settled kin aggregates and by establishing 417 forced allogeneic and autogeneic assays made of solitarily settled spat that were cut into two similar size subclones, of which one had been challenged allogeneically. Fused assays were exposed to a second allorecognition challenge, made of three allogeneic types. Whereas about half of the kin allogeneic interactions led to tissue fusions and chimera formations, none of the 83 non-sibling pair combinations were histocompatible. In contrast to previous results we recorded rejections between siblings at the age of less than two months. More challenging, we documented cases of fusions between interacting siblings at ages older than one-year-old partners, all differing from a previous study made on the same coral population more than a decade ago. Similar erratic histoincompatible responses were recorded in other pocilloporid species. We suggest that these results reflect reduced genetic heterogeneity caused by chronic anthropogenic impacts on shallow water coral populations where planulae originating from the same mother colony or from different mother colonies that are genetically related share increasing parts of their genomes. Offspring born to related parents may also reveal an increase in genomic homozygosity, and altogether impose erratic alloimmunity.

  9. High self-monitors' cognitive access to self-presentation-related information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, James M; McIntyre, Miranda M; Graziano, William G; Sands, Kaleigh J

    2015-06-01

    We examined whether high self-monitors cognitively process self-presentation-related information and concepts more readily than low self-monitors. Results across three studies indicate that compared to low self-monitors, high self-monitors have greater cognitive access to self-presentation-related information and concepts. High self-monitors produced more words related to self-presentation in a shorter amount of time (Study 1) and in a cognitive load condition (Study 2). In both studies, the number of words did not differ when participants took longer to create their list and when they were in a no cognitive load condition. In Study 3, high (vs. low) self-monitors showed faster reaction time to self-presentation-related concepts. In contrast, reaction time to non-self-presentation items did not differ. The findings contribute to both the theory and knowledge of self-monitoring by demonstrating that information processing related to self-presentational concepts is an important component of self-monitoring, in that such information is more cognitively accessible to high self-monitors. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  10. A SCALING RELATION BETWEEN MEGAMASER DISK RADIUS AND BLACK HOLE MASS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardle, Mark; Yusef-Zadeh, Farhad

    2012-01-01

    Several thin, Keplerian, sub-parsec megamaser disks have been discovered in the nuclei of active galaxies and used to precisely determine the mass of their host black holes. We show that there is an empirical linear correlation between the disk radius and the black hole mass. We demonstrate that such disks are naturally formed by the partial capture of molecular clouds passing through the galactic nucleus and temporarily engulfing the central supermassive black hole. Imperfect cancellation of the angular momenta of the cloud material colliding after passing on opposite sides of the hole leads to the formation of a compact disk. The radial extent of the disk is determined by the efficiency of this process and the Bondi-Hoyle capture radius of the black hole, and naturally produces the empirical linear correlation of the radial extent of the maser distribution with black hole mass. The disk has sufficient column density to allow X-ray irradiation from the central source to generate physical and chemical conditions conducive to the formation of 22 GHz H 2 O masers. For initial cloud column densities ∼ 23.5 cm –2 the disk is non-self-gravitating, consistent with the ordered kinematics of the edge-on megamaser disks; for higher cloud columns the disk would fragment and produce a compact stellar disk similar to that observed around Sgr A* at the galactic center.

  11. Cytosolic RNA:DNA hybrids activate the cGAS-STING axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankan, Arun K; Schmidt, Tobias; Chauhan, Dhruv; Goldeck, Marion; Höning, Klara; Gaidt, Moritz; Kubarenko, Andrew V; Andreeva, Liudmila; Hopfner, Karl-Peter; Hornung, Veit

    2014-12-17

    Intracellular recognition of non-self and also self-nucleic acids can result in the initiation of potent pro-inflammatory and antiviral cytokine responses. Most recently, cGAS was shown to be critical for the recognition of cytoplasmic dsDNA. Binding of dsDNA to cGAS results in the synthesis of cGAMP(2'-5'), which then binds to the endoplasmic reticulum resident protein STING. This initiates a signaling cascade that triggers the induction of an antiviral immune response. While most studies on intracellular nucleic acids have focused on dsRNA or dsDNA, it has remained unexplored whether cytosolic RNA:DNA hybrids are also sensed by the innate immune system. Studying synthetic RNA:DNA hybrids, we indeed observed a strong type I interferon response upon cytosolic delivery of this class of molecule. Studies in THP-1 knockout cells revealed that the recognition of RNA:DNA hybrids is completely attributable to the cGAS-STING pathway. Moreover, in vitro studies showed that recombinant cGAS produced cGAMP upon RNA:DNA hybrid recognition. Altogether, our results introduce RNA:DNA hybrids as a novel class of intracellular PAMP molecules and describe an alternative cGAS ligand next to dsDNA. © 2014 The Authors.

  12. Tonic 4-1BB Costimulation in Chimeric Antigen Receptors Impedes T Cell Survival and Is Vector-Dependent

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    Diogo Gomes-Silva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Antigen-independent tonic signaling by chimeric antigen receptors (CARs can increase differentiation and exhaustion of T cells, limiting their potency. Incorporating 4-1BB costimulation in CARs may enable T cells to resist this functional exhaustion; however, the potential ramifications of tonic 4-1BB signaling in CAR T cells remain unclear. Here, we found that tonic CAR-derived 4-1BB signaling can produce toxicity in T cells via continuous TRAF2-dependent activation of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB pathway and augmented FAS-dependent cell death. This mechanism was amplified in a non-self-inactivating gammaretroviral vector through positive feedback on the long terminal repeat (LTR promoter, further enhancing CAR expression and tonic signaling. Attenuating CAR expression by substitution with a self-inactivating lentiviral vector minimized tonic signaling and improved T cell expansion and anti-tumor function. These studies illuminate the interaction between tonic CAR signaling and the chosen expression platform and identify inhibitory properties of the 4-1BB costimulatory domain that have direct implications for rational CAR design.

  13. The IGNITEX fusion project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrera, R.

    1987-01-01

    The author discusses the recently proposed fusion ignition experiment, IGNITEX. He emphasizes the basic ideas of this concept rather than the specific details of the physics and engineering aspects of the experiment. This concept is a good example of the importance of maintaining an adequate balance between the basic scientific progress in fusion physics and the new technologies that are becoming available in order to make fusion work. The objective of the IGNITEX project is to produce and control ignited plasmas for scientific study in the simplest and least expensive way possible. Being able to study this not-yet-produced regime of plasma operation is essential to fusion research. Two years after the fission nuclear reaction was discovered, a non-self-sustained fission reaction was produced in a laboratory, and in one more year a self-sustained reaction was achieved at the University of Chicago. However, after almost forty years of fusion research, a self-sustained fusion reaction has yet not been produced in a laboratory experiment. This fact indicates the greater difficulty of the fusion experiment. Because of the difficulty involved in the production of a self-sustained fusion reaction, it is necessary to propose such an experiment with maximum ignition margins, maximum simplicity, and minimum financial risk

  14. The Role of Complement in Tumor Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pio, Ruben; Corrales, Leticia; Lambris, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Complement is a central part of the immune system that has developed as a first defense against non-self cells. Neoplastic transformation is accompanied by an increased capacity of the malignant cells to activate complement. In fact, clinical data demonstrate complement activation in cancer patients. On the basis of the use of protective mechanisms by malignant cells, complement activation has traditionally been considered part of the body's immunosurveillance against cancer. Inhibitory mechanisms of complement activation allow cancer cells to escape from complement-mediated elimination and hamper the clinical efficacy of monoclonal antibody–based cancer immunotherapies. To overcome this limitation, many strategies have been developed with the goal of improving complement-mediated effector mechanisms. However, significant work in recent years has identified new and surprising roles for complement activation within the tumor microenvironment. Recent reports suggest that complement elements can promote tumor growth in the context of chronic inflammation. This chapter reviews the data describing the role of complement activation in cancer immunity, which offers insights that may aid the development of more effective therapeutic approaches to control cancer. PMID:24272362

  15. Cancers related to Immunodeficiencies:Update and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeil Mortaz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The life span of patients with primary and secondary immunodeficiency is increasing due to recent improvements in therapeutic strategies. Whilst, the incidence of primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs is 1:10.000 births, that of secondary immunodeficiencies is more common and are associated with post transplantation immune dysfunction or with immunosuppressive medication for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV or with human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV infection.After infection, malignancy is the most prevalent cause of death in both children and adults with primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDs. PIDs more often associated with cancer include common variable immunodeficiency (CVID, Wiskott Aldrich syndrome (WAS, ataxia-telangiectasia (AT and severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID. This suggests that a protective immune response against both infectious non-self (pathogens and malignant self-challenges (cancer exist. The increased incidence of cancer has been attributed to defective elimination of altered or transformed cells and/or defective immunity towards cancer cells. The concept of abberant immune surveillance occurring in PIDs is supported by evidence in mice and from patients undergoing immunosuppression after transplantation. Here, we discuss the importance of PID defects in the development of malignancies, the current limitations associated with molecular pathogenesis of these diseases and emphasize the need for further knowledge of how specific mutations can modulate the immune system to alter immunosurveillance and thereby play a key role in the etiology of malignancies in PID patients.

  16. Modeling the Influence of the Penetration Channel’s Shape on Plasma Parameters When Handling Highly Concentrated Energy Sources

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    Dmitriy N. Trushnikov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In our work to formulate a scientific justification for process control methods when processing materials using concentrated energy sources, we develop a model that can calculate plasma parameters and the magnitude of the secondary waveform of a current from a non-self-sustained discharge in plasma as a function of the geometry of the penetration channel, thermal fields, and the beam’s position within the penetration channel. We present the method and a numeric implementation whose first stage involves the use of a two-dimensional model to calculate the statistical probability of the secondary electrons’ passage through the penetration channel as a function of the interaction zone’s depth. Then, the discovered relationship is used to numerically calculate how the secondary current changes as a distributed beam moves along a three-dimensional penetration channel. We demonstrate that during oscillating electron beam welding the waveform has the greatest magnitude during interaction with the upper areas of the penetration channel and diminishes with increasing penetration channel depth in a way that depends on the penetration channel’s shape. When the surface of the penetration channel is approximated with a Gaussian function, the waveform decreases nearly exponentially.

  17. Scaling laws and fluctuations in the statistics of word frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerlach, Martin; Altmann, Eduardo G

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we combine statistical analysis of written texts and simple stochastic models to explain the appearance of scaling laws in the statistics of word frequencies. The average vocabulary of an ensemble of fixed-length texts is known to scale sublinearly with the total number of words (Heaps’ law). Analyzing the fluctuations around this average in three large databases (Google-ngram, English Wikipedia, and a collection of scientific articles), we find that the standard deviation scales linearly with the average (Taylor's law), in contrast to the prediction of decaying fluctuations obtained using simple sampling arguments. We explain both scaling laws (Heaps’ and Taylor) by modeling the usage of words using a Poisson process with a fat-tailed distribution of word frequencies (Zipf's law) and topic-dependent frequencies of individual words (as in topic models). Considering topical variations lead to quenched averages, turn the vocabulary size a non-self-averaging quantity, and explain the empirical observations. For the numerous practical applications relying on estimations of vocabulary size, our results show that uncertainties remain large even for long texts. We show how to account for these uncertainties in measurements of lexical richness of texts with different lengths. (paper)

  18. Autopolyreactivity Confers a Holistic Role in the Immune System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avrameas, S

    2016-04-01

    In this review, we summarize and discuss some key findings from the study of naturally occurring autoantibodies. The B-cell compartment of the immune system appears to recognize almost all endogenous and environmental antigens. This ability is accomplished principally through autopolyreactive humoral and cellular immune receptors. This extended autopolyreactivity (1) along immunoglobulin gene recombination contributes to the immune system's ability to recognize a very large number of self and non-self constituents; and (2) generates a vast immune network that creates communication channels between the organism's interior and exterior. Thus, the immune system continuously evolves depending on the internal and external stimuli it encounters. Furthermore, this far-reaching network's existence implies activities resembling those of classical biological factors or activities that modulate the function of other classical biological factors. A few such antibodies have already been found. Another important concept is that natural autoantibodies are highly dependent on the presence or absence of commensal microbes in the organism. These results are in line with past and recent findings showing the fundamental influence of the microbiota on proper immune system development, and necessitate the existence of a host-microbe homeostasis. This homeostasis requires that the participating humoral and cellular receptors are able to recognize self-antigens and commensal microbes without damaging them. Autopolyreactive immune receptors expressing low affinity for both types of antigens fulfil this role. The immune system appears to play a holistic role similar to that of the nervous system. © 2016 The Foundation for the Scandinavian Journal of Immunology.

  19. Interleukin-1 as a Common Denominator from Autoinflammatory to Autoimmune Disorders: Premises, Perils, and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Lopalco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A complex web of dynamic relationships between innate and adaptive immunity is now evident for many autoinflammatory and autoimmune disorders, the first deriving from abnormal activation of innate immune system without any conventional danger triggers and the latter from self-/non-self-discrimination loss of tolerance, and systemic inflammation. Due to clinical and pathophysiologic similarities giving a crucial role to the multifunctional cytokine interleukin-1, the concept of autoinflammation has been expanded to include nonhereditary collagen-like diseases, idiopathic inflammatory diseases, and metabolic diseases. As more patients are reported to have clinical features of autoinflammation and autoimmunity, the boundary between these two pathologic ends is becoming blurred. An overview of monogenic autoinflammatory disorders, PFAPA syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, type 2 diabetes mellitus, uveitis, pericarditis, Behçet’s disease, gout, Sjögren’s syndrome, interstitial lung diseases, and Still’s disease is presented to highlight the fundamental points that interleukin-1 displays in the cryptic interplay between innate and adaptive immune systems.

  20. Type II Natural Killer T (NKT) Cells And Their Emerging Role In Health And Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhodapkar, Madhav V.; Kumar, Vipin

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells recognize lipid antigens presented by a class I MHC-like molecule CD1d, a member of the CD1 family. While most of the initial studies on NKT cells focused on a subset with semi-invariant T cell receptor (TCR) termed iNKT cells, majority of CD1d-restricted lipid-reactive human T cells express diverse TCRs and are termed as type II NKT cells. These cells constitute a distinct population of circulating and tissue-resident effector T cells with immune-regulatory properties. They react to a growing list of self- as well as non-self lipid ligands, and share some properties with both iNKT as well as conventional T cells. Emerging body of evidence points to their role in the regulation of immunity to pathogens/tumors and in autoimmune/metabolic disorders. Improved understanding of the biology of these cells and the ability to manipulate their function may be of therapeutic benefit in diverse disease conditions. PMID:28115591

  1. Type II NKT Cells and Their Emerging Role in Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhodapkar, Madhav V; Kumar, Vipin

    2017-02-01

    NKT cells recognize lipid Ags presented by a class I MHC-like molecule CD1d, a member of the CD1 family. Although most initial studies on NKT cells focused on a subset with semi-invariant TCR termed invariant NKT cells, the majority of CD1d-restricted lipid-reactive human T cells express diverse TCRs and are termed type II NKT cells. These cells constitute a distinct population of circulating and tissue-resident effector T cells with immune-regulatory properties. They react to a growing list of self- as well as non-self-lipid ligands, and share some properties with both invariant NKT and conventional T cells. An emerging body of evidence points to their role in the regulation of immunity to pathogens/tumors and in autoimmune/metabolic disorders. An improved understanding of the biology of these cells and the ability to manipulate their function may be of therapeutic benefit in diverse disease conditions. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  2. Specificity for the tumor-associated self-antigen WT1 drives the development of fully functional memory T cells in the absence of vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pospori, Constandina; Xue, Shao-An; Holler, Angelika; Voisine, Cecile; Perro, Mario; King, Judith; Fallah-Arani, Farnaz; Flutter, Barry; Chakraverty, Ronjon; Stauss, Hans J; Morris, Emma C

    2011-06-23

    Recently, vaccines against the Wilms Tumor antigen 1 (WT1) have been tested in cancer patients. However, it is currently not known whether physiologic levels of WT1 expression in stem and progenitor cells of normal tissue result in the deletion or tolerance induction of WT1-specific T cells. Here, we used an human leukocyte antigen-transgenic murine model to study the fate of human leukocyte antigen class-I restricted, WT1-specific T cells in the thymus and in the periphery. Thymocytes expressing a WT1-specific T-cell receptor derived from high avidity human CD8 T cells were positively selected into the single-positive CD8 population. In the periphery, T cells specific for the WT1 antigen differentiated into CD44-high memory phenotype cells, whereas T cells specific for a non-self-viral antigen retained a CD44(low) naive phenotype. Only the WT1-specific T cells, but not the virus-specific T cells, displayed rapid antigen-specific effector function without prior vaccination. Despite long-term persistence of WT1-specific memory T cells, the animals did not develop autoimmunity, and the function of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells was unimpaired. This is the first demonstration that specificity for a tumor-associated self-antigen may drive differentiation of functionally competent memory T cells.

  3. Thymic Self-Antigen Expression for the Design of a Negative/Tolerogenic Self-Vaccine against Type 1 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Alami Chentoufi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Before being able to react against infectious non-self-antigens, the immune system has to be educated in the recognition and tolerance of neuroendocrine proteins, and this critical process essentially takes place in the thymus. The development of the autoimmune diabetogenic response results from a thymus dysfunction in programming central self-tolerance to pancreatic insulin-secreting islet β cells, leading to the breakdown of immune homeostasis with an enrichment of islet β cell reactive effector T cells and a deficiency of β cell-specific natural regulatory T cells (nTreg in the peripheral T-lymphocyte repertoire. Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2 is the dominant member of the insulin family expressed during fetal life by the thymic epithelium under the control of the autoimmune regulator (AIRE gene/protein. Based on the close homology and cross-tolerance between insulin, the primary T1D autoantigen, and IGF-2, the dominant self-antigen of the insulin family, a novel type of vaccination, so-called “negative/tolerogenic self-vaccination”, is currently developed for prevention and cure of T1D. If this approach were found to be effective for reprogramming immunological tolerance in T1D, it could pave the way for the design of negative self-vaccines against autoimmune endocrine diseases, as well as other organ-specific autoimmune diseases.

  4. Genome-wide gene expression profiling of homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 deficient medullary thymic epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Rattay

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of central tolerance essentially depends on the promiscuous gene expression (pGE of a plethora of tissue restricted antigens by the medullary thymic epithelial cells. The antigens are presented to developing thymocytes in the thymus to select for non-self reactive T-cell receptors in order to prevent autoimmune reactions in the periphery. However the molecular regulation of tissue-restricted antigen expression is still poorly understood. The only regulator known to play a role in the transcriptional regulation so far is the autoimmune regulator (AIRE. AIRE is thought to act in a multi-protein complex, promoting transcription, elongation and splicing of target genes. Yet the full composition of this Aire-associated multi-protein complex and its mode of action remain to be elucidated. Here we describe the experimental details and controls of the gene array analysis on the impact of the homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (Hipk2 on promiscuous gene expression in medullary thymic epithelial cells based on the analysis of newly generated TEC-specific Hipk2 conditional knockout mice. The changes in gene expression are presumably mediated through a regulatory effect of Hipk2 on AIRE as published in the study by Rattay and colleagues in the Journal of Immunology [1]. The gene array data reported in this paper have been deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO database, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo (accession no. GSE63432.

  5. Extinction transition in stochastic population dynamics in a random, convective environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhász, Róbert

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by modeling the dynamics of a population living in a flowing medium where the environmental factors are random in space, we have studied an asymmetric variant of the one-dimensional contact process, where the quenched random reproduction rates are systematically greater in one direction than in the opposite one. The spatial disorder turns out to be a relevant perturbation but, according to results of Monte Carlo simulations, the behavior of the model at the extinction transition is different from the (infinite-randomness) critical behavior of the disordered symmetric contact process. Depending on the strength a of the asymmetry, the critical population drifts either with a finite velocity or with an asymptotically vanishing velocity as x(t) ∼ t μ(a) , where μ(a) < 1. Dynamical quantities are non-self-averaging at the extinction transition; the survival probability, for instance, shows multiscaling, i.e. it is characterized by a broad spectrum of effective exponents. For a sufficiently weak asymmetry, a Griffiths phase appears below the extinction transition, where the survival probability decays as a non-universal power of the time while, above the transition, another extended phase emerges, where the front of the population advances anomalously with a diffusion exponent continuously varying with the control parameter. (paper)

  6. CD8+lineage dendritic cells determine adaptive immune responses to inflammasome activation upon sterile skin injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Rituparna; Chandra, Janin; Cui, Shuai; Tolley, Lynn; Cooper, Matthew A; Kendall, Mark; Frazer, Ian H

    2018-01-01

    The molecular links between sterile inflammation and induction of adaptive immunity have not been fully identified. Here, we examine how damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), as opposed to pathogen-associated molecules (PAMPs), regulate the immune response to non-self-antigens presented at the site of a physical injury. Heat applied briefly to the skin invokes sterile inflammation, characterized by local cell death and caspase-1 activation without demonstrably disrupting skin integrity. Co-delivery of ovalbumin (OVA) with heat injury induces OVA-specific CD8 + T-cell responses, and this is dependent on caspase-1 activation and MyD88 signalling. Using Id2flox/flox-CD11cCre+ mice, we demonstrate that CD8 + lineage DCs are required to induce OVA-specific CD8 + T-cell responses following heat injury. Consistent with this observation, intradermal administration of CD8 + lineage DCs but not CD11b + lineage DCs restores priming of CD8 + T-cell responses in Casp-1 -/- mice. Thus, we conclude that a sterile injury induces CD8 + T-cell immune responses to local antigen through caspase-1 activation and requires CD8 + lineage DCs, a finding of significance for immunotherapy and for the pathogenesis of autoimmunity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Leishmania Uses Mincle to Target an Inhibitory ITAM Signaling Pathway in Dendritic Cells that Dampens Adaptive Immunity to Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iborra, Salvador; Martínez-López, María; Cueto, Francisco J; Conde-Garrosa, Ruth; Del Fresno, Carlos; Izquierdo, Helena M; Abram, Clare L; Mori, Daiki; Campos-Martín, Yolanda; Reguera, Rosa María; Kemp, Benjamin; Yamasaki, Sho; Robinson, Matthew J; Soto, Manuel; Lowell, Clifford A; Sancho, David

    2016-10-18

    C-type lectin receptors sense a diversity of endogenous and exogenous ligands that may trigger differential responses. Here, we have found that human and mouse Mincle bind to a ligand released by Leishmania, a eukaryote parasite that evades an effective immune response. Mincle-deficient mice had milder dermal pathology and a tenth of the parasite burden compared to wild-type mice after Leishmania major intradermal ear infection. Mincle deficiency enhanced adaptive immunity against the parasite, correlating with increased activation, migration, and priming by Mincle-deficient dendritic cells (DCs). Leishmania triggered a Mincle-dependent inhibitory axis characterized by SHP1 coupling to the FcRγ chain. Selective loss of SHP1 in CD11c + cells phenocopies enhanced adaptive immunity to Leishmania. In conclusion, Leishmania shifts Mincle to an inhibitory ITAM (ITAMi) configuration that impairs DC activation. Thus, ITAMi can be exploited for immune evasion by a pathogen and may represent a paradigm for ITAM-coupled receptors sensing self and non-self. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. It’s not the Fish that Stinks! EU Trade Relations with Morocco under the Scrutiny of the General Court of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Hummelbrunner

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The EU’s international agreements with Morocco on trade in agricultural and fishery products have drawn criticism due to their application to the disputed territory of Western Sahara, a territory that remains on the list of non-self-governing territories to be decolonised in accordance with the right of self-determination of the indigenous Sahrawi people. Recently, the Sahrawi liberation movement Front Polisario brought an action for annulment before the General Court of the European Union (GC against the Council Decision approving the conclusion of one such agreement, alleging multiple violations of European and international legal norms. Interestingly, although the GC concurred by annulling the Decision insofar as it applies to Western Sahara, it chose to exclusively base its judgment on EU fundamental rights, invoking the EU’s failure to ensure that the fundamental rights of the Sahrawi people were not infringed by applying the agreements to Western Sahara. By summarily setting aside Front Polisario’s other claims, several relevant questions of applicable international and European law, which warrant further discussion, remain. This article examines these questions using the GC’s judgment in Front Polisario, thereby combining general matters of international and European law with the specific circumstances of the EU-Morocco relations and Western Sahara.

  9. Improved Resin–Zirconia Bonding by Room Temperature Hydrofluoric Acid Etching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mun-Hwan Lee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This in vitro study was conducted to evaluate the shear bond strength of “non-self-adhesive” resin to dental zirconia etched with hydrofluoric acid (HF at room temperature and to compare it to that of air-abraded zirconia. Sintered zirconia plates were air-abraded (control or etched with 10%, 20%, or 30% HF for either 5 or 30 min. After cleaning, the surfaces were characterized using various analytical techniques. Three resin cylinders (Duo-Link were bonded to each treated plate. All bonded specimens were stored in water at 37 °C for 24 h, and then half of them were additionally thermocycled 5000 times prior to the shear bond-strength tests (n = 12. The formation of micro- and nano-porosities on the etched surfaces increased with increasing concentration and application time of the HF solution. The surface wettability of zirconia also increased with increasing surface roughness. Higher concentrations and longer application times of the HF solution produced higher bond-strength values. Infiltration of the resin into the micro- and nano-porosities was observed by scanning electron microscopy. This in vitro study suggests that HF slowly etches zirconia ceramic surfaces at room temperature, thereby improving the resin–zirconia bond strength by the formation of retentive sites.

  10. Investigating and correcting plasma DNA sequencing coverage bias to enhance aneuploidy discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dineika Chandrananda

    Full Text Available Pregnant women carry a mixture of cell-free DNA fragments from self and fetus (non-self in their circulation. In recent years multiple independent studies have demonstrated the ability to detect fetal trisomies such as trisomy 21, the cause of Down syndrome, by Next-Generation Sequencing of maternal plasma. The current clinical tests based on this approach show very high sensitivity and specificity, although as yet they have not become the standard diagnostic test. Here we describe improvements to the analysis of the sequencing data by reducing GC bias and better handling of the genomic repeats. We show substantial improvements in the sensitivity of the standard trisomy 21 statistical tests, which we measure by artificially reducing read coverage. We also explore the bias stemming from the natural cleavage of plasma DNA by examining DNA motifs and position specific base distributions. We propose a model to correct this fragmentation bias and observe that incorporating this bias does not lead to any further improvements in the detection of fetal trisomy. The improved bias corrections that we demonstrate in this work can be readily adopted into existing fetal trisomy detection protocols and should also lead to improvements in sub-chromosomal copy number variation detection.

  11. Immature, Semi-mature and Fully mature Dendritic Cells: Towards a DC-cancer cells interface that augments anticancer immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Maria Dudek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs are the sentinel antigen-presenting cells of the immune system; such that their productive interface with the dying cancer cells is crucial for proper communication of the non-self status of cancer cells to the adaptive immune system. Efficiency and the ultimate success of such a communication hinges upon the maturation status of the DCs, attained following their interaction with cancer cells. Immature DCs facilitate tolerance towards cancer cells (observed for many apoptotic inducers while fully mature DCs can strongly promote anticancer immunity if they secrete the correct combinations of cytokines (observed when DCs interact with cancer cells undergoing immunogenic cell death (ICD. However, an intermediate population of DC maturation, called semi-mature DCs exists, which can potentiate either tolerogenicity or pro-tumourigenic responses (as happens in the case of certain chemotherapeutics and agents exerting ambivalent immune reactions. Specific combinations of DC phenotypic markers, DC-derived cytokines/chemokines, dying cancer cell-derived danger signals and other less characterized entities (e.g. exosomes can define the nature and evolution of the DC maturation state. In the present review, we discuss these different maturation states of DCs, how they might be attained and which anticancer agents or cell death modalities (e.g. tolerogenic cell death vs. ICD may regulate these states.

  12. MAGNETIC FIELD COMPONENTS ANALYSIS OF THE SCUPOL 850 μm POLARIZATION DATA CATALOG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poidevin, Frédérick [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Kathleen Lonsdale Building, Gower Place, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Falceta-Gonçalves, Diego [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Kowal, Grzegorz [Universidade de São Paulo, Escola de Artes, Ciências e Humanidades Rua Arlindo Béttio, No. 1000, Ermelino Matarazzo, São Paulo, SP 03828-000 (Brazil); De Gouveia Dal Pino, Elisabete; Magalhães, Antonio Mário, E-mail: poidevin@star.ucl.ac.uk, E-mail: dfalceta@usp.br, E-mail: kowal@astro.iag.usp.br, E-mail: dalpino@astro.iag.usp.br, E-mail: mario@astro.iag.usp.br [Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto de Astronomia, Geofísica e Cîenças Atmosféricas, Rua do Matão 1226, Butantã, São Paulo, SP 05508-900 (Brazil)

    2013-11-10

    We present an extensive analysis of the 850 μm polarization maps of the SCUBA Polarimeter Legacy (SCUPOL) Catalogue produced by Matthews et al., focusing exclusively on the molecular clouds and star-forming regions. For the sufficiently sampled regions, we characterize the depolarization properties and the turbulent-to-mean magnetic field ratio of each region. Similar sets of parameters are calculated from two-dimensional synthetic maps of dust-emission polarization produced with three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) numerical simulations scaled to the S106, OMC-2/3, W49, and DR21 molecular cloud polarization maps. For these specific regions, the turbulent MHD regimes retrieved from the simulations, as described by the turbulent Alfvén and Sonic Mach numbers, are consistent within a factor one to two with the values of the same turbulent regimes estimated from the analysis of Zeeman measurements data provided by Crutcher. Constraints on the values of the inclination angle α of the mean magnetic field with respect to the line of sight are also given. The values obtained from the comparison of the simulations with the SCUPOL data are consistent with the estimates made by using two observational methods provided by other authors. Our main conclusion is that simple, ideal, isothermal, and non-self-gravitating MHD simulations are sufficient in order to describe the large-scale observed physical properties of the envelopes of this set of regions.

  13. Innate antiviral immune signaling, viral evasion and modulation by HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Arjun; Gale, Michael

    2014-03-20

    The intracellular innate antiviral response in human cells is an essential component of immunity against virus infection. As obligate intracellular parasites, all viruses must evade the actions of the host cell's innate immune response in order to replicate and persist. Innate immunity is induced when pathogen recognition receptors of the host cell sense viral products including nucleic acid as "non-self". This process induces downstream signaling through adaptor proteins to activate latent transcription factors that drive the expression of genes encoding antiviral and immune modulatory effector proteins that restrict virus replication and regulate adaptive immunity. The interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) are transcription factors that play major roles in innate immunity. In particular, IRF3 is activated in response to infection by a range of viruses including RNA viruses, DNA viruses and retroviruses. Among these viruses, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) remains a major global health problem mediating chronic infection in millions of people wherein recent studies show that viral persistence is linked with the ability of the virus to dysregulate and evade the innate immune response. In this review, we discuss viral pathogen sensing, innate immune signaling pathways and effectors that respond to viral infection, the role of IRF3 in these processes and how it is regulated by pathogenic viruses. We present a contemporary overview of the interplay between HIV-1 and innate immunity, with a focus on understanding how innate immune control impacts infection outcome and disease. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Strategies of highly pathogenic RNA viruses to block dsRNA detection by RIG-I-like receptors: hide, mask, hit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinzula, Luca; Tramontano, Enzo

    2013-12-01

    Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is synthesized during the course of infection by RNA viruses as a byproduct of replication and transcription and acts as a potent trigger of the host innate antiviral response. In the cytoplasm of the infected cell, recognition of the presence of viral dsRNA as a signature of "non-self" nucleic acid is carried out by RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs), a set of dedicated helicases whose activation leads to the production of type I interferon α/β (IFN-α/β). To overcome the innate antiviral response, RNA viruses encode suppressors of IFN-α/β induction, which block RLRs recognition of dsRNA by means of different mechanisms that can be categorized into: (i) dsRNA binding and/or shielding ("hide"), (ii) dsRNA termini processing ("mask") and (iii) direct interaction with components of the RLRs pathway ("hit"). In light of recent functional, biochemical and structural findings, we review the inhibition mechanisms of RLRs recognition of dsRNA displayed by a number of highly pathogenic RNA viruses with different disease phenotypes such as haemorrhagic fever (Ebola, Marburg, Lassa fever, Lujo, Machupo, Junin, Guanarito, Crimean-Congo, Rift Valley fever, dengue), severe respiratory disease (influenza, SARS, Hendra, Hantaan, Sin Nombre, Andes) and encephalitis (Nipah, West Nile). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Chemical composition of preen wax reflects major histocompatibility complex similarity in songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, J W G; Watson, M J; Kelly, T R; Gloor, G B; Bernards, M A; MacDougall-Shackleton, E A

    2016-11-16

    In jawed vertebrates, genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) play a key role in immunity by encoding cell-surface proteins that recognize and bind non-self antigens. High variability at MHC suggests that these loci may also function in social signalling such as mate choice and kin recognition. This requires that MHC genotype covaries with some perceptible phenotypic trait. In mammals and fish, MHC is signalled chemically through volatile and non-volatile peptide odour cues, facilitating MHC-dependent mate choice and other behaviours. In birds, despite evidence for MHC-dependent mating, candidate mechanisms for MHC signalling remain largely unexplored. However, feather preen wax has recently been implicated as a potential source of odour cues. We examined whether the chemical composition of preen wax correlates with MHC class IIβ genotypes of wild song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). Pairwise chemical distance reflected amino acid distance at MHC for male-female dyads, although not for same-sex dyads. Chemical diversity did not reflect MHC diversity. We used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to characterize preen wax compounds, and identified four wax esters that best reflect MHC similarity. Provided songbirds can detect variation in preen wax composition, this cue may allow individuals to assess MHC compatibility of potential mates. © 2016 The Author(s).

  16. Structure and function of the non-classical major histocompatibility complex molecule MR1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krovi, S Harsha; Gapin, Laurent

    2016-08-01

    Polymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules play a central role in the vertebrate adaptive immune system. By presenting short peptides derived from pathogen-derived proteins, these "classical" MHC molecules can alert the T cell branch of the immune system of infected cells and clear the pathogen. There exist other "non-classical" MHC molecules, which while similar in structure to classical MHC proteins, are contrasted by their limited polymorphism. While the functions of many class Ib MHC molecules have still to be elucidated, the nature and diversity of antigens (if any) that some of them might present to the immune system is expected to be more restricted and might function as another approach to distinguish self from non-self. The MHC-related 1 (MR1) molecule is a member of this family of non-classical MHC proteins. It was recently shown to present unique antigens in the form of vitamin metabolites found in certain microbes. MR1 is strongly conserved genetically, structurally, and functionally through mammalian evolution, indicating its necessity in ensuring an effective immune system for members of this class. Although MR1 will be celebrating 21 years this year since its discovery, most of our understanding of how this molecule functions has only been uncovered in the past decade. Herein, we discuss where MR1 is expressed, how it selectively is able to bind to its appropriate antigens and how it, then, is able to specifically activate a distinct population of T cells.

  17. Exploration of the Conformational Dynamics of Major Histocompatibility Complex Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanaka, Saeko; Sugase, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules are loaded with a wide variety of self- and non-self-peptides in their binding grooves and present these to T cell receptors (TCRs) in order to activate the adaptive immune system. A large number of crystal structures of different MHC alleles with different bound peptides have been determined, and they have been found to be quite similar to one another regardless of the bound peptide sequence. The structures do not change markedly even when forming complexes with TCRs. Nonetheless, the degree of TCR activation does differ markedly depending on the peptide presented by the MHC. Recent structural studies in solution rather than as crystals have suggested that the conformational dynamics of MHC molecules may be responsible for the MHC stability differences. Furthermore, it was shown that the conformational dynamics of MHC molecules is important for peptide loading and presentation to TCR. Here, we describe the static and dynamic structures of MHC molecules and appropriate methods to analyze them. We focus particularly on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), one of the most powerful tools to study dynamic properties of proteins. The number of such studies in the literature is limited, but in this review, we show that NMR is valuable for elucidating the structural dynamics of MHC molecules.

  18. Fatores associados à auto-aplicação da insulina nos usuários com diabetes mellitus acompanhados pela Estratégia Saúde da Família Factors associated with insulin self-administration by diabetes mellitus patients in the Family Health Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Santos Guerra Stacciarini

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudo seccional que objetivou comparar dois grupos de usuários com diabetes mellitus acompanhados pela Estratégia Saúde da Família e distinguidos pela auto-aplicação ou não de insulina, em relação às variáveis sócio-demográficas, às dificuldades percebidas e ao responsável pela auto-aplicação. Participaram 269 usuários selecionados por meio de uma amostragem aleatória simples, em 37 unidades da Estratégia Saúde da Família, da área urbana de um município do Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. O grupo que faz auto-aplicação foi composto por 169 (62,8% usuários e o que não faz, por 100 (37,2%. Ao comparar os grupos, a variável escolaridade foi estatisticamente significativa; 45% dos que não auto-aplicam a insulina referiram ausência de dificuldades físicas ou cognitivas que impedissem a realização deste procedimento, demonstrando potencial para a adesão; 90% referiram necessitar de auxílio em todo o processo de administração de insulina no domicílio e destes, 75% informaram receber auxílio da família. A Estratégia Saúde da Família favorece o desenvolvimento de intervenções centradas nas necessidades da clientela adscrita, estimulando-a para o autocuidado, e os resultados do presente estudo poderão contribuir com o planejamento destas intervenções.This cross-sectional study aimed to compare two groups of patients with diabetes mellitus treated under the Family Health Strategy, with insulin self-administration versus non-self-administration, in relation to socio-demographic variables, perceived difficulties, and the person responsible for the self-application. A total of 269 patients participated, included through simple random sampling, from 37 Family Health Strategy units in the urban area of a municipality in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The self-administration group consisted of 169 individuals (62.8%, as compared to 100 (37.2% in the non-self-administration group. Comparing the two groups

  19. Studsvik's implementation of the DOE spent fuel return program: The US perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grover, Stephen; Browser, Rita C.

    1996-01-01

    The government of Sweden has long been a proponent of nuclear nonproliferation policies. This includes laws governing the conduct of the Studsvik R2 Reactor in Nykoeping, Sweden. Studsvik became a participant in the RERTR program early on and was one of the first research reactors to convert from Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) to Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) fuel. Since Studsvik operates the reactor on a commercial basis, it is important to fully comply with all Swedish laws and regulations for the operation of a nuclear reactor. This includes development of a proper long term program for the final disposition for the irradiated fuel. For this reason it was very important to Studsvik to be involved in the process for development of the DOE Spent Fuel Return Program as early as possible. This process included input into the Environmental Impact Statement process, early contractual negotiations after the issuance of the Record of Decision, participation in litigation involving the Spent Fuel Return Program, and plans for return of HEU fuel on the first European shipment. Not only was program involvement important, but actual program implementation was necessary for Studsvik to maintain its reactor license. Studsvik needed to have fuel included in the first shipment in the return program not only for licensing considerations, but also to reduce the proliferation risk associated with the storage of non-self protecting fuel. To ensure participation in the first shipment, Studsvik's activities included the early development of Appendix A's, coordinating the shipment, obtaining approvals and authorizations, and other technical aspects. (author)

  20. MHD instabilities in astrophysical plasmas: very different from MHD instabilities in tokamaks!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedbloed, J. P.

    2018-01-01

    The extensive studies of MHD instabilities in thermonuclear magnetic confinement experiments, in particular of the tokamak as the most promising candidate for a future energy producing machine, have led to an ‘intuitive’ description based on the energy principle that is very misleading for most astrophysical plasmas. The ‘intuitive’ picture almost directly singles out the dominant stabilizing field line bending energy of the Alfvén waves and, consequently, concentrates on expansion schemes that minimize that contribution. This happens when the wave vector {{k}}0 of the perturbations, on average, is perpendicular to the magnetic field {B}. Hence, all macroscopic instabilities of tokamaks (kinks, interchanges, ballooning modes, ELMs, neoclassical tearing modes, etc) are characterized by satisfying the condition {{k}}0 \\perp {B}, or nearly so. In contrast, some of the major macroscopic instabilities of astrophysical plasmas (the Parker instability and the magneto-rotational instability) occur when precisely the opposite condition is satisfied: {{k}}0 \\parallel {B}. How do those instabilities escape from the dominance of the stabilizing Alfvén wave? The answer to that question involves, foremost, the recognition that MHD spectral theory of waves and instabilities of laboratory plasmas could be developed to such great depth since those plasmas are assumed to be in static equilibrium. This assumption is invalid for astrophysical plasmas where rotational and gravitational accelerations produce equilibria that are at best stationary, and the associated spectral theory is widely, and incorrectly, believed to be non-self adjoint. These complications are addressed, and cured, in the theory of the Spectral Web, recently developed by the author. Using this method, an extensive survey of instabilities of astrophysical plasmas demonstrates how the Alfvén wave is pushed into insignificance under these conditions to give rise to a host of instabilities that do not

  1. Leukocyte Ig-Like Receptors - A Model for MHC Class I Disease Associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Laura Emily; Allen, Rachel Louise

    2016-01-01

    MHC class I (MHC-I) polymorphisms are associated with the outcome of some viral infections and autoimmune diseases. MHC-I proteins present antigenic peptides and are recognized by receptors on natural killer cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes, thus enabling the immune system to detect self-antigens and eliminate targets lacking self or expressing foreign antigens. Recognition of MHC-I, however, extends beyond receptors on cytotoxic leukocytes. Members of the leukocyte Ig-like receptor (LILR) family are expressed on monocytic cells and can recognize both classical and non-classical MHC-I alleles. Despite their relatively broad specificity when compared to the T cell receptor or killer Ig-like receptors, variations in the strength of LILR binding between different MHC-I alleles have recently been shown to correlate with control of HIV infection. We suggest that LILR recognition may mediate MHC-I disease association in a manner that does not depend on a binary discrimination of self/non-self by cytotoxic cells. Instead, the effects of LILR activity following engagement by MHC-I may represent a "degrees of self" model, whereby strength of binding to different alleles determines the degree of influence exerted by these receptors on immune cell functions. LILRs are expressed by myelomonocytic cells and lymphocytes, extending their influence across antigen-presenting cell subsets including dendritic cells, macrophages, and B cells. They have been identified as important players in the response to infection, inflammatory diseases, and cancer, with recent literature to indicate that MHC-I recognition by these receptors and consequent allelic effects could extend an influence beyond the immune system.

  2. Tickle me, I think I might be dreaming! Sensory attenuation, self-other distinction, and predictive processing in lucid dreams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Michelle Windt

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The contrast between self- and other-produced tickles, as a special case of sensory attenuation for self-produced actions, has long been a target of empirical research. While in standard wake states it is nearly impossible to tickle oneself, there are interesting exceptions. Notably, subjects awakened from REM (rapid eye movement- sleep dreams are able to tickle themselves. So far, however, the question of whether it is possible to tickle oneself and be tickled by another in the dream state has not been investigated empirically or addressed from a theoretical perspective. Here, we report the results of an explorative web-based study in which participants were asked to rate their sensations during self-tickling and being tickled during wakefulness, imagination, and lucid dreaming. Our results, though highly preliminary, indicate that in the special case of lucid control dreams, the difference between self-tickling and being tickled by another is obliterated, suggesting that sensory attenuation for self-produced tickles spreads to those produced by non-self dream characters. These preliminary results provide the backdrop for a more general theoretical and metatheoretical discussion of tickling in lucid dreams in a predictive processing framework. We argue that the primary value of our study lies not so much in our results, which are subject to important limitations, but rather in the fact that they enable a new theoretical perspective on the relationship between sensory attenuation, the self-other distinction and agency, as well as suggest new questions for future research. In particular, the example of tickling during lucid dreaming raises the question of whether sensory attenuation and the self-other distinction can be simulated largely independently of external sensory input.

  3. Vascular Endothelium as a Target of Immune Response in Renal Transplant Rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotti, Giovanni; Palmisano, Alessandra; Maggiore, Umberto; Buzio, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    This review of clinical and experimental studies aims at analyzing the interplay between graft endothelium and host immune system in renal transplantation, and how it affects the survival of the graft. Graft endothelium is indeed the first barrier between self and non-self that is encountered by host lymphocytes upon reperfusion of vascularized solid transplants. Endothelial cells (EC) express all the major sets of antigens (Ag) that elicit host immune response, and therefore represent a preferential target in organ rejection. Some of the Ag expressed by EC are target of the antibody-mediated response, such as the AB0 blood group system, the human leukocyte antigens (HLA), and MHC class I related chain A antigens (MICA) systems, and the endothelial cell-restricted Ag; for each of these systems, the mechanisms of interaction and damage of both preformed and de novo donor-specific antibodies are reviewed along with their impact on renal graft survival. Moreover, the rejection process can force injured EC to expose cryptic self-Ag, toward which an autoimmune response mounts, overlapping to the allo-immune response in the damaging of the graft. Not only are EC a passive target of the host immune response but also an active player in lymphocyte activation; therefore, their interaction with allogenic T-cells is analyzed on the basis of experimental in vitro and in vivo studies, according to the patterns of expression of the HLA class I and II and the co-stimulatory molecules specific for cytotoxic and helper T-cells. Finally, as the response that follows transplantation has proven to be not necessarily destructive, the factors that foster graft endothelium functioning in spite of rejection, and how they could be therapeutically harnessed to promote long-term graft acceptance, are described: accommodation that is resistance of EC to donor-specific antibodies, and endothelial cell ability to induce Foxp3+ regulatory T-cells, that are crucial mediators of tolerance. PMID

  4. HLA class I binding prediction via convolutional neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vang, Yeeleng S; Xie, Xiaohui

    2017-09-01

    Many biological processes are governed by protein-ligand interactions. One such example is the recognition of self and non-self cells by the immune system. This immune response process is regulated by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) protein which is encoded by the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex. Understanding the binding potential between MHC and peptides can lead to the design of more potent, peptide-based vaccines and immunotherapies for infectious autoimmune diseases. We apply machine learning techniques from the natural language processing (NLP) domain to address the task of MHC-peptide binding prediction. More specifically, we introduce a new distributed representation of amino acids, name HLA-Vec, that can be used for a variety of downstream proteomic machine learning tasks. We then propose a deep convolutional neural network architecture, name HLA-CNN, for the task of HLA class I-peptide binding prediction. Experimental results show combining the new distributed representation with our HLA-CNN architecture achieves state-of-the-art results in the majority of the latest two Immune Epitope Database (IEDB) weekly automated benchmark datasets. We further apply our model to predict binding on the human genome and identify 15 genes with potential for self binding. Codes to generate the HLA-Vec and HLA-CNN are publicly available at: https://github.com/uci-cbcl/HLA-bind . xhx@ics.uci.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  5. Cost-Effective Encryption-Based Autonomous Routing Protocol for Efficient and Secure Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashif Saleem

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The deployment of intelligent remote surveillance systems depends on wireless sensor networks (WSNs composed of various miniature resource-constrained wireless sensor nodes. The development of routing protocols for WSNs is a major challenge because of their severe resource constraints, ad hoc topology and dynamic nature. Among those proposed routing protocols, the biology-inspired self-organized secure autonomous routing protocol (BIOSARP involves an artificial immune system (AIS that requires a certain amount of time to build up knowledge of neighboring nodes. The AIS algorithm uses this knowledge to distinguish between self and non-self neighboring nodes. The knowledge-building phase is a critical period in the WSN lifespan and requires active security measures. This paper proposes an enhanced BIOSARP (E-BIOSARP that incorporates a random key encryption mechanism in a cost-effective manner to provide active security measures in WSNs. A detailed description of E-BIOSARP is presented, followed by an extensive security and performance analysis to demonstrate its efficiency. A scenario with E-BIOSARP is implemented in network simulator 2 (ns-2 and is populated with malicious nodes for analysis. Furthermore, E-BIOSARP is compared with state-of-the-art secure routing protocols in terms of processing time, delivery ratio, energy consumption, and packet overhead. The findings show that the proposed mechanism can efficiently protect WSNs from selective forwarding, brute-force or exhaustive key search, spoofing, eavesdropping, replaying or altering of routing information, cloning, acknowledgment spoofing, HELLO flood attacks, and Sybil attacks.

  6. Self-organization of large-scale ULF electromagnetic wave structures in their interaction with nonuniform zonal winds in the ionospheric E region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aburjania, G. D.; Chargazia, Kh. Z.

    2011-01-01

    A study is made of the generation and subsequent linear and nonlinear evolution of ultralow-frequency planetary electromagnetic waves in the E region of a dissipative ionosphere in the presence of a nonuniform zonal wind (a sheared flow). Hall currents flowing in the E region and such permanent global factors as the spatial nonuniformity of the geomagnetic field and of the normal component of the Earth’s angular velocity give rise to fast and slow planetary-scale electromagnetic waves. The efficiency of the linear amplification of planetary electromagnetic waves in their interaction with a nonuniform zonal wind is analyzed. When there are sheared flows, the operators of linear problems are non-self-conjugate and the corresponding eigenfunctions are nonorthogonal, so the canonical modal approach is poorly suited for studying such motions and it is necessary to utilize the so-called nonmodal mathematical analysis. It is shown that, in the linear evolutionary stage, planetary electromagnetic waves efficiently extract energy from the sheared flow, thereby substantially increasing their amplitude and, accordingly, energy. The criterion for instability of a sheared flow in an ionospheric medium is derived. As the shear instability develops and the perturbation amplitude grows, a nonlinear self-localization mechanism comes into play and the process ends with the self-organization of nonlinear, highly localized, solitary vortex structures. The system thus acquires a new degree of freedom, thereby providing a new way for the perturbation to evolve in a medium with a sheared flow. Depending on the shape of the sheared flow velocity profile, nonlinear structures can be either purely monopole vortices or vortex streets against the background of the zonal wind. The accumulation of such vortices can lead to a strongly turbulent state in an ionospheric medium.

  7. A review of selected topics in physics based modeling for tunnel field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esseni, David; Pala, Marco; Palestri, Pierpaolo; Alper, Cem; Rollo, Tommaso

    2017-08-01

    The research field on tunnel-FETs (TFETs) has been rapidly developing in the last ten years, driven by the quest for a new electronic switch operating at a supply voltage well below 1 V and thus delivering substantial improvements in the energy efficiency of integrated circuits. This paper reviews several aspects related to physics based modeling in TFETs, and shows how the description of these transistors implies a remarkable innovation and poses new challenges compared to conventional MOSFETs. A hierarchy of numerical models exist for TFETs covering a wide range of predictive capabilities and computational complexities. We start by reviewing seminal contributions on direct and indirect band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) modeling in semiconductors, from which most TCAD models have been actually derived. Then we move to the features and limitations of TCAD models themselves and to the discussion of what we define non-self-consistent quantum models, where BTBT is computed with rigorous quantum-mechanical models starting from frozen potential profiles and closed-boundary Schrödinger equation problems. We will then address models that solve the open-boundary Schrödinger equation problem, based either on the non-equilibrium Green’s function NEGF or on the quantum-transmitting-boundary formalism, and show how the computational burden of these models may vary in a wide range depending on the Hamiltonian employed in the calculations. A specific section is devoted to TFETs based on 2D crystals and van der Waals hetero-structures. The main goal of this paper is to provide the reader with an introduction to the most important physics based models for TFETs, and with a possible guidance to the wide and rapidly developing literature in this exciting research field.

  8. Neuromusculoskeletal model self-calibration for on-line sequential bayesian moment estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Diana R.; Montano, L.

    2017-04-01

    Objective. Neuromusculoskeletal models involve many subject-specific physiological parameters that need to be adjusted to adequately represent muscle properties. Traditionally, neuromusculoskeletal models have been calibrated with a forward-inverse dynamic optimization which is time-consuming and unfeasible for rehabilitation therapy. Non self-calibration algorithms have been applied to these models. To the best of our knowledge, the algorithm proposed in this work is the first on-line calibration algorithm for muscle models that allows a generic model to be adjusted to different subjects in a few steps. Approach. In this paper we propose a reformulation of the traditional muscle models that is able to sequentially estimate the kinetics (net joint moments), and also its full self-calibration (subject-specific internal parameters of the muscle from a set of arbitrary uncalibrated data), based on the unscented Kalman filter. The nonlinearity of the model as well as its calibration problem have obliged us to adopt the sum of Gaussians filter suitable for nonlinear systems. Main results. This sequential Bayesian self-calibration algorithm achieves a complete muscle model calibration using as input only a dataset of uncalibrated sEMG and kinematics data. The approach is validated experimentally using data from the upper limbs of 21 subjects. Significance. The results show the feasibility of neuromusculoskeletal model self-calibration. This study will contribute to a better understanding of the generalization of muscle models for subject-specific rehabilitation therapies. Moreover, this work is very promising for rehabilitation devices such as electromyography-driven exoskeletons or prostheses.

  9. Parasitism of Lacanobia oleracea (lepidoptera) by the ectoparasitic wasp, Eulophus pennicornis, disrupts the cytoskeleton of host haemocytes and suppresses encapsulation in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Elaine H; Edwards, John P

    2002-02-01

    Parasitism of Lacanobia oleracea larvae by the ectoparasitic wasp Eulophus pennicornis suppressed host haemocyte-mediated encapsulation of Sephadex DEAE A-25 beads in vivo. Beads dissected out of parasitized larvae had fewer haemocytes associated with them. Moreover, those haemocytes that were associated with the beads tended to retain a rounded configuration and rarely flattened. Similar results were obtained using in vitro encapsulation assays. SDS PAGE indicated that for parasitized and PBS injected larvae, there were some differences in the plasma proteins that bound to Sephadex DEAE A-25 beads, suggesting that parasitism-mediated changes to host plasma proteins might contribute to the differences in the encapsulation response occurring in these larvae. However, in vitro encapsulation assays using beads that had been pre-incubated in plasma from parasitized and unparasitized larvae, demonstrated that major differences in the extent of encapsulation did not occur. These results, plus in vitro haemocyte attachment and spreading assays, suggest that parasitism-mediated suppression of encapsulation is primarily due to reductions in the ability of host haemocytes to attach to (i.e., recognize) and flatten over non-self surfaces and other haemocytes. This proposal is corroborated by staining of actin in the haemocyte cytoskeleton by FITC-labelled phalloidin, which indicated that parasitism disrupts the formation of stress fibers and focal adhesions in plasmatocytes. By contrast, experimental injection of adult female wasp venom into unparasitized L. oleracea larvae had no significant effect on in vivo encapsulation responses or the haemocyte cytoskeleton. Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol. 49:108-124, 2002. Published 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Current and emerging treatment options for ANCA-associated vasculitis: potential role of belimumab and other BAFF/APRIL targeting agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenert, Aleksander; Lenert, Petar

    2015-01-01

    Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) comprises several clinical entities with diverse clinical presentations, outcomes, and nonunifying pathogenesis. AAV has a clear potential for relapses, and shows unpredictable response to treatment. Cyclophosphamide-based therapies have remained the hallmark of induction therapy protocols for more than four decades. Recently, B-cell depleting therapy with the anti-CD20 antibody rituximab has proved beneficial in AAV, leading to Food and Drug Administration approval of rituximab in combination with corticosteroids for the treatment of AAV in adults. Rituximab for ANCA-associated vasculitis and other clinical trials provided clear evidence that rituximab was not inferior to cyclophosphamide for remission induction, and rituximab appeared even more beneficial in patients with relapsing disease. This raised hopes that other B-cell-targeted therapies directed either against CD19, CD20, CD22, or B-cell survival factors, B-cell activating factor of the tumor necrosis factor family (BAFF) and a proliferation-inducing ligand could also be beneficial for the management of AAV. BAFF neutralization with the fully humanized monoclonal antibody belimumab has already shown success in human systemic lupus erythematosus and, along with another anti-BAFF reagent blisibimod, is currently undergoing Phase II and III clinical trials in AAV. Local production of BAFF in granulomatous lesions and elevated levels of serum BAFF in AAV provide a rationale for BAFF-targeted therapies not only in AAV but also in other forms of vasculitis such as Behcet’s disease, large-vessel vasculitis, or cryoglobulinemic vasculitis secondary to chronic hepatitis C infection. BAFF-targeted therapies have a very solid safety profile, and may have an additional benefit of preferentially targeting newly arising autoreactive B cells over non-self-reactive B cells. PMID:25609919

  11. The TLR13-MyD88-NF-κB signalling pathway of Cyclina sinensis plays vital roles in innate immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yipeng; Ding, Dan; Pan, Baoping; Bu, Wenjun

    2017-11-01

    Toll-like receptors, the best known pattern recognition receptors, play important roles in recognizing non-self molecules and binding pathogen-associated molecular patterns in the innate immune system. In the present research, the cDNA and protein characterization of the TLR signalling pathway genes including IRAK4, TRAK6 and IKKα (named CsIRAK4, CsTRAF6 and CsIKKα, respectively) with the typical motifs from Cyclina sinensis showed significant similarity with their homologues from other shellfish. Furthermore, the mRNA transcripts of these three genes are ubiquitously expressed in all tissues tested and are dominantly expressed in C. sinensis haemocytes (P sinensis by RNA interference and immune challenges. The results suggested the mRNA expression patterns of CsMyD88, CsIRAK4, CsTRAF6, CsIKKα, CsIκB, CsNF-κB, CsC-LYZ and CsAMP were all down-regulated (P sinensis haemocytes, revealing the involvement of the TLR13-MyD88-NF-κB signalling pathway in innate immunity by positively adjusting internal signalling factors and immune-related genes. In summary, a TLR13-MyD88-NF-κB signalling pathway exists and plays vital roles in innate immune responses in C. sinensis. These findings collectively lay the foundation for studying the functional characterization of internal signalling factors and establishing a regulatory network for the TLR signalling pathway in molluscs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Peptide signalling during the pollen tube journey and double fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Li-Jia; Li, Ling; Lan, Zijun; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    Flowering seed plants (angiosperms) have evolved unique ways to protect their gametes from pathogen attack and from drying out. The female gametes (egg and central cell) are deeply embedded in the maternal tissues of the ovule inside the ovary, while the male gametes (sperm cells) are enclosed in the vegetative pollen tube cell. After germination of the pollen tube at the surface of papilla cells of the stigma the two immobile sperm cells are transported deep inside the sporophytic maternal tissues to be released inside the ovule for double fertilization. Angiosperms have evolved a number of hurdles along the pollen tube journey to prevent inbreeding and fertilization by alien sperm cells, and to maximize reproductive success. These pre-zygotic hybridization barriers require intensive communication between the male and female reproductive cells and the necessity to distinguish self from non-self interaction partners. General molecules such as nitric oxide (NO) or gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) therefore appear to play only a minor role in these species-specific communication events. The past 20 years have shown that highly polymorphic peptides play a leading role in all communication steps along the pollen tube pathway and fertilization. Here we review our current understanding of the role of peptides during reproduction with a focus on peptide signalling during self-incompatibility, pollen tube growth and guidance as well as sperm reception and gamete activation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Replica field theory for a polymer in random media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldschmidt, Yadin Y.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we revisit the problem of a (non-self-avoiding) polymer chain in a random medium which was previously investigated by Edwards and Muthukumar (EM) [J. Chem. Phys. 89, 2435 (1988)]. As noticed by Cates and Ball (CB) [J. Phys. (France) 49, 2009 (1988)] there is a discrepancy between the predictions of the replica calculation of EM and the expectation that in an infinite medium the quenched and annealed results should coincide (for a chain that is free to move) and a long polymer should always collapse. CB argued that only in a finite volume one might see a ''localization transition'' (or crossover) from a stretched to a collapsed chain in three spatial dimensions. Here we carry out the replica calculation in the presence of an additional confining harmonic potential that mimics the effect of a finite volume. Using a variational scheme with five variational parameters we derive analytically for d -1/(4-d) ∼(g ln V) -1/(4-d) , where R is the radius of gyration, g is the strength of the disorder, μ is the spring constant associated with the confining potential, and V is the associated effective volume of the system. Thus the EM result is recovered with their constant replaced by ln V as argued by CB. We see that in the strict infinite volume limit the polymer always collapses, but for finite volume a transition from a stretched to a collapsed form might be observed as a function of the strength of the disorder. For d V ' ∼exp(g 2/(2-d) L (4-d)/(2-d) ) the annealed results are recovered and R∼(Lg) 1/(d-2) , where L is the length of the polymer. Hence the polymer also collapses in the large L limit. The one-step replica symmetry breaking solution is crucial for obtaining the above results. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  14. Recurrence of hyperprolactinemia and continuation of ovarian acyclicity in captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana) treated with cabergoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfeld, Kari A; Ball, Ray L; Brown, Janine L

    2014-09-01

    Hyperprolactinemia is associated with reproductive acyclicity in zoo African elephants (Loxodonta africana) and may contribute to the non-self-sustainability of the captive population in North America. It is a common cause of infertility in women and other mammals and can be treated with the dopamine agonist cabergoline. The objectives of this study were to assess prolactin responses to cabergoline treatment in hyperprolactinemic, acyclic African elephants and to determine the subsequent impact on ovarian cyclic activity. Five elephants, diagnosed as hyperprolactinemic (>11 ng/ml prolactin) and acyclic (maintenance of baseline progestagens for at least 1 yr), were treated with 1-2 mg cabergoline orally twice weekly for 16-82 wk. Cabergoline reduced (P elephants (11.5 +/- 3.2 vs. 9.1 +/- 3.4 ng/ml; 20.3 +/- 16.7 vs. 7.9 +/- 9.8 ng/ml; 26.4 +/- 15.0 vs. 6.8 +/- 1.5 ng/ml; 42.2 +/- 22.6 vs. 18.6 +/- 8.9 ng/ml). However, none of the females resumed ovarian cyclicity based on serum progestagen analyses up to 1 yr posttreatment. In addition, within 1 to 6 wk after cessation of oral cabergoline, serum prolactin concentrations returned to concentrations that were as high as or higher than before treatment (P elephant that exhibited the highest pretreatment prolactin concentration (75.2 +/- 10.5 ng/ml) did not respond to cabergoline and maintained elevated levels throughout the study. Thus, oral cabergoline administration reduced prolactin concentrations in elephants with hyperprolactinemia, but there was no resumption of ovarian cyclicity, and a significant prolactin rebound effect was observed. It is possible that higher doses or longer treatment intervals may be required for cabergoline treatment to result in permanent suppression of prolactin secretion and to mitigate associated ovarian cycle problems.

  15. When it pays to cheat: Examining how generalized food deception increases male and female fitness in a terrestrial orchid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Ryan P; Michaels, Helen J

    2017-01-01

    Experimental manipulations of floral nectar in food deceptive species can reveal insights into the evolutionary consequences of the deceptive strategy. When coupled to pollen tracking, the effects of the deceptive pollination syndrome on both male and female reproductive success may be quantified. Attraction of pollinators in deceit-pollinated species often relies on producing a conspicuous floral display which may increase visibility to pollinators, but in-turn may increase within plant selfing. To understand the role of deception in Orchidaceae reproduction we studied Cypripedium candidum. All species of the Cypripedium genus employ a generalized food deceptive pollination strategy and have been suggested as a model system for the study of pollinator deception. We conducted a nectar addition experiment that randomly assigned the four plants closest to a transect point to receive one of four histochemical dyes. Two individuals selected for nectar addition in each of altogether 25 blocks received 2μl of 25% sucrose solution in the labellum of each flower, while two others received no artificial nectar. Number of fruits produced, fruit mass and fruit abortion were scored at the end of the four-month experiment. Nectar addition increased (p<0.0001) self-pollination and pollen discounting by nearly 3x, while plants not receiving nectar had greater (p<0.0001) numbers of non-self pollinia deposited and lower rates of pollen discounting. There was a non-significant (p = 0.0645) trend for deceptive plants to set more fruit, while presence of nectar did not affect pollen export. This study demonstrates the adaptive advantages of food deception by showing a concurrent reduction in particular male and female functions when a food reward is restored to a deceptive flower. We found generalized food deception to not only decrease inbreeding depression in the system, but concurrently have no effect on pollinator attraction and fruit set when compared with rewarding flowers.

  16. When it pays to cheat: Examining how generalized food deception increases male and female fitness in a terrestrial orchid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan P Walsh

    Full Text Available Experimental manipulations of floral nectar in food deceptive species can reveal insights into the evolutionary consequences of the deceptive strategy. When coupled to pollen tracking, the effects of the deceptive pollination syndrome on both male and female reproductive success may be quantified. Attraction of pollinators in deceit-pollinated species often relies on producing a conspicuous floral display which may increase visibility to pollinators, but in-turn may increase within plant selfing.To understand the role of deception in Orchidaceae reproduction we studied Cypripedium candidum. All species of the Cypripedium genus employ a generalized food deceptive pollination strategy and have been suggested as a model system for the study of pollinator deception. We conducted a nectar addition experiment that randomly assigned the four plants closest to a transect point to receive one of four histochemical dyes. Two individuals selected for nectar addition in each of altogether 25 blocks received 2μl of 25% sucrose solution in the labellum of each flower, while two others received no artificial nectar. Number of fruits produced, fruit mass and fruit abortion were scored at the end of the four-month experiment.Nectar addition increased (p<0.0001 self-pollination and pollen discounting by nearly 3x, while plants not receiving nectar had greater (p<0.0001 numbers of non-self pollinia deposited and lower rates of pollen discounting. There was a non-significant (p = 0.0645 trend for deceptive plants to set more fruit, while presence of nectar did not affect pollen export.This study demonstrates the adaptive advantages of food deception by showing a concurrent reduction in particular male and female functions when a food reward is restored to a deceptive flower. We found generalized food deception to not only decrease inbreeding depression in the system, but concurrently have no effect on pollinator attraction and fruit set when compared with

  17. Origin in Acinetobacter gyllenbergii and dissemination of aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme AAC(6')-Ih.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Eun-Jeong; Goussard, Sylvie; Nemec, Alexandr; Lambert, Thierry; Courvalin, Patrice; Grillot-Courvalin, Catherine

    2016-03-01

    The aac(6')-Ih gene encoding aminoglycoside 6'-N-acetyltransferase type I subtype h [AAC(6')-Ih] is plasmid-borne in Acinetobacter baumannii where it confers high-level amikacin resistance, but its origin remains unknown. We searched for the gene in the genomes of a collection of 133 Acinetobacter spp. and studied its species specificity, expression and dissemination. Gene copy number was determined by quantitative PCR, expression by quantitative RT-PCR, MIC by microdilution and transfer by plasmid mobilization. The aac(6')-Ih gene was present in the chromosome of the two Acinetobacter gyllenbergii of the collection and was detected in all seven A. gyllenbergii clinical isolates. They had indistinguishable flanking regions indicating that the gene was intrinsic to this species. A. baumannii PIS Aba23 promoters were provided by insertion of ISAba23, which disrupted the Pnative promoter in A. gyllenbergii. Both types of promoters were similarly potent in Escherichia coli and A. baumannii. Aminoglycoside MICs for A. baumannii harbouring pIP1858 were higher than for A. gyllenbergii due to gene dosage. The non-self-transferable plasmid could be mobilized to other A. baumannii cells by the broad host range plasmid RP4. We have found the origin of aac(6')-Ih in A. gyllenbergii, a species isolated, although rarely, in humans, and documented that dissemination of this gene is restricted to the Acinetobacter genus. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Migration from the CIS Countries to Amur Oblast in the Context of the Synthetic Theory

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    Tatiana Nikolaevna Zhuravskaya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers international migration from the CIS countries to the Amur region in 2010- 2014 in the context of the synthetic theory of international migration by D. Massey. It is shown that separate economic theories of migration cannot explain the CIS migrants’ choice of the Amur region as a destination. In particular, socio-economic indicators characterize the region as unattractive both for permanent (high mortality, low life expectancy, relatively low standard of living and labor (low GRP, specialization in primary industries, high transport costs and pay for a patent migration. The attractiveness factors of the region fit the theory of a dual labor market: the Amur region has higher wages than the countries of origin and the growing shortage of personnel. However, it is also insufficient to explain increasing migration flows from the CIS countries, which were identified on the basis of statistical data of the Federal Migration Service of the Amur region. Based on the analysis of qualitative data the author reveals the motives (economic, educational, cultural, forced, non-self-moving and channels (social networks, intermediaries, enterprises, government programs of migration. In general, the motivation and channels of migration in the case of the Amur region look quite traditional within the framework of economic theories. However, only a comprehensive consideration of all the issues allows determining regional specificity and answering the question about the destination choice. Sources of empirical data include following: series of keynote expert and biographical interviews carried out in 2014-2015, official statistical data of FSSS and FMS, as well as data from Amurstat, the FMS of the Amur region and the insurance company ‘Kolymskaya’

  19. Leukocyte Ig-Like Receptors – a model for MHC class I disease associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Louise Allen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available MHC class I (MHC-I polymorphisms are associated with the outcome of some viral infections and autoimmune diseases. MHC-I proteins present antigenic peptides and are recognised by receptors on Natural Killer cells and Cytotoxic T lymphocytes, thus enabling the immune system to detect self-antigens and eliminate targets lacking self or expressing foreign antigens. Recognition of MHC-I, however, extends beyond receptors on cytotoxic leukocytes. Members of the Leukocyte Ig-like receptor (LILR family are expressed on monocytic cells and can recognise both classical and non-classical MHC-I alleles. Despite their relatively broad specificity when compared to the T Cell Receptor or Killer Ig-like Receptors, variations in the strength of LILR binding between different MHC-I alleles have recently been shown to correlate with control of HIV infection. We suggest that LILR recognition may mediate MHC-I disease association in a manner that does not depend on a binary discrimination of self/non-self by cytotoxic cells. Instead, the effects of LILR activity following engagement by MHC-I may represent a degrees of self model, whereby strength of binding to different alleles determines the degree of influence exerted by these receptors on immune cell functions. LILR are expressed by myelomonocytic cells and lymphocytes, extending their influence across antigen presenting cell subsets including dendritic cells, macrophages and B cells. They have been identified as important players in the response to infection, inflammatory diseases and cancer, with recent literature to indicate that MHC-I recognition by these receptors and consequent allelic effects could extend an influence beyond the immune system.

  20. Host response mechanisms in periodontal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora SILVA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal diseases usually refer to common inflammatory disorders known as gingivitis and periodontitis, which are caused by a pathogenic microbiota in the subgingival biofilm, including Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola that trigger innate, inflammatory, and adaptive immune responses. These processes result in the destruction of the tissues surrounding and supporting the teeth, and eventually in tissue, bone and finally, tooth loss. The innate immune response constitutes a homeostatic system, which is the first line of defense, and is able to recognize invading microorganisms as non-self, triggering immune responses to eliminate them. In addition to the innate immunity, adaptive immunity cells and characteristic cytokines have been described as important players in the periodontal disease pathogenesis scenario, with a special attention to CD4+ T-cells (T-helper cells. Interestingly, the T cell-mediated adaptive immunity development is highly dependent on innate immunity-associated antigen presenting cells, which after antigen capture undergo into a maturation process and migrate towards the lymph nodes, where they produce distinct patterns of cytokines that will contribute to the subsequent polarization and activation of specific T CD4+ lymphocytes. Skeletal homeostasis depends on a dynamic balance between the activities of the bone-forming osteoblasts (OBLs and bone-resorbing osteoclasts (OCLs. This balance is tightly controlled by various regulatory systems, such as the endocrine system, and is influenced by the immune system, an osteoimmunological regulation depending on lymphocyte- and macrophage-derived cytokines. All these cytokines and inflammatory mediators are capable of acting alone or in concert, to stimulate periodontal breakdown and collagen destruction via tissue-derived matrix metalloproteinases, a characterization of the progression of periodontitis as

  1. Identification of SFBB-containing canonical and noncanonical SCF complexes in pollen of apple (Malus × domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamikawa, Mai F; Koyano, Ruriko; Kikuchi, Shinji; Koba, Takato; Sassa, Hidenori

    2014-01-01

    Gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) of Rosaceae, Solanaceae and Plantaginaceae is controlled by a single polymorphic S locus. The S locus contains at least two genes, S-RNase and F-box protein encoding gene SLF/SFB/SFBB that control pistil and pollen specificity, respectively. Generally, the F-box protein forms an E3 ligase complex, SCF complex with Skp1, Cullin1 (CUL1) and Rbx1, however, in Petunia inflata, SBP1 (S-RNase binding protein1) was reported to play the role of Skp1 and Rbx1, and form an SCFSLF-like complex for ubiquitination of non-self S-RNases. On the other hand, in Petunia hybrida and Petunia inflata of Solanaceae, Prunus avium and Pyrus bretschneideri of Rosaceae, SSK1 (SLF-interacting Skp1-like protein1) is considered to form the SCFSLF/SFB complex. Here, we isolated pollen-expressed apple homologs of SSK1 and CUL1, and named MdSSK1, MdCUL1A and MdCUL1B. MdSSK1 was preferentially expressed in pollen, but weakly in other organs analyzed, while, MdCUL1A and MdCUL1B were almost equally expressed in all the organs analyzed. MdSSK1 transcript abundance was significantly (>100 times) higher than that of MdSBP1. In vitro binding assays showed that MdSSK1 and MdSBP1 interacted with MdSFBB1-S9 and MdCUL1, and MdSFBB1-S9 interacted more strongly with MdSSK1 than with MdSBP1. The results suggest that both MdSSK1-containing SCFSFBB1 and MdSBP1-containing SCFSFBB1-like complexes function in pollen of apple, and the former plays a major role.

  2. CRISPR-Cas: evolution of an RNA-based adaptive immunity system in prokaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koonin, Eugene V; Makarova, Kira S

    2013-05-01

    The CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats, CRISPR-associated genes) is an adaptive immunity system in bacteria and archaea that functions via a distinct self-non-self recognition mechanism that is partially analogous to the mechanism of eukaryotic RNA interference (RNAi). The CRISPR-Cas system incorporates fragments of virus or plasmid DNA into the CRISPR repeat cassettes and employs the processed transcripts of these spacers as guide RNAs to cleave the cognate foreign DNA or RNA. The Cas proteins, however, are not homologous to the proteins involved in RNAi and comprise numerous, highly diverged families. The majority of the Cas proteins contain diverse variants of the RNA recognition motif (RRM), a widespread RNA-binding domain. Despite the fast evolution that is typical of the cas genes, the presence of diverse versions of the RRM in most Cas proteins provides for a simple scenario for the evolution of the three distinct types of CRISPR-cas systems. In addition to several proteins that are directly implicated in the immune response, the cas genes encode a variety of proteins that are homologous to prokaryotic toxins that typically possess nuclease activity. The predicted toxins associated with CRISPR-Cas systems include the essential Cas2 protein, proteins of COG1517 that, in addition to a ligand-binding domain and a helix-turn-helix domain, typically contain different nuclease domains and several other predicted nucleases. The tight association of the CRISPR-Cas immunity systems with predicted toxins that, upon activation, would induce dormancy or cell death suggests that adaptive immunity and dormancy/suicide response are functionally coupled. Such coupling could manifest in the persistence state being induced and potentially providing conditions for more effective action of the immune system or in cell death being triggered when immunity fails.

  3. New Trends in Acute Management of Colonic Diverticular Bleeding: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirocchi, Roberto; Grassi, Veronica; Cavaliere, Davide; Renzi, Claudio; Tabola, Renata; Poli, Giulia; Avenia, Stefano; Farinella, Eleonora; Arezzo, Alberto; Vettoretto, Nereo; D'Andrea, Vito; Binda, Gian Andrea; Fingerhut, Abe

    2015-11-01

    Colonic diverticular disease is the most common cause of lower gastrointestinal bleeding. In the past, this condition was usually managed with urgent colectomy. Recently, the development of endoscopy and interventional radiology has led to a change in the management of colonic diverticular bleeding.The aim of this systematic review is to define the best treatment for colonic diverticular bleeding.A systematic bibliographic research was performed on the online databases for studies (randomized controlled trials [RCTs], observational trials, case series, and case reports) published between 2005 and 2014, concerning patients admitted with a diagnosis of diverticular bleeding according to the PRISMA methodology.The outcomes of interest were: diagnosis of diverticulosis as source of bleeding; incidence of self-limiting diverticular bleeding; management of non self-limiting bleeding (endoscopy, angiography, surgery); and recurrent diverticular bleeding.Fourteen studies were retrieved for analysis. No RCTs were found. Eleven non-randomized clinical controlled trials (NRCCTs) were included in this systematic review. In all studies, the definitive diagnosis of diverticular bleeding was always made by urgent colonoscopy. The colonic diverticular bleeding stopped spontaneously in over 80% of the patients, but a re-bleeding was not rare. Recently, interventional endoscopy and angiography became the first-line approach, thus relegating emergency colectomy to patients presenting with hemodynamic instability or as a second-line treatment after failure or complications of hemostasis with less invasive treatments.Colonoscopy is effective to diagnose diverticular bleeding. Nowadays, interventional endoscopy and angiographic treatment have gained a leading role and colectomy should only be entertained in case of failure of the former.

  4. New Trends in Acute Management of Colonic Diverticular Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirocchi, Roberto; Grassi, Veronica; Cavaliere, Davide; Renzi, Claudio; Tabola, Renata; Poli, Giulia; Avenia, Stefano; Farinella, Eleonora; Arezzo, Alberto; Vettoretto, Nereo; D’Andrea, Vito; Binda, Gian Andrea; Fingerhut, Abe

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Colonic diverticular disease is the most common cause of lower gastrointestinal bleeding. In the past, this condition was usually managed with urgent colectomy. Recently, the development of endoscopy and interventional radiology has led to a change in the management of colonic diverticular bleeding. The aim of this systematic review is to define the best treatment for colonic diverticular bleeding. A systematic bibliographic research was performed on the online databases for studies (randomized controlled trials [RCTs], observational trials, case series, and case reports) published between 2005 and 2014, concerning patients admitted with a diagnosis of diverticular bleeding according to the PRISMA methodology. The outcomes of interest were: diagnosis of diverticulosis as source of bleeding; incidence of self-limiting diverticular bleeding; management of non self-limiting bleeding (endoscopy, angiography, surgery); and recurrent diverticular bleeding. Fourteen studies were retrieved for analysis. No RCTs were found. Eleven non-randomized clinical controlled trials (NRCCTs) were included in this systematic review. In all studies, the definitive diagnosis of diverticular bleeding was always made by urgent colonoscopy. The colonic diverticular bleeding stopped spontaneously in over 80% of the patients, but a re-bleeding was not rare. Recently, interventional endoscopy and angiography became the first-line approach, thus relegating emergency colectomy to patients presenting with hemodynamic instability or as a second-line treatment after failure or complications of hemostasis with less invasive treatments. Colonoscopy is effective to diagnose diverticular bleeding. Nowadays, interventional endoscopy and angiographic treatment have gained a leading role and colectomy should only be entertained in case of failure of the former. PMID:26554768

  5. IgA response in serum and gut secretion in sensitized mice fed with the dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciel M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Induced oral tolerance to mucosal-exposed antigens in immunized animals is of particular interest for the development of immunotherapeutic approaches to human allergic diseases. This is a unique feature of mucosal surfaces which represent the main contact interface with the external environment. However, the influence of oral tolerance on specific and natural polyreactive IgA antibodies, the major defense mechanism of the mucosa, is unknown. We have shown that oral administration of an extract of the dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp to primed mice caused down-regulation of IgE responses and an increase in tumor growth factor-ß secretion. In the present study, we observed that primed inbred female A/Sn mice (8 to 10 weeks old fed by gavage a total weight of 1.0-mg Dp extract on the 6th, 7th and 8th days post-immunization presented normal secretion of IL-4 and IL-10 in gut-associated lymphoid tissue and a decreased production of interferon gamma induced by Dp in the draining lymph nodes (13,340 ± 3,519 vs 29,280 ± 2,971 pg/ml. Mice fed the Dp extract also showed higher levels of serum anti-Dp IgA antibodies and an increase of IgA-secreting cells in mesenteric lymph nodes (N = 10, reflecting an increase in total fecal IgA antibodies (N = 10. The levels of secretory anti-Dp IgA antibodies increased after re-immunization regardless of Dp extract feeding. Oral tolerance did not interfere with serum or secretory IgA antibody reactivity related to self and non-self antigens. These results suggest that induction of oral tolerance to a Dp extract in sensitized mice triggered different regulatory mechanisms which inhibited the IgE response and stimulated systemic and secretory IgA responses, preserving the natural polyreactive IgA antibody production.

  6. Tickle me, I think I might be dreaming! Sensory attenuation, self-other distinction, and predictive processing in lucid dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windt, Jennifer M; Harkness, Dominic L; Lenggenhager, Bigna

    2014-01-01

    The contrast between self- and other-produced tickles, as a special case of sensory attenuation for self-produced actions, has long been a target of empirical research. While in standard wake states it is nearly impossible to tickle oneself, there are interesting exceptions. Notably, participants awakened from REM (rapid eye movement-) sleep dreams are able to tickle themselves. So far, however, the question of whether it is possible to tickle oneself and be tickled by another in the dream state has not been investigated empirically or addressed from a theoretical perspective. Here, we report the results of an explorative web-based study in which participants were asked to rate their sensations during self-tickling and being tickled during wakefulness, imagination, and lucid dreaming. Our results, though highly preliminary, indicate that in the special case of lucid control dreams, the difference between self-tickling and being tickled by another is obliterated, with both self- and other produced tickles receiving similar ratings as self-tickling during wakefulness. This leads us to the speculative conclusion that in lucid control dreams, sensory attenuation for self-produced tickles spreads to those produced by non-self dream characters. These preliminary results provide the backdrop for a more general theoretical and metatheoretical discussion of tickling in lucid dreams in a predictive processing framework. We argue that the primary value of our study lies not so much in our results, which are subject to important limitations, but rather in the fact that they enable a new theoretical perspective on the relationship between sensory attenuation, the self-other distinction and agency, as well as suggest new questions for future research. In particular, the example of tickling during lucid dreaming raises the question of whether sensory attenuation and the self-other distinction can be simulated largely independently of external sensory input.

  7. Immunological loss-of-function due to genetic gain-of-function in humans: autosomal dominance of the third kind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisson, Bertrand; Quartier, Pierre; Casanova, Jean-Laurent

    2015-02-01

    All the human primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) recognized as such in the 1950s were Mendelian traits and, whether autosomal or X-linked, displayed recessive inheritance. The first autosomal dominant (AD) PID, hereditary angioedema, was recognized in 1963. However, since the first identification of autosomal recessive (AR), X-linked recessive (XR) and AD PID-causing genes in 1985 (ADA; severe combined immunodeficiency), 1986 (CYBB, chronic granulomatous disease) and 1989 (SERPING1; hereditary angioedema), respectively, the number of genetically defined AD PIDs has increased more rapidly than that of any other type of PID. AD PIDs now account for 61 of the 260 known conditions (23%). All known AR PIDs are caused by alleles with some loss-of-function (LOF). A single XR PID is caused by gain-of-function (GOF) mutations (WASP-related neutropenia, 2001). In contrast, only 44 of 61 AD defects are caused by LOF alleles, which exert dominance by haploinsufficiency or negative dominance. Since 2003, up to 17 AD disorders of the third kind, due to GOF alleles, have been described. Remarkably, six of the 17 genes concerned also harbor monoallelic (STAT3), biallelic (C3, CFB, CARD11, PIK3R1) or both monoallelic and biallelic (STAT1) LOF alleles in patients with other clinical phenotypes. Most heterozygous GOF alleles result in auto-inflammation, auto-immunity, or both, with a wide range of immunological and clinical forms. Some also underlie infections and, fewer, allergies, by impairing or enhancing immunity to non-self. Malignancies are also rare. The enormous diversity of immunological and clinical phenotypes is thought provoking and mirrors the diversity and pleiotropy of the underlying genotypes. These experiments of nature provide a unique insight into the quantitative regulation of human immunity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. An ancient history of gene duplications, fusions and losses in the evolution of APOBEC3 mutators in mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Münk Carsten

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The APOBEC3 (A3 genes play a key role in innate antiviral defense in mammals by introducing directed mutations in the DNA. The human genome encodes for seven A3 genes, with multiple splice alternatives. Different A3 proteins display different substrate specificity, but the very basic question on how discerning self from non-self still remains unresolved. Further, the expression of A3 activity/ies shapes the way both viral and host genomes evolve. Results We present here a detailed temporal analysis of the origin and expansion of the A3 repertoire in mammals. Our data support an evolutionary scenario where the genome of the mammalian ancestor encoded for at least one ancestral A3 gene, and where the genome of the ancestor of placental mammals (and possibly of the ancestor of all mammals already encoded for an A3Z1-A3Z2-A3Z3 arrangement. Duplication events of the A3 genes have occurred independently in different lineages: humans, cats and horses. In all of them, gene duplication has resulted in changes in enzyme activity and/or substrate specificity, in a paradigmatic example of convergent adaptive evolution at the genomic level. Finally, our results show that evolutionary rates for the three A3Z1, A3Z2 and A3Z3 motifs have significantly decreased in the last 100 Mya. The analysis constitutes a textbook example of the evolution of a gene locus by duplication and sub/neofunctionalization in the context of virus-host arms race. Conclusions Our results provide a time framework for identifying ancestral and derived genomic arrangements in the APOBEC loci, and to date the expansion of this gene family for different lineages through time, as a response to changes in viral/retroviral/retrotransposon pressure.

  9. Tickle me, I think I might be dreaming! Sensory attenuation, self-other distinction, and predictive processing in lucid dreams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windt, Jennifer M.; Harkness, Dominic L.; Lenggenhager, Bigna

    2014-01-01

    The contrast between self- and other-produced tickles, as a special case of sensory attenuation for self-produced actions, has long been a target of empirical research. While in standard wake states it is nearly impossible to tickle oneself, there are interesting exceptions. Notably, participants awakened from REM (rapid eye movement-) sleep dreams are able to tickle themselves. So far, however, the question of whether it is possible to tickle oneself and be tickled by another in the dream state has not been investigated empirically or addressed from a theoretical perspective. Here, we report the results of an explorative web-based study in which participants were asked to rate their sensations during self-tickling and being tickled during wakefulness, imagination, and lucid dreaming. Our results, though highly preliminary, indicate that in the special case of lucid control dreams, the difference between self-tickling and being tickled by another is obliterated, with both self- and other produced tickles receiving similar ratings as self-tickling during wakefulness. This leads us to the speculative conclusion that in lucid control dreams, sensory attenuation for self-produced tickles spreads to those produced by non-self dream characters. These preliminary results provide the backdrop for a more general theoretical and metatheoretical discussion of tickling in lucid dreams in a predictive processing framework. We argue that the primary value of our study lies not so much in our results, which are subject to important limitations, but rather in the fact that they enable a new theoretical perspective on the relationship between sensory attenuation, the self-other distinction and agency, as well as suggest new questions for future research. In particular, the example of tickling during lucid dreaming raises the question of whether sensory attenuation and the self-other distinction can be simulated largely independently of external sensory input. PMID:25278861

  10. Convergence theorems for common fixed points for finite families of nonexpansive mappings in reflexive Banach spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C.E. Chidume; Bashir, Ali

    2007-07-01

    Let E be a real reflexive Banach space with uniformly Gateaux differentiable norm. Let K be a nonempty closed convex subset of E. Suppose that every nonempty closed convex bounded subset of K has the fixed point property for nonexpansive mappings. Let T 1 , T 2 , ..., T N be a family of nonexpansive self-mappings of K, with F := intersection i=1 N Fix(T i ) ≠ 0, F = Fix(T N T N-1 ... T 1 ) = Fix(T 1 T N ... T 2 ) = ... Fix(T N-1 T N-2 ... T 1 T N ). Let { λ n } be a sequence in (0, 1) satisfying the following conditions: C1 : lim λ n 0; C2 : Σ λ n = ∞ . For a fixed δ element of (0, 1), define S n : K → K by S n x := (1 - δ )x + δT n x for all x element of K where T n = T n mod N . For arbitrary fixed u, x 0 element of K, let B := { x element of K : T N T N-1 ... T 1 x γx+(1- γ)u, for some γ > 1} be bounded and let the sequence {x n } be defined iteratively by x n+1 λ n+1 u + (1 - λ n+1 )S n+1 x n , for n ≥ 0. Assume that lim n →∞ vertical bar vertical bar T n x n - T n+1 x n vertical bar vertical bar = 0. Then, {x n } converges strongly to a common fixed point of the family T 1 , T 2 , ..., T N . Convergence theorem is also proved for non-self maps. (author)

  11. Fricción dinámica: Influencia de órbitas caóticas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cora, S. A.; Vergne, M. M.; Muzzio, J. C.

    We have used numerical experiments to investigate the orbital decay, caused by dynamical friction, of a rigid satellite which moves within a larger stellar system (a galaxy), whose potential is non-integrable. This type of potential has regular and irregular orbits, being the last ones chaotic respect of having exponential sensitivity to perturbations, a feature that makes them to relax in a time much shorter than regular ones. Assuming that the dynamical friction is inversely proportional to the relaxation time, this phenomenon would increase in the presence of chaotic orbits (Pfenniger 1986). Therefore, we present preliminary numerical results to check this idea. We considered two different triaxial galaxy models with different percentage of chaotic orbits. 1) The triaxial generalization of spherical models of Dehnen (1993), with a constant-density core, where the orbits can be identified with one of the four families of regular orbits in Stackel potentials (boxes and the three families of tubes). When a central compact object (black hole) is included a porcentage of the boxlike orbits are rendered chaotic. 2) The modified Satoh galaxy model (Satoh 1980) without rotation, in which the orbits are mostly regular (boxes and tubes). However, if we consider the triaxial galaxy with rotation the resulting potential is non-integrable with a high degree of chaos. The satellite is modelled by a softened point mass, moving on a circular orbit in the spherical model. To integrate he equation of motion a non-self-consistent code is used. The results of a few simulations suggest that the presence of chaotic orbits does not affect significantly the orbital decay of the satellite.

  12. 45,X product of conception after preimplantation genetic diagnosis and euploid embryo transfer: evidence of a spontaneous conception confirmed by DNA fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettio, Daniela; Capalbo, Antonio; Albani, Elena; Rienzi, Laura; Achille, Valentina; Venci, Anna; Ubaldi, Filippo Maria; Levi Setti, Paolo Emanuele

    2016-09-06

    Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) provides an opportunity to eliminate a potential implantation failure due to aneuploidy in infertile couples. Some studies clearly show that twins following single embryo transfer (SET) can be the result of a concurrent natural conception and an incidence as high as 1 in 5 twins has been reported. In our case PGS was performed on trophectoderm (TE) biopsies by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The product of conception (POC) was cytogenetically investigated after selection of the placental villi by means of the direct method. Molecular cytogenetic characterization of the POC was performed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and array-comparative genomic hybridization (a-CGH) analyses. To investigate the possibility of a spontaneous conception, a panel of 40 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was used to compare genetic similarity between the DNA of the POC and the DNA leftover of the TE biopsy. We describe a 36-year old infertile woman undergoing PGS who had a spontaneous abortion after a single euploid embryo transfer on a spontaneous cycle. The POC showed a 45,X karyotype confirmed by FISH and a-CGH. DNA fingerprinting demonstrated a genetic similarity of 75 % between the DNA of the POC and TE biopsy, consistent with a sibling status. All supernumerary euploid embryos were also tested showing a non-self relationship with the POC, excluding a mix-up event at the time of fetal embryo transfer. DNA fingerprinting of the transferred blastocyst and POC, confirmed the occurrence of a spontaneous conception. This case challenges the assumption that a pregnancy after assisted reproductive technology (ART) is always a result of ART, and strengthens the importance to avoid intercourses during PGS and natural transfer cycles. Moreover, cytogenetic analysis of the POCs is strongly recommended along with fingerprinting children born after PGS to see what the concordance is between the embryo transferred and

  13. Determination of sialic acids in immune system cells (coelomocytes) of sea urchin, Paracentrotus lividus, using capillary LC-ESI-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İzzetoğlu, Savaş; Şahar, Umut; Şener, Ecem; Deveci, Remziye

    2014-01-01

    Coelomocytes are considered to be immune effectors of sea urchins. Coelomocytes are the freely circulating cells in the body fluid contained in echinoderm coelom and mediate the cellular defence responses to immune challenges by phagocytosis, encapsulation, cytotoxicity and the production of antimicrobial agents. Coelomocytes have the ability to recognize self from non-self. Considering that sialic acids play important roles in immunity, we determined the presence of sialic acid types in coelomocytes of Paracentrotus lividus. Homogenized coelomocytes were kept in 2 M aqueous acetic acid at 80 °C for 3 h to liberate sialic acids. Sialic acids were determined by derivatization with 1,2-diamino-4,5-methylenediaoxy-benzene dihydrochloride (DMB) followed by capillary liquid-chromatography-electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry (CapLC-ESI-MS/MS). Standard sialic acids; Neu5Ac, Neu5Gc, KDN and bovine submaxillary mucin showing a variety of sialic acids were used to confirm sialic acids types. We found ten different types of sialic acids (Neu5Gc, Neu5Ac, Neu5Gc9Ac, Neu5Gc8Ac, Neu5,9Ac2, Neu5,7Ac2, Neu5,8Ac2, Neu5,7,9Ac3, Neu5Gc7,9Ac2, Neu5Gc7Ac) isolated in limited amounts from total coelomocyte population. Neu5Gc type of sialic acids in coelomocytes was the most abundant type sialic acid when compared with other types. This is the first report on the presence of sialic acid types in coelomocytes of P. lividus using CapLC-ESI-MS/MS-Ion Trap system (Capillary Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization/Tandem Mass Spectrometry). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sloshing Simulation of Three Types Tank Ship on Pitching and Heaving Motion

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    Edi Djatmiko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As an important part of a ship, tanker / cargo hold specifically designed to distribute the load to be maintained safely. In a related IMO classification of LNG carrier, there are a wide variety of types of LNG tanks on ships. Are generally divided into two types, namely tank (Independent Self Supporting Tank and (Non Self Supporting Tanks. The tank-type variation will affect the characteristics of fluid motion that is inside the tank. Need for simulation of sloshing and analysis of the structure of the tank due to the force created by the load when the heaving and pitching. Sloshing the effect of the free movement of the fluid in the tank with the striking motion wall tank walls that can damage the walls of the tank. Type 1 tank is a tank octagonal (octogonal for membrane-type LNG carrier with dimensions of length 38 m width 39.17 m 14.5 m high side of the tank. Type 2 tank is a tank-shaped capsule with the long dimension of 26.6 m and a diameter of 10.5 m. Type 3 tank is rectangular tank (rectanguler with dimensions of length of 49.68 m, width 46.92 and 32.23 m high. Simulations conducted using Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD using ANSYS FLUENT software. From the simulation results concluded that the tank 1 to form (octogonal have a total pressure of 3013.99 Pa on the front wall with a height of 13.65 m from the base of the tank

  15. Metaphor “life-formation” and its connection with other basic metaphors in the narrative by A.P. “My life”

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    Scharenskaya Natalya Markovna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the implementation of the conceptual metaphor of life - in the structure of the novel by A.P. Chekhov “My Life”. It is analyzed the relationship with a number of other complexes of metaphorical story (life - road for the flight, sleep, traced their deployment in object-verbal part of the story and semantic plexus in complex linguistic fabric of the text. This method of the study facilitates the comprehension of the aesthetic values of linguistic units text and its deeper meaning. The analysis proves that the building metaphor in the novel “My Life” gives rise to one of the most important ways of life of public order. It shows the deployment of man’s place in public buildings, describing his lifestyle and determining the spiritual condition as a deathly, devoid of life. In a sign of the horizontal and static position in space it is connected with the metaphor of life - sleep, oblivion. With the introduction of life in the form of road construction metaphor enters into a relationship of opposition: they are differently based on whether the movement and its absence, as well as natural and artificial, life in its ontology and its phenomenology, as the embodiment of the object of human activity. Metaphors flow and flight - to a certain extent overlapping images of a person’s life non-self-managed - together with the idea of life as building a complete picture of real-life human life. It does not change in its essence with all the fullness of its social movements of different kinds of thoughts and ideas that come to replace one another.

  16. Causes of death among detainees: a statistical study on the casework of the Forensic Medicine Institute in Cluj-Napoca during the period 2000-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherman, Cristian; Chiroban, Ovidiu

    2015-01-01

    The detainees' right to healthcare is granted by laws, in accordance with EU directives and recommendations to which our country has consented. Prison population is a particularly vulnerable and marginalized group characterized by mortality rates different from the general population. This study aims at providing a picture of the causes of death, quality of healthcare and measures needed to reduce the number of in-prison deaths, including legal medicine expertise in view of sentence postponement/interruption. The present paper is based on the statistical analysis of in-prison deaths casework recorded at the Forensic Medicine Institute of Cluj-Napoca and provided by territorially subordinated counties forensic services. The data collected cover over 15 years (2000-2014), a period long enough for significant retrospective statistical analysis. The total number of deaths among the inmates was 113, the majority of male sex (110). Distribution by age groups shows a greater incidence among inmates aged 50 to 59 years (32 cases, 28.31%), followed by those in their 40s' (30 cases, 26.54%) and 30s' (25 cases, 22.12%). The most frequent pathological causes of death were cardiovascular (53 cases) followed by tumors (26 cases) and infectious diseases. A significant number of deaths were due to violent causes (14 cases-12,38%). Special problems are raised by the high number of deaths among prisoners, especially at a young age, while the high frequency of violent deaths from self- or non-self-inflicted traumatic causes requires supervision, monitoring and continuous analysis. Despite recent improvements, healthcare in prisons still poses some problems, mainly regarding diagnosis and treatment of heart diseases, neurosurgery and cancer.

  17. Convergences and divergences of thymus- and peripherally-derived regulatory T cells in cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALESSIA eBUROCCHI

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of regulatory T cells (Treg is a common event characterizing the vast majority of human and experimental tumors and it is now well established that Treg represent a crucial hurdle for a successful immunotherapy. Treg are currently classified, according to their origin, into thymus-derived (tTreg or peripherally induced (pTreg cells. Controversy exists over the prevalent mechanism accounting for Treg expansion in tumors, since both tTreg proliferation and de novo pTreg differentiation may occur. Since tTreg and pTreg are believed as preferentially self-specific or broadly directed to non-self and tumor-specific antigens, respectively, the balance between tTreg and pTreg accumulation may impact on the repertoire of antigen specificities recognized by Treg in tumors. The prevalence of tTreg or pTreg may also affect the outcome of immunotherapies based on tumor antigen vaccination or Treg depletion. The mechanisms dictating pTreg induction or tTreg expansion/stability are a matter of intense investigation and the most recent results depict a complex landscape. Indeed, selected Treg subsets may display peculiar characteristics in terms of stability, suppressive function and cytokine production, depending on microenvironmental signals. These features may be differentially distributed between pTreg and tTreg and may significantly affect the possibility of manipulating Treg in cancer therapy. We propose here that innovative immunotherapeutic strategies may be directed at diverting unstable/uncommitted Treg, mostly enriched in the pTreg pool, into tumor-specific effectors, while preserving systemic immune tolerance ensured by self-specific tTreg.

  18. Probing ionization potential, electron affinity and self-energy effect on the spectral shape and exciton binding energy of quantum liquid water with self-consistent many-body perturbation theory and Bethe-Salpeter equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaei, Vafa; Bredow, Thomas

    2018-04-18

    An accurate theoretical prediction of ionization potential (IP) and electron affinity (EA) is key for understanding of complex photochemical processes in aqueous environments. There have been numerous efforts in literature to accurately predict IP and EA of liquid water, however with often conflicting results depending on the level of theory and the underlying water structures. In a recent study based on hybrid-non-self-consistent many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) Gaiduk et al. [Nature Communications {\\bf 9}, 247 (2018)] predicted an IP of 10.2 eV and EA of 0.2 eV, resulting in an electronic band gap (i.e. electronic gap (IP-EA) as measured by photoelectron spectroscopy) of about 10 eV, redefining the widely cited experimental gap of 8.7 eV in literature. In the present work, we show that GW self-consistency and an implicit vertex correction in MBPT considerably affect recently reported EA value by Gaiduk et al. \\cite{Gaiduk_affinity} by about 1 eV. Furthermore, the choice of pseudo-potential is critical for an accurate determination of the absolute band positions. Consequently, the self-consistent GW approach with an implicit vertex correction based on projector augmented wave (PAW) method on top of quantum water structures predicts an IP of 10.2, an EA of 1.1, a fundamental gap of 9.1 eV and an exciton binding (Eb) energy of 0.9 eV for the first absorption band of liquid water via Bethe-Salpeter equation (BSE). Only within such a self-consistent approach a \\textit{simultanously} accurate prediction of IP, EA, Eg, Eb is possible. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  19. LONELINESS OF OLD PEOPLE IN POLAND – SALE, SYMPTOMS AND WAYS OF SOLVING PROBLEM

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    Marta Olcon-Kubicka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The text discusses results of a research conducted on behalf of ‘I-Woman’ Foundation (Fundacja Ja Kobieta on the elderly people loneliness phenomenon. The aim of the research was to determine the scale of said phenomenon and partially of social exclusion of the elderly, factors infl uencing the probability of the problem’s occurrence as well as counter-measures possible to apply on both personal and institutional level. The initial phase of the research consisted of 11 individual in-depth interviews (IDI. The most important part of the project involved quantitative research carried out on a nationwide, random, representative group of a thousand 65 years-old-people. This research was done through CATI interviews. The results were discussed during two focus group interviews (FGI. The aim of the interviews was to check the point of view of potential carers and people fi ghting with elderly people’s loneliness. Almost 20% of the Polish elderly can be considered lonely – they declare that often (10% or always (7% feel lonely. Almost half of the surveyed (47% admitted never feeling lonely. The factors infl uencing the feeling of loneliness include: gender, age, education, marital status, source of income, place of living. Factors that increase the level of loneliness include lack of self-reliance and no possibilities of getting support in dealing with one’sdiffi cult situation. Family and relatives are the key factors in fi ghting with social exclusion. Friends and acquaintances are also important since they are often the only support of an elderly person. Local social policy should create suitable conditions for social integration of the elderly into the local community and limiting architectural barriers is one of the important elements of such a process. The fate of non self-reliant people depends on institutional solutions.

  20. Demonstration of innate immune responses in the thyroid gland: potential to sense danger and a possible trigger for autoimmune reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Akira; Yamazaki, Kazuko; Hara, Takeshi; Akama, Takeshi; Yoshihara, Aya; Sue, Mariko; Tanigawa, Kazunari; Wu, Huhehasi; Ishido, Yuko; Takeshita, Fumihiko; Ishii, Norihisa; Sato, Kanji; Suzuki, Koichi

    2013-04-01

    Autoimmune thyroid disease is an archetypal organ-specific autoimmune disorder that is characterized by the production of thyroid autoantibodies and lymphocytic infiltration into the thyroid. However, the underlying mechanisms by which specific thyroid antibodies are produced are largely unknown. Recent studies have shown that innate immune responses affect both the phenotype and the severity of autoimmune reactions. Moreover, it appears that even non-immune cells, including thyroid cells, have an ability to launch such responses. The aim of this study was to conduct a more detailed analysis of innate immune responses of the thyroid upon stimulation with various "non-self" and "self" factors that might contribute to the initiation of autoimmune reactions. We used rat thyroid FRTL-5 cells, human thyroid cells, and mice to investigate the effects of various pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), and iodide on gene expression and function that were related to innate immune responses. RT-PCR analysis showed that both rat and human thyroid cells expressed mRNAs for Toll-like receptors (TLRs) that sensed PAMPs. Stimulation of thyrocytes with TLR ligands resulted in activation of the interferon-beta (IFN-β) promoter and the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB)-dependent promoter. As a result, pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and type I interferons were produced. Similar activation was observed when thyroid cells were stimulated with double-stranded DNA, one of the typical DAMPs. In addition to these PAMPs and DAMPs, treatment of thyroid cells with high concentrations of iodide increased mRNA expression of various cytokines. We show that thyroid cells express functional sensors for exogenous and endogenous dangers, and that they are capable of launching innate immune responses without the assistance of immune cells. Such responses may relate to the development of thyroiditis

  1. Equal work for unequal pay: the gender reimbursement gap for healthcare providers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Tejas; Ali, Sadeem; Fang, Xiangming; Thompson, Wanda; Jawa, Pankaj; Vachharajani, Tushar

    2016-10-01

    Gender disparities in income continue to exist, and many studies have quantified the gap between male and female workers. These studies paint an incomplete picture of gender income disparity because of their reliance on notoriously inaccurate or incomplete surveys. We quantified gender reimbursement disparity between female and male healthcare providers using objective, non-self-reported data and attempted to adjust the disparity against commonly held beliefs as to why it exists. We analysed over three million publicly available Medicare reimbursement claims for calendar year 2012 and compared the reimbursements received by male and female healthcare providers in 13 medical specialties. We adjusted these reimbursement totals against how hard providers worked, how productive each provider was, and their level of experience. We calculated a reimbursement differential between male and female providers by primary medical specialty. The overall adjusted reimbursement differential against female providers was -US$18 677.23 (95% CI -US$19 301.94 to -US$18 052.53). All 13 specialties displayed a negative reimbursement differential against female providers. Only two specialties had reimbursement differentials that were not statistically significant. After adjustment for how hard a physician works, his/her years of experience and his/her productivity, female healthcare providers are still reimbursed less than male providers. Using objective, non-survey data will provide a more accurate understanding of this reimbursement inequity and perhaps lead the medical profession (as a whole) towards a solution that can reverse this decades-old injustice. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Protein Homeostasis Imposes a Barrier on Functional Integration of Horizontally Transferred Genes in Bacteria.

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    Shimon Bershtein

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Horizontal gene transfer (HGT plays a central role in bacterial evolution, yet the molecular and cellular constraints on functional integration of the foreign genes are poorly understood. Here we performed inter-species replacement of the chromosomal folA gene, encoding an essential metabolic enzyme dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR, with orthologs from 35 other mesophilic bacteria. The orthologous inter-species replacements caused a marked drop (in the range 10-90% in bacterial growth rate despite the fact that most orthologous DHFRs are as stable as E.coli DHFR at 37°C and are more catalytically active than E. coli DHFR. Although phylogenetic distance between E. coli and orthologous DHFRs as well as their individual molecular properties correlate poorly with growth rates, the product of the intracellular DHFR abundance and catalytic activity (kcat/KM, correlates strongly with growth rates, indicating that the drop in DHFR abundance constitutes the major fitness barrier to HGT. Serial propagation of the orthologous strains for ~600 generations dramatically improved growth rates by largely alleviating the fitness barriers. Whole genome sequencing and global proteome quantification revealed that the evolved strains with the largest fitness improvements have accumulated mutations that inactivated the ATP-dependent Lon protease, causing an increase in the intracellular DHFR abundance. In one case DHFR abundance increased further due to mutations accumulated in folA promoter, but only after the lon inactivating mutations were fixed in the population. Thus, by apparently distinguishing between self and non-self proteins, protein homeostasis imposes an immediate and global barrier to the functional integration of foreign genes by decreasing the intracellular abundance of their products. Once this barrier is alleviated, more fine-tuned evolution occurs to adjust the function/expression of the transferred proteins to the constraints imposed by the

  3. Both STING and MAVS fish orthologs contribute to the induction of interferon mediated by RIG-I.

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    Stéphane Biacchesi

    Full Text Available Viral infections are detected in most cases by the host innate immune system through pattern-recognition receptors (PRR, the sensors for pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs, which induce the production of cytokines, such as type I interferons (IFN. Recent identification in mammalian and teleost fish of cytoplasmic viral RNA sensors, RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs, and their mitochondrial adaptor: the mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS protein, also called IPS-1, highlight their important role in the induction of IFN at the early stage of a virus infection. More recently, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER adaptor: the stimulator of interferon genes (STING protein, also called MITA, ERIS and MPYS, has been shown to play a pivotal role in response to both non-self-cytosolic RNA and dsDNA. In this study, we cloned STING cDNAs from zebrafish and showed that it was an ortholog to mammalian STING. We demonstrated that overexpression of this ER protein in fish cells led to a constitutive induction of IFN and interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs. STING-overexpressing cells were almost fully protected against RNA virus infection with a strong inhibition of both DNA and RNA virus replication. In addition, we found that together with MAVS, STING was an important player in the RIG-I IFN-inducing pathway. This report provides the demonstration that teleost fish possess a functional RLR pathway in which MAVS and STING are downstream signaling molecules of RIG-I. The Sequences presented in this article have been submitted to GenBank under accession numbers: Zebrafish STING (HE856619; EPC STING (HE856620; EPC IRF3 (HE856621; EPC IFN promoter (HE856618.

  4. Binding properties of the regulatory domains in Manduca sexta hemolymph proteinase-14, an initiation enzyme of the prophenoloxidase activation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Jiang, Haobo

    2010-03-01

    Pathogen recognition and rapid initiation of defense responses are essential for the survival of host insects. In Manduca sexta, hemolymph proteinase-14 precursor (proHP14) senses non-self presence and triggers a branched serine proteinase pathway which leads to prophenoloxidase activation and melanin formation around the invading organisms. To understand functions of individual domains in HP14, we have produced a series of HP14 domains and truncation mutants and studied their interactions with microbial polysaccharides and beta-1,3-glucan recognition protein-1 (betaGRP1)-a biosensor for fungal and bacterial infection. These include: the low-density lipoprotein receptor class A repeats 1-5 (LDL(1-5)), Sushi domain, Wonton domain, and proteinase catalytic domain of HP14, as well as proHP14 missing 1-4 LDL repeats (DeltaLDL(1), DeltaLDL(12), DeltaLDL(1-3) and DeltaLDL(1-4)). LDL(1-5), Sushi, and Wonton domains specifically recognized Lys-type PG, whereas the latter two also bound betaGRP1. Wonton in addition bound to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), lipoteichoic acid (LTA), and meso-diaminopimelic acid (DAP)-type peptidoglycan (PG). The four N-terminally truncated proHP14 (DeltaL(x)) further confirmed specific interactions with LPS, LTA, DAP-PG, Lys-PG, laminarin, and betaGRP1. These binding data suggest a broad specificity of proHP14 in pattern recognition. Its role in mediating immune responses is anticipated to be influenced by other plasma factors and surface structures of invading pathogens. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [A motivational approach of cognitive efficiency in nursing home residents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Evelyne; Vivicorsi, Bruno; Altintas, Emin; Guerrien, Alain

    2014-06-01

    Despite a widespread concern with self-determined motivation (behavior is engaged in "out of pleasure" or "out of choice and valued as being important") and psychological adjustment in later life (well-being, satisfaction in life, meaning of life, or self-esteem), very little is known about the existence and nature of the links between self-determined motivation and cognitive efficiency. The aim of the present study was to investigate theses links in nursing home residents in the framework of the Self-determination theory (SDT) (Deci & Ryan, 2002), in which motivational profile of a person is determined by the combination of different kinds of motivation. We hypothesized that self-determined motivation would lead to higher cognitive efficiency. Participants. 39 (32 women and 7 men) elderly nursing home residents (m= 83.6 ± 9.3 year old) without any neurological or psychiatric disorders (DSM IV) or depression or anxiety (Hamilton depression rating scales) were included in the study. Methods. Cognitive efficiency was evaluated by two brief neuropsychological tests, the Mini mental state examination (MMSE) and the Frontal assessment battery (FAB). The motivational profile was assessed by the Elderly motivation scale (Vallerand & 0'Connor, 1991) which includes four subscales assessing self- and non-self determined motivation to engage oneself in different domains of daily life activity. Results. The neuropsychological scores were positively and significantly correlated to self-determined extrinsic motivation (behavior is engaged in "out of choice" and valued as being important), and the global self-determination index (self-determined motivational profile) was the best predictor of the cognitive efficiency. Conclusion. The results support the SDT interest for a qualitative assessment of the motivation of the elderly people and suggest that a motivational approach of cognitive efficiency could help to interpret cognitive performances exhibited during neuropsychological

  6. Inhibitors of histone deacetylase 1 reverse the immune evasion phenotype to enhance T-cell mediated lysis of prostate and breast carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gameiro, Sofia R; Malamas, Anthony S; Tsang, Kwong Y; Ferrone, Soldano; Hodge, James W

    2016-02-16

    The clinical promise of cancer immunotherapy relies on the premise that the immune system can recognize and eliminate tumor cells identified as non-self. However, tumors can evade host immune surveillance through multiple mechanisms, including epigenetic silencing of genes involved in antigen processing and immune recognition. Hence, there is an unmet clinical need to develop effective therapeutic strategies that can restore tumor immune recognition when combined with immunotherapy, such as immune checkpoint blockade and therapeutic cancer vaccines. We sought to examine the potential of clinically relevant exposure of prostate and breast human carcinoma cells to histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors to reverse tumor immune escape to T-cell mediated lysis. Here we demonstrate that prostate (LNCAP) and breast (MDA-MB-231) carcinoma cells are more sensitive to T-cell mediated lysis in vitro after clinically relevant exposure to epigenetic therapy with either the pan-HDAC inhibitor vorinostat or the class I HDAC inhibitor entinostat. This pattern of immunogenic modulation was observed against a broad range of tumor-associated antigens, such as CEA, MUC1, PSA, and brachyury, and associated with augmented expression of multiple proteins involved in antigen processing and tumor immune recognition. Genetic and pharmacological inhibition studies identified HDAC1 as a key determinant in the reversal of carcinoma immune escape. Further, our findings suggest that the observed reversal of tumor immune evasion is driven by a response to cellular stress through activation of the unfolded protein response. This offers the rationale for combining HDAC inhibitors with immunotherapy, including therapeutic cancer vaccines.

  7. The vertical structure of gaseous galaxy discs in cold dark matter haloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez-Llambay, Alejandro; Navarro, Julio F.; Frenk, Carlos S.; Ludlow, Aaron D.

    2018-01-01

    We study the vertical structure of polytropic centrifugally supported gaseous discs embedded in cold dark matter (CDM) haloes. At fixed radius, R, the shape of the vertical density profile depends weakly on whether the disc is self-gravitating (SG) or non-self-gravitating (NSG). The disc 'characteristic' thickness, zH, set by the midplane sound speed and circular velocity, zNSG = (cs/Vc)R, in the NSG case, and by the sound speed and surface density, z_SG = c_s^2/GΣ, in SG discs, is smaller than zSG and zNSG. SG discs are typically Toomre unstable, NSG discs are stable. Exponential discs in CDM haloes with roughly flat circular velocity curves 'flare' outwards. Flares in mono abundance or coeval populations in galaxies like the Milky Way are thus not necessarily due to radial migration. For the polytropic equation of state of the Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments (EAGLE) simulations, discs that match observational constraints are NSG for Md smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations and find excellent agreement. Our results clarify the role of the gravitational softening on the thickness of simulated discs, and on the onset of radial instabilities. EAGLE low-mass discs are NSG so the softening plays no role in their vertical structure. High-mass discs are expected to be SG and unstable, and may be artificially thickened and stabilized unless gravity is well resolved. Simulations with spatial resolution high enough to not compromise the vertical structure of a disc also resolve the onset of their instabilities, but the converse is not true.

  8. The C1q family of proteins: insights into the emerging non-traditional functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berhane eGhebrehiwet

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Research conducted over the past 20 years have helped us unravel not only the hidden structural and functional subtleties of human C1q, but also has catapulted the molecule from a mere recognition unit of the classical pathway to a well-recognized molecular sensor of damage modified self or non-self antigens. Thus, C1q is involved in a rapidly expanding list of pathological disorders—including autoimmunity, trophoblast migration, preeclampsia and cancer. The results of two recent reports are provided to underscore the critical role C1q plays in health and disease. First is the observation by Singh and colleagues showing that pregnant C1q-/- mice recapitulate the key features of human preeclampsia that correlate with increased fetal death. Treatment of the C1q-/- mice with pravastatin restored trophoblast invasiveness, placental blood flow, and angiogenic balance and, thus, prevented the onset of preeclampsia. Second is the report by Hong et al., which showed that C1q can induce apoptosis of prostate cancer cells by activating the tumor suppressor molecule WW-domain containing oxydoreductase (WWOX or WOX1 and destabilizing cell adhesion. Downregulation of C1q on the other hand enhanced prostate hyperplasia and cancer formation due to failure of WOX1 activation. Recent evidence also shows that C1q belongs to a family of structurally and functionally related TNFα-like family of proteins that may have arisen from a common ancestral gene. Therefore C1q not only shares the diverse functions with the TNF family of proteins, but also explains why C1q has retained some of its ancestral cytokine-like activities. This review is intended to highlight some of the structural and functional aspects of C1q by underscoring the growing list of its non-traditional functions.

  9. Examining the intersection between splicing, nuclear export and small RNA pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabih, Amena; Sobotka, Julia A; Wu, Monica Z; Wedeles, Christopher J; Claycomb, Julie M

    2017-11-01

    Nuclear Argonaute/small RNA pathways in a variety of eukaryotic species are generally known to regulate gene expression via chromatin modulation and transcription attenuation in a process known as transcriptional gene silencing (TGS). However, recent data, including genetic screens, phylogenetic profiling, and molecular mechanistic studies, also point to a novel and emerging intersection between the splicing and nuclear export machinery with nuclear Argonaute/small RNA pathways in many organisms. In this review, we summarize the field's current understanding regarding the relationship between splicing, export and small RNA pathways, and consider the biological implications for coordinated regulation of transcripts by these pathways. We also address the importance and available approaches for understanding the RNA regulatory logic generated by the intersection of these particular pathways in the context of synthetic biology. The interactions between various eukaryotic RNA regulatory pathways, particularly splicing, nuclear export and small RNA pathways provide a type of combinatorial code that informs the identity ("self" versus "non-self") and dictates the fate of each transcript in a cell. Although the molecular mechanisms for how splicing and nuclear export impact small RNA pathways are not entirely clear at this early stage, the links between these pathways are widespread across eukaryotic phyla. The link between splicing, nuclear export, and small RNA pathways is emerging and establishes a new frontier for understanding the combinatorial logic of gene regulation across species that could someday be harnessed for therapeutic, biotechnology and agricultural applications. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Biochemistry of Synthetic Biology - Recent Developments" Guest Editor: Dr. Ilka Heinemann and Dr. Patrick O'Donoghue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Experimental Test of the “Special State” Theory of Quantum Measurement

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    Lawrence S. Schulman

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available An experimental test of the “special state” theory of quantum measurement is proposed. It should be feasible with present-day laboratory equipment and involves a slightly elaborated Stern–Gerlach setup. The “special state” theory is conservative with respect to quantum mechanics, but radical with respect to statistical mechanics, in particular regarding the arrow of time. In this article background material is given on both quantum measurement and statistical mechanics aspects. For example, it is shown that future boundary conditions would not contradict experience, indicating that the fundamental equal-a-priori-probability assumption at the foundations of statistical mechanics is far too strong (since future conditioning reduces the class of allowed states. The test is based on a feature of this theory that was found necessary in order to recover standard (Born probabilities in quantum measurements. Specifically, certain systems should have “noise” whose amplitude follows the long-tailed Cauchy distribution. This distribution is marked by the occasional occurrence of extremely large signals as well as a non-self-averaging property. The proposed test is a variant of the Stern–Gerlach experiment in which protocols are devised, some of which will require the presence of this noise, some of which will not. The likely observational schemes would involve the distinction between detection and non-detection of that “noise”. The signal to be detected (or not would be either single photons or electric fields (and related excitations in the neighborhood of the ends of the magnets.

  11. Error-dependent modulation of speech-induced auditory suppression for pitch-shifted voice feedback

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    Larson Charles R

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The motor-driven predictions about expected sensory feedback (efference copies have been proposed to play an important role in recognition of sensory consequences of self-produced motor actions. In the auditory system, this effect was suggested to result in suppression of sensory neural responses to self-produced voices that are predicted by the efference copies during vocal production in comparison with passive listening to the playback of the identical self-vocalizations. In the present study, event-related potentials (ERPs were recorded in response to upward pitch shift stimuli (PSS with five different magnitudes (0, +50, +100, +200 and +400 cents at voice onset during active vocal production and passive listening to the playback. Results Results indicated that the suppression of the N1 component during vocal production was largest for unaltered voice feedback (PSS: 0 cents, became smaller as the magnitude of PSS increased to 200 cents, and was almost completely eliminated in response to 400 cents stimuli. Conclusions Findings of the present study suggest that the brain utilizes the motor predictions (efference copies to determine the source of incoming stimuli and maximally suppresses the auditory responses to unaltered feedback of self-vocalizations. The reduction of suppression for 50, 100 and 200 cents and its elimination for 400 cents pitch-shifted voice auditory feedback support the idea that motor-driven suppression of voice feedback leads to distinctly different sensory neural processing of self vs. non-self vocalizations. This characteristic may enable the audio-vocal system to more effectively detect and correct for unexpected errors in the feedback of self-produced voice pitch compared with externally-generated sounds.

  12. Damping of coherent oscillations in intense ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpov, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Transverse decoherence of a displaced ion bunch is an important phenomenon in synchrotrons and storage rings. An offset can be caused by an injection error after the bunch-to-bucket transfer between synchrotrons or by an externally generated kick. Decoherence results in a transverse emittance blowup, which can cause particle losses and a beam quality degradation. To prevent the beam blowup, a transverse feedback system (TFS) can be used. The damping time should be shorter than the characteristic decoherence time, which can be strongly affected by the interplay of different intensity effects (e.g., space charge and impedances). This thesis describes the development of the analytical models that explain decoherence and emittance growth with chromaticity, space charge, and image charges within the first synchrotron period. The pulsed response function including intensity effects was derived from the model for beam transfer functions. For a coasting beam, the two- dimensional model shows that space charge slows down and above intensity threshold suppresses decoherence. These predictions were confirmed by particle tracking simulations with self-consistent space charge fields. Additionally, halo buildup and losses during decoherence were observed in simulations. These effects were successfully interpreted using a non self-consistent particle-core model. The two-dimensional model was extended to the bunched beams. The simulation results reproduce the analytical predictions. The intensity threshold of decoherence suppression is higher in comparison to a coasting beam, image charges can restore decoherence. In the present work dedicated experiments were performed in the SIS18 synchrotron at GSI Darmstadt and the results were compared with simulations and analytical predictions. The contribution of nonlinearities and image charges is negligible while chromaticity and space charge dominate decoherence. To study the damping efficiency of TFS, a comprehensive TFS module was

  13. Benefits and Potential Harms of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Self-Testing Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in China: An Implementation Perspective.

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    Qin, Yilu; Tang, Weiming; Nowacki, Amy; Mollan, Katie; Reifeis, Sarah A; Hudgens, Michael G; Wong, Ngai-Sze; Li, Haochu; Tucker, Joseph D; Wei, Chongyi

    2017-04-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus self-testing (HIVST) holds great promise for reaching high-risk key populations who do not access facility-based services. We sought to characterize unsupervised HIVST implementation among men who have sex with men in China. We conducted a nationwide online survey in China. Eligible men were at least 16 years, had anal sex with a man, and had recent condomless sex. We assessed benefits (first-time testing, increased testing frequency, confirmatory testing) and potential harms (coercion, violence, suicidality) of HIVST. Among men who have sex with men who reported ever testing for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), we identified correlates of HIVST as first-time HIV test being a self-test using multivariable logistic regression. Among 1610 men who met the eligibility criteria and started the survey, 1189 (74%) completed it. Three hundred forty-one (29%) of 1189 reported ever self-testing for HIV. Human immunodeficiency virus prevalence was 7% (24/341) among self-testers and 5% (15/306) among non-self-testers. Two hundred (59%) of 341 men who self-tested reported HIVST as a first-time HIV test. Thirty-one (9%) men experienced coercion with HIVST. Thirty-one (78%) of 40 men with positive HIV self-tests sought confirmation. Multivariable analysis revealed that HIVST as first-time HIV test was associated with younger age (odds ratio [OR], 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92-0.99), not being "out" (OR, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.60-3.28), not using the internet to meet sex partners (OR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.22-0.69), and group sex (OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.02-2.9). Human immunodeficiency virus self-testing reached high-risk individuals that had never received facility-based testing. Further implementation research is needed to better understand HIVST outside of research programs.

  14. The inflammatory role of platelets via their TLRs and Siglec receptors

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    Fabrice eCOGNASSE

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Platelets are non-nucleated cells that play central roles in the processes of haemostasis, innate immunity and inflammation; however, several reports show that these distinct functions are more closely linked than initially thought. Platelets express numerous receptors and contain hundreds of secretory products. These receptors and secretory products are instrumental to the platelet functional responses. The capacity of platelets to secrete copious amounts of cytokines, chemokines and related molecules appears intimately related to the role of the platelet in inflammation. Platelets exhibit non-self-infectious danger detection molecules on their surfaces, including those belonging to the ‘‘Toll-Like Receptor family’’, as well as pathogen sensors of other natures (Ig- or complement receptors etc.. These receptors permit platelets to both bind infectious agents and deliver differential signals leading to the secretion of cytokines/chemokines, under the control of specific intracellular regulatory pathways. In contrast, dysfunctional receptors or dysregulation of the intracellular pathway may increase the susceptibility to pathological inflammation. Physiological vs pathological inflammation is tightly controlled by the sensors of danger expressed in resting, as well as in activated, platelets. These sensors, referred to as Pathogen Recognition Receptors (PRRs, primarily sense danger signals termed Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs. As platelets are found in inflamed tissues and are involved in auto-immune disorders, it is possible that they can also be stimulated by internal pathogens. In such cases, platelets can also sense danger signals using Damage Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPs. Some of the most significant DAMP family members are the alarmins, to which the Siglec family of molecules belongs. This review examines the role of platelets in anti-infection immunity via their TLRs and Siglec receptors.

  15. Do older drivers with bilateral cataract self-regulate their driving while waiting for first eye cataract surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agramunt, Seraina; Meuleners, Lynn B; Fraser, Michelle L; Chow, Kyle C; Ng, Jonathon Q; Raja, Vignesh; Morlet, Nigel

    2017-01-01

    To analyze the association between visual impairment and driver self-regulation among a cohort of older drivers waiting for first eye cataract surgery. Ninety-six drivers with bilateral cataract aged 55+ years were assessed before first eye cataract surgery. Data collection consisted of a researcher-administered questionnaire, objective visual measures (visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and stereopsis), a visual attention test (the useful field of view test) and a cognitive test (the Mini-Mental State Examination). Driver self-regulation practices were collected using the Driving Habits Questionnaire and were also measured with an in-vehicle monitoring device. Characteristics of self-regulators and non-self-regulators were compared and a logistic regression model was used to examine the association between 3 objective visual measures and driver self-regulation status. After controlling for potential confounding factors, only binocular contrast sensitivity ( p =0.01), age ( p =0.03) and gender ( p =0.03) were significantly associated with driver self-regulation status. The odds of participants with better contrast sensitivity scores (better vision) self-regulating their driving in at least 1 driving situation decreased (odds ratio [OR]: 0.01, 95% CI: 0.00-0.28) while those of increasing age reported an increased odds of self-regulating their driving (OR: 1.08, 95% CI: 1.01-1.15). The odds of males self-regulating their driving was decreased compared with females (OR: 0.28, 95% CI: 0.09-0.86). Worse binocular contrast sensitivity scores, increasing age and being female were significantly associated with driver self-regulation. The study highlighted that while self-regulation was common among cataract patients, a proportion of those with poor vision did not self-regulate. Further research should determine how cataract patients could benefit from self-regulation strategies while waiting for cataract surgery.

  16. Genomic architecture of MHC-linked odorant receptor gene repertoires among 16 vertebrate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Pablo Sandro Carvalho; Kellermann, Thomas; Uchanska-Ziegler, Barbara; Ziegler, Andreas

    2010-09-01

    The recent sequencing and assembly of the genomes of different organisms have shown that almost all vertebrates studied in detail so far have one or more clusters of genes encoding odorant receptors (OR) in close physical linkage to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). It has been postulated that MHC-linked OR genes could be involved in MHC-influenced mate choice, comprising both pre- as well as post-copulatory mechanisms. We have therefore carried out a systematic comparison of protein sequences of these receptors from the genomes of man, chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, rhesus macaque, mouse, rat, dog, cat, cow, pig, horse, elephant, opossum, frog and zebra fish (amounting to a total of 559 protein sequences) in order to identify OR families exhibiting evolutionarily conserved MHC linkage. In addition, we compared the genomic structure of this region within these 16 species, accounting for presence or absence of OR gene families, gene order, transcriptional orientation and linkage to the MHC or framework genes. The results are presented in the form of gene maps and phylogenetic analyses that reveal largely concordant repertoires of gene families, at least among tetrapods, although each of the eight taxa studied (primates, rodents, ungulates, carnivores, proboscids, marsupials, amphibians and teleosts) exhibits a typical architecture of MHC (or MHC framework loci)-linked OR genes. Furthermore, the comparison of the genomic organization of this region has implications for phylogenetic relationships between closely related taxa, especially in disputed cases such as the evolutionary history of even- and odd-toed ungulates and carnivores. Finally, the largely conserved linkage between distinct OR genes and the MHC supports the concept that particular alleles within a given haplotype function in a concerted fashion during self-/non-self-discrimination processes in reproduction.

  17. Manipulating or superseding host recombination functions: a dilemma that shapes phage evolvability.

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    Louis-Marie Bobay

    Full Text Available Phages, like many parasites, tend to have small genomes and may encode autonomous functions or manipulate those of their hosts'. Recombination functions are essential for phage replication and diversification. They are also nearly ubiquitous in bacteria. The E. coli genome encodes many copies of an octamer (Chi motif that upon recognition by RecBCD favors repair of double strand breaks by homologous recombination. This might allow self from non-self discrimination because RecBCD degrades DNA lacking Chi. Bacteriophage Lambda, an E. coli parasite, lacks Chi motifs, but escapes degradation by inhibiting RecBCD and encoding its own autonomous recombination machinery. We found that only half of 275 lambdoid genomes encode recombinases, the remaining relying on the host's machinery. Unexpectedly, we found that some lambdoid phages contain extremely high numbers of Chi motifs concentrated between the phage origin of replication and the packaging site. This suggests a tight association between replication, packaging and RecBCD-mediated recombination in these phages. Indeed, phages lacking recombinases strongly over-represent Chi motifs. Conversely, phages encoding recombinases and inhibiting host recombination machinery select for the absence of Chi motifs. Host and phage recombinases use different mechanisms and the latter are more tolerant to sequence divergence. Accordingly, we show that phages encoding their own recombination machinery have more mosaic genomes resulting from recent recombination events and have more diverse gene repertoires, i.e. larger pan genomes. We discuss the costs and benefits of superseding or manipulating host recombination functions and how this decision shapes phage genome structure and evolvability.

  18. Radiation Exposure to Relatives of Patients Treated with Iodine-131 for Thyroid Cancer at Siriraj Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonnonchiang, S.; Sritongkul, N.; Chaudakshetrin, P.; Tuntawiroon, M.

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid carcinoma patients treated with I-131 are potential source of high radiation exposure to relatives who are knowingly and willingly exposed to ionizing radiation as a result of providing support and comfort to patients undergoing radionuclide therapy. The purpose of this study is to present the results of measurements of radiation doses to relatives who designated to care fornon self-supporting patients treated with radioiodine at Radionuclide Therapy Ward, Siriraj Hospital. Twenty caregivers of 20 patients underwent radioiodine therapy for thyroid cancers with a standard protocol were given specific instructions with regard to radiation safety and provided with electronic digital dosimeter (PDM 112) to continuously measure radiation dose received on the daily basis, during three days in the hospital. On the day of patients' release, in vivo bioassays were performed on caregivers to determine the thyroid uptake estimates. The 3-day accumulative doses to caregivers to patients receiving 5.55 GBq (n=11) and 7.4 GBq (n=9) of I-131 ranged from 37 to 333 μSv and 176 to 1920 μSv respectively depending on the extent and level of supports required. The thyroid uptake estimates in all caregivers were undetectable. Electronic dosimeters indicated a maximum whole-body effective dose of 1920 μSv was more than the public dose limit of 1 mSv but within the general dose constraint of 5 mSv. Radiation dose to caregivers of a non self-supporting hospitalized patient undergoing radioiodine therapy were well below the limits recommended by the ICRP and the IAEA. The patients can be comforted with confidence that dose to caregivers will be below the 5- mSv limit. This study provides guidance for medical practitioners to obtain practical radiation safety concerns associated with hospitalized patients receiving I-131 therapy especially when patients are comforted in the hospital ward by caregivers. (author)

  19. Detection in chick embryo of fetoproteins not recognized by the dam's immune system and of soluble alloantigens. Presumptive teratogenic and abortogenic capacity of their specific IgY

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    Rodríguez-Burgos Antonio

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this work was to detect antigens, non-self to the dam, potentially present in chick embryo prior to organogenesis with a view to establishing the consequences of their neutralization on chick development. To this end, hens were immunized with the extract from embryos incubated for 53 h. Their eggs were either used to isolate immunoglobulins for dot and blot tests or incubated for variable lengths of time. Results Immunoblot tests, using adsorbed primary and secondary antibodies against paternal serum, revealed the presence of at least four antigens of 32, 34, 70 and 200 kDa that can be classified as soluble alloantigens. The same antibodies against chick embryo extracts (between 53 h and 9 showed at least five aged antigens of 34, 52, 90, 200 and 250 kDa, not detected in cock serum, that can thus be considered as soluble, foreign to the immunized hens and transitory antigens. The abnormalities observed included arrested development and fetal death, as well as minor functional damage in the few chicks that were born alive. The ratio of abnormal to normal embryos was 2.85 in the experimental group and 0.43 in the control group. With regard to congenital anomalies it must be said that of the 81 eggs incubated only four chicks were born alive, and of these, only one had a healthy birth and subsequent growth. The other three showed a transitory ataxia and one of them presented adult lumbar scoliosis and asymmetric pelvis. Conclusions The problem of recurrent spontaneous abortions is revisited in the light of these results. Some recent data suggest that soluble alloantigens may be candidates for a new etiological entity in recurrent spontaneous abortions. They can also be the cause of some congenital anomalies. The soluble, foreign, transitory antigens may have a similar effect although there is no supportive data in the literature.

  20. Host response mechanisms in periodontal diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    SILVA, Nora; ABUSLEME, Loreto; BRAVO, Denisse; DUTZAN, Nicolás; GARCIA-SESNICH, Jocelyn; VERNAL, Rolando; HERNÁNDEZ, Marcela; GAMONAL, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Periodontal diseases usually refer to common inflammatory disorders known as gingivitis and periodontitis, which are caused by a pathogenic microbiota in the subgingival biofilm, including Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola that trigger innate, inflammatory, and adaptive immune responses. These processes result in the destruction of the tissues surrounding and supporting the teeth, and eventually in tissue, bone and finally, tooth loss. The innate immune response constitutes a homeostatic system, which is the first line of defense, and is able to recognize invading microorganisms as non-self, triggering immune responses to eliminate them. In addition to the innate immunity, adaptive immunity cells and characteristic cytokines have been described as important players in the periodontal disease pathogenesis scenario, with a special attention to CD4+ T-cells (T-helper cells). Interestingly, the T cell-mediated adaptive immunity development is highly dependent on innate immunity-associated antigen presenting cells, which after antigen capture undergo into a maturation process and migrate towards the lymph nodes, where they produce distinct patterns of cytokines that will contribute to the subsequent polarization and activation of specific T CD4+ lymphocytes. Skeletal homeostasis depends on a dynamic balance between the activities of the bone-forming osteoblasts (OBLs) and bone-resorbing osteoclasts (OCLs). This balance is tightly controlled by various regulatory systems, such as the endocrine system, and is influenced by the immune system, an osteoimmunological regulation depending on lymphocyte- and macrophage-derived cytokines. All these cytokines and inflammatory mediators are capable of acting alone or in concert, to stimulate periodontal breakdown and collagen destruction via tissue-derived matrix metalloproteinases, a characterization of the progression of periodontitis as a stage that