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Sample records for anserina hnwd non-self

  1. Identification of the het-r vegetative incompatibility gene of Podospora anserina as a member of the fast evolving HNWD gene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevanne, Damien; Bastiaans, Eric; Debets, Alfons; Saupe, Sven J; Clavé, Corinne; Paoletti, Mathieu

    2009-02-01

    In fungi, vegetative incompatibility is a conspecific non-self recognition mechanism that restricts formation of viable heterokaryons when incompatible alleles of specific het loci interact. In Podospora anserina, three non-allelic incompatibility systems have been genetically defined involving interactions between het-c and het-d, het-c and het-e, het-r and het-v. het-d and het-e are paralogues belonging to the HNWD gene family that encode proteins of the STAND class. HET-D and HET-E proteins comprise an N-terminal HET effector domain, a central GTP binding site and a C-terminal WD repeat domain constituted of tandem repeats of highly conserved WD40 repeat units that define the specificity of alleles during incompatibility. The WD40 repeat units of the members of this HNWD family are undergoing concerted evolution. By combining genetic analysis and gain of function experiments, we demonstrate that an additional member of this family, HNWD2, corresponds to the het-r non-allelic incompatibility gene. As for het-d and het-e, allele specificity at the het-r locus is determined by the WD repeat domain. Natural isolates show allelic variation for het-r. PMID:19137300

  2. A síndrome anserina Anserine syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Milton Helfenstein Jr; Jorge Kuromoto

    2010-01-01

    Dor no joelho é uma condição comum na clínica diária e a patologia anserina, também conhecida como pata de ganso, tem sido considerada uma das principais causas. O diagnóstico tem sido realizado de maneira eminentemente clínica, o que tem gerado equívocos. Os pacientes queixam-se tipicamente de dor na parte medial do joelho, com sensibilidade na porção ínferomedial. Estudos de imagem têm sido realizados para esclarecer se tais pacientes possuem bursite, tendinite ou ambos os distúrbios na reg...

  3. NON-SELF-ADJOINT GRAPHS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hussein, A.; Krejčiřík, David; Siegl, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 367, č. 4 (2015), s. 2921-2957. ISSN 0002-9947 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP203/11/0701 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Laplacians on metric graphs * non-self-adjoint boundary conditions * similarity transforms to self-adjoint operators * Riesz basis Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.122, year: 2014

  4. A síndrome anserina Anserine syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Helfenstein Jr

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Dor no joelho é uma condição comum na clínica diária e a patologia anserina, também conhecida como pata de ganso, tem sido considerada uma das principais causas. O diagnóstico tem sido realizado de maneira eminentemente clínica, o que tem gerado equívocos. Os pacientes queixam-se tipicamente de dor na parte medial do joelho, com sensibilidade na porção ínferomedial. Estudos de imagem têm sido realizados para esclarecer se tais pacientes possuem bursite, tendinite ou ambos os distúrbios na região conhecida como pata de ganso. Entretanto, o defeito estrutural responsável pelos sintomas permanece desconhecido, motivo pelo qual preferimos intitular como "Síndrome Anserina". O diabetes mellitus é um fator predisponente bem reconhecido. O sobrepeso e a osteoartrite de joelho parecem ser fatores adicionais de risco, contudo, seus papéis na gênese da moléstia ainda não são bem entendidos. O tratamento atual inclui anti-inflamatório, fisioterapia e infiltração de corticoide, com evolução muito variável, que oscila entre 10 dias e 36 meses. A falta de conhecimento sobre a etiofisiopatologia e dados epidemiológicos exige futuros estudos para esse frequente e intrigante distúrbio.Knee pain is a common complaint in clinical practice, and pes anserinus tendino-bursitis syndrome (PATB has been frequently diagnosed based only on clinical features that may cause equivocal interpretations. Patients complain of characteristic spontaneous medial knee pain with tenderness in the inferomedial aspect of the joint. Studies with different imaging modalities have been undertaken during the last years to identify whether these patients suffer from bursitis, tendinitis, or both. Nevertheless, little is known regarding the structural defect responsible for this disturbance. Due to these problems and some controversies, we suggest the term "anserine syndrome" for this condition. Diabetes Mellitus is a known predisposing factor for this syndrome

  5. Calorie restriction causes healthy life span extension in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepeningen, van A.D.; Maas, M.F.P.M.; Huberts, D.H.E.W.; Goedbloed, D.J.; Engelmoer, D.J.P.; Slakhorst, S.M.; Koopmanschap, A.B.; Krause, F.; Dencher, N.A.; Sellem, C.H.; Sainsard-Chanet, A.; Hoekstra, R.F.; Debets, A.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Although most fungi appear to be immortal, some show systemic senescence within a distinct time frame. Podospora anserina for example shows an irreversible growth arrest within weeks of culturing associated with a destabilization of the mitochondrial genome. Here, we show that calorie restriction (C

  6. A potential impact of DNA repair on ageing and lifespan in the ageing model organism Podospora anserina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soerensen, Mette; Gredilla, Ricardo; Müller-Ohldach, Mathis;

    2009-01-01

    The free radical theory of ageing states that ROS play a key role in age-related decrease in mitochondrial function via the damage of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), proteins and lipids. In the sexually reproducing ascomycete Podospora anserina ageing is, as in other eukaryotes, associated with mtDNA...... instability and mitochondrial dysfunction. Part of the mtDNA instabilities may arise due to accumulation of ROS induced mtDNA lesions, which, as previously suggested for mammals, may be caused by an age-related decrease in base excision repair (BER). Alignments of known BER protein sequences with the P....... anserina genome revealed high homology. We report for the first time the presence of BER activities in P. anserina mitochondrial extracts. DNA glycosylase activities decrease with age, suggesting that the increased mtDNA instability with age may be caused by decreased ability to repair mtDNA damage and...

  7. Natural variation of heterokaryon incompatibility gene het-c in Podospora anserina reveals diversifying selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiaans, Eric; Debets, Alfons J M; Aanen, Duur K; van Diepeningen, Anne D; Saupe, Sven J; Paoletti, Mathieu

    2014-04-01

    In filamentous fungi, allorecognition takes the form of heterokaryon incompatibility, a cell death reaction triggered when genetically distinct hyphae fuse. Heterokaryon incompatibility is controlled by specific loci termed het-loci. In this article, we analyzed the natural variation in one such fungal allorecognition determinant, the het-c heterokaryon incompatibility locus of the filamentous ascomycete Podospora anserina. The het-c locus determines an allogenic incompatibility reaction together with two unlinked loci termed het-d and het-e. Each het-c allele is incompatible with a specific subset of the het-d and het-e alleles. We analyzed variability at the het-c locus in a population of 110 individuals, and in additional isolates from various localities. We identified a total of 11 het-c alleles, which define 7 distinct incompatibility specificity classes in combination with the known het-d and het-e alleles. We found that the het-c allorecognition gene of P. anserina is under diversifying selection. We find a highly unequal allele distribution of het-c in the population, which contrasts with the more balanced distribution of functional groups of het-c based on their allorecognition function. One explanation for the observed het-c diversity in the population is its function in allorecognition. However, alleles that are most efficient in allorecognition are rare. An alternative and not exclusive explanation for the observed diversity is that het-c is involved in pathogen recognition. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a homolog of het-c is a pathogen effector target, supporting this hypothesis. We hypothesize that the het-c diversity in P. anserina results from both its functions in pathogen-defense, and allorecognition. PMID:24448643

  8. Mitochondrial pAL2-1 plasmid homologs are senescence factors in Podospora anserina independent of intrinsic senescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Diepeningen, Anne D; Debets, Alfons J M; Slakhorst, S Marijke; Hoekstra, Rolf F

    2008-01-01

    Since the first description of a linear mitochondrial plasmid in Podospora anserina, pAL2-1, and homologous plasmids have gone from being considered beneficial longevity plasmids, via neutral genetic elements, toward mutator plasmids causing senescence. The plasmid has an invertron structure, with t

  9. A unique CE16 acetyl esterase from Podospora anserina active on polymeric xylan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchart, Vladimír; Berrin, Jean-Guy; Haon, Mireille; Biely, Peter

    2015-12-01

    The genome of the coprophilous fungus Podospora anserina displays an impressive array of genes encoding hemicellulolytic enzymes. In this study, we focused on a putative carbohydrate esterase (CE) from family 16 (CE16) that bears a carbohydrate-binding module from family CBM1. The protein was heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris and purified to electrophoretic homogeneity. The P. anserina CE16 enzyme (PaCE16A) exhibited different catalytic properties than so far known CE16 esterases represented by the Trichoderma reesei CE16 acetyl esterase (TrCE16). A common property of both CE16 esterases is their exodeacetylase activity, i.e., deesterification at positions 3 and 4 of monomeric xylosides and the nonreducing end xylopyranosyl (Xylp) residue of oligomeric homologues. However, the PaCE16A showed lower positional specificity than TrCE16 and efficiently deacetylated also position 2. The major difference observed between PaCE16A and TrCE16 was found on polymeric substrate, acetylglucuronoxylan. While TrCE16 does not attack internal acetyl groups, PaCE16A deacetylated singly and doubly acetylated Xylp residues in the polymer to such an extent that it resulted in the polymer precipitation. Similarly as typical acetylxylan esterases belonging to CE1, CE4, CE5, and CE6 families, PaCE16A did not attack 3-O-acetyl group of xylopyranosyl residues carrying 4-O-methyl-D-glucuronic acid at position 2. PaCE16A thus represents a CE16 member displaying unique catalytic properties, which are intermediate between the TrCE16 exodeacetylase and acetylxylan esterases designed to deacetylate polymeric substrate. The catalytic versatility of PaCE16A makes the enzyme an important candidate for biotechnological applications. PMID:26329850

  10. Phenolic Profile of Potentilla anserina L. (Rosaceae Herb of Siberian Origin and Development of a Rapid Method for Simultaneous Determination of Major Phenolics in P. anserina Pharmaceutical Products by Microcolumn RP-HPLC-UV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniil N. Olennikov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A chemical study of Potentilla anserina L. herb (Rosaceae of Siberian origin led to the isolation of 17 compounds. Three ellagitannins—potentillin, agrimonic acid A and B—are reported for the first time in this species. With a view to rapid quantitative analysis, a new method was developed for simultaneous determination of major phenolic compounds in P. anserina, including caffeic acid, myricetin-3-O-glucuronide, agrimoniin, ellagic acid, miquelianin, isorhamnetin-3-O-glucuronide, and kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoside. The quantitative determination was conducted by microcolumn reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. Separation was performed using a ProntoSIL-120-5-C18 AQ column (60 mm × 1 mm × 5 μm with six-step gradient elution of aqueous 0.2 М LiClO4 in 0.006 M HClO4 and acetonitrile as mobile phases. The components were quantified by HPLC-UV at 270 nm. All calibration curves showed good linearity (r2 > 0.999 within test ranges. The reproducibility was evaluated by intra- and inter-day assays, and RSD values were less than 2.8%. The recoveries were between 97.15 and 102.38%. The limits of detection ranged from 0.21 to 1.94 μg/mL, and limits of quantification ranged from 0.65 to 5.88 μg/mL, respectively. Various solvents, extraction methods, temperatures, and times were evaluated to obtain the best extraction efficiency. The developed method was successfully applied for the analysis of selected pharmaceutical products: 12 batches of P. anserina herb collected from three Siberian regions (Yakutia, Buryatia, Irkutsk, two commercial samples of P. anserina herb, and some preparations (liquid extract, tincture, decoction, infusion, and dry extract.

  11. 鹅绒委陵菜的生物学特性%Study on Biological Characteristics of Potentilla anserina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彦芬

    2011-01-01

    Potentilla anserina L, growing in the northeast place of Qing-Tibetan plateau, was served as the material in this article. In the plant habitats. The botanical characteristics and the characteristics of clones of Potentitla anserina L were researched by the method of the pointing field. The characters of ecology in the different districts were analyzed with the sampling method. The result showed that Potentilla anserina L is a typical of perennial stoloniferous herb. The plants distribute widely in the meadow, flood plain, the gullies, and livestock adjacent circle in the northeastern Qinghai-Tibetan plateau, during the altitude range of 1 800 meters to 4 300 meters. With the increasing of elevation, plants tend to lower, less leaf number and aboveground biomass, but more ground biomass. Individual plants with stoloniferous and the stolon number decrease, and ramet density shows a quadratic curve. The dominant species and constructive species of plant community are both Potentilla anserina L, and the companion species are mainly Chenopodium glaucum L. And Poa annua in the mass distributed areas.%采用野外定点观察法,研究鹅绒委陵菜(Potentilla anserina L.)的植物学特性、无性系生长特征;采用最小样方法研究不同地区鹅绒委陵菜生态学特征.结果显示,鹅绒委陵菜为多年生草本,是一种典型的匍匐茎型莲座状植物,该植物在青藏高原东北部(海拔1 800~4 300 m)均有分布,生长于草甸、河漫滩、水沟边及畜圈旁;随着海拔升高,植株趋于低矮,复叶数增加,地上生物量降低,地下生物量升高,具单株匍匐茎的个体数量减少,分株密度呈二次曲线变化.在鹅绒委陵菜分布较集中地区,植物群落的优势种和建群种均为鹅绒委陵菜,伴生种主要为灰绿黎、早熟禾.

  12. Identification of a Hypothetical Protein from Podospora anserina as a Nitroalkane Oxidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tormos, Jose R.; Taylor, Alexander B.; Daubner, S. Colette; Hart, P. John; Fitzpatrick, Paul F. (Texas-HSC); (St. Mary)

    2010-08-23

    The flavoprotein nitroalkane oxidase (NAO) from Fusarium oxysporum catalyzes the oxidation of primary and secondary nitroalkanes to their respective aldehydes and ketones. Structurally, the enzyme is a member of the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase superfamily. To date no enzymes other than that from F. oxysporum have been annotated as NAOs. To identify additional potential NAOs, the available database was searched for enzymes in which the active site residues Asp402, Arg409, and Ser276 were conserved. Of the several fungal enzymes identified in this fashion, PODANSg2158 from Podospora anserina was selected for expression and characterization. The recombinant enzyme is a flavoprotein with activity on nitroalkanes comparable to the F. oxysporum NAO, although the substrate specificity is somewhat different. Asp399, Arg406, and Ser273 in PODANSg2158 correspond to the active site triad in F. oxysporum NAO. The k{sub cat}/K{sub M}-pH profile with nitroethane shows a pK{sub a} of 5.9 that is assigned to Asp399 as the active site base. Mutation of Asp399 to asparagine decreases the k{sub cat}/K{sub M} value for nitroethane over 2 orders of magnitude. The R406K and S373A mutations decrease this kinetic parameter by 64- and 3-fold, respectively. The structure of PODANSg2158 has been determined at a resolution of 2.0 {angstrom}, confirming its identification as an NAO.

  13. Effect of paraquat-induced oxidative stress on gene expression and aging of the filamentous ascomycete Podospora anserina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Wiemer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aging of biological systems is influenced by various factors, conditions and processes. Among others, processes allowing organisms to deal with various types of stress are of key importance. In particular, oxidative stress as the result of the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS at the mitochondrial respiratory chain and the accumulation of ROS-induced molecular damage has been strongly linked to aging. Here we view the impact of ROS from a different angle: their role in the control of gene expression. We report a genome-wide transcriptome analysis of the fungal aging model Podospora anserina grown on medium containing paraquat (PQ. This treatment leads to an increased cellular generation and release of H2O2, a reduced growth rate, and a decrease in lifespan. The combined challenge by PQ and copper has a synergistic negative effect on growth and lifespan. The data from the transcriptome analysis of the wild type cultivated under PQ-stress and their comparison to those of a longitudinal aging study as well as of a copper-uptake longevity mutant of P. anserina revealed that PQ-stress leads to the up-regulation of transcripts coding for components involved in mitochondrial remodeling. PQ also affects the expression of copper-regulated genes suggesting an increase of cytoplasmic copper levels as it has been demonstrated earlier to occur during aging of P. anserina and during senescence of human fibroblasts. This effect may result from the induction of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore via PQ-induced ROS, leading to programmed cell death as part of an evolutionary conserved mechanism involved in biological aging and lifespan control.

  14. Phytochemical composition of Potentilla anserina L. analyzed by an integrative GC-MS and LC-MS metabolomics platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, Angela; Lyon, David; Fragner, Lena; Montoro, Paola; Piacente, Sonia; Wienkoop, Stefanie; Egelhofer, Volker; Weckwerth, Wolfram

    2013-06-01

    Potentilla anserina L. (Rosaceae) is known for its beneficial effects of prevention of pre-menstrual syndrome (PMS). For this reason P. anserina is processed into many food supplements and pharmaceutical preparations. Here we analyzed hydroalcoholic reference extracts and compared them with various extracts of different pharmacies using an integrative metabolomics platform comprising GC-MS and LC-MS analysis and software toolboxes for data alignment (MetMAX Beta 1.0) and multivariate statistical analysis (COVAIN 1.0). Multivariate statistics of the integrated GC-MS and LC-MS data showed strong differences between the different plant extract formulations. Different groups of compounds such as chlorogenic acid, kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside, acacetin 7-O-rutinoside, and genistein were reported for the first time in this species. The typical fragmentation pathway of the isoflavone genistein confirmed the identification of this active compound that was present with different abundances in all the extracts analyzed. As a result we have revealed that different extraction procedures from different vendors produce different chemical compositions, e.g. different genistein concentrations. Consequently, the treatment may have different effects. The integrative metabolomics platform provides the highest resolution of the phytochemical composition and a mean to define subtle differences in plant extract formulations. PMID:23678344

  15. Non-self-adjoint hamiltonians defined by Riesz bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagarello, F., E-mail: fabio.bagarello@unipa.it [Dipartimento di Energia, Ingegneria dell' Informazione e Modelli Matematici, Facoltà di Ingegneria, Università di Palermo, I-90128 Palermo, Italy and INFN, Università di Torino, Torino (Italy); Inoue, A., E-mail: a-inoue@fukuoka-u.ac.jp [Department of Applied Mathematics, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka 814-0180 (Japan); Trapani, C., E-mail: camillo.trapani@unipa.it [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Università di Palermo, I-90123 Palermo (Italy)

    2014-03-15

    We discuss some features of non-self-adjoint Hamiltonians with real discrete simple spectrum under the assumption that the eigenvectors form a Riesz basis of Hilbert space. Among other things, we give conditions under which these Hamiltonians can be factorized in terms of generalized lowering and raising operators.

  16. Detection of non-self-correcting nature of information cascade

    CERN Document Server

    Mori, Shintaro; Hisakado, Masato; Takahashi, Taiki

    2015-01-01

    We propose a method of detecting non-self-correcting information cascades in experiments in which subjects choose an option sequentially by observing the choices of previous subjects. The method uses the correlation function $C(t)$ between the first and the $t+1$-th subject's choices. $C(t)$ measures the strength of the domino effect, and the limit value $c\\equiv \\lim_{t\\to \\infty}C(t)$ determines whether the domino effect lasts forever $(c>0)$ or not $(c=0)$. The condition $c>0$ is an adequate condition for a non-self-correcting system, and the probability that the majority's choice remains wrong in the limit $t\\to \\infty$ is positive. We apply the method to data from two experiments in which $T$ subjects answered two-choice questions: (i) general knowledge questions ($T_{avg}=60$) and (ii) urn-choice questions ($T=63$). We find $c>0$ for difficult questions in (i) and all cases in (ii), and the systems are not self-correcting.

  17. Non self-dual Yang-Mills fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the thesis is to prove the existence of a new family of non self-dual finite-energy solutions to the Yang-Mills equations on Euclidean four-space, with SU(2) as a gauge group. The approach is that of equivalent geometry: attention is restricted to a special class of fields, those that satisfy a certain kind of rotational symmetry which it is proved that (1) a solution to the Yang-Mills equations exists for among them, and (2) no solution to the self-duality equations exists among them. The first assertion is proved by an application of the direct method of the calculus of variations (existence and regularity of minimizers), and the second assertion by showing that the self-duality equations, linearized at a symmetric self-dual solution, cannot possess the required symmetry

  18. Effect of n-butanol Extract from Potentilla anserina on Hypoxiainduced Calcium Overload and SERCA2 Expression of Rat Cardiomyocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ling-zhi; WANG Lu-jun; WANG Yue; CUI Ying; LI Jian-yu; ZHANG Li; ZHANG Yong-liang

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of n-butanol extract from Potentilla anserina (NP) intervention on hypoxia-induced Ca2+ overload and SERCA2 expression of rat cardiomyocytes.Methods Primary cultured myocardial cell from SD neonatal rat (1-3 d) was used in the establishment of hypoxia model.After hypoxia for 3 h,the Ca2+ concentration of myocardial cells was measured with fura-2/AM fluorescent probe,and the biochemical indicator intracellular Ca2+-ATPase was examined and the mRNA and its protective protein levels of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+-ATPases (SERCA2) were assayed with RT-PCR,Western-blotting,and immune-cytochemical staining in each group.Results The results showed that NP decreased Ca2+ concentration,increased the activity of Ca2+-ATPase,and improved the mRNA and protein expression of SERCA2 in hypoxia-injured myocardial cells as compared with the model group.Conclusion These results indicate that NP could attenuate the Ca2+ overload.The mechanism might be explained as that NP could elevate the SERCA2 level,increase the activity of myocardium in rats,and further enhance the capacity of SR Ca2+ re-uptake.

  19. Neuroprotection of n-Butanol Extract from Roots of Potentilla anserina on Hypoxic Injury in Primary Hippocampal Neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Xiao-jing; LI Ling-zhi; LV Qi; YU Bao-guo; YANG Shu-wang; HE Tao; ZHANG Yong-liang

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the protective effect of n-butanol extract from the roots of Potentilla anserina (NP) on hypoxic hippocampal neurons in neonatal rats.Methods Primary cultured hippocampal neurons were pretreated with different concentration of NP (0.25,0.0625,and 0.0156 mg/mL) before incubation in a low oxygen (0.1%) environment for 4 h.Cell viability was evaluated by Trypan blue staining assay.Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) released by neurons into the medium was measured.The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in cell cytosol was determined using nitroblue tetrazolium.Morphological changes and mitochondrial function were observed by transmission electron microscopy.Results Hypoxic injury could decrease the cells viability of neuron,enhance LDH release (P < 0.05),decrease SOD activity,and increase mitochondrial injury.Pretreatment with NP significantly increased cell viability,decreased LDH release (P < 0.05),promoted SOD activity (P < 0.05),and remarkably improved cellular ultra-microstructure compared with the model group.Conclusion NP could protect the primary hippocampal neurons from hypoxic injury by attenuating mitochondrial cell death.

  20. Regulation of Aerobic Energy Metabolism in Podospora anserina by Two Paralogous Genes Encoding Structurally Different c-Subunits of ATP Synthase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellem, Carole H.; di Rago, Jean-Paul; Lasserre, Jean-Paul; Ackerman, Sharon H.; Sainsard-Chanet, Annie

    2016-01-01

    Most of the ATP in living cells is produced by an F-type ATP synthase. This enzyme uses the energy of a transmembrane electrochemical proton gradient to synthesize ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate. Proton movements across the membrane domain (FO) of the ATP synthase drive the rotation of a ring of 8–15 c-subunits, which induces conformational changes in the catalytic part (F1) of the enzyme that ultimately promote ATP synthesis. Two paralogous nuclear genes, called Atp9-5 and Atp9-7, encode structurally different c-subunits in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina. We have in this study identified differences in the expression pattern for the two genes that correlate with the mitotic activity of cells in vegetative mycelia: Atp9-7 is transcriptionally active in non-proliferating (stationary) cells while Atp9-5 is expressed in the cells at the extremity (apex) of filaments that divide and are responsible for mycelium growth. When active, the Atp9-5 gene sustains a much higher rate of c-subunit synthesis than Atp9-7. We further show that the ATP9-7 and ATP9-5 proteins have antagonist effects on the longevity of P. anserina. Finally, we provide evidence that the ATP9-5 protein sustains a higher rate of mitochondrial ATP synthesis and yield in ATP molecules per electron transferred to oxygen than the c-subunit encoded by Atp9-7. These findings reveal that the c-subunit genes play a key role in the modulation of ATP synthase production and activity along the life cycle of P. anserina. Such a degree of sophistication for regulating aerobic energy metabolism has not been described before. PMID:27442014

  1. Deletion of the MED13 and CDK8 subunits of the Mediator improves the phenotype of a long-lived respiratory deficient mutant of Podospora anserina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbert, Adeline; Bovier, Elodie; Sellem, Carole H; Sainsard-Chanet, Annie

    2015-09-01

    In Podospora anserina, the loss of function of the cytochrome segment of the mitochondrial respiratory chain is viable. This is due to the presence in this organism, as in most filamentous fungi, of an alternative respiratory oxidase (AOX) that provides a bypass to the cytochrome pathway. However mutants lacking a functional cytochrome pathway present multiple phenotypes including poorly colored thin mycelium and slow growth. In a large genetic screen based on the improvement of these phenotypes, we isolated a large number of independent suppressor mutations. Most of them led to the constitutive overexpression of the aox gene. In this study, we characterize a new suppressor mutation that does not affect the production of AOX. It is a loss-of-function mutation in the gene encoding the MED13 subunit of the kinase module of the Mediator complex. Inactivation of the cdk8 gene encoding another subunit of the same module also results in partial suppression of a cytochrome-deficient mutant. Analysis of strains lacking the MED13 or CDK8 subunits points to the importance of these subunits as regulators involved in diverse physiological processes such as growth, longevity and sexual development. Interestingly, transcriptional analyses indicate that in P. anserina, loss of the respiratory cytochrome pathway results in the up-regulation of glycolysis-related genes revealing a new type of retrograde regulation. The loss of MED13 augments the up-regulation of some of these genes. PMID:26231682

  2. DMPD: Infectious non-self recognition in invertebrates: lessons from Drosophila andother insect models. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15476918 Infectious non-self recognition in invertebrates: lessons from Drosophila andother insect...fectious non-self recognition in invertebrates: lessons from Drosophila andother insect models. PubmedID 154...76918 Title Infectious non-self recognition in invertebrates: lessons from Drosophila andother insect

  3. Application of non-self-adjoint operators for description of electronic excitations in metallic lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popov, A. V., E-mail: Popov.Barnaul@mail.ru [Polzunov Altai State Technical University (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    Metallic lithium is used to demonstrate the possibilities of applying non-self-adjoint operators for quantitative description of orbital excitations of electrons in crystals. It is shown that, the nonequilibrium distribution function can be calculated when solving the spectral problem; therefore, the kinetic properties of a material can also be described with the unified band theory.

  4. On a class of non-self-adjoint periodic boundary value problems with discrete real spectrum

    OpenAIRE

    Boulton, Lyonell; Levitin, Michael; Marletta, Marco

    2010-01-01

    In [arXiv:0801.0172] we examined a family of periodic Sturm-Liouville problems with boundary and interior singularities which are highly non-self-adjoint but have only real eigenvalues. We now establish Schatten class properties of the associated resolvent operator.

  5. Arguments for and against self and non-self root recognition in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen eDepuydt

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Root–root interaction research gained more and more attention over the past few years. Roots are pivotal for plant survival because they ensure uptake of water and nutrients. Therefore, detection of adjacent roots might lead to competitive advantages. Several lines of experimental evidence suggest that roots have ways to discriminate non-related roots, kin, and – importantly – that they can sense self/non-self roots to avoid intra-plant competition. In this mini-review, the existence of self/non-self recognition in plant roots will be discussed and the current knowledge on the mechanisms that could be involved will be summarized. Although the process of identity recognition is still not completely understood, interesting data are available and emerging new technologies will certainly aid to better understand this research field that can have an important biological, ecological, and agricultural impact.

  6. Processing of self versus non-self in Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Louise Bond

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite considerable evidence for abnormalities of self-awareness in Alzheimer’s disease (AD, the cognitive mechanisms of altered self-processing in AD have not been fully defined. Here we addressed this issue in a detailed analysis of self/non-self-processing in three patients with AD. We designed a novel neuropsychological battery comprising tests of tactile body schema coding, attribution of tactile events to self versus external agents, and memory for self- versus non-self-generated vocal information, administered in conjunction with a daily life measure of self/non-self-processing (the Interpersonal Reactivity Index. Three male AD patients (aged 54 to 68 years; one with a pathogenic mutation in the Presenilin 1 gene, one with a pathogenic mutation in the Amyloid Precursor Protein gene, and one with a CSF protein profile supporting underlying AD pathology were studied in relation to a group of eight healthy older male individuals (aged 58 to 74 years. Compared to healthy controls, all patients had relatively intact tactile body schema processing. In contrast, all patients showed impaired memory for words previously presented using the patient’s own voice whereas memory for words presented in other voices was less consistently affected. Two patients showed increased levels of emotional contagion and reduced perspective taking on the Interpersonal Reactivity Index. Our findings suggest that AD may be associated with deficient self /non-self differentiation over time despite a relatively intact body image: this profile of altered self-processing contrasts with the deficit of tactile body schema previously described in frontotemporal dementia associated with C9orf72 mutations. We present these findings as a preliminary rationale to direct future systematic study in larger patient cohorts.

  7. Self vs. non-self discrimination during CRISPR RNA-directed immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Marraffini, Luciano A.; SONTHEIMER, ERIK J.

    2010-01-01

    All immune systems must distinguish self from non-self to repel invaders without inducing autoimmunity. Clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) loci protect bacteria and archaea from invasion by phage and plasmid DNA through a genetic interference pathway1–9. CRISPR loci are present in ~ 40% and ~90% of sequenced bacterial and archaeal genomes respectively10 and evolve rapidly, acquiring new spacer sequences to adapt to highly dynamic viral populations1, 11–13. Imm...

  8. Signalling versatility following self and non-self sensing by myeloid C-type lectin receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iborra, Salvador; Sancho, David

    2015-01-01

    Among myeloid immune receptors, C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) have a remarkable capacity to sense a variety of self and non-self ligands. The coupling of CLRs to different signal transduction modules is influenced not only by the receptor, but also by the nature, density and architecture of the ligand, which can affect the rate of receptor internalization and trafficking to diverse intracellular compartments. Understanding how the variety of self and non-self ligands triggers differential CLR signalling and function presents a fascinating biological challenge. Non-self ligands usually promote inflammation and immunity, whereas self ligands are frequently involved in communication and tolerance. But pathogens can mimic self-inhibitory signals to escape immune surveillance, and endogenous ligands can contribute to the sensing of pathogens through CLRs. In this review, we survey the complexity and flexibility in functional outcome found in the myeloid CLRs, which is not only based on their differing intracellular motifs, but is also conditioned by the physical nature, affinity and avidity of the ligand. PMID:25269828

  9. Dust trap formation in a non-self-sustained discharge with external gas ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results from numerical studies of a non-self-sustained gas discharge containing micrometer dust grains are presented. The non-self-sustained discharge (NSSD) was controlled by a stationary fast electron beam. The numerical model of an NSSD is based on the diffusion drift approximation for electrons and ions and self-consistently takes into account the influence of the dust component on the electron and ion densities. The dust component is described by the balance equation for the number of dust grains and the equation of motion for dust grains with allowance for the Stokes force, gravity force, and electric force in the cathode sheath. The interaction between dust grains is described in the self-consistent field approximation. The height of dust grain levitation over the cathode is determined and compared with experimental results. It is established that, at a given gas ionization rate and given applied voltage, there is a critical dust grain size above which the levitation condition in the cathode sheath cannot be satisfied. Simulations performed for the dust component consisting of dust grains of two different sizes shows that such grains levitate at different heights, i.e., size separation of dust drains levitating in the cathode sheath of an NSSD takes place

  10. Dust trap formation in a non-self-sustained discharge with external gas ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippov, A. V., E-mail: fav@triniti.ru; Babichev, V. N.; Pal’, A. F.; Starostin, A. N.; Cherkovets, V. E.; Rerikh, V. K.; Taran, M. D. [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-15

    Results from numerical studies of a non-self-sustained gas discharge containing micrometer dust grains are presented. The non-self-sustained discharge (NSSD) was controlled by a stationary fast electron beam. The numerical model of an NSSD is based on the diffusion drift approximation for electrons and ions and self-consistently takes into account the influence of the dust component on the electron and ion densities. The dust component is described by the balance equation for the number of dust grains and the equation of motion for dust grains with allowance for the Stokes force, gravity force, and electric force in the cathode sheath. The interaction between dust grains is described in the self-consistent field approximation. The height of dust grain levitation over the cathode is determined and compared with experimental results. It is established that, at a given gas ionization rate and given applied voltage, there is a critical dust grain size above which the levitation condition in the cathode sheath cannot be satisfied. Simulations performed for the dust component consisting of dust grains of two different sizes shows that such grains levitate at different heights, i.e., size separation of dust drains levitating in the cathode sheath of an NSSD takes place.

  11. Non-self-sustained electric discharge in oxygen gas mixtures: singlet delta oxygen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of obtaining a high specific input energy in an electron-beam sustained discharge ignited in oxygen gas mixtures O2 : Ar : CO (or H2) at the total gas pressures of 10-100 Torr was experimentally demonstrated. The specific input energy per molecular component exceeded ∼6 kJ l-1 atm-1 (150 kJ mol-1) as a small amount of carbon monoxide was added into a gas mixture of oxygen and argon. It was theoretically demonstrated that one might expect to obtain a singlet delta oxygen yield of 25% exceeding its threshold value needed for an oxygen-iodine laser operation at room temperature, when maintaining a non-self-sustained discharge in oxygen gas mixtures with molecular additives CO, H2 or D2. The efficiency of singlet delta oxygen production can be as high as 40%

  12. Bethe-Salpeter equation for non-self conjugate mesons in a power-law potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We develop an approach to the solution of the spinless Bethe-Salpeter equation for the different-mass case. Although the calculations are developed for spin-zero particles in any arbitrary spherically symmetric potential, the non-Coulombic effective power-law potential is used as a kernel to produce the spin-averaged bound states of the non-self-conjugate mesons. The analytical formulae are also applicable to the self-conjugate mesons in the equal-mass case. The flavor-independent case is investigated in this work. The calculations are carried out to the third-order correction of the energy series. Results are consistent with those obtained before. (author). 14 refs, 1 tab

  13. Non-self-sustained microwave discharge and the concept of a microwave air jet engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new type of microwave discharge - near-surface non-self-sustained discharge (NSND) - has been realized and investigated. A physical model of this discharge is presented. For the first time NSND application for microwave air jet engines has been proposed. Measurements under laboratory conditions modelling the microwave air jet engine operation shows the qualitative agreement between the model of NSND and actual processes near the target irradiated by a powerful microwave beam. Characteristic dependences of recoil momentum of target on the background pressure and microwave pulse duration obtained in experiments are presented. Measured cost of thrust produced by the NSND is no more than 3.0 kW N-1, which is close to the predicted values

  14. Anodization of aluminum and silicon in plasma of a non-self-sustained glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of anodization of aluminum and silicon in an oxygen plasma are presented. The plasma was generated by a non-self-sustained glow discharge with a hollow cathode excited by an electron beam at the oxygen pressure of 20 Pa. The density of the current flowing through the anodized specimen did not exceed 1.5 mA/cm2, and its temperature was 200–250°C. Continuous Al2O3 and SiO2 films were formed on the aluminum and silicon surfaces. The growth rate of the oxide layers was 150–200 nm/h for Al2O3 and 400–800 nm/h for SiO2.

  15. Non self-conjugate strings, singular strings and rigged configurations in the Heisenberg model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We observe a different type of complex solutions in the isotropic spin-1/2 Heisenberg chain starting from N = 12, where the central rapidity of some of the odd-length strings becomes complex so that not all the strings self-conjugate individually. We show that there are at most (N − 2)/2 singular solutions for M = 4, M = 5 down-spins and at most (N2 − 6N + 8)/8 singular solutions for M = 6, M = 7 down-spins in an even-length chain with N ⩾ 2M. Correspondence of the non self-conjugate string solutions and the singular string solutions to the rigged configurations has also been shown. (paper)

  16. Eigenvalue problem meets Sierpinski triangle: computing the spectrum of a non-self-adjoint random operator

    CERN Document Server

    Chandler-Wilde, Simon; Lindner, Marko

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to prove that the spectrum of the non-self-adjoint one-particle Hamiltonian proposed by J. Feinberg and A. Zee (Phys. Rev. E 59 (1999), 6433--6443) has interior points. We do this by first recalling that the spectrum of this random operator is the union of the set of $\\ell^\\infty$ eigenvalues of all infinite matrices with the same structure. We then construct an infinite matrix of this structure for which every point of the open unit disk is an $\\ell^\\infty$ eigenvalue, this following from the fact that the components of the eigenvector are polynomials in the spectral parameter whose non-zero coefficients are $\\pm 1$'s, forming the pattern of an infinite discrete Sierpinski triangle.

  17. The PaPsr1 and PaWhi2 genes are members of the regulatory network that connect stationary phase to mycelium differentiation and reproduction in Podospora anserina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpano, Hélène; Chan Ho Tong, Laetitia; Gautier, Valérie; Lalucque, Hervé; Silar, Philippe

    2016-09-01

    In filamentous fungi, entrance into stationary phase is complex as it is accompanied by several differentiation and developmental processes, including the synthesis of pigments, aerial hyphae, anastomoses and sporophores. The regulatory networks that control these processes are still incompletely known. The analysis of the "Impaired in the development of Crippled Growth (IDC)" mutants of the model filamentous ascomycete Podospora anserina has already yielded important information regarding the pathway regulating entrance into stationary phase. Here, the genes affected in two additional IDC mutants are identified as orthologues of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae WHI2 and PSR1 genes, known to regulate stationary phase in this yeast, arguing for a conserved role of these proteins throughout the evolution of ascomycetes. PMID:27353975

  18. Non-self-sufficiency as a primary outcome measure in ALS trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Benoît; Bianchi, Elisa; Pupillo, Elisabetta; Lunetta, Christian; Tremolizzo, Lucio; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Chiò, Adriano; Preux, Pierre Marie; Beghi, Ettore

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to assess non-self-sufficiency (NSS) in ALS as an outcome measure in therapeutic trials. Using data from the control arm of two randomized trials and an observational study, associations between NSS (score ≤2 in the ALSFRS-R items for swallowing, cutting food and handling utensils, or walking) and the total ALSFRS-R score, forced vital capacity (FVC), and survival at selected time-points until death or 48 weeks, were assessed. These measures were used as surrogates of relevant functional impairment. Of 82 self-sufficient (SS) patients at baseline, 32 (39.0%) became NSS at four weeks and increased to 72 (87.8%) at the end of follow-up. A significant association was found between NSS, ALSFRS-R score and FVC at 24, 36 and 48 weeks. Thirty-four subjects died (41.5%). Compared to SS patients (median survival, 27.9 months), individuals becoming NSS at four weeks were at increased risk to die (median survival, 23.6 months, p = 0.02). NSS status at four weeks predicted survival even after adjustment for ALSFRS-R total score, age, gender, site of onset, disease duration, BMI, and FVC. 'Walking' was the only predictor of survival when adjusting for all covariates. In conclusion, NSS status is a possible endpoint to investigate short-term efficacy of treatments of ALS. PMID:26470831

  19. Reprogramming, Circular Reasoning and Self versus Non-self: One-Stop Shopping with RNA Editing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savva, Yiannis A.; Rezaei, Ali; St. Laurent, Georges; Reenan, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Transcription of genetic information from archival DNA into RNA molecule working copies is vital for proper cellular function and is highly accurate. In turn, RNAs serve structural, enzymatic, and regulatory roles, as well as being informational templates for the ribosomal translation of proteins. Following RNA synthesis, maturing of RNA molecules occurs through various RNA processing events. One component of the collection of processes involving RNA species, broadly defined as RNA metabolism, is the RNA-editing pathway and is found in all animals. Acting specifically on RNA substrates with double-stranded character, RNA editing has been shown to regulate a plethora of genomic outputs, including gene recoding, RNA splicing, biogenesis and targeting actions of microRNAs and small interfering RNAs, and global gene expression. Recent evidence suggests that RNA modifications mediated via RNA editing influence the biogenesis of circular RNAs and safeguard against aberrant innate immune responses generated to endogenous RNA sources. These novel roles have the potential to contribute new insights into molecular mechanisms underlying pathogenesis mediated by mishandling of double-stranded RNA. Here, we discuss recent advances in the field, which highlight novel roles associated with the RNA-editing process and emphasize their importance during cellular RNA metabolism. In addition, we highlight the relevance of these newly discovered roles in the context of neurological disorders and the more general concept of innate recognition of self versus non-self. PMID:27458478

  20. Discrimination-based Artificial Immune System: Modeling the Learning Mechanism of Self and Non-self Discrimination for Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazushi Igawa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a new artificial immune system for classification. It was named discrimination-based artificial immune system (DAIS and was based on the principle of self and non-self discrimination by T cells in the human immune system. Ability of a natural immune system to distinguish between self and non-self molecules was applicable for classification in a way that one class was distinguished from others. We model this and the mechanism of the education in a thymus for classification. Especially, we introduce the method to decide the recognition distance threshold of the artificial lymphocyte, as the negative selection algorithm. We apply DAIS to real world datasets and show its performance to be comparable to that of other classifier systems. We conclude that this modeling was appropriate and DAIS was a useful classifier.

  1. The non-self-propelled hydropower vessel for electrical energy providing of Arctic and Far East hard-to-reach areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borisova L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The floating tidal unceasing action power plant design based on the non-self-propelled vessel has been proposed. To produce electric energy the renewable energy of wind and tidal waves has been used

  2. Self-consistent field method and non-self-consistent field method for calculating the positron lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many methods are used to calculate the positron lifetime, these methods could be divided into two main types. The first method is atomic superposition approximation method and the second one is the so called energy band calculation method. They are also known as the non-self-consistent field method and self-consistent field method respectively. In this paper, we first introduce the two basic methods and then, we take Si as an example and give our calculation results, these results coincide with our latest experimental results, finally, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the two methods

  3. Study of spherical shock waves in a non-self-maintained discharge by the laser Schlieren technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented from the study of spherical shock waves (SWs) in air and in a low-temperature plasma of a non-self-maintained discharge in carbon dioxide by using the laser Schlieren technique. A new calibration procedure and a new method for calculating the signal obtained by this technique include (i) experimental determination of the frequency response and sensitivity of the Schlieren gauge, (ii) reconstruction of the density jump at the SW front as a function of the radius of a spherical SW from the recorded times of the SW arrival for different propagation distances in air (the reconstruction is based on the results of a numerical solution of the problem of point explosion in a gas with taking into account the gas pressure ahead of the SW front and the asymptotic law of the SW propagation), and (iii) the partial-ray method for calculating the Schlieren-system response to the passage of a spherical SW across the laser beam. This technique is used to reconstruct the values of the density jump at the front of a spherical SW interacting with the plasma of a non-self-maintained discharge in carbon dioxide (electronegative gas with dissociative electron attachment)

  4. Collective synchronization of self/non-self discrimination in T cell activation, across multiple spatio-temporal scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altan-Bonnet, Gregoire

    The immune system is a collection of cells whose function is to eradicate pathogenic infections and malignant tumors while protecting healthy tissues. Recent work has delineated key molecular and cellular mechanisms associated with the ability to discriminate self from non-self agents. For example, structural studies have quantified the biophysical characteristics of antigenic molecules (those prone to trigger lymphocyte activation and a subsequent immune response). However, such molecular mechanisms were found to be highly unreliable at the individual cellular level. We will present recent efforts to build experimentally validated computational models of the immune responses at the collective cell level. Such models have become critical to delineate how higher-level integration through nonlinear amplification in signal transduction, dynamic feedback in lymphocyte differentiation and cell-to-cell communication allows the immune system to enforce reliable self/non-self discrimination at the organism level. In particular, we will present recent results demonstrating how T cells tune their antigen discrimination according to cytokine cues, and how competition for cytokine within polyclonal populations of cells shape the repertoire of responding clones. Additionally, we will present recent theoretical and experimental results demonstrating how competition between diffusion and consumption of cytokines determine the range of cell-cell communications within lymphoid organs. Finally, we will discuss how biochemically explicit models, combined with quantitative experimental validation, unravel the relevance of new feedbacks for immune regulations across multiple spatial and temporal scales.

  5. Use of a Low-Pressure Non-Self-Sustained Arc Discharge for Plasma Ion Treatment of Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An efficient method for producing low-temperature gas plasmas in large vacuum volumes is based on the initiation and operation of a low-pressure non-self-sustained arc discharge with a combined cathode including a hot cathode and a hollow cathode. For this type of a discharge, the inner walls of the working vacuum chamber play the role of a hollow anode. In the range from 10-1 to 1 Pa, this method makes it possible to produce plasmas of both inert and reactive gases of density 109 - 1010 cm-3 uniform within 20% with respect to the average value in volumes of about 1 m3. This paper describes major applications of this type of plasma in technological processes, such as: finish surface cleaning of materials and articles in vacuum; plasma ion nitriding of steels and alloys; plasma-assisted deposition of functional coatings on materials and articles. (author)

  6. The unique non self-referential q-canonical distribution and the physical temperature derived from the maximum entropy principle in Tsallis statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Suyari, Hiroki

    2005-01-01

    The maximum entropy principle in Tsallis statistics is reformulated in the mathematical framework of the q-product, which results in the unique non self-referential q-canonical distribution. As one of the applications of the present formalism, we theoretically derive the physical temperature which coincides with that already obtained in accordance with the generalized zeroth law of thermodynamics.

  7. Uridine composition of the poly-U/UC tract of HCV RNA defines non-self recognition by RIG-I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretja Schnell

    Full Text Available Viral infection of mammalian cells triggers the innate immune response through non-self recognition of pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs in viral nucleic acid. Accurate PAMP discrimination is essential to avoid self recognition that can generate autoimmunity, and therefore should be facilitated by the presence of multiple motifs in a PAMP that mark it as non-self. Hepatitis C virus (HCV RNA is recognized as non-self by RIG-I through the presence of a 5'-triphosphate (5'-ppp on the viral RNA in association with a 3' poly-U/UC tract. Here we define the HCV PAMP and the criteria for RIG-I non-self discrimination of HCV by examining the RNA structure-function attributes that impart PAMP function to the poly-U/UC tract. We found that the 34 nucleotide poly-uridine "core" of this sequence tract was essential for RIG-I activation, and that interspersed ribocytosine nucleotides between poly-U sequences in the RNA were required to achieve optimal RIG-I signal induction. 5'-ppp poly-U/UC RNA variants that stimulated strong RIG-I activation efficiently bound purified RIG-I protein in vitro, and RNA interaction with both the repressor domain and helicase domain of RIG-I was required to activate signaling. When appended to 5'-ppp RNA that lacks PAMP activity, the poly-U/UC U-core sequence conferred non-self recognition of the RNA and innate immune signaling by RIG-I. Importantly, HCV poly-U/UC RNA variants that strongly activated RIG-I signaling triggered potent anti-HCV responses in vitro and hepatic innate immune responses in vivo using a mouse model of PAMP signaling. These studies define a multi-motif PAMP signature of non-self recognition by RIG-I that incorporates a 5'-ppp with poly-uridine sequence composition and length. This HCV PAMP motif drives potent RIG-I signaling to induce the innate immune response to infection. Our studies define a basis of non-self discrimination by RIG-I and offer insights into the antiviral therapeutic

  8. Critical roles of sea cucumber C-type lectin in non-self recognition and bacterial clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiumei; Liu, Xiangquan; Yang, Jianmin; Wang, Sheng; Sun, Guohua; Yang, Jialong

    2015-08-01

    C-type lectin is one important pattern recognition receptor (PRR) that plays crucial roles in multiple immune responses. A C-type lectin from sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (AjCTL-1) was characterized in the present study. The amino acid sequence of AjCTL-1 shared high similarities with other C-type lectins from invertebrates and vertebrates. The C-type lectin domain (CTLD) of AjCTL-1 contained a Ca(2+)-binding site 2 and four conserved cysteine residues. AjCTL-1 mRNA expression patterns in tissues and after bacterial challenge were then analysed. Quantitative PCR revealed that AjCTL-1 mRNA was widely expressed in the tested tissues of healthy sea cucumber. The highest expression level occurred in gonad followed by body wall, coelomocytes, tentacle, intestinum and longitudinal muscle, and the lowest expression level was in respiratory tree. AjCTL-1 mRNA expression in coelomocytes was significantly induced by gram-negative Listonella anguillarum and gram-positive Micrococcus luteus, with different up-regulation patterns post-challenge. Recombinant AjCTL-1 exhibited the ability to bind peptidoglycan directly, agglutinate M. luteus, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, in a Ca(2+)-dependant manner, and enhance the phagocytosis of coelomocytes against E. coli in vitro. The results indicated that AjCTL-1 could act as a PRR in Apostichopus japonicus and had critical roles in non-self recognition and bacterial clearance against invading microbes. PMID:26052017

  9. On the Spectra and Pseudospectra of a Class of Non-Self-Adjoint Random Matrices and Operators

    CERN Document Server

    Chandler-Wilde, Simon N; Lindner, Marko

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we develop and apply methods for the spectral analysis of non-self-adjoint tridiagonal infinite and finite random matrices, and for the spectral analysis of analogous deterministic matrices which are pseudo-ergodic in the sense of E.B.Davies (Commun. Math. Phys. 216 (2001), 687-704). As a major application to illustrate our methods we focus on the "hopping sign model" introduced by J.Feinberg and A.Zee (Phys. Rev. E 59 (1999), 6433-6443), in which the main objects of study are random tridiagonal matrices which have zeros on the main diagonal and random $\\pm 1$'s as the other entries. We explore the relationship between spectral sets in the finite and infinite matrix cases, and between the semi-infinite and bi-infinite matrix cases, for example showing that the numerical range and $p$-norm $\\eps$-pseudospectra ($\\eps>0$, $p\\in [1,\\infty]$) of the random finite matrices converge almost surely to their infinite matrix counterparts, and that the finite matrix spectra are contained in the infinite ma...

  10. Research on spraying and fusing of non-self-fluxing copper powdered alloy on cast iron surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Xiaojia; Hao Huzai; Guo Zhian

    2006-01-01

    A new type additive was added to the non-self-fluxing copper powdered alloy, and the powder showed satisfactory performance of spraying and fusing, self-protecting, and self-fluxing in the oxygen-acetylene flame spraying and fusing process.The additive was melted and could absorb copper oxide when spraying, then it created a layer of film to cover the copper liquid, which protected the copper liquid from oxidizing efficiently and promoted it wetting on iron surface.Thus it lead to real diffusion between Cu and Fe, which resolved the difficulty of combining Cu with Fe and reduced the limitation of the powder, and it promoted the usage value of general powder.Through analysis of microstructures, it was found that the fastness and compac tness of the combining interface was excellent as well as the diffusing of transition area, and the hardness was suitable, which meant that the performance could meet the needs of high quality valves completely.

  11. A Schauder and Riesz basis criterion for non-self-adjoint Schrödinger operators with periodic and antiperiodic boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesztesy, Fritz; Tkachenko, Vadim

    Under the assumption that V∈L2([0,π];dx), we derive necessary and sufficient conditions in terms of spectral data for (non-self-adjoint) Schrödinger operators -d2/dx2+V in L2([0,π];dx) with periodic and antiperiodic boundary conditions to possess a Riesz basis of root vectors (i.e., eigenvectors and generalized eigenvectors spanning the range of the Riesz projection associated with the corresponding periodic and antiperiodic eigenvalues). We also discuss the case of a Schauder basis for periodic and antiperiodic Schrödinger operators -d2/dx2+V in Lp([0,π];dx), p∈(1,∞).

  12. Calculation of the field and current density distributions in a non-self-sustained discharge in the discharge chamber of a CO laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two-dimensional spatial distributions of the electric field and current density in a non-self-sustained discharge controlled by a fast electron beam were calculated in the quasineutral plasma approximation. The calculations were carried out for a gas-discharge chamber with an antistreamer electrode grid placed in parallel to the output window of the ionizer. The voltage drop near the grid surface that appears due to the inhomogeneity of the spatial distribution of the current density was calculated. The fraction of the discharge current that passes the grid and flows onto the foil separating the vacuum volume of the ionizer from the gas-discharge chamber was estimated. The dependence of the calculated values on the geometric parameters of the electrode grid and its position with respect to the output of the ionizer was analyzed.

  13. Deposition of silicon-carbon coatings from the plasma of a non-self-sustained arc discharge with a heated cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenadyorov, A. S.; Oskomov, K. V.; Solov'ev, A. A.; Rabotkin, S. V.

    2016-05-01

    Amorphous hydrogenated carbon doped with silicon oxide ( a-C:H:Si:O), which is referred to as silicon-carbon coatings in this work, consists of thin amorphous films, which are used as commercial solid lubricants due to their higher stability under extreme environmental conditions as compared to amorphous hydrogenated carbon. The deposition of silicon-carbon coatings from the plasma of a non-self-sustained arc discharge with a heated cathode is considered. Silicon-carbon coatings are deposited using polyphenul methylsiloxane as a precursor at a flow rate of 0.05 mL/min in an argon atmosphere at a pressure of 0.1 Pa. A high-frequency power supply is used to apply a high-frequency bias voltage to a substrate during deposition. After deposition, the mechanical properties of the coatings are studied. The maximum hardness of the coating is 20 GPa at a minimum friction coefficient of 0.16 and a wear rate of 1.3 × 10-5 mm3 N-1 m-1. Energy dispersive analysis shows that the coatings contain a significant content of carbon and oxygen (about 80 and 15%, respectively) and a low content of silicon (about 5%).

  14. Thoughts engendered by Bretscher's Two-step, Two-signal model for a peripheral self-non-self discrimination and the origin of primer effector T helpers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, M

    2015-02-01

    There are three questions under re-examination here that have been inspired by Bretscher's 'Two-step, Two-signal' model. First, what is the nature of the steps required in order for antigen-responsive cells to become effectors? Second, how does the immune system get started? Third and the most troublesome, what is the mechanism that relates the delivery of the two signals? To answer the first question, Bretscher proposes a pathway that I will place in another context by comparing it with what had been envisaged under the Associative Recognition of Antigen (ARA) model. The second question, how does the immune system gets started, is crucial to our understanding of the self-non-self discrimination. This problem boils down to, what is the origin of the first effector T helper (eTh) cells required to activate all antigen-responsive cells including the T helpers themselves (the primer problem)? To deal with this question, I proposed an antigen-independent pathway to primer eTh. Bretscher presents us with an antigen-dependent pathway to primer eTh. As competing models are precious in clarifying thinking and in guiding experimentation, I felt it important to reanalyse the two models and look for ways to decide between them. The third question deals with the requirement for and the mechanism of associative (linked) recognition of antigen (ARA). The concept of ARA is so compelling at both the experimental and theoretical levels that to save it, a new perspective will be introduced. PMID:25413363

  15. 细菌的CRISPR/cas免疫及免疫识别%A review on immune system of the bacteria and its self versus non-self discrimination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马延滨; 常惠芸

    2012-01-01

    综述了40%真细菌以及几乎所有古细菌基因组内存在的CRISPR位点以及细菌的CRISPR/cas免疫机制。主要从CRISPR/cas免疫的抗感染机制、特异性间隔序列的获取、crRNA的成熟以及免疫识别等方面展开论述,阐述了成簇存在的、被短的重复回文序列所分割的非自身基因(CRISPR位点)以及通过类RNA干扰(RNAi)机制特异性地抵抗噬菌体及侵袭性质粒的二次感染。提出此技术在临床上用来抑制抗生素抗性质粒以及毒力因子在病原菌中传播的应用前景。%Clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat(CRISPR) loci that present in 40 % of eubacterial genomes and nearly all archaeal genomes was reviewed in the present paper, as well as the CRISPR/cas immunization. Discussion about the anti-infection mechanism of CRISPR/cas, the acquisition of specific interspaced sequence, the mature of crRNA and its self versus non-self discrimination was given. The CRISPR loci and its ability of resisting the second infection caused by the bacteria phage and invasive plasmid through a RNAi-like mechanism were revealed too. And we think this may be a potential tool to prevent the transmission of antibiotic resistance plasmid and virulence factors among the pathogens.

  16. Comparison of the General Health, Self-Esteem and Social Support in Self-Inflicted Burn Patients and Non Self Inflicted Burn Patients of the Choromy Accidental and Burning Hospital of Ganaveh

    OpenAIRE

    MS Enayati; A Heidarei; Malekzadeh, M.; Y Abolfathi

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Self-inflicted burn is a violent method of suicide. Since our society faces lots of psychological, social, personal and economical problems due to self-inflicted burn, more survey for this event can assist us to know its causes and prevent from its occurrence. This research was carried out to compare general health, self- esteem and social support in patient's self-inflicted burn and non-self-inflicted burn of the Choromy accidental and burning hospital...

  17. Comparison of the General Health, Self-Esteem and Social Support in Self-Inflicted Burn Patients and Non Self Inflicted Burn Patients of the Choromy Accidental and Burning Hospital of Ganaveh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MS Enayati

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Self-inflicted burn is a violent method of suicide. Since our society faces lots of psychological, social, personal and economical problems due to self-inflicted burn, more survey for this event can assist us to know its causes and prevent from its occurrence. This research was carried out to compare general health, self- esteem and social support in patient's self-inflicted burn and non-self-inflicted burn of the Choromy accidental and burning hospital in Ganaveh. Materials & Methods: This is a descriptive – analytic study. The sample consisted of 60 inpatients burnt (males & females of the Choromy accidental and burning hospital (Ganaveh. The method of sampling was simple random. Participants completed the General Health Questionnaire (G.H.Q- 28 of Goldberg, Cooper Smith’s questionnaire of self–esteem and Philip’s social support scale. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA and T-test were the major statistical analysis in this research. Results: The mean and standard deviation of the general health were 44.57 ± 14.65 for self-inflicted burn persons and for non - self inflicted burn they were 10.83 ± 6.27. In the self–esteem variable, the mean and the standard deviation were 57.90 ± 4.94 for self-inflicted burn persons and 55.47 ± 6.04 for non-self inflicted burn ones. Mean and standard deviation of whole social supporting were 20.40 ± 4.94 for self-inflicted burn persons and 23.73 ± 1.17 for non-self inflicted burn group. The findings showed significant differences between the two groups from viewpoint of general health and social supporting while there were no significant differences between two groups in case of self–esteem. Conclusion: There are a significant relationship between general health, social supporting and self-inflicted burn.Therefore, in order to prevent self inflicted burn it is suggested that we make a relationship between persons and societies, families, groups and

  18. Mass Vector Graphics in a Non-Self-Intersections Clipping in the Polygon Boundary Display%海量矢量图形在非自交多边形边界中的裁剪显示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李清艳; 傅自钢

    2015-01-01

    This article describes and research mass vector graphics in a non-self-intersections polygon boundary clipping in the display graphics. Using of the quick test procedures, straddling the exclusion pilot algorithms such as effective, real-time com-puting vector graphics and non-rectangular and non-cross the convex hull polygon regions, and the intersection of the judgment which parts of the graphics in the polygon boundary in which parts of the inside of the polygon boundary and at the same time to display correctly on the polygon boundary in the graphical part of the internal, do not display on the outside of the polygon boundary Graphical sections. The final realization of the millions of when a line to be cropped and circle displayed, the comple-tion of the statistics displayed in the crop time should not exceed 10s, memory utilization not to exceed 100MB.%该文介绍和研究海量矢量图形在非自交多边形边界中的裁剪显示图形.程序采用快速排斥试验,跨立试验等算法实时高效地计算矢量图形与非矩形且非自交的凸多边形及凹多边形区域的交点,判断图形的哪些部分在多边形边界内部,哪些部分在多边形边界外部,同时能正确显示位于多边形边界内部的图形部分,不显示位于多边形边界外部的图形部分.最终实现当有百万级的line和circle需要裁剪显示时,统计的完成裁剪显示的时间不超过10s,存储器占用不超过100MB的效果.

  19. Protoplasmic Incompatibility in PODOSPORA ANSERINA: a Possible Function for Incompatibility Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Boucherie, Hélian; Bernet, Jean

    1980-01-01

    The suppression of protoplasmic incompatibility resulting from nonallelic gene interactions has been obtained by the coupled effect of mutations in the modA and modB genes (Bernet 1971). Due to their female sterility, modA modB strains provide an experimental tool to determine whether or not the mod and incompatibility loci are involved in a function other than protoplasmic incompatibility. Present results show that modA modB female sterility is a nonautonomous trait since heterokaryotic myce...

  20. PaCATB, a secreted catalase protecting Podospora anserina against exogenous oxidative stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zintel, Sandra; Bernhardt, Dominik; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina;

    2011-01-01

    . Genetic modulation of the abundance of PaCATB identified differential effects on the phenotype of the corresponding strains. Deletion of PaCatB resulted in decreased resistance, over-expression in increased resistance against hydrogen peroxide. While the lifespan of the genetically modified strains was...... found to be unaffected under standard growth conditions, increased exogenous hydrogen peroxide stress in the growth medium markedly reduced the lifespan of the PaCatB deletion strain but extended the lifespan of PaCatB over-expressors. Overall our data identify a component of the secretome of P...

  1. Non-self-adjoint Hamiltonians with complex eigenvalues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagarello, F.

    2016-05-01

    Motivated by what one observes dealing with PT-symmetric quantum mechanics, we discuss what happens if a physical system is driven by a diagonalizable Hamiltonian with not all real eigenvalues. In particular, we consider the functional structure related to systems living in finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces, and we show that certain intertwining relations can be deduced also in this case if we introduce suitable antilinear operators. We also analyze a simple model, computing the transition probabilities in the broken and in the unbroken regime.

  2. The dynamical problem for a non self-adjoint Hamiltonian

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bagarello, F.; Znojil, Miloslav

    Gohberg: Springer Basel AG, 2012 - (Ball, J.; Dym, H.; Kaashoek, M.; Langer, H.; Tretter, C.), s. 109-119 ISBN 978-3-0348-0296-3. [21st International Workshop on Operator Theory and its Applications IWOTA 2010. Berlin (DE), 12.07.2010-16.07.2010] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06002; GA ČR GAP203/11/1433 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : metrics in Hilbert spaces * hermitizations of a Hamiltonian Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics http://arxiv.org/pdf/1105.4716.pdf

  3. Non-self recognition by monocytes initiates allograft rejection

    OpenAIRE

    Oberbarnscheidt, Martin H.; Zeng, Qiang; Li, Qi; Dai, Hehua; Williams, Amanda L.; Shlomchik, Warren D.; Rothstein, David M.; Lakkis, Fadi G.

    2014-01-01

    Maturation of T cell–activating APCs directly links innate and adaptive immunity and is typically triggered by microbial infection. Transplantation of allografts, which are sterile, generates strong T cell responses; however, it is unclear how grafts induce APC maturation in the absence of microbial-derived signals. A widely accepted hypothesis is that dying cells in the graft release “danger” molecules that induce APC maturation and initiate the adaptive alloimmune response. Here, we demonst...

  4. Self and non-self discrimination by "restriction proteases".

    OpenAIRE

    Lefkovits, I

    1986-01-01

    I propose that an organism possesses a set of specific enzymes ("restriction proteases") that cleave self proteins at defined amino acid sequences unless these sequences are rendered inaccessible by glycosylation. Intracellular proteins are degraded by restriction proteases when cells die. In this way, intracellular proteins remain undetected by the immune system. I propose that some autoimmune diseases are caused by the absence of a specific restriction protease.

  5. Some results on the dynamics and transition probabilities for non self-adjoint hamiltonians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss systematically several possible inequivalent ways to describe the dynamics and the transition probabilities of a quantum system when its hamiltonian is not self-adjoint. In order to simplify the treatment, we mainly restrict our analysis to finite dimensional Hilbert spaces. In particular, we propose some experiments which could discriminate between the various possibilities considered in the paper. An example taken from the literature is discussed in detail

  6. On Stability of Square Root Domains for Non-Self-Adjoint Operators Under Additive Perturbations

    OpenAIRE

    Gesztesy, Fritz; Hofmann, Steve; Nichols, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Assuming $T_0$ to be an m-accretive operator in the complex Hilbert space $\\mathcal{H}$, we use a resolvent method due to Kato to appropriately define the additive perturbation $T = T_0 + W$ and prove stability of square root domains, that is, $$ dom\\big((T_0 + W)^{1/2}\\big) = dom\\big(T_0^{1/2}\\big). $$ Moreover, assuming in addition that $dom\\big(T_0^{1/2}\\big) = dom\\big((T_0^*)^{1/2}\\big)$, we prove stability of square root domains in the form $$dom\\big((T_0 + W)^{1/2}\\big) = dom\\big(T_0^{1...

  7. Self-consistent and non-self-consistent phase space distributions of intense ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present thesis is arranged in the following five main parts: In section 2 the foundations are briefly summarized, i.e. the Vlasov equation, the rms KV differential equation and from this the KV equations following for the special case of the KV distribution are derived. By the examples of solution functions of the KV equations shown in section 3 the term of a 'fitted' and 'misfitted' beam are explained. The perturbation theory of the KV equations presented in the following yields an example for the occurrence of structural resonances. To the effects by nonstationary initial distributions in simulation calculations is submitted in section 4. The study of the distribution dependence of structural-resonance effects is performed throughout by simulation calculations. It is shown that both effects can be discriminated without difficulties. The construction of stationary distributions in constant focusing forces is performed in section 5 for two analytically resolvable cases (KV and water-bag distribution). By a canonical transformation which fits the distributions stationary in the constantly focusing system to a periodically focusing system it is shown that the transformed distributions are even in the periodical case stationary solution of the Vlasov equation. The final topic forms in section 6 the discussion of the earlier treated beam effects with regard to the GSI beam transport experiments. (orig./HSI)

  8. Clustering in non-self-conjugate nuclei 10Be and 18O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clustering phenomena in 10Be and 18O were studied by means of resonance elastic scattering of α-particles on 6He and 14C. Excitation functions for α+6He and α+14C were measured and detailed R-matrix analyses of the excitation functions was performed. We compare the experimental results with the predictions of modern theoretical approaches and discuss properties of cluster rotational bands

  9. Recent advances in non self-consistent total energy calculations in alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, total energy calculations based on the local density approximation (LDA) have begun to find applications in materials science. In the context of the present paper the most relevant application is to the calculation of total and relative energies of ordered alloy phases and their mixing enthalpies. The first-principles LDA approach is now taking over from tight-binding or simple empirical schemes in providing input to phase diagram calculations, for example, using Connolly-Williams inversion. We wish to make two points in our contribution to the symposium. 1. It is rarely necessary to make local-density calculations self-consistent. 2. The major contribution to the energy difference between alloy phases we have studied arises from the difference in the single particle sums or band-structure energies. This is precisely the result that emerges from a tight-binding analysis of structural energy differences

  10. Non-Self-Adjoint Operators in Quantum Physics: Ideas, People, and Trends

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Znojil, Miloslav

    Vol. 1. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2015, s. 7-50. ISBN 978-1-118-85528-7 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : quantum mechanics * cryptohermitian model of dynamics * cryptounitary evolution equations Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics

  11. Comparison of Vaccine-Induced Effector CD8 T Cell Responses Directed against Self- and Non-Self-Tumor Antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sara R; Sørensen, Maria R; Buus, Søren;

    2013-01-01

    construct expressing a foreign (viral) TA induced efficient tumor control. Analyzing the self-TA-specific CD8 T cells, we observed that these could be activated to produce IFN-γ and TNF-α. In addition, surface expression of phenotypic markers and inhibitory receptors, as well as in vivo cytotoxicity and......It is generally accepted that CD8 T cells play a major role in tumor control, yet vaccination aimed at eliciting potent CD8 T cell responses are rarely efficient in clinical trials. To try and understand why this is so, we have generated potent adenoviral vectors encoding the endogenous tumor Ags....... Prophylactic vaccination with adenoviral vectors expressing either TRP-2 (Ad-Ii-TRP-2) or GP100 (Ad-Ii-GP100) had little or no effect on the growth of s.c. B16 melanomas, and only Ad-Ii-TRP-2 was able to induce a marginal reduction of B16 lung metastasis. In contrast, vaccination with a similar vector...

  12. DMPD: Innate sensing of self and non-self RNAs by Toll-like receptors. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sml) Open .csml file with CIOPlayer Open .csml file with CIOPlayer - ※CIO Playerのご利用上の注意 Open .csml file with CIO Open .csml file with CIO - ※CIOのご利用上の注意 ...

  13. Design and analysis of modified Smith predictors for self-regulating and non-self regulating processes with dead time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanakumar, G.; Wahidabanu, R. S. D.; Nayak, C. G.

    2007-08-01

    A modification of Smith predictor for controlling the higher order processes with integral action ad long dead-time is proposed in this paper. The controller used in this Smith predictor is an Integral-Proportional Derivative controller, where the Integrator is in the forward path and the Proportional and Derivative control are in the feedback, acting on the feedback signal. The main objective of this paper is to design a Dead Time Compensator(DTC), which has minimum tuning parameters, simple controller tuning, robust performance of tuning formulae and to obtain a critically damped system which is as fast as possible in its setpoint and load disturbance rejection performance. The controller in this paper is tuned by an adaptive method. This paper also presents a survey of various dead time compensators and their performance analysis.

  14. Design and analysis of modified Smith predictors for self-regulating and non-self regulating processes with dead time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A modification of Smith predictor for controlling the higher order processes with integral action ad long dead-time is proposed in this paper. The controller used in this Smith predictor is an Integral-Proportional Derivative controller, where the Integrator is in the forward path and the Proportional and Derivative control are in the feedback, acting on the feedback signal. The main objective of this paper is to design a Dead Time Compensator(DTC), which has minimum tuning parameters, simple controller tuning, robust performance of tuning formulae and to obtain a critically damped system which is as fast as possible in its setpoint and load disturbance rejection performance. The controller in this paper is tuned by an adaptive method. This paper also presents a survey of various dead time compensators and their performance analysis

  15. Design and analysis of modified Smith predictors for self-regulating and non-self regulating processes with dead time

    CERN Document Server

    Saravanakumar, G; Nayak, C G

    2007-01-01

    A modification of Smith predictor for controlling the higher order processes with integral action ad long dead-time is proposed in this paper. The controller used in this Smith predictor is an Integral-Proportional Derivative controller, where the Integrator is in the forward path and the Proportional and Derivative control are in the feedback, acting on the feedback signal. The main objective of this paper is to design a Dead Time Compensator(DTC), which has minimum tuning parameters, simple controller tuning, robust performance of tuning formulae and to obtain a critically damped system which is as fast as possible in its setpoint and load disturbance rejection performance. The controller in this paper is tuned by an adaptive method. This paper also presents a survey of various dead time compensators and their performance analysis.

  16. Hubbard-U corrected Hamiltonians for non-self-consistent random-phase approximation total-energy calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patrick, Christopher; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2016-01-01

    investigate the effect of including a Hubbard-U term in this single-particle Hamiltonian, to better describe the on-site correlation of 3d electrons in the transitionmetal compounds ZnS, TiO2, and NiO.We find that the RPA lattice constants are essentially independent of U, despite large changes...... in the underlying electronic structure. We further demonstrate that the non-selfconsistent RPA total energies of these materials have minima at nonzero U. Our RPA calculations find the rutile phase of TiO2 to be more stable than anatase independent of U, a result which is consistent with experiments...

  17. Spectral Properties and Monosaccharides Compositon Analysis of Polysaccharide from Potentilla anserina L%藏药蕨麻多糖的光谱性质及单糖组成分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏莲; 孙志伟; 李国梁; 索有瑞; 尤进茂

    2011-01-01

    The polysaccharide of Potentilla anserine L was extracted and purified,and its contents was determined as 98.4% by phenyl-sulfuric acid method. The polysaccharide was identified by IR spectrum and UV scanning spectrum. The IR spectrum indicates that the characteristic absorption peaks at 3600-3200,3200-2800,1400-1200,1200-1000 cm-1,and 845 cm-1 belonged the characteristic peak of α-pyranose. In addition,the peak at 1630 cm-1 assigned to the C = O of acetamide moiety stretching vibration meant that amino sugars exited in the polysaccharide. A method was developed for the separation of derivatized carbohydrates of Potentilla anserine L. using 1-naphthyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (NMP) as derivatization reagent by capillary zone electrophoresis, and the results shows that the monosaccharides compositions of the polysaccharide from Potentilla anserine L. are xylose, arabinose, glucose, rhamnose, mannose, fucose, galactose, glucuronic acid and galacturonic acid with contents of 3. 945,77. 445,17.568,17.646,3. 942,2. 165,65. 268,13. 037 μg/mg,and 33. 484 μg/mg,respectively,which are consistent with the results carried out by GC-MS.%本研究对藏药蕨麻多糖进行了分离提纯,并测定其水溶性多糖含量为99.4%;通过紫外光谱与红外光谱分析表明,蕨麻多糖为分子量较小的α-吡比喃糖,并含有氨基糖;蕨麻多糖的水解单糖经过NMP衍生后进行毛细管电泳分析,测得其单糖组成为木糖、阿拉伯糖、葡萄糖、鼠李糖、甘露糖、岩藻糖、半乳糖、葡萄糖醛酸和半乳糖醛酸,含量分别为3.945、77.445、17.568、17.646、3.942、2.165、65.268、13.037 μg/mg和33.484μg/mg,与GC-MS的定性分析结果一致.

  18. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U06515-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available chromos... 98 2e-19 CU633438_216( CU633438 |pid:none) Podospora anserina genomic DNA c... 95 1e-18 CR382131_...associated gene... 51 2e-05 CU638744_74( CU638744 |pid:none) Podospora anserina genomi... 4e-05 CU633900_971( CU633900 |pid:none) Podospora anserina genomic DNA c... 50 4e-05 AK099731_1( AK099731 |...is cDNA, c... 49 9e-05 CU633897_96( CU633897 |pid:none) Podospora anserina genomic DNA ch... 49 9e-05 EU5008...ELAG LKLSVDWAFITGNASLSSGVVSFKSNRKDKN Translated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames) Frame A: rvrkkekknnnnnnrkntinininininininininin

  19. DMPD: RIG-I: tri-ing to discriminate between self and non-self RNA. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e (.html) CSML File (.csml) Open .csml file with CIOPlayer Open .csml file with CIOPlayer - ※CIO Playerのご利用上の注意 Open .csml file with CIO Open .csml file with CIO - ※CIOのご利用上の注意 ...

  20. Dissolution Dynamic Nuclear Polarization of Non-Self-Glassing Agents: Spectroscopy and Relaxation of Hyperpolarized [1-13C]Acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flori, Alessandra; Liserani, Matteo; Bowen, Sean;

    2015-01-01

    The intrinsic physicochemical properties of the sample formulation are the key factors for efficient hyperpolarization through dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (dissolution-DNP). We provide a comprehensive characterization of the DNP process for Na-[1-13C]acetate selected as a model for non...

  1. A comparison of invalidating family environment characteristics between university students engaging in self-injurious thoughts & actions and non-self-injuring university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jodi; Bureau, Jean-François; Cloutier, Paula; Lafontaine, Marie-France

    2011-11-01

    Individuals experiencing non-suicidal self-injurious (NSSI) thoughts only are greatly overlooked by current research. This investigation aimed at determining how three groups of university students differed in their reported quality of childhood relationships with parents, and histories of physical and sexual abuses. These groups included students experiencing only NSSI thoughts (n = 126), students engaging in NSSI actions (n = 90), and students exhibiting neither (n = 1,080). Results showed that individuals experiencing NSSI thoughts only, and those engaging in NSSI actions reported poorer relationships with parents and more physical abuse than the No NSSI group; however, NSSI thoughts and NSSI action groups had similar outcomes to one another for most variables. These findings suggest that individuals experiencing only NSSI thoughts share similar negative childhood environments associated with engagement in NSSI action and that they should be included in future research, particularly investigations aimed at identifying protective factors that could prevent them from engaging in NSSI. PMID:21365260

  2. "Self" and "non-self" in the control of phytoalexin biosynthesis: plant phospholipases A2 with alkaloid-specific molecular fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, Michael; Brandt, Wolfgang; Marillonnet, Sylvestre; Roos, Werner

    2015-02-01

    The overproduction of specialized metabolites requires plants to manage the inherent burdens, including the risk of self-intoxication. We present a control mechanism that stops the expression of phytoalexin biosynthetic enzymes by blocking the antecedent signal transduction cascade. Cultured cells of Eschscholzia californica (Papaveraceae) and Catharanthus roseus (Apocynaceae) overproduce benzophenanthridine alkaloids and monoterpenoid indole alkaloids, respectively, in response to microbial elicitors. In both plants, an elicitor-responsive phospholipase A2 (PLA2) at the plasma membrane generates signal molecules that initiate the induction of biosynthetic enzymes. The final alkaloids produced in the respective plant inhibit the respective PLA, a negative feedback that prevents continuous overexpression. The selective inhibition by alkaloids from the class produced in the "self" plant could be transferred to leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana via recombinant expression of PLA2. The 3D homology model of each PLA2 displays a binding pocket that specifically accommodates alkaloids of the class produced by the same plant, but not of the other class; for example, C. roseus PLA2 only accommodates C. roseus alkaloids. The interaction energies of docked alkaloids correlate with their selective inhibition of PLA2 activity. The existence in two evolutionary distant plants of phospholipases A2 that discriminate "self-made" from "foreign" alkaloids reveals molecular fingerprints left in signal enzymes during the evolution of species-specific, cytotoxic phytoalexins. PMID:25670767

  3. Self-determined, but not non-self-determined, motivation predicts activations in the anterior insular cortex: an fMRI study of personal agency

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Woogul; Reeve, Johnmarshall

    2012-01-01

    Neuroscientific studies on agency focus rather exclusively on the notion of who initiates and regulates actions, not on the notion of why the person does. The present study focused on the latter to investigate two different reasons underlying personal agency. Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, we scanned 16 healthy human subjects while they imagined the enactment of volitional, agentic behavior on the same task but either for a self-determined and intrinsically motivat...

  4. A Policy of Individualization and Flexibility Ignoring the Situation of Non-Self-Reliant Individuals: The Example of Swedish Basic Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Ingrid Henning; Wass, Karin Lumsden

    2014-01-01

    Based on a case study in Swedish municipal basic adult education this article addresses current policies for providing individualized and flexible learning, which have been reinforced in recent adult education reforms. Concepts from the organization theory of "action nets" have been used. Institutionalized procedures and a number of…

  5. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U10915-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 633899_605( CU633899 |pid:none) Podospora anserina genomic DNA c... 120 9e-26 ( O88763 ) RecNam...; ... 36 3.7 CU633899_61( CU633899 |pid:none) Podospora anserina genomic DNA ch... 35 4.9 (Q5KFE0) RecNam...28168 |pid:none) Kluyveromyces thermotolerans str... 97 1e-18 CU633867_122( CU633867 |pid:none) Podospora anserina genomic...M920437_2050( AM920437 |pid:none) Penicillium chrysogenum Wiscons... 44 0.011 CU633456_2( CU633456 |pid:none) Podospora anserina gen...nslated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames) Frame A: GYRHIYKSKP

  6. Genomic clustering and homology between HET-S and the NWD2 STAND protein in various fungal genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asen Daskalov

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prions are infectious proteins propagating as self-perpetuating amyloid polymers. The [Het-s] prion of Podospora anserina is involved in a cell death process associated with non-self recognition. The prion forming domain (PFD of HET-s adopts a β-solenoid amyloid structure characterized by the two fold repetition of an elementary triangular motif. [Het-s] induces cell death when interacting with HET-S, an allelic variant of HET-s. When templated by [Het-s], HET-S undergoes a trans-conformation, relocates to the cell membrane and induces toxicity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, comparing HET-s homologs from different species, we devise a consensus for the HET-s elementary triangular motif. We use this motif to screen genomic databases and find a match to the N-terminus of NWD2, a STAND protein, encoded by the gene immediately adjacent to het-S. STAND proteins are signal transducing ATPases which undergo ligand-induced oligomerisation. Homology modelling predicts that the NWD2 N-terminal region adopts a HET-s-like fold. We propose that upon NWD2 oligomerisation, these N-terminal extensions adopt the β-solenoid fold and template HET-S to adopt the amyloid fold and trigger toxicity. We extend this model to a putative prion, the σ infectious element in Nectria haematococca, because the s locus controlling propagation of σ also encodes a STAND protein and displays analogous features. Comparative genomic analyses indicate evolutionary conservation of these STAND/prion-like gene pairs, identify a number of novel prion candidates and define, in addition to the HET-s PFD motif, two distinct, novel putative PFD-like motifs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We suggest the existence, in the fungal kingdom, of a widespread and evolutionarily conserved mode of signal transduction based on the transmission of an amyloid-fold from a NOD-like STAND receptor protein to an effector protein.

  7. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U10742-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 27_1( BC074227 |pid:none) Xenopus laevis NIMA-family kinase ... 66 6e-09 CP000667_1178( CP000667 |pid:none) Salinispora tropic...2_14( AC141322 |pid:none) Medicago truncatula clone mth2-8e... 59 7e-07 CU633895_104( CU633895 |pid:none) Podospora anserina genomic...5 8e-06 CU633865_185( CU633865 |pid:none) Podospora anserina genomic DNA c... 55 8e-06 BC069844_1( BC069844 ...|pid:none) Cryptosporidium parvum chromosom... 46 0.005 CU640366_1228( CU640366 |pid:none) Podospora anserina genomic...ilvllkldlklifntfvt fiisl*sim*ny*klgvkliliv*lilkhylilinyq*kfnqn*iq*rkni Translated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames) Fram

  8. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12019-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available vlkdlgnnhlqkikvcpmyqvpfadsvkktlnensgggvgdenkikvatvglinhg deiesilqenradivmcarsflrnplfvcqvareldvevdhqlqyqrgreseiekkqkki ikfk Fram...04391 |pid:none) Leptospirillum ferrooxidans Lfe142... 280 1e-73 CU633901_102( CU633901 |pid:none) Podospora anserina genomic...131 9e-29 CU638744_677( CU638744 |pid:none) Podospora anserina genomic DNA c... 1...lssckrvgc*s*ssitiskrkrk*drkktkknn ki*n Translated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames) Frame A: tfakvnkntnk*ink*innin...5e-38 AE016827_2012( AE016827 |pid:none) Mannheimia succiniciproducens M... 162 6e-38 CP000853_351( CP000853

  9. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16495-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available stris clone Tma10 micros... 46 7.7 1 ( AL157881 ) Human DNA sequence fro...1-01-1... 46 7.7 1 ( DU258697 ) 1098574187811 CHORI-243 Ovis aries genomic clone ... 46 7.7 1 ( DE954514 ) Macro...40366 |pid:none) Podospora anserina genomic DNA c... 278 6e-73 CR382123_810( CR382123 |pid:none) Kluyveromyc...pid:none) Legionella pneumophila str. Cor... 65 1e-08 CU633901_224( CU633901 |pid:none) Podospora anserina genomic... Canopy3... 38 1.9 CP001097_739( CP001097 |pid:none) Chlorobium limic

  10. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U10794-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 53_1( AY497653 |pid:none) Metschnikowia pulcherrima strain C... 149 1e-48 AY305505_1( AY305505 |pid:none) Le...pas anserifera voucher Lean elon... 197 1e-48 CU633900_457( CU633900 |pid:none) Podospora anserina genomic D

  11. Methylated DNA in Borrelia species.

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, C A; Johnson, R C

    1990-01-01

    The DNA of Borrelia species was examined for the presence of methylated GATC sequences. The relapsing-fever Borrelia sp., B. coriaceae, and only 3 of 22 strains of B. burgdorferi contained adenine methylation systems. B. anserina lacked an adenine methylation system. Fundamental differences in DNA methylation exist among members of the genus Borrelia.

  12. An Aspergillus nidulans GH26 endo-β-mannanase with a novel degradation pattern on highly substituted galactomannans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Freiesleben, Pernille; Spodsberg, Nikolaj; Holberg Blicher, Thomas; Anderson, Lars; Jørgensen, Henning; Stålbrand, Henrik; Meyer, Anne S.; Krogh, Kristian B. R. M.

    2016-01-01

    Podospora anserina (PaMan26A) and three GH5 endomannanases from A. nidulans and Trichoderma reesei (AnMan5A, AnMan5C and TrMan5A). The initial rates and the maximal degree of enzymatically catalyzed conversion of locust bean gum and guar gum galactomannans were determined. The hydrolysis product profile at...

  13. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12777-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BC149423_1( BC149423 |pid:none) Bos taurus MORC family CW-type zin... 34 6.6 CP000058_908( CP000058 |pid:none) Pseudomonas syrin...AM075829 |pid:none) Glycine max mRNA for beclin 1 prot... 126 4e-45 AY701316_1( AY701316 |pid:none) Nicotiana benthamiana...901_228( CU633901 |pid:none) Podospora anserina genomic DNA c... 91 2e-30 AM27037...5.1 CU638744_112( CU638744 |pid:none) Podospora anserina genomic DNA c... 35 5.1 ...GGMCIKLQFTNDDTWTKSLKFMLTNLKWILIWIVKNETLTLFNNQQFQQSKLN NNQNNNNINNNNXNNINKNXNN Translated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames) Frame A: in

  14. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14946-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NRRL 5274 ... 81 4e-14 AF020781_1( AF020781 |pid:none) Symbiodinium microadriaticum calmo... 81 4e-14 AL6037... construct calmodulin mut... 93 9e-18 CP001574_245( CP001574 |pid:none) Micromonas sp. RCC299 chro...3e-14 CP001324_649( CP001324 |pid:none) Micromonas sp. RCC299 chromosome... 81 4e...a anserina genomic DNA c... 93 9e-18 (Q95NI4) RecName: Full=Calmodulin; Short=CaM; &...2-326... 79 1e-13 CU633865_49( CU633865 |pid:none) Podospora anserina genomic DNA ch... 79 1e-13 FJ428248_1(

  15. Aportaciones a la flora del Sistema Ibérico meridional

    OpenAIRE

    García Cardo, O.

    2006-01-01

    Se comentan 45 táxones de plantas vasculares nuevas o poco conocidas para las provincias de Cuenca, Guadalajara y Teruel. Merecen destacarse las primeras citas de Alopecurus aequalis, Armeria arenaria subsp. bilbilitana, Avenula pubescens, Elatine alsinastrum, Gnaphalium uliginosum, Juncus bulbosus, Myosotis laxa subsp. caespitosa, Sedum nevadense, Tribulus terrestris y Viola parvula en la provincia de Cuenca y Potentilla anserina en las de Cuenca y Teruel.

  16. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U09577-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available accatcattttggagattattaa 553 Query: 554 ttgatctttacagattctcaaannnnnnnnnnagtttcaaaagttgttagatcaaag...nnnnnnnnnagtttcaaaagttgttagatcaaagaat 613 Query: 614 actcaagatggtgttttcattacaacaacca...374_5( AP000374 |pid:none) Arabidopsis thaliana genomic DNA, ... 103 2e-20 AB0230...36_1( AB023036 |pid:none) Arabidopsis thaliana genomic DNA, ... 102 3e-20 BA000031_1121( BA000031 |pid:none)...21( CU638743 |pid:none) Podospora anserina genomic DNA c... 101 7e-20 CP000926_20

  17. Conversion of a linear to a circular plasmid in the relapsing fever agent Borrelia hermsii.

    OpenAIRE

    Ferdows, M S; Serwer, P; Griess, G A; Norris, S. J.; Barbour, A G

    1996-01-01

    Spirochetes of the genus Borrelia have genomes composed of both linear and circular replicons. We characterized the genomic organization of B. burgdorferi, B. hermsii, B. turicatae, and B. anserina with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. All four species contained a linear chromosome approximately 1 Mb in size and multiple linear plasmids in the 16- to 200-kb size range. Plasmids 180 and 170 kb in size, present in the relapsing fever agents B. hermsii and B. turicatae but not in the other two ...

  18. Prirodni antioksidativni sastojci odabranog aromatičnog bilja i njihovo djelovanje protiv pojedinih patogenih mikroorganizama

    OpenAIRE

    Proestos, Charalampos; Boziaris, Ioannis Spyridon; Kapsokefalou, Maria; Komaitis, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Aromatično bilje sadrži prirodne antioksidanse poput fenolnih spojeva koji su zbog pozitivnog utjecaja na zdravlje privukli pozornost javnosti i znanstvenika. Istražen je fenolni sastav pet vrsta biljaka: končare (Filipendula ulmaria), bijeloga gloga (Crataegus monogyna), troskota (Polygonum aviculare), petoprsta (Potentilla anserina) i purpurne iglice (Pelargonium purpureum). Za određivanje koncentracije i sastava fenolnih spojeva upotrijebljena je visokodjelotvorna tekućinska kromatografija...

  19. Biotransformation of Trichoderma spp. and Their Tolerance to Aromatic Amines, a Major Class of Pollutants

    OpenAIRE

    Cocaign, Angélique; Bui, Linh-Chi; Silar, Philippe; Chan Ho Tong, Laetitia; Busi, Florent; Lamouri, Aazdine; Mougin, Christian; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando; Dupret, Jean-Marie; Dairou, Julien

    2013-01-01

    Trichoderma spp. are cosmopolitan soil fungi that are highly resistant to many toxic compounds. Here, we show that Trichoderma virens and T. reesei are tolerant to aromatic amines (AA), a major class of pollutants including the highly toxic pesticide residue 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA). In a previous study, we provided proof-of-concept remediation experiments in which another soil fungus, Podospora anserina, detoxifies 3,4-DCA through its arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT), a xenobiotic-me...

  20. A differential genome-wide transcriptome analysis: impact of cellular copper on complex biological processes like aging and development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Servos

    Full Text Available The regulation of cellular copper homeostasis is crucial in biology. Impairments lead to severe dysfunctions and are known to affect aging and development. Previously, a loss-of-function mutation in the gene encoding the copper-sensing and copper-regulated transcription factor GRISEA of the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina was reported to lead to cellular copper depletion and a pleiotropic phenotype with hypopigmentation of the mycelium and the ascospores, affected fertility and increased lifespan by approximately 60% when compared to the wild type. This phenotype is linked to a switch from a copper-dependent standard to an alternative respiration leading to both a reduced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and of adenosine triphosphate (ATP. We performed a genome-wide comparative transcriptome analysis of a wild-type strain and the copper-depleted grisea mutant. We unambiguously assigned 9,700 sequences of the transcriptome in both strains to the more than 10,600 predicted and annotated open reading frames of the P. anserina genome indicating 90% coverage of the transcriptome. 4,752 of the transcripts differed significantly in abundance with 1,156 transcripts differing at least 3-fold. Selected genes were investigated by qRT-PCR analyses. Apart from this general characterization we analyzed the data with special emphasis on molecular pathways related to the grisea mutation taking advantage of the available complete genomic sequence of P. anserina. This analysis verified but also corrected conclusions from earlier data obtained by single gene analysis, identified new candidates of factors as part of the cellular copper homeostasis system including target genes of transcription factor GRISEA, and provides a rich reference source of quantitative data for further in detail investigations. Overall, the present study demonstrates the importance of systems biology approaches also in cases were mutations in single genes are analyzed to

  1. Global Protein Oxidation Profiling Suggests Efficient Mitochondrial Proteome Homeostasis During Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramallo Guevara, Carina; Philipp, Oliver; Hamann, Andrea; Werner, Alexandra; Osiewacz, Heinz D; Rexroth, Sascha; Rögner, Matthias; Poetsch, Ansgar

    2016-05-01

    The free radical theory of aging is based on the idea that reactive oxygen species (ROS) may lead to the accumulation of age-related protein oxidation. Because themajority of cellular ROS is generated at the respiratory electron transport chain, this study focuses on the mitochondrial proteome of the aging model Podospora anserina as target for ROS-induced damage. To ensure the detection of even low abundant modified peptides, separation by long gradient nLC-ESI-MS/MS and an appropriate statistical workflow for iTRAQ quantification was developed. Artificial protein oxidation was minimized by establishing gel-free sample preparation in the presence of reducing and iron-chelating agents. This first large scale, oxidative modification-centric study for P. anserina allowed the comprehensive quantification of 22 different oxidative amino acid modifications, and notably the quantitative comparison of oxidized and nonoxidized protein species. In total 2341 proteins were quantified. For 746 both protein species (unmodified and oxidatively modified) were detected and the modification sites determined. The data revealed that methionine residues are preferably oxidized. Further prominent identified modifications in decreasing order of occurrence were carbonylation as well as formation of N-formylkynurenine and pyrrolidinone. Interestingly, for the majority of proteins a positive correlation of changes in protein amount and oxidative damage were noticed, and a general decrease in protein amounts at late age. However, it was discovered that few proteins changed in oxidative damage in accordance with former reports. Our data suggest that P. anserina is efficiently capable to counteract ROS-induced protein damage during aging as long as protein de novo synthesis is functioning, ultimately leading to an overall constant relationship between damaged and undamaged protein species. These findings contradict a massive increase in protein oxidation during aging and rather suggest a

  2. Dicty_cDB: VHL117 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1.00 28.0 %: cytoplasmic 28.0 %: nuclear 20.0 %: plasma membrane 8.0 %: extracellular, including cell wall 8...:none) Bos taurus L-pipecolic acid oxidas... 76 8e-13 protein update 2009. 7.15 PSORT psg: 0.6...EIMEEYPFRNIPSNHQGVFAPDNGVINLPL VLRSLYKLCLQYGCKMV--- Translated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames) Frame...:none) Podospora anserina genomic DNA c... 204 2e-51 Y18574_4( Y18574 |pid:none) Streptomyces tendae stra...... 76 6e-13 AF134593_1( AF134593 |pid:none) Homo sapiens L-pipecolic acid oxid... 76 6e-13 AX882278_1( AX882278 |pid

  3. Dicty_cDB: VHC661 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available %: nuclear 20.0 %: plasma membrane 8.0 %: extracellular, including cell wall 8.0 %: Golgi 8.0 %: vesicles of secretory system...:none) Sequence 17183 from Patent EP10746... 76 5e-13 BC114006_1( BC114006 |pid:none) Bos taurus L-pipecolic acid oxida...TTACCATTGGTATTACGTTCTCTTTACAAGTTATGTTTACAATAT GGTTGTAAAATGGTAAGCXXXXXXXXXX sequence update 2002.10.25 Translated Amino Acid... anserina genomic DNA c... 204 2e-51 Y18574_4( Y18574 |pid:none) Streptomyces tendae strain Tue901, nik......:none) Homo sapiens L-pipecolic acid oxid... 76 5e-13 AX882278_1( AX882278 |pid

  4. Dicty_cDB: AHB145 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available uolar 4.0 %: plasma membrane >> prediction for AHB145 is cyt 5' ...ATCAAAGAAGGTCAAACACCAAAGTCTGTTAAXXXXXXXXXX sequence update 2002.10.25 Translated Amino Acid sequence *k*ksch...nslated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames) Frame A: lkvkklplpvivsviillnhhldgn*i*pfgk*l...:none) Podospora anserina genomic DNA c... 149 2e-40 Y18574_4( Y18574 |pid:none) Streptomyces tendae stra...omplete... 49 9e-05 BC158505_1( BC158505 |pid:none) Xenopus tropicalis pipecolic acid

  5. A non Q/N-rich prion domain of a foreign prion, [Het-s], can propagate as a prion in yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Taneja, Vibha; Maddelein, Marie-Lise; Talarek, Nicolas; J. Saupe, Sven; Liebman, Susan W

    2007-01-01

    Prions are self-propagating, infectious aggregates of misfolded proteins. The mammalian prion, PrPSc, causes fatal neurodegenerative disorders. Fungi also have prions. While yeast prions depend upon glutamine/asparagine(Q/N)-rich regions, the Podospora anserina HET-s and PrP prion proteins, lack such sequences. Nonetheless, we show that the HET-s prion domain fused to GFP propagates as a prion in yeast. Analogously to native yeast prions: transient overexpression of the HET-s fusion induces r...

  6. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U03328-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available : PnFL2-103_B24, 5'end. 44 2.4 1 ( AU082707 ) Oryza sativa Japonica Group cDNA, part...) Plasmodium knowlesi strain H chro... 55 8e-07 CR382129_916( CR382129 |pid:none) Yarrowia lipolytica strain...TCTTTTTAAAGCAG CATGAG Gap no gap Contig length 256 Chromosome number (1..6, M) 2 Chromosome length 8467578 Start poin...yqi*nliliihfflkqhe Frame C: nww*limitn*ynsf*tstyiitititiiiaintnncitnfi*i*l*l*wykrfnirdls rffh**...6 0.62 1 ( Z67753 ) Odontella sinensis complete chloroplast genome. 46 0.62 1 ( X55026 ) Podospora anserina complete mitochondria

  7. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U10403-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available spora anserina genomic DNA c... 34 6.4 AP009256_713( AP009256 |pid:none) Bifidobacterium adolescent...tters) Database: CSM 6905 sequences; 5,674,871 total letters Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value Cont...tters Searching..................................................done Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits...monas fluorescens SBW25 c... 57 1e-18 AM180252_415( AM180252 |pid:none) Lawsonia intrace...ne) Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3, comple... 57 4e-16 CP000474_1968( CP000474 |pid:none) Arthrobacter aurescens TC

  8. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U09628-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cearum strain IP... 109 2e-22 CU638743_118( CU638743 |pid:none) Podospora anserina genomic...982( AE000513 |pid:none) Deinococcus radiodurans R1 chro... 39 0.26 AE016827_233( AE016827 |pid:none) Mannheimia succiniciproducen...nslated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames) Frame A: ILVIKISESVDSTVNVHLIKSRTELAYSFKESLSFKTISF...fn**ly*nnsfl*ki dfkfstilkxsnsnyink Frame C: fsyknfrisr*hckctfn*iknraci*f*rviii*nnfi***k**n*l**ifkip*fftk *is... l... 38 2.8 3 ( AY301620 ) Bombyx mandarina from China mitochondrial DNA, co... 36 2.8 5 ( AP006852 ) Candida albicans genomic

  9. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15566-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available A33269 ;D46642) DNA primase (EC 2.7.7.-) 46K chain - mouse... 140 2e-31 CU633865_191( CU633865 |pid:none) Podospora anserina genomic...*nii*qfkiqwnfnnk*e**kkk Translated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames) Frame A: ifl*TNCTTIITTINNNIMMEDEIDIDFSNE...F555519 ) Marmota himalayana clone W41 microsatellite seque... 48 1.2 1 ( AM446059 ) Vitis vinifera contig VV78X074073.3, whole gen...kl*nlvrc*ilsrr**fkgtslqfsfplynakn**tsndws*ssrecfgfqqim yvfsgrrglhiwvsdraaqhltrenra.... 50 0.30 1 ( AL049184 ) Plasmodium falciparum DNA *** SEQUENCING IN PROGR... 34 0.40 18 ( AM687728 ) Entamoeba terrapina

  10. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16078-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e) Dictyostelium discoideum ABC trans... 87 2e-15 CU633898_48( CU633898 |pid:none) Podospora anserina genomi...e) Penicillium chrysogenum Wiscons... 104 2e-20 AF482389_1( AF482389 |pid:none) Dictyostelium discoideum ABC trans...920437_1753( AM920437 |pid:none) Penicillium chrysogenum Wiscons... 103 4e-20 CS726451_1( CS726451 |pid... chrysogenum Wisconsi... 102 5e-20 AF482393_1( AF482393 |pid:none) Dictyostelium discoideum ABC trans...sphaerella graminicola atr1 ge... 101 1e-19 EU248633_1( EU248633 |pid:none) Leishmania donovani ABC transpor

  11. Dicty_cDB: VSJ680 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available N12 (Roswell Park Cancer Institute Human BAC Library) complete sequence. 38 0.27 2 dna update 2003. 7.21 Hom...itochondrial 4.0 %: vesicles of secretory system >> prediction for VSJ680 is nuc 5' end seq. ID VSJ680F 5' end se...TAAATANACCGACTTTA Length of 3' end seq. 433 Connected seq. ID VSJ680P Connected se...lcysptnhatps*r*ktixsfhel nyffflklkkikt*nklni*inkxtdf Frame B: tniykyimsnwehglcdctsdirvccisylwpqlqvmqqratvdgr....... 58 5e-07 CU638743_20( CU638743 |pid:none) Podospora anserina genomic DNA ch.

  12. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U11870-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e) Oryza sativa Japonica Group genomi... 69 4e-10 BC067674_1( BC067674 |pid:none) Danio rerio...nome shotgun sequence, co... 48 1.0 1 ( AF049132 ) Florometra serratissima mitochondrion, complete g... 48 1...e) Podospora anserina genomic DNA c... 57 2e-07 AC138197_25( AC138197 |pid:none) Oryza sativa (japonica culti...e) Flavobacterium psychrophilum ompA ... 37 2.0 AL607003_3( AL607003 |pid:none) Oryza sati...e) Candida dubliniensis CD36 chromo... 55 7e-06 AP008218_997( AP008218 |pid:none) Oryza sativa (japonica culti

  13. Dicty_cDB: SLF241 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available d:none) Xenopus laevis middle molecular weight... 33 3.8 BC074454_1( BC074454 |pid:none) Xenopus laevis midd...*nnnnkrkkkk Frame B: ---****qq********lfkyvrtitnfsifsstihsikni*nv**ntiksintirfr*i ns...) Podospora anserina genomic DNA ch... 33 2.9 AM270295_28( AM270295 |pid:none) Aspergillus niger contig An13...LF241 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID G22463 dictyBase ID DDB0190606 Link to Contig Contig-U04076-1 Original site URL ht...TSLSISKQQKLKESDSDKKEKNDESSSTGVPIVKQE VTEEKQQELKQQELKQQELKQQELKQQQQEKEEKE Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing signi

  14. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U04076-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available . 33 4.1 U85969_1( U85969 |pid:none) Xenopus laevis middle molecular weight... 33 4.1 BC074454_1( BC074454 |...*nnnnkrkkkk Frame C: ****qq********lfkyvrtitnfsifsstihsikni*nv**ntiksintirfr*inss id...633873_40( CU633873 |pid:none) Podospora anserina genomic DNA ch... 33 3.1 AM270295_28( AM270295 |pid:none) Aspergillus niger contig...earch space used: 26166139142 Neighboring words threshold: 12 Window for multiple...-U04076-1Q.Seq.d (458 letters) Database: CSM 6905 sequences; 5,674,871 total letters Score E Sequences producing signi

  15. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U13724-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .. 222 9e-57 BC013309_1( BC013309 |pid:none) Homo sapiens PWP2 periodic tryptop... 219 7e-56 (Q5RFQ3) RecNam...40366_1258( CU640366 |pid:none) Podospora anserina genomic DNA ... 210 5e-53 BC047817_1( BC047817 |pid:none) Danio rerio PWP2 periodi...7 |pid:none) Mus musculus PWP2 (periodic trypto... 173 6e-42 T29585( T29585 )hypothetical protein F55F8.3 -

  16. Dicty_cDB: SLI168 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 37 0.43 AY598939_1( AY598939 |pid:none) Aspergillus fumigatus annexin ANXC... 37 0.43 AE013599_3263( AE013599 |pid:none...cted seq. - Length of connected seq. - Full length Seq ID - Full length Seq. - Length of full length seq. - ... ...TTC TGGTCCTAATTGTTTTCTTAATATTAATTCTGTTTGAGGACAAAAAAAAAAAACAAAAAA AAAAAC Length of 3' end seq. 536 Connected seq. ID - Conne...ignments: (bits) Value CR940347_1154( CR940347 |pid:none) Theileria annulata strain Ankar... 38 0.19 CU45889...) Caligus rogercresseyi clone crog-e... 35 1.3 CU633872_297( CU633872 |pid:none) Podospora anserina gen

  17. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12194-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 9( CU633900 |pid:none) Podospora anserina genomic DNA c... 120 2e-25 (Q5T440) RecNam...id:none) Zea mays clone 1467019 aminomethyl... 109 3e-22 BA000040_2554( BA000040 |pid:none) Bradyrhizobium j... ) MUSRQ60TF MUSR Musa acuminata cDNA 5', mRNA seque... 48 1.2 1 ( FF561475 ) MUSRL15TF MUSR Musa acumina...tochondrial... 99 7e-19 CR925677_82( CR925677 |pid:none) Ehrlichia ruminantium str. Gardel... ...IFQLDNTVVHDKSNKELTVLPPCWISKLTSLQRHHNKLVKFYKKKK KKKKKKKNNKNI*iiillfnnkk Translated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames) Fram

  18. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U10711-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 327FE14.T0 Anolis carolinensis pooled norma... 52 0.012 2 ( AM989985 ) Zygosaccharomyces rouxii strain CBS 7...a anserina genomic DNA, NW... 97 2e-18 CU928173_540( CU928173 |pid:none) Zygosacch...17 5 ( EC854762 ) HDE00002246 Hyperamoeba dachnaya Non-normalized (... 54 5e-16 6 ( EL577800 ) Physa...5_57( CP000845 |pid:none) Acaryochloris marina MBIC11017 pl... 133 3e-29 CP001037_148( CP001037 |pid:none) Nos...8( BA000045 |pid:none) Gloeobacter violaceus PCC 7421 ... 124 1e-28 AC1842( AC1842 ) WD-40 repeat protein [imported] - Nos

  19. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15388-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ......................................done Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Val...,559 sequences; 1,051,180,864 total letters Searching..................................................don...-07 CU633899_32( CU633899 |pid:none) Podospora anserina genomic DNA ch... 59 4e-07 CU928176_52( CU928176 |pid:none) Zygosaccharo...e) Wolbachia endosymbiont strain TR... 47 0.003 (Q9PE61) RecName: Full=50S ribosomal prot...GAAAAGA GAGAAAAAT Gap no gap Contig length 1709 Chromosome number (1..6, M) M Chromosome length 55569 Start point 43948 End point

  20. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U06283-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VV78X044916.33, whole genom... 44 9.2 1 ( AM464766 ) Vitis vinifera contig VV78X044916.31, whole geno...iphon aurantiacus ATCC ... 40 6e-05 CU640366_32( CU640366 |pid:none) Podospora anserina geno...9 AM270053_86( AM270053 |pid:none) Aspergillus niger contig An03c012... 39 0.24 FN392319_284( FN392319 |pid:no...TAATAATTTCAAATTAATAA TTGATGAATATTATTAAGATAAAATAAAAACAATATTTTTTGATAGCAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAA Gap no gap Contig length 915 Chromos...2-01-01-1... 40 0.51 2 ( AP009552 ) Microcystis aeruginosa NIES-843 DNA, complete gen

  1. Variation in Total Polyphenolics Contents of Aerial Parts of Potentilla Species and Their Anticariogenic Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Michał Tomczyk; Małgorzata Pleszczyńska; Adrian Wiater

    2010-01-01

    The aerial parts of selected Potentilla species (P. anserina, P. argentea, P. erecta, P. fruticosa, P. grandiflora, P. nepalensis, P. norvegica, P. pensylvanica, P. crantzii and P. thuringiaca) were investigated in order to determine their contents of polyphenolic compounds. The results showed that P. fruticosa has relatively high concentrations of tannins (167.3 ± 2.0 mg/g dw), proanthocyanidins (4.6 ± 0.2 mg/g dw) and phenolic acids (16.4 ± 0.8 mg/g dw), as well as flavonoids (7.0 ± 1.1 mg/...

  2. E-mail Spam Classification With Artificial Neural Network and Negative Selection Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Ismaila Idris

    2011-01-01

    This paper apply neural network and spam model based on Negative selection algorithm for solving complex problems in spam detection. This is achieved by distinguishing spam from non-spam (self from non-self). We propose an optimized technique for e-mail classification; The e-mail are classified as self and non-self whose redundancy was removed from the detector set in the previous research to generate a self and non-self detector memory. A vector with an array of two element self and non-self...

  3. Characterization of the aodA, dnmA, mnSOD and pimA genes in Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Éva; Park, Hee-Soo; Kwon, Nak-Jung; Han, Kap-Hoon; Emri, Tamás; Oláh, Viktor; Mészáros, Ilona; Dienes, Beatrix; Vincze, János; Csernoch, László; Yu, Jae-Hyuk; Pócsi, István

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria play key roles in cellular energy generation and lifespan of most eukaryotes. To understand the functions of four nuclear-encoded genes predicted to be related to the maintenance of mitochondrial morphology and function in Aspergillus nidulans, systematic characterization was carried out. The deletion and overexpression mutants of aodA, dnmA, mnSOD and pimA encoding alternative oxidase, dynamin related protein, manganese superoxide dismutase and Lon protease, respectively, were generated and examined for their growth, stress tolerances, respiration, autolysis, cell death, sterigmatocystin production, hyphal morphology and size, and mitochondrial superoxide production as well as development. Overall, genetic manipulation of these genes had less effect on cellular physiology and ageing in A. nidulans than that of their homologs in another fungus Podospora anserina with a well-characterized senescence. The observed interspecial phenotypic differences can be explained by the dissimilar intrinsic stabilities of the mitochondrial genomes in A. nidulans and P. anserina. Furthermore, the marginally altered phenotypes observed in A. nidulans mutants indicate the presence of effective compensatory mechanisms for the complex networks of mitochondrial defense and quality control. Importantly, these findings can be useful for developing novel platforms for heterologous protein production, or on new biocontrol and bioremediation technologies based on Aspergillus species. PMID:26846452

  4. E-mail Spam Classification With Artificial Neural Network and Negative Selection Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismaila Idris

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper apply neural network and spam model based on Negative selection algorithm for solving complex problems in spam detection. This is achieved by distinguishing spam from non-spam (self from non-self. We propose an optimized technique for e-mail classification; The e-mail are classified as self and non-self whose redundancy was removed from the detector set in the previous research to generate a self and non-self detector memory. A vector with an array of two element self and non-self concentration vector are generated into a feature vector used as an input in neural network classifier to classify the self and non-self feature vector of self and nonself program. The hybridization of both neural network and our previous model will further enhance our spam detector by improving the false rate and also enable the two different detectors to have a uniform platform for effective performance rate.

  5. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15185-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available PSE00001712 rw_mgpallid Polysphondylium pallidum ... 137 2e-52 4 ( AU038443 ) Dictyostelium discoideum slug cDNA, clon...ostella mRNA for Ribos... 67 4e-24 CU633900_583( CU633900 |pid:none) Podospora anserina genomic...omal protein L37a; Flags: Fragme... 54 8e-19 AY349162_1( AY349162 |pid:none) Toxoplasma gondii N1 mRNA, comple...ar 28.0 %: cytoplasmic 20.0 %: mitochondrial 12.0 %: cytoskeletal 4.0 %: vacuolar 4.0 %: endoplasmic reticulum >> prediction...ngth 511 Chromosome number (1..6, M) 3 Chromosome length 6358359 Start point 4034558 End point 4034952 Strand

  6. Dicty_cDB: VHM587 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0 m3b: 0.00 m_ : 1.00 28.0 %: cytoplasmic 28.0 %: nuclear 20.0 %: plasma membrane 8.0 %: extracellular, incl...7e-13 BC114006_1( BC114006 |pid:none) Bos taurus L-pipecolic acid oxidas... 76 9e-13 protein update 2009. 7....GMQYKVLTAQEIMEEYPFRNIPSNHQGVFAPDNGVIN LPLVLRSLYKLCLQYGCKMV--- Translated Amino Acid sequence (All Frame...Value CU638744_413( CU638744 |pid:none) Podospora anserina genomic DNA c... 204 2e-51 Y18574_4( Y18574 |pid:none) Streptomyces tendae...... 76 7e-13 AF134593_1( AF134593 |pid:none) Homo sapiens L-pipecolic acid oxid... 7

  7. Dicty_cDB: VHN233 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0 m3b: 0.00 m_ : 1.00 28.0 %: cytoplasmic 28.0 %: nuclear 20.0 %: plasma membrane 8.0 %: extracellular, incl...7e-13 BC114006_1( BC114006 |pid:none) Bos taurus L-pipecolic acid oxidas... 76 9e-13 protein update 2009. 7....GMQYKVLTAQEIMEEYPFRNIPSNHQGVFAPDNGVIN LPLVLRSLYKLCLQYGCKMV--- Translated Amino Acid sequence (All Frame...Value CU638744_413( CU638744 |pid:none) Podospora anserina genomic DNA c... 204 2e-51 Y18574_4( Y18574 |pid:none) Streptomyces tendae...... 76 7e-13 AF134593_1( AF134593 |pid:none) Homo sapiens L-pipecolic acid oxid... 7

  8. Dicty_cDB: VHG519 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 28.0 %: cytoplasmic 28.0 %: nuclear 20.0 %: plasma membrane 8.0 %: extracellular, including cell wall 8.0 %:...L1... 69 8e-11 BC114006_1( BC114006 |pid:none) Bos taurus L-pipecolic acid oxidas... 69 8e-11 CR457155_1( CR457155 |pid...:none) Homo sapiens L-pipecolic acid oxid... 69 8e-11 protein update 2009. 7.12 PSORT psg: 0.67 gvh...MEEYPFRNIPSNHQGVFAPDNGVINLPL VLRSLYKLCLQYGCKMV--- Translated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames) Frame...:none) Podospora anserina genomic DNA c... 177 2e-43 Y18574_4( Y18574 |pid:none) Streptomyces tendae stra

  9. Dicty_cDB: SHD834 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available m_ : 1.00 28.0 %: cytoplasmic 28.0 %: nuclear 20.0 %: plasma membrane 8.0 %: extracellular, including cell w...ATTTACCATTGGTATTACGTTCTCTTTACAAGTTATGTTTACAAT ATGGTTGTAAAATGGTAAGCXXXXXXXXXX sequence update 2002.10.25 Translated Amino Acid... anserina genomic DNA c... 204 2e-51 Y18574_4( Y18574 |pid:none) Streptomyces tendae stra...... 76 5e-13 AF134593_1( AF134593 |pid:none) Homo sapiens L-pipecolic acid oxid... 76 5e-13 AX882278_1( AX882278 |pid...:none) Sequence 17183 from Patent EP10746... 76 5e-13 BC114006_1( BC114006 |pid:none) Bos taurus L-pipecolic aci

  10. Dicty_cDB: VHN139 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available : 1.00 28.0 %: cytoplasmic 28.0 %: nuclear 20.0 %: plasma membrane 8.0 %: extracellular, including cell wal...ATTGGTATTACGTTCTCTTTACAAGTTATGTTTACAATATGGTTG TAAAATGGTAAXXXXXXXXXX sequence update 2002.10.25 Translated Amino Acid... anserina genomic DNA c... 204 2e-51 Y18574_4( Y18574 |pid:none) Streptomyces tendae stra...... 76 5e-13 AF134593_1( AF134593 |pid:none) Homo sapiens L-pipecolic acid oxid... 76 5e-13 AX882278_1( AX882278 |pid...:none) Sequence 17183 from Patent EP10746... 76 5e-13 BC114006_1( BC114006 |pid:none) Bos taurus L-pipecolic acid

  11. Prions are affected by evolution at two levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickner, Reed B; Kelly, Amy C

    2016-03-01

    Prions, infectious proteins, can transmit diseases or be the basis of heritable traits (or both), mostly based on amyloid forms of the prion protein. A single protein sequence can be the basis for many prion strains/variants, with different biological properties based on different amyloid conformations, each rather stably propagating. Prions are unique in that evolution and selection work at both the level of the chromosomal gene encoding the protein, and on the prion itself selecting prion variants. Here, we summarize what is known about the evolution of prion proteins, both the genes and the prions themselves. We contrast the one known functional prion, [Het-s] of Podospora anserina, with the known disease prions, the yeast prions [PSI+] and [URE3] and the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies of mammals. PMID:26713322

  12. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U11344-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available P001140_1265( CP001140 |pid:none) Desulfurococcus kamchatkensis 1... 139 3e-31 ( Q90732 ) RecName: Full=26S ... ) CHEL9324.b1_H03.ab1 CHE(LMS) serpentine sunflower... 46 4e-05 2 ( AK072976 ) Oryza sativa Japonica Group cDNA clone... CP000562_1555( CP000562 |pid:none) Methanoculleus marisnigri JR1, ... 179 3e-43 CP001140_1067( CP001140 |pid:none) Desulfur...tive cell division cycle ATPase; &AL... 143 2e-32 CU633898_26( CU633898 |pid:none) Podospora anserina genomic...scoideum cAMP phosphodiesterase (... 101 3e-41 2 ( BJ336011 ) Dictyostelium discoideum cDNA clo

  13. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16391-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 3895 |pid:none) Podospora anserina genomic DNA c... 204 7e-51 AY830393_1( AY830393 |pid:none) Mus musculus myosin.... 48 1e-13 5 ( BW212344 ) Ciona intestinalis cDNA, clone:cieg070c01, 5' end... 48 1e-13 5 ( BW654420 ) Glycin...d,... 70 2e-13 2 ( AV992378 ) Ciona intestinalis cDNA, clone:cicl58n12, 5' end,... 48 ...T80381.fwd Gateway compatible cien cDNA librar... 48 2e-13 5 ( BW212062 ) Ciona intestinalis cDNA, clone:cieg069d24, 5' en...testinalis cDNA, clone:cilv01m24, 5' end,... 48 3e-11 4 ( DR984111 ) JGI_AOKF1594.rev AOKF Acropora

  14. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16436-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 5 e-114 CU633870_115( CU633870 |pid:none) Podospora anserina genomic DNA c... 344 e-114 AJ621287_1( AJ621287...015928 |pid:none) Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron VP... 39 0.90 CP000099_229( CP000099 |pid:none) Methanosarcina...nkkkkkkgrppp Translated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames) Frame A: LIFFFLININKFIIIEIKIFYFL...098096_5( EU098096 |pid:none) Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei Av... 325 2e-99 A67854_1( A67854 |pid:none) Sequence 26 from Paten...0615_1648( CP000615 |pid:none) Burkholderia vietnamiensis G4 c... 271 8e-71 AM902716_277( AM902716 |pid:none) Bordetella petrii stra

  15. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14843-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available fischeri MJ11 chromosome... 79 1e-13 ( Q56066 ) RecName: Full=Molybdopterin biosynthesis ...lone ZMMBBb-409G20; ZMMBBb... 48 0.38 1 ( AC192094 ) Taeniopygia guttata chromosome... ) li27b06.g7 Ginkgo male leaf (NYBG) Ginkgo biloba ... 42 0.51 2 ( AC027134 ) Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome I BAC F13B4 genom...a mays molybdenum cofactor biosy... 134 2e-30 CU638744_456( CU638744 |pid:none) Podospora anserina genom.... 92 9e-18 CP000627_1106( CP000627 |pid:none) Vibrio cholerae O395 chromosome... 91 3e-17 CP000681_3853( CP0

  16. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U13235-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e) Malawimonas jakobiformis translati... 121 1e-26 FN317739_1( FN317739 |pid:none) Schistosoma japonicum iso...e) Oryza sativa (japonica cultivar... 50 7e-05 S35701( S35701 )translation elon... AY310277_1( AY310277 |pid:none) Proteroiulus fuscus voucher Pfu el... 135 1e-30 AF240820_1( AF240820 |pid:none) Hutchinsoni...:none) Podospora anserina genomic DNA c... 73 6e-12 AM114193_2846( AM114193 |pid:none) Uncultured methanogeni...e) Aspergillus niger contig An16c030... 226 4e-58 AM910990_25( AM910990 |pid:none) Plasmodium knowlesi stra

  17. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U11103-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e) Acidobacteria bacterium Ellin345... 181 2e-43 CU914168_1769( CU914168 |pid:none) Ralstonia solanacearum stra...ophilia K2... 104 2e-20 CP000140_3447( CP000140 |pid:none) Parabacteroides distasoni...spora anserina genomic DNA c... 268 9e-70 EU937530_1( EU937530 |pid:none) Mus musculus sucrase-isomaltas...) mRNA, comp... 254 1e-65 ( P23739 ) RecName: Full=Sucrase-isomaltase, intestinal; Contains:... 254 1e-65 AJ131520_1( AJ131520 |pid.... 179 5e-43 CU695242_39( CU695242 |pid:none) Ralstonia solanacearum strain Mol... 179 7e-43 BX294013_13( BX294013 |pid:non

  18. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14997-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available d TAZ d... 58 1e-06 (Q8N653) RecName: Full=Leucine-zipper-like transcriptional regul... 58 1e-06 AK31...e) Mus musculus adult male testis cDN... 57 2e-06 (Q9CQ33) RecName: Full=Leucine-zipper-like transcriptional...e) Schistosoma mansoni genome sequenc... 58 1e-06 CR382128_771( CR382128 |pid:none) Yarrowia lipolytica stra...e) Podospora anserina genomic DNA ch... 52 8e-05 AY688677_1( AY688677 |pid:none) Mus musculus attra...e) Zea mays clone 283841 speckle-type... 48 0.001 FN357293_46( FN357293 |pid:none) Schistosoma manson

  19. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U09243-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available =Sulfur controller 2; Short=SCON2... 66 9e-10 AE016820_345( AE016820 |pid:none) Ashbya gos...a intestinalis Ci-betaTrCP mRN... 67 4e-10 ( Q00659 ) RecName: Full=Sulfur metabolite repression control pro...up cDNA c... 55 1e-06 ( P07834 ) RecName: Full=Cell division control protein 4; AltNa...633454_96( CU633454 |pid:none) Podospora anserina genomic DNA ch... 53 7e-06 AM778957_201( AM778957 |pid:none) Microcystis aer...selmis andersenii chromosome ... 48 2e-04 (Q8BHD1) RecName: Full=WD repeat-containing pro

  20. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U02899-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e) Monkeypox virus strain Zaire-96-I... 42 0.021 FN392321_631( FN392321 |pid:none) Pichia pastoris GS115 chromo...0_1371( CU928160 |pid:none) Escherichia coli IAI1 chromosom... 33 9.7 ( P34138 ) RecName: Full=Tyrosine-protein phosphatas...Protein-tyrosine phosphatase mitochondria... 39 0.23 CP000388_4054( CP000388 |pid:none) Pseudoalteromonas at..._208( CU633897 |pid:none) Podospora anserina genomic DNA c... 34 5.7 CU928163_1635( CU928163 |pid:none) Escherichia coli UMN026 ch...FM992694 |pid:none) Candida dubliniensis CD36 chromo... 33 9.7 EU901373_1( EU901373 |pid:none) Escherichia

  1. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U02126-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 79 ) RecName: Full=Citrate synthase, peroxisomal; E... 40 0.034 DQ674540_1( DQ674540 |pid:none) Coccidioides posadasii ci...m chrysogenum Wisconsi... 41 0.015 CP000585_177( CP000585 |pid:none) Ostreococcus lucimarinus CCE9901... 40 ....076 AB272085_1( AB272085 |pid:none) Phanerochaete chrysosporium Cit1 m... 39 0.076 AY144810_1( AY144810 |pid:none) Sacc...DNA c... 36 0.49 CU633872_205( CU633872 |pid:none) Podospora anserina genomic DNA c... 35 0.64 DQ849026_1( DQ849026 |pid:none) Hypoc...tial mR... 45 0.001 (A4HXU4) RecName: Full=Probable citrate synthase, mitochondrial;... 44 0.002 (Q4QDX3) RecName: Full=Probable ci

  2. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U10018-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tin specific pe... 69 4e-10 AY058707_1( AY058707 |pid:none) Drosophila melanogaster LD43147 fu... 69 4e-10 (...0 |pid:none) Drosophila melanogaster fat facets (fa... 52 5e-05 AF302663_1( AF302663 |pid:none) Arabidopsis thaliana ubi...ora anserina genomic DNA ... 133 2e-29 AE014296_168( AE014296 |pid:none) Drosophila melanogaster chromoso......itin-specific pr... 84 2e-14 AE014298_3293( AE014298 |pid:none) Drosophila melanogaster chromos... 82 8e-14 ...AK301563_1( AK301563 |pid:none) Homo sapiens cDNA FLJ60359 complet... 82 8e-14 AE014298_3294( AE014298 |pid:none) Drosophila melanoga

  3. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12506-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e-07 DQ122897_1( DQ122897 |pid:none) Chlamydomonas incerta G protein be... 60 2e-07 EF083226_1( EF083226 |pid:none) Picea sitchen...serina genomic DNA, NW... 67 1e-09 AH2195( AH2195 ) hypothetical protein alr3119 [importe...baena variabilis ATCC 29413,... 66 3e-09 S62544( S62544 ;T37588)hypothetical protein ...8 (Q0P593) RecName: Full=WD repeat-containing protein 69; &BC1203... 64 2e-08 CU633438_612( CU633438 |pid:none) Podospora anserina...ide-binding protein subuni... 60 2e-07 AC013353_36( AC013353 |pid:none) Trypanosoma brucei chr

  4. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15237-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e: Full=NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase subunit I;... 76 1e-12 EU016985_1( EU016985 |pid:none) Musa acumina...493499_84( FJ493499 |pid:none) Pyramimonas parkeae chloroplast, ... 69 1e-10 (A3PAM7) RecName: Full=NAD(P)H-quinone oxido...8_1( AC011808 |pid:none) Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome I ... 275 9e-73 DQ407748_1( DQ407748 |pid:none) Gymnadenia conopsea mi...633870_144( CU633870 |pid:none) Podospora anserina genomic DNA c... 261 2e-68 AF424653_1( AF424653 |pid:none) Phytophthora in...P000680 |pid:none) Pseudomonas mendocina ymp, comp... 111 3e-23 (Q2JFL2) RecName: Full=NADH-quinone oxidored

  5. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U05044-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available onas acidamin... 105 2e-21 (A1TEH3) RecName: Full=Dimethyladenosine transferase; E.....( AY120713 |pid:none) Arabidopsis thaliana dimethyladeno... 158 2e-45 CU640366_1401( CU640366 |pid:none) Podospora anserina genomi... Library SB02... 54 2e-04 2 ( CK293456 ) EST756170 Nicotiana benthamiana mixed tissue cDNA... 42 2e-04 3 ( EV435212 ) 34524_65 Quin...pSkeMus1 Xenopus (Sil... 40 0.47 3 ( CB078367 ) hj66g06.g1 Hedyotis terminalis flower - Stage 2 (... 36 0.48...3( CP000304 |pid:none) Pseudomonas stutzeri A1501, comp... 98 6e-19 (B1XIV9) RecName: Full=Dimethyladenosine

  6. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U05126-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 30 4.9 12 ( BV232457 ) S233P6216RF10.T0 LabradorRetriever Canis familiar... 42 4....CHS15696.b1_P12.ab1 CCHS Espina Barnadesia spino... 38 5.3 2 ( CE411069 ) tigr-gss-do...um Ba4 str. 657, complete genome. 34 0.79 15 ( AE013218 ) Buchnera aphidicola str. Sg (Schizaphis gramin... 40 0.098 CU633899_479( CU633899 |pid:none) Podospora anserina genomic DNA c... 40 0.13 DQ927304_24( DQ927304 |pid:none) Tetrahymena...LKHLSRTKTSTPQIKKKN*iksy*if Translated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames) Frame A: kiknlrfknnt*fqw*nv*lyfklfnis

  7. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U00802-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 638744_532( CU638744 |pid:none) Podospora anserina genomic DNA c... 36 2.1 (Q5TJ57) RecName: Full=Formin-E; AltNam...A sequence from clone RP23-128L22 on chro... 52 0.003 2 ( BV007400 ) LS618 Meadowfoam genomic DNA Limnanthes... 1 ( AZ127274 ) OSJNBb0084H14r CUGI Rice BAC Library (EcoRI) Oryz... 48 0.71 1 ( ET538936 ) fcg3x.227550e06 C. graminicola genomi...c sequence G... 48 0.71 1 ( ET532726 ) fcg3x.224750n15.f C. graminicola genomic sequenc...e... 48 0.71 1 ( ET520840 ) fcg3x.220250d22 C. graminicola genomic sequence G... 48 0.71 1 ( ER010688 ) 1095

  8. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15264-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available l... 48 0.42 1 ( BV222441 ) S233P682RA7.T0 LabradorRetriever Canis familiari...40( CU633455 |pid:none) Podospora anserina genomic DNA ch... 35 2.4 CP000683_315( CP000683 |pid:none) Ricket...APLS PALYPSNLSNSTLAQRVTLDK*iinnv*nhssl Translated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames) Frame A: l*n*iifirklkki*k...ed date: Jun 21, 2004 1:35 PM Number of letters in database: 8,075,542 Number of sequences in database: 8402 Lam...bda K H 1.37 0.711 1.31 Gapped Lambda K H 1.37 0.711 1.31 Matrix: blastn matrix:1 -3 Gap Penalties: Exis

  9. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U11805-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 3e-98 CR925677_425( CR925677 |pid:none) Ehrlichia ruminantium str. Garde... 360 4e-98 ( P87185 ) RecName: Full=Cystein...2 CU466930_1609( CU466930 |pid:none) Candidatus Cloacamonas acidamin... 175 2e-42 AE016879_4272( AE016879 |p...12 2 ( AP006852 ) Candida albicans genomic DNA, chromosome 7, compl... 72 3e-12 3 ( EU519436 ) Saccharomyces paradoxus strain...e: Full=Cysteine desulfurase, mitochondrial; ... 387 e-106 CU640366_43( CU640366 |pid:none) Podospora anserina genomi...illum magneticum AMB... 362 1e-98 AF338108_2( AF338108 |pid:none) Cowdria ruminantium clone 11hw hyp... 361

  10. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14709-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available s mossambicus gonadotropin-releasing ho... 46 0.82 1 ( AM438174 ) Vitis vinifera contig VV... 5.3 CU640366_328( CU640366 |pid:none) Podospora anserina genomic DNA c... 32 5.3 CP000133_609( CP000133 |pi...AERLREMRERIRSERPNK RNGEPSNRPESPEKMIRDLRNRKQNSRNSHAN*fhflenkkkkkil*ntlkkkkkk Translated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames) Fram... database: 5,674,871 Number of sequences in database: 6905 Lambda K H 1.37 0.711 1.31 Gapped Lam...k to clone list U14709 List of clone(s) est1= VHO638F ,1,343 est2= SSE690E ,16,333 est3= SSC159E ,18,353 Translated Amin

  11. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U01974-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 38 0.92 AF206244_1( AF206244 |pid:none) Babesia microti strain MN1 serorea... 38...2.7 AL032652_6( AL032652 |pid:none) Caenorhabditis elegans YAC Y63D3A,... 36 2.7 CP001324_47( CP001324 |pid:none) Micromona...rgillus niger contig An04c0140, complete genome. 46 3.4 1 ( AB018117 ) Arabidopsis thaliana genomic DNA, chro...ken ... 40 0.18 CP001628_658( CP001628 |pid:none) Micrococcus luteus NCTC 2665, co... 40 0.18...an cla... 36 2.7 CU633899_57( CU633899 |pid:none) Podospora anserina genomic DNA ch... 36

  12. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14996-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sitans (Tseatse fly) EST fr... 36 0.66 3 ( DQ984911 ) Tylonycteris pachypus microsatellite A31 sequence. 48...51 |pid:none) Aspergillus oryzae RIB40 genomic... 64 9e-09 AB239917_1( AB239917 |pid:none) Alternaria alternata AGA1 gene for...tein G(t) s... 71 7e-11 CU640366_1097( CU640366 |pid:none) Podospora anserina genomic DN...odium falciparum strain 3D7, chromosome 5, s... 36 0.094 9 ( CJ401466 ) Molgula tectiformis cDNA, gonad clon...lasmodium falciparum 3D7 chromosome 2 section 34... 36 1.6 5 ( BX204893 ) Danio rerio genomic

  13. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15789-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 173780 ) Bos taurus clone CH240-107G13, WORKING DRAFT SEQU... 48 1.9 1 ( CT282100 ) Sus scrofa genomic...002044 ) Arabidopsis thaliana genomic DNA, chromosome 3, P... 46 7.5 1 ( AK227879 ) Arabidopsis thaliana mRNA for hypothetical pro... 143 4e-32 CU640366_29( CU640366 |pid:none) Podospora anserina genomic DNA ch... 142 9e-32 L34882_1( L34882 ...1334_247( CP001334 |pid:none) Micromonas sp. RCC299 chromosome... 95 1e-17 CP001323_403( CP001323 |pid:none) Micromona...14 CP001333_282( CP001333 |pid:none) Micromonas sp. RCC299 chromosome... 78 5e-14 (Q9S9Z7) RecName: Full=Probable pro

  14. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16401-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available us JCS... 180 1e-43 EU016649_12( EU016649 |pid:none) Uncultured marine microor...udis audaxvi... 162 3e-38 CP001055_399( CP001055 |pid:none) Elusimicrobium minutum Pei191, c... 162 3e-38...um AMB... 142 4e-32 CP001275_592( CP001275 |pid:none) Thermomicrobium roseum DSM 5159,... 141...ulosum 'So ce 56'... 59 4e-07 CP001275_1047( CP001275 |pid:none) Thermomicrobium roseum DSM 5159... 59 4e-07...piens cDNA FLJ35278 fis, cl... 328 3e-88 CU633899_65( CU633899 |pid:none) Podospora anserina genomic DNA ch.

  15. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U11432-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available RESS *** f... 54 0.022 1 ( CT354301 ) Sus scrofa genomic clone CH242-379O24, genomic...34_120( CP001334 |pid:none) Micromonas sp. RCC299 chromosome... 56 4e-06 AY540193_1( AY540193 |pid:none) Lyt...74_506( CP001574 |pid:none) Micromonas sp. RCC299 chromosome... 36 4.7 CP000716_860( CP000716 |pid:none) The...malized... 48 1.3 1 ( DV159675 ) KP1B.101B11F.050722T7 KP1B Nicotiana tabacum cDNA... 48 1.3 1 ( DB614365 ) Halocynthia ror... strain OTTH05... 202 2e-79 CU640366_1328( CU640366 |pid:none) Podospora anserina genomic DNA ... 204 7e-75

  16. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U10479-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available none) Caenorhabditis elegans YAC Y45F10B... 58 8e-07 AM989989_35( AM989989 |pid:none) Zygosaccharomyces roux...1( AF323583 |pid:none) Podospora anserina beta transducin... 52 3e-05 CU928179_838( CU928179 |pid:none) Zygosacch...-12 AP009552_3821( AP009552 |pid:none) Microcystis aeruginosa NIES-843... 77 1e-12 AG2400( AG2400 ) WD-repea...M778957 |pid:none) Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7806 ... 64 1e-08 CP001037_6067( CP001037 |pid:none) Nostoc pu...... 53 2e-05 AI2493( AI2493 ) WD-repeat protein [imported] - Nostoc sp. (strain... 53 2e-05 U53881_1( U53881 |pid:none) Sacch

  17. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U11313-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 3865_131( CU633865 |pid:none) Podospora anserina genomic DNA c... 175 1e-57 D30788_1( D30788 |pid:none) Schizosacch...nomic... 189 4e-56 CU928175_63( CU928175 |pid:none) Zygosaccharomyces rouxii strain C... 179 2e-53 AE016820_... repeat-containing p... 60 4e-07 CU928178_155( CU928178 |pid:none) Zygosaccharomyces rouxii strain ... ...in hea... 52 7e-05 CU928178_453( CU928178 |pid:none) Zygosaccharomyces rouxii str.... 52 9e-05 D10667_1( D10667 |pid:none) Homo sapiens mRNA for smooth muscle my... 52 9e-05 CU928178_458( CU928178 |pid:none) Zygosac

  18. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U03511-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ne) Homo sapiens NY-REN-37 antigen mRN... 66 4e-10 BX248265_1( BX248265 |pid:no...mic... 73 3e-12 AM270222_44( AM270222 |pid:none) Aspergillus niger contig An11c005... 72 5e-12 (Q5...s Delta-like-1 protein ... 35 0.82 AM270375_19( AM270375 |pid:none) Aspergillus niger contig An...ATTTGGTAA AGAGTGTACAAATCCAAAATGTAAATTCAATCATACTGAACAAAGAGAAA T Gap no gap Contig length 401 Chromos...F3Z9) RecName: Full=Zinc finger CCCH domain-containing protei... 70 2e-11 CU633901_78( CU633901 |pid:none) Podospora anserina geno

  19. Dicty_cDB: SHG642 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 011 0.0 3 AU312337 |AU312337.1 Elaphe quadrivirgata cDNA, clone:Eq_aB_021_F03. 109 7e-44 3 DV664609 |DV664609.1 CGN-1811 Pericarp..., mRNA sequence. 68 3e-24 4 CJ466124 |CJ466124.1 Macaca fascicularis mRNA, clone: QnpA-15448, 5' end, expressed in brain par...75 CU633899_368( CU633899 |pid:none) Podospora anserina genomic DNA c... 280 2e-74 ( Q10178 ) RecName: Full=U2 snRNP component prp1...SH (Link to library) SHG642 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U11096-1 | Contig-U126...63-1 SHG642P (Link to Original site) SHG642F 137 SHG642Z 520 SHG642P 637 - - Show SHG642 Library SH (Link to librar

  20. Dicty_cDB: SHE486 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 64609 |DV664609.1 CGN-1811 Pericarp Coffea canephora cDNA clone cccp22c1 5', mRNA sequence. 100 6e-31 5 CX30...4 CJ466124 |CJ466124.1 Macaca fascicularis mRNA, clone: QnpA-15448, 5' end, expressed in brain parietal lobe...3899_368( CU633899 |pid:none) Podospora anserina genomic DNA c... 279 4e-74 ( Q10178 ) RecName: Full=U2 snRNP component prp1...SH (Link to library) SHE486 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U11096-1 | Contig-U126...63-1 SHE486P (Link to Original site) SHE486F 137 SHE486Z 526 SHE486P 643 - - Show SHE486 Library SH (Link to librar

  1. Dicty_cDB: VSK253 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available U976032 |pid:none) Zea mays clone 509150 periodic try... 155 4e-37 AC126012_7( AC126012 |pid:none) Medicago ...302 |BG128302.1 EST473948 tomato shoot/meristem Lycopersicon esculentum cDNA clone cTOF19N21 5' sequence, mR...NA sequence. 42 6.5 1 BF460048 |T05027, mRNA sequence. 42 6.5 1 AW441898 |AW441898.1 EST311294 tomato fruit red ripe, TAMU Lycoper... 6.5 1 BM411909 |BM411909.1 EST586236 tomato breaker fruit Lycopersicon esculentum cDNA clone cLEG58G18 5' e...ospora anserina genomic DNA ch... 148 6e-35 AP007151_719( AP007151 |pid:none) Asper

  2. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U06612-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 6_3703( CU458896 |pid:none) Mycobacterium abscessus chromos... 47 2e-04 CP001110_763( CP001110 |pid:none) Pelodic...P001016_1708( CP001016 |pid:none) Beijerinckia indica subsp. indi... 52 8e-06 (B7H4Q6) RecName: Full=10 kDa chaper...ck pr... 74 2e-12 CU638743_178( CU638743 |pid:none) Podospora anserina genomic DNA c... 74 2e-12 ( P34893 ) ...ccus radiodurans R1 chrom... 68 1e-10 (A4XYL9) RecName: Full=10 kDa chaper...05 AM490594_1( AM490594 |pid:none) Herbaspirillum seropedicae mopB ge... 49 7e-05 CP001349_1706( CP001349 |pid:none) Methylobacteri

  3. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U01935-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available EU976032 |pid:none) Zea mays clone 509150 periodic try... 42 0.009 CP000117_3846( CP000117 |pid:none) Anabaena vari...BS 6054 chromoso... 42 0.005 (Q99LL5) RecName: Full=Periodic tryptophan protein 1 homolog; &... 42 0.005 ( P...BC100114_1( BC100114 |pid:none) Danio rerio cDNA clone IMAGE:71744... 43 0.003 AY588074_1( AY588074 |pid:none) Homalodisca co...8_1( BC090898 |pid:none) Danio rerio peroxisomal biogenesis... 42 0.005 FN392320_279( FN392320 |pid:none) Pichia pastori...255( AE014188 |pid:none) Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 chromo... 46 4e-04 CU633900_125( CU633900 |pid:none) Podospora anserina genomic

  4. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14906-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0.89 2 ( AM438236 ) Vitis vinifera contig VV78X141747.12, whole genom... 36 0.98 2 ( BC059806 ) Danio reri...o G protein-coupled receptor 143, mRNA ... 32 1.0 2 ( CD754949 ) AGENCOURT_14627365 NCI_CGAP_ZEmb2 Danio...s brain cDNA clone: QmoA-11183,... 46 1.5 1 ( CU638744 ) Podospora anserina genomic DNA chromosome 6, supe...-06 FN357541_15( FN357541 |pid:none) Schistosoma mansoni genome sequen... 52 1e-05 AF204783_1( AF204783 |pid:none) Lycopersico...AY373584_1( AY373584 |pid:none) Emericella nidulans diploid state ... 34 4.0 AJ938182_419( AJ938182 |pid:none) Staphyloco

  5. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15109-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Q838002_34( DQ838002 |pid:none) Streptomyces lavendulae strain NR... 152 2e-35 AY639864_1( AY639864 |pid:none) Nicotiana...194 3e-48 AY442190_1( AY442190 |pid:none) Pichia pastoris S-adenosylhomocyst... 190 4e-48 ( P39954 ) RecName: Full=Aden...Q) /CSM_Contig/Contig-U15109-1Q.Seq.d (1077 letters) Database: nrp_B 3,236,559 sequences; 1,051,180,864 total letters Searchi...3448 |pid:none) Podospora anserina genomic DNA c... 187 7e-46 CP000383_603( CP000383 |pid:none) Cytophaga hutchi...74_91( CT573074 |pid:none) Kuenenia stuttgartiensis genome f... 166 1e-39 CP000815_428( CP000815 |pid:none) Paulinella chromato

  6. Aqueous Extracts of Selected Potentilla Species Modulate Biological Activity of Human Normal Colon Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paduch, Roman; Wiater, Adrian; Locatelli, Marcello; Pleszczyńska, Malgorzata; Tomczyk, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Potentilla L. (Rosaceae) species have been used in traditional and in folk medicine for many years. This study characterized the activity of extracts from aerial parts of selected Potentilla species: P. argentea, P. anserina, P. grandiflora and P. erecta as well as one species of closely related to the genus Potentilla, Drymocallis rupestris (syn. P. rupestris). The biological activities were analyzed using MTT, NR and DPPH assays on CCD 841 CoTr and CCD-18Co cells. Moreover, cell morphology and cytoskeletal actin F-filaments organization and IL-6 and IL-10 levels by ELISA were analyzed after 24 h of incubation. Potentilla extracts at dose levels between 25 and 250 µg/mL were analyzed. For ELISA, 15 µg/mL and 30 μg/mL were chosen. When mitochondrial succinyl dehydrogenase activity was tested (MTT assay) only extract obtained from P. erecta at lower concentrations (up to 125 µg/mL) suppressed metabolism of myofibroblasts, while epithelial cells mitochondrial enzyme activity increased after incubation with all extracts. In Neutral Red (NR) method cellular membrane disturbance of both cell cultures was found after D. rupestris and P. grandiflora addition. Moreover, strong influence on epithelial cells was also found for P. anserina. All extracts showed similar, concentration-dependent free radical scavenging (DPPH) effect. Potentilla extracts, especially at lower concentration, decreased IL-6 production in myofibroblasts but the level of the cytokine was found to be stable in epithelial cells. IL-10 analysis revealed that P. argentea, D. rupestris, P. erecta extracts decrease cytokine level in myofibroblasts, while only when higher concentration were applied, decreased cytokine level produced by epithelial cells was found. F-actin filaments staining revealed that Potentilla extracts significantly influence on cellular cytoskeleton organization. Potentilla extracts influence on cells of human colon wall lining modulating the main features of them (viability

  7. Spectral representations for a class of banded Jacobi-type matrices

    OpenAIRE

    Ewelina Zalot; Witold Majdak

    2014-01-01

    We describe some spectral representations for a class of non-self-adjoint banded Jacobi-type matrices. Our results extend those obtained by P.B. Naïman for (two-sided infinite) periodic tridiagonal Jacobi matrices.

  8. Moments of inertia in a semiclassical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semiclassical calculations have been performed for 31 nuclei. As a result of preliminary non-fully self-consistent calculations, the moments of inertia in investigated nuclei abd spin degrees of freedom are found

  9. Introduction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bagarello, F.; Gazeau, J. P.; Szafraniec, F. H.; Znojil, Miloslav

    Vol. 1. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2015, s. 1-4. ISBN 978-1-118-85528-7 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : quantum physics * non-self-adjoint operators * spectral theory Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics

  10. Application of filter method for detection of secondary electron emission in the auto-oscillating mode of beam plasma discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balovnev, A. V.; Vizgalov, I. V.; Salahutdinov, G. H.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we studied the non-self mode of the auto-oscillation secondary- emission discharge (ASED) in a longitudinal magnetic field with autonomous electron gun to ignite the primary beam-plasma discharge (PPD).

  11. Plasticity of the β-Trefoil Protein Fold in the Recognition and Control of Invertebrate Predators and Parasites by a Fungal Defence System

    OpenAIRE

    Schubert, Mario; Bleuler-Martinez, Silvia; Butschi, Alex; Wälti, Martin A.; Egloff, Pascal; Stutz, Katrin; Yan, Shi; Wilson, Iain B. H.; Hengartner, Michael O.; Aebi, Markus; Allain, Frédéric H-T; Künzler, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Discrimination between self and non-self is a prerequisite for any defence mechanism; in innate defence, this discrimination is often mediated by lectins recognizing non-self carbohydrate structures and so relies on an arsenal of host lectins with different specificities towards target organism carbohydrate structures. Recently, cytoplasmic lectins isolated from fungal fruiting bodies have been shown to play a role in the defence of multicellular fungi against predators and parasites. Here, w...

  12. New Fixed Point Results with PPF Dependence in Banach Spaces Endowed with a Graph

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, N.; S. Khaleghizadeh; P. Salimi; Akbar, F.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce the concept of an ${\\alpha }_{c}$ -admissible non-self-mappings with respect to ${\\eta }_{c}$ and establish the existence of PPF dependent fixed and coincidence point theorems for ${\\alpha }_{c}{\\eta }_{c}$ - $\\psi $ -contractive non-self-mappings in the Razumikhin class. As applications of our PPF dependent fixed point and coincidence point theorems, we derive some new fixed and coincidence point results for $\\psi $ -contractions whenever the range space is endowed with a graph ...

  13. Research on a randomized real-valued negative selection algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A real-valued negative selection algorithm with good mathematical foundation is presented to solve some of the drawbacks of previous approach. Specifically, it can produce a good estimate of the optimal number of detectors needed to cover the non-self space, and the maximization of the non-self coverage is done through an optimization algorithm with proven convergence properties. Experiments are performed to validate the assumptions made while designing the algorithm and to evaluate its performance.

  14. Spinning boson stars and Kerr black holes with scalar hair: the effect of self-interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Herdeiro, Carlos A. R.; Radu, Eugen; Rúnarsson, Helgi F.

    2016-01-01

    Self-interacting boson stars have been shown to alleviate the astrophysically low maximal mass of their non-self-interacting counterparts. We report some physical features of spinning self-interacting boson stars, namely their compactness, the occurence of ergo-regions and the scalar field profiles, for a sample of values of the coupling parameter. The results agree with the general picture that these boson stars are comparatively less compact than the non-self-interacting ones. We also brief...

  15. Immune modelling and programming of a mobile robot demo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Tao; CAI Zi-xing; HE Han-gen

    2006-01-01

    An artificial immune system was modelled with self/non-self selection to overcome abnormity in a mobile robot demo. The immune modelling includes the innate immune modelling and the adaptive immune modelling. The self/non-self selection includes detection and recognition, and the self/non-self detection is based on the normal model of the demo. After the detection, the non-self recognition is based on learning unknown non-self for the adaptive immunization. The learning was designed on the neural network or on the learning mechanism from examples. The last step is elimination of all the non-self and failover of the demo. The immunization of the mobile robot demo is programmed with Java to test effectiveness of the approach. Some worms infected the mobile robot demo, and caused the abnormity. The results of the immunization simulations show that the immune program can detect 100% worms,recognize all known Worms and most unknown worms, and eliminate the worms. Moreover, the damaged files of the mobile robot demo can all be repaired through the normal model and immunization. Therefore, the immune modelling of the mobile robot demo is effective and programmable in some anti-worms and abnormity detection applications.

  16. Formation of and adherence to a self-disclosure norm in an online chat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz-Uhler, Beth; Bishop-Clark, Cathy; Howard, Elizabeth

    2005-04-01

    To understand how a norm of self-disclosure forms and is adhered to in a synchronous computer-mediated discussion, participants discussed the stigma of mental illness. The transcripts of the discussion were coded for the number of self-disclosures, the number of statements supportive of self-disclosure, and the number of statements supportive of non-self-disclosure. The results showed that the number of self-disclosing statements increased over time, although not in a linear fashion, as did the number of statements supportive of self-disclosure. However, the number of statements supportive of non-self-disclosures decreased over time. These results suggest that once a norm of self-disclosure forms, it is reinforced by statements supportive of self-disclosures but not of non-self-disclosures. The results are discussed in the context of self-disclosure reciprocity and the social identity model of deindividuation effects (SIDE). PMID:15938650

  17. Did you or I say pretty, rude or brief? An ERP study of the effects of speaker's identity on emotional word processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Ana P; Rezaii, Neguine; Nestor, Paul G; Rauber, Andréia; Spencer, Kevin M; Niznikiewicz, Margaret

    2016-02-01

    During speech comprehension, multiple cues need to be integrated at a millisecond speed, including semantic information, as well as voice identity and affect cues. A processing advantage has been demonstrated for self-related stimuli when compared with non-self stimuli, and for emotional relative to neutral stimuli. However, very few studies investigated self-other speech discrimination and, in particular, how emotional valence and voice identity interactively modulate speech processing. In the present study we probed how the processing of words' semantic valence is modulated by speaker's identity (self vs. non-self voice). Sixteen healthy subjects listened to 420 prerecorded adjectives differing in voice identity (self vs. non-self) and semantic valence (neutral, positive and negative), while electroencephalographic data were recorded. Participants were instructed to decide whether the speech they heard was their own (self-speech condition), someone else's (non-self speech), or if they were unsure. The ERP results demonstrated interactive effects of speaker's identity and emotional valence on both early (N1, P2) and late (Late Positive Potential - LPP) processing stages: compared with non-self speech, self-speech with neutral valence elicited more negative N1 amplitude, self-speech with positive valence elicited more positive P2 amplitude, and self-speech with both positive and negative valence elicited more positive LPP. ERP differences between self and non-self speech occurred in spite of similar accuracy in the recognition of both types of stimuli. Together, these findings suggest that emotion and speaker's identity interact during speech processing, in line with observations of partially dependent processing of speech and speaker information. PMID:26894680

  18. Spinning boson stars and Kerr black holes with scalar hair: the effect of self-interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Herdeiro, Carlos A R; Rúnarsson, Helgi F

    2016-01-01

    Self-interacting boson stars have been shown to alleviate the astrophysically low maximal mass of their non-self-interacting counterparts. We report some physical features of spinning self-interacting boson stars, namely their compactness, the occurence of ergo-regions and the scalar field profiles, for a sample of values of the coupling parameter. The results agree with the general picture that these boson stars are comparatively less compact than the non-self-interacting ones. We also briefly discuss the effect of scalar self-interactions on the properties of Kerr black holes with scalar hair.

  19. How evolution tells us to induce allotolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Walter Gottlieb

    2015-04-01

    Modern immunology, in many ways, is based on 3 major paradigms: the clonal selection theory (Medawar, Burnet; 1953/1959), the pattern recognition theory (Janeway; 1989), and the danger/injury theory (Matzinger, Land; 1994). The last theory holds that any cell stress and tissue injury including allograft injury, via induction of damage-associated molecular patterns, induces immunity including alloimmunity leading to allograft rejection. On the other hand, the concept precludes that "non-self " per se induces immunity as proposed by the two former theories. Today, the danger/injury model has been largely accepted by immunologists, as documented by a steadily increasing number of publications. In particular, overwhelming evidence in support of the correctness of the model has come from recent studies on the gut microbiota representing a huge assemblage of "non-self. " Here, harmless noninjurious commensal microbes are protected by innate immunity-based immune tolerance whereas intestinal injury-causing pathogenic microbes are immunology attacked. The ability of the immune system to discriminate between harmless beneficial "non-self " to induce tolerance and harmful life-threatening "non-self " to induce immunity has apparently emerged during evolution: Protection of innate immunity-controlled beneficial "non-self " (eg, as reflected by microbiotas but also by the fetus of placental mammals) as well as immune defense responses to injuring/injured "non-self " (eg, as reflected by plant resistance to biotic and abiotic stress and allograft rejection in mammals) evolved under pressure across the tree of life, that is, in plants, lower and higher invertebrates as well as lower and higher vertebrates. And evolution tells us why the overall existence of protected microbiotas really makes sense: It is the formation of the "holobiont, " - a metaorganism - that is, the host plus all of its associated microorganisms that - in terms of a strong unit of selection in evolution

  20. Communities of endophytic sebacinales associated with roots of herbaceous plants in agricultural and grassland ecosystems are dominated by Serendipita herbamans sp. nov.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Riess

    Full Text Available Endophytic fungi are known to be commonly associated with herbaceous plants, however, there are few studies focusing on their occurrence and distribution in plant roots from ecosystems with different land uses. To explore the phylogenetic diversity and community structure of Sebacinales endophytes from agricultural and grassland habitats under different land uses, we analysed the roots of herbaceous plants using strain isolation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and co-cultivation experiments. A new sebacinoid strain named Serendipita herbamans belonging to Sebacinales group B was isolated from the roots of Bistorta vivipara, which is characterized by colourless monilioid cells (chlamydospores that become yellow with age. This species was very common and widely distributed in association with a broad spectrum of herbaceous plant families in diverse habitats, independent of land use type. Ultrastructurally, the presence of S. herbamans was detected in the cortical cells of Plantago media, Potentilla anserina and Triticum aestivum. In addition, 13 few frequent molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs or species were found across agricultural and grassland habitats, which did not exhibit a distinctive phylogenetic structure. Laboratory-based assays indicate that S. herbamans has the ability to colonize fine roots and stimulate plant growth. Although endophytic Sebacinales are widely distributed across agricultural and grassland habitats, TEM and nested PCR analyses reinforce the observation that these microorganisms are present in low quantity in plant roots, with no evidence of host specificity.

  1. Microsatellites identify depredated waterfowl remains from glaucous gull stomachs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribner, K.T.; Bowman, T.D.

    1998-01-01

    Prey remains can provide valuable sources of information regarding causes of predation and the species composition of a predator's diet. Unfortunately, the highly degraded state of many prey samples from gastrointestinal tracts often precludes unambiguous identification. We describe a procedure by which PCR amplification of taxonomically informative microsatellite loci were used to identify species of waterfowl predated by glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus). We found that one microsatellite locus unambiguously distinguished between species of the subfamily Anserinae (whistling ducks, geese and swans) and those of the subfamily Anatidae (all other ducks). An additional locus distinguished the remains of all geese and swan species known to nest on the Yukon-Kuskokwim delta in western Alaska. The study focused on two waterfowl species which have experienced precipitous declines in population numbers: emperor geese (Chen canagica) and spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri). No evidence of predation on spectacled eiders was observed. Twenty-six percent of all glaucous gull stomachs examined contained the remains of juvenile emperor geese.

  2. Variation in Total Polyphenolics Contents of Aerial Parts of Potentilla Species and Their Anticariogenic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Tomczyk

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aerial parts of selected Potentilla species (P. anserina, P. argentea, P. erecta, P. fruticosa, P. grandiflora, P. nepalensis, P. norvegica, P. pensylvanica, P. crantzii and P. thuringiaca were investigated in order to determine their contents of polyphenolic compounds. The results showed that P. fruticosa has relatively high concentrations of tannins (167.3 ± 2.0 mg/g dw, proanthocyanidins (4.6 ± 0.2 mg/g dw and phenolic acids (16.4 ± 0.8 mg/g dw, as well as flavonoids (7.0 ± 1.1 mg/g dw, calculated as quercetin. Furthermore, we investigated the in vitro inhibitory effects of aqueous extracts from these species against cariogenic Streptococcus spp. strains. It was found that the tested samples moderately inhibit the growth of oral streptococci. However, all the preparations exhibited inhibitory effects on water-insoluble α-(1→3-, α-(1→6-linked glucan (mutan and artificial dental plaque formation. The extract from P. fruticosa showed the highest anti-biofilm activities, with minimum mutan and biofilm inhibition concentrations of 6.25–25 and 50–100 µg/mL, respectively. The results indicate that the studied Potentilla species could be a potential plant material for extracting biologically active compounds, and could become a useful supplement for pharmaceutical products as a new anticariogenic agent in a wide range of oral care products.

  3. Variation in total polyphenolics contents of aerial parts of Potentilla species and their anticariogenic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczyk, Michał; Pleszczyńska, Małgorzata; Wiater, Adrian

    2010-07-01

    The aerial parts of selected Potentilla species (P. anserina, P. argentea, P. erecta, P. fruticosa, P. grandiflora, P. nepalensis, P. norvegica, P. pensylvanica, P. crantzii and P. thuringiaca) were investigated in order to determine their contents of polyphenolic compounds. The results showed that P. fruticosa has relatively high concentrations of tannins (167.3 +/- 2.0 mg/g dw), proanthocyanidins (4.6 +/- 0.2 mg/g dw) and phenolic acids (16.4 +/- 0.8 mg/g dw), as well as flavonoids (7.0 +/- 1.1 mg/g dw), calculated as quercetin. Furthermore, we investigated the in vitro inhibitory effects of aqueous extracts from these species against cariogenic Streptococcus spp. strains. It was found that the tested samples moderately inhibit the growth of oral streptococci. However, all the preparations exhibited inhibitory effects on water-insoluble alpha-(1-->3)-, alpha-(1-->6)-linked glucan (mutan) and artificial dental plaque formation. The extract from P. fruticosa showed the highest anti-biofilm activities, with minimum mutan and biofilm inhibition concentrations of 6.25-25 and 50-100 microg/mL, respectively. The results indicate that the studied Potentilla species could be a potential plant material for extracting biologically active compounds, and could become a useful supplement for pharmaceutical products as a new anticariogenic agent in a wide range of oral care products. PMID:20657382

  4. Targeting tumor antigens to secreted membrane vesicles in vivo induces efficient antitumor immune responses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeelenberg, I.S.; Ostrowski, M.; Krumeich, S.; Bobrie, A.; Jancic, C.; Boissonnas, A.; Delcayre, A.; Pecq, JB Le; Combadiere, B.; Amigorena, S.; Thery, C.

    2008-01-01

    Expression of non-self antigens by tumors can induce activation of T cells in vivo, although this activation can lead to either immunity or tolerance. CD8+ T-cell activation can be direct (if the tumor expresses MHC class I molecules) or indirect (after the capture and cross-presentation of tumor an

  5. Estimates of Tax-Deferred Retirement Savings Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Julie H. Collins; Wyckoff, James H.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the tax-favored retirement savings behavior on non-self-employed households. Estimates that perceptions of the household's marginal tax are of limited importance in the decision to invest in tax-deferred savings instruments. Considers the effects the Tax Reform Act of 1986 has on the purchase of tax-favored retirement savings instruments.

  6. Self-Determination as a Moderator of Demands and Control: Implications for Employee Strain and Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Stacey L.; Jimmieson, Nerina L.; Amiot, Catherine E.

    2010-01-01

    Does job control act as a stress-buffer when employees' type and level of work self-determination is taken into account? It was anticipated that job control would only be stress-buffering for employees high in self-determined and low in non-self-determined work motivation. In contrast, job control would be stress-exacerbating for employees who…

  7. Implementation of the project for the construction and operation of a nuclear heat and power plant on the basis of a floating power unit with KLT-40C reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of research and development on floating nuclear power plant (FNPP) for electricity and heat production for remote locations and small island or coastal communities. Evaluations of construction period, social and economic factors as well as safety and operational issues of the non-self-propelled barge-mounted NPP is given. (author)

  8. Analytical solution for the advection-dispersion transport equation in layered media

    Science.gov (United States)

    The advection-dispersion transport equation with first-order decay was solved analytically for multi-layered media using the classic integral transform technique (CITT). The solution procedure used an associated non-self-adjoint advection-diffusion eigenvalue problem that had the same form and coef...

  9. Relative contribution of "determinant selection" and "holes in the T-cell repertoire" to T-cell responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, E B; Sette, A; Johnson, D L; Bekoff, M C; Smith, J A; Grey, H M; Buus, S

    1989-01-01

    for a large universe of antigens. On the other hand, since the Ia molecules cannot distinguish between self and non-self, not all antigen-Ia interactions would be permitted to elicit a T-cell response. It appears that both Ia binding ("determinant selection") and T-cell repertoire act in concert to...

  10. Confined Quantum Time of Arrivals

    CERN Document Server

    Galapon, E A; Galapon, Eric A.; Bahague, Ricardo T.

    2003-01-01

    We show that the non-self-adjoint free time of arrival operator in free space defines a class of compact, self-adjoint, and canonical operators for a spatially confined particle. We analytically and numerically study the qualitative behaviors of these operators, and demonstrate that their eigenfunctions and eigenvalues are consistent with the interpretation that they are time of arrival operators.

  11. Pseudospectra of semi-classical (pseudo)differential operators

    OpenAIRE

    Dencker, Nils; Sjoestrand, Johannes; Zworski, Maciej

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this note is to show how some results from the theory of partial differential equations apply to the study of pseudo-spectra of non-self-adjoint operators, which is a topic of current interest in applied mathematics.

  12. Predicting proteasomal cleavage sites: a comparison of available methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxova, P.; Buus, S.; Brunak, Søren;

    2003-01-01

    The proteasome plays an essential role in the immune responses of vertebrates. By degrading intercellular proteins from self and non-self, the proteasome produces the majority of the peptides that are presented to cytotoxic T cells (CTL). There is accumulating evidence that the C-terminal, in par...

  13. Position-dependent mass quantum Hamiltonians: general approach and duality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyze a general family of position-dependent mass (PDM) quantum Hamiltonians which are not self-adjoint and include, as particular cases, some Hamiltonians obtained in phenomenological approaches to condensed matter physics. We build a general family of self-adjoint Hamiltonians which are quantum mechanically equivalent to the non-self-adjoint proposed ones. Inspired by the probability density of the problem, we construct an ansatz for the solutions of the family of self-adjoint Hamiltonians. We use this ansatz to map the solutions of the time independent Schrödinger equations generated by the non-self-adjoint Hamiltonians into the Hilbert space of the solutions of the respective dual self-adjoint Hamiltonians. This mapping depends on both the PDM and on a function of position satisfying a condition that assures the existence of a consistent continuity equation. We identify the non-self-adjoint Hamiltonians here studied with a very general family of Hamiltonians proposed in a seminal article of Harrison (1961 Phys. Rev. 123 85) to describe varying band structures in different types of metals. Therefore, we have self-adjoint Hamiltonians that correspond to the non-self-adjoint ones found in Harrison’s article. (paper)

  14. 46 CFR 153.216 - Shower and eyewash fountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Vessel Requirements § 153.216 Shower and eyewash fountains. (a) Each non-self-propelled ship must have a fixed or portable shower and eyewash fountain that operates during cargo transfer and meets paragraph (c... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shower and eyewash fountains. 153.216 Section...

  15. HLA-DR4, DR13(6) and the ancestral haplotype A1B8DR3 are associated with ANCA-associated vasculitis and Wegeners granulomatosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stassen, Patricia M.; Cohen-Tervaert, Jan W.; Lems, Simon P. M.; Hepkema, Bouke G.; Kallenberg, Cees G. M.; Stegeman, Coen A.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. As the HLA system is involved in recognition of self and non-self, an association with the development of ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) seems probable. In this study, the relation between HLA antigens and AAV and its severity were investigated. Methods. Consecutive patients diagnosed

  16. YOUNG ATHLETES' MOTIVATIONAL PROFILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Moreno Murcia

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between motivational characteristics and dispositional flow. In order to accomplish this goal, motivational profiles emerging from key constructs within Achievement Goal Theory and Self-Determination Theory were related to the dispositional flow measures. A sample of 413 young athletes (Age range 12 to 16 years completed the PMCSQ-2, POSQ, SMS and DFS measures. Cluster analysis results revealed three profiles: a "self-determined profile" characterised by higher scores on the task-involving climate perception and on the task orientation; a "non-self-determined profile", characterised by higher scores on ego-involving climate perception and ego orientation; and a "low self-determined and low non-self-determined profile" which had the lowest dispositional flow. No meaningful differences were found between the "self-determined profile" and the "non-self-determined profile" in dispositional flow. The "self-determined profile" was more commonly associated with females, athletes practising individual sports and those training more than three days a week. The "non-self-determined profile" was more customary of males and athletes practising team sports as well as those training just two or three days a week

  17. Self-Injurious Behavior and Suicide Attempts among Indonesian College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresno, Fiona; Ito, Yoshimi; Mearns, Jack

    2012-01-01

    This study reports the prevalence of self-injurious behavior and suicide attempts among college students in Indonesia and examines risk factors distinguishing between 3 groups: self-injury with suicide attempt, non-suicidal self-injury, and non-self-injury. Self-report questionnaires measuring self-injury and suicide attempts, negative mood…

  18. The stability of cosmic string loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general perturbation analysis is performed on closed string loops to investigate whether small perturbations cause the known class of non-self-intersecting loops to self-intersect. This leads to the conclusion that most of this class of loops are stable to small perturbations. (orig.)

  19. Root System of Singular Perturbations of the Harmonic Oscillator Type Operators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mityagin, B.; Siegl, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 2 (2016), s. 147-167. ISSN 0377-9017 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : non-self-adjoint operators * harmonic oscillator * Riesz basis * quadratic forms * singular petentials Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.939, year: 2014

  20. Eigenvalue asymptotics for Dirac-Bessel operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hryniv, Rostyslav O.; Mykytyuk, Yaroslav V.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we establish the eigenvalue asymptotics for non-self-adjoint Dirac-Bessel operators on (0, 1) with arbitrary real angular momenta and square integrable potentials, which gives the first step for solution of the related inverse problem. The approach is based on a careful examination of the corresponding characteristic functions and their zero distribution.

  1. The Scare Tactic: Do Fear Appeals Predict Motivation and Exam Scores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putwain, David; Remedios, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Prior to high-stakes exams, teachers use persuasive messages that highlight to students the possible consequences of failure. Such messages are known as fear appeals. This study examined whether fear appeals relate to self- and non-self-determined motivation and academic performance. Data were collected in 3 waves. Self-report data pertaining to…

  2. On the Finite Volume Element Method for Self-Adjoint Parabolic Integrodifferential Equations

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Bahaj; Anas Rachid

    2013-01-01

    Finite volume element schemes for non-self-adjoint parabolic integrodifferential equations are derived and stated. For the spatially discrete scheme, optimal-order error estimates in , , and , norms for are obtained. In this paper, we also study the lumped mass modification. Based on the Crank-Nicolson method, a time discretization scheme is discussed and related error estimates are derived.

  3. Bistability and hysteresis of the 'Secteur' differentiation are controlled by a two-gene locus in Nectria haematococca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daboussi Marie-Josée

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bistability and hysteresis are increasingly recognized as major properties of regulatory networks governing numerous biological phenomena, such as differentiation and cell cycle progression. The full scope of the underlying molecular mechanisms leading to bistability and hysteresis remains elusive. Nectria haemaotcocca, a saprophytic or pathogenic fungus with sexual reproduction, exhibits a bistable morphological modification characterized by a reduced growth rate and an intense pigmentation. Bistability is triggered by the presence or absence of σ, a cytoplasmic determinant. This determinant spreads in an infectious manner in the hyphae of the growing margin, insuring hysteresis of the differentiation. Results Seven mutants specifically affected in the generation of σ were selected through two different screening strategies. The s1 and s2 mutations completely abolish the generation of σ and of its morphological expression, the Secteur. The remaining five mutations promote its constitutive generation, which determines an intense pigmentation but not growth alteration. The seven mutations map at the same locus, Ses (for 'Secteur-specific'. The s2 mutant was obtained by an insertional mutagenesis strategy, which permitted the cloning of the Ses locus. Sequence and transcription analysis reveals that Ses is composed of two closely linked genes, SesA, mutated in the s1 and s2 mutant strains, and SesB, mutated in the s* mutant strains. SesB shares sequence similarity with animal and fungal putative proteins, with potential esterase/lipase/thioesterase activity, whereas SesA is similar to proteins of unknown function present only in the filamentous fungi Fusarium graminearum and Podospora anserina. Conclusions The cloning of Ses provides evidence that a system encoded by two linked genes directs a bistable and hysteretic switch in a eukaryote. Atypical regulatory relations between the two proteins may account for the hysteresis

  4. Comparison of fungal carbohydrate esterases of family CE16 on artificial and natural substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchart, Vladimír; Agger, Jane W; Berrin, Jean-Guy; Várnai, Anikó; Westereng, Bjørge; Biely, Peter

    2016-09-10

    The enzymatic conversion of acetylated hardwood glucuronoxylan to functional food oligomers, biochemicals or fermentable monomers requires besides glycoside hydrolases enzymes liberating acetic acid esterifying position 2 and/or 3 in xylopyranosyl (Xylp) residues. The 3-O-acetyl group at internal Xylp residues substituted by MeGlcA is the only acetyl group of hardwood acetylglucuronoxylan and its fragments not attacked by acetylxylan esterases of carbohydrate esterase (CE) families 1, 4, 5 and 6 and by hemicellulolytic acetyl esterases classified in CE family 16. Monoacetylated aldotetraouronic acid 3″-Ac(3)MeGlcA(3)Xyl3, generated from the polysaccharide by GH10 endoxylanases, appears to be one of the most resistant fragments. The presence of the two substituents on the non-reducing-end Xylp residue prevents liberation of MeGlcA by α-glucuronidase of family GH67 and blocks the action of acetylxylan esterases. The Ac(3)MeGlcA(3)Xyl3 was isolated from an enzymatic hydrolysate of birchwood acetylglucuronoxylan and characterized by (1)H NMR spectroscopy as a mixture of two positional isomers, 3″-Ac(3)MeGlcA(3)Xyl3 and 4″-Ac(3)MeGlcA(3)Xyl3, the latter being the result of acetyl group migration. The mixture was used as a substrate for three members of CE16 family of fungal origin. Trichoderma reesei CE16 esterase, inactive on polymeric substrate, deacetylated both isomers. Podospora anserina and Aspergillus niger esterases, active on acetylglucuronoxylan, deesterified effectively only the 4″-isomer. The results indicate catalytic diversity among CE16 enzymes, but also their common and unifying catalytic ability to exo-deacetylate positions 3 and 4 on non-reducing-end Xylp residues, which is an important step in plant hemicellulose saccharification. PMID:27439201

  5. Nematocera (Ceratopogonidae, Psychodidae, Simuliidae and Culicidae) and control methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braverman, Y

    1994-12-01

    The biology, veterinary importance and control of certain Nematocera are described and discussed. Culicoides spp. (family Ceratopogonidae) transmit the arboviruses of bluetongue (BT), African horse sickness (AHS), bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) and Akabane. Some other arboviruses have been isolated from these species, while fowl pox has been transmitted experimentally by Culicoides. These insects are vectors of the parasitic protozoans Leucocytozoon caulleryi and Haemoproteus nettionis, and the parasitic nematodes Onchocerca gutturosa, O. gibsoni and O. cervicalis. They also cause recurrent summer hypersensitivity in horses, ponies, donkeys, cattle and sheep. Farm animals can die as a result of mass attack by Simulium spp., which are also vectors of Leucocytozoon simondi, L. smithi and the filariae O. gutturosa, O. linealis and O. ochengi. Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE) and Rift Valley fever (RVF) have been isolated from simuliids, and vesicular stomatitis virus New Jersey strain has been replicated in Simulium vittatum. Simuliids are well known as vectors of O. volvulus, the cause of human onchocercosis (river blindness). The family Psychodidae includes the genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia (subfamily Phlebotominae), vectors of Leishmania spp. in humans, dogs and other mammals. Vesicular stomatitis virus Indiana strain has been regularly isolated from phlebotomine sandflies. Mass attack by mosquitoes can also prove fatal to farm animals. Mosquitoes are vectors of the viruses of Akabane, BEF, RVF, Japanese encephalitis, VEE, western equine encephalomyelitis, eastern equine encephalomyelitis and west Nile meningoencephalitis, secondary vectors of AHS and suspected vectors of Israel turkey meningoencephalitis. The viruses of hog cholera, fowl pox and reticuloendotheliosis, the rickettsiae Eperythrozoon ovis and E. suis, and the bacterium Borrelia anserina are mechanically transmitted by mosquitoes. These insects also induce allergic dermatitis in horses. They

  6. Signal Transduction by a Fungal NOD-Like Receptor Based on Propagation of a Prion Amyloid Fold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskalov, Asen; Habenstein, Birgit; Martinez, Denis; Debets, Alfons J. M.; Sabaté, Raimon; Loquet, Antoine; Saupe, Sven J.

    2015-01-01

    In the fungus Podospora anserina, the [Het-s] prion induces programmed cell death by activating the HET-S pore-forming protein. The HET-s β-solenoid prion fold serves as a template for converting the HET-S prion-forming domain into the same fold. This conversion, in turn, activates the HET-S pore-forming domain. The gene immediately adjacent to het-S encodes NWD2, a Nod-like receptor (NLR) with an N-terminal motif similar to the elementary repeat unit of the β-solenoid fold. NLRs are immune receptors controlling cell death and host defense processes in animals, plants and fungi. We have proposed that, analogously to [Het-s], NWD2 can activate the HET-S pore-forming protein by converting its prion-forming region into the β-solenoid fold. Here, we analyze the ability of NWD2 to induce formation of the β-solenoid prion fold. We show that artificial NWD2 variants induce formation of the [Het-s] prion, specifically in presence of their cognate ligands. The N-terminal motif is responsible for this prion induction, and mutations predicted to affect the β-solenoid fold abolish templating activity. In vitro, the N-terminal motif assembles into infectious prion amyloids that display a structure resembling the β-solenoid fold. In vivo, the assembled form of the NWD2 N-terminal region activates the HET-S pore-forming protein. This study documenting the role of the β-solenoid fold in fungal NLR function further highlights the general importance of amyloid and prion-like signaling in immunity-related cell fate pathways. PMID:25671553

  7. An altitudinal cline in UV floral pattern corresponds with a behavioral change of a generalist pollinator assemblage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koski, Matthew H; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

    2015-12-01

    Spatial variation in pollinator communities or behaviors can underlie floral diversification. Floral traits in the UV spectrum are common and mediate plant-pollinator interactions, but the role of pollinators in driving or maintaining their geographic variation has not been fully explored. We identify an altitudinal cline of increasing relative size of the UV bullseye pattern in Argentina anserina (Rosaceae) flowers, and assess whether pollination context contributes to clinal variation. At four sites that varied in altitude, we document the pollinator assemblage, and pollinator preference and visitation behavior. We then determine how pollinator visits affected pollen receipt and export. Finally, we describe how the functional relationship between UV floral phenotype and pollen receipt changed with altitude. Floral UV bullseye size increased with altitude, which corresponded with a change from a hymenopteran- to a dipteran-dominated pollinator assemblage. While dipteran and hymenopteran preferences for bullseye size were similar, flowers with large bullseyes received more foraging visits than those with small bullseyes at higher altitude. The reverse was observed at the lower altitudes; pollinators approached large-bullseye flowers often but rarely foraged. These differences are expected to affect fitness because foraging visits increased pollen export and receipt. Indeed, when natural variation in bullseye size was considered, it had a stronger effect on pollen receipt than other traits (flower size, display, or color). Plants with larger bullseyes tended to receive more pollen at the highest-altitude site, while those with smaller ones received more pollen at the lowest-altitude site. Results suggest that altitudinal changes in preference and behavior of the overall pollinator assemblage, but not differential preferences of pollinator taxonomic groups, could contribute to clinal variation in a UV floral trait for a generalist-pollinated plant. PMID:26909439

  8. MHC Class Ⅰ Antigen Presentation- Recently Trimmed and Well Presented

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Barry Flutter; Bin Gao

    2004-01-01

    Presentation of antigenic peptide to T cells by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class Ⅰ molecules is the key to the cellular immune response. Non-self intracellular proteins are processed into short peptides and transported into endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where they are assembled with class Ⅰ molecules assisted by several chaperone proteins to form trimeric complex. MHC class Ⅰ complex loaded with optimised peptides travels to the cell surface of antigen presentation cells to be recognised by T cells. The cells presenting non-self peptides are cleared by CD8 positive T cells. In order to ensure that T cells detect an infection or mutation within the target cells the process of peptide loading and class Ⅰ expression must be carefully regulated. Many of the cellular components involved in antigen processing and class Ⅰ presentation are known and their various functions are now becoming clearer. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2004;1(1):22-30.

  9. MHC Class I Antigen Presentation- Recently Trimmed and Well Presented

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BarryFlutter; BinGao

    2004-01-01

    Presentation of antigenic peptide to T cells by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules is the key to the cellular immune response. Non-self intracellular proteins are processed into short peptides and transported into endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where they are assembled with class I molecules assisted by several chaperone proteins to form trimeric complex. MHC class I complex loaded with optimised peptides travels to the cell surface of antigen presentation cells to be recognised by T cells. The cells presenting non-self peptides are cleared by CD8 positive T cells. In order to ensure that T cells detect an infection or mutation within the target cells the process of peptide loading and class I expression must be carefully regulated. Many of the cellular components involved in antigen processing and class I presentation are known and their various functions are now becoming clearer. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2004;1(1):22-30.

  10. Yang-Mills fields which are not self-dual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to prove the existence of a new family of non-self-dual finite-energy solutions to the Yang-Mills equations on Euclidean four-space, with SU(2) as a gauge group. The approach is that of 'equivariant geometry': Attention is restricted to a special class of fields, those that satisfy a certain kind of rotational symmetry, for which it is proved that (1) a solution to the Yang-Mills equations exists among them; and (2) no solution to the self-duality equations exists among them. The first assertion is proved by an application of the direct method of the calculus of variations (existence and regularity of minimizers), and the second assertion by studying the symmetry properties of the linearized-self-duality equations. The same technique yields a new family of non-self-dual solutions on the complex projective plane. (orig.)

  11. Trimming self-intersections in swept volume solid modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-qi XU; Xiu-zi YE; Zhi-yang CHEN; Yin ZHANG; San-yuan ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    Swept volume solid modeling has been applied to many areas such as NC machining simulation and verification, robot workspace analysis, collision detection, and CAD. But self-intersections continue to be a challenging problem in the boundary representation of swept volume solids. A novel algorithm is presented in this paper to trim self-intersection regions in swept volume solids modeling. This trimming algorithm consists of two major steps: (1) roughly detecting self-intersection regions by checking intersections or overlapping of the envelop profiles; (2) splitting the whole envelop surfaces of the swept volume solid into separate non-self-intersecting patches to trim global self-intersections, and to trim local self-intersections, dividing local self-intersecting regions into patches and replacing self-intersecting patches with non-self-intersecting ones. Examples show that our algorithm is efficient and robust.

  12. Breakdown of self-similar evolution in homogeneous perfect fluid collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stability analysis of self-similar solutions is an important approach to confirm whether they act as an attractor in general non-self-similar gravitational collapse. Assuming that the collapsing matter is a perfect fluid with the equation of state P=αρ, we study spherically symmetric non-self-similar perturbations in homogeneous self-similar collapse described by the flat Friedmann solution. In the low pressure approximation α<<1, we analytically derive an infinite set of the normal modes and their growth (or decay) rate. The existence of one unstable normal mode is found to conclude that the self-similar behavior in homogeneous collapse of a sufficiently low pressure perfect fluid must terminate and a certain inhomogeneous density profile can develop with the lapse of time

  13. Dirichlet-to-Neumann maps, abstract Weyl-Titchmarsh M-functions, and a generalized index of unbounded meromorphic operator-valued functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrndt, Jussi; Gesztesy, Fritz; Holden, Helge; Nichols, Roger

    2016-09-01

    We introduce a generalized index for certain meromorphic, unbounded, operator-valued functions. The class of functions is chosen such that energy parameter dependent Dirichlet-to-Neumann maps associated to uniformly elliptic partial differential operators, particularly, non-self-adjoint Schrödinger operators, on bounded Lipschitz domains, and abstract operator-valued Weyl-Titchmarsh M-functions and Donoghue-type M-functions corresponding to closed extensions of symmetric operators belong to it. The principal purpose of this paper is to prove index formulas that relate the difference of the algebraic multiplicities of the discrete eigenvalues of Robin realizations of non-self-adjoint Schrödinger operators, and more abstract pairs of closed operators in Hilbert spaces with the generalized index of the corresponding energy dependent Dirichlet-to-Neumann maps and abstract Weyl-Titchmarsh M-functions, respectively.

  14. Linkage of mating-type loci distinguishes bipolar from tetrapolar mating in basidiomycetous smut fungi.

    OpenAIRE

    Bakkeren, G; Kronstad, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    Sexual compatibility requires self vs. non-self recognition. Genetically, two compatibility or mating-type systems govern recognition in heterothallic basidiomycete fungi such as the edible and woodrotting mushrooms and the economically important rust and smut phytopathogens. A bipolar system is defined by a single genetic locus (MAT) that can have two or multiple alleles. A tetrapolar system has two loci, each with two or more specificities. We have employed two species from the genus Ustila...

  15. Kernel-based interior-point methods for monotone linear complementarity problems over symmetric cones

    OpenAIRE

    Lesaja, G.; Roos, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present an interior-point method for monotone linear complementarity problems over symmetric cones (SCLCP) that is based on barrier functions which are defined by a large class of univariate functions, called eligible kernel functions. This class is fairly general and includes the classical logarithmic function, the self-regular functions, as well as many non-self-regular functions as special cases. We provide a unified analysis of the method and give a general scheme on how to calculate t...

  16. Von Neumann redux: revisiting the self-referential logic of machine reproduction using the Avida world

    OpenAIRE

    McMullin, Barry; Hasegawa, Tomonori

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the distinctive, self-referential, logic of self-reproduction originally formulated by John von Neumann and present some initial results from a novel implementation of this abstract architecture, embedded within the Avida world. These show that, with this particular implementation, in this particular world, the von Neumann architecture proves to be evolutionarily unstable and degenerates, surprisingly easily, to a primitive, non-self-referential, “copying” or “template replicati...

  17. The basis spline method and associated techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We outline the Basis Spline and Collocation methods for the solution of Partial Differential Equations. Particular attention is paid to the theory of errors, and the handling of non-self-adjoint problems which are generated by the collocation method. We discuss applications to Poisson's equation, the Dirac equation, and the calculation of bound and continuum states of atomic and nuclear systems. 12 refs., 6 figs

  18. Defensive function of persecutory delusion and discrepancy between explicit and implicit self-esteem in schizophrenia: study using the Brief Implicit Association Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Mitsuo; Hayakawa, Tomomi; Okamura, Aiko; Kohigashi, Mutsumi; Fukui, Kenji; Narumoto, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Background If delusions serve as a defense mechanism in schizophrenia patients with paranoia, then they should show normal or high explicit self-esteem and low implicit self-esteem. However, the results of previous studies are inconsistent. One possible explanation for this inconsistency is that there are two types of paranoia, “bad me” (self-blaming) paranoia and “poor me” (non-self-blaming) paranoia. We thus examined implicit and explicit self-esteem and self-blaming tendency in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. We hypothesized that patients with paranoia would show lower implicit self-esteem and only those with non-self-blaming paranoia would experience a discrepancy between explicit and implicit self-esteem. Methods Participants consisted of patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder recruited from a day hospital (N=71). Participants were assessed for psychotic symptoms, using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), and self-blaming tendency, using the brief COPE. We also assessed explicit self-esteem, using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), implicit self-esteem, using Brief Implicit Association Test (BIAT), and discrepancy between explicit and implicit self-esteem. Results Contrary to our hypothesis, implicit self-esteem in paranoia and nonparanoia showed no statistical difference. As expected, only patients with non-self-blaming paranoia experienced a discrepancy between explicit and implicit self-esteem; other groups showed no such discrepancy. Conclusion These results suggest that persecutory delusion plays a defensive role in non-self-blaming paranoia. PMID:25565849

  19. Wilson loop for large N Yang-Mills theory on a two-dimensional sphere

    OpenAIRE

    Daul, Jean-Marc; Kazakov, Vladimir A.

    1993-01-01

    We calculate various Wilson loop averages in a pure $SU(N)$-gauge theory on a two-dimensional sphere, in the large $N$ limit. The results can be expressed through the density of rows in the most probable Young tableau. They are valid in both phases (small and large areas of the sphere). All averages for self-intersecting loops can be reproduced from the average for a simple (non self-intersecting) loop by means of loop equations.

  20. Vascular Endothelium as a Target of Immune Response in Renal Transplant Rejection

    OpenAIRE

    Piotti, Giovanni; Palmisano, Alessandra; Maggiore, Umberto; Buzio, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    This review of clinical and experimental studies aims at analyzing the interplay between graft endothelium and host immune system in renal transplantation, and how it affects the survival of the graft. Graft endothelium is indeed the first barrier between self and non-self that is encountered by host lymphocytes upon reperfusion of vascularized solid transplants. Endothelial cells (EC) express all the major sets of antigens (Ag) that elicit host immune response, and therefore represent a pref...

  1. Instability results for the damped wave equation in unbounded domains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Freitas, Pedro; Krejčiřík, David

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 211, č. 1 (2005), s. 168-186. ISSN 0022-0396 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK1010104 Grant ostatní: European Science Foundation(XE) SPECT Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : wave equation * indefinite damping * non-self-adjoint generator Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.937, year: 2005

  2. Defensive function of persecutory delusion and discrepancy between explicit and implicit self-esteem in schizophrenia: study using the Brief Implicit Association Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura M

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mitsuo Nakamura,1 Tomomi Hayakawa,2 Aiko Okamura,3 Mutsumi Kohigashi,4 Kenji Fukui,1 Jin Narumoto1 1Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan; 2Gojouyama Hospital, Nara, Japan; 3Yashio Hospital, Saitama, Japan; 4Department of Psychiatry, Kyoto Second Red Cross Hospital, Kyoto, Japan Background: If delusions serve as a defense mechanism in schizophrenia patients with paranoia, then they should show normal or high explicit self-esteem and low implicit self-esteem. However, the results of previous studies are inconsistent. One possible explanation for this inconsistency is that there are two types of paranoia, “bad me” (self-blaming paranoia and “poor me” (non-self-blaming paranoia. We thus examined implicit and explicit self-esteem and self-blaming tendency in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. We hypothesized that patients with paranoia would show lower implicit self-esteem and only those with non-self-blaming paranoia would experience a discrepancy between explicit and implicit self-esteem. Methods: Participants consisted of patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder recruited from a day hospital (N=71. Participants were assessed for psychotic symptoms, using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS, and self-blaming tendency, using the brief COPE. We also assessed explicit self-esteem, using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES, implicit self-esteem, using Brief Implicit Association Test (BIAT, and discrepancy between explicit and implicit self-esteem. Results: Contrary to our hypothesis, implicit self-esteem in paranoia and nonparanoia showed no statistical difference. As expected, only patients with non-self-blaming paranoia experienced a discrepancy between explicit and implicit self-esteem; other groups showed no such discrepancy. Conclusion: These results suggest that persecutory delusion plays a defensive role in non-self

  3. Status Hukum Internasional dalam Sistem Hukum di Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Wisnu Aryo Dewanto

    2012-01-01

    A rule of international law is regarded as non-self-executing in the Indonesian legal system. It means the international legal norm does not have legal binding force in the domestic courts of Indonesia without an implementing legislation. Indonesia is a dualist country vis-à-vis the relation of international law and national law. In regard with the implementation of rules of international law into the Indonesian courts, Indonesia follows the transformation theory where the rules of internatio...

  4. Cutting words: Priming self-objectification increases the intention to pursue cosmetic surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Calogero, Rachel M.; Pina, Afroditi; Sutton, Robbie M.

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether subtle exposure to sexually objectifying cues increases women’s intentions to have cosmetic surgery. Undergraduate women (N = 116) were randomly assigned to a condition in which they unscrambled sentences containing words associated with sexual objectification, non-self-objectifying physicality, or neutral content. Following a manipulation check of these primes, participants reported their body shame and intentions to have cosmetic surgery in the future. Results revealed t...

  5. Ask Your Doctor or Pharmacist! On the Effect of Self-Dispensing Physicians on Pharmaceutical Coverage

    OpenAIRE

    Bannert, Matthias; Iselin, David

    2015-01-01

    In most developed countries drugs are dispensed to patients through physicians and pharmacists. This paper studies the effects of allowing doctors to directly dispense drugs to patients (self-dispensation) on pharmaceutical coverage. We use a Swiss dataset in our empirical analysis because Switzerland's federalist legislation allows us to study self-dispensing and non-self-dispensing regimes alike. We add location information obtained from Google Geocoding services to our dataset in order to ...

  6. Auditory verbal hallucinations as atypical inner speech monitoring, and the potential of neurostimulation as a treatment option.

    OpenAIRE

    Moseley, P.; Fernyhough, C.; Ellison, A.

    2013-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) are the experience of hearing voices in the absence of any speaker, often associated with a schizophrenia diagnosis. Prominent cognitive models of AVHs suggest they may be the result of inner speech being misattributed to an external or non-self source, due to atypical self- or reality monitoring. These arguments are supported by studies showing that people experiencing AVHs often show an externalising bias during monitoring tasks, and neuroimaging eviden...

  7. Characterisation of Some Immune Genes in the Black Tiger Shrimp, Penaeus monodon

    OpenAIRE

    Sritunyalucksana, Kallaya

    2001-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms of the immune system in shrimp, Penaeus monodon, are completely unknown, despite its economic importance as an aquaculture species, especially in Asia and Latin America. The genes and their gene products involved in the prophenoloxidase activating system, which is considered to be a non-self recognition and defence system in many invertebrates, have been isolated and characterised in shrimp. These include a zymogen of this cascade, prophenoloxidase (proPO); a cell adh...

  8. Identification of tetracycline-resistant R-plasmids in Streptococcus agalactiae (group B).

    OpenAIRE

    Burdett, V

    1980-01-01

    In this report, 30 tetracycline-resistant clinical isolates of group B Streptococcus were examined to assess the extent to which tetracycline resistance is plasmid mediated. Of these, 27 showed no physical or genetic evidence of plasmid-mediated resistance; however, one conjugative and two small (3.5 X 10(6)-dalton) multicopy non-self-transmissible tetracycline resistance plasmids were identified. The conjugative plasmid was transmissible to Streptococcus faecalis as well as to Streptococcus ...

  9. Warping and tearing of misaligned circumbinary disks around eccentric SMBH binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Hayasaki, Kimitake; Sohn, Bong Won; Okazaki, Atsuo T.; Jung, TaeHyun; Zhao, Guangyao; Naito, Tsuguya

    2015-01-01

    We study the warping and tearing of a geometrically thin, non-self-gravitating disk surrounding binary supermassive black holes on an eccentric orbit. The circumbinary disk is significantly misaligned with the binary orbital plane, and is subject to the time-dependent tidal torques. In principle, such a disk is warped and precesses, and is torn into mutually misaligned rings in the region, where the tidal precession torques are stronger than the local viscous torques. We derive the tidal-warp...

  10. Small sized reactor for laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Substantiation of the possibility of the creation of an autonomous nuclear power plant generating laser radiation is given in this paper. The work of the power plant is based on the use of the small sized reactor, generating electric energy, with non-self maintained discharge lasers built-in reactor core or reflector, having high flux density of a thermal neutron ΦTh≥1,0.1013 cm-2.s-1 in the channels, where the lasers are located. A thermionic fast reactor-converter with beryllium reflector of the space nuclear-energetic installation was chosen for consideration by us, because the neutron radiation and electric energy necessary for operating of nonself maintained discharge lasers should be produced in one nuclear reactor. To prove the possibility of operation of the non-self maintained discharge lasers in the reactor and estimate parameters of the laser systems in the reactor, we used the results of experimental and computing researches of the neutron characteristics of non-self maintained discharge lasers built-in the beryllium reflector. These experiments were carried out by us on the critical assembly PhS-1, simulating that thermionic fast reactor-converter. Moreover, we used the research results of the in-reactor diagnostics of the nuclear-excited plasma of the laser gas mixtures, data of experimental characteristics of non-self maintained discharge, threshold and output data of lasers of different waves lengths, carried out by us earlier on the Kazakhstan Research Nuclear Reactor WWR-K. Thus the possibility of achieving an autonomous, compact nuclear power plant generating not only electrical energy, but also laser radiation concerning the large capacities of infra-red and ultra-violet range of waves lengths in stationary and pulse modes is shown. (author)

  11. The Phase Diagram of Crystalline Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostopoulos, K.; Bowick, M. J.; Catterall, S. M.; Falcioni, M.; Thorleifsson, G.

    1996-03-01

    We report the status of a high-statistics Monte Carlo simulation of non-self-avoiding crystalline surfaces with extrinsic curvature on lattices of size up to 128 2 nodes. We impose free boundary conditions. The free energy is a gaussian spring tethering potential together with a normal-normal bending energy. Particular emphasis is given to the behavior of the model in the cold phase where we measure the decay of the normal-normal correlation function.

  12. Third minima in thorium and uranium isotopes in a self-consistent theory

    OpenAIRE

    McDonnell, J. D.; Nazarewicz, W.; Sheikh, J. A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Deep third minima have been predicted in some non-self-consistent models to impact fission pathways of thorium and uranium isotopes. These predictions have guided the interpretation of resonances seen experimentally. On the other hand, self-consistent calculations consistently predict very shallow potential-energy surfaces in the third minimum region. Purpose: We investigate the interpretation of third-minimum configurations in terms of dimolecular states. We study the isentropic ...

  13. A critical role for regulatory T cell–mediated control of inflammation in the absence of commensal microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Chinen, Takatoshi; Volchkov, Pavel Y.; Chervonsky, Alexander V.; Rudensky, Alexander Y.

    2010-01-01

    Suppression mediated by regulatory T cells (T reg cells) represents a unique, cell-extrinsic mechanism of in-trans negative regulation that restrains multiple types of immune cells. The loss of T reg cells leads to fatal, highly aggressive, and widespread immune-mediated lesions. This severe autoimmunity may be driven by commensal microbiota, the largest source of non-self ligands activating the innate and adaptive immune systems. Alternatively, T reg cells may primarily restrain T cells with...

  14. Theoretical tools for atom-laser-beam propagation

    OpenAIRE

    Riou, Jean-Félix; Le Coq, Yann; Impens, François; Guerin, William; Bordé, Christian,; Aspect, Alain; Bouyer, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    We present a theoretical model for the propagation of non self-interacting atom laser beams. We start from a general propagation integral equation, and we use the same approximations as in photon optics to derive tools to calculate the atom laser beam propagation. We discuss the approximations that allow to reduce the general equation whether to a Fresnel-Kirchhoff integral calculated by using the stationary phase method, or to the eikonal. Within the paraxial approximation, we also introduce...

  15. The production of string loops in an expanding universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of closed loops of string in an expanding universe, and how these might later seed the process of galaxy formation is discussed. It is shown how the motion of string is damped on scales larger than the horizon, and is free beneath the horizon. In particular when two waves meet beneath the horizon it is shown how non-self-intersecting loops are produced. It is speculated that each loop leads to the formation of a single galaxy. (orig.)

  16. The Pauli equation with complex boundary conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Kochan, D; Novak, R; Siegl, P

    2012-01-01

    We consider one-dimensional Pauli Hamiltonians in a bounded interval with possibly non-self-adjoint Robin-type boundary conditions. We study the influence of the spin-magnetic interaction on the interplay between the type of boundary conditions and the spectrum. A special attention is paid to PT-symmetric boundary conditions with the physical choice of the time-reversal operator T.

  17. Gene transfer approaches in cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larin, S S; Georgiev, G P; Kiselev, S L

    2004-10-01

    The idea of enhancing or establishing effective immune response against endogenously developed tumor cells is not novel. More than a hundred years ago, bacterial components were used to develop antitumor immune response. Later, when a number of immune system-effecting cytokines had been discovered, they were used for systemic treatment of cancer patients. However, systemic treatment often resulted in even negative outcome. Recent developments of genetic approaches of cell modifications allowed developing of modern techniques of targeted tumor cell elimination. In the present paper, we review modern trends of the antitumor response enhancement based on immunoregulatory gene transfer into different cell types both in vivo and in vitro. Almost all these approaches are based on the activation of the adaptive arm of the immune system in response to tumor cells. However, recent studies indicate that the innate arm of the immune system, as well as adaptive arm, is involved in tumor suppression. The innate immune system uses nonrearranging germline receptors, which could trigger cellular effector responses that are conditional (or instructive) to the subsequent adaptive immune response. Last years' viewpoints on 'self' and 'non-self' recognition and primary induction of the immune response have changed. The key role of lymphocytes is pathogen recognition and, following immune response induction, switched on the central role of dendritic cells in 'non-self' recognition and induction of both innate and adaptive responses. Moreover, innate response is supposed to be an essential starting point in induction of successful and effective acquired response. Most cancer vaccines do not have 'non-self' marks presentation due to their endogenous origin, thus lacking their effectiveness in the induction of the specific long-lasting immune response. Taking this point into consideration, we can conclude that to make cancer vaccine more effective we have to present tumor antigens

  18. Allergen Recognition by Innate Immune Cells: Critical Role of Dendritic and Epithelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar, Fabián; Ghaemmaghami, Amir M.

    2013-01-01

    Allergy is an exacerbated response of the immune system against non-self-proteins called allergens and is typically characterized by biased type-2 T helper cell and deleterious IgE mediated immune responses. The allergic cascade starts with the recognition of allergens by antigen presenting cells, mainly dendritic cells (DCs), leading to Th2 polarization, switching to IgE production by B cells, culminating in mast cell sensitization and triggering. DCs have been demonstrated to play a crucial...

  19. Interleukin-1 as a Common Denominator from Autoinflammatory to Autoimmune Disorders: Premises, Perils, and Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe Lopalco; Luca Cantarini; Antonio Vitale; Florenzo Iannone; Maria Grazia Anelli; Laura Andreozzi; Giovanni Lapadula; Mauro Galeazzi; Donato Rigante

    2015-01-01

    A complex web of dynamic relationships between innate and adaptive immunity is now evident for many autoinflammatory and autoimmune disorders, the first deriving from abnormal activation of innate immune system without any conventional danger triggers and the latter from self-/non-self-discrimination loss of tolerance, and systemic inflammation. Due to clinical and pathophysiologic similarities giving a crucial role to the multifunctional cytokine interleukin-1, the concept of autoinflammatio...

  20. Theoretical tools for atom laser beam propagation

    OpenAIRE

    Riou, J. -F.; Coq, Y. Le; Impens, F; Guerin, W.; Bordé, C. J.; Aspect, A; Bouyer, P.

    2008-01-01

    We present a theoretical model for the propagation of non self-interacting atom laser beams. We start from a general propagation integral equation, and we use the same approximations as in photon optics to derive tools to calculate the atom laser beam propagation. We discuss the approximations that allow to reduce the general equation whether to a Fresnel-Kirchhoff integral calculated by using the stationary phase method, or to the eikonal. Within the paraxial approximation, we also introduce...

  1. The role of symbiont genetic distance and potential adaptability in host preference towards Pseudonocardia symbionts in Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Michael; Maynard, Janielle; Roland, Damien;

    2011-01-01

    two non-native strains, elucidating the role of genetic distance on preference between strains and Pseudonocardia origin. Our findings suggest that ants tend to prefer bacteria more closely related to their native bacterium and that genetic similarity is probably more important than whether symbionts...... to the role of adaptive recognition, potential ecological flexibility in symbiont preference, and more broadly, in relation to self versus non-self recognition....

  2. Transfer of plasmid RSF1010 by conjugation from Escherichia coli to Streptomyces lividans and Mycobacterium smegmatis.

    OpenAIRE

    Gormley, E P; Davies, J.

    1991-01-01

    The plasmid RSF1010 belongs to a class of plasmids (IncQ) that replicate in a range of bacterial hosts. Although non-self-transmissible, it can be mobilized at high frequency between different gram-negative bacterial species if transfer functions are supplied in trans. We report the transfer of RSF1010 by conjugation from Escherichia coli to the gram-positive actinomycetes Streptomyces lividans and Mycobacterium smegmatis. In its new hosts, the plasmid was stable with respect to structure and...

  3. Type I-E CRISPR-cas systems discriminate target from non-target DNA through base pairing-independent PAM recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edze R Westra

    Full Text Available Discriminating self and non-self is a universal requirement of immune systems. Adaptive immune systems in prokaryotes are centered around repetitive loci called CRISPRs (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat, into which invader DNA fragments are incorporated. CRISPR transcripts are processed into small RNAs that guide CRISPR-associated (Cas proteins to invading nucleic acids by complementary base pairing. However, to avoid autoimmunity it is essential that these RNA-guides exclusively target invading DNA and not complementary DNA sequences (i.e., self-sequences located in the host's own CRISPR locus. Previous work on the Type III-A CRISPR system from Staphylococcus epidermidis has demonstrated that a portion of the CRISPR RNA-guide sequence is involved in self versus non-self discrimination. This self-avoidance mechanism relies on sensing base pairing between the RNA-guide and sequences flanking the target DNA. To determine if the RNA-guide participates in self versus non-self discrimination in the Type I-E system from Escherichia coli we altered base pairing potential between the RNA-guide and the flanks of DNA targets. Here we demonstrate that Type I-E systems discriminate self from non-self through a base pairing-independent mechanism that strictly relies on the recognition of four unchangeable PAM sequences. In addition, this work reveals that the first base pair between the guide RNA and the PAM nucleotide immediately flanking the target sequence can be disrupted without affecting the interference phenotype. Remarkably, this indicates that base pairing at this position is not involved in foreign DNA recognition. Results in this paper reveal that the Type I-E mechanism of avoiding self sequences and preventing autoimmunity is fundamentally different from that employed by Type III-A systems. We propose the exclusive targeting of PAM-flanked sequences to be termed a target versus non-target discrimination mechanism.

  4. Mikrofinance a mikroúvěry v rozvojových zemích

    OpenAIRE

    Adamcová, Eva

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of the baccalaureate thesis is to compare through selected financial analysis ratios two leading approaches to financing the low-income population of the third world. The first approach is based on financial self-sufficiency of microfinancial institutions, the second is dependent on obtaining grants and donations. It was found out that financially self-sufficient institutions are able to serve more clients and have higher repayment rate on loans than non-self-sufficient ins...

  5. A statistical mechanics approach to autopoietic immune networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we aim to bridge theoretical immunology and disordered statistical mechanics. We introduce a model for the behavior of B-cells which naturally merges the clonal selection theory and the autopoietic network theory as a whole. From the analysis of its features we recover several basic phenomena such as low-dose tolerance, dynamical memory of antigens and self/non-self discrimination

  6. The Finnish Allergy Programme 2008-2018 - scientific rationale and practical implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Haahtela, Tari; Valovirta, Erkka; Kauppi, Paula; Tommila, Erja; Saarinen, Kimmo; von Hertzen, Leena; Mika J. Mäkelä

    2012-01-01

    There are no nationwide, comprehensive public health programmes on allergic disorders with set goals and systematic follow-up. The Finnish initiative is based on the idea that the so called allergy epidemic in modern, urban societies is caused by inadequately developed or broken tolerance. The immune system is not trained to make the difference between danger and non-danger (allergy) or the difference between self and non-self (autoimmune diseases). The immune dysfunction leads to inappropria...

  7. Innate allorecognition

    OpenAIRE

    Oberbarnscheidt, Martin H.; Lakkis, Fadi G.

    2014-01-01

    Vertebrates mount strong adaptive immune responses to transplanted organs (allografts), but the mechanisms by which the innate immune system initiates this response are not completely understood. In anti-microbial immunity, non-self molecules associated with pathogens but not present in the host induce the maturation of innate antigen-presenting cells (APCs) by binding to germ-line-encoded receptors. Mature APCs then initiate the adaptive immune response by presenting microbial antigen and pr...

  8. Analytical Modeling of the Mechanics of Nucleation and Growth of Cracks

    OpenAIRE

    Goyal, Vinay K

    2002-01-01

    With the traditional fracture mechanics approaches, an initial crack and self-similar progression of cracks are assumed. In this treatise, theoretical and numerical tools are developed to mathematically describe non-self-similar progression of cracks without specifying an initial crack. A cohesive-decohesive zone model, similar to the cohesive zone model known in fracture mechanics as Dugdale-Barenblatt model, is adopted to represent the degradation of the material ahead of the crack tip. Thi...

  9. On the role of the normalization factors kappa_n and of the pseudo-metric P in crypto-Hermitian quantum models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Znojil, Miloslav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 4, - (2009), 001/1-001/9. ISSN 1815-0659 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06002; GA ČR GA202/07/1307 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : PT-symmetry * non-self-adjoint pseudo-metric * crypto -hermiticity Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.789, year: 2009 http://www.emis.de/journals/SIGMA/2008/001/sigma08-001.pdf

  10. Optimization of NK cell-based immune therapy strategies against pediatric acute B cell precursor leukemia using a human-murine xenotransplantation model

    OpenAIRE

    Kübler, Ayline

    2015-01-01

    Killer-immunoglobulin-like (KIR)-receptors on natural killer (NK) cells and their corresponding HLA ligands play an important role in self-/non-self-discrimination of NK cells. In mismatched KIR-KIR ligand constellations the balance of inhibitory and activating signals is shifted towards target cell lysis. Previous studies indicate that these KIR-KIR ligand mismatch constellations significantly increase the outcome for patients suffering from adult acute myeloid leukemia whereas adult acute B...

  11. Dendritic Cells and Innate Immunity in Kidney Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuang, Quan; Lakkis, Fadi G.

    2015-01-01

    Summary This review summarizes emerging concepts related to the roles of dendritic cells and innate immunity in organ transplant rejection. First, it highlights the primary role that recipient, rather than donor, dendritic cells have in rejection and reviews their origin and function in the transplanted kidney. Second, it introduces the novel concept that recognition of allogeneic non-self by host monocytes (referred to here as innate allorecognition) is necessary for initiating rejection by ...

  12. Thick-Restart Lanczos Method for Electronic Structure Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes two recent innovations related to the classic Lanczos method for eigenvalue problems, namely the thick-restart technique and dynamic restarting schemes. Combining these two new techniques we are able to implement an efficient eigenvalue problem solver. This paper will demonstrate its effectiveness on one particular class of problems for which this method is well suited: linear eigenvalue problems generated from non-self-consistent electronic structure calculations

  13. Critical scaling in linear response of frictionless granular packings near jamming

    OpenAIRE

    Ellenbroek, Wouter G.; Somfai, Ellak; van Hecke, Martin; van Saarloos, Wim

    2006-01-01

    We study the origin of the scaling behavior in frictionless granular media above the jamming transition by analyzing their linear response. The response to local forcing is non-self-averaging and fluctuates over a length scale that diverges at the jamming transition. The response to global forcing becomes increasingly non-affine near the jamming transition. This is due to the proximity of floppy modes, the influence of which we characterize by the local linear response. We show that the local...

  14. Bound states in waveguides with complex Robin boundary conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Radek

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 96, 3-4 (2016), s. 251-281. ISSN 0921-7134 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-06818S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : non-self-adjointness * waveguide * Robin boundary conditions * spectral analysis * essential spectrum * weak coupling * Birman-Schwinger principle * reality of the spectrum Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.528, year: 2014

  15. Water-borne sperm trigger vitellogenic egg growth in two sessile marine invertebrates.

    OpenAIRE

    Bishop, J D; Manríquez, P H; Hughes, R. N.

    2000-01-01

    A diverse array of sessile marine invertebrates mate by passive dispersal of sperm which fertilize the brooded eggs of neighbours. In two such species, a sea-mat (phylum Bryozoa) and an ascidian (phylum Chordata), vitellogenic egg growth is absent in reproductively isolated specimens, but is triggered by a water-borne factor released by conspecifics. In both of these colonial, hermaphroditic species, the active factor can be removed from water by filtration. The effect involves self-/non-self...

  16. Manifestations of Immune Privilege in the Human Reproductive Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary F Clark

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Like other mucosal surfaces (e.g., the gastrointestinal tract, the respiratory tract, the human female reproductive tract acts as an initial barrier to foreign antigens. In this role, the epithelial surface and subepithelial immune cells must balance protection against pathogenic insults against harmful inflammatory reactions and acceptance of particular foreign antigens. Two common examples of these acceptable foreign antigens are the fetal allograft and human semen/sperm. Both are purposely deposited into the female genital tract and appropriate immunologic response to these non-self antigens is essential to the survival of the species. In light of the weight of this task, it is not surprising that multiple, redundant and overlapping mechanisms are involved. For instance, cells at the immunologic interface between self (female reproductive tract epithelium and non-self (placental trophoblast cells or human sperm express glycosylation patterns that mimic those on many metastatic cancer cells and successful pathogens. The cytokine/chemokine milieu at this interface is altered through endocrine and immunologic mechanisms to favor tolerance of non-self. The foreign cells themselves also play an integral role in their own immunologic acceptance, since sperm and placental trophoblast cells are unusual and unique in their antigen presenting molecule expression patterns. Here, we will discuss these and other mechanisms that allow the human female reproductive tract to perform this delicate and indispensible balancing act.

  17. Increased overlap between the brain areas involved in self-other distinction in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renaud Jardri

    Full Text Available Self-awareness impairments are frequently mentioned as being responsible for the positive symptoms of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. However, the neural correlates of self-other distinction in this pathology are still poorly understood. In the present study, we developed an fMRI procedure in order to examine self-other distinction during speech exchange situations. Fifteen subjects with schizophrenia were compared to 15 matched controls. The results revealed an increased overlap between the self and non-self cortical maps in schizophrenia, in the medial frontal and medial parietal cortices, as well as in the right middle temporal cortex and the right inferior parietal lobule. Moreover, these neural structures showed less BOLD amplitude differences between the self and non-self conditions in the patients. These activation patterns were judged to be independent of mirror-like properties, familiarity or body-ownership processing. Significantly, the increase in the right IPL signal was found to correlate positively with the severity of first-rank symptoms, and thus could be considered a "state-marker" of schizophrenia, whereas temporal and medial parieto-frontal differences appear to be "trait-markers" of the disease. Such an increased overlap between self and non-self cortical maps might be considered a neuro-physiological signature of the well established self-awareness impairment in people suffering from schizophrenia.

  18. The affirmation of self: a new perspective on the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, John; Coutinho, Antonio

    2004-01-01

    The fundamental concepts of autopoiesis, which emphasize the circular organization underlying both living organisms and cognition, have been criticized on the grounds that since they are conceived as a tight logical chain of definitions and implications, it is often not clear whether they are indeed a scientific theory or rather just a potential scientific vocabulary of doubtful utility to working scientists. This article presents the deployment of the concepts of autopoiesis in the field of immunology, a discipline where working biologists themselves spontaneously have long had recourse to "cognitive" metaphors: "recognition"; a "repertoire" of recognized molecular shapes; "learning" and "memory"; and, most striking of all, a "self versus non-self" distinction. It is shown that in immunology, the concepts of autopoiesis can be employed to generate clear novel hypotheses, models demonstrating these ideas, testable predictions, and novel therapeutic procedures. Epistemologically, it is shown that the self-non-self distinction, while quite real, is misleadingly named. When a real mechanism for generating this distinction is identified, it appears that the actual operational distinction is between (a) a sufficiently numerous set of initial antigens, present from the start of ontogeny, in conditions that allow for their participation in the construction of the system's organization and operation, and (b) single antigens that are first presented to the system after two successive phases of maturation. To call this a self-non-self distinction obscures the issue by presupposing what it ought to be the job of scientific investigation to explain. PMID:15245627

  19. An Aspergillus nidulans GH26 endo-β-mannanase with a novel degradation pattern on highly substituted galactomannans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Freiesleben, Pernille; Spodsberg, Nikolaj; Blicher, Thomas Holberg; Anderson, Lars; Jørgensen, Henning; Stålbrand, Henrik; Meyer, Anne S; Krogh, Kristian B R M

    2016-02-01

    The activity and substrate degradation pattern of a novel Aspergillus nidulans GH26 endo-β-mannanase (AnMan26A) was investigated using two galactomannan substrates with varying amounts of galactopyranosyl residues. The AnMan26A was characterized in parallel with the GH26 endomannanase from Podospora anserina (PaMan26A) and three GH5 endomannanases from A. nidulans and Trichoderma reesei (AnMan5A, AnMan5C and TrMan5A). The initial rates and the maximal degree of enzymatically catalyzed conversion of locust bean gum and guar gum galactomannans were determined. The hydrolysis product profile at maximal degree of conversion was determined using DNA sequencer-Assisted Saccharide analysis in High throughput (DASH). This is the first reported use of this method for analyzing galactomannooligosaccharides. AnMan26A and PaMan26A were found to have a novel substrate degradation pattern on the two galactomannan substrates. On the highly substituted guar gum AnMan26A and PaMan26A reached 35-40% as their maximal degree of conversion whereas the three tested GH5 endomannanases only reached 8-10% as their maximal degree of conversion. α-Galactosyl-mannose was identified as the dominant degradation product resulting from AnMan26A and PaMan26A action on guar gum, strongly indicating that these two enzymes can accommodate galactopyranosyl residues in the -1 and in the +1 subsite. The degradation of α-6(4)-6(3)-di-galactosyl-mannopentaose by AnMan26A revealed accommodation of galactopyranosyl residues in the -2, -1 and +1 subsite of the enzyme. Accommodation of galactopyranosyl residues in subsites -2 and +1 has not been observed for other characterized endomannanases to date. Docking analysis of galactomannooligosaccharides in available crystal structures and homology models supported the conclusions drawn from the experimental results. This newly discovered diversity of substrate degradation patterns demonstrates an expanded functionality of fungal endomannanases, than hitherto

  20. Biochemical Models for S-Rnase-Based Self-Incompatibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Hua Hua; Allison Fields; Teh-hui Kao

    2008-01-01

    S-RNase-based self-incompatibility (SI) is a genetically determined self/non-self-recognition process employed by many flowering plant species to prevent inbreeding and promote outcrosses.For the Plantaginaceae,Rosa-ceae and Solanaceae,it is now known that S-RNase and S-Iocu F-box(two multiple allelic genes at the S-locus)determine the female and male specificity,respectively,during SI interactions.However,how allelic products of these two genes interact inside pollen tubes to result in specific growth inhibition of self-pollen tubes remains to be investigated.Here,we review all the previously proposed biochemical models and discuss whether their predictions are consistent with all SI phenomena,including competitive jnteraction where SI breaks down in pollen that carries two different pollen 5-alleles.We also discuss these models in Iight of the recent findings of compartmentalization of S-RNases in both incompatible and compatible pollen tubes.Lastly,we summarize the results from our recent biochemical studies of PiSLF(Petunia inflata SLF)and S-RNase.and present a new model for the biochemical mechanism of SI in the Solanaceae.The tenet of this model is that a PiSLF preferentially interacts with its non-self S-RNases in the cytoplasm of a pollen tube to result in the assembly of an E3-like complex,which then mediates ubiquitination and degradation of non-self S-RNases through the ubiquitin-26S proteasome pathway.This model can explain all SI phenomena and,at the same time,has raised new questions for further study.

  1. Energy efficient security in MANETs: a comparison of cryptographic and artificial immune systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MANET is characterized by a set of mobile nodes in an inherently insecure environment, having limited battery capacities. Provisioning of energy efficient security in MANETs is, therefore, an open problem for which a number of solutions have been proposed. In this paper, we present an overview and comparison of the MANET security at routing layer by using the cryptographic and Artificial Immune System (AIS) approaches. The BeeAdHoc protocol, which is a Bio-inspired MANET routing protocol based on the foraging principles of honey bee colony, is taken as case study. We carry out an analysis of the three security frameworks that we have proposed earlier for securing BeeAdHoc protocol; one based on asymmetric key encryption, i.e BeeSec, and the other two using the AIS approach, i.e BeeAIS based on self non-self discrimination from adaptive immune system and BeeAIS-DC based on Dendritic Cell (DC) behavior from innate immune system. We extensively evaluate the performance of the three protocols through network simulations in ns-2 and compare with BeeAdHoc, the base protocol, as well as with state-of-the-art MANET routing protocols DSR and AODV. Our results clearly indicate that AIS based systems provide security at much lower cost to energy as compared with the cryptographic systems. Moreover, the use of dendritic cells and danger signals instead of the classical self non-self discrimination allows to detect the non-self antigens with greater accuracy. Based on the results of this investigation, we also propose a composite AIS model for BeeAdHoc security by combining the concepts from both the adaptive and the innate immune systems by modelling the attributes and behavior of the B-cells and DCs. (author)

  2. Unified Analysis of Kernel-Based Interior-Point Methods for P∗(κ)-Linear Complementarity Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Lesaja, G.; Roos, C.

    2010-01-01

    We present an interior-point method for the P∗(κ)-linear complementarity problem (LCP) that is based on barrier functions which are defined by a large class of univariate functions called eligible kernel functions. This class is fairly general and includes the classical logarithmic function and the self-regular functions, as well as many non-self-regular functions as special cases. We provide a unified analysis of the method and give a general scheme on how to calculate the iteration bounds f...

  3. Molecular characterization of S locus genes, SLG and SRK, in a pollen-recessive self-incompatibility haplotype of Brassica rapa L.

    OpenAIRE

    Hatakeyama, K.; Takasaki, T; Watanabe, M.; Hinata, K.

    1998-01-01

    In Brassica species that exhibit self-incompatibility, two genes, SLG and SRK, at the S locus are involved in the recognition reaction with self and non-self pollen. From a pollen-recessive S29 haplotype of Brassica rapa, both cDNA and genomic DNA clones for these two genes were isolated and characterized. The nucleotide sequence for the S domain of SRK29 showed a high degree of similarity with that of SLG29, and they belong to Class II type. RNA gel blot analysis showed that the transcript o...

  4. A new peak shear strength criterion for rock joints which includes spectral parameters as roughness measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulatilake, P.H.S.W.; Shou, G. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Huang, T.H. [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1996-04-01

    Most of the natural rock joint surface profiles do not belong to the self similar fractal category. In general, roughness profiles of rock joints consist of non-stationary and stationary components. At the simplest level, only one parameter is sufficient to quantify non-stationary joint roughness. The average inclination angle I, along with the direction considered for the joint surface, is suggested to capture the non-stationary roughness. It is shown that even though the fractal dimension D is a useful parameter, it alone is insufficient to quantify the stationary roughness of non-self similar profiles.

  5. Self-consistent Kohn-Sham method based on the adiabatic-connection fluctuation-dissipation theorem and the exact-exchange kernel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A self-consistent Kohn-Sham method based on the adiabatic-connection fluctuation-dissipation (ACFD) theorem, employing the frequency-dependent exact exchange kernel fx is presented. The resulting SC-exact-exchange-only (EXX)-ACFD method leads to even more accurate correlation potentials than those obtained within the direct random phase approximation (dRPA). In contrast to dRPA methods, not only the Coulomb kernel but also the exact exchange kernel fx is taken into account in the EXX-ACFD correlation which results in a method that, unlike dRPA methods, is free of self-correlations, i.e., a method that treats exactly all one-electron systems, like, e.g., the hydrogen atom. The self-consistent evaluation of EXX-ACFD total energies improves the accuracy compared to EXX-ACFD total energies evaluated non-self-consistently with EXX or dRPA orbitals and eigenvalues. Reaction energies of a set of small molecules, for which highly accurate experimental reference data are available, are calculated and compared to quantum chemistry methods like Møller-Plesset perturbation theory of second order (MP2) or coupled cluster methods [CCSD, coupled cluster singles, doubles, and perturbative triples (CCSD(T))]. Moreover, we compare our methods to other ACFD variants like dRPA combined with perturbative corrections such as the second order screened exchange corrections or a renormalized singles correction. Similarly, the performance of our EXX-ACFD methods is investigated for the non-covalently bonded dimers of the S22 reference set and for potential energy curves of noble gas, water, and benzene dimers. The computational effort of the SC-EXX-ACFD method exhibits the same scaling of N5 with respect to the system size N as the non-self-consistent evaluation of only the EXX-ACFD correlation energy; however, the prefactor increases significantly. Reaction energies from the SC-EXX-ACFD method deviate quite little from EXX-ACFD energies obtained non-self-consistently with dRPA orbitals

  6. Evaluation of Self-Intersecting Wilson Loop in the Stochastic Vacuum Model

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitri AntonovINFN, Pisa

    2015-01-01

    A Wilson loop is evaluated within the stochastic vacuum model for the case when the respective contour is self-intersecting and its size does not exceed the correlation length of the vacuum. The result has the form of a certain functional of the tensor area. It is similar to that for the non-self-intersecting loop only when the contour is a plane one. Even for such a contour, the obtained expression depends on the ratio of two functions parametrizing the bilocal field strength correlator take...

  7. Self-harm in young people: a randomised control trial comparing mentalization based treatment against treatment as usual

    OpenAIRE

    Rossouw, T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This thesis aims to explore self-harm in young people in terms of its epidemiology, longitudinal outcome and treatment. Due to close associations between self-harm and personality disorder (PD) and depression, the thesis also aim to better understand the stability of PD from adolescence into adulthood as well as the links between depression and PD into adulthood. Further this thesis aims to examine the differences between self-harmers and non-self-harmers. The final aim to examine w...

  8. Absence of self-averaging in the complex admittance for transport through random media

    OpenAIRE

    M. Kawasaki; Odagaki, T.; Kehr, K. W.

    2000-01-01

    A random walk model in a one dimensional disordered medium with an oscillatory input current is presented as a generic model of boundary perturbation methods to investigate properties of a transport process in a disordered medium. It is rigorously shown that an admittance which is equal to the Fourier-Laplace transform of the first-passage time distribution is non-self-averaging when the disorder is strong. The low frequency behavior of the disorder-averaged admittance, $ -1 \\sim \\omega^{\\mu}...

  9. Defensive function of persecutory delusion and discrepancy between explicit and implicit self-esteem in schizophrenia: study using the Brief Implicit Association Test

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Mitsuo; Hayakawa, Tomomi; Okamura, Aiko; Kohigashi, Mutsumi; Fukui, Kenji; Narumoto, Jin

    2014-01-01

    Background If delusions serve as a defense mechanism in schizophrenia patients with paranoia, then they should show normal or high explicit self-esteem and low implicit self-esteem. However, the results of previous studies are inconsistent. One possible explanation for this inconsistency is that there are two types of paranoia, “bad me” (self-blaming) paranoia and “poor me” (non-self-blaming) paranoia. We thus examined implicit and explicit self-esteem and self-blaming tendency in patients wi...

  10. An averaging method for nonlinear laminar Ekman layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A.; Lautrup, B.; Bohr, T.

    2003-01-01

    We study steady laminar Ekman boundary layers in rotating systems using,an averaging method similar to the technique of von Karman and Pohlhausen. The method allows us to explore nonlinear corrections to the standard Ekman theory even at large Rossby numbers. We consider both the standard self......-similar ansatz for the velocity profile, which assumes that a single length scale describes the boundary layer structure, and a new non-self-similar ansatz in which the decay and the oscillations of the boundary layer are described by two different length scales. For both profiles we calculate the up-flow in a...

  11. Closed geodesics on the surface of a simplex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The closed non-self-intersecting geodesics on the surface of a three-dimensional simplex are studied. It is proved that every geodesic on an arbitrary simplex can be realized on a regular simplex. This enables us to obtain a complete classification of all geodesics and describe their structure. Conditions for the existence of geodesics are obtained for an arbitrary simplex. It is proved that a simplex has infinitely many essentially different geodesics if and only if it is isohedral. Estimates for the number of geodesics are obtained for other simplexes. Bibliography: 13 titles.

  12. Plasmochemical methods of hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen production in plasma is examined both in a one-stage process of water vapor decomposition and in a double-stage process with preliminary CO2 destruction. Hydrogen production is considered in H.F. and U.H.F. moderate pressure gas discharges and in a non-self-sustained gas discharge stimulated by a relativistic electron beam. The high efficiency attained in U.H.F. discharge of CO2 dissociation is explained by non-equilibrium vibrational excitation of CO2 molecules in plasma. (author)

  13. Band convergence and linearization error correction of all-electron GW calculations: The extreme case of zinc oxide

    OpenAIRE

    Friedrich, C.; Müller, M.C.T.D.; Blügel, S.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Shih et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 146401 (2010)] published a theoretical band gap for wurtzite ZnO, calculated with the non-self-consistent GW approximation, that agreed surprisingly well with experiment while deviating strongly from previous studies. They showed that a very large number of empty bands is necessary to converge the gap. We reexamine the GW calculation with the full-potential linearized augmented-plane-wave method and find that even with 3000 bands the band gap is no...

  14. The C1q Family of Proteins: Insights into the Emerging Non-Traditional Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Ghebrehiwet, Berhane; Hosszu, Kinga K.; Valentino, Alisa; Peerschke, Ellinor I. B.

    2012-01-01

    Research conducted over the past 20 years have helped us unravel not only the hidden structural and functional subtleties of human C1q, but also has catapulted the molecule from a mere recognition unit of the classical pathway to a well-recognized molecular sensor of damage-modified self or non-self antigens. Thus, C1q is involved in a rapidly expanding list of pathological disorders – including autoimmunity, trophoblast migration, preeclampsia, and cancer. The results of two recent reports a...

  15. Cryptography based on neural networks - analytical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mutual learning process between two parity feed-forward networks with discrete and continuous weights is studied analytically, and we find that the number of steps required to achieve full synchronization between the two networks in the case of discrete weights is finite. The synchronization process is shown to be non-self-averaging and the analytical solution is based on random auxiliary variables. The learning time of an attacker that is trying to imitate one of the networks is examined analytically and is found to be much longer than the synchronization time. Analytical results are found to be in agreement with simulations. (letter to the editor)

  16. Theoretical foundations of functional data analysis, with an introduction to linear operators

    CERN Document Server

    Hsing, Tailen

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical Foundations of Functional Data Analysis, with an Introduction to Linear Operators provides a uniquely broad compendium of the key mathematical concepts and results that are relevant for the theoretical development of functional data analysis (FDA).The self-contained treatment of selected topics of functional analysis and operator theory includes reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces, singular value decomposition of compact operators on Hilbert spaces and perturbation theory for both self-adjoint and non self-adjoint operators. The probabilistic foundation for FDA is described from the

  17. Torons and D-Brane Bound States

    OpenAIRE

    Guralnik, Z.; Ramgoolam, S.

    1997-01-01

    We interpret instantons on a torus with twisted boundary conditions, in terms of bound states of branes. The interplay between the SU(N) and U(1) parts of the U(N) theory of N 4-branes allows the construction of a variety of bound states. The SU(N) and U(1) parts can contribute fractional amounts to the total instanton number which is integral. The geometry of non-self intersecting two-cycles in $T^4$ sheds some light on a number of properties of these solutions.

  18. Investigations and calculations into decreasing the uncertainty of a nanopositioning and nanomeasuring machine (NPM-Machine)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, I.; Hausotte, T.; Gerhardt, U.; Manske, E.; Jäger, G.

    2007-02-01

    Continuously increasing demands on nanopositioning and nanomeasuring (NPM) machines require a detailed analysis of and a decrease in measurement uncertainty. Initial studies have been done in the field of length and angle measurement. The analysis resulted in updated assemblies, which were investigated further. Significant improvements in mechanical stability, drift behaviour and temperature dependence were produced. To minimize the undesired heat production by the non-self-locking vertical linear drive systems, an improved weight force compensation arrangement adaptable to different object masses was developed and tested. Also, the system's natural frequencies were analysed. A modified structure with increased stiffness of the vertical drive system was designed to improve the NPM's dynamic behaviour.

  19. Ošetřovatelská péče o klienty po endoprotéze ramenního kloubu

    OpenAIRE

    HÖFEROVÁ, Eva

    2013-01-01

    This bachelor´s work tries to specify and determine differences in the care of a client after a shoulder joint replacement. The shoulder joint is a complicated joint of the shoulder girdle which can be affected by many disorders and worsen the whole self-care of the client. If a damage or a disorder of the shoulder joint appears, the client may become non-self sufficient and dependent on the help of others. The bachelor´s work is divided into two parts. The first part is a theoretical part an...

  20. Approximation Theorems and Fixed Point Theorems for Various Classes of 1-set-contractive Mappings in Banach Spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Shan LIU

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we will prove that Ky Fan's Theorem (Math. Z. 112(1969), 234-240) is true for1-set-contractive maps defined on a bounded closed convex subset K in a Banach space with intK ≠φ.This class of 1-set-contractive maps includes condensing maps, nonexpansive maps, semicontractivemaps, LANE maps and others. As applications of our theorems, some fixed point theorems of non-self-maps are proved under various well-known boundary conditions. Our results are generalizations andimprovements of the recent results obtained by many authors.

  1. Canonical pairs, Spatially Confined Motion and the Quantum Time of Arrival Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Galapon, E A

    2000-01-01

    It has always been believed that no self-adjoint and canonical time of arrival operator can be constructed within the confines of standard quantum mechanics. In this Letter we demonstrate the otherwise. We do so by pointing out that there is no a priori reason in demanding that canonical pairs form a system of imprimitivities. We then proceed to show that a class of self-adjoint and canonical time of arrival (TOA) operators can be constructed for a spatially confined free particle. And then discuss the relatiobship between the non-self-adjointess of the TOA operator for the unconfined particle and the self-adjointness of the confined one.

  2. Effect of toroidal plasma flow and flow shear on global MHD modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of a subsonic toroidal flow on the linear magnetohydrodynamic stability of a tokamak plasma surrounded by an external resistive wall is studied. A complex non-self-adjoint eigenvalue problem for the stability of general kink and tearing modes is formulated, solved numerically, and applied to high β tokamaks. Results indicate that toroidal plasma flow, in conjunction with dissipation in the plasma, can open a window of stability for the position of the external wall. In this window, stable plasma beta values can significantly exceed those predicted by the Troyon scaling law with no wall. Computations utilizing experimental data indicate good agreement with observations

  3. Treatment of Graft-versus-Host Disease with Naturally Occurring T Regulatory Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Trzonkowski, Piotr; Dukat-Mazurek, Anna; Bieniaszewska, Maria; Marek-Trzonkowska, Natalia; Dobyszuk, Anita; Juścińska, Jolanta; Dutka, Magdalena; Myśliwska, Jolanta; Hellmann, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    A significant body of evidence suggests that treatment with naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells (Tregs) is an appropriate therapy for graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). GvHD is a major complication of bone marrow transplantation in which the transplanted immune system recognizes recipient tissues as a non-self and destroys them. In many cases, this condition significantly deteriorates the quality of life of the affected patients. It is also one of the most important causes of deat...

  4. Finite-time Thin Film Rupture Driven by Generalized Evaporative Loss

    CERN Document Server

    Ji, Hangjie

    2016-01-01

    Rupture is a nonlinear instability resulting in a finite-time singularity as a fluid layer approaches zero thickness at a point. We study the dynamics of rupture in a generalized mathematical model of thin films of viscous fluids with evaporative effects. The governing lubrication model is a fourth-order nonlinear parabolic partial differential equation with a non-conservative loss term due to evaporation. Several different types of finite-time singularities are observed due to balances between evaporation and surface tension or intermolecular forces. Non-self-similar behavior and two classes of self-similar rupture solutions are analyzed and validated against high resolution PDE simulations.

  5. The Pauli equation with complex boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider one-dimensional Pauli Hamiltonians in a bounded interval with possibly non-self-adjoint Robin-type boundary conditions. We study the influence of the spin–magnetic interaction on the interplay between the type of boundary conditions and the spectrum. Special attention is paid to PT-symmetric boundary conditions with the physical choice of the time-reversal operator T. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Quantum physics with non-Hermitian operators’. (paper)

  6. The Pauli equation with complex boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochan, D.; Krejčiřík, D.; Novák, R.; Siegl, P.

    2012-11-01

    We consider one-dimensional Pauli Hamiltonians in a bounded interval with possibly non-self-adjoint Robin-type boundary conditions. We study the influence of the spin-magnetic interaction on the interplay between the type of boundary conditions and the spectrum. Special attention is paid to {PT}-symmetric boundary conditions with the physical choice of the time-reversal operator {T}. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Quantum physics with non-Hermitian operators’.

  7. Wide bandsaw blade under cutting conditions. Part III: Stability of a plate moving in its plane while subjected to non-conservative cutting forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengoc, L.; McCallion, H.

    1995-09-01

    This study provides yet another possible mechanism for instability of bandsaw blades during sawing, namely dynamic instability of a moving plate when subjected to non-conservative tangential edge loading. In previous publications, the effect of non-conservative edge loading has been neglected; only the divergent buckling and the parametric instability have been considered as causes of unstable bandsaw blade motion. However, the non-conservative loading due to sawing can excite a flutter-type instability, similar to flutter in aeroplane wings. The extended Galerkin method is used to discretize the equation of motion, and a non-self-adjoint eigenvalue solver is employed to find the solutions.

  8. Benchmark of GW methods for azabenzenes

    OpenAIRE

    Marom, Noa; Caruso, Fabio; Ren, Xinguo; Rubio Secades, Ángel; Scheffler, Matthias; Rinke, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Many-body perturbation theory in the GW approximation is a useful method for describing electronic properties associated with charged excitations. A hierarchy of GW methods exists, starting from non-self-consistent G0W0, through partial self-consistency in the eigenvalues (ev-scGW) and in the Green function (scGW0), to fully self-consistent GW (scGW). Here, we assess the performance of these methods for benzene, pyridine, and the diazines. The quasiparticle spectra are compared to photoemissi...

  9. Adler-Bardeen theorem in coupled supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the supercurrent and a supersymmetric current which satisfies the Adler-Bardeen (A-B) theorem in supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory coupled to non-self interacting chiral matter. Preserving supersymmetry and gauge invariance explicitly, the authors verify the finiteness of the supercurrent to one loop, and A-B theorem to two loops by explicit calculations in the minimal-subtraction scheme. The authors demonstrate the subtraction-scheme independence of the one-loop anomaly and prove the existence of a subtraction scheme in which A-B theorem is satisfied to all orders in perturbation theory

  10. Planet-bound dark matter and the internal heat of Uranus, Neptune, and hot-Jupiter exoplanets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, Stephen L. [Institute for Advanced Study, Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)], E-mail: adler@ias.edu

    2009-01-19

    We suggest that accretion of planet-bound dark matter by the Jovian planets, and by hot-Jupiter exoplanets, could be a significant source of their internal heat. The anomalously low internal heat of Uranus would then be explained if the collision believed to have tilted the axis of Uranus also knocked it free of most of its associated dark matter cloud. Our considerations focus on the efficient capture of non-self-annihilating dark matter, but could also apply to self-annihilating dark matter, provided the capture efficiency is small enough that the earth heat balance constraint is obeyed.

  11. Planet-bound dark matter and the internal heat of Uranus, Neptune, and hot-Jupiter exoplanets

    OpenAIRE

    Adler, Stephen L.

    2008-01-01

    We suggest that accretion of planet-bound dark matter by the Jovian planets, and by hot-Jupiter exoplanets, could be a significant source of their internal heat. The anomalously low internal heat of Uranus would then be explained if the collision believed to have tilted the axis of Uranus also knocked it free of most of its associated dark matter cloud. Our considerations focus on the efficient capture of non-self-annihilating dark matter, but could also apply to self-annihilating dark matter...

  12. The Characteristics of Journal Editorial Boards in Library and Information Science

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Willett

    2013-01-01

    A study of the members of the editorial boards of 16 leading LIS journals shows that the boards vary markedly in size, in diversity (in terms of both gender and nationality) and in the experience and publication/citation profiles (based on Web of Science data) of their board-members. A typical editorial board member will be male, work in the USA, have published their first LIS article in 1995, and have 9.5 publications and 39 non-self citations to those publications, with the publication/cita...

  13. An artificial immune approach for optical image based vision inspection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Zheng(郑宏); Nanfeng Xiao(肖南风); Jinhui Lan(蓝金辉)

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach of visual inspection for texture surface defects. The approach usesartificial immune theory in learning the detection of texture defects. In this paper, texture defects areregards as non-self, and normal textures are regarded as self. Defect filters and segmentation thresholdsused for defect detection are regarded as antibodies. The clonal selection algorithm stemmed from thenatural immune system is employed to learn antibodies. Experimental results on textile image inspectionare presented to illustrate the merit and feasibility of the proposed method.

  14. Instanton Solutions from Abelian Sinh-Gordon and Tzitzeica Vortices

    CERN Document Server

    Contatto, Felipe

    2014-01-01

    We study the Abelian Higgs vortex solutions to the sinh-Gordon equation and the elliptic Tzitzeica equation. Starting from these particular vortices, we construct solutions to the Taubes equation with higher vortex number, on surfaces with conical singularities and then analyse their properties. We uplift these Abelian sinh-Gordon and Tzitzeica multi-vortex solutions to four dimensions and construct cylindrically symmetric, self-dual Yang-Mills instantons on a non-self-dual (or anti-self-dual) four dimensional K\\"ahler manifold with non-vanishing scalar curvature. The instantons we construct in this way cannot be obtained via a twistor space approach.

  15. Insulation co-ordination in high-voltage electric power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Diesendorf, W

    2015-01-01

    Insulation Co-ordination in High-Voltage Electric Power Systems deals with the methods of insulation needed in different circumstances. The book covers topics such as overvoltages and lightning surges; disruptive discharge and withstand voltages; self-restoring and non-self-restoring insulation; lightning overvoltages on transmission lines; and the attenuation and distortion of lightning surges. Also covered in the book are topics such as the switching surge designs of transmission lines, as well as the insulation coordination of high-voltage stations. The text is recommended for electrical en

  16. Improved Resin–Zirconia Bonding by Room Temperature Hydrofluoric Acid Etching

    OpenAIRE

    Mun-Hwan Lee; Jun Sik Son; Kyo-Han Kim; Tae-Yub Kwon

    2015-01-01

    This in vitro study was conducted to evaluate the shear bond strength of “non-self-adhesive” resin to dental zirconia etched with hydrofluoric acid (HF) at room temperature and to compare it to that of air-abraded zirconia. Sintered zirconia plates were air-abraded (control) or etched with 10%, 20%, or 30% HF for either 5 or 30 min. After cleaning, the surfaces were characterized using various analytical techniques. Three resin cylinders (Duo-Link) were bonded to each treated plate. All bond...

  17. Olimpia : A giant electro mechanically choreographed marionette with new coloratura music.

    OpenAIRE

    Unander-Scharin, Carl; Unander-Scharin, Åsa; Lundin, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    OLIMPIA The puppet Olimpia’s virtuoso coloratura aria is performed by a giant electro mechanically choreographed marionette built from highly patinated scrap machine parts. The music is ‘coloratura’ in its original sense – coloured or embellished – and implies a re-colouring of Offenbach’s aria from “The tales of Hoffmann”. The choreography is both a response to Heinrich Kleist’s homage to the marionette (1810), ‘the most graceful of all dancers whose non self conscious movements simply obey ...

  18. Olimpia : The choreographed electromechanic puppet, dancing to remixed and recomposed music

    OpenAIRE

    Unander-Scharin, Carl; Unander-Scharin, Åsa; Lundin, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    The puppet Olimpia’s virtuoso coloratura aria is performed by a giant electro mechanically choreographed marionette built from highly patinated scrap machine parts. The music is ‘coloratura’ in its original sense – coloured or embellished – and implies a re-colouring of Offenbach’s aria from “The tales of Hoffmann”. The choreography is both a response to Heinrich Kleist’s homage to the marionette (1810), ‘the most graceful of all dancers whose non self conscious movements simply obey the real...

  19. Sovereignity, statehood and self-determination in international law - The Kosovo case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiro Paço

    2016-01-01

    The IL principle of Self-determination will be on the focus of this article to considering it as one of the way to archive the creation of new IL entity. Self-determination is a more recent principle then the others but its history, theory and practice is immense. The origin of the term and idea also is in discussion and debating among historian and lawyer. The term have been used simultaneously in the same period (end of WW I by the US President Wilson and the USSR Premier Lenin referring to the right of the non self-governed territory like colony and occupied regions.

  20. Critical scaling in linear response of frictionless granular packings near jamming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenbroek, Wouter G; Somfai, Ellák; van Hecke, Martin; van Saarloos, Wim

    2006-12-22

    We study the origin of the scaling behavior in frictionless granular media above the jamming transition by analyzing their linear response. The response to local forcing is non-self-averaging and fluctuates over a length scale that diverges at the jamming transition. The response to global forcing becomes increasingly nonaffine near the jamming transition. This is due to the proximity of floppy modes, the influence of which we characterize by the local linear response. We show that the local response also governs the anomalous scaling of elastic constants and contact number. PMID:17280395

  1. Food-Nonfood Discrimination in Ancestral Vertebrates: Gamete Cannibalism and the Origin of the Adaptive Immune System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcos, D

    2015-11-01

    Adaptive immunity is a complex system that appeared twice in vertebrates (in gnathostomes and in jawless fish) although it is not required for invertebrate defence. The adaptive immune system is tightly associated with self-non-self discrimination, and it is now clear that this interplay is not limited to the prevention of autoreactivity. Micro-organisms are usually considered for their pathogenicity or symbiotic ability, but, for most small metazoans, they mainly constitute food. Vertebrates are characterized by feeding by predation on larger preys, when compared to their ancestors who were filter feeders and ate micro-organisms. Predation gives a strong selective advantage, not only due to the availability of new food resources but also by the ability to eliminate competitors for environmental resources (intraguild predation (IGP)). Unlike size-structured IGP, intraspecific predation of juveniles, zygotes or gametes can be detrimental for species fitness in some circumstances. The ability of individuals to recognize highly polymorphic molecules on the surface of gametes present in the plankton and so distinguish self versus non-self gametes might have constituted a strong selective advantage in intraspecific competition. Here, I propose the theory that the capacity to rearrange receptors has been selected in ancestral vertebrates as a consequence of this strong need for discriminating between hetero-cannibalism versus filial cannibalism. This evolutionary origin sheds light on presently unexplained features of the immune system, including the existence of regulatory T cells and of non-pathogenic natural autoimmunity. PMID:26286030

  2. Processing of self-related kinematic information embedded in static handwritten characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Reiko; Doi, Hirokazu; Masataka, Nobuo

    2016-07-01

    Handwritten characters are generated by our own motor actions, and previous studies have shown that the manner in which such characters are perceived and generated is related. However, the temporal course of the neural activation involved in the processing of self-related kinematic information embedded in static handwritten characters remains to be identified. We applied event-related potential (ERP) recording while participants judged whether handwritten characters were self- or non-self-generated. To test the effects of the self-related kinematic characteristics of static handwritten characters, we conducted two experiments in which the styles or familiarity of characters were manipulated. The ERP results indicated differences in brain activation between self- and non-self-written characters for the P250 component (250-350ms after stimulus onset) in right posterior regions and for the late positive component (LPC; 350-500ms after stimulus onset) in anterior midline regions; this was the case even when the handwritten characters were not generated in their usual form or were written for the first time. Therefore, our data indicate that self-information embedded in handwritten characters involves both right-lateralized brain activation associated with bodily self-processing and anterior midline brain activation related to self-referential processing. PMID:27033832

  3. Boundary value problems and medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of appropriate transform pairs, such as the Fourier, the Laplace, the sine, the cosine and the Mellin transforms, provides the most well known method for constructing analytical solutions to a large class of physically significant boundary value problems. However, this method has several limitations. In particular, it requires the given PDE, domain and boundary conditions to be separable, and also may not be applicable if the given boundary value problem is non-self-adjoint. Furthermore, it expresses the solution as either an integral or an infinite series, neither of which are uniformly convergent on the boundary of the domain (for nonvanishing boundary conditions), which renders such expressions unsuitable for numerical computations. Here, we review a method recently introduced by the first author which can be applied to certain nonseparable and non-self-adjoint problems. Furthermore, this method expresses the solution as an integral in the complex plane which is uniformly convergent on the boundary of the domain. This method, which also suggests new numerical techniques, is illustrated for both evolution and elliptic PDEs. Athough this method was first applied to certain nonlinear PDEs called integrable and was originally formulated in terms of the so-called Lax pairs, it can actually be applied to linear PDEs without the need to analyse the associated Lax pair. The existence of Lax pairs is used here in order to motivate a related development, namely the emergence of a novel formalism for analysing certain inverse problems arising in medical imaging. Examples include PET and SPECT

  4. Selecting One of Several Mating Types through Gene Segment Joining and Deletion in Tetrahymena thermophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Marcella D.; Hamilton, Eileen P.; Xiong, Jie; Lawson, Michael J.; Yuan, Dongxia; Hadjithomas, Michalis; Miao, Wei; Orias, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    The unicellular eukaryote Tetrahymena thermophila has seven mating types. Cells can mate only when they recognize cells of a different mating type as non-self. As a ciliate, Tetrahymena separates its germline and soma into two nuclei. During growth the somatic nucleus is responsible for all gene transcription while the germline nucleus remains silent. During mating, a new somatic nucleus is differentiated from a germline nucleus and mating type is decided by a stochastic process. We report here that the somatic mating type locus contains a pair of genes arranged head-to-head. Each gene encodes a mating type-specific segment and a transmembrane domain that is shared by all mating types. Somatic gene knockouts showed both genes are required for efficient non-self recognition and successful mating, as assessed by pair formation and progeny production. The germline mating type locus consists of a tandem array of incomplete gene pairs representing each potential mating type. During mating, a complete new gene pair is assembled at the somatic mating type locus; the incomplete genes of one gene pair are completed by joining to gene segments at each end of germline array. All other germline gene pairs are deleted in the process. These programmed DNA rearrangements make this a fascinating system of mating type determination. PMID:23555191

  5. Medial cortex activity, self-reflection and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marcia K; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan; Mitchell, Karen J; Levin, Yael

    2009-12-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated neural activity associated with self-reflection in depressed [current major depressive episode (MDE)] and healthy control participants, focusing on medial cortex areas previously shown to be associated with self-reflection. Both the MDE and healthy control groups showed greater activity in anterior medial cortex (medial frontal gyrus, anterior cingulate gyrus) when cued to think about hopes and aspirations compared with duties and obligations, and greater activity in posterior medial cortex (precuneus, posterior cingulate) when cued to think about duties and obligations (Experiment 1). However, the MDE group showed less activity than controls in the same area of medial frontal cortex when self-referential cues were more ambiguous with respect to valence (Experiment 2), and less deactivation in a non-self-referential condition in both experiments. Furthermore, individual differences in rumination were positively correlated with activity in both anterior and posterior medial cortex during non-self-referential conditions. These results provide converging evidence for a dissociation of anterior and posterior medial cortex depending on the focus of self-relevant thought. They also provide neural evidence consistent with behavioral findings that depression is associated with disruption of positively valenced thoughts in response to ambiguous cues, and difficulty disengaging from self-reflection when it is appropriate to do so. PMID:19620180

  6. Electronic structure of the actinide dioxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electronic properties of the fluorite structured actinide dioxides have been investigated using the linear muffin tin orbital method in the atomic sphere approximation. CaF2 with the same structure was also studied because of the relative simplicity of its electronic structure and the greater amount of experimental data available. Band structures were calculated both non self consistently and self consistently. In the non self consistent calculations the effect of changing the approximation to the exchange-correlation potential and the starting atomic configurations was examined. Using the concepts of canonical bands the effects of hybridization were investigated. In particular the 5f electrons included in the band picture were found to mix more strongly into the valence band than indicated by experiment. On this basis the 5f electrons were not included in self consistent calculations which in the density functional formalism are capable of yielding ground state properties. Because of the non participation of the f electrons in the bonding UO2 only was considered as representative of the actinide dioxides. For comparison CaF2 was also examined. Using Pettifor's pressure formula to determine the equilibrium condition the lattice constants were calculated to be 0.5% and 5% respectively below the experimental values. (author)

  7. Exosomes: The missing link between microchimerism and acquired tolerance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlingham, William J

    2014-01-01

    It has become increasingly clear that the immune system of viviparous mammals is much more in the business of acquiring tolerance to non-self antigens, than it is in rejecting cells that express them (for a recent review, highlighting the role of Treg cells, see ref. (1) ). It is also clear that both self-tolerance, and acquired tolerance to non-self is a dynamic process, with a natural ebb and flow. As has been often said of an effective team defense in sports, tolerance will "bend but does not break." How microchimerism, defined as the presence of extremely rare [1/10(4)-1/10(6)] cells of a genetically different individual, can induce either new immunogenetic pressures that push self-tolerance to the breaking point, or alternatively, provide relief from pre-existing immunogenetic risk, preventing development of autoimmune disease, remains a mystery. Indeed, the inability to directly correlate DNA-level microchimerism detected in blood samples by qPCR, with naturally occurring regulation to minor H and MHC alloantigens expressed by the rare cells themselves, has been frustrating to researchers in this field. (2) [Haynes, W.J. et al, this issue] However, recent developments in the areas of transplantation and reproductive immunology offer clues to how the effects of microchimerism can be amplified, and how a disproportionate immune impact might occur from a very limited cell source. PMID:26679558

  8. GW and Bethe-Salpeter study of small water clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blase, Xavier, E-mail: xavier.blase@neel.cnrs.fr; Boulanger, Paul [CNRS, Institut NEEL, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Bruneval, Fabien [CEA, DEN, Service de Recherches de Métallurgie Physique, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Fernandez-Serra, Marivi [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794-3800 (United States); Institute for Advanced Computational Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794-3800 (United States); Duchemin, Ivan [INAC, SP2M/L-Sim, CEA/UJF Cedex 09, 38054 Grenoble (France)

    2016-01-21

    We study within the GW and Bethe-Salpeter many-body perturbation theories the electronic and optical properties of small (H{sub 2}O){sub n} water clusters (n = 1-6). Comparison with high-level CCSD(T) Coupled-Cluster at the Single Double (Triple) levels and ADC(3) Green’s function third order algebraic diagrammatic construction calculations indicates that the standard non-self-consistent G{sub 0}W{sub 0}@PBE or G{sub 0}W{sub 0}@PBE0 approaches significantly underestimate the ionization energy by about 1.1 eV and 0.5 eV, respectively. Consequently, the related Bethe-Salpeter lowest optical excitations are found to be located much too low in energy when building transitions from a non-self-consistent G{sub 0}W{sub 0} description of the quasiparticle spectrum. Simple self-consistent schemes, with update of the eigenvalues only, are shown to provide a weak dependence on the Kohn-Sham starting point and a much better agreement with reference calculations. The present findings rationalize the theory to experiment possible discrepancies observed in previous G{sub 0}W{sub 0} and Bethe-Salpeter studies of bulk water. The increase of the optical gap with increasing cluster size is consistent with the evolution from gas to dense ice or water phases and results from an enhanced screening of the electron-hole interaction.

  9. Self-avoiding wormlike chain model for double-stranded-DNA loop formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollak, Yaroslav; Goldberg, Sarah; Amit, Roee

    2014-11-01

    We compute the effects of excluded volume on the probability for double-stranded DNA to form a loop. We utilize a Monte Carlo algorithm for generation of large ensembles of self-avoiding wormlike chains, which are used to compute the J factor for varying length scales. In the entropic regime, we confirm the scaling-theory prediction of a power-law drop off of -1.92 , which is significantly stronger than the -1.5 power law predicted by the non-self-avoiding wormlike chain model. In the elastic regime, we find that the angle-independent end-to-end chain distribution is highly anisotropic. This anisotropy, combined with the excluded volume constraints, leads to an increase in the J factor of the self-avoiding wormlike chain by about half an order of magnitude relative to its non-self-avoiding counterpart. This increase could partially explain the anomalous results of recent cyclization experiments, in which short dsDNA molecules were found to have an increased propensity to form a loop.

  10. Self-avoiding worm-like chain model for dsDNA loop formation

    CERN Document Server

    Pollak, Yaroslav; Amit, Roee

    2014-01-01

    We compute for the first time the effects of excluded volume on the probability for double-stranded DNA to form a loop. We utilize a Monte-Carlo algorithm for generation of large ensembles of self- avoiding worm-like chains, which are used to compute the J-factor for varying lengthscales. In the entropic regime, we confirm the scaling-theory prediction of a power-law drop off of -1.92, which is significantly stronger than the -1.5 power-law predicted by the non-self-avoiding worm-like chain model. In the elastic regime, we find that the angle-independent end-to-end chain distribution is highly anisotropic. This anisotropy, combined with the excluded volume constraints, lead to an increase in the J-factor of the self-avoiding worm-like chain by about half an order of magnitude relative to its non-self-avoiding counterpart. This increase could partially explain the anomalous results of recent cyclization experiments, in which short dsDNA molecules were found to have an increased propensity to form a loop.

  11. Metabolomics of reef benthic interactions reveals a bioactive lipid involved in coral defence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Robert A; Vermeij, Mark J A; Hartmann, Aaron C; Galtier d'Auriac, Ines; Benler, Sean; Haas, Andreas; Quistad, Steven D; Lim, Yan Wei; Little, Mark; Sandin, Stuart; Smith, Jennifer E; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Rohwer, Forest

    2016-04-27

    Holobionts are assemblages of microbial symbionts and their macrobial host. As extant representatives of some of the oldest macro-organisms, corals and algae are important for understanding how holobionts develop and interact with one another. Using untargeted metabolomics, we show that non-self interactions altered the coral metabolome more than self-interactions (i.e. different or same genus, respectively). Platelet activating factor (PAF) and Lyso-PAF, central inflammatory modulators in mammals, were major lipid components of the coral holobionts. When corals were damaged during competitive interactions with algae, PAF increased along with expression of the gene encoding Lyso-PAF acetyltransferase; the protein responsible for converting Lyso-PAF to PAF. This shows that self and non-self recognition among some of the oldest extant holobionts involve bioactive lipids identical to those in highly derived taxa like humans. This further strengthens the hypothesis that major players of the immune response evolved during the pre-Cambrian. PMID:27122568

  12. Rossby Wave Instability with Self-Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Lovelace, R V E

    2012-01-01

    The Rossby wave instability (RWI) in non-self-gravitating discs can be triggered by a bump at a radius $r_0$ in the disc surface mass-density (which is proportional to the inverse potential vorticity). It gives rise to a growing non-axisymmetric perturbation [$\\propto \\exp(im\\phi)$, $m=1,2..$] in the vicinity of $r_0$ consisting of anticyclonic vortices which may facilitate planetesimal growth in protoplanetary discs. Here, we analyze a continuum of thin disc models ranging from self-gravitating to non-selfgravitating. The key quantities determining the stability/instability are: (1) the parameters of the bump (or depression) in the disc surface density, (2) the Toomre $Q$ parameter of the disc (a non-self-gravitating disc has $Q\\gg1$), and (3) the dimensionless azimuthal wavenumber of the perturbation $\\bar{k}_\\phi =mQh/r_0$, where $h$ is the half-thickness of the disc. For discs stable to axisymmetric perturbations ($Q>1$), the self-gravity has a significant role for $\\bar{k}_\\phi \\pi/2$ the self-gravity i...

  13. The immune system, natural autoantibodies and general homeostasis in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletaev, A; Boura, P

    2011-10-01

    It is generally accepted that the destination of the immune system is not only to discriminate between self and non-self but also to mount responses against non-self. During the last decades, it became evident that weak self-reactivity is a necessary condition for immune homeostasis. Natural self reactivity and the internal image created by autoantibodies, participate greatly to the maintenance of homeostasis. Under conditions of increased or altered antigenic pressure, the homeostatic status is disrupted and the organism becomes vulnerable to the emergence of diseases. "Immunculus" is the self-reactive and interconnected entity of the immune system, provided by a complicated network of natural autoantibobies of different specificity, as a mosaic picture. Quantitative changes in each part of the image are related to variations of expression of relative antigens. The immune system takes in account image information from the continuous screening of the antigenic status and compares between presented state and the desired (optimal) one. Substantial and prolonged deviations from the optimal state, triggers the induction of compensatory and reparative processes, aiming to restore molecular and functional homeostasis. So, natural autoimmunity through the ability of natural a-Abs to induce mechanisms of natural and acquired immunity, aims to prevent pathogenic processes and maintain or restore health status. PMID:24391407

  14. Inflammation and Cell Death in Age-Related Macular Degeneration: An Immunopathological and Ultrastructural Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardeljan, Christopher P; Ardeljan, Daniel; Abu-Asab, Mones; Chan, Chi-Chao

    2014-01-01

    The etiology of Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) remains elusive despite the characterization of many factors contributing to the disease in its late-stage phenotypes. AMD features an immune system in flux, as shown by changes in macrophage polarization with age, expression of cytokines and complement, microglial accumulation with age, etc. These point to an allostatic overload, possibly due to a breakdown in self vs. non-self when endogenous compounds and structures acquire the appearance of non-self over time. The result is inflammation and inflammation-mediated cell death. While it is clear that these processes ultimately result in degeneration of retinal pigment epithelium and photoreceptor, the prevalent type of cell death contributing to the various phenotypes is unknown. Both molecular studies as well as ultrastructural pathology suggest pyroptosis, and perhaps necroptosis, are the predominant mechanisms of cell death at play, with only minimal evidence for apoptosis. Herein, we attempt to reconcile those factors identified by experimental AMD models and integrate these data with pathology observed under the electron microscope-particularly observations of mitochondrial dysfunction, DNA leakage, autophagy, and cell death. PMID:25580276

  15. Plasticity of the β-trefoil protein fold in the recognition and control of invertebrate predators and parasites by a fungal defence system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Schubert

    Full Text Available Discrimination between self and non-self is a prerequisite for any defence mechanism; in innate defence, this discrimination is often mediated by lectins recognizing non-self carbohydrate structures and so relies on an arsenal of host lectins with different specificities towards target organism carbohydrate structures. Recently, cytoplasmic lectins isolated from fungal fruiting bodies have been shown to play a role in the defence of multicellular fungi against predators and parasites. Here, we present a novel fruiting body lectin, CCL2, from the ink cap mushroom Coprinopsis cinerea. We demonstrate the toxicity of the lectin towards Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster and present its NMR solution structure in complex with the trisaccharide, GlcNAcβ1,4[Fucα1,3]GlcNAc, to which it binds with high specificity and affinity in vitro. The structure reveals that the monomeric CCL2 adopts a β-trefoil fold and recognizes the trisaccharide by a single, topologically novel carbohydrate-binding site. Site-directed mutagenesis of CCL2 and identification of C. elegans mutants resistant to this lectin show that its nematotoxicity is mediated by binding to α1,3-fucosylated N-glycan core structures of nematode glycoproteins; feeding with fluorescently labeled CCL2 demonstrates that these target glycoproteins localize to the C. elegans intestine. Since the identified glycoepitope is characteristic for invertebrates but absent from fungi, our data show that the defence function of fruiting body lectins is based on the specific recognition of non-self carbohydrate structures. The trisaccharide specifically recognized by CCL2 is a key carbohydrate determinant of pollen and insect venom allergens implying this particular glycoepitope is targeted by both fungal defence and mammalian immune systems. In summary, our results demonstrate how the plasticity of a common protein fold can contribute to the recognition and control of antagonists by an innate

  16. Avian influenza A viruses in birds --an ecological, ornithological and virological view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleta, E F; Hergarten, G; Yilmaz, A

    2005-12-01

    Avian influenza A viruses (AIV) are the causative agents of the presently most important poultry disease. Ten countries in Asia and several other countries in Eastern Europe suffer high losses from the lethal effects of these viruses of the H5N1 subtype. AIV of other subtypes cause in additional countries severe losses. The threat to health and well-being of the avifauna, domestic poultry and possibly mammals including humans are worldwide of major concern. The European Union reacted with a complete import ban on untreated meat, eggs, poultry products as well as free-living and pet birds. Extensive surveillance of free-living birds and domestic poultry that is maintained in free-range and close to open waters were initiated in an attempt to gather information on the current status of infection with these viruses and to target appropriate countermeasures for the protection of domestic poultry (in-house keeping) and to safeguard food production for humans. Since the monitoring of free-living birds is labour-intensive, costly, and time-consuming, only birds should be included in the monitoring programme that harboured in the past most if not all influenza A viruses. The birds of the order Anatiformes, family Anatidae, subfamilies Anserinae and Anatinae, provided 65.9 % of all avian AIV isolates. The cosmopolitan Common Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) is the dominant species with the highest rate of isolations among all bird species. Second in frequency is the North-American Blue-winged Teal (Spatula discors). Consequently, free-living anatiform birds of the genera Anas and Spatula should comprise the main focus for the collection of cloacal and pharyngeal swabs. With the likely exception of the most recent H5N1 viruses, signs of disease were not recorded in AIV infected anatiform birds. AIV isolations were definitely less frequently obtained from birds of the orders Phasianiformes (including domestic chickens and turkeys), Charadriiformes (plovers and lapwings

  17. Molecular mimicry and clonal deletion: A fresh look.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Noel R

    2015-06-21

    In this article, I trace the historic background of clonal deletion and molecular mimicry, two major pillars underlying our present understanding of autoimmunity and autoimmune disease. Clonal deletion originated as a critical element of the clonal selection theory of antibody formation in order to explain tolerance of self. If we did have complete clonal deletion, there would be major voids, the infamous "black holes", in our immune repertoire. For comprehensive, protective adaptive immunity, full deletion is necessarily a rare event. Molecular mimicry, the sharing of epitopes among self and non-self antigens, is extraordinary common and provides the evidence that complete deletion of self-reactive clones is rare. If molecular mimicry were not common, protective adaptive immunity could not be all-encompassing. By taking a fresh look at these two processes together we can envision their evolutionary basis and understand the need for regulatory devices to prevent molecular mimicry from progressing to autoimmune disease. PMID:25172771

  18. Third minima in thorium and uranium isotopes in the self-consistent theory

    CERN Document Server

    McDonnell, J D; Sheikh, J A

    2013-01-01

    Background: Well-developed third minima, corresponding to strongly elongated and reflection-asymmetric shapes associated with di-molecular configurations, have been predicted in some non-self-consistent models to impact fission pathways of thorium and uranium isotopes. These predictions have guided the interpretation of resonances seen experimentally. On the other hand, self-consistent calculations consistently predict shallow third minima. Purpose: We study the isentropic potential energy surfaces of selected even-even thorium and uranium isotopes at several excitation energies. In order to understand the driving effects behind the presence of third minima, we study the interplay between pairing and shell effects. We also investigate the interpretation of third minima in terms of di-molecular (cluster) configurations. Methods: We use the finite-temperature superfluid nuclear density functional theory. We consider several Skyrme energy density functionals, including traditional functionals such as SkM* and a ...

  19. Endothelial cells promote the proliferation of lymphocytes partly through the Wnt pathway via LEF-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The function of T cells and B cells is to recognize specific 'non-self' antigens, during a process known as antigen presentation. Once they have identified an invader, the cells generate specific responses that are tailored to maximally eliminate specific pathogens or pathogen-infected cells. Endothelial cells (ECs) can trigger the activation of T cells through their class I and class II MHC molecules. In this study, we examined the effect of ECs on the proliferation of lymphocytes. We report that the proliferation of T and B cells can be improved by interaction with ECs. LEF-1 is one of the main molecular mediators in this process, and the inhibition of LEF-1 induces apoptosis. These results suggest that LEF-1 modulates positively the proliferation of lymphocytes induced by their interaction with ECs.

  20. La figura dell’antropologo, le necessità di assistenza familiare e la costruzione di una “casa della salute”. Progetto di ricerca e sensibilizzazione nel quartiere Savena di Bologna - The role of the anthropologist, the needs of family caring and the creation of the “health house”. Research and awareness project in Savena district - Bologna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Palmese

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The author presents her research and awareness project about family caring initiated in the Savena District, Bologna. Through this experience, the author has had the opportunity to disclose the development of non-self-sufficiency among the elderly creating the so-called “health house” within the home. Using this expression, she specifies the alteration of the physical space and the combination of life stories and expectations of three subjects who dwell in this space: the elderly, relatives and family assistant (“badante”. Outside the house, however, economic and political interests are increasing. The anthropologist has to be fully aware of these power dynamics and, above all, has to develop an educational and mediation activity in order to create more possibilities of expression for the individuals involved in the care relationship.

  1. Investigation of epididymal immunology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Zong-Liang

    2005-01-01

    Immunology is the study of the structure and function of the immune system. The immune system consists of an earlier-stage innate immunity and a later-stage adaptive immunity. The task of the immune system is to efficiently respond to non-self antigens and the invasion of pathogens, thereby protecting the host's homeostasis. This review article discusses the structure and function of the epididymis, including the composition of the epithelial cells of the epididymis and their relationship to the immune system, through the assessment of alterations in the immune cells of the epididymis. The review also shows the anti-inflammatory properties of rat epididymal defensin and the description of the blood-epididymis barrier, immune barrier, epididymitis and pathological mechanisms of infertility in males. Taken together, we see that the epididymis possesses a close link with immunology. Finally, this review discusses the future of studies involving epididymal immunology.

  2. Simulations of flux variability of oscillating accretion fluid tori around Kerr black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Bakala, Pavel; Šrámková, Eva; Kotrlová, Andrea; Török, Gabriel; Vincent, Frederic H; Abramowicz, Marek A

    2014-01-01

    High frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (HF QPOs) are observed in the X-ray power-density spectra (PDS) of several microquasars and low mass X-ray binaries. Many proposed QPO models are based on oscillations of accretion toroidal fluid structures orbiting in the vicinity of a compact object. We study oscillating accretion tori orbiting in the vicinity of a Kerr black hole. We demonstrate that significant variation of the observed flux can be caused by the combination of radial and vertical oscillation modes of a slender, polytropic, perfect fluid, non-self-graviting torus with constant specific angular momentum. We investigate two combinations of the oscillating modes corresponding to the direct resonance QPO model and the modified relativistic precession QPO model.

  3. Evolving Concepts: Immunity in Oncology from Targets to Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hina Khan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is associated with global immune suppression of the host. Malignancy-induced immune suppressive effect can be circumvented by blocking the immune checkpoint and tip the immune balance in favor of immune stimulation and unleash cytotoxic effects on cancer cells. Human antibodies directed against immune checkpoint proteins: cytotoxic T lymphocytes antigen-4 (CTLA-4 and programmed death-1 (PD-1, programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1, have shown therapeutic efficacy in advanced melanoma and non-small-cell lung cancer and other malignancies. Immune check point blockade antibodies lead to diminished tolerance to self and enhanced immune ability to recognize and eliminate cancer cells. As a class these agents have immune-related adverse events due to decreased ability of effector immune cells to discriminate between self and non-self. Seventy percent of patients participating in clinical trials have experienced anticancer activities and varying degrees of immune mediated dose-limiting side effects.

  4. Evolving Concepts: Immunity in Oncology from Targets to Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Hina; Gucalp, Rasim; Shapira, Iuliana

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is associated with global immune suppression of the host. Malignancy-induced immune suppressive effect can be circumvented by blocking the immune checkpoint and tip the immune balance in favor of immune stimulation and unleash cytotoxic effects on cancer cells. Human antibodies directed against immune checkpoint proteins: cytotoxic T lymphocytes antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death-1 (PD-1), programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), have shown therapeutic efficacy in advanced melanoma and non-small-cell lung cancer and other malignancies. Immune check point blockade antibodies lead to diminished tolerance to self and enhanced immune ability to recognize and eliminate cancer cells. As a class these agents have immune-related adverse events due to decreased ability of effector immune cells to discriminate between self and non-self. Seventy percent of patients participating in clinical trials have experienced anticancer activities and varying degrees of immune mediated dose-limiting side effects. PMID:26060497

  5. Band-gap corrected density functional theory calculations for InAs/GaSb type II superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We performed pseudopotential based density functional theory (DFT) calculations for GaSb/InAs type II superlattices (T2SLs), with bandgap errors from the local density approximation mitigated by applying an empirical method to correct the bulk bandgaps. Specifically, this work (1) compared the calculated bandgaps with experimental data and non-self-consistent atomistic methods; (2) calculated the T2SL band structures with varying structural parameters; (3) investigated the interfacial effects associated with the no-common-atom heterostructure; and (4) studied the strain effect due to lattice mismatch between the two components. This work demonstrates the feasibility of applying the DFT method to more exotic heterostructures and defect problems related to this material system

  6. Security framework for networked storage system based on artificial immune system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianzhong; Xie, Changsheng; Zhang, Chengfeng; Zhan, Ling

    2007-11-01

    This paper proposed a theoretical framework for the networked storage system addressing the storage security. The immune system is an adaptive learning system, which can recognize, classify and eliminate 'non-self' such as foreign pathogens. Thus, we introduced the artificial immune technique to the storage security research, and proposed a full theoretical framework for storage security system. Under this framework, it is possible to carry out the quantitative evaluation for the storage security system using modeling language of artificial immune system (AIS), and the evaluation can offer security consideration for the deployment of networked storage system. Meanwhile, it is potential to obtain the active defense technique suitable for networked storage system via exploring the principle of AIS and achieve a highly secure storage system with immune characteristic.

  7. 'Legenda' vacuum-plasma complex for technological surface treatment of metalware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes a vacuum-plasma complex for highly efficient technological ion-plasma metalware surface treatment that includes cleaning, etching, polishing, nitriding, doping and implantation with gas ions, and deposition of thin hydrocarbon films. The technological vacuum-plasma complex is based on a high-efficiency low-temperature gas discharge plasma generator with a hollow cathode in which the latter is the inner surface a large-volume cylindrical vacuum chamber. Uniformly distributed high-density gas discharge plasma is generated due to a steady-state non-self-sustained low-pressure arc gas discharge with a cathode consisting of two combined (thermionic and hollow) units located on diametrically opposite flanges of the vacuum chamber. (authors)

  8. 实用写作思维特质及教学策略分析%Practical Writing Thinking Characteristics and Teaching Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任艳洁

    2012-01-01

    To master practical writing law of thinking is the core and key to improve the practical writing skills. With the features of practicality, logic, pattern and non-self. Practical writing thinking plays an role of conversion and cultivation of the awareness of role to improve students' practical writing skills.%掌握实用写作思维规律,是提高实用写作水平的核心和关键。实用写作思维具有实用性、逻辑性、模式性、非我性的特点。在实践教学中,通过对"角色"意识的转换与培养,通过思维、语言、写作训练切实提高学生的实用写作能力。

  9. Electrical Conductivity Of Carbon Pellets Prepared From Mixtures Of Pyropolymers From Oil Palm Bunches and Petroleum Green Coke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deraman, M.; Awitdrus, Talib, I. A.; Omar, R.; Jumali, M. H.; Ishak, M. M.; Saad, S. K. M.; Taer, E.; Saman, M. M.; Farma, R.; Yunus, R. M.

    2010-12-01

    Green pellets (GPs), prepared at different compression pressures (cs = 6, 7.5 and 12 metric tonne) from mixtures containing self-adhesive carbon grains (sacg) from the oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) and different percentages (pr = 0 to 90%) of a non self-adhesive powder of petroleum green coke (ppgc), were carbonized (800° C) and activated with CO2 to produce carbon pellets (CPs). The measured electrical conductivity (σ) of the CP for all cs showed a curve having a minimum value at pr around 50%, indicating that the conducting phase displays a nonlinear σ- pr relationship. A significant increase in the σ due to CO2 activation was observed. For a sufficienctly high cs, an existence of a pr range in which the σ varies linearly with the density was also observed. These results provide some new information for modifying the electrical conductivity of carbon derived from the sacg from EFB or other types of biomass.

  10. Dynamic psychiatry and the treatment of anorexia psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Ann-Louise S; White, Janice

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic psychotherapy of psychosis works through gradually diminishing terror, replacing this with a clearer and shared understanding of the patient's life history, its traumas and its strengths. It is diametrically opposed to our current push for efficiency and an assumption of an underlying brain disorder that responds to our current medications. Over the course of a long treatment, this patient became a scholar of psychoanalytic contributions to understanding psychosis and is now a philosopher of this field, developing an understanding of anorexia psychosis. She draws on the writings of Freud, Bion, Lacan, and Julian Jaynes, placing the core of psychosis not in primary process but in a preceding, non-self phase of development. She relates this individual development to the history of human development. PMID:21434743

  11. Asymptotic analysis, polarization matrices and topological derivatives for piezoelectric materials with small voids

    CERN Document Server

    Cardone, G; Sokolowski, J

    2009-01-01

    Asymptotic formulae for the mechanical and electric fields in a piezoelectric body with a small void are derived and justified. Such results are new and useful for applications in the field of design of smart materials. In this way the topological derivatives of shape functionals are obtained for piezoelectricity. The asymptotic formulae are given in terms of the so-called polarization tensors (matrices) which are determined by the integral characteristics of voids. The distinguished feature of the piezoelectricity boundary value problems under considerations is the absence of positive definiteness of an differential operator which is non self-adjoint. Two specific Gibbs' functionals of the problem are defined by the energy and the electric enthalpy. The topological derivatives are defined in different manners for each of the governing functionals. Actually, the topological derivative of the enthalpy functional is local i.e., defined by the pointwise values of the governing fields, in contrary to the energy f...

  12. A non-linear discrete transform for pattern recognition of discrete chaotic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Karanikas, C

    2003-01-01

    It is shown, by an invertible non-linear discrete transform that any finite sequence or any collection of strings of any length can be presented as a random walk on trees. These transforms create the mathematical background for coding any information, for exploring its local variability and diversity. With the underlying computational algorithms, with several examples and applications we propose that these transforms can be used for pattern recognition of immune type. In other words we propose a mathematical platform for detecting self and non-self strings of any alphabet, based on a negative selection algorithms, for scouting data's periodicity and self-similarity and for measuring the diversity of chaotic strings with fractal dimension methods. In particular we estimate successfully the entropy and the ratio of chaotic data with self similarity. Moreover we give some applications of a non-linear denoising filter.

  13. The Origin of Keplerian Megamaser Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Wardle, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Several examples of thin, Keplerian, sub-parsec megamaser disks have been discovered in the nuclei of active galaxies and used to precisely determine the mass of their host black holes. We show that there is an empirical linear correlation between the disk radius and black hole mass and that such disks are naturally formed as molecular clouds pass through the galactic nucleus and temporarily engulf the central supermassive black hole. For initial cloud column densities below about 10^{23.5} cm^{-2} the disk is non-self gravitating, but for higher cloud columns the disk would fragment and produce a compact stellar disk similar to that observed around Sgr A* at the galactic centre.

  14. C1q binding and complement activation by prions and amyloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Robert B; Kishore, Uday; Villiers, Christian L; Marche, Patrice N; Mitchell, Daniel A

    2007-01-01

    C1q binds to many non-self and altered-self-materials. These include microorganisms, immune complexes, apoptotic and necrotic cells and their breakdown products, and amyloids. C1q binding to amyloid fibrils found as extracellular deposits in tissues, and subsequent complement activation are involved in the pathology of several amyloid diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease. Prion diseases, such as scrapie also involve formation of amyloid by polymerization of the host prion protein (PrP). Complement activation is likely to contribute to neuronal damage in the end stages of prion diseases, but is also thought to participate in the initial infection, dissemination and replication stages. Infectious prion particles are likely to bind C1q and activate the complement system. Bound complement proteins may then influence the uptake and transport of prion particles by dendritic cells (DCs) and their subsequent proliferation at sites such as follicular DCs. PMID:17544820

  15. Magnetohydrodynamic stability of plasmas with radial motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stability of a screw-pinch plasma with radial motion is explored. The linear theory of ideal magnetohydrodynamic (NHD) stability for stationary equilibrium has been generalized to include radial motion. This generalization results in the force operator, F, being non-self-adjoint and the widely used energy principle being no longer useful in this case. Because of this, a set of seven complex, first-order, simultaneous ordinary differential equations needs to be solved to determine the stability. The equations are solved subject to appropriate boundary conditions using the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg. The eigenvalues for the set of equations are also complex, with the imaginary part of the eigenvalue corresponding to the exponential growth or decay of the instability. While the method derived can be used for any cylindrical equilibrium profiles, the results will be presented for imploding screw-pinch plasmas

  16. A Fourier series solution for the longitudinal vibrations of a bar with viscous boundary conditions at each end

    CERN Document Server

    Jovanovic, Vojin

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the generalized Fourier series solution for the longitudinal vibrations of a bar subjected to viscous boundary conditions at each end. The model of the system produces a non-self-adjoint eigenvalue-like problem which does not yield orthogonal eigenfunctions. Therefore, these functions cannot be used to calculate the coefficients of expansion in the Fourier series. Furthermore, the eigenfunctions and eigenvalues are complex valued. Nevertheless, the eigenfunctions can be utilized if the space of the wave operator is extended and a suitable inner product is defined. It is further demonstrated that the series solution contains the solutions for free-free, fixed-damper and fixed-free bar cases. The presented procedure is applicable in general to other problems of this type. As an illustration of the theoretical discussion, the results from numerical simulations are presented.

  17. A multi-level method for transmission eigenvalues of anisotropic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xia; Sun, Jiguang

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a multi-level finite element method for the transmission eigenvalue problem of anisotropic media. The problem is non-standard and non-self-adjoint with important applications in inverse scattering theory. We employ a suitable finite element method to discretize the problem. The resulting generalized matrix eigenvalue problem is large, sparse and non-Hermitian. To compute the smallest real transmission eigenvalue, which is usually an interior eigenvalue, we devise a multi-level method using Arnoldi iteration. At the coarsest mesh, the eigenvalue is obtained using Arnoldi iteration with an adaptive searching technique. This value is used as the initial guess for Arnoldi iteration at the next mesh level. This procedure is then repeated until the finest mesh level. Numerical examples are presented to show the viability of the method.

  18. Turbulence and self-consistent fields in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is concerned with the role of self-consistency of the electric field in 1-D plasma turbulence. We first show that in the non-self consistent electric field problem excellent agreement is found between numerical experiments and quasilinear theory whenever the imposed electric field Fourier components have random phase. A discrepancy is exhibited between quasilinear prediction and numerical simulations in the self-consistent electric field case. This discrepancy is explained by the creation of a long correlation time of the electric field resulting from a strong wave-particle interaction. A comparison is made between quasilinear and renormalized propagator theories, and the Dupree Clump theory. These three theories are found to be self-contradictory in the regime of strong wave-particle interaction because they make an a priori quasigaussian assumption for the electric field

  19. Research of Anti-spam System Basing on Immunity System and Mobile Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUI Bei; WU Yue; JI Lin; CHEN Jia

    2007-01-01

    The human immune system has the function of self-discern.It can identify the non-self antigen and clear it through the immune response automatically.So,human body has the power of resisting disease.The anti-spam system basing on immune system is proposed by using immune system's theory,and it is introduced in the mail service of enterprise VPN.Regard VPN as the human body,the mobile agent is simulated the antibody because of its movable and intelligent,and the spam is simulated the antigen.It can clear the spam by using immune mechanism.This method is a new thinking of anti-spam mail.The advantage is overcoming the weakness on independence of traditional anti-spam system.

  20. Local stabilizer codes in 3D without string logical operators

    CERN Document Server

    Haah, Jeongwan

    2011-01-01

    We suggest concrete models for self-correcting quantum memory by reporting examples of local stabilizer codes in 3D that have no string logical operators. Previously known local stabilizer codes in 3D all have string-like logical operators, which make the codes non-self-correcting. We introduce an algebraic definition of "logical string segments" to avoid difficulties in defining one dimensional objects in discrete lattices. We prove that every string-like logical operator of our code can be deformed to a disjoint union of short segments, and each segment is in the stabilizer group. The code has surface-like logical operators whose partial implementation has unsatisfied stabilizers along its boundary.

  1. Comparing Gaseous and Stellar Orbits in a Spiral Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez, Gilberto C; Martos, Marco A

    2013-01-01

    It is generally assumed that gas in a galactic disk follows closely non self-intersecting periodic stellar orbits. In order to test this common assumption, we have performed MHD simulations of a galactic-like disk under the influence of a spiral galactic potential. We also have calculated the actual orbit of a gas parcel and compared it to stable periodic stellar orbits in the same galactic potential and position. We found that the gaseous orbits approach periodic stellar orbits far from the major orbital resonances only. Gas orbits initialized at a given galactocentric distance but at different azimuths can be different, and scattering is conspicuous at certain galactocentric radii. Also, in contrast to the stellar behaviour, near the 4:1 (or higher order) resonance the gas follows nearly circular orbits, with much shorter radial excursions than the stars. Also, since the gas does not settle into a steady state, the gaseous orbits do not necessarily close on themselves.

  2. Calculation of positron characteristics for elements of the periodic table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron characteristics have been calculated in bulk and monovacancies for most of the elements of the periodic table. Self-consistent and non-self-consistent schemes have been used for the calculation of the electronic structure in the solid, and different parametrizations for the positron enhancement factor and correlation energy. As it is known, positron lifetimes in bulk show a periodic behaviour with atomic number. These calculations also confirm that monovacancy lifetimes follow the same behaviour. The results obtained have been compared with selected experimental lifetime data, which confirms the calculated theoretical trends. Positron binding energies to a monovacancy have been calculated also for most of the elements of the periodic table. The binding energy shows a periodic behaviour with atomic number too.

  3. Positron lifetime calculation for the elements of the periodic table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical positron lifetime values have been calculated systematically for most of the elements of the periodic table. Self-consistent and non-self-consistent schemes have been used for the calculation of the electronic structure in the solid, as well as different parametrizations for the positron enhancement factor and correlation energy. The results obtained have been studied and compared with experimental data, confirming the theoretical trends. As is known, positron lifetimes in bulk show a periodic behaviour with atomic number. These calculations also confirm that monovacancy lifetimes follow the same behaviour. The effects of enhancement factors used in calculations have been commented upon. Finally, we have analysed the effects that f and d electrons have on positron lifetimes

  4. Self-starting stable coherent mode-locking in a two-section laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipov, R. M.; Arkhipov, M. V.; Babushkin, I.

    2016-02-01

    Coherent mode-locking (CML) uses self-induced transparency (SIT) soliton formation to achieve, in contrast to conventional schemes based on absorption saturation, the pulse durations below the limit allowed by the gain line width. Despite the great promise it is difficult to realize it experimentally because a complicated setup is required. In all previous theoretical considerations CML is believed to be non-self-starting. In this paper we show that if the cavity length is selected properly, a very stable (CML) regime can be realized in an elementary two-section ring-cavity geometry, and this regime is self-developing from the non-lasing state. The stability of the pulsed regime is the result of a dynamical stabilization mechanism arising due to finite-cavity-size effects.

  5. Novel assay to measure the plasmid mobilizing potential of mixed microbial communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klümper, Uli; Droumpali, Ariadni; Dechesne, Arnaud;

    2014-01-01

    Mobilizable plasmids lack necessary genes for complete conjugation and are therefore non-self-transmissible. Instead, they rely on the conjugation system of conjugal plasmids to be horizontally transferred to new recipients. While community permissiveness, the fraction of a mixed microbial...... community that can receive self-transmissible conjugal plasmids, has been studied, the intrinsic ability of a community to mobilize plasmids that lack conjugation systems is unexplored. Here, we present a novel framework and experimental method to estimate the mobilization potential of mixed communities. We...... compare the transfer frequency of a mobilizable plasmid to that of a mobilizing and conjugal plasmid measured for a model strain and for the assayed community. With Pseudomonas putida carrying the gfp-tagged mobilizable RSF1010 plasmid as donor strain, we conducted solid surface mating experiments...

  6. Modelling of associating mixtures for applications in the oil & gas and chemical industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Folas, Georgios; Muro Sunè, Nuria;

    2007-01-01

    Thermodynamic properties and phase equilibria of associating mixtures cannot often be satisfactorily modelled using conventional models such as cubic equations of state. CPA (cubic-plus-association) is an equation of state (EoS), which combines the SRK EoS with the association term of SAFT. For non......-polar (non self-associating) compounds it reduces to SRK. The model was first published in 1996 and since then it has been developed and applied with success to binary systems containing water-alkanes and alcohol/glycol/acid-alkanes (both VLE and LLE) as well as ternary and multicomponent (V)LLE for water...... of the model of relevance to the petroleum and chemical industries: high pressure vapor-liquid and liquid-liquid equilibrium in alcohol-containing mixtures, mixtures with gas hydrate inhibitors and mixtures with polar and hydrogen bonding chemicals including organic acids. Some comparisons with conventional...

  7. Self-interaction effects on charge-transfer collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Quashie, Edwin E; Andrade, Xavier; Correa, Alfredo A

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the role of the self-interaction error in the simulation of collisions using time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) and Ehrenfest dynamics. We compare many different approximations of the exchange and correlation potential, using as a test system the collision of $\\mathrm{H^+ + CH_4}$ at $30~\\mathrm{eV}$. We find that semi-local approximations, like PBE, and even hybrid functionals, like B3LYP, produce qualitatively incorrect predictions for the scattering of the proton. This discrepancy appears because the self-interaction error allows the electrons to jump too easily to the proton, leading to radically different forces with respect to the non-self-interacting case. From our results, we conclude that using a functional that is self-interaction free is essential to properly describe charge-transfer collisions between ions and molecules in TDDFT.

  8. A Generative Statistical Algorithm for Automatic Detection of Complex Postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Stanislav; Goessling, Marc; Amit, Yali; Biron, David

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents a method for automated detection of complex (non-self-avoiding) postures of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and its application to analyses of locomotion defects. Our approach is based on progressively detailed statistical models that enable detection of the head and the body even in cases of severe coilers, where data from traditional trackers is limited. We restrict the input available to the algorithm to a single digitized frame, such that manual initialization is not required and the detection problem becomes embarrassingly parallel. Consequently, the proposed algorithm does not propagate detection errors and naturally integrates in a "big data" workflow used for large-scale analyses. Using this framework, we analyzed the dynamics of postures and locomotion of wild-type animals and mutants that exhibit severe coiling phenotypes. Our approach can readily be extended to additional automated tracking tasks such as tracking pairs of animals (e.g., for mating assays) or different species. PMID:26439258

  9. VFT insulation coordination study of a 400 kV GIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olason, Daniel; Ebdrup, Thomas; Bak, Claus Leth;

    2014-01-01

    .dk) is in the process of constructing a new gas insulated substation (GIS) in Revsing. As a part of this process, new Eagle pylons will replace some of the existing Donau pylons. The new Eagle type pylon is meant to reduce the visual impact of transmission lines. The reliability of the substation in...... Revsing is of great importance as it is part of the 400 kV systems backbone between Sweden, Norway, Germany and the offshore windfarms in Horns Rev. The design of the insulation coordination for GIS must therefore be studied carefully. During a disconnector operation in GIS, very fast transient (VFT) may...... generate overvoltages (VFTO) inside the enclosure. Because the gas insulated system must be viewed as non-self-restoring, it is important to ensure that the voltage inside the GIS does not exceed the insulation strength. This must therefore be accounted for, when conducting an insulation coordination study...

  10. The Driving of Decretion by Maxwell Stress in Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Hubbard, Alexander; Oishi, Jeffrey S; Lyra, Wladimir; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark

    2014-01-01

    Radial magnetic fields that resist orbital shear can explain the outwards angular momentum transport required for accretion in non-self-gravitating disks. This generates azimuthal magnetic fields and thus Maxwell stresses that transfer angular momentum radially. Variations on this idea include both the magnetorotational instability and disk winds. We demonstrate here that these transport mechanisms generate dynamically significant radial Poynting flux, so they are inherently not local. Simulations treating this problem typically use either the shear-periodic, shearing sheet approximation, or disk annuli with artificial radial boundary conditions. Spurious energy flows through these boundaries generally control the magnitude and even the sign of angular momentum transport. We then demonstrate that, when dominated by radial stresses, shearing sheets must decrete, as must self-similar regions of disks with power-law variations in physical quantities. Only the innermost edge of the disk, where magnetic energy inc...

  11. Differentiation of the functional in an optimization problem for diffusion and convective transfer coefficients of elliptic imperfect contact interface problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manapova, Aigul

    2016-08-01

    We consider optimal control problems for second order elliptic equations with non-self-adjoint operators-convection-diffusion problems. Control processes are described by semi-linear convection-diffusion equation with discontinuous data and solutions (states) subject to the boundary interface conditions of imperfect type (i.e., problems with a jump of the coefficients and the solution on the interface; the jump of the solution is proportional to the normal component of the flux). Controls are involved in the coefficients of diffusion and convective transfer. We prove differentiability and Lipshitz continuity of the cost functional, depending on a state of the system and a control. The calculation of the gradients uses the numerical solutions of direct problems for the state and adjoint problems.

  12. Optimal Hedging and Pricing of Equity-Linked Life Insurance Contracts in a Discrete-Time Incomplete Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Josephy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a method of optimal hedging and pricing of equity-linked life insurance products in an incomplete discrete-time financial market. A pure endowment life insurance contract with guarantee is used as an example. The financial market incompleteness is caused by the assumption that the underlying risky asset price ratios are distributed in a compact interval, generalizing the assumptions of multinomial incomplete market models. For a range of initial hedging capitals for the embedded financial option, we numerically solve an optimal hedging problem and determine a risk-return profile of each optimal non-self-financing hedging strategy. The fair price of the insurance contract is determined according to the insurer's risk-return preferences. Illustrative numerical results of testing our algorithm on hypothetical insurance contracts are documented. A discussion and a test of a hedging strategy recalibration technique for long-term contracts are presented.

  13. Energetics of the AK13 Semi-Local Kohn-Sham Exchange Energy Functional

    CERN Document Server

    Lindmaa, A

    2016-01-01

    The recent non-empirical semi-local exchange functional of Armiento and K\\"ummel, the AK13 [PRL 111, 036402 (2013)] incorporates a number of features reproduced by higher-order theory. The AK13 potential behaves analogously with the discontinuous jump associated with the derivative discontinuity at integer particle numbers. Recent works have established that AK13 gives a qualitatively improved orbital description compared to other semi-local methods, and reproduces a band structure closer to higher-order theory. However, its energies and energetics are inaccurate. The present work further investigates the deficiency in energetics. In addition to AK13 results, we find that applying the local-density approximation (LDA) non-self-consistently on the converged AK13 density gives very reasonable energetics with equilibrium lattice constants and bulk moduli well described across 14 systems. We also confirm that the attractive orbital features of AK13 are retained even after full structural relaxation. Hence, the de...

  14. Stability analysis of thermo-acoustic nonlinear eigenproblems in annular combustors. Part I. Sensitivity

    CERN Document Server

    Magri, Luca; Juniper, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    We present an adjoint-based method for the calculation of eigenvalue perturbations in nonlinear, degenerate and non self-adjoint eigenproblems. This method is applied to a thermo-acoustic annular combustor network, the stability of which is governed by a nonlinear eigenproblem. We calculate the first- and second-order sensitivities of the growth rate and frequency to geometric, flow and flame parameters. Three different configurations are analysed. The benchmark sensitivities are obtained by finite difference, which involves solving the nonlinear eigenproblem at least as many times as the number of parameters. By solving only one adjoint eigenproblem, we obtain the sensitivities to any thermo-acoustic parameter, which match the finite-difference solutions at much lower computational cost.

  15. Supercurrent and the Adler-Bardeen theorem in coupled supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We construct the supercurrent and a supersymmetric current which satisfies the Adler-Bardeen theorem in supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory coupled to non-self-interacting chiral matter. Using the formulation recently developed by Grisaru, Milewski, and Zanon, supersymmetry and gauge invariance are maintained with supersymmetric background-field theory and regularization by dimensional reduction. We verify the finiteness of the supercurrent to one loop, and the Adler-Bardeen theorem to two loops by explicit calculations in the minimal-subtraction scheme. We then demonstrate the subtraction-scheme independence of the one-loop Adler-Bardeen anomaly and prove the existence of a subtraction scheme in which the Adler-Bardeen theorem is satisfied to all orders in perturbation theory

  16. Application of the cubic-plus-association (CPA) equation of state to model the fluid phase behaviour of binary mixtures of water and tetrahydrofuran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herslund, Peter Jørgensen; Thomsen, Kaj; Abildskov, Jens;

    2013-01-01

    The complex fluid phase behaviour, of the binary system comprised of water and tetrahydrofuran (THF) is modelled by use of the cubic-plus-association (CPA) equation of state. A total of seven modelling approaches are analysed, differing only in their way of describing THF and its interactions...... (hydrogen bonding) with water.The qualitative behaviour of the fluid phase equilibria in this system can only be described by CPA when cross-association between water and THF is allowed.Six of the seven tested modelling scenarios allow for cross-association between the two compounds. These scenarios are...... named Case 2 to Case 7. Case 2 treats THF as non self-associating, but applies a single association site on the THF oxygen atom, that allows for cross-linking with a single water molecule. Case 3 is identical to Case 2 but applies two association sites on THF, allowing for simultaneous cross...

  17. The Riemann zeros as spectrum and the Riemann hypothesis

    CERN Document Server

    Sierra, German

    2016-01-01

    We review a series of works whose aim is to provide a spectral realization of the Riemann zeros and that culminate in a physicist's proof of the Riemann hypothesis. These results are obtained analyzing the spectrum of the Hamiltonian of a massless Dirac fermion in a region of Rindler spacetime that contains moving mirrors whose accelerations are related to the prime numbers. We show that a zero on the critical line becomes an eigenvalue of the Hamiltonian in the limit where the mirrors become transparent, and the self-adjoint extension of the Hamiltonian is adjusted accordingly with the phase of the zeta function. We have also considered the spectral realization of zeros off the critical line using a non self-adjoint operator, but its properties imply that those zeros do not exist. In the derivation of these results we made several assumptions that need to be established more rigorously.

  18. A pediatric non-protein losing Menetrier's disease successfully treated with octreotide long acting release

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giovanni Di Nardo; Salvatore Oliva; Marina Aloi; Federica Ferrari; Simone Frediani; Adriana Marcheggiano; Salvatore Cucchiara

    2012-01-01

    Pediatric Menetrier's disease (MD) is an uncommon,acute,self-limited hypertrophic gastropathy characterized by enlarged gastric folds associated with epithelial hyperplasia and usually accompanied by protein losing gastropathy.Gastric cytomegalovirus infection is found in one third of MD children and its treatment is often associated with remission.Diagnosis often requires fullthickness biopsy due to inability to detect typical histological findings with conventional endoscopic biopsy.We report an uncommon case of non self-limited pediatric MD needing endoscopic mucosal resection for diagnosis which was then successfully treated with octreotide long-acting release (LAR).To the best of our knowledge,this is the first pediatric MD case successfully treated with octreotide LAR.Our experience suggests octreotide LAR as treatment for refractory MD before gastrectomy.

  19. Pure gravities via color-kinematics duality for fundamental matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Henrik; Ochirov, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    We give a prescription for the computation of loop-level scattering amplitudes in pure Einstein gravity, and four-dimensional pure supergravities, using the color-kinematics duality. Amplitudes are constructed using double copies of pure (super-)Yang-Mills parts and additional contributions from double copies of fundamental matter, which are treated as ghosts. The opposite-statistics states cancel the unwanted dilaton and axion in the bosonic theory, as well as the extra matter supermultiplets in the supergravity theories. As a spinoff, we obtain a prescription for obtaining amplitudes in supergravities with arbitrary non-self-interacting matter. As a prerequisite, we extend the color-kinematics duality from the adjoint to the fundamental representation of the gauge group. We explain the numerator relations that the fundamental kinematic Lie algebra should satisfy. We give nontrivial evidence supporting our construction using explicit tree and loop amplitudes, as well as more general arguments.

  20. Phase diagram for interacting Bose gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a modified form of the inversion method in terms of a self-energy expansion to access the phase diagram of the Bose-Einstein transition. The dependence of the critical temperature on the interaction parameter is calculated. This is discussed with the help of a condition for Bose-Einstein condensation in interacting systems which follows from the pole of the T matrix in the same way as from the divergence of the medium-dependent scattering length. A many-body approximation consisting of screened ladder diagrams is proposed, which describes the Monte Carlo data more appropriately. The specific results are that a non-self-consistent T matrix leads to a linear coefficient in leading order of 4.7, the screened ladder approximation to 2.3, and the self-consistent T matrix due to the effective mass to a coefficient of 1.3 close to the Monte Carlo data

  1. Cyclodextrin-Based [1]Rotaxanes on Gold Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Zhao

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Transformation of mechanically interlocked molecules (e.g., rotaxanes and catenanes into nanoscale materials or devices is an important step towards their real applications. In our current work, an azobenzene-modified β-cyclodextrin (β-CD derivative that can form a self-inclusion complex in aqueous solution was prepared. The self-included β-CD derivative was then functionalized onto a gold nanoparticle (AuNP surface via a ligand-exchange reaction in aqueous solution, leading to the formation of AuNP-[1]rotaxane hybrids. Corresponding non-self-included β-CD derivative functionalized AuNPs were also developed in a DMF/H2O mixture solution for control experiments. These hybrids were fully characterized by UV-vis and circular dichroism spectroscopies, together with transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The competitive binding behavior of the hybrids with an adamantane dimer was investigated.

  2. Interacting fields of arbitrary spin and N > 4 supersymmetric self-dual Yang-Mills equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that the self-dual Yang-Mills equations afford supersymmetrization to systems of equations invariant under global N-extended super-Poincare transformations for arbitrary values of N, without the limitation (N ≤ 4) applicable to standard non-self-dual Yang-Mills theories. These systems of equations provide novel classically consistent interactions for vector supermultiplets containing fields of spin up to N-2/2. The equations of motion of the component fields of spin greater than 1/2 are interacting variants of the first-order Dirac-Fierz equations for zero rest-mass fields of arbitrary spin. The interactions are governed by conserved currents which are constructed by an iterative procedure. In (arbitrarily extended) chiral superspace, the equations of motion for the (arbitrarily large) self-dual supermultiplet are shown to be completely equivalent to the set of algebraic supercurvature defining the self-dual superconnection. (author). 25 refs

  3. Exponential Galaxy Disks from Stellar Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Elmegreen, Bruce G

    2013-01-01

    Stellar scattering off of orbiting or transient clumps is shown to lead to the formation of exponential profiles in both surface density and velocity dispersion in a two-dimensional non-self gravitating stellar disk with a fixed halo potential. The exponential forms for both nearly-flat rotation curves and near-solid body rotation curves. The exponential does not depend on initial conditions, spiral arms, bars, viscosity, star formation, or strong shear. After a rapid initial development, the exponential saturates to an approximately fixed scale length. The inner exponential in a two-component profile has a break radius comparable to the initial disk radius; the outer exponential is primarily scattered stars.

  4. Particle trajectories around a running cylinder or a sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The movement of fluid particles around a running cylinder or a sphere is considered. Particle trajectories viewed from a fixed object are contours of the stream function and well known in many cases. Here, we are concerned with trajectories viewed from the absolute coordinates where the object is moving. In 1870, Maxwell considered the problem in irrotational flow of inviscid fluid, and found that the trajectory of a particle is a curve of elastica having a self-intersection point. We consider here a similar problem in three-dimensional (3D) irrotational flow, 3D Stokes flow around a sphere and Brinkman's porous-media flow. In the 3D Stokes case, we found that the trajectories are unbounded and have no self-intersection. In the Brinkman case, we treated both flow around a cylinder and flow around a sphere: our numerical examinations revealed both self-intersecting and non-self-intersecting trajectories.

  5. Bound-state formation for thermal relic dark matter and unitarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that the relic abundance of thermal dark matter annihilating via a long-range interaction, is significantly affected by the formation and decay of dark matter bound states in the early universe, if the dark matter mass is above a few TeV . We determine the coupling required to obtain the observed dark matter density, taking into account both the direct 2-to-2 annihilations and the formation of bound states, and provide an analytical fit. We argue that the unitarity limit on the inelastic cross-section is realized only if dark matter annihilates via a long-range interaction, and we determine the upper bound on the mass of thermal-relic dark matter to be about 197 (139) TeV for (non)-self-conjugate dark matter

  6. Leader self-sacrifice and leadership effectiveness: the moderating role of leader prototypicality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Knippenberg, Barbara; van Knippenberg, Daan

    2005-01-01

    Self-sacrificing behavior of the leader and the extent to which the leader is representative of the group (i.e., group prototypical) are proposed to interact to influence leadership effectiveness. The authors expected self-sacrificing leaders to be considered more effective and to be able to push subordinates to a higher performance level than non-self-sacrificing leaders, and these effects were expected to be more pronounced for less prototypical leaders than for more prototypical leaders. The results of a laboratory experiment showed that, as expected, productivity levels, effectiveness ratings, and perceived leader group-orientedness and charisma were positively affected by leader self-sacrifice, especially when leader prototypicality was low. The main results were replicated in a scenario experiment and 2 surveys. PMID:15641888

  7. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells: II. Origin, disease models and clinical aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Janne; Holm, Thomas Lindebo; Claesson, Mogens H

    2004-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases afflict approximately 5% of the population and reflect a failure in the immune system to discriminate between self and non-self resulting in the breakdown of self-tolerance. Regulatory CD4+CD25+ T cells (Treg cells) have been shown to play an important role in the maintenance of...... immune homeostasis and self-tolerance by counteracting the development and effector functions of potentially autoreactive T cells. We have in the previous APMIS review described the phenotype and physiology of Treg cells. The present overview deals with the thymic origin of Treg cells and their role in...... disease models such as autoimmune gastritis and inflammatory bowel disease. Finally, we will consider some aspects of the therapeutic potential of Treg cells....

  8. Possible role of histamine in pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases: implications for immunotherapy with histamine-2 receptor antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Hammer, J H

    1992-01-01

    The immunosuppressive chemical drugs cyclosporine A (CsA) and methotrexate (Mx) have recently been shown to be of benefit in several different diseases of autoimmune origin. Cellular immune responses may play a major role in autoimmunity as autoreactive T lymphocytes appear to recognize...... autoantigens and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II restriction molecules presented by non-immune, aberrant cells, subsequently leading to damage on healthy tissues. Psoriasis is suggested to be an autoimmune disease and in severe, uncontrollable psoriasis CsA and Mx are of value in reducing...... possibility, that histamine is one of the molecules involved in pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. T cell mediated regulation and suppression of autoreactive T cells seem to be ineffective in controlling the enhanced immune reaction in patients where the discrimination between self and non-self is changed...

  9. Concerning isothermal self-similar blast waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The two-dimensional self-similar flow behind a blast wave from a line explosion in a medium whose density varies with distance as rsup(-ω) is investigated with the assumption that the flow is isothermal. If ω ω > 0, no critical points exist and a continuous solution passing through both the origin and the shock is shown to exist. If 16/9 = 2 no physically acceptable solution exists since the mass behind the shock is infinite. The dependence of the solutions which have zero flow velocity at the origin on the parameter ω is analytic for ω > 0 so that interpolation between neighboring values of ω is permitted. The stability of these isothermal blast waves is investigated to two-dimensional but non-self-similar perturbations. (Auth.)

  10. The generalized second law and the black hole evaporation in an empty space as a nonequilibrium process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When a black hole is in an empty space in which there is no matter field except that of the Hawking radiation (Hawking field), then the black hole evaporates and the entropy of the black hole decreases. The generalized second law guarantees the increase of the total entropy of the whole system which consists of the black hole and the Hawking field. That is, the increase of the entropy of the Hawking field is faster than the decrease of the black hole entropy. In a naive sense, one may expect that the entropy increase of the Hawking field is due to the self-interaction among the composite particles of the Hawking field, and that the self-relaxation of the Hawking field results in the entropy increase. Then, when one considers a non-self-interacting matter field as the Hawking field, it is obvious that self-relaxation does not take place, and one may think that the total entropy does not increase. However, using nonequilibrium thermodynamics which has been developed recently, we find for the non-self-interacting Hawking field that the rate of entropy increase of the Hawking field (the entropy emission rate by the black hole) grows faster than the rate of entropy decrease of the black hole during the black hole evaporation in empty space. The origin of the entropy increase of the Hawking field is the increase of the black hole temperature. Hence an understanding of the generalized second law in the context of nonequilibrium thermodynamics is suggested; even if the self-relaxation of the Hawking field does not take place, the temperature increase of the black hole during the evaporation process causes the entropy increase of the Hawking field to result in the increase of the total entropy

  11. The Application of Magnetic Bead Selection to Investigate Interactions between the Oral Microbiota and Salivary Immunoglobulins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhwani, Tejal

    2016-01-01

    The effect of humoral immunity on the composition of the oral microbiota is less intensively investigated than hygiene and diet, in part due to a lack of simple and robust systems for investigating interactions between salivary immunoglobulins and oral bacteria. Here we report the application of an ex situ method to investigate the specificity of salivary immunoglobulins for salivary bacteria. Saliva collected from six volunteers was separated into immunoglobulin and microbial fractions, and the microbial fractions were then directly exposed to salivary immunoglobulins of “self” and “non-self” origin. Antibody-selected bacteria were separated from their congeners using a magnetic bead system, selective for IgA or IgG isotypes. The positively selected fractions were then characterized using gel-based eubacterial-specific DNA profiling. The eubacterial profiles of positively selected fractions diverged significantly from profiles of whole salivary consortia based on volunteer (P≤ 0.001%) and immunoglobulin origin (P≤ 0.001%), but not immunoglobulin isotype (P = 0.2). DNA profiles of separated microbial fractions were significantly (p≤ 0.05) less diverse than whole salivary consortia and included oral and environmental bacteria. Consortia selected using self immunoglobulins were generally less diverse than those selected with immunoglobulins of non-self origin. Magnetic bead separation facilitated the testing of interactions between salivary antibodies and oral bacteria, showing that these interactions are specific and may reflect differences in recognition by self and non-self immunoglobulins. Further development of this system could improve understanding of the relationship between the oral microbiota and the host immune system and of mechanisms underlying the compositional stability of the oral microbiota. PMID:27483159

  12. Variation, sex, and social cooperation: molecular population genetics of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan M Flowers

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Dictyostelium discoideum is a eukaryotic microbial model system for multicellular development, cell-cell signaling, and social behavior. Key models of social evolution require an understanding of genetic relationships between individuals across the genome or possibly at specific genes, but the nature of variation within D. discoideum is largely unknown. We re-sequenced 137 gene fragments in wild North American strains of D. discoideum and examined the levels and patterns of nucleotide variation in this social microbial species. We observe surprisingly low levels of nucleotide variation in D. discoideum across these strains, with a mean nucleotide diversity (pi of 0.08%, and no strong population stratification among North American strains. We also do not find any clear relationship between nucleotide divergence between strains and levels of social dominance and kin discrimination. Kin discrimination experiments, however, show that strains collected from the same location show greater ability to distinguish self from non-self than do strains from different geographic areas. This suggests that a greater ability to recognize self versus non-self may arise among strains that are more likely to encounter each other in nature, which would lead to preferential formation of fruiting bodies with clonemates and may prevent the evolution of cheating behaviors within D. discoideum populations. Finally, despite the fact that sex has rarely been observed in this species, we document a rapid decay of linkage disequilibrium between SNPs, the presence of recombinant genotypes among natural strains, and high estimates of the population recombination parameter rho. The SNP data indicate that recombination is widespread within D. discoideum and that sex as a form of social interaction is likely to be an important aspect of the life cycle.

  13. Dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuator for flow control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opaits, Dmitry Florievich

    Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) and magnetohydrodynamic phenomena are being widely studied for aerodynamic applications. The major effects of these phenomena are heating of the gas, body force generation, and enthalpy addition or extraction, [1, 2, 3]. In particular, asymmetric dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuators are known to be effective EHD device in aerodynamic control, [4, 5]. Experiments have demonstrated their effectiveness in separation control, acoustic noise reduction, and other aeronautic applications. In contrast to conventional DBD actuators driven by sinusoidal voltages, we proposed and used a voltage profile consisting of nanosecond pulses superimposed on dc bias voltage. This produces what is essentially a non-self-sustained discharge: the plasma is generated by repetitive short pulses, and the pushing of the gas occurs primarily due to the bias voltage. The advantage of this non-self-sustained discharge is that the parameters of ionizing pulses and the driving bias voltage can be varied independently, which adds flexibility to control and optimization of the actuators performance. Experimental studies were conducted of a flow induced in a quiescent room air by a single DBD actuator. A new approach for non-intrusive diagnostics of plasma actuator induced flows in quiescent gas was proposed, consisting of three elements coupled together: the Schlieren technique, burst mode of plasma actuator operation, and 2-D numerical fluid modeling. During the experiments, it was found that DBD performance is severely limited by surface charge accumulation on the dielectric. Several ways to mitigate the surface charge were found: using a reversing DC bias potential, three-electrode configuration, slightly conductive dielectrics, and semi conductive coatings. Force balance measurements proved the effectiveness of the suggested configurations and advantages of the new voltage profile (pulses+bias) over the traditional sinusoidal one at relatively low

  14. Floating nuclear power - Desalination complex using a nuclear power plant of the KLT-40 type and the reverse osmosis process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear power plant of the KLT-40 type, which meets international safety requirements, is proposed as the power source for the floating nuclear power plant. The main advantages of the nuclear power-desalination complex are as follows: (1) the established fabrication technology, and the confirmed long term reliability and service life of KLT-40 type nuclear power plants and desalination facilities; (2) the high quality of fabrication at the shipbuilding plant, and the possibility of handover of the complex to the customer on a turnkey basis within the shortest possible time; (3) the possibility of siting in various coastal regions of the world; and (4) ease of maintenance by a special service ship at the mooring place, and simple. decommissioning by towing to the supplier country. The floating nuclear power-desalination station for producing potable water is a special non-self-propelled ship equipped with a twin unit nuclear power plant of the KLT-40 type intended for sea water desalination in a protected water area, together with service facilities at the plant mooring place. Distillation-desalination plants with film type, horizontal tube evaporators are used in the floating station for thermal desalination. The floating nuclear power station (FNPS) is a special non-self-propelled ship intended for power generation in a protected water area. The station includes two nuclear steam supply systems of the KLT-40 type, a steam turbine plant, a power plant, and servicing and shipboard systems. The floating nuclear dual purpose station for co-generating electricity and potable water using the reverse osmosis (RO) process includes two floating structures: the FNPS and a ship for producing potable water from sea water using RO. The organizational structure for the development and operation of the floating nuclear power-desalination complex has been studied

  15. Biological effect of varying peptide binding affinity to the BoLA-DRB3*2703 allele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alizadeh Zahra

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract MHC class I and II molecules are immunoregulatory cell surface glycoproteins, which selectively bind to and present antigenic peptides to T-lymphocytes. Murine and human studies show that variable peptide binding affinity to MHC II molecules influences Th1/Th2 responses by inducing distinctive cytokine expression. To examine the biological effects of peptide binding affinity to bovine MHC (BoLA, various self peptides (BoLA-DQ and fibrinogen fragments and non-self peptides from ovalbumin (OVA, as well as VP2 and VP4 peptides from foot and mouth disease virus (FMD-V were used to (1 determine binding affinities to the BoLA-DRB3*2703 allele, previously associated with mastitis susceptibility and (2 determine whether peptide binding affinity influences T-lymphocyte function. Peptide binding affinity was determined by a competitive assay using high affinity biotinylated self-peptide incubated with purified BoLA-DRB3*2703 in the presence of various concentrations of competing peptides. The concentrations of non-self peptide required to inhibit self-peptide binding by 50% (IC50 were variable, ranging from 26.92 to > 320 μM. Peptide-specific T-lymphocyte function was determined by measuring DNA synthesis, cell division, and IFN-γ production in cultures of mononuclear cells from a BoLA-DRB3*2703 homozygous cow. When compared to non-stimulated control cultures, differences in lymphocyte function were observed for all of the assessed parameters; however, peptide-binding affinity did not always account for the observed differences in lymphocyte function.

  16. Episodic memory and self-reference via semantic autobiographical memory: Insights from an fMRI study in younger and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine eKalenzaga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-referential processing relies mainly on the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC and enhances memory encoding (i.e., Self-Reference Effect, SRE as it improves the accuracy and richness of remembering in both young and older adults. However, studies on age-related changes in the neural correlates of the SRE on the subjective (i.e., autonoetic consciousness and the objective (i.e., source memory qualitative features of episodic memory are lacking. In the present fMRI study, we compared the effects of a self-related (semantic autobiographical memory task and a non self-related (general semantic memory task encoding condition on subsequent episodic memory retrieval. We investigated encoding-related activity during each condition in two groups of 19 younger and 16 older adults. Behaviorally, the SRE improved subjective memory performance in both groups but objective memory only in young adults. At the neural level, a direct comparison between self-related and non self-related conditions revealed that SRE mainly activated the cortical midline system, especially the MPFC, in both groups. Additionally, in older adults and regardless of the condition, greater activity was found in a fronto-parietal network. Overall, correlations were noted between source memory performance and activity in the MPFC (irrespective of age and visual areas (mediated by age. Thus, the present findings expand evidence of the role of the MPFC in self-referential processing in the context of source memory benefit in both young and older adults using incidental encoding via semantic autobiographical memory. However, our finding suggests that its role is less effective in aging.

  17. Temporal structure of consciousness and minimal self in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Brice; Wittmann, Marc; Franck, Nicolas; Cermolacce, Michel; Berna, Fabrice; Giersch, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The concept of the minimal self refers to the consciousness of oneself as an immediate subject of experience. According to recent studies, disturbances of the minimal self may be a core feature of schizophrenia. They are emphasized in classical psychiatry literature and in phenomenological work. Impaired minimal self-experience may be defined as a distortion of one's first-person experiential perspective as, for example, an "altered presence" during which the sense of the experienced self ("mineness") is subtly affected, or "altered sense of demarcation," i.e., a difficulty discriminating the self from the non-self. Little is known, however, about the cognitive basis of these disturbances. In fact, recent work indicates that disorders of the self are not correlated with cognitive impairments commonly found in schizophrenia such as working-memory and attention disorders. In addition, a major difficulty with exploring the minimal self experimentally lies in its definition as being non-self-reflexive, and distinct from the verbalized, explicit awareness of an "I." In this paper, we shall discuss the possibility that disturbances of the minimal self observed in patients with schizophrenia are related to alterations in time processing. We shall review the literature on schizophrenia and time processing that lends support to this possibility. In particular we shall discuss the involvement of temporal integration windows on different time scales (implicit time processing) as well as duration perception disturbances (explicit time processing) in disorders of the minimal self. We argue that a better understanding of the relationship between time and the minimal self as well of issues of embodiment require research that looks more specifically at implicit time processing. Some methodological issues will be discussed. PMID:25400597

  18. Temporal structure of consciousness and minimal self in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brice eMartin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the minimal self refers to the consciousness of oneself as an immediate subject of experience. According to recent studies, disturbances of the minimal self may be a core feature of schizophrenia. They are emphasized in classical psychiatry literature and in phenomenological work. Impaired minimal self experience may be defined as a distortion of one’s first-person experiential perspective as, for example, an ‘altered presence’ during which the sense of the experienced self (‘mineness’ is subtly affected, or ‘altered sense of demarcation’, i.e. a difficulty discriminating the self from the non-self. Little is known, however, about the cognitive basis of these disturbances. In fact, recent work indicates that disorders of the self are not correlated with cognitive impairments commonly found in schizophrenia such as working-memory and attention disorders. In addition, a major difficulty with exploring the minimal self experimentally lies in its definition as being non self-reflexive, and distinct from the verbalized, explicit awareness of an ‘I’.In this paper we shall discuss the possibility that disturbances of the minimal self observed in patients with schizophrenia are related to alterations in time processing. We shall review the literature on schizophrenia and time processing that lends support to this possibility. In particular we shall discuss the involvement of temporal integration windows on different time scales (implicit time processing as well as duration perception disturbances (explicit time processing in disorders of the minimal self. We argue that a better understanding of the relationship between time and the minimal self as well of issues of embodiment require research that looks more specifically at implicit time processing. Some methodological issues will be discussed.

  19. The post-pollination ethylene burst and the continuation of floral advertisement are harbingers of non-random mate selection in Nicotiana attenuata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Samik; Baldwin, Ian T

    2012-08-01

    The self-compatible plant Nicotiana attenuata grows in genetically diverse populations after fires, and produces flowers that remain open for 3 days and are visited by assorted pollinators. To determine whether and when post-pollination non-random mate selection occurs among self and non-self pollen, seed paternity and semi-in vivo pollen tube growth were determined in controlled single/mixed pollinations. Despite all pollen sources being equally proficient in siring seeds in single-genotype pollinations, self pollen was consistently selected in mixed pollinations, irrespective of maternal genotype. However, clear patterns of mate discrimination occurred amongst non-self pollen when mixed pollinations were performed soon after corollas open, including selection against hygromycin B resistance (transformation selectable marker) in wild-type styles and for it in transformed styles. However, mate choice among pollen genotypes was completely shut down in plants transformed to be unable to produce (irACO) or perceive (ETR1) ethylene. The post-pollination ethylene burst, which originates primarily from the stigma and upper style, was strongly correlated with mate selection in single and mixed hand-pollinations using eight pollen donors in two maternal ecotypes. The post-pollination ethylene burst was also negatively correlated with the continuation of emission of benzylacetone, the most abundant pollinator-attracting corolla-derived floral volatile. We conclude that ethylene signaling plays a pivotal role in mate choice, and the post-pollination ethylene burst and the termination of benzylacetone release are accurate predictors, both qualitatively and quantitatively, of pre-zygotic mate selection and seed paternity. PMID:22458597

  20. Self-recognition and Ca2+-dependent carbohydrate-carbohydrate cell adhesion provide clues to the cambrian explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernàndez-Busquets, Xavier; Körnig, André; Bucior, Iwona; Burger, Max M; Anselmetti, Dario

    2009-11-01

    The Cambrian explosion of life was a relatively short period approximately 540 Ma that marked a generalized acceleration in the evolution of most animal phyla, but the trigger of this key biological event remains elusive. Sponges are the oldest extant Precambrian metazoan phylum and thus a valid model to study factors that could have unleashed the rise of multicellular animals. One such factor is the advent of self-/non-self-recognition systems, which would be evolutionarily beneficial to organisms to prevent germ-cell parasitism or the introduction of deleterious mutations resulting from fusion with genetically different individuals. However, the molecules responsible for allorecognition probably evolved gradually before the Cambrian period, and some other (external) factor remains to be identified as the missing triggering event. Sponge cells associate through calcium-dependent, multivalent carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions of the g200 glycan found on extracellular proteoglycans. Single molecule force spectroscopy analysis of g200-g200 binding indicates that calcium affects the lifetime (+Ca/-Ca: 680 s/3 s) and bond reaction length (+Ca/-Ca: 3.47 A/2.27 A). Calculation of mean g200 dissociation times in low and high calcium within the theoretical framework of a cooperative binding model indicates the nonlinear and divergent characteristics leading to either disaggregated cells or stable multicellular assemblies, respectively. This fundamental phenomenon can explain a switch from weak to strong adhesion between primitive metazoan cells caused by the well-documented rise in ocean calcium levels at the end of Precambrian time. We propose that stronger cell adhesion allowed the integrity of genetically uniform animals composed only of "self" cells, facilitating genetic constitutions to remain within the metazoan individual and be passed down inheritance lines. The Cambrian explosion might have been triggered by the coincidence in time of primitive animals

  1. The fester locus in Botryllus schlosseri experiences selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nydam Marie L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allorecognition, the ability of an organism to distinguish self from non-self, occurs throughout the entire tree of life. Despite the prevalence and importance of allorecognition systems, the genetic basis of allorecognition has rarely been characterized outside the well-known MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex in vertebrates and SI (Self-Incompatibility in plants. Where loci have been identified, their evolutionary history is an open question. We have previously identified the genes involved in self/non-self recognition in the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri, and we can now begin to investigate their evolution. In B. schlosseri, colonies sharing 1 or more alleles of a gene called FuHC (Fusion Histocompatibility will fuse. Protein products of a locus called fester, located ~300 kb from FuHC, have been shown to play multiple roles in the histocompatibility reaction, as activating and/or inhibitory receptors. We test whether the proteins encoded by this locus are evolving neutrally or are experiencing balancing, directional, or purifying selection. Results Nearly all of the variation in the fester locus resides within populations. The 13 housekeeping genes (12 nuclear genes and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I have substantially more structure among populations within groups and among groups than fester. All polymorphism statistics (Tajima's D, Fu and Li's D* and F* are significantly negative for the East Coast A-type alleles, and Fu and Li's F* statistic is significantly negative for the West Coast A-type alleles. These results are likely due to selection rather than demography, given that 10 of the housekeeping loci have no populations with significant values for any of the polymorphism statistics. The majority of codons in the fester proteins have ω values 95% posterior probability of ω values > 1. Conclusion Fester proteins are evolving non-neutrally. The polymorphism statistics are consistent with either

  2. Institutionalized elderly people and malnutrition: research on the patients of a nursing home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Rondoni

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM is a common finding in hospitalized or institutionalized elderly people. In the literature, PEM is not mentioned as being related to individual ability of the patient to feed him or herself correctly. This study analyzed the 56 patients of a nursing home divided into two groups: self-sufficient and non self-sufficient regarding feeding. Levels of serum albumin, transferrin, prealbumin and hemoglobin (Hb were examined and compared to body mass index (BMI calculated with bioelectrical impedance analysis. Fifty-three percent of patients were self-sufficient, while 47% were not self-sufficient for feeding of which 83.3% were women and 16.7% men. Levels below the average range were 49.1% for lymphocyte count, 52.9% for serum albumin, 13.7% for serum transferrin and 52.9% for serum prealbumin. No significant differences were found in terms of patient age, while the mean values of the parameters examined in the two groups, self-sufficient and not, were lower in the patients who were not self-sufficient, even if statistical significance was not reached. Serum albumin was in inverse proportion to age (P<0.05 and 46.1% of individuals with low levels of transferrin also showed low levels of Hb. Anemia was in direct proportion (P<0.05 to age. Measurement of BMI showed values below 22.5 (cut off for risk for malnutrition in 33.4% of the subjects examined. Of the three hematochemical parameters, analysis of a possible relationship with BMI showed only a significant and directly proportional correlation with prealbumin (P<0.05%. These data should be considered in the context of an epidemiological research study carried out in a conditioned and limited environment, where PEM, detected using hematochemical parameters, amounted to 50% of the patients, whereas BMI identified only approximately one-third of patients at risk of malnutrition. There were no statistically significant differences between men and women. Mean values of the

  3. Optimized tumor cryptic peptides: the basis for universal neo-antigen-like tumor vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menez-Jamet, Jeanne; Gallou, Catherine; Rougeot, Aude; Kosmatopoulos, Kostas

    2016-07-01

    The very impressive clinical results recently obtained in cancer patients treated with immune response checkpoint inhibitors boosted the interest in immunotherapy as a therapeutic choice in cancer treatment. However, these inhibitors require a pre-existing tumor specific immune response and the presence of tumor infiltrating T cells to be efficient. This immune response can be triggered by cancer vaccines. One of the main issues in tumor vaccination is the choice of the right antigen to target. All vaccines tested to date targeted tumor associated antigens (TAA) that are self-antigens and failed to show a clinical efficacy because of the immune self-tolerance to TAA. A new class of tumor antigens has recently been described, the neo-antigens that are created by point mutations of tumor expressing proteins and are recognized by the immune system as non-self. Neo-antigens exhibit two main properties: they are not involved in the immune self-tolerance process and are immunogenic. However, the majority of the neo-antigens are patient specific and their use as cancer vaccines requires their previous identification in each patient individualy that can be done only in highly specialized research centers. It is therefore evident that neo-antigens cannot be used for patient vaccination worldwide. This raises the question of whether we can find neo-antigen like vaccines, which would not be patient specific. In this review we show that optimized cryptic peptides from TAA are neo-antigen like peptides. Optimized cryptic peptides are recognized by the immune system as non-self because they target self-cryptic peptides that escape self-tolerance; in addition they are strongly immunogenic because their sequence is modified in order to enhance their affinity for the HLA molecule. The first vaccine based on the optimized cryptic peptide approach, Vx-001, which targets the widely expressed tumor antigen telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), has completed a large phase I clinical

  4. Amorphous nanosilica particles block induction of oral tolerance in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Tsuguto; Yoshino, Shin

    2016-09-01

    The mucosal immune system is exposed to non-self antigens in food and the gut microbiota. Therefore, the recognition of orally ingested non-self antigens is suppressed in healthy individuals to avoid excessive immune responses in a process called "oral tolerance". The breakdown of oral tolerance has been cited as a possible cause of food allergy, and amorphous silica nanoparticles (nSP) have been implicated in this breakdown. As nSP are widely used in foodstuffs and other products, exposure to them is increasing; thus, investigations of any effects of nSP on oral tolerance are urgent. This study evaluated the effects of nSP30 (particle diameter = 39 nm) on immunological unresponsiveness induced in mice with oral ovalbumin (OVA). Specifically, production of OVA-specific antibodies, splenocyte proliferation in response to OVA, and effects on T-helper (TH)-1, TH2, and TH17 responses (in terms of cytokine and IgG/IgE subclass expression) were evaluated. nSP30 increased the levels of OVA-specific IgG in OVA-tolerized mice and induced the proliferation of OVA-immunized splenocytes in response to OVA in a dose-related manner. nSP30 also increased the expression of OVA-specific IgG1, IgE, and IgG2a, indicating stimulation of the TH1 and TH2 responses. The expression of interferon (IFN)-γ (TH1), interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-5 (TH2), and IL-17 (TH17) was also stimulated in a dose-related manner by nSP30 in splenocytes stimulated ex vivo with OVA. The induction of tolerance by OVA, the production of anti-OVA IgG antibodies, and proliferation of splenocytes in response to OVA was inhibited by nSP30 in conjunction with OVA and was dose-related. The nSP30 enhanced TH1 and TH2 responses that might prevent the induction of oral tolerance. Overall, this study showed that the abrogation of OVA-induced oral tolerance in mice by exposure to nSP30 was dose-related and that nSP30 stimulated TH1, TH2, and TH17 responses. PMID:27086695

  5. Self-cleaning Foliar Surfaces Characterization using RIMAPS Technique and Variogram Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Along the last ten years many important studies about characterization of self-cleaning foliar surfaces have been done and focused new interest on this kind of surfaces.These studies were possible due to the development of a novel preparation technique for this biological material that let us observe the delicate structures of a foliar surface under scanning electron microscope (S.E.M.).This technique consists of replacing the natural water of the specimen by glycerol. Digital S.E.M. images from both self-cleaning and non-self-cleaning foliar surfaces were obtained and analyzed using RIMAPS technique and Variograms method. Our results revealed the existence of a common and exclusive geometrical pattern that is found in species which present self-cleaning foliar surfaces.This pattern combines at least nine different directions.The results from the Variograms method showed that the stomata play a key role in the determination of foliar surface roughness. In addition, spectra from RIMAPS technique constitute a fingerprint of a foliar surface so they can be used to find evolutionary relationships among species.Further studies will provide more detailed information to fully elucidate the self-cleaning pattern, so it might be possible to reproduce it on an artificial surface and make it self-cleaning

  6. Effect of thermionic cathode heating current self-magnetic field on gaseous plasma generator characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopatin, I V; Akhmadeev, Yu H; Koval, N N

    2015-10-01

    The performance capabilities of the PINK, a plasma generator with a thermionic cathode mounted in the cavity of a hollow cathode, depending for its operation on a non-self-sustained low-pressure gas discharge have been investigated. It has been shown that when a single-filament tungsten cathode 2 mm in diameter is used and the peak filament current is equal to or higher than 100 A, the self-magnetic field of the filament current significantly affects the discharge current and voltage waveforms. This effect is due to changes in the time and space distributions of the emission current density from the hot cathode. When the electron mean free path is close to the characteristic dimensions of the thermionic cathode, the synthesized plasma density distribution is nonuniform and the cathode is etched nonuniformly. The cathode lifetime in this case is 8-12 h. Using a cathode consisting of several parallel-connected tungsten filaments ∼0.8 mm in diameter moderates the effect of the self-magnetic field of the filament current and nearly doubles the cathode lifetime. The use of this type of cathode together with a discharge igniting electrode reduces the minimum operating pressure in the plasma generator to about one third of that required for the generator operation with a single-filament cathode (to 0.04 Pa). PMID:26520947

  7. Aging in Italy: The Need for New Welfare Strategies in an Old Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzola, Paolo; Rimoldi, Stefania Maria Lorenza; Rossi, Paolo; Noale, Marianna; Rea, Federico; Facchini, Carla; Maggi, Stefania; Corrao, Giovanni; Annoni, Giorgio

    2016-06-01

    Italy, a Southern European country with 60.8 million inhabitants, has the largest proportion of elderly citizens (aged ≥65) in Europe of 21.4%. The aging of the population is due to a number of reasons, such as baby boomers growing old, an increase in longevity, and low birth rate. Although international migration has increased in recent years, the addition of a foreign segment of the population has neither compensated for nor significantly curtailed the aging phenomenon. The impact of aging on the economic sustainability concerns the progressive reduction of the workforce, high incidence of pension spending in the overall resources allocated to welfare, recent reform of the pension system, and the growing issue of "non-self-sufficiency" in the elderly. Despite limited financial measures dedicated to research, Italy is conducting important studies on aging, both at the national and international level. Physicians and researchers in the field of geriatrics and gerontology are not only promoting quality of life in the elderly, and healthy-active aging, but also contributing to economic stability and social organization. Finally, nutritional and lifestyle habits-and their role in preventing chronic diseases-are the focus of the current international event EXPO 2015, with many sections dedicated to the elderly. PMID:26553737

  8. Positron annihilation spectroscopy as a tool to develop self healing in aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron lifetime and Doppler broadening spectroscopy have been applied to probe the free volume generation (vacancies, dislocations and nano-cracks) during plastic deformation of a commercial aluminium AA2024 (T3) alloy. Aim of the total program is to study how solute atoms can be driven to the areas where initial cracking may occur in order to prevent the failure of the specimen. The phenomenon of closing the nano-crack is called Self Healing, and can provide extra strength and ductility to the alloy under some loading conditions. Plastic deformation of over-aged aluminum alloy at room temperature increases the average positron lifetime from initial value of 190 ps to 203 ps. The low momentum parameter S increases in agreement with the increase of open volume defects. The elastic deformation of the sample does not have a recordable effect on the positron annihilation data. It is also shown that the induced damage does not recover after loading the sample, i.e. the AA2024 in the T3 state is non self healing material, as expected, providing important first state result in the research of self healing Al alloys. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. RESEARCH ON DETERMINATION OF CIRCULATING IMMUNE COMPLEXES IN THE BLOOD OF THE HIGH ECONOMIC VALUE FISH FARMED SPECIES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. PATRICHE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The range of paraclinical investigations applied in ichthyopathology aims at assessing those parameters that can define the pathological modifications and the physiological condition of the fish material, as well as the defense reaction of the unhealthy body. Modification in value of these indicators points out some metabolic perturbations in fish body. Fish have an immunitary system whose complexity and efficiency are directly proportional to their evolution level. That is why, in comparison to the superior vertebrates, the immune reactions of fish body to an antigenic attack are lower, the immune response is weaker and slower, and the quantity of antibodies to form is low. Under the influence of a specific antigen, the immunoformating cells synthetize the corresponding antibodies, determining occurrence of a specific antigen-antibody reaction, resulting in occurrence of the Ag-Ac immune complexes having a role in annihilating and destroying the respective antigens. Formation of immune complexes (CI is a normal physiological process within the humoral immunity of bodies, representing one of the methods to remove from the body the substances identified as non-self.

  10. The Qa-1 Dependent CD8+ T Cell Mediated Regulatory Pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Jiang

    2005-01-01

    The immune system has evolved a variety of regulatory mechanisms to ensure the peripheral self-tolerance as well as the optimal capacity to elicit effective anti-infection immunity. At present, there is no satisfactory conceptual framework to explain how the peripheral immunity is regulated at a biological system level, which enables the immune system to perform its essential functions to mount effective immunity to virtually any foreign antigens but avoid harmful immune responses to self. In this regard, during the past few years, an "affinity/avidity model of peripheral T cell regulation" has been proposed and tested, which opens up a new paradigm to understand how the peripheral immunity, to both self and foreign antigens, is regulated. The paradigm is based on the discovery of a subset CD8+ T cells with TCRs which specifically recognize a unique set of self-peptides presented by the MHC class Ib molecule Qa-1 differentially expressed on T cells as a function of the affinity/avidity of T cell activation.These Qa-1 restricted CD8+ T cells represent an example of how the immune system utilizes a unified mechanism to regulate adaptive immunity to both self and foreign antigens. Thus, by selectively down-regulating T cells of intermediate affinity/avidity, to any antigens, the immune system controls the adaptive immunity without the necessity to distinguish self from non-self in the periphery at the level of T cell regulation.

  11. Modified geodetic brane cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We explore the cosmological implications provided by the geodetic brane gravity action corrected by an extrinsic curvature brane term, describing a codimension-1 brane embedded in a 5D fixed Minkowski spacetime. In the geodetic brane gravity action, we accommodate the correction term through a linear term in the extrinsic curvature swept out by the brane. We study the resulting geodetic-type equation of motion. Within a Friedmann–Robertson–Walker metric, we obtain a generalized Friedmann equation describing the associated cosmological evolution. We observe that, when the radiation-like energy contribution from the extra dimension is vanishing, this effective model leads to a self-(non-self)-accelerated expansion of the brane-like universe in dependence on the nature of the concomitant parameter β associated with the correction, which resembles an analogous behaviour in the DGP brane cosmology. Several possibilities in the description for the cosmic evolution of this model are embodied and characterized by the involved density parameters related in turn to the cosmological constant, the geometry characterizing the model, the introduced β parameter as well as the dark-like energy and the matter content on the brane. (paper)

  12. Immature, Semi-mature and Fully mature Dendritic Cells: Towards a DC-cancer cells interface that augments anticancer immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Maria Dudek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs are the sentinel antigen-presenting cells of the immune system; such that their productive interface with the dying cancer cells is crucial for proper communication of the non-self status of cancer cells to the adaptive immune system. Efficiency and the ultimate success of such a communication hinges upon the maturation status of the DCs, attained following their interaction with cancer cells. Immature DCs facilitate tolerance towards cancer cells (observed for many apoptotic inducers while fully mature DCs can strongly promote anticancer immunity if they secrete the correct combinations of cytokines (observed when DCs interact with cancer cells undergoing immunogenic cell death (ICD. However, an intermediate population of DC maturation, called semi-mature DCs exists, which can potentiate either tolerogenicity or pro-tumourigenic responses (as happens in the case of certain chemotherapeutics and agents exerting ambivalent immune reactions. Specific combinations of DC phenotypic markers, DC-derived cytokines/chemokines, dying cancer cell-derived danger signals and other less characterized entities (e.g. exosomes can define the nature and evolution of the DC maturation state. In the present review, we discuss these different maturation states of DCs, how they might be attained and which anticancer agents or cell death modalities (e.g. tolerogenic cell death vs. ICD may regulate these states.

  13. Modeling of automotive drum brakes for squeal and parameter sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinchun; Krousgrill, Charles M.; Bajaj, Anil K.

    2006-01-01

    Many fundamental studies have been conducted to explain the occurrence of squeal in disc and drum brake systems. The elimination of brake squeal, however, still remains a challenging area of research. Here, a numerical modeling approach is developed for investigating the onset of squeal in a drum brake system. The brake system model is based on the modal information extracted from finite element models for individual brake components. The component models of drum and shoes are coupled by the shoe lining material which is modeled as springs located at the centroids of discretized drum and shoe interface elements. The developed multi degree of freedom coupled brake system model is a linear non-self-adjoint system. Its vibrational characteristics are determined by a complex eigenvalue analysis. The study shows that both the frequency separation between two system modes due to static coupling and their associated mode shapes play an important role in mode merging. Mode merging and veering are identified as two important features of modes exhibiting strong interactions, and those modes are likely candidates that lead to coupled-mode instability. Techniques are developed for a parameter sensitivity analysis with respect to lining stiffness and the stiffness of the brake actuation system. The influence of lining friction coefficient on the propensity to squeal is also discussed.

  14. Multilevel first-order system least squares for PDEs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, S.

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of this talk is to analyze the least-squares finite element method for second-order convection-diffusion equations written as a first-order system. In general, standard Galerkin finite element methods applied to non-self-adjoint elliptic equations with significant convection terms exhibit a variety of deficiencies, including oscillations or nonmonotonicity of the solution and poor approximation of its derivatives, A variety of stabilization techniques, such as up-winding, Petrov-Galerkin, and stream-line diffusion approximations, have been introduced to eliminate these and other drawbacks of standard Galerkin methods. Yet, although significant progress has been made, convection-diffusion problems remain among the more difficult problems to solve numerically. The first-order system least-squares approach promises to overcome these deficiencies. This talk develops ellipticity estimates and discretization error bounds for elliptic equations (with lower order terms) that are reformulated as a least-squares problem for an equivalent first-order system. The main results are the proofs of ellipticity and optimal convergence of multiplicative and additive solvers of the discrete systems.

  15. On enforcing maximum principles and achieving element-wise species balance for advection-diffusion-reaction equations under the finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudunuru, M. K.; Nakshatrala, K. B.

    2016-01-01

    We present a robust computational framework for advective-diffusive-reactive systems that satisfies maximum principles, the non-negative constraint, and element-wise species balance property. The proposed methodology is valid on general computational grids, can handle heterogeneous anisotropic media, and provides accurate numerical solutions even for very high Péclet numbers. The significant contribution of this paper is to incorporate advection (which makes the spatial part of the differential operator non-self-adjoint) into the non-negative computational framework, and overcome numerical challenges associated with advection. We employ low-order mixed finite element formulations based on least-squares formalism, and enforce explicit constraints on the discrete problem to meet the desired properties. The resulting constrained discrete problem belongs to convex quadratic programming for which a unique solution exists. Maximum principles and the non-negative constraint give rise to bound constraints while element-wise species balance gives rise to equality constraints. The resulting convex quadratic programming problems are solved using an interior-point algorithm. Several numerical results pertaining to advection-dominated problems are presented to illustrate the robustness, convergence, and the overall performance of the proposed computational framework.

  16. Isolation of Sertoli Cells and Peritubular Cells from Rat Testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, Sudhanshu; Aslani, Ferial; Zhang, Zhengguo; Sebastian, Tim; Elsässer, Hans-Peter; Klug, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    The testis, and in particular the male gamete, challenges the immune system in a unique way because differentiated sperm first appear at the time of puberty - more than ten years after the establishment of systemic immune tolerance. Spermatogenic cells express a number of proteins that may be seen as non-self by the immune system. The testis must then be able to establish tolerance to these neo-antigens on the one hand but still be able to protect itself from infections and tumor development on the other hand. Therefore the testis is one of a few immune privileged sites in the body that tolerate foreign antigens without evoking a detrimental inflammatory immune response. Sertoli cells play a key role for the maintenance of this immune privileged environment of the testis and also prolong survival of cotransplanted cells in a foreign environment. Therefore primary Sertoli cells are an important tool for studying the immune privilege of the testis that cannot be easily replaced by established cell lines or other cellular models. Here we present a detailed and comprehensive protocol for the isolation of Sertoli cells - and peritubular cells if desired - from rat testes within a single day. PMID:26890157

  17. Comparative anatomy of gall development on Gypsophila paniculata induced by bacteria with different mechanisms of pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalupowicz, L; Barash, I; Schwartz, M; Aloni, R; Manulis, S

    2006-07-01

    Galls induced on Gypsophila paniculata by Pantoea agglomerans pv. gypsophilae (Pag) and Agrobacterium tumefaciens (At), bacteria with different mechanisms of pathogenicity, were compared morphologically and anatomically. The pathogenicity of Pag is dependent on the presence of an indigenous plasmid that harbors hrp gene cluster, genes encoding Hop virulence proteins and biosynthetic genes for auxin (IAA) and cytokinins (CKs), whereas that of At involves host transformation. The Pag-induced gall was rough, brittle and exhibited limited growth, in contrast to the smooth, firm appearance and continuous growth of the At-induced gall. Anatomical analysis revealed the presence of cells with enlarged nuclei and multiple nucleoli, giant cells and suberin deposition in Pag that were absent from At-induced galls. Although circular vessels were observed in both gall types, they were more numerous and the vascular system was more organized in At. An aerenchymal tissue was observed in the upper part of the galls. Ethylene emission from Pag galls, recorded 6 days after inoculation, was eight times as great as that from non-infected controls. In contrast, a significant decrease in ethylene production was observed in Gypsophila cuttings infected with Pag mutants deficient in IAA and CK production. The results presented are best accounted for by the two pathogens having distinct pathogenicity mechanisms that lead to their differential recognition by the host as non-self (Pag) and self (At). PMID:16477460

  18. The Key Question and Nobel Prize in Immunology%免疫学核心问题的探索与诺贝尔奖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗晶; 刘燕明

    2012-01-01

    机体免疫系统如何识别抗原并区分“自我”和“非我”是免疫学的核心问题.在对此问题的明确、研究与破解过程中;许多学者从不同的研究策略入手取得了重大成果;并获得了诺贝尔奖.这表明聚焦核心问题;协调不同的着眼点和研究策略;是我们进一步取得重大进展的关键;对促进免疫学理论的飞跃性发展也会有重要意义.%It is the key question in immunology how can the immune system recognize antigens and identify 'self/non-self in a body. During the process to define, research and solve the key question, a lot of scientists with different research strategies have achieved the great achievements and won their Nobel prizes. It shows that focusing on the key question and coordinating different view points and research strategies are very important for us to get a great achievement and may be of great significance for promoting a leaping development of immunological theories.

  19. Electronic structure of Cosub(0.92)Fesub(0.08)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electronic structure of the ferromagnetic fcc alloy Cosub(0.92)Fesub(0.08) is studied theoretically and experimentally with polarized positron annihilation and angle-resolved photoemission. The Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (KKR) formalism to calculate the band structure and (spin-dependent) two-photon momentum density is explained. Calculations are performed for a non-self-consistent potential in the Virtual Crystal Approximation (VCA), the difference with results in the Average t-matrix Approximation (ATA) being negligibly small. The position of the d bands is derived from normal and off-normal photoemission measurements on (100), (110) and (111) surfaces at photon energies h#betta#/2π = 11.83, 16.85 and 21.22 eV. A procedure is given to evaluate integrals of the two-photon momentum density over planes of arbitrary orientation with the use of interpolation techniques. Thus, accurate theoretical profiles are obtained and compared with measurements of the Angular Correlation of Annihilation Radiation in a one-dimensional geometry (1D ACAR). Based on this comparison a model is proposed of the Fermi surface, consisting of three minority-spin sheets, and one majority spin-sheet which is similar to that in Ni

  20. Extinction transition in stochastic population dynamics in a random, convective environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motivated by modeling the dynamics of a population living in a flowing medium where the environmental factors are random in space, we have studied an asymmetric variant of the one-dimensional contact process, where the quenched random reproduction rates are systematically greater in one direction than in the opposite one. The spatial disorder turns out to be a relevant perturbation but, according to results of Monte Carlo simulations, the behavior of the model at the extinction transition is different from the (infinite-randomness) critical behavior of the disordered symmetric contact process. Depending on the strength a of the asymmetry, the critical population drifts either with a finite velocity or with an asymptotically vanishing velocity as x(t) ∼ tμ(a), where μ(a) < 1. Dynamical quantities are non-self-averaging at the extinction transition; the survival probability, for instance, shows multiscaling, i.e. it is characterized by a broad spectrum of effective exponents. For a sufficiently weak asymmetry, a Griffiths phase appears below the extinction transition, where the survival probability decays as a non-universal power of the time while, above the transition, another extended phase emerges, where the front of the population advances anomalously with a diffusion exponent continuously varying with the control parameter. (paper)

  1. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC molecules: their common characteristics and relations with diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Başak Yalçın

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Major histocompatibility complex (MHC molecules or human leukocyte antigens (HLA are the cell surface molecules responsible from antigen presentation and activation of T cells. At the same time MHC molecules determine direction of T cell response. Unlike T cells, antigen specificity of MHC molecules is not high and they can not differenciate self and non-self antigens from each other. MHC molecules are classified as MHC I (HLA- A, B, C and MHC II (HLA-DP, DR, DQ molecules which are structurally similar. MHC I molecules present intracellular antigens such as viruses and tumor antigens to CD8+ cytotoxic T cells and MHC II molecules present endocytosed bacterial antigens to CD4+ helper T cells. MHC molecules are encoded by the highly polymorphic genes in a giant locus called MHC. In addition to high polymorphism in MHC genes, they are also charactized by having continuous mutations and codominant expression pattern to increase the diversity among individuals. In evolutionary context, immunologic diversity is important for an uninterrupted life on the Earth. However this diversity causes vast differances among the people in terms of their responses to infections and tendency to have autoimmune and allergic diseases. In this article, structural and functional features of MHC molecules and their common roles in disease formation are discussed.

  2. Intrinsic reduction of Josephson critical current in short ballistic SNS weak links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Branislav K.; Freericks, J. K.; Miller, P.

    2001-12-01

    We present fully self-consistent calculations of the thermodynamic properties of three-dimensional clean SNS Josephson junctions, where S is an s-wave short-coherence-length superconductor and N is a clean normal metal. The junction is modeled on an infinite cubic lattice such that the transverse width of the S is the same as that of the N, and its thickness is tuned from the short to long limit. Intrinsic effects, such as a reduced order parameter near the SN boundary and finite gap to Fermi energy ratio, depress the critical Josephson current Ic, even in short junctions. Our analysis is of relevance to experiments on SNS junctions which find much smaller IcRN products than expected from the standard (non-self-consistent and quasiclassical) predictions. We also find nonstandard current-phase relations, a counterintuitive spatial distribution of the self-consistently determined order parameter phase, and an unusual low-energy gap in the local density of states within the N region.

  3. A web resource for mining HLA associations with adverse drug reactions: HLA-ADR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghattaoraya, Gurpreet S; Dundar, Yenal; González-Galarza, Faviel F; Maia, Maria Helena Thomaz; Santos, Eduardo José Melo; da Silva, Andréa Luciana Soares; McCabe, Antony; Middleton, Derek; Alfirevic, Ana; Dickson, Rumona; Jones, Andrew R

    2016-01-01

    Human leukocyte antigens (HLA) are an important family of genes involved in the immune system. Their primary function is to allow the host immune system to be able to distinguish between self and non-self peptides-e.g. derived from invading pathogens. However, these genes have also been implicated in immune-mediated adverse drug reactions (ADRs), presenting a problem to patients, clinicians and pharmaceutical companies. We have previously developed the Allele Frequency Net Database (AFND) that captures the allelic and haplotype frequencies for these HLA genes across many healthy populations from around the world. Here, we report the development and release of the HLA-ADR database that captures data from publications where HLA alleles and haplotypes have been associated with ADRs (e.g. Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis and drug-induced liver injury). HLA-ADR was created by using data obtained through systematic review of the literature and semi-automated literature mining. The database also draws on data already present in AFND allowing users to compare and analyze allele frequencies in both ADR patients and healthy populations. The HLA-ADR database provides clinicians and researchers with a centralized resource from which to investigate immune-mediated ADRs.Database URL: http://www.allelefrequencies.net/hla-adr/. PMID:27189608

  4. On the migration of a system of protoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Kley, W

    1999-01-01

    The evolution of a system consisting of a protoplanetary disc with two embedded Jupiter sized planets is studied numerically. The disc is assumed to be flat and non-self gravitating, which is modeled by the planar (two-dimensional) Navier-Stokes equations. The mutual gravitational interaction of the planets and the star, and the gravitational torques of the disc acting on the planets and the central star are included. The planets have an initial mass of one Jupiter mass $M_{Jup}$ each and the radial distances from the star are one and two semi-major axis of Jupiter, respectively. During the evolution both planets increase their mass due to accretion of gas from the disc; after about 2500 orbital periods of the inner planet it has reached a mass of 2.3 and the outer planet of 3.2~$M_{Jup}$. The net gravitational torques exerted by the disc on the planets result in an inward migration of the outer planet on time-scales comparable to the viscous evolution time of the disc, while the semi-major axis of the inner ...

  5. Genetic and logic networks with the signal-inhibitor-activator structure are dynamically robust

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Fangting; TAN Ning

    2006-01-01

    The proteins, DNA and RNA interaction networks govern various biological functions in living cells, these networks should be dynamically robust in the intracellular and environmental fluctuations. Here, we use Boolean network to study the robust structure of both genetic and logic networks. First, SOS network in bacteria E. coli, which regulates cell survival and repair after DNA damage, is shown to be dynamically robust. Comparing with cell cycle network in budding yeast and flagella network in E. coli, we find the signal-inhibitor-activator (SIA) structure in transcription regulatory networks. Second, under the dynamical rule that inhibition is much stronger than activation, we have searched 3-node non-self-loop logical networks that are dynamically robust, and that if the attractive basin of a final attractor is as large as seven, and the final attractor has only one active node, then the active node acts as inhibitor, and the SIA and signal-inhibitor (SI) structures are fundamental architectures of robust networks. SIA and SI networks with dynamic robustness against environment uncertainties may be selected and maintained over the course of evolution, rather than blind trial-error testing and be ing an accidental consequence of particular evolutionary history. SIA network can perform a more complex process than SI network, andSIA might be used to design robust artificial genetic network. Our results provide dynamical support for why the inhibitors and SIA/SI structures are frequently employed in cellular regulatory networks.

  6. Innerarity and Immunology: Difference and Identity in selves, bodies and communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Bula

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Innerarity’s Ethics of Hospitality highlights a tension in both communities and individuals between embracing difference and protecting identity, while recognizing that difference is constitutive of identity (the fear that dominates contemporary society is above all a fear of difference, of contamination. This dynamical relation between difference and identity can be seen in the workings of the human immune system, as explained by Chilean biologist and philosopher Francisco Varela: the immune system is a process of perpetual construction of bodily identity through self-referential cognition and distinction between self and non-self. This similarity allows for interesting analogies: for example, a society torn apart by xenophobia and chauvinism can be seen as analogous to a body ravaged by an autoimmune disease such as lupus. With the working hypothesis that the similarities respond to what Stafford Beer calls “systemic invariance”,   this paper explores the similarities between the activity of the immune system and the relation between identity and difference in the work of Innerarity.

  7. A YOUNG GIANT MOLECULAR CLOUD FORMED AT THE INTERFACE OF TWO COLLIDING SUPERSHELLS: OBSERVATIONS MEET SIMULATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dense, star-forming gas is believed to form at the stagnation points of large-scale interstellar medium flows, but observational examples of this process in action are rare. We here present a giant molecular cloud (GMC) sandwiched between two colliding Milky Way supershells, which we argue shows strong evidence of having formed from material accumulated at the collision zone. Combining 12CO, 13CO, and C18O(J = 1-0) data with new high-resolution, three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of colliding supershells, we discuss the origin and nature of the GMC (G288.5+1.5), favoring a scenario in which the cloud was partially seeded by pre-existing denser material, but assembled into its current form by the action of the shells. This assembly includes the production of some new molecular gas. The GMC is well interpreted as non-self-gravitating, despite its high mass (MH2∼1.7×105 M⊙), and is likely pressure confined by the colliding flows, implying that self-gravity was not a necessary ingredient for its formation. Much of the molecular gas is relatively diffuse, and the cloud as a whole shows little evidence of star formation activity, supporting a scenario in which it is young and recently formed. Drip-like formations along its lower edge may be explained by fluid dynamical instabilities in the cooled gas

  8. The Infinite Square Well with a Point Interaction: A Discussion on the Different Parametrizations

    CERN Document Server

    Gadella, Manuel; González-Martín, Sergio; Maldonado-Villamizar, Félix H

    2015-01-01

    The construction of Dirac delta type potentials has been achieved with the use of the theory of self adjoint extensions of non-self adjoint formally Hermitian (symmetric) operators. The application of this formalism to investigate the possible self adjoint extensions of the one dimensional kinematic operator $K=-d^2/dx^2$ on the infinite square well potential is quite illustrative and has been given elsewhere. This requires the definition and use of four independent real parameters, which relate the boundary values of the wave functions at the walls. By means of a different approach, that fixes matching conditions at the origin for the wave functions, it is possible to define a perturbation of the type $a\\delta(x)+b\\delta'(x)$, thus depending on two parameters, on the infinite square well. The objective of this paper is to investigate whether these two approaches are compatible in the sense that perturbations like $a\\delta(x)+b\\delta'(x)$ can be fixed and determined using the first approach.

  9. Specificity for the tumor-associated self-antigen WT1 drives the development of fully functional memory T cells in the absence of vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pospori, Constandina; Xue, Shao-An; Holler, Angelika; Voisine, Cecile; Perro, Mario; King, Judith; Fallah-Arani, Farnaz; Flutter, Barry; Chakraverty, Ronjon; Stauss, Hans J; Morris, Emma C

    2011-06-23

    Recently, vaccines against the Wilms Tumor antigen 1 (WT1) have been tested in cancer patients. However, it is currently not known whether physiologic levels of WT1 expression in stem and progenitor cells of normal tissue result in the deletion or tolerance induction of WT1-specific T cells. Here, we used an human leukocyte antigen-transgenic murine model to study the fate of human leukocyte antigen class-I restricted, WT1-specific T cells in the thymus and in the periphery. Thymocytes expressing a WT1-specific T-cell receptor derived from high avidity human CD8 T cells were positively selected into the single-positive CD8 population. In the periphery, T cells specific for the WT1 antigen differentiated into CD44-high memory phenotype cells, whereas T cells specific for a non-self-viral antigen retained a CD44(low) naive phenotype. Only the WT1-specific T cells, but not the virus-specific T cells, displayed rapid antigen-specific effector function without prior vaccination. Despite long-term persistence of WT1-specific memory T cells, the animals did not develop autoimmunity, and the function of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells was unimpaired. This is the first demonstration that specificity for a tumor-associated self-antigen may drive differentiation of functionally competent memory T cells. PMID:21447831

  10. 1991 Annual report on scientific programs: A broad research program on the sciences of complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    1991 was continued rapid growth for the Santa Fe Institute (SFI) as it broadened its interdisciplinary research into the organization, evolution and operation of complex systems and sought deeply the principles underlying their dynamic behavior. Research on complex systems--the focus of work at SFI--involves an extraordinary range of topics normally studied in seemingly disparate fields. Natural systems displaying complex behavior range upwards from proteins and DNA through cells and evolutionary systems to human societies. Research models exhibiting complexity include nonlinear equations, spin glasses, cellular automata, genetic algorithms, classifier systems, and an array of other computational models. Some of the major questions facing complex systems researchers are: (1) explaining how complexity arises from the nonlinear interaction of simples components, (2) describing the mechanisms underlying high-level aggregate behavior of complex systems (such as the overt behavior of an organism, the flow of energy in an ecology, the GNP of an economy), and (3) creating a theoretical framework to enable predictions about the likely behavior of such systems in various conditions. The importance of understanding such systems in enormous: many of the most serious challenges facing humanity--e.g., environmental sustainability, economic stability, the control of disease--as well as many of the hardest scientific questions--e.g., protein folding, the distinction between self and non-self in the immune system, the nature of intelligence, the origin of life--require deep understanding of complex systems.

  11. 1991 Annual report on scientific programs: A broad research program on the sciences of complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    1991 was continued rapid growth for the Santa Fe Institute (SFI) as it broadened its interdisciplinary research into the organization, evolution and operation of complex systems and sought deeply the principles underlying their dynamic behavior. Research on complex systems--the focus of work at SFI--involves an extraordinary range of topics normally studied in seemingly disparate fields. Natural systems displaying complex behavior range upwards from proteins and DNA through cells and evolutionary systems to human societies. Research models exhibiting complexity include nonlinear equations, spin glasses, cellular automata, genetic algorithms, classifier systems, and an array of other computational models. Some of the major questions facing complex systems researchers are: (1) explaining how complexity arises from the nonlinear interaction of simples components, (2) describing the mechanisms underlying high-level aggregate behavior of complex systems (such as the overt behavior of an organism, the flow of energy in an ecology, the GNP of an economy), and (3) creating a theoretical framework to enable predictions about the likely behavior of such systems in various conditions. The importance of understanding such systems in enormous: many of the most serious challenges facing humanity--e.g., environmental sustainability, economic stability, the control of disease--as well as many of the hardest scientific questions--e.g., protein folding, the distinction between self and non-self in the immune system, the nature of intelligence, the origin of life--require deep understanding of complex systems.

  12. Two-Dimensional Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Barred Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Woong-Tae

    2012-01-01

    Barred galaxies are known to possess magnetic fields that may affect the properties of bar substructures such as dust lanes and nuclear rings. We use two-dimensional high-resolution magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations to investigate the effects of magnetic fields on the formation and evolution of such substructures as well as on the mass inflow rates to the galaxy center. The gaseous medium is assumed to be infinitesimally-thin, isothermal, non-self-gravitating, and threaded by initially uniform, azimuthal magnetic fields. We find that there exists an outermost x1-orbit relative to which gaseous responses to an imposed stellar bar potential are completely different between inside and outside. Inside this orbit, gas is shocked into dust lanes and infalls to form a nuclear ring. Magnetic fields are compressed in dust lanes, reducing their peak density. Magnetic stress removes further angular momentum of the gas at the shocks, temporarily causing the dust lanes to bend into an 'L' shape and eventually leading ...

  13. A Young GMC Formed at the Interface of Two Colliding Supershells: Observations Meet Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Dawson, J R; Fukui, Y; Hayakawa, T; Fierlinger, K

    2014-01-01

    Dense, star-forming gas is believed to form at the stagnation points of large-scale ISM flows, but observational examples of this process in action are rare. We here present a giant molecular cloud (GMC) sandwiched between two colliding Milky Way supershells, which we argue shows strong evidence of having formed from material accumulated at the collision zone. Combining 12CO, 13CO and C18O(J=1-0) data with new high-resolution, 3D hydrodynamical simulations of colliding supershells, we discuss the origin and nature of the GMC (G288.5+1.5), favoring a scenario in which the cloud was partially seeded by pre-existing denser material, but assembled into its current form by the action of the shells. This assembly includes the production of some new molecular gas. The GMC is well interpreted as non-self-gravitating, despite its high mass (MH2 ~ 1.7 x 10^5 Msol), and is likely pressure confined by the colliding flows, implying that self-gravity was not a necessary ingredient for its formation. Much of the molecular g...

  14. Reconsidering the Medawar paradigm placental viviparity existed for eons, even in vertebrates; without a "problem": Why are Tregs important for preeclampsia in great apes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouat, Gérard

    2016-04-01

    The classic Medawar paradigm sees viviparity in vertebrates as a "problem". Established in 1953, it was then largely determined by a self-non-self view of the immune system. However, there are alternative models of the immune system, such as the danger model. For these models, pregnancy is neither a problem nor a danger. Supporting this view, we recall that placenta or placental-like-dependent(1) (allo) pregnancy has existed for eons. In fact, it appeared as far back as the time of aquatic colony invertebrates, such as some of the Bryozoa.(2) Since then, convergent evolution has seen placentation appear in a large variety of phyla. These placentae did not seem to cause "immunological problems", even in vertebrates possessing a graft rejection potential. The reappearance of placentae in marsupial and eutherian mammals found placentae confronted with a highly developed adaptive immune system. Two strategies were developed, therefore: short-term only placentation (marsupials) or specialised control of T cell-mediated immunity (Tregs). The problem is likely to be most acute in cases of deep invasive placentation. As an alternative to a restricted view of the Medawar paradigm for preeclampsia, an integrated model putting both inflammation and Tregs into perspective is proposed, somehow embedding the questioning of the initial Medawar paradigm. PMID:26412292

  15. Diet-Induced Dysbiosis of the Intestinal Microbiota and the Effects on Immunity and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deanna L. Gibson

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal (GI microbiota is the collection of microbes which reside in the GI tract and represents the largest source of non-self antigens in the human body. The GI tract functions as a major immunological organ as it must maintain tolerance to commensal and dietary antigens while remaining responsive to pathogenic stimuli. If this balance is disrupted, inappropriate inflammatory processes can result, leading to host cell damage and/or autoimmunity. Evidence suggests that the composition of the intestinal microbiota can influence susceptibility to chronic disease of the intestinal tract including ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, celiac disease and irritable bowel syndrome, as well as more systemic diseases such as obesity, type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Interestingly, a considerable shift in diet has coincided with increased incidence of many of these inflammatory diseases. It was originally believed that the composition of the intestinal microbiota was relatively stable from early childhood; however, recent evidence suggests that diet can cause dysbiosis, an alteration in the composition of the microbiota, which could lead to aberrant immune responses. The role of the microbiota and the potential for diet-induced dysbiosis in inflammatory conditions of the GI tract and systemic diseases will be discussed.

  16. BACTERIAL OUTER MEMBRANE VESICLES AND VACCINE APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo eAcevedo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Vaccines based on outer membrane vesicles (OMV were developed more than 20 years ago against Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B. These nano-sized structures exhibit remarkable potential for immunomodulation of immune responses and delivery of self meningococcal antigens or unrelated antigens incorporated into the vesicle structure. This paper reviews different applications in OMV Research and Development (R&D and provides examples of OMV developed and evaluated at the Finlay Institute in Cuba. A Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP process was developed at the Finlay Institute to produce OMV from N. meningitidis serogroup B (dOMVB using detergent extraction. Subsequently, OMV from N. meningitidis, serogroup A (dOMVA, serogroup W (dOMVW and serogroup X (dOMVX were obtained using this process. More recently, the extraction process has also been applied effectively for obtaining OMV on a research scale from Vibrio cholerae (dOMVC, Bordetella pertussis (dOMVBP, Mycobacterium smegmatis (dOMVSM and BCG (dOMVBCG. The immunogenicity of the OMV have been evaluated for specific antibody induction, and together with functional bactericidal and challenge assays in mice have shown their protective potential. dOMVB has been evaluated with non-self neisserial antigens, including with a herpes virus type 2 glycoprotein, ovalbumin and allergens. In conclusion, OMV are proving to be more versatile than first conceived and remain an important technology for development of vaccine candidates.

  17. Adaptive Response of T and B Cells in Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketelhuth, Daniel F J; Hansson, Göran K

    2016-02-19

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease that is initiated by the retention and accumulation of cholesterol-containing lipoproteins, particularly low-density lipoprotein, in the artery wall. In the arterial intima, lipoprotein components that are generated through oxidative, lipolytic, and proteolytic activities lead to the formation of several danger-associated molecular patterns, which can activate innate immune cells as well as vascular cells. Moreover, self- and non-self-antigens, such as apolipoprotein B-100 and heat shock proteins, can contribute to vascular inflammation by triggering the response of T and B cells locally. This process can influence the initiation, progression, and stability of plaques. Substantial clinical and experimental data support that the modulation of adaptive immune system may be used for treating and preventing atherosclerosis. This may lead to the development of more selective and less harmful interventions, while keeping host defense mechanisms against infections and tumors intact. Approaches such as vaccination might become a realistic option for cardiovascular disease, especially if they can elicit regulatory T and B cells and the secretion of atheroprotective antibodies. Nevertheless, difficulties in translating certain experimental data into new clinical therapies remain a challenge. In this review, we discuss important studies on the function of T- and B-cell immunity in atherosclerosis and their manipulation to develop novel therapeutic strategies against cardiovascular disease. PMID:26892965

  18. Getting to PTI of bacterial RNAs: Triggering plant innate immunity by extracellular RNAs from bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong-Soon; Lee, Boyoung; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2016-07-01

    Defense against diverse biotic and abiotic stresses requires the plant to distinguish between self and non-self signaling molecules. Pathogen/microbe-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs/MAMPs) are pivotal for triggering innate immunity in plants. Unlike in animals and humans, the precise roles of nucleic acids in plant innate immunity are unclear. We therefore investigated the effects of infiltration of total Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pto DC3000) RNAs into Arabidopsis plants. The pathogen population was 10-fold lower in bacterial RNAs pre-treated Arabidopsis plants than in the control. Bacterial RNAs purity was confirmed by physical (sonication) and chemical (RNase A and proteinase K digestion) methods. The perception of bacterial RNAs, especially rRNAs, positively regulated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and induced a reactive oxygen species burst, callose deposition, salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) signaling, and defense-related genes. Therefore, bacterial RNAs function as a new MAMP that activates plant innate immunity, providing a new paradigm for plant-microbe interactions. PMID:27301792

  19. Magnetorotational Instability: Nonmodal Growth and the Relationship of Global Modes to the Shearing Box

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J Squire, A Bhattacharjee [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2014-07-01

    We study the magnetorotational instability (MRI) (Balbus & Hawley 1998) using non-modal stability techniques.Despite the spectral instability of many forms of the MRI, this proves to be a natural method of analysis that is well-suited to deal with the non-self-adjoint nature of the linear MRI equations. We find that the fastest growing linear MRI structures on both local and global domains can look very diff erent to the eigenmodes, invariably resembling waves shearing with the background flow (shear waves). In addition, such structures can grow many times faster than the least stable eigenmode over long time periods, and be localized in a completely di fferent region of space. These ideas lead – for both axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric modes – to a natural connection between the global MRI and the local shearing box approximation. By illustrating that the fastest growing global structure is well described by the ordinary diff erential equations (ODEs) governing a single shear wave, we find that the shearing box is a very sensible approximation for the linear MRI, contrary to many previous claims. Since the shear wave ODEs are most naturally understood using non-modal analysis techniques, we conclude by analyzing local MRI growth over finite time-scales using these methods. The strong growth over a wide range of wave-numbers suggests that non-modal linear physics could be of fundamental importance in MRI turbulence (Squire & Bhattacharjee 2014).

  20. Improved Resin–Zirconia Bonding by Room Temperature Hydrofluoric Acid Etching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mun-Hwan Lee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This in vitro study was conducted to evaluate the shear bond strength of “non-self-adhesive” resin to dental zirconia etched with hydrofluoric acid (HF at room temperature and to compare it to that of air-abraded zirconia. Sintered zirconia plates were air-abraded (control or etched with 10%, 20%, or 30% HF for either 5 or 30 min. After cleaning, the surfaces were characterized using various analytical techniques. Three resin cylinders (Duo-Link were bonded to each treated plate. All bonded specimens were stored in water at 37 °C for 24 h, and then half of them were additionally thermocycled 5000 times prior to the shear bond-strength tests (n = 12. The formation of micro- and nano-porosities on the etched surfaces increased with increasing concentration and application time of the HF solution. The surface wettability of zirconia also increased with increasing surface roughness. Higher concentrations and longer application times of the HF solution produced higher bond-strength values. Infiltration of the resin into the micro- and nano-porosities was observed by scanning electron microscopy. This in vitro study suggests that HF slowly etches zirconia ceramic surfaces at room temperature, thereby improving the resin–zirconia bond strength by the formation of retentive sites.

  1. Two regimes of widely tuneable noise-like pulses from a figure-eight fibre laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottiez, O.; Ibarra-Escamilla, B.; Kuzin, E. A.; Hernández-García, J. C.; González-García, A.; Durán-Sánchez, M.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we study a dispersion-managed figure-eight fibre laser generating noise-like pulses with adjustable characteristics. Non-self-starting mode locking leads to the formation of a single noise-like pulse circulating in the cavity. Both the duration of the pulse and its spectral width can be adjusted by tuning the angle of wave retarders, in particular a half-wave retarder that controls the switching power of the polarization-imbalanced nonlinear optical loop mirror that is used as mode locker. Wave retarder tuning also allows observing an abrupt transition between two clearly distinct noise-like pulse regimes, one characterized by a long (> 1 ns) rectangular pulse envelope with a narrow spectrum and the other characterized by shorter sub-ns bell-shaped pulses whose Raman-enhanced spectrum extends far beyond the doped fibre gain spectrum. The existence of two distinct noise-like pulsing modes can be understood in terms of the periodic variation of the pulse spectrum along the cavity, which is able to shift the effective dispersion regime of the laser. By joining the tuning ranges of each regime, the noise-like pulse duration can be adjusted between 57 ps and 6.3 ns, and its bandwidth between 3.5 and 59 nm.

  2. Generation and characterization of erbium-Raman noise-like pulses from a figure-eight fibre laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Hernandez, H.; Pottiez, O.; Paez-Aguirre, R.; Ibarra-Villalon, H. E.; Tenorio-Torres, A.; Duran-Sanchez, M.; Ibarra-Escamilla, B.; Kuzin, E. A.; Hernandez-Garcia, J. C.

    2015-04-01

    We report an experimental study of the noise-like pulses generated by a ~300 m long passively mode-locked erbium-doped figure-eight fibre laser. Non-self-starting mode locking yields the formation of ns scale bunches of sub-ps pulses. Depending on birefringence adjustments, noise-like pulses with a variety of temporal profiles and optical spectra are obtained. In particular, for some adjustments the Raman-enhanced spectrum reaches a 10 dB bandwidth of ~130 nm. For the first time to our knowledge, we extract information on the inner structure of the noise-like pulses, using a birefringent Sagnac interferometer as a spectral filter and a nonlinear optical loop mirror as an intensity filter. In particular we show that the different spectral components of the bunch are homogeneously distributed within the temporal envelope of the bunch, whereas the amplitude and/or the density of the sub-pulses present substantial variations along the envelope. In some cases, the analysis reveals the existence of an intermediate level of organization in the structure of the noise-like pulse, between the ns bunch and the sub-ps inner pulses, suggesting that these objects may be even more complex than previously recognized.

  3. Designs and Techniques That Improve the Pullout Strength of Pedicle Screws in Osteoporotic Vertebrae: Current Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Shea

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a medical condition affecting men and women of different age groups and populations. The compromised bone quality caused by this disease represents an important challenge when a surgical procedure (e.g., spinal fusion is needed after failure of conservative treatments. Different pedicle screw designs and instrumentation techniques have been explored to enhance spinal device fixation in bone of compromised quality. These include alterations of screw thread design, optimization of pilot hole size for non-self-tapping screws, modification of the implant’s trajectory, and bone cement augmentation. While the true benefits and limitations of any procedure may not be realized until they are observed in a clinical setting, axial pullout tests, due in large part to their reproducibility and ease of execution, are commonly used to estimate the device’s effectiveness by quantifying the change in force required to remove the screw from the body. The objective of this investigation is to provide an overview of the different pedicle screw designs and the associated surgical techniques either currently utilized or proposed to improve pullout strength in osteoporotic patients. Mechanical comparisons as well as potential advantages and disadvantages of each consideration are provided herein.

  4. Interleukin-1 as a Common Denominator from Autoinflammatory to Autoimmune Disorders: Premises, Perils, and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Lopalco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A complex web of dynamic relationships between innate and adaptive immunity is now evident for many autoinflammatory and autoimmune disorders, the first deriving from abnormal activation of innate immune system without any conventional danger triggers and the latter from self-/non-self-discrimination loss of tolerance, and systemic inflammation. Due to clinical and pathophysiologic similarities giving a crucial role to the multifunctional cytokine interleukin-1, the concept of autoinflammation has been expanded to include nonhereditary collagen-like diseases, idiopathic inflammatory diseases, and metabolic diseases. As more patients are reported to have clinical features of autoinflammation and autoimmunity, the boundary between these two pathologic ends is becoming blurred. An overview of monogenic autoinflammatory disorders, PFAPA syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, type 2 diabetes mellitus, uveitis, pericarditis, Behçet’s disease, gout, Sjögren’s syndrome, interstitial lung diseases, and Still’s disease is presented to highlight the fundamental points that interleukin-1 displays in the cryptic interplay between innate and adaptive immune systems.

  5. Scaling laws and fluctuations in the statistics of word frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we combine statistical analysis of written texts and simple stochastic models to explain the appearance of scaling laws in the statistics of word frequencies. The average vocabulary of an ensemble of fixed-length texts is known to scale sublinearly with the total number of words (Heaps’ law). Analyzing the fluctuations around this average in three large databases (Google-ngram, English Wikipedia, and a collection of scientific articles), we find that the standard deviation scales linearly with the average (Taylor's law), in contrast to the prediction of decaying fluctuations obtained using simple sampling arguments. We explain both scaling laws (Heaps’ and Taylor) by modeling the usage of words using a Poisson process with a fat-tailed distribution of word frequencies (Zipf's law) and topic-dependent frequencies of individual words (as in topic models). Considering topical variations lead to quenched averages, turn the vocabulary size a non-self-averaging quantity, and explain the empirical observations. For the numerous practical applications relying on estimations of vocabulary size, our results show that uncertainties remain large even for long texts. We show how to account for these uncertainties in measurements of lexical richness of texts with different lengths. (paper)

  6. A SCALING RELATION BETWEEN MEGAMASER DISK RADIUS AND BLACK HOLE MASS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wardle, Mark [Astronomy, Astrophysics and Astrophotonics Research Centre and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Yusef-Zadeh, Farhad, E-mail: mark.wardle@mq.edu.au, E-mail: zadeh@northwestern.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)

    2012-05-10

    Several thin, Keplerian, sub-parsec megamaser disks have been discovered in the nuclei of active galaxies and used to precisely determine the mass of their host black holes. We show that there is an empirical linear correlation between the disk radius and the black hole mass. We demonstrate that such disks are naturally formed by the partial capture of molecular clouds passing through the galactic nucleus and temporarily engulfing the central supermassive black hole. Imperfect cancellation of the angular momenta of the cloud material colliding after passing on opposite sides of the hole leads to the formation of a compact disk. The radial extent of the disk is determined by the efficiency of this process and the Bondi-Hoyle capture radius of the black hole, and naturally produces the empirical linear correlation of the radial extent of the maser distribution with black hole mass. The disk has sufficient column density to allow X-ray irradiation from the central source to generate physical and chemical conditions conducive to the formation of 22 GHz H{sub 2}O masers. For initial cloud column densities {approx}< 10{sup 23.5} cm{sup -2} the disk is non-self-gravitating, consistent with the ordered kinematics of the edge-on megamaser disks; for higher cloud columns the disk would fragment and produce a compact stellar disk similar to that observed around Sgr A* at the galactic center.

  7. A SCALING RELATION BETWEEN MEGAMASER DISK RADIUS AND BLACK HOLE MASS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several thin, Keplerian, sub-parsec megamaser disks have been discovered in the nuclei of active galaxies and used to precisely determine the mass of their host black holes. We show that there is an empirical linear correlation between the disk radius and the black hole mass. We demonstrate that such disks are naturally formed by the partial capture of molecular clouds passing through the galactic nucleus and temporarily engulfing the central supermassive black hole. Imperfect cancellation of the angular momenta of the cloud material colliding after passing on opposite sides of the hole leads to the formation of a compact disk. The radial extent of the disk is determined by the efficiency of this process and the Bondi-Hoyle capture radius of the black hole, and naturally produces the empirical linear correlation of the radial extent of the maser distribution with black hole mass. The disk has sufficient column density to allow X-ray irradiation from the central source to generate physical and chemical conditions conducive to the formation of 22 GHz H2O masers. For initial cloud column densities ∼23.5 cm–2 the disk is non-self-gravitating, consistent with the ordered kinematics of the edge-on megamaser disks; for higher cloud columns the disk would fragment and produce a compact stellar disk similar to that observed around Sgr A* at the galactic center.

  8. Self-consistent calculation of particle-hole diagrams on the Matsubara frequency: FLEX approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Nunez, J.J

    1997-05-18

    We implement the numerical method of summing Green function diagrams on the Matsubara frequency axis for the fluctuation exchange (FLEX) approximation. Our method has previously been applied to the attractive Hubbard model for low density. Here we apply our numerical algorithm to the Hubbard model close to half filling ({rho}=0.40), and for T/t = 0.03, in order to study the dynamics of one- and two-particle Green functions. For the values of the chosen parameters we see the formation of three branches which we associate with the a two-peak structure in the imaginary part of the self-energy. We have compared our fully self-consistent FLEX solutions with a lower order approximation where the internal Green functions are approximated by free Green functions. These two approaches the fully self consistent and the non-self consistent ones give different results for the parameters considered here. However, they have similar global results for small densities. (author) 34 refs., 9 figs.; e-mail: jjrn at if.uff.br

  9. Awareness and Self-Awareness for Multi-Robot Organisms

    CERN Document Server

    Kernbach, Serge

    2011-01-01

    Awareness and self-awareness are two different notions related to knowing the environment and itself. In a general context, the mechanism of self-awareness belongs to a class of co-called "self-issues" (self-* or self-star): self-adaptation, self-repairing, self-replication, self-development or self-recovery. The self-* issues are connected in many ways to adaptability and evolvability, to the emergence of behavior and to the controllability of long-term developmental processes. Self-* are either natural properties of several systems, such as self-assembling of molecular networks, or may emerge as a result of homeostatic regulation. Different computational processes, leading to a global optimization, increasing scalability and reliability of collective systems, create such a homeostatic regulation. Moreover, conditions of ecological survival, imposed on such systems, lead to a discrimination between "self" and "non-self" as well as to the emergence of different self-phenomena. There are many profound challeng...

  10. Self-consistent double-hybrid density-functional theory using the optimized-effective-potential method

    CERN Document Server

    Smiga, Szymon; Mussard, Bastien; Buksztel, Adam; Grabowski, Ireneusz; Luppi, Eleonora; Toulouse, Julien

    2016-01-01

    We introduce an orbital-optimized double-hybrid (DH) scheme using the optimized-effective-potential (OEP) method. The orbitals are optimized using a local potential corresponding to the complete exchange-correlation energy expression including the second-order M{{\\o}}ller-Plesset (MP2) correlation contribution. We have implemented a one-parameter version of this OEP-based self-consistent DH scheme using the BLYP density-functional approximation and compared it to the corresponding non-self-consistent DH scheme for calculations on a few closed-shell atoms and molecules. While the OEP-based self-consistency does not provide any improvement for the calculations of ground-state total energies and ionization potentials, it does improve the accuracy of electron affinities and restores the meaning of the LUMO orbital energy as being connected to a neutral excitation energy. Moreover, the OEP-based self-consistent DH scheme provides reasonably accurate exchange-correlation potentials and correlated densities.

  11. Phantomlike behavior in a brane-world model with curvature effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent observational evidence seems to allow the possibility that our Universe may currently be under a dark energy effect of a phantom nature. A suitable effective phantom fluid behavior can emerge in brane cosmology; in particular, within the normal non-self-accelerating Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati branch, without any exotic matter and due to curvature effects from induced gravity. The phantomlike behavior is based in defining an effective energy density that grows as the brane expands. This effective description breaks down at some point in the past when the effective energy density becomes negative and the effective equation of state parameter blows up. In this paper we investigate if the phantomlike regime can be enlarged by the inclusion of a Gauss-Bonnet (GB) term into the bulk. The motivation is that such a GB component would model additional curvature effects on the brane setting. More precisely, our aim is to determine if the GB term, dominating and modifying the early behavior of the brane universe, may eventually extend the regime of validity of the phantom mimicry on the brane. However, we show that the opposite occurs: the GB effect seems instead to induce a breakdown of the phantomlike behavior at an even smaller redshift.

  12. An efficient ERP-based brain-computer interface using random set presentation and face familiarity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seul-Ki Yeom

    Full Text Available Event-related potential (ERP-based P300 spellers are commonly used in the field of brain-computer interfaces as an alternative channel of communication for people with severe neuro-muscular diseases. This study introduces a novel P300 based brain-computer interface (BCI stimulus paradigm using a random set presentation pattern and exploiting the effects of face familiarity. The effect of face familiarity is widely studied in the cognitive neurosciences and has recently been addressed for the purpose of BCI. In this study we compare P300-based BCI performances of a conventional row-column (RC-based paradigm with our approach that combines a random set presentation paradigm with (non- self-face stimuli. Our experimental results indicate stronger deflections of the ERPs in response to face stimuli, which are further enhanced when using the self-face images, and thereby improving P300-based spelling performance. This lead to a significant reduction of stimulus sequences required for correct character classification. These findings demonstrate a promising new approach for improving the speed and thus fluency of BCI-enhanced communication with the widely used P300-based BCI setup.

  13. Seismic considerations for ASME class 1 piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section III requires that Class 1 piping systems be designed and analyzed to account for self-limiting and non-self-limiting loads for primary stress and fatigue protection. The NRC requires demonstration of equipment operability and piping system functional capability in addition to the structural integrity requirements for Class 1 systems. The NSSS vendors impose further restrictions on these systems in order to satisfy systems design criteria to comply with the assumed loadings utilized in their safeguard analyses. All these requirements, as well as any additional plant specific criteria, restrict and control the design of the Class 1 piping systems. A procedure is required to optimize the design and analysis of these systems, which, in most cases, are governed by systems operating transients and seismic loadings. The objective of this paper is to present a technical overview of seismic analysis of Class 1 piping systems in the areas of: methods of analysis, linearization of non-linear systems, response spectral considerations, coupling and resonance between systems, equipment modeling and limitations, support consideration and optimization, generic fatigue analysis concept, special techniques to resolve overstress problems and criteria to assess as-built deviations

  14. Comprehensive Assessments of Parkfield Earthquake Source Estimates: A Look into Model Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munafo, I.; Yoo, S.; Malagnini, L.; Mayeda, K. M.; Dreger, D. S.; Nadeau, R. M.

    2012-12-01

    We investigate source parameters and scaling of repeating and non-repeating earthquakes occurring on the Parkfield segment of the San Andreas Fault (SAF) taking into account model, or epistemic variability due to method. We will compute source corner frequency and stress drop using multi-taper spectral analysis of P and S waves, inversion for source, path and site, and coda envelope methods using data from the borehole High Resolution Seismic Network (HRSN). The results of this analysis will be compared to estimates obtained from the Nadeau and Johnson (1998) asperity loading model, as well as finite-source models of earthquakes from M 1.8 to 6.0 (Dreger et al., 2007; Uchide and Ide, 2010), and with the recent analysis of coda waves (Baltay et al., 2010). One objective is to compare source parameters derived from each method with estimated uncertainties using identical data sets to evaluate the variability and resolution of source parameters. Another objective is to investigate the scaling of Parkfield seismicity where studies have suggested self-similar (Baltay et al., 2010), and non-self-similar (Nadeau and Johnson, 1998) scaling. The results of such analyses give us insights into the underlying mechanics of faulting and the earthquake process.

  15. Pair and Cluster Formation in Hybrid Active-Passive Matter Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krafnick, Ryan; Garcia, Angel

    2015-03-01

    Systems composed of self-propelling entities, dubbed active matter, are ubiquitous in nature, from flocks of birds and schools of fish to swarms of bacteria and catalytic nanomotors. These systems (both biological and industrial) have applications ranging from micron-scale cargo manipulation and directed transport to water remediation and material processing. When added to a solution with passive (non-self-propelling) particles, active matter leads to new and altered system properties. For example, the diffusion of passive particles increases by orders of magnitude in typical systems, leading to a raised effective temperature. Additionally, particles that normally repel each other exhibit effective attractions which can lead to pair formation and clustering. The nature of these effects depends on both the mechanical collisions of swimmers and the hydrodynamic flow fields they propagate. We computationally examine the effect and dependence of various system parameters, such as particle shape and density, on these properties. This work was funded by NIH grant GM086801 and NSF grant MCB-1050966.

  16. The fine structure constant alpha: relevant for a model of a self-propelling photon and for particle masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greulich, Karl O.

    2015-09-01

    A model for a self propelling (i.e. massless) photon1 is based on oscillations of a pair of charges amounting to elementary charge divided by SQRT alpha, where alpha is the fine structure (Sommerfeld) constant. When one assumes a similar model for particles that do have rest mas (i.e. which are non- self propelling), alpha plays also a role in the rest masses of elementary particles. Indeed all fundamental elementary particle masses can be described by the alpha / beta rule2 --> m(particle) = alpha-n * betam* 27.2 eV /c2 where beta is the proton to electron mass ratio 183612 and n= 0….14, m= -1,0 or Thus, photons and particle masses are intimately related to the fine structure constant. If the latter would not have been strictly constant throughout all times, this would have had consequences for the nature of light and for all masses including those of elementary particles.

  17. T regulatory cells in allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, M; Quecchia, C; Cavallucci, E; Di Giampaolo, L; Schiavone, C; Petrarca, C; Di Gioacchino, M

    2011-01-01

    The progressive understanding of the nature and mechanisms of T regulatory (Treg) cells in the last decade has changed the concept of immune tolerance, that is no longer considered as a mere lack of immune reactivity but as a finely regulated process that requires specific activity of cells, adhesion and secreted molecules. Tregs play a key role in maintenance of self-tolerance and induction of tolerance against ubiquitous innocuous non-self antigens, so preventing the onset of autoimmune diseases and allergies. This review will focus on the Treg response in allergy that is characterized by a down-regulation of allergen specific T cell proliferation and inhibition of both Th1 and Th2 cytokines production. Hence, Treg cells suppress allergen-specific Th1 and Th2 cell responses playing an important role in the physiological immune response to allergens. Further, Treg cells are able to suppress IgE production by B lymphocytes and directly or indirectly inhibit the activity of allergic inflammation effector cells, namely eosinophils, basophils and mastcells. Finally, increasing evidence suggests that Treg cells are also implicated in chronicity development of inflammatory diseases. This appears to happen through a fine interaction they entertain with resident tissue cells and has been particularly highlighted in the study of airways remodeling in asthma. The understanding of the mechanisms underlying allergen tolerance has brought new interest in the development of new allergy treatment, able to target Treg cells, both in allergy prevention and in the therapy of established allergy. PMID:21329567

  18. Warping and tearing of misaligned circumbinary disks around eccentric SMBH binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Hayasaki, Kimitake; Okazaki, Atsuo T; Jung, Taehyun; Zhao, Guangyao; Naito, Tsuguya

    2015-01-01

    We study the warping and tearing of a geometrically thin, non-self-gravitating disk surrounding binary supermassive black holes on an eccentric orbit. The circumbinary disk is significantly misaligned with the binary orbital plane, and is subject to the time-dependent tidal torques. In principle, such a disk is warped and precesses, and is torn into mutually misaligned rings in the region, where the tidal precession torques are stronger than the local viscous torques. We derive the tidal-warp and tearing radii of the misaligned circumbinary disks around eccentric SMBH binaries. We find that in disks with the viscosity parameter, alpha, larger than a critical value depending on the disk aspect ratio, the disk warping appears outside the tearing radius. This condition is expressed as alpha > sqrt{H/3r} for H/r ~<0.1, where H is the disk scale height. If alpha < sqrt{H/3r}, only the disk tearing occurs because the tidal warp radius is inside the tearing radius, where most of disk material is likely to rapi...

  19. Dissociating medial frontal and posterior cingulate activity during self-reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marcia K; Raye, Carol L; Mitchell, Karen J; Touryan, Sharon R; Greene, Erich J; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2006-06-01

    Motivationally significant agendas guide perception, thought and behaviour, helping one to define a 'self' and to regulate interactions with the environment. To investigate neural correlates of thinking about such agendas, we asked participants to think about their hopes and aspirations (promotion focus) or their duties and obligations (prevention focus) during functional magnetic resonance imaging and compared these self-reflection conditions with a distraction condition in which participants thought about non-self-relevant items. Self-reflection resulted in greater activity than distraction in dorsomedial frontal/anterior cingulate cortex and posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus, consistent with previous findings of activity in these areas during self-relevant thought. For additional medial areas, we report new evidence of a double dissociation of function between medial prefrontal/anterior cingulate cortex, which showed relatively greater activity to thinking about hopes and aspirations, and posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus, which showed relatively greater activity to thinking about duties and obligations. One possibility is that activity in medial prefrontal cortex is associated with instrumental or agentic self-reflection, whereas posterior medial cortex is associated with experiential self-reflection. Another, not necessarily mutually exclusive, possibility is that medial prefrontal cortex is associated with a more inward-directed focus, while posterior cingulate is associated with a more outward-directed, social or contextual focus. PMID:18574518

  20. Direct observation of a 'devil's staircase' in wave-particle interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the experimental observation of a 'devil's staircase' in a time-dependent system considered as a paradigm for the transition to large-scale chaos in the universality class of Hamiltonian systems. A test electron beam is used to observe its non-self-consistent interaction with externally excited wave(s) in a traveling wave tube (TWT). A trochoidal energy analyzer records the beam energy distribution at the output of the interaction line. An arbitrary waveform generator is used to launch a prescribed spectrum of waves along the slow wave structure (a 4 m long helix) of the TWT. The resonant velocity domain associated to a single wave is observed, as well as the transition to large-scale chaos when the resonant domains of two waves and their secondary resonances overlap. This transition exhibits a 'devil's staircase' behavior for increasing excitation amplitude, due to the nonlinear forcing by the second wave on the pendulum-like motion of a charged particle in one electrostatic wave

  1. Anergy in self-directed B lymphocytes from a statistical mechanics perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Agliari, Elena; Del Ferraro, Gino; Guerra, Francesco; Tantari, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    The ability of the adaptive immune system to discriminate between self and non-self mainly stems from the ontogenic clonal-deletion of lymphocytes expressing strong binding affinity with self-peptides. However, some self-directed lymphocytes may evade selection and still be harmless due to a mechanism called clonal anergy. As for B lymphocytes, two major explanations for anergy developed over three decades: according to "Varela theory", it stems from a proper orchestration of the whole B-repertoire, in such a way that self-reactive clones, due to intensive interactions and feed-back from other clones, display more inertia to mount a response. On the other hand, according to the `two-signal model", which has prevailed nowadays, self-reacting cells are not stimulated by helper lymphocytes and the absence of such signaling yields anergy. The first result we present, achieved through disordered statistical mechanics, shows that helper cells do not prompt the activation and proliferation of a certain sub-group of ...

  2. Spiral-driven accretion in protoplanetary discs - II Self-similar solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Hennebelle, Patrick; Fromang, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    Accretion discs are ubiquitous in the universe and it is a crucial issue to understand how angular momentum and mass are being radially transported in these objects. Here, we study the role played by non-linear spiral patterns within hydrodynamical and non self-gravitating accretion disc assuming that external disturbances such as infall onto the disc may trigger them. To do so, we computed self-similar solutions that describe discs in which a spiral wave propagates. Such solutions present both shocks and critical sonic points that we carefully analyze. For all allowed temperatures and for several spiral shocks, we calculated the wave structure. In particular we inferred the angle of the spiral patern, the stress it exerts on the disc as well as the associated flux of mass and angular momentum as a function of temperature. We quantified the rate of angular momentum transport by means of the dimensionless $\\alpha$ parameter. For the thickest disc we considered (corresponding to $h/r$ values of about 1/3), we f...

  3. Expected distributions of root-mean-square positional deviations in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitera, Jed W

    2014-06-19

    The atom positional root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) is a standard tool for comparing the similarity of two molecular structures. It is used to characterize the quality of biomolecular simulations, to cluster conformations, and as a reaction coordinate for conformational changes. This work presents an approximate analytic form for the expected distribution of RMSD values for a protein or polymer fluctuating about a stable native structure. The mean and maximum of the expected distribution are independent of chain length for long chains and linearly proportional to the average atom positional root-mean-square fluctuations (RMSF). To approximate the RMSD distribution for random-coil or unfolded ensembles, numerical distributions of RMSD were generated for ensembles of self-avoiding and non-self-avoiding random walks. In both cases, for all reference structures tested for chains more than three monomers long, the distributions have a maximum distant from the origin with a power-law dependence on chain length. The purely entropic nature of this result implies that care must be taken when interpreting stable high-RMSD regions of the free-energy landscape as "intermediates" or well-defined stable states. PMID:24655018

  4. Mathematical modeling and analysis of combinational immune boost for tumor elimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakada, Naoki; Nagata, Mizuho; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro; Nakaoka, Shinji

    2016-04-01

    The immune system has an ability to recognize tumor as non-self antigen, and initiates inflammatory response to eliminate tumor. A dendritic cell (DCs) population is one of immune cell subsets that specifically uptakes foreign antigen and then presents to T cells. Dendritic cell boost ex vivo is operated to enhance immune response against tumor that in general comes to fail due to several complex reasons. Although dendritic cell therapy has been operated in clinical trials by boosting tumor immune responses, less is known about dynamic behaviors generated by interactions among immune cell subsets and tumor cells. In this paper, we construct and analyze a mathematical model describing tumor killing by T cells activated by dendritic cells. A handling time representing a waiting time required for T cells to be activated during antigen presentation is incorporated in our model. Mathematical analyses imply that successful tumor elimination depends on the amount of T cells activated ex vivo when introduced. Moreover, numerical simulations imply that an immune escape basin in which tumor can escape from T cell responses increases when the handling time increases, indicating that efficient tumor elimination might result in immediate T cell inactivation due to rapid decline of antigenic stimulation.

  5. Mode-Locked CO Laser for Isotope Separation of Uranium Employing Condensation Repression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Y. Baranov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, we have suggested a technical solution of a CO laser facility for industrial separation of uranium used in the production of fuel for nuclear power plants. There has been used a method of laser isotope separation of uranium, employing condensation repression in a free jet. The laser operation with nanosecond pulse irradiation can provide acceptable efficiency in the separating unit and the high effective coefficient of the laser with the wavelength of 5.3 μm. Receiving a uniform RF discharge under medium pressure and high Mach numbers in the gas stream solves the problem of an electron beam and cryogenic cooler of CO lasers. The laser active medium is being cooled while it is expanding in the nozzle; a low-current RF discharge is similar to a non-self-sustained discharge. In the present work, we have developed a calculation model of optimization and have defined the parameters of a mode-locked CO laser with an RF discharge in the supersonic stream. The CO laser average power of 3 kW is sufficient for efficient industrial isotope separation of uranium at one facility.

  6. Edge modes in self-gravitating disc-planet interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Min-Kai

    2011-01-01

    We study the stability of gaps opened by a giant planet in a self-gravitating protoplanetary disc. We find a linear instability associated with both the self-gravity of the disc and local vortensity maxima which coincide with gap edges. For our models, these edge modes develop and extend to twice the orbital radius of a Saturn mass planet in discs with disc-to-star mass ratio >0.06, corresponding to a Toomre Q < 1.5 at the outer disc boundary. Unlike the local vortex-forming instabilities associated with gap edges in weakly or non-self-gravitating low viscosity discs, the edge modes are global and exist only in sufficiently massive discs, but for the typical viscosity values adopted for protoplanetary discs. Analytic modelling and linear calculations show edge modes may be interpreted as a localised disturbance associated with a gap edge inducing activity in the extended disc, through the launching of density waves excited at Lindblad resonances. Nonlinear hydrodynamic simulations are performed to investig...

  7. The Effect of Orthopedic Advertising and Self-Promotion on a Naïve Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohney, Stephen; Lee, Daniel J; Elfar, John C

    2016-01-01

    There has been a marked increase in the number of physicians marketing themselves directly to patients and consumers. However, it is unclear how different promotional styles affect patients' perceptions of their physicians. We hypothesized that self-promoting orthopedic surgeons enjoy a more positive impact on nonphysician patients as compared to non-self-promoting surgeons, as well as a corresponding negative impact on their peer-surgeons. Surgeon websites were selected from the 5 largest population centers in the United States. Subjects with varying degrees of familiarity with orthopedic surgery evaluated Internet profiles of surgeons on a forced choice Likert scale to measure the amount of self-promotion. The naïve subjects judged self-promoting surgeons more favorably than the orthopedic surgeons. In contrast, board-certified orthopedic surgeons viewed self-promoting surgeons more negatively than did their nonphysician counterparts. In summary, the present study revealed that the potential for self-promotion to unduly influence potential patients is real and should be a considerable concern to surgeons, patients, and the profession. PMID:27327932

  8. Pandora's Box and Non-Selfdual Topological Excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last few years, we have realized the existence of a new class of topological excitations, which are rather distinct from the platonic world of monopoles, monopole-instantons and instantons. All of the latter arise as solutions of the Prasad-Sommerfield type first order differential (self-duality) equations and have been extensively discussed in the context of confinement and chiral symmetry breaking for the last 30 years. However, new calculable deformations of asymptotically free chiral and vector-like gauge theories give us a new picture of these physical phenomena. Most often, the excitations which lead to confinement are not solutions to PS-type equations, they are non-selfdual and they are often bizarre. They are referred to as magnetic bions, triplets, and quintets, due to their composite nature. Bizarre as they are, combined with large-N volume independence, these novel non-self-dual excitations may also provide hope that at least some non-abelian gauge theories may be solvable.

  9. Improved metabolic health alters host metabolism in parallel with changes in systemic xeno-metabolites of gut origin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin Campbell

    Full Text Available Novel plasma metabolite patterns reflective of improved metabolic health (insulin sensitivity, fitness, reduced body weight were identified before and after a 14-17 wk weight loss and exercise intervention in sedentary, obese insulin-resistant women. To control for potential confounding effects of diet- or microbiome-derived molecules on the systemic metabolome, sampling was during a tightly-controlled feeding test week paradigm. Pairwise and multivariate analysis revealed intervention- and insulin-sensitivity associated: (1 Changes in plasma xeno-metabolites ("non-self" metabolites of dietary or gut microbial origin following an oral glucose tolerance test (e.g. higher post-OGTT propane-1,2,3-tricarboxylate [tricarballylic acid] or in the overnight-fasted state (e.g., lower γ-tocopherol; (2 Increased indices of saturated very long chain fatty acid elongation capacity; (3 Increased post-OGTT α-ketoglutaric acid (α-KG, fasting α-KG inversely correlated with Matsuda index, and altered patterns of malate, pyruvate and glutamine hypothesized to stem from improved mitochondrial efficiency and more robust oxidation of glucose. The results support a working model in which improved metabolic health modifies host metabolism in parallel with altering systemic exposure to xeno-metabolites. This highlights that interpretations regarding the origins of peripheral blood or urinary "signatures" of insulin resistance and metabolic health must consider the potentially important contribution of gut-derived metabolites toward the host's metabolome.

  10. Improved metabolic health alters host metabolism in parallel with changes in systemic xeno-metabolites of gut origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Caitlin; Grapov, Dmitry; Fiehn, Oliver; Chandler, Carol J; Burnett, Dustin J; Souza, Elaine C; Casazza, Gretchen A; Gustafson, Mary B; Keim, Nancy L; Newman, John W; Hunter, Gary R; Fernandez, Jose R; Garvey, W Timothy; Harper, Mary-Ellen; Hoppel, Charles L; Meissen, John K; Take, Kohei; Adams, Sean H

    2014-01-01

    Novel plasma metabolite patterns reflective of improved metabolic health (insulin sensitivity, fitness, reduced body weight) were identified before and after a 14-17 wk weight loss and exercise intervention in sedentary, obese insulin-resistant women. To control for potential confounding effects of diet- or microbiome-derived molecules on the systemic metabolome, sampling was during a tightly-controlled feeding test week paradigm. Pairwise and multivariate analysis revealed intervention- and insulin-sensitivity associated: (1) Changes in plasma xeno-metabolites ("non-self" metabolites of dietary or gut microbial origin) following an oral glucose tolerance test (e.g. higher post-OGTT propane-1,2,3-tricarboxylate [tricarballylic acid]) or in the overnight-fasted state (e.g., lower γ-tocopherol); (2) Increased indices of saturated very long chain fatty acid elongation capacity; (3) Increased post-OGTT α-ketoglutaric acid (α-KG), fasting α-KG inversely correlated with Matsuda index, and altered patterns of malate, pyruvate and glutamine hypothesized to stem from improved mitochondrial efficiency and more robust oxidation of glucose. The results support a working model in which improved metabolic health modifies host metabolism in parallel with altering systemic exposure to xeno-metabolites. This highlights that interpretations regarding the origins of peripheral blood or urinary "signatures" of insulin resistance and metabolic health must consider the potentially important contribution of gut-derived metabolites toward the host's metabolome. PMID:24416208

  11. Immunobiology of compound ascidians, with particular reference to Botryllus schlosseri: state of art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Ballarin

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The phylogenetic position of invertebrate chordates closely related to vertebrates explains the increasing interest towards tunicate immunobiology. Most of the tunicates are ascidians which, like all other invertebrates, rely only on innate immunity for their defense. Compound ascidians differ from solitary species for the presence of colony specificity, i.e. the ability for intraspecific non-self recognition. The immunobiology of compound ascidians has been particularly studied in Botryllus schlosseri, which is an emerging model organism for this kind of studies. In B. schlosseri and related species, immunocytes are represented by phagocytes and cytotoxic morula cells, the former able to ingest foreign cell and particles, the latter representing the effectors of the inflammatory reaction which follows the contact between genetically incompatible colonies. Activated phagocytes release lectins with opsonic activity and are involved in the clearance of apoptotic cells during the colonial generational change. Morula cells recognize the presence of foreign molecules as well as allogeneic soluble factors diffusing from an alien colony and as a consequence they: i release cytokines in the medium which have chemotactic activity and activate phagocytes; ii degranulate and release phenoloxidase which induces necrotic cell death by oxidative stress. A better knowledge of Botryllus genome will allow a deeper insight into open problems in immunobiology of compound ascidians.

  12. A model for the performance of a vertical tube condenser in the presence of noncondensable gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guentay, A.D.S.

    1995-09-01

    Some proposed vertical tube condensers are designed to operate at high noncondensable fractions, which warrants a simple model to predict their performance. Models developed thus far are usually non self-contained as they require the specification of the wall temperature to predict the local condensation rate. The present model attempts to fill this gap by addressing the secondary side heat transfer as well. Starting with momentum balance which includes the effect of interfacial shear stress, a Nusselt-type algebraic equation is derived for the film thickness as a function of flow and geometry parameters. The heat and mass transfer analogy relations are then invoked to deduce the condensation rate of steam onto the tube wall. Lastly, the heat transfer to the secondary side is modelled to include cooling by forced, free or mixed convection flows. The model is used for parametric simulations to determine the impact on the condenser performance of important factors such as the inlet gas fraction, the mixture inlet flowrate, the total pressure, and the molecular weight of the noncondensable gas. The model performed simulations of some experiments with pure steam and air-steam mixtures flowing down a vertical tube. The model predicts the data quite well.

  13. Warped circumbinary disks in active galactic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study a warping instability of a geometrically thin, non-self-gravitating disk surrounding binary supermassive black holes on a circular orbit. Such a circumbinary disk is subject to not only tidal torques due to the binary gravitational potential but also radiative torques due to radiation emitted from an accretion disk around each black hole. We find that a circumbinary disk initially aligned with the binary orbital plane is unstable to radiation-driven warping beyond the marginally stable warping radius, which is sensitive to both the ratio of vertical to horizontal shear viscosities and the mass-to-energy conversion efficiency. As expected, the tidal torques give no contribution to the growth of warping modes but tend to align the circumbinary disk with the orbital plane. Since the tidal torques can suppress the warping modes in the inner part of circumbinary disk, the circumbinary disk starts to be warped at radii larger than the marginally stable warping radius. If the warping radius is of the order of 0.1 pc, a resultant semi-major axis is estimated to be of the order of 10–2 pc to 10–4 pc for 107 M☉ black hole. We also discuss the possibility that the central objects of observed warped maser disks in active galactic nuclei are binary supermassive black holes with a triple disk: two accretion disks around the individual black holes and one circumbinary disk surrounding them.

  14. Pandora's Box and Non-Selfdual Topological Excitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unsal, Mithat; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2010-06-07

    In the last few years, we have realized the existence of a new class of topological excitations, which are rather distinct from the platonic world of monopoles, monopole-instantons and instantons. All of the latter arise as solutions of the Prasad-Sommerfield type first order differential (self-duality) equations and have been extensively discussed in the context of confinement and chiral symmetry breaking for the last 30 years. However, new calculable deformations of asymptotically free chiral and vector-like gauge theories give us a new picture of these physical phenomena. Most often, the excitations which lead to confinement are not solutions to PS-type equations, they are non-selfdual and they are often bizarre. They are referred to as magnetic bions, triplets, and quintets, due to their composite nature. Bizarre as they are, combined with large-N volume independence, these novel non-self-dual excitations may also provide hope that at least some non-abelian gauge theories may be solvable.

  15. Temporal perception in joint action: This is MY action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozzi, Francesca; Becchio, Cristina; Garbarini, Francesca; Savazzi, Silvia; Pia, Lorenzo

    2016-02-01

    Here we investigated the temporal perception of self- and other-generated actions during sequential joint actions. Participants judged the perceived time of two events, the first triggered by the participant and the second by another agent, during a cooperative or competitive interaction, or by an unspecified mechanical cause. Results showed that participants perceived self-generated events as shifted earlier in time (anticipation temporal judgment bias) and non-self-generated events as shifted later in time (repulsion temporal judgment bias). This latter effect was observed independently from the kind of cause (i.e., agentive or mechanical) or interaction (i.e., cooperative or competitive). We suggest that this might represent a mental process which allows discriminating events that cannot plausibly be linked to one's own action. When an event immediately follows a self-generated one, temporal judgment biases operate as self-serving biases in order to separate self-generated events from events of another physical causality. PMID:26741858

  16. Treatment of graft-versus-host disease with naturally occurring T regulatory cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzonkowski, Piotr; Dukat-Mazurek, Anna; Bieniaszewska, Maria; Marek-Trzonkowska, Natalia; Dobyszuk, Anita; Juścińska, Jolanta; Dutka, Magdalena; Myśliwska, Jolanta; Hellmann, Andrzej

    2013-12-01

    A significant body of evidence suggests that treatment with naturally occurring CD4(+)CD25(+) T regulatory cells (Tregs) is an appropriate therapy for graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). GvHD is a major complication of bone marrow transplantation in which the transplanted immune system recognizes recipient tissues as a non-self and destroys them. In many cases, this condition significantly deteriorates the quality of life of the affected patients. It is also one of the most important causes of death after bone marrow transplantation. Tregs constitute a population responsible for dominant tolerance to self-tissues in the immune system. These cells prevent autoimmune and allergic reactions and decrease the risk of rejection of allotransplants. For these reasons, Tregs are considered as a cellular drug in GvHD. The results of the first clinical trials with these cells are already available. In this review we present important experimental facts which led to the clinical use of Tregs. We then critically evaluate specific requirements for Treg therapy in GvHD and therapies with Tregs currently under clinical investigation, including our experience and future perspectives on this kind of cellular treatment. PMID:23813436

  17. Three-Dimensional Simulations of Parker, Magneto-Jeans, and Swing Instabilities in Shearing Galactic Gas Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, W T; Stone, J M; Kim, Woong-Tae; Ostriker, Eve C.; Stone, James M.

    2002-01-01

    We use 3D MHD simulations to investigate nonlinear development of the Parker, magneto-Jeans (MJI), and swing mechanisms in galactic disks. The model disks are local, isothermal, and begin from a vertically-stratified equilibrium. We first construct axisymmetric equilibria and examine their stability. Finite disk thickness reduces the critical Toomre Q parameter below unity; we find Q_c \\~ 0.75, 0.72, and 0.57 for \\beta=\\infty, 10, and 1 cases, respectively. We then pursue fully 3D models. In non-self-gravitating cases, the peak density enhancement from the `pure' Parker instability is less a factor of two. The dominant growing modes have radial wavelengths comparable to the disk scale height H, much shorter than the azimuthal wavelength (~10-20 H). Shearing disks, being more favorable to midplane-symmetric modes, have somewhat different late-time magnetic field profiles from nonshearing disks, but otherwise saturated states are similar. Late-time velocity fluctuations at 10% of the sound speed persist, but no...

  18. Autopolyreactivity Confers a Holistic Role in the Immune System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avrameas, S

    2016-04-01

    In this review, we summarize and discuss some key findings from the study of naturally occurring autoantibodies. The B-cell compartment of the immune system appears to recognize almost all endogenous and environmental antigens. This ability is accomplished principally through autopolyreactive humoral and cellular immune receptors. This extended autopolyreactivity (1) along immunoglobulin gene recombination contributes to the immune system's ability to recognize a very large number of self and non-self constituents; and (2) generates a vast immune network that creates communication channels between the organism's interior and exterior. Thus, the immune system continuously evolves depending on the internal and external stimuli it encounters. Furthermore, this far-reaching network's existence implies activities resembling those of classical biological factors or activities that modulate the function of other classical biological factors. A few such antibodies have already been found. Another important concept is that natural autoantibodies are highly dependent on the presence or absence of commensal microbes in the organism. These results are in line with past and recent findings showing the fundamental influence of the microbiota on proper immune system development, and necessitate the existence of a host-microbe homeostasis. This homeostasis requires that the participating humoral and cellular receptors are able to recognize self-antigens and commensal microbes without damaging them. Autopolyreactive immune receptors expressing low affinity for both types of antigens fulfil this role. The immune system appears to play a holistic role similar to that of the nervous system. PMID:26808310

  19. CMB Constraints On The Thermal WIMP Annihilation Cross Section

    CERN Document Server

    Steigman, Gary

    2015-01-01

    A thermal relic, often referred to as a weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP),is a particle produced during the early evolution of the Universe whose relic abundance (e.g., at present) depends only on its mass and its thermally averaged annihilation cross section (annihilation rate factor) sigma*v_ann. Late time WIMP annihilation has the potential to affect the cosmic microwave background (CMB) power spectrum. Current observational constraints on the absence of such effects provide bounds on the mass and the annihilation cross section of relic particles that may, but need not be dark matter candidates. For a WIMP that is a dark matter candidate, the CMB constraint sets an upper bound to the annihilation cross section, leading to a lower bound to their mass that depends on whether or not the WIMP is its own antiparticle. For a self-conjugate WIMP, m_min = 50f GeV, where f is an electromagnetic energy efficiency factor. For a non self-conjugate WIMP, the minimum mass is a factor of two larger. For a WIMP t...

  20. 99th Dahlem conference on infection, inflammation and chronic inflammatory disorders: innate immune responses in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze-Lefert, P

    2010-04-01

    Plants rely exclusively upon mechanisms of innate immunity. Current concepts of the plant innate immune system are based largely on two forms of immunity that engage distinct classes of immune receptors. These receptors enable the recognition of non-self structures that are either conserved between members of a microbial class or specific to individual strains of a microbe. One type of receptor comprises membrane-resident pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that detect widely conserved microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) on the cell surface. A second type of mainly intracellular immune sensors, designated resistance (R) proteins, recognizes either the structure or function of strain-specific pathogen effectors that are delivered inside host cells. Phytopathogenic microorganisms have evolved a repertoire of effectors, some of which are delivered into plant cells to sabotage MAMP-triggered immune responses. Plants appear to have also evolved receptors that sense cellular injury by the release and perception of endogenous damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). It is possible that the integration of MAMP and DAMP responses is critical to mount robust MAMP-triggered immunity. This signal integration might help to explain why plants are colonized in nature by remarkably diverse and seemingly asymptomatic microbial communities. PMID:20415853

  1. A low-cost real color picker based on Arduino.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudo, Juan Enrique; Pardo, Pedro J; Sánchez, Héctor; Pérez, Ángel Luis; Suero, María Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Color measurements have traditionally been linked to expensive and difficult to handle equipment. The set of mathematical transformations that are needed to transfer a color that we observe in any object that doesn't emit its own light (which is usually called a color-object) so that it can be displayed on a computer screen or printed on paper is not at all trivial. This usually requires a thorough knowledge of color spaces, colorimetric transformations and color management systems. The TCS3414CS color sensor (I2C Sensor Color Grove), a system for capturing, processing and color management that allows the colors of any non-self-luminous object using a low-cost hardware based on Arduino, is presented in this paper. Specific software has been developed in Matlab and a study of the linearity of chromatic channels and accuracy of color measurements for this device has been undertaken. All used scripts (Arduino and Matlab) are attached as supplementary material. The results show acceptable accuracy values that, although obviously do not reach the levels obtained with the other scientific instruments, for the price difference they present a good low cost option. PMID:25004152

  2. A Low-Cost Real Color Picker Based on Arduino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Enrique Agudo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Color measurements have traditionally been linked to expensive and difficult to handle equipment. The set of mathematical transformations that are needed to transfer a color that we observe in any object that doesn’t emit its own light (which is usually called a color-object so that it can be displayed on a computer screen or printed on paper is not at all trivial. This usually requires a thorough knowledge of color spaces, colorimetric transformations and color management systems. The TCS3414CS color sensor (I2C Sensor Color Grove, a system for capturing, processing and color management that allows the colors of any non-self-luminous object using a low-cost hardware based on Arduino, is presented in this paper. Specific software has been developed in Matlab and a study of the linearity of chromatic channels and accuracy of color measurements for this device has been undertaken. All used scripts (Arduino and Matlab are attached as supplementary material. The results show acceptable accuracy values that, although obviously do not reach the levels obtained with the other scientific instruments, for the price difference they present a good low cost option.

  3. Impact of extracellular RNA on endothelial barrier function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Silvia; Cabrera-Fuentes, Hector A; Noll, Thomas; Preissner, Klaus T

    2014-03-01

    Different types of high and low molecular weight extracellular RNA (eRNA) are liberated from cells upon conditions of tissue damage or vascular diseases and have been demonstrated in vivo and in vitro to influence the integrity and barrier function of the vascular endothelium. Among the types of self eRNA studied in this respect, ribosomal RNA appears to engage cytokines to promote hyperpermeability, while counteracting RNase1 serves as a potent vessel-protective factor. Different microRNAs may change the expression program of endothelial cells with consequences for cellular contacts and stability. Non-self viral RNAs are recognized by Toll-like receptors that transmit intracellular inflammation signals to disturb the vascular barrier function, largely in connection with infectious diseases. Although derived from the same nucleotide building blocks, the various forms of eRNA exhibit a multitude of molecular interactions with the endothelium that may drastically change its phenotypical characteristics. The impact of eRNA on vascular integrity in health and disease is summarized in this concise review. PMID:24626811

  4. Accurate Ionization Potentials and Electron Affinities of Acceptor Molecules III: A Benchmark of GW Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Joseph W; Wang, Xiaopeng; Gallandi, Lukas; Dolgounitcheva, Olga; Ren, Xinguo; Ortiz, J Vincent; Rinke, Patrick; Körzdörfer, Thomas; Marom, Noa

    2016-02-01

    The performance of different GW methods is assessed for a set of 24 organic acceptors. Errors are evaluated with respect to coupled cluster singles, doubles, and perturbative triples [CCSD(T)] reference data for the vertical ionization potentials (IPs) and electron affinities (EAs), extrapolated to the complete basis set limit. Additional comparisons are made to experimental data, where available. We consider fully self-consistent GW (scGW), partial self-consistency in the Green's function (scGW0), non-self-consistent G0W0 based on several mean-field starting points, and a "beyond GW" second-order screened exchange (SOSEX) correction to G0W0. We also describe the implementation of the self-consistent Coulomb hole with screened exchange method (COHSEX), which serves as one of the mean-field starting points. The best performers overall are G0W0+SOSEX and G0W0 based on an IP-tuned long-range corrected hybrid functional with the former being more accurate for EAs and the latter for IPs. Both provide a balanced treatment of localized vs delocalized states and valence spectra in good agreement with photoemission spectroscopy (PES) experiments. PMID:26731609

  5. Effect of thermionic cathode heating current self-magnetic field on gaseous plasma generator characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance capabilities of the PINK, a plasma generator with a thermionic cathode mounted in the cavity of a hollow cathode, depending for its operation on a non-self-sustained low-pressure gas discharge have been investigated. It has been shown that when a single-filament tungsten cathode 2 mm in diameter is used and the peak filament current is equal to or higher than 100 A, the self-magnetic field of the filament current significantly affects the discharge current and voltage waveforms. This effect is due to changes in the time and space distributions of the emission current density from the hot cathode. When the electron mean free path is close to the characteristic dimensions of the thermionic cathode, the synthesized plasma density distribution is nonuniform and the cathode is etched nonuniformly. The cathode lifetime in this case is 8–12 h. Using a cathode consisting of several parallel-connected tungsten filaments ∼0.8 mm in diameter moderates the effect of the self-magnetic field of the filament current and nearly doubles the cathode lifetime. The use of this type of cathode together with a discharge igniting electrode reduces the minimum operating pressure in the plasma generator to about one third of that required for the generator operation with a single-filament cathode (to 0.04 Pa)

  6. A short-type peptidoglycan recognition protein from the silkworm: expression, characterization and involvement in the prophenoloxidase activation pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kangkang; Liu, Chen; He, Yan; Jiang, Haobo; Lu, Zhiqiang

    2014-07-01

    Recognition of invading microbes as non-self is the first step of immune responses. In insects, peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) detect peptidoglycans (PGs) of bacterial cell wall, leading to the activation of defense responses. Twelve PGRPs have been identified in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, through bioinformatics analysis. However, their biochemical functions are mostly uncharacterized. In this study, we found PGRP-S5 transcript levels were up-regulated in fat body and midgut after bacterial infection. Using recombinant protein isolated from Escherichia coli, we showed that PGRP-S5 binds to PGs from certain bacterial strains and induces bacteria agglutination. Enzyme activity assay confirmed PGRP-S5 is an amidase; we also showed it is an antibacterial protein effective against both Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. Additionally, we demonstrated that specific recognition of PGs by PGRP-S5 is involved in the prophenoloxidase activation pathway. Together, these data suggest the silkworm PGRP-S5 functions as a pattern recognition receptor for the prophenoloxidase pathway initiation and as an effecter to inhibit bacterial growth as well. We finally discussed possible roles of PGRP-S5 as a receptor for antimicrobial peptide gene induction and as an immune modulator in the midgut. PMID:24508981

  7. Allergen recognition by innate immune cells: critical role of dendritic and epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Fabián; Ghaemmaghami, Amir M

    2013-01-01

    Allergy is an exacerbated response of the immune system against non-self-proteins called allergens and is typically characterized by biased type-2 T helper cell and deleterious IgE mediated immune responses. The allergic cascade starts with the recognition of allergens by antigen presenting cells, mainly dendritic cells (DCs), leading to Th2 polarization, switching to IgE production by B cells, culminating in mast cell sensitization and triggering. DCs have been demonstrated to play a crucial role in orchestrating allergic diseases. Using different C-type lectin receptors DCs are able to recognize and internalize a number of allergens from diverse sources leading to sensitization. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence highlighting the role of epithelial cells in triggering and modulating immune responses to allergens. As well as providing a physical barrier, epithelial cells can interact with allergens and influence DCs behavior through the release of a number of Th2 promoting cytokines. In this review we will summarize current understanding of how allergens are recognized by DCs and epithelial cells and what are the consequences of such interaction in the context of allergic sensitization and downstream events leading to allergic inflammation. Better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of allergen recognition and associated signaling pathways could enable developing more effective therapeutic strategies that target the initial steps of allergic sensitization hence hindering development or progression of allergic diseases. PMID:24204367

  8. The effect of electronic correlations on Josephson current and proximity effect in SNS graphene junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black-Schaffer, Annica; Doniach, Sebastian

    2008-03-01

    Using the self-consistent tight-binding Bogoliubov-de Gennes (BdG) formalism, we investigate the proximity effect and current-phase relationship in SNS graphene Josephson junctions. Both short and long junctions are considered, as well as different doping levels of the graphene. For short junctions at zero doping in the uncorrelated regime our results agree with those found using the non self-consistent Dirac-BdG formalism [1]. We introduce electronic correlations in the Hamiltonian by including the intrinsic nearest-neighbor spin-singlet coupling present in p π-bonded planar organic molecules. We study the possibility of coupling this intrinsic s- or d-wave superconducting pairing [2] to the extrinsic s-wave order parameter induced by the metal electrodes. The intrinsic d-wave solution, favored in doped graphene, appears for longer doped junctions. For short junctions, the s-wave solution can occur, although the result is sensitive to the type of interface. We also report on the two different intrinsic superconducting states' influence on the supercurrent. [1] M. Titov et al. PRB 74 041401 (2006) [2] A. Black-Schaffer et al. PRB 75 134512 (2007)

  9. Interleukin-1 as a common denominator from autoinflammatory to autoimmune disorders: premises, perils, and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopalco, Giuseppe; Cantarini, Luca; Vitale, Antonio; Iannone, Florenzo; Anelli, Maria Grazia; Andreozzi, Laura; Lapadula, Giovanni; Galeazzi, Mauro; Rigante, Donato

    2015-01-01

    A complex web of dynamic relationships between innate and adaptive immunity is now evident for many autoinflammatory and autoimmune disorders, the first deriving from abnormal activation of innate immune system without any conventional danger triggers and the latter from self-/non-self-discrimination loss of tolerance, and systemic inflammation. Due to clinical and pathophysiologic similarities giving a crucial role to the multifunctional cytokine interleukin-1, the concept of autoinflammation has been expanded to include nonhereditary collagen-like diseases, idiopathic inflammatory diseases, and metabolic diseases. As more patients are reported to have clinical features of autoinflammation and autoimmunity, the boundary between these two pathologic ends is becoming blurred. An overview of monogenic autoinflammatory disorders, PFAPA syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, type 2 diabetes mellitus, uveitis, pericarditis, Behçet's disease, gout, Sjögren's syndrome, interstitial lung diseases, and Still's disease is presented to highlight the fundamental points that interleukin-1 displays in the cryptic interplay between innate and adaptive immune systems. PMID:25784780

  10. Gas flow in barred potentials - III. Effects of varying the Quadrupole

    CERN Document Server

    Sormani, Mattia Carlo; Magorrian, John

    2015-01-01

    We run hydrodynamical simulations of a 2D isothermal non self-gravitating inviscid gas flowing in a rigidly rotating externally imposed potential formed by only two components: a monopole and a quadrupole. We explore systematically the effects of varying the quadrupole while keeping fixed the monopole and discuss the consequences for the interpretation of longitude-velocity diagrams in the Milky Way. We find that the gas flow can constrain the quadrupole of the potential and the characteristics of the bar that generates it. The exponential scale length of the bar must be at least $1.5\\rm\\, kpc$. The strength of the bar is also constrained. Our global interpretation favours a pattern speed of $\\Omega=40\\,\\rm km s^{-1} {kpc}^{-1}$. We find that for most observational features, there exist a value of the parameters that matches each individual feature well, but is difficult to reproduce all the important features at once. Due to the intractably high number of parameters involved in the general problem, quantitat...

  11. Analysis of Engineering Construction Claims%关于工程施工索赔浅议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭世琼

    2012-01-01

    施工索赔对施工单位来说是在非己方过错的情况下对造成的实际损失向业主提出补偿要求.其程序包括:提出索赔要求,报送索赔报告,谈判协商,司法调解,仲裁或起诉.本文主要结合我单位实际情况在施工中常采用的索赔程序进行简要介绍.%In terms of construction unit, construction claims refers to actual loss caused in the case of non-self fault, and put in compensation requirement to owner, The procedure includes: putting in a claim, submitting claims report, negotiations and consultations, judicial mediation and arbitration or prosecution. In this paper, commonly used procedure for claims was described in construction, combing with actual situation.

  12. Dense Cloud Formation and Star Formation in a Barred Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Nimori, M; Sorai, K; Watanabe, Y; Hirota, A; Namekata, D

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the properties of massive, dense clouds formed in a barred galaxy and their possible relation to star formation, performing a two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulation with the gravitational potential obtained from the 2Mass data from the barred spiral galaxy, M83. Since the environment for cloud formation and evolution in the bar region is expected to be different from that in the spiral arm region, barred galaxies are a good target to study the environmental effects on cloud formation and the subsequent star formation. Our simulation uses for an initial 80 Myr an isothermal flow of non-self gravitating gas in the barred potential, then including radiative cooling, heating and self-gravitation of the gas for the next 40 Myr, during which dense clumps are formed. We identify many cold, dense gas clumps for which the mass is more than $10^4M_{\\odot}$ (a value corresponding to the molecular clouds) and study the physical properties of these clumps. The relation of the velocity dispersion of the i...

  13. Radiation-Driven Warping of Circumbinary Disks Around Eccentric Young Star Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Hayasaki, Kimitake; Okazaki, Atsuo T; Jung, Taehyun; Zhao, Guangyao; Naito, Tsuguya

    2014-01-01

    We study a warping instability of a geometrically thin, non-self-gravitating, circumbinary disk around young binary stars on an eccentric orbit. Such a disk is subject to both the tidal torques due to a time-dependent binary potential and the radiative torques due to radiation emitted from each star. The tilt angle between the circumbinary disk plane and the binary orbital plane is assumed to be very small. We find that there is a radius within/beyond which the circumbinary disk is unstable to radiation-driven warping, depending on the disk density and temperature gradient indices. This marginally stable warping radius is very sensitive to viscosity parameters, a fiducial disk radius and the temperature measured there, the stellar luminosity, and the disk surface density at a radius where the disk changes from the optically thick to thin for the irradiation from the central stars. On the other hand, it is insensitive to the orbital eccentricity and binary irradiation parameter, which is a function of the bina...

  14. Overexpression, purification and preliminary crystallographic analysis of human M-ficolin fibrinogen-like domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human M-ficolin fibrinogen-like domain has been overexpressed in P. pastoris, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data have been collected to 1.9 Å. Ficolins, which are comprised of a collagen-like domain and a fibrinogen-like domain, are a kind of pattern-recognition molecule for pathogens in the innate immunity system. To investigate the molecular mechanism of the discrimination between self and non-self by ficolins, human M-ficolin fibrinogen-like domain (FD1), which contains the ligand-binding site, was overexpressed in Pichia pastoris, purified and crystallized using the vapour-diffusion method at 293 K. The crystals belong to the monoclinic space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 55.16, b = 117.45, c = 55.19 Å, β = 99.88°, and contain three molecules per asymmetric unit. An X-ray data set was collected to 1.9 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation at beamline BL24XU at the SPring-8 facility in Japan

  15. Overexpression, purification and preliminary crystallographic analysis of human M-ficolin fibrinogen-like domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanio, Michikazu [Mitsubishi Kagaku Institute of Life Sciences (MITILS), Minamiooya 11, Machida, Tokyo 194-8511 (Japan); Kondo, Shin; Sugio, Shigetoshi, E-mail: ssugio@rc.m-kagaku.co.jp [ZOEGENE Corporation, 1000 Kamoshida, Aoba, Yokohama 227-8502 (Japan); Kohno, Toshiyuki, E-mail: ssugio@rc.m-kagaku.co.jp [Mitsubishi Kagaku Institute of Life Sciences (MITILS), Minamiooya 11, Machida, Tokyo 194-8511 (Japan)

    2006-07-01

    Human M-ficolin fibrinogen-like domain has been overexpressed in P. pastoris, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data have been collected to 1.9 Å. Ficolins, which are comprised of a collagen-like domain and a fibrinogen-like domain, are a kind of pattern-recognition molecule for pathogens in the innate immunity system. To investigate the molecular mechanism of the discrimination between self and non-self by ficolins, human M-ficolin fibrinogen-like domain (FD1), which contains the ligand-binding site, was overexpressed in Pichia pastoris, purified and crystallized using the vapour-diffusion method at 293 K. The crystals belong to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 55.16, b = 117.45, c = 55.19 Å, β = 99.88°, and contain three molecules per asymmetric unit. An X-ray data set was collected to 1.9 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation at beamline BL24XU at the SPring-8 facility in Japan.

  16. Conditional tolerance of temperate phages via transcription-dependent CRISPR-Cas targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Gregory W; Jiang, Wenyan; Bikard, David; Marraffini, Luciano A

    2014-10-30

    A fundamental feature of immune systems is the ability to distinguish pathogenic from self and commensal elements, and to attack the former but tolerate the latter. Prokaryotic CRISPR-Cas immune systems defend against phage infection by using Cas nucleases and small RNA guides that specify one or more target sites for cleavage of the viral genome. Temperate phages include viruses that can integrate into the bacterial chromosome, and they can carry genes that provide a fitness advantage to the lysogenic host. However, CRISPR-Cas targeting that relies strictly on DNA sequence recognition provides indiscriminate immunity both to lytic and lysogenic infection by temperate phages-compromising the genetic stability of these potentially beneficial elements altogether. Here we show that the Staphylococcus epidermidis CRISPR-Cas system can prevent lytic infection but tolerate lysogenization by temperate phages. Conditional tolerance is achieved through transcription-dependent DNA targeting, and ensures that targeting is resumed upon induction of the prophage lytic cycle. Our results provide evidence for the functional divergence of CRISPR-Cas systems and highlight the importance of targeting mechanism diversity. In addition, they extend the concept of 'tolerance to non-self' to the prokaryotic branch of adaptive immunity. PMID:25174707

  17. The important role of evolution in the Planck $Y_{SZ}$-mass calibration

    CERN Document Server

    Andreon, S

    2014-01-01

    In light of the tension between cosmological parameters from Planck cosmic microwave background and galaxy clusters, we revised the Planck analysis of the $Y_{SZ}$-mass calibration allowing for evolution to be determined by the data instead than imposed as external constraint. Our analysis uses the very same data used by the Planck team in order to emphasize that differences in the results comes from differences in the analysis assumptions. The evolution derived from the Planck sample of 71 calibrating clusters with $0.05non self-similar evolution of $Y_{SZ}$ has to be accounted for in analyses aimed to establish biases of Planck masses because degenerate with it.

  18. The important role of evolution in the Planck YSZ-mass calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreon, S.

    2014-10-01

    In light of the tension between cosmological parameters from Planck cosmic microwave background and galaxy clusters, we revised the Planck analysis of the YSZ-mass calibration to allow evolution to be determined by the data instead of being imposed as an external constraint. Our analysis uses the very same data and Malmquist bias corrections as used by the Planck team in order to emphasize that differences in the results come from differences in the assumptions. The evolution derived from 71 calibrating clusters, with 0.05 < z < 0.45, is proportional to E2.5 ± 0.4(z), so inconsistent with the self-similar evolution (E2/3) assumed by previous analyses. When allowing for evolution, the slope of YSZ-mass relation turns out to be 1.51 ± 0.07, which is shallower by 4.8σ than the value derived when assuming self-similar evolution, introducing a mass-dependent bias. The non-self-similar evolution of YSZ has to be accounted for in analyses aimed to establish the biases of Planck masses.

  19. Smelting reactions in a copper flash furnace shaft with an oxygen concentrate burner. Junsanso seiko burner wo mochiita jiyoro shaft nai hanno ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemori, N.; Akada, A.; Kondo, Y. (Sumitomo Metal Mining Co., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-11-25

    In order to develop oxygen flash smelting technologies for copper concentrates, the combustibility of concentrates was studied in industrial oxygen stream in terms of oxygen pressure, temperature, sulfur elimination, particle size and so on using a pilot scale Outokumpu flash smelting furnace of 1 t/h in copper concentrate smelting rate. Such smelting performances of oxygen flash smelting as dust generation and oxygen efficiency were compared with those of oxygen-enriched air (including nearly 35% O{sub 2}) flash smelting conducted in this study. As a result, copper concentrates offered the oxidation behavior based on a two-particle model even in oxygen flash smelting. No combustibility of concentrates was obstructed by adding non-self-combustibles in oxygen flash smelting, resulting in both better dust generation and oxygen efficiency. The great merit of the oxygen flash smelting was remarkably high oxygen efficiency, however, the dust generation was not always reduced in oxygen flash smelting. 13 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Differentiation of type 1 T regulatory cells (Tr1) by tolerogenic DC-10 requires the IL-10-dependent ILT4/HLA-G pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregori, Silvia; Tomasoni, Daniela; Pacciani, Valentina; Scirpoli, Miriam; Battaglia, Manuela; Magnani, Chiara Francesca; Hauben, Ehud; Roncarolo, Maria-Grazia

    2010-08-12

    Type 1 T regulatory (Tr1) cells suppress immune responses in vivo and in vitro and play a key role in maintaining tolerance to self- and non-self-antigens. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is the crucial driving factor for Tr1 cell differentiation, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this induction remain unknown. We identified and characterized a subset of IL-10-producing human dendritic cells (DCs), termed DC-10, which are present in vivo and can be induced in vitro in the presence of IL-10. DC-10 are CD14(+), CD16(+), CD11c(+), CD11b(+), HLA-DR(+), CD83(+), CD1a(-), CD1c(-), express the Ig-like transcripts (ILTs) ILT2, ILT3, ILT4, and HLA-G antigen, display high levels of CD40 and CD86, and up-regulate CD80 after differentiation in vitro. DC-10 isolated from peripheral blood or generated in vitro are potent inducers of antigen-specific IL-10-producing Tr1 cells. Induction of Tr1 cells by DC-10 is IL-10-dependent and requires the ILT4/HLA-G signaling pathway. Our data indicate that DC-10 represents a novel subset of tolerogenic DCs, which secrete high levels of IL-10, express ILT4 and HLA-G, and have the specific function to induce Tr1 cells. PMID:20448110

  1. A YOUNG GIANT MOLECULAR CLOUD FORMED AT THE INTERFACE OF TWO COLLIDING SUPERSHELLS: OBSERVATIONS MEET SIMULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, J. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and MQ Research Centre in Astronomy, Astrophysics and Astrophotonics, Macquarie University, NSW 2109 (Australia); Ntormousi, E. [Service d' Astrophysique, CEA/DSM/IRFU Orme des Merisiers, Bat 709 Gif-sur-Yvette F-91191 (France); Fukui, Y.; Hayakawa, T. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya (Japan); Fierlinger, K., E-mail: joanne.dawson@mq.edu.au [University Observatory Munich, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 München (Germany)

    2015-01-20

    Dense, star-forming gas is believed to form at the stagnation points of large-scale interstellar medium flows, but observational examples of this process in action are rare. We here present a giant molecular cloud (GMC) sandwiched between two colliding Milky Way supershells, which we argue shows strong evidence of having formed from material accumulated at the collision zone. Combining {sup 12}CO, {sup 13}CO, and C{sup 18}O(J = 1-0) data with new high-resolution, three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of colliding supershells, we discuss the origin and nature of the GMC (G288.5+1.5), favoring a scenario in which the cloud was partially seeded by pre-existing denser material, but assembled into its current form by the action of the shells. This assembly includes the production of some new molecular gas. The GMC is well interpreted as non-self-gravitating, despite its high mass (M{sub H{sub 2}}∼1.7×10{sup 5} M{sub ⊙}), and is likely pressure confined by the colliding flows, implying that self-gravity was not a necessary ingredient for its formation. Much of the molecular gas is relatively diffuse, and the cloud as a whole shows little evidence of star formation activity, supporting a scenario in which it is young and recently formed. Drip-like formations along its lower edge may be explained by fluid dynamical instabilities in the cooled gas.

  2. A self-adjoint arrival time operator inspired by measurement models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Construction of a self-adjoint arrival time operator inspired by measurements. • Agreement with the strong measurement formula in the low momentum regime. • Review of self-adjoint and non-self-adjoint arrival time operators. • Discussion of the momentum operator on the half-line. • Discussion of the intuitive reasons obstructing self-adjointness. - Abstract: We introduce an arrival time operator which is self-adjoint and, unlike previously proposed arrival time operators, has a close link to simple measurement models. Its spectrum leads to an arrival time distribution which is a variant of the Kijowski distribution (a re-ordering of the current) in the large momentum regime but is proportional to the kinetic energy density in the small momentum regime, in agreement with measurement models. A brief derivation of the latter distribution is given. We make some simple observations about the physical reasons for self-adjointness, or its absence, in both arrival time operators and the momentum operator on the half-line and we also compare our operator with the dwell time operator

  3. Cost-Effective Encryption-Based Autonomous Routing Protocol for Efficient and Secure Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Kashif; Derhab, Abdelouahid; Orgun, Mehmet A; Al-Muhtadi, Jalal; Rodrigues, Joel J P C; Khalil, Mohammed Sayim; Ali Ahmed, Adel

    2016-01-01

    The deployment of intelligent remote surveillance systems depends on wireless sensor networks (WSNs) composed of various miniature resource-constrained wireless sensor nodes. The development of routing protocols for WSNs is a major challenge because of their severe resource constraints, ad hoc topology and dynamic nature. Among those proposed routing protocols, the biology-inspired self-organized secure autonomous routing protocol (BIOSARP) involves an artificial immune system (AIS) that requires a certain amount of time to build up knowledge of neighboring nodes. The AIS algorithm uses this knowledge to distinguish between self and non-self neighboring nodes. The knowledge-building phase is a critical period in the WSN lifespan and requires active security measures. This paper proposes an enhanced BIOSARP (E-BIOSARP) that incorporates a random key encryption mechanism in a cost-effective manner to provide active security measures in WSNs. A detailed description of E-BIOSARP is presented, followed by an extensive security and performance analysis to demonstrate its efficiency. A scenario with E-BIOSARP is implemented in network simulator 2 (ns-2) and is populated with malicious nodes for analysis. Furthermore, E-BIOSARP is compared with state-of-the-art secure routing protocols in terms of processing time, delivery ratio, energy consumption, and packet overhead. The findings show that the proposed mechanism can efficiently protect WSNs from selective forwarding, brute-force or exhaustive key search, spoofing, eavesdropping, replaying or altering of routing information, cloning, acknowledgment spoofing, HELLO flood attacks, and Sybil attacks. PMID:27043572

  4. Development of tertiary lymphoid structures in the kidneys of pigs with chronic leptospiral nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzolato, M; Maina, E; Lonardi, S; Bozzetta, E; Grassi, F; Scanziani, E; Radaelli, E

    2012-01-15

    Tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) are structures that are morphologically and functionally similar to secondary lymphoid organs. TLOs usually arise in a background of chronic inflammation. Several histological patterns of interstitial nephritis have been documented in porcine leptospirosis. Among them the lympho-follicular pattern is characterized by infiltrates of mononuclear cells organized in lymphoid follicle-like structures. Immunohistological analysis of 5 cases of porcine lympho-follicular nephritis associated with Leptospira Pomona infection demonstrated the presence of inflammatory cell populations, including B cells, T cells, macrophages and follicular dendritic cells (FDCs), which were compartmentalized as in TLOs. Immunohistochemistry for Leptospira Pomona revealed an intimate association between leptospiral antigen and FDCs. Overexpression of MHCII in different populations of both professional and non-professional antigen presenting cells was also demonstrated. FDCs play role during TLOs induction for their ability to retain non-self antigens in the form of immune complexes, thus causing persistent T cell activation, generation of a complex cytokine network and stimulation of humoral immunity. Sustained bacterial antigen presentation in the context of chronic leptospiral nephritis, may also lead to autoimmune mechanisms involved in the generation of TLOs. Whether lymphoid neogenesis and TLOs play a protective role in porcine leptospiral nephritis is still unclear. PMID:22227076

  5. Three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation on gain saturation effect of microchannel plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiangqiang; Yuan, Zheng; Cao, Zhurong; Deng, Bo; Chen, Tao; Deng, Keli

    2016-07-01

    We present here the results of the simulation work, using the three-dimensional particle-in-cell method, on the performance of the lead glass microchannel plate under saturated state. We calculated the electron cascade process with different DC bias voltages under both self-consistent condition and non-self-consistent condition. The comparative results have demonstrated that the strong self-consistent field can suppress the cascade process and make the microchannel plate saturated. The simulation results were also compared to the experimental data and good agreement was obtained. The simulation results also show that the electron multiplication process in the channel is accompanied by the buildup process of positive charges in the channel wall. Though the interactions among the secondary electron cloud in the channel, the positive charges in the channel wall, and the external acceleration field can make the electron-surface collision more frequent, the collision energy will be inevitably reduced, thus the electron gain will also be reduced. PMID:27475552

  6. Cognitive dissonance induction in everyday life: An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Jan; Byrne, Mark; Kehoe, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study explored the neural substrates of cognitive dissonance during dissonance "induction." A novel task was developed based on the results of a separate item selection study (n = 125). Items were designed to generate dissonance by prompting participants to reflect on everyday personal experiences that were inconsistent with values they had expressed support for. One experimental condition (dissonance) and three control conditions (justification, consonance, and non-self-related inconsistency) were used for comparison. Items of all four types were presented to each participant (n = 14) in a randomized design. The fMRI analysis used a whole-brain approach focusing on the moments dissonance was induced. Results showed that in comparison with the control conditions the dissonance experience led to higher levels of activation in several brain regions. Specifically dissonance was associated with increased neural activation in key brain regions including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), anterior insula, inferior frontal gyrus, and precuneus. This supports current perspectives that emphasize the role of anterior cingulate and insula in dissonance processing. Less extensive activation in the prefrontal cortex than in some previous studies is consistent with this study's emphasis on dissonance induction, rather than reduction. This article also contains a short review and comparison with other fMRI studies of cognitive dissonance. PMID:25506752

  7. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell as a New Source for Cancer Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rami, Farzaneh; Mollainezhad, Halimeh; Salehi, Mansoor

    2016-01-01

    The immune system consists of cells, proteins, and other molecules that beside each other have a protective function for the host against foreign pathogens. One of the most essential features of the immune system is distinguishability between self- and non-self-cells. This function has an important role in limiting development and progression of cancer cells. In this case, the immune system can detect tumor cell as a foreign pathogen; so, it can be effective in elimination of tumors in their early phases of development. This ability of the immune system resulted in the development of a novel therapeutic field for cancer treatment using host immune components which is called cancer immunotherapy. The main purpose of cancer immunotherapy is stimulation of a strong immune response against the tumor cells that can result from expressing either the immune activator cytokines in the tumor area or gene-modified immune cells. Because of the problems of culturing and manipulating immune cells ex vivo, in recent years, embryonic stem cell (ESC) and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) have been used as new sources for generation of modified immune stimulatory cells. In this paper, we reviewed some of the progressions in iPSC technology for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:27019752

  8. An Efficient ERP-Based Brain-Computer Interface Using Random Set Presentation and Face Familiarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Klaus-Robert; Lee, Seong-Whan

    2014-01-01

    Event-related potential (ERP)-based P300 spellers are commonly used in the field of brain-computer interfaces as an alternative channel of communication for people with severe neuro-muscular diseases. This study introduces a novel P300 based brain-computer interface (BCI) stimulus paradigm using a random set presentation pattern and exploiting the effects of face familiarity. The effect of face familiarity is widely studied in the cognitive neurosciences and has recently been addressed for the purpose of BCI. In this study we compare P300-based BCI performances of a conventional row-column (RC)-based paradigm with our approach that combines a random set presentation paradigm with (non-) self-face stimuli. Our experimental results indicate stronger deflections of the ERPs in response to face stimuli, which are further enhanced when using the self-face images, and thereby improving P300-based spelling performance. This lead to a significant reduction of stimulus sequences required for correct character classification. These findings demonstrate a promising new approach for improving the speed and thus fluency of BCI-enhanced communication with the widely used P300-based BCI setup. PMID:25384045

  9. Random Evolution of Idiotypic Networks: Dynamics and Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brede, Markus; Behn, Ulrich

    The paper deals with modelling a subsystem of the immune system, the so-called idiotypic network (INW). INWs, conceived by N.K. Jerne in 1974, are functional networks of interacting antibodies and B cells. In principle, Jernes' framework provides solutions to many issues in immunology, such as immunological memory, mechanisms for antigen recognition and self/non-self discrimination. Explaining the interconnection between the elementary components, local dynamics, network formation and architecture, and possible modes of global system function appears to be an ideal playground of statistical mechanics. We present a simple cellular automaton model, based on a graph representation of the system. From a simplified description of idiotypic interactions, rules for the random evolution of networks of occupied and empty sites on these graphs are derived. In certain biologically relevant parameter ranges the resultant dynamics leads to stationary states. A stationary state is found to correspond to a specific pattern of network organization. It turns out that even these very simple rules give rise to a multitude of different kinds of patterns. We characterize these networks by classifying `static' and `dynamic' network-patterns. A type of `dynamic' network is found to display many features of real INWs.

  10. Complement and hyper acute rejection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Rabia Mohammed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Organ transplantation has been a major development in clinical medicine but its success has been marred by the immune system′s capacity to respond to "non-self" cells and tissues. A full molecular understanding of this mechanism and the myriad triggers for immune rejection is yet to be elucidated. Consequently, immunosuppressive drugs remain the mainstay of post-transplant ma-nagement; however, these interventions have side effects such as increased incidence of cancer, post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders, susceptibility to infection if not managed appro-priately and the inconvenience to the patient of lifelong treatment. Novel therapeutic approaches based on molecular understanding of immunological processes are thus needed in this field. The notion that factors influencing successful transplants might be of use as therapeutic approaches is both scientifically and medically appealing. Recent developments in the understanding of successful transplants are expected to provide new opportunities for safer transplantation. This article reviews the present understanding of the molecular basis of rejection and the role of complement in this process as well as the possibility of generating "intelligent" therapy that better target crucial components of hyper-acute rejections.

  11. Theoretical predictions of platinum-rhodium bimetallic catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a general introduction to supported bimetallic catalysts and automobile catalytic converters (supports, base metal promoters, noble metals, deterioration of 3-way catalysts, current/future technology), a paper is presented for surface segregation in bimetallic catalysts: The catalytic properties are influenced by the structure of the cluster surface. Two methods are described to treat this problem, from the demanding corrected effective medium (CEM) theory (a non-self-consistent density functional based method) and the simple method of surface modified pair potentials. Predictions are compared with experiment for the heat of formation in RhxPt1-x alloys and for surface segregation in Rh0.9Pt0.1(111). Results on shape, site composition, surface micromixing are shown for 201 atom clusters (dispersion of 0.6) and RhxPt1-x(111). The CEM calculated cohesive energy of Rh is slightly smaller than for Pt, but the surface energy of Rh is larger: the driving force for surface segregation is the relative surface energies, not the relative cohesive energies. One can predict surface energy differences by accounting for the variation of the bond energy with coordination. Recommendations for the development of improved automobile exhaust catalysts are given. The Monte Carlo bimetallic simulation program is described

  12. Investigating and correcting plasma DNA sequencing coverage bias to enhance aneuploidy discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dineika Chandrananda

    Full Text Available Pregnant women carry a mixture of cell-free DNA fragments from self and fetus (non-self in their circulation. In recent years multiple independent studies have demonstrated the ability to detect fetal trisomies such as trisomy 21, the cause of Down syndrome, by Next-Generation Sequencing of maternal plasma. The current clinical tests based on this approach show very high sensitivity and specificity, although as yet they have not become the standard diagnostic test. Here we describe improvements to the analysis of the sequencing data by reducing GC bias and better handling of the genomic repeats. We show substantial improvements in the sensitivity of the standard trisomy 21 statistical tests, which we measure by artificially reducing read coverage. We also explore the bias stemming from the natural cleavage of plasma DNA by examining DNA motifs and position specific base distributions. We propose a model to correct this fragmentation bias and observe that incorporating this bias does not lead to any further improvements in the detection of fetal trisomy. The improved bias corrections that we demonstrate in this work can be readily adopted into existing fetal trisomy detection protocols and should also lead to improvements in sub-chromosomal copy number variation detection.

  13. Twisted $\\mathbb{C}P^{N-1}$ instanton projectors and the $N$-level quantum density matrix

    CERN Document Server

    Shermer, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Twisted classical solutions to the $\\mathbb{C}P^{N-1}$ model play a key role in the analysis of such models on the spatially compactified cylinder $\\mathbb{S}_L^1 \\times {\\mathbb{R}^1}$ and have recently been shown to be important for the resurgent structure of this quantum field theory. Instantons and non-self-dual solutions both fractionalize, and domain walls formed by such topological solutions can be associated with $N$-vacua having maximally repulsive energy eigenvalues. The purpose of this paper is to reinforce this view through the investigation of a number of parallels between the $\\mathbb{C}P^{N-1}$ model and $N$-level quantum mechanical density matrices. Specifically, we demonstrate the existence of a time-evolution equation for the $\\mathbb{C}P^{N-1}$ instanton projector analogous to the Liouville-von Neumann equation in the quantum mechanical formalism. The group theoretical analysis of density matrices and the $\\mathbb{C}P^{N-1}$ model are also closely related. Finally, we explore the emergence ...

  14. Toll-like receptors in invertebrate innate immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Zheng

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Among invertebrates, innate immunity is the only defense mechanism against harmful non-self agents.In response to recognition of microbial pattern molecules, Drosophila melanogaster activates either theToll or Imd pathway, leading to the translocation of NF-kB (or Rel transcription factors from the cytoplasmto the nucleus and the subsequent production of antimicrobial peptides, which provide systemic innateimmunity. Toll-like receptors (TLRs are characterized by an extracellular leucine rich repeat (LRRdomain and an intracellular Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR domain. TLRs are found from cnidarians tomammals. Here we argue that TLR mediated innate immunity developed during an early stage ofevolution when organisms acquired a body cavity. This is supported by the distributions of TLR and Relgenes in the animal kingdom. Further, TLR mediated immunity appears to have developed independentlyin invertebrates and vertebrates. Recent studies have shown that microbial molecules, with the potentialto signal through TLR, can be beneficial to host survival. Studies on this signaling pathway could opendoors to a better understanding of the origins of innate immunity in invertebrates and potentialtransmission blocking strategies aimed at ameliorating vector-borne diseases.

  15. A model for the performance of a vertical tube condenser in the presence of noncondensable gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some proposed vertical tube condensers are designed to operate at high noncondensable fractions, which warrants a simple model to predict their performance. Models developed thus far are usually non self-contained as they require the specification of the wall temperature to predict the local condensation rate. The present model attempts to fill this gap by addressing the secondary side heat transfer as well. Starting with momentum balance which includes the effect of interfacial shear stress, a Nusselt-type algebraic equation is derived for the film thickness as a function of flow and geometry parameters. The heat and mass transfer analogy relations are then invoked to deduce the condensation rate of steam onto the tube wall. Lastly, the heat transfer to the secondary side is modelled to include cooling by forced, free or mixed convection flows. The model is used for parametric simulations to determine the impact on the condenser performance of important factors such as the inlet gas fraction, the mixture inlet flowrate, the total pressure, and the molecular weight of the noncondensable gas. The model performed simulations of some experiments with pure steam and air-steam mixtures flowing down a vertical tube. The model predicts the data quite well

  16. Tight-binding density functional theory: an approximate Kohn-Sham DFT scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, G

    2007-07-01

    The DFTB method is an approximate KS-DFT scheme with an LCAO representation of the KS orbitals, which can be derived within a variational treatment of an approximate KS energy functional. But it may also be related to cellular Wigner-Seitz methods and to the Harris functional. It is an approximate method, but it avoids any empirical parametrization by calculating the Hamiltonian and overlap matrices out of DFT-derived local orbitals (atomic orbitals, AO's). The method includes ab initio concepts in relating the Kohn-Sham orbitals of the atomic configuration to a minimal basis of the localized atomic valence orbitals of the atoms. Consistent with this approximation, the Hamiltonian matrix elements can strictly be restricted to a two-center representation. Taking advantage of the compensation of the so-called "double counting terms" and the nuclear repulsion energy in the DFT total energy expression, the energy may be approximated as a sum of the occupied KS single-particle energies and a repulsive energy, which can be obtained from DFT calculations in properly chosen reference systems. This relates the method to common standard "tight-binding" (TB) schemes, as they are well-known in solid-state physics. This approach defines the density-functional tight-binding (DFTB) method in its original (non-self-consistent) version. PMID:17439198

  17. Structure and Specificity of a Binary Tandem Domain F-Lectin from Striped Bass (Morone saxatilis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchet, M.; Odom, E; Vasta, J; Amzel, M

    2010-01-01

    The plasma of the striped bass Morone saxatilis contains a fucose-specific lectin (MsaFBP32) that consists of two F-type carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs) in tandem. The crystal structure of the complex of MsaFBP32 with l-fucose reported here shows a cylindrical 81-A-long and 60-A-wide trimer divided into two globular halves: one containing N-terminal CRDs (N-CRDs) and the other containing C-terminal CRDs (C-CRDs). The resulting binding surfaces at the opposite ends of the cylindrical trimer have the potential to cross-link cell surface or humoral carbohydrate ligands. The N-CRDs and C-CRDs of MsaFBP32 exhibit significant structural differences, suggesting that they recognize different glycans. Analysis of the carbohydrate binding sites provides the structural basis for the observed specificity of MsaFBP32 for simple carbohydrates and suggests that the N-CRD recognizes more complex fucosylated oligosaccharides and with a relatively higher avidity than the C-CRD. Modeling of MsaFBP32 complexed with fucosylated glycans that are widely distributed in prokaryotes and eukaryotes rationalizes the observation that binary tandem CRD F-type lectins function as opsonins by cross-linking 'non-self' carbohydrate ligands and 'self' carbohydrate ligands, such as sugar structures displayed by microbial pathogens and glycans on the surface of phagocytic cells from the host.

  18. Killing–Yano tensor and supersymmetry of the self-dual Plebański–Demiański solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozawa, Masato; Houri, Tsuyoshi

    2016-06-01

    We explore various aspects of the self-dual Plebański–Demiański (PD) family in the Euclidean Einstein–Maxwell-Λ system. The Killing–Yano tensor which was recently found by Yasui and one of the present authors allows us to prove that the self-dual PD metric can be brought into the self-dual Carter metric by an orientation-reversing coordinate transformation. We show that the self-dual PD solution admits two independent Killing spinors in the framework of N = 2 minimal gauged supergravity, whereas the non-self-dual solution admits only a single Killing spinor. This can be demonstrated by casting the self-dual PD metric into two distinct Przanowski–Tod forms. As a by-product, a new example of the three-dimensional Einstein–Weyl space is presented. We also prove that the self-dual PD metric falls into two different Calderbank–Pedersen families, which are determined by a single function subjected to a linear equation on the two-dimensional hyperbolic space. Furthermore, we consider the hyper-Kähler case for which the metric falls into the Gibbons–Hawking class. We find that the condition for the nonexistence of the Dirac–Misner string enforces the solution with a nonvanishing acceleration parameter to the Eguchi–Hanson space.

  19. Effects of Hemagglutination Activity in the Serum of a Deep-Sea Vent Endemic Crab, Shinkaia Crosnieri, on Non-Symbiotic and Symbiotic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiyoshi, So; Tateno, Hiroaki; Watsuji, Tomoo; Yamaguchi, Hideyuki; Fukushima, Daisuke; Mino, Sayaka; Sugimura, Makoto; Sawabe, Tomoo; Takai, Ken; Sawayama, Shigeki; Nakagawa, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    In deep-sea hydrothermal environments, most invertebrates associate with dense populations of symbiotic microorganisms in order to obtain nutrition. The molecular interactions between deep-sea animals and environmental microbes, including their symbionts, have not yet been elucidated in detail. Hemagglutinins/lectins, which are carbohydrate-binding proteins, have recently been reported to play important roles in a wide array of biological processes, including the recognition and control of non-self materials. We herein assessed hemagglutination activity in the serum of a deep-sea vent endemic crab, Shinkaia crosnieri, which harbors chemosynthetic epibionts on its plumose setae. Horse and rabbit erythrocytes were agglutinated using this serum (opt. pH 7.5 and opt. temperature 15°C). Agglutinating activity was inhibited by eight kinds of sugars and several divalent cations, did not require any divalent metal ions, and remained detectable even after heating the serum at 100°C for 30 min. By using fluorescently labeled serum, we demonstrated that deep-sea crab serum components bound to the epibionts even in the presence of sugars. This study represents the first immunological assessment of a deep-sea vent endemic crab and demonstrated the possibility of a non-lectin-mediated symbiont-host interaction. PMID:26212518

  20. Space-charge effects in ultra-high current electron bunches generated by laser-plasma accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinner, F. J.; Schroeder, C. B.; Maier, A. R.; Becker, S.; Mikhailova, J. M.

    2009-02-11

    Recent advances in laser-plasma accelerators, including the generation of GeV-scale electron bunches, enable applications such as driving a compact free-electron-laser (FEL). Significant reduction in size of the FEL is facilitated by the expected ultra-high peak beam currents (10-100 kA) generated in laser-plasma accelerators. At low electron energies such peak currents are expected to cause space-charge effects such as bunch expansion and induced energy variations along the bunch, potentially hindering the FEL process. In this paper we discuss a self-consistent approach to modeling space-charge effects for the regime of laser-plasma-accelerated ultra-compact electron bunches at low or moderate energies. Analytical treatments are considered as well as point-to-point particle simulations, including the beam transport from the laser-plasma accelerator through focusing devices and the undulator. In contradiction to non-self-consistent analyses (i.e., neglecting bunch evolution), which predict a linearly growing energy chirp, we have found the energy chirp reaches a maximum and decreases thereafter. The impact of the space-charge induced chirp on FEL performance is discussed and possible solutions are presented.