WorldWideScience

Sample records for anserina hnwd non-self

  1. WD-repeat instability and diversification of the Podospora anserina hnwd non-self recognition gene family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paoletti Mathieu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genes involved in non-self recognition and host defence are typically capable of rapid diversification and exploit specialized genetic mechanism to that end. Fungi display a non-self recognition phenomenon termed heterokaryon incompatibility that operates when cells of unlike genotype fuse and leads to the cell death of the fusion cell. In the fungus Podospora anserina, three genes controlling this allorecognition process het-d, het-e and het-r are paralogs belonging to the same hnwd gene family. HNWD proteins are STAND proteins (signal transduction NTPase with multiple domains that display a WD-repeat domain controlling recognition specificity. Based on genomic sequence analysis of different P. anserina isolates, it was established that repeat regions of all members of the gene family are extremely polymorphic and undergoing concerted evolution arguing for frequent recombination within and between family members. Results Herein, we directly analyzed the genetic instability and diversification of this allorecognition gene family. We have constituted a collection of 143 spontaneous mutants of the het-R (HNWD2 and het-E (hnwd5 genes with altered recognition specificities. The vast majority of the mutants present rearrangements in the repeat arrays with deletions, duplications and other modifications as well as creation of novel repeat unit variants. Conclusions We investigate the extreme genetic instability of these genes and provide a direct illustration of the diversification strategy of this eukaryotic allorecognition gene family.

  2. A síndrome anserina Anserine syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Helfenstein Jr

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Dor no joelho é uma condição comum na clínica diária e a patologia anserina, também conhecida como pata de ganso, tem sido considerada uma das principais causas. O diagnóstico tem sido realizado de maneira eminentemente clínica, o que tem gerado equívocos. Os pacientes queixam-se tipicamente de dor na parte medial do joelho, com sensibilidade na porção ínferomedial. Estudos de imagem têm sido realizados para esclarecer se tais pacientes possuem bursite, tendinite ou ambos os distúrbios na região conhecida como pata de ganso. Entretanto, o defeito estrutural responsável pelos sintomas permanece desconhecido, motivo pelo qual preferimos intitular como "Síndrome Anserina". O diabetes mellitus é um fator predisponente bem reconhecido. O sobrepeso e a osteoartrite de joelho parecem ser fatores adicionais de risco, contudo, seus papéis na gênese da moléstia ainda não são bem entendidos. O tratamento atual inclui anti-inflamatório, fisioterapia e infiltração de corticoide, com evolução muito variável, que oscila entre 10 dias e 36 meses. A falta de conhecimento sobre a etiofisiopatologia e dados epidemiológicos exige futuros estudos para esse frequente e intrigante distúrbio.Knee pain is a common complaint in clinical practice, and pes anserinus tendino-bursitis syndrome (PATB has been frequently diagnosed based only on clinical features that may cause equivocal interpretations. Patients complain of characteristic spontaneous medial knee pain with tenderness in the inferomedial aspect of the joint. Studies with different imaging modalities have been undertaken during the last years to identify whether these patients suffer from bursitis, tendinitis, or both. Nevertheless, little is known regarding the structural defect responsible for this disturbance. Due to these problems and some controversies, we suggest the term "anserine syndrome" for this condition. Diabetes Mellitus is a known predisposing factor for this syndrome

  3. Anserina Bursitis—A Treatable Cause of Knee Pain in Patients with Degenerative Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookler, Morton I.; Mongan, Edward S.

    1973-01-01

    The anserina bursa is located on the medial surface of the tibia deep to the tendons of the sartorius, gracilis, and semimembranosus muscles and superficial to the insertion of the tibial collateral ligament. Knee pain, a palpable swelling of the bursa, and tenderness over the medial anterior aspect of the tibia just below the knee are the hallmarks of anserina bursitis. In a three-year period, 24 patients with anserina bursitis were seen in a rheumatology clinic. All but one were women, 18 were obese, and only four were under 50 years old. Knee x-ray studies showed degenerative arthritis in 20 of the 24 patients. In ten, varus knee deformities were present, while three had valgus deformities. Ultrasound or local steroid injections gave dramatic relief in all but one patient. PMID:4731586

  4. Anserina bursitis. A treatable cause of knee pain in patients with degenerative arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookler, M I; Mongan, E S

    1973-07-01

    The anserina bursa is located on the medial surface of the tibia deep to the tendons of the sartorius, gracilis, and semimembranosus muscles and superficial to the insertion of the tibial collateral ligament. Knee pain, a palpable swelling of the bursa, and tenderness over the medial anterior aspect of the tibia just below the knee are the hallmarks of anserina bursitis. In a three-year period, 24 patients with anserina bursitis were seen in a rheumatology clinic. All but one were women, 18 were obese, and only four were under 50 years old. Knee x-ray studies showed degenerative arthritis in 20 of the 24 patients. In ten, varus knee deformities were present, while three had valgus deformities. Ultrasound or local steroid injections gave dramatic relief in all but one patient.

  5. Calorie restriction causes healthy life span extension in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepeningen, van A.D.; Maas, M.F.P.M.; Huberts, D.H.E.W.; Goedbloed, D.J.; Engelmoer, D.J.P.; Slakhorst, S.M.; Koopmanschap, A.B.; Krause, F.; Dencher, N.A.; Sellem, C.H.; Sainsard-Chanet, A.; Hoekstra, R.F.; Debets, A.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Although most fungi appear to be immortal, some show systemic senescence within a distinct time frame. Podospora anserina for example shows an irreversible growth arrest within weeks of culturing associated with a destabilization of the mitochondrial genome. Here, we show that calorie restriction (C

  6. Spore-killing meiotic drive factors in a natural population of the fungus Podospora anserina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaag, van der M.; Debets, A.J.M.; Oosterhof, J.; Slakhorst, S.M.; Thijssen, J.A.G.M.; Hoekstra, R.F.

    2000-01-01

    In fungi, meiotic drive is observed as spore killing. In the secondarily homothallic ascomycete Podospora anserina it is characterized by the abortion of two of the four spores in the ascus. We have identified seven different types of meiotic drive elements (Spore killers). Among 99 isolates from na

  7. Phenolic Profile of Potentilla anserina L. (Rosaceae) Herb of Siberian Origin and Development of a Rapid Method for Simultaneous Determination of Major Phenolics in P. anserina Pharmaceutical Products by Microcolumn RP-HPLC-UV

    OpenAIRE

    Olennikov, Daniil N.; Nina I. Kashchenko; Nadezhda K. Chirikova; Sargylana S. Kuz'mina

    2014-01-01

    A chemical study of Potentilla anserina L. herb (Rosaceae) of Siberian origin led to the isolation of 17 compounds. Three ellagitannins—potentillin, agrimonic acid A and B—are reported for the first time in this species. With a view to rapid quantitative analysis, a new method was developed for simultaneous determination of major phenolic compounds in P. anserina, including caffeic acid, myricetin-3-O-glucuronide, agrimoniin, ellagic acid, miquelianin, isorhamnetin-3-O-glucuronide, and kaempf...

  8. Non-self-dual static gauge fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, C. H.; Teh, Rosy

    1980-01-01

    We exhibit exact non-self-dual static solutions to the SU(2) Yang-Mills field equations by solving the equation ∇2V+λV3=0 using cylindrical and spherical coordinates. The resulting gauge fields are complex and have singularities. For the cylindrically symmetric solution, we convert it into a real gauge field coupled to the Higgs field in the limit in which the self-interaction potential of the Higgs field vanishes.

  9. Mitochondrial pAL2-1 plasmid homologs are senescence factors in Podospora anserina independent of intrinsic senescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Diepeningen, Anne D; Debets, Alfons J M; Slakhorst, S Marijke; Hoekstra, Rolf F

    2008-01-01

    Since the first description of a linear mitochondrial plasmid in Podospora anserina, pAL2-1, and homologous plasmids have gone from being considered beneficial longevity plasmids, via neutral genetic elements, toward mutator plasmids causing senescence. The plasmid has an invertron structure, with t

  10. Integration of a pAL2-1 homologous mitochondrial plasmid associated with life span extension in Podospora anserina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, M.F.P.M.; Sellem, C.H.; Rincheval, V.; Hoekstra, R.F.; Debets, A.J.M.; Sainsard-Chanet, A.

    2007-01-01

    We isolated and characterized a novel spontaneous longevity mutant of Podospora anserina strain Wa32 carrying one of the pAL2-1 homologous mitochondrial plasmids. This mutant is at least ten fold longer-lived than the wild type, and is hence a formal suppressor of both the regular and the `plasmid-b

  11. A genome-wide longitudinal transcriptome analysis of the aging model Podospora anserina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Philipp

    Full Text Available Aging of biological systems is controlled by various processes which have a potential impact on gene expression. Here we report a genome-wide transcriptome analysis of the fungal aging model Podospora anserina. Total RNA of three individuals of defined age were pooled and analyzed by SuperSAGE (serial analysis of gene expression. A bioinformatics analysis identified different molecular pathways to be affected during aging. While the abundance of transcripts linked to ribosomes and to the proteasome quality control system were found to decrease during aging, those associated with autophagy increase, suggesting that autophagy may act as a compensatory quality control pathway. Transcript profiles associated with the energy metabolism including mitochondrial functions were identified to fluctuate during aging. Comparison of wild-type transcripts, which are continuously down-regulated during aging, with those down-regulated in the long-lived, copper-uptake mutant grisea, validated the relevance of age-related changes in cellular copper metabolism. Overall, we (i present a unique age-related data set of a longitudinal study of the experimental aging model P. anserina which represents a reference resource for future investigations in a variety of organisms, (ii suggest autophagy to be a key quality control pathway that becomes active once other pathways fail, and (iii present testable predictions for subsequent experimental investigations.

  12. Interactive effects of pollination and heavy metals on resource allocation in Potentilla anserina L.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saikkonen, K. [Univ. of Turku (Finland). Dept. of Biology]|[Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). Dept. of Zoology; Koivunen, S.; Vuorisalo, T. [Univ. of Turku (Finland). Dept. of Biology; Mutikainen, P. [Univ. of Turku (Finland). Dept. of Biology]|[ETH, Zuerich (Switzerland). Experimental Ecology

    1998-07-01

    The authors studied resource allocation between sexual reproduction and clonal propagation in a perennial stoloniferous clonal plant, Potentilla anserina, an obligate outcrosser. They manipulated reproductive effort of Potentilla anserina either by hand-pollinating all flowers or by preventing pollination. To test the effect of resource-limiting conditions on resource allocation and reproductive output, the authors used a control and two levels of heavy metals (copper and nickel) to limit plant growth. The experiment was conducted as a 2 {times} 3 factorial design to reveal possible interactions between reproductive manipulation and resource limitation. Heavy metals decreased the total biomass of the plants and number of flowers and ramets produced. Only 50% of the plants grown with the higher level of heavy metals produced flowers. Pollination treatment interacted significantly with the heavy-metal treatment. In the metal control and lower heavy-metal treatment, there were no significant differences in total vegetative biomass between the two pollination treatments. Costs of reproduction in terms of subsequent flowering in the later season appeared to be clear, because the number of flowers per whole plant was lower if the plants were hand-pollinated and because the proportion of flowering ramets decreased due to hand-pollination. However, flowering may also be partly hormonally controlled. In contrast, hand-pollinated plants exposed to high concentrations of heavy metals tended to have greater biomass of vegetative plant structures and higher number of flowers compared to nonpollinated plants.

  13. In vivo labelling of functional ribosomes reveals spatial regulation during starvation in Podospora anserina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silar Philippe

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To date, in eukaryotes, ribosomal protein expression is known to be regulated at the transcriptional and/or translational levels. But other forms of regulation may be possible. Results Here, we report the successful tagging of functional ribosomal particles with a S7-GFP chimaeric protein, making it possible to observe in vivo ribosome dynamics in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina. Microscopic observations revealed a novel kind of ribosomal protein regulation during the passage between cell growth and stationary phases, with a transient accumulation of ribosomal proteins and/or ribosome subunits in the nucleus, possibly the nucleolus, being observed at the beginning of stationary phase. Conclusion Nuclear sequestration can be another level of ribosomal protein regulation in eukaryotic cells.This may contribute to the regulation of cell growth and division.

  14. Phenolic Profile of Potentilla anserina L. (Rosaceae Herb of Siberian Origin and Development of a Rapid Method for Simultaneous Determination of Major Phenolics in P. anserina Pharmaceutical Products by Microcolumn RP-HPLC-UV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniil N. Olennikov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A chemical study of Potentilla anserina L. herb (Rosaceae of Siberian origin led to the isolation of 17 compounds. Three ellagitannins—potentillin, agrimonic acid A and B—are reported for the first time in this species. With a view to rapid quantitative analysis, a new method was developed for simultaneous determination of major phenolic compounds in P. anserina, including caffeic acid, myricetin-3-O-glucuronide, agrimoniin, ellagic acid, miquelianin, isorhamnetin-3-O-glucuronide, and kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoside. The quantitative determination was conducted by microcolumn reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. Separation was performed using a ProntoSIL-120-5-C18 AQ column (60 mm × 1 mm × 5 μm with six-step gradient elution of aqueous 0.2 М LiClO4 in 0.006 M HClO4 and acetonitrile as mobile phases. The components were quantified by HPLC-UV at 270 nm. All calibration curves showed good linearity (r2 > 0.999 within test ranges. The reproducibility was evaluated by intra- and inter-day assays, and RSD values were less than 2.8%. The recoveries were between 97.15 and 102.38%. The limits of detection ranged from 0.21 to 1.94 μg/mL, and limits of quantification ranged from 0.65 to 5.88 μg/mL, respectively. Various solvents, extraction methods, temperatures, and times were evaluated to obtain the best extraction efficiency. The developed method was successfully applied for the analysis of selected pharmaceutical products: 12 batches of P. anserina herb collected from three Siberian regions (Yakutia, Buryatia, Irkutsk, two commercial samples of P. anserina herb, and some preparations (liquid extract, tincture, decoction, infusion, and dry extract.

  15. Phenolic profile of Potentilla anserina L. (Rosaceae) herb of siberian origin and development of a rapid method for simultaneous determination of major Phenolics in P. anserina pharmaceutical products by microcolumn RP-HPLC-UV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olennikov, Daniil N; Kashchenko, Nina I; Chirikova, Nadezhda K; Kuz'mina, Sargylana S

    2015-01-01

    A chemical study of Potentilla anserina L. herb (Rosaceae) of Siberian origin led to the isolation of 17 compounds. Three ellagitannins-potentillin, agrimonic acid A and B-are reported for the first time in this species. With a view to rapid quantitative analysis, a new method was developed for simultaneous determination of major phenolic compounds in P. anserina, including caffeic acid, myricetin-3-O-glucuronide, agrimoniin, ellagic acid, miquelianin, isorhamnetin-3-O-glucuronide, and kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoside. The quantitative determination was conducted by microcolumn reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. Separation was performed using a ProntoSIL-120-5-C18 AQ column (60 mm × 1 mm × 5 μm) with six-step gradient elution of aqueous 0.2 М LiClO4 in 0.006 M HClO4 and acetonitrile as mobile phases. The components were quantified by HPLC-UV at 270 nm. All calibration curves showed good linearity (r2 > 0.999) within test ranges. The reproducibility was evaluated by intra- and inter-day assays, and RSD values were less than 2.8%. The recoveries were between 97.15 and 102.38%. The limits of detection ranged from 0.21 to 1.94 μg/mL, and limits of quantification ranged from 0.65 to 5.88 μg/mL, respectively. Various solvents, extraction methods, temperatures, and times were evaluated to obtain the best extraction efficiency. The developed method was successfully applied for the analysis of selected pharmaceutical products: 12 batches of P. anserina herb collected from three Siberian regions (Yakutia, Buryatia, Irkutsk), two commercial samples of P. anserina herb, and some preparations (liquid extract, tincture, decoction, infusion, and dry extract). PMID:25547725

  16. 鹅绒委陵菜的生物学特性%Study on Biological Characteristics of Potentilla anserina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彦芬

    2011-01-01

    Potentilla anserina L, growing in the northeast place of Qing-Tibetan plateau, was served as the material in this article. In the plant habitats. The botanical characteristics and the characteristics of clones of Potentitla anserina L were researched by the method of the pointing field. The characters of ecology in the different districts were analyzed with the sampling method. The result showed that Potentilla anserina L is a typical of perennial stoloniferous herb. The plants distribute widely in the meadow, flood plain, the gullies, and livestock adjacent circle in the northeastern Qinghai-Tibetan plateau, during the altitude range of 1 800 meters to 4 300 meters. With the increasing of elevation, plants tend to lower, less leaf number and aboveground biomass, but more ground biomass. Individual plants with stoloniferous and the stolon number decrease, and ramet density shows a quadratic curve. The dominant species and constructive species of plant community are both Potentilla anserina L, and the companion species are mainly Chenopodium glaucum L. And Poa annua in the mass distributed areas.%采用野外定点观察法,研究鹅绒委陵菜(Potentilla anserina L.)的植物学特性、无性系生长特征;采用最小样方法研究不同地区鹅绒委陵菜生态学特征.结果显示,鹅绒委陵菜为多年生草本,是一种典型的匍匐茎型莲座状植物,该植物在青藏高原东北部(海拔1 800~4 300 m)均有分布,生长于草甸、河漫滩、水沟边及畜圈旁;随着海拔升高,植株趋于低矮,复叶数增加,地上生物量降低,地下生物量升高,具单株匍匐茎的个体数量减少,分株密度呈二次曲线变化.在鹅绒委陵菜分布较集中地区,植物群落的优势种和建群种均为鹅绒委陵菜,伴生种主要为灰绿黎、早熟禾.

  17. Identification of a Hypothetical Protein from Podospora anserina as a Nitroalkane Oxidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tormos, Jose R.; Taylor, Alexander B.; Daubner, S. Colette; Hart, P. John; Fitzpatrick, Paul F. (Texas-HSC); (St. Mary)

    2010-08-23

    The flavoprotein nitroalkane oxidase (NAO) from Fusarium oxysporum catalyzes the oxidation of primary and secondary nitroalkanes to their respective aldehydes and ketones. Structurally, the enzyme is a member of the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase superfamily. To date no enzymes other than that from F. oxysporum have been annotated as NAOs. To identify additional potential NAOs, the available database was searched for enzymes in which the active site residues Asp402, Arg409, and Ser276 were conserved. Of the several fungal enzymes identified in this fashion, PODANSg2158 from Podospora anserina was selected for expression and characterization. The recombinant enzyme is a flavoprotein with activity on nitroalkanes comparable to the F. oxysporum NAO, although the substrate specificity is somewhat different. Asp399, Arg406, and Ser273 in PODANSg2158 correspond to the active site triad in F. oxysporum NAO. The k{sub cat}/K{sub M}-pH profile with nitroethane shows a pK{sub a} of 5.9 that is assigned to Asp399 as the active site base. Mutation of Asp399 to asparagine decreases the k{sub cat}/K{sub M} value for nitroethane over 2 orders of magnitude. The R406K and S373A mutations decrease this kinetic parameter by 64- and 3-fold, respectively. The structure of PODANSg2158 has been determined at a resolution of 2.0 {angstrom}, confirming its identification as an NAO.

  18. Effect of paraquat-induced oxidative stress on gene expression and aging of the filamentous ascomycete Podospora anserina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Wiemer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aging of biological systems is influenced by various factors, conditions and processes. Among others, processes allowing organisms to deal with various types of stress are of key importance. In particular, oxidative stress as the result of the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS at the mitochondrial respiratory chain and the accumulation of ROS-induced molecular damage has been strongly linked to aging. Here we view the impact of ROS from a different angle: their role in the control of gene expression. We report a genome-wide transcriptome analysis of the fungal aging model Podospora anserina grown on medium containing paraquat (PQ. This treatment leads to an increased cellular generation and release of H2O2, a reduced growth rate, and a decrease in lifespan. The combined challenge by PQ and copper has a synergistic negative effect on growth and lifespan. The data from the transcriptome analysis of the wild type cultivated under PQ-stress and their comparison to those of a longitudinal aging study as well as of a copper-uptake longevity mutant of P. anserina revealed that PQ-stress leads to the up-regulation of transcripts coding for components involved in mitochondrial remodeling. PQ also affects the expression of copper-regulated genes suggesting an increase of cytoplasmic copper levels as it has been demonstrated earlier to occur during aging of P. anserina and during senescence of human fibroblasts. This effect may result from the induction of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore via PQ-induced ROS, leading to programmed cell death as part of an evolutionary conserved mechanism involved in biological aging and lifespan control.

  19. Identification and characterization of PaMTH1, a putative O-methyltransferase accumulating during senescence of Podospora anserina cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Averbeck, N B; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard; Mann, M;

    2000-01-01

    -generated fragments, pairs of degenerated primers were deduced and used to amplify parts of the sequence coding for the protein. These PCR products were utilized to select specific cDNA and genomic clones from DNA libraries of P. anserina. A subsequent DNA-sequence analysis revealed that the 27-kDa protein is encoded...... by a discontinuous gene, PaMth1, capable of coding for 240 amino acids. The first three amino-terminal residues appear to be removed post-translationally. The deduced amino-acid sequence shows significant homology to S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)-dependent methyltransferases. We hypothesize that the 27-kDa protein, Pa...

  20. Non-self-adjoint hamiltonians defined by Riesz bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagarello, F., E-mail: fabio.bagarello@unipa.it [Dipartimento di Energia, Ingegneria dell' Informazione e Modelli Matematici, Facoltà di Ingegneria, Università di Palermo, I-90128 Palermo, Italy and INFN, Università di Torino, Torino (Italy); Inoue, A., E-mail: a-inoue@fukuoka-u.ac.jp [Department of Applied Mathematics, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka 814-0180 (Japan); Trapani, C., E-mail: camillo.trapani@unipa.it [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Università di Palermo, I-90123 Palermo (Italy)

    2014-03-15

    We discuss some features of non-self-adjoint Hamiltonians with real discrete simple spectrum under the assumption that the eigenvectors form a Riesz basis of Hilbert space. Among other things, we give conditions under which these Hamiltonians can be factorized in terms of generalized lowering and raising operators.

  1. Detection of non-self-correcting nature of information cascade

    CERN Document Server

    Mori, Shintaro; Hisakado, Masato; Takahashi, Taiki

    2015-01-01

    We propose a method of detecting non-self-correcting information cascades in experiments in which subjects choose an option sequentially by observing the choices of previous subjects. The method uses the correlation function $C(t)$ between the first and the $t+1$-th subject's choices. $C(t)$ measures the strength of the domino effect, and the limit value $c\\equiv \\lim_{t\\to \\infty}C(t)$ determines whether the domino effect lasts forever $(c>0)$ or not $(c=0)$. The condition $c>0$ is an adequate condition for a non-self-correcting system, and the probability that the majority's choice remains wrong in the limit $t\\to \\infty$ is positive. We apply the method to data from two experiments in which $T$ subjects answered two-choice questions: (i) general knowledge questions ($T_{avg}=60$) and (ii) urn-choice questions ($T=63$). We find $c>0$ for difficult questions in (i) and all cases in (ii), and the systems are not self-correcting.

  2. A mutation in the gene encoding cytochrome c1 leads to a decreased ROS content and to a long-lived phenotype in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellem, Carole H; Marsy, Sophie; Boivin, Antoine; Lemaire, Claire; Sainsard-Chanet, Annie

    2007-07-01

    We present here the properties of a complex III loss-of-function mutant of the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina. The mutation corresponds to a single substitution in the second intron of the gene cyc1 encoding cytochrome c(1), leading to a splicing defect. The cyc1-1 mutant is long-lived, exhibits a defect in ascospore pigmentation, has a reduced growth rate and a reduced ROS production associated with a stabilisation of its mitochondrial DNA. We also show that increased longevity is linked with morphologically modified mitochondria and an increased number of mitochondrial genomes. Overexpression of the alternative oxidase rescues all these phenotypes and restores aging. Interestingly, the absence of complex III in this mutant is not paralleled with a deficiency in complex I activity as reported in mammals although the respiratory chain of P. anserina has recently been demonstrated to be organized according to the "respirasome" model.

  3. Non self-dual Yang-Mills fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the thesis is to prove the existence of a new family of non self-dual finite-energy solutions to the Yang-Mills equations on Euclidean four-space, with SU(2) as a gauge group. The approach is that of equivalent geometry: attention is restricted to a special class of fields, those that satisfy a certain kind of rotational symmetry which it is proved that (1) a solution to the Yang-Mills equations exists for among them, and (2) no solution to the self-duality equations exists among them. The first assertion is proved by an application of the direct method of the calculus of variations (existence and regularity of minimizers), and the second assertion by showing that the self-duality equations, linearized at a symmetric self-dual solution, cannot possess the required symmetry

  4. Genuine non-self-averaging and ultraslow convergence in gelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Y S; Mazza, M G; Kahng, B; Nagler, J

    2016-08-01

    In irreversible aggregation processes droplets or polymers of microscopic size successively coalesce until a large cluster of macroscopic scale forms. This gelation transition is widely believed to be self-averaging, meaning that the order parameter (the relative size of the largest connected cluster) attains well-defined values upon ensemble averaging with no sample-to-sample fluctuations in the thermodynamic limit. Here, we report on anomalous gelation transition types. Depending on the growth rate of the largest clusters, the gelation transition can show very diverse patterns as a function of the control parameter, which includes multiple stochastic discontinuous transitions, genuine non-self-averaging and ultraslow convergence of the transition point. Our framework may be helpful in understanding and controlling gelation. PMID:27627355

  5. 46 CFR 151.12-10 - Operation of oceangoing non-self-propelled ships Carrying Category D NLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation of oceangoing non-self-propelled ships... of oceangoing non-self-propelled ships Carrying Category D NLS. (a) An oceangoing non-self-propelled... oceangoing non-self-propelled ship that carries a Category D NLS listed under § 151.12-5 shall ensure...

  6. Effect of n-butanol Extract from Potentilla anserina on Hypoxiainduced Calcium Overload and SERCA2 Expression of Rat Cardiomyocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ling-zhi; WANG Lu-jun; WANG Yue; CUI Ying; LI Jian-yu; ZHANG Li; ZHANG Yong-liang

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of n-butanol extract from Potentilla anserina (NP) intervention on hypoxia-induced Ca2+ overload and SERCA2 expression of rat cardiomyocytes.Methods Primary cultured myocardial cell from SD neonatal rat (1-3 d) was used in the establishment of hypoxia model.After hypoxia for 3 h,the Ca2+ concentration of myocardial cells was measured with fura-2/AM fluorescent probe,and the biochemical indicator intracellular Ca2+-ATPase was examined and the mRNA and its protective protein levels of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+-ATPases (SERCA2) were assayed with RT-PCR,Western-blotting,and immune-cytochemical staining in each group.Results The results showed that NP decreased Ca2+ concentration,increased the activity of Ca2+-ATPase,and improved the mRNA and protein expression of SERCA2 in hypoxia-injured myocardial cells as compared with the model group.Conclusion These results indicate that NP could attenuate the Ca2+ overload.The mechanism might be explained as that NP could elevate the SERCA2 level,increase the activity of myocardium in rats,and further enhance the capacity of SR Ca2+ re-uptake.

  7. Supramolecular organization of cytochrome c oxidase- and alternative oxidase-dependent respiratory chains in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Frank; Scheckhuber, Christian Q; Werner, Alexandra; Rexroth, Sascha; Reifschneider, Nicole H; Dencher, Norbert A; Osiewacz, Heinz D

    2004-06-18

    To elucidate the molecular basis of the link between respiration and longevity, we have studied the organization of the respiratory chain of a wild-type strain and of two long-lived mutants of the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina. This established aging model is able to respire by either the standard or the alternative pathway. In the latter pathway, electrons are directly transferred from ubiquinol to the alternative oxidase and thus bypass complexes III and IV. We show that the cytochrome c oxidase pathway is organized according to the mammalian "respirasome" model (Schägger, H., and Pfeiffer, K. (2000) EMBO J. 19, 1777-1783). In contrast, the alternative pathway is composed of distinct supercomplexes of complexes I and III (i.e. I(2) and I(2)III(2)), which have not been described so far. Enzymatic analysis reveals distinct functional properties of complexes I and III belonging to either cytochrome c oxidase- or alternative oxidase-dependent pathways. By a gentle colorless-native PAGE, almost all of the ATP synthases from mitochondria respiring by either pathway were preserved in the dimeric state. Our data are of significance for the understanding of both respiratory pathways as well as lifespan control and aging.

  8. Neuroprotection of n-Butanol Extract from Roots of Potentilla anserina on Hypoxic Injury in Primary Hippocampal Neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Xiao-jing; LI Ling-zhi; LV Qi; YU Bao-guo; YANG Shu-wang; HE Tao; ZHANG Yong-liang

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the protective effect of n-butanol extract from the roots of Potentilla anserina (NP) on hypoxic hippocampal neurons in neonatal rats.Methods Primary cultured hippocampal neurons were pretreated with different concentration of NP (0.25,0.0625,and 0.0156 mg/mL) before incubation in a low oxygen (0.1%) environment for 4 h.Cell viability was evaluated by Trypan blue staining assay.Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) released by neurons into the medium was measured.The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in cell cytosol was determined using nitroblue tetrazolium.Morphological changes and mitochondrial function were observed by transmission electron microscopy.Results Hypoxic injury could decrease the cells viability of neuron,enhance LDH release (P < 0.05),decrease SOD activity,and increase mitochondrial injury.Pretreatment with NP significantly increased cell viability,decreased LDH release (P < 0.05),promoted SOD activity (P < 0.05),and remarkably improved cellular ultra-microstructure compared with the model group.Conclusion NP could protect the primary hippocampal neurons from hypoxic injury by attenuating mitochondrial cell death.

  9. Regulation of Aerobic Energy Metabolism in Podospora anserina by Two Paralogous Genes Encoding Structurally Different c-Subunits of ATP Synthase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellem, Carole H.; di Rago, Jean-Paul; Lasserre, Jean-Paul; Ackerman, Sharon H.; Sainsard-Chanet, Annie

    2016-01-01

    Most of the ATP in living cells is produced by an F-type ATP synthase. This enzyme uses the energy of a transmembrane electrochemical proton gradient to synthesize ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate. Proton movements across the membrane domain (FO) of the ATP synthase drive the rotation of a ring of 8–15 c-subunits, which induces conformational changes in the catalytic part (F1) of the enzyme that ultimately promote ATP synthesis. Two paralogous nuclear genes, called Atp9-5 and Atp9-7, encode structurally different c-subunits in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina. We have in this study identified differences in the expression pattern for the two genes that correlate with the mitotic activity of cells in vegetative mycelia: Atp9-7 is transcriptionally active in non-proliferating (stationary) cells while Atp9-5 is expressed in the cells at the extremity (apex) of filaments that divide and are responsible for mycelium growth. When active, the Atp9-5 gene sustains a much higher rate of c-subunit synthesis than Atp9-7. We further show that the ATP9-7 and ATP9-5 proteins have antagonist effects on the longevity of P. anserina. Finally, we provide evidence that the ATP9-5 protein sustains a higher rate of mitochondrial ATP synthesis and yield in ATP molecules per electron transferred to oxygen than the c-subunit encoded by Atp9-7. These findings reveal that the c-subunit genes play a key role in the modulation of ATP synthase production and activity along the life cycle of P. anserina. Such a degree of sophistication for regulating aerobic energy metabolism has not been described before. PMID:27442014

  10. Deletion of the MED13 and CDK8 subunits of the Mediator improves the phenotype of a long-lived respiratory deficient mutant of Podospora anserina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbert, Adeline; Bovier, Elodie; Sellem, Carole H; Sainsard-Chanet, Annie

    2015-09-01

    In Podospora anserina, the loss of function of the cytochrome segment of the mitochondrial respiratory chain is viable. This is due to the presence in this organism, as in most filamentous fungi, of an alternative respiratory oxidase (AOX) that provides a bypass to the cytochrome pathway. However mutants lacking a functional cytochrome pathway present multiple phenotypes including poorly colored thin mycelium and slow growth. In a large genetic screen based on the improvement of these phenotypes, we isolated a large number of independent suppressor mutations. Most of them led to the constitutive overexpression of the aox gene. In this study, we characterize a new suppressor mutation that does not affect the production of AOX. It is a loss-of-function mutation in the gene encoding the MED13 subunit of the kinase module of the Mediator complex. Inactivation of the cdk8 gene encoding another subunit of the same module also results in partial suppression of a cytochrome-deficient mutant. Analysis of strains lacking the MED13 or CDK8 subunits points to the importance of these subunits as regulators involved in diverse physiological processes such as growth, longevity and sexual development. Interestingly, transcriptional analyses indicate that in P. anserina, loss of the respiratory cytochrome pathway results in the up-regulation of glycolysis-related genes revealing a new type of retrograde regulation. The loss of MED13 augments the up-regulation of some of these genes. PMID:26231682

  11. DMPD: Infectious non-self recognition in invertebrates: lessons from Drosophila andother insect models. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15476918 Infectious non-self recognition in invertebrates: lessons from Drosophila ...fectious non-self recognition in invertebrates: lessons from Drosophila andother insect models. PubmedID 154...76918 Title Infectious non-self recognition in invertebrates: lessons from Drosop

  12. Robust and Accurate Discrimination of Self/Non-Self Antigen Presentations by Regulatory T Cell Suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusawa, Chikara; Yamaguchi, Tomoyuki

    2016-01-01

    The immune response by T cells usually discriminates self and non-self antigens, even though the negative selection of self-reactive T cells is imperfect and a certain fraction of T cells can respond to self-antigens. In this study, we construct a simple mathematical model of T cell populations to analyze how such self/non-self discrimination is possible. The results demonstrate that the control of the immune response by regulatory T cells enables a robust and accurate discrimination of self and non-self antigens, even when there is a significant overlap between the affinity distribution of T cells to self and non-self antigens. Here, the number of regulatory T cells in the system acts as a global variable controlling the T cell population dynamics. The present study provides a basis for the development of a quantitative theory for self and non-self discrimination in the immune system and a possible strategy for its experimental verification. PMID:27668873

  13. DMPD: Innate sensing of self and non-self RNAs by Toll-like receptors. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 16530484 Innate sensing of self and non-self RNAs by Toll-like receptors. Sioud M. ...Trends Mol Med. 2006 Apr;12(4):167-76. Epub 2006 Mar 10. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Innate sensing of self and non-self... RNAs by Toll-like receptors. PubmedID 16530484 Title Innate sensing of self and non-self

  14. Application of non-self-adjoint operators for description of electronic excitations in metallic lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popov, A. V., E-mail: Popov.Barnaul@mail.ru [Polzunov Altai State Technical University (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    Metallic lithium is used to demonstrate the possibilities of applying non-self-adjoint operators for quantitative description of orbital excitations of electrons in crystals. It is shown that, the nonequilibrium distribution function can be calculated when solving the spectral problem; therefore, the kinetic properties of a material can also be described with the unified band theory.

  15. On a class of non-self-adjoint periodic boundary value problems with discrete real spectrum

    OpenAIRE

    Boulton, Lyonell; Levitin, Michael; Marletta, Marco

    2010-01-01

    In [arXiv:0801.0172] we examined a family of periodic Sturm-Liouville problems with boundary and interior singularities which are highly non-self-adjoint but have only real eigenvalues. We now establish Schatten class properties of the associated resolvent operator.

  16. Arguments for and against self and non-self root recognition in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen eDepuydt

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Root–root interaction research gained more and more attention over the past few years. Roots are pivotal for plant survival because they ensure uptake of water and nutrients. Therefore, detection of adjacent roots might lead to competitive advantages. Several lines of experimental evidence suggest that roots have ways to discriminate non-related roots, kin, and – importantly – that they can sense self/non-self roots to avoid intra-plant competition. In this mini-review, the existence of self/non-self recognition in plant roots will be discussed and the current knowledge on the mechanisms that could be involved will be summarized. Although the process of identity recognition is still not completely understood, interesting data are available and emerging new technologies will certainly aid to better understand this research field that can have an important biological, ecological, and agricultural impact.

  17. Processing of self versus non-self in Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Louise Bond

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite considerable evidence for abnormalities of self-awareness in Alzheimer’s disease (AD, the cognitive mechanisms of altered self-processing in AD have not been fully defined. Here we addressed this issue in a detailed analysis of self/non-self-processing in three patients with AD. We designed a novel neuropsychological battery comprising tests of tactile body schema coding, attribution of tactile events to self versus external agents, and memory for self- versus non-self-generated vocal information, administered in conjunction with a daily life measure of self/non-self-processing (the Interpersonal Reactivity Index. Three male AD patients (aged 54 to 68 years; one with a pathogenic mutation in the Presenilin 1 gene, one with a pathogenic mutation in the Amyloid Precursor Protein gene, and one with a CSF protein profile supporting underlying AD pathology were studied in relation to a group of eight healthy older male individuals (aged 58 to 74 years. Compared to healthy controls, all patients had relatively intact tactile body schema processing. In contrast, all patients showed impaired memory for words previously presented using the patient’s own voice whereas memory for words presented in other voices was less consistently affected. Two patients showed increased levels of emotional contagion and reduced perspective taking on the Interpersonal Reactivity Index. Our findings suggest that AD may be associated with deficient self /non-self differentiation over time despite a relatively intact body image: this profile of altered self-processing contrasts with the deficit of tactile body schema previously described in frontotemporal dementia associated with C9orf72 mutations. We present these findings as a preliminary rationale to direct future systematic study in larger patient cohorts.

  18. Self vs. non-self discrimination during CRISPR RNA-directed immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Marraffini, Luciano A.; SONTHEIMER, ERIK J.

    2010-01-01

    All immune systems must distinguish self from non-self to repel invaders without inducing autoimmunity. Clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) loci protect bacteria and archaea from invasion by phage and plasmid DNA through a genetic interference pathway1–9. CRISPR loci are present in ~ 40% and ~90% of sequenced bacterial and archaeal genomes respectively10 and evolve rapidly, acquiring new spacer sequences to adapt to highly dynamic viral populations1, 11–13. Imm...

  19. Cyclophilin D Is Involved in the Regulation of Autophagy and Affects the Lifespan of P. anserina in Response to Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Piet; Jung, Alexander T.; Hamann, Andrea; Osiewacz, Heinz D.

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial permeability transition pore plays a key role in programmed cell death and the induction of autophagy. Opening of the pore is regulated by the mitochondrial peptidyl prolyl-cis, trans-isomerase cyclophilin D (CYPD). Previously it was shown in the aging model organism Podospora anserina that PaCYPD abundance increases during aging and that PaCypD overexpressors are characterized by accelerated aging. Here, we describe a role of PaCYPD in the regulation of autophagy. We found that the accelerated aging phenotype observed in a strain overexpressing PaCypD is not metacaspase-dependent but is accompanied by an increase of general autophagy and mitophagy, the selective autophagic degradation of mitochondria. It thus is linked to what has been defined as “autophagic cell death” or “type II” programmed cell death. Moreover, we found that the previously demonstrated age-related induction of autophagy in wild-type aging depends on the presence of PaCYPD. Deletion of PaCypD leads to a decrease in autophagy in later stages of age and under paraquat-mediated oxidative stress. Finally, we report that PaCYPD is also required for mitohormesis, the beneficial effect of mild mitochondrial stress. Thus, PaCYPD plays a key role in the context-dependent regulation of pathways leading to pro-survival and pro-death effects of autophagy. PMID:27683587

  20. Cyclophilin D Is Involved in the Regulation of Autophagy and Affects the Lifespan of P. anserina in Response to Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Piet; Jung, Alexander T; Hamann, Andrea; Osiewacz, Heinz D

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial permeability transition pore plays a key role in programmed cell death and the induction of autophagy. Opening of the pore is regulated by the mitochondrial peptidyl prolyl-cis, trans-isomerase cyclophilin D (CYPD). Previously it was shown in the aging model organism Podospora anserina that PaCYPD abundance increases during aging and that PaCypD overexpressors are characterized by accelerated aging. Here, we describe a role of PaCYPD in the regulation of autophagy. We found that the accelerated aging phenotype observed in a strain overexpressing PaCypD is not metacaspase-dependent but is accompanied by an increase of general autophagy and mitophagy, the selective autophagic degradation of mitochondria. It thus is linked to what has been defined as "autophagic cell death" or "type II" programmed cell death. Moreover, we found that the previously demonstrated age-related induction of autophagy in wild-type aging depends on the presence of PaCYPD. Deletion of PaCypD leads to a decrease in autophagy in later stages of age and under paraquat-mediated oxidative stress. Finally, we report that PaCYPD is also required for mitohormesis, the beneficial effect of mild mitochondrial stress. Thus, PaCYPD plays a key role in the context-dependent regulation of pathways leading to pro-survival and pro-death effects of autophagy. PMID:27683587

  1. DMPD: RIG-I: tri-ing to discriminate between self and non-self RNA. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17307033 RIG-I: tri-ing to discriminate between self and non-self RNA. Bowie AG, Fi...-I: tri-ing to discriminate between self and non-self RNA. PubmedID 17307033 Title RIG-I: tri-ing to discriminate between self... and non-self RNA. Authors Bowie AG, Fitzgerald KA. Publication

  2. Extension of IMC tuning correlations for non-self regulating (integrating) processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbogast, Jeffrey E; Cooper, Douglas J

    2007-06-01

    The filter term of a PID with Filter controller reduces the impact of measurement noise on the derivative action of the controller. This impact is quantified by the controller output travel defined as the total movement of the controller output per unit time. Decreasing controller output travel is important to reduce wear in the final control element. Internal Model Control (IMC) tuning correlations are widely published for PI, PID, and PID with Filter controllers for self regulating processes. For non-self regulating (or integrating) processes, IMC tuning correlations are published for PI and PID controllers but not for PID with Filter controllers. The important contribution of this work is that it completes the set of IMC tuning correlations with an extension to the PID with Filter controller for non-self regulating processes. Other published correlations (not based upon the IMC framework) for PID with Filter controllers fix the filter time constant at one-tenth the derivative time regardless of the model of the process. In contrast, the novel IMC correlations presented in this paper calculate a filter time constant based upon the model of the process and the user's choice for the closed-loop time constant. The set point tracking and disturbance rejection performance of the proposed IMC tunings is demonstrated using simulation studies and a bench-scale experimental system. The proposed IMC tunings are shown to perform as well as various PID correlations (with and without a filter term) while requiring considerably less controller action.

  3. Dust trap formation in a non-self-sustained discharge with external gas ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippov, A. V., E-mail: fav@triniti.ru; Babichev, V. N.; Pal’, A. F.; Starostin, A. N.; Cherkovets, V. E.; Rerikh, V. K.; Taran, M. D. [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-15

    Results from numerical studies of a non-self-sustained gas discharge containing micrometer dust grains are presented. The non-self-sustained discharge (NSSD) was controlled by a stationary fast electron beam. The numerical model of an NSSD is based on the diffusion drift approximation for electrons and ions and self-consistently takes into account the influence of the dust component on the electron and ion densities. The dust component is described by the balance equation for the number of dust grains and the equation of motion for dust grains with allowance for the Stokes force, gravity force, and electric force in the cathode sheath. The interaction between dust grains is described in the self-consistent field approximation. The height of dust grain levitation over the cathode is determined and compared with experimental results. It is established that, at a given gas ionization rate and given applied voltage, there is a critical dust grain size above which the levitation condition in the cathode sheath cannot be satisfied. Simulations performed for the dust component consisting of dust grains of two different sizes shows that such grains levitate at different heights, i.e., size separation of dust drains levitating in the cathode sheath of an NSSD takes place.

  4. Non-self-sustained electric discharge in oxygen gas mixtures: singlet delta oxygen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of obtaining a high specific input energy in an electron-beam sustained discharge ignited in oxygen gas mixtures O2 : Ar : CO (or H2) at the total gas pressures of 10-100 Torr was experimentally demonstrated. The specific input energy per molecular component exceeded ∼6 kJ l-1 atm-1 (150 kJ mol-1) as a small amount of carbon monoxide was added into a gas mixture of oxygen and argon. It was theoretically demonstrated that one might expect to obtain a singlet delta oxygen yield of 25% exceeding its threshold value needed for an oxygen-iodine laser operation at room temperature, when maintaining a non-self-sustained discharge in oxygen gas mixtures with molecular additives CO, H2 or D2. The efficiency of singlet delta oxygen production can be as high as 40%

  5. Non-self-sustained microwave discharge and the concept of a microwave air jet engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new type of microwave discharge - near-surface non-self-sustained discharge (NSND) - has been realized and investigated. A physical model of this discharge is presented. For the first time NSND application for microwave air jet engines has been proposed. Measurements under laboratory conditions modelling the microwave air jet engine operation shows the qualitative agreement between the model of NSND and actual processes near the target irradiated by a powerful microwave beam. Characteristic dependences of recoil momentum of target on the background pressure and microwave pulse duration obtained in experiments are presented. Measured cost of thrust produced by the NSND is no more than 3.0 kW N-1, which is close to the predicted values

  6. Correspondence of the eigenvalues of a non-self-adjoint operator to those of a self-adjoint operator

    CERN Document Server

    Weir, John

    2008-01-01

    We prove that the eigenvalues of a certain highly non-self-adjoint operator correspond, up to scaling by a positive constant, to those of a self-adjoint operator with compact resolvent; hence there are infinitely many eigenvalues which accumulate only at infinity.

  7. Hybrid Implicit Iteration Process for a Finite Family of Non-Self-Nonexpansive Mappings in Uniformly Convex Banach Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaohong Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Weak and strong convergence theorems are established for hybrid implicit iteration for a finite family of non-self-nonexpansive mappings in uniformly convex Banach spaces. The results presented in this paper extend and improve some recent results.

  8. The PaPsr1 and PaWhi2 genes are members of the regulatory network that connect stationary phase to mycelium differentiation and reproduction in Podospora anserina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpano, Hélène; Chan Ho Tong, Laetitia; Gautier, Valérie; Lalucque, Hervé; Silar, Philippe

    2016-09-01

    In filamentous fungi, entrance into stationary phase is complex as it is accompanied by several differentiation and developmental processes, including the synthesis of pigments, aerial hyphae, anastomoses and sporophores. The regulatory networks that control these processes are still incompletely known. The analysis of the "Impaired in the development of Crippled Growth (IDC)" mutants of the model filamentous ascomycete Podospora anserina has already yielded important information regarding the pathway regulating entrance into stationary phase. Here, the genes affected in two additional IDC mutants are identified as orthologues of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae WHI2 and PSR1 genes, known to regulate stationary phase in this yeast, arguing for a conserved role of these proteins throughout the evolution of ascomycetes. PMID:27353975

  9. Non-self-sufficiency as a primary outcome measure in ALS trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Benoît; Bianchi, Elisa; Pupillo, Elisabetta; Lunetta, Christian; Tremolizzo, Lucio; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Chiò, Adriano; Preux, Pierre Marie; Beghi, Ettore

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to assess non-self-sufficiency (NSS) in ALS as an outcome measure in therapeutic trials. Using data from the control arm of two randomized trials and an observational study, associations between NSS (score ≤2 in the ALSFRS-R items for swallowing, cutting food and handling utensils, or walking) and the total ALSFRS-R score, forced vital capacity (FVC), and survival at selected time-points until death or 48 weeks, were assessed. These measures were used as surrogates of relevant functional impairment. Of 82 self-sufficient (SS) patients at baseline, 32 (39.0%) became NSS at four weeks and increased to 72 (87.8%) at the end of follow-up. A significant association was found between NSS, ALSFRS-R score and FVC at 24, 36 and 48 weeks. Thirty-four subjects died (41.5%). Compared to SS patients (median survival, 27.9 months), individuals becoming NSS at four weeks were at increased risk to die (median survival, 23.6 months, p = 0.02). NSS status at four weeks predicted survival even after adjustment for ALSFRS-R total score, age, gender, site of onset, disease duration, BMI, and FVC. 'Walking' was the only predictor of survival when adjusting for all covariates. In conclusion, NSS status is a possible endpoint to investigate short-term efficacy of treatments of ALS. PMID:26470831

  10. Reprogramming, Circular Reasoning and Self versus Non-self: One-Stop Shopping with RNA Editing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savva, Yiannis A.; Rezaei, Ali; St. Laurent, Georges; Reenan, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Transcription of genetic information from archival DNA into RNA molecule working copies is vital for proper cellular function and is highly accurate. In turn, RNAs serve structural, enzymatic, and regulatory roles, as well as being informational templates for the ribosomal translation of proteins. Following RNA synthesis, maturing of RNA molecules occurs through various RNA processing events. One component of the collection of processes involving RNA species, broadly defined as RNA metabolism, is the RNA-editing pathway and is found in all animals. Acting specifically on RNA substrates with double-stranded character, RNA editing has been shown to regulate a plethora of genomic outputs, including gene recoding, RNA splicing, biogenesis and targeting actions of microRNAs and small interfering RNAs, and global gene expression. Recent evidence suggests that RNA modifications mediated via RNA editing influence the biogenesis of circular RNAs and safeguard against aberrant innate immune responses generated to endogenous RNA sources. These novel roles have the potential to contribute new insights into molecular mechanisms underlying pathogenesis mediated by mishandling of double-stranded RNA. Here, we discuss recent advances in the field, which highlight novel roles associated with the RNA-editing process and emphasize their importance during cellular RNA metabolism. In addition, we highlight the relevance of these newly discovered roles in the context of neurological disorders and the more general concept of innate recognition of self versus non-self. PMID:27458478

  11. Discrimination-based Artificial Immune System: Modeling the Learning Mechanism of Self and Non-self Discrimination for Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazushi Igawa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a new artificial immune system for classification. It was named discrimination-based artificial immune system (DAIS and was based on the principle of self and non-self discrimination by T cells in the human immune system. Ability of a natural immune system to distinguish between self and non-self molecules was applicable for classification in a way that one class was distinguished from others. We model this and the mechanism of the education in a thymus for classification. Especially, we introduce the method to decide the recognition distance threshold of the artificial lymphocyte, as the negative selection algorithm. We apply DAIS to real world datasets and show its performance to be comparable to that of other classifier systems. We conclude that this modeling was appropriate and DAIS was a useful classifier.

  12. Hubbard-U corrected Hamiltonians for non-self-consistent random-phase approximation total-energy calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patrick, Christopher; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2016-01-01

    In non-self-consistent calculations of the total energy within the random-phase approximation (RPA) for electronic correlation, it is necessary to choose a single-particle Hamiltonian whose solutions are used to construct the electronic density and noninteracting response function. Here we...... in the underlying electronic structure. We further demonstrate that the non-selfconsistent RPA total energies of these materials have minima at nonzero U. Our RPA calculations find the rutile phase of TiO2 to be more stable than anatase independent of U, a result which is consistent with experiments...

  13. Use of a Low-Pressure Non-Self-Sustained Arc Discharge for Plasma Ion Treatment of Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An efficient method for producing low-temperature gas plasmas in large vacuum volumes is based on the initiation and operation of a low-pressure non-self-sustained arc discharge with a combined cathode including a hot cathode and a hollow cathode. For this type of a discharge, the inner walls of the working vacuum chamber play the role of a hollow anode. In the range from 10-1 to 1 Pa, this method makes it possible to produce plasmas of both inert and reactive gases of density 109 - 1010 cm-3 uniform within 20% with respect to the average value in volumes of about 1 m3. This paper describes major applications of this type of plasma in technological processes, such as: finish surface cleaning of materials and articles in vacuum; plasma ion nitriding of steels and alloys; plasma-assisted deposition of functional coatings on materials and articles. (author)

  14. Uridine composition of the poly-U/UC tract of HCV RNA defines non-self recognition by RIG-I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretja Schnell

    Full Text Available Viral infection of mammalian cells triggers the innate immune response through non-self recognition of pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs in viral nucleic acid. Accurate PAMP discrimination is essential to avoid self recognition that can generate autoimmunity, and therefore should be facilitated by the presence of multiple motifs in a PAMP that mark it as non-self. Hepatitis C virus (HCV RNA is recognized as non-self by RIG-I through the presence of a 5'-triphosphate (5'-ppp on the viral RNA in association with a 3' poly-U/UC tract. Here we define the HCV PAMP and the criteria for RIG-I non-self discrimination of HCV by examining the RNA structure-function attributes that impart PAMP function to the poly-U/UC tract. We found that the 34 nucleotide poly-uridine "core" of this sequence tract was essential for RIG-I activation, and that interspersed ribocytosine nucleotides between poly-U sequences in the RNA were required to achieve optimal RIG-I signal induction. 5'-ppp poly-U/UC RNA variants that stimulated strong RIG-I activation efficiently bound purified RIG-I protein in vitro, and RNA interaction with both the repressor domain and helicase domain of RIG-I was required to activate signaling. When appended to 5'-ppp RNA that lacks PAMP activity, the poly-U/UC U-core sequence conferred non-self recognition of the RNA and innate immune signaling by RIG-I. Importantly, HCV poly-U/UC RNA variants that strongly activated RIG-I signaling triggered potent anti-HCV responses in vitro and hepatic innate immune responses in vivo using a mouse model of PAMP signaling. These studies define a multi-motif PAMP signature of non-self recognition by RIG-I that incorporates a 5'-ppp with poly-uridine sequence composition and length. This HCV PAMP motif drives potent RIG-I signaling to induce the innate immune response to infection. Our studies define a basis of non-self discrimination by RIG-I and offer insights into the antiviral therapeutic

  15. Critical roles of sea cucumber C-type lectin in non-self recognition and bacterial clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiumei; Liu, Xiangquan; Yang, Jianmin; Wang, Sheng; Sun, Guohua; Yang, Jialong

    2015-08-01

    C-type lectin is one important pattern recognition receptor (PRR) that plays crucial roles in multiple immune responses. A C-type lectin from sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (AjCTL-1) was characterized in the present study. The amino acid sequence of AjCTL-1 shared high similarities with other C-type lectins from invertebrates and vertebrates. The C-type lectin domain (CTLD) of AjCTL-1 contained a Ca(2+)-binding site 2 and four conserved cysteine residues. AjCTL-1 mRNA expression patterns in tissues and after bacterial challenge were then analysed. Quantitative PCR revealed that AjCTL-1 mRNA was widely expressed in the tested tissues of healthy sea cucumber. The highest expression level occurred in gonad followed by body wall, coelomocytes, tentacle, intestinum and longitudinal muscle, and the lowest expression level was in respiratory tree. AjCTL-1 mRNA expression in coelomocytes was significantly induced by gram-negative Listonella anguillarum and gram-positive Micrococcus luteus, with different up-regulation patterns post-challenge. Recombinant AjCTL-1 exhibited the ability to bind peptidoglycan directly, agglutinate M. luteus, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, in a Ca(2+)-dependant manner, and enhance the phagocytosis of coelomocytes against E. coli in vitro. The results indicated that AjCTL-1 could act as a PRR in Apostichopus japonicus and had critical roles in non-self recognition and bacterial clearance against invading microbes. PMID:26052017

  16. Research on spraying and fusing of non-self-fluxing copper powdered alloy on cast iron surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Xiaojia; Hao Huzai; Guo Zhian

    2006-01-01

    A new type additive was added to the non-self-fluxing copper powdered alloy, and the powder showed satisfactory performance of spraying and fusing, self-protecting, and self-fluxing in the oxygen-acetylene flame spraying and fusing process.The additive was melted and could absorb copper oxide when spraying, then it created a layer of film to cover the copper liquid, which protected the copper liquid from oxidizing efficiently and promoted it wetting on iron surface.Thus it lead to real diffusion between Cu and Fe, which resolved the difficulty of combining Cu with Fe and reduced the limitation of the powder, and it promoted the usage value of general powder.Through analysis of microstructures, it was found that the fastness and compac tness of the combining interface was excellent as well as the diffusing of transition area, and the hardness was suitable, which meant that the performance could meet the needs of high quality valves completely.

  17. On the Spectra and Pseudospectra of a Class of Non-Self-Adjoint Random Matrices and Operators

    CERN Document Server

    Chandler-Wilde, Simon N; Lindner, Marko

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we develop and apply methods for the spectral analysis of non-self-adjoint tridiagonal infinite and finite random matrices, and for the spectral analysis of analogous deterministic matrices which are pseudo-ergodic in the sense of E.B.Davies (Commun. Math. Phys. 216 (2001), 687-704). As a major application to illustrate our methods we focus on the "hopping sign model" introduced by J.Feinberg and A.Zee (Phys. Rev. E 59 (1999), 6433-6443), in which the main objects of study are random tridiagonal matrices which have zeros on the main diagonal and random $\\pm 1$'s as the other entries. We explore the relationship between spectral sets in the finite and infinite matrix cases, and between the semi-infinite and bi-infinite matrix cases, for example showing that the numerical range and $p$-norm $\\eps$-pseudospectra ($\\eps>0$, $p\\in [1,\\infty]$) of the random finite matrices converge almost surely to their infinite matrix counterparts, and that the finite matrix spectra are contained in the infinite ma...

  18. Dissolution Dynamic Nuclear Polarization of Non-Self-Glassing Agents: Spectroscopy and Relaxation of Hyperpolarized [1-13C]Acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flori, Alessandra; Liserani, Matteo; Bowen, Sean;

    2015-01-01

    The intrinsic physicochemical properties of the sample formulation are the key factors for efficient hyperpolarization through dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (dissolution-DNP). We provide a comprehensive characterization of the DNP process for Na-[1-13C]acetate selected as a model for n....... The results reported here describe the constraints of the acetate formulation useful for future studies in this field with non-self-glassing enriched molecules.......The intrinsic physicochemical properties of the sample formulation are the key factors for efficient hyperpolarization through dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (dissolution-DNP). We provide a comprehensive characterization of the DNP process for Na-[1-13C]acetate selected as a model for non-self...

  19. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the solvability of the inverse problem for non-self-adjoint pencils of Sturm-Liouville operators on the half-line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vjacheslav Yurko

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-self-adjoint Sturm-Liouville differential operators on the half-line with a boundary condition depending polynomially on the spectral parameter are studied. We investigate the inverse problem of recovering the operator from the Weyl function. For this inverse problem we provide necessary and suffcient conditions for its solvability along with a procedure for constructing its solution by the method of spectral mappings.

  20. Exact Solution for Non-Self-Similar Wave-Interaction Problem during Two-Phase Four-Component Flow in Porous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Borazjani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Analytical solutions for one-dimensional two-phase multicomponent flows in porous media describe processes of enhanced oil recovery, environmental flows of waste disposal, and contaminant propagation in subterranean reservoirs and water management in aquifers. We derive the exact solution for 3×3 hyperbolic system of conservation laws that corresponds to two-phase four-component flow in porous media where sorption of the third component depends on its own concentration in water and also on the fourth component concentration. Using the potential function as an independent variable instead of time allows splitting the initial system to 2×2 system for concentrations and one scalar hyperbolic equation for phase saturation, which allows for full integration of non-self-similar problem with wave interactions.

  1. A Schauder and Riesz basis criterion for non-self-adjoint Schrödinger operators with periodic and antiperiodic boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesztesy, Fritz; Tkachenko, Vadim

    Under the assumption that V∈L2([0,π];dx), we derive necessary and sufficient conditions in terms of spectral data for (non-self-adjoint) Schrödinger operators -d2/dx2+V in L2([0,π];dx) with periodic and antiperiodic boundary conditions to possess a Riesz basis of root vectors (i.e., eigenvectors and generalized eigenvectors spanning the range of the Riesz projection associated with the corresponding periodic and antiperiodic eigenvalues). We also discuss the case of a Schauder basis for periodic and antiperiodic Schrödinger operators -d2/dx2+V in Lp([0,π];dx), p∈(1,∞).

  2. Discriminating Self and Non-Self by RNA: Roles for RNA Structure, Misfolding, and Modification in Regulating the Innate Immune Sensor PKR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Chelsea M; Bevilacqua, Philip C

    2016-06-21

    Pathogens are recognized by the innate immune system in part via their unique and complex RNA signatures. A key sensor in human innate immunity is the RNA-activated protein kinase, protein kinase R (PKR), which has two double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) binding motifs (dsRBMs) at its N-terminus. Early studies described PKR as being activated potently by long stretches of perfect dsRNA, a signature typical of viruses. More recently, we and others have found that PKR is also activated by RNAs having structural defects such as bulges and internal loops. This Account describes advances in our understanding of the ability of PKR to detect diverse foreign RNAs and how that recognition plays significant roles in discriminating self from non-self. The experiments discussed employ a wide range of techniques including activation assays, native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), protein footprinting, and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). We discuss how misfolding and dimerization of RNA lead to activation of PKR. We also present recent findings on the activation of PKR by varied bacterial functional RNAs including ribozymes and riboswitches, which are among the few structured RNAs known to interact with PKR in a site-specific manner. Molecular models for how these structured RNAs activate PKR are provided. Studies by SAXS revealed that PKR straightens bent RNAs. Most external and internal RNA cellular modifications introduced in vitro and found naturally, such as the m7G cap and m6A group, abrogate activation of PKR, but other modifications, such as 5'-ppp and 2'-fluoro groups, are immunostimulatory and potential anticancer agents. Genome-wide studies of RNA folding in vitro and in vivo have provided fresh insights into general differences in RNA structure among bacteria, viruses, and human. These studies suggest that in vivo, cellular human RNAs are less folded than once thought, unwound by helicases, destabilized by m6A modifications, and often bound up with proteins

  3. Deposition of silicon-carbon coatings from the plasma of a non-self-sustained arc discharge with a heated cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenadyorov, A. S.; Oskomov, K. V.; Solov'ev, A. A.; Rabotkin, S. V.

    2016-05-01

    Amorphous hydrogenated carbon doped with silicon oxide ( a-C:H:Si:O), which is referred to as silicon-carbon coatings in this work, consists of thin amorphous films, which are used as commercial solid lubricants due to their higher stability under extreme environmental conditions as compared to amorphous hydrogenated carbon. The deposition of silicon-carbon coatings from the plasma of a non-self-sustained arc discharge with a heated cathode is considered. Silicon-carbon coatings are deposited using polyphenul methylsiloxane as a precursor at a flow rate of 0.05 mL/min in an argon atmosphere at a pressure of 0.1 Pa. A high-frequency power supply is used to apply a high-frequency bias voltage to a substrate during deposition. After deposition, the mechanical properties of the coatings are studied. The maximum hardness of the coating is 20 GPa at a minimum friction coefficient of 0.16 and a wear rate of 1.3 × 10-5 mm3 N-1 m-1. Energy dispersive analysis shows that the coatings contain a significant content of carbon and oxygen (about 80 and 15%, respectively) and a low content of silicon (about 5%).

  4. Thoughts engendered by Bretscher's Two-step, Two-signal model for a peripheral self-non-self discrimination and the origin of primer effector T helpers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, M

    2015-02-01

    There are three questions under re-examination here that have been inspired by Bretscher's 'Two-step, Two-signal' model. First, what is the nature of the steps required in order for antigen-responsive cells to become effectors? Second, how does the immune system get started? Third and the most troublesome, what is the mechanism that relates the delivery of the two signals? To answer the first question, Bretscher proposes a pathway that I will place in another context by comparing it with what had been envisaged under the Associative Recognition of Antigen (ARA) model. The second question, how does the immune system gets started, is crucial to our understanding of the self-non-self discrimination. This problem boils down to, what is the origin of the first effector T helper (eTh) cells required to activate all antigen-responsive cells including the T helpers themselves (the primer problem)? To deal with this question, I proposed an antigen-independent pathway to primer eTh. Bretscher presents us with an antigen-dependent pathway to primer eTh. As competing models are precious in clarifying thinking and in guiding experimentation, I felt it important to reanalyse the two models and look for ways to decide between them. The third question deals with the requirement for and the mechanism of associative (linked) recognition of antigen (ARA). The concept of ARA is so compelling at both the experimental and theoretical levels that to save it, a new perspective will be introduced. PMID:25413363

  5. 细菌的CRISPR/cas免疫及免疫识别%A review on immune system of the bacteria and its self versus non-self discrimination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马延滨; 常惠芸

    2012-01-01

    综述了40%真细菌以及几乎所有古细菌基因组内存在的CRISPR位点以及细菌的CRISPR/cas免疫机制。主要从CRISPR/cas免疫的抗感染机制、特异性间隔序列的获取、crRNA的成熟以及免疫识别等方面展开论述,阐述了成簇存在的、被短的重复回文序列所分割的非自身基因(CRISPR位点)以及通过类RNA干扰(RNAi)机制特异性地抵抗噬菌体及侵袭性质粒的二次感染。提出此技术在临床上用来抑制抗生素抗性质粒以及毒力因子在病原菌中传播的应用前景。%Clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat(CRISPR) loci that present in 40 % of eubacterial genomes and nearly all archaeal genomes was reviewed in the present paper, as well as the CRISPR/cas immunization. Discussion about the anti-infection mechanism of CRISPR/cas, the acquisition of specific interspaced sequence, the mature of crRNA and its self versus non-self discrimination was given. The CRISPR loci and its ability of resisting the second infection caused by the bacteria phage and invasive plasmid through a RNAi-like mechanism were revealed too. And we think this may be a potential tool to prevent the transmission of antibiotic resistance plasmid and virulence factors among the pathogens.

  6. Comparison of the General Health, Self-Esteem and Social Support in Self-Inflicted Burn Patients and Non Self Inflicted Burn Patients of the Choromy Accidental and Burning Hospital of Ganaveh

    OpenAIRE

    MS Enayati; A Heidarei; Malekzadeh, M.; Y Abolfathi

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Self-inflicted burn is a violent method of suicide. Since our society faces lots of psychological, social, personal and economical problems due to self-inflicted burn, more survey for this event can assist us to know its causes and prevent from its occurrence. This research was carried out to compare general health, self- esteem and social support in patient's self-inflicted burn and non-self-inflicted burn of the Choromy accidental and burning hospital...

  7. 家用电器标准中非自复位热断路器探讨%Discussion on the Non-self-resetting Thermal Cut-out in the Standard of Household Appliances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁祺; 华顺宝

    2015-01-01

    本文通过分析比较家用电器GB 4706系列标准第24.101条以及具体案例分析,对家用电器产品中非自复位热断路器的使用情况进行具体分析探讨.%This paper discusses the non-self-resetting thermal cut-out in the household appliances by analyzing the clause 24.101 of GB 4706 series of household appliances and the specific case analysis.

  8. Comparison of the General Health, Self-Esteem and Social Support in Self-Inflicted Burn Patients and Non Self Inflicted Burn Patients of the Choromy Accidental and Burning Hospital of Ganaveh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MS Enayati

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Self-inflicted burn is a violent method of suicide. Since our society faces lots of psychological, social, personal and economical problems due to self-inflicted burn, more survey for this event can assist us to know its causes and prevent from its occurrence. This research was carried out to compare general health, self- esteem and social support in patient's self-inflicted burn and non-self-inflicted burn of the Choromy accidental and burning hospital in Ganaveh. Materials & Methods: This is a descriptive – analytic study. The sample consisted of 60 inpatients burnt (males & females of the Choromy accidental and burning hospital (Ganaveh. The method of sampling was simple random. Participants completed the General Health Questionnaire (G.H.Q- 28 of Goldberg, Cooper Smith’s questionnaire of self–esteem and Philip’s social support scale. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA and T-test were the major statistical analysis in this research. Results: The mean and standard deviation of the general health were 44.57 ± 14.65 for self-inflicted burn persons and for non - self inflicted burn they were 10.83 ± 6.27. In the self–esteem variable, the mean and the standard deviation were 57.90 ± 4.94 for self-inflicted burn persons and 55.47 ± 6.04 for non-self inflicted burn ones. Mean and standard deviation of whole social supporting were 20.40 ± 4.94 for self-inflicted burn persons and 23.73 ± 1.17 for non-self inflicted burn group. The findings showed significant differences between the two groups from viewpoint of general health and social supporting while there were no significant differences between two groups in case of self–esteem. Conclusion: There are a significant relationship between general health, social supporting and self-inflicted burn.Therefore, in order to prevent self inflicted burn it is suggested that we make a relationship between persons and societies, families, groups and

  9. Mitochondrial recombination increases with age in Podospora anserina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Diepeningen, Anne D; Goedbloed, Daniël J; Slakhorst, S Marijke; Koopmanschap, A Bertha; Maas, Marc F P M; Hoekstra, Rolf F; Debets, Alfons J M

    2010-01-01

    With uniparental inheritance of mitochondria, there seems little reason for homologous recombination in mitochondria, but the machinery for mitochondrial recombination is quite well-conserved in many eukaryote species. In fungi and yeasts heteroplasmons may be formed when strains fuse and transfer o

  10. Mass Vector Graphics in a Non-Self-Intersections Clipping in the Polygon Boundary Display%海量矢量图形在非自交多边形边界中的裁剪显示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李清艳; 傅自钢

    2015-01-01

    This article describes and research mass vector graphics in a non-self-intersections polygon boundary clipping in the display graphics. Using of the quick test procedures, straddling the exclusion pilot algorithms such as effective, real-time com-puting vector graphics and non-rectangular and non-cross the convex hull polygon regions, and the intersection of the judgment which parts of the graphics in the polygon boundary in which parts of the inside of the polygon boundary and at the same time to display correctly on the polygon boundary in the graphical part of the internal, do not display on the outside of the polygon boundary Graphical sections. The final realization of the millions of when a line to be cropped and circle displayed, the comple-tion of the statistics displayed in the crop time should not exceed 10s, memory utilization not to exceed 100MB.%该文介绍和研究海量矢量图形在非自交多边形边界中的裁剪显示图形.程序采用快速排斥试验,跨立试验等算法实时高效地计算矢量图形与非矩形且非自交的凸多边形及凹多边形区域的交点,判断图形的哪些部分在多边形边界内部,哪些部分在多边形边界外部,同时能正确显示位于多边形边界内部的图形部分,不显示位于多边形边界外部的图形部分.最终实现当有百万级的line和circle需要裁剪显示时,统计的完成裁剪显示的时间不超过10s,存储器占用不超过100MB的效果.

  11. PaCATB, a secreted catalase protecting Podospora anserina against exogenous oxidative stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zintel, Sandra; Bernhardt, Dominik; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina;

    2011-01-01

    . Genetic modulation of the abundance of PaCATB identified differential effects on the phenotype of the corresponding strains. Deletion of PaCatB resulted in decreased resistance, over-expression in increased resistance against hydrogen peroxide. While the lifespan of the genetically modified strains...... was found to be unaffected under standard growth conditions, increased exogenous hydrogen peroxide stress in the growth medium markedly reduced the lifespan of the PaCatB deletion strain but extended the lifespan of PaCatB over-expressors. Overall our data identify a component of the secretome of P...

  12. Protoplasmic Incompatibility in PODOSPORA ANSERINA: a Possible Function for Incompatibility Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Boucherie, Hélian; Bernet, Jean

    1980-01-01

    The suppression of protoplasmic incompatibility resulting from nonallelic gene interactions has been obtained by the coupled effect of mutations in the modA and modB genes (Bernet 1971). Due to their female sterility, modA modB strains provide an experimental tool to determine whether or not the mod and incompatibility loci are involved in a function other than protoplasmic incompatibility. Present results show that modA modB female sterility is a nonautonomous trait since heterokaryotic myce...

  13. Protoplasmic Incompatibility in PODOSPORA ANSERINA: a Possible Function for Incompatibility Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucherie, H; Bernet, J

    1980-10-01

    The suppression of protoplasmic incompatibility resulting from nonallelic gene interactions has been obtained by the coupled effect of mutations in the modA and modB genes (Bernet 1971). Due to their female sterility, modA modB strains provide an experimental tool to determine whether or not the mod and incompatibility loci are involved in a function other than protoplasmic incompatibility. Present results show that modA modB female sterility is a nonautonomous trait since heterokaryotic mycelia that include a modA modB nucleus and a female fertile nucleus (wild-type, modA or modB) produce modA modB protoperithecia, which are also formed by culture on medium supplemented with specific amino acids. Using modA modB strains, which are sterile at 32 degrees and fertile at 26 degrees , we have shown that the mod genes have no specific sequential timing. Indeed, the mod mutations may prevent the achievement of the female sexual cycle at any developmental stage from before early differentiation of protoperithecia until ascospore maturation. Employing different modA and modB mutations, we have shown that protoperithecia in modA modB cultures are generally distributed in female fertile rings; this result indicates that protoperithecia occur only in mycelial areas that have a restricted range of age at the time that modA modB thalli complete growth. Furthermore, nonsense mutations of incompatibility genes suppress the modA modB female fertile rings or restrict their width, suggesting that incompatibility loci, like the mod loci, are involved in protoperithecium formation. Taken together, these results lead to the postulate that mod and incompatibility genes do not determine, sensu stricto, protoperithecial function, as previously supposed (Boucherie and Bernet 1974), but may be involved in the homeostatic control of stationary cell functions essential for the complete development of the female sexual cycle.

  14. A potential impact of DNA repair on ageing and lifespan in the ageing model organism Podospora anserina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soerensen, Mette; Gredilla, Ricardo; Müller-Ohldach, Mathis;

    2009-01-01

    DNA instability and mitochondrial dysfunction. Part of the mtDNA instabilities may arise due to accumulation of ROS induced mtDNA lesions, which, as previously suggested for mammals, may be caused by an age-related decrease in base excision repair (BER). Alignments of known BER protein sequences with the P...

  15. Random fixed points of non-self maps and random approximations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismat Beg

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we prove random fixed point theorems in reflexive Banach spaces for nonexpansive random operators satisfying inward or Leray-Schauder condition and establish a random approximation theorem.

  16. Convergence of eigenvalues for a highly non-self-adjoint differential operator

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, E B

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we study a family of operators dependent on a small parameter $\\epsilon > 0$, which arise in a problem in fluid mechanics. We show that the spectra of these operators converge to N as $\\epsilon \\to 0$, even though, for fixed $\\epsilon > 0$, the eigenvalue asymptotics are quadratic.

  17. Clustering in non-self-conjugate nuclei 10Be and 18O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clustering phenomena in 10Be and 18O were studied by means of resonance elastic scattering of α-particles on 6He and 14C. Excitation functions for α+6He and α+14C were measured and detailed R-matrix analyses of the excitation functions was performed. We compare the experimental results with the predictions of modern theoretical approaches and discuss properties of cluster rotational bands

  18. Some results on the dynamics and transition probabilities for non self-adjoint hamiltonians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss systematically several possible inequivalent ways to describe the dynamics and the transition probabilities of a quantum system when its hamiltonian is not self-adjoint. In order to simplify the treatment, we mainly restrict our analysis to finite dimensional Hilbert spaces. In particular, we propose some experiments which could discriminate between the various possibilities considered in the paper. An example taken from the literature is discussed in detail

  19. Design and analysis of modified Smith predictors for self-regulating and non-self regulating processes with dead time

    CERN Document Server

    Saravanakumar, G; Nayak, C G

    2007-01-01

    A modification of Smith predictor for controlling the higher order processes with integral action ad long dead-time is proposed in this paper. The controller used in this Smith predictor is an Integral-Proportional Derivative controller, where the Integrator is in the forward path and the Proportional and Derivative control are in the feedback, acting on the feedback signal. The main objective of this paper is to design a Dead Time Compensator(DTC), which has minimum tuning parameters, simple controller tuning, robust performance of tuning formulae and to obtain a critically damped system which is as fast as possible in its setpoint and load disturbance rejection performance. The controller in this paper is tuned by an adaptive method. This paper also presents a survey of various dead time compensators and their performance analysis.

  20. Animal lectins as self/non-self recognition molecules. Biochemical and genetic approaches to understanding their biological roles and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasta, G R; Ahmed, H; Fink, N E; Elola, M T; Marsh, A G; Snowden, A; Odom, E W

    1994-04-15

    In recent years, the significant contributions from molecular research studies on animal lectins have elucidated structural aspects and provided clues not only to their evolution but also to their multiple biological functions. The experimental evidence has suggested that distinct, and probably unrelated, groups of molecules are included under the term "lectin." Within the invertebrate taxa, major groups of lectins can be identified: One group would include lectins that show significant homology to membrane-integrated or soluble vertebrate C-type lectins. The second would include those beta-galactosyl-specific lectins homologous to the S-type vertebrate lectins. The third group would be constituted by lectins that show homology to vertebrate pentraxins that exhibit lectin-like properties, such as C-reactive protein and serum amyloid P. Finally, there are examples that do not exhibit similarities to any of the aforementioned categories. Moreover, the vast majority of invertebrate lectins described so far cannot yet be placed in one or another group because of the lack of information regarding their primary structure. (See Table 1.) Animal lectins do not express a recombinatorial diversity like that of antibodies, but a limited diversity in recognition capabilities would be accomplished by the occurrence of multiple lectins with distinct specificities, the presence of more than one binding site, specific for different carbohydrates in a single molecule, and by certain "flexibility" of the binding sites that would allow the recognition of a range of structurally related carbohydrates. In order to identify the lectins' "natural" ligands, we have investigated the interactions between those proteins and the putative endogenous or exogenous glycosylated substances or cells that may be relevant to their biological function. Results from these studies, together with information on the biochemical properties of invertebrate and vertebrate lectins, including their structural relationships with other vertebrate recognition molecules, are discussed.

  1. Comparison of Vaccine-Induced Effector CD8 T Cell Responses Directed against Self- and Non-Self-Tumor Antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sara R; Sørensen, Maria R; Buus, Søren;

    2013-01-01

    It is generally accepted that CD8 T cells play a major role in tumor control, yet vaccination aimed at eliciting potent CD8 T cell responses are rarely efficient in clinical trials. To try and understand why this is so, we have generated potent adenoviral vectors encoding the endogenous tumor Ags...

  2. Spectral Properties and Monosaccharides Compositon Analysis of Polysaccharide from Potentilla anserina L%藏药蕨麻多糖的光谱性质及单糖组成分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏莲; 孙志伟; 李国梁; 索有瑞; 尤进茂

    2011-01-01

    The polysaccharide of Potentilla anserine L was extracted and purified,and its contents was determined as 98.4% by phenyl-sulfuric acid method. The polysaccharide was identified by IR spectrum and UV scanning spectrum. The IR spectrum indicates that the characteristic absorption peaks at 3600-3200,3200-2800,1400-1200,1200-1000 cm-1,and 845 cm-1 belonged the characteristic peak of α-pyranose. In addition,the peak at 1630 cm-1 assigned to the C = O of acetamide moiety stretching vibration meant that amino sugars exited in the polysaccharide. A method was developed for the separation of derivatized carbohydrates of Potentilla anserine L. using 1-naphthyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (NMP) as derivatization reagent by capillary zone electrophoresis, and the results shows that the monosaccharides compositions of the polysaccharide from Potentilla anserine L. are xylose, arabinose, glucose, rhamnose, mannose, fucose, galactose, glucuronic acid and galacturonic acid with contents of 3. 945,77. 445,17.568,17.646,3. 942,2. 165,65. 268,13. 037 μg/mg,and 33. 484 μg/mg,respectively,which are consistent with the results carried out by GC-MS.%本研究对藏药蕨麻多糖进行了分离提纯,并测定其水溶性多糖含量为99.4%;通过紫外光谱与红外光谱分析表明,蕨麻多糖为分子量较小的α-吡比喃糖,并含有氨基糖;蕨麻多糖的水解单糖经过NMP衍生后进行毛细管电泳分析,测得其单糖组成为木糖、阿拉伯糖、葡萄糖、鼠李糖、甘露糖、岩藻糖、半乳糖、葡萄糖醛酸和半乳糖醛酸,含量分别为3.945、77.445、17.568、17.646、3.942、2.165、65.268、13.037 μg/mg和33.484μg/mg,与GC-MS的定性分析结果一致.

  3. "Self" and "non-self" in the control of phytoalexin biosynthesis: plant phospholipases A2 with alkaloid-specific molecular fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, Michael; Brandt, Wolfgang; Marillonnet, Sylvestre; Roos, Werner

    2015-02-01

    The overproduction of specialized metabolites requires plants to manage the inherent burdens, including the risk of self-intoxication. We present a control mechanism that stops the expression of phytoalexin biosynthetic enzymes by blocking the antecedent signal transduction cascade. Cultured cells of Eschscholzia californica (Papaveraceae) and Catharanthus roseus (Apocynaceae) overproduce benzophenanthridine alkaloids and monoterpenoid indole alkaloids, respectively, in response to microbial elicitors. In both plants, an elicitor-responsive phospholipase A2 (PLA2) at the plasma membrane generates signal molecules that initiate the induction of biosynthetic enzymes. The final alkaloids produced in the respective plant inhibit the respective PLA, a negative feedback that prevents continuous overexpression. The selective inhibition by alkaloids from the class produced in the "self" plant could be transferred to leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana via recombinant expression of PLA2. The 3D homology model of each PLA2 displays a binding pocket that specifically accommodates alkaloids of the class produced by the same plant, but not of the other class; for example, C. roseus PLA2 only accommodates C. roseus alkaloids. The interaction energies of docked alkaloids correlate with their selective inhibition of PLA2 activity. The existence in two evolutionary distant plants of phospholipases A2 that discriminate "self-made" from "foreign" alkaloids reveals molecular fingerprints left in signal enzymes during the evolution of species-specific, cytotoxic phytoalexins. PMID:25670767

  4. A Policy of Individualization and Flexibility Ignoring the Situation of Non-Self-Reliant Individuals: The Example of Swedish Basic Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Ingrid Henning; Wass, Karin Lumsden

    2014-01-01

    Based on a case study in Swedish municipal basic adult education this article addresses current policies for providing individualized and flexible learning, which have been reinforced in recent adult education reforms. Concepts from the organization theory of "action nets" have been used. Institutionalized procedures and a number of…

  5. Exact Solution for Non-Self-Similar Wave-Interaction Problem during Two-Phase Four-Component Flow in Porous Media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borazjani, S.; Bedrikovetsky, P.; Farajzadeh, R.

    2014-01-01

    Analytical solutions for one-dimensional two-phase multicomponent flows in porous media describe processes of enhanced oil recovery, environmental flows of waste disposal, and contaminant propagation in subterranean reservoirs and water management in aquifers. We derive the exact solution for 3x3 hy

  6. 46 CFR 153.7 - Ships built before December 27, 1977 and non-self-propelled ships built before July 1, 1983...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to carry class B or C poisons under 46 CFR part 39; (ii) The cargo in question is a class B or C poison; (iii) The tankship meets the construction standards in 46 CFR part 39; and (iv) The tankship...-propelled ships built before July 1, 1983: Application. 153.7 Section 153.7 Shipping COAST GUARD,...

  7. Self/non-self recognition mechanisms in sexual reproduction: new insight into the self-incompatibility system shared by flowering plants and hermaphroditic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Hitoshi; Morita, Masaya; Iwano, Megumi

    2014-08-01

    Sexual reproduction is an essential process for generating a genetic variety in the next generation. However, most flowering plants and hermaphroditic animals potentially allow self-fertilization. Approximately 60% of angiosperms possess a self-incompatibility (SI) system to avoid inbreeding. The SI system functions at a process of interaction between pollen (or pollen tube) and the pistil. These SI-responsible factors (S-determinants) in pollen and the pistil are encoded by highly polymorphic multiallelic genes in the S-locus, which are tightly linked making a single haplotype. Different taxonomic families utilize different types of S-determinant proteins. In contrast to the plant system, the mechanisms of SI in simultaneously hermaphroditic animals are largely unknown. Among them, promising candidates for SI in ascidians (primitive chordates) were recently identified. The SI system in the ascidian Cionaintestinalis was found to be very similar to those in flowering plants: The products of sperm- and egg-side multiallelic SI genes, which are tight linked and highly polymorphic, appear to be responsible for the SI system as revealed by genetic analysis. These findings led us to speculate that the SI systems in plants and animals evolved in a manner of convergent evolution. Here, we review the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms of the SI system in flowering plants, particularly Brassicacea, and in ascidians from the viewpoint of common mechanisms shared by plants and animals.

  8. Some Integral Type Fixed Point Theorems for Non-Self-Mappings Satisfying Generalized (ψ,φ-Weak Contractive Conditions in Symmetric Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan Amin Kutbi

    2014-01-01

    weakly compatible mappings in symmetric spaces satisfying generalized (ψ,φ-contractive conditions employing the common limit range property. We furnish some interesting examples which support our main theorems. Our results generalize and extend some recent results contained in Imdad et al. (2013 to symmetric spaces. Consequently, a host of metrical common fixed theorems are generalized and improved. In the process, we also derive a fixed point theorem for four finite families of mappings which can be utilized to derive common fixed point theorems involving any number of finite mappings.

  9. Sculpting MHC class II-restricted self and non-self peptidome by the class I Ag-processing machinery and its impact on Th-cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Charles T; Dragovic, Srdjan M; Conant, Stephanie B; Gray, Jennifer J; Zheng, Mu; Samir, Parimal; Niu, Xinnan; Moutaftsi, Magdalini; Van Kaer, Luc; Sette, Alessandro; Link, Andrew J; Joyce, Sebastian

    2013-05-01

    It is generally assumed that the MHC class I antigen (Ag)-processing (CAP) machinery - which supplies peptides for presentation by class I molecules - plays no role in class II-restricted presentation of cytoplasmic Ags. In striking contrast to this assumption, we previously reported that proteasome inhibition, TAP deficiency or ERAAP deficiency led to dramatically altered T helper (Th)-cell responses to allograft (HY) and microbial (Listeria monocytogenes) Ags. Herein, we tested whether altered Ag processing and presentation, altered CD4(+) T-cell repertoire, or both underlay the above finding. We found that TAP deficiency and ERAAP deficiency dramatically altered the quality of class II-associated self peptides suggesting that the CAP machinery impacts class II-restricted Ag processing and presentation. Consistent with altered self peptidomes, the CD4(+) T-cell receptor repertoire of mice deficient in the CAP machinery substantially differed from that of WT animals resulting in altered CD4(+) T-cell Ag recognition patterns. These data suggest that TAP and ERAAP sculpt the class II-restricted peptidome, impacting the CD4(+) T-cell repertoire, and ultimately altering Th-cell responses. Together with our previous findings, these data suggest multiple CAP machinery components sequester or degrade MHC class II-restricted epitopes that would otherwise be capable of eliciting functional Th-cell responses.

  10. One the Iteration of Fixed Point for Non-self Asymptotically Nonexpansive Mappings in Banach Space%Banach空间渐近非扩张非自映象的不动点迭代

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田有先; 程群

    2007-01-01

    设E是具有一致正规结构的实Banach空间,其范数是一致Gateaux可微的,设C是E的非空有界闭凸子集.T:C→E是渐近非扩张非自映象.证明了在适当条件下,渐进非扩张非自映象的广义Reich迭代序列的强收敛性,从而改进和推广了Reich、Witemann等人的结果.

  11. Genomic clustering and homology between HET-S and the NWD2 STAND protein in various fungal genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asen Daskalov

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prions are infectious proteins propagating as self-perpetuating amyloid polymers. The [Het-s] prion of Podospora anserina is involved in a cell death process associated with non-self recognition. The prion forming domain (PFD of HET-s adopts a β-solenoid amyloid structure characterized by the two fold repetition of an elementary triangular motif. [Het-s] induces cell death when interacting with HET-S, an allelic variant of HET-s. When templated by [Het-s], HET-S undergoes a trans-conformation, relocates to the cell membrane and induces toxicity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, comparing HET-s homologs from different species, we devise a consensus for the HET-s elementary triangular motif. We use this motif to screen genomic databases and find a match to the N-terminus of NWD2, a STAND protein, encoded by the gene immediately adjacent to het-S. STAND proteins are signal transducing ATPases which undergo ligand-induced oligomerisation. Homology modelling predicts that the NWD2 N-terminal region adopts a HET-s-like fold. We propose that upon NWD2 oligomerisation, these N-terminal extensions adopt the β-solenoid fold and template HET-S to adopt the amyloid fold and trigger toxicity. We extend this model to a putative prion, the σ infectious element in Nectria haematococca, because the s locus controlling propagation of σ also encodes a STAND protein and displays analogous features. Comparative genomic analyses indicate evolutionary conservation of these STAND/prion-like gene pairs, identify a number of novel prion candidates and define, in addition to the HET-s PFD motif, two distinct, novel putative PFD-like motifs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We suggest the existence, in the fungal kingdom, of a widespread and evolutionarily conserved mode of signal transduction based on the transmission of an amyloid-fold from a NOD-like STAND receptor protein to an effector protein.

  12. Dicty_cDB: SSC687 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available U638743_428( CU638743 |pid:none) Podospora anserina genomic DNA c... 39 0.17 CP000975_1452( CP000975 |pid:none) Methylacidiphilum inf...ernorum V4... 39 0.23 AM502250_281( AM502250 |pid:none)

  13. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16033-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 68549 |pid:none) Bodo saltans clone fosmid 16K02, c... 166 9e-40 DQ660140_1( DQ660140 |pid:none) Macrobrachium...638744 |pid:none) Podospora anserina genomic DNA ch... 164 5e-39 AY466445_1( AY466445 |pid:none) Macrobrachium

  14. Methylated DNA in Borrelia species.

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, C A; Johnson, R C

    1990-01-01

    The DNA of Borrelia species was examined for the presence of methylated GATC sequences. The relapsing-fever Borrelia sp., B. coriaceae, and only 3 of 22 strains of B. burgdorferi contained adenine methylation systems. B. anserina lacked an adenine methylation system. Fundamental differences in DNA methylation exist among members of the genus Borrelia.

  15. Signal Transduction by a Fungal NOD-Like Receptor Based on Propagation of a Prion Amyloid Fold

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daskalov, A.; Habenstein, B.; Martinez, D.; Debets, A.J.M.; Sabate, R.; Loquet, A.; Saupe, S.J.

    2015-01-01

    In the fungus Podospora anserina, the [Het-s] prion induces programmed cell death by activating the HET-S pore-forming protein. The HET-s ß-solenoid prion fold serves as a template for converting the HET-S prion-forming domain into the same fold. This conversion, in turn, activates the HET-S pore-fo

  16. Aportaciones a la flora del Sistema Ibérico meridional

    OpenAIRE

    García Cardo, O.

    2006-01-01

    Se comentan 45 táxones de plantas vasculares nuevas o poco conocidas para las provincias de Cuenca, Guadalajara y Teruel. Merecen destacarse las primeras citas de Alopecurus aequalis, Armeria arenaria subsp. bilbilitana, Avenula pubescens, Elatine alsinastrum, Gnaphalium uliginosum, Juncus bulbosus, Myosotis laxa subsp. caespitosa, Sedum nevadense, Tribulus terrestris y Viola parvula en la provincia de Cuenca y Potentilla anserina en las de Cuenca y Teruel.

  17. Conversion of a linear to a circular plasmid in the relapsing fever agent Borrelia hermsii.

    OpenAIRE

    Ferdows, M S; Serwer, P; Griess, G A; Norris, S. J.; Barbour, A G

    1996-01-01

    Spirochetes of the genus Borrelia have genomes composed of both linear and circular replicons. We characterized the genomic organization of B. burgdorferi, B. hermsii, B. turicatae, and B. anserina with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. All four species contained a linear chromosome approximately 1 Mb in size and multiple linear plasmids in the 16- to 200-kb size range. Plasmids 180 and 170 kb in size, present in the relapsing fever agents B. hermsii and B. turicatae but not in the other two ...

  18. Dicty_cDB: SLG394 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 55 2e-36 CU633438_201( CU633438 |pid:none) Podospora anserina genomic DNA c... 149 9e-35 (Q6GLP4) RecName: Full=Protein RMD5...FLJ21795 fis, c... 145 2e-33 (Q640V2) RecName: Full=Protein RMD5 homolog A; &BC082487_1(BC08... 145 2e-33 pr

  19. A differential genome-wide transcriptome analysis: impact of cellular copper on complex biological processes like aging and development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Servos

    Full Text Available The regulation of cellular copper homeostasis is crucial in biology. Impairments lead to severe dysfunctions and are known to affect aging and development. Previously, a loss-of-function mutation in the gene encoding the copper-sensing and copper-regulated transcription factor GRISEA of the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina was reported to lead to cellular copper depletion and a pleiotropic phenotype with hypopigmentation of the mycelium and the ascospores, affected fertility and increased lifespan by approximately 60% when compared to the wild type. This phenotype is linked to a switch from a copper-dependent standard to an alternative respiration leading to both a reduced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and of adenosine triphosphate (ATP. We performed a genome-wide comparative transcriptome analysis of a wild-type strain and the copper-depleted grisea mutant. We unambiguously assigned 9,700 sequences of the transcriptome in both strains to the more than 10,600 predicted and annotated open reading frames of the P. anserina genome indicating 90% coverage of the transcriptome. 4,752 of the transcripts differed significantly in abundance with 1,156 transcripts differing at least 3-fold. Selected genes were investigated by qRT-PCR analyses. Apart from this general characterization we analyzed the data with special emphasis on molecular pathways related to the grisea mutation taking advantage of the available complete genomic sequence of P. anserina. This analysis verified but also corrected conclusions from earlier data obtained by single gene analysis, identified new candidates of factors as part of the cellular copper homeostasis system including target genes of transcription factor GRISEA, and provides a rich reference source of quantitative data for further in detail investigations. Overall, the present study demonstrates the importance of systems biology approaches also in cases were mutations in single genes are analyzed to

  20. A non Q/N-rich prion domain of a foreign prion, [Het-s], can propagate as a prion in yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Taneja, Vibha; Maddelein, Marie-Lise; Talarek, Nicolas; J. Saupe, Sven; Liebman, Susan W

    2007-01-01

    Prions are self-propagating, infectious aggregates of misfolded proteins. The mammalian prion, PrPSc, causes fatal neurodegenerative disorders. Fungi also have prions. While yeast prions depend upon glutamine/asparagine(Q/N)-rich regions, the Podospora anserina HET-s and PrP prion proteins, lack such sequences. Nonetheless, we show that the HET-s prion domain fused to GFP propagates as a prion in yeast. Analogously to native yeast prions: transient overexpression of the HET-s fusion induces r...

  1. Variation in Total Polyphenolics Contents of Aerial Parts of Potentilla Species and Their Anticariogenic Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Michał Tomczyk; Małgorzata Pleszczyńska; Adrian Wiater

    2010-01-01

    The aerial parts of selected Potentilla species (P. anserina, P. argentea, P. erecta, P. fruticosa, P. grandiflora, P. nepalensis, P. norvegica, P. pensylvanica, P. crantzii and P. thuringiaca) were investigated in order to determine their contents of polyphenolic compounds. The results showed that P. fruticosa has relatively high concentrations of tannins (167.3 ± 2.0 mg/g dw), proanthocyanidins (4.6 ± 0.2 mg/g dw) and phenolic acids (16.4 ± 0.8 mg/g dw), as well as flavonoids (7.0 ± 1.1 mg/...

  2. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U13724-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .. 222 9e-57 BC013309_1( BC013309 |pid:none) Homo sapiens PWP2 periodic tryptop... 219 7e-56 (Q5RFQ3) RecNam...40366_1258( CU640366 |pid:none) Podospora anserina genomic DNA ... 210 5e-53 BC047817_1( BC047817 |pid:none) Danio rerio PWP2 periodi...7 |pid:none) Mus musculus PWP2 (periodic trypto... 173 6e-42 T29585( T29585 )hypothetical protein F55F8.3 -

  3. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15076-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .. 53 2e-05 AP009178_278( AP009178 |pid:none) Nitratiruptor sp. SB155-2 genomi... 53 2e-05 ( P39697 ) RecNam... anserina genomic DNA ch... 54 1e-05 AB062910_1( AB062910 |pid:none) Physcomitrella patens PpGRP...dopsis thaliana chromosome 2... 52 5e-05 AB062909_1( AB062909 |pid:none) Physcomitrella patens PpGRP1 mRNA ....s (58), Expect = 2e-25 Identities = 58/58 (100%) Strand = Plus / Plus Query: 1 tggcctactggaaaa...s (19), Expect = 0.028 Identities = 19/19 (100%) Strand =

  4. Characterization of the aodA, dnmA, mnSOD and pimA genes in Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Éva; Park, Hee-Soo; Kwon, Nak-Jung; Han, Kap-Hoon; Emri, Tamás; Oláh, Viktor; Mészáros, Ilona; Dienes, Beatrix; Vincze, János; Csernoch, László; Yu, Jae-Hyuk; Pócsi, István

    2016-02-05

    Mitochondria play key roles in cellular energy generation and lifespan of most eukaryotes. To understand the functions of four nuclear-encoded genes predicted to be related to the maintenance of mitochondrial morphology and function in Aspergillus nidulans, systematic characterization was carried out. The deletion and overexpression mutants of aodA, dnmA, mnSOD and pimA encoding alternative oxidase, dynamin related protein, manganese superoxide dismutase and Lon protease, respectively, were generated and examined for their growth, stress tolerances, respiration, autolysis, cell death, sterigmatocystin production, hyphal morphology and size, and mitochondrial superoxide production as well as development. Overall, genetic manipulation of these genes had less effect on cellular physiology and ageing in A. nidulans than that of their homologs in another fungus Podospora anserina with a well-characterized senescence. The observed interspecial phenotypic differences can be explained by the dissimilar intrinsic stabilities of the mitochondrial genomes in A. nidulans and P. anserina. Furthermore, the marginally altered phenotypes observed in A. nidulans mutants indicate the presence of effective compensatory mechanisms for the complex networks of mitochondrial defense and quality control. Importantly, these findings can be useful for developing novel platforms for heterologous protein production, or on new biocontrol and bioremediation technologies based on Aspergillus species.

  5. Plant clonal integration mediates the horizontal redistribution of soil resources, benefiting neighbouring plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuehua eYe

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Resources such as water taken up by plants can be released into soils through hydraulic redistribution and can also be translocated by clonal integration within a plant clonal network. We hypothesized that the resources from one (donor microsite could be translocated within a clonal network, released into different (recipient microsites and subsequently used by neighbour plants in the recipient microsite. To test these hypotheses, we conducted two experiments in which connected and disconnected ramet pairs of Potentilla anserina were grown under both homogeneous and heterogeneous water regimes, with seedlings of Artemisia ordosica as neighbours. The isotopes [15N] and deuterium were used to trace the translocation of nitrogen and water, respectively, within the clonal network. The water and nitrogen taken up by P. anserina ramets in the donor microsite were translocated into the connected ramets in the recipient microsites. Most notably, portions of the translocated water and nitrogen were released into the recipient microsite and were used by the neighbouring A. ordosica, which increased growth of the neighbouring A. ordosica significantly. Therefore, our hypotheses were supported, and plant clonal integration mediated the horizontal hydraulic redistribution of resources, thus benefiting neighbouring plants. Such a plant clonal integration-mediated resource redistribution in horizontal space may have substantial effects on the interspecific relations and composition of the community and consequently on ecosystem processes.

  6. Plant Clonal Integration Mediates the Horizontal Redistribution of Soil Resources, Benefiting Neighboring Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xue-Hua; Zhang, Ya-Lin; Liu, Zhi-Lan; Gao, Shu-Qin; Song, Yao-Bin; Liu, Feng-Hong; Dong, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Resources such as water taken up by plants can be released into soils through hydraulic redistribution and can also be translocated by clonal integration within a plant clonal network. We hypothesized that the resources from one (donor) microsite could be translocated within a clonal network, released into different (recipient) microsites and subsequently used by neighbor plants in the recipient microsite. To test these hypotheses, we conducted two experiments in which connected and disconnected ramet pairs of Potentilla anserina were grown under both homogeneous and heterogeneous water regimes, with seedlings of Artemisia ordosica as neighbors. The isotopes [(15)N] and deuterium were used to trace the translocation of nitrogen and water, respectively, within the clonal network. The water and nitrogen taken up by P. anserina ramets in the donor microsite were translocated into the connected ramets in the recipient microsites. Most notably, portions of the translocated water and nitrogen were released into the recipient microsite and were used by the neighboring A. ordosica, which increased growth of the neighboring A. ordosica significantly. Therefore, our hypotheses were supported, and plant clonal integration mediated the horizontal hydraulic redistribution of resources, thus benefiting neighboring plants. Such a plant clonal integration-mediated resource redistribution in horizontal space may have substantial effects on the interspecific relations and composition of the community and consequently on ecosystem processes.

  7. The placenta in toxicology. Part I : Animal models in toxicology: placental morphology and tolerance molecules in the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buse, Eberhard; Häeger, Jan-Dirk; Svensson-Arvelund, Judit; Markert, Udo R; Faas, Marijke M; Ernerudh, Jan; Dixon, Darlene; Cline, J Mark; Pfarrer, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    The immune system represents a key defense mechanism against potential pathogens and adverse non-self materials. During pregnancy, the placenta is the point of contact between the maternal organism and non-self proteins of the fetal allograft and hence undoubtedly fulfils immune functions. In the pl

  8. Prions are affected by evolution at two levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickner, Reed B; Kelly, Amy C

    2016-03-01

    Prions, infectious proteins, can transmit diseases or be the basis of heritable traits (or both), mostly based on amyloid forms of the prion protein. A single protein sequence can be the basis for many prion strains/variants, with different biological properties based on different amyloid conformations, each rather stably propagating. Prions are unique in that evolution and selection work at both the level of the chromosomal gene encoding the protein, and on the prion itself selecting prion variants. Here, we summarize what is known about the evolution of prion proteins, both the genes and the prions themselves. We contrast the one known functional prion, [Het-s] of Podospora anserina, with the known disease prions, the yeast prions [PSI+] and [URE3] and the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies of mammals. PMID:26713322

  9. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U11344-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available P001140_1265( CP001140 |pid:none) Desulfurococcus kamchatkensis 1... 139 3e-31 ( Q90732 ) RecName: Full=26S ... ) CHEL9324.b1_H03.ab1 CHE(LMS) serpentine sunflower... 46 4e-05 2 ( AK072976 ) Oryza sativa Japonica Group cDNA clone... CP000562_1555( CP000562 |pid:none) Methanoculleus marisnigri JR1, ... 179 3e-43 CP001140_1067( CP001140 |pid:none) Desulfur...tive cell division cycle ATPase; &AL... 143 2e-32 CU633898_26( CU633898 |pid:none) Podospora anserina genomic...scoideum cAMP phosphodiesterase (... 101 3e-41 2 ( BJ336011 ) Dictyostelium discoideum cDNA clo

  10. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U01787-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available :none) Podospora anserina genomic DNA c... 46 6e-06 CP000615_1850( CP000615 |pid:none) Burkholderia vietnam...... 58 8e-13 AL939104_218( AL939104 |pid:none) Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) co... 68 8e-13 CP001027_958( CP001027 |pid...12 CT573213_4330( CT573213 |pid:none) Frankia alni str. ACN14A chromo... 62 2e-12 AL590463_43( AL590463 |pid:none) Streptomyces coeli...:none) Dictyostelium discoideum chromoso... 64 8e-21 FJ196388_4( FJ196388 |pid:none) Escherichia coli strain...:none) Azotobacter vinelandii DJ, comp... 70 1e-16 CP000284_588( CP000284 |pid:none) Methylobacillus flagel

  11. Prions are affected by evolution at two levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickner, Reed B; Kelly, Amy C

    2016-03-01

    Prions, infectious proteins, can transmit diseases or be the basis of heritable traits (or both), mostly based on amyloid forms of the prion protein. A single protein sequence can be the basis for many prion strains/variants, with different biological properties based on different amyloid conformations, each rather stably propagating. Prions are unique in that evolution and selection work at both the level of the chromosomal gene encoding the protein, and on the prion itself selecting prion variants. Here, we summarize what is known about the evolution of prion proteins, both the genes and the prions themselves. We contrast the one known functional prion, [Het-s] of Podospora anserina, with the known disease prions, the yeast prions [PSI+] and [URE3] and the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies of mammals.

  12. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14747-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 9e-08 CP000614_1743( CP000614 |pid:none) Burkholderia vietnamiensis G4 c... 60 9e-08 (Q9NYR8) RecName: Full=Retinol...enase/reductase SDR family member... 56 2e-06 CP000615_1850( CP000615 |pid:none) Burkholderia vietnamiensis ...16 |pid:none) Thermotoga neapolitana DSM 4359,... 57 1e-06 CU640366_578( CU640366 |pid:none) Podospora anserina genomic...40 |pid:none) Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 1... 56 2e-06 BA000030_774( BA000030 |pid:none) Streptomyces avermitili... 2 ( AC006909 ) Caenorhabditis elegans clone Y82E9, *** SEQUENCIN... 38 1.5 8 ( AC215467 ) Solanum lycopersic

  13. Aqueous Extracts of Selected Potentilla Species Modulate Biological Activity of Human Normal Colon Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paduch, Roman; Wiater, Adrian; Locatelli, Marcello; Pleszczyńska, Malgorzata; Tomczyk, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Potentilla L. (Rosaceae) species have been used in traditional and in folk medicine for many years. This study characterized the activity of extracts from aerial parts of selected Potentilla species: P. argentea, P. anserina, P. grandiflora and P. erecta as well as one species of closely related to the genus Potentilla, Drymocallis rupestris (syn. P. rupestris). The biological activities were analyzed using MTT, NR and DPPH assays on CCD 841 CoTr and CCD-18Co cells. Moreover, cell morphology and cytoskeletal actin F-filaments organization and IL-6 and IL-10 levels by ELISA were analyzed after 24 h of incubation. Potentilla extracts at dose levels between 25 and 250 µg/mL were analyzed. For ELISA, 15 µg/mL and 30 μg/mL were chosen. When mitochondrial succinyl dehydrogenase activity was tested (MTT assay) only extract obtained from P. erecta at lower concentrations (up to 125 µg/mL) suppressed metabolism of myofibroblasts, while epithelial cells mitochondrial enzyme activity increased after incubation with all extracts. In Neutral Red (NR) method cellular membrane disturbance of both cell cultures was found after D. rupestris and P. grandiflora addition. Moreover, strong influence on epithelial cells was also found for P. anserina. All extracts showed similar, concentration-dependent free radical scavenging (DPPH) effect. Potentilla extracts, especially at lower concentration, decreased IL-6 production in myofibroblasts but the level of the cytokine was found to be stable in epithelial cells. IL-10 analysis revealed that P. argentea, D. rupestris, P. erecta extracts decrease cytokine level in myofibroblasts, while only when higher concentration were applied, decreased cytokine level produced by epithelial cells was found. F-actin filaments staining revealed that Potentilla extracts significantly influence on cellular cytoskeleton organization. Potentilla extracts influence on cells of human colon wall lining modulating the main features of them (viability

  14. Application of filter method for detection of secondary electron emission in the auto-oscillating mode of beam plasma discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balovnev, A. V.; Vizgalov, I. V.; Salahutdinov, G. H.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we studied the non-self mode of the auto-oscillation secondary- emission discharge (ASED) in a longitudinal magnetic field with autonomous electron gun to ignite the primary beam-plasma discharge (PPD).

  15. On a difference scheme for nonlocal heat transfer boundary-value problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhymbek, Meiram E.; Sadybekov, Makhmud A.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method of solving nonlocal problems for the heat equation with finite difference method. The main important feature of these problems is their non-self-adjointness. This non-self-adjointness causes major difficulties in their analytical and numerical solving. The problems, which boundary conditions do not possess strong regularity, are less studied. The scope of study of the paper justifies possibility of building a stable difference scheme with weights for abovementioned type of problems.

  16. Plasticity of the β-Trefoil Protein Fold in the Recognition and Control of Invertebrate Predators and Parasites by a Fungal Defence System

    OpenAIRE

    Schubert, Mario; Bleuler-Martinez, Silvia; Butschi, Alex; Wälti, Martin A.; Egloff, Pascal; Stutz, Katrin; Yan, Shi; Wilson, Iain B. H.; Hengartner, Michael O.; Aebi, Markus; Allain, Frédéric H-T; Künzler, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Discrimination between self and non-self is a prerequisite for any defence mechanism; in innate defence, this discrimination is often mediated by lectins recognizing non-self carbohydrate structures and so relies on an arsenal of host lectins with different specificities towards target organism carbohydrate structures. Recently, cytoplasmic lectins isolated from fungal fruiting bodies have been shown to play a role in the defence of multicellular fungi against predators and parasites. Here, w...

  17. New Fixed Point Results with PPF Dependence in Banach Spaces Endowed with a Graph

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, N.; S. Khaleghizadeh; P. Salimi; Akbar, F.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce the concept of an ${\\alpha }_{c}$ -admissible non-self-mappings with respect to ${\\eta }_{c}$ and establish the existence of PPF dependent fixed and coincidence point theorems for ${\\alpha }_{c}{\\eta }_{c}$ - $\\psi $ -contractive non-self-mappings in the Razumikhin class. As applications of our PPF dependent fixed point and coincidence point theorems, we derive some new fixed and coincidence point results for $\\psi $ -contractions whenever the range space is endowed with a graph ...

  18. Research on a randomized real-valued negative selection algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A real-valued negative selection algorithm with good mathematical foundation is presented to solve some of the drawbacks of previous approach. Specifically, it can produce a good estimate of the optimal number of detectors needed to cover the non-self space, and the maximization of the non-self coverage is done through an optimization algorithm with proven convergence properties. Experiments are performed to validate the assumptions made while designing the algorithm and to evaluate its performance.

  19. Observables, Disassembled

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, Bryan W

    2016-01-01

    This paper argues that non-self-adjoint operators can be observables. There are only four ways for this to occur: non-self-adjoint observables can either be normal operators, or be symmetric, or have a real spectrum, or have none of these three properties. I explore each of these four classes of observables, arguing that the class of normal operators provides an equivalent formulation of quantum theory, whereas the other classes considerably extend it.

  20. Immune modelling and programming of a mobile robot demo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Tao; CAI Zi-xing; HE Han-gen

    2006-01-01

    An artificial immune system was modelled with self/non-self selection to overcome abnormity in a mobile robot demo. The immune modelling includes the innate immune modelling and the adaptive immune modelling. The self/non-self selection includes detection and recognition, and the self/non-self detection is based on the normal model of the demo. After the detection, the non-self recognition is based on learning unknown non-self for the adaptive immunization. The learning was designed on the neural network or on the learning mechanism from examples. The last step is elimination of all the non-self and failover of the demo. The immunization of the mobile robot demo is programmed with Java to test effectiveness of the approach. Some worms infected the mobile robot demo, and caused the abnormity. The results of the immunization simulations show that the immune program can detect 100% worms,recognize all known Worms and most unknown worms, and eliminate the worms. Moreover, the damaged files of the mobile robot demo can all be repaired through the normal model and immunization. Therefore, the immune modelling of the mobile robot demo is effective and programmable in some anti-worms and abnormity detection applications.

  1. Did you or I say pretty, rude or brief? An ERP study of the effects of speaker's identity on emotional word processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Ana P; Rezaii, Neguine; Nestor, Paul G; Rauber, Andréia; Spencer, Kevin M; Niznikiewicz, Margaret

    2016-02-01

    During speech comprehension, multiple cues need to be integrated at a millisecond speed, including semantic information, as well as voice identity and affect cues. A processing advantage has been demonstrated for self-related stimuli when compared with non-self stimuli, and for emotional relative to neutral stimuli. However, very few studies investigated self-other speech discrimination and, in particular, how emotional valence and voice identity interactively modulate speech processing. In the present study we probed how the processing of words' semantic valence is modulated by speaker's identity (self vs. non-self voice). Sixteen healthy subjects listened to 420 prerecorded adjectives differing in voice identity (self vs. non-self) and semantic valence (neutral, positive and negative), while electroencephalographic data were recorded. Participants were instructed to decide whether the speech they heard was their own (self-speech condition), someone else's (non-self speech), or if they were unsure. The ERP results demonstrated interactive effects of speaker's identity and emotional valence on both early (N1, P2) and late (Late Positive Potential - LPP) processing stages: compared with non-self speech, self-speech with neutral valence elicited more negative N1 amplitude, self-speech with positive valence elicited more positive P2 amplitude, and self-speech with both positive and negative valence elicited more positive LPP. ERP differences between self and non-self speech occurred in spite of similar accuracy in the recognition of both types of stimuli. Together, these findings suggest that emotion and speaker's identity interact during speech processing, in line with observations of partially dependent processing of speech and speaker information.

  2. Neurospora crassa mat A-2 and mat A-3 proteins weakly interact in the yeast two-hybrid system and affect yeast growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla C. da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Mating-type genes control the entry into the sexual cycle, mating identity and sexual development in fungi. The mat A-2 and mat A-3 genes, present in the mat A idiomorph of the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa, are required for post-fertilization functions but are not essential for mating identity. Their putative roles as transcription factors are based on the similarity of mat A-2 with the Podospora anserina SMR1 gene and an HMG motif present in the mat A-3 gene. In this work the yeast two-hybrid system was used to identify transcriptional activity and protein-protein interaction of N. crassa mat A-2 and mat A-3 genes. We observed that the mat A-3 protein alone is capable of weakly activating transcription of yeast reporter genes; it also binds with low specificity to the GAL1 promoter sequence, possibly due to its HMG domain. Our results also indicate that mat A-3 is capable to form homodimers, and interact with mat A-2. Interference on yeast growth was observed on some transformants suggesting a toxic action of the mat A-2 protein. Our data on pattern of interactions of mat proteins contributes towards understanding the control of vegetative and sexual cycles in filamentous fungi.

  3. A Naturally Occurring Repeat Protein with High Internal Sequence Identity Defines a New Class of TPR-like Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marold, Jacob D; Kavran, Jennifer M; Bowman, Gregory D; Barrick, Doug

    2015-11-01

    Linear repeat proteins often have high structural similarity and low (∼25%) pairwise sequence identities (PSI) among modules. We identified a unique P. anserina (Pa) sequence with tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) homology, which contains longer (42 residue) repeats (42PRs) with an average PSI >91%. We determined the crystal structure of five tandem Pa 42PRs to 1.6 Å, and examined the stability and solution properties of constructs containing three to six Pa 42PRs. Compared with 34-residue TPRs (34PRs), Pa 42PRs have a one-turn extension of each helix, and bury more surface area. Unfolding transitions shift to higher denaturant concentration and become sharper as repeats are added. Fitted Ising models show Pa 42PRs to be more cooperative than consensus 34PRs, with increased magnitudes of intrinsic and interfacial free energies. These results demonstrate the tolerance of the TPR motif to length variation, and provide a basis to understand the effects of helix length on intrinsic/interfacial stability.

  4. Biotransformation of Trichoderma spp. and their tolerance to aromatic amines, a major class of pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocaign, Angélique; Bui, Linh-Chi; Silar, Philippe; Chan Ho Tong, Laetitia; Busi, Florent; Lamouri, Aazdine; Mougin, Christian; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando; Dupret, Jean-Marie; Dairou, Julien

    2013-08-01

    Trichoderma spp. are cosmopolitan soil fungi that are highly resistant to many toxic compounds. Here, we show that Trichoderma virens and T. reesei are tolerant to aromatic amines (AA), a major class of pollutants including the highly toxic pesticide residue 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA). In a previous study, we provided proof-of-concept remediation experiments in which another soil fungus, Podospora anserina, detoxifies 3,4-DCA through its arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT), a xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme that enables acetyl coenzyme A-dependent detoxification of AA. To assess whether the N-acetylation pathway enables AA tolerance in Trichoderma spp., we cloned and characterized NATs from T. virens and T. reesei. We characterized recombinant enzymes by determining their catalytic efficiencies toward several toxic AA. Through a complementary approach, we also demonstrate that both Trichoderma species efficiently metabolize 3,4-DCA. Finally, we provide evidence that NAT-independent transformation is solely (in T. virens) or mainly (in T. reesei) responsible for the observed removal of 3,4-DCA. We conclude that T. virens and, to a lesser extent, T. reesei likely utilize another, unidentified, metabolic pathway for the detoxification of AA aside from acetylation. This is the first molecular and functional characterization of AA biotransformation in Trichoderma spp. Given the potential of Trichoderma for cleanup of contaminated soils, these results reveal new possibilities in the fungal remediation of AA-contaminated soil.

  5. Yeast and Fungal Prions: Amyloid-Handling Systems, Amyloid Structure, and Prion Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickner, R B; Edskes, H K; Gorkovskiy, A; Bezsonov, E E; Stroobant, E E

    2016-01-01

    Yeast prions (infectious proteins) were discovered by their outré genetic properties and have become important models for an array of human prion and amyloid diseases. A single prion protein can become any of many distinct amyloid forms (called prion variants or strains), each of which is self-propagating, but with different biological properties (eg, lethal vs mild). The folded in-register parallel β sheet architecture of the yeast prion amyloids naturally suggests a mechanism by which prion variant information can be faithfully transmitted for many generations. The yeast prions rely on cellular chaperones for their propagation, but can be cured by various chaperone imbalances. The Btn2/Cur1 system normally cures most variants of the [URE3] prion that arise. Although most variants of the [PSI+] and [URE3] prions are toxic or lethal, some are mild in their effects. Even the most mild forms of these prions are rare in the wild, indicating that they too are detrimental to yeast. The beneficial [Het-s] prion of Podospora anserina poses an important contrast in its structure, biology, and evolution to the yeast prions characterized thus far.

  6. Variation in Total Polyphenolics Contents of Aerial Parts of Potentilla Species and Their Anticariogenic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Tomczyk

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aerial parts of selected Potentilla species (P. anserina, P. argentea, P. erecta, P. fruticosa, P. grandiflora, P. nepalensis, P. norvegica, P. pensylvanica, P. crantzii and P. thuringiaca were investigated in order to determine their contents of polyphenolic compounds. The results showed that P. fruticosa has relatively high concentrations of tannins (167.3 ± 2.0 mg/g dw, proanthocyanidins (4.6 ± 0.2 mg/g dw and phenolic acids (16.4 ± 0.8 mg/g dw, as well as flavonoids (7.0 ± 1.1 mg/g dw, calculated as quercetin. Furthermore, we investigated the in vitro inhibitory effects of aqueous extracts from these species against cariogenic Streptococcus spp. strains. It was found that the tested samples moderately inhibit the growth of oral streptococci. However, all the preparations exhibited inhibitory effects on water-insoluble α-(1→3-, α-(1→6-linked glucan (mutan and artificial dental plaque formation. The extract from P. fruticosa showed the highest anti-biofilm activities, with minimum mutan and biofilm inhibition concentrations of 6.25–25 and 50–100 µg/mL, respectively. The results indicate that the studied Potentilla species could be a potential plant material for extracting biologically active compounds, and could become a useful supplement for pharmaceutical products as a new anticariogenic agent in a wide range of oral care products.

  7. Variation in total polyphenolics contents of aerial parts of Potentilla species and their anticariogenic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczyk, Michał; Pleszczyńska, Małgorzata; Wiater, Adrian

    2010-07-01

    The aerial parts of selected Potentilla species (P. anserina, P. argentea, P. erecta, P. fruticosa, P. grandiflora, P. nepalensis, P. norvegica, P. pensylvanica, P. crantzii and P. thuringiaca) were investigated in order to determine their contents of polyphenolic compounds. The results showed that P. fruticosa has relatively high concentrations of tannins (167.3 +/- 2.0 mg/g dw), proanthocyanidins (4.6 +/- 0.2 mg/g dw) and phenolic acids (16.4 +/- 0.8 mg/g dw), as well as flavonoids (7.0 +/- 1.1 mg/g dw), calculated as quercetin. Furthermore, we investigated the in vitro inhibitory effects of aqueous extracts from these species against cariogenic Streptococcus spp. strains. It was found that the tested samples moderately inhibit the growth of oral streptococci. However, all the preparations exhibited inhibitory effects on water-insoluble alpha-(1-->3)-, alpha-(1-->6)-linked glucan (mutan) and artificial dental plaque formation. The extract from P. fruticosa showed the highest anti-biofilm activities, with minimum mutan and biofilm inhibition concentrations of 6.25-25 and 50-100 microg/mL, respectively. The results indicate that the studied Potentilla species could be a potential plant material for extracting biologically active compounds, and could become a useful supplement for pharmaceutical products as a new anticariogenic agent in a wide range of oral care products. PMID:20657382

  8. Communities of endophytic sebacinales associated with roots of herbaceous plants in agricultural and grassland ecosystems are dominated by Serendipita herbamans sp. nov.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Riess

    Full Text Available Endophytic fungi are known to be commonly associated with herbaceous plants, however, there are few studies focusing on their occurrence and distribution in plant roots from ecosystems with different land uses. To explore the phylogenetic diversity and community structure of Sebacinales endophytes from agricultural and grassland habitats under different land uses, we analysed the roots of herbaceous plants using strain isolation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and co-cultivation experiments. A new sebacinoid strain named Serendipita herbamans belonging to Sebacinales group B was isolated from the roots of Bistorta vivipara, which is characterized by colourless monilioid cells (chlamydospores that become yellow with age. This species was very common and widely distributed in association with a broad spectrum of herbaceous plant families in diverse habitats, independent of land use type. Ultrastructurally, the presence of S. herbamans was detected in the cortical cells of Plantago media, Potentilla anserina and Triticum aestivum. In addition, 13 few frequent molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs or species were found across agricultural and grassland habitats, which did not exhibit a distinctive phylogenetic structure. Laboratory-based assays indicate that S. herbamans has the ability to colonize fine roots and stimulate plant growth. Although endophytic Sebacinales are widely distributed across agricultural and grassland habitats, TEM and nested PCR analyses reinforce the observation that these microorganisms are present in low quantity in plant roots, with no evidence of host specificity.

  9. Microsatellites identify depredated waterfowl remains from glaucous gull stomachs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribner, K.T.; Bowman, T.D.

    1998-01-01

    Prey remains can provide valuable sources of information regarding causes of predation and the species composition of a predator's diet. Unfortunately, the highly degraded state of many prey samples from gastrointestinal tracts often precludes unambiguous identification. We describe a procedure by which PCR amplification of taxonomically informative microsatellite loci were used to identify species of waterfowl predated by glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus). We found that one microsatellite locus unambiguously distinguished between species of the subfamily Anserinae (whistling ducks, geese and swans) and those of the subfamily Anatidae (all other ducks). An additional locus distinguished the remains of all geese and swan species known to nest on the Yukon-Kuskokwim delta in western Alaska. The study focused on two waterfowl species which have experienced precipitous declines in population numbers: emperor geese (Chen canagica) and spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri). No evidence of predation on spectacled eiders was observed. Twenty-six percent of all glaucous gull stomachs examined contained the remains of juvenile emperor geese.

  10. Der Haupthistokompatibilitätskomplex und die Unterscheidung zwischen Selbst und Fremd durch das Immunsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Jan; Rammensee, Hans-Georg; Nagy, Zoltan A.

    1983-06-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) is a cluster of closely linked genes which are involved in the distinction between self and non-self. The genes fall into two classes, I and II, which are evolutionarily related but specialized to performing somewhat different functions. The Mhc genes code for proteins which are seen together with foreign substances by the thymus-derived lymphocytes. These lymphocytes thus recognize simultaneously self (Mhc molecules) and non-self (foreign antigen). Some of the Mhc genes are highly polymorphic and this polymorphism probably represents a compensation for the fact that certain combinations of Mhc molecules and antigen fail to be recognized by the T lymphocyte.

  11. How evolution tells us to induce allotolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Walter Gottlieb

    2015-04-01

    Modern immunology, in many ways, is based on 3 major paradigms: the clonal selection theory (Medawar, Burnet; 1953/1959), the pattern recognition theory (Janeway; 1989), and the danger/injury theory (Matzinger, Land; 1994). The last theory holds that any cell stress and tissue injury including allograft injury, via induction of damage-associated molecular patterns, induces immunity including alloimmunity leading to allograft rejection. On the other hand, the concept precludes that "non-self " per se induces immunity as proposed by the two former theories. Today, the danger/injury model has been largely accepted by immunologists, as documented by a steadily increasing number of publications. In particular, overwhelming evidence in support of the correctness of the model has come from recent studies on the gut microbiota representing a huge assemblage of "non-self. " Here, harmless noninjurious commensal microbes are protected by innate immunity-based immune tolerance whereas intestinal injury-causing pathogenic microbes are immunology attacked. The ability of the immune system to discriminate between harmless beneficial "non-self " to induce tolerance and harmful life-threatening "non-self " to induce immunity has apparently emerged during evolution: Protection of innate immunity-controlled beneficial "non-self " (eg, as reflected by microbiotas but also by the fetus of placental mammals) as well as immune defense responses to injuring/injured "non-self " (eg, as reflected by plant resistance to biotic and abiotic stress and allograft rejection in mammals) evolved under pressure across the tree of life, that is, in plants, lower and higher invertebrates as well as lower and higher vertebrates. And evolution tells us why the overall existence of protected microbiotas really makes sense: It is the formation of the "holobiont, " - a metaorganism - that is, the host plus all of its associated microorganisms that - in terms of a strong unit of selection in evolution

  12. Spinning boson stars and Kerr black holes with scalar hair: the effect of self-interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Herdeiro, Carlos A R; Rúnarsson, Helgi F

    2016-01-01

    Self-interacting boson stars have been shown to alleviate the astrophysically low maximal mass of their non-self-interacting counterparts. We report some physical features of spinning self-interacting boson stars, namely their compactness, the occurence of ergo-regions and the scalar field profiles, for a sample of values of the coupling parameter. The results agree with the general picture that these boson stars are comparatively less compact than the non-self-interacting ones. We also briefly discuss the effect of scalar self-interactions on the properties of Kerr black holes with scalar hair.

  13. Targeting tumor antigens to secreted membrane vesicles in vivo induces efficient antitumor immune responses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeelenberg, I.S.; Ostrowski, M.; Krumeich, S.; Bobrie, A.; Jancic, C.; Boissonnas, A.; Delcayre, A.; Pecq, JB Le; Combadiere, B.; Amigorena, S.; Thery, C.

    2008-01-01

    Expression of non-self antigens by tumors can induce activation of T cells in vivo, although this activation can lead to either immunity or tolerance. CD8+ T-cell activation can be direct (if the tumor expresses MHC class I molecules) or indirect (after the capture and cross-presentation of tumor an

  14. Estimates of Tax-Deferred Retirement Savings Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Julie H. Collins; Wyckoff, James H.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the tax-favored retirement savings behavior on non-self-employed households. Estimates that perceptions of the household's marginal tax are of limited importance in the decision to invest in tax-deferred savings instruments. Considers the effects the Tax Reform Act of 1986 has on the purchase of tax-favored retirement savings instruments.

  15. Confined Quantum Time of Arrivals

    CERN Document Server

    Galapon, E A; Galapon, Eric A.; Bahague, Ricardo T.

    2003-01-01

    We show that the non-self-adjoint free time of arrival operator in free space defines a class of compact, self-adjoint, and canonical operators for a spatially confined particle. We analytically and numerically study the qualitative behaviors of these operators, and demonstrate that their eigenfunctions and eigenvalues are consistent with the interpretation that they are time of arrival operators.

  16. Self-Determination as a Moderator of Demands and Control: Implications for Employee Strain and Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Stacey L.; Jimmieson, Nerina L.; Amiot, Catherine E.

    2010-01-01

    Does job control act as a stress-buffer when employees' type and level of work self-determination is taken into account? It was anticipated that job control would only be stress-buffering for employees high in self-determined and low in non-self-determined work motivation. In contrast, job control would be stress-exacerbating for employees who…

  17. L-type lectin receptor kinases in Nicotiana benthamiana and tomato and their role in Phytophthora resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Yan; Weide, Rob; Govers, Francine; Bouwmeester, Klaas

    2015-01-01

    Membrane-bound receptors play crucial roles as sentinels of plant immunity against a large variety of invading microbes. One class of receptors known to be involved in self/non-self-surveillance and plant resistance comprises the L-type lectin receptor kinases (LecRKs). Previously, we reported that

  18. YOUNG ATHLETES' MOTIVATIONAL PROFILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Moreno Murcia

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between motivational characteristics and dispositional flow. In order to accomplish this goal, motivational profiles emerging from key constructs within Achievement Goal Theory and Self-Determination Theory were related to the dispositional flow measures. A sample of 413 young athletes (Age range 12 to 16 years completed the PMCSQ-2, POSQ, SMS and DFS measures. Cluster analysis results revealed three profiles: a "self-determined profile" characterised by higher scores on the task-involving climate perception and on the task orientation; a "non-self-determined profile", characterised by higher scores on ego-involving climate perception and ego orientation; and a "low self-determined and low non-self-determined profile" which had the lowest dispositional flow. No meaningful differences were found between the "self-determined profile" and the "non-self-determined profile" in dispositional flow. The "self-determined profile" was more commonly associated with females, athletes practising individual sports and those training more than three days a week. The "non-self-determined profile" was more customary of males and athletes practising team sports as well as those training just two or three days a week

  19. Eigenvalue asymptotics for Dirac-Bessel operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hryniv, Rostyslav O.; Mykytyuk, Yaroslav V.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we establish the eigenvalue asymptotics for non-self-adjoint Dirac-Bessel operators on (0, 1) with arbitrary real angular momenta and square integrable potentials, which gives the first step for solution of the related inverse problem. The approach is based on a careful examination of the corresponding characteristic functions and their zero distribution.

  20. The Effects of Continuous Vs. Intermittent Self-Monitoring on the Duration and Magnitude of Behavior Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schayer, Laurel L.; Schroeder, Harold E.

    Continuous self-monitoring (CSM) was compared with a demand characteristics control condition (non self-monitoring), with intermittent self-monitoring (ISM) and with another control condition. It was predicted that both self-monitoring conditions would produce effects over and above the demand characteristics inherent in the self-monitoring…

  1. 728kW斗轮式挖泥船728kW wheel dredger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杭爱群; 蔡惠礼

    2001-01-01

    Zhenjiang Shipyard introduced a 728kW (300 cubic meter) bucket wheel dredger in 2000. This dredger is of non-self-propelled type and uses new type, high efficiency dredging tools and high efficiency double-walled dredge pump. This pump is driven by the main engine and has a good capability to adapt to the changing working conditions.

  2. On the Finite Volume Element Method for Self-Adjoint Parabolic Integrodifferential Equations

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Bahaj; Anas Rachid

    2013-01-01

    Finite volume element schemes for non-self-adjoint parabolic integrodifferential equations are derived and stated. For the spatially discrete scheme, optimal-order error estimates in , , and , norms for are obtained. In this paper, we also study the lumped mass modification. Based on the Crank-Nicolson method, a time discretization scheme is discussed and related error estimates are derived.

  3. Position-dependent mass quantum Hamiltonians: general approach and duality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rego-Monteiro, M. A.; Rodrigues, Ligia M. C. S.; Curado, E. M. F.

    2016-03-01

    We analyze a general family of position-dependent mass (PDM) quantum Hamiltonians which are not self-adjoint and include, as particular cases, some Hamiltonians obtained in phenomenological approaches to condensed matter physics. We build a general family of self-adjoint Hamiltonians which are quantum mechanically equivalent to the non-self-adjoint proposed ones. Inspired by the probability density of the problem, we construct an ansatz for the solutions of the family of self-adjoint Hamiltonians. We use this ansatz to map the solutions of the time independent Schrödinger equations generated by the non-self-adjoint Hamiltonians into the Hilbert space of the solutions of the respective dual self-adjoint Hamiltonians. This mapping depends on both the PDM and on a function of position satisfying a condition that assures the existence of a consistent continuity equation. We identify the non-self-adjoint Hamiltonians here studied with a very general family of Hamiltonians proposed in a seminal article of Harrison (1961 Phys. Rev. 123 85) to describe varying band structures in different types of metals. Therefore, we have self-adjoint Hamiltonians that correspond to the non-self-adjoint ones found in Harrison’s article.

  4. Motivational profiles in physical education and their relation to the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Murcia, Juan Antonio; Cervelló Gimeno, Eduardo; Hernández, Elisa Huéscar; Pedreño, Noelia Belan-do; Rodríguez Marín, Jesús Jesus

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish motivational profiles for doing physical activity according to the variables from the theory of planned action in a sample of 698 students aged 14 to 16. The instruments used were the Questionnaire of Behavioral Regulation in Sport (BRQ-R) and the Questionnaire of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TCP). Cluster analysis revealed two motivational profiles: a "self-determined "profile with high scores in intrinsic motivation and low scores in extrinsic motivation and amotivation, and a "non self- determined "profile with low scores in intrinsic motivation and high scores in extrinsic motivation and amotivation. Positive significant differences in attitudes, norms, and intent to control were found for the self-determined profile related to "non self-determined "profile. Key PointsA "self-determined "profile was found with higher scores for the four types of intrinsic motivations (general, knowledge, stimulation and achievement) and identified regulation than for introjected and external regulation.A "non self-determined "profile was found with higher scores for external, introjected regulation and amotivation than for the four types of intrinsic motivation (general, knowledge, stimulation and achievement).In the context of the "non self-determined profile "we could encourage programs that adapt to these needs in such a way that they contribute to increasing the rates of doing physical activity in the population.

  5. Analytical solution for the advection-dispersion transport equation in layered media

    Science.gov (United States)

    The advection-dispersion transport equation with first-order decay was solved analytically for multi-layered media using the classic integral transform technique (CITT). The solution procedure used an associated non-self-adjoint advection-diffusion eigenvalue problem that had the same form and coef...

  6. The Australian Higher Education Quality Assurance Framework: From Improvement-Led to Compliance-Driven

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mahsood; Jarzabkowski, Lucy

    2013-01-01

    The Australian government initiated a review of higher education in 2008. One of the outcomes of the review was the formation of a national regulator, the Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency (TEQSA), with responsibilities to: register all higher education providers, accredit the courses of the non self-accrediting providers, assure…

  7. Comparison of CTL reactivity in the spleen and draining lymph nodes after immunization with peptides pulsed on dendritic cells or mixed with Freund's incomplete adjuvant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Ming-Jun; Nissen, Mogens Holst; Buus, Søren;

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare CTL reactivity in the spleen and the draining lymph nodes (LN) from C57BL/6 mice after immunization with self and non-self peptides pulsed on autologous dendritic cells (DC) or mixed with Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FIA). METHODS: Peptides showing high to low binding...

  8. [Advances in clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats--a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lili; He, Jin; Wang, Jieping

    2011-08-01

    The recently discovered Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat (CRISPRs) can protect bacteria and archaea with adaptive and heritable defense systems against the invasion of phage- and plasmid- associated mobile genetic elements. Here, we review the structure, diversity, mechanism of interference and self versus non-self discrimination of CRISPR systems. We also discuss the potential applications of this novel interference system.

  9. 46 CFR 153.216 - Shower and eyewash fountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Vessel Requirements § 153.216 Shower and eyewash fountains. (a) Each non-self-propelled ship must have a fixed or portable shower and eyewash fountain that operates during cargo transfer and meets paragraph (c... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shower and eyewash fountains. 153.216 Section...

  10. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells: II. Origin, disease models and clinical aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Janne; Holm, Thomas Lindebo; Claesson, Mogens H

    2004-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases afflict approximately 5% of the population and reflect a failure in the immune system to discriminate between self and non-self resulting in the breakdown of self-tolerance. Regulatory CD4+CD25+ T cells (Treg cells) have been shown to play an important role in the maintenance ...

  11. HLA-DR4, DR13(6) and the ancestral haplotype A1B8DR3 are associated with ANCA-associated vasculitis and Wegeners granulomatosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stassen, Patricia M.; Cohen-Tervaert, Jan W.; Lems, Simon P. M.; Hepkema, Bouke G.; Kallenberg, Cees G. M.; Stegeman, Coen A.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. As the HLA system is involved in recognition of self and non-self, an association with the development of ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) seems probable. In this study, the relation between HLA antigens and AAV and its severity were investigated. Methods. Consecutive patients diagnosed

  12. Self-Injurious Behavior and Suicide Attempts among Indonesian College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresno, Fiona; Ito, Yoshimi; Mearns, Jack

    2012-01-01

    This study reports the prevalence of self-injurious behavior and suicide attempts among college students in Indonesia and examines risk factors distinguishing between 3 groups: self-injury with suicide attempt, non-suicidal self-injury, and non-self-injury. Self-report questionnaires measuring self-injury and suicide attempts, negative mood…

  13. Predicting proteasomal cleavage sites: a comparison of available methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxova, P.; Buus, S.; Brunak, Søren;

    2003-01-01

    The proteasome plays an essential role in the immune responses of vertebrates. By degrading intercellular proteins from self and non-self, the proteasome produces the majority of the peptides that are presented to cytotoxic T cells (CTL). There is accumulating evidence that the C-terminal, in par...

  14. The Scare Tactic: Do Fear Appeals Predict Motivation and Exam Scores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putwain, David; Remedios, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Prior to high-stakes exams, teachers use persuasive messages that highlight to students the possible consequences of failure. Such messages are known as fear appeals. This study examined whether fear appeals relate to self- and non-self-determined motivation and academic performance. Data were collected in 3 waves. Self-report data pertaining to…

  15. How past and present influence the foraging of clonal plants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louâpre, Philipe; Bittebière, Anne-Kristel; Clément, Bernard; Pierre, Jean-Sébastien; Mony, Cendrine

    2012-01-01

    Clonal plants spreading horizontally and forming a network structure of ramets exhibit complex growth patterns to maximize resource uptake from the environment. They respond to spatial heterogeneity by changing their internode length or branching frequency. Ramets definitively root in the soil but stay interconnected for a varying period of time thus allowing an exchange of spatial and temporal information. We quantified the foraging response of clonal plants depending on the local soil quality sampled by the rooting ramet (i.e. the present information) and the resource variability sampled by the older ramets (i.e. the past information). We demonstrated that two related species, Potentilla reptans and P. anserina, responded similarly to the local quality of their environment by decreasing their internode length in response to nutrient-rich soil. Only P. reptans responded to resource variability by decreasing its internode length. In both species, the experience acquired by older ramets influenced the plastic response of new rooted ramets: the internode length between ramets depended not only on the soil quality locally sampled but also on the soil quality previously sampled by older ramets. We quantified the effect of the information perceived at different time and space on the foraging behavior of clonal plants by showing a non-linear response of the ramet rooting in the soil of a given quality. These data suggest that the decision to grow a stolon or to root a ramet at a given distance from the older ramet results from the integration of the past and present information about the richness and the variability of the environment.

  16. An altitudinal cline in UV floral pattern corresponds with a behavioral change of a generalist pollinator assemblage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koski, Matthew H; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

    2015-12-01

    Spatial variation in pollinator communities or behaviors can underlie floral diversification. Floral traits in the UV spectrum are common and mediate plant-pollinator interactions, but the role of pollinators in driving or maintaining their geographic variation has not been fully explored. We identify an altitudinal cline of increasing relative size of the UV bullseye pattern in Argentina anserina (Rosaceae) flowers, and assess whether pollination context contributes to clinal variation. At four sites that varied in altitude, we document the pollinator assemblage, and pollinator preference and visitation behavior. We then determine how pollinator visits affected pollen receipt and export. Finally, we describe how the functional relationship between UV floral phenotype and pollen receipt changed with altitude. Floral UV bullseye size increased with altitude, which corresponded with a change from a hymenopteran- to a dipteran-dominated pollinator assemblage. While dipteran and hymenopteran preferences for bullseye size were similar, flowers with large bullseyes received more foraging visits than those with small bullseyes at higher altitude. The reverse was observed at the lower altitudes; pollinators approached large-bullseye flowers often but rarely foraged. These differences are expected to affect fitness because foraging visits increased pollen export and receipt. Indeed, when natural variation in bullseye size was considered, it had a stronger effect on pollen receipt than other traits (flower size, display, or color). Plants with larger bullseyes tended to receive more pollen at the highest-altitude site, while those with smaller ones received more pollen at the lowest-altitude site. Results suggest that altitudinal changes in preference and behavior of the overall pollinator assemblage, but not differential preferences of pollinator taxonomic groups, could contribute to clinal variation in a UV floral trait for a generalist-pollinated plant. PMID:26909439

  17. Bistability and hysteresis of the 'Secteur' differentiation are controlled by a two-gene locus in Nectria haematococca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daboussi Marie-Josée

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bistability and hysteresis are increasingly recognized as major properties of regulatory networks governing numerous biological phenomena, such as differentiation and cell cycle progression. The full scope of the underlying molecular mechanisms leading to bistability and hysteresis remains elusive. Nectria haemaotcocca, a saprophytic or pathogenic fungus with sexual reproduction, exhibits a bistable morphological modification characterized by a reduced growth rate and an intense pigmentation. Bistability is triggered by the presence or absence of σ, a cytoplasmic determinant. This determinant spreads in an infectious manner in the hyphae of the growing margin, insuring hysteresis of the differentiation. Results Seven mutants specifically affected in the generation of σ were selected through two different screening strategies. The s1 and s2 mutations completely abolish the generation of σ and of its morphological expression, the Secteur. The remaining five mutations promote its constitutive generation, which determines an intense pigmentation but not growth alteration. The seven mutations map at the same locus, Ses (for 'Secteur-specific'. The s2 mutant was obtained by an insertional mutagenesis strategy, which permitted the cloning of the Ses locus. Sequence and transcription analysis reveals that Ses is composed of two closely linked genes, SesA, mutated in the s1 and s2 mutant strains, and SesB, mutated in the s* mutant strains. SesB shares sequence similarity with animal and fungal putative proteins, with potential esterase/lipase/thioesterase activity, whereas SesA is similar to proteins of unknown function present only in the filamentous fungi Fusarium graminearum and Podospora anserina. Conclusions The cloning of Ses provides evidence that a system encoded by two linked genes directs a bistable and hysteretic switch in a eukaryote. Atypical regulatory relations between the two proteins may account for the hysteresis

  18. Signal Transduction by a Fungal NOD-Like Receptor Based on Propagation of a Prion Amyloid Fold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskalov, Asen; Habenstein, Birgit; Martinez, Denis; Debets, Alfons J. M.; Sabaté, Raimon; Loquet, Antoine; Saupe, Sven J.

    2015-01-01

    In the fungus Podospora anserina, the [Het-s] prion induces programmed cell death by activating the HET-S pore-forming protein. The HET-s β-solenoid prion fold serves as a template for converting the HET-S prion-forming domain into the same fold. This conversion, in turn, activates the HET-S pore-forming domain. The gene immediately adjacent to het-S encodes NWD2, a Nod-like receptor (NLR) with an N-terminal motif similar to the elementary repeat unit of the β-solenoid fold. NLRs are immune receptors controlling cell death and host defense processes in animals, plants and fungi. We have proposed that, analogously to [Het-s], NWD2 can activate the HET-S pore-forming protein by converting its prion-forming region into the β-solenoid fold. Here, we analyze the ability of NWD2 to induce formation of the β-solenoid prion fold. We show that artificial NWD2 variants induce formation of the [Het-s] prion, specifically in presence of their cognate ligands. The N-terminal motif is responsible for this prion induction, and mutations predicted to affect the β-solenoid fold abolish templating activity. In vitro, the N-terminal motif assembles into infectious prion amyloids that display a structure resembling the β-solenoid fold. In vivo, the assembled form of the NWD2 N-terminal region activates the HET-S pore-forming protein. This study documenting the role of the β-solenoid fold in fungal NLR function further highlights the general importance of amyloid and prion-like signaling in immunity-related cell fate pathways. PMID:25671553

  19. Comparison of fungal carbohydrate esterases of family CE16 on artificial and natural substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchart, Vladimír; Agger, Jane W; Berrin, Jean-Guy; Várnai, Anikó; Westereng, Bjørge; Biely, Peter

    2016-09-10

    The enzymatic conversion of acetylated hardwood glucuronoxylan to functional food oligomers, biochemicals or fermentable monomers requires besides glycoside hydrolases enzymes liberating acetic acid esterifying position 2 and/or 3 in xylopyranosyl (Xylp) residues. The 3-O-acetyl group at internal Xylp residues substituted by MeGlcA is the only acetyl group of hardwood acetylglucuronoxylan and its fragments not attacked by acetylxylan esterases of carbohydrate esterase (CE) families 1, 4, 5 and 6 and by hemicellulolytic acetyl esterases classified in CE family 16. Monoacetylated aldotetraouronic acid 3″-Ac(3)MeGlcA(3)Xyl3, generated from the polysaccharide by GH10 endoxylanases, appears to be one of the most resistant fragments. The presence of the two substituents on the non-reducing-end Xylp residue prevents liberation of MeGlcA by α-glucuronidase of family GH67 and blocks the action of acetylxylan esterases. The Ac(3)MeGlcA(3)Xyl3 was isolated from an enzymatic hydrolysate of birchwood acetylglucuronoxylan and characterized by (1)H NMR spectroscopy as a mixture of two positional isomers, 3″-Ac(3)MeGlcA(3)Xyl3 and 4″-Ac(3)MeGlcA(3)Xyl3, the latter being the result of acetyl group migration. The mixture was used as a substrate for three members of CE16 family of fungal origin. Trichoderma reesei CE16 esterase, inactive on polymeric substrate, deacetylated both isomers. Podospora anserina and Aspergillus niger esterases, active on acetylglucuronoxylan, deesterified effectively only the 4″-isomer. The results indicate catalytic diversity among CE16 enzymes, but also their common and unifying catalytic ability to exo-deacetylate positions 3 and 4 on non-reducing-end Xylp residues, which is an important step in plant hemicellulose saccharification. PMID:27439201

  20. Microbe- and danger-induced inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broggi, Achille; Granucci, Francesca

    2015-02-01

    The ability of the immune system to give rise to an effective response against pathogens while maintaining tolerance towards self-tissues has always been an object of keen interest for immunologist. Over the years, different theories have been proposed to explain if and how the immune system is able to discriminate between self and non-self, including the Infectious Non-self theory from Charles Janeway and Polly Matzinger's Danger theory. Nowadays we know Janeway's theory is largely true, however the immune system does respond to injured, stressed and necrotic cells releasing danger signals (DAMPs) with a potent inflammatory response. To avoid unwanted prolonged autoimmune reactions, though, danger-induced inflammation should be tightly regulated. In the present review we discuss how prototypic DAMPs are able to induce inflammation and the peculiarity of danger-induced inflammation, as opposed to a complete immune response to fight pathogen invasions.

  1. MHC Class Ⅰ Antigen Presentation- Recently Trimmed and Well Presented

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Barry Flutter; Bin Gao

    2004-01-01

    Presentation of antigenic peptide to T cells by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class Ⅰ molecules is the key to the cellular immune response. Non-self intracellular proteins are processed into short peptides and transported into endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where they are assembled with class Ⅰ molecules assisted by several chaperone proteins to form trimeric complex. MHC class Ⅰ complex loaded with optimised peptides travels to the cell surface of antigen presentation cells to be recognised by T cells. The cells presenting non-self peptides are cleared by CD8 positive T cells. In order to ensure that T cells detect an infection or mutation within the target cells the process of peptide loading and class Ⅰ expression must be carefully regulated. Many of the cellular components involved in antigen processing and class Ⅰ presentation are known and their various functions are now becoming clearer. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2004;1(1):22-30.

  2. MHC Class I Antigen Presentation- Recently Trimmed and Well Presented

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BarryFlutter; BinGao

    2004-01-01

    Presentation of antigenic peptide to T cells by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules is the key to the cellular immune response. Non-self intracellular proteins are processed into short peptides and transported into endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where they are assembled with class I molecules assisted by several chaperone proteins to form trimeric complex. MHC class I complex loaded with optimised peptides travels to the cell surface of antigen presentation cells to be recognised by T cells. The cells presenting non-self peptides are cleared by CD8 positive T cells. In order to ensure that T cells detect an infection or mutation within the target cells the process of peptide loading and class I expression must be carefully regulated. Many of the cellular components involved in antigen processing and class I presentation are known and their various functions are now becoming clearer. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2004;1(1):22-30.

  3. Yang-Mills fields which are not self-dual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to prove the existence of a new family of non-self-dual finite-energy solutions to the Yang-Mills equations on Euclidean four-space, with SU(2) as a gauge group. The approach is that of 'equivariant geometry': Attention is restricted to a special class of fields, those that satisfy a certain kind of rotational symmetry, for which it is proved that (1) a solution to the Yang-Mills equations exists among them; and (2) no solution to the self-duality equations exists among them. The first assertion is proved by an application of the direct method of the calculus of variations (existence and regularity of minimizers), and the second assertion by studying the symmetry properties of the linearized-self-duality equations. The same technique yields a new family of non-self-dual solutions on the complex projective plane. (orig.)

  4. Dirichlet-to-Neumann maps, abstract Weyl-Titchmarsh M-functions, and a generalized index of unbounded meromorphic operator-valued functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrndt, Jussi; Gesztesy, Fritz; Holden, Helge; Nichols, Roger

    2016-09-01

    We introduce a generalized index for certain meromorphic, unbounded, operator-valued functions. The class of functions is chosen such that energy parameter dependent Dirichlet-to-Neumann maps associated to uniformly elliptic partial differential operators, particularly, non-self-adjoint Schrödinger operators, on bounded Lipschitz domains, and abstract operator-valued Weyl-Titchmarsh M-functions and Donoghue-type M-functions corresponding to closed extensions of symmetric operators belong to it. The principal purpose of this paper is to prove index formulas that relate the difference of the algebraic multiplicities of the discrete eigenvalues of Robin realizations of non-self-adjoint Schrödinger operators, and more abstract pairs of closed operators in Hilbert spaces with the generalized index of the corresponding energy dependent Dirichlet-to-Neumann maps and abstract Weyl-Titchmarsh M-functions, respectively.

  5. Trimming self-intersections in swept volume solid modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-qi XU; Xiu-zi YE; Zhi-yang CHEN; Yin ZHANG; San-yuan ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    Swept volume solid modeling has been applied to many areas such as NC machining simulation and verification, robot workspace analysis, collision detection, and CAD. But self-intersections continue to be a challenging problem in the boundary representation of swept volume solids. A novel algorithm is presented in this paper to trim self-intersection regions in swept volume solids modeling. This trimming algorithm consists of two major steps: (1) roughly detecting self-intersection regions by checking intersections or overlapping of the envelop profiles; (2) splitting the whole envelop surfaces of the swept volume solid into separate non-self-intersecting patches to trim global self-intersections, and to trim local self-intersections, dividing local self-intersecting regions into patches and replacing self-intersecting patches with non-self-intersecting ones. Examples show that our algorithm is efficient and robust.

  6. Identification of a Colonial Chordate Histocompatibility Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskoboynik, Ayelet; Newman, Aaron M.; Corey, Daniel M.; Sahoo, Debashis; Pushkarev, Dmitry; Neff, Norma F.; Passarelli, Benedetto; Koh, Winston; Ishizuka, Katherine J.; Palmeri, Karla J.; Dimov, Ivan K.; Keasar, Chen; Fan, H. Christina; Mantalas, Gary L.; Sinha, Rahul; Penland, Lolita; Quake, Stephen R.; Weissman, Irving L.

    2013-01-01

    Histocompatibility is the basis by which multicellular organisms of the same species distinguish self from non-self. Relatively little is known about the mechanisms underlying histocompatibility reactions in lower organisms. Botryllus schlosseri is a colonial urochordate, a sister group of vertebrates, that exhibits a genetically determined natural transplantation reaction, whereby self-recognition between colonies leads to formation of parabionts with a common vasculature, whereas rejection occurs between incompatible colonies. Using genetically defined lines, whole-transcriptome sequencing, and genomics, we identified a single gene that encodes self/non-self and determines “graft” outcomes in this organism. This gene is significantly upregulated in colonies poised to undergo fusion or rejection, is highly expressed in the vasculature, and is functionally linked to histocompatibility outcomes. These findings establish a platform for advancing the science of allorecognition. PMID:23888037

  7. Linkage of mating-type loci distinguishes bipolar from tetrapolar mating in basidiomycetous smut fungi.

    OpenAIRE

    Bakkeren, G; Kronstad, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    Sexual compatibility requires self vs. non-self recognition. Genetically, two compatibility or mating-type systems govern recognition in heterothallic basidiomycete fungi such as the edible and woodrotting mushrooms and the economically important rust and smut phytopathogens. A bipolar system is defined by a single genetic locus (MAT) that can have two or multiple alleles. A tetrapolar system has two loci, each with two or more specificities. We have employed two species from the genus Ustila...

  8. Identification of tetracycline-resistant R-plasmids in Streptococcus agalactiae (group B).

    OpenAIRE

    Burdett, V

    1980-01-01

    In this report, 30 tetracycline-resistant clinical isolates of group B Streptococcus were examined to assess the extent to which tetracycline resistance is plasmid mediated. Of these, 27 showed no physical or genetic evidence of plasmid-mediated resistance; however, one conjugative and two small (3.5 X 10(6)-dalton) multicopy non-self-transmissible tetracycline resistance plasmids were identified. The conjugative plasmid was transmissible to Streptococcus faecalis as well as to Streptococcus ...

  9. Warping and tearing of misaligned circumbinary disks around eccentric SMBH binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Hayasaki, Kimitake; Sohn, Bong Won; Okazaki, Atsuo T.; Jung, TaeHyun; Zhao, Guangyao; Naito, Tsuguya

    2015-01-01

    We study the warping and tearing of a geometrically thin, non-self-gravitating disk surrounding binary supermassive black holes on an eccentric orbit. The circumbinary disk is significantly misaligned with the binary orbital plane, and is subject to the time-dependent tidal torques. In principle, such a disk is warped and precesses, and is torn into mutually misaligned rings in the region, where the tidal precession torques are stronger than the local viscous torques. We derive the tidal-warp...

  10. The danger theory: 20 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeu, Thomas; Cooper, Edwin L

    2012-01-01

    The self-non-self theory has dominated immunology since the 1950s. In the 1990s, Matzinger and her colleagues suggested a new, competing theory, called the "danger theory." This theory has provoked mixed acclaim: enthusiasm and criticism. Here we assess the danger theory vis-à-vis recent experimental data on innate immunity, transplantation, cancers and tolerance to foreign entities, and try to elucidate more clearly whether danger is well defined.

  11. Von Neumann redux: revisiting the self-referential logic of machine reproduction using the Avida world

    OpenAIRE

    McMullin, Barry; Hasegawa, Tomonori

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the distinctive, self-referential, logic of self-reproduction originally formulated by John von Neumann and present some initial results from a novel implementation of this abstract architecture, embedded within the Avida world. These show that, with this particular implementation, in this particular world, the von Neumann architecture proves to be evolutionarily unstable and degenerates, surprisingly easily, to a primitive, non-self-referential, “copying” or “template replicati...

  12. Classification of nanopolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larena, A; Tur, A [Department of Chemical Industrial Engineering and Environment, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, E.T.S. Ingenieros Industriales, C/ Jose Gutierrez Abascal, Madrid (Spain); Baranauskas, V [Faculdade de Engenharia Eletrica e Computacao, Departamento de Semicondutores, Instrumentos e Fotonica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, UNICAMP, Av. Albert Einstein N.400, 13 083-852 Campinas SP Brasil (Brazil)], E-mail: alarena@etsii.upm.es

    2008-03-15

    Nanopolymers with different structures, shapes, and functional forms have recently been prepared using several techniques. Nanopolymers are the most promising basic building blocks for mounting complex and simple hierarchical nanosystems. The applications of nanopolymers are extremely broad and polymer-based nanotechnologies are fast emerging. We propose a nanopolymer classification scheme based on self-assembled structures, non self-assembled structures, and on the number of dimensions in the nanometer range (nD)

  13. Wilson loop for large N Yang-Mills theory on a two-dimensional sphere

    OpenAIRE

    Daul, Jean-Marc; Kazakov, Vladimir A.

    1993-01-01

    We calculate various Wilson loop averages in a pure $SU(N)$-gauge theory on a two-dimensional sphere, in the large $N$ limit. The results can be expressed through the density of rows in the most probable Young tableau. They are valid in both phases (small and large areas of the sphere). All averages for self-intersecting loops can be reproduced from the average for a simple (non self-intersecting) loop by means of loop equations.

  14. The role of symbiont genetic distance and potential adaptability in host preference towards Pseudonocardia symbionts in Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas-Poulsen, Michael; Maynard, Janielle; Roland, Damien L.;

    2011-01-01

    ), help defend the ants’ fungal mutualist from specialized parasites. In Acromyrmex Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) leaf-cutting ants, individual colonies maintain either a single or a few strains of Pseudonocardia, and the symbiont is primarily vertically transmitted between generations by colony...... to the role of adaptive recognition, potential ecological flexibility in symbiont preference, and more broadly, in relation to self versus non-self recognition....

  15. Status Hukum Internasional dalam Sistem Hukum di Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Wisnu Aryo Dewanto

    2012-01-01

    A rule of international law is regarded as non-self-executing in the Indonesian legal system. It means the international legal norm does not have legal binding force in the domestic courts of Indonesia without an implementing legislation. Indonesia is a dualist country vis-à-vis the relation of international law and national law. In regard with the implementation of rules of international law into the Indonesian courts, Indonesia follows the transformation theory where the rules of internatio...

  16. Proper time method in de Sitter space

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Ashok K

    2015-01-01

    We use the proper time formalism to study a (non-self-interacting) massive Klein-Gordon theory in the two dimensional de Sitter space. We determine the exact Green's function of the theory by solving the DeWitt-Schwinger equation as well as by calculating the operator matrix element. We point out how the one parameter family of arbitrariness in the Green's function arises in this method.

  17. Third minima in thorium and uranium isotopes in a self-consistent theory

    OpenAIRE

    McDonnell, J. D.; Nazarewicz, W.; Sheikh, J. A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Deep third minima have been predicted in some non-self-consistent models to impact fission pathways of thorium and uranium isotopes. These predictions have guided the interpretation of resonances seen experimentally. On the other hand, self-consistent calculations consistently predict very shallow potential-energy surfaces in the third minimum region. Purpose: We investigate the interpretation of third-minimum configurations in terms of dimolecular states. We study the isentropic ...

  18. Critical scaling in linear response of frictionless granular packings near jamming

    OpenAIRE

    Ellenbroek, Wouter G.; Somfai, Ellak; van Hecke, Martin; van Saarloos, Wim

    2006-01-01

    We study the origin of the scaling behavior in frictionless granular media above the jamming transition by analyzing their linear response. The response to local forcing is non-self-averaging and fluctuates over a length scale that diverges at the jamming transition. The response to global forcing becomes increasingly non-affine near the jamming transition. This is due to the proximity of floppy modes, the influence of which we characterize by the local linear response. We show that the local...

  19. Theoretical tools for atom-laser-beam propagation

    OpenAIRE

    Riou, Jean-Félix; Le Coq, Yann; Impens, François; Guerin, William; Bordé, Christian,; Aspect, Alain; Bouyer, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    We present a theoretical model for the propagation of non self-interacting atom laser beams. We start from a general propagation integral equation, and we use the same approximations as in photon optics to derive tools to calculate the atom laser beam propagation. We discuss the approximations that allow to reduce the general equation whether to a Fresnel-Kirchhoff integral calculated by using the stationary phase method, or to the eikonal. Within the paraxial approximation, we also introduce...

  20. The Pauli equation with complex boundary conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Kochan, D; Novak, R; Siegl, P

    2012-01-01

    We consider one-dimensional Pauli Hamiltonians in a bounded interval with possibly non-self-adjoint Robin-type boundary conditions. We study the influence of the spin-magnetic interaction on the interplay between the type of boundary conditions and the spectrum. A special attention is paid to PT-symmetric boundary conditions with the physical choice of the time-reversal operator T.

  1. Cutting words: Priming self-objectification increases the intention to pursue cosmetic surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Calogero, Rachel M.; Pina, Afroditi; Sutton, Robbie M.

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether subtle exposure to sexually objectifying cues increases women’s intentions to have cosmetic surgery. Undergraduate women (N = 116) were randomly assigned to a condition in which they unscrambled sentences containing words associated with sexual objectification, non-self-objectifying physicality, or neutral content. Following a manipulation check of these primes, participants reported their body shame and intentions to have cosmetic surgery in the future. Results revealed t...

  2. Ask Your Doctor or Pharmacist! On the Effect of Self-Dispensing Physicians on Pharmaceutical Coverage

    OpenAIRE

    Bannert, Matthias; Iselin, David

    2015-01-01

    In most developed countries drugs are dispensed to patients through physicians and pharmacists. This paper studies the effects of allowing doctors to directly dispense drugs to patients (self-dispensation) on pharmaceutical coverage. We use a Swiss dataset in our empirical analysis because Switzerland's federalist legislation allows us to study self-dispensing and non-self-dispensing regimes alike. We add location information obtained from Google Geocoding services to our dataset in order to ...

  3. The production of string loops in an expanding universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of closed loops of string in an expanding universe, and how these might later seed the process of galaxy formation is discussed. It is shown how the motion of string is damped on scales larger than the horizon, and is free beneath the horizon. In particular when two waves meet beneath the horizon it is shown how non-self-intersecting loops are produced. It is speculated that each loop leads to the formation of a single galaxy. (orig.)

  4. Primal-Dual Interior-Point Algorithms with Dynamic Step-Size Based on Kernel Functions for Linear Programming%用于线性优化的基于核函数的动态步长原-对偶内点算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱忠根; 白延琴

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, primal-dual interior-point algorithm with dynamic step size is implemented for linear programming (LP) problems. The algorithms are based on a few kernel functions, including both self-regular functions and non-self-regular ones. The dynamic step size is compared with fixed step size for the algorithms in inner iteration of Newton step. Numerical tests show that the algorithms with dynamic step size are more efficient than those with fixed step size.

  5. Type I-E CRISPR-cas systems discriminate target from non-target DNA through base pairing-independent PAM recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edze R Westra

    Full Text Available Discriminating self and non-self is a universal requirement of immune systems. Adaptive immune systems in prokaryotes are centered around repetitive loci called CRISPRs (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat, into which invader DNA fragments are incorporated. CRISPR transcripts are processed into small RNAs that guide CRISPR-associated (Cas proteins to invading nucleic acids by complementary base pairing. However, to avoid autoimmunity it is essential that these RNA-guides exclusively target invading DNA and not complementary DNA sequences (i.e., self-sequences located in the host's own CRISPR locus. Previous work on the Type III-A CRISPR system from Staphylococcus epidermidis has demonstrated that a portion of the CRISPR RNA-guide sequence is involved in self versus non-self discrimination. This self-avoidance mechanism relies on sensing base pairing between the RNA-guide and sequences flanking the target DNA. To determine if the RNA-guide participates in self versus non-self discrimination in the Type I-E system from Escherichia coli we altered base pairing potential between the RNA-guide and the flanks of DNA targets. Here we demonstrate that Type I-E systems discriminate self from non-self through a base pairing-independent mechanism that strictly relies on the recognition of four unchangeable PAM sequences. In addition, this work reveals that the first base pair between the guide RNA and the PAM nucleotide immediately flanking the target sequence can be disrupted without affecting the interference phenotype. Remarkably, this indicates that base pairing at this position is not involved in foreign DNA recognition. Results in this paper reveal that the Type I-E mechanism of avoiding self sequences and preventing autoimmunity is fundamentally different from that employed by Type III-A systems. We propose the exclusive targeting of PAM-flanked sequences to be termed a target versus non-target discrimination mechanism.

  6. Mikrofinance a mikroúvěry v rozvojových zemích

    OpenAIRE

    Adamcová, Eva

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of the baccalaureate thesis is to compare through selected financial analysis ratios two leading approaches to financing the low-income population of the third world. The first approach is based on financial self-sufficiency of microfinancial institutions, the second is dependent on obtaining grants and donations. It was found out that financially self-sufficient institutions are able to serve more clients and have higher repayment rate on loans than non-self-sufficient ins...

  7. Water-borne sperm trigger vitellogenic egg growth in two sessile marine invertebrates.

    OpenAIRE

    Bishop, J D; Manríquez, P H; Hughes, R. N.

    2000-01-01

    A diverse array of sessile marine invertebrates mate by passive dispersal of sperm which fertilize the brooded eggs of neighbours. In two such species, a sea-mat (phylum Bryozoa) and an ascidian (phylum Chordata), vitellogenic egg growth is absent in reproductively isolated specimens, but is triggered by a water-borne factor released by conspecifics. In both of these colonial, hermaphroditic species, the active factor can be removed from water by filtration. The effect involves self-/non-self...

  8. Manifestations of Immune Privilege in the Human Reproductive Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary F Clark

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Like other mucosal surfaces (e.g., the gastrointestinal tract, the respiratory tract, the human female reproductive tract acts as an initial barrier to foreign antigens. In this role, the epithelial surface and subepithelial immune cells must balance protection against pathogenic insults against harmful inflammatory reactions and acceptance of particular foreign antigens. Two common examples of these acceptable foreign antigens are the fetal allograft and human semen/sperm. Both are purposely deposited into the female genital tract and appropriate immunologic response to these non-self antigens is essential to the survival of the species. In light of the weight of this task, it is not surprising that multiple, redundant and overlapping mechanisms are involved. For instance, cells at the immunologic interface between self (female reproductive tract epithelium and non-self (placental trophoblast cells or human sperm express glycosylation patterns that mimic those on many metastatic cancer cells and successful pathogens. The cytokine/chemokine milieu at this interface is altered through endocrine and immunologic mechanisms to favor tolerance of non-self. The foreign cells themselves also play an integral role in their own immunologic acceptance, since sperm and placental trophoblast cells are unusual and unique in their antigen presenting molecule expression patterns. Here, we will discuss these and other mechanisms that allow the human female reproductive tract to perform this delicate and indispensible balancing act.

  9. An fMRI study of nicotine-deprived smokers' reactivity to smoking cues during novel/exciting activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomeng Xu

    Full Text Available Engaging in novel/exciting ("self-expanding" activities activates the mesolimbic dopamine pathway, a brain reward pathway also associated with the rewarding effects of nicotine. This suggests that self-expanding activities can potentially substitute for the reward from nicotine. We tested this model among nicotine-deprived smokers who, during fMRI scanning, played a series of two-player cooperative games with a relationship partner. Games were randomized in a 2 (self-expanding vs. not x 2 (cigarette cue present vs. absent design. Self-expansion conditions yielded significantly greater activation in a reward region (caudate than did non-self-expansion conditions. Moreover, when exposed to smoking cues during the self-expanding versus the non-self-expanding cooperative games, smokers showed less activation in a cigarette cue-reactivity region, a priori defined [temporo-parietal junction (TPJ] from a recent meta-analysis of cue-reactivity. In smoking cue conditions, increases in excitement associated with the self-expanding condition (versus the non-self-expanding condition were also negatively correlated with TPJ activation. These results support the idea that a self-expanding activity promoting reward activation attenuates cigarette cue-reactivity among nicotine-deprived smokers. Future research could focus on the parameters of self-expanding activities that produce this effect, as well as test the utility of self-expansion in clinical interventions for smoking cessation.

  10. The affirmation of self: a new perspective on the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, John; Coutinho, Antonio

    2004-01-01

    The fundamental concepts of autopoiesis, which emphasize the circular organization underlying both living organisms and cognition, have been criticized on the grounds that since they are conceived as a tight logical chain of definitions and implications, it is often not clear whether they are indeed a scientific theory or rather just a potential scientific vocabulary of doubtful utility to working scientists. This article presents the deployment of the concepts of autopoiesis in the field of immunology, a discipline where working biologists themselves spontaneously have long had recourse to "cognitive" metaphors: "recognition"; a "repertoire" of recognized molecular shapes; "learning" and "memory"; and, most striking of all, a "self versus non-self" distinction. It is shown that in immunology, the concepts of autopoiesis can be employed to generate clear novel hypotheses, models demonstrating these ideas, testable predictions, and novel therapeutic procedures. Epistemologically, it is shown that the self-non-self distinction, while quite real, is misleadingly named. When a real mechanism for generating this distinction is identified, it appears that the actual operational distinction is between (a) a sufficiently numerous set of initial antigens, present from the start of ontogeny, in conditions that allow for their participation in the construction of the system's organization and operation, and (b) single antigens that are first presented to the system after two successive phases of maturation. To call this a self-non-self distinction obscures the issue by presupposing what it ought to be the job of scientific investigation to explain. PMID:15245627

  11. Insight into S-RNase-based self-incompatibility in Petunia: recent findings and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin S Williams

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available S-RNase-based self-incompatibility in Petunia is a self/non-self recognition system that allows the pistil to reject self-pollen to prevent inbreeding and to accept non-self pollen for outcrossing. Cloning of S-RNase in 1986 marked the beginning of nearly three decades of intensive research into the mechanism of this complex system. S-RNase was shown to be the sole female determinant in 1994, and the first male determinant, S-locus F-box protein1 (SLF1, was identified in 2004. It was discovered in 2010 that additional SLF proteins are involved in pollen specificity, and recently two S-haplotypes of P. inflata were found to possess 17 SLF genes based on pollen transcriptome analysis, further increasing the complexity of the system. Here, we first summarize the current understanding of how the interplay between SLF proteins and S-RNase in the pollen tube allows cross-compatible pollination, but results in self-incompatible pollination. We then discuss some of the aspects that are not yet elucidated, including uptake of S-RNase into the pollen tube, nature and assembly of SLF-containing complexes, the biochemical basis for differential interactions between SLF proteins and S-RNase, and fate of non-self S-RNases in the pollen tube.

  12. Assessment on Vegetation Degeneration at the Tourist Spots in Grasslands Based on Entropy-weight Method%基于熵权法的草原旅游点植被退化评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史坤博; 王文瑞; 杨永春; 邵蕊; 张伟芳

    2016-01-01

    基于熵权法建立了草原旅游点植被退化评价流程,以甘肃夏河县桑科草原旅游点为例进行了实例研究.首先,建立了包括草群高度、植被密度和盖度以及物种丰富度指数、物种多样性指数和均匀度指数6个指标的草原旅游点植被退化评价体系.结果表明:桑科草原旅游点植物生长对旅游活动干扰的敏感性较高,植物物种对旅游活动干扰的敏感性较低;车辆碾压对植被破坏最为严重,各样区植被退化程度随着与破坏点(带/区)中心距离的增大而降低.随着草原旅游点植被退化程度的降低,植物科、属、种的数量均有较明显的增加,植物种间竞争关系增强;大车前(Plantago major)和鹅绒委陵菜(Potentilla anserina)逐渐失去竞争优势,蔚蓄(Polygonum aviculare)的竞争力得到显著增强.利用熵权法对桑科草原旅游点植被退化程度的评价结果与前人关于旅游点植被破坏的研究规律相符,且桑科草原旅游点干扰区植物群落特征与植被退化评价结果相一致,说明建立的草原旅游点植被退化评价方法是合理准确的.

  13. Biochemical Models for S-Rnase-Based Self-Incompatibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Hua Hua; Allison Fields; Teh-hui Kao

    2008-01-01

    S-RNase-based self-incompatibility (SI) is a genetically determined self/non-self-recognition process employed by many flowering plant species to prevent inbreeding and promote outcrosses.For the Plantaginaceae,Rosa-ceae and Solanaceae,it is now known that S-RNase and S-Iocu F-box(two multiple allelic genes at the S-locus)determine the female and male specificity,respectively,during SI interactions.However,how allelic products of these two genes interact inside pollen tubes to result in specific growth inhibition of self-pollen tubes remains to be investigated.Here,we review all the previously proposed biochemical models and discuss whether their predictions are consistent with all SI phenomena,including competitive jnteraction where SI breaks down in pollen that carries two different pollen 5-alleles.We also discuss these models in Iight of the recent findings of compartmentalization of S-RNases in both incompatible and compatible pollen tubes.Lastly,we summarize the results from our recent biochemical studies of PiSLF(Petunia inflata SLF)and S-RNase.and present a new model for the biochemical mechanism of SI in the Solanaceae.The tenet of this model is that a PiSLF preferentially interacts with its non-self S-RNases in the cytoplasm of a pollen tube to result in the assembly of an E3-like complex,which then mediates ubiquitination and degradation of non-self S-RNases through the ubiquitin-26S proteasome pathway.This model can explain all SI phenomena and,at the same time,has raised new questions for further study.

  14. Neural substrates for judgment of self-agency in ambiguous situations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokata Fukushima

    Full Text Available The sense of agency is the attribution of oneself as the cause of one's own actions and their effects. Accurate agency judgments are essential for adaptive behaviors in dynamic environments, especially in conditions of uncertainty. However, it is unclear how agency judgments are made in ambiguous situations where self-agency and non-self-agency are both possible. Agency attribution is thus thought to require higher-order neurocognitive processes that integrate several possibilities. Furthermore, neural activity specific to self-attribution, as compared with non-self-attribution, may reflect higher-order critical operations that contribute to constructions of self-consciousness. Based on these assumptions, the present study focused on agency judgments under ambiguous conditions and examined the neural correlates of this operation with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants performed a simple but demanding agency-judgment task, which required them to report on whether they attributed their own action as the cause of a visual stimulus change. The temporal discrepancy between the participant's action and the visual events was adaptively set to be maximally ambiguous for each individual on a trial-by-trial basis. Comparison with results for a control condition revealed that the judgment of agency was associated with activity in lateral temporo-parietal areas, medial frontal areas, the dorsolateral prefrontal area, and frontal operculum/insula regions. However, most of these areas did not differentiate between self- and non-self-attribution. Instead, self-attribution was associated with activity in posterior midline areas, including the precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex. These results suggest that deliberate self-attribution of an external event is principally associated with activity in posterior midline structures, which is imperative for self-consciousness.

  15. Molecular recognition between glyconectins as an adhesion self-assembly pathway to multicellularity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misevic, Gradimir N; Guerardel, Yann; Sumanovski, Lazar T; Slomianny, Marie-Christine; Demarty, Maurice; Ripoll, Camille; Karamanos, Yannis; Maes, Emmanuel; Popescu, Octavian; Strecker, Gerard

    2004-04-01

    The appearance of multicellular forms of life has been tightly coupled to the ability of an organism to retain its own anatomical integrity and to distinguish self from non-self. Large glycoconjugates, which make up the outermost cell surface layer of all Metazoans, are the primary candidates for the primordial adhesion and recognition functions in biological self-assembly systems. Atomic force microscopy experiments demonstrated that the binding strength between a single pair of Porifera cell surface glyconectin 1 glycoconjugates from Microciona prolifera can hold the weight of 1600 cells, proving their adhesion functions. Here, measurement of molecular self-recognition of glyconectins (GNs) purified from three Porifera species was used as an experimental model for primordial xenogeneic self/non-self discrimination. Physicochemical and biochemical characterization of the three glyconectins, their glycans, and peptides using gel electrophoresis, ultracentrifugation, NMR, mass spectrometry, glycosaminoglycan-degrading enzyme treatment, amino acid and carbohydrate analyses, and peptide mapping showed that GNs define a new family of proteoglycan-like molecules exhibiting species-specific structures with complex and repetitive acidic carbohydrate motives different from the classical proteoglycans and mucins. In functional self-assembly color-coded bead, cell, and blotting assays, glyconectins displayed species-specific recognition and adhesion. Affinity-purified monospecific polyclonal antibodies prepared against GN1, -2, and -3 glycans selectively inhibited cell adhesion of the respective sponge species. These results together with species-specific coaggregation of GN carbohydrate-coated beads with cells showed that GN glycans are functional in cell recognition and adhesion. The specificity of carbohydrate-mediated homophilic GN interactions in Porifera approaches the binding selectivity of the evolutionarily advanced immunoglobulin superfamily. Xenoselectivity of

  16. [Control of fertilization by self-incompatibility mechanisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fobis-Loisy, Isabelle; Gaude, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    Flowering plants (angiosperms) are the most prevalent and evolutionarily advanced group of plants. Reproductive strategies that promote cross-fertilization have played an essential role in the success of angiosperms as they contribute to genetic variability among plant species. A major genetic barrier to self-fertilization is self-incompatibility (SI), which allows female reproductive cells to discriminate between self- and non-self pollen and specifically reject self-pollen. In this review, we describe three SI mechanisms showing that different flowering plant families use distinct molecules for recognition of self as well as diverse biochemical pathways to arrest pollen tube growth.

  17. A new peak shear strength criterion for rock joints which includes spectral parameters as roughness measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulatilake, P.H.S.W.; Shou, G. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Huang, T.H. [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1996-04-01

    Most of the natural rock joint surface profiles do not belong to the self similar fractal category. In general, roughness profiles of rock joints consist of non-stationary and stationary components. At the simplest level, only one parameter is sufficient to quantify non-stationary joint roughness. The average inclination angle I, along with the direction considered for the joint surface, is suggested to capture the non-stationary roughness. It is shown that even though the fractal dimension D is a useful parameter, it alone is insufficient to quantify the stationary roughness of non-self similar profiles.

  18. Molecular characterization of S locus genes, SLG and SRK, in a pollen-recessive self-incompatibility haplotype of Brassica rapa L.

    OpenAIRE

    Hatakeyama, K.; Takasaki, T; Watanabe, M.; Hinata, K.

    1998-01-01

    In Brassica species that exhibit self-incompatibility, two genes, SLG and SRK, at the S locus are involved in the recognition reaction with self and non-self pollen. From a pollen-recessive S29 haplotype of Brassica rapa, both cDNA and genomic DNA clones for these two genes were isolated and characterized. The nucleotide sequence for the S domain of SRK29 showed a high degree of similarity with that of SLG29, and they belong to Class II type. RNA gel blot analysis showed that the transcript o...

  19. Theoretical foundations of functional data analysis, with an introduction to linear operators

    CERN Document Server

    Hsing, Tailen

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical Foundations of Functional Data Analysis, with an Introduction to Linear Operators provides a uniquely broad compendium of the key mathematical concepts and results that are relevant for the theoretical development of functional data analysis (FDA).The self-contained treatment of selected topics of functional analysis and operator theory includes reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces, singular value decomposition of compact operators on Hilbert spaces and perturbation theory for both self-adjoint and non self-adjoint operators. The probabilistic foundation for FDA is described from the

  20. Evaluation of Self-Intersecting Wilson Loop in the Stochastic Vacuum Model

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitri AntonovINFN, Pisa

    2015-01-01

    A Wilson loop is evaluated within the stochastic vacuum model for the case when the respective contour is self-intersecting and its size does not exceed the correlation length of the vacuum. The result has the form of a certain functional of the tensor area. It is similar to that for the non-self-intersecting loop only when the contour is a plane one. Even for such a contour, the obtained expression depends on the ratio of two functions parametrizing the bilocal field strength correlator take...

  1. Self-harm in young people: a randomised control trial comparing mentalization based treatment against treatment as usual

    OpenAIRE

    Rossouw, T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This thesis aims to explore self-harm in young people in terms of its epidemiology, longitudinal outcome and treatment. Due to close associations between self-harm and personality disorder (PD) and depression, the thesis also aim to better understand the stability of PD from adolescence into adulthood as well as the links between depression and PD into adulthood. Further this thesis aims to examine the differences between self-harmers and non-self-harmers. The final aim to examine w...

  2. Canonical pairs, Spatially Confined Motion and the Quantum Time of Arrival Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Galapon, E A

    2000-01-01

    It has always been believed that no self-adjoint and canonical time of arrival operator can be constructed within the confines of standard quantum mechanics. In this Letter we demonstrate the otherwise. We do so by pointing out that there is no a priori reason in demanding that canonical pairs form a system of imprimitivities. We then proceed to show that a class of self-adjoint and canonical time of arrival (TOA) operators can be constructed for a spatially confined free particle. And then discuss the relatiobship between the non-self-adjointess of the TOA operator for the unconfined particle and the self-adjointness of the confined one.

  3. Instanton Solutions from Abelian Sinh-Gordon and Tzitzeica Vortices

    CERN Document Server

    Contatto, Felipe

    2014-01-01

    We study the Abelian Higgs vortex solutions to the sinh-Gordon equation and the elliptic Tzitzeica equation. Starting from these particular vortices, we construct solutions to the Taubes equation with higher vortex number, on surfaces with conical singularities and then analyse their properties. We uplift these Abelian sinh-Gordon and Tzitzeica multi-vortex solutions to four dimensions and construct cylindrically symmetric, self-dual Yang-Mills instantons on a non-self-dual (or anti-self-dual) four dimensional K\\"ahler manifold with non-vanishing scalar curvature. The instantons we construct in this way cannot be obtained via a twistor space approach.

  4. Investigations and calculations into decreasing the uncertainty of a nanopositioning and nanomeasuring machine (NPM-Machine)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, I.; Hausotte, T.; Gerhardt, U.; Manske, E.; Jäger, G.

    2007-02-01

    Continuously increasing demands on nanopositioning and nanomeasuring (NPM) machines require a detailed analysis of and a decrease in measurement uncertainty. Initial studies have been done in the field of length and angle measurement. The analysis resulted in updated assemblies, which were investigated further. Significant improvements in mechanical stability, drift behaviour and temperature dependence were produced. To minimize the undesired heat production by the non-self-locking vertical linear drive systems, an improved weight force compensation arrangement adaptable to different object masses was developed and tested. Also, the system's natural frequencies were analysed. A modified structure with increased stiffness of the vertical drive system was designed to improve the NPM's dynamic behaviour.

  5. On the stability of a forward-backward heat equation

    CERN Document Server

    Boulton, Lyonell; Rule, David

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we examine spectral properties of a family of periodic singular Sturm-Liouville problems which are highly non-self-adjoint but have purely real spectrum. The problem originated from the study of the lubrication approximation of a viscous fluid film in the inner surface of a rotating cylinder and has received a substantial amount of attention in recent years. Our main focus will be the determination of Schatten class inclusions for the resolvent operator and regularity properties of the associated evolution equation.

  6. Approximation Theorems and Fixed Point Theorems for Various Classes of 1-set-contractive Mappings in Banach Spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Shan LIU

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we will prove that Ky Fan's Theorem (Math. Z. 112(1969), 234-240) is true for1-set-contractive maps defined on a bounded closed convex subset K in a Banach space with intK ≠φ.This class of 1-set-contractive maps includes condensing maps, nonexpansive maps, semicontractivemaps, LANE maps and others. As applications of our theorems, some fixed point theorems of non-self-maps are proved under various well-known boundary conditions. Our results are generalizations andimprovements of the recent results obtained by many authors.

  7. Critical scaling in linear response of frictionless granular packings near jamming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenbroek, Wouter G; Somfai, Ellák; van Hecke, Martin; van Saarloos, Wim

    2006-12-22

    We study the origin of the scaling behavior in frictionless granular media above the jamming transition by analyzing their linear response. The response to local forcing is non-self-averaging and fluctuates over a length scale that diverges at the jamming transition. The response to global forcing becomes increasingly nonaffine near the jamming transition. This is due to the proximity of floppy modes, the influence of which we characterize by the local linear response. We show that the local response also governs the anomalous scaling of elastic constants and contact number. PMID:17280395

  8. Sovereignity, statehood and self-determination in international law - The Kosovo case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiro Paço

    2016-01-01

    The IL principle of Self-determination will be on the focus of this article to considering it as one of the way to archive the creation of new IL entity. Self-determination is a more recent principle then the others but its history, theory and practice is immense. The origin of the term and idea also is in discussion and debating among historian and lawyer. The term have been used simultaneously in the same period (end of WW I by the US President Wilson and the USSR Premier Lenin referring to the right of the non self-governed territory like colony and occupied regions.

  9. Olimpia : A giant electro mechanically choreographed marionette with new coloratura music.

    OpenAIRE

    Unander-Scharin, Carl; Unander-Scharin, Åsa; Lundin, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    OLIMPIA The puppet Olimpia’s virtuoso coloratura aria is performed by a giant electro mechanically choreographed marionette built from highly patinated scrap machine parts. The music is ‘coloratura’ in its original sense – coloured or embellished – and implies a re-colouring of Offenbach’s aria from “The tales of Hoffmann”. The choreography is both a response to Heinrich Kleist’s homage to the marionette (1810), ‘the most graceful of all dancers whose non self conscious movements simply obey ...

  10. Olimpia : The choreographed electromechanic puppet, dancing to remixed and recomposed music

    OpenAIRE

    Unander-Scharin, Carl; Unander-Scharin, Åsa; Lundin, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    The puppet Olimpia’s virtuoso coloratura aria is performed by a giant electro mechanically choreographed marionette built from highly patinated scrap machine parts. The music is ‘coloratura’ in its original sense – coloured or embellished – and implies a re-colouring of Offenbach’s aria from “The tales of Hoffmann”. The choreography is both a response to Heinrich Kleist’s homage to the marionette (1810), ‘the most graceful of all dancers whose non self conscious movements simply obey the real...

  11. The Pauli equation with complex boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider one-dimensional Pauli Hamiltonians in a bounded interval with possibly non-self-adjoint Robin-type boundary conditions. We study the influence of the spin–magnetic interaction on the interplay between the type of boundary conditions and the spectrum. Special attention is paid to PT-symmetric boundary conditions with the physical choice of the time-reversal operator T. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Quantum physics with non-Hermitian operators’. (paper)

  12. The Pauli equation with complex boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochan, D.; Krejčiřík, D.; Novák, R.; Siegl, P.

    2012-11-01

    We consider one-dimensional Pauli Hamiltonians in a bounded interval with possibly non-self-adjoint Robin-type boundary conditions. We study the influence of the spin-magnetic interaction on the interplay between the type of boundary conditions and the spectrum. Special attention is paid to {PT}-symmetric boundary conditions with the physical choice of the time-reversal operator {T}. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Quantum physics with non-Hermitian operators’.

  13. Wide bandsaw blade under cutting conditions. Part III: Stability of a plate moving in its plane while subjected to non-conservative cutting forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengoc, L.; McCallion, H.

    1995-09-01

    This study provides yet another possible mechanism for instability of bandsaw blades during sawing, namely dynamic instability of a moving plate when subjected to non-conservative tangential edge loading. In previous publications, the effect of non-conservative edge loading has been neglected; only the divergent buckling and the parametric instability have been considered as causes of unstable bandsaw blade motion. However, the non-conservative loading due to sawing can excite a flutter-type instability, similar to flutter in aeroplane wings. The extended Galerkin method is used to discretize the equation of motion, and a non-self-adjoint eigenvalue solver is employed to find the solutions.

  14. An artificial immune approach for optical image based vision inspection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Zheng(郑宏); Nanfeng Xiao(肖南风); Jinhui Lan(蓝金辉)

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach of visual inspection for texture surface defects. The approach usesartificial immune theory in learning the detection of texture defects. In this paper, texture defects areregards as non-self, and normal textures are regarded as self. Defect filters and segmentation thresholdsused for defect detection are regarded as antibodies. The clonal selection algorithm stemmed from thenatural immune system is employed to learn antibodies. Experimental results on textile image inspectionare presented to illustrate the merit and feasibility of the proposed method.

  15. Torons and D-Brane Bound States

    OpenAIRE

    Guralnik, Z.; Ramgoolam, S.

    1997-01-01

    We interpret instantons on a torus with twisted boundary conditions, in terms of bound states of branes. The interplay between the SU(N) and U(1) parts of the U(N) theory of N 4-branes allows the construction of a variety of bound states. The SU(N) and U(1) parts can contribute fractional amounts to the total instanton number which is integral. The geometry of non-self intersecting two-cycles in $T^4$ sheds some light on a number of properties of these solutions.

  16. Ošetřovatelská péče o klienty po endoprotéze ramenního kloubu

    OpenAIRE

    HÖFEROVÁ, Eva

    2013-01-01

    This bachelor´s work tries to specify and determine differences in the care of a client after a shoulder joint replacement. The shoulder joint is a complicated joint of the shoulder girdle which can be affected by many disorders and worsen the whole self-care of the client. If a damage or a disorder of the shoulder joint appears, the client may become non-self sufficient and dependent on the help of others. The bachelor´s work is divided into two parts. The first part is a theoretical part an...

  17. Insulation co-ordination in high-voltage electric power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Diesendorf, W

    2015-01-01

    Insulation Co-ordination in High-Voltage Electric Power Systems deals with the methods of insulation needed in different circumstances. The book covers topics such as overvoltages and lightning surges; disruptive discharge and withstand voltages; self-restoring and non-self-restoring insulation; lightning overvoltages on transmission lines; and the attenuation and distortion of lightning surges. Also covered in the book are topics such as the switching surge designs of transmission lines, as well as the insulation coordination of high-voltage stations. The text is recommended for electrical en

  18. Finite-time Thin Film Rupture Driven by Generalized Evaporative Loss

    CERN Document Server

    Ji, Hangjie

    2016-01-01

    Rupture is a nonlinear instability resulting in a finite-time singularity as a fluid layer approaches zero thickness at a point. We study the dynamics of rupture in a generalized mathematical model of thin films of viscous fluids with evaporative effects. The governing lubrication model is a fourth-order nonlinear parabolic partial differential equation with a non-conservative loss term due to evaporation. Several different types of finite-time singularities are observed due to balances between evaporation and surface tension or intermolecular forces. Non-self-similar behavior and two classes of self-similar rupture solutions are analyzed and validated against high resolution PDE simulations.

  19. Genomic islands are dynamic, ancient integrative elements in bacterial evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, E Fidelma; Almagro-Moreno, Salvador; Parent, Michelle A

    2009-02-01

    Acquisition of genomic islands plays a central part in bacterial evolution as a mechanism of diversification and adaptation. Genomic islands are non-self-mobilizing integrative and excisive elements that encode diverse functional characteristics but all contain a recombination module comprised of an integrase, associated attachment sites and, in some cases, a recombination directionality factor. Here, we discuss how a group of related genomic islands are evolutionarily ancient elements unrelated to plasmids, phages, integrons and integrative conjugative elements. In addition, we explore the diversity of genomic islands and their insertion sites among Gram-negative bacteria and discuss why they integrate at a limited number of tRNA genes. PMID:19162481

  20. Determination of the breakdowns in the insulation materials by the Kirlian phenomenon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlik, M.; Peska, L.; Gross, B. [Brno Univ. (Czech Republic)

    1997-12-31

    Kirlian figures were used to determine the electrical breakdown phenomenon in insulating materials. The electric discharge which creates Kirlian figures is a dark discharge which is formed on the boundary of the transition of a self-discharge into a non-self discharge. The shape and length of duration of the electric discharge was shown to be influenced by the the shape, size and polarity of the electric field, the composition of the surrounding environment and the material of the electrodes. 2 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  1. Formação e caracterização óptica de filmes automontados de POMA/PPV Formation and optical characterization of POMA/PPV self-assembly films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo M. Melo

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A study is presented of the formation and optical properties of polymeric heterostructures from poly(p-phenylene vinylene (PPV and poly(o-methoxyaniline (POMA produced via the self-assembly technique. POMA layers were obtained in a non self-limiting process from its emeraldine salt, semiconducting form in HCl solution. Thermal conversion of PPV was performed at low temperatures with the substitution of the counter-ion Cl in the PPV precursor by a long sulfonic chain, the dodecylbenzenesulfonate (DBS ion. The optical properties of PPV films converted in this way are not affected by POMA, which can be used as transparent electrode of PPV luminescent devices.

  2. Band convergence and linearization error correction of all-electron GW calculations: The extreme case of zinc oxide

    OpenAIRE

    Friedrich, C.; Müller, M.C.T.D.; Blügel, S.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Shih et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 146401 (2010)] published a theoretical band gap for wurtzite ZnO, calculated with the non-self-consistent GW approximation, that agreed surprisingly well with experiment while deviating strongly from previous studies. They showed that a very large number of empty bands is necessary to converge the gap. We reexamine the GW calculation with the full-potential linearized augmented-plane-wave method and find that even with 3000 bands the band gap is no...

  3. Adler-Bardeen theorem in coupled supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the supercurrent and a supersymmetric current which satisfies the Adler-Bardeen (A-B) theorem in supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory coupled to non-self interacting chiral matter. Preserving supersymmetry and gauge invariance explicitly, the authors verify the finiteness of the supercurrent to one loop, and A-B theorem to two loops by explicit calculations in the minimal-subtraction scheme. The authors demonstrate the subtraction-scheme independence of the one-loop anomaly and prove the existence of a subtraction scheme in which A-B theorem is satisfied to all orders in perturbation theory

  4. Planet-bound dark matter and the internal heat of Uranus, Neptune, and hot-Jupiter exoplanets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, Stephen L. [Institute for Advanced Study, Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)], E-mail: adler@ias.edu

    2009-01-19

    We suggest that accretion of planet-bound dark matter by the Jovian planets, and by hot-Jupiter exoplanets, could be a significant source of their internal heat. The anomalously low internal heat of Uranus would then be explained if the collision believed to have tilted the axis of Uranus also knocked it free of most of its associated dark matter cloud. Our considerations focus on the efficient capture of non-self-annihilating dark matter, but could also apply to self-annihilating dark matter, provided the capture efficiency is small enough that the earth heat balance constraint is obeyed.

  5. Planet-bound dark matter and the internal heat of Uranus, Neptune, and hot-Jupiter exoplanets

    OpenAIRE

    Adler, Stephen L.

    2008-01-01

    We suggest that accretion of planet-bound dark matter by the Jovian planets, and by hot-Jupiter exoplanets, could be a significant source of their internal heat. The anomalously low internal heat of Uranus would then be explained if the collision believed to have tilted the axis of Uranus also knocked it free of most of its associated dark matter cloud. Our considerations focus on the efficient capture of non-self-annihilating dark matter, but could also apply to self-annihilating dark matter...

  6. Improved Resin–Zirconia Bonding by Room Temperature Hydrofluoric Acid Etching

    OpenAIRE

    Mun-Hwan Lee; Jun Sik Son; Kyo-Han Kim; Tae-Yub Kwon

    2015-01-01

    This in vitro study was conducted to evaluate the shear bond strength of “non-self-adhesive” resin to dental zirconia etched with hydrofluoric acid (HF) at room temperature and to compare it to that of air-abraded zirconia. Sintered zirconia plates were air-abraded (control) or etched with 10%, 20%, or 30% HF for either 5 or 30 min. After cleaning, the surfaces were characterized using various analytical techniques. Three resin cylinders (Duo-Link) were bonded to each treated plate. All bond...

  7. The Characteristics of Journal Editorial Boards in Library and Information Science

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Willett

    2013-01-01

    A study of the members of the editorial boards of 16 leading LIS journals shows that the boards vary markedly in size, in diversity (in terms of both gender and nationality) and in the experience and publication/citation profiles (based on Web of Science data) of their board-members. A typical editorial board member will be male, work in the USA, have published their first LIS article in 1995, and have 9.5 publications and 39 non-self citations to those publications, with the publication/cita...

  8. Solvation phenomena in association theories with applications to oil & gas and chemical industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Folas, Georgios; Muro Sunè, Nuria;

    2008-01-01

    with two non self-associating compounds may exhibit solvation specifically due to hydrogen bonding or more generally due to Lewis acid-Lewis base interactions. As examples can be mentioned mixtures with polar compounds (water, glycols...) and aromatic hydrocarbons and aqueous ether or ester solutions...... the scientific point of view, solvation phenomena are also very significant because they are present in different types of mixtures and not just those containing two self-associating compounds e.g. water with alcohols or glycols. Mixtures with only one self-associating compound and in some cases even mixtures...

  9. Inflammation and Cell Death in Age-Related Macular Degeneration: An Immunopathological and Ultrastructural Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardeljan, Christopher P; Ardeljan, Daniel; Abu-Asab, Mones; Chan, Chi-Chao

    2014-01-01

    The etiology of Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) remains elusive despite the characterization of many factors contributing to the disease in its late-stage phenotypes. AMD features an immune system in flux, as shown by changes in macrophage polarization with age, expression of cytokines and complement, microglial accumulation with age, etc. These point to an allostatic overload, possibly due to a breakdown in self vs. non-self when endogenous compounds and structures acquire the appearance of non-self over time. The result is inflammation and inflammation-mediated cell death. While it is clear that these processes ultimately result in degeneration of retinal pigment epithelium and photoreceptor, the prevalent type of cell death contributing to the various phenotypes is unknown. Both molecular studies as well as ultrastructural pathology suggest pyroptosis, and perhaps necroptosis, are the predominant mechanisms of cell death at play, with only minimal evidence for apoptosis. Herein, we attempt to reconcile those factors identified by experimental AMD models and integrate these data with pathology observed under the electron microscope-particularly observations of mitochondrial dysfunction, DNA leakage, autophagy, and cell death. PMID:25580276

  10. GW and Bethe-Salpeter study of small water clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blase, Xavier, E-mail: xavier.blase@neel.cnrs.fr; Boulanger, Paul [CNRS, Institut NEEL, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Bruneval, Fabien [CEA, DEN, Service de Recherches de Métallurgie Physique, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Fernandez-Serra, Marivi [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794-3800 (United States); Institute for Advanced Computational Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794-3800 (United States); Duchemin, Ivan [INAC, SP2M/L-Sim, CEA/UJF Cedex 09, 38054 Grenoble (France)

    2016-01-21

    We study within the GW and Bethe-Salpeter many-body perturbation theories the electronic and optical properties of small (H{sub 2}O){sub n} water clusters (n = 1-6). Comparison with high-level CCSD(T) Coupled-Cluster at the Single Double (Triple) levels and ADC(3) Green’s function third order algebraic diagrammatic construction calculations indicates that the standard non-self-consistent G{sub 0}W{sub 0}@PBE or G{sub 0}W{sub 0}@PBE0 approaches significantly underestimate the ionization energy by about 1.1 eV and 0.5 eV, respectively. Consequently, the related Bethe-Salpeter lowest optical excitations are found to be located much too low in energy when building transitions from a non-self-consistent G{sub 0}W{sub 0} description of the quasiparticle spectrum. Simple self-consistent schemes, with update of the eigenvalues only, are shown to provide a weak dependence on the Kohn-Sham starting point and a much better agreement with reference calculations. The present findings rationalize the theory to experiment possible discrepancies observed in previous G{sub 0}W{sub 0} and Bethe-Salpeter studies of bulk water. The increase of the optical gap with increasing cluster size is consistent with the evolution from gas to dense ice or water phases and results from an enhanced screening of the electron-hole interaction.

  11. The immune system, natural autoantibodies and general homeostasis in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletaev, A; Boura, P

    2011-10-01

    It is generally accepted that the destination of the immune system is not only to discriminate between self and non-self but also to mount responses against non-self. During the last decades, it became evident that weak self-reactivity is a necessary condition for immune homeostasis. Natural self reactivity and the internal image created by autoantibodies, participate greatly to the maintenance of homeostasis. Under conditions of increased or altered antigenic pressure, the homeostatic status is disrupted and the organism becomes vulnerable to the emergence of diseases. "Immunculus" is the self-reactive and interconnected entity of the immune system, provided by a complicated network of natural autoantibobies of different specificity, as a mosaic picture. Quantitative changes in each part of the image are related to variations of expression of relative antigens. The immune system takes in account image information from the continuous screening of the antigenic status and compares between presented state and the desired (optimal) one. Substantial and prolonged deviations from the optimal state, triggers the induction of compensatory and reparative processes, aiming to restore molecular and functional homeostasis. So, natural autoimmunity through the ability of natural a-Abs to induce mechanisms of natural and acquired immunity, aims to prevent pathogenic processes and maintain or restore health status. PMID:24391407

  12. Change in emotion regulation strategy use and its impact on adolescent nonsuicidal self-injury: a three-year longitudinal analysis using latent growth modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, David; Hasking, Penelope; Martin, Graham

    2014-08-01

    This longitudinal study examines the extent to which changes in the use of cognitive reappraisal, expressive suppression, and rumination impact on frequency, duration, and medical severity of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) among adolescents. Data from 3,143 predominantly female high school students recruited from 40 Australian secondary schools were analyzed using latent growth curve modeling. Significant differences in the psychological factors between the 555 participants with a history of NSSI and non-self-injurers were reported at baseline. Self-injurers experienced significantly greater accumulation of life stressors over time compared with non-self-injurers. After controlling for adverse life events, psychological distress and other emotion regulation strategies, use of cognitive reappraisal at baseline was associated with less severe NSSI presentations, and slower growth in medical severity of NSSI over time. Findings indicate that while both cohorts have similar emotion regulation trajectories, adolescents who self-injure start off at a disadvantage and have a propensity to engage in less helpful processes that tend to heighten negative emotional states. Results recommend increasing focus on improving adolescents' frequency and skills in use of cognitive reappraisal in efforts to reduce NSSI among this population.

  13. Molecular mechanism of the S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility in fruit trees of Rosaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassa, Hidenori

    2016-01-01

    Self-incompatibility (SI) is a major obstacle for stable fruit production in fruit trees of Rosaceae. SI of Rosaceae is controlled by the S locus on which at least two genes, pistil S and pollen S, are located. The product of the pistil S gene is a polymorphic and extracellular ribonuclease, called S-RNase, while that of the pollen S gene is a protein containing the F-box motif, SFB (S haplotype-specific F-box protein)/SFBB (S locus F-box brothers). Recent studies suggested that SI of Rosaceae includes two different systems, i.e., Prunus of tribe Amygdaleae exhibits a self-recognition system in which its SFB recognizes self-S-RNase, while tribe Pyreae (Pyrus and Malus) shows a non-self-recognition system in which many SFBB proteins are involved in SI, each recognizing subset of non-self-S-RNases. Further biochemical and biological characterization of the S locus genes, as well as other genes required for SI not located at the S locus, will help our understanding of the molecular mechanisms, origin, and evolution of SI of Rosaceae, and may provide the basis for breeding of self-compatible fruit tree cultivars. PMID:27069396

  14. Electronic structure of the actinide dioxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electronic properties of the fluorite structured actinide dioxides have been investigated using the linear muffin tin orbital method in the atomic sphere approximation. CaF2 with the same structure was also studied because of the relative simplicity of its electronic structure and the greater amount of experimental data available. Band structures were calculated both non self consistently and self consistently. In the non self consistent calculations the effect of changing the approximation to the exchange-correlation potential and the starting atomic configurations was examined. Using the concepts of canonical bands the effects of hybridization were investigated. In particular the 5f electrons included in the band picture were found to mix more strongly into the valence band than indicated by experiment. On this basis the 5f electrons were not included in self consistent calculations which in the density functional formalism are capable of yielding ground state properties. Because of the non participation of the f electrons in the bonding UO2 only was considered as representative of the actinide dioxides. For comparison CaF2 was also examined. Using Pettifor's pressure formula to determine the equilibrium condition the lattice constants were calculated to be 0.5% and 5% respectively below the experimental values. (author)

  15. Inflammation and Cell Death in Age-Related Macular Degeneration: An Immunopathological and Ultrastructural Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher P. Ardeljan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The etiology of Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD remains elusive despite the characterization of many factors contributing to the disease in its late-stage phenotypes. AMD features an immune system in flux, as shown by changes in macrophage polarization with age, expression of cytokines and complement, microglial accumulation with age, etc. These point to an allostatic overload, possibly due to a breakdown in self vs. non-self when endogenous compounds and structures acquire the appearance of non-self over time. The result is inflammation and inflammation-mediated cell death. While it is clear that these processes ultimately result in degeneration of retinal pigment epithelium and photoreceptor, the prevalent type of cell death contributing to the various phenotypes is unknown. Both molecular studies as well as ultrastructural pathology suggest pyroptosis, and perhaps necroptosis, are the predominant mechanisms of cell death at play, with only minimal evidence for apoptosis. Herein, we attempt to reconcile those factors identified by experimental AMD models and integrate these data with pathology observed under the electron microscope—particularly observations of mitochondrial dysfunction, DNA leakage, autophagy, and cell death.

  16. Food-Nonfood Discrimination in Ancestral Vertebrates: Gamete Cannibalism and the Origin of the Adaptive Immune System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcos, D

    2015-11-01

    Adaptive immunity is a complex system that appeared twice in vertebrates (in gnathostomes and in jawless fish) although it is not required for invertebrate defence. The adaptive immune system is tightly associated with self-non-self discrimination, and it is now clear that this interplay is not limited to the prevention of autoreactivity. Micro-organisms are usually considered for their pathogenicity or symbiotic ability, but, for most small metazoans, they mainly constitute food. Vertebrates are characterized by feeding by predation on larger preys, when compared to their ancestors who were filter feeders and ate micro-organisms. Predation gives a strong selective advantage, not only due to the availability of new food resources but also by the ability to eliminate competitors for environmental resources (intraguild predation (IGP)). Unlike size-structured IGP, intraspecific predation of juveniles, zygotes or gametes can be detrimental for species fitness in some circumstances. The ability of individuals to recognize highly polymorphic molecules on the surface of gametes present in the plankton and so distinguish self versus non-self gametes might have constituted a strong selective advantage in intraspecific competition. Here, I propose the theory that the capacity to rearrange receptors has been selected in ancestral vertebrates as a consequence of this strong need for discriminating between hetero-cannibalism versus filial cannibalism. This evolutionary origin sheds light on presently unexplained features of the immune system, including the existence of regulatory T cells and of non-pathogenic natural autoimmunity. PMID:26286030

  17. Molecular mechanism of the S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility in fruit trees of Rosaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassa, Hidenori

    2016-01-01

    Self-incompatibility (SI) is a major obstacle for stable fruit production in fruit trees of Rosaceae. SI of Rosaceae is controlled by the S locus on which at least two genes, pistil S and pollen S, are located. The product of the pistil S gene is a polymorphic and extracellular ribonuclease, called S-RNase, while that of the pollen S gene is a protein containing the F-box motif, SFB (S haplotype-specific F-box protein)/SFBB (S locus F-box brothers). Recent studies suggested that SI of Rosaceae includes two different systems, i.e., Prunus of tribe Amygdaleae exhibits a self-recognition system in which its SFB recognizes self-S-RNase, while tribe Pyreae (Pyrus and Malus) shows a non-self-recognition system in which many SFBB proteins are involved in SI, each recognizing subset of non-self-S-RNases. Further biochemical and biological characterization of the S locus genes, as well as other genes required for SI not located at the S locus, will help our understanding of the molecular mechanisms, origin, and evolution of SI of Rosaceae, and may provide the basis for breeding of self-compatible fruit tree cultivars.

  18. Processing of self-related kinematic information embedded in static handwritten characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Reiko; Doi, Hirokazu; Masataka, Nobuo

    2016-07-01

    Handwritten characters are generated by our own motor actions, and previous studies have shown that the manner in which such characters are perceived and generated is related. However, the temporal course of the neural activation involved in the processing of self-related kinematic information embedded in static handwritten characters remains to be identified. We applied event-related potential (ERP) recording while participants judged whether handwritten characters were self- or non-self-generated. To test the effects of the self-related kinematic characteristics of static handwritten characters, we conducted two experiments in which the styles or familiarity of characters were manipulated. The ERP results indicated differences in brain activation between self- and non-self-written characters for the P250 component (250-350ms after stimulus onset) in right posterior regions and for the late positive component (LPC; 350-500ms after stimulus onset) in anterior midline regions; this was the case even when the handwritten characters were not generated in their usual form or were written for the first time. Therefore, our data indicate that self-information embedded in handwritten characters involves both right-lateralized brain activation associated with bodily self-processing and anterior midline brain activation related to self-referential processing. PMID:27033832

  19. Analysis of Sense of Language Based on Psychological Structure Theory%基于心理结构理论的语感培养分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲伟红

    2015-01-01

    语感培养是语文教学的重要内容。本文依据心理结构理论分析了语感以及语感形成的心理机制。即语感是大脑非自遣意识的心理活动,其形成方法可以通过自潜意识的压入和非自遣意识的直接感受两种方法进行培养。最后,本文指出了语感培养最核心的方法是热爱并体验生活,在此基础上对生活进行记录和反思,并通过读书进行对比与提升。%The cultivation of sense of language is the important content of Chinese teaching. Analysis of the psychological mechanism of sense of language is discussed according to the theory of psychological structure. The sense of language is a kind of psychological activity in non self promoting consciousness of brain. The forming of sense of language can be built by two methods which are pressing of self promoting consciousness and feeling of non self promoting consciousness. Finally, this paper points out the core method to cultivate the sense of language is loving of life, doing the reflection of life and im-proving by reading.

  20. Rossby Wave Instability with Self-Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Lovelace, R V E

    2012-01-01

    The Rossby wave instability (RWI) in non-self-gravitating discs can be triggered by a bump at a radius $r_0$ in the disc surface mass-density (which is proportional to the inverse potential vorticity). It gives rise to a growing non-axisymmetric perturbation [$\\propto \\exp(im\\phi)$, $m=1,2..$] in the vicinity of $r_0$ consisting of anticyclonic vortices which may facilitate planetesimal growth in protoplanetary discs. Here, we analyze a continuum of thin disc models ranging from self-gravitating to non-selfgravitating. The key quantities determining the stability/instability are: (1) the parameters of the bump (or depression) in the disc surface density, (2) the Toomre $Q$ parameter of the disc (a non-self-gravitating disc has $Q\\gg1$), and (3) the dimensionless azimuthal wavenumber of the perturbation $\\bar{k}_\\phi =mQh/r_0$, where $h$ is the half-thickness of the disc. For discs stable to axisymmetric perturbations ($Q>1$), the self-gravity has a significant role for $\\bar{k}_\\phi \\pi/2$ the self-gravity i...

  1. Abstract Wave Equations and Associated Dirac-Type Operators

    CERN Document Server

    Gesztesy, Fritz; Holden, Helge; Teschl, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the unitary equivalence of generators $G_{A,R}$ associated with abstract damped wave equations of the type $\\ddot{u} + R \\dot{u} + A^*A u = 0$ in some Hilbert space $\\mathcal{H}_1$ and certain non-self-adjoint Dirac-type operators $Q_{A,R}$ (away from the nullspace of the latter) in $\\mathcal{H}_1 \\oplus \\mathcal{H}_2$. The operator $Q_{A,R}$ represents a non-self-adjoint perturbation of a supersymmetric self-adjoint Dirac-type operator. Special emphasis is devoted to the case where 0 belongs to the continuous spectrum of $A^*A$. In addition to the unitary equivalence results concerning $G_{A,R}$ and $Q_{A,R}$, we provide a detailed study of the domain of the generator $G_{A,R}$, consider spectral properties of the underlying quadratic operator pencil $M(z) = |A|^2 - iz R - z^2 I_{\\mathcal{H}_1}$, $z\\in\\mathbb{C}$, derive a family of conserved quantities for abstract wave equations in the absence of damping, and prove equipartition of energy for supersymmetric self-adjoint Dirac-type operators. The...

  2. [THE ROLE OF BIFIDOBACTERIA IN THE FORMATION OF HUMAN IMMUNE HOMEOSTASIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukharin, O V; Ivanova, E V; Perunova, N B; Chainikova, I N

    2015-01-01

    In the review the materials on the formation of intestinal immune homeostasis through involvement of bifidobacteria which are the key species of microbiota of human colon biotype are presented. Key function of dominant microorganisms, bifidoflora in particular, in intestinal biotype of a host is carried out by means of maintenance of self microorganisms and pronounced antagonism concerning non-self. Realization of this principle in intermicrobial relations allowed to develop algorithm of microbial self-non-self discrimination in microsymbiocenosis on the basis of detected opposite phenomenon (enhancement/suppression) of the main physiological functions of microsymbionts survival (reproduction and adaptation) in dominant-associant pair. Primary discrimination of foreign,material by bifidobacteria is the initial stage of the following "signaling" in the regulation of host immune homeostasis. Further stages of regulation occur by activation of dendritic cells by bifidobacteria with the sequential influence on differentiation of Th0 towards regulatory lymphocytes. The formation of Treg and regulation of immune homeostasis are carried out by bifidobacteria: due to direct activation of dendritic cells (ligand-receptor interactions) and maintenance of optimal cytokine balance. PMID:26950998

  3. Selecting one of several mating types through gene segment joining and deletion in Tetrahymena thermophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella D Cervantes

    Full Text Available The unicellular eukaryote Tetrahymena thermophila has seven mating types. Cells can mate only when they recognize cells of a different mating type as non-self. As a ciliate, Tetrahymena separates its germline and soma into two nuclei. During growth the somatic nucleus is responsible for all gene transcription while the germline nucleus remains silent. During mating, a new somatic nucleus is differentiated from a germline nucleus and mating type is decided by a stochastic process. We report here that the somatic mating type locus contains a pair of genes arranged head-to-head. Each gene encodes a mating type-specific segment and a transmembrane domain that is shared by all mating types. Somatic gene knockouts showed both genes are required for efficient non-self recognition and successful mating, as assessed by pair formation and progeny production. The germline mating type locus consists of a tandem array of incomplete gene pairs representing each potential mating type. During mating, a complete new gene pair is assembled at the somatic mating type locus; the incomplete genes of one gene pair are completed by joining to gene segments at each end of germline array. All other germline gene pairs are deleted in the process. These programmed DNA rearrangements make this a fascinating system of mating type determination.

  4. A comparison of procedures for eliminating self-injurious behavior of retarded adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corte, H E; Wolf, M M; Locke, B J

    1971-01-01

    An attempt was made to eliminate the self-injurious behaviors of four institutionalized, profoundly retarded adolescents. Some of the behaviors studied were: face-slapping, face-banging, hair-pulling, face-scratching, and finger-biting. Three remediative approaches to self-injurious behavior were compared. Elimination of all social consequences of the self-injurious behavior was not effective with the two subjects with whom it was attempted. The same two subjects were exposed to a procedure involving reinforcement of non-self-injurious behavior which was ineffective under no food deprivation and was effective with one of the two subjects under mild food deprivation. Electric-shock punishment eliminated the self-injurious behaviors of all four subjects with whom it was attempted. The results suggested that punishment was more effective than differential reinforcement of non-self-injurious behavior which, in turn, was more effective than extinction through elimination of social consequences. However, the effects of the punishment were usually specific to the setting in which it was administered. In order to eliminate the self-injurious behaviors of severely retarded children, it is apparently necessary to carry out the treatment in many of the settings in which it occurs. PMID:16795296

  5. 莫莫格湿地植被结构研究及其对碱性湿地演替的启示%Vegetation composition of Momoge wetland and its implications for succession in alkaline wetland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁宇; 张志翔; 崔丽娟; 孙孝维

    2014-01-01

    莫莫格湿地属于典型的松嫩平原碱性湿地,在白鹤的全球迁飞网络中具有重要意义,但其退化过程中植被结构的变化及影响因素尚不明确。以植被调查和土壤取样为基础,采用双向指示种分析( TWINSPAN)和去趋势对应分析( DCA)结合的方法对该地区植被进行分类,并以去趋势典范对应分析( DCCA)的方法研究当地物种与环境因素的关系。结果显示,莫莫格湿地的植被可以划分为9种类型,即羊草群落、水蓼群落、扁秆藨草群落、鹅绒委陵菜群落、芦苇群落、毛马唐群落、狗尾草群落、虎尾草群落和蒿类群落,其中虎尾草群落和蒿类群落是分布最为广泛的2个类型。莫莫格湿地植被主要组成部分为中生植物群落,表明该湿地正处于退化过程中,植被类型可归类为退化草甸。植被演替的根本原因在于湿地水文条件的变化,而土壤pH值、电导率和有机质含量也是影响该地区植被结构的重要因素。适当干扰促进了虎尾草单优势种群落的形成,羊草群落和过度放牧不是其出现的必要条件。%Momoge is a typical alkaline wetland in Songnen Plain. Although the Momoge wetland serves as a vital habitat in the global flyway of white crane ( Grus leucogeranus ) , the changes of vegetation composition and related environmental factors in this region during its degradation remain unclear. Based on the vegetation survey and soil sampling in the field, Two-Way Indicator Species Analysis ( TWINSPAN) and Detrended Correspondence Analysis ( DCA ) were used to classify the vegetation. Detrended Canonical Correspondence Analysis ( DCCA) was also used to explore the relationship between vegetation composition and environmental factors. The results are: vegetation in the Momoge wetland is classified into nine types, i. e. Leymus chinensis community, Polygonum hydropiper community, Scirpus planiculmis community, Potentilla anserina

  6. 川西北红原草地在联户经营下的适宜载畜量研究%A study on the appropriate stocking capacity under group-household management on the Hongyuan grasslands in north-western Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘焘; 干友民; 张洪轩; 杨树晶; 宋中齐; 符佩斌; 张雪莲

    2014-01-01

    试验以川西北红原县实际生产中的联户草场为研究对象,分析了自然生产条件下不同载畜量对川西北高寒草甸植物群落的动态特征和土壤养分特征的影响。结果表明,随着载畜量的增加,冬草场坡地的优势种无脉苔草、垂穗披碱草和四川嵩草逐渐减少,杂类草鹅绒委陵菜和翻白委陵菜逐渐增加;夏草场平地的优势种逐渐由木里苔草变为华扁穗草、发草、乌拉苔草和藏嵩草;而不同放牧率的冬草场坡地和夏草场平地之间土壤养分均没有显著差异。总体而言,不论是冬草场坡地和夏草场平地,优良牧草比例均随载畜量的加大而逐渐下降;地上生物量、多样性指数均在适度放牧状况下较高,川西北高寒地区联户经营下的冬草场坡地适宜载畜量为0.97头/hm2,夏草场平地为1.14~1.33头/hm2。%The experiment aimed to study the group-household grassland at Hongyuan in north-western Sichuan by systematically analysing the dynamic characteristics of the alpine meadow and soil nutrient with different livestock capacities under natural conditions.As the livestock capacity increased,the dominant species of win-ter slope pasture,such as Carexenervis,Elymusnutan and Kobresiasetchwanensis,gradually reduced,while forbs,such as Potentilla anserina and P.discolor,gradually increased.The dominant species of summer ground pasture transformed from C.muliensis to Blysmussinocompressus,Deschampsiacaespitosa,C.mey-eriana and K.tibetica.The soil nutrient showed no significant difference between the winter slope pasture and summer ground pasture with different grazing intensities.In general,irrespective of the type of pasture,the proportions of good grass gradually dropped with an increase in livestock capacity,and the aboveground bio-mass and diversity index were higher under modest levels of grazing than under other levels.Under group-household management of the alpine meadow

  7. Plasticity of the β-trefoil protein fold in the recognition and control of invertebrate predators and parasites by a fungal defence system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Schubert

    Full Text Available Discrimination between self and non-self is a prerequisite for any defence mechanism; in innate defence, this discrimination is often mediated by lectins recognizing non-self carbohydrate structures and so relies on an arsenal of host lectins with different specificities towards target organism carbohydrate structures. Recently, cytoplasmic lectins isolated from fungal fruiting bodies have been shown to play a role in the defence of multicellular fungi against predators and parasites. Here, we present a novel fruiting body lectin, CCL2, from the ink cap mushroom Coprinopsis cinerea. We demonstrate the toxicity of the lectin towards Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster and present its NMR solution structure in complex with the trisaccharide, GlcNAcβ1,4[Fucα1,3]GlcNAc, to which it binds with high specificity and affinity in vitro. The structure reveals that the monomeric CCL2 adopts a β-trefoil fold and recognizes the trisaccharide by a single, topologically novel carbohydrate-binding site. Site-directed mutagenesis of CCL2 and identification of C. elegans mutants resistant to this lectin show that its nematotoxicity is mediated by binding to α1,3-fucosylated N-glycan core structures of nematode glycoproteins; feeding with fluorescently labeled CCL2 demonstrates that these target glycoproteins localize to the C. elegans intestine. Since the identified glycoepitope is characteristic for invertebrates but absent from fungi, our data show that the defence function of fruiting body lectins is based on the specific recognition of non-self carbohydrate structures. The trisaccharide specifically recognized by CCL2 is a key carbohydrate determinant of pollen and insect venom allergens implying this particular glycoepitope is targeted by both fungal defence and mammalian immune systems. In summary, our results demonstrate how the plasticity of a common protein fold can contribute to the recognition and control of antagonists by an innate

  8. SCFSLF-mediated cytosolic degradation of S-RNase is required for cross-pollen compatibility in S-RNase-based self-incompatibility in Petunia hybrida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongbiao eXue

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Many flowering plants adopt self-incompatibility (SI to maintain their genetic diversity. In species of Solanaceae, Plantaginaceae and Rosaceae, SI is genetically controlled by a single S-locus with multiple haplotypes. The S-locus has been shown to encode S-RNases expressed in pistil and multiple SLF (S-locus F-box proteins in pollen controlling the female and male specificity of SI, respectively. S-RNases appear to function as a cytotoxin to reject self-pollen. In addition, SLFs have been shown to form SCF (SKP1/Cullin1/F-box complexes to serve as putative E3 ubiquitin ligase to interact with S-RNases. Previously, two different mechanisms, the S-RNase degradation and the S-RNase compartmentalization, have been proposed as the restriction mechanisms of S-RNase cytotoxicity allowing compatible pollination. In this study, we have provided several lines of evidence in support of the S-RNase degradation mechanism by a combination of cellular, biochemical and molecular biology approaches. First, both immunogold labeling and subcellular fractionation assays showed that two key pollen SI factors, PhSLF-S3L and PhSSK1 (SLF-interacting SKP1-like1 from Petunia hybrida, a Solanaceous species, are co-localized in cytosols of both pollen grains and tubes. Second, PhS3L-RNases are mainly detected in the cytosols of both self and non-self pollen tubes after pollination. Third, we found that both PhS3-RNases and PhS3L-RNases directly interact with PhSLF-S3L by yeast two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation assays. Fourth, S-RNases are specifically degraded in compatible pollen tubes by non-self SLF action. Taken together, our results demonstrate that SCFSLF-mediated non-self S-RNase degradation occurs in the cytosol of pollen tube through the ubiquitin/26S proteasome system serving as the major mechanism to neutralize S-RNase cytotoxicity during compatible pollination in P. hybrida.

  9. Molecular mimicry and clonal deletion: A fresh look.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Noel R

    2015-06-21

    In this article, I trace the historic background of clonal deletion and molecular mimicry, two major pillars underlying our present understanding of autoimmunity and autoimmune disease. Clonal deletion originated as a critical element of the clonal selection theory of antibody formation in order to explain tolerance of self. If we did have complete clonal deletion, there would be major voids, the infamous "black holes", in our immune repertoire. For comprehensive, protective adaptive immunity, full deletion is necessarily a rare event. Molecular mimicry, the sharing of epitopes among self and non-self antigens, is extraordinary common and provides the evidence that complete deletion of self-reactive clones is rare. If molecular mimicry were not common, protective adaptive immunity could not be all-encompassing. By taking a fresh look at these two processes together we can envision their evolutionary basis and understand the need for regulatory devices to prevent molecular mimicry from progressing to autoimmune disease. PMID:25172771

  10. Engineered T cells: the promise and challenges of cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesnak, Andrew D; June, Carl H; Levine, Bruce L

    2016-08-23

    The immune system evolved to distinguish non-self from self to protect the organism. As cancer is derived from our own cells, immune responses to dysregulated cell growth present a unique challenge. This is compounded by mechanisms of immune evasion and immunosuppression that develop in the tumour microenvironment. The modern genetic toolbox enables the adoptive transfer of engineered T cells to create enhanced anticancer immune functions where natural cancer-specific immune responses have failed. Genetically engineered T cells, so-called 'living drugs', represent a new paradigm in anticancer therapy. Recent clinical trials using T cells engineered to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) or engineered T cell receptors (TCRs) have produced stunning results in patients with relapsed or refractory haematological malignancies. In this Review we describe some of the most recent and promising advances in engineered T cell therapy with a particular emphasis on what the next generation of T cell therapy is likely to entail.

  11. 1/R expansion for H2 : Analyticity, summability, and asymptotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graffi, S.; Grecchi, V.; Harrell E.M. II; Silverstone, H.J.

    1985-12-01

    It is proved that the 1/R expansion for H2 is divergent and Borel summable to a complex eigenvalue of a non-self-adjoint operator, which has the same 1/R expansion. The Borel sum is related to the H2 system as follows: its real part agrees with the eigenvalue doublet asymptotically to all orders, and its imaginary part determines the asymptotics of the 1/R expansion coefficients via a dispersion relation. A rigorous estimate of the leading behavior of the imaginary part is obtained, and as a consequence the approximate formula of Brezin and Zinn-Justin relating the square of the eigenvalue gap to the asymptotics of the 1/R expansion is put on a rigorous basis.

  12. Vitamin-mediated regulation of intestinal immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun eKunisawa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The intestine is exposed continuously to complex environments created by numerous injurious and beneficial non-self antigens. The unique mucosal immune system in the intestine maintains the immunologic homeostasis between the host and the external environment. Crosstalk between immunocompetent cells and endogenous (e.g., cytokines and chemokines as well as exogenous factors (e.g., commensal bacteria and dietary materials achieves the vast diversity of intestinal immune functions. In addition to their vital roles as nutrients, vitamins now also are known to have immunologically crucial functions, specifically in regulating host immune responses. In this review, we focus on the immunologic functions of vitamins in regulating intestinal immune responses and their roles in moderating the fine balance between physiologic and pathologic conditions of the intestine.

  13. Novelty detection in a changing environment: A negative selection approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surace, Cecilia; Worden, Keith

    2010-05-01

    In the recent past, there have been a number of engineering studies motivated by analogies with the human immune system. The immune system has provided a rich source of inspiration for pattern recognition, machine learning and data mining analyses. One of the properties of the immune system which proves particularly useful for novelty detection is that of self/non-self discrimination and this forms the basis of the negative selection algorithm which has previously been applied by other researchers to the problem of time-series novelty detection. The object of the current paper is to apply the negative selection algorithm to more general feature sets and also to consider the case of novelty detection where the normal condition set is significantly non-Gaussian or varies with operational or environmental conditions.

  14. STATIONARY CONNECTED CURVES IN HILBERT SPACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raed Hatamleh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the structure of non-stationary curves which are stationary connected in Hilbert space is studied using triangular models of non-self-adjoint operator. The concept of evolutionary representability plays here an important role. It is proved that if one of two curves in Hilbert space is evolutionary representable and the curves are stationary connected, then another curve is evolutionary representable too. These curves are studied firstly. The structure of a cross-correlation function in the case when operator, defining the evolutionary representation, has one-dimensional non-Hermitian subspace (the spectrum is discreet and situated in the upper complex half-plane or has infinite multiplicity at zero (Volterra operator is studied.

  15. On the similarity of Sturm-Liouville operators with non-Hermitian boundary conditions to self-adjoint and normal operators

    CERN Document Server

    Krejcirik, D; Zelezny, J

    2011-01-01

    We consider one-dimensional Schroedinger-type operators in a bounded interval with non-self-adjoint Robin-type boundary conditions. It is well known that such operators are generically conjugate to normal operators via a similarity transformation. Motivated by recent interests in quasi-Hermitian Hamiltonians in quantum mechanics, we study properties of the transformations in detail. We show that they can be expressed as the sum of the identity and an integral Hilbert-Schmidt operator. In the case of parity and time reversal boundary conditions, we establish closed integral-type formulae for the similarity transformations, derive the similar self-adjoint operator and also find the associated "charge conjugation" operator, which plays the role of fundamental symmetry in a Krein-space reformulation of the problem.

  16. Simulations of flux variability of oscillating accretion fluid tori around Kerr black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Bakala, Pavel; Šrámková, Eva; Kotrlová, Andrea; Török, Gabriel; Vincent, Frederic H; Abramowicz, Marek A

    2014-01-01

    High frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (HF QPOs) are observed in the X-ray power-density spectra (PDS) of several microquasars and low mass X-ray binaries. Many proposed QPO models are based on oscillations of accretion toroidal fluid structures orbiting in the vicinity of a compact object. We study oscillating accretion tori orbiting in the vicinity of a Kerr black hole. We demonstrate that significant variation of the observed flux can be caused by the combination of radial and vertical oscillation modes of a slender, polytropic, perfect fluid, non-self-graviting torus with constant specific angular momentum. We investigate two combinations of the oscillating modes corresponding to the direct resonance QPO model and the modified relativistic precession QPO model.

  17. Non-host resistance in plants: new insights into an old phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nürnberger, Thorsten; Lipka, Volker

    2005-05-01

    SUMMARY Resistance of an entire plant species to all isolates of a microbial species is referred to as non-host or species resistance. An interplay of both constitutive barriers and inducible reactions comprises the basis for this most durable form of plant disease resistance. Activation of inducible plant defence responses is probably brought about by the recognition of invariant pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP) that are characteristic of whole classes of microbial organisms. PAMP perception systems and PAMP-induced signalling cascades partially resemble those known to mediate activation of innate immune responses in animals, suggesting an evolutionarily ancient molecular concept of non-self recognition and immunity in eukaryotes. Genetic dissection has recently provided clues for SNARE-complex-mediated exocytosis and directed vesicle trafficking in executing plant non-host resistance. Recent functional analysis of bacterial effector proteins indicates that establishment of infection in susceptible plants is associated with suppression of plant species resistance. PMID:20565662

  18. Phase diagram for interacting Bose gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a modified form of the inversion method in terms of a self-energy expansion to access the phase diagram of the Bose-Einstein transition. The dependence of the critical temperature on the interaction parameter is calculated. This is discussed with the help of a condition for Bose-Einstein condensation in interacting systems which follows from the pole of the T matrix in the same way as from the divergence of the medium-dependent scattering length. A many-body approximation consisting of screened ladder diagrams is proposed, which describes the Monte Carlo data more appropriately. The specific results are that a non-self-consistent T matrix leads to a linear coefficient in leading order of 4.7, the screened ladder approximation to 2.3, and the self-consistent T matrix due to the effective mass to a coefficient of 1.3 close to the Monte Carlo data

  19. An analysis of ionospheric dayglow from observations of the Naval Postgraduate School Middle Ultraviolet Spectrograph (MUSTANG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marron, Antony C.

    1993-12-01

    Middle ultraviolet spectra of the atmospheric airglow were obtained from a March 1992 rocket flight of the NPS MUSTANG instrument. These spectra are analyzed from 1900 to 3100 A, over an altitude range of 100 to 320 km. The data are modeled with computer generated synthetic spectra for the following emissions: N2 Vegard Kaplan (VK); N2 Lyman - Birge - Hopfield (LBH); and NO gamma, delta, and epsilon bands. A best fit procedure was developed. The resulting synthetic spectra agree well with obtained airglow data. Confirmation was made of the theoretical self absorption versus non-self absorption processes of the NO (0,0), (1,0), and (2,0) gamma resonance band emissions. NO self absorption is a necessary inclusion of any atmospheric nitric oxide analysis stratagem. Profiles of temperature versus altitude and NO column density versus altitude for the rocket flight are estimated.

  20. La figura dell’antropologo, le necessità di assistenza familiare e la costruzione di una “casa della salute”. Progetto di ricerca e sensibilizzazione nel quartiere Savena di Bologna - The role of the anthropologist, the needs of family caring and the creation of the “health house”. Research and awareness project in Savena district - Bologna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Palmese

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The author presents her research and awareness project about family caring initiated in the Savena District, Bologna. Through this experience, the author has had the opportunity to disclose the development of non-self-sufficiency among the elderly creating the so-called “health house” within the home. Using this expression, she specifies the alteration of the physical space and the combination of life stories and expectations of three subjects who dwell in this space: the elderly, relatives and family assistant (“badante”. Outside the house, however, economic and political interests are increasing. The anthropologist has to be fully aware of these power dynamics and, above all, has to develop an educational and mediation activity in order to create more possibilities of expression for the individuals involved in the care relationship.

  1. Insect immune resistance to parasitoids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yves Carton; Marylène Poirié; Anthony J. Nappi

    2008-01-01

    Insect host-parasitoid interactions involve complex physiological, biochemical and genetic interactions. Against endoparasitoids, immune-competent hosts initiate a blood cell-mediated response that quickly destroys the intruders and envelops them in a multilayered melanotic capsule. During the past decade, considerable progress has been made in identifying some of the critical components of the host response, mainly because of the use of efficient molecular tools. This review examines some of the components of the innate immune response of Drosophila, an insect that has served as an exceptionally good experimental model for studying non-self recognition processes and immune cell signaling mechanisms. Topics considered in this review include hematopoiesis, proliferation and adhesion of hemocytes, melanogenesis and associated cytotoxic molecules, and the genetic aspects of the host-parasitoid interaction.

  2. Long-term dissemination of CTX-M-5-producing hypermutable Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium sequence type 328 strains in Russia, Belarus, and Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyreva, Varvara K; Ilina, Elena N; Malakhova, Maja V; Carattoli, Alessandra; Azizov, Ilya S; Tapalski, Dmitry V; Kozlov, Roman S; Edelstein, Mikhail V

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we present evidence of long-term circulation of cefotaxime-resistant clonally related Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains over a broad geographic area. The genetic relatedness of 88 isolates collected from multiple outbreaks and sporadic cases of nosocomial salmonellosis in various parts of Russia, Belarus, and Kazakhstan from 1996 to 2009 was established by multilocus tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The isolates belong to sequence type 328 (ST328) and produce CTX-M-5 β-lactamase, whose gene is carried by highly related non-self-conjugative but mobilizable plasmids. Resistance to nalidixic acid and low-level resistance to ciprofloxacin is present in 37 (42%) of the isolates and in all cases is determined by various single point mutations in the gyrA gene quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR). Isolates of the described clonal group exhibit a hypermutable phenotype that probably facilitates independent acquisition of quinolone resistance mutations.

  3. C1q binding and complement activation by prions and amyloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Robert B; Kishore, Uday; Villiers, Christian L; Marche, Patrice N; Mitchell, Daniel A

    2007-01-01

    C1q binds to many non-self and altered-self-materials. These include microorganisms, immune complexes, apoptotic and necrotic cells and their breakdown products, and amyloids. C1q binding to amyloid fibrils found as extracellular deposits in tissues, and subsequent complement activation are involved in the pathology of several amyloid diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease. Prion diseases, such as scrapie also involve formation of amyloid by polymerization of the host prion protein (PrP). Complement activation is likely to contribute to neuronal damage in the end stages of prion diseases, but is also thought to participate in the initial infection, dissemination and replication stages. Infectious prion particles are likely to bind C1q and activate the complement system. Bound complement proteins may then influence the uptake and transport of prion particles by dendritic cells (DCs) and their subsequent proliferation at sites such as follicular DCs. PMID:17544820

  4. Magnetohydrodynamic stability of plasmas with radial motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stability of a screw-pinch plasma with radial motion is explored. The linear theory of ideal magnetohydrodynamic (NHD) stability for stationary equilibrium has been generalized to include radial motion. This generalization results in the force operator, F, being non-self-adjoint and the widely used energy principle being no longer useful in this case. Because of this, a set of seven complex, first-order, simultaneous ordinary differential equations needs to be solved to determine the stability. The equations are solved subject to appropriate boundary conditions using the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg. The eigenvalues for the set of equations are also complex, with the imaginary part of the eigenvalue corresponding to the exponential growth or decay of the instability. While the method derived can be used for any cylindrical equilibrium profiles, the results will be presented for imploding screw-pinch plasmas

  5. A Fourier series solution for the longitudinal vibrations of a bar with viscous boundary conditions at each end

    CERN Document Server

    Jovanovic, Vojin

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the generalized Fourier series solution for the longitudinal vibrations of a bar subjected to viscous boundary conditions at each end. The model of the system produces a non-self-adjoint eigenvalue-like problem which does not yield orthogonal eigenfunctions. Therefore, these functions cannot be used to calculate the coefficients of expansion in the Fourier series. Furthermore, the eigenfunctions and eigenvalues are complex valued. Nevertheless, the eigenfunctions can be utilized if the space of the wave operator is extended and a suitable inner product is defined. It is further demonstrated that the series solution contains the solutions for free-free, fixed-damper and fixed-free bar cases. The presented procedure is applicable in general to other problems of this type. As an illustration of the theoretical discussion, the results from numerical simulations are presented.

  6. Comparing Gaseous and Stellar Orbits in a Spiral Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez, Gilberto C; Martos, Marco A

    2013-01-01

    It is generally assumed that gas in a galactic disk follows closely non self-intersecting periodic stellar orbits. In order to test this common assumption, we have performed MHD simulations of a galactic-like disk under the influence of a spiral galactic potential. We also have calculated the actual orbit of a gas parcel and compared it to stable periodic stellar orbits in the same galactic potential and position. We found that the gaseous orbits approach periodic stellar orbits far from the major orbital resonances only. Gas orbits initialized at a given galactocentric distance but at different azimuths can be different, and scattering is conspicuous at certain galactocentric radii. Also, in contrast to the stellar behaviour, near the 4:1 (or higher order) resonance the gas follows nearly circular orbits, with much shorter radial excursions than the stars. Also, since the gas does not settle into a steady state, the gaseous orbits do not necessarily close on themselves.

  7. Cyclodextrin-Based [1]Rotaxanes on Gold Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Zhao

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Transformation of mechanically interlocked molecules (e.g., rotaxanes and catenanes into nanoscale materials or devices is an important step towards their real applications. In our current work, an azobenzene-modified β-cyclodextrin (β-CD derivative that can form a self-inclusion complex in aqueous solution was prepared. The self-included β-CD derivative was then functionalized onto a gold nanoparticle (AuNP surface via a ligand-exchange reaction in aqueous solution, leading to the formation of AuNP-[1]rotaxane hybrids. Corresponding non-self-included β-CD derivative functionalized AuNPs were also developed in a DMF/H2O mixture solution for control experiments. These hybrids were fully characterized by UV-vis and circular dichroism spectroscopies, together with transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The competitive binding behavior of the hybrids with an adamantane dimer was investigated.

  8. A pediatric non-protein losing Menetrier's disease successfully treated with octreotide long acting release

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giovanni Di Nardo; Salvatore Oliva; Marina Aloi; Federica Ferrari; Simone Frediani; Adriana Marcheggiano; Salvatore Cucchiara

    2012-01-01

    Pediatric Menetrier's disease (MD) is an uncommon,acute,self-limited hypertrophic gastropathy characterized by enlarged gastric folds associated with epithelial hyperplasia and usually accompanied by protein losing gastropathy.Gastric cytomegalovirus infection is found in one third of MD children and its treatment is often associated with remission.Diagnosis often requires fullthickness biopsy due to inability to detect typical histological findings with conventional endoscopic biopsy.We report an uncommon case of non self-limited pediatric MD needing endoscopic mucosal resection for diagnosis which was then successfully treated with octreotide long-acting release (LAR).To the best of our knowledge,this is the first pediatric MD case successfully treated with octreotide LAR.Our experience suggests octreotide LAR as treatment for refractory MD before gastrectomy.

  9. Electrical Conductivity Of Carbon Pellets Prepared From Mixtures Of Pyropolymers From Oil Palm Bunches and Petroleum Green Coke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deraman, M.; Awitdrus, Talib, I. A.; Omar, R.; Jumali, M. H.; Ishak, M. M.; Saad, S. K. M.; Taer, E.; Saman, M. M.; Farma, R.; Yunus, R. M.

    2010-12-01

    Green pellets (GPs), prepared at different compression pressures (cs = 6, 7.5 and 12 metric tonne) from mixtures containing self-adhesive carbon grains (sacg) from the oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) and different percentages (pr = 0 to 90%) of a non self-adhesive powder of petroleum green coke (ppgc), were carbonized (800° C) and activated with CO2 to produce carbon pellets (CPs). The measured electrical conductivity (σ) of the CP for all cs showed a curve having a minimum value at pr around 50%, indicating that the conducting phase displays a nonlinear σ- pr relationship. A significant increase in the σ due to CO2 activation was observed. For a sufficienctly high cs, an existence of a pr range in which the σ varies linearly with the density was also observed. These results provide some new information for modifying the electrical conductivity of carbon derived from the sacg from EFB or other types of biomass.

  10. VFT insulation coordination study of a 400 kV GIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olason, Daniel; Ebdrup, Thomas; Bak, Claus Leth;

    2014-01-01

    .dk) is in the process of constructing a new gas insulated substation (GIS) in Revsing. As a part of this process, new Eagle pylons will replace some of the existing Donau pylons. The new Eagle type pylon is meant to reduce the visual impact of transmission lines. The reliability of the substation in Revsing is of great...... importance as it is part of the 400 kV systems backbone between Sweden, Norway, Germany and the offshore windfarms in Horns Rev. The design of the insulation coordination for GIS must therefore be studied carefully. During a disconnector operation in GIS, very fast transient (VFT) may generate overvoltages...... (VFTO) inside the enclosure. Because the gas insulated system must be viewed as non-self-restoring, it is important to ensure that the voltage inside the GIS does not exceed the insulation strength. This must therefore be accounted for, when conducting an insulation coordination study of a GIS...

  11. Differentiation of the functional in an optimization problem for diffusion and convective transfer coefficients of elliptic imperfect contact interface problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manapova, Aigul

    2016-08-01

    We consider optimal control problems for second order elliptic equations with non-self-adjoint operators-convection-diffusion problems. Control processes are described by semi-linear convection-diffusion equation with discontinuous data and solutions (states) subject to the boundary interface conditions of imperfect type (i.e., problems with a jump of the coefficients and the solution on the interface; the jump of the solution is proportional to the normal component of the flux). Controls are involved in the coefficients of diffusion and convective transfer. We prove differentiability and Lipshitz continuity of the cost functional, depending on a state of the system and a control. The calculation of the gradients uses the numerical solutions of direct problems for the state and adjoint problems.

  12. The Driving of Decretion by Maxwell Stress in Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Hubbard, Alexander; Oishi, Jeffrey S; Lyra, Wladimir; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark

    2014-01-01

    Radial magnetic fields that resist orbital shear can explain the outwards angular momentum transport required for accretion in non-self-gravitating disks. This generates azimuthal magnetic fields and thus Maxwell stresses that transfer angular momentum radially. Variations on this idea include both the magnetorotational instability and disk winds. We demonstrate here that these transport mechanisms generate dynamically significant radial Poynting flux, so they are inherently not local. Simulations treating this problem typically use either the shear-periodic, shearing sheet approximation, or disk annuli with artificial radial boundary conditions. Spurious energy flows through these boundaries generally control the magnitude and even the sign of angular momentum transport. We then demonstrate that, when dominated by radial stresses, shearing sheets must decrete, as must self-similar regions of disks with power-law variations in physical quantities. Only the innermost edge of the disk, where magnetic energy inc...

  13. 'Legenda' vacuum-plasma complex for technological surface treatment of metalware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes a vacuum-plasma complex for highly efficient technological ion-plasma metalware surface treatment that includes cleaning, etching, polishing, nitriding, doping and implantation with gas ions, and deposition of thin hydrocarbon films. The technological vacuum-plasma complex is based on a high-efficiency low-temperature gas discharge plasma generator with a hollow cathode in which the latter is the inner surface a large-volume cylindrical vacuum chamber. Uniformly distributed high-density gas discharge plasma is generated due to a steady-state non-self-sustained low-pressure arc gas discharge with a cathode consisting of two combined (thermionic and hollow) units located on diametrically opposite flanges of the vacuum chamber. (authors)

  14. 实用写作思维特质及教学策略分析%Practical Writing Thinking Characteristics and Teaching Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任艳洁

    2012-01-01

    To master practical writing law of thinking is the core and key to improve the practical writing skills. With the features of practicality, logic, pattern and non-self. Practical writing thinking plays an role of conversion and cultivation of the awareness of role to improve students' practical writing skills.%掌握实用写作思维规律,是提高实用写作水平的核心和关键。实用写作思维具有实用性、逻辑性、模式性、非我性的特点。在实践教学中,通过对"角色"意识的转换与培养,通过思维、语言、写作训练切实提高学生的实用写作能力。

  15. Dynamic psychiatry and the treatment of anorexia psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Ann-Louise S; White, Janice

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic psychotherapy of psychosis works through gradually diminishing terror, replacing this with a clearer and shared understanding of the patient's life history, its traumas and its strengths. It is diametrically opposed to our current push for efficiency and an assumption of an underlying brain disorder that responds to our current medications. Over the course of a long treatment, this patient became a scholar of psychoanalytic contributions to understanding psychosis and is now a philosopher of this field, developing an understanding of anorexia psychosis. She draws on the writings of Freud, Bion, Lacan, and Julian Jaynes, placing the core of psychosis not in primary process but in a preceding, non-self phase of development. She relates this individual development to the history of human development.

  16. Possible role of histamine in pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases: implications for immunotherapy with histamine-2 receptor antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Hammer, J H

    1992-01-01

    The immunosuppressive chemical drugs cyclosporine A (CsA) and methotrexate (Mx) have recently been shown to be of benefit in several different diseases of autoimmune origin. Cellular immune responses may play a major role in autoimmunity as autoreactive T lymphocytes appear to recognize autoantig......The immunosuppressive chemical drugs cyclosporine A (CsA) and methotrexate (Mx) have recently been shown to be of benefit in several different diseases of autoimmune origin. Cellular immune responses may play a major role in autoimmunity as autoreactive T lymphocytes appear to recognize...... the possibility, that histamine is one of the molecules involved in pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. T cell mediated regulation and suppression of autoreactive T cells seem to be ineffective in controlling the enhanced immune reaction in patients where the discrimination between self and non-self is changed...

  17. The Riemann zeros as spectrum and the Riemann hypothesis

    CERN Document Server

    Sierra, German

    2016-01-01

    We review a series of works whose aim is to provide a spectral realization of the Riemann zeros and that culminate in a physicist's proof of the Riemann hypothesis. These results are obtained analyzing the spectrum of the Hamiltonian of a massless Dirac fermion in a region of Rindler spacetime that contains moving mirrors whose accelerations are related to the prime numbers. We show that a zero on the critical line becomes an eigenvalue of the Hamiltonian in the limit where the mirrors become transparent, and the self-adjoint extension of the Hamiltonian is adjusted accordingly with the phase of the zeta function. We have also considered the spectral realization of zeros off the critical line using a non self-adjoint operator, but its properties imply that those zeros do not exist. In the derivation of these results we made several assumptions that need to be established more rigorously.

  18. Energetics of the AK13 Semi-Local Kohn-Sham Exchange Energy Functional

    CERN Document Server

    Lindmaa, A

    2016-01-01

    The recent non-empirical semi-local exchange functional of Armiento and K\\"ummel, the AK13 [PRL 111, 036402 (2013)] incorporates a number of features reproduced by higher-order theory. The AK13 potential behaves analogously with the discontinuous jump associated with the derivative discontinuity at integer particle numbers. Recent works have established that AK13 gives a qualitatively improved orbital description compared to other semi-local methods, and reproduces a band structure closer to higher-order theory. However, its energies and energetics are inaccurate. The present work further investigates the deficiency in energetics. In addition to AK13 results, we find that applying the local-density approximation (LDA) non-self-consistently on the converged AK13 density gives very reasonable energetics with equilibrium lattice constants and bulk moduli well described across 14 systems. We also confirm that the attractive orbital features of AK13 are retained even after full structural relaxation. Hence, the de...

  19. Asymptotic analysis, polarization matrices and topological derivatives for piezoelectric materials with small voids

    CERN Document Server

    Cardone, G; Sokolowski, J

    2009-01-01

    Asymptotic formulae for the mechanical and electric fields in a piezoelectric body with a small void are derived and justified. Such results are new and useful for applications in the field of design of smart materials. In this way the topological derivatives of shape functionals are obtained for piezoelectricity. The asymptotic formulae are given in terms of the so-called polarization tensors (matrices) which are determined by the integral characteristics of voids. The distinguished feature of the piezoelectricity boundary value problems under considerations is the absence of positive definiteness of an differential operator which is non self-adjoint. Two specific Gibbs' functionals of the problem are defined by the energy and the electric enthalpy. The topological derivatives are defined in different manners for each of the governing functionals. Actually, the topological derivative of the enthalpy functional is local i.e., defined by the pointwise values of the governing fields, in contrary to the energy f...

  20. Exponential Galaxy Disks from Stellar Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Elmegreen, Bruce G

    2013-01-01

    Stellar scattering off of orbiting or transient clumps is shown to lead to the formation of exponential profiles in both surface density and velocity dispersion in a two-dimensional non-self gravitating stellar disk with a fixed halo potential. The exponential forms for both nearly-flat rotation curves and near-solid body rotation curves. The exponential does not depend on initial conditions, spiral arms, bars, viscosity, star formation, or strong shear. After a rapid initial development, the exponential saturates to an approximately fixed scale length. The inner exponential in a two-component profile has a break radius comparable to the initial disk radius; the outer exponential is primarily scattered stars.

  1. Optimal Hedging and Pricing of Equity-Linked Life Insurance Contracts in a Discrete-Time Incomplete Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Josephy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a method of optimal hedging and pricing of equity-linked life insurance products in an incomplete discrete-time financial market. A pure endowment life insurance contract with guarantee is used as an example. The financial market incompleteness is caused by the assumption that the underlying risky asset price ratios are distributed in a compact interval, generalizing the assumptions of multinomial incomplete market models. For a range of initial hedging capitals for the embedded financial option, we numerically solve an optimal hedging problem and determine a risk-return profile of each optimal non-self-financing hedging strategy. The fair price of the insurance contract is determined according to the insurer's risk-return preferences. Illustrative numerical results of testing our algorithm on hypothetical insurance contracts are documented. A discussion and a test of a hedging strategy recalibration technique for long-term contracts are presented.

  2. Investigation of epididymal immunology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Zong-Liang

    2005-01-01

    Immunology is the study of the structure and function of the immune system. The immune system consists of an earlier-stage innate immunity and a later-stage adaptive immunity. The task of the immune system is to efficiently respond to non-self antigens and the invasion of pathogens, thereby protecting the host's homeostasis. This review article discusses the structure and function of the epididymis, including the composition of the epithelial cells of the epididymis and their relationship to the immune system, through the assessment of alterations in the immune cells of the epididymis. The review also shows the anti-inflammatory properties of rat epididymal defensin and the description of the blood-epididymis barrier, immune barrier, epididymitis and pathological mechanisms of infertility in males. Taken together, we see that the epididymis possesses a close link with immunology. Finally, this review discusses the future of studies involving epididymal immunology.

  3. Recognition of pathogen-associated nucleic acids by endosomal nucleic acid-sensing toll-like receptors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaobing He; Huaijie Jia; Zhizhong Jing; Dingxiang Liu

    2013-01-01

    Foreign nucleic acids,the essential signature molecules of invading pathogens that act as danger signals for host cells,are detected by endosomal nucleic acid-sensing tolllike receptors (TLRs) 3,7,8,9,and 13.These TLRs have evolved to recognize ‘non-self' nucleic acids within endosomal compartments and rapidly initiate innate immune responses to ensure host protection through induction of type Ⅰ interferons,inflammatory cytokines,chemokines,and co-stimulatory molecules and maturation of immune cells.In this review,we highlight our understanding of the recognition of pathogen-associated nucleic acids and activation of corresponding signaling pathways through endosomal nucleic acid-sensing TLRs 3,7,8,9,and 13 for an enormous diversity of pathogens,with particular emphasis on their compartmentalization,intracellular trafficking,proteolytic cleavage,autophagy,and regulatory programs.

  4. Adaptation in CRISPR-Cas Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Samuel H; Richter, Hagen; Charpentier, Emmanuelle; Qimron, Udi

    2016-03-17

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins constitute an adaptive immune system in prokaryotes. The system preserves memories of prior infections by integrating short segments of foreign DNA, termed spacers, into the CRISPR array in a process termed adaptation. During the past 3 years, significant progress has been made on the genetic requirements and molecular mechanisms of adaptation. Here we review these recent advances, with a focus on the experimental approaches that have been developed, the insights they generated, and a proposed mechanism for self- versus non-self-discrimination during the process of spacer selection. We further describe the regulation of adaptation and the protein players involved in this fascinating process that allows bacteria and archaea to harbor adaptive immunity.

  5. Evolving Concepts: Immunity in Oncology from Targets to Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hina Khan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is associated with global immune suppression of the host. Malignancy-induced immune suppressive effect can be circumvented by blocking the immune checkpoint and tip the immune balance in favor of immune stimulation and unleash cytotoxic effects on cancer cells. Human antibodies directed against immune checkpoint proteins: cytotoxic T lymphocytes antigen-4 (CTLA-4 and programmed death-1 (PD-1, programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1, have shown therapeutic efficacy in advanced melanoma and non-small-cell lung cancer and other malignancies. Immune check point blockade antibodies lead to diminished tolerance to self and enhanced immune ability to recognize and eliminate cancer cells. As a class these agents have immune-related adverse events due to decreased ability of effector immune cells to discriminate between self and non-self. Seventy percent of patients participating in clinical trials have experienced anticancer activities and varying degrees of immune mediated dose-limiting side effects.

  6. Evolving Concepts: Immunity in Oncology from Targets to Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Hina; Gucalp, Rasim; Shapira, Iuliana

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is associated with global immune suppression of the host. Malignancy-induced immune suppressive effect can be circumvented by blocking the immune checkpoint and tip the immune balance in favor of immune stimulation and unleash cytotoxic effects on cancer cells. Human antibodies directed against immune checkpoint proteins: cytotoxic T lymphocytes antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death-1 (PD-1), programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), have shown therapeutic efficacy in advanced melanoma and non-small-cell lung cancer and other malignancies. Immune check point blockade antibodies lead to diminished tolerance to self and enhanced immune ability to recognize and eliminate cancer cells. As a class these agents have immune-related adverse events due to decreased ability of effector immune cells to discriminate between self and non-self. Seventy percent of patients participating in clinical trials have experienced anticancer activities and varying degrees of immune mediated dose-limiting side effects. PMID:26060497

  7. A non-linear discrete transform for pattern recognition of discrete chaotic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Karanikas, C

    2003-01-01

    It is shown, by an invertible non-linear discrete transform that any finite sequence or any collection of strings of any length can be presented as a random walk on trees. These transforms create the mathematical background for coding any information, for exploring its local variability and diversity. With the underlying computational algorithms, with several examples and applications we propose that these transforms can be used for pattern recognition of immune type. In other words we propose a mathematical platform for detecting self and non-self strings of any alphabet, based on a negative selection algorithms, for scouting data's periodicity and self-similarity and for measuring the diversity of chaotic strings with fractal dimension methods. In particular we estimate successfully the entropy and the ratio of chaotic data with self similarity. Moreover we give some applications of a non-linear denoising filter.

  8. Regulation of protein synthesis and autophagy in activated dendritic cells: implications for antigen processing and presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argüello, Rafael J; Reverendo, Marisa; Gatti, Evelina; Pierre, Philippe

    2016-07-01

    Antigenic peptides presented in the context of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules originate from the degradation of both self and non-self proteins. T cells can therefore recognize at the surface of surveyed cells, the self-peptidome produced by the cell itself (mostly inducing tolerance) or immunogenic peptides derived from exogenous origins. The initiation of adaptive immune responses by dendritic cells (DCs), through the antigenic priming of naïve T cells, is associated to microbial pattern recognition receptors engagement. Activation of DCs by microbial product or inflammatory cytokines initiates multiple processes that maximize DC capacity to present exogenous antigens and stimulate T cells by affecting major metabolic and membrane traffic pathways. These include the modulation of protein synthesis, the regulation of MHC and co-stimulatory molecules transport, as well as the regulation of autophagy, that, all together promote exogenous antigen presentation while limiting the display of self-antigens by MHC molecules.

  9. Third minima in thorium and uranium isotopes in the self-consistent theory

    CERN Document Server

    McDonnell, J D; Sheikh, J A

    2013-01-01

    Background: Well-developed third minima, corresponding to strongly elongated and reflection-asymmetric shapes associated with di-molecular configurations, have been predicted in some non-self-consistent models to impact fission pathways of thorium and uranium isotopes. These predictions have guided the interpretation of resonances seen experimentally. On the other hand, self-consistent calculations consistently predict shallow third minima. Purpose: We study the isentropic potential energy surfaces of selected even-even thorium and uranium isotopes at several excitation energies. In order to understand the driving effects behind the presence of third minima, we study the interplay between pairing and shell effects. We also investigate the interpretation of third minima in terms of di-molecular (cluster) configurations. Methods: We use the finite-temperature superfluid nuclear density functional theory. We consider several Skyrme energy density functionals, including traditional functionals such as SkM* and a ...

  10. Factor H-related proteins determine complement-activating surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józsi, Mihály; Tortajada, Agustin; Uzonyi, Barbara; Goicoechea de Jorge, Elena; Rodríguez de Córdoba, Santiago

    2015-06-01

    Complement factor H-related proteins (FHRs) are strongly associated with different diseases involving complement dysregulation, which suggests a major role for these proteins regulating complement activation. Because FHRs are evolutionarily and structurally related to complement inhibitor factor H (FH), the initial assumption was that the FHRs are also negative complement regulators. Whereas weak complement inhibiting activities were originally reported for these molecules, recent developments indicate that FHRs may enhance complement activation, with important implications for the role of these proteins in health and disease. We review these findings here, and propose that FHRs represent a complex set of surface recognition molecules that, by competing with FH, provide improved discrimination of self and non-self surfaces and play a central role in determining appropriate activation of the complement pathway.

  11. Security framework for networked storage system based on artificial immune system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianzhong; Xie, Changsheng; Zhang, Chengfeng; Zhan, Ling

    2007-11-01

    This paper proposed a theoretical framework for the networked storage system addressing the storage security. The immune system is an adaptive learning system, which can recognize, classify and eliminate 'non-self' such as foreign pathogens. Thus, we introduced the artificial immune technique to the storage security research, and proposed a full theoretical framework for storage security system. Under this framework, it is possible to carry out the quantitative evaluation for the storage security system using modeling language of artificial immune system (AIS), and the evaluation can offer security consideration for the deployment of networked storage system. Meanwhile, it is potential to obtain the active defense technique suitable for networked storage system via exploring the principle of AIS and achieve a highly secure storage system with immune characteristic.

  12. Upper bounds on the entropy of radiation systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪定雄

    1997-01-01

    The upper bounds on the entropy of a radiation system confined to a spherical box are calculated in six cases by using the equation of state of radiation in flat spacetime and the equation of state of radiation near black-hole horizon,which was derived by Li and Liu (hereafter the Li-Liu equation).It turns out that the Li-Liu equation does have unique advantage in dealing with the entropy bound of critical self-gravitating radiation systems,while the usual equation of state will result in entropy divergence.In the case of non-self-gravitating radiation systems and non-critical self-gravitating radiation systems,there is no difference in the entropy bounds derived by these two equations of state.

  13. Research of Anti-spam System Basing on Immunity System and Mobile Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUI Bei; WU Yue; JI Lin; CHEN Jia

    2007-01-01

    The human immune system has the function of self-discern.It can identify the non-self antigen and clear it through the immune response automatically.So,human body has the power of resisting disease.The anti-spam system basing on immune system is proposed by using immune system's theory,and it is introduced in the mail service of enterprise VPN.Regard VPN as the human body,the mobile agent is simulated the antibody because of its movable and intelligent,and the spam is simulated the antigen.It can clear the spam by using immune mechanism.This method is a new thinking of anti-spam mail.The advantage is overcoming the weakness on independence of traditional anti-spam system.

  14. Rheumatoid factors, B cells and immunoglobulin genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferis, R

    1995-04-01

    The paradigm of self, non-self discrimination in the immune system is under review as autoreactive B or T cells are increasingly delineated within normal individuals. The products of autoreactive B cells are, mostly, polyspecific IgM antibodies of low affinity. These 'natural' antibodies include rheumatoid factors (RF) encoded by unmutated germline immunoglobulin genes. In rheumatoid arthritis (RA) the RF may be of the IgM, IgG or IgA isotype, show evidence of somatic mutation and have increased affinity; consistent with maturation of an antigen driven immune response. This response could be initiated or driven by an auto-immunogenic form of IgG or an exogenous cross-reactive antigen. Changes in galactosylation of IgG have been reported to be a valuable diagnostic and prognostic indicator in RA. Speculation that these changes may precipitate some of the disease processes is critically reviewed.

  15. Bound-state formation for thermal relic dark matter and unitarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that the relic abundance of thermal dark matter annihilating via a long-range interaction, is significantly affected by the formation and decay of dark matter bound states in the early universe, if the dark matter mass is above a few TeV . We determine the coupling required to obtain the observed dark matter density, taking into account both the direct 2-to-2 annihilations and the formation of bound states, and provide an analytical fit. We argue that the unitarity limit on the inelastic cross-section is realized only if dark matter annihilates via a long-range interaction, and we determine the upper bound on the mass of thermal-relic dark matter to be about 197 (139) TeV for (non)-self-conjugate dark matter

  16. Suppression of EAE by oral tolerance is independent of endogenous IFN-beta whereas treatment with recombinant IFN-beta ameliorates EAE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yawei; Teige, Ingrid; Ericsson, Ida;

    2010-01-01

    (IFN-beta(+/+)). The non-self-antigen ovalbumin induced oral tolerance in both groups. These data indicate that endogenous IFN-beta is not required for induction of oral tolerance, whereas delivery of recombinant IFN-beta results in significant reduction in clinical score of EAE. Oral tolerance......IFN-beta is anticipated to have an important function in mucosal tolerance, as it is one of the major cytokines produced by plasmacytoid dendritic cells, and has recently been suggested as central to the maintenance of mucosal homeostasis. Here, we have investigated whether oral tolerance...... is dependent on endogenous IFN-beta by feeding low-dose self-antigen myelin basic protein to IFN-beta(-/-) mice with subsequent induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Our study shows that oral tolerance was readily induced in IFN-beta(-/-) mice compared with their wild-type littermates...

  17. Self-interaction effects on charge-transfer collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Quashie, Edwin E; Andrade, Xavier; Correa, Alfredo A

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the role of the self-interaction error in the simulation of collisions using time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) and Ehrenfest dynamics. We compare many different approximations of the exchange and correlation potential, using as a test system the collision of $\\mathrm{H^+ + CH_4}$ at $30~\\mathrm{eV}$. We find that semi-local approximations, like PBE, and even hybrid functionals, like B3LYP, produce qualitatively incorrect predictions for the scattering of the proton. This discrepancy appears because the self-interaction error allows the electrons to jump too easily to the proton, leading to radically different forces with respect to the non-self-interacting case. From our results, we conclude that using a functional that is self-interaction free is essential to properly describe charge-transfer collisions between ions and molecules in TDDFT.

  18. Calculation of positron characteristics for elements of the periodic table

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campillo Robles, J M [Oinarrizko Zientziak Saila, Goi Eskola Politeknikoa, Mondragon Unibertsitatea, 20500 Arrasate, Basque Country (Spain); Ogando, E; Plazaola, F, E-mail: fernando.plazaola@ehu.es [Elektrizitatea eta Elektronika Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, UPV/EHU, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)

    2011-01-10

    Positron characteristics have been calculated in bulk and monovacancies for most of the elements of the periodic table. Self-consistent and non-self-consistent schemes have been used for the calculation of the electronic structure in the solid, and different parametrizations for the positron enhancement factor and correlation energy. As it is known, positron lifetimes in bulk show a periodic behaviour with atomic number. These calculations also confirm that monovacancy lifetimes follow the same behaviour. The results obtained have been compared with selected experimental lifetime data, which confirms the calculated theoretical trends. Positron binding energies to a monovacancy have been calculated also for most of the elements of the periodic table. The binding energy shows a periodic behaviour with atomic number too.

  19. Supercurrent and the Adler-Bardeen theorem in coupled supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We construct the supercurrent and a supersymmetric current which satisfies the Adler-Bardeen theorem in supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory coupled to non-self-interacting chiral matter. Using the formulation recently developed by Grisaru, Milewski, and Zanon, supersymmetry and gauge invariance are maintained with supersymmetric background-field theory and regularization by dimensional reduction. We verify the finiteness of the supercurrent to one loop, and the Adler-Bardeen theorem to two loops by explicit calculations in the minimal-subtraction scheme. We then demonstrate the subtraction-scheme independence of the one-loop Adler-Bardeen anomaly and prove the existence of a subtraction scheme in which the Adler-Bardeen theorem is satisfied to all orders in perturbation theory

  20. Possible role of histamine in pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases: implications for immunotherapy with histamine-2 receptor antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Hammer, J H

    1992-01-01

    disease activity. Histamine is suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of psoriasis and the histamine-2 receptor antagonist ranitidine has been shown to be of value to reduce severe psoriatic disease. The finding that CsA and Mx efficiently reduce histamine formation and release raises...... autoantigens and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II restriction molecules presented by non-immune, aberrant cells, subsequently leading to damage on healthy tissues. Psoriasis is suggested to be an autoimmune disease and in severe, uncontrollable psoriasis CsA and Mx are of value in reducing...... the possibility, that histamine is one of the molecules involved in pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. T cell mediated regulation and suppression of autoreactive T cells seem to be ineffective in controlling the enhanced immune reaction in patients where the discrimination between self and non-self is changed...

  1. Application of the cubic-plus-association (CPA) equation of state to model the fluid phase behaviour of binary mixtures of water and tetrahydrofuran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herslund, Peter Jørgensen; Thomsen, Kaj; Abildskov, Jens;

    2013-01-01

    The complex fluid phase behaviour, of the binary system comprised of water and tetrahydrofuran (THF) is modelled by use of the cubic-plus-association (CPA) equation of state. A total of seven modelling approaches are analysed, differing only in their way of describing THF and its interactions...... (hydrogen bonding) with water.The qualitative behaviour of the fluid phase equilibria in this system can only be described by CPA when cross-association between water and THF is allowed.Six of the seven tested modelling scenarios allow for cross-association between the two compounds. These scenarios are...... named Case 2 to Case 7. Case 2 treats THF as non self-associating, but applies a single association site on the THF oxygen atom, that allows for cross-linking with a single water molecule. Case 3 is identical to Case 2 but applies two association sites on THF, allowing for simultaneous cross...

  2. Functional models for commutative systems of linear operators and de Branges spaces on a Riemann surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotarev, Vladimir A.

    2009-04-01

    Functional models are constructed for commutative systems \\{A_1,A_2\\} of bounded linear non-self-adjoint operators which do not contain dissipative operators (which means that \\xi_1A_1+\\xi_2A_2 is not a dissipative operator for any \\xi_1, \\xi_2\\in\\mathbb{R}). A significant role is played here by the de Branges transform and the function classes occurring in this context. Classes of commutative systems of operators \\{A_1,A_2\\} for which such a construction is possible are distinguished. Realizations of functional models in special spaces of meromorphic functions on Riemann surfaces are found, which lead to reasonable analogues of de Branges spaces on these Riemann surfaces. It turns out that the functions E(p) and \\widetilde E(p) determining the order of growth in de Branges spaces on Riemann surfaces coincide with the well-known Baker-Akhiezer functions. Bibliography: 11 titles.

  3. The MHC class I genes of zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirscherl, Hayley; McConnell, Sean C; Yoder, Jeffrey A; de Jong, Jill L O

    2014-09-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules play a central role in the immune response and in the recognition of non-self. Found in all jawed vertebrate species, including zebrafish and other teleosts, MHC genes are considered the most polymorphic of all genes. In this review we focus on the multi-faceted diversity of zebrafish MHC class I genes, which are classified into three sequence lineages: U, Z, and L. We examine the polygenic, polymorphic, and haplotypic diversity of the zebrafish MHC class I genes, discussing known and postulated functional differences between the different class I lineages. In addition, we provide the first comprehensive nomenclature for the L lineage genes in zebrafish, encompassing at least 15 genes, and characterize their sequence properties. Finally, we discuss how recent findings have shed new light on the remarkably diverse MHC loci of this species.

  4. Modelling of associating mixtures for applications in the oil & gas and chemical industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Folas, Georgios; Muro Sunè, Nuria;

    2007-01-01

    -polar (non self-associating) compounds it reduces to SRK. The model was first published in 1996 and since then it has been developed and applied with success to binary systems containing water-alkanes and alcohol/glycol/acid-alkanes (both VLE and LLE) as well as ternary and multicomponent (V)LLE for water......-alcohol (glycol)-alkanes and certain acid and amine-containing mixtures. Recent results include glycol-aromatic hydrocarbons including multiphase, multicomponent equilibria and gas hydrate calculations in combination with the van der Waals-Platteeuw model. This article will outline some new applications...... of the model of relevance to the petroleum and chemical industries: high pressure vapor-liquid and liquid-liquid equilibrium in alcohol-containing mixtures, mixtures with gas hydrate inhibitors and mixtures with polar and hydrogen bonding chemicals including organic acids. Some comparisons with conventional...

  5. The multiple functions of the PGRP family in Drosophila immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Goto

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The innate immune system discriminates between infectious non-self and self using germ-line-encoded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs that are highly conserved from insects to mammals. Peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP is one of the hallmark pattern recognition receptors responsible for detecting unique bacteria-derived peptidoglycans. The PGRP family comprises several members (13 in Drosophila, 7 in Anopheles, and 4 in mammals and are differentially expressed on immune-responsive organs. Some PGRPs have amidase or bactericidal activities and function as immune modulators, whereas others have lost their enzymatic activity, but still have crucial roles in the activation of innate immune signaling. Evidence from recent Drosophila studies suggests that PGRPs have a role in a variety of immune reactions, such as in the activation of the prophenoloxidase cascade, the production of antimicrobial peptides through the activation of the Toll and Imd pathways, intracellular bacteria recognition, and phagocytosis.

  6. The generalized second law and the black hole evaporation in an empty space as a nonequilibrium process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When a black hole is in an empty space in which there is no matter field except that of the Hawking radiation (Hawking field), then the black hole evaporates and the entropy of the black hole decreases. The generalized second law guarantees the increase of the total entropy of the whole system which consists of the black hole and the Hawking field. That is, the increase of the entropy of the Hawking field is faster than the decrease of the black hole entropy. In a naive sense, one may expect that the entropy increase of the Hawking field is due to the self-interaction among the composite particles of the Hawking field, and that the self-relaxation of the Hawking field results in the entropy increase. Then, when one considers a non-self-interacting matter field as the Hawking field, it is obvious that self-relaxation does not take place, and one may think that the total entropy does not increase. However, using nonequilibrium thermodynamics which has been developed recently, we find for the non-self-interacting Hawking field that the rate of entropy increase of the Hawking field (the entropy emission rate by the black hole) grows faster than the rate of entropy decrease of the black hole during the black hole evaporation in empty space. The origin of the entropy increase of the Hawking field is the increase of the black hole temperature. Hence an understanding of the generalized second law in the context of nonequilibrium thermodynamics is suggested; even if the self-relaxation of the Hawking field does not take place, the temperature increase of the black hole during the evaporation process causes the entropy increase of the Hawking field to result in the increase of the total entropy

  7. The Application of Magnetic Bead Selection to Investigate Interactions between the Oral Microbiota and Salivary Immunoglobulins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhwani, Tejal

    2016-01-01

    The effect of humoral immunity on the composition of the oral microbiota is less intensively investigated than hygiene and diet, in part due to a lack of simple and robust systems for investigating interactions between salivary immunoglobulins and oral bacteria. Here we report the application of an ex situ method to investigate the specificity of salivary immunoglobulins for salivary bacteria. Saliva collected from six volunteers was separated into immunoglobulin and microbial fractions, and the microbial fractions were then directly exposed to salivary immunoglobulins of “self” and “non-self” origin. Antibody-selected bacteria were separated from their congeners using a magnetic bead system, selective for IgA or IgG isotypes. The positively selected fractions were then characterized using gel-based eubacterial-specific DNA profiling. The eubacterial profiles of positively selected fractions diverged significantly from profiles of whole salivary consortia based on volunteer (P≤ 0.001%) and immunoglobulin origin (P≤ 0.001%), but not immunoglobulin isotype (P = 0.2). DNA profiles of separated microbial fractions were significantly (p≤ 0.05) less diverse than whole salivary consortia and included oral and environmental bacteria. Consortia selected using self immunoglobulins were generally less diverse than those selected with immunoglobulins of non-self origin. Magnetic bead separation facilitated the testing of interactions between salivary antibodies and oral bacteria, showing that these interactions are specific and may reflect differences in recognition by self and non-self immunoglobulins. Further development of this system could improve understanding of the relationship between the oral microbiota and the host immune system and of mechanisms underlying the compositional stability of the oral microbiota. PMID:27483159

  8. Temporal structure of consciousness and minimal self in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brice eMartin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the minimal self refers to the consciousness of oneself as an immediate subject of experience. According to recent studies, disturbances of the minimal self may be a core feature of schizophrenia. They are emphasized in classical psychiatry literature and in phenomenological work. Impaired minimal self experience may be defined as a distortion of one’s first-person experiential perspective as, for example, an ‘altered presence’ during which the sense of the experienced self (‘mineness’ is subtly affected, or ‘altered sense of demarcation’, i.e. a difficulty discriminating the self from the non-self. Little is known, however, about the cognitive basis of these disturbances. In fact, recent work indicates that disorders of the self are not correlated with cognitive impairments commonly found in schizophrenia such as working-memory and attention disorders. In addition, a major difficulty with exploring the minimal self experimentally lies in its definition as being non self-reflexive, and distinct from the verbalized, explicit awareness of an ‘I’.In this paper we shall discuss the possibility that disturbances of the minimal self observed in patients with schizophrenia are related to alterations in time processing. We shall review the literature on schizophrenia and time processing that lends support to this possibility. In particular we shall discuss the involvement of temporal integration windows on different time scales (implicit time processing as well as duration perception disturbances (explicit time processing in disorders of the minimal self. We argue that a better understanding of the relationship between time and the minimal self as well of issues of embodiment require research that looks more specifically at implicit time processing. Some methodological issues will be discussed.

  9. Isolation and characterization of multiple F-box genes linked to the S9- and S10-RNase in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Kazuma; Moriya, Shigeki; Haji, Takashi; Abe, Kazuyuki

    2013-06-01

    Using 11 consensus primer pairs designed from S-linked F-box genes of apple and Japanese pear, 10 new F-box genes (MdFBX21 to 30) were isolated from the apple cultivar 'Spartan' (S(9)S(10)). MdFBX21 to 23 and MdFBX24 to 30 were completely linked to the S(9) -RNase and S(10-)RNase, respectively, and showed pollen-specific expression and S-haplotype-specific polymorphisms. Therefore, these 10 F-box genes are good candidates for the pollen determinant of self-incompatibility in apple. Phylogenetic analysis and comparison of deduced amino acid sequences of MdFBX21 to 30 with those of 25 S-linked F-box genes previously isolated from apple showed that a deduced amino acid identity of greater than 88.0 % can be used as the tentative criterion to classify F-box genes into one type. Using this criterion, 31 of 35 F-box genes of apple were classified into 11 types (SFBB1-11). All types included F-box genes derived from S(3-) and S(9-)haplotypes, and seven types included F-box genes derived from S(3-), S(9-), and S(10-)haplotypes. Moreover, comparison of nucleotide sequences of S-RNases and multiple F-box genes among S(3-), S(9-), and S(10-)haplotypes suggested that F-box genes within each type showed high nucleotide identity regardless of the identity of the S-RNase. The large number of F-box genes as candidates for the pollen determinant and the high degree of conservation within each type are consistent with the collaborative non-self-recognition model reported for Petunia. These findings support that the collaborative non-self-recognition system also exists in apple.

  10. Immunomodulatory consequences of oral administration of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Michael; Linde, Hans-Jörg; Lehn, Norbert; Zimmermann, Kurt; Grossmann, Johannes; Falk, Werner; Schölmerich, Jürgen

    2003-05-01

    Probiotic microorganisms, especially lactic acid bacteria, are effective in the treatment of infectious diarrhoeal diseases and experimental colitis. Although the mechanisms by which these organisms exert their anti-inflammatory effects are largely unknown, immunomodulating effects are suggested. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of a 5-week oral administration of Lactobacillus rhamnosus subspecies GG (Lb. GG) on the cellular immune response to intestinal microorganisms in ten healthy volunteers. Peripheral blood cells (PB) were stimulated with either 'self' or 'non-self' preparations of faecal samples and isolated Bacteroides fragilis group-organisms (Bfg) or Escherichia coli (Esch. coli), and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10, IL-4, IL-6, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha) were measured in the culture supernatant. CD4+ T-lymphocyte activation was determined by measurement of intracellular ATP following lysis of the cells. The activational response of CD4+ T-lymphocytes towards isolated and heat-inactivated intestinal organisms was increased after the probiotic treatment. Additionally, TNF-alpha, IL-6 and in part IFN-gamma cytokine secretion by PB cells following stimulation with whole stool preparations and single members of the flora was significantly decreased, whereas the IL-10 and in part IL-4 cytokine secretion was increased at the end of the study. In contrast, the activational response of CD4+ T-lymphocytes following stimulation with whole 'non-self' intestinal flora was higher than by 'self' intestinal flora, but both responses showed a trend towards a reduction at the end of the study. This study documents a direct effect by Lb. GG on the cellular immune system of healthy volunteers and offers a promising tool to investigate systemic immunomodulation due to oral administration of probiotic microorganisms.

  11. Immune tolerance maintained by cooperative interactions between T cells and antigen presenting cells shapes a diverse TCR repertoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine eBest

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The T cell population in an individual needs to avoid harmful activation by self-peptides while maintaining the ability to respond to an unknown set of foreign peptides. This property is acquired by a combination of thymic and extra-thymic mechanisms. We extend current models for the development of self/non-self discrimination to consider the acquisition of self-tolerance as an emergent system level property of the overall T cell receptor repertoire. We propose that tolerance is established at the level of the antigen presenting cell/T cell cluster, which facilitates and integrates co-operative interactions between T cells of different specificity. The threshold for self-reactivity is therefore imposed at a population level, and not at the level of the individual T cell/antigen encounter. Mathematically, the model can be formulated as a linear programming optimisation problem, which can be implemented as a multiplicative update algorithm which shows a rapid convergence to a stable state. The model constrains self-reactivity within a predefined threshold, but maintains the diversity and cross reactivity which are key characteristics of human T cell immunity. We show further that the size of individual clones in the model repertoire remains heterogeneous, and that new clones can establish themselves even when the repertoire is stable. Our study combines the salient features of the danger model of self/non-self discrimination with the concepts of quorum sensing, and extends repertoire generation models to encompass the establishment of tolerance. Furthermore, the dynamic and continuous repertoire reshaping which underlies tolerance in this model suggests opportunities for therapeutic intervention to achieve long-term tolerance following transplantation.

  12. Dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuator for flow control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opaits, Dmitry Florievich

    Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) and magnetohydrodynamic phenomena are being widely studied for aerodynamic applications. The major effects of these phenomena are heating of the gas, body force generation, and enthalpy addition or extraction, [1, 2, 3]. In particular, asymmetric dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuators are known to be effective EHD device in aerodynamic control, [4, 5]. Experiments have demonstrated their effectiveness in separation control, acoustic noise reduction, and other aeronautic applications. In contrast to conventional DBD actuators driven by sinusoidal voltages, we proposed and used a voltage profile consisting of nanosecond pulses superimposed on dc bias voltage. This produces what is essentially a non-self-sustained discharge: the plasma is generated by repetitive short pulses, and the pushing of the gas occurs primarily due to the bias voltage. The advantage of this non-self-sustained discharge is that the parameters of ionizing pulses and the driving bias voltage can be varied independently, which adds flexibility to control and optimization of the actuators performance. Experimental studies were conducted of a flow induced in a quiescent room air by a single DBD actuator. A new approach for non-intrusive diagnostics of plasma actuator induced flows in quiescent gas was proposed, consisting of three elements coupled together: the Schlieren technique, burst mode of plasma actuator operation, and 2-D numerical fluid modeling. During the experiments, it was found that DBD performance is severely limited by surface charge accumulation on the dielectric. Several ways to mitigate the surface charge were found: using a reversing DC bias potential, three-electrode configuration, slightly conductive dielectrics, and semi conductive coatings. Force balance measurements proved the effectiveness of the suggested configurations and advantages of the new voltage profile (pulses+bias) over the traditional sinusoidal one at relatively low

  13. The post-pollination ethylene burst and the continuation of floral advertisement are harbingers of non-random mate selection in Nicotiana attenuata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Samik; Baldwin, Ian T

    2012-08-01

    The self-compatible plant Nicotiana attenuata grows in genetically diverse populations after fires, and produces flowers that remain open for 3 days and are visited by assorted pollinators. To determine whether and when post-pollination non-random mate selection occurs among self and non-self pollen, seed paternity and semi-in vivo pollen tube growth were determined in controlled single/mixed pollinations. Despite all pollen sources being equally proficient in siring seeds in single-genotype pollinations, self pollen was consistently selected in mixed pollinations, irrespective of maternal genotype. However, clear patterns of mate discrimination occurred amongst non-self pollen when mixed pollinations were performed soon after corollas open, including selection against hygromycin B resistance (transformation selectable marker) in wild-type styles and for it in transformed styles. However, mate choice among pollen genotypes was completely shut down in plants transformed to be unable to produce (irACO) or perceive (ETR1) ethylene. The post-pollination ethylene burst, which originates primarily from the stigma and upper style, was strongly correlated with mate selection in single and mixed hand-pollinations using eight pollen donors in two maternal ecotypes. The post-pollination ethylene burst was also negatively correlated with the continuation of emission of benzylacetone, the most abundant pollinator-attracting corolla-derived floral volatile. We conclude that ethylene signaling plays a pivotal role in mate choice, and the post-pollination ethylene burst and the termination of benzylacetone release are accurate predictors, both qualitatively and quantitatively, of pre-zygotic mate selection and seed paternity. PMID:22458597

  14. Variation, sex, and social cooperation: molecular population genetics of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan M Flowers

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Dictyostelium discoideum is a eukaryotic microbial model system for multicellular development, cell-cell signaling, and social behavior. Key models of social evolution require an understanding of genetic relationships between individuals across the genome or possibly at specific genes, but the nature of variation within D. discoideum is largely unknown. We re-sequenced 137 gene fragments in wild North American strains of D. discoideum and examined the levels and patterns of nucleotide variation in this social microbial species. We observe surprisingly low levels of nucleotide variation in D. discoideum across these strains, with a mean nucleotide diversity (pi of 0.08%, and no strong population stratification among North American strains. We also do not find any clear relationship between nucleotide divergence between strains and levels of social dominance and kin discrimination. Kin discrimination experiments, however, show that strains collected from the same location show greater ability to distinguish self from non-self than do strains from different geographic areas. This suggests that a greater ability to recognize self versus non-self may arise among strains that are more likely to encounter each other in nature, which would lead to preferential formation of fruiting bodies with clonemates and may prevent the evolution of cheating behaviors within D. discoideum populations. Finally, despite the fact that sex has rarely been observed in this species, we document a rapid decay of linkage disequilibrium between SNPs, the presence of recombinant genotypes among natural strains, and high estimates of the population recombination parameter rho. The SNP data indicate that recombination is widespread within D. discoideum and that sex as a form of social interaction is likely to be an important aspect of the life cycle.

  15. Episodic memory and self-reference via semantic autobiographical memory: Insights from an fMRI study in younger and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine eKalenzaga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-referential processing relies mainly on the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC and enhances memory encoding (i.e., Self-Reference Effect, SRE as it improves the accuracy and richness of remembering in both young and older adults. However, studies on age-related changes in the neural correlates of the SRE on the subjective (i.e., autonoetic consciousness and the objective (i.e., source memory qualitative features of episodic memory are lacking. In the present fMRI study, we compared the effects of a self-related (semantic autobiographical memory task and a non self-related (general semantic memory task encoding condition on subsequent episodic memory retrieval. We investigated encoding-related activity during each condition in two groups of 19 younger and 16 older adults. Behaviorally, the SRE improved subjective memory performance in both groups but objective memory only in young adults. At the neural level, a direct comparison between self-related and non self-related conditions revealed that SRE mainly activated the cortical midline system, especially the MPFC, in both groups. Additionally, in older adults and regardless of the condition, greater activity was found in a fronto-parietal network. Overall, correlations were noted between source memory performance and activity in the MPFC (irrespective of age and visual areas (mediated by age. Thus, the present findings expand evidence of the role of the MPFC in self-referential processing in the context of source memory benefit in both young and older adults using incidental encoding via semantic autobiographical memory. However, our finding suggests that its role is less effective in aging.

  16. Self-recognition and Ca2+-dependent carbohydrate-carbohydrate cell adhesion provide clues to the cambrian explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernàndez-Busquets, Xavier; Körnig, André; Bucior, Iwona; Burger, Max M; Anselmetti, Dario

    2009-11-01

    The Cambrian explosion of life was a relatively short period approximately 540 Ma that marked a generalized acceleration in the evolution of most animal phyla, but the trigger of this key biological event remains elusive. Sponges are the oldest extant Precambrian metazoan phylum and thus a valid model to study factors that could have unleashed the rise of multicellular animals. One such factor is the advent of self-/non-self-recognition systems, which would be evolutionarily beneficial to organisms to prevent germ-cell parasitism or the introduction of deleterious mutations resulting from fusion with genetically different individuals. However, the molecules responsible for allorecognition probably evolved gradually before the Cambrian period, and some other (external) factor remains to be identified as the missing triggering event. Sponge cells associate through calcium-dependent, multivalent carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions of the g200 glycan found on extracellular proteoglycans. Single molecule force spectroscopy analysis of g200-g200 binding indicates that calcium affects the lifetime (+Ca/-Ca: 680 s/3 s) and bond reaction length (+Ca/-Ca: 3.47 A/2.27 A). Calculation of mean g200 dissociation times in low and high calcium within the theoretical framework of a cooperative binding model indicates the nonlinear and divergent characteristics leading to either disaggregated cells or stable multicellular assemblies, respectively. This fundamental phenomenon can explain a switch from weak to strong adhesion between primitive metazoan cells caused by the well-documented rise in ocean calcium levels at the end of Precambrian time. We propose that stronger cell adhesion allowed the integrity of genetically uniform animals composed only of "self" cells, facilitating genetic constitutions to remain within the metazoan individual and be passed down inheritance lines. The Cambrian explosion might have been triggered by the coincidence in time of primitive animals

  17. Temporal structure of consciousness and minimal self in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Brice; Wittmann, Marc; Franck, Nicolas; Cermolacce, Michel; Berna, Fabrice; Giersch, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The concept of the minimal self refers to the consciousness of oneself as an immediate subject of experience. According to recent studies, disturbances of the minimal self may be a core feature of schizophrenia. They are emphasized in classical psychiatry literature and in phenomenological work. Impaired minimal self-experience may be defined as a distortion of one's first-person experiential perspective as, for example, an "altered presence" during which the sense of the experienced self ("mineness") is subtly affected, or "altered sense of demarcation," i.e., a difficulty discriminating the self from the non-self. Little is known, however, about the cognitive basis of these disturbances. In fact, recent work indicates that disorders of the self are not correlated with cognitive impairments commonly found in schizophrenia such as working-memory and attention disorders. In addition, a major difficulty with exploring the minimal self experimentally lies in its definition as being non-self-reflexive, and distinct from the verbalized, explicit awareness of an "I." In this paper, we shall discuss the possibility that disturbances of the minimal self observed in patients with schizophrenia are related to alterations in time processing. We shall review the literature on schizophrenia and time processing that lends support to this possibility. In particular we shall discuss the involvement of temporal integration windows on different time scales (implicit time processing) as well as duration perception disturbances (explicit time processing) in disorders of the minimal self. We argue that a better understanding of the relationship between time and the minimal self as well of issues of embodiment require research that looks more specifically at implicit time processing. Some methodological issues will be discussed.

  18. [What's wrong with "development of isolating mechanisms" (and its special case in form of "reinforcement")?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridman, V S

    2014-01-01

    Examined are the conceptual grounds of the "reinforcement" model that play an important role in explanatory schemes of the theory of evolution. According to the current views, reinforcement (of obstacles for crossing under natural selection when there occurs a repeated contact with hybridization between two substantially divergent forms, up to the level where started hybridization is terminated and the forms become unable to cross) should be a common or even frequent phenomenon. In fact, reinforcement turns out to be a rare event needed to be specially searched for, all such events are dubious, etc. Here, empirical data on reinforcement pro and contra are analyzed, using mostly ornithological (and some other zoological) materials. It is shown that in most cases where the theory predicts reinforcement to occur, it does not happen. On the contrary, something quite opposite is observed--selection for non-crossing enhancement does not stop up the leaks in gene pools of the forms that are due to their hybridization within the zone of a repeated contact, but instead the stable hybrid zone is established which serve as a conduit for gene exchange between the forms. Through hybridization, those forms can adopt strange genes, remaining, at that, their isolation at the level of separate species. This is achieved through the system of self-non-self recognition in population system of both forms being in contact. Within the zone of a repeated contact, conditions are usually such that individuals repeatedly make mistakes forming mixed pairs and producing hybrids, i.e., at the level of individuals, self-non-self recognition is often inefficient, especially at the range edges, in zone of repeated contact and such. Efficient recognition, that ensures species separateness even under conditions of continuing hybridization, takes place upon inclusion of individuals of different origin--phenotypically 'pure' ones, hybrids, and backcrosses--into spatio-ethologic population structure of

  19. [What's wrong with "development of isolating mechanisms" (and its special case in form of "reinforcement")?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridman, V S

    2014-01-01

    Examined are the conceptual grounds of the "reinforcement" model that play an important role in explanatory schemes of the theory of evolution. According to the current views, reinforcement (of obstacles for crossing under natural selection when there occurs a repeated contact with hybridization between two substantially divergent forms, up to the level where started hybridization is terminated and the forms become unable to cross) should be a common or even frequent phenomenon. In fact, reinforcement turns out to be a rare event needed to be specially searched for, all such events are dubious, etc. Here, empirical data on reinforcement pro and contra are analyzed, using mostly ornithological (and some other zoological) materials. It is shown that in most cases where the theory predicts reinforcement to occur, it does not happen. On the contrary, something quite opposite is observed--selection for non-crossing enhancement does not stop up the leaks in gene pools of the forms that are due to their hybridization within the zone of a repeated contact, but instead the stable hybrid zone is established which serve as a conduit for gene exchange between the forms. Through hybridization, those forms can adopt strange genes, remaining, at that, their isolation at the level of separate species. This is achieved through the system of self-non-self recognition in population system of both forms being in contact. Within the zone of a repeated contact, conditions are usually such that individuals repeatedly make mistakes forming mixed pairs and producing hybrids, i.e., at the level of individuals, self-non-self recognition is often inefficient, especially at the range edges, in zone of repeated contact and such. Efficient recognition, that ensures species separateness even under conditions of continuing hybridization, takes place upon inclusion of individuals of different origin--phenotypically 'pure' ones, hybrids, and backcrosses--into spatio-ethologic population structure of

  20. The fester locus in Botryllus schlosseri experiences selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nydam Marie L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allorecognition, the ability of an organism to distinguish self from non-self, occurs throughout the entire tree of life. Despite the prevalence and importance of allorecognition systems, the genetic basis of allorecognition has rarely been characterized outside the well-known MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex in vertebrates and SI (Self-Incompatibility in plants. Where loci have been identified, their evolutionary history is an open question. We have previously identified the genes involved in self/non-self recognition in the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri, and we can now begin to investigate their evolution. In B. schlosseri, colonies sharing 1 or more alleles of a gene called FuHC (Fusion Histocompatibility will fuse. Protein products of a locus called fester, located ~300 kb from FuHC, have been shown to play multiple roles in the histocompatibility reaction, as activating and/or inhibitory receptors. We test whether the proteins encoded by this locus are evolving neutrally or are experiencing balancing, directional, or purifying selection. Results Nearly all of the variation in the fester locus resides within populations. The 13 housekeeping genes (12 nuclear genes and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I have substantially more structure among populations within groups and among groups than fester. All polymorphism statistics (Tajima's D, Fu and Li's D* and F* are significantly negative for the East Coast A-type alleles, and Fu and Li's F* statistic is significantly negative for the West Coast A-type alleles. These results are likely due to selection rather than demography, given that 10 of the housekeeping loci have no populations with significant values for any of the polymorphism statistics. The majority of codons in the fester proteins have ω values 95% posterior probability of ω values > 1. Conclusion Fester proteins are evolving non-neutrally. The polymorphism statistics are consistent with either

  1. Short-range Ising spin glasses: The metastate interpretation of replica symmetry breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, N.

    2014-09-01

    Parisi's formal replica-symmetry-breaking (RSB) scheme for mean-field spin glasses has long been interpreted in terms of many pure states organized ultrametrically. However, the early version of this interpretation, as applied to the short-range Edwards-Anderson model, runs into problems because as shown by Newman and Stein (NS) it does not allow for chaotic size dependence, and predicts non-self-averaging that cannot occur. NS proposed the concept of the metastate (a probability distribution over infinite-size Gibbs states in a given sample that captures the effects of chaotic size dependence) and a nonstandard interpretation of the RSB results in which the metastate is nontrivial and is responsible for what was called non-self-averaging. In this picture, each state drawn from the metastate has the ultrametric properties of the old theory, but when the state is averaged using the metastate, the resulting mixed state has little structure. This picture was constructed so as to agree both with the earlier RSB results and with rigorous results. Here we use the effective field theory of RSB, in conjunction with the rigorous definitions of pure states and the metastate in infinite-size systems, to show that the nonstandard picture follows directly from the RSB mean-field theory. In addition, the metastate-averaged state possesses power-law correlations throughout the low-temperature phase; the corresponding exponent ζ takes the value 4 according to the field theory in high dimensions d, and describes the effective fractal dimension of clusters of spins. Further, the logarithm of the number of pure states in the decomposition of the metastate-averaged state that can be distinguished if only correlations in a window of size W can be observed is of order Wd -ζ. These results extend the nonstandard picture quantitatively; we show that arguments against this scenario are inconclusive. More generally, in terms of Parisi's function q (x), if q(0)≠∫01dxq(x ), then the

  2. NIDS Research Advance Based on Artificial Immunology%基于人工免疫的NIDS研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗文坚; 张四海; 梁文; 曹先彬; 王煦法

    2002-01-01

    现有网络入侵检测系统的低.生物免疫系统的自我保护机制对设计新的网络入侵检测系统具有很好的借鉴意义.论文通过抽取生物免疫系统中所蕴涵的各种信息处理机制,将网络数据传输行为分为正常和异常行为,分别对应为网络的自我与非我,建立了一个基于人工免疫的网络入侵检测系统原型.系统中蕴涵的生物免疫机制主要有非我识别机制、免疫进化机制等.本文着重介绍此原型系统的结构和特征、免疫识别算法,并进行了实际检测实验.实验结果表明生物免疫的自我保护机制在网络入侵检测系统方面具有很强的应用前景.%Current network intrusion detection systems have a fatal deficiency of being unable to detect new intrusive behaviors of unknown signatures and low intelligence level. The protection mechanism of the natural immune system has brought us inspirations for designing a novel network intrusion detection system. By extracting the information processing mechanism of the natural immune system, network data transferring behaviors are divided into normal and abnormal behaviors, corresponding to the self behaviors and non-self behaviors of the network, and an initial network intrusion detection system is established based on artificial immunology. The main inspirations from natural immune system include non-self recognition mechanism, immune evolution mechanism, etc. This paper stresses on the construction and characteristics of the system, immune recognition algorithm and the testing experiments. The result of the experiments proves that the application of the protection mechanism of natural immune system to network intrusion detection system has an exciting future.

  3. Institutionalized elderly people and malnutrition: research on the patients of a nursing home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Rondoni

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM is a common finding in hospitalized or institutionalized elderly people. In the literature, PEM is not mentioned as being related to individual ability of the patient to feed him or herself correctly. This study analyzed the 56 patients of a nursing home divided into two groups: self-sufficient and non self-sufficient regarding feeding. Levels of serum albumin, transferrin, prealbumin and hemoglobin (Hb were examined and compared to body mass index (BMI calculated with bioelectrical impedance analysis. Fifty-three percent of patients were self-sufficient, while 47% were not self-sufficient for feeding of which 83.3% were women and 16.7% men. Levels below the average range were 49.1% for lymphocyte count, 52.9% for serum albumin, 13.7% for serum transferrin and 52.9% for serum prealbumin. No significant differences were found in terms of patient age, while the mean values of the parameters examined in the two groups, self-sufficient and not, were lower in the patients who were not self-sufficient, even if statistical significance was not reached. Serum albumin was in inverse proportion to age (P<0.05 and 46.1% of individuals with low levels of transferrin also showed low levels of Hb. Anemia was in direct proportion (P<0.05 to age. Measurement of BMI showed values below 22.5 (cut off for risk for malnutrition in 33.4% of the subjects examined. Of the three hematochemical parameters, analysis of a possible relationship with BMI showed only a significant and directly proportional correlation with prealbumin (P<0.05%. These data should be considered in the context of an epidemiological research study carried out in a conditioned and limited environment, where PEM, detected using hematochemical parameters, amounted to 50% of the patients, whereas BMI identified only approximately one-third of patients at risk of malnutrition. There were no statistically significant differences between men and women. Mean values of the

  4. Amorphous nanosilica particles block induction of oral tolerance in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Tsuguto; Yoshino, Shin

    2016-09-01

    The mucosal immune system is exposed to non-self antigens in food and the gut microbiota. Therefore, the recognition of orally ingested non-self antigens is suppressed in healthy individuals to avoid excessive immune responses in a process called "oral tolerance". The breakdown of oral tolerance has been cited as a possible cause of food allergy, and amorphous silica nanoparticles (nSP) have been implicated in this breakdown. As nSP are widely used in foodstuffs and other products, exposure to them is increasing; thus, investigations of any effects of nSP on oral tolerance are urgent. This study evaluated the effects of nSP30 (particle diameter = 39 nm) on immunological unresponsiveness induced in mice with oral ovalbumin (OVA). Specifically, production of OVA-specific antibodies, splenocyte proliferation in response to OVA, and effects on T-helper (TH)-1, TH2, and TH17 responses (in terms of cytokine and IgG/IgE subclass expression) were evaluated. nSP30 increased the levels of OVA-specific IgG in OVA-tolerized mice and induced the proliferation of OVA-immunized splenocytes in response to OVA in a dose-related manner. nSP30 also increased the expression of OVA-specific IgG1, IgE, and IgG2a, indicating stimulation of the TH1 and TH2 responses. The expression of interferon (IFN)-γ (TH1), interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-5 (TH2), and IL-17 (TH17) was also stimulated in a dose-related manner by nSP30 in splenocytes stimulated ex vivo with OVA. The induction of tolerance by OVA, the production of anti-OVA IgG antibodies, and proliferation of splenocytes in response to OVA was inhibited by nSP30 in conjunction with OVA and was dose-related. The nSP30 enhanced TH1 and TH2 responses that might prevent the induction of oral tolerance. Overall, this study showed that the abrogation of OVA-induced oral tolerance in mice by exposure to nSP30 was dose-related and that nSP30 stimulated TH1, TH2, and TH17 responses. PMID:27086695

  5. All 17 S-locus F-box proteins of the S2 - and S3 -haplotypes of Petunia inflata are assembled into similar SCF complexes with a specific function in self-incompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu; Williams, Justin S; Sun, Penglin; Kao, Teh-Hui

    2016-09-01

    The collaborative non-self-recognition model for S-RNase-based self-incompatibility predicts that multiple S-locus F-box proteins (SLFs) produced by pollen of a given S-haplotype collectively mediate ubiquitination and degradation of all non-self S-RNases, but not self S-RNases, in the pollen tube, thereby resulting in cross-compatible pollination but self-incompatible pollination. We had previously used pollen extracts containing GFP-fused S2 -SLF1 (SLF1 with an S2 -haplotype) of Petunia inflata for co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) and mass spectrometry (MS), and identified PiCUL1-P (a pollen-specific Cullin1), PiSSK1 (a pollen-specific Skp1-like protein) and PiRBX1 (a conventional Rbx1) as components of the SCF(S) (2-) (SLF) (1) complex. Using pollen extracts containing PiSSK1:FLAG:GFP for Co-IP/MS, we identified two additional SLFs (SLF4 and SLF13) that were assembled into SCF(SLF) complexes. As 17 SLF genes (SLF1 to SLF17) have been identified in S2 and S3 pollen, here we examined whether all 17 SLFs are assembled into similar complexes and, if so, whether these complexes are unique to SLFs. We modified the previous Co-IP/MS procedure, including the addition of style extracts from four different S-genotypes to pollen extracts containing PiSSK1:FLAG:GFP, to perform four separate experiments. The results taken together show that all 17 SLFs and an SLF-like protein, SLFLike1 (encoded by an S-locus-linked gene), co-immunoprecipitated with PiSSK1:FLAG:GFP. Moreover, of the 179 other F-box proteins predicted by S2 and S3 pollen transcriptomes, only a pair with 94.9% identity and another pair with 99.7% identity co-immunoprecipitated with PiSSK1:FLAG:GFP. These results suggest that SCF(SLF) complexes have evolved specifically to function in self-incompatibility.

  6. Optimized tumor cryptic peptides: the basis for universal neo-antigen-like tumor vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menez-Jamet, Jeanne; Gallou, Catherine; Rougeot, Aude; Kosmatopoulos, Kostas

    2016-07-01

    The very impressive clinical results recently obtained in cancer patients treated with immune response checkpoint inhibitors boosted the interest in immunotherapy as a therapeutic choice in cancer treatment. However, these inhibitors require a pre-existing tumor specific immune response and the presence of tumor infiltrating T cells to be efficient. This immune response can be triggered by cancer vaccines. One of the main issues in tumor vaccination is the choice of the right antigen to target. All vaccines tested to date targeted tumor associated antigens (TAA) that are self-antigens and failed to show a clinical efficacy because of the immune self-tolerance to TAA. A new class of tumor antigens has recently been described, the neo-antigens that are created by point mutations of tumor expressing proteins and are recognized by the immune system as non-self. Neo-antigens exhibit two main properties: they are not involved in the immune self-tolerance process and are immunogenic. However, the majority of the neo-antigens are patient specific and their use as cancer vaccines requires their previous identification in each patient individualy that can be done only in highly specialized research centers. It is therefore evident that neo-antigens cannot be used for patient vaccination worldwide. This raises the question of whether we can find neo-antigen like vaccines, which would not be patient specific. In this review we show that optimized cryptic peptides from TAA are neo-antigen like peptides. Optimized cryptic peptides are recognized by the immune system as non-self because they target self-cryptic peptides that escape self-tolerance; in addition they are strongly immunogenic because their sequence is modified in order to enhance their affinity for the HLA molecule. The first vaccine based on the optimized cryptic peptide approach, Vx-001, which targets the widely expressed tumor antigen telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), has completed a large phase I clinical

  7. An efficient ERP-based brain-computer interface using random set presentation and face familiarity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seul-Ki Yeom

    Full Text Available Event-related potential (ERP-based P300 spellers are commonly used in the field of brain-computer interfaces as an alternative channel of communication for people with severe neuro-muscular diseases. This study introduces a novel P300 based brain-computer interface (BCI stimulus paradigm using a random set presentation pattern and exploiting the effects of face familiarity. The effect of face familiarity is widely studied in the cognitive neurosciences and has recently been addressed for the purpose of BCI. In this study we compare P300-based BCI performances of a conventional row-column (RC-based paradigm with our approach that combines a random set presentation paradigm with (non- self-face stimuli. Our experimental results indicate stronger deflections of the ERPs in response to face stimuli, which are further enhanced when using the self-face images, and thereby improving P300-based spelling performance. This lead to a significant reduction of stimulus sequences required for correct character classification. These findings demonstrate a promising new approach for improving the speed and thus fluency of BCI-enhanced communication with the widely used P300-based BCI setup.

  8. The generation and antigen-specificity of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taams, Leonie S; Curnow, S John; Vukmanovic-Stejic, M; Akbar, Arne N

    2006-09-01

    CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells are essential components of the immune system. They help to maintain immune tolerance by exerting suppressive effects on cells of the adaptive and innate immune system. In the last few years there has been an abundance of papers addressing the suppressive effects of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells and their putative role in various experimental disease models and human diseases. Despite the enormous amounts of data on these cells a number of controversial issues still exists. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells were originally described as thymus-derived anergic/suppressive T cells. Recent papers however indicate that these cells might also be generated in the periphery. Due to the thymic development of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells it was thought that these cells were specific for self-antigens. Indeed it was shown that CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells could be positively selected upon high affinity interaction with self-antigens. However, evidence is accumulating that these cells might also interact with non-self antigens. Finally, in the literature there is conflicting evidence regarding the role of soluble factors versus cell-contact in the mechanism of suppression. The aim of this review is to summarize the evidence supporting these opposing viewpoints and to combine them into a general model for the origin, function and antigen-specificity of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells. PMID:16918478

  9. Three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation on gain saturation effect of microchannel plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiangqiang; Yuan, Zheng; Cao, Zhurong; Deng, Bo; Chen, Tao; Deng, Keli

    2016-07-01

    We present here the results of the simulation work, using the three-dimensional particle-in-cell method, on the performance of the lead glass microchannel plate under saturated state. We calculated the electron cascade process with different DC bias voltages under both self-consistent condition and non-self-consistent condition. The comparative results have demonstrated that the strong self-consistent field can suppress the cascade process and make the microchannel plate saturated. The simulation results were also compared to the experimental data and good agreement was obtained. The simulation results also show that the electron multiplication process in the channel is accompanied by the buildup process of positive charges in the channel wall. Though the interactions among the secondary electron cloud in the channel, the positive charges in the channel wall, and the external acceleration field can make the electron-surface collision more frequent, the collision energy will be inevitably reduced, thus the electron gain will also be reduced.

  10. Recognition of damage-associated, nucleic acid-related molecular patterns during inflammation and vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nao eJounai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available All mammalian cells are equipped with large numbers of sensors for protection from various sorts of invaders, who, in turn, are equipped with molecules containing pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs. Once these sensors recognize non-self antigens containing PAMPs, various physiological responses including inflammation are induced to eliminate the pathogens. However, the host sometimes suffers from chronic infection or continuous injuries, resulting in production of self-molecules containing damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs. DAMPs are also responsible for the elimination of pathogens, but promiscuous recognition of DAMPs through sensors against PAMPs has been reported. Accumulation of DAMPs leads to massive inflammation and continuous production of DAMPs; that is, a vicious circle leading to the development of autoimmune disease. From a vaccinological point of view, the accurate recognition of both PAMPs and DAMPs is important for vaccine immunogenicity, because vaccine adjuvants are composed of several PAMPs and/or DAMPs, which are also associated with severe adverse events after vaccination. Here, we review as the roles of PAMPs and DAMPs upon infection with pathogens or inflammation, and the sensors responsible for recognizing them, as well as their relationship with the development of autoimmune disease or the immunogenicity of vaccines.

  11. Multilevel first-order system least squares for PDEs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, S.

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of this talk is to analyze the least-squares finite element method for second-order convection-diffusion equations written as a first-order system. In general, standard Galerkin finite element methods applied to non-self-adjoint elliptic equations with significant convection terms exhibit a variety of deficiencies, including oscillations or nonmonotonicity of the solution and poor approximation of its derivatives, A variety of stabilization techniques, such as up-winding, Petrov-Galerkin, and stream-line diffusion approximations, have been introduced to eliminate these and other drawbacks of standard Galerkin methods. Yet, although significant progress has been made, convection-diffusion problems remain among the more difficult problems to solve numerically. The first-order system least-squares approach promises to overcome these deficiencies. This talk develops ellipticity estimates and discretization error bounds for elliptic equations (with lower order terms) that are reformulated as a least-squares problem for an equivalent first-order system. The main results are the proofs of ellipticity and optimal convergence of multiplicative and additive solvers of the discrete systems.

  12. MAJOR HYSTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX: STRUKTUR, FUNGSI, HUBUNGAN DENGAN PENYAKIT DAN PEMANFAATAN DALAM RESPON IMUN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basundari Sri Utama

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Respon imun terhadap antigen asing dapat terjadi karena kemampuan dari organisme untuk membedakan "non self" dengan "self", sehingga dapat terhindar dari efek patogen dari antigen yang masuk. Hal ini terjadi karena kemampuan polimorfisme dari komponen molekul yang terdapat pada permukaan sel presentan pada saat proses respon imun terjadi. Komponen molekul tersebut disebut MHC (Major Hystocompatibility Complex pada tikus diberi kode H-2 atau HLA (Human Leucocyt Antifen pada manusia. Pengkode genetik MHC pada tikus terletak pada kromosom 17, pada manusia terletak pada kromosom 6. MHC tersebar pada hampir semua permukaan sel tubuh. Pada tikus MHC kelas 1 terdapat sel-sel yang berinti, platelet dan sel darah merah. Pada manusia terdapat pada sel-sel yang berinti dan platelet. MHC pada tikus terutama terdapat pada sel B, makrofag, sel epithel, sel limfosit T. Pada manusia terutama terdapat pada sel B dan makrofag. Fungsi MHC kelas I diantaranya adalah reaksi penolakan jaringan, stimulasi produksi antibodi, proses interaksi antigen dengan sel T. MHC kelas II diperlukan dalam proses presentasi antigen. Pengetahuan tentang MHC/HLA seseorang, dapat dipakai untuk memperkirakan risiko seseorang mendapatkan penyakit yang bersifat herediter atau kelainan imunologik. Dengan mengetahui bahwa MHC/HLA hanya dapat mengikat peptida, hal ini dapat dimanfaatkan untuk pencegahan reaksi alergi.

  13. Self-cleaning Foliar Surfaces Characterization using RIMAPS Technique and Variogram Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Along the last ten years many important studies about characterization of self-cleaning foliar surfaces have been done and focused new interest on this kind of surfaces.These studies were possible due to the development of a novel preparation technique for this biological material that let us observe the delicate structures of a foliar surface under scanning electron microscope (S.E.M.).This technique consists of replacing the natural water of the specimen by glycerol. Digital S.E.M. images from both self-cleaning and non-self-cleaning foliar surfaces were obtained and analyzed using RIMAPS technique and Variograms method. Our results revealed the existence of a common and exclusive geometrical pattern that is found in species which present self-cleaning foliar surfaces.This pattern combines at least nine different directions.The results from the Variograms method showed that the stomata play a key role in the determination of foliar surface roughness. In addition, spectra from RIMAPS technique constitute a fingerprint of a foliar surface so they can be used to find evolutionary relationships among species.Further studies will provide more detailed information to fully elucidate the self-cleaning pattern, so it might be possible to reproduce it on an artificial surface and make it self-cleaning

  14. Improved Resin–Zirconia Bonding by Room Temperature Hydrofluoric Acid Etching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mun-Hwan Lee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This in vitro study was conducted to evaluate the shear bond strength of “non-self-adhesive” resin to dental zirconia etched with hydrofluoric acid (HF at room temperature and to compare it to that of air-abraded zirconia. Sintered zirconia plates were air-abraded (control or etched with 10%, 20%, or 30% HF for either 5 or 30 min. After cleaning, the surfaces were characterized using various analytical techniques. Three resin cylinders (Duo-Link were bonded to each treated plate. All bonded specimens were stored in water at 37 °C for 24 h, and then half of them were additionally thermocycled 5000 times prior to the shear bond-strength tests (n = 12. The formation of micro- and nano-porosities on the etched surfaces increased with increasing concentration and application time of the HF solution. The surface wettability of zirconia also increased with increasing surface roughness. Higher concentrations and longer application times of the HF solution produced higher bond-strength values. Infiltration of the resin into the micro- and nano-porosities was observed by scanning electron microscopy. This in vitro study suggests that HF slowly etches zirconia ceramic surfaces at room temperature, thereby improving the resin–zirconia bond strength by the formation of retentive sites.

  15. RESEARCH ON DETERMINATION OF CIRCULATING IMMUNE COMPLEXES IN THE BLOOD OF THE HIGH ECONOMIC VALUE FISH FARMED SPECIES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. PATRICHE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The range of paraclinical investigations applied in ichthyopathology aims at assessing those parameters that can define the pathological modifications and the physiological condition of the fish material, as well as the defense reaction of the unhealthy body. Modification in value of these indicators points out some metabolic perturbations in fish body. Fish have an immunitary system whose complexity and efficiency are directly proportional to their evolution level. That is why, in comparison to the superior vertebrates, the immune reactions of fish body to an antigenic attack are lower, the immune response is weaker and slower, and the quantity of antibodies to form is low. Under the influence of a specific antigen, the immunoformating cells synthetize the corresponding antibodies, determining occurrence of a specific antigen-antibody reaction, resulting in occurrence of the Ag-Ac immune complexes having a role in annihilating and destroying the respective antigens. Formation of immune complexes (CI is a normal physiological process within the humoral immunity of bodies, representing one of the methods to remove from the body the substances identified as non-self.

  16. Revisiting Waiting Times in DNA evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Nicodeme, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Transcription factors are short stretches of DNA (or $k$-mers) mainly located in promoters sequences that enhance or repress gene expression. With respect to an initial distribution of letters on the DNA alphabet, Behrens and Vingron consider a random sequence of length $n$ that does not contain a given $k$-mer or word of size $k$. Under an evolution model of the DNA, they compute the probability $\\mathfrak{p}_n$ that this $k$-mer appears after a unit time of 20 years. They prove that the waiting time for the first apparition of the $k$-mer is well approximated by $T_n=1/\\mathfrak{p}_n$. Their work relies on the simplifying assumption that the $k$-mer is not self-overlapping. They observe in particular that the waiting time is mostly driven by the initial distribution of letters. Behrens et al. use an approach by automata that relaxes the assumption related to words overlaps. Their numerical evaluations confirms the validity of Behrens and Vingron approach for non self-overlapping words, but provides up to 44...

  17. Three-Dimensional Simulations of Parker, Magneto-Jeans, and Swing Instabilities in Shearing Galactic Gas Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, W T; Stone, J M; Kim, Woong-Tae; Ostriker, Eve C.; Stone, James M.

    2002-01-01

    We use 3D MHD simulations to investigate nonlinear development of the Parker, magneto-Jeans (MJI), and swing mechanisms in galactic disks. The model disks are local, isothermal, and begin from a vertically-stratified equilibrium. We first construct axisymmetric equilibria and examine their stability. Finite disk thickness reduces the critical Toomre Q parameter below unity; we find Q_c \\~ 0.75, 0.72, and 0.57 for \\beta=\\infty, 10, and 1 cases, respectively. We then pursue fully 3D models. In non-self-gravitating cases, the peak density enhancement from the `pure' Parker instability is less a factor of two. The dominant growing modes have radial wavelengths comparable to the disk scale height H, much shorter than the azimuthal wavelength (~10-20 H). Shearing disks, being more favorable to midplane-symmetric modes, have somewhat different late-time magnetic field profiles from nonshearing disks, but otherwise saturated states are similar. Late-time velocity fluctuations at 10% of the sound speed persist, but no...

  18. Genetic and logic networks with the signal-inhibitor-activator structure are dynamically robust

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Fangting; TAN Ning

    2006-01-01

    The proteins, DNA and RNA interaction networks govern various biological functions in living cells, these networks should be dynamically robust in the intracellular and environmental fluctuations. Here, we use Boolean network to study the robust structure of both genetic and logic networks. First, SOS network in bacteria E. coli, which regulates cell survival and repair after DNA damage, is shown to be dynamically robust. Comparing with cell cycle network in budding yeast and flagella network in E. coli, we find the signal-inhibitor-activator (SIA) structure in transcription regulatory networks. Second, under the dynamical rule that inhibition is much stronger than activation, we have searched 3-node non-self-loop logical networks that are dynamically robust, and that if the attractive basin of a final attractor is as large as seven, and the final attractor has only one active node, then the active node acts as inhibitor, and the SIA and signal-inhibitor (SI) structures are fundamental architectures of robust networks. SIA and SI networks with dynamic robustness against environment uncertainties may be selected and maintained over the course of evolution, rather than blind trial-error testing and be ing an accidental consequence of particular evolutionary history. SIA network can perform a more complex process than SI network, andSIA might be used to design robust artificial genetic network. Our results provide dynamical support for why the inhibitors and SIA/SI structures are frequently employed in cellular regulatory networks.

  19. T regulatory cells in allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, M; Quecchia, C; Cavallucci, E; Di Giampaolo, L; Schiavone, C; Petrarca, C; Di Gioacchino, M

    2011-01-01

    The progressive understanding of the nature and mechanisms of T regulatory (Treg) cells in the last decade has changed the concept of immune tolerance, that is no longer considered as a mere lack of immune reactivity but as a finely regulated process that requires specific activity of cells, adhesion and secreted molecules. Tregs play a key role in maintenance of self-tolerance and induction of tolerance against ubiquitous innocuous non-self antigens, so preventing the onset of autoimmune diseases and allergies. This review will focus on the Treg response in allergy that is characterized by a down-regulation of allergen specific T cell proliferation and inhibition of both Th1 and Th2 cytokines production. Hence, Treg cells suppress allergen-specific Th1 and Th2 cell responses playing an important role in the physiological immune response to allergens. Further, Treg cells are able to suppress IgE production by B lymphocytes and directly or indirectly inhibit the activity of allergic inflammation effector cells, namely eosinophils, basophils and mastcells. Finally, increasing evidence suggests that Treg cells are also implicated in chronicity development of inflammatory diseases. This appears to happen through a fine interaction they entertain with resident tissue cells and has been particularly highlighted in the study of airways remodeling in asthma. The understanding of the mechanisms underlying allergen tolerance has brought new interest in the development of new allergy treatment, able to target Treg cells, both in allergy prevention and in the therapy of established allergy. PMID:21329567

  20. Warping and tearing of misaligned circumbinary disks around eccentric SMBH binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Hayasaki, Kimitake; Okazaki, Atsuo T; Jung, Taehyun; Zhao, Guangyao; Naito, Tsuguya

    2015-01-01

    We study the warping and tearing of a geometrically thin, non-self-gravitating disk surrounding binary supermassive black holes on an eccentric orbit. The circumbinary disk is significantly misaligned with the binary orbital plane, and is subject to the time-dependent tidal torques. In principle, such a disk is warped and precesses, and is torn into mutually misaligned rings in the region, where the tidal precession torques are stronger than the local viscous torques. We derive the tidal-warp and tearing radii of the misaligned circumbinary disks around eccentric SMBH binaries. We find that in disks with the viscosity parameter, alpha, larger than a critical value depending on the disk aspect ratio, the disk warping appears outside the tearing radius. This condition is expressed as alpha > sqrt{H/3r} for H/r ~<0.1, where H is the disk scale height. If alpha < sqrt{H/3r}, only the disk tearing occurs because the tidal warp radius is inside the tearing radius, where most of disk material is likely to rapi...

  1. Interbacterial signaling via Burkholderia contact-dependent growth inhibition system proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Erin C; Perault, Andrew I; Marlatt, Sara A; Cotter, Peggy A

    2016-07-19

    In prokaryotes and eukaryotes, cell-cell communication and recognition of self are critical to coordinate multicellular functions. Although kin and kind discrimination are increasingly appreciated to shape naturally occurring microbe populations, the underlying mechanisms that govern these interbacterial interactions are insufficiently understood. Here, we identify a mechanism of interbacterial signal transduction that is mediated by contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI) system proteins. CDI systems have been characterized by their ability to deliver a polymorphic protein toxin into the cytoplasm of a neighboring bacterium, resulting in growth inhibition or death unless the recipient bacterium produces a corresponding immunity protein. Using the model organism Burkholderia thailandensis, we show that delivery of a catalytically active CDI system toxin to immune (self) bacteria results in gene expression and phenotypic changes within the recipient cells. Termed contact-dependent signaling (CDS), this response promotes biofilm formation and other community-associated behaviors. Engineered strains that are isogenic with B. thailandensis, except the DNA region encoding the toxin and immunity proteins, did not display CDS, whereas a strain of Burkholderia dolosa producing a nearly identical toxin-immunity pair induced signaling in B. thailandensis Our data indicate that bcpAIOB loci confer dual benefits; they direct antagonism toward non-self bacteria and promote cooperation between self bacteria, with self being defined by the bcpAIOB allele and not by genealogic relatedness. PMID:27335458

  2. Petunia Germinating Pollen S/D3 Interacts with S-RNases in Petunia hybrida Vilm.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Xia Guo; Yan-Sheng Zhang; Yong-Biao Xue

    2006-01-01

    Self-incompatibility (SI) is a genetic mechanism of self/non-self pollen recognition to prevent self-fertilization in many flowering plants and, in most cases, this is controlled by a multi-allelic S-locus. S-RNase and S-locus F box (SLF) proteins have been shown to be the female and male determinants of gametophytic selfincompatibility (GSI), respectively, in the Solanaceae, Scrophulariaceae and Rosaceae. Nevertheless, it is thought that additional factors are required for the SI response. Herein, we constructed a mature anther cDNA library from a self-incompatible Petunia hybrida Vilm. line of the S3S3 haplotype. Using AhS2-RNase from Antirrhinun hispanicum as a bait for yeast two-hybrid screening, we found that petunia germinating pollen (PGP) S/D3 was capable of interacting physically with the bait. However, the interaction lacked haplotype specificity. The PGPS/D3 gene is a single copy gene that is expressed in tissues such as the style, ovary,pollen, and leaf. The PGPS/D3::GFP (green fluorescence protein) construct was detected in both the membrane and cytoplasm. The implications of these findings in the operation of S-RNase-based SI are discussed.

  3. The danger model approach to the pathogenesis of the rheumatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Tena, César; González-Chávez, Susana Aideé

    2015-01-01

    The danger model was proposed by Polly Matzinger as complement to the traditional self-non-self- (SNS-) model to explain the immunoreactivity. The danger model proposes a central role of the tissular cells' discomfort as an element to prime the immune response processes in opposition to the traditional SNS-model where foreignness is a prerequisite. However recent insights in the proteomics of diverse tissular cells have revealed that under stressful conditions they have a significant potential to initiate, coordinate, and perpetuate autoimmune processes, in many cases, ruling over the adaptive immune response cells; this ruling potential can also be confirmed by observations in several genetically manipulated animal models. Here, we review the pathogenesis of rheumatic diseases such as systemic lupus erythematous, rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthritis including ankylosing spondylitis, psoriasis, and Crohn's disease and provide realistic approaches based on the logic of the danger model. We assume that tissular dysfunction is a prerequisite for chronic autoimmunity and propose two genetically conferred hypothetical roles for the tissular cells causing the disease: (A) the Impaired cell and (B) the paranoid cell. Both roles are not mutually exclusive. Some examples in human disease and in animal models are provided based on current evidence.

  4. Immature, Semi-mature and Fully mature Dendritic Cells: Towards a DC-cancer cells interface that augments anticancer immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Maria Dudek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs are the sentinel antigen-presenting cells of the immune system; such that their productive interface with the dying cancer cells is crucial for proper communication of the non-self status of cancer cells to the adaptive immune system. Efficiency and the ultimate success of such a communication hinges upon the maturation status of the DCs, attained following their interaction with cancer cells. Immature DCs facilitate tolerance towards cancer cells (observed for many apoptotic inducers while fully mature DCs can strongly promote anticancer immunity if they secrete the correct combinations of cytokines (observed when DCs interact with cancer cells undergoing immunogenic cell death (ICD. However, an intermediate population of DC maturation, called semi-mature DCs exists, which can potentiate either tolerogenicity or pro-tumourigenic responses (as happens in the case of certain chemotherapeutics and agents exerting ambivalent immune reactions. Specific combinations of DC phenotypic markers, DC-derived cytokines/chemokines, dying cancer cell-derived danger signals and other less characterized entities (e.g. exosomes can define the nature and evolution of the DC maturation state. In the present review, we discuss these different maturation states of DCs, how they might be attained and which anticancer agents or cell death modalities (e.g. tolerogenic cell death vs. ICD may regulate these states.

  5. Modeling of automotive drum brakes for squeal and parameter sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinchun; Krousgrill, Charles M.; Bajaj, Anil K.

    2006-01-01

    Many fundamental studies have been conducted to explain the occurrence of squeal in disc and drum brake systems. The elimination of brake squeal, however, still remains a challenging area of research. Here, a numerical modeling approach is developed for investigating the onset of squeal in a drum brake system. The brake system model is based on the modal information extracted from finite element models for individual brake components. The component models of drum and shoes are coupled by the shoe lining material which is modeled as springs located at the centroids of discretized drum and shoe interface elements. The developed multi degree of freedom coupled brake system model is a linear non-self-adjoint system. Its vibrational characteristics are determined by a complex eigenvalue analysis. The study shows that both the frequency separation between two system modes due to static coupling and their associated mode shapes play an important role in mode merging. Mode merging and veering are identified as two important features of modes exhibiting strong interactions, and those modes are likely candidates that lead to coupled-mode instability. Techniques are developed for a parameter sensitivity analysis with respect to lining stiffness and the stiffness of the brake actuation system. The influence of lining friction coefficient on the propensity to squeal is also discussed.

  6. Alpharetroviral self-inactivating vectors produced by a superinfection-resistant stable packaging cell line allow genetic modification of primary human T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labenski, Verena; Suerth, Julia D; Barczak, Elke; Heckl, Dirk; Levy, Camille; Bernadin, Ornellie; Charpentier, Emmanuelle; Williams, David A; Fehse, Boris; Verhoeyen, Els; Schambach, Axel

    2016-08-01

    Primary human T lymphocytes represent an important cell population for adoptive immunotherapies, including chimeric-antigen and T-cell receptor applications, as they have the capability to eliminate non-self, virus-infected and tumor cells. Given the increasing numbers of clinical immunotherapy applications, the development of an optimal vector platform for genetic T lymphocyte engineering, which allows cost-effective high-quality vector productions, remains a critical goal. Alpharetroviral self-inactivating vectors (ARV) have several advantages compared to other vector platforms, including a more random genomic integration pattern and reduced likelihood for inducing aberrant splicing of integrated proviruses. We developed an ARV platform for the transduction of primary human T lymphocytes. We demonstrated functional transgene transfer using the clinically relevant herpes-simplex-virus thymidine kinase variant TK.007. Proof-of-concept of alpharetroviral-mediated T-lymphocyte engineering was shown in vitro and in a humanized transplantation model in vivo. Furthermore, we established a stable, human alpharetroviral packaging cell line in which we deleted the entry receptor (SLC1A5) for RD114/TR-pseudotyped ARVs to prevent superinfection and enhance genomic integrity of the packaging cell line and viral particles. We showed that superinfection can be entirely prevented, while maintaining high recombinant virus titers. Taken together, this resulted in an improved production platform representing an economic strategy for translating the promising features of ARVs for therapeutic T-lymphocyte engineering. PMID:27162078

  7. Research on "Webpage Design" Teaching Assistant System Based on Web%基于Web《网页设计》教学辅助系统的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金恒

    2012-01-01

    研究网上教学辅助系统的开发方法及实现技术。以《网页设计》课程为例,本系统主要解决学生在平时学习过程中得不到自我测试、作业管理混乱、教师收集和整理作业不方便,学生的作品得不到展示以及师生沟通处于单一和被动状态等问题。在研究网上教学辅助系统过程中所采用的研究方法、编程技巧等同样适用于其它课程的网上教学。%This paper studies on the development method and implementation technology of online teaching assistant system. Taking "webpapg design" as an example, this system mainly solves the problems such as non self-test in study,confusion in operations management, inconvenient for teachers collecting and collating job, student work can' t be showed and teacher-student communication in the single and passive state. The development method and programming techniques used in this system can apply to online learning of other courses.

  8. Critical role of an antiviral stress granule containing RIG-I and PKR in viral detection and innate immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Onomoto

    Full Text Available Retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs function as cytoplasmic sensors for viral RNA to initiate antiviral responses including type I interferon (IFN production. It has been unclear how RIG-I encounters and senses viral RNA. To address this issue, we examined intracellular localization of RIG-I in response to viral infection using newly generated anti-RIG-I antibody. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that RLRs localized in virus-induced granules containing stress granule (SG markers together with viral RNA and antiviral proteins. Because of similarity in morphology and components, we termed these aggregates antiviral stress granules (avSGs. Influenza A virus (IAV deficient in non-structural protein 1 (NS1 efficiently generated avSGs as well as IFN, however IAV encoding NS1 produced little. Inhibition of avSGs formation by removal of either the SG component or double-stranded RNA (dsRNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR resulted in diminished IFN production and concomitant enhancement of viral replication. Furthermore, we observed that transfection of dsRNA resulted in IFN production in an avSGs-dependent manner. These results strongly suggest that the avSG is the locus for non-self RNA sensing and the orchestration of multiple proteins is critical in the triggering of antiviral responses.

  9. The 1.55 A resolution structure of Nicotiana alata S(F11)-RNase associated with gametophytic self-incompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, K; Norioka, S; Yamamoto, M; Kumasaka, T; Yamashita, E; Newbigin, E; Clarke, A E; Sakiyama, F; Sato, M

    2001-11-16

    The crystal structure of Nicotiana alata (ornamental tobacco) S(F11)-RNase, an S-allelic glycoprotein associated with gametophytic self-incompatibility, was determined by X-ray diffraction at 1.55 A resolution. The protein has a tertiary structure typical of members of the RNase T(2) family as it consists of a variant of the (alpha+beta) fold and has eight helices and seven strands. A heptasaccharide moiety is also present, and amino acid residues that serve as the catalytic acid and base can be assigned to His32 and His91, respectively. Two "hypervariable" regions, known as HVa and HVb, are the proposed sites of S-allele discrimination during the self-incompatibility reaction, and in the S(F11)-RNase these are well separated from the active site. HVa and HVb are composed of a long, positively charged loop followed by a part of an alpha-helix and short, negatively charged alpha-helix, respectively. The S(F11)-RNase structure shows both regions are readily accessible to the solvent and hence could participate in the process of self/non-self discrimination between the S-RNase and an unknown pollen S-gene product(s) upon pollination. PMID:11724536

  10. Investigating and correcting plasma DNA sequencing coverage bias to enhance aneuploidy discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dineika Chandrananda

    Full Text Available Pregnant women carry a mixture of cell-free DNA fragments from self and fetus (non-self in their circulation. In recent years multiple independent studies have demonstrated the ability to detect fetal trisomies such as trisomy 21, the cause of Down syndrome, by Next-Generation Sequencing of maternal plasma. The current clinical tests based on this approach show very high sensitivity and specificity, although as yet they have not become the standard diagnostic test. Here we describe improvements to the analysis of the sequencing data by reducing GC bias and better handling of the genomic repeats. We show substantial improvements in the sensitivity of the standard trisomy 21 statistical tests, which we measure by artificially reducing read coverage. We also explore the bias stemming from the natural cleavage of plasma DNA by examining DNA motifs and position specific base distributions. We propose a model to correct this fragmentation bias and observe that incorporating this bias does not lead to any further improvements in the detection of fetal trisomy. The improved bias corrections that we demonstrate in this work can be readily adopted into existing fetal trisomy detection protocols and should also lead to improvements in sub-chromosomal copy number variation detection.

  11. MHD Disk Winds and Planetary Nebulae I. Existence and Applicability

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, A; Blackman, E G

    2002-01-01

    Winds from accretion disks have been proposed as the driving source for precessing jets and extreme bipolar morphologies in Planetary Nebulae (PNe) and proto-PNe (pPNe). In this paper we address the applicability of self-consistent MHD disk wind models to PNe and pPNe. We first review the basic features of magneto-centrifugal launching disk wind models adapting results from previously published non-self similar calculations of Peltier & Pudritz (1992). We then estimate the relevant conditions whichshould occur in PNe and pPNe accretion disks that form via binary interactions. Finally, examining conditions on dimensionless parameters needed for magneto-centrifugal disk wind models we show that such winds can recover the observed momentum and energy input rates for PNe and pPNe. High accretion rates are required in thelatter case (M_a approx 10^{-4} \\mdot) and we find that the observed total energy and momentum in pPNe can be recovered with disk wind models using existing disk formation scenarios

  12. On the migration of a system of protoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Kley, W

    1999-01-01

    The evolution of a system consisting of a protoplanetary disc with two embedded Jupiter sized planets is studied numerically. The disc is assumed to be flat and non-self gravitating, which is modeled by the planar (two-dimensional) Navier-Stokes equations. The mutual gravitational interaction of the planets and the star, and the gravitational torques of the disc acting on the planets and the central star are included. The planets have an initial mass of one Jupiter mass $M_{Jup}$ each and the radial distances from the star are one and two semi-major axis of Jupiter, respectively. During the evolution both planets increase their mass due to accretion of gas from the disc; after about 2500 orbital periods of the inner planet it has reached a mass of 2.3 and the outer planet of 3.2~$M_{Jup}$. The net gravitational torques exerted by the disc on the planets result in an inward migration of the outer planet on time-scales comparable to the viscous evolution time of the disc, while the semi-major axis of the inner ...

  13. Expected distributions of root-mean-square positional deviations in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitera, Jed W

    2014-06-19

    The atom positional root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) is a standard tool for comparing the similarity of two molecular structures. It is used to characterize the quality of biomolecular simulations, to cluster conformations, and as a reaction coordinate for conformational changes. This work presents an approximate analytic form for the expected distribution of RMSD values for a protein or polymer fluctuating about a stable native structure. The mean and maximum of the expected distribution are independent of chain length for long chains and linearly proportional to the average atom positional root-mean-square fluctuations (RMSF). To approximate the RMSD distribution for random-coil or unfolded ensembles, numerical distributions of RMSD were generated for ensembles of self-avoiding and non-self-avoiding random walks. In both cases, for all reference structures tested for chains more than three monomers long, the distributions have a maximum distant from the origin with a power-law dependence on chain length. The purely entropic nature of this result implies that care must be taken when interpreting stable high-RMSD regions of the free-energy landscape as "intermediates" or well-defined stable states.

  14. A statistically-selected Chandra sample of 20 galaxy clusters -- II. Gas properties and cool-core/non-cool core bimodality

    CERN Document Server

    Sanderson, Alastair J R; Ponman, Trevor J; ),

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the thermodynamic and chemical structure of the intracluster medium (ICM) across a statistical sample of 20 galaxy clusters analysed with the Chandra X-ray satellite. In particular, we focus on the scaling properties of the gas density, metallicity and entropy and the comparison between clusters with and without cool cores (CCs). We find marked differences between the two categories except for the gas metallicity, which declines strongly with radius for all clusters (Z ~ r^{-0.31}), outside ~0.02 r500. The scaling of gas entropy is non-self-similar and we find clear evidence of bimodality in the distribution of logarithmic slopes of the entropy profiles. With only one exception, the steeper sloped entropy profiles are found in CC clusters whereas the flatter slope population are all non-CC clusters. We explore the role of thermal conduction in stabilizing the ICM and conclude that this mechanism alone is sufficient to balance cooling in non-CC clusters. However, CC clusters appear to form a dis...

  15. Two-Dimensional Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Barred Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Woong-Tae

    2012-01-01

    Barred galaxies are known to possess magnetic fields that may affect the properties of bar substructures such as dust lanes and nuclear rings. We use two-dimensional high-resolution magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations to investigate the effects of magnetic fields on the formation and evolution of such substructures as well as on the mass inflow rates to the galaxy center. The gaseous medium is assumed to be infinitesimally-thin, isothermal, non-self-gravitating, and threaded by initially uniform, azimuthal magnetic fields. We find that there exists an outermost x1-orbit relative to which gaseous responses to an imposed stellar bar potential are completely different between inside and outside. Inside this orbit, gas is shocked into dust lanes and infalls to form a nuclear ring. Magnetic fields are compressed in dust lanes, reducing their peak density. Magnetic stress removes further angular momentum of the gas at the shocks, temporarily causing the dust lanes to bend into an 'L' shape and eventually leading ...

  16. A Young GMC Formed at the Interface of Two Colliding Supershells: Observations Meet Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Dawson, J R; Fukui, Y; Hayakawa, T; Fierlinger, K

    2014-01-01

    Dense, star-forming gas is believed to form at the stagnation points of large-scale ISM flows, but observational examples of this process in action are rare. We here present a giant molecular cloud (GMC) sandwiched between two colliding Milky Way supershells, which we argue shows strong evidence of having formed from material accumulated at the collision zone. Combining 12CO, 13CO and C18O(J=1-0) data with new high-resolution, 3D hydrodynamical simulations of colliding supershells, we discuss the origin and nature of the GMC (G288.5+1.5), favoring a scenario in which the cloud was partially seeded by pre-existing denser material, but assembled into its current form by the action of the shells. This assembly includes the production of some new molecular gas. The GMC is well interpreted as non-self-gravitating, despite its high mass (MH2 ~ 1.7 x 10^5 Msol), and is likely pressure confined by the colliding flows, implying that self-gravity was not a necessary ingredient for its formation. Much of the molecular g...

  17. Innate antiviral immune signaling, viral evasion and modulation by HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Arjun; Gale, Michael

    2014-03-20

    The intracellular innate antiviral response in human cells is an essential component of immunity against virus infection. As obligate intracellular parasites, all viruses must evade the actions of the host cell's innate immune response in order to replicate and persist. Innate immunity is induced when pathogen recognition receptors of the host cell sense viral products including nucleic acid as "non-self". This process induces downstream signaling through adaptor proteins to activate latent transcription factors that drive the expression of genes encoding antiviral and immune modulatory effector proteins that restrict virus replication and regulate adaptive immunity. The interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) are transcription factors that play major roles in innate immunity. In particular, IRF3 is activated in response to infection by a range of viruses including RNA viruses, DNA viruses and retroviruses. Among these viruses, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) remains a major global health problem mediating chronic infection in millions of people wherein recent studies show that viral persistence is linked with the ability of the virus to dysregulate and evade the innate immune response. In this review, we discuss viral pathogen sensing, innate immune signaling pathways and effectors that respond to viral infection, the role of IRF3 in these processes and how it is regulated by pathogenic viruses. We present a contemporary overview of the interplay between HIV-1 and innate immunity, with a focus on understanding how innate immune control impacts infection outcome and disease.

  18. Ready to fire: Secretion in plant immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sup Yun, Hye; Panstruga, Ralph; Schulze-Lefert, Paul; Kwon, Chian

    2008-07-01

    Effective recognition of pathogens and rapid execution of immune responses are essential for the survival of living organisms. Cell-autonomous immune responses of animal and plant cells rely on pattern recognition receptors that can distinguish self from non-self structures and that are able to activate a molecular execution machinery that ultimately terminates most pathogen attacks. Reminiscent of the situation in mammalian T cells, accumulating evidence points to a key role of vesicle trafficking and exocytosis in plant innate immunity. In this context, our recent finding that ternary soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complexes comprising PEN1, SNAP33 and VAMP721/722 function at pathogen entry sites is instrumental in understanding the execution of plant immune responses at the cell periphery. Our study further revealed unexpected overlapping functions of the same SNARE complexes in disease resistance and development. Here, we discuss the potential identity of cargo delivered through the PEN1-SNAP33-VAMP721/722-dependent secretory pathway and the necessity for a tight regulation of SNARE complex formation to avoid unintentional release of toxic load. PMID:19704501

  19. Self-incompatibility systems: barriers to self-fertilization in flowering plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, Anne C; Nasrallah, June B

    2008-01-01

    Flowering plants (angiosperms) are the most prevalent and evolutionarily advanced group of plants. Success of these plants is owed to several unique evolutionary adaptations that aid in reproduction: the flower, the closed carpel, double fertilization, and the ultimate products of fertilization, seeds enclosed in the fruit. Angiosperms exhibit a vast array of reproductive strategies, including both asexual and sexual, the latter of which includes both self-fertilization and cross-fertilization. Asexual reproduction and self-fertilization are important reproductive strategies in a variety of situations, such as when mates are scarce or when the environment remains relatively stable. However, reproductive strategies promoting cross-fertilization are critical to angiosperm success, since they contribute to the creation of genetically diverse populations, which increase the probability that at least one individual in a population will survive given changing environmental conditions. The evolution of several physical and genetic barriers to self-fertilization or fertilization among closely related individuals is thus widespread in angiosperms. A major genetic barrier to self-fertilization is self-incompatibility (SI), which allows female reproductive cells to discriminate between "self" and "non-self" pollen, and specifically reject self pollen. Evidence for the importance of SI in angiosperm evolution lies in the highly diverse set of mechanisms used by various angiosperm families for recognition of self pollen tube development and preventing self-fertilization.

  20. Three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation on gain saturation effect of microchannel plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiangqiang; Yuan, Zheng; Cao, Zhurong; Deng, Bo; Chen, Tao; Deng, Keli

    2016-07-01

    We present here the results of the simulation work, using the three-dimensional particle-in-cell method, on the performance of the lead glass microchannel plate under saturated state. We calculated the electron cascade process with different DC bias voltages under both self-consistent condition and non-self-consistent condition. The comparative results have demonstrated that the strong self-consistent field can suppress the cascade process and make the microchannel plate saturated. The simulation results were also compared to the experimental data and good agreement was obtained. The simulation results also show that the electron multiplication process in the channel is accompanied by the buildup process of positive charges in the channel wall. Though the interactions among the secondary electron cloud in the channel, the positive charges in the channel wall, and the external acceleration field can make the electron-surface collision more frequent, the collision energy will be inevitably reduced, thus the electron gain will also be reduced. PMID:27475552

  1. 1991 Annual report on scientific programs: A broad research program on the sciences of complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    1991 was continued rapid growth for the Santa Fe Institute (SFI) as it broadened its interdisciplinary research into the organization, evolution and operation of complex systems and sought deeply the principles underlying their dynamic behavior. Research on complex systems--the focus of work at SFI--involves an extraordinary range of topics normally studied in seemingly disparate fields. Natural systems displaying complex behavior range upwards from proteins and DNA through cells and evolutionary systems to human societies. Research models exhibiting complexity include nonlinear equations, spin glasses, cellular automata, genetic algorithms, classifier systems, and an array of other computational models. Some of the major questions facing complex systems researchers are: (1) explaining how complexity arises from the nonlinear interaction of simples components, (2) describing the mechanisms underlying high-level aggregate behavior of complex systems (such as the overt behavior of an organism, the flow of energy in an ecology, the GNP of an economy), and (3) creating a theoretical framework to enable predictions about the likely behavior of such systems in various conditions. The importance of understanding such systems in enormous: many of the most serious challenges facing humanity--e.g., environmental sustainability, economic stability, the control of disease--as well as many of the hardest scientific questions--e.g., protein folding, the distinction between self and non-self in the immune system, the nature of intelligence, the origin of life--require deep understanding of complex systems.

  2. 1991 Annual report on scientific programs: A broad research program on the sciences of complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    1991 was continued rapid growth for the Santa Fe Institute (SFI) as it broadened its interdisciplinary research into the organization, evolution and operation of complex systems and sought deeply the principles underlying their dynamic behavior. Research on complex systems--the focus of work at SFI--involves an extraordinary range of topics normally studied in seemingly disparate fields. Natural systems displaying complex behavior range upwards from proteins and DNA through cells and evolutionary systems to human societies. Research models exhibiting complexity include nonlinear equations, spin glasses, cellular automata, genetic algorithms, classifier systems, and an array of other computational models. Some of the major questions facing complex systems researchers are: (1) explaining how complexity arises from the nonlinear interaction of simples components, (2) describing the mechanisms underlying high-level aggregate behavior of complex systems (such as the overt behavior of an organism, the flow of energy in an ecology, the GNP of an economy), and (3) creating a theoretical framework to enable predictions about the likely behavior of such systems in various conditions. The importance of understanding such systems in enormous: many of the most serious challenges facing humanity--e.g., environmental sustainability, economic stability, the control of disease--as well as many of the hardest scientific questions--e.g., protein folding, the distinction between self and non-self in the immune system, the nature of intelligence, the origin of life--require deep understanding of complex systems.

  3. Aging in Italy: The Need for New Welfare Strategies in an Old Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzola, Paolo; Rimoldi, Stefania Maria Lorenza; Rossi, Paolo; Noale, Marianna; Rea, Federico; Facchini, Carla; Maggi, Stefania; Corrao, Giovanni; Annoni, Giorgio

    2016-06-01

    Italy, a Southern European country with 60.8 million inhabitants, has the largest proportion of elderly citizens (aged ≥65) in Europe of 21.4%. The aging of the population is due to a number of reasons, such as baby boomers growing old, an increase in longevity, and low birth rate. Although international migration has increased in recent years, the addition of a foreign segment of the population has neither compensated for nor significantly curtailed the aging phenomenon. The impact of aging on the economic sustainability concerns the progressive reduction of the workforce, high incidence of pension spending in the overall resources allocated to welfare, recent reform of the pension system, and the growing issue of "non-self-sufficiency" in the elderly. Despite limited financial measures dedicated to research, Italy is conducting important studies on aging, both at the national and international level. Physicians and researchers in the field of geriatrics and gerontology are not only promoting quality of life in the elderly, and healthy-active aging, but also contributing to economic stability and social organization. Finally, nutritional and lifestyle habits-and their role in preventing chronic diseases-are the focus of the current international event EXPO 2015, with many sections dedicated to the elderly. PMID:26553737

  4. Killing–Yano tensor and supersymmetry of the self-dual Plebański–Demiański solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozawa, Masato; Houri, Tsuyoshi

    2016-06-01

    We explore various aspects of the self-dual Plebański–Demiański (PD) family in the Euclidean Einstein–Maxwell-Λ system. The Killing–Yano tensor which was recently found by Yasui and one of the present authors allows us to prove that the self-dual PD metric can be brought into the self-dual Carter metric by an orientation-reversing coordinate transformation. We show that the self-dual PD solution admits two independent Killing spinors in the framework of N = 2 minimal gauged supergravity, whereas the non-self-dual solution admits only a single Killing spinor. This can be demonstrated by casting the self-dual PD metric into two distinct Przanowski–Tod forms. As a by-product, a new example of the three-dimensional Einstein–Weyl space is presented. We also prove that the self-dual PD metric falls into two different Calderbank–Pedersen families, which are determined by a single function subjected to a linear equation on the two-dimensional hyperbolic space. Furthermore, we consider the hyper-Kähler case for which the metric falls into the Gibbons–Hawking class. We find that the condition for the nonexistence of the Dirac–Misner string enforces the solution with a nonvanishing acceleration parameter to the Eguchi–Hanson space.

  5. Killing-Yano tensor and supersymmetry of the self-dual Plebanski-Demianski solution

    CERN Document Server

    Nozawa, Masato

    2015-01-01

    We explore various aspects of the self-dual Pleba\\'nski-Demia\\'nski family in the Euclidean Einstein-Maxwell-$\\Lambda$ system. The Killing-Yano tensor which was recently found by Yasui and one of the present authors allows us to prove that the self-dual Pleba\\'nski-Demia\\'nski metric can be brought into the self-dual Carter metric by an orientation-reversing coordinate transformation. We show that the self-dual Pleba\\'nski-Demia\\'nski solution admits two independent Killing spinors in the framework of $N=2$ minimal gauged supergravity, whereas the non-self-dual solution admits only a single Killing spinor. This can be demonstrated by casting the self-dual Pleba\\'nski-Demia\\'nski metric into two distinct Przanowski-Tod forms. As a by-product, a new example of the three-dimensional Einstein-Weyl space is presented. We also prove that the self-dual Pleba\\'nski-Demia\\'nski metric falls into two different Calderbank-Pedersen family, which is determined by a single function subjected to the linear equation on the t...

  6. Simultaneous generation of quasi-monoenergetic electron and betatron X-rays from nitrogen gas via ionization injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upon the interaction of 60 TW Ti: sapphire laser pulses with 4 mm long supersonic nitrogen gas jet, a directional x-ray emission was generated along with the generation of stable quasi-monoenergetic electron beams having a peak energy of 130 MeV and a relative energy spread of ∼ 20%. The betatron x-ray emission had a small divergence of 7.5 mrad and a critical energy of 4 keV. The laser wakefield acceleration process was stimulated in a background plasma density of merely 5.4 × 1017 cm−3 utilizing ionization injection. The non-self-focusing and stable propagation of the laser pulse in the pure nitrogen gaseous plasma should be responsible for the simultaneous generation of the high-quality X-ray and electron beams. Those ultra-short and naturally-synchronized beams could be applicable to ultrafast pump-probe experiments

  7. The Infinite Square Well with a Point Interaction: A Discussion on the Different Parametrizations

    CERN Document Server

    Gadella, Manuel; González-Martín, Sergio; Maldonado-Villamizar, Félix H

    2015-01-01

    The construction of Dirac delta type potentials has been achieved with the use of the theory of self adjoint extensions of non-self adjoint formally Hermitian (symmetric) operators. The application of this formalism to investigate the possible self adjoint extensions of the one dimensional kinematic operator $K=-d^2/dx^2$ on the infinite square well potential is quite illustrative and has been given elsewhere. This requires the definition and use of four independent real parameters, which relate the boundary values of the wave functions at the walls. By means of a different approach, that fixes matching conditions at the origin for the wave functions, it is possible to define a perturbation of the type $a\\delta(x)+b\\delta'(x)$, thus depending on two parameters, on the infinite square well. The objective of this paper is to investigate whether these two approaches are compatible in the sense that perturbations like $a\\delta(x)+b\\delta'(x)$ can be fixed and determined using the first approach.

  8. Effect of thermionic cathode heating current self-magnetic field on gaseous plasma generator characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopatin, I. V., E-mail: lopatin@opee.hcei.tsc.ru; Akhmadeev, Yu. H.; Koval, N. N. [Institute of High Current Electronics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 2/3 Akademichesky Avenue, 634055 Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-15

    The performance capabilities of the PINK, a plasma generator with a thermionic cathode mounted in the cavity of a hollow cathode, depending for its operation on a non-self-sustained low-pressure gas discharge have been investigated. It has been shown that when a single-filament tungsten cathode 2 mm in diameter is used and the peak filament current is equal to or higher than 100 A, the self-magnetic field of the filament current significantly affects the discharge current and voltage waveforms. This effect is due to changes in the time and space distributions of the emission current density from the hot cathode. When the electron mean free path is close to the characteristic dimensions of the thermionic cathode, the synthesized plasma density distribution is nonuniform and the cathode is etched nonuniformly. The cathode lifetime in this case is 8–12 h. Using a cathode consisting of several parallel-connected tungsten filaments ∼0.8 mm in diameter moderates the effect of the self-magnetic field of the filament current and nearly doubles the cathode lifetime. The use of this type of cathode together with a discharge igniting electrode reduces the minimum operating pressure in the plasma generator to about one third of that required for the generator operation with a single-filament cathode (to 0.04 Pa)

  9. The hemocytes of Polyandrocarpa mysakiensis: morphology and immune-related activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Ballarin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study of the hemocytes of developing buds of the compound ascidian Polyandrocarpa misakiensis was carried out at the light microscope level for a better understanding of their biological role. Similarly to other ascidians, P. misakiensis immunocytes are represented by phagocytes and morula cells. Phagocytes include hyaline amoebocytes and round, giant phagocytes, the former the probable precursors of the latter. Hyaline amoebocytes showed high macropinocytotic activity in the presence of bacteria, whereas yeast cells were ingested by phagocytosis. Morula cells contain the enzyme phenoloxidase inside their vacuoles, probably stored as pro-enzyme, which is released upon the recognition of non-self. Together with macrogranular leukocytes, morula cells were the most abundant hemocyte-types which stresses the importance of these cells in Polyandrocarpa biology. Macrogranular leukocytes are frequently found inside the vacuoles of phagocytes and were recognized by a polyclonal antibody raised against an opsonin purified from the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri, which suggests that a similar lectin can be involved in the interaction between these cells and phagocytes.

  10. Spiral-driven accretion in protoplanetary discs - II Self-similar solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Hennebelle, Patrick; Fromang, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    Accretion discs are ubiquitous in the universe and it is a crucial issue to understand how angular momentum and mass are being radially transported in these objects. Here, we study the role played by non-linear spiral patterns within hydrodynamical and non self-gravitating accretion disc assuming that external disturbances such as infall onto the disc may trigger them. To do so, we computed self-similar solutions that describe discs in which a spiral wave propagates. Such solutions present both shocks and critical sonic points that we carefully analyze. For all allowed temperatures and for several spiral shocks, we calculated the wave structure. In particular we inferred the angle of the spiral patern, the stress it exerts on the disc as well as the associated flux of mass and angular momentum as a function of temperature. We quantified the rate of angular momentum transport by means of the dimensionless $\\alpha$ parameter. For the thickest disc we considered (corresponding to $h/r$ values of about 1/3), we f...

  11. Mode-Locked CO Laser for Isotope Separation of Uranium Employing Condensation Repression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Y. Baranov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, we have suggested a technical solution of a CO laser facility for industrial separation of uranium used in the production of fuel for nuclear power plants. There has been used a method of laser isotope separation of uranium, employing condensation repression in a free jet. The laser operation with nanosecond pulse irradiation can provide acceptable efficiency in the separating unit and the high effective coefficient of the laser with the wavelength of 5.3 μm. Receiving a uniform RF discharge under medium pressure and high Mach numbers in the gas stream solves the problem of an electron beam and cryogenic cooler of CO lasers. The laser active medium is being cooled while it is expanding in the nozzle; a low-current RF discharge is similar to a non-self-sustained discharge. In the present work, we have developed a calculation model of optimization and have defined the parameters of a mode-locked CO laser with an RF discharge in the supersonic stream. The CO laser average power of 3 kW is sufficient for efficient industrial isotope separation of uranium at one facility.

  12. Edge modes in self-gravitating disc-planet interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Min-Kai

    2011-01-01

    We study the stability of gaps opened by a giant planet in a self-gravitating protoplanetary disc. We find a linear instability associated with both the self-gravity of the disc and local vortensity maxima which coincide with gap edges. For our models, these edge modes develop and extend to twice the orbital radius of a Saturn mass planet in discs with disc-to-star mass ratio >0.06, corresponding to a Toomre Q < 1.5 at the outer disc boundary. Unlike the local vortex-forming instabilities associated with gap edges in weakly or non-self-gravitating low viscosity discs, the edge modes are global and exist only in sufficiently massive discs, but for the typical viscosity values adopted for protoplanetary discs. Analytic modelling and linear calculations show edge modes may be interpreted as a localised disturbance associated with a gap edge inducing activity in the extended disc, through the launching of density waves excited at Lindblad resonances. Nonlinear hydrodynamic simulations are performed to investig...

  13. The Key Question and Nobel Prize in Immunology%免疫学核心问题的探索与诺贝尔奖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗晶; 刘燕明

    2012-01-01

    机体免疫系统如何识别抗原并区分“自我”和“非我”是免疫学的核心问题.在对此问题的明确、研究与破解过程中;许多学者从不同的研究策略入手取得了重大成果;并获得了诺贝尔奖.这表明聚焦核心问题;协调不同的着眼点和研究策略;是我们进一步取得重大进展的关键;对促进免疫学理论的飞跃性发展也会有重要意义.%It is the key question in immunology how can the immune system recognize antigens and identify 'self/non-self in a body. During the process to define, research and solve the key question, a lot of scientists with different research strategies have achieved the great achievements and won their Nobel prizes. It shows that focusing on the key question and coordinating different view points and research strategies are very important for us to get a great achievement and may be of great significance for promoting a leaping development of immunological theories.

  14. Improved metabolic health alters host metabolism in parallel with changes in systemic xeno-metabolites of gut origin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin Campbell

    Full Text Available Novel plasma metabolite patterns reflective of improved metabolic health (insulin sensitivity, fitness, reduced body weight were identified before and after a 14-17 wk weight loss and exercise intervention in sedentary, obese insulin-resistant women. To control for potential confounding effects of diet- or microbiome-derived molecules on the systemic metabolome, sampling was during a tightly-controlled feeding test week paradigm. Pairwise and multivariate analysis revealed intervention- and insulin-sensitivity associated: (1 Changes in plasma xeno-metabolites ("non-self" metabolites of dietary or gut microbial origin following an oral glucose tolerance test (e.g. higher post-OGTT propane-1,2,3-tricarboxylate [tricarballylic acid] or in the overnight-fasted state (e.g., lower γ-tocopherol; (2 Increased indices of saturated very long chain fatty acid elongation capacity; (3 Increased post-OGTT α-ketoglutaric acid (α-KG, fasting α-KG inversely correlated with Matsuda index, and altered patterns of malate, pyruvate and glutamine hypothesized to stem from improved mitochondrial efficiency and more robust oxidation of glucose. The results support a working model in which improved metabolic health modifies host metabolism in parallel with altering systemic exposure to xeno-metabolites. This highlights that interpretations regarding the origins of peripheral blood or urinary "signatures" of insulin resistance and metabolic health must consider the potentially important contribution of gut-derived metabolites toward the host's metabolome.

  15. Improved metabolic health alters host metabolism in parallel with changes in systemic xeno-metabolites of gut origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Caitlin; Grapov, Dmitry; Fiehn, Oliver; Chandler, Carol J; Burnett, Dustin J; Souza, Elaine C; Casazza, Gretchen A; Gustafson, Mary B; Keim, Nancy L; Newman, John W; Hunter, Gary R; Fernandez, Jose R; Garvey, W Timothy; Harper, Mary-Ellen; Hoppel, Charles L; Meissen, John K; Take, Kohei; Adams, Sean H

    2014-01-01

    Novel plasma metabolite patterns reflective of improved metabolic health (insulin sensitivity, fitness, reduced body weight) were identified before and after a 14-17 wk weight loss and exercise intervention in sedentary, obese insulin-resistant women. To control for potential confounding effects of diet- or microbiome-derived molecules on the systemic metabolome, sampling was during a tightly-controlled feeding test week paradigm. Pairwise and multivariate analysis revealed intervention- and insulin-sensitivity associated: (1) Changes in plasma xeno-metabolites ("non-self" metabolites of dietary or gut microbial origin) following an oral glucose tolerance test (e.g. higher post-OGTT propane-1,2,3-tricarboxylate [tricarballylic acid]) or in the overnight-fasted state (e.g., lower γ-tocopherol); (2) Increased indices of saturated very long chain fatty acid elongation capacity; (3) Increased post-OGTT α-ketoglutaric acid (α-KG), fasting α-KG inversely correlated with Matsuda index, and altered patterns of malate, pyruvate and glutamine hypothesized to stem from improved mitochondrial efficiency and more robust oxidation of glucose. The results support a working model in which improved metabolic health modifies host metabolism in parallel with altering systemic exposure to xeno-metabolites. This highlights that interpretations regarding the origins of peripheral blood or urinary "signatures" of insulin resistance and metabolic health must consider the potentially important contribution of gut-derived metabolites toward the host's metabolome. PMID:24416208

  16. The Effect of Orthopedic Advertising and Self-Promotion on a Naïve Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohney, Stephen; Lee, Daniel J; Elfar, John C

    2016-01-01

    There has been a marked increase in the number of physicians marketing themselves directly to patients and consumers. However, it is unclear how different promotional styles affect patients' perceptions of their physicians. We hypothesized that self-promoting orthopedic surgeons enjoy a more positive impact on nonphysician patients as compared to non-self-promoting surgeons, as well as a corresponding negative impact on their peer-surgeons. Surgeon websites were selected from the 5 largest population centers in the United States. Subjects with varying degrees of familiarity with orthopedic surgery evaluated Internet profiles of surgeons on a forced choice Likert scale to measure the amount of self-promotion. The naïve subjects judged self-promoting surgeons more favorably than the orthopedic surgeons. In contrast, board-certified orthopedic surgeons viewed self-promoting surgeons more negatively than did their nonphysician counterparts. In summary, the present study revealed that the potential for self-promotion to unduly influence potential patients is real and should be a considerable concern to surgeons, patients, and the profession. PMID:27327932

  17. Pandora's Box and Non-Selfdual Topological Excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last few years, we have realized the existence of a new class of topological excitations, which are rather distinct from the platonic world of monopoles, monopole-instantons and instantons. All of the latter arise as solutions of the Prasad-Sommerfield type first order differential (self-duality) equations and have been extensively discussed in the context of confinement and chiral symmetry breaking for the last 30 years. However, new calculable deformations of asymptotically free chiral and vector-like gauge theories give us a new picture of these physical phenomena. Most often, the excitations which lead to confinement are not solutions to PS-type equations, they are non-selfdual and they are often bizarre. They are referred to as magnetic bions, triplets, and quintets, due to their composite nature. Bizarre as they are, combined with large-N volume independence, these novel non-self-dual excitations may also provide hope that at least some non-abelian gauge theories may be solvable.

  18. Combustion Effects in Laser-oxygen Cutting: Basic Assumptions, Numerical Simulation and High Speed Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsev, Alexander V.; Ermolaev, Grigory V.

    Laser-oxygen cutting is very complicated for theoretical description technological process. Iron-oxygen combustion playing a leading role making it highly effective, able to cut thicker plates and, at the same time, producing special types of striations and other defects on the cut surface. In this paper results of numerical simulation based on elementary assumptions on iron-oxygen combustion are verified with high speed visualization of laser-oxygen cutting process. On a base of assumption that iron oxide lost its protective properties after melting simulation of striation formation due cycles of laser induced non self-sustained combustion is proposed. Assumption that reaction limiting factor is oxygen transport from the jet to cutting front allows to calculate reaction intensity by solving Navier - Stokes and diffusion system in gas phase. Influence of oxygen purity and pressure is studied theoretically. The results of numerical simulation are examined with high speed visualization of laser-oxygen cutting of 4-20 mm mild steel plates at cutting conditions close to industrial.

  19. Immunobiology of compound ascidians, with particular reference to Botryllus schlosseri: state of art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Ballarin

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The phylogenetic position of invertebrate chordates closely related to vertebrates explains the increasing interest towards tunicate immunobiology. Most of the tunicates are ascidians which, like all other invertebrates, rely only on innate immunity for their defense. Compound ascidians differ from solitary species for the presence of colony specificity, i.e. the ability for intraspecific non-self recognition. The immunobiology of compound ascidians has been particularly studied in Botryllus schlosseri, which is an emerging model organism for this kind of studies. In B. schlosseri and related species, immunocytes are represented by phagocytes and cytotoxic morula cells, the former able to ingest foreign cell and particles, the latter representing the effectors of the inflammatory reaction which follows the contact between genetically incompatible colonies. Activated phagocytes release lectins with opsonic activity and are involved in the clearance of apoptotic cells during the colonial generational change. Morula cells recognize the presence of foreign molecules as well as allogeneic soluble factors diffusing from an alien colony and as a consequence they: i release cytokines in the medium which have chemotactic activity and activate phagocytes; ii degranulate and release phenoloxidase which induces necrotic cell death by oxidative stress. A better knowledge of Botryllus genome will allow a deeper insight into open problems in immunobiology of compound ascidians.

  20. Dynamic composite elastic medium theory. Part I. One-dimensional media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wave propagation in stratified media may be described by scattering theory, effective medium theory or ray theory, depending upon the frequency range. We present a dynamic composite elastic medium theory which describes wave propagation at all frequencies. In the first part of the series we consider randomly layered one-dimensional media and in the second part media with three-dimensional inclusions. Non-self-consistent and self-consistent methods using the scattering functions of the individual layers are formulated which allow the calculation of phase velocity, attenuation and wave forms. In the low frequency limit only the self-consistent method agrees with the Reuss average and in the high frequency limit it yields the correct ray theory average velocity. The comparison with complete numerical solutions shows that our theory predicts the coherent wave through randomly layered media. Hence, the dynamic composite elastic medium theory can be used to compute frequency dependent elastic properties of randomly layered media without calculating the complete wave propagation solution

  1. Effects of industrialization on working schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogi, K

    1976-12-01

    Recent increase in industrialization has resulted in attention being drawn to diversity of working schedules and their interrelation with content of work. The results of joint research revealed that adaptation to industrial jobs is made difficult because of urban conditions and modern work-control systems, such as workers in flexible-working-time systems who apparently favored regular daily working cycles. Long overtime work in smaller undertakings and the spread of shift systems are two important features of industrial work schedules, each being dominant among skilled and non-skilled jobs. Another important facet is the problem of intra-shift work-rest schedules significant for machine operations and vigilance tasks. It is suggested that phases of work that become intolerable are correlated with unnatural work rhythms. More emphasis should thus be laid on both phase-shifted work and non-self-governing work, the key factor being the relevance of attained data to real work in the whole course of schedules of work and rest.

  2. Space-charge effects in ultra-high current electron bunches generated by laser-plasma accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinner, F. J.; Schroeder, C. B.; Maier, A. R.; Becker, S.; Mikhailova, J. M.

    2009-02-11

    Recent advances in laser-plasma accelerators, including the generation of GeV-scale electron bunches, enable applications such as driving a compact free-electron-laser (FEL). Significant reduction in size of the FEL is facilitated by the expected ultra-high peak beam currents (10-100 kA) generated in laser-plasma accelerators. At low electron energies such peak currents are expected to cause space-charge effects such as bunch expansion and induced energy variations along the bunch, potentially hindering the FEL process. In this paper we discuss a self-consistent approach to modeling space-charge effects for the regime of laser-plasma-accelerated ultra-compact electron bunches at low or moderate energies. Analytical treatments are considered as well as point-to-point particle simulations, including the beam transport from the laser-plasma accelerator through focusing devices and the undulator. In contradiction to non-self-consistent analyses (i.e., neglecting bunch evolution), which predict a linearly growing energy chirp, we have found the energy chirp reaches a maximum and decreases thereafter. The impact of the space-charge induced chirp on FEL performance is discussed and possible solutions are presented.

  3. Artificial Immune Systems Tutorial

    CERN Document Server

    Aickelin, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    The biological immune system is a robust, complex, adaptive system that defends the body from foreign pathogens. It is able to categorize all cells (or molecules) within the body as self-cells or non-self cells. It does this with the help of a distributed task force that has the intelligence to take action from a local and also a global perspective using its network of chemical messengers for communication. There are two major branches of the immune system. The innate immune system is an unchanging mechanism that detects and destroys certain invading organisms, whilst the adaptive immune system responds to previously unknown foreign cells and builds a response to them that can remain in the body over a long period of time. This remarkable information processing biological system has caught the attention of computer science in recent years. A novel computational intelligence technique, inspired by immunology, has emerged, called Artificial Immune Systems. Several concepts from the immune have been extracted an...

  4. Artificial Immune Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Aickelin, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    The biological immune system is a robust, complex, adaptive system that defends the body from foreign pathogens. It is able to categorize all cells (or molecules) within the body as self-cells or non-self cells. It does this with the help of a distributed task force that has the intelligence to take action from a local and also a global perspective using its network of chemical messengers for communication. There are two major branches of the immune system. The innate immune system is an unchanging mechanism that detects and destroys certain invading organisms, whilst the adaptive immune system responds to previously unknown foreign cells and builds a response to them that can remain in the body over a long period of time. This remarkable information processing biological system has caught the attention of computer science in recent years. A novel computational intelligence technique, inspired by immunology, has emerged, called Artificial Immune Systems. Several concepts from the immune have been extracted an...

  5. CMB Constraints On The Thermal WIMP Annihilation Cross Section

    CERN Document Server

    Steigman, Gary

    2015-01-01

    A thermal relic, often referred to as a weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP),is a particle produced during the early evolution of the Universe whose relic abundance (e.g., at present) depends only on its mass and its thermally averaged annihilation cross section (annihilation rate factor) sigma*v_ann. Late time WIMP annihilation has the potential to affect the cosmic microwave background (CMB) power spectrum. Current observational constraints on the absence of such effects provide bounds on the mass and the annihilation cross section of relic particles that may, but need not be dark matter candidates. For a WIMP that is a dark matter candidate, the CMB constraint sets an upper bound to the annihilation cross section, leading to a lower bound to their mass that depends on whether or not the WIMP is its own antiparticle. For a self-conjugate WIMP, m_min = 50f GeV, where f is an electromagnetic energy efficiency factor. For a non self-conjugate WIMP, the minimum mass is a factor of two larger. For a WIMP t...

  6. Anergy in self-directed B lymphocytes from a statistical mechanics perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Agliari, Elena; Del Ferraro, Gino; Guerra, Francesco; Tantari, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    The ability of the adaptive immune system to discriminate between self and non-self mainly stems from the ontogenic clonal-deletion of lymphocytes expressing strong binding affinity with self-peptides. However, some self-directed lymphocytes may evade selection and still be harmless due to a mechanism called clonal anergy. As for B lymphocytes, two major explanations for anergy developed over three decades: according to "Varela theory", it stems from a proper orchestration of the whole B-repertoire, in such a way that self-reactive clones, due to intensive interactions and feed-back from other clones, display more inertia to mount a response. On the other hand, according to the `two-signal model", which has prevailed nowadays, self-reacting cells are not stimulated by helper lymphocytes and the absence of such signaling yields anergy. The first result we present, achieved through disordered statistical mechanics, shows that helper cells do not prompt the activation and proliferation of a certain sub-group of ...

  7. Intercellular Communication in the Adaptive Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Arup

    2004-03-01

    Higher organisms, like humans, have an adaptive immune system that can respond to pathogens that have not been encountered before. T lymphocytes (T cells) are the orchestrators of the adaptive immune response. They interact with cells, called antigen presenting cells (APC), that display molecular signatures of pathogens. Recently, video microscopy experiments have revealed that when T cells detect antigen on APC surfaces, a spatially patterned supramolecular assembly of different types of molecules forms in the junction between cell membranes. This recognition motif is implicated in information transfer between APC and T cells, and so, is labeled the immunological synapse. The observation of synapse formation sparked two broad questions: How does the synapse form? Why does the synapse form? I will describe progress made in answering these fundamental questions in biology by synergistic use of statistical mechanical theory/computation, chemical engineering principles, and genetic and biochemical experiments. The talk will also touch upon mechanisms that may underlie the extreme sensitivity with which T cells discriminate between self and non-self.

  8. 99th Dahlem conference on infection, inflammation and chronic inflammatory disorders: innate immune responses in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze-Lefert, P

    2010-04-01

    Plants rely exclusively upon mechanisms of innate immunity. Current concepts of the plant innate immune system are based largely on two forms of immunity that engage distinct classes of immune receptors. These receptors enable the recognition of non-self structures that are either conserved between members of a microbial class or specific to individual strains of a microbe. One type of receptor comprises membrane-resident pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that detect widely conserved microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) on the cell surface. A second type of mainly intracellular immune sensors, designated resistance (R) proteins, recognizes either the structure or function of strain-specific pathogen effectors that are delivered inside host cells. Phytopathogenic microorganisms have evolved a repertoire of effectors, some of which are delivered into plant cells to sabotage MAMP-triggered immune responses. Plants appear to have also evolved receptors that sense cellular injury by the release and perception of endogenous damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). It is possible that the integration of MAMP and DAMP responses is critical to mount robust MAMP-triggered immunity. This signal integration might help to explain why plants are colonized in nature by remarkably diverse and seemingly asymptomatic microbial communities. PMID:20415853

  9. Specificity for the tumor-associated self-antigen WT1 drives the development of fully functional memory T cells in the absence of vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pospori, Constandina; Xue, Shao-An; Holler, Angelika; Voisine, Cecile; Perro, Mario; King, Judith; Fallah-Arani, Farnaz; Flutter, Barry; Chakraverty, Ronjon; Stauss, Hans J; Morris, Emma C

    2011-06-23

    Recently, vaccines against the Wilms Tumor antigen 1 (WT1) have been tested in cancer patients. However, it is currently not known whether physiologic levels of WT1 expression in stem and progenitor cells of normal tissue result in the deletion or tolerance induction of WT1-specific T cells. Here, we used an human leukocyte antigen-transgenic murine model to study the fate of human leukocyte antigen class-I restricted, WT1-specific T cells in the thymus and in the periphery. Thymocytes expressing a WT1-specific T-cell receptor derived from high avidity human CD8 T cells were positively selected into the single-positive CD8 population. In the periphery, T cells specific for the WT1 antigen differentiated into CD44-high memory phenotype cells, whereas T cells specific for a non-self-viral antigen retained a CD44(low) naive phenotype. Only the WT1-specific T cells, but not the virus-specific T cells, displayed rapid antigen-specific effector function without prior vaccination. Despite long-term persistence of WT1-specific memory T cells, the animals did not develop autoimmunity, and the function of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells was unimpaired. This is the first demonstration that specificity for a tumor-associated self-antigen may drive differentiation of functionally competent memory T cells. PMID:21447831

  10. Attentional modulation of external speech attribution in patients with hallucinations and delusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilankovic, Lana Marija; Allen, Paul P; Engel, Rolf; Kambeitz, Joseph; Riedel, Michael; Müller, Norbert; Hennig-Fast, Kristina

    2011-04-01

    A range of psychological theories have been proposed to account for the experience of auditory hallucinations and delusions in schizophrenic patients. Most influential theories are those implicating the defective self-monitoring of inner speech. Some recent studies measured response bias independently of self-monitoring and found the results inconsistent with the defective self-monitoring model, but explained by an externalizing response bias. We aimed to investigate the role of attentional bias in external misattribution of source by modulating participant's endogenous expectancies. Comparisons were made between patients with paranoid schizophrenia (N=23) and matched healthy controls (N=23) who participated in two different versions of an audio-visual task, which differed based upon level of the cue predictiveness. The acoustic characteristic of voice was altered in half of the trials by shifting the pitch (distortion). Participants passively listened to recordings of single adjectives spoken in their own and another person's voice (alien) preceded by their own or another person's (alien) face and made self/non self judgments about the source. The patients showed increased error rates comparing to controls, when listening to the distorted self spoken words, misidentifying their own speech as produced by others. Importantly, patients made significantly more errors across all the invalid cue conditions. This suggests not only the presence of pathological misattribution bias, but also an inadequate balance between top-down and bottom-up attentional processes in the patients, which could be responsible for misattribution of the ambiguous sensory material. PMID:21241719

  11. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell as a New Source for Cancer Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Rami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The immune system consists of cells, proteins, and other molecules that beside each other have a protective function for the host against foreign pathogens. One of the most essential features of the immune system is distinguishability between self- and non-self-cells. This function has an important role in limiting development and progression of cancer cells. In this case, the immune system can detect tumor cell as a foreign pathogen; so, it can be effective in elimination of tumors in their early phases of development. This ability of the immune system resulted in the development of a novel therapeutic field for cancer treatment using host immune components which is called cancer immunotherapy. The main purpose of cancer immunotherapy is stimulation of a strong immune response against the tumor cells that can result from expressing either the immune activator cytokines in the tumor area or gene-modified immune cells. Because of the problems of culturing and manipulating immune cells ex vivo, in recent years, embryonic stem cell (ESC and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC have been used as new sources for generation of modified immune stimulatory cells. In this paper, we reviewed some of the progressions in iPSC technology for cancer immunotherapy.

  12. Effects of Hemagglutination Activity in the Serum of a Deep-Sea Vent Endemic Crab, Shinkaia Crosnieri, on Non-Symbiotic and Symbiotic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiyoshi, So; Tateno, Hiroaki; Watsuji, Tomoo; Yamaguchi, Hideyuki; Fukushima, Daisuke; Mino, Sayaka; Sugimura, Makoto; Sawabe, Tomoo; Takai, Ken; Sawayama, Shigeki; Nakagawa, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    In deep-sea hydrothermal environments, most invertebrates associate with dense populations of symbiotic microorganisms in order to obtain nutrition. The molecular interactions between deep-sea animals and environmental microbes, including their symbionts, have not yet been elucidated in detail. Hemagglutinins/lectins, which are carbohydrate-binding proteins, have recently been reported to play important roles in a wide array of biological processes, including the recognition and control of non-self materials. We herein assessed hemagglutination activity in the serum of a deep-sea vent endemic crab, Shinkaia crosnieri, which harbors chemosynthetic epibionts on its plumose setae. Horse and rabbit erythrocytes were agglutinated using this serum (opt. pH 7.5 and opt. temperature 15°C). Agglutinating activity was inhibited by eight kinds of sugars and several divalent cations, did not require any divalent metal ions, and remained detectable even after heating the serum at 100°C for 30 min. By using fluorescently labeled serum, we demonstrated that deep-sea crab serum components bound to the epibionts even in the presence of sugars. This study represents the first immunological assessment of a deep-sea vent endemic crab and demonstrated the possibility of a non-lectin-mediated symbiont-host interaction.

  13. Genetic Determinants of the Gut Microbiome in UK Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Julia K; Davenport, Emily R; Beaumont, Michelle; Jackson, Matthew A; Knight, Rob; Ober, Carole; Spector, Tim D; Bell, Jordana T; Clark, Andrew G; Ley, Ruth E

    2016-05-11

    Studies in mice and humans have revealed intriguing associations between host genetics and the microbiome. Here we report a 16S rRNA-based analysis of the gut microbiome in 1,126 twin pairs, a subset of which was previously reported. Tripling the sample narrowed the confidence intervals around heritability estimates and uncovered additional heritable taxa, some of which are validated in other studies. Repeat sampling of subjects showed heritable taxa to be temporally stable. A candidate gene approach uncovered associations between heritable taxa and genes related to diet, metabolism, and olfaction. We replicate an association between Bifidobacterium and the lactase (LCT) gene locus and identify an association between the host gene ALDH1L1 and the bacteria SHA-98, suggesting a link between formate production and blood pressure. Additional genes detected are involved in barrier defense and self/non-self recognition. Our results indicate that diet-sensing, metabolism, and immune defense are important drivers of human-microbiome co-evolution. PMID:27173935

  14. Interleukin-1 as a Common Denominator from Autoinflammatory to Autoimmune Disorders: Premises, Perils, and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Lopalco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A complex web of dynamic relationships between innate and adaptive immunity is now evident for many autoinflammatory and autoimmune disorders, the first deriving from abnormal activation of innate immune system without any conventional danger triggers and the latter from self-/non-self-discrimination loss of tolerance, and systemic inflammation. Due to clinical and pathophysiologic similarities giving a crucial role to the multifunctional cytokine interleukin-1, the concept of autoinflammation has been expanded to include nonhereditary collagen-like diseases, idiopathic inflammatory diseases, and metabolic diseases. As more patients are reported to have clinical features of autoinflammation and autoimmunity, the boundary between these two pathologic ends is becoming blurred. An overview of monogenic autoinflammatory disorders, PFAPA syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, type 2 diabetes mellitus, uveitis, pericarditis, Behçet’s disease, gout, Sjögren’s syndrome, interstitial lung diseases, and Still’s disease is presented to highlight the fundamental points that interleukin-1 displays in the cryptic interplay between innate and adaptive immune systems.

  15. The Qa-1 Dependent CD8+ T Cell Mediated Regulatory Pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Jiang

    2005-01-01

    The immune system has evolved a variety of regulatory mechanisms to ensure the peripheral self-tolerance as well as the optimal capacity to elicit effective anti-infection immunity. At present, there is no satisfactory conceptual framework to explain how the peripheral immunity is regulated at a biological system level, which enables the immune system to perform its essential functions to mount effective immunity to virtually any foreign antigens but avoid harmful immune responses to self. In this regard, during the past few years, an "affinity/avidity model of peripheral T cell regulation" has been proposed and tested, which opens up a new paradigm to understand how the peripheral immunity, to both self and foreign antigens, is regulated. The paradigm is based on the discovery of a subset CD8+ T cells with TCRs which specifically recognize a unique set of self-peptides presented by the MHC class Ib molecule Qa-1 differentially expressed on T cells as a function of the affinity/avidity of T cell activation.These Qa-1 restricted CD8+ T cells represent an example of how the immune system utilizes a unified mechanism to regulate adaptive immunity to both self and foreign antigens. Thus, by selectively down-regulating T cells of intermediate affinity/avidity, to any antigens, the immune system controls the adaptive immunity without the necessity to distinguish self from non-self in the periphery at the level of T cell regulation.

  16. Velocity field and star formation in the Horsehead nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Hily-Blant, P; Philipp, S; Gusten, R; Hily-Blant, Pierre; Teyssier, David; Philipp, Sabin; Gusten, Rolf

    2006-01-01

    Using large scale maps in C18O(2-1) and in the continuum at 1.2mm obtained at the IRAM-30m antenna with the Heterodyne Receiver Array (HERA) and MAMBO2, we investigated the morphology and the velocity field probed in the inner layers of the Horsehead nebula. The data reveal a non--self-gravitating (m/mvir = 0.3) filament of dust and gas (the "neck", diameter = 0.15-0.30 pc) connecting the Horsehead western ridge, a Photon-Dominated Region illuminated by sigmaOri, to its parental cloud L1630. Several dense cores are embedded in the ridge and the neck. One of these cores appears particularly peaked in the 1.2 mm continuum map and corresponds to a feature seen in absorption on ISO maps around 7 micr. Its \\cdo emission drops at the continuum peak, suggestive of molecular depletion onto cold grains. The channel maps of the Horsehead exhibit an overall north-east velocity gradient whose orientation swivels east-west, showing a somewhat more complex structure than was recently reported by \\cite{pound03} using BIMA C...

  17. Pair and Cluster Formation in Hybrid Active-Passive Matter Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krafnick, Ryan; Garcia, Angel

    2015-03-01

    Systems composed of self-propelling entities, dubbed active matter, are ubiquitous in nature, from flocks of birds and schools of fish to swarms of bacteria and catalytic nanomotors. These systems (both biological and industrial) have applications ranging from micron-scale cargo manipulation and directed transport to water remediation and material processing. When added to a solution with passive (non-self-propelling) particles, active matter leads to new and altered system properties. For example, the diffusion of passive particles increases by orders of magnitude in typical systems, leading to a raised effective temperature. Additionally, particles that normally repel each other exhibit effective attractions which can lead to pair formation and clustering. The nature of these effects depends on both the mechanical collisions of swimmers and the hydrodynamic flow fields they propagate. We computationally examine the effect and dependence of various system parameters, such as particle shape and density, on these properties. This work was funded by NIH grant GM086801 and NSF grant MCB-1050966.

  18. The fine structure constant alpha: relevant for a model of a self-propelling photon and for particle masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greulich, Karl O.

    2015-09-01

    A model for a self propelling (i.e. massless) photon1 is based on oscillations of a pair of charges amounting to elementary charge divided by SQRT alpha, where alpha is the fine structure (Sommerfeld) constant. When one assumes a similar model for particles that do have rest mas (i.e. which are non- self propelling), alpha plays also a role in the rest masses of elementary particles. Indeed all fundamental elementary particle masses can be described by the alpha / beta rule2 --> m(particle) = alpha-n * betam* 27.2 eV /c2 where beta is the proton to electron mass ratio 183612 and n= 0….14, m= -1,0 or Thus, photons and particle masses are intimately related to the fine structure constant. If the latter would not have been strictly constant throughout all times, this would have had consequences for the nature of light and for all masses including those of elementary particles.

  19. Using cluster analysis to examine the combinations of motivation regulations of physical education students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich-French, Sarah; Cox, Anne

    2009-06-01

    According to self-determination theory, motivation is multidimensional, with motivation regulations lying along a continuum of self-determination (Ryan & Deci, 2007). Accounting for the different types of motivation in physical activity research presents a challenge. This study used cluster analysis to identify motivation regulation profiles and examined their utility by testing profile differences in relative levels of self-determination (i.e., self-determination index), and theoretical antecedents (i.e., competence, autonomy, relatedness) and consequences (i.e., enjoyment, worry, effort, value, physical activity) of physical education motivation. Students (N= 386) in 6th- through 8th-grade physical education classes completed questionnaires of the variables listed above. Five profiles emerged, including average (n = 81), motivated (n = 82), self-determined (n = 91), low motivation (n = 73), and external (n = 59). Group difference analyses showed that students with greater levels of self-determined forms of motivation, regardless of non-self-determined motivation levels, reported the most adaptive physical education experiences.

  20. Warped circumbinary disks in active galactic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study a warping instability of a geometrically thin, non-self-gravitating disk surrounding binary supermassive black holes on a circular orbit. Such a circumbinary disk is subject to not only tidal torques due to the binary gravitational potential but also radiative torques due to radiation emitted from an accretion disk around each black hole. We find that a circumbinary disk initially aligned with the binary orbital plane is unstable to radiation-driven warping beyond the marginally stable warping radius, which is sensitive to both the ratio of vertical to horizontal shear viscosities and the mass-to-energy conversion efficiency. As expected, the tidal torques give no contribution to the growth of warping modes but tend to align the circumbinary disk with the orbital plane. Since the tidal torques can suppress the warping modes in the inner part of circumbinary disk, the circumbinary disk starts to be warped at radii larger than the marginally stable warping radius. If the warping radius is of the order of 0.1 pc, a resultant semi-major axis is estimated to be of the order of 10–2 pc to 10–4 pc for 107 M☉ black hole. We also discuss the possibility that the central objects of observed warped maser disks in active galactic nuclei are binary supermassive black holes with a triple disk: two accretion disks around the individual black holes and one circumbinary disk surrounding them.

  1. Pandora's Box and Non-Selfdual Topological Excitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unsal, Mithat; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2010-06-07

    In the last few years, we have realized the existence of a new class of topological excitations, which are rather distinct from the platonic world of monopoles, monopole-instantons and instantons. All of the latter arise as solutions of the Prasad-Sommerfield type first order differential (self-duality) equations and have been extensively discussed in the context of confinement and chiral symmetry breaking for the last 30 years. However, new calculable deformations of asymptotically free chiral and vector-like gauge theories give us a new picture of these physical phenomena. Most often, the excitations which lead to confinement are not solutions to PS-type equations, they are non-selfdual and they are often bizarre. They are referred to as magnetic bions, triplets, and quintets, due to their composite nature. Bizarre as they are, combined with large-N volume independence, these novel non-self-dual excitations may also provide hope that at least some non-abelian gauge theories may be solvable.

  2. Cost-Effective Encryption-Based Autonomous Routing Protocol for Efficient and Secure Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Kashif; Derhab, Abdelouahid; Orgun, Mehmet A.; Al-Muhtadi, Jalal; Rodrigues, Joel J. P. C.; Khalil, Mohammed Sayim; Ali Ahmed, Adel

    2016-01-01

    The deployment of intelligent remote surveillance systems depends on wireless sensor networks (WSNs) composed of various miniature resource-constrained wireless sensor nodes. The development of routing protocols for WSNs is a major challenge because of their severe resource constraints, ad hoc topology and dynamic nature. Among those proposed routing protocols, the biology-inspired self-organized secure autonomous routing protocol (BIOSARP) involves an artificial immune system (AIS) that requires a certain amount of time to build up knowledge of neighboring nodes. The AIS algorithm uses this knowledge to distinguish between self and non-self neighboring nodes. The knowledge-building phase is a critical period in the WSN lifespan and requires active security measures. This paper proposes an enhanced BIOSARP (E-BIOSARP) that incorporates a random key encryption mechanism in a cost-effective manner to provide active security measures in WSNs. A detailed description of E-BIOSARP is presented, followed by an extensive security and performance analysis to demonstrate its efficiency. A scenario with E-BIOSARP is implemented in network simulator 2 (ns-2) and is populated with malicious nodes for analysis. Furthermore, E-BIOSARP is compared with state-of-the-art secure routing protocols in terms of processing time, delivery ratio, energy consumption, and packet overhead. The findings show that the proposed mechanism can efficiently protect WSNs from selective forwarding, brute-force or exhaustive key search, spoofing, eavesdropping, replaying or altering of routing information, cloning, acknowledgment spoofing, HELLO flood attacks, and Sybil attacks. PMID:27043572

  3. Two regimes of widely tuneable noise-like pulses from a figure-eight fibre laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottiez, O.; Ibarra-Escamilla, B.; Kuzin, E. A.; Hernández-García, J. C.; González-García, A.; Durán-Sánchez, M.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we study a dispersion-managed figure-eight fibre laser generating noise-like pulses with adjustable characteristics. Non-self-starting mode locking leads to the formation of a single noise-like pulse circulating in the cavity. Both the duration of the pulse and its spectral width can be adjusted by tuning the angle of wave retarders, in particular a half-wave retarder that controls the switching power of the polarization-imbalanced nonlinear optical loop mirror that is used as mode locker. Wave retarder tuning also allows observing an abrupt transition between two clearly distinct noise-like pulse regimes, one characterized by a long (> 1 ns) rectangular pulse envelope with a narrow spectrum and the other characterized by shorter sub-ns bell-shaped pulses whose Raman-enhanced spectrum extends far beyond the doped fibre gain spectrum. The existence of two distinct noise-like pulsing modes can be understood in terms of the periodic variation of the pulse spectrum along the cavity, which is able to shift the effective dispersion regime of the laser. By joining the tuning ranges of each regime, the noise-like pulse duration can be adjusted between 57 ps and 6.3 ns, and its bandwidth between 3.5 and 59 nm.

  4. Generation and characterization of erbium-Raman noise-like pulses from a figure-eight fibre laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Hernandez, H.; Pottiez, O.; Paez-Aguirre, R.; Ibarra-Villalon, H. E.; Tenorio-Torres, A.; Duran-Sanchez, M.; Ibarra-Escamilla, B.; Kuzin, E. A.; Hernandez-Garcia, J. C.

    2015-04-01

    We report an experimental study of the noise-like pulses generated by a ~300 m long passively mode-locked erbium-doped figure-eight fibre laser. Non-self-starting mode locking yields the formation of ns scale bunches of sub-ps pulses. Depending on birefringence adjustments, noise-like pulses with a variety of temporal profiles and optical spectra are obtained. In particular, for some adjustments the Raman-enhanced spectrum reaches a 10 dB bandwidth of ~130 nm. For the first time to our knowledge, we extract information on the inner structure of the noise-like pulses, using a birefringent Sagnac interferometer as a spectral filter and a nonlinear optical loop mirror as an intensity filter. In particular we show that the different spectral components of the bunch are homogeneously distributed within the temporal envelope of the bunch, whereas the amplitude and/or the density of the sub-pulses present substantial variations along the envelope. In some cases, the analysis reveals the existence of an intermediate level of organization in the structure of the noise-like pulse, between the ns bunch and the sub-ps inner pulses, suggesting that these objects may be even more complex than previously recognized.

  5. Getting to PTI of bacterial RNAs: Triggering plant innate immunity by extracellular RNAs from bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong-Soon; Lee, Boyoung; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2016-07-01

    Defense against diverse biotic and abiotic stresses requires the plant to distinguish between self and non-self signaling molecules. Pathogen/microbe-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs/MAMPs) are pivotal for triggering innate immunity in plants. Unlike in animals and humans, the precise roles of nucleic acids in plant innate immunity are unclear. We therefore investigated the effects of infiltration of total Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pto DC3000) RNAs into Arabidopsis plants. The pathogen population was 10-fold lower in bacterial RNAs pre-treated Arabidopsis plants than in the control. Bacterial RNAs purity was confirmed by physical (sonication) and chemical (RNase A and proteinase K digestion) methods. The perception of bacterial RNAs, especially rRNAs, positively regulated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and induced a reactive oxygen species burst, callose deposition, salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) signaling, and defense-related genes. Therefore, bacterial RNAs function as a new MAMP that activates plant innate immunity, providing a new paradigm for plant-microbe interactions. PMID:27301792

  6. Scaling laws and fluctuations in the statistics of word frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we combine statistical analysis of written texts and simple stochastic models to explain the appearance of scaling laws in the statistics of word frequencies. The average vocabulary of an ensemble of fixed-length texts is known to scale sublinearly with the total number of words (Heaps’ law). Analyzing the fluctuations around this average in three large databases (Google-ngram, English Wikipedia, and a collection of scientific articles), we find that the standard deviation scales linearly with the average (Taylor's law), in contrast to the prediction of decaying fluctuations obtained using simple sampling arguments. We explain both scaling laws (Heaps’ and Taylor) by modeling the usage of words using a Poisson process with a fat-tailed distribution of word frequencies (Zipf's law) and topic-dependent frequencies of individual words (as in topic models). Considering topical variations lead to quenched averages, turn the vocabulary size a non-self-averaging quantity, and explain the empirical observations. For the numerous practical applications relying on estimations of vocabulary size, our results show that uncertainties remain large even for long texts. We show how to account for these uncertainties in measurements of lexical richness of texts with different lengths. (paper)

  7. Designs and Techniques That Improve the Pullout Strength of Pedicle Screws in Osteoporotic Vertebrae: Current Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Shea

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a medical condition affecting men and women of different age groups and populations. The compromised bone quality caused by this disease represents an important challenge when a surgical procedure (e.g., spinal fusion is needed after failure of conservative treatments. Different pedicle screw designs and instrumentation techniques have been explored to enhance spinal device fixation in bone of compromised quality. These include alterations of screw thread design, optimization of pilot hole size for non-self-tapping screws, modification of the implant’s trajectory, and bone cement augmentation. While the true benefits and limitations of any procedure may not be realized until they are observed in a clinical setting, axial pullout tests, due in large part to their reproducibility and ease of execution, are commonly used to estimate the device’s effectiveness by quantifying the change in force required to remove the screw from the body. The objective of this investigation is to provide an overview of the different pedicle screw designs and the associated surgical techniques either currently utilized or proposed to improve pullout strength in osteoporotic patients. Mechanical comparisons as well as potential advantages and disadvantages of each consideration are provided herein.

  8. A low-cost real color picker based on Arduino.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudo, Juan Enrique; Pardo, Pedro J; Sánchez, Héctor; Pérez, Ángel Luis; Suero, María Isabel

    2014-07-07

    Color measurements have traditionally been linked to expensive and difficult to handle equipment. The set of mathematical transformations that are needed to transfer a color that we observe in any object that doesn't emit its own light (which is usually called a color-object) so that it can be displayed on a computer screen or printed on paper is not at all trivial. This usually requires a thorough knowledge of color spaces, colorimetric transformations and color management systems. The TCS3414CS color sensor (I2C Sensor Color Grove), a system for capturing, processing and color management that allows the colors of any non-self-luminous object using a low-cost hardware based on Arduino, is presented in this paper. Specific software has been developed in Matlab and a study of the linearity of chromatic channels and accuracy of color measurements for this device has been undertaken. All used scripts (Arduino and Matlab) are attached as supplementary material. The results show acceptable accuracy values that, although obviously do not reach the levels obtained with the other scientific instruments, for the price difference they present a good low cost option.

  9. Magnetorotational Instability: Nonmodal Growth and the Relationship of Global Modes to the Shearing Box

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J Squire, A Bhattacharjee [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2014-07-01

    We study the magnetorotational instability (MRI) (Balbus & Hawley 1998) using non-modal stability techniques.Despite the spectral instability of many forms of the MRI, this proves to be a natural method of analysis that is well-suited to deal with the non-self-adjoint nature of the linear MRI equations. We find that the fastest growing linear MRI structures on both local and global domains can look very diff erent to the eigenmodes, invariably resembling waves shearing with the background flow (shear waves). In addition, such structures can grow many times faster than the least stable eigenmode over long time periods, and be localized in a completely di fferent region of space. These ideas lead – for both axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric modes – to a natural connection between the global MRI and the local shearing box approximation. By illustrating that the fastest growing global structure is well described by the ordinary diff erential equations (ODEs) governing a single shear wave, we find that the shearing box is a very sensible approximation for the linear MRI, contrary to many previous claims. Since the shear wave ODEs are most naturally understood using non-modal analysis techniques, we conclude by analyzing local MRI growth over finite time-scales using these methods. The strong growth over a wide range of wave-numbers suggests that non-modal linear physics could be of fundamental importance in MRI turbulence (Squire & Bhattacharjee 2014).

  10. Bacterial formyl peptides affect the innate cellular antimicrobial responses of larval Galleria mellonella (Insecta: Lepidoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavo, Thiery B C; Dunphy, Gary B

    2004-04-01

    The non-self cellular (hemocytic) responses of Galleria mellonella larvae, including the attachment to slides and the removal of the bacteria Xenorhabdus nematophila and Bacillus subtilis from the hemolymph, were affected by N-formyl peptides. Both N-formyl methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLF) and the ester derivative decreased hemocyte adhesion in vitro, and both elevated hemocyte counts and suppressed the removal of both X. nematophila and B. subtilis from the hemolymph in vivo. The amide derivative and the antagonist tertiary-butoxy-carbonyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (tBOC) increased hemocyte attachment to glass. The fMLF suppressed protein discharge from monolayers of granular cells with and without bacterial stimulation, while tBOC stimulated protein discharge. The peptide tBOC offset the effects of fMLF in vitro and in vivo. This is the first report implying the existence of formyl peptide receptors on insect hemocytes in which the compounds fMLF and tBOC inhibited and activated hemocyte activity, respectively.

  11. The Role of Disc Self-Gravity in Circumbinary Planet Systems: I. Disc Structure and Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Mutter, Matthew M; Nelson, Richard P

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of 2-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of self-gravitating circumbinary discs around binaries whose parameters match those of the circumbinary planet-hosting systems Kepler-16, -34 and -35. Previous work has shown that non-self-gravitating discs in these systems form an eccentric precessing inner cavity due to tidal truncation by the binary, and planets which form at large radii migrate until stalling at this cavity. While this scenario appears to provide a natural explanation for the observed orbital locations of the circumbinary planets, previous simulations have failed to match the observed planet orbital parameters. The aim of this work is to examine the role of self-gravity in modifying circumbinary disc structure as a function of disc mass, prior to considering the evolution of embedded circumbinary planets. In agreement with previous work, we find that for disc masses between 1--5 times the minimum mass solar nebula (MMSN), disc self-gravity affects modest changes in the struc...

  12. Wiggle Instability of Galactic Spiral Shocks: Effects of Magnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Yonghwi; Elmegreen, Bruce G

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that the wiggle instability (WI) of spiral shocks in a galactic disk is responsible for the formation of gaseous feathers observed in grand-design spiral galaxies. We perform both a linear stability analysis and numerical simulations to investigate the effect of magnetic fields on the WI. The disk is assumed to be infinitesimally-thin, isothermal, and non-self-gravitating. We control the strengths of magnetic fields and spiral-arm forcing using the dimensionless parameters $\\beta$ and $\\mathcal{F}$, respectively. By solving the perturbation equations as a boundary-eigenvalue problem, we obtain dispersion relations of the WI for various values of $\\beta=1-\\infty$ and $\\mathcal{F}=5\\%$ and $10\\%$. We find that the WI arising from the accumulation of potential vorticity at disturbed shocks is suppressed, albeit not completely, by magnetic fields. The stabilizing effect of magnetic fields is not from the perturbed fields but from the unperturbed fields that reduce the density compression fac...

  13. Electronic structure of Cosub(0.92)Fesub(0.08)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electronic structure of the ferromagnetic fcc alloy Cosub(0.92)Fesub(0.08) is studied theoretically and experimentally with polarized positron annihilation and angle-resolved photoemission. The Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (KKR) formalism to calculate the band structure and (spin-dependent) two-photon momentum density is explained. Calculations are performed for a non-self-consistent potential in the Virtual Crystal Approximation (VCA), the difference with results in the Average t-matrix Approximation (ATA) being negligibly small. The position of the d bands is derived from normal and off-normal photoemission measurements on (100), (110) and (111) surfaces at photon energies h#betta#/2π = 11.83, 16.85 and 21.22 eV. A procedure is given to evaluate integrals of the two-photon momentum density over planes of arbitrary orientation with the use of interpolation techniques. Thus, accurate theoretical profiles are obtained and compared with measurements of the Angular Correlation of Annihilation Radiation in a one-dimensional geometry (1D ACAR). Based on this comparison a model is proposed of the Fermi surface, consisting of three minority-spin sheets, and one majority spin-sheet which is similar to that in Ni

  14. Self-consistent double-hybrid density-functional theory using the optimized-effective-potential method

    CERN Document Server

    Smiga, Szymon; Mussard, Bastien; Buksztel, Adam; Grabowski, Ireneusz; Luppi, Eleonora; Toulouse, Julien

    2016-01-01

    We introduce an orbital-optimized double-hybrid (DH) scheme using the optimized-effective-potential (OEP) method. The orbitals are optimized using a local potential corresponding to the complete exchange-correlation energy expression including the second-order M{{\\o}}ller-Plesset (MP2) correlation contribution. We have implemented a one-parameter version of this OEP-based self-consistent DH scheme using the BLYP density-functional approximation and compared it to the corresponding non-self-consistent DH scheme for calculations on a few closed-shell atoms and molecules. While the OEP-based self-consistency does not provide any improvement for the calculations of ground-state total energies and ionization potentials, it does improve the accuracy of electron affinities and restores the meaning of the LUMO orbital energy as being connected to a neutral excitation energy. Moreover, the OEP-based self-consistent DH scheme provides reasonably accurate exchange-correlation potentials and correlated densities.

  15. Awareness and Self-Awareness for Multi-Robot Organisms

    CERN Document Server

    Kernbach, Serge

    2011-01-01

    Awareness and self-awareness are two different notions related to knowing the environment and itself. In a general context, the mechanism of self-awareness belongs to a class of co-called "self-issues" (self-* or self-star): self-adaptation, self-repairing, self-replication, self-development or self-recovery. The self-* issues are connected in many ways to adaptability and evolvability, to the emergence of behavior and to the controllability of long-term developmental processes. Self-* are either natural properties of several systems, such as self-assembling of molecular networks, or may emerge as a result of homeostatic regulation. Different computational processes, leading to a global optimization, increasing scalability and reliability of collective systems, create such a homeostatic regulation. Moreover, conditions of ecological survival, imposed on such systems, lead to a discrimination between "self" and "non-self" as well as to the emergence of different self-phenomena. There are many profound challeng...

  16. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell as a New Source for Cancer Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rami, Farzaneh; Mollainezhad, Halimeh; Salehi, Mansoor

    2016-01-01

    The immune system consists of cells, proteins, and other molecules that beside each other have a protective function for the host against foreign pathogens. One of the most essential features of the immune system is distinguishability between self- and non-self-cells. This function has an important role in limiting development and progression of cancer cells. In this case, the immune system can detect tumor cell as a foreign pathogen; so, it can be effective in elimination of tumors in their early phases of development. This ability of the immune system resulted in the development of a novel therapeutic field for cancer treatment using host immune components which is called cancer immunotherapy. The main purpose of cancer immunotherapy is stimulation of a strong immune response against the tumor cells that can result from expressing either the immune activator cytokines in the tumor area or gene-modified immune cells. Because of the problems of culturing and manipulating immune cells ex vivo, in recent years, embryonic stem cell (ESC) and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) have been used as new sources for generation of modified immune stimulatory cells. In this paper, we reviewed some of the progressions in iPSC technology for cancer immunotherapy.

  17. Cathode material comparison of thermal runaway behavior of Li-ion cells at different state of charges including over charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Hernandez, Omar Samuel; Ishikawa, Hiroaki; Nishikawa, Yuuki; Maruyama, Yuki; Umeda, Minoru

    2015-04-01

    The analysis of Li-ion secondary cells under outstanding conditions, as overcharge and high temperatures, is important to determine thermal abuse characteristics of electroactive materials and precise risk assessments on Li-ion cells. In this work, the thermal runaway behavior of LiCoO2 and LiMn2O4 cathode materials were compared at different state of charges (SOCs), including overcharge, by carrying out accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC) measurements using 18650 Li-ion cells. Onset temperatures of self-heating reactions and thermal runaway behavior were identified, and by using these onset points thermal mapping plots were made. We were able to identify non-self-heating, self-heating and thermal runaway regions as a function of state of charge and temperature. The cell using LiMn2O4 cathode material was found to be more thermally stable than the cell using LiCoO2. In parallel with the ARC measurements, the electrochemical behavior of the cells was monitored by measuring the OCV and internal resistance of the cells. The electrochemical behavior of the cells showed a slightly dependency on SOC.

  18. The origin and development of the immune system with a view to stem cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastassova-Kristeva, Marlene

    2003-04-01

    Careful study of the phylogeny and ontogeny of the three components of the immune system reveals that the macrophage, lymphatic, and hematopoietic systems originate independently of each other. Chronologically, the most ancient is the macrophage system, which arises in the coelomic cavity as mesenchymal ameboid cells having the properties to recognize self from non-self and to ingest foreign particles. The lymphatic system later develops from the endoderm of pharyngeal pouches, where the thymic anlage differentiates. The lymphocytes that originate here seed all lymphatic organs and retain the ability to divide and thereby form multiple colonies (lymphatic nodules) in the respiratory and digestive tract; further diversification of lymphocytes follows after confrontation with antigens. The last component of the immune system to appear is the hematopoietic system, which originates from the splanchnic mesoderm of the yolk sac as hematogenic tissue, containing hemangioblasts. The hematogenic tissue remains attached to the outer wall of the vitelline vessels, which provides an efficient mechanism for introducing the hematogenic tissue into the embryo. In an appropriate microenvironment, the hemangioblasts give rise to sinusoidal endothelium and to hemocytoblasts - the bone marrow stem cells for erythrocytes, myeloid cells, and megakaryocytes. The facts and opinions presented in this article are not in agreement with the currently accepted dogma that a common "hematolymphatic stem cell" localized in the marrow generates all of the cellular components of blood and the immune system.

  19. Newton on objects moving in a fluid—the penetration length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saslow, Wayne M.; Lu, Hong

    2008-07-01

    We solve for the motion of an object with initial velocity v0 and subject only to the combined drag of forces linear and quadratic in the velocity. This problem was treated briefly by Newton, after he developed a theoretical argument for the quadratic term, which we now know is characteristic of turbulent flow. Linear drag introduces a time τ, and the two drag forces are equal at a critical velocity vc; this defines a characteristic distance R = vcτ details are discussed for spheres and for cylinders moving along their axis. For v0/vc Gt 1 the role of quadratic drag is largely to reduce the velocity to vc, below which linear drag dominates. The penetration length is given by LN = Rln(1 + v0/vc). As noted by Gamow, LN is relevant to the range of non-self-propelled projectiles, such as artillery shells, bullets, ground penetration bombs and spears shot from spearguns; it is also relevant to windmills and fans.

  20. The T helper type 17/regulatory T cell paradigm in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Ana Sofia; Schumacher, Anne

    2016-05-01

    T helper type 17 (Th17) and regulatory T (Treg) cells are active players in the establishment of tolerance and defence. These attributes of the immune system enmesh to guarantee the right level of protection. The healthy immune system, on the one hand, recognizes and eliminates dangerous non-self pathogens and, on the other hand, protects the healthy self. However, there are circumstances where this fine balance is disrupted. In fact, in situations such as in pregnancy, the foreign fetal antigens challenge the maternal immune system and Treg cells will dominate Th17 cells to guarantee fetal survival. In other situations such as autoimmunity, where the Th17 responses are often overwhelming, the immune system shifts towards an inflammatory profile and attacks the healthy tissue from the self. Interestingly, autoimmune patients have meliorating symptoms during pregnancy. This connects with the antagonist role of Th17 and Treg cells, and their specific profiles during these two immune challenging situations. In this review, we put into perspective the Th17/Treg ratio during pregnancy and autoimmunity, as well as in pregnant women with autoimmune conditions. We further review existing systems biology approaches that study specific mechanisms of these immune cells using mathematical modelling and we point out possible future directions of investigation. Understanding what maintains or disrupts the balance between these two opponent yet reciprocal cells in healthy physiological settings, sheds light into the development of innovative pharmacological approaches to fight pregnancy loss and autoimmunity.

  1. Longitudinal oscillations in a non-uniform spatially dispersive plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calogeracos, Alex, E-mail: a.calogeracos@yahoo.co.uk

    2015-03-15

    Longitudinal oscillations of the electron fluid in the hydrodynamic model of a metal are examined with pressure effects taken into account. It is well-known that this entails spatial dispersion. The equilibrium electron number density is taken to be non-uniform and a non-self-adjoint fourth order differential equation obeyed by the electric potential is derived. A velocity potential necessary for the description of sound waves is introduced in the standard fashion and the generalized version of Bloch orthogonality appropriate to a non-uniform background is deduced. We observe a duality between electric and velocity potentials in the sense that the respective differential operators are adjoint to each other. The spectrum is calculated in the special case of an exponential profile for the equilibrium electron number density. The surface plasmons are connected with the analytic properties of the scattering amplitude in the complex plane. The phase shift at threshold is expressed in terms of the number of surface plasmon modes via an expression reminiscent of Levinson’s statement in quantum mechanics.

  2. Innerarity and Immunology: Difference and Identity in selves, bodies and communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Bula

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Innerarity’s Ethics of Hospitality highlights a tension in both communities and individuals between embracing difference and protecting identity, while recognizing that difference is constitutive of identity (the fear that dominates contemporary society is above all a fear of difference, of contamination. This dynamical relation between difference and identity can be seen in the workings of the human immune system, as explained by Chilean biologist and philosopher Francisco Varela: the immune system is a process of perpetual construction of bodily identity through self-referential cognition and distinction between self and non-self. This similarity allows for interesting analogies: for example, a society torn apart by xenophobia and chauvinism can be seen as analogous to a body ravaged by an autoimmune disease such as lupus. With the working hypothesis that the similarities respond to what Stafford Beer calls “systemic invariance”,   this paper explores the similarities between the activity of the immune system and the relation between identity and difference in the work of Innerarity.

  3. Clumpy shocks and the clump mass function

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, P C; Bonnell, Ian A.; Clark, Paul C.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we examine whether clumpy, colliding, flows could be responsible for the clump mass functions that have been observed in several regions of embedded star formation, which have been shown to be described by a Salpeter type slope. The flows presented here, which comprise a population of initially identical clumps and the calculations are performed with and without the inclusion of self-gravity. When the shock region is at its densest, we find that the clump mass spectrum is always well modelled by a Salpeter type slope. This is true regardless of whether the self-gravity is included in the simulations or not. In the non-self-gravitating simulations, this slope is retained at lower Mach numbers (Mach 5 and 10) as the simulations progress past the densest phase. In the simulations which include self-gravity, we find that low Mach number runs yield a flatter mass function after the densest phase. This is simply a result of increased coagulation due to gravitational collapse of the flows. In the high...

  4. BACTERIAL OUTER MEMBRANE VESICLES AND VACCINE APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo eAcevedo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Vaccines based on outer membrane vesicles (OMV were developed more than 20 years ago against Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B. These nano-sized structures exhibit remarkable potential for immunomodulation of immune responses and delivery of self meningococcal antigens or unrelated antigens incorporated into the vesicle structure. This paper reviews different applications in OMV Research and Development (R&D and provides examples of OMV developed and evaluated at the Finlay Institute in Cuba. A Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP process was developed at the Finlay Institute to produce OMV from N. meningitidis serogroup B (dOMVB using detergent extraction. Subsequently, OMV from N. meningitidis, serogroup A (dOMVA, serogroup W (dOMVW and serogroup X (dOMVX were obtained using this process. More recently, the extraction process has also been applied effectively for obtaining OMV on a research scale from Vibrio cholerae (dOMVC, Bordetella pertussis (dOMVBP, Mycobacterium smegmatis (dOMVSM and BCG (dOMVBCG. The immunogenicity of the OMV have been evaluated for specific antibody induction, and together with functional bactericidal and challenge assays in mice have shown their protective potential. dOMVB has been evaluated with non-self neisserial antigens, including with a herpes virus type 2 glycoprotein, ovalbumin and allergens. In conclusion, OMV are proving to be more versatile than first conceived and remain an important technology for development of vaccine candidates.

  5. Structure and Specificity of a Binary Tandem Domain F-Lectin from Striped Bass (Morone saxatilis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchet, M.; Odom, E; Vasta, J; Amzel, M

    2010-01-01

    The plasma of the striped bass Morone saxatilis contains a fucose-specific lectin (MsaFBP32) that consists of two F-type carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs) in tandem. The crystal structure of the complex of MsaFBP32 with l-fucose reported here shows a cylindrical 81-A-long and 60-A-wide trimer divided into two globular halves: one containing N-terminal CRDs (N-CRDs) and the other containing C-terminal CRDs (C-CRDs). The resulting binding surfaces at the opposite ends of the cylindrical trimer have the potential to cross-link cell surface or humoral carbohydrate ligands. The N-CRDs and C-CRDs of MsaFBP32 exhibit significant structural differences, suggesting that they recognize different glycans. Analysis of the carbohydrate binding sites provides the structural basis for the observed specificity of MsaFBP32 for simple carbohydrates and suggests that the N-CRD recognizes more complex fucosylated oligosaccharides and with a relatively higher avidity than the C-CRD. Modeling of MsaFBP32 complexed with fucosylated glycans that are widely distributed in prokaryotes and eukaryotes rationalizes the observation that binary tandem CRD F-type lectins function as opsonins by cross-linking 'non-self' carbohydrate ligands and 'self' carbohydrate ligands, such as sugar structures displayed by microbial pathogens and glycans on the surface of phagocytic cells from the host.

  6. New approach to magnetohydrodynamics spectral theory of stationary plasma flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    (Hans Goedbloed, J. P.

    2011-07-01

    While the basic equations of MHD spectral theory date back to 1958 for static plasmas (Bernstein et al 1958 Proc. R. Soc. A 244 17) and to 1960 for stationary plasma flows (Frieman and Rotenberg 1960 Rev. Mod. Phys. 32 898), progress on the latter subject has been slow since it suffers from lack of analytical insight concerning the structure of the spectrum. One of the reasons is the usual misnomer of 'non-self adjointness' of the stationary flow problem. Actually, self-adjointness of the occurring operators, namely the generalized force operator and the Doppler-Coriolis gradient operator -iρv·∇, was proved right away by Frieman and Rotenberg. Based on the reality of the two quadratic forms corresponding to these operators, we here construct (a) an effective method to compute the solution paths in the complex ω plane on which the eigenvalues are situated, (b) the counterpart of the oscillation theorem for eigenvalues of static equilibria (Goedbloed and Sakanaka 1974 Phys. Fluids 17 908) for the eigenvalues of stationary flows, based on the monotonicity of the alternating ratio, or alternator, of the boundary values of the displacement ξ and the total pressure perturbation Π. This enables one to map out the complete spectrum of eigenvalues in the complex ω-plane. The intricate topology of the solution paths is discussed for the fundamental examples of Rayleigh-Taylor, Kelvin-Helmholtz and combined instabilities.

  7. A New Matching Method for the Resistive Wall Mode Analysis of Rotating Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Junya; Tokuda, Shinji; Aiba, Nobuyuki

    2008-11-01

    Stabilization of the Resistive Wall Modes (RWMs) by the plasma rotation is one of the most important physical issues for future reactors operated in the advanced tokamak regime [1]. For rotating plasmas, the linear stability problem, which is governed by the Frieman-Rotenberg equation [2], becomes non-self-adjoint, thus the conventional normal mode decomposition is not complete. Therefore, in this study, a new matching method is proposed, which solves the Frieman-Rotenberg equation as an initial value problem. The new method divides the plasma region into outer regions and inner layers as in the conventional asymptotic matching method. The essential difference is that the inner layers of the new method have finite width, thus, the Newcomb equation governing the outer regions has no singularity. The matching condition is numerically satisfied such that the normal components of the Lagrangian displacement are smooth. The new method can study the rotation effect around rational surfaces with high numerical accuracy and short computation time. [1] M. Takechi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 055002 (2007). [2] E. Frieman and M. Rotenberg, Rev. Mod. Phys. 32, 898 (1960).

  8. New approach to magnetohydrodynamics spectral theory of stationary plasma flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goedbloed, J P, E-mail: goedbloed@rijnh.nl [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics ' Rijnhuizen' , Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Astronomical Institute, Utrecht University (Netherlands)

    2011-07-15

    While the basic equations of MHD spectral theory date back to 1958 for static plasmas (Bernstein et al 1958 Proc. R. Soc. A 244 17) and to 1960 for stationary plasma flows (Frieman and Rotenberg 1960 Rev. Mod. Phys. 32 898), progress on the latter subject has been slow since it suffers from lack of analytical insight concerning the structure of the spectrum. One of the reasons is the usual misnomer of 'non-self adjointness' of the stationary flow problem. Actually, self-adjointness of the occurring operators, namely the generalized force operator and the Doppler-Coriolis gradient operator -i{rho}v{center_dot}{nabla}, was proved right away by Frieman and Rotenberg. Based on the reality of the two quadratic forms corresponding to these operators, we here construct (a) an effective method to compute the solution paths in the complex {omega} plane on which the eigenvalues are situated, (b) the counterpart of the oscillation theorem for eigenvalues of static equilibria (Goedbloed and Sakanaka 1974 Phys. Fluids 17 908) for the eigenvalues of stationary flows, based on the monotonicity of the alternating ratio, or alternator, of the boundary values of the displacement {xi} and the total pressure perturbation {Pi}. This enables one to map out the complete spectrum of eigenvalues in the complex {omega}-plane. The intricate topology of the solution paths is discussed for the fundamental examples of Rayleigh-Taylor, Kelvin-Helmholtz and combined instabilities. (topical review)

  9. New approach to MHD spectral theory of stationary plasma flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedbloed, Hans

    2009-11-01

    The basic equations of MHD spectral theory date back to 1958 for static plasmas (Bernstein et al.) and to 1960 for stationary plasma flows (Frieman and Rotenberg). The number of papers on the two subjects appears to be inversely proportional to their complexity, with the vast majority of contributions to MHD stability of tokamaks being restricted to static equilibria and stationary equilibrium flows mostly being discussed analytically for trivial equilibria or numerically for complicated geometries. The problem with the latter is not that numerical approaches are inaccurate, but that they suffer from lack of analytical guidance concerning the structure of the spectrum. One of the reasons is the usual misnomer of ``non-self adjointness'' of the stationary flow problem. In fact, self-adjointness of the two occurring operators was proved right away. Based on the two quadratic forms corresponding to these operators, (a) we constructed an effective method to compute the eigenvalues in the complex plane, (b) we found the counterpart of the oscillation theorem for eigenvalues of static equilibria (Goedbloed and Sakanaka, 1974) for the eigenvalues of stationary flows, enabling one to map out sequences of eigenvalues in the complex plane. Examples will be given for Rayleigh-Taylor, Kelvin-Helmholtz and magneto-rotational instabilities.

  10. It’s not the Fish that Stinks! EU Trade Relations with Morocco under the Scrutiny of the General Court of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Hummelbrunner

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The EU’s international agreements with Morocco on trade in agricultural and fishery products have drawn criticism due to their application to the disputed territory of Western Sahara, a territory that remains on the list of non-self-governing territories to be decolonised in accordance with the right of self-determination of the indigenous Sahrawi people. Recently, the Sahrawi liberation movement Front Polisario brought an action for annulment before the General Court of the European Union (GC against the Council Decision approving the conclusion of one such agreement, alleging multiple violations of European and international legal norms. Interestingly, although the GC concurred by annulling the Decision insofar as it applies to Western Sahara, it chose to exclusively base its judgment on EU fundamental rights, invoking the EU’s failure to ensure that the fundamental rights of the Sahrawi people were not infringed by applying the agreements to Western Sahara. By summarily setting aside Front Polisario’s other claims, several relevant questions of applicable international and European law, which warrant further discussion, remain. This article examines these questions using the GC’s judgment in Front Polisario, thereby combining general matters of international and European law with the specific circumstances of the EU-Morocco relations and Western Sahara.

  11. Poor supplementary motor area activation differentiates auditory verbal hallucination from imagining the hallucination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raij, Tuukka T; Riekki, Tapani J J

    2012-01-01

    Neuronal underpinnings of auditory verbal hallucination remain poorly understood. One suggested mechanism is brain activation that is similar to verbal imagery but occurs without the proper activation of the neuronal systems that are required to tag the origins of verbal imagery in one's mind. Such neuronal systems involve the supplementary motor area. The supplementary motor area has been associated with awareness of intention to make a hand movement, but whether this region is related to the sense of ownership of one's verbal thought remains poorly known. We hypothesized that the supplementary motor area is related to the distinction between one's own mental processing (auditory verbal imagery) and similar processing that is attributed to non-self author (auditory verbal hallucination). To test this hypothesis, we asked patients to signal the onset and offset of their auditory verbal hallucinations during functional magnetic resonance imaging. During non-hallucination periods, we asked the same patients to imagine the hallucination they had previously experienced. In addition, healthy control subjects signaled the onset and offset of self-paced imagery of similar voices. Both hallucinations and the imagery of hallucinations were associated with similar activation strengths of the fronto-temporal language-related circuitries, but the supplementary motor area was activated more strongly during the imagery than during hallucination. These findings suggest that auditory verbal hallucination resembles verbal imagery in language processing, but without the involvement of the supplementary motor area, which may subserve the sense of ownership of one's own verbal imagery. PMID:24179739

  12. Poor supplementary motor area activation differentiates auditory verbal hallucination from imagining the hallucination☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raij, Tuukka T.; Riekki, Tapani J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Neuronal underpinnings of auditory verbal hallucination remain poorly understood. One suggested mechanism is brain activation that is similar to verbal imagery but occurs without the proper activation of the neuronal systems that are required to tag the origins of verbal imagery in one's mind. Such neuronal systems involve the supplementary motor area. The supplementary motor area has been associated with awareness of intention to make a hand movement, but whether this region is related to the sense of ownership of one's verbal thought remains poorly known. We hypothesized that the supplementary motor area is related to the distinction between one's own mental processing (auditory verbal imagery) and similar processing that is attributed to non-self author (auditory verbal hallucination). To test this hypothesis, we asked patients to signal the onset and offset of their auditory verbal hallucinations during functional magnetic resonance imaging. During non-hallucination periods, we asked the same patients to imagine the hallucination they had previously experienced. In addition, healthy control subjects signaled the onset and offset of self-paced imagery of similar voices. Both hallucinations and the imagery of hallucinations were associated with similar activation strengths of the fronto-temporal language-related circuitries, but the supplementary motor area was activated more strongly during the imagery than during hallucination. These findings suggest that auditory verbal hallucination resembles verbal imagery in language processing, but without the involvement of the supplementary motor area, which may subserve the sense of ownership of one's own verbal imagery. PMID:24179739

  13. The Possibility of Moral Reasoning in Hare’s Prescriptivism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    m zamani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary approaches to moral philosophy have experienced diverging directions regarding the possibility and justification of reasoning. Hare claims that in spite of the fact that intuitivists like Moore, Ross, and Prichard block the use of reasoning by accepting the intuitiveness of knowledge of good and bad, emotivism takes the same rout by focusing on emotions and emphasizing the freedom of choice. While descriptivism and also naturalism accept the possibility of reasoning through admitting the indicative nature of ethical speech, they reject or limit the freedom of choice. He tries to justify both the freedom of choice and the possibility of rational reasoning in moral. In so doing, Hare takes refuge in the non-self-contradiction and compatibility principles to insist on the universalizability of rules of moral reasoning. To make judgments of relevance is the prerequisite in morals which subsequently encompasses universalizability and the possibility of reasoning. Using the linguistic analysis, Hare tries to show that as language in which predicate-logic governs statements, imperatives and moral sentences are governed by rational relationships and principles of compatibility. From this point of view, an individual’s judgments are justifiable, provided that it is not in contradiction with his previous judgments. The aim of this study is to state, analyze, and criticize Hare’s views regarding the provision of rational reasoning and its possibility in terms of the challenges he faces with regard to competing schools of thought.

  14. The doublet of Dirac fermions in the field of the non-Abelian monopole, isotopic chiral symmetry, and parity selection rules

    CERN Document Server

    Redkov, V M

    1999-01-01

    The paper concerns a problem of the Dirac fermion doublet in the external monopole potential obtained by embedding the Abelian monopole solution in the non-Abelian scheme. In this case, the doublet-monopole Hamiltonian is invariant under operations consisting of a complex and one parametric Abelian subgroup in S0(3.C). This symmetry results in a certain freedom in choosing a discrete operator N(A) (A is a complex number) entering the complete set of quantum variables. The same complex number A represents an additional parameter at the basis functions. The generalized inversion like operator N(A) affords certain generalized N(A)-parity selection rules. All the different sets of basis functions Psi(A) determine the same Hilbert space. The functions Psi(A) decompose into linear combinations of Psi(A=0): Psi(A) = F(A) Psi(A=0). However, the bases considered turn out to be nonorthogonal ones when A is a complex number; the latter correlates with the non-self-conjugacy of the N(A) at complex A-s. The meaning of pos...

  15. Extinction transition in stochastic population dynamics in a random, convective environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motivated by modeling the dynamics of a population living in a flowing medium where the environmental factors are random in space, we have studied an asymmetric variant of the one-dimensional contact process, where the quenched random reproduction rates are systematically greater in one direction than in the opposite one. The spatial disorder turns out to be a relevant perturbation but, according to results of Monte Carlo simulations, the behavior of the model at the extinction transition is different from the (infinite-randomness) critical behavior of the disordered symmetric contact process. Depending on the strength a of the asymmetry, the critical population drifts either with a finite velocity or with an asymptotically vanishing velocity as x(t) ∼ tμ(a), where μ(a) < 1. Dynamical quantities are non-self-averaging at the extinction transition; the survival probability, for instance, shows multiscaling, i.e. it is characterized by a broad spectrum of effective exponents. For a sufficiently weak asymmetry, a Griffiths phase appears below the extinction transition, where the survival probability decays as a non-universal power of the time while, above the transition, another extended phase emerges, where the front of the population advances anomalously with a diffusion exponent continuously varying with the control parameter. (paper)

  16. HLA-E coding and 3' untranslated region variability determined by next-generation sequencing in two West-African population samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Erick C; Mendes-Junior, Celso T; Sabbagh, Audrey; Porto, Iane O P; Garcia, André; Ramalho, Jaqueline; Lima, Thálitta H A; Massaro, Juliana D; Dias, Fabrício C; Collares, Cristhianna V A; Jamonneau, Vincent; Bucheton, Bruno; Camara, Mamadou; Donadi, Eduardo A

    2015-12-01

    HLA-E is a non-classical Human Leucocyte Antigen class I gene with immunomodulatory properties. Whereas HLA-E expression usually occurs at low levels, it is widely distributed amongst human tissues, has the ability to bind self and non-self antigens and to interact with NK cells and T lymphocytes, being important for immunosurveillance and also for fighting against infections. HLA-E is usually the most conserved locus among all class I genes. However, most of the previous studies evaluating HLA-E variability sequenced only a few exons or genotyped known polymorphisms. Here we report a strategy to evaluate HLA-E variability by next-generation sequencing (NGS) that might be used to other HLA loci and present the HLA-E haplotype diversity considering the segment encoding the entire HLA-E mRNA (including 5'UTR, introns and the 3'UTR) in two African population samples, Susu from Guinea-Conakry and Lobi from Burkina Faso. Our results indicate that (a) the HLA-E gene is indeed conserved, encoding mainly two different protein molecules; (b) Africans do present several unknown HLA-E alleles presenting synonymous mutations; (c) the HLA-E 3'UTR is quite polymorphic and (d) haplotypes in the HLA-E 3'UTR are in close association with HLA-E coding alleles. NGS has proved to be an important tool on data generation for future studies evaluating variability in non-classical MHC genes.

  17. Spectrum generating algebra for the continuous spectrum of a free particle in Lobachevski space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadella, M.; Negro, J.; Santander, M. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad de Valladolid, 47071 Valladolid (Spain); Pronko, G. P. [Department of Theoretical Physics, IHEP, Protvino, Moscow Region 142280 (Russian Federation)

    2013-02-15

    In this paper, we construct a Spectrum Generating Algebra (SGA) for a quantum system with purely continuous spectrum: the quantum free particle in a Lobachevski space with constant negative curvature. The SGA contains the geometrical symmetry algebra of the system plus a subalgebra of operators that give the spectrum of the system and connects the eigenfunctions of the Hamiltonian among themselves. In our case, the geometrical symmetry algebra is so(3,1) and the SGA is so(4,2). We start with a representation of so(4,2) by functions on a realization of the Lobachevski space given by a two-sheeted hyperboloid, where the Lie algebra commutators are the usual Poisson-Dirac brackets. Then, we introduce a quantized version of the representation in which functions are replaced by operators on a Hilbert space and Poisson-Dirac brackets by commutators. Eigenfunctions of the Hamiltonian are given and 'naive' ladder operators are identified. The previously defined 'naive' ladder operators shift the eigenvalues by a complex number so that an alternative approach is necessary. This is obtained by a non-self-adjoint function of a linear combination of the ladder operators, which gives the correct relation among the eigenfunctions of the Hamiltonian. We give an eigenfunction expansion of functions over the upper sheet of a two-sheeted hyperboloid in terms of the eigenfunctions of the Hamiltonian.

  18. A YOUNG GIANT MOLECULAR CLOUD FORMED AT THE INTERFACE OF TWO COLLIDING SUPERSHELLS: OBSERVATIONS MEET SIMULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, J. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and MQ Research Centre in Astronomy, Astrophysics and Astrophotonics, Macquarie University, NSW 2109 (Australia); Ntormousi, E. [Service d' Astrophysique, CEA/DSM/IRFU Orme des Merisiers, Bat 709 Gif-sur-Yvette F-91191 (France); Fukui, Y.; Hayakawa, T. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya (Japan); Fierlinger, K., E-mail: joanne.dawson@mq.edu.au [University Observatory Munich, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 München (Germany)

    2015-01-20

    Dense, star-forming gas is believed to form at the stagnation points of large-scale interstellar medium flows, but observational examples of this process in action are rare. We here present a giant molecular cloud (GMC) sandwiched between two colliding Milky Way supershells, which we argue shows strong evidence of having formed from material accumulated at the collision zone. Combining {sup 12}CO, {sup 13}CO, and C{sup 18}O(J = 1-0) data with new high-resolution, three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of colliding supershells, we discuss the origin and nature of the GMC (G288.5+1.5), favoring a scenario in which the cloud was partially seeded by pre-existing denser material, but assembled into its current form by the action of the shells. This assembly includes the production of some new molecular gas. The GMC is well interpreted as non-self-gravitating, despite its high mass (M{sub H{sub 2}}∼1.7×10{sup 5} M{sub ⊙}), and is likely pressure confined by the colliding flows, implying that self-gravity was not a necessary ingredient for its formation. Much of the molecular gas is relatively diffuse, and the cloud as a whole shows little evidence of star formation activity, supporting a scenario in which it is young and recently formed. Drip-like formations along its lower edge may be explained by fluid dynamical instabilities in the cooled gas.

  19. Diet-Induced Dysbiosis of the Intestinal Microbiota and the Effects on Immunity and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deanna L. Gibson

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal (GI microbiota is the collection of microbes which reside in the GI tract and represents the largest source of non-self antigens in the human body. The GI tract functions as a major immunological organ as it must maintain tolerance to commensal and dietary antigens while remaining responsive to pathogenic stimuli. If this balance is disrupted, inappropriate inflammatory processes can result, leading to host cell damage and/or autoimmunity. Evidence suggests that the composition of the intestinal microbiota can influence susceptibility to chronic disease of the intestinal tract including ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, celiac disease and irritable bowel syndrome, as well as more systemic diseases such as obesity, type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Interestingly, a considerable shift in diet has coincided with increased incidence of many of these inflammatory diseases. It was originally believed that the composition of the intestinal microbiota was relatively stable from early childhood; however, recent evidence suggests that diet can cause dysbiosis, an alteration in the composition of the microbiota, which could lead to aberrant immune responses. The role of the microbiota and the potential for diet-induced dysbiosis in inflammatory conditions of the GI tract and systemic diseases will be discussed.

  20. Positron annihilation spectroscopy as a tool to develop self healing in aluminium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hautakangas, S.; Schut, H. [Faculty of Applied Physics, section NPM2, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB, Delft (Netherlands); Zwaag, S. van der; Rivera Diaz del Castillo, P.E.J. [Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Section Fundamentals of Advanced Materials, Delft University of Technology, Kluyverweg 1, 2629 HS Delft (Netherlands); Dijk, N.H. van [Faculty of Applied Physics, Section FAME, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB, Delft (Netherlands)

    2007-07-01

    Positron lifetime and Doppler broadening spectroscopy have been applied to probe the free volume generation (vacancies, dislocations and nano-cracks) during plastic deformation of a commercial aluminium AA2024 (T3) alloy. Aim of the total program is to study how solute atoms can be driven to the areas where initial cracking may occur in order to prevent the failure of the specimen. The phenomenon of closing the nano-crack is called Self Healing, and can provide extra strength and ductility to the alloy under some loading conditions. Plastic deformation of over-aged aluminum alloy at room temperature increases the average positron lifetime from initial value of 190 ps to 203 ps. The low momentum parameter S increases in agreement with the increase of open volume defects. The elastic deformation of the sample does not have a recordable effect on the positron annihilation data. It is also shown that the induced damage does not recover after loading the sample, i.e. the AA2024 in the T3 state is non self healing material, as expected, providing important first state result in the research of self healing Al alloys. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Advances in clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats—A review%成簇的规律间隔的短回文重复序列CRISPR的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽丽; 何进; 王阶平

    2011-01-01

    最近发现,在细菌和古菌中广泛存在的成簇的规律间隔的短回文重复序列(clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats,CRISPR)及其相关蛋白是针对噬菌体、质粒等外源DNA的获得性和可遗传的免疫系统.本文综述了CRISPR系统的基本结构、多样性、作用机理及其区分自我与非我的机制,并对CRISPR研究和应用前景进行了展望.%The recently discovered Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat ( CRISPRs) can protect bacteria and archaea with adaptive and heritable defense systems against the invasion of phage- and plasmid- associated mobile genetic elements. Here, we review the structure, diversity, mechanism of interference and self versus non-self discrimination of CRISPR systems. We also discuss the potential applications of this novel interference system.

  2. Molecular fingerprinting of carbohydrate structure phenotypes of three porifera proteoglycan-like glyconectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerardel, Yann; Czeszak, Xavier; Sumanovski, Lazar T; Karamanos, Yannis; Popescu, Octavian; Strecker, Gerard; Misevic, Gradimir N

    2004-04-01

    Glyconectins (GNs) represent a new class of proteoglycan-like cell adhesion and recognition molecules found in several Porifera species. Physico-chemical properties of GN carbohydrate moieties, such as size, composition, and resistance to most glycosaminoglycan-degrading enzymes, distinguish them from any other type of known glycoproteins. The molecular mechanism of GN-mediated self/non-self discrimination function is based on highly species-specific and Ca(2+)-dependent GN to GN associations that approach the selectivity of the evolutionarily advanced immunoglobulin superfamily. Carbohydrates of glyconectins 1, 2, and 3 are essential for species-specific auto-aggregation properties in three respective Porifera species. To obtain a structural insight into the molecular mechanisms, we performed carbohydrate structural analyses of glyconectins isolated from the three sponge model systems, Microciona prolifera (GN1), Halichondria panicea (GN2), and Cliona celata (GN3). The glycan content of all three GNs ranged between 40 and 60% of their total mass. Our approach using sequential and selective chemical degradation of GN glycans and subsequent mass spectrometric and NMR analyses revealed that each glyconectin presents novel and highly species-specific carbohydrate sequences. All three GNs include distinct acid-resistant and acid-labile carbohydrate domains, the latter composed of novel repetitive units. We have sequenced four short sulfated and one pyruvilated unit in GN1, eight larger and branched pyruvilated oligosaccharides in GN2, which represent a heterogeneous but related family of structures, and four sulfated units in GN3.

  3. A model for the performance of a vertical tube condenser in the presence of noncondensable gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guentay, A.D.S.

    1995-09-01

    Some proposed vertical tube condensers are designed to operate at high noncondensable fractions, which warrants a simple model to predict their performance. Models developed thus far are usually non self-contained as they require the specification of the wall temperature to predict the local condensation rate. The present model attempts to fill this gap by addressing the secondary side heat transfer as well. Starting with momentum balance which includes the effect of interfacial shear stress, a Nusselt-type algebraic equation is derived for the film thickness as a function of flow and geometry parameters. The heat and mass transfer analogy relations are then invoked to deduce the condensation rate of steam onto the tube wall. Lastly, the heat transfer to the secondary side is modelled to include cooling by forced, free or mixed convection flows. The model is used for parametric simulations to determine the impact on the condenser performance of important factors such as the inlet gas fraction, the mixture inlet flowrate, the total pressure, and the molecular weight of the noncondensable gas. The model performed simulations of some experiments with pure steam and air-steam mixtures flowing down a vertical tube. The model predicts the data quite well.

  4. The growth threshold conjecture: a theoretical framework for understanding T-cell tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Clemente F; Herrero, Miguel A; Cuesta, José A; Acosta, Francisco J; Fernández-Arias, Cristina

    2015-07-01

    Adaptive immune responses depend on the capacity of T cells to target specific antigens. As similar antigens can be expressed by pathogens and host cells, the question naturally arises of how can T cells discriminate friends from foes. In this work, we suggest that T cells tolerate cells whose proliferation rates remain below a permitted threshold. Our proposal relies on well-established facts about T-cell dynamics during acute infections: T-cell populations are elastic (they expand and contract) and they display inertia (contraction is delayed relative to antigen removal). By modelling inertia and elasticity, we show that tolerance to slow-growing populations can emerge as a population-scale feature of T cells. This result suggests a theoretical framework to understand immune tolerance that goes beyond the self versus non-self dichotomy. It also accounts for currently unexplained observations, such as the paradoxical tolerance to slow-growing pathogens or the presence of self-reactive T cells in the organism.

  5. Dense Cloud Formation and Star Formation in a Barred Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Nimori, M; Sorai, K; Watanabe, Y; Hirota, A; Namekata, D

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the properties of massive, dense clouds formed in a barred galaxy and their possible relation to star formation, performing a two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulation with the gravitational potential obtained from the 2Mass data from the barred spiral galaxy, M83. Since the environment for cloud formation and evolution in the bar region is expected to be different from that in the spiral arm region, barred galaxies are a good target to study the environmental effects on cloud formation and the subsequent star formation. Our simulation uses for an initial 80 Myr an isothermal flow of non-self gravitating gas in the barred potential, then including radiative cooling, heating and self-gravitation of the gas for the next 40 Myr, during which dense clumps are formed. We identify many cold, dense gas clumps for which the mass is more than $10^4M_{\\odot}$ (a value corresponding to the molecular clouds) and study the physical properties of these clumps. The relation of the velocity dispersion of the i...

  6. The important role of evolution in the Planck $Y_{SZ}$-mass calibration

    CERN Document Server

    Andreon, S

    2014-01-01

    In light of the tension between cosmological parameters from Planck cosmic microwave background and galaxy clusters, we revised the Planck analysis of the $Y_{SZ}$-mass calibration allowing for evolution to be determined by the data instead than imposed as external constraint. Our analysis uses the very same data used by the Planck team in order to emphasize that differences in the results comes from differences in the analysis assumptions. The evolution derived from the Planck sample of 71 calibrating clusters with $0.05non self-similar evolution of $Y_{SZ}$ has to be accounted for in analyses aimed to establish biases of Planck masses because degenerate with it.

  7. The important role of evolution in the Planck YSZ-mass calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreon, S.

    2014-10-01

    In light of the tension between cosmological parameters from Planck cosmic microwave background and galaxy clusters, we revised the Planck analysis of the YSZ-mass calibration to allow evolution to be determined by the data instead of being imposed as an external constraint. Our analysis uses the very same data and Malmquist bias corrections as used by the Planck team in order to emphasize that differences in the results come from differences in the assumptions. The evolution derived from 71 calibrating clusters, with 0.05 < z < 0.45, is proportional to E2.5 ± 0.4(z), so inconsistent with the self-similar evolution (E2/3) assumed by previous analyses. When allowing for evolution, the slope of YSZ-mass relation turns out to be 1.51 ± 0.07, which is shallower by 4.8σ than the value derived when assuming self-similar evolution, introducing a mass-dependent bias. The non-self-similar evolution of YSZ has to be accounted for in analyses aimed to establish the biases of Planck masses.

  8. Insights into the Prunus-Specific S-RNase-Based Self-Incompatibility System from a Genome-Wide Analysis of the Evolutionary Radiation of S Locus-Related F-box Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagi, Takashi; Henry, Isabelle M; Morimoto, Takuya; Tao, Ryutaro

    2016-06-01

    Self-incompatibility (SI) is an important plant reproduction mechanism that facilitates the maintenance of genetic diversity within species. Three plant families, the Solanaceae, Rosaceae and Plantaginaceae, share an S-RNase-based gametophytic SI (GSI) system that involves a single S-RNase as the pistil S determinant and several F-box genes as pollen S determinants that act via non-self-recognition. Previous evidence has suggested a specific self-recognition mechanism in Prunus (Rosaceae), raising questions about the generality of the S-RNase-based GSI system. We investigated the evolution of the pollen S determinant by comparing the sequences of the Prunus S haplotype-specific F-box gene (SFB) with those of its orthologs in other angiosperm genomes. Our results indicate that the Prunus SFB does not cluster with the pollen S of other plants and diverged early after the establishment of the Eudicots. Our results further indicate multiple F-box gene duplication events, specifically in the Rosaceae family, and suggest that the Prunus SFB gene originated in a recent Prunus-specific gene duplication event. Transcriptomic and evolutionary analyses of the Prunus S paralogs are consistent with the establishment of a Prunus-specific SI system, and the possibility of subfunctionalization differentiating the newly generated SFB from the original pollen S determinant.

  9. Pathophysiology of favism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arese, P; Mannuzzu, L; Turrini, F

    1989-01-01

    Haemolytic crises occurring in G6PD-deficient individuals after ingestion of fava beans (favism) are much less frequent than in the past. However, favism is a unique natural model of oxidant damage in vivo, useful for the study of senescent or damaged red blood cells (RBC) clearance from circulation. The following aspects have been considered: 1. Pathophysiology of favism, including incidence, salient features, and sequence of events. 2. RBC alterations during the haemolytic crisis: biochemical, rheological and morphological alterations occurring in RBC isolated at different stages of the crisis. 3. Toxic substances of Vicia faba and their mechanism of action: treatment of G6PD-deficient RBC with divicine or isouramil (redox substances present in fava beans) provokes the same changes as observed during favism. 4. Intravascular vs. extravascular haemolysis: extravascular (i.e. phagocytic) removal of damages RBC seems predominant in favism. 5. The signal for RBC removal: in analogy with a recent model for recognition and removal of oxidant-stressed or senescent RBC, we propose removal of fava bean damaged RBC be mediated by apposition of antiband 3 antibodies and complement C3 fragments, recognized as non-self recognition signal by monocytes and macrophages. PMID:2481620

  10. MAIT cells: new guardians of the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurioka, Ayako; Walker, Lucy J; Klenerman, Paul; Willberg, Christian B

    2016-08-01

    The liver is an important immunological organ that remains sterile and tolerogenic in homeostasis, despite continual exposure to non-self food and microbial-derived products from the gut. However, where intestinal mucosal defenses are breached or in the presence of a systemic infection, the liver acts as a second 'firewall', because of its enrichment with innate effector cells able to rapidly respond to infections or tissue dysregulation. One of the largest populations of T cells within the human liver are mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells, a novel innate-like T-cell population that can recognize a highly conserved antigen derived from the microbial riboflavin synthesis pathway. MAIT cells are emerging as significant players in the human immune system, associated with an increasing number of clinical diseases of bacterial, viral, autoimmune and cancerous origin. As reviewed here, we are only beginning to investigate the potential role of this dominant T-cell subset in the liver, but the reactivity of MAIT cells to both inflammatory cytokines and riboflavin derivatives suggests that MAIT cells may have an important role in first line of defense as part of the liver firewall. As such, MAIT cells are promising targets for modulating the host defense and inflammation in both acute and chronic liver diseases. PMID:27588203

  11. Conditional tolerance of temperate phages via transcription-dependent CRISPR-Cas targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Gregory W; Jiang, Wenyan; Bikard, David; Marraffini, Luciano A

    2014-10-30

    A fundamental feature of immune systems is the ability to distinguish pathogenic from self and commensal elements, and to attack the former but tolerate the latter. Prokaryotic CRISPR-Cas immune systems defend against phage infection by using Cas nucleases and small RNA guides that specify one or more target sites for cleavage of the viral genome. Temperate phages include viruses that can integrate into the bacterial chromosome, and they can carry genes that provide a fitness advantage to the lysogenic host. However, CRISPR-Cas targeting that relies strictly on DNA sequence recognition provides indiscriminate immunity both to lytic and lysogenic infection by temperate phages-compromising the genetic stability of these potentially beneficial elements altogether. Here we show that the Staphylococcus epidermidis CRISPR-Cas system can prevent lytic infection but tolerate lysogenization by temperate phages. Conditional tolerance is achieved through transcription-dependent DNA targeting, and ensures that targeting is resumed upon induction of the prophage lytic cycle. Our results provide evidence for the functional divergence of CRISPR-Cas systems and highlight the importance of targeting mechanism diversity. In addition, they extend the concept of 'tolerance to non-self' to the prokaryotic branch of adaptive immunity. PMID:25174707

  12. Very Singular Similarity Solutions and Hermitian Spectral Theory for Semilinear Odd-order PDEs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FERNANDES R. S.; GALAKTIONOV V. A.

    2011-01-01

    Asymptotic large- and short-time behavior of solutions of the linear dispersion equation ut =uxxx in (IR)×(IR)+,and its (2k+1)th-order extensions are studied.Such a refined scattering is based on a “Hermitian” spectral theory for a pair { B,B*}of non self-adjoint rescaled operators B=D3y+(1/3)yDy+(1/3)I,and the adjoint one B* =D3y-(1/3)yDy,with the discrete spectrum σ(B) =σ(B*) ={λl =-l/3,l =0,1,2,…} and eigenfunctions for B,{ ψl (y) =[(- 1)l / (∫l!)] DlyAi(y),l≥0},where Ai(y) is Airy's classic function.Eigenfunctions of B* are then generalized Hermite polynomials.Applications to very singular similarity solutions (VSSs) of the semilinear dispersion equation with absorption,us(x,t) t-(1/p-1)f( x/1):ut=uxxx-|u|p-1u in (IR)×(IR)+,p>1,and to its higher-order counterparts are presented.The goal is,by using various techniques,to show that there exists a countable sequence of critical exponents { pl =1 +3/(l + 1),l =0,1,2,…} such that,at each p =p l,a p-branch of VSSs bifurcates from the corresponding eigenfunction ψl of the linear operator B above.

  13. Mathematical modeling and analysis of combinational immune boost for tumor elimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakada, Naoki; Nagata, Mizuho; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro; Nakaoka, Shinji

    2016-04-01

    The immune system has an ability to recognize tumor as non-self antigen, and initiates inflammatory response to eliminate tumor. A dendritic cell (DCs) population is one of immune cell subsets that specifically uptakes foreign antigen and then presents to T cells. Dendritic cell boost ex vivo is operated to enhance immune response against tumor that in general comes to fail due to several complex reasons. Although dendritic cell therapy has been operated in clinical trials by boosting tumor immune responses, less is known about dynamic behaviors generated by interactions among immune cell subsets and tumor cells. In this paper, we construct and analyze a mathematical model describing tumor killing by T cells activated by dendritic cells. A handling time representing a waiting time required for T cells to be activated during antigen presentation is incorporated in our model. Mathematical analyses imply that successful tumor elimination depends on the amount of T cells activated ex vivo when introduced. Moreover, numerical simulations imply that an immune escape basin in which tumor can escape from T cell responses increases when the handling time increases, indicating that efficient tumor elimination might result in immediate T cell inactivation due to rapid decline of antigenic stimulation.

  14. Analysis of Engineering Construction Claims%关于工程施工索赔浅议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭世琼

    2012-01-01

    施工索赔对施工单位来说是在非己方过错的情况下对造成的实际损失向业主提出补偿要求.其程序包括:提出索赔要求,报送索赔报告,谈判协商,司法调解,仲裁或起诉.本文主要结合我单位实际情况在施工中常采用的索赔程序进行简要介绍.%In terms of construction unit, construction claims refers to actual loss caused in the case of non-self fault, and put in compensation requirement to owner, The procedure includes: putting in a claim, submitting claims report, negotiations and consultations, judicial mediation and arbitration or prosecution. In this paper, commonly used procedure for claims was described in construction, combing with actual situation.

  15. Cost-Effective Encryption-Based Autonomous Routing Protocol for Efficient and Secure Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Kashif; Derhab, Abdelouahid; Orgun, Mehmet A; Al-Muhtadi, Jalal; Rodrigues, Joel J P C; Khalil, Mohammed Sayim; Ali Ahmed, Adel

    2016-01-01

    The deployment of intelligent remote surveillance systems depends on wireless sensor networks (WSNs) composed of various miniature resource-constrained wireless sensor nodes. The development of routing protocols for WSNs is a major challenge because of their severe resource constraints, ad hoc topology and dynamic nature. Among those proposed routing protocols, the biology-inspired self-organized secure autonomous routing protocol (BIOSARP) involves an artificial immune system (AIS) that requires a certain amount of time to build up knowledge of neighboring nodes. The AIS algorithm uses this knowledge to distinguish between self and non-self neighboring nodes. The knowledge-building phase is a critical period in the WSN lifespan and requires active security measures. This paper proposes an enhanced BIOSARP (E-BIOSARP) that incorporates a random key encryption mechanism in a cost-effective manner to provide active security measures in WSNs. A detailed description of E-BIOSARP is presented, followed by an extensive security and performance analysis to demonstrate its efficiency. A scenario with E-BIOSARP is implemented in network simulator 2 (ns-2) and is populated with malicious nodes for analysis. Furthermore, E-BIOSARP is compared with state-of-the-art secure routing protocols in terms of processing time, delivery ratio, energy consumption, and packet overhead. The findings show that the proposed mechanism can efficiently protect WSNs from selective forwarding, brute-force or exhaustive key search, spoofing, eavesdropping, replaying or altering of routing information, cloning, acknowledgment spoofing, HELLO flood attacks, and Sybil attacks. PMID:27043572

  16. Phantom-like behaviour in a brane-world model with curvature effects

    CERN Document Server

    Bouhmadi-Lopez, Mariam

    2008-01-01

    Recent observational evidence seems to allow the possibility that our universe may currently be under a dark energy effect of a phantom nature. A suitable effective phantom fluid behaviour can emerge in brane cosmology; In particular, within the normal non self-accelerating DGP branch, without any exotic matter and due to curvature effects from induced gravity. The phantom-like behaviour is based in defining an effective energy density that grows as the brane expands. This effective description breaks down at some point in the past when the effective energy density becomes negative and the effective equation of state parameter blows up. In this paper we investigate if the phantom-like regime can be enlarged by the inclusion of a Gauss-Bonnet (GB) term into the bulk. The motivation is that such a GB component would model additional curvature effects on the brane setting. More precisely, our aim is to determine if the GB term, dominating and modifying the early behaviour of the brane universe, may eventually ex...

  17. A self-adjoint arrival time operator inspired by measurement models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Construction of a self-adjoint arrival time operator inspired by measurements. • Agreement with the strong measurement formula in the low momentum regime. • Review of self-adjoint and non-self-adjoint arrival time operators. • Discussion of the momentum operator on the half-line. • Discussion of the intuitive reasons obstructing self-adjointness. - Abstract: We introduce an arrival time operator which is self-adjoint and, unlike previously proposed arrival time operators, has a close link to simple measurement models. Its spectrum leads to an arrival time distribution which is a variant of the Kijowski distribution (a re-ordering of the current) in the large momentum regime but is proportional to the kinetic energy density in the small momentum regime, in agreement with measurement models. A brief derivation of the latter distribution is given. We make some simple observations about the physical reasons for self-adjointness, or its absence, in both arrival time operators and the momentum operator on the half-line and we also compare our operator with the dwell time operator

  18. Tissue, developmental, and caste-specific expression of odorant binding proteins in a eusocial insect, the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Wanchoo, Arun; Ortiz-Urquiza, Almudena; Xia, Yuxian; Keyhani, Nemat O.

    2016-01-01

    Insects interact with the surrounding environment via chemoreception, and in social insects such as ants, chemoreception functions to mediate diverse behaviors including food acquisition, self/non-self recognition, and intraspecific communication. The invasive red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, has spread worldwide, displaying a remarkable environmental adaptability. Odorant binding proteins (OBPs) are chemical compound carriers, involved in diverse physiological processes including odor detection and chemical transport. S. invicta contains a highly divergent 17-member OBP gene family, that includes an ant-specific expansion and the social organization implicated Gp-9 (OBP3) gene. A systematic gene expression analysis of the SiOBP repertoire was performed across social caste (workers, male and female alates), tissues (antennae, head, thorax, and abdomen), and developmental stages (egg, larvae, and pupae), revealing that although SiOBPs were expressed in the antennae, the major regions of expression were in the head and thorax across all castes, and the abdomen in male and female alates. SiOBPs were very highly expressed in female alates and at somewhat lower levels in male alates and workers. SiOBPs were differentially expressed, with unique signatures in various castes and tissues, suggesting functionality of SiOBPs beyond olfaction Expression patterns of SiOBP subgroups also showed relationships with their evolutionary relatedness. PMID:27765943

  19. Investigating and correcting plasma DNA sequencing coverage bias to enhance aneuploidy discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrananda, Dineika; Thorne, Natalie P; Ganesamoorthy, Devika; Bruno, Damien L; Benjamini, Yuval; Speed, Terence P; Slater, Howard R; Bahlo, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Pregnant women carry a mixture of cell-free DNA fragments from self and fetus (non-self) in their circulation. In recent years multiple independent studies have demonstrated the ability to detect fetal trisomies such as trisomy 21, the cause of Down syndrome, by Next-Generation Sequencing of maternal plasma. The current clinical tests based on this approach show very high sensitivity and specificity, although as yet they have not become the standard diagnostic test. Here we describe improvements to the analysis of the sequencing data by reducing GC bias and better handling of the genomic repeats. We show substantial improvements in the sensitivity of the standard trisomy 21 statistical tests, which we measure by artificially reducing read coverage. We also explore the bias stemming from the natural cleavage of plasma DNA by examining DNA motifs and position specific base distributions. We propose a model to correct this fragmentation bias and observe that incorporating this bias does not lead to any further improvements in the detection of fetal trisomy. The improved bias corrections that we demonstrate in this work can be readily adopted into existing fetal trisomy detection protocols and should also lead to improvements in sub-chromosomal copy number variation detection.

  20. Twisted $\\mathbb{C}P^{N-1}$ instanton projectors and the $N$-level quantum density matrix

    CERN Document Server

    Shermer, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Twisted classical solutions to the $\\mathbb{C}P^{N-1}$ model play a key role in the analysis of such models on the spatially compactified cylinder $\\mathbb{S}_L^1 \\times {\\mathbb{R}^1}$ and have recently been shown to be important for the resurgent structure of this quantum field theory. Instantons and non-self-dual solutions both fractionalize, and domain walls formed by such topological solutions can be associated with $N$-vacua having maximally repulsive energy eigenvalues. The purpose of this paper is to reinforce this view through the investigation of a number of parallels between the $\\mathbb{C}P^{N-1}$ model and $N$-level quantum mechanical density matrices. Specifically, we demonstrate the existence of a time-evolution equation for the $\\mathbb{C}P^{N-1}$ instanton projector analogous to the Liouville-von Neumann equation in the quantum mechanical formalism. The group theoretical analysis of density matrices and the $\\mathbb{C}P^{N-1}$ model are also closely related. Finally, we explore the emergence ...

  1. [Place of psychoanalysis in a day hospital for psychotic little children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, F; Boucharlat, R; Cartier-Bresson, M; Graveleau, M T; Ribas, D

    1983-12-15

    The authors try to draw conclusions from Winnicot's articles on the discontinous nature of emotional development. They try to understand how autism may originate in disruptions of self-non-self" attachments. However, they admit that the child's personality may develop even within such disruptions. In an experiment of intensive care in a day-hospital for autistic or psychotic children they have tried to restore these attachments in the hospital itself, through continuous care by each member of the staff, regardless of qualification or training. This continuity provides a basis for relationships which may be voiced and interpreted during the children's therapy as they share this reference experience. Its continuity makes life in the institution therapeutic in itself, even without psychoanalytic interpretations. The lack of spoken language gives rise to communication difficulties and use of an educated self is a current project. Two clinical observations exemplify the parallel work of parents and children and their reciprocal interactions. As the origin and future of these psychoses are still open questions, the possible responsibility of predisposing or initial fragilizing factors which facilitate this lasting personality organization is to be considered.

  2. Toll-like receptors in invertebrate innate immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Zheng

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Among invertebrates, innate immunity is the only defense mechanism against harmful non-self agents.In response to recognition of microbial pattern molecules, Drosophila melanogaster activates either theToll or Imd pathway, leading to the translocation of NF-kB (or Rel transcription factors from the cytoplasmto the nucleus and the subsequent production of antimicrobial peptides, which provide systemic innateimmunity. Toll-like receptors (TLRs are characterized by an extracellular leucine rich repeat (LRRdomain and an intracellular Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR domain. TLRs are found from cnidarians tomammals. Here we argue that TLR mediated innate immunity developed during an early stage ofevolution when organisms acquired a body cavity. This is supported by the distributions of TLR and Relgenes in the animal kingdom. Further, TLR mediated immunity appears to have developed independentlyin invertebrates and vertebrates. Recent studies have shown that microbial molecules, with the potentialto signal through TLR, can be beneficial to host survival. Studies on this signaling pathway could opendoors to a better understanding of the origins of innate immunity in invertebrates and potentialtransmission blocking strategies aimed at ameliorating vector-borne diseases.

  3. The Key Roles of the Gas Disk in the Formation and Evolution of Planetary Systems%原行星盘对行星系统形成及演化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘慧根

    2012-01-01

    the rate or even the direction of type I migration, we choose a one-dimensional model of the gas disc, adding a density wave due to some perturbations, to survey the migration of low mass planets. The total tidal torques on the planets depend on their phase angle. Adding the propagation of density wave and the eccentric orbit of planet, we find an outward/inward migration criterion for a planet in given conditions. After the formation of a gas giant, the tidal torque leads to a gap-opening in the disc around the giant. Chapter 6 provides a one-dimensional quasi-steady self-gravitational disc model. In this model, there is a positive correlation between the gap width and the surface density of gas disc. Comparing to the non-self-gravitational disc model, when the surface density is smaller than the critical surface density, the gap width in self-gravitational disc model becomes narrower than that in the non-self-gravitational disc model. In final chapter, we summarize our results and make some discussions.

  4. Emergence and prevalence of human vector-borne diseases in sink vector populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilhem Rascalou

    Full Text Available Vector-borne diseases represent a major public health concern in most tropical and subtropical areas, and an emerging threat for more developed countries. Our understanding of the ecology, evolution and control of these diseases relies predominantly on theory and data on pathogen transmission in large self-sustaining 'source' populations of vectors representative of highly endemic areas. However, there are numerous places where environmental conditions are less favourable to vector populations, but where immigration allows them to persist. We built an epidemiological model to investigate the dynamics of six major human vector borne-diseases in such non self-sustaining 'sink' vector populations. The model was parameterized through a review of the literature, and we performed extensive sensitivity analysis to look at the emergence and prevalence of the pathogen that could be encountered in these populations. Despite the low vector abundance in typical sink populations, all six human diseases were able to spread in 15-55% of cases after accidental introduction. The rate of spread was much more strongly influenced by vector longevity, immigration and feeding rates, than by transmission and virulence of the pathogen. Prevalence in humans remained lower than 5% for dengue, leishmaniasis and Japanese encephalitis, but substantially higher for diseases with longer duration of infection; malaria and the American and African trypanosomiasis. Vector-related parameters were again the key factors, although their influence was lower than on pathogen emergence. Our results emphasize the need for ecology and evolution to be thought in the context of metapopulations made of a mosaic of sink and source habitats, and to design vector control program not only targeting areas of high vector density, but working at a larger spatial scale.

  5. Innate and specific immunity in plants Imunidade inata e específica em plantas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hércules Menezes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants and animals are able to recognize and distinguish between self and non-self molecular structures. Recent studies concerning host-parasite relations have presented the common and contrasting mechanisms of host resistance in both plants and animals. Some phylogenetically old defense structures and strategies have been maintained by means of parallel development, while several others have emerged more recently during phylogenesis. Although lacking immunoglobulin molecules, circulating cells and phagocytosis process, plants successfully use several pre-established physical and chemical defenses as well as induce adaptive-immune response strategies. This review presents recent developments in the study of comparative immunity aspects that are present in animals and plants. Plantas e animais são capazes de reconhecer e distinguir entre estruturas moleculares próprias e não-próprias. Estudos recentes nas relações hospedeiro-parasitas têm exposto mecanismos comuns e contrastantes de resistência do hospedeiro tanto em animais como em plantas. Algumas estruturas e estratégias de defesa filogeneticamente antigas têm sido mantidas por desenvolvimento paralelo, enquanto várias outras emergiram mais recentemente durante a filogênese. Embora desprovidas de moléculas de imunoglobulina, células circulantes e processo de fagocitose, as plantas utilizam com sucesso várias defesas físicas e químicas pré-formadas, bem como induzem estratégias de imunidade adaptativa. Esta revisão apresenta a evolução recente nos estudo de aspectos de imunidade comparada, presentes em animais e as plantas.  

  6. Warping and tearing of misaligned circumbinary disks around eccentric supermassive black hole binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayasaki, K.; Sohn, B. W.; Okazaki, A. T.; Jung, T.; Zhao, G.; Naito, T.

    2015-07-01

    We study the warping and tearing of a geometrically thin, non-self-gravitating disk surrounding binary supermassive black holes on an eccentric orbit. The circumbinary disk is significantly misaligned with the binary orbital plane, and is subject to the time-dependent tidal torques. In principle, such a disk is warped and precesses, and is torn into mutually misaligned rings in the region, where the tidal precession torques are stronger than the local viscous torques. We derive the tidal-warp and tearing radii of the misaligned circumbinary disks around eccentric SMBH binaries. We find that in disks with the viscosity parameter α larger than a critical value depending on the disk aspect ratio, the disk warping appears outside the tearing radius. This condition is expressed for small amplitude warps as α > √H/(3r) for H/rlesssim0.1, where H is the disk scale height. If α warp radius is inside the tearing radius, where most of disk material is likely to rapidly accrete onto SMBHs. In warped and torn disks, both the tidal-warp and the tearing radii most strongly depend on the binary semi-major axis, although they also mildly depend on the other orbital and disk parameters. This strong dependence enables us to estimate the semi-major axis, once the tidal warp or tearing radius is determined observationally: for the tidal warp radius of 0.1 pc, the semi-major axis is estimated to be ~10-2 pc for 107 Msolar black hole with typical orbital and disk parameters. We also briefly discuss the possibility that central objects of observed warped maser disks in active galactic nuclei are supermassive black hole binaries.

  7. Both STING and MAVS fish orthologs contribute to the induction of interferon mediated by RIG-I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Biacchesi

    Full Text Available Viral infections are detected in most cases by the host innate immune system through pattern-recognition receptors (PRR, the sensors for pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs, which induce the production of cytokines, such as type I interferons (IFN. Recent identification in mammalian and teleost fish of cytoplasmic viral RNA sensors, RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs, and their mitochondrial adaptor: the mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS protein, also called IPS-1, highlight their important role in the induction of IFN at the early stage of a virus infection. More recently, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER adaptor: the stimulator of interferon genes (STING protein, also called MITA, ERIS and MPYS, has been shown to play a pivotal role in response to both non-self-cytosolic RNA and dsDNA. In this study, we cloned STING cDNAs from zebrafish and showed that it was an ortholog to mammalian STING. We demonstrated that overexpression of this ER protein in fish cells led to a constitutive induction of IFN and interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs. STING-overexpressing cells were almost fully protected against RNA virus infection with a strong inhibition of both DNA and RNA virus replication. In addition, we found that together with MAVS, STING was an important player in the RIG-I IFN-inducing pathway. This report provides the demonstration that teleost fish possess a functional RLR pathway in which MAVS and STING are downstream signaling molecules of RIG-I. The Sequences presented in this article have been submitted to GenBank under accession numbers: Zebrafish STING (HE856619; EPC STING (HE856620; EPC IRF3 (HE856621; EPC IFN promoter (HE856618.

  8. The personality and behavior traits in psychiatric disorders associated with epilepsy%癫痫性精神障碍患者的人格特征和行为方式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈岩

    2013-01-01

    目的:了解癫痫性精神障碍者的人格特征和行为方式.方法:采用非理性信念量表、卡特尔16种个性特征量表、Barret冲动量表、Buss-Perry攻击量表分别测试38例癫痫性精神障碍患者(观察组)和39名健康成年人(对照组).结果:观察组非理性信念量表中低挫折耐受、概括化评论、绝对化要求及总分均高于对照组(P0.05).观察组冲动量表的计划分、行动分、认知分及总分均高于对照组(P0. 05) . The Barret Impulsiveness Scale displayed that the observation group had higher scores than the control in plan, action, cognitive and the total score(P<0. 01) ;the Buss-Perry Attack Scale demonstrated that the observation group had higher scores than the control in anger, hostility, physical aggression, language offensive, self-attack and the total score (P < 0. 01 ) . Conclusions: The patients with epileptic psychiatric disorders often had irrational beliefs and behavior traits, possessing the personality trait of low intelligence, instability, suspicion, sensitivity,fantasy and non-self-discipline,comprehensive intervention therapy is necessary for psychiatric patients with epilepsy.

  9. Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Actuator for Flow Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opaits, Dmitry, F.

    2012-01-01

    This report is Part II of the final report of NASA Cooperative Agreement contract no. NNX07AC02A. It includes a Ph.D. dissertation. The period of performance was January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2010. Part I of the final report is the overview published as NASA/CR-2012- 217654. Asymmetric dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuators driven by nanosecond pulses superimposed on dc bias voltage are studied experimentally. This produces non-self-sustained discharge: the plasma is generated by repetitive short pulses, and the pushing of the gas occurs primarily due to the bias voltage. The parameters of ionizing pulses and the driving bias voltage can be varied independently, which adds flexibility to control and optimization of the actuators performance. The approach consisted of three elements coupled together: the Schlieren technique, burst mode of plasma actuator operation, and 2-D numerical fluid modeling. During the experiments, it was found that DBD performance is severely limited by surface charge accumulation on the dielectric. Several ways to mitigate the surface charge were found: using a reversing DC bias potential, three-electrode configuration, slightly conductive dielectrics, and semi conductive coatings. Force balance measurements proved the effectiveness of the suggested configurations and advantages of the new voltage profile (pulses+bias) over the traditional sinusoidal one at relatively low voltages. In view of practical applications certain questions have been also addressed, such as electrodynamic effects which accompany scaling of the actuators to real size models, and environmental effects of ozone production by the plasma actuators.

  10. Evaluation of the effects of dexamethasone-induced stress on levels of natural antibodies in immunized laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchini, Stefano; Rossetti, Michele; Tomaso, Francesco Di; Caputo, Anna Rocchina

    2016-09-01

    Natural antibodies (NAb) are an important humoral component of innate immunity, playing a pivotal role as first line of defence against pathogens even without prior antigen-specific activation or antigen-driven selection. The levels of NAb in plasma of young laying hens were explored in more detail and identified 2,4,6-trinitrophenyl bovine serum albumin (TNP-BSA), as the non-self antigen showing the highest levels of IgΥ- and IgM-NAb. Subsequently, the relation between specific antibody (SpAb) levels and NAb levels, and the effect of dexamethasone (DEX)-induced stress on the acquired Ab response and on NAb levels were examined. According to obtained results, the affinity of NAb and SpAb, measured using the thiocyanate elution method, resulted higher in SpAb than in NAb. After stress induction, IgM-NAb and SpAb levels showed a transient decrease, whereas the levels of IgΥ-NAb were not changed. Moreover, statistical analysis showed positive correlations between IgΥ- and IgM-NAb levels and between IgM-NAb and SpAb levels that are lost as stress has been induced, whereas no correlation was observed between IgΥ-NAb and SpAb levels, neither before nor after the DEX-administration. This indicates that IgM-NAb assessment could be a valid tool to estimate the potential of the acquired Ab response and that the dexamethasone-induced stress condition causes depression of IgM-NAb levels and the acquired Ab response, but it has no evaluable effects on IgΥ-NAb levels. PMID:27436442

  11. BREX is a novel phage resistance system widespread in microbial genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Tamara; Sberro, Hila; Weinstock, Eyal; Cohen, Ofir; Doron, Shany; Charpak-Amikam, Yoav; Afik, Shaked; Ofir, Gal; Sorek, Rotem

    2015-01-13

    The perpetual arms race between bacteria and phage has resulted in the evolution of efficient resistance systems that protect bacteria from phage infection. Such systems, which include the CRISPR-Cas and restriction-modification systems, have proven to be invaluable in the biotechnology and dairy industries. Here, we report on a six-gene cassette in Bacillus cereus which, when integrated into the Bacillus subtilis genome, confers resistance to a broad range of phages, including both virulent and temperate ones. This cassette includes a putative Lon-like protease, an alkaline phosphatase domain protein, a putative RNA-binding protein, a DNA methylase, an ATPase-domain protein, and a protein of unknown function. We denote this novel defense system BREX (Bacteriophage Exclusion) and show that it allows phage adsorption but blocks phage DNA replication. Furthermore, our results suggest that methylation on non-palindromic TAGGAG motifs in the bacterial genome guides self/non-self discrimination and is essential for the defensive function of the BREX system. However, unlike restriction-modification systems, phage DNA does not appear to be cleaved or degraded by BREX, suggesting a novel mechanism of defense. Pan genomic analysis revealed that BREX and BREX-like systems, including the distantly related Pgl system described in Streptomyces coelicolor, are widely distributed in ~10% of all sequenced microbial genomes and can be divided into six coherent subtypes in which the gene composition and order is conserved. Finally, we detected a phage family that evades the BREX defense, implying that anti-BREX mechanisms may have evolved in some phages as part of their arms race with bacteria.

  12. A Base-Emitter Self-Aligned Multi-Finger Si1-xGex/Si Power Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Chun-Lai; YAO Fei; SHI Wen-Hua; CHENG Bu-Wen; WANG Hong-Jie; YU Jin-Zhong; WANG Qi-Ming

    2007-01-01

    With a crystal orientation dependent on the etch rate of Si in KOH-based solution, a base-emitter self-aligned large-area multi-finger configuration power SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) device (with an emitter area of about 880μm2) is fabricated with 2μm double-mesa technology. The maximum dc current gain is 226.1. The collector-emitter junction breakdown voltage BVCEO is 10V and the collector-base junction breakdown voltage BVcBo is 16 V with collector doping concentration of 1 × 1017 cm-3 and thickness of 400nm. The device exhibited a maximum oscillation frequency fmax of 35.5 GHz and a cut-off frequency fT of 24.9 GHz at a dc bias point of Ic = 70 mA and the voltage between collector and emitter is VCE = 3 V. Load pull measurements in class-A operation of the SiGe HBT are performed at 1.9 GHz with input power ranging from 0dBm to 21 dBm.A maximum output power of 29.9dBm (about 977mW) is obtained at an input power of 18.5dBm with a gain of 11.47dB. Compared to a non-self-aligned SiGe HBT with the same heterostructure and process, fmax and fT are improved by about 83.9% and 38.3%, respectively.

  13. Determination of sialic acids in immune system cells (coelomocytes) of sea urchin, Paracentrotus lividus, using capillary LC-ESI-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İzzetoğlu, Savaş; Şahar, Umut; Şener, Ecem; Deveci, Remziye

    2014-01-01

    Coelomocytes are considered to be immune effectors of sea urchins. Coelomocytes are the freely circulating cells in the body fluid contained in echinoderm coelom and mediate the cellular defence responses to immune challenges by phagocytosis, encapsulation, cytotoxicity and the production of antimicrobial agents. Coelomocytes have the ability to recognize self from non-self. Considering that sialic acids play important roles in immunity, we determined the presence of sialic acid types in coelomocytes of Paracentrotus lividus. Homogenized coelomocytes were kept in 2 M aqueous acetic acid at 80 °C for 3 h to liberate sialic acids. Sialic acids were determined by derivatization with 1,2-diamino-4,5-methylenediaoxy-benzene dihydrochloride (DMB) followed by capillary liquid-chromatography-electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry (CapLC-ESI-MS/MS). Standard sialic acids; Neu5Ac, Neu5Gc, KDN and bovine submaxillary mucin showing a variety of sialic acids were used to confirm sialic acids types. We found ten different types of sialic acids (Neu5Gc, Neu5Ac, Neu5Gc9Ac, Neu5Gc8Ac, Neu5,9Ac2, Neu5,7Ac2, Neu5,8Ac2, Neu5,7,9Ac3, Neu5Gc7,9Ac2, Neu5Gc7Ac) isolated in limited amounts from total coelomocyte population. Neu5Gc type of sialic acids in coelomocytes was the most abundant type sialic acid when compared with other types. This is the first report on the presence of sialic acid types in coelomocytes of P. lividus using CapLC-ESI-MS/MS-Ion Trap system (Capillary Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization/Tandem Mass Spectrometry). PMID:24215912

  14. MHC allele frequency distributions under parasite-driven selection: A simulation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radwan Jacek

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The extreme polymorphism that is observed in major histocompatibility complex (MHC genes, which code for proteins involved in recognition of non-self oligopeptides, is thought to result from a pressure exerted by parasites because parasite antigens are more likely to be recognized by MHC heterozygotes (heterozygote advantage and/or by rare MHC alleles (negative frequency-dependent selection. The Ewens-Watterson test (EW is often used to detect selection acting on MHC genes over the recent history of a population. EW is based on the expectation that allele frequencies under balancing selection should be more even than under neutrality. We used computer simulations to investigate whether this expectation holds for selection exerted by parasites on host MHC genes under conditions of heterozygote advantage and negative frequency-dependent selection acting either simultaneously or separately. Results In agreement with simple models of symmetrical overdominance, we found that heterozygote advantage acting alone in populations does, indeed, result in more even allele frequency distributions than expected under neutrality, and this is easily detectable by EW. However, under negative frequency-dependent selection, or under the joint action of negative frequency-dependent selection and heterozygote advantage, distributions of allele frequencies were less predictable: the majority of distributions were indistinguishable from neutral expectations, while the remaining runs resulted in either more even or more skewed distributions than under neutrality. Conclusions Our results indicate that, as long as negative frequency-dependent selection is an important force maintaining MHC variation, the EW test has limited utility in detecting selection acting on these genes.

  15. L-type lectin receptor kinases in Nicotiana benthamiana and tomato and their role in Phytophthora resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Weide, Rob; Govers, Francine; Bouwmeester, Klaas

    2015-11-01

    Membrane-bound receptors play crucial roles as sentinels of plant immunity against a large variety of invading microbes. One class of receptors known to be involved in self/non-self-surveillance and plant resistance comprises the L-type lectin receptor kinases (LecRKs). Previously, we reported that several Arabidopsis LecRKs play a role in resistance to Phytophthora pathogens. In this study, we determined whether homologues of these LecRKs from the Solanaceous plants Nicotiana benthamiana and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) play similar roles in defence against Phytophthora. In genome-wide screenings, a total of 38 (Nb)LecRKs were identified in N. benthamiana and 22 (Sl)LecRKs in tomato, each consisting of both a lectin and a kinase domain. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that, in contrast to Arabidopsis, which has a LecRK family comprising nine clades, Solanaceous species have just five of these nine clades (i.e. IV, VI, VII, VIII, and IX), plus four additional clades that lack Arabidopsis homologues. Several of the Solanaceous LecRKs were selected for functional analysis using virus-induced gene silencing. Infection assays with Phytophthora capsici and Phytophthora infestans on LecRK-silenced plants revealed that N. benthamiana and tomato homologues in clade IX play a role in Phytophthora resistance similar to the two Arabidopsis LecRKs in this clade, suggesting conserved functions of clade IX LecRKs across different plant families. This study provides a first insight into the diversity of Solanaceous LecRKs and their role in plant immunity, and shows the potential of LecRKs for Phytophthora resistance breeding. PMID:26248665

  16. Self-referent phenotype matching and its role in female mate choice in arthropods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carie B.WEDDLE; John HUNT; Scott K.SAKALUK

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of empirical evidence shows that females of many animal species gain benefits by mating polyandrously,and often prefer to mate with novel males over previous mates.Although a female preference for novel males has been demonstrated for multiple animal taxa,the mechanisms used by females to discriminate between novel and previous mates remain largely unknown.However,recent studies suggest that in decorated crickets Gryllodes sigillatus,females actually imbue males with their own chemical cues,known as cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) during mating,and utilize chemosensory self-referencing to recognize recent mates.Here we review evidence that self-referent phenotype matching is a widespread mechanism of recognition in arthropods,and explore how CHCs are used to facilitate mate-choice decisions.There is substantial evidence that CHCs are used as recognition cues to discriminate between species,kin,sexes,mates,individuals,and self and non-self,and are used to facilitate mate-choice decisions in a wide range of arthropod taxa.There is also evidence that CHCs are often transferred between individuals during direct physical contact,including copulation.Chemosensory self-referencing via cuticular hydrocarbons could provide a simple,but reliable mechanism for identifying individuals from previous mating encounters.This mechanism does not require any specialized cognitive abilities because an individual's phenotype is always available for reference.Given the ubiquitous use of CHCs among arthropods,chemosensory self-referencing may be a widespread mechanism used by female arthropods to facilitate female mate-choice decisions and to enhance opportunities for polyandry.

  17. Self-referent phenotype matching and its role in female mate choice in arthropods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carie B. WEDDLE, John HUNT, Scott K. SAKALUK

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of empirical evidence shows that females of many animal species gain benefits by mating polyandrously, and often prefer to mate with novel males over previous mates. Although a female preference for novel males has been demonstrated for multiple animal taxa, the mechanisms used by females to discriminate between novel and previous mates remain largely unknown. However, recent studies suggest that in decorated crickets Gryllodes sigillatus, females actually imbue males with their own chemical cues, known as cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs during mating, and utilize chemosensory self-referencing to recognize recent mates. Here we review evidence that self-referent phenotype matching is a widespread mechanism of recognition in arthropods, and explore how CHCs are used to facilitate mate-choice decisions. There is substantial evidence that CHCs are used as recognition cues to discriminate between species, kin, sexes, mates, individuals, and self and non-self, and are used to facilitate mate-choice decisions in a wide range of arthropod taxa. There is also evidence that CHCs are often transferred between individuals during direct physical contact, including copulation. Chemosensory self-referencing via cuticular hydrocarbons could provide a simple, but reliable mechanism for identifying individuals from previous mating encounters. This mechanism does not require any specialized cognitive abilities because an individual’s phenotype is always available for reference. Given the ubiquitous use of CHCs among arthropods, chemosensory self-referencing may be a widespread mechanism used by female arthropods to facilitate female mate-choice decisions and to enhance opportunities for polyandry [Current Zoology 59 (2: 239-248, 2013].

  18. Experimental Test of the “Special State” Theory of Quantum Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence S. Schulman

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available An experimental test of the “special state” theory of quantum measurement is proposed. It should be feasible with present-day laboratory equipment and involves a slightly elaborated Stern–Gerlach setup. The “special state” theory is conservative with respect to quantum mechanics, but radical with respect to statistical mechanics, in particular regarding the arrow of time. In this article background material is given on both quantum measurement and statistical mechanics aspects. For example, it is shown that future boundary conditions would not contradict experience, indicating that the fundamental equal-a-priori-probability assumption at the foundations of statistical mechanics is far too strong (since future conditioning reduces the class of allowed states. The test is based on a feature of this theory that was found necessary in order to recover standard (Born probabilities in quantum measurements. Specifically, certain systems should have “noise” whose amplitude follows the long-tailed Cauchy distribution. This distribution is marked by the occasional occurrence of extremely large signals as well as a non-self-averaging property. The proposed test is a variant of the Stern–Gerlach experiment in which protocols are devised, some of which will require the presence of this noise, some of which will not. The likely observational schemes would involve the distinction between detection and non-detection of that “noise”. The signal to be detected (or not would be either single photons or electric fields (and related excitations in the neighborhood of the ends of the magnets.

  19. Deep transcriptome sequencing of Pecten maximus hemocytes: a genomic resource for bivalve immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauletto, Marianna; Milan, Massimo; Moreira, Rebeca; Novoa, Beatriz; Figueras, Antonio; Babbucci, Massimiliano; Patarnello, Tomaso; Bargelloni, Luca

    2014-03-01

    Pecten maximus, the king scallop, is a bivalve species with important commercial value for both fisheries and aquaculture, traditionally consumed in several European countries. Major problems in larval rearing, however, still limit hatchery-based seed production. High mortalities during early larval stages, likely related to bacterial pathogens, represent the most relevant bottleneck. To address this issue, understanding host defense mechanisms against microbes is extremely important. In this study next-generation RNA-sequencing was carried on scallop hemocytes. To enrich for immune-related transcripts, cDNA libraries from hemocytes challenged in vivo with inactivated-Vibrio anguillarum and in vitro with pathogen-associated molecular patterns, as well as unchallenged controls, were sequenced yielding 216,444,674 sequence reads. De novo assembly of the scallop hemocyte transcriptome consisted of 73,732 contigs (31% annotated). A total of 934 contigs encoded proteins with a known immune function, grouped into several functional categories. Particular attention was reserved to Toll-like receptors (TLRs), a family of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) involved in non-self recognition. Through mining the scallop hemocyte transcriptome, at least four TLRs could be identified. The organization of canonical TLR domains demonstrated that single cysteine cluster and multiple cysteine cluster TLRs co-exist in this species. In addition, preliminary data concerning their mRNA level following bacterial challenge suggested that different members of this family could exhibit opposite responses to pathogenic stimuli. Finally, a global analysis of differential expression comparing gene-expression levels in in vitro and in vivo stimulated hemocytes against controls provided evidence on a large set of transcripts involved in the great scallop immune response.

  20. Chimerism in wild adult populations of the broadcast spawning coral Acropora millepora on the Great Barrier Reef.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eneour Puill-Stephan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chimeras are organisms containing tissues or cells of two or more genetically distinct individuals, and are known to exist in at least nine phyla of protists, plants, and animals. Although widespread and common in marine invertebrates, the extent of chimerism in wild populations of reef corals is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The extent of chimerism was explored within two populations of a common coral, Acropora millepora, on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, by using up to 12 polymorphic DNA microsatellite loci. At least 2% and 5% of Magnetic Island and Pelorus Island populations of A. millepora, respectively, were found to be chimeras (3% overall, based on conservative estimates. A slightly less conservative estimate indicated that 5% of colonies in each population were chimeras. These values are likely to be vast underestimates of the true extent of chimerism, as our sampling protocol was restricted to a maximum of eight branches per colony, while most colonies consist of hundreds of branches. Genotypes within chimeric corals showed high relatedness, indicating that genetic similarity is a prerequisite for long-term acceptance of non-self genotypes within coral colonies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: While some brooding corals have been shown to form genetic chimeras in their early life history stages under experimental conditions, this study provides the first genetic evidence of the occurrence of coral chimeras in the wild and of chimerism in a broadcast spawning species. We hypothesize that chimerism is more widespread in corals than previously thought, and suggest that this has important implications for their resilience, potentially enhancing their capacity to compete for space and respond to stressors such as pathogen infection.

  1. Gunshot residue testing in suicides: Part II: Analysis by inductive coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, D Kimberley; Castorena, Joe L; Martinez, Michael; Garcia, James; DiMaio, Vincent J M

    2007-09-01

    Several different methods can be employed to test for gunshot residue (GSR) on a decedent's hands, including scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray (SEM/EDX) and inductive coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). In part I of this 2-part series, GSR results performed by SEM/EDX in undisputed cases of suicidal handgun wounds were studied. In part II, the same population was studied, deceased persons with undisputed suicidal handgun wounds, but GSR testing was performed using ICP-AES. A total of 102 cases were studied and analyzed for caliber of weapon, proximity of wound, and the results of the GSR testing. This study found that 50% of cases where the deceased was known to have fired a handgun immediately prior to death had positive GSR results by ICP/AES, which did not differ from the results of GSR testing by SEM/EDX. Since only 50% of cases where the person is known to have fired a weapon were positive for GSR by either method, this test should not be relied upon to determine whether someone has discharged a firearm and is not useful as a determining factor of whether or not a wound is self-inflicted or non-self-inflicted. While a positive GSR result may be of use, a negative result is not helpful in the medical examiner setting as a negative result indicates that either a person fired a weapon prior to death or a person did not fire a weapon prior to death. PMID:17721164

  2. Tickle me, I think I might be dreaming! Sensory attenuation, self-other distinction, and predictive processing in lucid dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windt, Jennifer M; Harkness, Dominic L; Lenggenhager, Bigna

    2014-01-01

    The contrast between self- and other-produced tickles, as a special case of sensory attenuation for self-produced actions, has long been a target of empirical research. While in standard wake states it is nearly impossible to tickle oneself, there are interesting exceptions. Notably, participants awakened from REM (rapid eye movement-) sleep dreams are able to tickle themselves. So far, however, the question of whether it is possible to tickle oneself and be tickled by another in the dream state has not been investigated empirically or addressed from a theoretical perspective. Here, we report the results of an explorative web-based study in which participants were asked to rate their sensations during self-tickling and being tickled during wakefulness, imagination, and lucid dreaming. Our results, though highly preliminary, indicate that in the special case of lucid control dreams, the difference between self-tickling and being tickled by another is obliterated, with both self- and other produced tickles receiving similar ratings as self-tickling during wakefulness. This leads us to the speculative conclusion that in lucid control dreams, sensory attenuation for self-produced tickles spreads to those produced by non-self dream characters. These preliminary results provide the backdrop for a more general theoretical and metatheoretical discussion of tickling in lucid dreams in a predictive processing framework. We argue that the primary value of our study lies not so much in our results, which are subject to important limitations, but rather in the fact that they enable a new theoretical perspective on the relationship between sensory attenuation, the self-other distinction and agency, as well as suggest new questions for future research. In particular, the example of tickling during lucid dreaming raises the question of whether sensory attenuation and the self-other distinction can be simulated largely independently of external sensory input.

  3. 自身免疫性疾病发病机制新进展%New insights about the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏金金; 汪涛

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune disease (AD),a dysregulated immunological in condition which immune response can' t distinguish self from non-self antigen,Consequently,impairment of normal tissuesincurs.Recently,new insights about AD have been globally identified.Cross-reactivity of gene and environment enhance the risk of AD in predisposing population.The concept of exposome has been raised up due to the muti-dimensional environmental effects which cover the various external factors.According to recent progression,we elucidate the pathogenesis of AD in detail from exposme,microbiome,infectome,and put up a hypothesis to provide theoretical basis for further research.%自身免疫性疾病(AD)是一种免疫紊乱状态,机体正常的保护性免疫应答不能区分自身抗原和外源性抗原转而攻击人体正常的组织和细胞,因而会出现一系列的异常症状.目前国际上对AD有了很多新的认识,基因和环境的共同作用增加了发病倾向人群的患病风险,而环境因素是多方面的,有学者针对人体内外的环境暴露提出了暴露组学的概念,暴露组学涵盖了除人体外的各种外界因素.根据目前的研究进展,拟从暴露组学、微生物组学及感染组学等多个方面详细阐述AD发病机理提出了致病假说,为进一步研究提供理论依据.

  4. The C1q family of proteins: insights into the emerging non-traditional functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berhane eGhebrehiwet

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Research conducted over the past 20 years have helped us unravel not only the hidden structural and functional subtleties of human C1q, but also has catapulted the molecule from a mere recognition unit of the classical pathway to a well-recognized molecular sensor of damage modified self or non-self antigens. Thus, C1q is involved in a rapidly expanding list of pathological disorders—including autoimmunity, trophoblast migration, preeclampsia and cancer. The results of two recent reports are provided to underscore the critical role C1q plays in health and disease. First is the observation by Singh and colleagues showing that pregnant C1q-/- mice recapitulate the key features of human preeclampsia that correlate with increased fetal death. Treatment of the C1q-/- mice with pravastatin restored trophoblast invasiveness, placental blood flow, and angiogenic balance and, thus, prevented the onset of preeclampsia. Second is the report by Hong et al., which showed that C1q can induce apoptosis of prostate cancer cells by activating the tumor suppressor molecule WW-domain containing oxydoreductase (WWOX or WOX1 and destabilizing cell adhesion. Downregulation of C1q on the other hand enhanced prostate hyperplasia and cancer formation due to failure of WOX1 activation. Recent evidence also shows that C1q belongs to a family of structurally and functionally related TNFα-like family of proteins that may have arisen from a common ancestral gene. Therefore C1q not only shares the diverse functions with the TNF family of proteins, but also explains why C1q has retained some of its ancestral cytokine-like activities. This review is intended to highlight some of the structural and functional aspects of C1q by underscoring the growing list of its non-traditional functions.

  5. Logical Analysis of Regulation of Interleukin-12 Expression Pathway Regulation During HCV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqi, Zia-Ur-Rehman; Tareen, Samar H K; Ahmed, Jamil; Zaidi, Najam-Us-Sahar S

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) triggers coordinated innate and adaptive response in host cell. HCV genome and proteins of the replicating virus are recognized as non-self-antigens by host cell to activate Toll Like Receptors (TLRs). Activated TLRs ultimately express cytokines, which can clear virus either by activating interferon (IFN), protein kinase C (PKC) and RNA Lase system or through activation of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a potent antiviral cytokine, capable of clearing HCV by bridging both innate and adaptive antiviral immune response. Activation of TLR-4 on macrophages surface induces expression of IL-12 via NF-κB and AP-1 transcriptional pathway. After expression, IL- 12 releases IFN-γ, which activates anti-HCV cytotoxic lymphocytes. Conversely, in chronic HCV infection downregulation of IL-12 has been reported instead of by number of studies. Keeping in view of the above mentioned facts, this study was designed to evaluate HCV-core mediated down-regulation of IL-12 transcriptional pathway by employing a logical modeling approach based on the Ren´e Thomas formalism. The logical parameters of entities were estimated by using SMBioNet. The Logical model represents all possible dynamics of protein expression involved during course of HCV pathology. Results demonstrated that at chronic stage of infection, though TLR-4 was constantly active but yet it failed to express the NF-κB, AP-1, IL-12 and IFN-γ. This mechanism was indicative of incorporation of core mediated changes in IL-12 regulatory pathway. Moreover, results also indicate that HCV adopts different trajectories to accomplish the persistence of chronic phase of infection. It also implicated that human immune system tries to clear HCV but core is capable of inducing system oscillations to evade the immunity.

  6. Novel assay to measure the plasmid mobilizing potential of mixed microbial communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uli eKlümper

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mobilizable plasmids lack necessary genes for complete conjugation and are therefore non-self-transmissible. Instead, they rely on the conjugation system of conjugal plasmids to be horizontally transferred to new recipients. While community permissiveness, the fraction of a mixed microbial community that can receive self-transmissible conjugal plasmids, has been studied, the intrinsic ability of a community to mobilize plasmids that lack conjugation systems is unexplored. Here, we present a novel framework and experimental method to estimate the mobilization potential of mixed communities. We compare the transfer frequency of a mobilizable plasmid to that of a mobilizing and conjugal plasmid measured for a model strain and for the assayed community. With Pseudomonas putida carrying the gfp-tagged mobilizable RSF1010 plasmid as donor strain, we conducted solid surface mating experiments with either a P. putida strain carrying the mobilizing plasmid RP4 or a model bacterial community that was extracted from the inner walls of a domestic shower conduit. Additionally, we estimated the permissiveness of the same community for RP4 using P. putida as donor strain. The permissiveness of the model community for RP4 (at 1.16x10-4 transconjugants per recipient (T/R was similar to that previously measured for soil microbial communities. RSF1010 was mobilized by the model community at a frequency of 1.16x10-5 T/R, only one order of magnitude lower than its permissiveness to RP4. This mobilization frequency is unexpectedly high considering that (i mobilization requires the presence of mobilizing conjugal plasmids within the permissive fraction of the recipients; (ii in pure culture experiments with P. putida retromobilization of RSF1010 through RP4 only took place in approximately half of the donors receiving the conjugal plasmid in the first step. Further work is needed to establish how plasmid mobilization potential varies within and across microbial

  7. Graphene synthesis and characterization on copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsin, Ali

    Graphene, two dimensional sheet of carbon atoms has recently gained attention as some of its properties are promising for electronics applications e.g. higher mobility that translates to higher operating frequency for devices geared towards radio frequency applications. Excellent optical transmittance combined with its semi metallic behavior makes it an important material for transparent contacts in solar cells. To bring graphene to the production level, synthesis methods are needed for its growth on wafer scale. It has been shown that chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is one of the techniques that can potentially synthesize wafer scale graphene. Recently copper has gained popularity as an important substrate material for graphene growth due to its lower carbon solubility, which allows better control over number of graphene layers. Here we report optimization of graphene growth on copper foils with our home made atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) setup. Graphene growth on copper under APCVD was non self-limiting similar to other reports. It was found that apart from growth parameters surface texture plays a very important role in graphene growth. In fact, few layer and bilayer graphene were obtained on the regions where copper surface was not uniform, confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. To improve copper surface texture thin layer of copper film was evaporated by electron beam evaporation before the graphene growth process. After this modification, monolayer graphene was obtained on areas as large as 300 microm x 300 microm confirmed by Raman area maps. Graphene transfer procedure was also optimized so that graphene on metal surface could be transferred to insulating substrate.

  8. Mostaganem700套项目工期索赔案例分析%Mostaganem 700 Residential Units Project Period Claim Case Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凯; 李兰兰

    2012-01-01

    With a gradual expansion of CNQC in Algeria market, engineering claims for projects between clients and contractors increase. So a reduction in such losses proves to be of great importance and causes of non-self discrimination become a target profit maximization in project. This paper finds it important to seize claim opportunity, and makes a good analysis of claim evidence collection of data, claim analysis method, claim reports and the final negotiations with owner, etc. from Mostaganem700 sets of project period claim cases, and finally gains some experience of how to lessen claim cases in such projects.%随着我国承包商在阿尔及利亚市场的逐步扩大,承包商与业主之间的工程索赔案例不断增多.因此如何减少承包商非自身原因造成的损失,使目标利润最大化成为摆在项目面前的重要课题.引用Mostaganem700套项目部工期索赔成功的案例,通过抓住索赔机会、索赔证据资料的收集、索赔分析方法、索赔报告的编制以及最终与业主谈判等方面,归纳总结承包商在此项目索赔案例中的经验及教训,为相似工程提供借鉴.

  9. Host response mechanisms in periodontal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora SILVA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal diseases usually refer to common inflammatory disorders known as gingivitis and periodontitis, which are caused by a pathogenic microbiota in the subgingival biofilm, including Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola that trigger innate, inflammatory, and adaptive immune responses. These processes result in the destruction of the tissues surrounding and supporting the teeth, and eventually in tissue, bone and finally, tooth loss. The innate immune response constitutes a homeostatic system, which is the first line of defense, and is able to recognize invading microorganisms as non-self, triggering immune responses to eliminate them. In addition to the innate immunity, adaptive immunity cells and characteristic cytokines have been described as important players in the periodontal disease pathogenesis scenario, with a special attention to CD4+ T-cells (T-helper cells. Interestingly, the T cell-mediated adaptive immunity development is highly dependent on innate immunity-associated antigen presenting cells, which after antigen capture undergo into a maturation process and migrate towards the lymph nodes, where they produce distinct patterns of cytokines that will contribute to the subsequent polarization and activation of specific T CD4+ lymphocytes. Skeletal homeostasis depends on a dynamic balance between the activities of the bone-forming osteoblasts (OBLs and bone-resorbing osteoclasts (OCLs. This balance is tightly controlled by various regulatory systems, such as the endocrine system, and is influenced by the immune system, an osteoimmunological regulation depending on lymphocyte- and macrophage-derived cytokines. All these cytokines and inflammatory mediators are capable of acting alone or in concert, to stimulate periodontal breakdown and collagen destruction via tissue-derived matrix metalloproteinases, a characterization of the progression of periodontitis as

  10. Heterogeneity of Relational Backgrounds is Associated With Variation in Non-Suicidal Self-Injurious Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jodi; Bureau, Jean-François; Yurkowski, Kim; Lafontaine, Marie-France; Cloutier, Paula

    2016-04-01

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a self-destructive behavior of common prevalence in adolescence and young adulthood. Engagement in NSSI has been consistently linked in the literature with perceptions of one's parent-child relationships as negative or invalidating. However, the potential for multiple combinations of such relational characteristics to be associated with varying cognitive and behavioral manifestations of NSSI remains uninvestigated. In the current study, a person-centered approach to studying perceived parent-child relationship quality and NSSI was adopted; functions and behavioral severity of NSSI were then compared across the different relational profiles created. A latent profile analysis in a sample of 264 self-injuring university students (205 females; m(age) = 19.37 years, sd = 1.50) revealed four distinct profiles, two characterized by negative parent-child perceptions and two by positive parent-child perceptions. The perceived relational dimensions of these profiles were unique compared to a parallel group of 264 non-self-injurers (207 females; m(age) = 19.27 years, sd = 1.33). Participants reporting negative parent-child relationships endorsed more severe NSSI, and engaged in NSSI to regulate aggressive emotions. In contrast, individuals reporting positive parent-child relationships engaged in less extreme manifestations of NSSI overall, suggesting lower psychological deficits. Findings suggest that, although not all self-injurers perceive their relationships with parents negatively, variation in the perception of relational quality is implicated in behavioral and cognitive variation in NSSI engagement. PMID:26133094

  11. Identification of a novel C-type lectin from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and its role in defense against pathogens infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Zhan; ZHANG Jiquan; LI Fuhua; ZHANG Xiaojun; LIU Chengzhang; XIANG Jianhai

    2011-01-01

    Acting as one of the pattern recognition receptors (PRRs),C-type lectin is believed to mediate pathogen recognition and plays an important role in the clearance of pathogens as part of the innate immune system.In this work,a novel C-type lectin gene (named LvLecl) was cloned from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.The ORF of LvLecl is 510 bp,encoding 169 amino acids.The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal peptide of 19 amino acids at the N-terminal and a carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) at the C-terminal.LvLecl was mainly expressed in the hepatopancreas.Real-time PCR analysis indicated that the level of LvLecl transcripts significantly changed in the hepatopancreas after the shrimp were artificially challenged with LPS,Micrococcus lysodeikticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV).RNAi-based silencing of LvLecl resulted in increases in mortality when the shrimp were challenged with WSSV,and the median lethal time was reduced compared with controls.Although there was no characteristic “EPN” (Glu-Pro-Ser) or “QPD” (Gln-Pro-Asp) motif,the recombinant LvLecl,expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3),could also agglutinate M.lysodeikticus and Vibrio anguillarum.The agglutinating activities were calcium-dependent and could be inhibited by D-mannose,D-glucose,D-galactose and N-Acetyl-D-mannose.These results suggest that LvLecl might be involved in the immune response against WSSV and bacterial infections and contribute to non-self recognition as a pattem recognition receptor in the innate immune system of the shrimp L.vannamei.

  12. The inflammatory role of platelets via their TLRs and Siglec receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice eCOGNASSE

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Platelets are non-nucleated cells that play central roles in the processes of haemostasis, innate immunity and inflammation; however, several reports show that these distinct functions are more closely linked than initially thought. Platelets express numerous receptors and contain hundreds of secretory products. These receptors and secretory products are instrumental to the platelet functional responses. The capacity of platelets to secrete copious amounts of cytokines, chemokines and related molecules appears intimately related to the role of the platelet in inflammation. Platelets exhibit non-self-infectious danger detection molecules on their surfaces, including those belonging to the ‘‘Toll-Like Receptor family’’, as well as pathogen sensors of other natures (Ig- or complement receptors etc.. These receptors permit platelets to both bind infectious agents and deliver differential signals leading to the secretion of cytokines/chemokines, under the control of specific intracellular regulatory pathways. In contrast, dysfunctional receptors or dysregulation of the intracellular pathway may increase the susceptibility to pathological inflammation. Physiological vs pathological inflammation is tightly controlled by the sensors of danger expressed in resting, as well as in activated, platelets. These sensors, referred to as Pathogen Recognition Receptors (PRRs, primarily sense danger signals termed Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs. As platelets are found in inflamed tissues and are involved in auto-immune disorders, it is possible that they can also be stimulated by internal pathogens. In such cases, platelets can also sense danger signals using Damage Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPs. Some of the most significant DAMP family members are the alarmins, to which the Siglec family of molecules belongs. This review examines the role of platelets in anti-infection immunity via their TLRs and Siglec receptors.

  13. Residual dipolar coupling constants and structure determination of large DNA duplexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauffret, Olivier; Tevanian, Georges; Fermandjian, Serge [Institut Gustave-Roussy, Departement de Biologie et Pharmacologie Structurales (France)], E-mail: sfermand@igr.fr

    2002-12-15

    Several NMR works have shown that long-range information provided by residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) significantly improve the global structure definition of RNAs and DNAs. Most of these are based on the use of a large set of RDCs, the collect of which requires samples labeled with {sup 13}C, {sup 15}N, and sometimes, {sup 2}H. Here, we carried out torsion-angle dynamics simulations on a non-self complementary DNA fragment of 17 base-pairs, d(GGAAAATATCTAGCAGT).(ACTGCTAGAGATTTTCC). This reproduces the U5 LTR distal end of the HIV-1 cDNA that contains the enzyme integrase binding site. Simulations aimed at evaluating the impact of RDCs on the structure definition of long oligonucleotides, were performed in incorporating (i) nOe-distances at both < 4.5 A and < 5 A; (ii) a small set of {sup 13}C-{sup 1}H RDCs, easily detectable at the natural abundance, and (iii) a larger set of RDCs only accessible through the {sup 13}C labeling of DNAs. Agreement between a target structure and a simulated structure was measured in terms of precision and accuracy. Results allowed to define conditions in which accurate DNA structures can be determined. We confirmed the strong impact of RDCs on the structure determination, and, above all, we found that a small set of RDC constraints (ca. 50) detectable at the natural abundance is sufficient to accurately derive the global and local DNA duplex structures when used in conjunction with nOe-distances < 5 A.

  14. Fricción dinámica: Influencia de órbitas caóticas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cora, S. A.; Vergne, M. M.; Muzzio, J. C.

    We have used numerical experiments to investigate the orbital decay, caused by dynamical friction, of a rigid satellite which moves within a larger stellar system (a galaxy), whose potential is non-integrable. This type of potential has regular and irregular orbits, being the last ones chaotic respect of having exponential sensitivity to perturbations, a feature that makes them to relax in a time much shorter than regular ones. Assuming that the dynamical friction is inversely proportional to the relaxation time, this phenomenon would increase in the presence of chaotic orbits (Pfenniger 1986). Therefore, we present preliminary numerical results to check this idea. We considered two different triaxial galaxy models with different percentage of chaotic orbits. 1) The triaxial generalization of spherical models of Dehnen (1993), with a constant-density core, where the orbits can be identified with one of the four families of regular orbits in Stackel potentials (boxes and the three families of tubes). When a central compact object (black hole) is included a porcentage of the boxlike orbits are rendered chaotic. 2) The modified Satoh galaxy model (Satoh 1980) without rotation, in which the orbits are mostly regular (boxes and tubes). However, if we consider the triaxial galaxy with rotation the resulting potential is non-integrable with a high degree of chaos. The satellite is modelled by a softened point mass, moving on a circular orbit in the spherical model. To integrate he equation of motion a non-self-consistent code is used. The results of a few simulations suggest that the presence of chaotic orbits does not affect significantly the orbital decay of the satellite.

  15. Atypical sensors for direct and rapid neuronal detection of bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Ji Yeon; Choi, Seung-In; Choi, Geunyeol; Hwang, Sun Wook

    2016-03-09

    Bacterial infection can threaten the normal biological functions of a host, often leading to a disease. Hosts have developed complex immune systems to cope with the danger. Preceding the elimination of pathogens, selective recognition of the non-self invaders is necessary. At the forefront of the body's defenses are the innate immune cells, which are equipped with particular sensor molecules that can detect common exterior patterns of invading pathogens and their secreting toxins as well as with phagocytic machinery. Inflammatory mediators and cytokines released from these innate immune cells and infected tissues can boost the inflammatory cascade and further recruit adaptive immune cells to maximize the elimination and resolution. The nervous system also seems to interact with this process, mostly known to be affected by the inflammatory mediators through the binding of neuronal receptors, consequently activating neural circuits that tune the local and systemic inflammatory states. Recent research has suggested new contact points: direct interactions of sensory neurons with pathogens. Latest findings demonstrated that the sensory neurons not only share pattern recognition mechanisms with innate immune cells, but also utilize endogenous and exogenous electrogenic components for bacterial pathogen detection, by which the electrical firing prompts faster information flow than what could be achieved when the immune system is solely involved. As a result, rapid pain generation and active accommodation of the immune status occur. Here we introduced the sensory neuron-specific detector molecules for directly responding to bacterial pathogens and their signaling mechanisms. We also discussed extended issues that need to be explored in the future.

  16. RNA synthesis by the brome mosaic virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase in human cells reveals requirements for de novo initiation and protein-protein interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subba-Reddy, Chennareddy V; Tragesser, Brady; Xu, Zhili; Stein, Barry; Ranjith-Kumar, C T; Kao, C Cheng

    2012-04-01

    Brome mosaic virus (BMV) is a model positive-strand RNA virus whose replication has been studied in a number of surrogate hosts. In transiently transfected human cells, the BMV polymerase 2a activated signaling by the innate immune receptor RIG-I, which recognizes de novo-initiated non-self-RNAs. Active-site mutations in 2a abolished RIG-I activation, and coexpression of the BMV 1a protein stimulated 2a activity. Mutations previously shown to abolish 1a and 2a interaction prevented the 1a-dependent enhancement of 2a activity. New insights into 1a-2a interaction include the findings that helicase active site of 1a is required to enhance 2a polymerase activity and that negatively charged amino acid residues between positions 110 and 120 of 2a contribute to interaction with the 1a helicase-like domain but not to the intrinsic polymerase activity. Confocal fluorescence microscopy revealed that the BMV 1a and 2a colocalized to perinuclear region in human cells. However, no perinuclear spherule-like structures were detected in human cells by immunoelectron microscopy. Sequencing of the RNAs coimmunoprecipitated with RIG-I revealed that the 2a-synthesized short RNAs are derived from the message used to translate 2a. That is, 2a exhibits a strong cis preference for BMV RNA2. Strikingly, the 2a RNA products had initiation sequences (5'-GUAAA-3') identical to those from the 5' sequence of the BMV genomic RNA2 and RNA3. These results show that the BMV 2a polymerase does not require other BMV proteins to initiate RNA synthesis but that the 1a helicase domain, and likely helicase activity, can affect RNA synthesis by 2a.

  17. Relationships between physical education students' motivational profiles, enjoyment, state anxiety, and self-reported physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yli-Piipari, Sami; Watt, Anthony; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze motivational profiles based on the self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan, 2000) and how these profiles are related to physical education students' enjoyment, state anxiety, and physical activity. The participants, 429 sixth grade students (girls = 216; boys = 213) completed SMS, Sport Enjoyment Scale, PESAS, and Physical Activity Scale. Cluster analyses identified two motivational profiles: 1) the "High motivation profile", in which the students had high intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation, and 2) the "Low motivation profile", in which the students had low intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation. The students in the first cluster enjoyed physical education more and were physically more active. The results revealed that students may be motivated towards physical education lessons both intrinsically and extrinsically, and still experience enjoyment in physical education. Key pointsTWO MOTIVATIONAL PROFILES WERE REVEALED: 1) the "High motivation profile", in which the students had high intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation, and 2) the "Low motivation profile", in which the students had low intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation.The students in the first profile enjoyed physical education more and were physically more active than the students in the second profile.Moreover, the representatives of the "High motivation profile "experienced greater anxiety toward physical education than the representatives of the "Low motivation profile"These findings raised an interesting question whether students engaging in physical education benefit more from the presence of both self-determined and non-self-determined forms of motivation, or are the benefits higher if students are primarily self-determined?

  18. Radiation-driven warping of circumbinary disks around eccentric young star binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study a warping instability of a geometrically thin, non-self-gravitating, circumbinary disk around young binary stars on an eccentric orbit. Such a disk is subject to both the tidal torques due to a time-dependent binary potential and the radiative torques due to radiation emitted from each star. The tilt angle between the circumbinary disk plane and the binary orbital plane is assumed to be very small. We find that there is a radius within/beyond which the circumbinary disk is unstable to radiation-driven warping, depending on the disk density and temperature gradient indices. This marginally stable warping radius is very sensitive to viscosity parameters, a fiducial disk radius and the temperature measured there, the stellar luminosity, and the disk surface density at a radius where the disk changes from optically thick to thin for the irradiation from the central stars. On the other hand, it is insensitive to the orbital eccentricity and binary irradiation parameter, which is a function of the binary mass ratio and luminosity of each star. Since the tidal torques can suppress the warping in the inner part of the circumbinary disk, the disk starts to be warped in the outer part. While the circumbinary disks are most likely to be subject to the radiation-driven warping on an AU to kilo-AU scale for binaries with young massive stars more luminous than 104 L ☉, the radiation-driven warping does not work for those around young binaries with the luminosity comparable to the solar luminosity.

  19. Analysis of changing tendency of main cited indicators in preventive medicine and public health related periodicals in China%2005-2010年我国预防医学与公共卫生类期刊主要被引用指标变化趋势分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕相征; 郑湃; 梁靖; 杨文杰; 李敬文; 陈丽; 朱晖

    2012-01-01

    对我国2005-2010年预防医学与公共卫生类期刊主要被引用指标进行了调查,并与SCI的相关期刊进行了对比分析。结果表明:近年来,进入《中国科技期刊引证报告(核心版)》源期刊数量不断增加,期刊影响因子及他引率没有升高趋势;期刊总被引频次逐年升高;2009、2010年期刊权威因子均高于2008年。与2011年SCI收录的同类期刊相比,我国预防医学与公共卫生类期刊受关注程度及学术水平仍有较大差距。%We investigated the main cited indicators in preventive medicine and public health related periodicals published during 2005-2010 in China and compared them with periodicals cited by SCI in similar fields. The number of periodicals cited by China Journal Citation Reports (CJCR) was increasing in recent years, whereas the impact factor and non-self-citing rate of these periodicals did not show a trend of rising, the total citation frequency had been increasing yearly and the authority factors in years 2009 and 2010 were higher than those in year 2008. There was still a great gap between domestic preventive medicine and public health related periodicals and similar periodicals cited by SCI in respects of degree of concern and academic level.

  20. Leukocyte Ig-Like Receptors – a model for MHC class I disease associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Louise Allen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available MHC class I (MHC-I polymorphisms are associated with the outcome of some viral infections and autoimmune diseases. MHC-I proteins present antigenic peptides and are recognised by receptors on Natural Killer cells and Cytotoxic T lymphocytes, thus enabling the immune system to detect self-antigens and eliminate targets lacking self or expressing foreign antigens. Recognition of MHC-I, however, extends beyond receptors on cytotoxic leukocytes. Members of the Leukocyte Ig-like receptor (LILR family are expressed on monocytic cells and can recognise both classical and non-classical MHC-I alleles. Despite their relatively broad specificity when compared to the T Cell Receptor or Killer Ig-like Receptors, variations in the strength of LILR binding between different MHC-I alleles have recently been shown to correlate with control of HIV infection. We suggest that LILR recognition may mediate MHC-I disease association in a manner that does not depend on a binary discrimination of self/non-self by cytotoxic cells. Instead, the effects of LILR activity following engagement by MHC-I may represent a degrees of self model, whereby strength of binding to different alleles determines the degree of influence exerted by these receptors on immune cell functions. LILR are expressed by myelomonocytic cells and lymphocytes, extending their influence across antigen presenting cell subsets including dendritic cells, macrophages and B cells. They have been identified as important players in the response to infection, inflammatory diseases and cancer, with recent literature to indicate that MHC-I recognition by these receptors and consequent allelic effects could extend an influence beyond the immune system.